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Objective A dietary survey was conducted in the Gila River Indian Community in Arizona using two methods of dietary assessment — 24-hourrecall and quantitative food frequency (QFF) assessment — to determine the usual intake of the population.Design Interviews were conducted by Pima women who were trained and monitored by a research dietitian. Energy and nutrient intake were calculated using
CYNTHIA J SMITH; ROBERT G NELSON; STERLING A HARDY; ELAINE M MANAHAN; PETER H BENNETT; WILLIAM C KNOWLER
The purpose of this study was to determine individual recall accuracy for selected snack foods and beverages using various measurement aids and to investigate the cognitive strategies associated with aid selection for snacks and beverages in a 24-hourrecall. Individuals (n=202) estimated the amounts of snack foods and beverages consumed the previous day while watching a 30-minute videotaped television program.
Edgar Chambers; Bruce McGuire; Sandria Godwin; Margaret McDowell; Fran Vecchio
Objective To examine the reproducibility of 24-hour dietary recall for estimating dietary vitamin intakes by middle-aged Japanese men\\u000a and women.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods and Results The subjects were 132 men and 130 women aged 40–69 years, selected from participants in cardiovascular risk surveys conducted\\u000a in 4 communities. The reproducibility of the 24-hour dietary recall was tested by comparing nutrient and food intake for two
Y. Kubota; K. Maruyama; S. Sato; Y. Ishikawa; T. Shimamoto; M. Inagawa; M. Ohshima; S. Murai; Hiroyasu Iso
Objective To examine the reproducibility of 24-hour dietary recall for estimating dietary vitamin intakes by middle-aged Japanese men\\u000a and women.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods and Results The subjects were 132 men and 130 women aged 40–69 years, selected from participants in cardiovascular risk surveys conducted\\u000a in 4 communities. The reproducibility of the 24-hour dietary recall was tested by comparing nutrient and food intake for two
Y. Kubota; K. Maruyama; S. Sato; Y. Ishikawa; T. Shimamoto; M. Inagawa; M. Ohshima; S. Murai; Hiroyasu Iso
This retrospective analysis compared accuracy by meal component of fourth-graders’ school lunch recalls (Study 1) to the school lunch portion of 24-hourrecalls (Study 2). For Study 1, 148 children were randomly selected, observed eating school lunch, and interviewed about lunch the previous day. For Study 2, 104 children were randomly selected, observed eating school breakfast and school lunch, and
24-hour dietary recalls are used frequently to study homebound older adults’ eating behaviors. However, the reliability and predictive validity of this method have not been established in this population. The purpose of this study is to examine whether homebound older adults provide reliable and valid measures of total caloric intake in 24-hour dietary recalls. 230 homebound older adults were interviewed in their homes using a questionnaire to assess eating behaviors and factors that could affect those behaviors. Participants completed three 24-hour dietary recalls at baseline and again at 6-month follow-up. Two sub-samples were identified for analyses. For participants who were not hospitalized during the 6-month interval and had their weight measured at both assessments (n = 52), sufficient test-retest reliability of caloric intake was observed (r = 0.59); but caloric intake deficiencies relative to estimated energy requirements did not predict actual weight loss (r = 0.08). When this sample was supplemented with 91 participants who experienced any adverse event (weight loss of 2.5% or more, hospitalization, institutionalization, or mortality) in the 6-month period (n = 143), adverse events were more likely to occur for those with insufficient caloric intake (odds ratio = 3.49, p = .009), and in White participants compared to African American participants (odds ratio = 3.13, p=0.016). Adequate test-retest reliability of the 24-hour dietary recall was demonstrated, but additional research with larger samples and longer follow-up intervals are needed to better evaluate the predictive validity of caloric intake measures for this population.
Sun, Yanhui; Roth, David L.; Ritchie, Christine S.; Burgio, Kathryn L.; Locher, Julie L.
Some psychological predictors of eating behaviors have been shown to affect usefulness of methods for dietary assessment. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the association of dietary restraint and disinhibition with dietary recall accuracy for total energy, fat, carbohydrate, and protein. In a cross-sectional study, data were obtained from 79 male and 71 female non-Hispanic whites and African-American volunteers.
Jamy D. Ard; Renee Ann Desmond; David B. Allison; Joan Marie Conway
Although methods of collecting food intake data have been studied intensively, there have been fewer investigations into the collection of supplement intake data. Use of eight types of vitamin and mineral supplements was reported between 1994 and 1997 by 2,377 subjects participating in a calibration substudy of the Hawaii-Los Angeles Multiethnic Cohort Study. Subjects gave information on supplement use as part of a dietary questionnaire (administered twice) and during three 24-hour dietary recalls. Multivitamins were the most commonly used supplements (55% of the subjects), followed by vitamin C (40%), vitamin E (33%), and calcium (29%). Vitamin A, beta-carotene, selenium, and iron supplements were each used by fewer than 10% of the subjects. Weighted kappa statistics for agreement between the recalls and the questionnaire across six categories of frequency of use ranged from 0.74 for vitamin E to 0.16 for vitamin A and were generally higher for frequently used supplements. The reproducibility of questionnaire responses at two time points varied from 0.64 to 0.39. In comparison with three recalls, a brief questionnaire can accurately and reproducibly capture data on supplement use for frequently consumed products, but it may perform less well for products used less often or more intermittently. PMID:12244036
Murphy, Suzanne P; Wilkens, Lynne R; Hankin, Jean H; Foote, Janet A; Monroe, Kristine R; Henderson, Brian E; Kolonel, Laurence N
Objectives Chronic degenerative diseases are closely related to daily eating habits, nutritional status, and, in particular, energy intake. In clarifying these relationships it is very important for dietary surveys to report accurate information about energy intake. This study attempted to identify the prevalence of the under-reporting of energy intake and its related characteristics based on the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted in the years 2007–2009. Methods The present study analyzed dietary intake data from 15,133 adults aged ?19 years using 24-hour dietary recalls. Basal metabolic rates were calculated from the age- and gender-specific equations of Schofield and under-reporting was defined as an energy intake <0.9, represented by the ratio of energy intake to estimated basal metabolic rate. Results Under-reporters (URs) accounted for 14.4% of men and 23.0% of women and the under-reporting rate was higher in the age group 30–49 years for both men and women. The results from an analysis of the age-specific socioeconomic characteristics of participants classified as URs showed that under-reporting was high in women living alone and in women with only elementary school education or no education. The results from an analysis of the health-specific characteristics of URs showed that a large proportion of URs had poor self-rated health or were obese, or both, compared with non-URs. The proportion of participants who consumed less than the estimated average requirements for nutrients was significantly higher in URs compared with non-URs. Conclusion The under-reporting of energy intake was associated with age, gender, education level, income level, household status (single-person or multi-person), self-rated health, physical activity, and obesity.
Kye, Seunghee; Kwon, Sung-Ok; Lee, Soon-Young; Lee, Jiyoon; Kim, Bok Hee; Suh, Hee-Jae; Moon, Hyun-Kyung
Twelve overweight male subjects were evaluated once on a normal diet and once on a 24-h crash diet and (low calorie liquids only). Experiments were 1 wk apart. During 2 1/4-h complex performance tests given at the end of the diet period, subjects breathed...
E. A. Higgins H. W. Mertens J. M. McKenzie G. E. Funkhouser
Context: Individual variation in the ability to convert excess calories to heat and the effects of dietary macronutrient composition are unclear. Objective: Stability and determinants of the energy expenditure (EE) response to overconsumption were assessed. Design, Setting, and Participants: Twenty subjects (75% male) with normal glucose regulation were evaluated during 24hours each of energy balance, fasting, and 5 different diets with 200% energy requirements in a clinical research unit. Interventions: Five 1-day overfeeding diets were given in random order: high carbohydrate (75%) and low protein (3%); high carbohydrate and normal protein (20%); high fat (46%) and low protein; high fat (60%) and normal protein; and balanced (50% carbohydrates, 20% protein). Main Outcome Measures: The 24-hour EE, sleeping EE, and thermic effect of food (TEF) during each diet were measured with a metabolic chamber. Appetitive hormones were measured before and after the diets. Results: The EE response to overfeeding exhibited good intraindividual reproducibility. Similar increases above eucaloric feeding in 24-hour EE (mean 10.7 ± 5.7%, P < .001; range 2.9–18.8%) and sleeping EE (14.4 ± 11.3%, P < .001; range 1.0–45.1%) occurred when overfeeding diets containing 20% protein, despite differences in fat and carbohydrate content, but the EE response during overfeeding diets containing 3% protein was attenuated. The percent body fat negatively correlated with TEF during normal protein overfeeding (r = ?0.53, P < .01). Fasting peptide YY negatively correlated with TEF (r = ?0.56, P < .01) and the increase in sleeping EE (r = ?0.54, P < .01) during overfeeding. Conclusions: There is an intrinsic EE response to overfeeding that negatively associates with adiposity, although it represents a small percentage of consumed calories.
Pannacciulli, Nicola; Bonfiglio, Susan; Pacak, Karel; Krakoff, Jonathan
Rat body size and tissue composition changes from pre-weaning to three months age resulted from voluntary hyperphagia triggered by offering a cafeteria diet. The effects of a 24hour starvation period in both cafeteria and chow fed controls were compared. Obesity develops earlier in females than in males. This difference is related to the growth patterns in both sexes. Obesity occurs at the stages of development when growth rate decreases. Cafeteria fed female rats attained a 32% greater weight than their controls, with lumbar adipose cords that were 4 times heavier and brown interscapular adipose tissue 2 times heavier than controls. The overall cafeteria fed versus chow fed rat differences in the effects of a 24hour starvation, were minor but less liver glycogen and much more skeletal muscle lipids were mobilized in the cafeteria fed rats than in controls. PMID:3397032
We have shown a significant disruption of 24-h pattern of plasma pituitary, adrenal, and gonadal hormones in high-fat-fed rats. Our objective was to assess the effect of a high-fat diet (35% fat) on mean levels and 24-h pattern of several adipocytokines in rats. A normal diet–fed rats (4% fat) were used as controls. When body weight of high-fat-fed rats attained
Pilar Cano; Daniel P. Cardinali; María J. Ríos-Lugo; María P. Fernández-Mateos; Carlos F. Reyes Toso; Ana I. Esquifino
Summary This study investigated the relative validity of a self-administered 24-h recall questionnaire in a dietary survey on 3 653 men and women 7 years of age and older. The validation was carried out in a group of 41 men. An estimated dietary record kept over 3 days served as reference method. Comparison of the questionnaire and the estimated 3-day
Background The incidence of Hypertension as a major cardiovascular threat is increasing. The best known diet for hypertensives is 'no added salt diet'. In this study we evaluated the effect of 'no added salt diet' on a hypertensive population with high dietary sodium intake by measuring 24hour urinary sodium excretion. Methods In this single center randomized study 80 patients (60 cases and 20 controls) not on any drug therapy for hypertension with mild to moderate hypertension were enrolled. 24hour holter monitoring of BP and 24hour urinary sodium excretion were measured before and after 6 weeks of 'no added salt diet'. Results There was no statistically significant difference between age, weight, sex, Hyperlipidemia, family history of hypertension, mean systolic and diastolic BP during the day and at night and mean urinary sodium excretion in 24hour urine of case and control groups. Seventy eight percent of all patients had moderate to high salt intake. After 6 week of 'no added salt diet' systolic and diastolic BP significantly decreased during the day (mean decrease: 12.1/6.8 mmhg) and at night (mean decrease: 11.1/5.9 mmhg) which is statistically significant in comparison to control group (P 0.001 and 0.01). Urinary sodium excretion of 24hour urine decreased by 37.1 meq/d ± 39,67 mg/dl in case group which is statistically significant in comparison to control group (p: 0.001). Only 36% of the patients, after no added salt diet, reached the pretreatment goal of 24hour urinary sodium excretion of below 100 meq/dl (P:0.001). Conclusion Despite modest effect on dietary sodium restriction, no added salt diet significantly decreased systolic and diastolic BP and so it should be advised to every hypertensive patient. Trial Registration Clinicaltrial.govnumber NCT00491881
Validated self-report methods of dietary assessment exist, and might be improved both in terms of accuracy and cost-efficiency with computer technology. The objectives of this preliminary study were to develop an initial version of an interactive CD-ROM program to estimate fruit, vegetable, and fat intake, and to compare it to multiple 24-hour dietary recalls (24HR; averaged over 3 days). In 2009, overweight male and female adults (N = 205) from Lane County, OR completed computerized and paper versions of fruit, vegetable, and fat screening instruments, and multiple 24HR. Summary scores from the ten-item NCI Fruit and Vegetable Scan (FVS) and the 18-item Block Fat Screener (BFS) were compared to multiple 24HR-derived fruit/vegetable and fat intake estimates (criterion measures). Measurement models were used to derive deattenuated correlations with multiple 24HR of paper and CD-ROM administrations of FVS fruit intake, FVS vegetable intake, FVS fruit and vegetable intake, and BFS fat intake. The computerized assessment and paper surveys were related to multiple 24HR-derived fruit/vegetable and fat intake. Deattenuated correlation coefficients ranged from 0.50 to 0.73 (all P ?0.0001). The CD-ROM-derived estimate of fruit intake was more closely associated with the 24HR (r=0.73) than the paper-derived estimate (r=0.54; P<.05), but the other comparisons did not differ significantly. Findings from this preliminary study with overweight adults indicate the need for further enhancements to the CD-ROM assessment and more extensive validation studies.
Toobert, Deborah J.; Strycker, Lisa A.; Hampson, Sarah E.; Westling, Erika; Christiansen, Steven M.; Hurley, Thomas G.; Hebert, James R.
To be useful proxies of micronutrient intake at the population level in resource-limited societies, dietary diversity indicators should be simple and easy to collect in large surveys and their accuracy needs to be assessed. The present study aimed at comparing food group diversity indicators (FGI) derived from simple qualitative list-based questionnaires (qFGI) to the same indicators derived from quantitative 24-h recalls (QFGI). Both methods were administered separately on each of 3 recall days to women in 2 districts of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Data were available for a total of 526 women x recalls. This study was performed within the framework of the Women's Dietary Diversity Project, which sought to analyze the relationships between various QFGI and the mean probability of adequacy (MPA) of women's diets across 11 micronutrients. The comparison between paired qFGI and QFGI scores was made both in terms of accuracy of the reporting by the list-based questionnaire, taking the QFGI as the gold standard, and in terms of performance of indicators in predicting an MPA > 60%. Examination of paired QFGI-qFGI differences revealed that the more disaggregated the FGI, the higher were the mean differences in scores. Food groups most frequently misreported often corresponded to foods put in small quantities in sauces. Overreporting by list-based questionnaires was observed for indicators applying a 15-g minimum quantity of consumption for a group to count in the score and this may result in weaker performance in predicting the MPA. These results highlight trade-offs between accuracy and simplicity when operationalizing FGI through qualitative questionnaires. PMID:20881076
Martin-Prevel, Yves; Becquey, Elodie; Arimond, Mary
The aim of this study was to develop, test, and evaluate a 24-h recall procedure to assess the dietary intake of toddlers of Somali- and Iraqi-born mothers living in Norway. A protocol for a 24-h multiple-pass recall procedure, registration forms, and visual tools (a picture library for food identification and portion size estimation) was developed and tested in 12 mothers from Somalia and Iraq with children aged 10–21 months. Five female field workers were recruited and trained to conduct the interviews. Evaluation data for the 24-h recall procedure were collected from both the mothers and the field workers. Nutrient intake was calculated using a Norwegian dietary calculation system. Each child’s estimated energy intake was compared with its estimated energy requirement. Both the mothers and the field workers found the method feasible and the visual tools useful. The estimated energy intake corresponded well with the estimated energy requirement for most of the children (within mean ± 2 SD, except for three). The pilot study identified the need for additional foods in the picture library and some crucial aspects in training and supervising the field workers to reduce sources of error in the data collection.
The aim of this study was to develop, test, and evaluate a 24-h recall procedure to assess the dietary intake of toddlers of Somali- and Iraqi-born mothers living in Norway. A protocol for a 24-h multiple-pass recall procedure, registration forms, and visual tools (a picture library for food identification and portion size estimation) was developed and tested in 12 mothers from Somalia and Iraq with children aged 10-21 months. Five female field workers were recruited and trained to conduct the interviews. Evaluation data for the 24-h recall procedure were collected from both the mothers and the field workers. Nutrient intake was calculated using a Norwegian dietary calculation system. Each child's estimated energy intake was compared with its estimated energy requirement. Both the mothers and the field workers found the method feasible and the visual tools useful. The estimated energy intake corresponded well with the estimated energy requirement for most of the children (within mean ± 2 SD, except for three). The pilot study identified the need for additional foods in the picture library and some crucial aspects in training and supervising the field workers to reduce sources of error in the data collection. PMID:24949548
In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), the factors associated with under- or overreporting of protein intake in nutrition assessment tools, as well as the variability of diet records, have not been fully established. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate factors associated with under- or overreporting of protein intake and its variability in patients with type 2 DM. Protein intake was estimated in 205 patients (aged 59.8+/-9.6 years) using 3-day weighed diet records and 24-hour nitrogen output (criterion standard). Twenty-three patients repeated the 3-day weighed diet records three times. Clinical, nutrition, and lifestyle evaluations were performed. Coefficients of variation were calculated for protein intake. Factors associated with under- and overreporting were assessed using multivariate logistic regression models. Coefficients of variation for protein intake estimated by weighed diet records or nitrogen output were similar (11.9% vs 11.3%; P>0.05). Using Beaton's formula, a difference of 16.5% in protein intake between two 3-day weighed diet records was acceptable. The lowest A1c test tertile (< or =6.9%) was associated with protein intake underreporting (odds ratio [OR]=0.40; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.16 to 0.99; P=0.046] after adjustment for sex, age, employment status, and living alone. Male sex (OR=6.66; 95% CI: 2.08 to 22.07; P=0.002), A1c test (OR=1.29; 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.64; P=0.036), and body mass index (OR=0.89; 95% CI: 0.80 to 0.994; P=0.039), adjusted for physical and employment status, education, and preparing one's own meals, were associated with overreporting. In conclusion, in patients with type 2 DM, a difference >16.5% in protein intake between two 3-day weighed diet records should be interpreted as a true discrepancy. Poor glucose control and male sex increase the chance of inaccurate 3-day weighed diet records. PMID:18442513
Vaz, Juliana Dos Santos; Bittencourt, Miriam; Almeida, Jussara Carnevale; Gross, Jorge Luiz; De Azevedo, Mirela Jobim; Zelmanovitz, Themis
The 24-hour urine copper test measures the amount of copper in a urine sample. ... A 24-hour urine sample is needed. On day 1, urinate into the toilet when you get up in the morning. Afterwards, collect ...
In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), the factors associated with under- or overreporting of protein intake in nutrition assessment tools, as well as the variability of diet records, have not been fully established. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate factors associated with under- or overreporting of protein intake and its variability in patients with type
Juliana dos Santos Vaz; Miriam Bittencourt; Jussara Carnevale Almeida; Jorge Luiz Gross; Mirela Jobim De Azevedo; Themis Zelmanovitz
Few studies have evaluated the validity of adolescent dietrecall after many decades. Between 1943 and 1970, yearly diet records were completed by parents of adolescents participating in an ongoing US study. In 2005–2006, study participants who had been 13–18 years of age when the diet records were collected were asked to complete a food frequency questionnaire regarding their adolescent diet. Food frequency questionnaires and diet records were available for 72 participants. The authors calculated Spearman correlation coefficients between food, food group, and nutrient intakes from the diet records and food frequency questionnaire and deattenuated them to account for the effects of within-person variation measured in the diet records on the association. The median deattenuated correlation for foods was 0.30, ranging from ?0.53 for a beef, pork, or lamb sandwich to 0.99 for diet soda. The median deattenuated correlation for food groups was 0.31 (range: ?0.48 for breads to 0.70 for hot beverages); for nutrient intakes, it was 0.25 (range: ?0.08 for iron to 0.82 for vitamin B12). Some dietary factors were reasonably recalled 3–6 decades later. However, this food frequency questionnaire did not validly measure overall adolescent diet when completed by middle-aged and older adults on average 48 years after adolescence.
Chavarro, Jorge E.; Rosner, Bernard A.; Sampson, Laura; Willey, Carol; Tocco, Paula; Willett, Walter C.; Chumlea, Wm. Cameron; Michels, Karin B.
The purpose of this study was to explore the adaptive measures that academic libraries perform when implementing and operating a 24-hour schedule. Five in-depth interviews were conducted with current managerial-level librarians at 24-hour academic libraries. The exploratory interviews revealed similar measures for security, budgeting, employee…
Validation of early childhood dietrecalls by surrogate responders decades later has not been possible because of a lack of diet records from the distant past. Between 1948 and 1970, parents of children participating in the Fels Longitudinal Study (Kettering, Ohio) completed a 7-day diet record for their children every year from birth to age 18 years. In 2005–2006, all surviving women (n?=?59) with a child aged 3–5 years when diet records had been collected were asked to complete a 42-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) pertaining to 1 of their children's diets at age 3–5 years. One or more diet records were available for 48 children. The authors calculated Spearman correlation coefficients for correlations between food, food-group, and nutrient intakes from the diet records and the FFQ and deattenuated them to account for the effects of within-person variation in the diet records on the association. For foods, the median deattenuated correlation coefficient was 0.19 (range, ?0.31 to 0.85); moderate-to-high correlations were found for some specific foods. Correlations for food groups were slightly higher (median, 0.27; range, ?0.14 to 0.85). Correlations for nutrient intakes were consistently low (median, 0.06; range, ?0.35 to 0.27). Overall, the FFQ did not validly reflect overall preschool diet when completed by mothers 4 decades later.
Michels, Karin B.; Isaq, Sheherazadh; Rosner, Bernard A.; Sampson, Laura; Willey, Carol; Tocco, Paula; Willett, Walter C.; Chumlea, William Cameron
Objective To establish whether urinary and serum calcium levels are correlated in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) and to evaluate related factors including serum levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and vitamin D, age, gender and renal function. Design Retrospective review on patients undergoing a parathyroidectomy for PHPT from 2000– 2008. Data collected included: age, sex, preoperative serum calcium (ionized and total), creatinine, PTH, postoperative ionized calcium, vitamin D, and 24-hour urine calcium and creatinine. Data were evaluated by standard descriptive statistics. Results Of the 214 patients evaluated, preoperative 24-hour urinary calcium was available for 150 patients (70%). 24-hour urine calcium levels did not correlate significantly with preoperative total serum or ionized calcium, PTH, vitamin D, or postoperative serum ionized calcium. There were significant correlations (P < 0.0001) of 24-hour urinary calcium with age, serum creatinine, and urine creatinine. Secondary analysis grouped subjects by urinary calcium level greater or less than 400 mg/24hours. Age and urinary creatinine were significantly different between the two groups. Conclusions In patients with PHPT who underwent parathyroidectomy, there was little correlation between preoperative 24-hour urine calcium and preoperative serum calcium, PTH, or vitamin D levels. 24-hour urine calcium levels were correlated with renal function and age, but these correlations are likely to occur in the general population and are not specific to this disease group.
Black, Carrie E.; Berg, Richard L.; Urquhart, Andrew C.
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A relation between the prevalence of asthma and economic development has been suggested by studies in migrants and other surveys in developing countries. That this correlation might be partially explained by an increased intake of salt in the diet is supported by the observation that sales of table salt in the different regions of England and Wales are independently correlated with mortality from asthma for men and for children. As part of a wider survey of asthma 138 men living in two Hampshire villages and aged 18-64 were given a bronchial histamine challenge test and had their 24hour urinary excretion of sodium measured. Bronchial reactivity was strongly related to 24hour excretion of sodium after allowing for the effects of age, atopy, and cigarette smoking, there being on average a 10-fold difference in reactivity over the 95% range of sodium excretion recorded in the study. The data suggest that a high sodium diet may potentiate bronchial reactivity.
Burney, P G; Britton, J R; Chinn, S; Tattersfield, A E; Platt, H S; Papacosta, A O; Kelson, M C
... sodium is in your diet Whether your kidneys work properly The condition being diagnosed Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Some labs use different measurements or test different samples. Talk to your doctor ...
Background and Objectives: A short hospital stay is one of the main advantages of laparoscopic surgery. Previous studies have shown that after a multimodal fast-track process, the hospital length of stay can be shortened to between 2 and 5 days. The objective of this review is to show that the hospital length of stay can, in some cases, be reduced to <24hours. Methods: This study retrospectively reviews a surgeon's experience with laparoscopic surgery over a 12-month period. Seven patients were discharged home within 24hours after minimally invasive laparoscopic surgical treatment, following a modified fast-track protocol that was adopted for perioperative care. Results: Of the 7 patients, 4 received laparoscopic right hemicolectomy for malignant disease and 3 underwent sigmoid colectomies for recurrent diverticulitis. The mean hospital stay was 21 hours, 47 minutes; the mean volume of intraoperative fluid (lactated Ringer) was 1850 mL; the mean surgical blood loss was only 74.3 mL; the mean duration of surgery was 118 minutes; and the patients were ambulated and fed a liquid diet after recovery from anesthesia. The reviewed patients had functional gastrointestinal tracts and were agreeable to the timing of discharge. On the follow-up visit, they showed no adverse consequences such as bleeding, infection, or anastomotic leak. Conclusion: Laparoscopic colon surgery that incorporated multimodal perioperative care allowed patients to be discharged within the first 24hours. Careful postoperative outpatient follow-up is important in monitoring complications such as anastomotic leak, which may not present until postoperative day 5.
Human prolactin was measured in plasma by radioimmunoassay at 20-minute intervals for a 24-hour period in each of six normal adults, whose sleep-wake cycles were monitored polygraphically. A marked diurnal variation in plasma concentrations was demonstrated, with highest values during sleep. Periods of episodic release occurred throughout the 24hours.
Sassin, J. F.; Weitzman, E. D.; Kapen, S.; Frantz, A. G.
Chimpanzee response to 24hours of restraint was measured by alteration in urine biochemic values. Values in four consecutive 6-hour urine collections are compared. The values are analyzed for significant deviations in relation to age, sex, urine volume, ...
Diet assessment of adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities is challenging because of their limited cognitive abilities. The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility and outcomes of combining photos with 24-hour dietary recalls for the assessment of energy and macronutrient intakes in adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Participants used an iPad 2 tablet computer (Apple) to take photos of all food and beverages consumed before a standard, multiple-pass, 24-hour dietary recall. After the standard 24-hourdietrecall, the photos were reviewed with the participant for clarification details (eg, portion size) and differences were recorded. The standard 24-hourrecall and photo-assisted recall were entered separately into the Nutrition Data System for Research for computerized dietary analysis. Sixty-four eating occasions were entered from 23 participants (48% female; mean age 26.4±9.7 years). Participants captured photos for 66.5%±30.4% of all recorded eating occasions. Greater energy intake per eating occasion was reported with the photo-assisted recalls than the standard recalls (625.6±85.7 kcal vs 497.2±86.6 kcal; P=0.002) and a greater intake of grams of fat (P=0.006), protein (P=0.029), and carbohydrates (P=0.003). Photo-assisted 24-hourrecalls provided a significant increase in total calories and macronutrient content compared with a standard 24-hourrecall and may be a feasible method to enhance dietary assessment in adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities. PMID:24095784
Ptomey, Lauren T; Herrmann, Stephen D; Lee, Jaehoon; Sullivan, Debra K; Rondon, Mary F; Donnelly, Joseph E
... a 24-hour urine specimen (Beyond the Basics) Authors Ronald D Perrone, MD Lesley A Inker, MD, MS Section Editor Richard H Sterns, MD Deputy Editor John P Forman, MD, MSc Find Print Contents of this article INTRODUCTION INSTRUCTIONS STORAGE WHERE TO GET MORE INFORMATION INTRODUCTION The ...
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...required to be on duty for less than 24hours is working even though he is permitted to sleep or engage in other personal activities...required to be on duty for specified hours is working even though she is permitted to sleep when not busy answering...
Many cancers have long latency periods, and dietary factors in adolescence may plausibly affect cancer occurrence in adulthood. Because of a lack of prospective data, retrospective collection of data on adolescent diet is essential. The authors evaluated a 124-item high school food frequency questionnaire (HS-FFQ) assessing diet during high school (15–35 years in the past) that was completed in 1998 by 45,947 US women in the Nurses' Health Study II (NHSII) cohort. To assess reproducibility, the authors readministered the HS-FFQ approximately 4 years later to 333 of these women. The mean Pearson correlation for 38 nutrient intakes was 0.65 (range, 0.50–0.77), and the mean Spearman rank correlation for food intakes was 0.60 (range, 0.37–0.77). Current adult diet was only weakly correlated with recalled adolescent diet (for nutrient intakes, mean r = 0.20). For assessment of validity, 272 mothers of the NHSII participants were asked to report information on their daughters' adolescent diets using the HS-FFQ. In this comparison, the mean Pearson correlation was 0.40 (range, 0.13–0.59) for nutrients, and the mean Spearman rank correlation for foods was 0.30 (range, 0.10–0.61). While further studies are warranted, these findings imply that this food frequency questionnaire provides a reasonable record of adolescent diet.
Maruti, Sonia S.; Feskanich, Diane; Colditz, Graham A.; Frazier, A. Lindsay; Sampson, Laura A.; Michels, Karin B.; Hunter, David J.; Spiegelman, Donna; Willett, Walter C.
At entry to the cohort study, each participant completed a 26-page mail questionnaire that included an extensive quantitative diet history, as well as other demographic, medical, and lifestyle information. Multiple 24-hourdietrecalls were collected on more than 2,000 of the participants in a calibration study designed to permit correction of nutrient intake estimates for measurement error.
If 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring is to be a useful diagnostic tool, it must reliably discriminate gastroesophageal reflux patients despite daily variations in distal esophageal acid exposure. To address this issue, we studied 53 subjects (14 healthy normals, 14 esophagitis patients, and 25 patients with atypical symptoms) with two ambulatory pH tests performed within 10 days of each other. Intrasubject
G. J. Wiener; T. M. Morgan; J. B. Copper; D. O. Castell; J. W. Sinclair; J. E. Richter
AIMTo determine normative data for arterial oxygen saturation, measured by pulse oximetry (SpO2), in healthy full term infants throughout their first 24hours of life.METHODSLong term recordings of SpO2, pulse waveform, and breathing movements were made on 90 infants. Recordings were analysed for baseline SpO2, episodes of desaturation (SpO2 ? 80%), apnoeic pauses of ? four seconds, and periodic apnoea
L M OBrien; V A Stebbens; C F Poets; E G Heycock; D P Southall
Although intraocular pressure (IOP) is the only treatable risk factor for glaucoma, its 24-hour behavior is poorly understood. Conflicting information is available in the literature with regard to the importance and predictive value of IOP peaks and fluctuations on the risk of glaucoma development and progression. This may be secondary to lack of prospective studies designed to address this issue. This article critically reviews the current evidence for the importance of 24-h IOP measurements in glaucoma and discusses shortcomings of current methods to assess 24-h IOP data, drawing attention to new developments in this field.
Mansouri, Kaweh; Weinreb, Robert N.; Medeiros, Felipe A.
This article contributes to literature on the sociology of sleep by exploring the sleeping practices and subjective sleep experiences of two social groups: shift workers and students. It draws on data, collected in the UK from 25 semi-structured interviews, to discuss the complex ways in which working patterns and social activities impact upon experiences and expectations of sleep in our wired awake world. The data show that, typically, sleep is valued and considered to be important for health, general wellbeing, appearance and physical and cognitive functioning. However, sleep time is often cut back on in favour of work demands and social activities. While shift workers described their efforts to fit in an adequate amount of sleep per 24-hour period, for students, the adoption of a flexible sleep routine was thought to be favourable for maintaining a work-social life balance. Collectively, respondents reported using a wide range of strategies, techniques, technologies and practices to encourage, overcome or delay sleep(iness) and boost, promote or enhance wakefulness/alertness at socially desirable times. The analysis demonstrates how social context impacts not only on how we come to think about sleep and understand it, but also how we manage or self-regulate our sleeping patterns. PMID:23957268
The space age presents man with unprecedented opportunities for discovery and for cooperative endeavors to benefit all mankind. My flight of August 6-7, 1961 was conducted for the purpose of determining whether man can stay and work effectively and whether all systems of the spaceship can operate successfully during a period of 24hours in space. The flight of Vostok II represents an experimental step in a logical sequence which included the first earth orbiting flight of USSR citizen Yuri A. Gagarin. Preparation for the flight included the study of theoretical and applied subjects, testing in various kinds of apparatus which provide acceleration, heat and isolation experience, brief airborne weightless flights and parachute landings, in addition to extensive training in a real spacecraft having simulators for normal and emergency contingencies of space flight. The actual flight was therefore carried out with a sense of confidence and familiarity and with continuous close radio contact with ground centers from whom my fellow cosmonauts served as spokesmen. Sequential boosters totaling 600 000 kg thrust placed the 4731 kg spaceship into a perfect orbit varying in altitude from 178-246 km in a plane 64 degrees 58' inclined to the equator. The spaceship made 17 orbits around the earth landing 25 hours, 18 minutes after take-off. The cabin had full atmospheric pressure and a comfortable habitability which could be extended for 10 days. I was able to maneuver the spaceship and perform many other control functions, make observations and take pictures of the earth and its cloud cover, eat meals and sleep all with good efficiency. I experienced mild symptoms suggestive of seasickness which were aggravated by head turning, ameliorated by sleep and entirely relieved by resumption of g-loading during descent. Altogether analyses of the physical and structural performance of the spaceship and the continuously monitored physiological responses of the pilot indicate that all systems operated with high reliability and according to our scientific expectations. PMID:12056421
Summary Background and objectives Higher morning serum phosphorus has been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with or without CKD. In patients with CKD and a phosphorous level >4.6 mg/dl, the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes guidelines recommend dietary phosphorus restriction. However, whether phosphorus restriction influences serum phosphorus concentrations and whether dietary phosphorus is itself associated with CVD or death are uncertain. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Among 880 patients with stable CVD and normal kidney function to moderate CKD, 24-hour urine phosphorus excretion (UPE) and serum phosphorus were measured at baseline. Participants were followed for a median of 7.4 years for CVD events and all-cause mortality. Results Mean ± SD age was 67±11 years, estimated GFR (eGFR) was 71±22 ml/min per 1.73 m2, and serum phosphorus was 3.7±0.6 mg/dl. Median UPE was 632 (interquartile range, 439, 853) mg/d. In models adjusted for demographic characteristics and eGFR, UPE was weakly and nonsignificantly associated with serum phosphorus (0.03 mg/dl higher phosphorus per 300 mg higher UPE; P=0.07). When adjusted for demographics, eGFR, and CVD risk factors, each 300-mg higher UPE was associated with 17% lower risk of CVD events. The association of UPE with all-cause mortality was not statistically significant (hazard ratio, 0.93; 95% confidence interval, 0.82 to 1.05). Results were similar irrespective of CKD status (P interactions > 0.87). Conclusions Among outpatients with stable CVD, the magnitude of the association of UPE with morning serum phosphorus is modest. Greater UPE is associated with lower risk for CVD events. The association was similar for all-cause mortality but was not statistically significant.
Palomino, Heather L.; Rifkin, Dena E.; Anderson, Cheryl; Criqui, Michael H.; Whooley, Mary A.
Objective. During ambulatory 24-hour dual pH probe monitoring for suspected extraesophageal reflux (EER), patients are responsible for indicating relevant study events. Study interpretation relies on patient accuracy and compliance to test instructions. This study sought to explore patient compliance during pH probe monitoring and evaluated the utility of a Post-Evaluation Questionnaire as a clinical tool. Participants and Methods. Participants were prospectively studied during 24-hour dual pH probe monitoring. Participants used both a food diary and monitor settings to indicate relevant study events. Following pH testing, participants completed a Post-Evaluation Questionnaire regarding test experiences. Results. Eighty-two participants completed the study. Means and standard deviations were calculated for individual responses on the Post-Evaluation Questionnaire. Means indicate high participant accuracy for study events, and adherence to typical activities and diet over the testing period. Factor analysis was performed on the Post-Evaluation Questionnaire items and identified two factors: “typical experiences” and “times forgot.” Cronbach's alpha demonstrated acceptable reliability levels for questions related to “typical experiences,” but poor reliability for “times forgot” questions. Conclusions. Assessment of participant compliance during pH probe testing can quickly and easily be completed through a Post-Evaluation Questionnaire. Participant compliance can be assessed for improved study interpretation.
The broad objective of this study is to use an existing data set with dietary intake data from 24-hourrecalls to analyze the relationship between simple indicators of dietary diversity such as could be derived from the DHS and diet quality for women. Ade...
A. Carriquiry D. Wiesmann L. Arimond L. E. Torheim M. Joseph
The two most commonly used strategies to evaluate dialysis patients' blood pressure (BP) level are 44-hour and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). The objective of this study was to find an appropriate 24-hour period that correlated well with the 44-hour BP level and determine the differences between these strategies. In a group of 51 dialysis patients, the authors performed 44-hour ABPM and extracted data for a fixed 24-hour ABPM. The fixed 24-hour ABPM started at 6 am on the nondialysis day. A strong correlation was found between all parameters of 44-hour and the fixed 24-hour ABPM, with paired sample t test showing only small magnitude changes in a few parameters. Both 24-hour ABPM and 44-hour ABPM were superior to clinic BP in predicting left ventricular mass index (LVMI) by multiple regression analysis. It was found that 44-hour ambulatory arterial stiffness index (AASI), but not 24-hour AASI, had a positive association with LVMI (r=0.328, P=.021). However, after adjustment for 44-hour systolic blood pressure, this association disappeared. Fixed 24-hour ABPM is a good surrogate of 44-hour ABPM to some extent, while 44-hour ABPM can provide more accurate and detailed information. PMID:24172171
Chimpanzee response to 24hours of restraint was measured by biochemic serum alterations. Serum values in blood drawn immediately before, immediately after, 24hours post-, and for a limited number of cases, 7 days post-restraint, are compared. The values...
High intakes of dietary sodium are associated with elevated blood pressure levels and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. National and international guidelines recommend reduced sodium intake in the general population, which necessitates population-wide surveillance. We assessed the utility of casual (spot) urine specimens in estimating 24-hour urinary sodium excretion as a marker of sodium intake in the International Cooperative Study on Salt, Other Factors, and Blood Pressure. There were 5,693 participants recruited in 1984–1987 at the ages of 20–59 years from 29 North American and European samples. Participants were randomly assigned to test or validation data sets. Equations derived from casual urinary sodium concentration and other variables in the test data were applied to the validation data set. Correlations between observed and estimated 24-hour sodium excretion were 0.50 for individual men and 0.51 for individual women; the values were 0.79 and 0.71, respectively, for population samples. Bias in mean values (observed minus estimated) was small; for men and women, the values were ?1.6 mmol per 24hours and 2.3 mmol per 24hours, respectively, at the individual level and ?1.8 mmol per 24hours and 2.2 mmol per 24hours, respectively, at the population level. Proportions of individuals with urinary 24-hour sodium excretion above the recommended levels were slightly overestimated by the models. Casual urine specimens may be a useful, low-burden, low-cost alternative to 24-hour urine collections for estimation of population sodium intakes; ongoing calibration with study-specific 24-hour urinary collections is recommended to increase validity.
Brown, Ian J.; Dyer, Alan R.; Chan, Queenie; Cogswell, Mary E.; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Stamler, Jeremiah; Elliott, Paul
NSC 1895, Guanazole, Triazole 3, 5-diamino-s, which shows strong antitumor activity has been studied for preclinical toxicological effects following weekly 24-hour infusions in young adult beagle dogs. At all dosage levels, clinical signs of toxicity were...
P. E. Palm M. S. Nick C. J. Kensler D. A. Cooney R. D. Davis
The article is based on the first systematic analysis of the output of 24-hour news channels in the UK. From a viewer's point of view, we argue, a 24-hour news channel can fulfil three main purposes: allowing someone to watch an up-to-date news bulletin whenever they wish; enabling a viewer to watch major live news events as they happen; or
Background: Preeclampsia is a serious complication of pregnancy, and it is vital to diagnosis the condition as early as possible. Proteinuria is an important symptom of preeclampsia, and repeated urine analysis to screen for the condition is part of the standard antenatal care. The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between 4- and 24-hour urine total protein values to examine whether the 4-hour urine samples could be used for the diagnosis of proteinuria in hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed on 110 pregnant (after gestational week 20 of pregnancy) patients who were hypertensive (blood pressure ?140/90 mmHg) and had proteinuria as defined by positive urinary protein of at least 1+ in dipstick. Patients' urine samples were collected over 24hours; the first 4 hours were collected separately from the next 20-hours. Patients, who did not collect the 24-hour urine, were excluded from the study. One hundred patients met the criteria, and were included in the study. The urine volume, total protein and creatinine levels of 4- and 24-hours samples were measured. The correlation between 4-hour and 24-hour samples was examined using Pearson correlation test. Results: Of the 100 patients, 42 had no proteinuria, 44 had mild proteinuria, and 14 had severe proteinuria. The urine protein values of 4-hour samples correlated with those of the 24-hours samples for patients with mild and severe forms of the disease (P<0.001, r=0.86). Conclusion: This study showed there was a correlation between 4-hour and 24-hour urine proteins. The finding indicates that a random 4-hour sample might be used for the initial assessment of proteinuria.
The 24-hour urine protein/creatinine (U[P/C]) ratio was examined in 19 healthy dogs and in 38 dogs with protein-losing nephropathies. A positive correlation existed between the U(P/C) ratio and the 24-hour urine protein output per kilogram of body weight. The U(P/C) ratio in 18 of 19 healthy dogs was less than 0.2; one dog had a ratio of 0.38. The median U(P/C) ratio in dogs with glomerulonephritis (n = 26) and amyloidosis (n = 6) was 5.73 and 22.50, respectively. The median U(P/C) ratio in dogs with chronic interstitial nephritis (n = 6) was 2.89. In the presence of hypoalbuminemia (albumin less than or equal to 1.5 g/dl), a U/(P/C) ratio greater than 1 indicated a nephrotic syndrome. Severe protein-losing nephropathies (ie, severe glomerulonephritis and amyloidosis) were characterized by U(P/C) ratios greater than 10 and urine protein values exceeding 159 mg/kg/day. The 24-hour U/(P/C) may be more sensitive than the 24-hour urine protein output per kilogram of body weight in the detection of mild glomerular disease. Abnormal U(P/C) ratios were present in 5 dogs, 2 with glomerulonephritis and 3 with chronic interstitial nephritis; that had normal or mildly increased 24-hour urine protein output. PMID:4055501
Center, S A; Wilkinson, E; Smith, C A; Erb, H; Lewis, R M
Objective To identify food sources of added sweeteners in the US diet.Design A descriptive study using data from the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) 1994-1996 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals. Each subject provided one 24-hour dietary recall. Intake of added sweeteners was calculated using the USDA Food Guide Pyramid servings database.Subjects\\/setting A national sample of noninstitutionalized persons aged
The National Heart Lung Blood Institute Nutrition Data System was examined with regard to sources of variance. A Graeco-Latin square design involving 30 male and 30 female subjects, each interviewed six times, three trained interviewers and three interview days was used. Through factorial analysis of variance it was demonstrated that there was no difference between interviewers and no training effect
G. H. Beaton; J. Milner; P. Corey; V. McGuire; M. Cousins; E. Stewart; M. de Ramos; D. Hewitt; P. V. Grambsch; N. Kassim
...Designations for the 2006 24-Hour Fine Particle National Ambient Air Quality Standards...establish the initial 2006 24-hour fine particle (PM 2.5 ) national ambient air...counties to evaluate further high fine particle concentrations during...
A Monte Carlo simulation was undertaken to estimate the amount of air inhaled over a typical 24-hour period by six age groups of Canadians. The objective of the simulation was to derive probability density functions that could be used to describe inhalation rates in probabilistic health risk assessments involving airborne contaminants. The six age groups considered were those typically employed
Describes Follow the Sun, a computer help-desk service that takes advantage of time differences around the world to permit four universities (University of Colorado Boulder, Australia's Macquarie and Newcastle universities, and the London School of Economics) to share services and provide 24-hour support to users. (EV)
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effectiveness of snoezelen, integrated in 24-hour daily care, on the behavior and mood of demented nursing home residents. DESIGN: Quasiexperimental pre- and posttest design. SETTING: Twelve psychogeriatric wards of six nursing homes, spread over different parts of the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred twenty-five patients with moderate to severe dementia and care dependency were included in the
J. C. M. van Weert; ALEXANDRA M. VAN DULMEN; PETER M. M. SPREEUWENBERG; MIEL W. RIBBE; JOZIEN M. BENSING
The report presents troop posture tables for a simulated Soviet howitzer crew during the first 24hours in a new position. This test supplements previous work by providing a more realistic scenario that required the crew to improve its fortifications and ...
This paper focuses on developing an ambulatory system capable of monitoring the fetal heart rate (FHR) as well as recording the FHR and maternal heart Rate (MHR) for 24hours by two-development work. The first is a microcontroller board which uses three electrodes, to sense the abdominal electrocardiogram (AECG) signals and then process the signal for monitoring FHR and recording
Firoz Ahmed; Mohd Alauddin Mohd Ali; Edmond Zahedi
Cardiac parasympathetic activity was assessed using 24hour electrocardiographic recordings by measuring the incidence of larger changes in successive RR intervals, which in normal subjects occur frequently but irregularly. In 25 normal subjects the mean number of times per hour in which the change in successive RR interval was greater than 50 ms was 150-250 during waking and 350-450 during
Summary The occurrence of diurnal rhythmicity in tissue norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E) and dopamine (DA) levels of rat thyroid and submaxillary glands was assessed in animals killed at eight time intervals during a 24hour period. In both tissues significant peak values of NE content were found at the third hour of dark onset (at 23:00 h). Additionally a minimum
M. Barontini; H. E. Romeo; I. Armando; D. P. Cardinali
This study examined the contribution of testing time on the interfacial strengths of fiber posts to radicular dentin. Twenty-five fiber posts were luted to root segments with resin cements and a zinc phosphate cement. Immediately upon setting of the materials, the roots were sectioned into slices and randomly divided into two subgroups, depending on testing time (immediate vs. 24-hours), for
Fernanda Tranchesi Sadek; Cecilia Goracci; Francesca Monticelli; Simone Grandini; Álvaro Hafiz Cury; Franklin Tay; Marco Ferrari
A case study of a bipolar patient whose mood changes every 24hours is described to illustrate the changes in cognitive processing and content during different phases of bipolar disorder. The participant completed a battery of questionnaires and tasks on 4 separate occasions: twice when depressed and twice when manic. Depression tended to be…
The effects of two volumes (1.5 L or 3.0 L) of commercially available electrolyte beverage (1.44 mM·L-1 Na+) taken during a 24-hour recovery period post-exercise, on plasma volume (PV) expansion 24-hours post-exercise were assessed. A simple random-order crossover research design was used. Subjects (n = 9 males: age 21 ± 4 years, body mass 80.0 ± 9.0 kg, peak incremental 60-second cycling power output 297 ± 45 W [means ± SD]) completed an identical exercise protocol conducted in hot ambient conditions (35oC, 50% relative humidity) on two occasions; separated by 7-days. On each occasion, subjects received a different volume of 24-hour fluid intake (commercial beverage) in random order. In each case, the fluid was taken in five equal aliquots over 24-hours. PV expansions 24-hours post-exercise were estimated from changes in haemoglobin and haematocrit. Dependent t-testing revealed no significant differences in PV expansions between trials, however a significant expansion with respect to zero was identified in the 3.0 L trial only. Specifically, PV expansions (%) were; 1.5 L trial: (mean ± SE) 2.3 ± 2.0 (not significant with respect to zero), 3.0 L trial: 5.0 ± 2.0 (p < 0.05, with respect to zero). Under the conditions imposed in the current study, ingesting the greater volume of the beverage lead to larger mean PV expansion. Key Points Greater volume of re-hydration beverage is beneficial to mean PV expansion 3-hours post-exercise, however this relationship has not been previously tested under adequate controls over 24-hours to our knowledge. This study indicates that under the conditions we imposed, over 24-hours increased volume (1.5 Vs. 3.0 L) of oral re-hydration fluid is associated with increased mean PV expansion. Although we used an almost identical exercise stimulus as previous researchers, relative intensity was slightly lower in the current study. Coincidentally, PV expansions noted during this study were approximately half those reported by others.
Kay, Bartholomew; O'Brien, Brendan J.; Gill, Nicholas D.
Background:Urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR) in a single urine sample has been proposed to provide an estimate of microalbuminuria by adjusting for variability in urine concentrations. We hypothesized that adjusting the urine albumin concentration of single-void specimens for actual urine osmolality (urinary albumin to osmolality ratio [AOR]) may provide a more accurate estimate of 24-hour urine albumin excretion rates
Geeta G. Gyamlani; Erik J. Bergstralh; Jeffrey M. Slezak; Timothy S. Larson
Ambulatory oesophageal motility/pH monitoring permits accurate detection of oesophageal events during spontaneous chest pain episodes. Opinions differ, however, about the methods to review the extensive motility data and the definition of abnormal motility changes. We studied 30 patients (18 women, age 46 years) with suspected oesophageal chest pain using a portable recording system attached to a 4.5 mm catheter with pressure transducers 3 and 8 cm and pH probe 5 cm above the lower oesophageal sphincter (LOS). An event marker was triggered by the patient for chest pain. In the patient's diary, pain was recorded on a scale of increasing severity 1-10. Two methods of analysis were used to assess 24hour motility data. The 24hour technique sampled five minute asymptomatic baselines throughout the study to define the patient's normal range of oesophageal motility. The second technique used only the 10 minute period immediately before each chest pain episode as the asymptomatic baseline. Chest pain episodes were defined as abnormal if associated with pH less than 4 or motility changes not present during the asymptomatic baseline analysis: 135 chest pain episodes were recorded. The method of motility analysis significantly (p less than 0.01) changed the number of chest pain episodes associated with abnormal motility: 24hour technique - 14 episodes (10%) versus a 2.5-fold increase with the 10 minute baseline technique - 33 episodes (24%). Acid related pain episodes were similar in both groups - 13%. The majority of chest pain episodes had no association with abnormal motility or acid reflux. Increasing chest pain severity was inversely correlated with the presence of abnormal oesophageal events. We conclude that limited analysis of 24hour motility data may over diagnose motility related chest pain events and lead to inappropriate medical or surgical therapy.
Previous animal study revealed that post-implantation electrical detection levels significantly declined within days. The impact of cochlear implant (CI) insertion on human auditory pathway in terms of impedance and electrically evoked compound action potential (ECAP) variation within hours after surgery remains unclear, since at this time frequency mapping can only commence weeks after implantation due to factors associated with wound conditions. The study presented our experiences with regards to initial switch-on within 24hours, and thus the findings about the milieus inside cochlea within the first few hours after cochlear implantation in terms of impedance/ECAP fluctuations. The charts of fifty-four subjects with profound hearing impairment were studied. A minimal invasive approach was used for cochlear implantation, characterized by a small skin incision (?2.5 cm) and soft techniques for cochleostomy. Impedance/ECAP was measured intro-operatively and within 24hours post-operatively. Initial mapping within 24hours post-operatively was performed in all patients without major complications. Impedance/ECAP became significantly lower measured within 24hours post-operatively as compared with intra-operatively (p<0.001). There were no differences between pre-operative and post-operative threshold for air-conduction hearing. A significant drop of impedance/ECAP in one day after cochlear implantation was revealed for the first time in human beings. Mechanisms could be related to the restoration of neuronal sensitivity to the electrical stimulation, and/or the interaction between the matrix enveloping the electrodes and the electrical stimulation of the initial switch-on. Less wound pain/swelling and soft techniques both contributed to the success of immediate initial mapping, which implied a stable micro-environment inside the cochlea despite electrodes insertion. Our research invites further studies to correlate initial impedance/ECAP changes with long-term hearing/speech performance.
Chen, Joshua Kuang-Chao; Chuang, Ann Yi-Chiun; Sprinzl, Georg Mathias; Tung, Tao-Hsin; Li, Lieber Po-Hung
The presence of orthostatic hypotension has been shown to be a significant, independent predictor of all-cause mortality. Systolic and diastolic orthostatic hypotension, reversal of the circadian pattern, and postprandial hypotension are some of the hemodynamic factors that may contribute to the increased mortality seen in patients with orthostatic hypotension. The high variability of blood pressure in orthostatic hypotension cannot usually be adequately assessed by a one-time measurement. In this group of patients, 24-hour ambulatory. PMID:18046101
A new method, 24-hour polygraphy (EEG, EMG, and EOG), was applied not only to investigate the influence of hypnotics on night sleep, but to examine the precise influence on sleep-wake-fulness rhythm the day following administration. The hypnotics used were flurazepam 15 mg and nitrazepam 5 mg. The subjects were healthy volunteers, 5 men and 4 women, aged 20–50 years. The
Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the diametral tensile strength (DTS) and Knoop hardness (KH) of direct (Filtek Z350-3M/ESPE and Charisma-Heraeus Kulzer) and indirect composites (Sinfony-3M/ESPE and Signum-Heraeus Kulzer) kept in storage for two periods of time, 24hours and 10 months, in distilled water. Methods: Twenty-five specimens of each material were prepared. DTS (n=10) was tested using a universal testing machine (Versat, model 2000) at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/min. KH (n=5) was measured using Knoop micro-hardness (HMV-2000; 50 gf for 15 s). All tests were performed 24hours after polymerization and after 10 months of storage in distilled water at 37°C. The data were statistically analyzed using Kolmogorov-Smirnov, ANOVA and t-Student (P=.05). Results: Filtek Z350, Sinfony, and Signum showed higher DTS values than Charisma after 24hours. After storage, Sinfony and Signum showed higher DTS values because the storage did not influence the DTS values of the indirect composites. Filtek Z350 showed higher KH values after 24hours and after storage than other composites; the storage influenced the KH of all composites except Sinfony. Conclusion: Storage for 10 months did not influence the properties of the indirect composite Sinfony. In general, the indirect composites showed higher DTS values than direct composites, especially after 10 months storage. The direct composite Filtek Z350 obtained the highest KH values regardless of storage.
Alves, Paula Barbosa; Brandt, William Cunha; Neves, Ana Christina Claro; Cunha, Leonardo Goncalves; Silva-Concilio, Lais Regiane
Thirty-eight mature horses were assigned to one of two equal groups to evaluate two treatments consisting of either 24hours of continuous road transport (24T) or two 12-hour periods of transport separated by off-loading, resting and feeding the horses for 12 hours (12\\/12T). A subset of six horses from each group served as controls for the other group. The horses
C. L. Stull; J. Morrow; B. A. Aldridge; J. L. Stott; J. J. McGlone
Background and Objectives. This study proposes a novel urine collection device that can divide each urine collection into 20 parts and store and cool just one part. The aim of the current study is to compare measured biomarkers from the proposed urine collection device to those of conventional 24-hour sampling method. We also hypothesized that the new method would significantly increase patients' adherence to the timed urine collection. Methods. Two 24-hour urine samples with the conventional method and with the new automated urine collection device that uses just one-twentieth of each void were obtained from 40 healthy volunteers. Urine parameters including volume, creatinine, and protein levels were compared between the two methods and the agreement of two measurements for each subject was reported through Bland-Altman plots. Results. Our results confirmed that for all three variables, there is a positive correlation (P < 0.001) between the two measurements and high degree of agreement could be seen in Bland-Altman plots. Moreover, more subjects reported the new method as "more convenient" for 24-hour urine collection. Conclusions. Our results clearly indicate that a fixed proportion of each void may significantly reduce the urine volume in timed collections and this, in turn, may increase subjects' adherence to this difficult sampling. PMID:24963405
Nabavizadeh, Pooneh; Ghadermarzi, Shadi; Fakhri, Mohammad
Background and Objectives. This study proposes a novel urine collection device that can divide each urine collection into 20 parts and store and cool just one part. The aim of the current study is to compare measured biomarkers from the proposed urine collection device to those of conventional 24-hour sampling method. We also hypothesized that the new method would significantly increase patients' adherence to the timed urine collection. Methods. Two 24-hour urine samples with the conventional method and with the new automated urine collection device that uses just one-twentieth of each void were obtained from 40 healthy volunteers. Urine parameters including volume, creatinine, and protein levels were compared between the two methods and the agreement of two measurements for each subject was reported through Bland-Altman plots. Results. Our results confirmed that for all three variables, there is a positive correlation (P < 0.001) between the two measurements and high degree of agreement could be seen in Bland-Altman plots. Moreover, more subjects reported the new method as “more convenient” for 24-hour urine collection. Conclusions. Our results clearly indicate that a fixed proportion of each void may significantly reduce the urine volume in timed collections and this, in turn, may increase subjects' adherence to this difficult sampling.
Previous experiences in animals showed a different behavior between the variability of pressure, arterial diameter and elasticity when they were registered for a couple of hours. To better understand arterial mechanics variability, we propose to measure simultaneously aortic pressure and diameter during 24hours in a sheep. For that purpose, we developed a portable prototype device. It allows continuously recording physiological signals throughout the day and storing them in a solid state memory for later analysis. Pulse wave velocity and Peterson modulus were assessed beat-to-beat as arterial stiffness indexes. We identified 53,762 heart beats during 24hours that were separated into 2 groups: below or above median mean pressure (71 mmHg). Mean diameter, pulse wave velocity and Peterson modulus increased for higher pressure values (p<0.05) whereas heart rate slowed down (p<0.05). Pressure-diameter loops were successfully recreated all along the experience. This new methodology sets the basis for further experiences involving the estimation of 24hours arterial mechanics variability.
Graf, S.; Craiem, D.; Valero, M.; Alfonso, M.; Barra, J. G.; Armentano, R. L.
The aim of this study was to compare the effects of static vs. dynamic stretching (DS) on explosive performances and repeated sprint ability (RSA) after a 24-hour delay. Sixteen young male soccer players performed 15 minutes of static stretching (SS), DS, or a no-stretch control condition (CC) 24hours before performing explosive performances and RSA tests. This was a within-subject repeated measures study with SS, DS, and CC being counterbalanced. Stretching protocols included 2 sets of 7 minutes 30 seconds (2 repetitions of 30 seconds with a 15-second passive recovery) for 5 muscle groups (quadriceps, hamstring, calves, adductors, and hip flexors). Twenty-four hours later (without any kind of stretching in warm-up), the players were tested for the 30-m sprint test (with 10- and 20-m lap times), 5 jump test (5JT), and RSA test. Significant differences were observed between CC, SS, and DS with 5JT (F = 9.99, p < 0.00, effect size [ES] = 0.40), 10-m sprint time (F = 46.52, p < 0.00, ES = 0.76), 20-m sprint time (F = 18.44, p < 0.000, ES = 0.55), and 30-m sprint time (F = 34.25, p < 0.000, ES = 0.70). The significantly better performance (p < 0.05) was observed after DS as compared with that after CC and SS in 5JT, and sprint times for 10, 20, and 30 m. In contrast, significantly worse performance (p < 0.05) was observed after SS as compared with that after CC in 5JT, and sprint times for 10, 20, and 30 m. With RSA, no significant difference was observed between different stretching protocols in the total time (F = 1.55, p > 0.05), average time (F = 1.53, p > 0.05), and fastest time (F = 2.30, p > 0.05), except for the decline index (F = 3.54, p < 0.04, ES = 0.19). Therefore, the SS of the lower limbs and hip muscles had a negative effect on explosive performances up to 24hours poststretching with no major effects on the RSA. Conversely, the DS of the same muscle groups are highly recommended 24hours before performing sprint and long-jump performances. In conclusion, the positive effects of DS on explosive performances seem to persist for 24hours. PMID:23615481
Dietary intake estimates from the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) Diet Screener are rough estimates of usual intake of fruits and vegetables and added sugar. They are not as accurate as more detailed methods (e.g. 24-hourrecalls). However, validation research suggests that the estimates may be useful to characterize a population's median intakes, to discriminate among individuals or populations with regard to higher vs.
Purpose We investigated the influence of overweight on 24-hour urine chemistry studies and recurrent urolithiasis (UL) in children. Materials and Methods A retrospective cohort study was designed to assess children who presented with UL at a pediatric institution between 1985 and 2010. We calculated body mass index percentile (BMIp) adjusted for gender and age according to the 2007 Korean Children and Adolescents Growth Chart and stratified the children into 3 BMI categories: lower body weight (LBW, BMIp?10), normal BW (NBW, 1024-hour urine chemistry studies did not differ significantly between the three groups. Mean urine citrate levels were lower (0.273±0.218 mg/mg/d vs. 0.429±0.299 mg/mg/d, p<0.05) and the incidence of hypocitraturia was higher (81.5% vs. 45.7%, p<0.05)) in the recurrent stone former group. In the univariate analysis, hypocitraturia and acidic urinary pH were risk factors, but in the multivariate analysis, only hypocitraturia was a risk factor for stone recurrence (hazard ratio, 3.647; 95% confidence interval, 1.047 to 12.703). In the Kaplan-Meier curve, the hypocitraturia group showed higher recurrence than did the normocitraturia group (p<0.05). Conclusions Unlike in adults, in children, overweight adjusted for gender and age was not associated with 24-hour urine chemistry studies and was not a risk factor for recurrent UL. Hypocitraturia was the only risk factor for UL in children.
Chung, Jae Dong; Kim, Tae-Hyoung; Myung, Soon Chul; Moon, Young Tae; Kim, Kyung Do
...2012-07-01 false Interstate Transport for the 2006 24-hour PM2...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL...Oregon § 52.1990 Interstate Transport for the 2006 24-hour PM2...addressing the requirement in Clean Air Act section...
...2013-07-01 false Interstate Transport for the 2006 24-hour PM2...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL...Oregon Â§ 52.1990 Interstate Transport for the 2006 24-hour PM2...addressing the requirement in Clean Air Act section...
Pimozid (R 6238 Janssen, Beerse), a neuroleptic similar to the Butyrophenon type has a 24-hour period of effect due to the substance, and was used from 1969 onward on a total of 39 patients, predominantly from the range of schizophrenia types. The objective of thus clinical study was, above all, to plot the extent of its effects, define the optimal range of indications, to determine the most favourable dosage profile and to examine its tolerance in long-term use. Objectifying the medicinal effects, for example recording the psychopathological findings, proved successful with the aid of a syndrom catalogue following the AMP system, in comparison with preceeding and following treatments and considering the social-psychiatric aspects, so that concomitant- and side effects can be ascertained in the same way. The necessary maintenance dose of Pimozid, usually administered once a day, was set in relation to the daily dosage of Haloperidol, which had to be administered 2 to 3 times daily; the results, meanwhile, were compared with those already recorded on the literature. In agreement with this Pimozid proved to be a powerful and well tolerated neuroleptic, even in older patients, with a constant 24-hour effect which is suitable in doses from 1--10 mg/d particularly for long-term out-patient therapy, and above all for psychotics of the paranoid hallucinatory type. PMID:829615
Aquaporin 3 (AQP3) is located in the basal layer of the epidermis and regulates biological functions of skin such as water content and trans-epidermal water loss. A recent study showed that the biological function of skin exhibits a 24-hour rhythm, but the molecular mechanism of the variation remains poorly understood. Here we show that mice mutated in the core clock component CLOCK (Clk/Clk) show decreased stratum corneum hydration. An extensive search for the underlying cause led us to identify AQP3 as a new regulator to control the 24-hour variation in biological functions of skin. In mouse epidermis of wild-type mice, mAqp3 exhibits circadian rhythms; however, these are significantly decreased in Clk/Clk. Luciferase reporter gene analysis revealed that transcription of mAqp3 is activated by D-site-binding protein, a clock gene. A human homolog, hAQP3, also exhibited significant oscillation in human keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells synchronized with medium containing 50% serum, and this rhythm was regulated by the endogenous CLOCK/BMAL1 heterodimer. These data indicate that although the molecular mechanisms underlying the rhythmic expression of mAqp3 and hAQP3 are different, clock genes are involved in time-dependent skin hydration. Our current findings provide a molecular link between the circadian clock and AQP3 function in mouse dorsal skin and HaCaT cells. PMID:24418925
The JPL Airborne Snow Observatory (ASO) must process 100s of GB of raw data to 100s of Terabytes of derived data in 24hour Near Real Time (NRT) latency in a geographically distributed mobile compute and data-intensive processing setting. ASO provides meaningful information to water resource managers in the Western US letting them know how much water to maintain; or release, and what the prospectus of the current snow season is in the Sierra Nevadas. Providing decision support products processed from airborne data in a 24hour timeframe is an emergent field and required the team to develop a novel solution as this process is typically done over months. We've constructed a system that combines Apache OODT; with Apache Tika; with the Interactive Data Analysis (IDL)/ENVI programming environment to rapidly and unobtrusively generate, distribute and archive ASO data as soon as the plane lands near Mammoth Lakes, CA. Our system is flexible, underwent several redeployments and reconfigurations, and delivered this critical information to stakeholders during the recent "Snow On" campaign March 2013 - June 2013. This talk will take you through a day in the life of the compute team from data acquisition, delivery, processing, and dissemination. Within this context, we will discuss the architecture of ASO; the open source software we used; the data we stored; and how it was delivered to its users. Moreover we will discuss the logistics, system engineering, and staffing that went into the developing, deployment, and operation of the mobile compute system.
Ramirez, P.; Mattmann, C. A.; Painter, T. H.; Seidel, F. C.; Trangsrud, A.; Hart, A. F.; Goodale, C. E.; Boardman, J. W.; Heneghan, C.; Verma, R.; Khudikyan, S.; Boustani, M.; Zimdars, P. A.; Horn, J.; Neely, S.
Treatment with a self-adhesive hydroactive polyurethane dressing (Cutinova thin, Beiersdorf AG, Hamburg, Germany) applied over a period of eight weeks has been shown to have a beneficial effect on hypertrophic scars. However, the use of such dressings during the daytime on visible parts of the body is often problematic and might lead to reduced compliance. In the present study the effect of 12-hour (overnight) treatment was compared with the results of a 24-hour treatment regimen with the same dressing. The dressings were applied over an eight-week period. Evaluation of the hypertrophic scars was by clinical assessment and measurement of colour difference to normal skin, elevation and elasticity. In addition, the patients assessed the treatment effects (questionnaire) and photographs were taken. Under both regimens an improvement in the scar colour (redness) and visual assessment scores took place. The patients also gave a positive assessment of the effects of the treatment. After eight weeks there were no relevant differences between the scars treated with the self-adhesive dressings for 12 hours (overnight) and those treated for 24hours per day. PMID:12964321
Schmidt, A; Gassmueller, J; Hughes-Formella, B; Bielfeldt, S
Summary The variation of individual lifespans, even in highly inbred cohorts of animals and under strictly controlled environmental conditions, is substantial and not well understood. This variation in part could be due to epigenetic variation, which later affects the animal’s physiology and ultimately longevity. Identification of the physiological properties that impact health and lifespan is crucial for longevity research and the development of anti-aging therapies. Here we measured individual circadian and metabolic characteristics in a cohort of inbred F1 hybrid mice and correlated these parameters to their lifespans. We found that mice with innate circadian periods close to 24hours (revealed during 30 days of housing in total darkness) enjoyed nearly 20% longer lifespans than their littermates, which had shorter or longer innate circadian periods. These findings show that maintenance of a 24hour intrinsic circadian period is a positive predictor of longevity. Our data suggest that circadian period may be used to predict individual longevity and that processes that control innate circadian period affect aging.
Libert, Sergiy; Bonkowski, Michael S.; Pointer, Kelli; Pletcher, Scott D.; Guarente, Leonard
The purpose of this study was to examine the pulse wave velocity, aortic augmentation index corrected for heart rate 75 (AIx@75), and central systolic and diastolic blood pressure during 24-hour monitoring in normotensive volunteers. Overall, 467 subjects (206 men and 261 women) were recruited in this study. Participants were excluded from the study if they were less than 19 years of age, had blood test abnormalities, had a body mass index greater than 2 7.5 kg/m2, had impaired glucose tolerance, or had hypotension or hypertension. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) with the BPLab® device was performed in each subject. ABPM waveforms were analyzed using the special automatic Vasotens® algorithm, which allows the calculation of pulse wave velocity, AIx@75, central systolic and diastolic blood pressure for “24-hour”, “awake”, and “asleep” periods. Circadian rhythms and sex differences in these indexes were identified. Pending further validation in prospective outcome-based studies, our data may be used as preliminary diagnostic values for the BPLab ABPM additional index in adult subjects.
Solar atmosphere is a unique laboratory for the study of turbulent flows under extreme conditions (e.g. very high Reynolds numbers). The turbulent nature of the flow may be approached by determining how magnetic flux elements are transported on the solar surface, and measuring the spatio-temporal scales on which these small magnetic structures are organized. The process involved is diffusion. Several works explored this topic, both by simulations and observations, and the results are often contradictory, ranging from fully-developed turbulent scenarios to normal-diffusive motions. We analyze 24-hour continuous Hinode SOT observations of a supergranular region (for the first time these long scales are explored), studying the evolution of the mutual distance between magnetic element pairs and its scaling laws, in order to investigate the diffusion process. We find a super-diffusive behavior, with a gamma index depending on the spatial scale selected.
Giannattasio, F.; Berrilli, F.; Del Moro, D.; Bellot Rubio, L.; Orozco Suarez, D.; Gosic, M.
Context Short sleep duration is associated with adverse health outcomes, but the mechanisms involved are unknown. It has been postulated that short sleep duration may elevate cortisol levels, but studies have had conflicting results. It is unclear whether these differing findings may be due to methodological issues, such as assessment of sleep duration. Specifically, objective versus subjective methods of measuring habitual sleep duration may account for the conflicting results found in epidemiological studies. Objective Our goal was to determine whether habitual sleep duration, measured objectively (by actigraphy) and subjectively (by self-report), was associated with 24-hour urine free cortisol (UFC), a measure of integrated cortisol secretion. Our secondary goal was to determine whether slow wave sleep (SWS, determined by polysomnography) was associated with 24-hour UFC. Design/Setting Cross sectional study of community dwelling older men. Patients/Participants 325 men (mean age?=?76.6 years, SD?=?5.5) from the Portland site of the MrOS Sleep Study, who underwent 24-hour urine collection, polysomnography, actigraphy and sleep questionnaire. Primary Outcome 24-hour UFC. Results In this study of community dwelling older men, self-reported sleep duration was inversely related to 24-hour UFC levels. Participants reporting <5 hours of habitual sleep had an adjusted mean 24-hour UFC of 29.8 ug, compared to 28.0 ug in participants reporting >5 to <8 hours of sleep 25.5 ug in those reporting >8 hours of habitual sleep. However, sleep duration determined by actigraphy was not associated with 24-hour UFC in either univariable or multivariable regression models. SWS was not associated with 24-hour UFC. Conclusion Objectively measured (i.e., actigraphic) sleep duration is not associated with 24-hour UFC in these community dwelling older men. This finding, together with prior studies, suggests that elevated levels of integrated cortisol secretion is not the mechanisms by which short sleep duration leads to adverse health outcomes.
Rao, Madhu N.; Blackwell, Terri; Redline, Susan; Punjabi, Naresh M.; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Neylan, Thomas C.; Stone, Katie L.
The present study evaluated the reliability of equations using spot urine (SU) samples in the estimation of 24-hour urine sodium excretion (24-HUNa). Equations estimating 24-HUNa from SU samples were derived from first-morning SU of 101 participants (52.4 ± 11.1 years, range 24-70 years). Equations developed by us and other investigators were validated with SU samples from a separate group of participants (n = 224, 51.0 ± 10.9 years, range 24-70 years). Linear, quadratic, and cubic equations were derived from first-morning SU samples because these samples had a sodium/creatinine ratio having the highest correlation coefficient for 24-HUNa/creatinine ratio (r = 0.728, p < 0.001). In the validation group, the estimated 24-HUNa showed significant correlations with measured 24-HUNa values. The estimated 24-HUNa by the linear, quadratic, and cubic equations developed from our study were not significantly different from measured 24-HUNa, while estimated 24-HUNa by previously developed equations were significantly different from measured 24-HUNa values. The limits of agreement between measured and estimated 24-HUNa by six equations exceeded 100 mmol/24-hour in the Bland-Altman analysis. All equations showed a tendency of under- or over-estimation of 24-HUNa, depending on the level of measured 24-HUNa. Estimation of 24-HUNa from single SU by equations as tested in the present study was found to be inadequate for the estimation of an individual's 24-HUNa. PMID:24955740
The present study evaluated the reliability of equations using spot urine (SU) samples in the estimation of 24-hour urine sodium excretion (24-HUNa). Equations estimating 24-HUNa from SU samples were derived from first-morning SU of 101 participants (52.4 ± 11.1 years, range 24–70 years). Equations developed by us and other investigators were validated with SU samples from a separate group of participants (n = 224, 51.0 ± 10.9 years, range 24–70 years). Linear, quadratic, and cubic equations were derived from first-morning SU samples because these samples had a sodium/creatinine ratio having the highest correlation coefficient for 24-HUNa/creatinine ratio (r = 0.728, p < 0.001). In the validation group, the estimated 24-HUNa showed significant correlations with measured 24-HUNa values. The estimated 24-HUNa by the linear, quadratic, and cubic equations developed from our study were not significantly different from measured 24-HUNa, while estimated 24-HUNa by previously developed equations were significantly different from measured 24-HUNa values. The limits of agreement between measured and estimated 24-HUNa by six equations exceeded 100 mmol/24-hour in the Bland-Altman analysis. All equations showed a tendency of under- or over-estimation of 24-HUNa, depending on the level of measured 24-HUNa. Estimation of 24-HUNa from single SU by equations as tested in the present study was found to be inadequate for the estimation of an individual’s 24-HUNa.
In the City of Edmonton, in order to reduce the prevalence of collisions, the Operation 24Hours program (OPS24) was developed by using existing police and transportation services resources. The program uses traditional manned police speed enforcement method, which are supplemented by traffic safety messages displayed on permanent and mobile dynamic messaging signs (DMS). In this paper, collision data analysis was performed by looking at the daily number of collisions from 2008 to 2011 that covers 28 Operation 24Hours (OPS24) events. The objective of the collision data analysis is to analyze if there is a reduction in collision frequencies after OPS24 was held and examined how long the collision reduction effect last. Weather factors such as temperature, thickness of snow, and wind gust have been considered by many as a great influence on collision occurrences, especially in a city with long and cold winter such as Edmonton. Therefore, collision modeling was performed by considering these external weather factors. To analyze the linear and periodic trend of different collision types (injury, fatal, and property damage only (PDO)) and examine the influence of weather factors on collisions, negative binomial time series model that accounts for seasonality and weather factors was used to model daily collision data. The modeling also considered collision proportion to account for missing traffic volume data; the Gaussian time series model that accounts for seasonality and weather factors was used to model collision proportion. To estimate the collision trend and test for changes in collision levels before/after OPS24, interrupted time series model with segmented regression was used. While for estimating how long the effect of the OPS24 last, change point method was applied. PMID:23727551
The dopamine D3 receptor (DRD3) in the ventral striatum is thought to influence motivation and motor functions. Although the expression of DRD3 in the ventral striatum has been shown to exhibit 24-hour variations, the mechanisms underlying the variation remain obscure. Here, we demonstrated that molecular components of the circadian clock act as regulators that control the 24-hour variation in the expression of DRD3. The transcription of DRD3 was enhanced by the retinoic acid-related orphan receptor ? (ROR?), and its activation was inhibited by the orphan receptor REV-ERB?, an endogenous antagonist of ROR?. The serum or dexamethasone-induced oscillation in the expression of DRD3 in cells was abrogated by the downregulation or overexpression of REV-ERB?, suggesting that REV-ERB? functions as a regulator of DRD3 oscillations in the cellular autonomous clock. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays of the DRD3 promoter indicated that the binding of the REV-ERB? protein to the DRD3 promoter increased in the early dark phase. DRD3 protein expression varied with higher levels during the dark phase. Moreover, the effects of the DRD3 agonist 7-hydroxy-N,N-dipropyl-2-aminotetralin (7-OH-DPAT)-induced locomotor hypoactivity were significantly increased when DRD3 proteins were abundant. These results suggest that ROR? and REV-ERB? consist of a reciprocating mechanism wherein ROR? upregulates the expression of DRD3, whereas REV-ERB? periodically suppresses the expression at the time of day when REV-ERB? is abundant. Our present findings revealed that a molecular link between the circadian clock and the function of DRD3 in the ventral striatum acts as a modulator of the pharmacological actions of DRD3 agonists/antagonists. PMID:23429911
We have conducted a series of experiments to determine the effects different diets, including the addition of unsaturated fatty acids, had on isotopic signatures of CH4 emissions from dairy cattle. Measurements of emitted ?13CH4, ?13CO2, and ?D-CH4 were made on gases collected over a 24-hour period from animal chambers containing individual Holstein cows. Some measurements of ?D-H2O from samples collected directly from the rumen were also made. We observed variation in ?13CH4 values with time after feeding and a correlation in ?13C between emitted gases and diet. The average ?13CH4 value, which includes all samples of emitted gases, was -70.6±4.9‰ (n = 57). Measurements of ?D-CH4 over the 24-hour sampling period had an average value of -357.8±15.0‰ (n = 56). These ?D measurements are among the lightest reported for CH4 produced by cattle. Our cattle data indicate that hydrogen incorporated into the CH4 produced by CO2 reduction in high H2 concentration environments is fractionated to a greater degree than that incorporated in systems with relatively low H2 conditions, such as wetlands. Our results support bacterial studies that have demonstrated large hydrogen fractionation in high H2 concentration systems during methanogenesis.
Bilek, R. S.; Tyler, S. C.; Kurihara, M.; Yagi, K.
...Additional Air Quality Designations for the 2006 24-Hour Fine Particle National Ambient Air Quality Standards, 110(k)(6) Correction...Quality Designations and Classifications for the Annual Fine Particles National Ambient Air Quality Standards Correction In...
Purpose To study effects of aging on corneal biomechanical properties and their impact on 24-hour measurement of intraocular pressure (IOP). Design Experimental study. Methods Fifteen older volunteers with healthy eyes (ages, 50?80 years) were housed for one day in a sleep laboratory with 16-hour diurnal/wake period and 8-hour nocturnal/sleep period. Every two hours, sitting corneal hysteresis, corneal resistance factor, and IOP were measured. Central corneal thickness (CCT) was measured using an ultrasound pachymeter. Data were compared with previous observations in fifteen healthy younger volunteers (ages, 20?25 years). Results Variations in 24-hour corneal hysteresis and corneal resistance factor were not significant in the older subjects, but there were time-dependent variations in CCT and IOP. The nocturnal CCT was thicker than the diurnal CCT, but the IOP difference between the diurnal and nocturnal periods was not significant. Cosine-fits of CCT and IOP showed synchronized 24-hour rhythms. The phase timing of CCT rhythm appeared significantly earlier than the phase timing of IOP rhythm. Comparing to younger subjects, older subjects had a lower mean 24-hour corneal hysteresis and corneal resistance factor, but not CCT. Phase timings of 24-hour rhythms of CCT and IOP were significantly delayed by aging. Conclusions Aging may lower corneal hysteresis and corneal resistance factor, but neither parameter shows a significant 24-hour variation. Aging may not change CCT significantly, but can shift its 24-hour rhythm. The 24-hour IOP pattern in this group of older subjects is not an artifact due to a variation in corneal hysteresis, corneal resistance factor, or CCT.
Objective: This is an Asian study, which was designed to examine the correlations between biochemical data and food composition of diabetic patients in Taiwan. Methods: One hundred and seventy Taiwanese diabetic patients were enrolled. The correlations between biochemical data and diet composition (from 24-hourrecall of intake food) of these patients were explored (Spearman correlation, p < 0.05). Diet components were also correlated with each other to show diet characteristics of diabetic patients in Taiwan. Linear regression was also performed for the significantly correlated groups to estimate possible impacts from diet composition to biochemical data. Results: Postprandial serum glucose level was negatively correlated with fat percentage of diet, intake amount of polyunsaturated fatty acid and fiber diet composition. Hemoglobin A1c was negatively correlated with fat diet, polyunsaturated fatty acid and vegetable diet. Fat composition, calorie percentage accounted by polyunsaturated fatty acid and monounsaturated fatty acid in diet seemed to be negatively correlated with sugar percentage of diet and positively correlated with vegetable and fiber composition of diet. Linear regression showed that intake amount of polyunsaturated fatty acid, calorie percentage accounted by polyunsaturated fatty acid, fat percentage of diet, vegetable composition of diet would predict lower hemoglobin A1c and postprandial blood sugar. Besides, higher percentage of fat diet composition could predict higher percentage of vegetable diet composition in Taiwanese diabetic patients. Conclusion: Fat diet might not elevate serum glucose. Vegetable diet and polyunsaturated fatty acid diet composition might be correlated with better sugar control in Taiwanese diabetic patients.
This case study examined the nutritional behavior and energy balance in an official finisher of a 24-hour ultracycling race. The food and beverages consumed by the cyclist were continuously weighed and recorded to estimate intake of energy, macronutrients, sodium, and caffeine. In addition, during the race, heart rate was continuously monitored. Energy expenditure was assessed using a heart rate-oxygen uptake regression equation obtained previously from a laboratory test. The athlete (39 years, 175.6 cm, 84.2 kg, maximum oxygen uptake, 64 mL/kg/min) cycled during 22 h 22 min, in which he completed 557.3 km with 8760 m of altitude at an average speed of 25.1 km/h. The average heart rate was 131 beats/min. Carbohydrates were the main macronutrient intake (1102 g, 13.1 g/kg); however, intake was below current recommendations. The consumption of protein and fat was 86 g and 91 g, respectively. He ingested 20.7 L (862 mL/h) of fluids, with sport drinks the main fluid used for hydration. Sodium concentration in relation to total fluid intake was 34.0 mmol/L. Caffeine consumption over the race was 231 mg (2.7 mg/kg). During the race, he expended 15,533 kcal. Total energy intake was 5571 kcal, with 4058 (73%) and 1513 (27%) kcal derived from solids and fluids, respectively. The energy balance resulted in an energy deficit of 9915 kcal. PMID:22481841
HIV-1 infects CD4+ T cells and completes its replication cycle in approximately 24hours. We employed repeated measurements in a standardized cell system and rigorous mathematical modeling to characterize the emergence of the viral replication intermediates and their impact on the cellular transcriptional response with high temporal resolution. We observed 7,991 (73%) of the 10,958 expressed genes to be modulated in concordance with key steps of viral replication. Fifty-two percent of the overall variability in the host transcriptome was explained by linear regression on the viral life cycle. This profound perturbation of cellular physiology was investigated in the light of several regulatory mechanisms, including transcription factors, miRNAs, host-pathogen interaction, and proviral integration. Key features were validated in primary CD4+ T cells, and with viral constructs using alternative entry strategies. We propose a model of early massive cellular shutdown and progressive upregulation of the cellular machinery to complete the viral life cycle.
This paper proposes an efficient method to search for T-wave alternans (TWA) over 24hour Holter ECG recordings. After appropriate pre-processing to remove baseline drift and artifact, data are segmented to 2 minute successive time intervals. For each beat in the segment, singular value decomposition is applied to derive orthogonal characteristic signals. Then two prominent orthogonal signals are used for the TWA search. A pair of alternans indices is defined for each beat as the orthogonal waveform distance between the target beat and the adjacent two beats. When alternans presents, the first index will be larger than the second index. The periodogram of the sequence of alternans indices in each segment yields a useful alternans measure named Alternans Ratio (AR). To show the effectiveness of the measure, the method is applied to 25 control and 24 data from patients with various cardio vascular disorders. AR distribution showed prominent differences among subject groups. It has been demonstrated that the measure AR is not only useful to detect the presence of TWA but the AR distribution can be used for the stratification of the TWA risk. PMID:24110128
The accuracy of 2 commercial 24-hour electrocardiogram analyzers was tested for quantitation of ventricular premature complexes (VPCs). Scanner 1 was the Cardiodata Systems Mark III and scanner 2 was the Avionics Trendsetter DCG VII. Twenty-four-hour electrocardiographic recordings from 19 consecutive ambulatory patients with frequent VPCs were analyzed by each device. Results were compared with those from hand counts of complete printouts of each of the 19 recordings. For total VPCs, scanner 1 had an average error of 13% (range 0 to 58%) and scanner 2 had an average error of 24% (range (1 to 80%). Scanner 1 had an error of more than 10% for 9 of the 19 recordings and scanner 2 more than 10% for 11 of the 19 recordings. For paired VPCs, scanner 1 had a mean error of 23% (range 4 to 77%), and scanner 2 of 56% (range 34 to 79%). For nonsustained ventricular tachycardia, scanner 1 had an average error of 20% (range 8 to 41%) and scanner 2 had an error of 56% (range 34 to 78%). Thus, when recordings from consecutive ambulatory patients with frequent VPCs were analyzed, neither device was consistently accurate for quantitation of total VPCs. Both analyzers had an unacceptable error for quantitation of repetitive VPCs. All currently available devices may have comparably large errors. This possibility is confirmed by recalculation of the reported data from a third scanner. PMID:2446488
The aim of the study was to assess the usefulness of 24-hour blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) monitoring in patients with "resistant" hypertension. 30 patients (44.1 +/- 9.9 years) with diastolic BP 100 mm Hg or more in spite of treatment with three or more antihypertensive drugs were studied. Ambulatory recording of BP and HR was performed by means of Del Mar Avionics monitoring system 9000. Mean recording time was 21.5 hours and mean number of measurements during one recording--56.7. Mean ambulatory systolic and diastolic BP values were significantly lower than mean value of three casual measurements (146.0 +/- 24.6 vs 171.5 +/- 21.2 mm Hg for systolic and 97.2 +/- 11.3 vs 110.4 +/- 7.5 mm Hg for diastolic BP p less than 0.01) In 14 (46.6%) systolic BP and in 10 patients (33.3%) diastolic BP were normal. The patients with normal and abnormal ambulatory BP recordings did not differ in regard to age and mean clinic BP levels. However, patients with abnormal ambulatory BP recordings were more often overweight and showed a greater frequency of left ventricular hypertrophy and family history of hypertension and its complications. The results of the study show that ambulatory BP monitoring may be of value in assessing the response to antihypertensive treatment in patients with so called resistant hypertension as judged on the basis of clinic pressure. PMID:2074634
Sznajderman, M; Pop?awska, W; Cybulska, I; Niegowska, J; Makowiecka-Cie?la, M; Baranowski, R
Background Fluctuations in 24-hour cardiovascular hemodynamics, specifically heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP), are thought to reflect autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity. Persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) represent a model of ANS dysfunction, which may affect 24-hour hemodynamics and predispose these individuals to increased cardiovascular disease risk. Objective To determine 24-hour cardiovascular and ANS function among individuals with tetraplegia (n = 20; TETRA: C4–C8), high paraplegia (n = 10; HP: T2–T5), low paraplegia (n = 9; LP: T7–T12), and non-SCI controls (n = 10). Twenty-four-hour ANS function was assessed by time domain parameters of heart rate variability (HRV); the standard deviation of the 5-minute average R–R intervals (SDANN; milliseconds/ms), and the root-mean square of the standard deviation of the R–R intervals (rMSSD; ms). Subjects wore 24-hour ambulatory monitors to record HR, HRV, and BP. Mixed analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed significantly lower 24-hour BP in the tetraplegic group; however, BP did not differ between the HP, LP, and control groups. Mixed ANOVA suggested significantly elevated 24-hour HR in the HP and LP groups compared to the TETRA and control groups (P < 0.05); daytime HR was higher in both paraplegic groups compared to the TETRA and control groups (P < 0.01) and nighttime HR was significantly elevated in the LP group compared to the TETRA and control groups (P < 0.01). Twenty-four-hour SDANN was significantly increased in the HP group compared to the LP and TETRA groups (P < 0.05) and rMSSD was significantly lower in the LP compared to the other three groups (P < 0.05). Elevated 24-hour HR in persons with paraplegia, in concert with altered HRV dynamics, may impart significant adverse cardiovascular consequences, which are currently unappreciated.
Rosado-Rivera, Dwindally; Radulovic, M.; Handrakis, John P.; Cirnigliaro, Christopher M.; Jensen, A. Marley; Kirshblum, Steve; Bauman, William A.; Wecht, Jill Maria
Measurement of 24-hour radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU), which is commonly used to calculate the dose of radioiodine (RI) therapy, cannot be accomplished in a single day. The purpose of this study was to predict 24-hour RAIU from 3-hour RAIU in Japanese patients with Graves' disease, and to investigate other factors that could be used to predict 24-hour RAIU. A total of 66 Japanese patients (14 men and 52 women; age, 17-83 years) with Graves' disease who had undergone both 3-hour and 24-hour ¹²³I RAIU measurements between January 2006 and September 2011 were included in this study. Stepwise multiple regression analyses were performed in order to identify factors that could be used to predict 24-hour RAIU. The investigated factors were gender, age, thyroid volume, TSH, free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), serum creatinine, second generation assay TSH receptor antibody (TRAb2), antithyroid drugs discontinuation period (ADP), iodine restriction period and 3-hour RAIU. The ADP was converted to an ordinal scale ADP score (ADPS) for multiple regression analyses. Multiple regression analyses showed that 3-hour RAIU (P < 0.001), FT3 (P < 0.001) and ADPS (P < 0.001) were statistically significant predictive factors of 24-hour RAIU. The relationship between 24-hour RAIU (LU) and 3-hour RAIU (EU), FT3 and ADPS was: LU = 11.5 + 29.1 × log?? EU + 23.0 × log?? FT3 - 2.7 × ADPS (r = 0.82, P < 0.001). The present results indicate that prediction of LU from EU, FT3 and ADPS is feasible in Japanese patients with Graves' disease. PMID:22095001
Metabolic parameters and renal function were studied in two subjects before, during and after they established a world two-man 24hour relay record. During the race, the athletes expended an estimated 37.747 and 42.880 kJ running at 54 and 61 per cent of maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max). Rectal temperatures reached maxima of 38.6 and 39.2 degrees C respectively during the race. Serum free fatty acid levels peaked at 2108 and 1875 mumol ml-1 after 24hours; blood glucose levels varied from 4.3-6.5 and 4.9-8.5 mmol.l-1 respectively. Plasma insulin levels fell from 42.9 and 22.7 microU.ml-1 to 11.5 microU.ml-1. Plasma urea, creatinine, beta 2-microglobulin and C-reactive protein concentrations were elevated at the end of the race (to 9.0 and 8.0 mmol.l-1, 119 and 102 mumol.l-1, 3.508 and 3203 micrograms.l-1 and 2.7 and 3.9 mg per cent respectively). Plasma osmolality was altered from 293 and 304 to 302 and 280 mosmol.Kg-1 during the race but increased to 312 and 318 mosmol.Kg-1 the following day probably due to intercompartmental fluid shifts. Plasma creatinine concentration was increased by 38 and 26 per cent due to reduced urinary excretion. Urine flow rate increased 40 and 123 per cent respectively during the race, but creatinine clearance decreased by 38 and 40 per cent. Urine osmolality decreased by 38 and 65 per cent and osmolal clearance decreased by 15 and 16 per cent respectively. Urine sodium excretion was greatly reduced (85 and 90 per cent) on the post-race days (by 88 and 92 per cent on day 2). Both urine total protein and beta2-microglobulin excretion increased during the race (by 89 and 35 per cent and by 334 and 136 per cent respectively), but owing to the increased beta2-microglobulin production renal clearance was unaltered. The changes in renal function were temporary and some aspects of renal tubular function were enhanced during the post-race days. We conclude that, although C-reactive protein concentrations increased sooner and were higher than other shorter events and although creatinine, urine excretion and urine osmolality decreased markedly, the intermittent nature of the event, the mild environmental conditions, the moderate percentage of VO2 max maintained by the well conditioned subjects and a high fluid intake enabled a rapid return to normality and indeed to enhanced renal tubular function. The only moderate increases in body temperature would be due to the same factors.
Aspirin-induced cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 acetylation is irreversible and it is assumed that the platelet thromboxane-A2 aggregation pathway is inhibited for at least 24hours (h) after aspirin ingestion. However, time course of biological efficacy of daily low-dose aspirin has rarely been assessed in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). We aimed to assess the 24-h biological efficacy of daily low-dose aspirin in CAD patients. The peak and trough (2 h-24 h) effect of a chronic treatment with once daily dose aspirin were studied in 150 consecutive stable CAD patients. The main outcome measure was light transmission aggregometry (LTA) triggered with 0.5 mg/ml arachidonic acid (AA). In the last 47 consecutive patients, additional tests were conducted at 6, 12, 16, 20 h after last aspirin administration. 4.7% of the patients had significant aggregation (>20% maximal intensity LTA-AA) 2 h after aspirin ingestion and 24.7% at 24 h (p<0.0001). The more precise assessments in the last 47 patients showed that significant platelet aggregation progressively reappeared with time after aspirin intake (2 h--4% of patients, 6 h-- 4%, 12 h--11%, 16 h--16%, 20 h--19% and 24 h--28%). Concordant results were observed using production of thromboxane-B2 and other techniques evaluating AA-induced platelet aggregation/activation. No significant differences were found between lower (75-100 mg/day) and higher (>100 mg/day) dose aspirin. Such aspirin «resistance» at 24 h after ingestion was related to biological inflammatory markers, current smoking and diabetes. In conclusion, once daily aspirin does not provide stable 24-h antiplatelet protection in a significant proportion of CAD patients. Any biological assessment of aspirin efficacy should take time since last aspirin intake into consideration. PMID:21136023
Background The purpose of this study was to verify the effects of eight weeks of resistance training (RT) on 24hour blood pressure (BP) in patients with and without metabolic syndrome (MetS). Methods Seventeen women volunteered to participate in this study, 9 with MetS (37.0?±?8.7 yrs; body mass 77.3?±?9.7 kg; body mass index 30.3?±?4.2 kg?·?m-2) and 8 without MetS (35.1?±?7.2 yrs; body mass 61.3?±?8.1 kg; body mass index 24.2?±?2.5 kg?·?m-2). Individuals were subjected to eight weeks (3 times/week) of whole body RT comprised of one exercise for each main muscle group with three sets of 8–12 repetitions of each subject’s maximal load . A rest interval of one minute was allowed between sets and exercises. Twenty-four hour BP was measured by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Results Mean and diastolic night-time BP decreased (?3.9 mmHg, p?=?0.04; -5.5 mmHg, p?=?0.03, respectively) after eight weeks of training in MetS patients. This decrease was observed at 11:00 pm, 02:00 am (only diastolic), 07:00 am, and 6:00 pm. There was no training effect on BP in women without MetS. Conclusions Considering the elevation of BP as a contributor to the pathogenesis of MetS, and also to the increase of cardiovascular risk, this study supports RT as a non-pharmacological therapy in the management of BP control for MetS.
Objectives: To compare the microleakage among experimental adhesives containing nanoclay fillers after the storages of 24hours and 6 months. Materials and Methods: Class V cavities were prepared on extracted human molars with the occlusal margins located in enamel and the cervical margins in cementum. Phosphoric acid was applied to the enamel and dentin margins.Subsequently, the cavities were treated using four groups of experimental adhesive systems and restored with a resin composite. Adper Single Bond® was used as control group. After 24- hour and 6- month storages, the samples were subjected to thermocycling shocks and then immersed in silver nitrate as well as developer solution and finally evaluated for leakage. The data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: Based on Kruskal –Wallis test, significant differences were found between groups regarding microleakage. The Mann- Whitney test showed that Leakage was significantly lower in Adper Single Bond® compared to the other groups in dentinal margins after 24hours and 6 months and in enamel margins after 6 months. The Wilcoxon Signed Ranks test showed that the enamel leakage in experimental adhesives was significantly lower than dentinal leakage after 24hours as well as enamel leakage in Adper Single Bond and adhesive with 0.5% PMAA-g-nanoclay was significantly lower than dentinal margins after storage period of 6 months. Conclusion: All the experimental adhesives were effective in reducing enamel leakage after 24hours, but were not effective in reducing dentinal leakage after 24hours as well as in enamel and dentinal leakage after a 6-month storage. No improvement was observed in the microleakage in dentin in both short (24 hrs) and long times (6 months). The high microleakage in the adhesives is probably attributed to the high concentration of HEMA in the recipe of the bonding agent.
Thallium reinjection immediately after conventional stress-redistribution imaging improves the detection of viable myocardium, as many myocardial regions with apparently 'irreversible' thallium defects on standard 3-4-hour redistribution images manifest enhanced thallium uptake after reinjection. Because the 10-minute period between reinjection and imaging may be too short, the present study was designed to determine whether 24-hour imaging after thallium reinjection provides additional information regarding myocardial viability beyond that obtained by imaging shortly after reinjection. We studied 50 patients with chronic stable coronary artery disease undergoing exercise thallium tomography, radionuclide angiography, and coronary arteriography. Immediately after the 3-4-hour redistribution images were obtained, 1 mCi thallium was injected at rest, and images were reacquired at 10 minutes and 24hours after reinjection. The stress, redistribution, reinjection, and 24-hour images were then analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. Of the 127 abnormal myocardial regions on the stress images, 55 had persistent defects on redistribution images by qualitative analysis, of which 25 (45%) demonstrated improved thallium uptake after reinjection. At the 24-hour study, 23 of the 25 regions (92%) with previously improved thallium uptake by reinjection showed no further improvement. Similarly, of the 30 regions determined to have irreversible defects after reinjection, 29 (97%) remained irreversible on 24-hour images. These findings were confirmed by the quantitative analysis. The mean normalized thallium activity in regions with enhanced thallium activity after reinjection increased from 57 +/- 13% on redistribution studies to 70 +/- 14% after reinjection but did not change at 24hours (71 +/- 14%).
Study Objectives: To assess the interindividual and intraindividual variability in the circadian rhythms of blind individuals with non-24-h disorder and to quantify the influence of environmental time cues in blind subjects lacking entrainment (non-24-h individuals or N-24s). Design: An observational study of 21 N-24s (11 females and 10 males, age 9-78 years) who kept a sleep/wake schedule of their choosing. Circadian phase was determined using the melatonin onset (MO) from plasma or saliva samples that were collected every 2 weeks. Melatonin concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay. A total of 469 MO assessments were conducted over 5,536 days of study. The rate of drift of circadian phase was calculated using a series of MOs (total number of hours the MO drifted divided by the total number of days studied). Stability of the rest/activity rhythm was calculated using chi-squared periodogram analysis of wrist actigraphy data in 19 subjects. Setting: Academic medical center. Participants: Paid volunteers. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Subjects lacked entrainment such that circadian phase drifted an average (± standard deviation) of 0.39 ± 0.29 h later per day; however, there was notable intersubject and intrasubject variability in the rate of drift including relative coordination and periods of transient entrainment during which there was little to no drift in the circadian phase. A regular, reproducible, and significant oscillation in the rate of drift was detected in 14 of the 21 subjects. A significant non-24-h rest/activity rhythm was detected in 18 of 19 subjects. There was a strong correlation (r = 0.793, P = 0.0001) between the non-24-h rest/activity rhythm and the rate of drift of the circadian phase. Conclusions: Most N-24s are influenced by unidentified environmental time cues and the non-entrained biological clock in such N-24s is reflected in their rest/activity rhythms. These findings may have diagnostic and treatment implications: this disorder might be diagnosed with actigraphy alone, relative coordination and transient entrainment may result in misdiagnosis and responsiveness to environmental time cues may influence treatment success with oral melatonin. Citation: Emens JS; Laurie AL; Songer JB; Lewy AJ. Non-24-hour disorder in blind individuals revisited: variability and the influence of environmental time cues. SLEEP 2013;36(7):1091-1100.
Emens, Jonathan S.; Laurie, Amber L.; Songer, Jeannie B.; Lewy, Alfred J.
INTRODUCTION: Many intensive care patients experience sleep disruption potentially related to noise, light and treatment interventions. The purpose of this study was to characterise, in terms of quantity and quality, the sleep of intensive care patients, taking into account the impact of environmental factors. METHODS: This observational study was conducted in the adult ICU of a tertiary referral hospital in Australia, enrolling 57 patients. Polysomnography (PSG) was performed over a 24-hour period to assess the quantity (total sleep time: hh:mm) and quality (percentage per stage, duration of sleep episode) of patients' sleep while in ICU. Rechtschaffen and Kales criteria were used to categorise sleep. Interrater checks were performed. Sound pressure and illuminance levels and care events were simultaneously recorded. Patients reported on their sleep quality in ICU using the Richards Campbell Sleep Questionnaire and the Sleep in Intensive Care Questionnaire. Data were summarised using frequencies and proportions or measures of central tendency and dispersion as appropriate and Cohen's Kappa statistic was used for interrater reliability of the sleep data analysis. RESULTS: Patients' median total sleep time was 05:00 (IQR: 02:52 to 07:14). The majority of sleep was stage 1 and 2 (medians: 19 and 73%) with scant slow wave and REM sleep. The median duration of sleep without waking was 00:03. Sound levels were high (mean Leq 53.95 dB(A) during the day and 50.20 dB(A) at night) and illuminance levels were appropriate at night (median <2 lux) but low during the day (median: 74.20 lux). There was a median 1.7 care events/h. Patients' mean self-reported sleep quality was poor. Interrater reliability of sleep staging was highest for slow wave sleep and lowest for stage 1 sleep. CONCLUSIONS: The quantity and quality of sleep in intensive care patients are poor and may be related to noise, critical illness itself and treatment events that disturb sleep. The study highlights the challenge of quantifying sleep in the critical care setting and the need for alternative methods of measuring sleep. The results suggest that a sound reduction program is required and other interventions to improve clinical practices to promote sleep in intensive care patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand clinical trial registry (http://www.anzctr.org.au/): ACTRN12610000688088. PMID:23506782
Elliott, Rosalind; McKinley, Sharon; Cistulli, Peter; Fien, Mary
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Objective: Surfactant function was shown to be impaired in clinical and experimental lung transplantation. This study was designed to define the impact of retrograde flush perfusion on graft and surfactant function after an extended period of ischemia. Methods: Left lung transplantation was performed after 24hours of graft ischemia in 12 pigs. In half of the grafts antegrade cold flush
Martin Strüber; Jens M Hohlfeld; Theo Kofidis; Gregor Warnecke; Jost Niedermeyer; Sebastian P Sommer; Axel Haverich
Despite successful approaches to preserve organs, tissues, and isolated cells, the maintenance of stem cell viability and function in body fluids during storage for cell distribution and transportation remains unexplored. The aim of this study was to characterize urine-derived stem cells (USCs) after optimal preservation of urine specimens for up to 24hours. A total of 415 urine specimens were collected from 12 healthy men (age range 20–54 years old). About 6×104 cells shed off from the urinary tract system in 24hours. At least 100 USC clones were obtained from the stored urine specimens after 24hours and maintained similar biological features to fresh USCs. The stored USCs had a “rice grain” shape in primary culture, and expressed mesenchymal stem cell surface markers, high telomerase activity, and normal karyotypes. Importantly, the preserved cells retained bipotent differentiation capacity. Differentiated USCs expressed myogenic specific proteins and contractile function when exposed to myogenic differentiation medium, and they expressed urothelial cell-specific markers and barrier function when exposed to urothelial differentiation medium. These data demonstrated that up to 75% of fresh USCs can be safely persevered in urine for 24hours and that these cells stored in urine retain their original stem cell properties, indicating that preserved USCs could be available for potential use in cell-based therapy or clinical diagnosis.
The relations between 24hour urinary electrolyte excretion and blood pressure were studied in 10 079 men and women aged 20-59 sampled from 52 centres around the world based on a highly standardised protocol with central training of observers, a central laboratory, and extensive quality control. Relations between electrolyte excretion and blood pressure were studied in individual subjects within each
Ambulatory monitoring of the electrocardiogram was performed in 131 healthy boys aged between 10 and 13 years for two consecutive periods of 24hours. When awake the maximal heart rates ranged from 100 to 200 and the minimal from 45 to 80 beats per minute. During sleep maximal rates were 60 to 110 beats and minimal rates 30 to 70
Objective To determine the value of random urinary protein to creatinine ratio (UPCR) for diagnosis of proteinuria in pregnant women with preeclampsia. Preeclampsia is the most common complication of pregnancy and one of the main causes of maternal mortality. So, early diagnosis of preeclampsia is very important. Materials and methods In this cross-sectional study 66 pregnant women suspected preeclampsia at ?24 week of gestational age and BP ? 140/90 mm/Hg were checked by two urine samples of 10am and 4pm to determine random UPCR, as well as a 24-hour urine sample to evaluate 24-hour protein excretion. Results The result revealed that 74.2% of the studied population had significant proteinuria. There was a correlation between UPCR and 24-hour urine protein excretion. Pearson's correlation coefficient was 0.502 at 10am and 0.428 at 4pm. The best cutoff for the random urine protein to creatinine ratio at 10am was 0.470 with sensitivity and specificity equal to 87.5% and 84.2%, respectively. The best cutoff for the random UPCR at 4pm was 0.595 with sensitivity and specificity equal to 91.7% and 94.7%, respectively. Conclusion Result of 24-hour urine collection showing random UPCR is considered as an appropriate situated method for emergency time.
Moez, Nafiseh; Naghizadeh, Mohammad Mehdi; Abbasi, Maryam; Khodashenas, Zohreh
Purpose. IOP is the most common independent risk factor for development and progression of glaucoma, but very little is known about IOP dynamics. Continuous IOP telemetry was used in three nonhuman primates to characterize IOP dynamics at multiple time scales for multiple 24-hour periods. Methods. An existing implantable telemetric pressure transducer system was adapted to monitoring anterior chamber IOP. The system records 500 IOP, ECG, and body temperature measurements per second and compensates for barometric pressure in real time. The continuous IOP signal was digitally filtered for noise and dropout and reported using time-window averaging for 19, 18, and 4 24-hour periods in three animals, respectively. Those data were analyzed for a nycthemeral pattern within each animal. Results. Ten-minute time-window averaging for multiple 24-hour periods showed that IOP fluctuated from 7 to 14 mm Hg during the day, and those changes occurred frequently and quickly. Two-hour time-window averages of IOP for multiple 24-hour periods in three animals showed a weak nycthemeral trend, but IOP was not repeatable from day-to-day within animals. Conclusions. The measured IOP was successfully measured continuously by using a new, fully implantable IOP telemetry system. IOP fluctuates as much as 10 mm Hg from day to day and hour to hour in unrestrained nonhuman primates, which indicates that snapshot IOP measurements may be inadequate to capture the true dynamic character of IOP. The distributions, magnitudes, and patterns of IOP are not reproducible from day to day within animals, but IOP tends to be slightly higher at night when IOP data are averaged across multiple 24-hour periods within animals.
Burgoyne, Claude F.; Seigfreid, William P.; Reynaud, Juan F.; Strouthidis, Nicholas G.; Sallee, Verney
Abstract Background: Reducing the length of stay and discharge time for patients could benefit multiple hospital units by saving money, reducing waiting time, and providing the opportunity for more patients to be treated. However, no experience of laparoscopic transcystic common bile duct exploration (LTCBDE) with discharge less than 24hours has been reported until now. The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility and safety of LTCBDE with discharge less than 24hours. Patients and Methods: A retrospective review showed that 34 of 111 patients scheduled in our institution were discharged less than 24hours after LTCBDE between June 1 and December 31, 2011. A multimodal approach including appropriate preoperative assessment, education and counseling, early postoperative oral intake, and early mobilization was carried out. Outcomes were analyzed for patient demographics, postoperative stay, operation time, intraoperative bleeding, and reasons for failed LTCBDE. Results: Of 111 patients admitted for LTCBDE, 34 patients were discharged within 24hours postoperatively. This study population comprised 11 males and 23 females with a mean age of 54.6±14.7 years (range, 28-79 years). The mean postoperative stay was 20.21±0.39 hours. There were no postoperative complications or deaths during the hospital stay or at the follow-up 12 months postoperatively in these 34 patients. Conclusions: LTCBDE with discharge less than 24hours is feasible and safe in selected patients with common bile duct stones of no more than three in number and no more than 6?mm in size. The benefit of the multimodal approach and LTCBDE may be synergistic, allowing a quick recovery of gastrointestinal function. PMID:24745979
Sprague-Dawley rats 10-12 weeks of age were entrained to a standard light-dark cycle with lights turned on at 6 am and off at 6 pm. Variations of 24-hour aqueous humor protein concentration were determined. Samples were taken every 4 hours (N = 10-14) under the standard light-dark condition at 8 pm, midnight, 4 am, 8 am, noon, and 4 pm. Under an acute constant dark condition, when lights were not turned on at 6 am, samples were collected at 8 am, noon, 4 pm, and 8 pm. Aqueous humor protein concentrations under the standard light-dark condition were found in the range of 0.305 ± 0.115 mg/ml (mean ± SD, N = 10) at midnight to 1.505 ± 0.342 mg/ml (N = 14) at noon. The 3 light-phase protein concentrations were each higher than the 3 dark-phase concentrations. Aqueous humor protein concentrations at 8 am, noon, and 4 pm under the acute constant dark condition were each higher than the concentrations at 8 pm (after both 2 hours and 26 hours in the dark), midnight, and 4 am, demonstrating an endogenously driven 24-hour pattern. At 8 am, noon, and 4 pm, protein concentrations were 56-147% higher when exposed to light. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was monitored using telemetry in separate groups of light-dark entrained rats under the standard light-dark condition and the acute constant dark condition. The 24-hour IOP pattern was inverse to the 24-hour pattern of aqueous humor protein concentration under the standard light-dark condition, and this IOP pattern was not altered by the acute constant dark condition. In conclusion, an endogenously driven 24-hour variation of aqueous humor protein concentration occurred in Sprague-Dawley rats with higher concentrations during the light-phase than the dark-phase. This endogenous pattern of protein concentration was accentuated by a direct effect of light, which was unrelated to the 24-hour pattern of IOP.
Background The effects of running and cycling on changes in hydration status and body composition during a 24-hour race have been described previously, but data for 24-hour ultra-mountain bikers are missing. The present study investigated changes in foot volume, body composition, and hydration status in male and female 24-hour ultra-mountain bikers. Methods We compared in 49 (37 men and 12 women) 24-hour ultra-mountain bikers (ultra-MTBers) changes (?) in body mass (BM). Fat mass (FM), percent body fat (%BF) and skeletal muscle mass (SM) were estimated using anthropometric methods. Changes in total body water (TBW), extracellular fluid (ECF) and intracellular fluid (ICF) were determined using bioelectrical impedance and changes in foot volume using plethysmography. Haematocrit, plasma [Na+], plasma urea, plasma osmolality, urine urea, urine specific gravity and urine osmolality were measured in a subgroup of 25 ultra-MTBers (16 men and 9 women). Results In male 24-hour ultra-MTBers, BM (P?0.001), FM (P?0.001), %BF (P?0.001) and ECF (P?0.05) decreased whereas SM and TBW did not change (P?>?0.05). A significant correlation was found between post-race BM and post-race FM (r?=?0.63, P?0.001). In female ultra-MTBers, BM (P?0.05), %BF (P?0.05) and FM (P?0.001) decreased, whereas SM, ECF and TBW remained stable (P?>?0.05). Absolute ranking in the race was related to ?%BM (P?0.001) and ?%FM in men (P?0.001) and to ?%BM (P?0.05) in women. In male ultra-MTBers, increased post-race plasma urea (P?0.001) was negatively related to absolute ranking in the race, ?%BM, post-race FM and ?%ECF (P?0.05). Foot volume remained stable in both sexes (P?>?0.05). Conclusions Male and female 24-hour ultra-MTBers experienced a significant loss in BM and FM, whereas SM remained stable. Body weight changes and increases in plasma urea do not reflect a change in body hydration status. No oedema of the lower limbs occurred.
According to different processes of tides and peak-valley electricity prices, this paper determines the optimal start up time in pumping station's 24hours operation between the rating state and adjusting blade angle state respectively based on the optimization objective function and optimization model for single-unit pump's 24hours operation taking JiangDu No.4 Pumping Station for example. In the meantime, this paper proposes the following regularities between optimal start up time of pumping station and the process of tides and peak-valley electricity prices each day within a month: (1) In the rating and adjusting blade angle state, the optimal start up time in pumping station's 24hours operation which depends on the tide generation at the same day varies with the process of tides. There are mainly two kinds of optimal start up time which include the time at tide generation and 12 hours after it. (2) In the rating state, the optimal start up time on each day in a month exhibits a rule of symmetry from 29 to 28 of next month in the lunar calendar. The time of tide generation usually exists in the period of peak electricity price or the valley one. The higher electricity price corresponds to the higher minimum cost of water pumping at unit, which means that the minimum cost of water pumping at unit depends on the peak-valley electricity price at the time of tide generation on the same day. (3) In the adjusting blade angle state, the minimum cost of water pumping at unit in pumping station's 24hour operation depends on the process of peak-valley electricity prices. And in the adjusting blade angle state, 4.85%~5.37% of the minimum cost of water pumping at unit will be saved than that of in the rating state.
Inhalation rates are used for quantifying inhalation health risks. The time-activity-ventilation (TAV) approach has had longstanding acceptance for estimating inhalation rate (IR) as a time-weighted average across a number of activity levels comprising a typical day. Probability density functions (PDFs) describing 24-hour inhalation rates were updated in this study by incorporating supplemental minute volume (Vi) and time-activity (ti) data published
Margaret Allan; G. Mark Richardson; Heather Jones-Otazo
Summary In the present study we examined whether the diurnal pattern and the 24-hour integrated serum concentration of osteocalcin\\u000a (S-OC(I)) showed any variation due to age, sex, season, or smoking habits in 31 normal subjects, aged 23–47 years. Blood samples\\u000a were drawn every 60 minutes from 4 p.m. until 6 p.m. the following day. Serum osteocalcin showed diurnal variation as described
Aims: To prospectively examine the effect of modern bariatric surgery on 24-hour urine parameters in a comprehensive care bariatric practice (CCBP). Materials and methods: 47 consecutive patients in our CCBP underwent serum and 24-hour urine analysis pre-operatively, and 30 returned at 12 months for repeat testing. Paired comparisons for serum metabolite and 24-hour urine measures were performed using a Wilcoxon signed-rank test for continuous variables and McNemar's test for categorical variables. Statistical tests were two-sided, with threshold of significance set at p = 0.05. Results: All 30 patients with pre-operative and 12-month follow-up analysis were free of stone events. 20 (67%) had Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), 6 (20%) had laparoscopic gastric banding (LGB), and 4 (13%)h ad laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG). 24-hour urinary parameters were available for 27 patients. Median urine oxalate (mmol) was 0.29 pre-operatively and 0.21 at 12 months (p = 0.048). Median urine calcium (mg) was 143 pre-operatively and 180 at 12 months (p = 0.11). Median citrate excretion was 527 pre-operatively and 782 at 12 months (p = 0.22). Median serum creatinine was 0.7 pre-operatively and 0.8 at 12 months (p < 0.001). These trends were preserved with the exclusion of LGB and LSG patients. Conclusions: Modern bariatric surgery (RYGB, LGB, and LSG) as part of a CCBP can still demonstrate alterations of select urinary parameters (particularly oxalate and citrate) in select patients associated with an increased risk of urolithiasis at 1 year follow-up. PMID:24495903
Hutchinson, Ryan; Parker, Alexander S; Arnold, Michelle; Bowers, Steven P; Haley, William E; Diehl, Nancy; Stone, Ronald; Lynch, Scott A; Smith, C Daniel; Thiel, David D
In 30 patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension and high-normal left ventricular (LV) mass, the effects of treatment for 6 months with amlodipine (5 to 10 mg every morning) versus diltiazem-sustained release (SR) (90 to 180 mg twice daily) on 24-hour blood pressure (BP), plasma catecholamines, and echocardiographic estimates of LV mass and function were evaluated. Both amlodipine and
Airborne aldehyde and ketone (carbonyl) sampling methodologies based on derivatization with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH)-coated solid sorbents could unequivocally be considered the "gold" standard. Originally developed in the late 1970s, these methods have been extensively evaluated and developed up to the present day. However, these methods have been inadequately evaluated for the long-term (i.e., 24 h or greater) sampling collection efficiency (CE) of carbonyls other than formaldehyde. The current body of literature fails to demonstrate that DNPH-coated solid sorbent sampling methods have acceptable CEs for the long-term sampling of carbonyls other than formaldehyde. Despite this, such methods are widely used to report the concentrations of multiple carbonyls from long-term sampling, assuming approximately 100% CEs. Laboratory experiments were conducted in this study to evaluate the long-term formaldehyde and acetaldehyde sampling CEs for several commonly used DNPH-coated solid sorbents. Results from sampling known concentrations of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde generated in a dynamic atmosphere generation system demonstrate that the 24-hour formaldehyde sampling CEs ranged from 83 to 133%, confirming the findings made in previous studies. However, the 24-hour acetaldehyde sampling CEs ranged from 1 to 62%. Attempts to increase the acetaldehyde CEs by adding acid to the samples post sampling were unsuccessful. These results indicate that assuming approximately 100% CEs for 24-hour acetaldehyde sampling, as commonly done with DNPH-coated solid sorbent methods, would substantially under estimate acetaldehyde concentrations. PMID:17310725
Herrington, Jason S; Fan, Zhi-Hua Tina; Lioy, Paul J; Zhang, Junfeng Jim
Background The combination of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and long-acting ?2-agonists (LABA) is recommended by treatment guidelines for the treatment of persistent asthma. Two such combination products, salmeterol/fluticasone propionate (SFC, Seretide™ GSK, UK) and formoterol/budesonide (FBC, Symbicort™, AstraZeneca, UK) are commercially available. Objectives The purpose of these studies was to evaluate and compare the duration of bronchodilation of both combination products up to 24hours after a single dose. Methods Two randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled, crossover studies were performed. Study A was conducted in 33 asthmatic adults receiving 400–1200 mcg of budesonide or equivalent. Serial forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) was measured over 24hours to determine the duration of effect of both SFC (50/100 mcg) and FBC (4.5/160 mcg). Study B was conducted in 75 asthmatic adults receiving 800–1200 mcg of budesonide or equivalent and comprised a 4 week run-in of 400 mcg bd Becotide™ followed by 4 weeks treatment with either SFC 50/100 mcg bd or FBC 4.5/160 mcg bd taken in a cross-over manner. Serial 24-hour FEV1 was measured after the first dose and the last dose after each 4-weeks treatment period to determine the offset of action of each treatment. Results In study A, a single inhalation of SFC and FBC produced a sustained bronchodilation at 16 hours with an adjusted mean increase in FEV1 from pre-dose of 0.22 L (95% CI 0.19, 0.35 L) for SFC and 0.25 L (95% CI 0.21, 0.37 L) for FBC, which was significantly greater than placebo for both treatments (-0.05 L; p < 0.001). In study B, the slope of decline in FEV1 from 2–24hours post dose was -16.0 ml/hr for SFC and -14.2 ml/hr for FBC. The weighted mean AUC over 24hours was 0.21 Lxmin and 0.22 Lxmin and mean change from pre-dose FEV1 at 12 hours was 0.21 L for SFC and 0.20 L for FBC respectively Conclusion Both SFC and FBC produced a similar sustained bronchodilator effect which was prolonged beyond 12 hours post dose and was clearly measurable at 24 h.
BackgroundAccurate information about children's intake is crucial for national nutrition policy and for research and clinical activities. To analyze accuracy for reporting energy and nutrients, most validation studies utilize the “conventional approach,” which was not designed to capture errors of reported foods and amounts. The “reporting-error-sensitive approach” captures errors of reported foods and amounts.
Suzanne Domel Baxter; Caroline H. Guinn; Julie A. Royer; James W. Hardin; Albert F. Smith
Evidence indicates that restrained eaters do not eat less than unrestrained eaters in the natural environment. However, no study has examined caloric intake in those who are currently dieting to lose, or avoid gaining, weight. The current study examined caloric intake using 24-hour food recalls among individuals dieting to lose weight, dieting to avoid weight gain, restrained nondieters, and unrestrained nondieters. Participants were 246 female college students participating in a weight gain prevention trial. The predicted significant difference in caloric intake across the four groups was found for beverage but not for food intake. Results reinforce past literature indicating that dieting/restraint status does not reflect hypo-caloric intake in naturalistic settings.
Goldstein, Stephanie P.; Katterman, Shawn N.; Lowe, Michael R.
Patients with unstable coronary syndromes are a heterogeneous group with varying degrees of ischemia and prognosis. The present study compares the prognostic value of a standard electrocardiogram (ECG) obtained at admission to the hospital with the information from 24-hour continuous electrocardiographic monitoring obtained immediately after admission. The admission ECGs and 24hours of vectorcardiographic (VCG) monitoring from 308 patients admitted
Lene Holmvang; Karl Andersen; Mikael Dellborg; Peter Clemmensen; Galen Wagner; Peer Grande; Putte Abrahamsson
The purpose of the SOP is to define the particular steps involved in cleaning the electronic data generated from data entry of the 24Hour Food Diary. The procedure was developed to use during the Arizona NHEXAS project and the "Border" study. Keywords: data; cleaning; 24hour ...
The purpose of this SOP is to define the coding strategy for the 24-Hour Food Diary. This diary was developed for use during the Arizona NHEXAS project and the "Border" study. Keywords: data; coding; 24-hour food diary. The National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS) i...
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Background Aim of the study was to assess QTc interval by a 24-hour ECG recording in a group of HIV-infected individuals with a basal prolonged QTc. The risk factors associated with QTc prolongation and the indices of cardiovascular autonomic control were also evaluated. Methods A case–control study was performed using as cases 32 HIV-infected patients with prolonged (>440 msec) QTc interval as assessed by Holter ECG, and as controls 64 HIV-infected subjects with normal QTc interval. Autonomic function was evaluated by heart rate variability analysis during 24-hour recording. Results Duration of HIV disease was significantly longer among cases than among controls (p=0.04). Waist/hip ratio was also higher among cases than among controls (p=0.05). Frequency domain analysis showed the absence of physiologic decrease of low frequency (LF) in the night period in both cases and controls. The LF night in cases showed a statistically significant reduction when compared with controls (p=0.007). Conclusions In our study group, QTc interval prolongation was associated with a longer duration of HIV infection and with a greater waist/hip ratio. HIV patients with QTc interval prolongation and with a longer duration of HIV infection were more likely to have an impairment of parasympathetic and sympathetic cardiac component.
To test the hypothesis that an acute bout of maximal exercise can ameliorate orthostatic hypotension consequent to prolonged wheelchair confinement, we evaluated heart rate (HR), systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure responses during 15 minutes of 70 degrees head-up tilt (HUT) in 10 paraplegic subjects 24hours after arm crank exercise designed to elicit maximal effort, and during a control (no exercise) conditions. Additionally, the carotid baroreceptor stimulus-cardiac response relationship was determined by measurement of R-R interval during external application of graded pressures to the carotid sinuses. One week separated the treatment conditions. The maximum slope of the carotid-cardiac baroreflex response was increased (p = 0.049) by exercise (6.2 +/- 1.7 msec/mmHg) compared to control (3.3 +/- 0.6). During control HUT, HR increased from 61 +/- 1 to 90 +/- 7 bpm (p = 0.001) while SBP decreased from 118 +/- 5 to 106 +/- 9 mmHg (p = 0.025). During HUT 24hours after exercise, HR increased from 60 +/- 2 to 90 +/- 4 bpm (p = 0.001), but the reduction in SBP was essentially eliminated (116 +/- 5 to 113 +/- 5 mmHg).
Engelke, K. A.; Shea, J. D.; Doerr, D. F.; Convertino, V. A.
In our previous studies, a decreased blood pressure was reported in children treated by anthracycline (AC). The aim of this study was to assess the long-term effects of AC anticancer therapy in 45 subjects aged 13-22 years by repeated 24-hour Holter monitoring of blood pressure. Sixty four aged-matched subjects served as controls. The differences between mean values of systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in each hour of both groups were evaluated by Mann-Whitney test. Also the parameters of the least-squares fit of the sinusoidal curve in each subject were estimated (M - mesor, midline-estimating, a mean value of sinusoidal curve corresponds to 24-hours mean pressure; A - amplitude, double amplitude corresponds to night-day difference; Acr - acrophase is a time of maximal value of a sinusoidal curve). SBP and DBP was significantly lower only during night hours in anthracycline patients 19-22 years old. Also M was lower in this age subgroup of patients comparing to age matched controls (SBP: 112+/-6 mm Hg versus 117+/-7 mm Hg, p<0.05; DBP: 67+/-3 mm Hg versus 69+/-6 mm Hg, p<0.05), A was not different, Acr in patients was shifted one hour earlier (SBP: 2.4 p.m. versus 3.6 p.m., p<0.05; DBP: 2.1 p.m. versus 3.3 p.m., p<0.01). This corresponds to the shift of the morning blood-pressure increase seen on 24-hours blood pressure profiles. M correlated with age in controls (SBP: r=0.374, p<0.01; regression coefficient b=1.34 mm Hg/1 year; DBP: r=0.365, p<0.01; b=0.95 mm Hg/1 year), but not in patients (SBP: r=0.182, DBP: r=0.064). A and Acr were age-independent in all subjects. It is concluded that blood pressure in 19-22 years old AC patients is lower during night hours, the age-dependent increase of blood pressure seen in healthy controls between 13 and 22 years of age does not occur in patients. This finding is consistent with the long-lasting impairment of the sympathetic nervous system caused by anthracyclines. PMID:20626227
Several studies have focused on the relationship between metabolic syndrome and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). They were based on GERD complications, whereas little is known about the association between metabolic syndrome and objectively measured esophageal acid exposure. The aim of our study was to assess the relationship between metabolic syndrome and GERD based on a 24-hour pH testing. It was a cross-sectional study including 100 consecutive patients who underwent a 24-hour pH-metry monitoring and were assessed for the five metabolic syndrome components as well as for body mass index (BMI). Among the 100 patients, 54 had a pathological acid GERD. The 46 GERD-free patients represented control group. Sex distribution was comparable between both groups but GERD patients were older than controls (44.59 vs. 37.63 years, P= 0.006) and more often obese or with overweight (83.3 vs. 60.9%, P= 0.01). Frequency of metabolic syndrome as a whole entity was higher among patients with GERD than those without GERD (50 vs. 19.56%; P= 0.002) with a crude odds ratio of 4.11 (95% confidence interval: 1.66-10.14). Multivariate regression analysis showed that metabolic syndrome as well as an age ? 30 years were independent factors associated to GERD but not BMI and sex. Abnormal waist circumference and fasting glucose level ? 100 mg/L were the only independent factors among the five components of metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome but not BMI was an independent factor associated to GERD. These results confirm the hypothesis that central obesity is associated to GERD. PMID:20946134
Kallel, L; Bibani, N; Fekih, M; Matri, S; Karoui, S; Mustapha, N B; Serghini, M; Zouiten, L; Feki, M; Zouari, B; Boubaker, J; Kaabachi, N; Filali, A
This is a descriptive type of cross sectional study done in Mymensingh Medical College Hospital during the period of June 2008 to November 2009 to estimate and analyze the fasting blood glucose (FBG) and fasting lipid profile of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients within 24hours of onset of chest pain. Total 50 patients of either sex diagnosed as acute coronary syndrome whose fasting blood sample would have been collected within 24hours of chest pain were included. Among 50 patients 42(84%) were male and 8(16%) were female. Age range was 30-80 years with a mean ± SD of 50.74 ± 12.05 years. Among 50 ACS patients, 9 patients (18%) suffered from unstable angina (US), 2(4%) from non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) and 39(78%) suffered from ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Study results revealed 41(82%) patients had euglycemia (70-110 mg/dl), 2(4%) patients had impaired fasting glucose (IFG) (110-125 mg/dl), and 7(14%) patients had hyperglycemia (>126 mg/dl). Dyslipidemia found in 38(76%) patients. Among them total cholesterol (TC) >200mg/dl in 14(28%), decreased level of HDL-C (< 40 mg/dl in male and <50mg/dl in female) in 22(44%), increased level LDL-C ? 130 mg/dl in 13(26%), and TG >150 mg/dl was found in 16(32%) patients. PMID:23134906
Tariquzzaman, M; Sutradhar, S R; Haque, M F; Khan, N A; Miah, A H; Ahmed, M S; Bari, M A; Islam, M Z; Barman, T K; Hasan, I; Rahman, S; Ferdous, J; Chowdhury, S A; Alam, M K; Rashid, M A; Uddin, M S
Objective To investigate the possibility that statins reduce blood pressure as well as cholesterol concentrations through clinic and 24hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Design Randomised placebo controlled double blind trial. Setting 13 hospitals in Italy Participants 508 patients with mild hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia, aged 45 to 70 years. Intervention Participants were randomised to antihypertensive treatment (hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg once daily or fosinopril 20 mg once daily) with or without the addition of a statin (pravastatin 40 mg once daily). Main outcome measures Clinic and ambulatory blood pressure measured every year throughout an average 2.6 year treatment period. Results Both the group receiving antihypertensive treatment without pravastatin (n=254) (with little change in total cholesterol) and the group receiving antihypertensive treatment with pravastatin (n=253) (with marked and sustained reduction in total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol) had a clear cut sustained reduction in clinic measured systolic and diastolic blood pressure as well as in 24hour, and day and night, systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Pravastatin performed slightly worse than placebo, and between group differences did not exceed 1.9 (95% confidence interval ?0.6 to 4.3, P=0.13) mm Hg throughout the treatment period. This was also the case when participants who remained on monotherapy with hydrochlorothiazide or fosinopril throughout the study were considered separately. Conclusions Administration of a statin in hypertensive patients in whom blood pressure is effectively reduced by concomitant antihypertensive treatment does not have an additional blood pressure lowering effect. Trial registration BRISQUI_*IV_2004_001 (registered at Osservatorio Nazionale sulla Sperimentazione Clinica dei Medicinali—National Monitoring Centre on Clinical Research with Medicines).
Background To assess the prevalence of exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) in two 24-hour mountain bike (MTB) (R1,R2), one 24-hour running (R3) and one multi-stage MTB (R4) races held in the Czech Republic in a cluster of four cross-sectional studies. Methods In 27 ultra-mountain bikers (ultra-MTBers), 12 ultra-runners, and 14 multi-stage MTBers, fluid intake, changes (?) in body mass, hematocrit, plasma volume, plasma [Na+], plasma [K+], plasma osmolality, urine [Na+], urine [K+], urine specific gravity, urine osmolality, K+/Na+ ratio in urine, transtubular potassium gradient and glomerular filtration rate were measured and calculated. The use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and symptoms of EAH were recorded using post-race questionnaires. Results Of the 53 finishers, three (5.7%) developed post-race EAH, thereof one (3.7%) ultra-MTBer, one (8.3%) ultra-runner and one (7.1%) multi-stage MTBer. Plasma [Na+] decreased significantly (p < 0.001) only in R4. Urine osmolality (R1, R3, R4 p < 0.001; R2 p < 0.05) and glomerular filtration rate (p < 0.001) increased, and body mass decreased in all races (p < 0.05). ? body mass was inversely related to the number of kilometers achieved (p < 0.001) in R2 where better ultra-MTBers tended to lose more weight. ? body mass (p < 0.001) and %? body mass (p = 0.05) were positively related to lower post-race plasma [Na+] in R3 that was associated with increased loss in body mass. Fluid intake was positively related to race performance in R1 and R2 (R1: p = 0.04; R2: p = 0.01) where ultra-MTBers in R1 and R2 who drank more finished ahead of those who drank less. Post-race plasma [Na+] was negatively associated with race performance in ultra-MTBers in R2 (p < 0.05), similarly ultra-runners in R3 (p < 0.05) where finishers with more kilometres had lower post-race plasma [Na+]. Conclusions The prevalence of EAH in the Czech Republic was no higher compared to existing reports on ultra-endurance athletes in other countries. Lower plasma [Na+] and development of EAH may be attributed to overdrinking, a pituitary secretion of vasopressin, an impaired mobilization of osmotically inactive sodium stores, and/or an inappropriate inactivation of osmotically active sodium.
Coastal communities are experiencing rapid changes on their livelihood due to the degradation of coastal areas and growing tourism. We analyze the changes in the diet of two fishing communities from the southeastern Brazilian coast, in regard to their consumption of animal protein. Using multivariate methods, we followed the diet of 32 households through the 24-hourrecall method (three days per month, September 1998 to August 1999) in order to compare the niche breadth of the communities, and to verify the relationships between fish consumption and socioeconomic characteristics. The nutritional quality of the diets is analyzed. Even with the partial abandonment of fishing activities, fishing activity still guides fish consumption. Nutritional adequacy is above the recommended levels for protein intake, but is below it for food energy. Non-local industrialized food items influence the increase of the niche breadth. The abandonment of livelihood activities that historically assured Caiçara's self-sufficiency are resulting in the food delocalization. PMID:22260174
Background and Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an L- and T-type calcium channel blocker (CCB) on 24-hour systolic blood pressure (24-hour SBP) and heart rate (24-hour HR) profiles in essential hypertensive patients. Subjects and Methods Thirty-seven consecutive patients were enrolled in this study. The 24-hour SBP and HR were recorded before and after treatment with efonidipine (L- and T-type CCB, 40 mg), after waking. Changes in 24-hour SBP and HR and the diurnal to nocturnal SBP ratio were measured. The best-fit curves of changes in SBP and HR were depicted using a periodic function. Results The mean 24-hour SBP and HR decreased significantly after treatment. The diurnal to nocturnal SBP ratio in dipper-type hypertension cases decreased from 16.7±6.1% to 8.3±9.8% (p<0.05), whereas in non-dipper hypertension cases, it increased from 2.3±2.9% to 7.7±5.1% (p<0.01). The antihypertensive effect was minimal at 5.0 hours after drug administration and it slowly recovered at a constant rate (2.1 mm Hg/h) over 12 hours in dipper cases. The median 24-hour changes in HR in the dipper and non-dipper cases were -2.3/min and -5.4/min, respectively. A continuous reduction in the change in HR was seen from 3.5 to 23 hours after drug administration. Conclusion The antihypertensive action of efonidipine was characterized by a slow recovery of the SBP decrease at a constant rate (2.1 mm Hg/h) and a non-administration time dependent reduction in 24-hour HR.
The combined stress of acute immobilization (IM) at high and low ambient temperature has been used to determine its influence on adrenal catecholamine (CA) content assassed histofluorimetrically in fed and 24hour fasted rats. The general course of changes obtained after the arrangement of adrenal strips deriving from the adrenals of rats exposed to cold and IM stress (CIMS) at +10 degrees C to -25 degrees C during the different time fragments presented the adrenal CA depletion events followed sometimes by the adrenal CA content increase after the longer stress exposure or/and stronger CIMS and WIMS conditions. It was found that this depletion-stimulated increase of adrenal Ca synthesis rate had been accelerated in 24 h fasted rats compared to satiated ones exposed to the same stress conditions, especially after the CIMS exposure. Moreover the survival time duration at first lethal temperature (-5 degrees C and +45 degrees C) was significantly higher in fasted rats. The possible hypothalamic regulation of adrenal CA synthesis rate accordingly to the actual metabolism needs and beta-adrenoceptor sensitivity changes depending on satiety state have been discussed and the necessity of further investigations concerning the specificity of stress-induced metabolism changes in 24 h starved rats has been suggested. PMID:2767283
Background The FDA requires that red cells must be refrigerated within 8 hours of whole blood collection. Longer storage of whole blood at 22°C before component preparation would have many advantages. Study Design And Methods Two methods of holding whole blood for 20 to 24hours at room temperature were evaluated; i.e., refrigerated plates or a 23°C incubator. After extended whole blood storage, platelet concentrates were prepared from platelet-rich-plasma on day 1 post-donation, and the platelets were stored for 6 more days. On day 7 of platelet storage, blood was drawn from each subject to prepare fresh platelets. The stored and fresh platelets were radiolabeled and transfused into their donor. Results Eleven subjects’ whole blood was stored using refrigerated Compocool plates and 10 using an incubator. Post-storage platelet recoveries averaged 47 ± 13% versus 53 ± 11% and survivals averaged 4.6 ± 1.7 days versus 4.7 ± 0.9 days for Compocool versus incubator storage, respectively (p=N.S.). Using all results, post-storage platelet recoveries averaged 75 ± 10% of fresh and survivals 57 ± 13% of fresh; platelet recoveries met FDA guidelines for post-storage platelet viability but not survivals. Conclusion Seven-day post-storage platelet viability is comparable when whole blood is stored for 22 ± 2 hour at 22°C using either refrigerated plates or an incubator to maintain temperature prior to preparing platelet concentrates.
The measurement of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) is important for evaluating the integrity of the barrier function of the stratum corneum. Normal TEWL values in healthy adults and in children ages 2 and older are well known, but few studies have been performed in infants and neonates. TEWL in healthy neonates younger than 24hours old was assessed and compared with that of an adult study population. We also studied possible correlations between this parameter, gestational age, and mode of delivery. A prospective study was conducted in healthy newborns. The areas tested were the volar forearm and the popliteal fossa. Ninety-nine healthy newborns were enrolled and 33 healthy adults were analyzed as controls. Statistically significant differences were noted between newborns and adults in TEWL (p < 0.01). Newborns had a much higher mean TEWL than adults. Differences in the morphology and physiology between newborn and mature skin can explain the higher TEWL in newborns. Higher TEWL could also be due to the sudden functional adaptation of the skin immediately after delivery, when the newborn transits from a liquid to the dry, gaseous extrauterine environment. Functional evaluation of the neonatal skin barrier is important mainly because maintaining skin integrity facilitates cutaneous adaptation. PMID:24383609
Rest thallium-201 scintigraphy, radionuclide ventriculography and 24hour Holter monitoring are acceptable methods to assess myocardial necrosis, performance and electrical instability. This study examined the relative value of the three tests, when obtained a mean of 7 days after acute myocardial infarction, in predicting 1 year mortality in 93 patients. Planar thallium-201 images were obtained in three projections and were scored on a scale of 0 to 4 in 15 segments (normal score = 60). Patients were classified as having high risk test results as follows: thallium score less than or equal to 45 (33 patients), left ventricular ejection fraction less than or equal to 40% (51 patients) and complex ventricular arrhythmias on Holter monitoring (36 patients). During the follow-up of 6.4 +/- 3.4 months (mean +/- SD), 15 patients died of cardiac causes. All three tests were important predictors of survival by univariate Cox survival analysis; the thallium score, however, was the only important predictor by multivariate analysis. The predictive power of the thallium score was comparable with that of combined ejection fraction and Holter monitoring (chi-square = 21 versus chi-square = 22). Thus, rest thallium-201 imaging performed before hospital discharge provides important prognostic information in survivors of acute myocardial infarction which is comparable with that provided by left ventricular ejection fraction and Holter monitoring. Patients with a lower thallium score (large perfusion defects) are at high risk of cardiac death during the first year after infarction.
Attempts to define the relationships between four measures of recall in a two-recall task, namely (a) initial short-term recall (STR), (b) unconditional final free recall (FFR), (c) final free recall conditionalized on an initial successful recall (FFR/STR), and (d) final free recall conditionalized on an unsuccessful recall (FFR/STR). (Author/RK)
This review provides evidence that the bioengineering community needs to develop cost-effective, fully unobtrusive, truly ambulatory instrumentation for the surveillance of blood pressure and heart rate. With available instrumentation, we document a disease risk syndrome, circadian blood pressure overswinging (CHAT, short for circadian hyper-amplitude-tension). Circadian hyper-amplitude-tension is defined as a week-long overall increase in the circadian amplitude or otherwise-measured circadian variability of blood pressure above a mapped threshold, corresponding to the upper 95% prediction limit of clinically healthy peers of the corresponding gender and age. A consistently reduced heart rate variability, gauged by a circadian standard deviation below the lower 5% prediction limit of peers of the corresponding gender and age, is an index of a separate yet additive major risk, a deficient heart rate variability (DHRV). The circadian amplitude, a measure of the extent of reproducible variability within a day, is obtained by linear curve-fitting, which yields added parameters: a midline-estimating statistic of rhythm, the MESOR (a time structure or chronome-adjusted mean), the circadian acrophase, a measure of timing of overall high values recurring in each cycle, and the amplitudes and acrophases of the 12-hour (and higher order) harmonic(s) of the circadian variation that, with the characteristics of the fundamental 24-hour component, describe the circadian waveform. The MESOR is a more precise and more accurate estimate of location than the arithmetic mean. The major risks associated with CHAT and/or DHRV have been documented by measurements of blood pressure and heart rate at 1-hour or shorter intervals for 48 hours on populations of several hundred people, but these risks are to be assessed in a 7-day/24-hour record in individuals before a physical examination, for the following reasons. (1) The average derived from an around-the-clock series of blood pressure measurements, computed as its MESOR, the proven etiopathogenetic factor of catastrophic vascular disease, can be above chronobiologic as well as World Health Organization limits for 5 days or longer and can be satisfactory for months thereafter, as validated by continued automatic monitoring. The MESOR can be interpreted in light of clock-hour-, gender-, and age-specified reference limits and thus can be more reliably estimated with a systematic account of major sources of variability than by casual time-unspecified spot checks (that conventionally are interpreted by a fixed and, thus, rhythm, gender-, and age-ignoring limit). With spot checks, in a diagnostically critical range of "borderline" blood pressures, an inference can depend on the clock-hour of the measurement, usually providing a diagnosis of normotension in the morning and of hypertension in the afternoon (for the same diurnally active, nocturnally resting patient!). Long-term treatment must not be based upon the possibility of an afternoon vs a morning appointment. Moreover, the conventional approach will necessarily miss cases of CHAT that are not accompanied by MESOR hypertension. (2) Circadian hyper-amplitude-tension indicates a greater risk for stroke than does an increase in the around-the-clock average blood pressure (above 130/80 mm Hg) or old age, whereas (3) CHAT can be asymptomatic, as can MESOR hyptertension. (4) Deficient heart rate variability, the fall below a threshold of the circadian standard deviation of heart rate, an entity in its own right, is also a chronome alteration of heart rate variability (CAHRV). Deficient heart rate variability can be present together with CHAT, doubling the relative risk of morbid events. In each case--either combined with CHAT or as an isolated CAHRV--a DHRV constitutes an independent diagnostic assessment provided as a dividend by current blood pressure monitors that should be kept in future instrumentation designs. CHAT and DHRV can be screened by systematic focus on variability, preferably by the use of automatic instrumentation and anal
Background and aims: Acid gastro-oesophageal reflux is one of the most important causes of chronic cough. The response to acid suppression in these patients is not as good as in patients with heartburn but improvement with antireflux surgery has been reported, suggesting the involvement of a non-acidic gastric component in the refluxate. Less acidic reflux may produce symptoms such as regurgitation or chest pain. We investigated whether chronic cough might be associated with weakly acidic reflux. Methods: We studied 28 patients with chronic cough using 24hour ambulatory pressure-pH-impedance monitoring. Manometry was used for precise recognition of cough and impedance-pHmetry to detect acid (pH <4), weakly acidic (pH 7–4), and weakly alkaline (impedance drops, pH ?7) reflux. A symptom association probability (SAP) analysis was performed for each type of reflux. Results: Analysis was completed in 22 patients with 24 cough events (5–92)/patient. The majority of cough events (69.4%) were considered “independent” of reflux whereas 30.6% occurred within two minutes of a reflux episode. Half of these (49%) were “reflux cough” sequences, involving acid (65%), weakly acidic (29%), and weakly alkaline (6%) reflux. Ten patients (45%) had a positive SAP between reflux and cough: five with acid, two with acid and weakly acidic, and three only with weakly acidic reflux. Conclusions: Ambulatory pressure-pH-impedance monitoring with SAP analysis allowed precise determination of the temporal association between cough and gastro-oesophageal reflux (acid, weakly acidic, and weakly alkaline) and identification of a subgroup of patients with chronic cough clearly associated with weakly acidic gastro-oesophageal reflux.
Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have been used to search for susceptibility genes for type 2 diabetes and obesity in the Pima Indians, a population with high a prevalence of both diseases. In these studies, a variant (rs2025804) in the LEPR gene was nominally associated with BMI in 1082 subjects (P=0.03 adjusted for age, sex, birth year, and family membership). Therefore the LEPR and leptin overlapping transcript (LEPROT) genes were selected for further sequencing and genotyping in larger population-based samples for association analyses with obesity-related phenotypes. Selected variants (n=80) spanning these genes were genotyped in a sample of full-heritage Pima Indians (n=2842) and several common variants including rs2025804 were nominally associated with BMI (P=0.05-0.003 adjusted for age, sex, birth year, and family membership). Four common tag variants associated with BMI in the full-heritage Pima Indian sample were genotyped in a second sample of mixed-heritage Native Americans (n=2969) and 3 of the variants showed nominal replication (P=0.03-0.006 adjusted as above and additionally for Indian heritage). Combining both samples provided the strongest evidence for association (adjusted P=0.0003-0.0001). A subset of these individuals (n=403) had been metabolically characterized for predictors of obesity and the BMI risk alleles for the variants tagged by rs2025804 were also associated with lower 24hour energy expenditure as assessed in a human respiratory chamber (P=0.0007 adjusted for age, sex, fat mass, fat free mass, activity, and family membership). We conclude that common non-coding variation in the LEPR gene is associated with higher BMI and lower energy expenditure in Native Americans.
Traurig, Michael; Perez, Jessica; Ma, Lijun; Bian, Li; Kobes, Sayuko; Hanson, Robert L.; Knowler, William C.; Krakoff, Jonathan; Bogardus, Clifton; Baier, Leslie J.
Ambulatory 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring and esophagogastroduodenoscopy were performed in 72 patients with symptoms suggestive of gastroesophageal reflux. Additionally, 22 asymptomatic healthy volunteers underwent pH monitoring. In patients with classic reflux symptoms and endoscopic esophagitis, a mean of 5.41 minutes/hour of reflux below pH 4 was found compared to 0.70 minutes/hour in controls (p less than 0.0001). The mean number and duration of reflux events in this group were 1.51 events/hour and 4.0 minutes/event, compared with 0.31 events/hour and 2.26 minutes/event in volunteers (p less than 0.001, p less than 0.01). A new system for ambulatory esophageal pH monitoring is presented using a pH-sensitive radiotelemetry pill or a pH probe and computerized methods for ambulatory data collection, analysis, and storage. An overall sensitivity of 76% was obtained with a 91% selectivity for detection of acid reflux in 51 patients having classic symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux. Ambulatory pH monitoring was positive for acid reflux in seven of 11 patients with normal endoscopic findings. Conversely, eight of 12 patients with normal pH monitoring had endoscopic esophagitis. In 19 patients presenting with atypical symptoms or previous gastric surgery, endoscopic findings were normal in 15. Nine of these 15 were identified as acid refluxers by pH monitoring. A combined approach using both pH monitoring and endoscopy is warranted for maximal detection and quantification of disease. A clear clinical role for pH monitoring is seen in the early diagnosis of acid reflux, particularly in patients having normal endoscopic findings with nonspecific gastrointestinal complaints or previous gastric operations.
Vitale, G C; Cheadle, W G; Sadek, S; Michel, M E; Cuschieri, A
Objective To determine the accuracy and consistency of fourth-graders’ school breakfast and school lunch recalls obtained during 24-hourrecalls and compared with observed intake.Design Children were interviewed using a multiple-pass protocol at school the morning after being observed eating school breakfast and school lunch.Subjects 104 children stratified by ethnicity (African-American, white) and gender were randomly selected and interviewed up to
Suzanne Domel Baxter; William O. Thompson; Mark S. Litaker; Francesca H. A. Frye; Caroline H. Guinn
Airborne pesticides can be detected near to recently-treated arable fields for a period of days following the application. Identifying the source of such pesticides is important in developing predictive models for use in exposure and risk assessments. Previous work showed levels of pesticide in the air that were higher than expected for a low-vapour-pressure active ingredient, epoxiconazole, and comparable with an active ingredient of a significantly higher vapour pressure, fenpropidin. It was possible that the measured concentrations could be attributed to 'dust' particles emitted from the crop, either biological material contaminated with pesticide or solid dried deposits of active ingredient and other formulation components. A second experiment was therefore undertaken to measure airborne concentrations of the same active ingredients and to determine whether some or all of the measured airborne pesticide could be attributed to particles, using a Marple personal cascade impactor, which collects particles in the range 0.3 - 50 microm. Such samplers are not optimised to give good sampling efficiencies under the proposed field conditions, so some initial tests were undertaken in the Silsoe wind tunnel to assess its ability to sample particles in an air flow. In the subsequent field trial, a 192 m square plot in a commercially established winter cereal crop was sprayed with a tank mix of commercial formulations of epoxiconazole and fenpropidin. Measurements of airborne pesticides were made for 24hours following the application with suction samplers attached to tenax tubes to evaluate vapour concentrations and with the cascade impactor to determine whether contaminated airborne particles were present. The concentrations of pesticide measured with the tenax tubes were significantly higher than the particulate component detected on the cascade impactor plates and it is therefore it was very unlikely that there was a significant contribution from pesticide-laden particles to the airborne concentration. Although it is clear that under these particular experimental conditions, airborne contaminated particles were not detected in significant quantities after the application, it is possible that this could occur under different circumstances, such as during pollen release or harvest. PMID:20218509
Ellis, M C Butler; Lane, A G; O'Sullivan, C M; Miller, P C H
The origin of the approximate 24-hour urine sampling protocol used at Hanford for routine bioassay is attributed to an informal study done in the mid-1940s. While the actual data were never published and have been lost, anecdotal recollections by staff involved in the initial bioassay program design and administration suggest that the sampling protocol had a solid scientific basis. Numerous alternate methods for normalizing partial day samples to represent a total 24-hour collection have since been proposed and used, but no one method is obviously preferred.
Glucocorticoids are commonly prescribed in the post transplant period as a component of combination immunosuppressive regimens. However, the daily 24-hour pattern of helper lymphocytes (CD4+) and suppressor cells (CD8+) during chronic methylprednisolone therapy has not been examined in renal transplant recipients in relation to glucocorticoid exposure and time post-transplant. The response of total lymphocytes, CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes was examined in 23 stable renal transplant recipients who received methylprednisolone for at least 8 months post-transplant. The patient's prescribed oral methylprednisolone dose (mean daily dose = 9.7 +/- 2.6 mg) was given intravenously and whole blood was sampled periodically over 24 h for lymphocyte counts and methylprednisolone concentrations. A complete blood count with differential was determined via an automated hemocytometer with CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes determined using flow cytometry. Methylprednisolone area under the concentration versus time curve (AUC) was determined and normalized for each patient's respective dose. A general lymphopenia resulted in all patients with a mean decrease of 61 +/- 15% and an average nadir time occurring at 6 h. The decline from baseline was 76 +/- 17% for absolute number of CD4+ and 59 +/- 18% for CD8+ lymphocytes with an average nadir time at 6 h. Twelve patients exhibited a baseline CD4+ count to be less than 688 cells/mm3 (the low end of the reference range) and the lymphocyte count of all the patients fell below this value at the nadir. Six patients had a CD8+ lymphocyte count below 380 cells/mm3 (low end of the reference range) at baseline with 21 of the 23 patients exhibiting less than 380 cells/mm3 at the nadir time. At the time of nadir, the mean CD4+ and CD8+ counts were 156 +/- 105 cells/mm3 and 256 +/- 270 cells/mm3, respectively. In 17 of the 23 patients, the CD4+ count was below 200 cells/mm3 at the time of nadir. The dose-normalized AUC of methylprednisolone ranged from 22.6 to 113.5 ng.h/ml with 48% of patients exhibiting morning cortisol concentrations greater than 60 ng/ml. No correlation was noted between daily methylprednisolone exposure and the extent of lymphocyte decline. Lymphocyte response patterns are not clinically recognized in renal transplant recipients, as a means of monitoring immunosuppression. The absolute CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocyte count and the timing of these sample collections post-steroid administration, may have clinical relevance when serially assessed as is done in other immunologic diseases. Prospective evaluation of lymphocyte subset patterns and correlation with susceptibility to overimmunosuppressive (i.e. opportunistic infections) is necessary to help determine if these complications can be minimized by more individualized steroid dose modification. PMID:8605708
Background To date, considerable controversy exists regarding noninvasive arrhythmia risk stratification in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDC). Methods and Results Between 1992 and 1997, 202 patients with IDC without a history of sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT) underwent echocardiography, signal-averaged electrocardiogram (ECG), and 24-hour Holter ECG in the absence of antiarrhythmic drugs. During 32 ± 15 months of prospective follow-up, major arrhythmic
Wolfram Grimm; Christina Glaveris; Jürgen Hoffmann; Volker Menz; Hans-Helge Müller; Günther Hufnagel; Bernhard Maisch
BACKGROUNDThere is considerable debate regarding the relationship between obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and hypertension. It is unclear whether OSA is an independent vascular risk factor as studies attempting to assess this association have produced conflicting results because of confounding variables such as upper body obesity, alcohol, and smoking. A case-control study of 24hour ambulatory blood pressure was undertaken in
Christopher W H Davies; Joy H Crosby; Rebecca L Mullins; Charles Barbour; Robert J O Davies; John R Stradling
... 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What must I do if I am able to tender a shipment for final delivery more than 24hours...Transportation of Shipments Â§ 375.607 What must I do if I am able to tender a shipment for final delivery more than 24...
From a prospective study in which 24hour recordings of the electrocardiogram and respiratory activity (abdominal wall movement) were made on a population of full term infants, 22 recordings were obtained from 16 infants who later were victims of the sudden infant death syndrome. The average heart rate, average heart rate variability, average breath to breath interval, and average breath
A J Wilson; V Stevens; C I Franks; J Alexander; D P Southall
The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of long term exposure to low level radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic (EM) radiation on the excretion rates of stress hormones in satellite station operators during 24-hour shifts. Twelve male operators at a satellite station for TV communications and space research were studied during 24-hour shifts. Dosimetric evaluation of the exposure was carried out and showed low level exposure with specific absorption of 0.1127 J.kg-1. A control group of 12 unexposed male operators with similar job task and the same shift system were studied, too. The 11-oxycorticosteroids (11-OCS), adrenaline and noradrenaline were followed by spectrofluorimetric methods on 3-hour intervals during the 24-hour shifts. The data were analyzed by tests for interindividual analysis, Cosinor analysis and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Significant increase in the 24-hour excretion of 11-OCS and disorders in its circadian rhythm, manifested by increase in the mesor, decrease in the amplitude and shift in the acrophase were found in the exposed operators. The changes in the excretion rates of the catecholamines were significant and showed greater variability of both variables. The long term effect of the exposure to low-level RF EM radiation evoked pronounced stress reaction with changes in the circadian rhythm of 11-OCS and increased variability of catecholamines secretion. The possible health hazards associated with observed alteration in the stress system need to be clarified by identification of their significance and prognostic relevance. PMID:12096679
Diffusive sampling of 1,3-butadiene for 24hours onto the graphitic adsorbent Carbopack X contained in a stainless steel tube badge (6.3 mm OD, 5 mm ID, and 90 mm in length) with analysis by thermal desorption/GC/MS has been evaluated in controlled tests. A test matrix of 42 tr...
Objective Converging evidence from both experimental and epidemiological studies indicates that there is a bidirectional association between depression and cardiovascular disease, however the precise neurobiological mechanisms underlying this relationship are not well understood. Disruptions in the social environment may influence this relationship. The primary objective of the present study was to investigate the hypothesis that long-term social isolation in an animal model would produce depression-relevant behaviors and disruptions in 24-hour autonomic and activity parameters, and to further demonstrate the utility and validity of an animal model for the study of the social environment, behavior, and autonomic function. Methods Depression-relevant behaviors and ambulatory electrocardiographic and activity data were measured in 12 adult, socially monogamous prairie voles (rodents), during a period of chronic social isolation or social pairing (control conditions). Results Prairie voles exposed to 4 weeks of social isolation, versus control conditions (social pairing), exhibited anhedonia, increased 24-hour heart rate, reduced 24-hour heart rate variability, and predictable correlations between the behavioral measure (anhedonia) and the autonomic measures. Conclusions Social isolation is associated with depressive behaviors, 24-hour autonomic dysfunction, and predictable interrelationships between these variables in prairie voles, but does not appear to be associated with rhythmicity changes in activity level or autonomic function. These findings have implications for understanding the role of the social environment in mediating the association of mood and cardiovascular disorders in humans.
Grippo, Angela J.; Carter, C. Sue; McNeal, Neal; Chandler, Danielle L.; LaRocca, Meagan A.; Bates, Suzanne L.; Porges, Stephen W.
Results from a continuous 24-hour measurement of the OH (8-3) band emission in the nightglow at 78.4 deg N are reported. A mean temperature of 273 K and a mean band intensity of 596 R were observed. Extreme temperature variations were seen with amplitudes up to + or - 70 K from the mean. It is suggested that these variations
Elevated ghrelin has been shown to be associated with reduced luteinizing hormone (LH) pulsatility in Rhesus monkeys, rats, men, and recently women. We previously reported that 24-h ghrelin concentrations are elevated in women following a 3-mo exercise and diet program leading to weight loss. We investigated whether the elevations in ghrelin following an ?3-mo exercise and diet program leading to weight loss are associated with a decrease in LH pulsatility. The nonexercising control group (Control, n = 5) consumed a controlled diet that matched energy needs, whereas energy intake in the exercise group (Energy Deficit, n = 16) was reduced from baseline energy requirements and supervised exercise training occurred five times per a week. Significant decreases in body weight (?3.0 ± 0.6 kg), body fat (?2.9 ± 0.4 kg) and 24-h LH pulse frequency (?0.18 ± 0.08 pulses/h), and a significant increase in 24-h mean ghrelin were observed in only the Energy Deficit group. The pre-post change in LH pulse frequency was negatively correlated with the change in mean 24-h ghrelin (R = ?0.485, P = 0.030) and the change in peak ghrelin at lunch (R = ?0.518, P = 0.019). Interestingly, pre-post change in night LH pulse frequency was negatively correlated with the change in mean day ghrelin (R = ?0.704, P = 0.001). Elevated total ghrelin concentrations are associated with the suppression of LH pulsatility in premenopausal women and may play a role in the suppression of reproductive function following weight loss.
Scheid, Jennifer L.; De Souza, Mary Jane; Hill, Brenna R.; Leidy, Heather J.
Using positron emission tomography, we measured in vivo uptake of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) in the brain and heart of C57Bl/6 mice at intervals across a 24-hour light-dark cycle. Our data describe a significant, high amplitude rhythm in FDG uptake throughout the whole brain, peaking at the mid-dark phase of the light-dark cycle, which is the active phase for nocturnal mice. Under these conditions, heart FDG uptake did not vary with time of day, but did show biological variation throughout the 24-hour period for measurements within the same mice. FDG uptake was scanned at different times of day within an individual mouse, and also compared to different times of day between individuals, showing both biological and technical reproducibility of the 24-hour pattern in FDG uptake. Regional analysis of brain FDG uptake revealed especially high amplitude rhythms in the olfactory bulb and cortex, while low amplitude rhythms were observed in the amygdala, brain stem and hypothalamus. Low amplitude 24-hour rhythms in regional FDG uptake may be due to multiple rhythms with different phases in a single brain structure, quenching some of the amplitude. Our data show that the whole brain exhibits significant, high amplitude daily variation in glucose uptake in living mice. Reports applying the 2-deoxy-D[14C]-glucose method for the quantitative determination of the rates of local cerebral glucose utilization indicate only a small number of brain regions exhibiting a day versus night variation in glucose utilization. In contrast, our data show 24-hour patterns in glucose uptake in most of the brain regions examined, including several regions that do not show a difference in glucose utilization. Our data also emphasizes a methodological requirement of controlling for the time of day of scanning FDG uptake in the brain in both clinical and pre-clinical settings, and suggests waveform normalization of FDG measurements at different times of the day.
van der Veen, Daan R.; Shao, Jinping; Chapman, Sarah; Leevy, W. Matthew; Duffield, Giles E.
The purpose of this study was to determine the usefulness of a random urine specimen protein to creatinine (P\\/C) ratio in predicting 24-hour urine protein excretion (24 UP) in type 1 diabetic patients with overt nephropathy. Two hundred twenty-nine outpatient diabetic subjects enrolled in the Collaborative Study Group's multicenter clinical trial of “Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibition in Type 1 Diabetic Nephropathy”
Roger A. Rodby; Richard D. Rohde; Zeev Sharon; Marc A. Pohl; Raymond P. Bain; Edmund J. Lewis
Blood pressure control in many hypertensive patients remains imperfect, also because routine office blood pressure can only give limited information about diurnal variations and nocturnal dipping. It was the aim of our evaluation to study the efficacy of antihypertensive therapy and the correlation between repeated office blood pressure values and 24-hour ambulatory measurements in hypertensive outdoor patients treated by life-style modification and antihypertensive medication. Clinical data and blood pressure values in 343 outdoor patients who were admitted to the medical centre for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in hypertension were evaluated. Database was created from 1991 to 1998. The study population (mean age 59.5 +/- 11.6 years) comprised 153 men and 190 women, 141 (41%) were treated by life-style modification, 202 (59%) received antihypertensive medication. 57 patients showed symptoms of a metabolic syndrome, 62 suffered from manifest diabetes mellitus type 2. - Repeated office blood pressure measurements showed a significant positive correlation to the systolic and diastolic values obtained by 24-hour blood controls. While diastolic night minima revealed a positive correlation to office measurements (R = 0. 211; P <0.05), systolic night minima showed no correlation to office pressure control. In the whole study population and in subgroups (metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus) patients under antihypertensive medication still revealed significantly higher mean 24-hour systolic blood pressure values (140.5 +/- 16.9 mm Hg) than patients treated by life-style modification (133.0 +/- 14.4 mm Hg; P <0.001). Diastolic day- and night-time difference (dipping) was less pronounced in patients with antihypertensive medication. For appropriate antihypertensive therapy 24-hour blood pressure measurements are thus of advantage to repeated office controls especially to optimize medication for high systolic blood pressure values and adapt therapy to the nocturnal decrease of blood pressure values (dipping). PMID:10882643
Dzien, A; Pfeiffer, K; Dzien-Bischinger, C; Hoppichler, F; Lechleitner, M
BACKGROUND: Artemisinin-based combination therapy is increasingly being adopted as first-line antimalarial therapy. The choice of appropriate therapy depends on efficacy, cost, side effects, and simplicity of administration. METHODS: the efficacy of fixed co-formulated (f) artesunate-sulfamethoxypyrazine-pyrimethamine (AS+SMP f) administered at time intervals of 12 hours for a 24-hour therapy was compared with the efficacy of the same drug given as a
Ishag Adam; Mamoun Magzoub; Maha E Osman; Insaf F Khalil; Michael Alifrangis; Khalid A Elmardi
OBJECTIVE Sepsis mortality is closely linked to multi-organ failure, and impaired microcirculatory blood flow is thought to be pivotal in the pathogenesis of sepsis-induced organ failure. We hypothesized that changes in microcirculatory flow during resuscitation are associated with changes in organ failure over the first 24hours of sepsis therapy. DESIGN Prospective observational study SETTING Emergency Department and Intensive Care Unit PARTICIPANTS Septic patients with systolic blood pressure <90 mmHg despite intravenous fluids or lactate ?4.0 mM/L treated with early goal-directed therapy (EGDT). MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS We performed Sidestream Dark Field (SDF) videomicroscopy of the sublingual microcirculation <3 hours from EGDT initiation and again within a 3–6 hour time window after initial. We imaged 5 sites and determined the mean microcirculatory flow index (MFI) (0=no flow to 3=normal) blinded to all clinical data. We calculated the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score at 0 and 24hours, and defined improved SOFA a priori as a decrease ?2 points. Of 33 subjects; 48% improved SOFA over 0–24hours. Age, APACHE II, and global hemodynamics did not differ significantly between organ failure groups. Among SOFA improvers, 88% increased MFI during EGDT, compared to 47% for non-improvers (p=0.03). Median change in MFI was 0.23 for SOFA improvers versus ?0.05 for non-improvers (p=0.04). CONCLUSIONS Increased microcirculatory flow during resuscitation was associated with reduced organ failure at 24hours without substantial differences in global hemodynamics. These data support the hypothesis that targeting the microcirculation distinct from the macrocirculation could potentially improve organ failure in sepsis.
Trzeciak, Stephen; McCoy, Jonathan V.; Dellinger, R. Phillip; Arnold, Ryan C.; Rizzuto, Michael; Abate, Nicole L.; Shapiro, Nathan I.; Parrillo, Joseph E.; Hollenberg, Steven M.
The authors report results from a continuous 24-hour measurement of the OH (8-3) band emission in the nightglow at 78.4°N. A mean temperature of 273K and a mean band intensity of 596 R were observed. Extreme temperature variations were seen with amplitudes up to ±70K from the mean. It is suggested that these variations are related to the passage of
Nogo-A is a myelin-associated neurite outgrowth inhibitory protein limiting recovery and plasticity after central nervous system injury. In this study, a purified monoclonal anti–Nogo-A antibody (7B12) was evaluated in two rat stroke models with a time-to-treatment of 24hours after injury. After photothrombotic cortical injury (PCI) and intraventricular infusion of a control mouse immunoglobulin G for 2 weeks, long-term contralateral
Christoph Wiessner; Florence M. Bareyre; Peter R. Allegrini; Anis K. Mir; Stefan Frentzel; Mauro Zurini; Lisa Schnell; Thomas Oertle; Martin E. Schwab
The striatum is particularly sensitive to the irreversible inhibitor of succinate dehyrdrogenase 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP). In the present study we examined early changes in behavior and dopamine and glutamate synaptic physiology created by a single systemic injection of 3-NP in Fischer 344 rats. Hind limb dystonia was seen 2 hours after 3-NP injections and rats performed poorly on balance beam and rota-rod motor tests 24hours later. Systemic 3-NP increased NMDA receptor-dependent long-term potentiation (LTP) at corticostriatal synapses over the same time period. The 3-NP induced corticostriatal LTP was not due to increased NMDA receptor number or function, since 3-NP did not change MK-801 binding or NMDA/AMPA receptor current ratios. The LTP seen 24hours after 3-NP was D1 receptor-dependent and reversed by exogenous addition of dopamine or a D2 receptor agonist to brain slices. High performance liquid chromatography and fast scan cyclic voltammetry revealed a decrease in dopamine content and release in rats injected 24hours earlier with 3-NP, and much like the enhanced LTP, dopamine changes were reversed by 48 hours. Tyrosine hydroxylase expression was not changed and there was no evidence of striatal cell loss at 24–48 hours after 3-NP exposure. Sprague-Dawley rats showed similar physiological responses to systemic 3-NP, albeit with reduced sensitivity. Thus, 3-NP causes significant changes in motor behavior marked by parallel changes in striatal dopamine release and corticostriatal synaptic plasticity.
Akopian, Garnik; Crawford, Cynthia; Beal, M. Flint; Cappelletti, Maurand; Jakowec, Michael W.; Petzinger, Giselle M.; Zheng, Ling; Gheorghe, Stacey L.; Reichel, Carmela M.; Chow, Robert; Walsh, John P
Introduction Automatic blood pressure (BP) measuring devices are more and more often used in BP self-checks and in 24-hour BP monitoring. Nowadays, 24-hour BP monitoring is a necessary procedure in arterial hypertension treatment. The aim of this study was to validate the BPLab® ambulatory blood pressure monitor according to the European standard BS EN 1060-4:2004 and the British Hypertension Society (BHS) protocol, as well as to work out solutions regarding the suitability of using this device in clinical practice. Methods A group of 85 patients of both sexes and different ages, who voluntarily agreed to take part in the tests and were given detailed instructions on the measurement technique were recruited for this study. The results of the BP measurement obtained by a qualified operator using the BPLab® device were compared with the BP values measured using the Korotkov auscultatory method. Data were obtained simultaneously by two experts with experience of over 10 years and had completed a noninvasive BP measurement standardization training course. Discrepancies in the systolic and diastolic BP measurements (N = 510; 255 for each expert) were analyzed according to the criteria specified in the BHS-93 protocol. Results The device passed the requirements of the European Standard BS EN 1060-4:2004 and was graded ‘A’ according to the criteria of the BHS protocol for both systolic BP and diastolic BP. Conclusion The BPLab® 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring device may be recommended for extensive clinical use.
The parasympathetic nervous system plays a major role in the pathophysiology of many cardiovascular disease, particularly in modulating myocardial electrical stability. Measurements of heart rate variability have been widely used to assess parasympathetic activity. The reproducibility of measurements obtained from 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiograms has not been well documented. We have developed a technique for measuring parasympathetic activity from clinical quality 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiograms by counting beat-to-beat increases in RR interval that are > 50 ms. To determine the reproducibility and sensitivity of our technique, we analyzed repeated 24-hour electrocardiograms of 173 subjects (19 normal subjects, 67 patients with ischemic heart disease, and 87 diabetics) followed up over periods of 2 to 16 weeks. In all subject groups, mean values for repeated measurements were virtually identical. Measurements were stable in all 3 groups throughout the course of the study, as assessed by intraclass correlation coefficients. This technique is sensitive enough to detect relatively small changes in parasympathetic activity in subjects, as demonstrated by the calculated Bland and Altman coefficients of repeatability. Reproducibility and sensitivity of our technique are particularly good in normal subjects and in patients with ischemic heart disease. The results obtained with this technique imply that other related measurements of parasympathetic activity will show similar excellent short- and long-term reproducibility and sensitivity. PMID:8546083
Nolan, J; Flapan, A D; Goodfield, N E; Prescott, R J; Bloomfield, P; Neilson, J M; Ewing, D J
The study of recollective and nonrecollective retrieval has become controversial, owing to several critiques of traditional recognition-based measurement (e.g., remember/know, ROC, process dissociation). We present a new methodology in which subjects merely study and recall lists, using any standard paradigm (associative, cued, free, or serial recall), the data are analyzed with a Markov model whose parameters measure recollective and nonrecollective retrieval, and the model’s fit is compared to that of one-process models. The power of this approach is illustrated in some experiments that dealt with two classic questions: (a) What are the process-level differences between associative and free recall, and (b) why does taxonomic organization improve free recall but impair associative recall? Fit results showed that a dual-retrieval model is both necessary and sufficient to account for associative and free recall data, in contrast to the sufficient-but-not-necessary pattern that prevails in the recognition literature. Key substantive findings were that associative recall is more reliant on recollective retrieval and less reliant on nonrecollective retrieval than free recall, that taxonomic organization impairs recollective retrieval in both paradigms, and that taxonomic organization enhances the reconstruction component of nonrecollective retrieval in free recall.
Mathematical analysis shows that if the pattern of rehearsal in free-recall experiments (of necessity, the pattern observed when participants rehearse aloud) be continued without any further interruption by stimuli (as happens during recall), it terminates with the retrieval of the same 1 word over and over again. Such a terminal state is commonly…
Quantification of proteinuria is usually predicated upon 24-hour urine collection. Multiple factors influence urine collection and the rate of protein and creatinine excretion. Urine collection is often incomplete, and therefore creatinine and protein excretion rates are underestimated. A random urine protein-creatinine (P-C) ratio has been shown over the years to be a reliable alternative to the 24-hour collection for detection and follow up of proteinuria. However, urine protein excretion may be influenced by physical activity. We studied 48 patients with proteinuria and varying levels of physical activity to determine the correlation between the measures of urine protein excretion. The correlation coefficient (r) between 24-hour urine total protein and random urine P-C ratio was 0.75 (P < 0.01) in the overall study population, but varied according to the level of proteinuria and physical activity in a stratified analysis: r = 0.99 (P < 0.001) and r = 0.95 (P < 0.01) in bedridden patients; r = 0.44 (P = not significant [NS]) and r = 0.54 (P = NS) in semiactive patients; and r = 0.44 (P = NS) and r = 0.58 (P < 0.05) in active patients with nephrotic- (>3500 mg/day) and non-nephrotic (<3500 mg/day) range proteinuria, respectively. The correlation appeared to be stronger between random urine and 24-hour urine P-C ratio for the overall study population (r = 0.84; P < 0.001), and when stratified according to the level of proteinuria and physical activity: r = 0.99 (P < 0.001) and r = 0.92 (P < 0.01) in bedridden patients; r = 0.61 (P = NS) and r = 0.54 (P = NS) in semiactive patients; and r = 0.64 (P < 0.02) and r = 0.52 (P < 0.05) in active patients with nephrotic and non-nephrotic range proteinuria, respectively. We conclude that the random urine P-C ratio is a reliable and practical way of estimating and following proteinuria, but its precision and accuracy may be affected by the level of patient physical activity.
While many of us often hear about various product recalls, it can be difficult at times to find a one-stop online service center to see if any particular type of product has been recalled recently. The launch of this helpful website, provided by the federal government, should help alleviate the problem. Six federal agencies (such as the FDA, USDA, and several others) have joined together to bring pertinent recall information to the American public. The site is quite user-friendly, as visitors can click on one of six tabs (such as Consumer Products, Boats, or Food) to find out current information on current and recent recalls from across the United States. One particularly helpful feature includes the ability to sign to receive electronic newsletters and updates from the appropriate agencies when various products are deemed unsafe or when a recall is issued. Appropriately enough, the materials on the site are also available in Spanish.
The aim of this study was to estimate the amount of depleted uranium (DU) in the respiratory system of Allied Forces Gulf War Veterans. Mass spectrometry (thermal ionization mass spectrometry) analysis of 24-hour urinary excretion of DU isotopes in five positive (238U/235U > 191.00) and six negative (238U/235U > 138.25) veterans was utilized in the mathematical estimation of the pulmonary burden at the time of exposure. A minimum value for the biological half-life of ceramic DU oxide in the lungs was derived from the Battelle report of the minimum dissolution half-time in simulated interstitial lung fluid corresponding to 3.85 years. The average DU concentration was 3.27 x 10(-5) mg per 24hours in DU-positive veterans and 1.46 x 10(-8) mg in DU-negative veterans. The estimated lung burden was 0.34 mg in the DU-positive and 0.00015 mg in the DU-negative veterans. Our results provide evidence that the pulmonary concentration of DU at time zero can be quantitated as late as 9 years after inhalational exposure. PMID:12943033
Durakovic, Asaf; Horan, Patricia; Dietz, Leonard A; Zimmerman, Isaac
Residents in training, medical students and other staff in surgical sector, emergency room (ER) and intensive care unit (ICU) or Burn Unit face a multitude of questions regarding burn care. Treatment of burns is not always straightforward. Furthermore, National and International guidelines differ from one region to another. On one hand, it is important to understand pathophysiology, classification of burns, surgical treatment, and the latest updates in burn science. On the other hand, the clinical situation for treating these cases needs clear guidelines to cover every single aspect during the treatment procedure. Thus, 10 questions have been organised and discussed in a step-by-step form in order to achieve the excellence of education and the optimal treatment of burn injuries in the first 24hours. These 10 questions will clearly discuss referral criteria to the burn unit, primary and secondary survey, estimation of the total burned surface area (%TBSA) and the degree of burns as well as resuscitation process, routine interventions, laboratory tests, indications of Bronchoscopy and special considerations for Inhalation trauma, immediate consultations and referrals, emergency surgery and admission orders. Understanding and answering the 10 questions will not only cover the management process of Burns during the first 24hours but also seems to be an interactive clear guide for education purpose.
Aim of the study was to assess reproducibility and diagnostic value of E100 event recorder for patients with complains on heart arrhythmias and no abnormalities on multiple routine ECGs and/or 24-hour Holter ECG monitoring and the second one, an assessment of adherence and attitude of patients to the E100 event recorder, dependent on the results of self- assessment questionnaires. 24 patients with complains on heart arrhythmias were included in the study. All the patients were provided with the REKA E100 event monitors for 5 ± 2 days and self-assessment questionnaires to assess level of adherence and attitude of patients to the E100 event recorder. E100 event recorders revealed junctional rhythm (n=2), AV nodal reentrant tachycardia (n=2), extrasystolic arrhythmias (n=10), atrial fibrillation (n=2), WPW syndrome (n=4), ventricular tachycardia (n=1), sinus tachycardia (n=7) and complete AV block (n=1). Majority of patients consider device as easy to use, comfortable and safe. In comparison with multiple routine ECGs and 24-hour Holter ECG monitoring, E100 event recorders showed higher reproducibility and efficacy for detecting and interpreting heart arrhythmias. PMID:22466537
Excess body weight is associated with an imbalance between energy expenditure and dietary intake but evidence on the association between diet quality and body composition remains equivocal. Rather than relying on differences in diet quality between overweight/obese and normal weight adults, this study examined the association between the Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010) and body fatness on a continuous scale, independent of physical activity (PA). Further the association between components of the HEI-2010 and risk for overweight/obesity was explored. 407 adults (27.6 ± 3.7 years) provided at least two 24-hourdietrecalls over a period of 14 days, which were used to calculate the HEI-2010. Percent body fat (BF) was assessed via dual X-ray absorptiometry and PA was determined via a multi-sensor device, worn over a period of 10 days. PA was a stronger contributor to the variability in BF than the HEI-2010 and the association between HEI-2010 and BF was significant only in men. Particularly a high consumption of protein, sodium and empty calories increased the risk for overweight/obesity. Adherence to dietary guidelines positively affects body fatness in men, independent of PA. In contrast to current dietary recommendations, the risk for overweight/obesity was increased with a higher protein intake. PMID:24816165
Drenowatz, Clemens; Shook, Robin P; Hand, Gregory A; Hébert, James R; Blair, Steven N
... consumers. What are typical food risks that FDA alerts the public to? Typical significant food risks include ... More Information Archive for Recalls, Market Withdrawals & Safety Alerts - Page Last Updated: 12/08/2013 Note: If ...
Wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (WDEIA) usually occurs 1 to 4 hours after wheat ingestion and the pathophysiology of WDEIA remains unknown. It is recommended that WDEIA patients refrain from exercise for 4 to 6 hours after wheat ingestion. We report a case of a 51-year-old man who experienced 5 anaphylaxis attacks; two of which occurred 10 to 24hours after wheat ingestion and exercise. He has a history of chronic gastroenteritis that responds well to antihistamine drugs but not proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and prokinetic agents. Abdominal CT results implied the possibility of superior mesenteric artery syndrome. We suggest that WDEIA occurs 6 hours after wheat ingestion in cases compounded by obstructive gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:24991463
Rongfei, Zhu; Wenjing, Li; Nan, Huang; Guanghui, Liu
Wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (WDEIA) usually occurs 1 to 4 hours after wheat ingestion and the pathophysiology of WDEIA remains unknown. It is recommended that WDEIA patients refrain from exercise for 4 to 6 hours after wheat ingestion. We report a case of a 51-year-old man who experienced 5 anaphylaxis attacks; two of which occurred 10 to 24hours after wheat ingestion and exercise. He has a history of chronic gastroenteritis that responds well to antihistamine drugs but not proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and prokinetic agents. Abdominal CT results implied the possibility of superior mesenteric artery syndrome. We suggest that WDEIA occurs 6 hours after wheat ingestion in cases compounded by obstructive gastrointestinal diseases.
The aim of this work was to characterize food habits of Spanish University students and to assess the quality of their diet and some possible determinant factors according to Mediterranean food pattern among other indices. Two hundred eighty-four enrolled students during the academic year 2012-2013 participated in this survey. For each individual a questionnaire involving anthropometric measurements, types of housing, smoking habits and levels of physical activity were self-reported. Food consumption was gathered by two nonconsecutive 24hourrecalls including one weekend day. BMI within the normal range was showed by 72.5% of students and 75% of the sample reflected a sedentary lifestyle or low physical activity. The percentage of total energy from each macronutrient was approximately 17% proteins, 40% carbohydrates and 40% lipids. The ratio of polyunsaturated to monounsaturated fat only reached 0.32. Cholesterol consumption in men exceeded the intake in women by 70?mg/day but nutritional objectives were exceeded in both genders. The main source of protein had an animal origin from meat (38.1%), followed by cereals (19.4%) and dairy products (15.6%). The assessment of diet quality conducted by Healthy Eating Index (HEI) and Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) revealed a low-intermediate score in both (51.2?±?12.8 and 4.0?±?1.5, respectively). The main deviations from Mediterranean pattern were a low intake of vegetables and fruit and a high consumption of meat and dairy products. According to HEI classification, 96.1% of subjects scored "poor" or "needs improvement" about the quality of their diet and only 5.3% of students achieved a high adherence to Mediterranean diet. It is necessary to foster changes toward a healthier diet pattern according to cultural context in this population for preventing cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance. PMID:24681406
Objective To investigate a 24-hour glycemic variation in drug-naïve, type 2 diabetic patients by using CGM. Methods A total of 30 inpatients with type 2 diabetes were included in the study to analyze the 24-hour CGM data. Results The patients’ median age was 58 years old (interquartile range: 42–66 years), and their median HbA1c value was 7.6 (6.7–8.8)%. The median time to postprandial peak glucose levels(Peak Time) for each meal was 70–85 minutes, with the range of postprandial glucose increases(Increase Range) for each meal being 83–109 mg/dL. There was a significant positive correlation between the HbA1c values and Increases Range, Peak Time observed after breakfast and dinner, respectively. When the patients were stratified by a median HbA1c value of 7.6% into 2 groups, Increases Range and Peak Time, after breakfast, were shown to be significantly higher in the high-HbA1c group (H) than in the low-HbA1c (L) group. When the subjects were divided into four groups according to HbA1c levels:1 (<7.0%, n?=?8), 2 (7.0–7.9%, n?=?8), 3 (8.0–8.9%, n?=?8), and 4 (?9%, n?=?6), the average glucose level, pre-meal glucose level and postprandial peak glucose level increased steadily from group 1 to 4 in a stepwise manner. Conclusions In drug-naïve, Japanese type 2 diabetic patients, the Peak Time and the Increase Range were maximal after dinner. It was shown that the greater the HbA1c values, the longer Peak time and the higher Increase Range after breakfast and dinner. The average glucose level, pre meal glucose level and postprandial peak glucose level increased steadily as HbA1c level increased.
Ando, Kiyotaka; Nishimura, Rimei; Tsujino, Daisuke; Seo, Chiaki; Utsunomiya, Kazunori
Background To investigate characteristics of and satisfaction with psychiatric 24-hour emergency primary care performed by mandatory rotation of licensed psychiatrists as a viable baseline for possible reorganizational measures. Methods This was a questionnaire-based cross-sectional study (November 2010–April 2011). The number of patient–psychiatrist encounters, modes of contact, and patient and psychiatrist characteristics were assessed. Diagnoses were coded with ICD-10 (International Classification of Diseases, version 10). Results From 167 duty episodes, 74 (44%) were recorded. Of the psychiatrists (n=44), 52% were female, and mean age (standard deviation) was 49.9 (5.2) years. The median number of encounters per episode was 4 (interquartile range 0–8), mainly in the evenings. Demand for “face-to-face” (direct) patient visits was significantly more common (64.0%) than practice (1.3%) or telephone consultations (34.7%). In 83.8%, psychiatrists judged the encounter as adequate at the patient’s location. A total of 43 different diagnoses were recorded: mainly schizophrenic disorders (23.9%), suicidal behavior (15.2%), and acute stress reactions (10.3%). Psychiatrists felt burdened by services (62.5%): in 39.2%, they felt threatened; and in 6.8%, violence occurred. In 32.4%, bills were not paid for. If services were optional, 45.2% would participate. Conclusion Our findings indicate justified demand for direct mobile patient visits, suggesting that emergency care should be multifaceted, and sole provision of psychiatric care at stationed emergency facilities may not always be appropriate. Reorganization of 24-hour emergency services should carefully evaluate patient and provider’s needs before changing established structures.
OBJECTIVES The low-sodium diet is a known preventive factor for hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Factors associated with low-sodium diets should be identified to reduce sodium intake effectively. This study was conducted to identify factors correlated with a low-sodium diet. METHODS This cross-sectional study analyzed data from a total of 14,539 Koreans aged 20 years or older, who participated in the Fourth (2007-2009) Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A low-sodium diet was defined as having ?2,000 mg/day based on 24-hourrecalls. Multiple logistic regression models were used to assess sex, age, education, number of family members, household income, occupation, alcohol drinking, total energy intake, frequency of eating out, and hypertension management status for their associations with low-sodium diets. RESULTS Among all participants, only 13.9% (n=2,016) had low-sodium diets. In the multivariate analysis, 40-49 years of age, clerical work jobs, higher total energy intake, and frequent eating out were inversely associated with low-sodium diets. And female sex and living-alone were associated with low-sodium diets. Lower frequency of eating out was significantly associated with low-sodium diets, even after adjusting for total energy intake and other potential confounders. Adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for a low-sodium diet were 1.97 (1.49-2.61), 1.47 (1.13-1.91), 1.24 (0.96-1.61), and 1.00 (reference) in people who eat out <1 time/month, 1-3 times/month, 1-6 times/week, and ?1 time/day, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Our study suggests that sex, age, number of family members, occupation, total energy intake, and lower frequency of eating out were associated with a low-sodium diet in Korean adults.
Lee, Won Joon; Oh, Sun Min; Choi, Dong Phil; Cho, Jaelim; Suh, Il
Purpose To determine the initial success rate and its associated factors on cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in patients with cardiac arrest within 24hours after receiving anesthesia for an emergency surgery. Patients and methods After the hospital ethical committee gave approval for this study, the anesthesia providers recorded all relevant data regarding CPR in patients with cardiac arrest within 24hours after anesthesia for emergency surgery at Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai Hospital, a university hospital in Northern Thailand. Only data from the cardiac arrest patients who received the first CPR attempt were included in the analysis. The end point of the initial success of CPR was return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Factors related to ROSC were determined by univariate analyses and multiple logistic regression analysis. The odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to calculate the strength of the factors associated with the ROSC. Results Of the 96 cardiac arrest patients, 44 patients (45.8%) achieved ROSC. Factors associated with ROSC were electrocardiogram monitoring for detected cardiac arrest (OR =4.03; 95% CI =1.16–14.01; P=0.029), non-shock patients before arrest (OR =8.54; 95% CI =2.13–34.32; P=0.003), timing to response of activated CPR team within 1 minute (OR =9.37; 95% CI =2.55–34.39; P<0.001), having trained CPR teams (OR =8.76; 95% CI =2.50–30.72; P<0.001), and administration of more than one dose of epinephrine (OR =5.62; 95% CI =1.32–23.88; P<0.019). Conclusion Patients undergoing anesthesia for an emergency surgery are at risk for perioperative cardiac arrest with high mortality which requires immediate CPR. Our results have confirmed that early detection of cardiac arrest by vigilant electrocardiogram monitoring and prompt management with a qualified team are important factors in improving the success of CPR. Emergency surgical patients at risk for cardiac arrest should be promptly managed, with facilities available not only during the operation but also during the pre- to postoperative period.
Two tests are discussed, for testing statistically whether a subject, given a list of words in mixed categories, tends to recall them in groups by category. One of the tests has already appeared in the literature, and some related mathematical results are...
Fluid loading (FL) before Shuttle reentry is a countermeasure currently in use by NASA to improve the orthostatic tolerance of astronauts during reentry and postflight. The fluid load consists of water and salt tablets equivalent to 32 oz (946 ml) of isotonic saline. However, the effectiveness of this countermeasure has been observed to decrease with the duration of spaceflight. The countermeasure's effectiveness may be improved by enhancing fluid retention using analogs of vasopressin such as lypressin (LVP) and desmopressin (dDAVP). In a computer simulation study reported previously, we attempted to assess the improvement in fluid retention obtained by the use of LVP administered before FL. The present study is concerned with the use of dDAVP. In a recent 24-hour, 6 degree head-down tilt (HDT) study involving seven men, dDAVP was found to improve orthostatic tolerance as assessed by both lower body negative pressure (LBNP) and stand tests. The treatment restored Luft's cumulative stress index (cumulative product of magnitude and duration of LBNP) to nearly pre-bedrest level. The heart rate was lower and stroke volume was marginally higher at the same LBNP levels with administration of dDAVP compared to placebo. Lower heart rates were also observed with dDAVP during stand test, despite the lower level of cardiovascular stress. These improvements were seen with only a small but significant increase in plasma volume of approximately 3 percent. This paper presents a computer simulation analysis of some of the results of this HDT study.
Srinivasan, R. S.; Simanonok, K. E.; Charles, J. B.
We hypothesized that consuming eggs for breakfast would significantly lower postprandial satiety and energy intake throughout the day. Using a crossover design, 21 men, 20 to 70 years old, consumed 2 isoenergetic test breakfasts, in a random order separated by 1 week. The macronutrient composition of the test breakfasts were as follows: (EGG, % CHO/fat/protein = 22:55:23) and (BAGEL, % CHO/fat/protein = 72:12:16). Fasting blood samples were drawn at baseline before the test breakfast and at 30, 60, 120, and 180 minutes after breakfast. After 180 minutes, subjects were given a buffet lunch and asked to eat until satisfied. Subjects filled out Visual Analog Scales (VAS) during each blood draw and recorded food intake the days before and after the test breakfasts. Plasma glucose, insulin, and appetite hormones were analyzed at each time point. Subjects consumed fewer kilocalories after the EGG breakfast compared with the BAGEL breakfast (P< .01). In addition, subjects consumed more kilocalories in the 24-hour period after the BAGEL compared with the EGG breakfast (P < .05). Based on VAS, subjects were hungrier and less satisfied 3 hours after the BAGEL breakfast compared with the EGG breakfast (P < .01). Participants had higher plasma glucose area under the curve (P < .05) as well as an increased ghrelin and insulin area under the curve with BAGEL (P < .05). These findings suggest that consumption of eggs for breakfast results in less variation of plasma glucose and insulin, a suppressed ghrelin response, and reduced energy intake. PMID:20226994
Ratliff, Joseph; Leite, Jose O; de Ogburn, Ryan; Puglisi, Michael J; VanHeest, Jaci; Fernandez, Maria Luz
Forty one patients with hairy cell leukemia (HCL) were treated with 2-chloro-deoxyadenosine (2-CdA) administered in various schedules. Complete remission (CR) was achieved in 31 (76%) patients and partial remission (PR) in 9 (22%). The mean duration of remission (CR + PR) was 25.2 months (range 9-45 months). One patient did not respond to therapy. Twelve out of 16 patients (75%) achieved CR after 5-day intravenous infusions of 2-CdA and 19 out of 25 patients (76%) after 7-day courses. In 19 out of 23 patients (82.6%) CR was achieved after intermittent 2-hour infusions and in 12 out of 18 (66.7%) after continuous 24-hour infusion. The differences were not statistically significant. Side effects of 2-CdA were similar in both groups except for infections, which were less frequently observed in the group treated for 5 days. The results of our study suggest that 2-CdA can be effectively administered to patients with HCL using 5-day courses and a 2-hour daily infusion. PMID:8724536
Robak, T; B?asi?ska-Morawiec, M; Krykowski, E; Hansz, J; Komarnicki, M; Kazimierczak, M; Konopka, L; Maj, S; Hellmann, A; Zaucha, J M; Urasi?ski, L; Zdziarska, B; Kotlarek-Haus, S; Usnarska-Zubkiewicz, L; Kuratowska, Z; Dwilewicz-Trojaczek, J; Ho?owiecki, J; Krawczyk-Kulis, M; Grieb, P
A case-control study was conducted to assess the daily loading of the spine as a risk factor for acute non-specific low back pain (acute LBP). Acute LBP is a benign, self-limiting disease, with a recovery rate of 80-90% within 6 weeks irrespective of the treatment type. Unfortunately, recurrence rates are high. Therefore, prevention of acute LBP could be beneficial. The 24-Hour Schedule (24HS) is a questionnaire developed to quantify physical spinal loading, which is regarded as a potential and modifiable risk factor for acute and recurrent low back pain. A total of 100 cases with acute LBP and 100 controls from a primary care setting were included. Cases and controls completed questionnaires regarding acute LBP status and potential risk factors. Trained examiners blinded to subjects' disease status (acute LBP or not) assessed spinal loading using the 24HS. The mean difference of 24HS sum-scores between groups was statistically significant (P < 0.0001). After multivariate regression analysis, previous episode(s), the 24HS and the Nottingham Health Profile were associated with the presence of acute LBP. High 24HS scores, indicating longer and more intensive spinal loading in flexed position, are strongly associated with acute LBP. PMID:16649030
Bakker, Eric W P; Verhagen, Arianne P; Lucas, Cees; Koning, Hans J C M F; de Haan, Rob J; Koes, Bart W
We evaluated the efficacy of amlodipine and olmesartan (A/O; Azor) versus losartan and hydrochlorothiazide (L/H; Hyzaar), on changes in serum and urine biomarkers of inflammation and oxidation, neutrophil reactive oxygen species generation, and changes in systolic blood pressure (BP), diastolic BP, and heart rate as measured with 24hours ambulatory BP monitoring in a high-risk, hypertensive African-American population with the metabolic syndrome. Sixty-six African-American subjects with Stage 1 and 2 hypertension and characteristics of the metabolic syndrome were treated in open-label, active comparator fashion for 20 weeks. After 14 weeks of therapy, treatment with A/O had a significant effect on reducing the production of reactive oxygen series, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, F2 isoprostane, myeloperoxidase, and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance while L/H treatment only significantly lowered levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance. Treatment with A/O showed a trend of a more immediate and sustained systolic and diastolic BP-lowering, as well as night time BP reduction. In addition to a trend toward lower blood pressure, treatment with A/O in comparison with L/H has superior efficacy in reducing reactive oxygen species generation and production of inflammatory and oxidative biomarkers in a hypertensive African-American population with features of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:23835112
Merchant, Nadya; Rahman, Syed T; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Parrott, Janice M; Johnson, Julie; Ferdinand, Keith C; Khan, Bobby V
Much of California's Central Valley (CV) has been designated by the USEPA as nonattainment areas for the 24-hour PM2.5 NAAQS. This large valley comprises the Sacramento Valley (SV) to the north and San Joaquin Valley (SJV) to the south. Exceedances of the 24-hour PM2.5 NAAQS occurred during the winter season for these three regions. We investigated how large-scale weather systems impacted the CV such that inter-regional episodes of high PM2.5 levels developed to impacts various locations with different timings. The goal of the clustering was to identify mesoscale flows impacting PM2.5 levels and associate them with large-scale weather systems. The CV was divided into three subregions with SV retained intact, while the SJV was split into northern and southern subregions denoted SJV-N and SJV-S, respectively. Clustering was based on hourly surface wind measurements recorded at 8, 5, and 6 surface monitoring locations, respectively, for the SV, SJV-N, and SJV-S. Data covered 8 winter seasons 1999-2007. Clustering was conducted to identify surface air flow patterns for each subregion. Associations between the surface and aloft conditions were then established based on analysis of composite weather maps. For all three subregions, the clustering identified the same basic three aloft large-scale weather systems. These three systems were a high pressure ridge (R), an upper level trough (V) and a midlatitude storm system (Z). Many of the highest PM2.5 levels occurred under ridging patterns. Various types of ridging patterns were observed under which the position of the ridge caused different flow patterns to develop in the different subregions. A ridge approaching the CV from over the Pacific Ocean tended to push winds from the north through the SV and into the SJV under highly stable atmosphere. Conditions tended to stagnate as the ridge passed over the CV, especially under intense and slow moving ridges. Stormy systems tended to reduce PM2.5 levels eventually, especially where rain occurred. A storm typically brought strong winds from the south through the SJV and into the SV under unstable conditions with high wind speeds allowing for potentially considerable transport distances. Exceedances could occur in certain downwind locations during the initial stormy days, before the turbulent and rainy conditions resulted in lowered PM2.5 levels. Exceedances were also likely in the sheltered SJV-S, which lied in the CV's rain shadow. Pattern V represented ventilated conditions leading to increased mixing and lower PM2.5 levels overall. The clustering identified a number of representative exceedance types occurring in different regions of the CV as a weather system passed overhead. It also allowed estimation of the frequencies of occurrence of such episodes, based on the 8-year record utilized in the study. This information will be used to select representative weather patterns to simulate when modeling CV PM2.5 levels for developing emissions controls to bring it into attainment of the NAAQS. The results demonstrate the different types of exceedances occur for different areas, such that a single control strategy may not optimally address all CV locations.
The prospects for "24hour" commuter flights to the Moon, similar to that portrayed in 2001: A Space Odyssey but on a more Spartan scale, are examined using two near term, "high leverage" technologies--liquid oxygen (LOX)-augmented nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) propulsion and "lunar-derived" oxygen (LUNOX) production. Ironrich volcanic glass, or "orange soil," discovered during the Apollo 17 mission to Taurus-Littrow, has produced a 4% oxygen yield in recent NASA experiments using hydrogen reduction. LUNOX development and utilization would eliminate the need to transport oxygen supplies from Earth and is expected to dramatically reduce the size, cost and complexity of space transportation systems. The LOX-augmented NTR concept (LANTR) exploits the high performance capability of the conventional liquid hydrogen (LH2)-cooled NTR and the mission leverage provided by LUNOX in a unique way, LANTR utilizes the large divergent section of its nozzle as an "afterburner" into which oxygen is injected and supersonically combusted with nuclear preheated hydrogen emerging front the engine's choked sonic throat--essentially "scramjet propulsion in reverse." By varying the oxygen-to-hydrogen mixture ratio, the LANTR engine can operate over a wide range of thrust and specific impulse (Isp) values while the reactor core power level remains relatively constant. The thrust augmentation feature of LANTR means that "big engine" performance can be obtained using smaller, more affordable, easier to test NTR engines. The use of high-density LOX in place of low-density LH2 also reduces hydrogen mass and tank volume resulting in smaller space vehicles. An implementation strategy and evolutionary lunar mission architecture is outlined which requires only Shuttle C or "in-line" Shuttle-derived launch vehicles, and utilizes conventional NTR-powered lunar transfer vehicles (LTVs), operating in an "expendable mode" initially, to maximize delivered surface payload on each mission. The increased payload is dedicated to installing "modular" LUNOX production units with the intent of supplying LUNOX to lunar landing vehicles (LLVS) and then LTVs at the earliest possible opportunity. Once LUNOX becomes available in low lunar orbit (LLO), monopropellant NTRs would be outfitted with an oxygen propellant module, feed system and afterburner nozzle for "bipropellant" operation. Transition to a "reusable" mission architecture now occurs with smaller, LANTR-powered LTVs delivering approximately 400% more payload on each piloted round trip mission than earlier expendable "all LH2" NTR systems. As initial lunar outposts grow to eventual lunar settlements and LUNOX production capacity increases, the LANTR concept can enable a rapid "commuter" shuttle capable of 24hour "one way" trips to and from the Moon, A vast deposit of"iron-rich" volcanic glass beads identified at just one candidate site--located at the southeastern edge of Mare Serenitatis--could supply, sufficient LUNOX to support daily commuter flights to the Moon for the next 9000 years!
The prospects for 24hour commuter flights to the Moon, similar to that portrayed in 2001: A Space Odyssey but on a more Spartan scale, are examined using two near term, high leverage technologies: liquid oxygen (LOX)-augmented nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) propulsion and lunar-derived oxygen (LUNOX) production. Iron-rich volcanic glass, or orange soil, discovered during the Apollo 17 mission to Taurus-Littrow, has produced a 4 percent oxygen yield in recent NASA experiments using hydrogen reduction. LUNOX development and utilization would eliminate the need to transport oxygen supplies from Earth and is expected to dramatically reduce the size, cost and complexity of space transportation systems. The LOX-augmented NTR concept (LANTR) exploits the high performance capability of the conventional liquid hydrogen (LH2)-cooled NTR and the mission leverage provided by LUNOX in a unique way. LANTR utilizes the large divergent section of its nozzle as an afterburner into which oxygen is injected and supersonically combusted with nuclear preheated hydrogen emerging from the engine's choked sonic throat, essentially scramjet propulsion in reverse. By varying the oxygen-to-hydrogen mixture ratio, the LANTR engine can operate over a wide range of thrust and specific impulse (Isp) values while the reactor core power level remains relatively constant. The thrust augmentation feature of LANTR means that big engine performance can be obtained using smaller, more affordable, easier to test NTR engines. The use of high-density LOX in place of low density LH2 also reduces hydrogen mass and tank volume resulting in smaller space vehicles. An implementation strategy and evolutionary lunar mission architecture is outlined which requires only Shuttle C or in-line Shuttle-derived launch vehicles, and utilizes conventional NTR-powered lunar transfer vehicles (LTVs), operating in an expendable mode initially, to maximize delivered surface payload on each mission. The increased payload is dedicated to installing modular LUNOX production units with the intent of supplying LUNOX to lunar landing vehicles (LLVs) and then LTVs at the earliest possible opportunity. Once LUNOX becomes available in low lunar orbit (LLO), monopropellant NTRs would be outfitted with an oxygen propellant module, feed system and afterburner nozzle for bipropellant operation. Transition to a reusable mission architecture now occurs with smaller, LANTR-powered LTVs delivering 400% more payload on each piloted round trip mission than earlier expendable all LH2 NTR systems. As initial lunar outposts grow to eventual lunar settlements and LUNOX production capacity increases, the LANTR concept can enable a rapid commuter shuttle capable of 24hour one way trips to and from the Moon. A vast deposit of iron-rich volcanic glass beads identified at just one candidate site located at the southeastern edge of Mare Serenitatis could supply sufficient LUNOX to support daily commuter flights to the Moon for the next 9000 years!
The prospects for "24hour" commuter flights to the Moon. similar to that portrayed in 2001: A Space Odyssey but on a more Spartan scale. are examined using two near term. "high leverage" technologies-liquid oxygen (LOX)-augmented nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) propulsion and "lunar-derived" oxygen (LUNOX) production. Iron-rich volcanic glass. or "orange soil," discovered during the Apollo 17 mission to Taurus-Littrow. has produced a 4% oxygen yield in recent NASA experiments using hydrogen reduction. LUNOX development and utilization would eliminate the need to transport oxygen supplies from Earth and is expected to dramatically reduce the size, cost and complexity of space transportation systems. The LOX-augmented NTR concept (LANTR) exploits the high performance capability of the conventional liquid hydrogen (LH2)-cooled NTR and the mission leverage provided by LUNOX in a unique way. LANTR utilizes the large divergent section of its nozzle as an "afterburner" into which oxygen is injected and supersonically combusted with nuclear preheated hydrogen emerging from the engine's choked sonic throat-essentially "scramjet propulsion in reverse." By varying the oxygen-to-hydrogen mixture ratio, the LANTR engine can operate over a wide range of thrust and specific impulse (Isp) values while the reactor core power level remains relatively constant. The thrust augmentation feature of LANTR means that "big engine" performance can be obtained using smaller. more affordable. easier to test NTR engines. The use of high-density LOX in place of low-density LH2 also reduces hydrogen mass and tank volume resulting in smaller space vehicles. An implementation strategy and evolutionary lunar mission architecture is outlined which requires only Shuttle C or "in-line" Shuttle-derived launch vehicles, and utilizes conventional NTR-powered lunar transfer vehicles (LTVs), operating in an "expendable mode" initially, to maximize delivered surface payload on each mission. The increased payload is dedicated to installing "modular" LUNOX production units with the intent of supplying LUNOX to lunar landing vehicles (LLVs) and then LTVs at the earliest possible opportunity. Once LUNOX becomes available in low lunar orbit (LLO), monopropellant NTRs would be outfitted with an oxygen propellant module, feed system and afterburner nozzle for "bipropellant" operation. Transition to a "reusable" mission architecture now occurs with smaller, LANTR-powered LTVs delivering approximately 400% more payload on each piloted round trip mission than earlier expendable "all LH2" NTR systems. As initial lunar outposts grow to eventual lunar settlements and LUNOX production capacity increases, the LANTR concept can enable a rapid "commuter" shuttle capable of 24hour "one way" trips to and from the Moon. A vast deposit of "iron-rich" volcanic glass beads identified at just one candidate site - located at the southeastern edge of Mare Serenitatis - could supply sufficient LUNOX to support daily commuter flights to the Moon for the next 9000 years'.
The study investigated the capacity of the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF) to discriminate between those who frequently recall dreams and those who do not. The results are interpreted as indicating that the frequent recaller experiences less and the infrequent recaller experiences more intrapsychic conflict. (Author)
Previous literature has shown mixed results regarding the association between blood pressure levels and brain volume reduction. The objectives of this study were to determine whether high blood pressure levels were associated with focal brain volume reduction and whether high blood pressure-related focal brain volume reduction was associated with a decline in executive function performance. On the basis of a cross-sectional design, 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure measurements, as well as brain morphology from 3-dimensional magnetic resonance images, were assessed among 183 participants (mean, 65 ± 0.6 years; 62.4% women). Average levels of systolic and diastolic blood pressures, as well as dip, pulse pressure, and mean arterial blood pressure, were used as outcomes. Cortical gray and white matter volumes were determined by automatic calculation using Statistical Parametric Mapping segmentation. Folstein's Mini-Mental State Examination, digit span, part B of Trail Making, and Stroop tests were used to assess executive function performance. Sex, use of antihypertensive drugs, duration of hypertension, leukoaraiosis, body mass index, education level, and total brain matter volume were used as potential confounders. A significant blood pressure-related decrease in gray matter volume of the left supplementary motor areas (Brodmann area 6) and of the left superior and middle frontal gyrus (Brodmann area 8) was shown. No significant decrease was found with white matter volume. Blood pressure-related decreases in gray matter volume were significantly associated with a decline in executive function performance. The association of high blood pressure with brain volume reduction may in part explain blood pressure-related cognitive decline leading to dementia. PMID:23045461
Background The beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet have been amply proven in adults with cardiovascular risk factors. The effects of this diet have not been extensively assessed in pediatric populations with obesity, insulin resistance (IR) and metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of the Mediterranean style diet (MSD) to decrease cardiovascular risk factors in children and adolescents with obesity. Methods Participants were randomly assigned to a MSD rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, fiber, flavonoids and antioxidants (60% of energy from carbohydrate, 25% from fat, and 15% from protein, (n?=?24); or a standard diet (55% of carbohydrate, 30% from fat and 15% from protein, (n?=?25), the caloric ingest was individualized. At baseline and 16-week of intervention, the glucose, triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), HDL-C, LDL-C were measured as well as the body composition and anthropometric data. The diet compliance was determined by the 24-hourrecalls. Paired Student’s t and Macnemar’s test were used to compare effects in biochemical, body composition, anthropometric, and dietary variables. Results The MSD group had a significantly decrease in BMI, lean mass, fat mass, glucose, TC, TG, HDL-C and LDL-C. (p?0.05); the diet compliance increased consumption of omega 9 fatty acids, zinc, vitamin E, selenium, and decreased consumption of saturated fatty acids (p?0.05). The standard diet group decrease in glucose levels and frequency of glucose >100 mg/dL (p?0.05). Conclusion The MSD improves the BMI, glucose and lipid profile in children and adolescents with obesity and any MetS component.
This paper reports two cued recall experiments in which the degree of preexperimental associative strength between rhyming\\u000a cues and their respective targets is manipulated whilst holding the extent of informational overlap between them constant.\\u000a Both experiments show that strong rhyming cues are more efficient than weak rhyming cues in eliciting target retrieval in\\u000a both a short-term and a long-term memory
Studied the effects of Ritalin on 2-hr story recall, 2-day story retention, and 2-day changes on screening tests of achievement in 16 male and 4 female primary-grade underachieving children. Ss were of average intelligence and free of both demonstrable neurological impairment and major psychological problems. Comparisons of drug and no-drug responses showed a significant positive drug effect on 2-hr story
Spices and herbs are rich in polyphenols and widely used in habitual diets in the tropical regions. To elucidate their effects on human health, intake of the portion of spices and herbs from habitual diets should be determined. Consumption patterns were determined from 24-hour records or recalls of 181 men and 370 women in Khonkaen and Ubon Ratchathani provinces, representing upper and lower northeast Thailand. There was a slight variation in dishes, but twelve spices/herbs were commonly used in the two areas. The amounts of spices/ herbs in the four most common dishes (Somtum, Jaew, Pon and Kang-Nor-Mai) were estimated by weighing ingredients before and after cooking. The average amount of spices/herbs consumed was 4.9, 26.1, 14 and 11 g/meal, contributing 36.6, 43.1, 20.6 and 29.8 mg polyphenols/meal for Somtum, Jaew, Pon and Kang- Nor-Mai, respectively. Chili was common in all recipes, with an average amount of 8.3-27.5 mg polyphenols/meal. In conclusion, habitual northeast Thai diets contain several spices/herbs and a substantial amount of polyphenols was commonly consumed. PMID:22691861
Tantipopipat, S; Boonpraderm, A; Charoenkiatkul, S; Wasantwisut, E; Winichagoon, P
Background The purpose of this study was to examine the sex and age-related differences in performance in a draft-legal ultra-cycling event. Methods Age-related changes in performance across years were investigated in the 24-hour draft-legal cycling event held in Schötz, Switzerland, between 2000 and 2011 using multi-level regression analyses including age, repeated participation and environmental temperatures as co-variables. Results For all finishers, the age of peak cycling performance decreased significantly (? = ?0.273, p = 0.036) from 38 ± 10 to 35 ± 6 years in females but remained unchanged (? = ?0.035, p = 0.906) at 41.0 ± 10.3 years in males. For the annual fastest females and males, the age of peak cycling performance remained unchanged at 37.3 ± 8.5 and 38.3 ± 5.4 years, respectively. For all female and male finishers, males improved significantly (? = 7.010, p = 0.006) the cycling distance from 497.8 ± 219.6 km to 546.7 ± 205.0 km whereas females (? = ?0.085, p = 0.987) showed an unchanged performance of 593.7 ± 132.3 km. The mean cycling distance achieved by the male winners of 960.5 ± 51.9 km was significantly (p < 0.001) greater than the distance covered by the female winners with 769.7 ± 65.7 km but was not different between the sexes (p > 0.05). The sex difference in performance for the annual winners of 19.7 ± 7.8% remained unchanged across years (p > 0.05). The achieved cycling distance decreased in a curvilinear manner with advancing age. There was a significant age effect (F = 28.4, p < 0.0001) for cycling performance where the fastest cyclists were in age group 35–39 years. Conclusion In this 24-h cycling draft-legal event, performance in females remained unchanged while their age of peak cycling performance decreased and performance in males improved while their age of peak cycling performance remained unchanged. The annual fastest females and males were 37.3 ± 8.5 and 38.3 ± 5.4 years old, respectively. The sex difference for the fastest finishers was ~20%. It seems that women were not able to profit from drafting to improve their ultra-cycling performance.
In list learning paradigms with free recall, written recall has been found to be less susceptible to intrusions of related concepts than spoken recall when the list items had been visually presented. This effect has been ascribed to the use of stored orthographic representations from the study phase during written recall (Kellogg, 2001). In other memory retrieval paradigms, by contrast, either better recall for modality-congruent items or an input-independent writing superiority effect have been found (Grabowski, 2005). In a series of four experiments using a paired associate learning paradigm we tested (a) whether output modality effects on verbal recall can be replicated in a paradigm that does not involve the rejection of semantically related intrusion words, (b) whether a possible superior performance for written recall was due to a slower response onset for writing as compared to speaking in immediate recall, and (c) whether the performance in paired associate word recall was correlated with performance in an additional episodic memory recall task. We observed better written recall in the first half of the recall phase, irrespective of the modality in which the material was presented upon encoding. An explanation for this effect based on longer response latencies for writing and hence more time for memory retrieval could be ruled out by showing that the effect persisted in delayed response versions of the task. Although there was some evidence that stored additional episodic information may contribute to the successful retrieval of associate words, this evidence was only found in the immediate response experiments and hence is most likely independent from the observed output modality effect. In sum, our results from a paired associate learning paradigm suggest that superior performance for written vs. spoken recall cannot be (solely) explained in terms of additional access to stored orthographic representations from the encoding phase. Our findings rather suggest a general writing-superiority effect at the time of memory retrieval.
Two studies assessed the ability of 12 pre-school children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD; N = 7) or Specific Language Impairment (SLI; N = 5) to use semantic context and eye gaze to infer the meanings of novel nouns, and to recall those meanings after a 24-hour delay. In Experiment 1, the children heard statements containing a familiar,…
Background: The aim of the study was to compare albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR) in the morning urine sample with the 24-hour urinary albumin excretion in diabetic patients by using facilities available in Iran, also determining correlation between them and day to day variation of ACR. Methods: In this 8-month long cross-sectional study conducted in the year ending on 20
Valizadeh M; Nasser Farahmand A; Mousavi Nasab N; Tabatabaei Malazy O
From January 17 until the morning of January 20, 2007 a 47-year old career LT worked for three 24-hour consecutive shifts. During those shifts his assigned company responded to 22 emergency calls which precluded the LT from getting much sleep during the l...
Proper nutrition during gestation is important to prevent adverse pregnancy outcomes. Eggs contain many important nutrients necessary for fetal development and human survival. Three focus groups were conducted with Latina women living in Connecticut to identify cultural beliefs toward egg consumption during pregnancy, traditional egg dishes, and methods of preparation. A cross-sectional study was then carried out with a sample of predominately Puerto Rican pregnant Latinas (N = 241) to identify the frequency of consumption of eggs and egg-containing dishes as well as methods of preparation using a tailored food frequency questionnaire modified for this population. Paired sample t-tests were used to examine if there were differences in weekly mean egg intake patterns between the year prior to the pregnancy and during pregnancy based on a Food Frequency Questionnaire. Women were categorized into eggs consumers and non-consumers if they consumed or did not consume eggs during the previous day based on 24-hourrecall data. Independent-sample t-test and chi-square cross-tabulation analyses were conducted to examine the association between egg consumption and nutrient intake categories. Results showed that eggs and egg-containing traditional dishes are consumed by Latinas before and during pregnancy. Egg consumers had higher intakes of protein, fat, vitamin K, vitamin E, selenium, beta carotene, lutein and zeaxanthin, cholesterol, total polyunsaturated fatty acids, and docosahexaenoic acid. Eggs contribute significantly to the diet of pregnant Latinas.
Bermudez-Millan, Angela; Hromi-Fiedler, Amber; Damio, Grace; Segura-Perez, Sofia; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael
People remember emotional and taboo words better than neutral words. It is well known that words that are processed at a deep (i.e., semantic) level are recalled better than words processed at a shallow (i.e., purely visual) level. To determine how depth of processing influences recall of emotional and taboo words, a levels of processing paradigm was used. Whether this effect holds for emotional and taboo words has not been previously investigated. Two experiments demonstrated that taboo and emotional words benefit less from deep processing than do neutral words. This is consistent with the proposal that memories for taboo and emotional words are a function of the arousal level they evoke, even under shallow encoding conditions. Recall was higher for taboo words, even when taboo words were cued to be recalled after neutral and emotional words. The superiority of taboo word recall is consistent with cognitive neuroscience and brain imaging research. PMID:18437803
Jay, Timothy; Caldwell-Harris, Catherine; King, Krista
Maternal diet quality influences birth outcomes. Yet, little research exists that assesses women's diet quality during the first trimester of pregnancy, a crucial time of placental and fetal development. This cross-sectional study, describing diet quality and its relationship with stress, depression, social support, and eating habits in the first trimester, may identify low-income women needing intensive dietary intervention. Seventy-one low-income women completed validated instruments measuring stress, depression, social support, and eating habits; had their height and weight measured; received training on portion-size estimation; and completed three 24-hour dietary recalls (1 weekend day and 2 nonconsecutive weekdays) from July 2009 to February 2010. Comparative and correlational analyses were done. Women with diet quality scores below the median (n=35) had more depression (9.6±5.1 vs 6.7±5.1) and stress (22.1±5.4 vs 19.3±4.8) and less control over meal preparation (5.0±1.5 vs 4.2±1.5) and support from others (52.0±12.0 vs 57.4±7.2) than did women with high diet quality scores (n=36). Diet quality was negatively related to depression (r=-0.41), stress (r=-0.35), skipping meals (r=-0.41), and control over meal preparation (r=-0.33), and positively related to support from others (r=0.38). Low-income women experiencing life stressors represent an at-risk group for low diet quality and may need intensive dietary intervention before and during pregnancy. More research designed to improve diet quality in low-income pregnant women is needed. PMID:23017572
Fowles, Eileen R; Stang, Jamie; Bryant, Miranda; Kim, Sunghun
Background Despite the key role that women from limited income families play as family food providers and their high risk for diet-related chronic diseases, there is a paucity of data about their diet quality and how it might vary by race/ethnicity. Objective To compare nutrient and food intakes of multi-ethnic mothers with children in Head Start from Texas and Alabama. Design Cross-sectional, secondary data analysis. Methods The sample was 603 mothers, 33% Hispanic American from Texas; 19% African American from Texas; 24% African American from Alabama; and 24% white from Alabama who were interviewed from fall 2004 to spring 2005. Diet quality was evaluated by averaging 24-hour dietary recalls from 3 nonconsecutive days and calculating the percent meeting the Estimated Average Requirement, the Dietary Guidelines for fat and added sugar, and the mean adequacy ratio for eight nutrients. For multiple comparisons, the least square means statement was used for general linear model procedures, adjusted for age, body mass index, and energy intake. Results The average mean adequacy ratio scores for diet quality were low overall, but 44% of Hispanic Americans had mean adequacy ratio scores <85, whereas 96% to 97% of other groups did. Most mothers exceeded 35% of energy from fat, with Hispanic Americans having the lowest percentage. Overall, 15% of mothers exceeded 25% of energy from added sugars, with Hispanic Americans having 5% with excess intakes. Energy intakes were highest for Hispanic Americans (2,017 kcal) and lowest for African Americans (1,340 kcal). The Hispanic Americans surveyed averaged 4.6 c fruit and vegetables per day compared to 3.2, 2.3, and 2.9 c/day among African Americans from Texas, African Americans from Alabama, and whites from Alabama, respectively. Conclusions Despite limited food resources, Hispanic-American mothers consumed adequate amounts of fruit and vegetables. There was considerable variation in diet quality among race/ethnic groups on a low income budget.
HOERR, SHARON L.; TSUEI, EUGENIA; LIU, YAN; FRANKLIN, FRANK A.; NICKLAS, THERESA A.
Aim of study Sodium nitroprusside-enhanced CPR, or SNPeCPR, consists of active compression-decompression CPR with an impedance threshold device, abdominal compression, and intravenous sodium nitroprusside (SNP). We hypothesize that SNPeCPR will improve post resuscitation left ventricular function and neurological function compared to standard (S) CPR after 15 min of untreated ventricular fibrillation in a porcinemodel of cardiac arrest. Methods Pigs (n = 22) anesthetized with isoflurane underwent 15 min of untreated ventricular fibrillation, were then randomized to 6 min of S-CPR (n = 11) or SNPeCPR (n = 11) followed by defibrillation. The primary endpoints were neurologic function as measured by cerebral performance category (CPC) score and left ventricular ejection fraction. Results SNPeCPR increased 24-hour survival rates compared to S-CPR (10/11 versus 5/11, p = 0.03) and improved neurological function (CPC score 2.5± 1, versus 3.8 ± 0.4, respectively, p = 0.004). Left ventricular ejection fractions at 1, 4 and 24hours after defibrillation were 72± 11, 57± 11.4 and 64 ± 11 with SNPeCPR versus 29 ± 10, 30 ± 17 and 39 ± 6 with S-CPR, respectively (p < 0.01 for all). Conclusions In this pig model, after 15 min of untreated ventricular fibrillation, SNPeCPR significantly improved 24-hour survival rates, neurologic function and prevented post-resuscitation left ventricular dysfunction compared to S-CPR.
Schultz, Jason; Segal, Nicolas; Kolbeck, James; Caldwell, Emily; Thorsgard, Marit; McKnite, Scott; Aufderheide, Tom P.; Lurie, Keith G.; Yannopoulos, Demetris
Background The objectives of this phase I study were to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), toxicity profile and pharmacokinetics of a 24-hour continuous intravenous infusion of trabectedin administered to children and adolescents with refractory or relapsed solid tumors. Procedure Patients between the ages of 4 and 16 years old with refractory solid tumors received trabectedin as a 24-hour infusion every 21 days. Dexamethasone and prophylactic growth factor support were administered with each cycle. Pharmacokinetic studies were conducted during cycle 1. Results Patients (n=12) median (range) age 14.5 (8–16) years received trabectedin at 1.1 (n=3), 1.5 (n=6) or 1.7 (n=3) mg/m2. At the 1.5 mg/m2 dose level, one patient had dose limiting anorexia and fatigue. At 1.7 mg/m2, 2 patients experienced dose limiting toxicity, dehydration and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) elevation. Non-dose limiting toxicities included elevated serum transaminases, myelosuppression, nausea, emesis and fatigue. Plasma pharmacokinetic parameters were similar to historical data in adults. One partial response (PR) was observed in a patient with neuroendocrine carcinoma. Stable disease (SD) (?6 cycles) was achieved in 3 patients (osteosarcoma n=2, desmoplastic small round cell tumor n=1). Conclusions The MTD of trabectedin in pediatric patients with refractory solid tumors is 1.5 mg/m2 IV over 24hours every 21 days. Dexamethasone to ameliorate hepatic toxicity and prophylactic growth factor support are required.
Chuk, Meredith K.; Aikin, Alberta; Whitcomb, Trish; Widemann, Brigitte C.; Zannikos, Peter; Bayever, Eliel; Balis, Frank M.; Fox, Elizabeth
We report methodologies for computing high-recall masks for document image content extraction, that is, the location and segmentation of regions containing handwriting, machine-printed text, photographs, blank space, etc. The resulting segmentation is pixel-accurate, which accommodates arbitrary zone shapes (not merely rectangles). We describe experiments showing that iterated classifiers can increase recall of all content types, with little loss of precision. We also introduce two methodological enhancements: (1) a multi-stage voting rule; and (2) a scoring policy that views blank pixels as a "don't care" class with other content classes. These enhancements improve both recall and precision, achieving at least 89% recall and at least 87% precision among three content types: machine-print, handwriting, and photo.
Reports an experiment in which a topical system facilitated subjects' recall of information pertinent both to highly meaningful and less meaningful issues; based upon author's doctoral study, Pennsylvania State University. (RD)
Background Postpartum weight retention is a significant risk factor for long-term weight gain. Encouraging new mothers to consume a healthy diet may result in weight loss. Objective To assess predictors of diet quality during the early postpartum period; to determine if diet quality, energy intake, and lactation status predicted weight change from five to 15 months postpartum; and to determine whether an intervention improved diet quality, reduced energy intake, and achieved greater weight loss compared to usual care. Design Randomized clinical trial (KAN-DO: Kids and Adults Now - Defeat Obesity), a family and home-based, ten-month, behavioral intervention to prevent childhood obesity, with secondary aims to improve diet and physical activity habits of mothers, in order to promote postpartum weight loss. Participants Overweight/obese, postpartum women (n=400), recruited from 14 counties in the Piedmont region of North Carolina. Intervention Eight education kits, each mailed monthly; motivational counseling; and one group class. Methods Anthropometric measurements and 24-hour dietary recalls collected at baseline (approximately five months postpartum) and follow-up (approximately ten months later). Diet quality was determined using the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005). 3 Statistical analyses Descriptive statistics, chi-square, analysis of variance, bi-and multivariate analyses were performed. Results At baseline, mothers consumed a low quality diet (HEI-2005 score = 64.4 ± 11.4). Breastfeeding and income were positive, significant predictors of diet quality; while BMI was a negative predictor. Diet quality did not predict weight change. However, total energy intake, not working outside of the home, and breastfeeding duration/intensity were negative predictors of weight loss. There were no significant differences in changes in diet quality, decreases in energy intake or weight loss between the intervention (2.3 ± 5.4 kg) and control (1.5 ± 4.7 kg) arms. Conclusions The family-based intervention did not promote postpartum weight loss. Reducing energy intake, rather than improving diet quality, should be the focus of weight loss interventions for overweight/obese postpartum women.
Wiltheiss, Gina A.; West, Deborah G.; Brouwer, Rebecca J. N.; Krause, Katrina M.; ?stbye, Truls
Background We explored the use of routine blood tests and national early warning scores (NEWS) reported within ±24hours of admission to predict in-hospital mortality in emergency admissions, using empirical decision Tree models because they are intuitive and may ultimately be used to support clinical decision making. Methodology A retrospective analysis of adult emergency admissions to a large acute hospital during April 2009 to March 2010 in the West Midlands, England, with a full set of index blood tests results (albumin, creatinine, haemoglobin, potassium, sodium, urea, white cell count and an index NEWS undertaken within ±24hours of admission). We developed a Tree model by randomly splitting the admissions into a training (50%) and validation dataset (50%) and assessed its accuracy using the concordance (c-) statistic. Emergency admissions (about 30%) did not have a full set of index blood tests and/or NEWS and so were not included in our analysis. Results There were 23248 emergency admissions with a full set of blood tests and NEWS with an in-hospital mortality of 5.69%. The Tree model identified age, NEWS, albumin, sodium, white cell count and urea as significant (p<0.001) predictors of death, which described 17 homogeneous subgroups of admissions with mortality ranging from 0.2% to 60%. The c-statistic for the training model was 0.864 (95%CI 0.852 to 0.87) and when applied to the testing data set this was 0.853 (95%CI 0.840 to 0.866). Conclusions An easy to interpret validated risk adjustment Tree model using blood test and NEWS taken within ±24hours of admission provides good discrimination and offers a novel approach to risk adjustment which may potentially support clinical decision making. Given the nature of the clinical data, the results are likely to be generalisable but further research is required to investigate this promising approach.
Mohammed, Mohammed A.; Rudge, Gavin; Watson, Duncan; Wood, Gordon; Smith, Gary B.; Prytherch, David R.; Girling, Alan; Stevens, Andrew
After storage at 4 C for 20 to 28 days, red blood cells were biochemically modified to improve their oxygen transport function which had deteriorated during liquid storage. The solution used for rejuvenation contained pyruvate, inosine, glucose, phosphate, and adenine (PIGPA Solution B). The rejuvenated red blood cells were frozen with 40% W/V glycerol in a polyolefin plastic bag and were stored in the frozen state for about 1.5 years at -80 C. After thawing and washing the red blood cells were stored at 4 C in a sodium chloride-glucose-phosphate solution for 24hours before transfusion. A pool of four to ten units was rapidly transfused to each of 14 elderly anemic recipients, 11 of whom had cardiopulmonary insufficiency. Recovery of the red blood cells after the freeze-thaw process was about 97 per cent, and after the freeze-thaw-wash process about 90 per cent. The 24-hour posttransfusion survival values were about 75 per cent, and the long-term survival values were about 85 days depending on the disease state of the recipient. The red blood cells had 1.5 times normal 2.3-DPG levels and a decreased affinity for oxygen at the time of transfusion and were able to delivery oxygen at high oxygen tension immediately after the rapid infusion of pools of from four to ten units through a 40-or 170-micron filter. Plasma hemoglobin levels were consistent with extravascular sequestration of nonviable red blood cells, and uric acid levels were not increased during the immediate 24-hour posttransfusion period. PMID:7385322
Valeri, C R; Zaroulis, C G; Vecchione, J J; Valeri, D A; Anastasi, J; Pivacek, L E; Emerson, C P
Objectives Children with an immunocompromised condition and requiring invasive mechanical ventilation have high risk of death. Such patients are commonly transitioned to rescue modes of non-conventional ventilation, including airway pressure release ventilation and high-frequency oscillatory ventilation, for acute respiratory distress syndrome refractory to conventional ventilation. Our aim was to describe our experience with airway pressure release ventilation and high-frequency oscillatory ventilation in children with an immunocompromised condition and acute respiratory distress syndrome refractory to conventional ventilation and to identify factors associated with survival. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Tertiary care, university-affiliated PICU. Patients Sixty pediatric patients with an immunocompromised condition and acute respiratory distress syndrome refractory to conventional ventilation transitioned to either airway pressure release ventilation or high-frequency oscillatory ventilation. Interventions None. Measurements and Main Results Demographic data, ventilator settings, arterial blood gases, oxygenation index, and Pao2/Fio2 were recorded before transition to either mode of nonconventional ventilation and at predetermined intervals after transition for up to 5 days. Mortality in the entire cohort was 63% and did not differ between patients transitioned to airway pressure release ventilation and high-frequency oscillatory ventilation. For both airway pressure release ventilation and high-frequency oscillatory ventilation, improvements in oxygenation index and Pao2/Fio2 at 24hours expressed as a fraction of pretransition values (oxygenation index24/oxygenation indexpre and Pao2/Fio224/Pao2/FIO2pre) reliably discriminated nonsurvivors from survivors, with receiver operating characteristic areas under the curves between 0.89 and 0.95 (p for all curves < 0.001). Sensitivity-specificity analysis suggested that less than 15% reduction in oxygenation index (90% sensitive, 75% specific) or less than 90% increase in Pao2/Fio2 (80% sensitive, 94% specific) 24hours after transition to airway pressure release ventilation were the optimal cutoffs to identify nonsurvivors. The comparable values 24hours after transition to high-frequency oscillatory ventilation were less than 5% reduction in oxygenation index (100% sensitive, 83% specific) or less than 80% increase in Pao2/Fio2 (91% sensitive, 89% specific) to identify nonsurvivors. Conclusions In this single-center retrospective study of pediatric patients with an immunocompromised condition and acute respiratory distress syndrome failing conventional ventilation transitioned to either airway pressure release ventilation or high-frequency oscillatory ventilation, improved oxygenation at 24hours expressed as Pao2/Fio224/Pao2/Fio2pre or oxygenation index24/oxygenation indexpre reliably discriminates nonsurvivors from survivors. These findings should be prospectively verified.
Yehya, Nadir; Topjian, Alexis A.; Thomas, Neal J.; Friess, Stuart H.
Early postpartum is a critical period that may initiate consumption of an unhealthful diet, which can lead to obesity and adverse lipid profiles. The Healthy Eating Index 2005 (HEI 2005) is a tool that assesses diet quality in terms of adherence to the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Previous versions of HEI have shown to be associated with serum lipids. The aim of this research is to evaluate the diet quality of women in early postpartum using the HEI 2005 and to examine the relationship of index scores with serum lipids and anthropometrics. A convenience sample of 125 multiethnic, overweight/obese women in early postpartum was recruited from urban clinics from June 2004 through April 2007. Dietary intake was measured via the average of a 24-hour dietary recall and 2-day food intake records. The HEI 2005 scores were computed to assess diet quality and were compared to anthropometrics and serum lipids. Descriptive statistics, analysis of covariance, and linear regression were utilized. This sample had low mean scores in fruits, total vegetables, whole grains, and oil components. Conversely, participants consumed more than recommended amounts of sodium, saturated fats, and discretionary calories. The HEI 2005 scores inversely predicted body mass index and low-density lipoprotein and total cholesterol, and positively predicted high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Low-income women in early postpartum exhibited poor diet quality, as indicated by low total index scores. Further studies are warranted to identify appropriate dietary modifications in this population and to confirm the association of diet quality, as assessed by this HEI 2005 index, with lipids and other markers of health. PMID:20102856
Shah, Bijal S; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H; Cahill, Jodi M; Lu, Hongxing; Graves, Glenn R
A cosmic solution to the world's upcoming energy crunch and one man's persistent drive to realize a workable and acceptable concept is described. Photovoltaic cells ,the same equipment that for 30 years has converted sunlight to electricity for communication satellites are at the core of the proposal. Once a series of 'sunsats' reach geosynchronous orbit, the cells, arranged in huge grids, are bathed in almost perpetual sunlight. Each grid is equipped with devices for converting the electricity produced by the solar cells into microwaves and transmitting them to receiving stations on earth. The rectifying antennas, or rectennas, convert the microwaves into direct-current electricity, which is fed into the local utility's power supply. The status of proposal, development and opposition to solar power satellites is discussed. Relevant technologies associated with laser development, the SDI, moon-based solar stations, and those evolving from research in other countries continue to lend credence to eventually developing a practical solar power satellite program.
This thesis starts with a review of relevant literature with regard to the effects of psychosocial interventions, including snoezelen, on apathetic, depressed and aggressive behaviour of demented persons. Then, a study with a quasi-experimental pre-test and post-test design is described, comparing six psychogeriatric wards, that implemented snoezelen in 24-h care, to six control wards, that continued in giving usual care.
Continuity of care, coordinated workers' compensation and group health coverages, and combined policies may be the solution to health care fragmentation and quality, financial, and productivity issues. PMID:9928512
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Blood pressure is not constant over the course of a 24-h period, but exhibits a predictable and characteristic rise and decline during the day. Although the general shape of this pattern is similar from patient to patient, the knowledge of an individual's blood pressure at one or two points on this curve is of no predictive value in estimating the remainder of the curve. Since critical events are associated with both the maximum and minimum blood pressures that an individual experiences, a characterization of this curve can be very important. The development of antihypertensive agents historically presumed that the reduction in blood pressure associated with therapy would be, if not constant, at least adequate throughout the entire period. However, with the advent of less frequent dosing, the importance of assuring that blood pressure was adequately controlled over the 24-h period became important. This created interest in two basic types of comparisons. One is the comparison of dosing regimens, e.g., comparing a once-a-day regimen with a twice-a-day regimen. The second is a comparison of two therapies with the same regimen; for example, two doses designed to be administered twice a day. The shape of the curves in the first case is inherently different, whereas they have a similar configuration in the second. Many techniques have been attempted, but few recommended for these types of comparisons. Examples include time series, the use of composite indices, univariate statistical procedures, multivariate procedures, and mathematical characterization of the curves with subsequent comparison of model parameters. This presentation will provide a background and overview of several of these methodologies and their relative utility. PMID:8969982
Rodda, B; Hajian, G; Tsai, K T; Mellars, L; Capece, L
Radiation recall phenomenon is a tissue reaction that develops within a previously irradiated area, precipitated by the subsequent administration of certain chemotherapeutic agents. It commonly affects the skin, but can also involve internal organs with functional consequences. To our best knowledge, this phenomenon has never been reported as a complication on the heart and should be consider as a potential cause of cardiotoxicity.
BACKGROUND: Food group intakes by US children are below recommendations and micronutrient inadequacies have been reported. There are few longitudinal data that focus on developmental changes in food and nutrient intake from early to middle childhood. We examined changes in nutrient and food group intakes over time and the tracking of intakes across middle childhood in a longitudinal sample of girls. METHODS: Three multiple-pass 24-hourdietrecalls were conducted in a sample of 181 non-Hispanic White girls at ages 5, 7, and 9 years. Food and nutrient data were averaged across 3 days. Analyses of time effects were conducted using repeated measures analysis of variance and tracking of intakes was assessed via rank analysis. RESULTS: We found significant decreases in nutrient densities (intakes per 1000 kcal) of vitamins C and D, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and zinc at age 9. Girls maintained their relative quartile positions for these micronutrients from ages 5-9. Analysis of food group data showed similar trends. At age 9, significantly fewer girls were meeting the recommendations for dairy, fruit and vegetable servings than at age 5 and girls also tended to remain in their respective quartiles over time, especially for fruit and dairy intakes. CONCLUSIONS: These results highlight the importance of developing healthy eating practices during early childhood when caretakers have considerable control over children's food intake. PMID:15169562
In epidemiological studies of diet and chronic disease, a brief yet comprehensive diet history questionnaire must aggregate some foods into food groups. A nutrient density is assigned to each food group by averaging the densities of its constituent foods. A person's intake of a given nutrient is then estimated by multiplying the reported consumption of each food group by its average nutrient density and summing over food groups. These calculations could introduce bias in multiethnic studies, if the average nutrient densities assigned to food groups are inappropriate for some ethnic populations. This issue is examined here for intakes of total fat, saturated fat, and vitamin A for U.S. blacks and whites. We used 24-hourdietrecall data from the Second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES II) to assess black-white differences in relative frequency of consumption of foods within food groups of a diet history questionnaire. We also calculated ethnic-specific average nutrient densities for each food group by weighting the densities of its foods in proportion to their frequency of consumption by black and white NHANES II participants. We found black-white differences in the frequency of consumption of foods within 14 food groups. However, blacks and whites had different average total fat densities for only 1 of the 14 food groups, no difference in saturated fat densities for any food group, and different vitamin A densities for 2 food groups. Among blacks and whites, there is no advantage to calculating ethnic-specific average nutrient densities for food groups comprised of foods with similar densities.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8108272
Dreon, D M; John, E M; DiCiccio, Y; Whittemore, A S
Three clearly distinguishable lists were given simultaneously for learning. In one condition, subjects recalled all three lists; in a second condition, each list was given a different type of retention test although one of the lists was recalled. All subj...
Background The relationship of snacking patterns on nutrient intake and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in adults is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of snacking patterns with nutrient intake, diet quality, and a selection of CVRF in adults participating in the 2001-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Methods 24-hour dietary recalls were used to determine intake and cluster analysis was used to identify the snacking patterns. Height and weight were obtained and the health indices that were evaluated included diastolic and systolic blood pressure, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, triacylglycerides, blood glucose, and insulin. Results The sample was participants (n = 18,988) 19+ years (50% males; 11% African-Americans; 72% white, 12% Hispanic-Americans, and 5% other). Cluster analyses generated 12 distinct snacking patterns, explaining 61% of the variance in snacking. Comparisons of snacking patterns were made to the no snack pattern. It was found that miscellaneous snacks constituted the most common snacking pattern (17%) followed by cakes/cookies/pastries (12%) and sweets (9%). Most snacking patterns were associated with higher energy intakes. Snacking patterns cakes/cookies/pastries, vegetables/legumes, crackers/salty snacks, other grains and whole fruit were associated with lower intakes of saturated fatty acids. Added sugars intakes were higher in the cakes/cookies/pastries, sweets, milk desserts, and soft drinks patterns. Five snack patterns (cakes/cookies/pastries, sweets, vegetable/legumes, milk desserts, soft drinks) were associated with lower sodium intakes. Several snack patterns were associated with higher intakes of potassium, calcium, fiber, vitamin A, and magnesium. Five snacking patterns (miscellaneous snacks; vegetables/legumes; crackers/salty snacks; other grains; and whole fruit) were associated with better diet quality scores. Alcohol was associated with a lower body mass index and milk desserts were associated with a lower waist circumference. No snack patterns were associated with other CVRF studied. Conclusions Overall, several snacking patterns were associated with better diet quality than those consuming no snacks. Yet, the majority of the snacking patterns were not associated with CVRF. Education is needed to improve snacking patterns in terms of nutrients to limit in the diet along with more nutrient-dense foods to be included in snacks.
Little is known about the precise nature of the processing, storage, and recall strategies functional in spatial recall. High school and college samples completed tasks in field-dependence-independence, figural creativity, and verbal abilities. Spatial recall ability was assessed through a map reconstruction task in which subjects were required to…
The forensic use of hypnosis is increasing. A hypermnesic procedure was used in an experiment that calls this practice into question. Subjects tried for a week to recall 60 previously presented pictures. They were then either hypnotized or not and encouraged to recall even more pictures. Most of the newly recalled material was incorrect, especially for highly hypnotizable subjects in
Laming [Laming, D. (2006). "Predicting free recalls." "Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition," 32, 1146-1163] has shown that, in a free-recall experiment in which the participants rehearsed out loud, entire sequences of recalls could be predicted, to a useful degree of precision, from the prior sequences of stimuli…
Testing, or retrieval practice, has become a central topic in memory research. One potentially important effect of retrieval practice has received little attention, however: Retrieval practice may enhance, or potentiate, subsequent learning. We introduce a paradigm that can measure the indirect, potentiating effect of free recall tests on subsequent learning, and then test a hypothesis for why tests have this potentiating effect. In two experiments, the benefit of a restudy trial was enhanced when prior free recall tests had been taken. Results from a third correlational study suggest that this effect may be mediated by the effect of testing on organization. Not only do encoding conditions impact later retrievability, but also retrieval attempts impact subsequent encoding effectiveness.
This study described the procedure, the theoretical rationale, and clinical material relating to the hypnotic recalling of dreams during periods of protracted "dreamless" analyses. Two clinical examples were used to demonstrate the efficacy of using a special hypnotic procedure close to the analytic free-association method for the remembering or recalling the dreams. Discussion of the clinical material found: 1. the main factors contributing to a "dreamless" analysis were to be found in the transference-countertransference resistances of the analysis; 2. the justification for introducing the special hypnotic procedure as a parameter in the analysis was discussed and confirmed; 3. the remembering-recalling of the first dream--following the hypnotic intervention--lead to the recovery of a critical childhood memory; and 4. the parameter of using hypnosis as a method of breaking the intractable resistance of a "dreamless" analysis did not become an alien force which intervened whenever strong resistances appeared. On the contrary, it seemed to serve as a temporary therapeutic mechanism for allowing an energy shift to occur in the all-or-none defensive state of a "dreamless" analysis. PMID:7644595
Background Avocados contain monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) dietary fiber, essential nutrients and phytochemicals. However, no epidemiologic data exist on their effects on diet quality, weight management and other metabolic disease risk factors. The objective of this research was to investigate the relationships between avocado consumption and overall diet quality, energy and nutrient intakes, physiological indicators of health, and risk of metabolic syndrome. Methods Avocado consumption and nutrition data were based on 24-hour dietary recalls collected by trained NHANES interviewers using the USDA Automated Multiple Pass Method (AMPM). Physiological data were collected from physical examinations conducted in NHANES Mobile Examination Centers. Diet quality was calculated using the USDA’s Healthy Eating Index-2005. Subjects included 17,567 US adults ???19 years of age (49% female), including 347 avocado consumers (50% female), examined in NHANES 2001–2008. Least square means, standard errors, and ANOVA were determined using appropriate sample weights, with adjustments for age, gender, ethnicity, and other covariates depending on dependent variable of interest. Results Avocado consumers had significantly higher intakes of vegetables (p?0.05); fruit, diet quality, total fat, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats, dietary fiber, vitamins E, K, magnesium, and potassium (p?0.0001); vitamin K (p?=?0.0013); and lower intakes of added sugars (p?0.0001). No significant differences were seen in calorie or sodium intakes. Body weight, BMI, and waist circumference were significantly lower (p?0.01), and HDL-C was higher (p?0.01) in avocado consumers. The odds ratio for metabolic syndrome was 50% (95th CI: 0.32-0.72) lower in avocado consumers vs. non-consumers. Conclusions Avocado consumption is associated with improved overall diet quality, nutrient intake, and reduced risk of metabolic syndrome. Dietitians should be aware of the beneficial associations between avocado intake, diet and health when making dietary recommendations.
The most critical point in the assessment of adherence to dietary guidelines is the development of a practical definition for adherence, such as a dietary pattern score. The purpose of this study was to develop the Korean Diet Score (KDS) based on the Korean Food Balance Wheel and to examine the association of KDS with various lifestyle characteristics and biochemical factors. The dietary data of 5,320 subjects from the 4th Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey were used for the final analysis. The food guide was composed of six food group categories; 'grain dishes', 'fish and meat dishes', 'vegetable dishes', 'fruits', 'milk' and 'oils and sugars'. Based on the recommended serving numbers for each group, the scores measuring adherence to this food guide were calculated from the dietary information from the 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire, and then its correlation with various characteristics was assessed. KDS was significantly associated with several clinical, lifestyle and socioeconomic factors as well as diagnosed disease history. The higher quintile group of KDS showed a significantly lower level in fasting blood glucose, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, current smoking and drinking as well as higher leisure time activity, house income and education. Furthermore, the KDS quintile group of women was inversely associated with hypertension, osteoporosis and diabetes. A higher KDS quintile was characterized with a higher intake of several critical nutrients, such as Ca, Fe and vitamins as well as a desirable nutrition balance such as the ratio of macronutrients. Our results demonstrate that KDS is a beneficial tool in assessing the adherence to a healthy diet based on the Korean dietary guidelines. We suggest that KDS could be a useful indicator for evaluating the dietary balance of the Korean population. PMID:23424060
Lee, Myoungsook; Chae, Soo Wan; Cha, Youn-Soo; Cho, Mi Sook; Oh, Hea Young; Kim, Mi Kyung
The most critical point in the assessment of adherence to dietary guidelines is the development of a practical definition for adherence, such as a dietary pattern score. The purpose of this study was to develop the Korean Diet Score (KDS) based on the Korean Food Balance Wheel and to examine the association of KDS with various lifestyle characteristics and biochemical factors. The dietary data of 5,320 subjects from the 4th Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey were used for the final analysis. The food guide was composed of six food group categories; 'grain dishes', 'fish and meat dishes', 'vegetable dishes', 'fruits', 'milk' and 'oils and sugars'. Based on the recommended serving numbers for each group, the scores measuring adherence to this food guide were calculated from the dietary information from the 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire, and then its correlation with various characteristics was assessed. KDS was significantly associated with several clinical, lifestyle and socioeconomic factors as well as diagnosed disease history. The higher quintile group of KDS showed a significantly lower level in fasting blood glucose, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, current smoking and drinking as well as higher leisure time activity, house income and education. Furthermore, the KDS quintile group of women was inversely associated with hypertension, osteoporosis and diabetes. A higher KDS quintile was characterized with a higher intake of several critical nutrients, such as Ca, Fe and vitamins as well as a desirable nutrition balance such as the ratio of macronutrients. Our results demonstrate that KDS is a beneficial tool in assessing the adherence to a healthy diet based on the Korean dietary guidelines. We suggest that KDS could be a useful indicator for evaluating the dietary balance of the Korean population.
Lee, Myoungsook; Chae, Soo Wan; Cha, Youn-Soo; Cho, Mi Sook; Oh, Hea Young
Background Organized sport provides one option for children to be physically active. However, there is a paucity of information about the relationship between children’s participation in organized sport and their diet, and specifically their sports drink consumption. Therefore, the relationship between sports participation in children and the consumption of sports drinks, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and other components of diet was examined. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted using baseline data from the Action Schools! BC Dissemination study cohort (n?=?1421; 9.90 (0.58) y; 736 girls, 685 boys). The differences between the dietary behaviours of children participating in organized sport (sport) versus those that did not participate (non-sport) was examined. A modified Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C) was used to measure physical activity levels and participation in organized sport. A Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and 24-hour dietary recall were used to assess eating behaviour and macronutrient intake (including protein, fat, and carbohydrate as well as sugar, fibre and total calories). Fruit, vegetable and beverage quantities were hand-tallied from the dietary recall. Fruit, vegetable and beverage frequency was assessed using the FFQ. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to analyse differences between groups and a chi-square test of association was use to determine if participation in sport was significantly associated with the proportion of children consuming sports drinks and SSBs, and with gender. Results Children involved in sport had a lower body mass index (BMI) and were more physically active than children in the non-sport group (p?0.01). Only a small number (n?=?20/1421) of children consumed sports drinks and no difference in consumption of sports drink between sport and non-sport participants (p?>?.05) was observed. However, children involved in organized sport consumed more total calories, fat, fibre, fruit, vegetables and non-flavoured milk (p?0.01) than non-sport children. Conclusions Children involved in organized sport were more physically active, consumed a healthier diet than non-participants and on average had lower BMI’s despite consuming more calories. As consumption of sports drinks among this age group was low, this may be an ideal time to begin educating children and their parents about the appropriate consumption of sports drinks and the perils of consuming too many SSBs, specifically.
Insufficient sleep is associated with changes in glucose tolerance, insulin secretion, and insulin action. Despite widespread use of weight-loss diets for metabolic risk reduction, the effects of insufficient sleep on glucose regulation in overweight dieters are not known. To examine the consequences of recurrent sleep restriction on 24-hour blood glucose control during diet-induced weight loss, 10 overweight and obese adults (3F/7M; mean [SD] age 41  y; BMI 27.4 [2.0] kg/m2) completed two 14-day treatments with hypocaloric diet and 8.5 or 5.5-h nighttime sleep opportunity in random order 7  months apart. Oral and intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) data, fasting lipids and free-fatty acids (FFA), and 24-hour blood glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and counter-regulatory hormone measurements were collected after each treatment. Participants had comparable weight loss (1.0 [0.3] BMI units) during each treatment. Bedtime restriction reduced sleep by 131  min/day. Recurrent sleep curtailment decreased 24-hour serum insulin concentrations (i.e. enhanced 24-hour insulin economy) without changes in oral glucose tolerance and 24-hour glucose control. This was accompanied by a decline in fasting blood glucose, increased fasting FFA which suppressed normally following glucose ingestion, and lower total and LDL cholesterol concentrations. Sleep-loss-related changes in counter-regulatory hormone secretion during the IVGTT limited the utility of the test in this study. In conclusion, sleep restriction enhanced 24-hour insulin economy without compromising glucose homeostasis in overweight individuals placed on a balanced hypocaloric diet. The changes in fasting blood glucose, insulin, lipid and FFA concentrations in sleep-restricted dieters resembled the pattern of human metabolic adaptation to reduced carbohydrate availability.
Aims: To assess the food consumption patterns in the adult population of a Mediterranean region: the Balearic Islands (BI). Methods: A cross-sectional nutritional survey was carried out in the BI between 1999 and 2000. A random sample (n = 1,200) of the adult population (16–65 years) was interviewed. Dietary habits were assessed by means of 24-hourrecall during 2 non-consecutive
Objective To assess the energy and nutrient intakes of women who are breast-feeding in relation to the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) for energy and nutrients during lactation.Design Survey using an interviewer-administered questionnaire and a 24-hour dietary recall.Subjects The subjects were 183 women breast-feeding at 3 months postpartum. All were living in low-income communities in Ontario, Canada, that were participating in
Data collected on the 2005 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) Screener are coded by frequency and time unit -- times per day, week, or month. We used USDA's 1994-96 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes of Individuals (CSFII) data on reported intakes over two days of 24-hourrecall to make judgments about reasonable frequencies of consumption that were reported on a per day basis. This helped us assess values from the CHIS Screener, some of which are highly unlikely.
In view of the similarity in chemical structure of the available 5HT(3)-receptor antagonists it is assumed, whilst these agents all act at the same receptor, that failure to one agent would predict subsequent failure to all 5HT(3)-receptor antagonists. We conducted a randomized double blind trial of granisetron 3 mg plus dexamethasone 10 mg versus continued treatment with ondansetron 8 mg plus dexamethasone 10 mg in patients with protection failure on ondansetron 8 mg plus dexamethasone 10 mg during the first 24hours following highly emetogenic chemotherapy. Of 40 eligible patients, 21 received ondansetron + dexamethasone and 19 received granisetron + dexamethasone. We found a significant benefit from crossing-over to granisetron after failure on ondansetron. Of the 19 patients who crossed over to granisetron, 9 patients obtained complete protection, whereas this was observed in 1 of the 21 patients continuing ondansetron, P = 0.005. These results indicate that there is no complete cross-resistance between 5HT(3)-receptor antagonists, and that patients who have acute protection failure on one 5HT(3)-receptor antagonist should be offered cross-over to another 5HT(3)-receptor antagonist. PMID:11710819
de Wit, R; de Boer, A C; vd Linden, G H; Stoter, G; Sparreboom, A; Verweij, J
Loop quantum cosmology predicts that, in simple models, the big bang is replaced by a quantum bounce. A natural question is whether the universe retains, after the bounce, its memory about the previous epoch. More precisely, does the Universe retain various properties of the state after evolving unitarily through the bounce, or does it suffer from recently suggested cosmic amnesia? We show that this issue can be answered unambiguously at least within an exactly solvable model. A semiclassical state at late times on one side of the bounce, peaked on a pair of canonically conjugate variables, strongly bounds the fluctuations on the other side, implying semiclassicality. For a model universe growing to 1 megaparsec, the change in relative fluctuation across the bounce is less than 10-56 (becoming smaller for larger universes). The universe maintains (an almost) total recall.
SUMMARY The effects of context reinstatement as means of enhancing 5- and 6-year-old children's event memory in repeated interviews after a 6-month delay were examined. Children were interviewed immediately after the event (baseline interview) and twice at a 6-month delay, with 24hours between interviews. The first 6-month interview was conducted in a perfect-context reinstatement (n ¼ 15), imperfect-context reinstatement
David La Rooy; Margaret-Ellen Pipe; Janice E. Murray
Summary The study aims to evaluate, at medium- and long-term follow-up, the efficacy of Nissen-Rossetti fundoplication to control both gastro-oesophageal and pharyngeal reflux, detected with the use of 24-hour pH-multi-channel intra-luminal impedance. Of the 1000 patients who underwent Nissen-Rossetti fundoplication in our Division since 1972, the laparoscopic approach was adopted in 428 consecutive patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. The study population consisted of patients from this group with one-year follow-up. Thirty-one patients had undergone pre-operative evaluation with pH-multi-channel intra-luminal impedance and were classified on the basis of clinical assessment into gastro-oesophageal, or pharyngeal reflux disease group. Pre-operative data are reported. Comparison between gastro-oesophageal reflux and pharyngeal reflux are extrapolated from pH-multi-channel intra-luminal impedance. No conversion to open surgery and no mortality occurred. A major complication occurred in 4 patients (1.1%) and led to a re-intervention in 3. An excellent outcome was reported in 92.9% of the patients at mean follow-up of 83.2 ± 7 months. Instrumental outcomes are discussed. In conclusion, Nissen-Rossetti fundoplication provides excellent protection from gastro-oesophgeal and pharyngeal reflux. The use of pH-multi-channel intra-luminal impedance is suitable in patients candidate to anti-reflux surgery to detect non-acid reflux.
Del Genio, G; Rossetti, G; Brusciano, L; Maffettone, V; Napolitano, V; Pizza, F; Tolone, S; Del Genio, A; Di Martino, M
In two experiments, interpersonal status was experimentally manipulated by assigning one dyad member to be the owner of a mock art gallery and the other to be the owner's assistant. Without forewarning, participants were asked immediately following the interaction to recall their partner's hand gestures, self-touch, gazing, smiling, and nodding. Accuracy of recall was determined by comparing these ratings to
Judith A. Hall; Jason D. Carter; Terrence G. Horgan
This study investigates different methods of increasing children's use of active rehearsal in recall, and the extent to which this active rehearsal improves their recall. Seven groups of second grade children and one group of adults were asked to memorize a list of everyday words in four study-test trials. Two of the groups of children were given…
In 6 experiments, the authors investigated list-method directed forgetting of recently recalled autobiographical memories. Reliable directed forgetting effects were observed across all experiments. In 4 experiments, the authors examined the impact of memory valence on directed forgetting. The forget instruction impaired recall of negative,…
Barnier, Amanda J.; Conway, Martin A.; Mayoh, Lyndel; Speyer, Joanne; Avizmil, Orit; Harris, Celia B.
Government agencies have increasingly requested depository libraries and the Government Printing Office to destroy or return certain documents. Most recalls fall into the categories of military security, administrative and operational security, falsified data, outright censorship, and environmental security. Requests and recalls should be…
Standardization of sequence chromatogram analysis is required for consistent genotypic tropism determination across laboratories. A freely available, fast, and automated chromatogram analysis tool (RECall) provided tropism interpretations equivalent to those of manual sequence editing of 521 V3 loop HIV-1 population sequences, suggesting that RECall can be useful in standardizing genotypic tropism testing across laboratories.
Standardization of sequence chromatogram analysis is required for consistent genotypic tropism determination across laboratories. A freely available, fast, and automated chromatogram analysis tool (RECall) provided tropism interpretations equivalent to those of manual sequence editing of 521 V3 loop HIV-1 population sequences, suggesting that RECall can be useful in standardizing genotypic tropism testing across laboratories. PMID:23761150
Background Diet therapy is the cornerstone for the management of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Carbohydrate is the primary nutrient affecting postprandial blood glucose levels. Hence, knowledge of food containing carbohydrates can assist women with GDM optimize glycemic control. Despite that, there is a paucity of research on carbohydrate-related knowledge of women with GDM. The United Arab Emirates (UAE) has one of the highest prevalence of diabetes (19.2%) in the world. This study compared diet and knowledge of carbohydrate-containing foods among pregnant women with and without GDM in the UAE. Methods The sample consisted of multi-ethnic women with GDM (n?=?94) and a control group of healthy pregnant women (n?=?90) attending prenatal clinics in three hospitals in Al Ain, UAE. Data were collected using a questionnaire and a 24-hourrecall. Knowledge of food sources of carbohydrate, dietary patterns, and nutrient intakes of the two groups were compared. Results There were no significant differences in the mean knowledge score of food sources of carbohydrate between women with GDM and that of pregnant women without GDM. Similarly, there were no significant differences in energy and nutrient intakes between the two groups with the exception of percent energy from protein. Women with GDM reported significantly lower intake of fruits and fruit juices (P?=?0.012) and higher consumption of milk and yogurt (P?=?0.004) compared to that of women without GDM. Twenty-two percent of women with GDM indicated they never visited a dietitian for counseling while 65% reported they visited a dietitian only once or twice during the pregnancy. Predictors of carbohydrate knowledge score were perceived knowledge of diet and GDM and parity among women with GDM and parity and educational level among those without GDM. Conclusion The results of the study highlight the urgent need to provide nutrition education for women with GDM in the UAE.
Ali, Habiba I.; Jarrar, Amjad H.; El Sadig, Mohamed; B. Yeatts, Karin
Abstract: Background: There is no clear evidence that early decompression following spinal cord injury (SCI) improves neurologic outcome. In this primary report for prospective, randomized clinical trial, 35 selected spinal cord injured patients with traumatic thoracolumbar spinal cord injury were randomly assigned to early surgery (before 24hours); and late surgery (24–72 hours). Methods: Seventeen patients were assigned to the early and 18 to the late surgery. Twenty-five patients (71.4%) were male. Mean age of patients was 34 ± 12 years old. The most common levels of SCI were L1, T12, and T11 in 34%, 29%, and 11%, respectively. Sixteen (62.5%) had complete SCI (American Spinal Injury Association Impaired Scale (AIS) A. Number of patients with AIS B, C, D and E were 6, 5, 4, and 4, respectively. Follow-up of patients showed AIS A, B, C, D, and E in 7, 12, 4, 5, and 6 patients, respectively. One patient (3%) was deteriorated who was from the early surgery group. No change in neurologic deficit was seen in 12 patients (34%). Eighteen patients (52%) improved one AIS grade, 8 were early and 10 late surgery. Three patients (9%) improved two AIS grades all were early surgery. Not available follow-up data for one patient (3%). Results: Only 3/7 patients with AIS A in early surgery had one AIS grade improvement. In late surgery, 6/9 patients with AIS A had just one AIS grade improvement. Mean duration of hospitalization for all SCI patients were 11 ± 10 days, which was 8 ± 8 days for early and 14±12 days for late surgery. Conclusions: Complications were two deaths, one in early surgery because of pulmonary emboli. Second death was in late surgery with unknown etiology. Two cases had deep vein thrombosis in early surgery. In late surgery, three cases had cerebrospinal fluid leak, meningitis and wound infection. Number of patients was not enough for comparing two surgery groups. However, both early and late surgery groups had some improvement in almost half of SCI patients. Keywords: Randomized controlled trial, Traumatic spinal cord injury, Thoracolumbar, Surgical decompression, Time
Objective To assess dietary costs during a family-based pediatric obesity intervention.Design Families were randomized to one of two groups. Dietary and cost data were collected from a parent or child using three 24-hourrecalls: at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months.Subjects Thirty-one families with an obese 8- to 12-year-old child entered treatment, with complete dietary data provided from 20 families.Intervention
HOLLIE A. RAYNOR; COLLEEN K. KILANOWSKI; IRINA ESTERLIS; LEONARD H. EPSTEIN
Seven children aged 7 to 9 years were auditorily presented five-digit numbers for retention intervals of 0 to 10 seconds. Pupil size was recorded during stimulus presentation, retention interval, and recall of items. (Author/SB)
This study examines the relationship between diet variety and socio-economic factors. The analysis included a 24-h recall and measures of socio-economic status from 6545 Koreans aged ? 19. Three variety measures (VM), including two diet variety scores were calculated. The more highly educated consumed a greater variety of foods than the less educated. Results suggest that VM increases faster among less educated
This study examined possible age-related differences in recall, guessing, and metacognition on free recall tests and forced recall tests. Participants studied categorised and unrelated word lists and were asked to recall the items under one of the following test conditions: standard free recall, free recall with a penalty for guessing, free recall with no penalty for guessing, or forced recall.
Mark J. Huff; Michelle L. Meade; Keith A. Hutchison
... made up of foods that come mostly from plants. These include vegetables, fruits, whole grains, legumes, seeds, ... vegetarian diets include: Vegan: Diet consists of only plant-based foods. Lacto-vegetarian: Diet consists of plant ...
Objective To determine the reliability and validity of the Multimedia Activity Recall for Children and Adults (MARCA) in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Design People with COPD and their carers completed the Multimedia Activity Recall for Children and Adults (MARCA) for four, 24-hour periods (including test-retest of 2 days) while wearing a triaxial accelerometer (Actigraph GT3X+®), a multi-sensor armband (Sensewear Pro3®) and a pedometer (New Lifestyles 1000®). Setting Self reported activity recalls (MARCA) and objective activity monitoring (Accelerometry) were recorded under free-living conditions. Participants 24 couples were included in the analysis (COPD; age 74.4±7.9 yrs, FEV1 54±13% Carer; age 69.6±10.9 yrs, FEV1 99±24%). Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measure(s) Test-retest reliability was compared for MARCA activity domains and different energy expenditure zones. Validity was assessed between MARCA-derived physical activity level (in metabolic equivalent of task (MET) per minute), duration of moderate to vigorous physical activity (min) and related data from the objective measurement devices. Analysis included intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC), Bland-Altman analyses, paired t-tests (p) and Spearman's rank correlation coefficients (rs). Results Reliability between occasions of recall for all activity domains was uniformly high, with test-retest correlations consistently >0.9. Validity correlations were moderate to strong (rs?=?0.43–0.80) across all comparisons. The MARCA yields comparable PAL estimates and slightly higher moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) estimates. Conclusion In older adults with chronic illness, the MARCA is a valid and reliable tool for capturing not only the time and energy expenditure associated with physical and sedentary activities but also information on the types of activities.
Background Oxidative stress has been identified in the peritoneal fluid and peripheral blood of women with endometriosis. However, there is little information on the antioxidant intake for this group of women. The objectives of this work were 1) to compare the antioxidant intake among women with and without endometriosis and 2) to design and apply a high antioxidant diet to evaluate its capacity to reduce oxidative stress markers and improve antioxidant markers in the peripheral blood of women with endometriosis. Methods Women with (WEN, n = 83) and without endometriosis (WWE, n = 80) were interviewed using a Food Frequency Questionnaire to compare their antioxidant intake (of vitamins and minerals). Then, the WEN participated in the application of a control (n = 35) and high antioxidant diet (n = 37) for four months. The high antioxidant diet (HAD) guaranteed the intake of 150% of the suggested daily intake of vitamin A (1050 ?g retinol equivalents), 660% of the recommended daily intake (RDI) of vitamin C (500 mg) and 133% of the RDI of vitamin E (20 mg). Oxidative stress and antioxidant markers (vitamins and antioxidant enzymatic activity) were determined in plasma every month. Results Comparison of antioxidant intake between WWE and WEN showed a lower intake of vitamins A, C, E, zinc, and copper by WEN (p < 0.05, Mann Whitney Rank test). The selenium intake was not statistically different between groups. During the study, the comparison of the 24-hourrecalls between groups showed a higher intake of the three vitamins in the HAD group. An increase in the vitamin concentrations (serum retinol, alpha-tocopherol, leukocyte and plasma ascorbate) and antioxidant enzyme activity (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) as well as a decrease in oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde and lipid hydroperoxides) were observed in the HAD group after two months of intervention. These phenomena were not observed in the control group. Conclusion WEN had a lower intake of antioxidants in comparison to WWE. Peripheral oxidative stress markers diminished, and antioxidant markers were enhanced, in WEN after the application of the HAD.
Mier-Cabrera, Jennifer; Aburto-Soto, Tania; Burrola-Mendez, Soraya; Jimenez-Zamudio, Luis; Tolentino, Mari C; Casanueva, Esther; Hernandez-Guerrero, Cesar
Background Apolipoprotein E (APOE) polymorphism is associated with lipid levels. Some studies have reported that blood lipid response to diet or obesity varies depending on APOE genotypes. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of APOE genotypes, the intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA), and obesity on serum lipid levels in Lithuanian adult population. Methodology/Principal Findings A cross-sectional health survey was carried out in five municipalities of Lithuania. The random sample was obtained from lists of 25–64 year-old inhabitants registered at primary health care centres. The data from 996 subjects (416 men and 580 women) were analysed in this study. Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (rs429358 and rs7412) were assessed using a real-time polymerase chain reaction. 24-hourrecall and food frequency questionnaire were used for evaluation of dietary habits. Serum lipids were determined using enzymatic methods. Men and women with the APOE2 genotype had the lowest level of total cholesterol (TC) (p?=?0.002 for men, and p?=?0.02 for women) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (p<0.001). Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that age, genotype APOE2, SFA intake, and body mass index (BMI) were significant determinants of TC and LDL-C level (with p values ranging from 0.043 to 0.001). Our data did not reveal any statistically significant interactions between APOE genotype and SFA intake or between APOE genotype and BMI regarding TC and LDL-C level (all p>0.05). However, the predictive power of the regression model for LDL-C improved when gene-BMI interaction and gene-BMI interaction plus gene-nutrient interaction were added (p?=?0.04 and p?=?0.032 for R2 change, respectively). Conclusions/Significance APOE genotypes, SFA intake, and obesity were found to be associated with blood lipid levels in Lithuanian adult population. Analysis of gene-diet and gene-obesity interactions did not confirm that the effects of diet and obesity on TC and LDL-C level significantly depended on APOE genotype.
Radiation recall is a rare side effect observed in patients treated with certain medications after radiation therapy. This effect mimics a radiation-induced tissue reaction in expression; however, it occurs outside of the traditional time course and only in the presence of a catalyzing agent. The authors report a case of radiation recall resulting from an interaction between radiation delivered during a fluoroscopically guided hepatic chemoembolization for treatment of metastatic carcinoid tumor and the oral chemotherapeutic agents capecitabine and temozolomide administered 7 weeks later. PMID:24968725
Background There is very little published work on dietary intake and nutritional status of Mozambicans. We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study on the diet and nutritional status of adolescent girls in different types of communities in Zambézia Province, Central Mozambique, in two distinct seasons. Objective The purpose of this paper is to present the design, methods, and study population characteristics of the Estudo do Estado Nutricional e da Dieta em Raparigas Adolescentes na Zambézia (the ZANE Study). Methods Data was collected in January-February 2010 ("hunger season") and in May-June 2010 ("harvest season"). A total of 551 girls in the age group 14-19 years old were recruited from one urban area and two districts (district towns and rural villages). The study protocol included a background interview, a 24-hour dietary recall interview, a food frequency questionnaire, anthropometric measurements, bioimpedance, hemoglobin measurement, and venous blood, urine, buccal cell, and fecal sampling. Results Adolescent motherhood was common in all study regions. Stunting prevalence for the total study population as a weighted percentage was 17.8% (95/549; 95% CI 14.3-22.0) with no regional differences. Overweight was found mainly in the urban area where the prevalence was 12.6% (20/159; 95% CI 7.5-17.6), thinness was rare. There were regional differences in the prevalence of malaria parasitemia and intestinal helminth infestation, but not human immunodeficiency virus. Conclusions The fully analyzed data from the ZANE Study will yield results useful for setting priorities in nutrition policy and further research on the diet and nutritional status in Mozambique and other countries with similar nutritional problems. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01944891; http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01944891 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6L9OUrsq8).
Many educators distribute either complete or incomplete handouts so students can follow along with their lectures. This research examines a teaching system that combines computer-generated graphics presentations and detailed outline handouts with blanks added. An experiment found that this system produced significantly higher short-term recall of…
In studies of retention of verbal material adults have repeatedly remembered less than younger adults have. A study was conducted which asked older adults to remember an experienced event, retention of experiences being considered a better indicator of functioning ability than retention of word lists. In an initial study, older adults' recall was…
Functional neuroimaging studies on the recall or imagination of a distinctive task in the motor network or of sensations in sensory systems (visual, acoustic, nociceptive, gustatory, and olfactory) demonstrated that the respective primary cortex is often involved in the mental imagery process. Our aim was to examine this phenomenon in the vestibular system using fMRI. Sixteen healthy subjects were asked to remember the feeling of a rotatory chair procedure in contrast to an identical situation at rest. Shortly afterwards they were asked to recall the vestibular experience in a 1.5-T scanner. The resulting activations were then compared with the responses of a galvanic vestibular control experiment and a rest condition. The vestibular recall showed significant bihemispheric activations in the inferior frontal gyri, the anterior operculum, the middle cingulate, the putamen, the globus pallidus, the premotor motor cortex, and the anterior insula. We found activations in regions known to play a role in spatial referencing, motor programs, and attention in the recall of vestibular sensations. But important known relay stations for the cortical processing of vestibular information showed neither relevant activations nor deactivations. PMID:22367249
zu Eulenburg, Peter; Müller-Forell, W; Dieterich, M
Subjects in an independent groups free learning experiment recalled list of low- or high-arousal words, matched for imagery and frequency and exposed randomly for 3 seconds and 9 seconds. Extrapolating neural consolidation theory to previous work on serial position effects led to the predictions that (1) arousal facilitates primacy; (2) arousal…
In order to determine what aspects of information from prose are available for recall after one presentation of a passage and what aspects are learned with additional presentations, two passages were divided into idea units. These units were placed in a logical hierarchical structure for each passage, and scores were assigned to the idea units on…
This paper advocates the view of readability as an interaction between text structure and the cognitive processes and structures possessed by a reader. A simulation model of prose comprehension that yields predictions of both propositional recall and text readability based on the frequencies of different processing events is discussed. The paper…
Background. QuikScan (QS) is an innovative design that aims to improve accessibility, comprehensibility, and subsequent recall of expository text by means of frequent within-document summaries that are formatted as numbered list items. The numbers in the QS summaries correspond to numbers placed in the body of the document where the summarized…
...out their responsibility to protect the public health and well-being from products that present a risk of injury or gross deception or are otherwise defective. This section and Â§Â§ 7.41 through 7.59 recognize the voluntary nature of recall...
Prior work on organization in free recall has focused on the ways in which semantic and temporal information determine the order in which material is retrieved from memory. Tulving's theory of ecphory suggests that these organizational effects arise from the interaction of a retrieval cue with the contents of memory. Using the…
Polyn, Sean M.; Norman, Kenneth A.; Kahana, Michael J.
When people recall together in a collaborative group, they recall less than their potential. This phenomenon of collaborative inhibition is explained in terms of retrieval disruption. However, collaborative recall also re-exposes individuals to items recalled by others that they themselves might otherwise have forgotten. This re-exposure produces post-collaborative benefits in individual recall. The current study examined whether reduced retrieval disruption during group recall is related not only to less collaborative inhibition, but also to greater post-collaborative recall benefits. To test this, we devised a paradigm to calculate the extent to which each individual experienced retrieval disruption during group recall. We also included two types of collaborative groups, one of which was expected to experience greater retrieval disruption than the other. Results suggest that the relationship between retrieval disruption and recall performance depends upon the level at which retrieval disruption is measured. When retrieval disruption was assessed at the individual level, then minimizing retrieval disruption was associated with higher recall (i.e., less collaborative inhibition and greater post-collaborative individual recall). However, when retrieval disruption was assessed at the group level there was no relationship with recall. Furthermore, the findings from this design suggest a role of cross-cueing in modulating group recall levels.
...Several commenters suggest making a Web site recall notice a mandatory requirement when a firm maintains a Web site. One commenter agrees that the...allow firms to bury recall notices deep within a Web site. These commenters support...
...facilities, if FDA determines that the risk of recalling the device from the facilities presents a greater health risk than the health risk of not recalling the device from use, unless the device can be replaced immediately with an equivalent...
Discusses the importance of patient recall of health information and factors influencing and that are influenced by it. Concludes that highly expressive or effective speakers of the same sex are more helpful in promoting recall. (VLC)
The comprehension and recall of instructional text is heavily dependent upon the contexts in which information input and retrieval occur. College students (N=44) recalled the contents of a hierarchically structured text immediately after study and again six weeks later. Total meaningful recall was better when the superordinate concepts, or cues,…
Whereas some research on immediate recall of verbal lists has suggested that it is limited by the number of chunks that can be recalled (e.g., N. Cowan, Z. Chen, & J. N. Rouder, 2004; E. Tulving & J. E. Patkau, 1962), other research has suggested that it is limited by the length of the material to be recalled (e.g., A.
Reviews the correlational and experimental research of the last 15 yr. on factors associated with the frequency of dream recall. The domain of dream recall is established as a broadly defined range of perceptual, conceptual, and affective experiences reported by Ss in studies using questionnaire, diary, and sleep-interruption methods. Frequency of dream recall is affected by physiological, methodological, and psychological
A new technique in stimulated recall methodology, Interpersonal Process Recall (IPR) is described. It provides participants in a recently concluded diadic encounter with maximum cues for reliving the experience by means of video-tape playback. The participants view the playback in separate rooms and are encouraged by interrogators at significant points in the playback to recall feelings and interpret behavior. Parallel
Five experiments were conducted to address the question of whether source information could be accessed in the absence of being able to recall an item. The authors used a paired-associate learning paradigm in which cue-target word pairs were studied, and target recall was requested in the presence of the cue. When target recall failed,…
Cook, Gabriel I.; Marsh, Richard L.; Hicks, Jason L.
Design: Subjects examined two distracter ads and one of nine randomly assigned smokeless tobacco ads varying in health warning presence, size (8 to 18 point font), and contrast (low versus high)—including no health warning. They were then interviewed about ad content using recall and recognition questions. Subjects: A convenience sample of 895 English speaking males aged 16–24 years old who were intercepted at seven shopping malls throughout Massachusetts during May 2000. Main outcome measures: Proven aided recall, or recall of a health warning and correct recognition of the warning message among distracters, and false recall. Results: Controlling for covariates such as education, employment/student status, and Hispanic background, proven aided recall increased significantly with font size; doubling size from 10 to 20 point font would increase recall from 63% to 76%. Although not statistically significant, recall was somewhat better for high contrast warnings. Ten per cent of the sample mistakenly recalled the warning where none existed. Conclusions: As demonstrated by substantially greater recall among ads that included health warnings over ads that had none, health warnings retained their value to consumers despite years of exposure (that can produce false recall). Larger health warnings would enhance recall, and the proposed model can be used to estimate potential recall that affects communication, perceived health risk, and behaviour modification.
We introduce a distributed model of memory for serial order, called SOB, that produces ordered serial recall by relying on encoding and retrieval processes that are endogenous to the model. SOB explains the basic shape of the serial position curve, the pattern of errors during recall (including the balance between transpositions, omissions, intrusions, and erroneous repetitions), the effects of list length on the distribution of errors, the overall level of recall and response latency, and the effects of natural language frequency on recall performance. In addition, contrary to several recent suggestions, SOB demonstrates that distributed representations can support unambiguous recall, selective response suppression, and novelty-sensitive encoding. PMID:12026954
Background Complex interventions in obese pregnant women should be theoretically based, feasible and shown to demonstrate anticipated behavioural change prior to inception of large randomised controlled trials (RCTs). The aim was to determine if a) a complex intervention in obese pregnant women leads to anticipated changes in diet and physical activity behaviours, and b) to refine the intervention protocol through process evaluation of intervention fidelity. Methods We undertook a pilot RCT of a complex intervention in obese pregnant women, comparing routine antenatal care with an intervention to reduce dietary glycaemic load and saturated fat intake, and increase physical activity. Subjects included 183 obese pregnant women (mean BMI 36.3 kg/m2). Diet was assessed by repeated triple pass 24-hour dietary recall and physical activity by accelerometry and questionnaire, at 16+0 to 18+6 and at 27+0 to 28+6 weeks’ gestation in women in control and intervention arms. Attitudes to behaviour change and quality of life were assessed and a process evaluation undertaken. The full RCT protocol was undertaken to assess feasibility. Results Compared to women in the control arm, women in the intervention arm had a significant reduction in dietary glycaemic load (33 points, 95% CI ?47 to ?20), (p < 0.001) and saturated fat intake (?1.6% energy, 95% CI ?2.8 to ?0. 3) at 28 weeks’ gestation. Objectively measured physical activity did not change. Physical discomfort and sustained barriers to physical activity were common at 28 weeks’ gestation. Process evaluation identified barriers to recruitment, group attendance and compliance, leading to modification of intervention delivery. Conclusions This pilot trial of a complex intervention in obese pregnant women suggests greater potential for change in dietary intake than for change in physical activity, and through process evaluation illustrates the considerable advantage of performing an exploratory trial of a complex intervention in obese pregnant women before undertaking a large RCT. Trial registration Trial Registration Number: ISRCTN89971375
In this controlled experiment we examined whether there are content effects in verbal short-term memory and working memory for verbal stimuli. Thirty-seven participants completed forward and backward digit and letter recall tasks, which were constructed to control for distance effects between stimuli. A maximum-likelihood mixed-effects logistic regression revealed main effects of direction of recall (forward vs backward) and content (digits vs letters). There was an interaction between type of recall and content, in which the recall of digits was superior to the recall of letters in verbal short-term memory but not in verbal working memory. These results demonstrate that the recall of information from verbal short-term memory is content-specific, whilst the recall of information from verbal working memory is content-general.
Background One hundred percent fruit juice (100% FJ) has been viewed by some as a sweetened beverage with concerns about its effect on weight. Little regard has been given to the contribution of 100% FJ to diet quality. Methods In this study data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used to examine the association of 100% FJ consumption with diet quality in participants 2-5 years of age (y) (n = 1665), 6-12 y (n = 2446), 13-18 y (n = 3139), and 19+y (n = 8861). Two 24-hour dietary recalls were used to determine usual intake using the National Cancer Institute method. Usual intake, standard errors, and regression analyses (juice independent variable and Healthy Eating Index-2005 [HEI-2005] components were dependent variables), using appropriate covariates, were determined using sample weights. Results The percentage of participants 2-5 y, 6-12 y, 13-18 y, and 19+y that consumed 100% FJ was 71%, 57%, 45%, and 62%, respectively. Usual intake of 100% FJ (ounce [oz]/day) among the four age groups was: 5.8 ± 0.6, 2.6 ± 0.4, 3.7 ± 0.4, and 2.4 ± 0.2 for those in age groups 2-5 y, 6-12 y, 13-18 y, and 19+y, respectively. Consumption of 100% FJ was associated with higher energy intake in 6-12 y, 13-18 y, and 19+y; and higher total, saturated, and discretionary fats in 13-18 y participants. Consumption of 100% FJ was associated with higher total HEI-2005 scores in all age groups (< 0.0001). In 100% FJ consumers, total and whole fruit consumption was higher and intake of added sugars was lower in all age groups. Conclusions Usual intake of 100% FJ consumption exceeded MyPyramid recommendations for children 2-5 y, but was associated with better diet quality in all age groups and should be encouraged in moderation as part of a healthy diet.
Medical device recalls have called attention to the device approval process in the United States. The premarket approval (PMA) process requires clinical trials to evaluate safety and effectiveness, whereas the expedited 510(k) process does not. The 510(k) process has been considered a source of increased recalls. This study aimed to assess the relative safety of medical device approval pathways based on the numbers of approvals and recalls. Data on recalls in the United States from January 2005 to December 2012 were collected from the Food and Drug Administration Web site. Over 8 years, 30,002 devices were approved, 5,728 by PMA (19%) and 24,274 (81%) by 510(k). There were 249 recalls due to serious risks, 0.45% of PMA approvals, and 0.92% of 510(k)-cleared devices, p <0.001. Over 1/2 of the recalls were during the first 2 years on the market. Percentage of recalled PMA devices was unchanged over the 8 years, whereas 510(k) recalls increased in 2010 to 2012 (from 0.65% to 1.39%, p <0.001). Cardiovascular devices represent the largest class of recalls (27%). The proportions of recalled PMA and 510(k) cardiovascular devices were the same as for all medical devices until 2011, but 510(k) recalls dramatically decreased in 2012 to the lowest recall rate seen (0.73%). In conclusion, recall rates were the same for 510(k)- and PMA-approved devices in 2005 to 2009 and increased for 510(k) devices subsequently. Modifying the 510(k) process with more rigorous performance testing, a conditional 2-year approval and a mandatory registry may be an approach to reduce recalls. PMID:24837271
Anesthesia awareness is defined as both consciousness and recall of surgical events. New research has been conducted out to test this phenomenon. However, testing methods have not proven reliable, including those using devices based on electroencephalographic techniques to detect and prevent intraoperative awareness. The limitations of a standard intraoperative brain monitor reflect our insufficient understanding of consciousness. Moreover, patients who experience an intraoperative awareness can develop serious post-traumatic stress disorders that should not be overlooked. In this review, we introduce the incidence of intraoperative awareness during general anesthesia and discuss the mechanisms of consciousness, as well as risk factors, various monitoring methods, outcome and prevention of intraoperative awareness.
Diabetic older adults are at a higher risk of muscle strength (MS) decline than their non-diabetic counterparts. Adequate protein and energy intakes and physical activity (PA) may preserve MS during aging. However, the role of diet quality (DQ) in MS maintenance is still unknown. This study aimed to determine the association between DQ - alone or combined with PA - and changes in MS over 3 years in diabetic participants aged 67 to 84 years at recruitment in a secondary analysis of the longitudinal observational NuAge study. Changes in handgrip, knee extensor and elbow flexor strengths were calculated as the difference between recruitment (T1) and after 3 years (T4) in 156 diabetic older adults. Baseline DQ was calculated from 3 non-consecutive 24-hour dietary recalls collected at T1 using the validated Canadian Healthy Eating Index (C-HEI). Change in PA was calculated from Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) as PASE T4-PASE T1. Four combinations of variables were created: C-HEI<70 with PASE change either < or > median and C-HEI ? 70 with PASE change either < or > median. The association between these four categories and MS maintenance was evaluated using General Linear Modeling (GLM). Analyses were stratified by sex and controlled for covariates. Baseline DQ alone was not associated with MS maintenance. Baseline DQ combined with PASE change showed associations with crude and baseline adjusted handgrip strength (p=0.031, p=0.018) and crude and baseline adjusted elbow flexor change (p=0.028, p=0.017) in males only; no significant results were found for knee extensor strength in either males or females. While findings for females were inconclusive, results demonstrate that better adherence to dietary guidelines combined with a more active lifestyle may prevent MS decline among diabetic older males. Additional research is needed on a larger sample since generalization of these results is limited by the small sample size. PMID:24269377
Despite significant emphasis on nutrition, older children with diabetes demonstrate poor dietary quality. We tested the hypothesis that dietary quality in young children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) would be better than age-matched children in the US population. Dietary data from children with T1D (n = 67) aged 2 to 12 years attending a pediatric diabetes clinic were compared with a nationally representative, age-matched sample from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES; n = 1691). Multiple 24-hour dietary recalls were used. Recommended intakes were based on national guidelines, and dietary quality was assessed using the Healthy Eating Index-2005. More children with T1D were overweight or obese compared with children participating in NHANES (42% vs 30%, P = .04). Greater proportions of children with T1D met daily recommendations for vegetables (22% vs 13%, P = .03), whole grains (12% vs 5%, P = .005), and dairy (55% vs 36%, P = .001) compared with NHANES children, whereas similar proportions met daily fruit recommendations (40% vs 33%, P = .2). Less than one-third of all children limited total fat to recommended levels; children with T1D consumed more saturated fat than did NHANES children (14% vs 12% total energy intake, P = .0009). Fiber intakes were very low in both groups. Compared with NHANES children, children with T1D had higher Healthy Eating Index-2005 scores (59.6 vs 49.7, P = .0006) primarily because of lower intakes of added sugars. The nutritional intake of young children with T1D remains suboptimal in the contemporary era of diabetes management. Despite focused nutrition management, young children with T1D consume high-fat, low-fiber diets comparable with youth in the general population. PMID:24916556
Mehta, Sanjeev N; Volkening, Lisa K; Quinn, Nicolle; Laffel, Lori M B
The extent to which individuals can recall feelings they experienced during a dyadic interaction, when shown a televised replay of that interaction, was investigated. Pairs of subjects (N=10) were trained rate their degree of comfort or discomfort during the actual ("live") interaction and, subsequently, as they watched a video-taped replay of…
Background For years, undivided attention during the presurgical “timeout” has been utilized as a precaution to ensure patient safety. The information relayed during the timeout is presented in a confirmatory nature rather than a delegation of new information. However, it is a standard of practice in which all members of the operating theater provide their full and undivided attention. Standards of patient care should be contiguous throughout the preoperative, perioperative, and postoperative stages of surgery. In this manner, it is expected that the same undivided attention afforded during the timeout should be maintained when transferring the patient to the postanesthesia care unit. Methods In this study, information was collected regarding handover of information during the transfer status postsurgical procedures. Data were collected via observing interactions between the anesthesiologist and the nurse during verbal patient transfers. Results This study demonstrated that the presence of undivided attention during the handover of a surgical patient in the postanesthesia care unit has a direct correlation with improved recall of the information discussed during handover. Conclusion Focus is on the quantity of information that can be recalled by the transferring nurse, and whether or not undivided attention affects the outcome. Analysis focuses on suggestions to better improve patient safety and recovery when being transferred in an anesthetic setting. The practice of patient handover should be standardized to better improve the safety and quality of medical care.
Bed rest reduces orthostatic tolerance. Despite decades of study, the cause of this phenomenon remains unclear. In this report we examined hemodynamic and sympathetic nerve responses to graded lower body negative pressure (LBNP) before and after 24 h of bed rest. LBNP allows for baroreceptor disengagement in a graded fashion. We measured heart rate (HR), cardiac output (HR x stroke volume obtained by echo Doppler), and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) during a progressive and graded LBNP paradigm. Negative pressure was increased by 10 mmHg every 3 min until presyncope or completion of -60 mmHg. After bed rest, LBNP tolerance was reduced in 11 of 13 subjects (P <.023), HR was greater (P <.002), cardiac output was unchanged, and the ability to augment MSNA at high levels of LBNP was reduced (rate of rise for 30- to 60-mmHg LBNP before bed rest 0.073 bursts x min(-1) x mmHg(-1); after bed rest 0.035 bursts x min(-1) x mmHg(-1); P < 0.016). These findings suggest that 24 h of bed rest reduces sympathetic nerve responses to LBNP.
Khan, Mazhar H.; Kunselman, Allen R.; Leuenberger, Urs A.; Davidson, William R Jr; Ray, Chester A.; Gray, Kristen S.; Hogeman, Cynthia S.; Sinoway, Lawrence I.
... Kittner, M.D., M.P.H., Professor of Neurology, University of Maryland School of Medicine. copyright American ... Kittner, M.D., M.P.H., Professor of Neurology, University of Maryland School of Medicine. copyright American ...
Continuous human calorimetry, both direct and indirect, has allowed us to do complete energy balances for full 24-hr days. As a method for direct calorimetry, we use a water cooled undergarment, a network of plastic tubes on the skin which removes body heat in just the amount, and at just the time, it is brought to the surface to be
Background Timely and efficient recall of products known or suspected to be non-conforming is an important measure in the prevention of adverse events and in patients' safety. Product recall in the transfusion service is regulated by professional standards and legal acts, but publications presenting results related to the implementation of these procedures are quite rare. Materials and methods Data from the Croatian Institute of Transfusion Medicine (CITM) on the procedures of product recall during an 11-year period (2000–2010) were retrospectively analyzed. Reasons for product recall, their frequency, level of severity and efficiency of the procedures are presented and discussed. Results During the study period, there were 245 procedures of product recall, for an average of 22 (18–29) procedures/year, all of low extent (1–25 products). Recall was required for 1/3,571 blood products issued, while the frequency of laboratory test report recalls was 1/5,447 patients. The leading reasons for product recall were suspected bacterial contamination of blood products (30.2%) and suspected or demonstrated non-conformity of laboratory test reports (28.6%). In total, 99 (40.4%) product recalls were categorized as class I, 30 (12.2%) as class II and 116 (47.3%) as class III. Discussion According to the available literature data, the product recall procedures were performed quite infrequently by the CITM and were of low extent. There was a remarkable decreasing trend in the rate of product recall due to non-conformities or errors made at the CITM, along with a constant or increasing rate of recalls because of biological variability of blood products.
Whereas some research on immediate recall of verbal lists has suggested that it is limited by the number of chunks that can be recalled (e.g., N. Cowan, Z. Chen, & J. N. Rouder, 2004; E. Tulving & J. E. Patkau, 1962), other research has suggested that it is limited by the length of the material to be recalled (e.g., A. D. Baddeley, N. Thomson, &…
Aims To measure the degree and direction of errors in recall of age at first sex. Method Participants were initially recruited in 1994–1995 (Wave I) with 3 subsequent follow-ups in: 1996 (Wave II); 2001– 2002 (Wave III); and 2007–2008 (Wave IV). Participants' individual errors in recall of their age at first sex at Wave IV were estimated by the paired difference between responses given for age at first sex in Wave I and Wave IV (recalled age at first sex obtained at Wave IV minus the age at first sex obtained at Wave I). Results The mean of the recall-estimation of age at first sex at Wave IV was found to be slightly increased comparing to the age at first sex at Wave I (less than 1 year). The errors in the recalled age at first sex tended to increase in participants who had their first sex younger or older than the average, and the recalled age at first sex tended to bias towards the mean (i.e. participants who had first sex younger than the average were more likely to recall an age at first sex that was older than the age, and vice versa). Conclusions In this U.S. population-based sample, the average recall error for age at first sex was small. However, the accuracy of recalled information varied significantly among subgroup populations.
Is memory temporally organized? According to temporal distinctiveness models of memory, temporally isolated items should be better remembered than temporally crowded items in free recall tasks. Here, we tested this class of model by varying the temporal isolation of items either predictably (Experiment 1) or unpredictably (Experiment 2) in a free recall task. In both experiments, item recall probability increased as a function of the temporal gaps both before and after the item. The results are taken as support for temporal distinctiveness models of memory, in which items are represented and recalled in terms of their positions along a temporal dimension. PMID:17201375
Brown, Gordon D A; Morin, Caroline; Lewandowsky, Stephan
Context Higher adherence to a Mediterranean diet (MeDi) is linked to lower risk for mortality and chronic diseases, but its association with cognitive decline is unclear. Objective To investigate the association of the MeDi with change in cognitive performance and risk for dementia in elderly French persons. Design, Setting and Participants Prospective cohort study of 1410 individuals from Bordeaux (France) included in the Three-City cohort in 2001–2002 and re-examined at least once over 5 years. Adherence to the MeDi (scored as 0 to 9) was computed from a food frequency questionnaire and 24hourrecall. Main outcomes measures Cognitive performance was assessed on 4 neuropsychological tests: Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Isaacs Set Test (IST), Benton Visual Retention Test (BVRT) and Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT). Incident cases of dementia (n=99) were validated by an independent expert committee of neurologists. Results Adjusting for age, sex, education, marital status, energy intake, physical activity, depressive symptomatology, taking ?5 drugs/d, Apolipoprotein E, and cardiovascular risk factors, higher MeDi score was associated with fewer MMSE errors (?= ?0.006, 95% CI ?.01 to ?0.004, P =.03 for one point of the MeDi score). Adjustment for stroke attenuated this association. FCSRT, IST, or BVRT performance over time were not significantly associated with MeDi adherence. The association of greater MeDi adherence (score 6–9) with fewer MMSE errors and better FCSRT scores was not significant in the entire cohort, but among those who remained free from dementia over 5 years, the association was significant (adjusted for all factors except stroke, for MMSE, ?=?0.006, 95%CI ?0.01 – ?0.0007, P=.03; for FCSRT, ?= ?0.05, 95% CI 0.006 ?0.10, P= .03.) Both P values increased to .06 when stroke was added to the model. MeDi adherence was not associated with the risk for incident dementia (HR=1.04, 95%CI 0.91–1.20, P=.53), although power to detect a difference was limited. Conclusion Higher MeDi adherence, was associated with slower MMSE cognitive decline but not consistently with other cognitive tests; this relationship was attenuated when adjusting for stroke. Higher MeDi adherence was not associated with risk for incident dementia.
The role of contexts in the imaging process was investigated in a cued-recall study. Results indicated that the capacity of the cue word to elicit the context was the most important factor determining recall. Uses the contextualist approach to memory and the encoding specificity principle in discussing results. (Editor/RK)
This exploratory study involving 108 undergraduates investigated effects of equivocation, order of agreeable and disagreeable issues, source credibility, and time on the receiver's agreement with and recall of messages. Results indicated that both equivocated messages and high-credibility sources produced significantly more agreement. Recall was…
Rates of accurate recall of the Strong Interest Inventory (SII; L. W. Harmon, J. C. Hansen, F. H. Borgen, & A. L. Hammer, 1994) profile information varied with the amount of time elapsed since the interpretation, the type of SII scale, and whether immediate recall was elicited, but rates did not vary with the strategy used to provide the…
Swanson, Jane L.; Gore, Paul A., Jr.; Leuwerke, Wade; D'Achiardi, Catalina; Edwards, Jorie Hitch; Edwards, Jared
This study with 16 adolescents with mental retardation compared free-recall rates under two encoding conditions: (1) fade-in, initially presenting pictures out of focus then slowly fading them into focus; and (2) fade-out, slowly blurring originally clear pictures. Results indicated that free-recall rates were greater for the fade-in items for…
Carlin, Michael T.; Soraci, Sal A.; Dennis, Nancy A.; Chechile, Nicholas A.; Loiselle, Raquel C.
When asked to recall the words from a just-presented target list, subjects occasionally recall words that were not on the list. These intrusions either appeared on earlier lists (prior-list intrusions, or PLIs) or had not appeared over the course of the experiment (extra-list intrusions). The authors examined the factors that elicit PLIs in free…
Zaromb, Franklin M.; Howard, Marc W.; Dolan, Emily D.; Sirotin, Yevgeniy B.; Tully, Michele; Wingfield, Arthur; Kahana, Michael J.
Whether recall of studied words (e.g., parsley, rosemary, thyme) could reduce false recognition of related lures (e.g., basil) was investigated. Subjects studied words from several categories for a final recognition memory test. Half of the subjects were given standard test instructions, and half were instructed to use recall to reduce false…
The melody of a song, in some situations, can facilitate learning and recall. The experiments in this article demonstrate that text is better recalled when it is heard as a song rather than as speech, provided the music repeats so that it is easily learned. When Ss heard 3 verses of a text sung with the same melody, they had
PURPOSE: Remembering medical treatment information may be particularly taxing for older cancer patients, but to our knowledge this ability has never been assessed in this specific age group only. Our purpose in this study was to investigate older cancer patients' recall of information after patient education preceding chemotherapy. DESIGN AND METHODS: We constructed a recall questionnaire consisting of multiple-choice questions,
JESSE JANSEN; JULIA VAN WEERT; NIENKE VAN DER MEULEN; SANDRA VAN DULMEN; THEA HEEREN; JOZIEN BENSING
The amount of recorded information from a medical interview by note-taking was compared with that received with no note-taking. The study with 46 medical students suggests that note-taking facilitates recall and that there is a progressive decay of memory recall with the passage of time between the physician-patient interview and the recording of…
The method of organization in free recall in the form of either clustering or subjective organization is explored in this study. This is just one of the possible forms of retrieval that may be employed. Other possibilities include serial recall, alphabetization, and imagery. To the extent that subjects employ such other strategies, correlations…
This paper describes a series of studies which examine the early development of recall. Subjects were children about 2 1/2 and 5 years of age. Recall was tested on nine-item lists which were either composed of three objects from each of three conceptual categories or nine objects from nine different conceptual categories. Age differences were…
Four experiments are reported that demonstrate the benefits of clustering by spatial proximity in spatial serial recall and provide support for the notion that hierarchical coding underpins the retention of clustered sequences in spatial working memory. Sequences segregated by spatial clusters increased serial recall performance at different levels of sequence length in a variation of the Corsi test and produced
S. E. Gathercole, C. R. Frankish, S. J. Pickering, and S. Peaker (1999) reported 2 experiments in which they manipulated phonotactic properties of nonword stimuli and observed the effects on serial recall. Their results show superior recall for items consisting of more frequent phoneme pairs (biphone frequency). Biphone frequency was counted as the number of 3 phoneme words in which
80 undergraduates were required to recall lists of words presented in an incremental manner, i.e., by adding new items to a list on each trial. Word order was either constant, serial, or random, and new words were added at different loci of the list. Incremented lists produced just as adequate recall as traditional lists. Serial lists were acquired more efficiently
Recent experiments have shown that placing dissimilar items on lists of phonologically similar items enhances accuracy of ordered recall of the dissimilar items [Farrell, S., & Lewandowsky, S. (2003). Dissimilar items benefit from phonological similarity in serial recall. "Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition," 29,…
We consider how the neuronal network architecture of the hippocampus may enable it to act as an intermediate term buffer store for recent memories, and how information may be recalled from it to the cerebral cortex using modified synapses in backprojection pathways from the hippocampus to the cerebral cortex. The recalled information in the cerebral neocortex could then by used
WAIS subtset standard scores, IQ scores, and factorial deviation quotients were correlated with Bender Gestalt recall scores for 111 vocational rehabilitation clients. Results found that the Bender recall task could not classify Ss as to general intelligence level with greater accuracy than could be obtained with the WAIS Vocabulary subtest alone.…
SUMMARY The diversity of methods, contents and tests used in the study of eyewitness memory may have contributed to discrepancies in results in this field. In this experiment, using incidental or intentional learning, we examine the recall and recognition of actions and details concerning the central and peripheral information of a kidnapping. A similar pattern emerges in free recall, hits
Binding aspects of an experience that are distributed over time is an important element of episodic memory. In the current study, we examined how the temporal complexity of an experience may govern the processes required for its retrieval. We recorded event-related potentials during episodic cued recall following pair associate learning of concurrently and sequentially presented object-picture pairs. Cued recall success effects over anterior and posterior areas were apparent in several time windows. In anterior locations, these recall success effects were similar for concurrently and sequentially encoded pairs. However, in posterior sites clustered over parietal scalp the effect was larger for the retrieval of sequentially encoded pairs. We suggest that anterior aspects of the mid-latency recall success effects may reflect working-with-memory operations or direct access recall processes, while more posterior aspects reflect recollective processes which are required for retrieval of episodes of greater temporal complexity. PMID:24215986
Serial recall is often assumed to involve response suppression: the removal or inhibition of items already recalled so that they are not recalled again. Evidence for response suppression includes repetition inhibition and the separation of erroneous repetitions. Some theorists have suggested that response suppression, by eliminating competing responses, also contributes to recency in forward serial recall. We present experiments in which performance on the final item was examined as a function of whether or not the preceding retrievals entailed suppression of potential response competitors. In line with the predictions of response suppression, recency was found to be reduced when the earlier recall errors consisted of intrusion errors (which leave list items unsuppressed) rather than transposition errors (which involve suppression). PMID:22555889
The Mediterranean diet is based on: Plant-based meals, with just small amounts of meat and chicken, when they are used More servings of grains, fresh fruits and vegetables, nuts, and legumes Foods that naturally contain high ...
Background Procedural sedation (PS) is common in the emergency department (ED) and ideally patients should have no recall of the procedure. Aim To determine the incidence of recall. Methods A prospective observational study in an university ED of all patients undergoing PS. Data were collected on a pre?formatted data sheet. Levels of satisfaction with the sedation by the treating physician and nurse were recorded on a 10?cm visual analogue scale. On recovery, the patient was asked a validated questionnaire to determine the rate of immediate recall and at telephone follow?up for delayed recall. Results 125 patients (88 male, 70%) were enrolled and 110 had completed follow?up. Mean (range) age was 51.6 (13–91)?years. Procedures included 84 (67%) orthopaedic reductions and 41 (33%) cardioversions. A wide range of drug combinations were used, including fentanyl/propofol 32 (25.6%), fentanyl/midazolam 30 (24%), fentanyl/midazolam/propofol 16 (12.8%), propofol 13 (10.4%). 87.2% of procedures were successful. A grimace/groan was observed in 61 of 125 (49%). Immediate recall occurred in 9 of 121 (7.4%; 95% CI 3.7 to 14.0) and delayed recall in 5 of 110 (4.5%; 95% CI 1.7 to 10.8). No drug combination was correlated with recall (Spearman's rho?=?0.149), nor the presence of a grimace/groan (r?=??0.039). Median sedation satisfaction scores were physician 9.0, nurse 10, patient 10. Correlation of delayed recall with patient satisfaction was –0.471 (p<0.001). Conclusions Recall following PS in ED is uncommon. There is no association of recall with drugs used or the presence of a grimace/groan. There is high patient satisfaction with PS in the ED.
Swann, Alex; Williams, Jeffrey; Fatovich, Daniel M
Popular diets are a constant in the lives of women. And while some restrictedcalorie plans recommending extreme differences\\u000a in the contribution of calories from fat, carbohydrate, and protein may promote weight loss in some women, they should not\\u000a be undertaken during pregnancy. Unfortunately, the scientific literature documenting the prevalence of use of popular diets\\u000a in pregnant women, or more importantly
The purposes of this research were to examine the characteristics of those who look for physical activity-related information, where they find it, and to examine what types of physical activity-related advertisements are recalled (i.e., publicly funded or commercial). These purposes were tested using secondary data analyses from two population health surveys. Results from the first survey (n=1211) showed gender, age, education, and activity-level differences in who is more likely to search for physical activity-related information. Adding the goal of being active into the model made age and activity level no longer significant but gender and education remained significant factors. The Internet was the most often cited source of physical activity information. The second survey (n=1600) showed that adults 55 years of age or older and participants with the least amount of education were more than twice as likely to name commercial advertisements than were participants aged 18-54 years or those with more education. These results help further our understanding of how publicly funded promotional campaigns fare against commercial advertising and also highlight the need to understand physical activity information-seeking behavior on the Internet and its implications for health promotion. PMID:21347937
Berry, Tanya R; Spence, John C; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Bauman, Adrian
This week's In the News reports on Coca-Cola product contamination in Belgium. The biggest product recall in Coca-Cola's 113-year history occurred on June 8, 1999 when 40 school children were hospitalized for poison symptoms in Lochristi, Belgium. Coca-Cola brands such as Fanta, Sprite, Nestea, Kinley tonic, Lift, and juice drinks sold under the Minute Maid name were pulled from store shelves in five European nations following the incident, costing the soft-drink giant an estimated $60 million. The company publicly apologized on June 24, but European officials expressed outrage over CEO M. Douglas Ivester's slow response, company allegations of "psychosomatic reactions" among Belgians, poorly constructed press conferences, and other public relations lapses. Coca-Cola Co. attributes the contamination to manufacturing mistakes made in Dunkirk, France where shipping pallets became tainted by the toxic chemical phenol, a corrosive substance frequently used as an antiseptic and disinfectant. These eight resources provide news analysis and company information regarding this important consumer issue.
Background The Family Smoking Prevention and Control Act gave the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) legal authority to mandate graphic warning labels on cigarette advertising and packaging. The FDA requires that these graphic warning labels be embedded into cigarette advertising and packaging by September 2012. Purpose The aim of this study was to examine differences in recall and viewing patterns of text-only versus graphic cigarette warning labels; and, the association between viewing patterns and recall. Methods Participants (current daily smokers; N=200) were randomized to view a cigarette advertisement with either text-only or graphic warning labels. Viewing patterns were measured using eye-tracking, and recall was later assessed. Sessions were conducted between November 2008 and November 2009. Data analysis was conducted between March 2011 and July 2011. Results There was a significant difference in percentage correct recall of the warning label between those in the text-only versus graphic warning label condition, 50% versus 83% (?2 =23.74, p=0.0001). Time to first view of the graphic warning label text, and dwell time duration (i.e., time spent looking) on the graphic image were significantly associated with correct recall. Warning labels that drew attention more quickly and resulted in longer dwell times were associated with better recall. Conclusions Graphic warning labels improve smokers’ recall of warning and health risks; they do so by drawing and holding attention.
Strasser, Andrew A.; Tang, Kathy Z.; Romer, Daniel; Jepson, Chris; Cappella, Joseph N.
A latent variable analysis was conducted to examine the nature of individual differences in the dynamics of free recall and\\u000a cognitive abilities. Participants performed multiple measures of free recall, working memory capacity (WMC), and fluid intelligence\\u000a (gF). For each free recall task, recall accuracy, recall latency, and number of intrusion errors were determined, and latent\\u000a factors were derived for each.
Objective: To evaluate dietary habits and nutritional status of Spanish school children and adolescents, and their relationship with the Mediterranean Diet.Design: Cross-sectional study by face-to-face interview.Setting: Free living children and adolescents of all Spanish regions.Subjects: A random sample of 3166 people aged 6–24 y.Methods: Home interviews conducted by a team of 43 dietitians included 24-h recalls (a second 24-h recall
Ll Serra-Majem; L Ribas; A García; C Pérez-Rodrigo; J Aranceta
Interpretations and pertinent data on the clustering phenomena obtained in previous experiments are reviewed in order to determine why subjects reorganize material in recall. When variables which augment or diminish the effects of pre-established associat...
This report presents findings from a survey of 2992 demographically diverse American adults who answered questions about dream recall and questions about their political views. Participants who described themselves as \\
This report describes the results of the SBIR Phase I research project on improving recall for automatic information extraction (IE), carried out by Onyx Consulting, Inc. Current IE systems suffer from a number of limitations, especially with respect to t...
This article presents two experiments using the DRM paradigm and examining the effects of variations in the depth of processing on the occurrence of false memories at recall. Contrary to what is generally observed, the results of the first experiment indicate that deep processing, maximizing the possibility of implication of distinctive characteristics, leads to an increase of the recall of hits without increasing the recall of lures. The second experiment uses instructions of inclusion requiring participants to recall not only the presented items but also all the words that were activated in memory both during the encoding and retrieval phases. These instructions, which deactivate the strategy of control of the source, support the notion that deep processing favours the activation of distinctive characteristics that facilitate the process of discrimination during the identification of the source. PMID:21728403
Describes the use of microcomputer database management systems to facilitate the instructional uses of learning strategies relating to information processing skills, especially recall. Two learning strategies, cross-classification matrixing and node acquisition and integration, are highlighted. (Author/LRW)
Recent temporal distinctiveness models of memory predict that temporally isolated items will be recalled better than temporally crowded items. The effect has been found in some tasks (free recall, memory for serial order when report order is unconstrained, running memory span) but not in others (forward serial recall). Such results suggest that the attentional weighting given to a temporal dimension in memory may vary with task demands. Here, we find robust temporal isolation effects in recognition memory (Experiment 1) and a smaller isolation effect in forward serial recall when an open pool of items is used (Experiment 2). Analysis of 26 temporal isolation effects suggests that the phenomenon occurs in a range of tasks but is larger when it is useful to attend to a temporal dimension in memory. The overall pattern of results is taken to favor memory models that rely on multiple weighted dimensions in memory, one of which is temporal. PMID:20921098
Morin, Caroline; Brown, Gordon D A; Lewandowsky, Stephan
In short-term serial recall, similar sounding items are remembered less well than items that do not sound alike. This phonological similarity effect has been observed with lists composed only of similar items, and also with lists that mix together similar and dissimilar items. An additional consistent finding has been what the authors call dissimilar immunity, the finding that ordered recall of dissimilar items is the same whether these items occur in pure dissimilar or mixed lists. The authors present 3 experiments that disconfirm these previous findings by showing that dissimilar items on mixed lists are recalled better than their counterparts on pure lists if order errors are considered separately from intrusion errors (Experiment 1), or if intrusion errors are experimentally controlled (Experiments 2 and 3). The memory benefit for dissimilar items on mixed lists poses a challenge for current models of short-term serial recall. PMID:14516217
Presented a verbal free classification and free recall task to 20 20-29, 40-49, and 60-69 yr. old white females. 1\\/2 the Ss categorized words into 2-7 categories prior to free recall, while the other Ss inspected the words but were prevented from physically sorting them. There were no significant age differences in free classification performance under the sorting condition. Analysis
Substantial data exist supporting the role of physical activity in the etiology of several chronic diseases. Many chronic diseases begin developing 20-30 years before they become clinically evident. Since researchers often must rely on recall to characterize the long term habits of study participants, the accuracy of recall of physical activity is an important methodological issue in etiologic studies. The purpose of this study was to examine the quality of recall of physical activity in the distant past in a cohort of western New York residents followed since 1960. Paired t tests and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were used to compare "original" (1960) and "recalled" (1992-1996) reports of weekday (occupational) and free-day (leisure time) physical activity. Results showed that the recalled reports underestimated past weekday activities when overall activity was examined; estimates closer to the originals were found when levels of activity were examined. Recall was best for weekday light (ICC = 0.43) and weekday moderate (ICC = 0.45) activity in both sexes and free-day hard activity in females (ICC = 0.45). Most participants underestimated past free-day activity, but males overestimated free-day hard activity. Correlations for free-day activity were highest for summer sports in females (ICC = 0.29) and winter sports in both sexes (ICC = 0.39) and were low for walking and "other activity." Considering the length of time between the original interviews and the recall interviews, the correlations found here are remarkable and close to those found in other studies where recall intervals were 10 years or less. PMID:10412965
Graphical passwords have been proposed as an alternative to alphanumeric passwords with their advantages in usability and security. However, most of these alternate schemes have their own disadvantages. For example, cued-recall graphical password schemes are vulnerable to shoulder-surfing and cannot prevent intersection analysis attack. A novel cued-recall graphical password scheme CBFG (Click Buttons according to Figures in Grids) is proposed
In late 2009, Cardiac Science voluntarily recalled certain automated external defibrillator (AED) models because of rare component failures that could cause the units to fail to deliver therapy. These failures were not being detected by the units' automated self-tests. More recently, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued recommendations about the recall that differ from those of Cardiac Science. ECRI Institute is presenting its own recommendations to help clarify the situation. PMID:21305899
Many cortical disorders are associated with memory problems. In schizophrenia, verbal memory deficits are a hallmark feature. However, the exact nature of this deficit remains elusive. Modeling aspects of language features used in memory recall have the potential to provide means for measuring these verbal processes. We employ computational language approaches to assess time-varying semantic and sequential properties of prose recall at various retrieval intervals (immediate, 30 min and 24 h later) in patients with schizophrenia, unaffected siblings and healthy unrelated control participants. First, we model the recall data to quantify the degradation of performance with increasing retrieval interval and the effect of diagnosis (i.e., group membership) on performance. Next we model the human scoring of recall performance using an n-gram language sequence technique, and then with a semantic feature based on Latent Semantic Analysis. These models show that automated analyses of the recalls can produce scores that accurately mimic human scoring. The final analysis addresses the validity of this approach by ascertaining the ability to predict group membership from models built on the two classes of language features. Taken individually, the semantic feature is most predictive, while a model combining the features improves accuracy of group membership prediction slightly above the semantic feature alone as well as over the human rating approach. We discuss the implications for cognitive neuroscience of such a computational approach in exploring the mechanisms of prose recall. PMID:24709122
Rosenstein, Mark; Diaz-Asper, Catherine; Foltz, Peter W; Elvevåg, Brita
Background According to the American Diabetes Association (ADA), the nutritional goals for patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) are to achieve an optimal nutrient intake to achieve normoglycemia and a cardioprotective lipid profile. Peanuts are nutrient dense foods that contain high levels of monounsaturated fat (MUFA) and are a natural source of arginine, fiber, phytosterols, resveritrol, niacin, folate, vitamin E and magnesium, which have the potential for improving blood lipids and glycemic control. This study sought to evaluate the effect of a peanut enriched ADA meal plan on the nutrient profile of the total diet and cardiometabolic parameters in adults with T2D. Methods This was a randomized, prospective 24-week parallel-group clinical trial with 60 adults with T2D [age range 34–84 years; body mass index (BMI) range 17.2-48.7 kg/m2]. Subjects consumed an ADA meal plan containing ~20% of energy from peanuts (peanut group) or a peanut-free ADA meal plan (control group). Weight, BMI, waist circumference (WC) and nutrient intake from 24-hourrecalls were measured every 4 weeks and fasting blood glucose (FBG), HbA1c and blood lipids were measured every 12 weeks. A mixed-model repeated-measures analysis of covariance was performed to assess the significance of changes in the cardiometabolic parameters. Results A higher polyunsaturated fat (PUFA) to saturated fat diet ratio and higher intake of MUFA, PUFA, ?-tocopherol, niacin and magnesium was observed in the peanut group as compared to the control group (P?0.01-P?=?0.04). Both groups experienced mild reductions in weight, BMI, and WC during the study (P?=?0.01-P?=?0.03), however there were no differences between the two groups in these measurements or in FBG, HbA1c or blood lipids. For each kilogram of weight loss in the entire cohort there were associations for reductions in WC of 0.48 cm (P?0.01), FBG of 0.11 mmol/l (P?=?0.01) and HbA1c of 0.07% (P?0.01). Conclusions Daily consumption of a peanut enriched (46 g/d) ADA meal plan over 24 weeks improves the nutrient profile of the total diet and is compatible with weight management and improvement in specific blood lipids. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00937222
... vegan diets need to supplement vitamin B-12. Mediterranean Diets Cretan Mediterranean diets are high in fruits and vegetables, cereals, legumes, ... level of unsaturated fats and anti-oxidants. The Mediterranean diet is nutritionally adequate and covers all of the ...
Study of the phonological similarity effect (PSE) in immediate serial recall (ISR) has produced a conflicting body of results.\\u000a Five experiments tested various theoretical ideas that together may help integrate these results. Experiments 1 and 2 tested\\u000a alternative accounts that explain the effect of phonological similarity on item recall in terms of feature overlap, linguistic\\u000a structure, or serial order. In
There has been great interest in using working memory (WM) training regimens as an alternative treatment for ADHD, but it has recently been concluded that existing training regimens may not be optimally designed because they target the primary memory component but not the secondary component of WM capacity. This conclusion requires the ability to accurately measure changes in primary and secondary memory abilities over time. The immediate free recall task has been used in previous studies to measure these changes; however, one concern with these tasks is that the recall order required on training exercises may influence the recall strategy used during free recall, which may in turn influence the relative number of items recalled from primary and secondary memory. To address this issue, previous training studies have explicitly controlled recall strategy before and after training. However, the necessity of controlling for recall strategies has not been explicitly tested. The present study investigated the effects of forward-serial-order training on free recall performance under conditions in which recall strategy was not controlled using a sample of adolescents with ADHD. Unlike when recall order was controlled, the main findings showed selective improvement of the secondary memory component (as opposed to the primary memory component) when recall order was uncontrolled. This finding advances our understanding of WM training by highlighting the importance of controlling for recall strategies when free recall tasks are used to measure changes in the primary and secondary components of WM across time. PMID:23930700
Gibson, Bradley S; Gondoli, Dawn M; Johnson, Ann C; Robison, Matthew K
Studies of the effect of word frequency in the serial recall task show that lists of high-frequency words are better recalled than lists of low-frequency words; however, when high- and low-frequency words are alternated within a list, there is no difference in the level of recall for the two types of words, and recall is intermediate between lists…
Explored post-visit recall of medication regimens and lifestyle recommendations among 83 elderly clinic patients. Found recall problematic: average patient failed to recall 46 percent of medications. Of 42 patients receiving lifestyle recommendations, 52 percent failed to recall them. Patterns of communication during visits were more strongly…
Dreaming is still poorly understood. Notably, its cerebral underpinning remains unclear. Neuropsychological studies have shown that lesions in the temporoparietal junction (TPJ) and/or the white matter of the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) lead to the global cessation of dream reports, suggesting that these regions of the default mode network have key roles in the dreaming process (forebrain 'dream-on' hypothesis). To test this hypothesis, we measured regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using [(15)O]H2O positron emission tomography in healthy subjects with high and low dream recall frequencies (DRFs) during wakefulness (rest) and sleep (rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, N2, and N3). Compared with Low recallers (0.5±0.3 dream recall per week in average), High recallers (5.2±1.4) showed higher rCBF in the TPJ during REM sleep, N3, and wakefulness, and in the MPFC during REM sleep and wakefulness. We demonstrate that the resting states of High recallers and Low recallers differ during sleep and wakefulness. It coheres with previous ERP results and confirms that a high/low DRF is associated with a specific functional organization of the brain. These results support the forebrain 'dream-on' hypothesis and suggest that TPJ and MPFC are not only involved in dream recall during wakefulness but also have a role in dreaming during sleep (production and/or encoding). Increased activity in the TPJ and MPFC might promote the mental imagery and/or memory encoding of dreams. Notably, increased activity in TPJ might facilitate attention orienting toward external stimuli and promote intrasleep wakefulness, facilitating the encoding of the dreams in memory. PMID:24549103
Background India's population exhibits diverse dietary habits and chronic disease patterns. Nutritional epidemiologic studies in India\\u000a are primarily of cross-sectional or case-control design and subject to biases, including differential recall of past diet.\\u000a The aim of this feasibility study was to evaluate whether a diet-focused cohort study of cancer could be established in India,\\u000a providing insight into potentially unique diet and
Rashmi Sinha; Carrie R Daniel; Niveditha Devasenapathy; Hemali Shetty; Susan Yurgalevitch; Leah M Ferrucci; Preethi S George; Kerry Grace Morrissey; Lakshmy Ramakrishnan; Barry I Graubard; Kavita Kapur; K Srinath Reddy; Mary J McAdams; Tanuja Rastogi; Nilanjan Chatterjee; Prakash C Gupta; Sholom Wacholder; Dorairaj Prabhakaran; Aleyamma A Mathew
Older adults show poorer performance than young adults at word list recall, especially for order information. In contrast with this temporal association deficit, older adults are generally adept at using preexisting semantic associations, when present, to aid recall. We compared the use of temporal and semantic associations in young and older adults’ word list recall following both free recall and serial recall instructions. Decomposition of serial position curves confirmed that older adults showed weakened use of temporal context in recall in relation to young adults, a difference that was amplified in serial recall. Older adults’ temporal associations were also less effective than young adults’ when correlated with serial recall performance. The differential age decrement for serial versus free recall was accompanied by a persistent influence of latent semantic associations in the older adults, even when maladaptive for serial recall.
Golomb, Julie D.; Peelle, Jonathan E.; Addis, Kelly M.; Kahana, Michael J.; Wingfield, Arthur
Welcome to the Register of Validated Short Dietary Assessment Instruments. Unlike food records and 24-hour dietary recalls that aim to capture the total diet, short instruments assess limited aspects of the diet and are thus less burdensome for respondents and researchers.
Study objectives: The ultradian NREM-REM sleep cycle and the circadian modulation of REM sleep sum to generate dreaming. Here we investigated age-related changes in dream recall, number of dreams, and emotional domain characteristics of dreaming during both NREM and REM sleep. Design: Analysis of dream recall and sleep EEG (NREM/REM sleep) during a 40-h multiple nap protocol (150 min of wakefulness and 75 min of sleep) under constant routine conditions. Setting: Centre for Chronobiology, Psychiatric Hospital of the University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland. Participants: Seventeen young (20-31 years) and 15 older (57-74 years) healthy volunteers Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Dream recall and number of dreams varied significantly across the circadian cycle and between age groups, with older subjects exhibiting fewer dreams (P < 0.05), particularly after naps scheduled during the biological day, closely associated with the circadian rhythm of REM sleep. No significant age differences were observed for the emotional domain of dream content. Conclusions: Since aging was associated with attenuated amplitude in the circadian modulation of REM sleep, our data suggest that the age-related decrease in dream recall can result from an attenuated circadian modulation of REM sleep. Citation: Chellappa SL; Möunch M; Blatter K; Knoblauch V; Cajochen C. Does the circadian modulation of dream recall modify with age? SLEEP 2009;32(9):1201-1209.
Chellappa, Sarah Laxhmi; Munch, Mirjam; Blatter, Katharina; Knoblauch, Vera; Cajochen, Christian
Sequential dependencies can provide valuable information about the processes supporting memory, particularly memory for serial order. Earlier analyses have suggested that anticipation errors-reporting items ahead of their correct position in the sequence-tend to be followed by recall of the displaced item, consistent with primacy gradient models of serial recall. However, a more recent analysis instead suggests that anticipation errors are followed by further anticipation errors, consistent with chaining models. We report analyses of 21 conditions from published serial recall data sets, in which we observed a systematic pattern whereby anticipations tended to be followed by the "filling in" of displaced items. We note that cases where a different pattern held tended to apply to recall of longer lists under serial learning conditions or to conditions where participants were free to skip over items. Although the different patterns that can be observed might imply a dissociation (e.g., between short- and long-term memory), we show that these different patterns are naturally predicted by Farrell's (Psychological Review 119:223-271, 2012) model of short-term and episodic memory and relate to whether or not spontaneously formed groups of items can be skipped over during recall. PMID:23519990
Farrell, Simon; Hurlstone, Mark J; Lewandowsky, Stephan
In 2 studies, children ages 3 to 7 years were asked to recall a series of touches that occurred during a previous staged event. The recall interview took place 1 week after the event in Study 1 and immediately after the event in Study 2. Each recall interview had 2 sections: In 1 section, children were given human figure drawings (HFDs) and were asked to show where the touching took place; in the other section, the same questions were asked without the HFDs (verbal condition). Children were randomly assigned to 2 different conditions: HFD 1st/verbal 2nd or verbal 1st/HFD 2nd. There were 2 major findings. First, HFDs elicited more errors than the verbal condition when used to probe for information that the child had already been asked. Second, regardless of interview method, children had poor recall of the touches even when these occurred minutes before the interview. It is suggested that cognitive mechanisms involving memory and semantics underlie children’s poor recall of touching in both verbal and HFD conditions.
Background We previously reported that a weight-maintenance diet with a carbohydrate:protein:fat ratio of 30:30:40%, ingested for 5 weeks, improved blood glucose control in subjects with untreated type 2 diabetes. In this study we also determined that insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) were increased. In this report we provide further information. Specifically, 24-hour total and individual amino acids, glucagon and cortisol data are provided. In addition, we determined whether these multiple effectors resulted in a positive nitrogen balance and an increase in fat-free mass. Insulin and IGF-I should stimulate protein accumulation. An increase in amino acids, particularly branched chain amino acids, should facilitate this, whereas glucagon and cortisol could have adverse effects in this regard. Methods Eight men with untreated type 2 diabetes were studied. A randomized crossover design was used. Data were obtained before and after 5 weeks on a control diet (55% carbohydrate:15% protein:30% fat) and on a 30% carbohydrate:30% protein:40% fat diet. Nitrogen balance and body composition were determined at the beginning and end of each dietary intervention. Results As expected, the mean 24-hour total amino acid area response was higher after ingesting the 30:30:40 diet. However, the increase was only statistically significant for the branched chain amino acids, and phenylalanine and tyrosine. The 24-hour cortisol profile was unchanged. Glucagon was increased. Nitrogen balance was positive. Body weight was stable. Body composition and computed tomography data indicate no change in the fat-free mass. Conclusion This high protein, low carbohydrate diet induced a metabolic milieu which strongly favors a positive protein balance, and a positive balance was present. However, an increase in lean (protein) mass was not documented. Whether such a diet in people with type 2 diabetes is useful in preventing or delaying the loss of total lean body mass and/or sarcopenia associated with aging remains to be determined.
This experiment used free recall and category clustering methodologies to determine whether older adults, relative to younger adults, are less adept at organizing the to-be-learned material. To assess the role of categorical versus associative relationships upon organization, items that were clear exemplars of their respective categories and had one of two levels of interim associative strength were used. Analyses of the recall data indicated that younger adults recalled more categories, more instances per category, and more total words than did the older adults. Analyses of organizational measures, including both molar and molecular measures of category clustering (a type of secondary organization), and seriation (a type of primary organization), provided evidence for age differences in multiple and divergent modes of organization. Subjects, particularly the younger adults, initially evidenced a seriation strategy and then used one based on category membership. PMID:8444264
Obesity, hypertension and hyperinsulinism are frequently related and constitute morbid elements of human athero-thrombogenic syndrom. To elucidate physiopathologic mechanisms linking these symptoms, we have developped an experimental model reproducing the morbid triptyque: obesity-hypertension-insulin resistance were induced by hyperlipidic hypercaloric diet. The aim of this study was to investigate cardiovascular modifications elicited by high fat diet. Four male Beagle-Harrier dogs were used in this preliminary study. We investigated before and 7 weeks after the beginning of the hypercaloric hyperlipidic diet morphologic measures, systemic blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR), pulmonary blood pressure, cardiac output (CO), systolic ejection volume (SEV), peripheral arterial resistance (PAR) and HR variability on 24hours' electrocardiogram obtained by Holter method. Echocardiographic modifications of left ventricule was also studied after 20 weeks. Body weight increased (+15.4%) after 7 weeks and remained stable the whole experimental period. This gain was associated with an increase of thoracic and abdominal circonferences (respectively +5.9% and 14.3% at the 7th week). The abdominal increase was significantly more elevated than the thoracic one. This abdominal obesity was associated with an increase in diastolic (+17.9%) and mean (+16.4%) (but not systolic) BP. High fat diet failed to modify arterial pulmonary blood pressures but induced an increase in both CO (3.0 +/- 5.2 vs 4.3 +/- 0.4 ml/min) and SEV (32.4 +/- 5.2 vs 40.8 +/- 2.7 ml/beat). PAR decreased (43.1 +/- 5.9 vs 33.0 +/- 3.2 UW; p = 0.08). Holter method showed a non significant increase of HR (82.0 +/- 7.8 vs 99.5 +/- 5.6 beat/min; p = 0.1) explained by a significant decrease of parasympathetic HR variability (PNN50: 53.5 +/- 4.1 vs 40.9 +/- 4.1%). No echocardiographic modification of left ventricule was found after 20 weeks of high fat diet. This preliminary study shows that, like in humans, high fat diet in dogs induced abdominal obesity with systemic hypertension but failed to provoke left cardiovascular hypertrophy after 20 weeks. This model will allow to characterize the links between cardiovascular and endocrinometabolic alterations occurring during the development of obesity and hypertension. PMID:8949371
Verwaerde, P; Galinier, M; Rougé, P; Massabuau, P; Galitzky, J; Sénard, J M; Berlan, M; Montastruc, J L
In this quick activity, learners observe how the added sugar in a can of soda affects its density and thus, its ability to float in water. Learners explore this phenomenon by testing if two cans of soda (one regular, one diet or "sugar-free") float in a fish-tank filled with water. Use this activity to introduce learners to the concepts of density and water displacement. This resource also explains how atmospheric density plays a role in meteorology and includes thunderstorm safety tips.
The production effect, the memorial benefit for information read aloud versus silently, has been touted as a simple memory improvement tool. The current experiments were designed to evaluate the relative costs and benefits of production using a free recall paradigm. Results extend beyond prior work showing a production effect only when production is manipulated within subject, not between, using a free recall paradigm. Furthermore, the results also indicate that the production effect is primarily driven by decreased memory for items read silently, not increased memory for items read aloud. PMID:23751006
... routine, whatever type of diet you choose. The Mediterranean Diet The Mediterranean diet is a way of eating that’s common in ... are part of the diet as well. The Mediterranean diet is low in red meat, cheese, and sweets. ...
Food frequency questionnaires, which measure a person's usual intake over a defined period of time, and 24-hourrecalls, in which a person records everything eaten or drunk during the previous 24hours, are commonly used to collect dietary information. Short screeners, which include just a few questions about consumption of selected items, can be useful in situations that don't require assessment of the total diet or when resources are limited.
... how much protein to have in your diet Fatty Liver Disease Fatty liver disease is the build up of fat in ... shellfish and mushrooms • Do not use copper pots Liver Diseases and Diet Some liver diseases have specific diet ...
We often remember in the company of others. In particular, we routinely collaborate with friends, family, or colleagues to remember shared experiences. But surprisingly, in the experimental collaborative recall paradigm, collaborative groups remember less than their potential, an effect termed "collaborative inhibition". Rajaram and…
Harris, Celia B.; Barnier, Amanda J.; Sutton, John
The current study adopts an innovative approach to the study of time and organizational commitment, examines commitment as a process that unfolds and changes over time, and illuminates how different components of organizational commitment operate both similarly and distinctly. Past research has found that, in a downsizing organization, employees will recall having experienced greater organizational commitment in the past than
A novel theory based on an ecological approach is proposed to explain the significant correlation between domain expertise and memory recall after a short period of time. This constraint attunement hypothesis provides a framework for identifying and representing the various levels of goal-relevant constraint as a domain. (SLD)
We investigated the mechanisms by which fillers, such as "uh" and "um", affect memory for discourse. Participants listened to and attempted to recall recorded passages adapted from "Alice's Adventures in Wonderland". The type and location of interruptions were manipulated through digital splicing. In Experiment 1, we tested a processing time…
This research examined American Indians' recall of cultural inclusion from their elementary through high school education. Sixteen American Indians described their experiences of schools to peer interviewers. Analysis of interviews revealed three themes: the nature of cultural inclusion, factors influencing cultural inclusion, and recommendations…
With the use of the congruity dimension as defined by association values (semantic similarity), encoding specificity was examined in cued recall situations. One hundred twenty-eight undergraduates of both sexes learned 24 target words in an experiment run under a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design, with two input and two output variations (congruous vs. incongruous, respectively) and two retention
Thirty-three women who gave birth 3–4 years ago described the nature and intensity of the pain experienced during that birth using structured pain assessment scales. These assessments were compared with assessments made at the time of the birth. The subjects' recall of labour pain was surprisingly accurate. A small number of subjects reported that they had experienced considerable negative affect
Two experiments assessed effects of color preference and brand-logo familiarity on recall performance. Exp. 1 explored the color preferences, using a forced-choice technique, of 189 women and 63 men, Taiwanese college students ages 18 to 20 years (M = 19.4, SD = 1.5). The sequence of the three most preferred colors was white, light blue, and black and of the three least preferred colors was light orange, dark violet, and dark brown. Exp. 2 investigated the effects of color preference based on the results of Exp. 1 and brand-logo familiarity on recall. A total of 27 women and 21 men, Taiwanese college students ages 18 to 20 years (M = 19.2, SD = 1.2) participated. They memorized a list of 24 logos (four logos shown in six colors) and then performed sequential recall. Analyses showed color preference significantly affected recall accuracy. Accuracy for high color preference was significantly greater than that for low preferences. Results showed no significant effects of brand-logo familiarity or sex on accuracy. In addition, the interactive effect of color preference and brand-logo familiarity on accuracy was significant. These results have implications for the design of brand logos to create and sustain memory of brand images. PMID:19093619
The relation between intrusions in several different recall tasks was examined in the current study. Intrusions from these tasks were moderately correlated and formed a unitary intrusion factor. This factor was related to other cognitive ability measures including working memory capacity, judgments of recency, and general source-monitoring…
This study investigated the effectiveness of animated interactive storybook on elementary school students' recall. This experiment utilized 77 fourth grade students in three groups. Each student was randomly assigned with one of the three conditions: (1) computer presentation of interactive storybooks with animation; (2) computer presentation of…
Compares older adults' text recall and study strategies with those of two groups of young adults. One of the latter groups was enrolled in classes; the other was not. Findings suggest that memory differences between old and young may result as much from cultural factors as from biological deterioration. (Author/RWB)
Using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm, participants are presented with lists of associated words (e.g., bed, awake, night). Subsequently, they reliably have false memories for related but nonpresented words (e.g., SLEEP). Previous research has found that false memories can be created for brand names (e.g., Morrisons, Sainsbury's, Waitrose, and TESCO). The present study investigates the effect of a week's delay on false memories for brand names. Participants were presented with lists of brand names followed by a distractor task. In two between-subjects experiments, participants completed a free recall task or a recognition task either immediately or a week later. In two within-subjects experiments, participants completed a free recall task or a recognition task both immediately and a week later. Correct recall for presented list items decreased over time, whereas false recall for nonpresented lure items increased. For recognition, raw scores revealed an increase in false memory across time reflected in an increase in Remember responses. Analysis of Pr scores revealed that false memory for lures stayed constant over a week, but with an increase in Remember responses in the between-subjects experiment and a trend in the same direction in the within-subjects experiment. Implications for theories of false memory are discussed. PMID:22963741
With T1-weighted gradient recalled echo (GRE) MR images and flow compensation, we studied the superior sagittal sinus in 3 normal volunteers and 3 patients with sinus occlusion. In these images, sites of patency of the superior sagittal sinus were identified due to the high signal intensity of the normal sinus. Tumor invading the sinus was nearly isointense with cerebral gray
D. L. Daniels; L. F. Czervionke; L. E. Hendrix; L. P. Mark; D. F. Smith; G. A. Meyer; D. J. Maiman; V. M. Haughton; A. L. Williams
This paper draws on a collection of retrospective narratives of childhood and adolescent spiritual experiences to explore the qualities and characteristics of the spirituality of the young. They recall a range of spiritual experiences that touch on death, mortality, visions, and perceptions and connections beyond the self. Their experiences…
The central aim of this thesis was to unravel the relationship between patient characteristics, communication between patient and clinician, and subsequent patient information recall in the context of medical consultations with older cancer patients. Chapter 2 reviewed the literature to explore age differences in cancer patients’ need for information and support surrounding cancer treatment. The results indicated that older patients
The research method of stimulated recall generally involves the replay of a tape of a teacher's lesson in order to stimulate a commentary upon the teacher's thought processes at the time. The author considers the advantages and disadvantages of this approach, concluding that it has utility for research in teaching. (Author/SJL)
Objective: This longitudinal study examines the recall accuracy of childhood ADHD symptoms in late adolescence and early adulthood by youth and their parents, compared with reports obtained during childhood. Method: Participants (N = 94) are initially evaluated when they are aged between 7 and 11 and reassessed when they are aged between 16 and 22 years. All participants meet full
Carlin J. Miller; Jeffrey H. Newcorn; Jeffrey M. Halperin
The present study sought to clarify whether phonological similarity of encoded information impairs free recall performance (the phonological similarity effect: PSE) for nonwords. Five experiments examined the influence of the encoding process on the PSE in a step-by-step fashion, by using lists that consisted of phonologically similar (decoy)…
We analyze the timing of recall as a source of information about children's performance in complex working memory tasks. A group of 8-year-olds performed a traditional operation span task in which sequence length increased across trials and an operation period task in which processing requirements were extended across trials of constant sequence…
Towse, John N.; Hitch, Graham J.; Hamilton, Z.; Pirrie, Sarah
Research on the role of visual memory and serial recall in dyslexia is reviewed. Findings touch on feature theory, which proposes that information is held in the form of "features," and that students for example learn to discriminate letters by marking certain identifiable aspects. Other studies are described which focus on speed of processing…
The study investigated the effect of one night of sleep deprivation on dream recall at morning awakening after recovery sleep. Forty healthy subjects were studied after adaptation (A) and baseline nights (B), and a recovery (R) night following 40h of prolonged wakefulness. Parallel to the well-known recovery sleep changes (slow-wave sleep – SWS – rebound, decreased number of awakenings and
Luigi De Gennaro; Cristina Marzano; Fabio Moroni; Giuseppe Curcio; Michele Ferrara; Carlo Cipolli
The neurosymbolic hybrid system ARCS, which extendsa classifier for certain kinds of visually presentedobjects, generates recall images it is then capable ofclassifying. The modules performing classification areexploited for imagery, too. In particular, each weightlessneural discriminator has been modified so as to generatea non-crisp example of the class of simple visualfeatures it was trained to detect; a symbolic processprescribes how to
Ernesto Burattini; Massimo De Gregorio; Guglielmo Tamburrini; AB STRACT
In short-term serial recall, similar-sounding items are remembered more poorly than items that do not sound alike. When lists mix similar and dissimilar items, performance on the dissimilar items is of considerable theoretical interest. Farrell and Lewandowsky [Farrell, S., & Lewandowsky, S. (2003). Dissimilar items benefit from phonological…
Three hypotheses of forgetting from immediate memory were tested: time-based decay, decreasing temporal distinctiveness, and interference. The hypotheses were represented by 3 models of serial recall: the primacy model, the SIMPLE (scale-independent memory, perception, and learning) model, and the SOB (serial order in a box) model, respectively.…
Thirty-one high school students in Newcastle (Australia) were trained to use adjunct maps strategically while studying a history text or were tested on the text without map training. Map training subjects had higher scores on all recall measures and main idea transfer measures at one and three weeks compared to those without map training. (SLD)
This study investigated the effects of linguistic simplification and content schemata on reading comprehension and recall. The participants, 240 Iranian male students of English as a foreign language (EFL), were divided into 4 homogeneous groups, each consisting of 60 participants (30 with high proficiency and 30 with low proficiency). To elicit…
Keshavarz, Mohammad Hossein; Atai, Mahmoud Reza; Ahmadi, Hossein
This experiment tested the hypothesis that depth of involvement in a magazine article is inversely related to subsequent recall and recognition of accompanying advertisements. Subjects read magazine articles interspersed with unfamiliar advertisements for common product types. Results showed that the more deeply the subjects were involved in the articles the less they remembered about the accompanying advertisements. Articles about recipes
Rhetorical structure refers to a complex network of relationships and the way the underlying ideas are organized within a text. This study was conducted to see whether explicit instruction of descriptive and causative text organization positively affected L3 reading recall. 240 Turkish students of EFL who had Persian as their second language were…
Two experiments on the free recall of dichotically presented synthetic speech sounds are reported. The first shows that the right ear advantage for initial fricative consonants is not simply a function of the recognition response class, but that it is also a function of the particular acoustic cues used to achieve that response. This is true both for the whole
This experiment used a balanced placebo design and investigated the effects of alcohol, expectancy, and sex of subject on normal drinkers' recall of social interactions. In a 2 ×2 ×2 factorial design, 48 males and 48 females were (a) administered an alcoholic (.7 g\\/kg) or a nonalcoholic beverage, and (b) instructed that they had received an alcoholic or a nonalcoholic
Jalie A. Tucker; Rudy E. Vuchinich; Steven J. Schonhaut
Risk assessors have devoted considerable attention to the consumption of fish in the diet of recreational and subsistence anglers, but little attention has been directed toward the percentage that wild game contributes to total protein intake for people who engage in hunting and fishing. While recall studies have limitations, the relative errors should be similar for different types of fish
Retrieval dynamics in free recall were explored based on a two-stage search model that relies on temporal-contextual cues. Participants were tested on both delayed and final free recall and correct recalls, errors, and latency measures were examined. In delayed free recall, participants began recall with the first word presented and tended to…
The nutritional status of children with cancer is clinically important. In an effort to separate the influences of disease and treatment, we studied children at the time of diagnosis. A total of 99 children underwent assessment by 24hours dietary recall, measurement of body mass index (BMI), and analysis of body composition by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA scan). The group averages for calorie intake and BMI were close to the median population norms but ranged widely among individuals. As a group the study participants exceeded the Dietary Reference Intake for protein. Nine children (9%) had a BMI recall may not provide accurate assessment of nutritional status in individual children with cancer at diagnosis. However, DXA scans cannot be undertaken in a timely fashion on all children at this point. Alternative methods of assessment are being explored. PMID:20962676
Collins, Laura; Nayiager, Trishana; Doring, Nancy; Kennedy, Charlene; Webber, Colin; Halton, Jacqueline; Walker, Scott; Sala, Alessandra; Barr, Ronald D
This study examined the effect of time lag on the validity of retrospective self?reports of sexual behavior. Seventy?five heterosexual students (44 women, 31 men) made daily recordings of sexual behavior, condom use, and alcohol or substance use for 1 month. Ability of respondents to recall sexual behavior recorded during this period was assessed at 1, 2, and 3 months after
Cynthia A. Graham; Joseph A. Catania; Richard Brand; Tu Duong; Jesse A. Canchola
...proposed rule would set forth the Commission's expectations for voluntary remedial actions and recall notices, bearing in mind that certain elements of product recalls vary and each notice should be tailored appropriately. The proposed rule also...
...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Health hazard evaluation and recall classification...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENFORCEMENT...Industry Responsibilities § 7.41 Health hazard evaluation and recall...
...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Recall of merchandise released from Customs and Border Protection...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Release of Merchandise Â§ 141.113 Recall of merchandise...
...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recall of merchandise released from Customs and Border Protection...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Release of Merchandise Â§ 141.113 Recall of merchandise...
...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Termination of an infant formula recall. 107.250 Section 107.250...SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls Â§ 107.250 Termination of...
...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Termination of an infant formula recall. 107.250 Section 107.250...SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls Â§ 107.250 Termination of...
...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Elements of an infant formula recall. 107.230 Section 107.230...SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls Â§ 107.230 Elements of an...
...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Elements of an infant formula recall. 107.230 Section 107.230...SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls Â§ 107.230 Elements of an...
Double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) diets were compared with evidence from the stomachs of shot birds and from regurgitated pellets at High Bluff Island and Little Galloo Island, Lake Ontario. The highest similarity in diets determined by stomach and pellet analyses occurred when both samples were collected on the same day. Diet overlap dropped substantially between the two methods when collection periods were seven to ten days apart, which suggested differences in prey availability between the two periods. Since the average number of fish recovered in pellets was significantly higher than that in stomachs, use of pellets to determine fish consumption of double-crested cormorants may be more valid than stomach analysis because pellet content represent an integrated sampling of food consumed over approximately 24hours.
Johnson, James H.; Ross, Robert M.; McCullough, Russell D.; Mathers, Alastair
Sixty-eight elderly subjects and 77 young adults were compared on implicit and explicit motive levels and on recall of introductions and working memory. Significantly fewer of the elderly scored high in the implicit motives. The elderly participants showed major recall deficits on both tasks but the implicit motives studied enhanced recall for the…
McClelland, David C.; Scioli, Anthony; Weaver, Suzanne
As to removal by recall, the United States Constitution does not provide for nor authorize the recall of United States officers such as Senators, Representatives, or the President or Vice President, and thus no Member of Congress has ever been recalled in...
Shows that audience recall of AIDS public service announcements (PSAs) is related to message appeal types, cultural identity, and gender. Finds that strong emotional appeals are better remembered than rational ones; U.S. viewers recalled more than international participants; and college women recalled more than college men in general, and…
Hypotheses concerning the relations among personality types, neuroticism, and the recall of archetypal dreams were derived from Jungian theory. Dream records were obtained from a nonclinical population in two stages: first, recall of the most recent, most vivid, and earliest remembered dreams (N = 146), and then dream recall on awakening, over an average of 23 nights, from 30 of
Many studies investigated how personality, behavior, and attitude mediate dream recall, but few distinguish between measures of dream recall frequency: the number of dreams experienced in a specified time frame and dream detail: individual ratings of vividness or detailed content of dreams. This study compared undergraduates' (n = 173) self-reported dream recall frequency, and dream detail, with behaviors, attitude toward