Sample records for 24-hour diet recall

  1. Standardization of the 24-hour diet recall calibration method used in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC): general concepts and preliminary results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Slimani; P. Ferrari; M. Ocké; A. Welch; H Boeing; M van Liere; V Pala; P Amiano; A Lagiou; I Mattisson; C Stripp; D Engeset; R Charrondière; M Buzzard; W van Staveren; E Riboli

    2000-01-01

    Objectives: Despite increasing interest in the concept of calibration in dietary surveys, there is still little experience in the use and standardization of a common reference dietary method, especially in international studies. In this paper, we present the general theoretical framework and the approaches developed to standardize the computer-assisted 24 h diet recall method (EPIC-SOFT) used to collect about 37

  2. The Automated Self-Administered 24-hour dietary recall (ASA24): A resource for researchers, clinicians, and educators from the National Cancer Institute

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extensive evidence has demonstrated that 24-hour dietary recalls (24HDRs) provide high-quality dietary intake data with minimal bias, making them the preferred tool for monitoring the diets of populations and, increasingly, for studying diet and disease associations. Traditional 24HDRs, however, are...

  3. Learn More about Food Composition Databases for 24-hour Dietary Recalls and Food Records | Dietary Assessment Primer

    Cancer.gov

    In order to calculate nutrient and food group intakes from foods and beverages reported on 24-hour dietary recalls (24HRs) and food records, nutrient and food group composition databases are essential (see 24-hour Dietary Recall Profile and Food Record Profile). Typically, these databases include a description of the food and a code for each. Each code has associated nutrient and food group composition per 100 grams.

  4. Reproducibility of 24-hour dietary recall for vitamin intakes by middle-aged Japanese men and women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Kubota; K. Maruyama; S. Sato; Y. Ishikawa; T. Shimamoto; M. Inagawa; M. Ohshima; S. Murai; Hiroyasu Iso

    Objective  To examine the reproducibility of 24-hour dietary recall for estimating dietary vitamin intakes by middle-aged Japanese men\\u000a and women.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods and Results  The subjects were 132 men and 130 women aged 40–69 years, selected from participants in cardiovascular risk surveys conducted\\u000a in 4 communities. The reproducibility of the 24-hour dietary recall was tested by comparing nutrient and food intake for two

  5. Reproducibility of 24-hour dietary recall for vitamin intakes by middle-aged Japanese men and women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Kubota; K. Maruyama; S. Sato; Y. Ishikawa; T. Shimamoto; M. Inagawa; M. Ohshima; S. Murai; Hiroyasu Iso

    2010-01-01

    Objective  To examine the reproducibility of 24-hour dietary recall for estimating dietary vitamin intakes by middle-aged Japanese men\\u000a and women.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods and Results  The subjects were 132 men and 130 women aged 40–69 years, selected from participants in cardiovascular risk surveys conducted\\u000a in 4 communities. The reproducibility of the 24-hour dietary recall was tested by comparing nutrient and food intake for two

  6. The Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Recall for Children, 2012 version, for youth aged 9 to 11 Years: A validation study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to validate the 2012 version of the Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Recall for Children (ASA24-Kids-2012), a self-administered web-based 24-hour dietary recall (24hDR) instrument, among children aged 9 to 11 years, in two sites using a quasiexperimental design. In one s...

  7. Comparison of Interviewer-Administered and Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Recalls in 3 Diverse Integrated Health Systems.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Frances E; Dixit-Joshi, Sujata; Potischman, Nancy; Dodd, Kevin W; Kirkpatrick, Sharon I; Kushi, Lawrence H; Alexander, Gwen L; Coleman, Laura A; Zimmerman, Thea P; Sundaram, Maria E; Clancy, Heather A; Groesbeck, Michelle; Douglass, Deirdre; George, Stephanie M; Schap, TusaRebecca E; Subar, Amy F

    2015-06-15

    Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls provide high-quality intake data but have been prohibitively expensive for large epidemiologic studies. This study's goal was to assess whether the web-based Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Recall (ASA24) performs similarly enough to the standard interviewer-administered, Automated Multiple-Pass Method (AMPM) 24-hour dietary recall to be considered a viable alternative. In 2010-2011, 1,081 adults from 3 integrated health systems in Detroit, Michigan; Marshfield, Wisconsin; and Kaiser-Permanente Northern California participated in a field trial. A quota design ensured a diverse sample by sex, age, and race/ethnicity. Each participant was asked to complete 2 recalls and was randomly assigned to 1 of 4 protocols differing by type of recall and administration order. For energy, the mean intakes were 2,425 versus 2,374 kcal for men and 1,876 versus 1,906 kcal for women by AMPM and ASA24, respectively. Of 20 nutrients/food groups analyzed and controlling for false discovery rate, 87% were judged equivalent at the 20% bound. ASA24 was preferred over AMPM by 70% of the respondents. Attrition was lower in the ASA24/AMPM study group than in the AMPM/ASA24 group, and it was lower in the ASA24/ASA24 group than in the AMPM/AMPM group. ASA24 offers the potential to collect high-quality dietary intake information at low cost with less attrition. PMID:25964261

  8. Development and validity of a 3-day smartphone assisted 24-hour recall to assess beverage consumption in a Chinese population: a randomized cross-over study.

    PubMed

    Smith, Lindsey P; Hua, Jenna; Seto, Edmund; Du, Shufa; Zang, Jiajie; Zou, Shurong; Popkin, Barry M; Mendez, Michelle A

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the need for diet assessment methods that capture the rapidly changing beverage consumption patterns in China. The objective of this study was to develop a 3-day smartphone-assisted 24-hour recall to improve the quantification of beverage intake amongst young Chinese adults (n=110) and validate, in a small subset (n=34), the extent to which the written record and smartphone-assisted recalls adequately estimated total fluid intake, using 24-hour urine samples. The smartphone-assisted method showed improved validity compared with the written record-assisted method, when comparing reported total fluid intake to total urine volume. However, participants reported consuming fewer beverages on the smartphone-assisted method compared with the written record-assisted method, primarily due to decreased consumption of traditional zero-energy beverages (i.e. water, tea) in the smartphone-assisted method. It is unclear why participants reported fewer beverages in the smartphone-assisted method than the written record -assisted method. One possibility is that participants found the smartphone method too cumbersome, and responded by decreasing beverage intake. These results suggest that smartphone-assisted 24-hour recalls perform comparably but do not appear to substantially improve beverage quantification compared with the current written record-based approach. In addition, we piloted a beverage screener to identify consumers of episodically consumed SSBs. As expected, a substantially higher proportion of consumers reported consuming SSBs on the beverage screener compared with either recall type, suggesting that a beverage screener may be useful in characterizing consumption of episodically consumed beverages in China's dynamic food and beverage landscape. PMID:25516327

  9. Validation of a group 24-hour recall method for dietary assessment 

    E-print Network

    Scott, Amanda Renee

    2002-01-01

    university students, pregnant women, adult marijuana users, and elderly Italian and Mexican subjects (19-23). Twenty-hour recalls can also assess the degree of dietary change after a nutritional intervention (24, 25). Twenty-four hour recalls may...

  10. Validation of a group 24-hour recall method for dietary assessment

    E-print Network

    Scott, Amanda Renee

    2002-01-01

    , fiber, fat, thiamin, niacin, folate, and vitamins D and E. For the individual recall method, correlation coefficients ranged from 0.45 to 1.00. Significant correlation coefficients for the individual method were noted for carbohydrate, fat, cholesterol...

  11. Validation of the Portuguese self-administered computerised 24-hour dietary recall among second-, third- and fourth-grade children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current methods for assessing children's dietary intake, such as interviewer-administered 24-h dietary recall (24-h DR), are time consuming and resource intensive. Self-administered instruments offer a low-cost diet assessment method for use with children. The present study assessed the validity of ...

  12. Children’s dietary reporting accuracy over multiple 24-hour recalls varies by body mass index category

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Suzanne Domel; Smith, Albert F.; Nichols, Michele D.; Guinn, Caroline H.; Hardin, James W.

    2007-01-01

    This secondary analysis investigated the influence of body mass index (BMI) category and sex on reporting accuracy during multiple 24-hour dietary recalls. On three occasions, each of 79 children (40 girls) was observed eating school meals and interviewed the next morning about the previous day’s intake, with ? 25 days between any two consecutive occasions for a child. Using age/sex BMI percentiles, we categorized 48 children as healthy weight (? 5th percentile <85th), 14 as at risk of overweight (? 85th percentile <95th), and 17 as overweight (?95th percentile). A repeated-measures analysis was conducted for each of five outcomes (number of items observed eaten, number of items reported eaten, omission rate, intrusion rate, total inaccuracy). For items observed, BMI category x trial was marginally significant (P=0.079); over trials, this outcome was stable for healthy-weight children, decreased and stabilized for at-risk-of-overweight children, and was stable and decreased for overweight children. This outcome was greatest for overweight children and least for healthy-weight children (P=0.015). For items reported, no significant effects were found. For omission rate (P=0.028) and intrusion rate (P=0.083), BMI category x trial was significant and marginally significant; over trials, both decreased for healthy-weight children, decreased and stabilized for at-risk-of-overweight children, and increased and stabilized for overweight children. Total inaccuracy decreased slightly over trials (P=0.076); this outcome was greater for boys than for girls (P=0.049). Results suggest that children’s dietary reporting accuracy over multiple recalls varies by BMI category. Validation studies with adequate samples for each BMI category, sex, and race are needed. PMID:17541449

  13. Validation of the automated self-administered 24-hour dietary recall for children (ASA24-Kids) among 9- to 11-year-old youth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our purpose was to validate ASA24-Kids-2012, a self-administered web-based 24-hour dietary recall (24hDR) among 9- to 11-year-old children. Sixty-nine children in two sites participated in the study. In one site, trained staff observed and recorded types and portions of foods and drinks consumed by ...

  14. The accuracy of the Goldberg method for classifying misreporters of energy intake on a food frequency questionnaire and 24-hour recalls: Comparison with doubly labeled water

    PubMed Central

    Tooze, Janet A.; Krebs-Smith, Susan M.; Troiano, Richard P.; Subar, Amy F.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objectives Adults often misreport dietary intake; the magnitude varies by the methods used to assess diet and classify participants. The objective was to quantify the accuracy of the Goldberg method for categorizing misreporters on a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and two 24-hour recalls (24HR). Subjects/Methods We compared the Goldberg method, which uses an equation to predict total energy expenditure (TEE), to a criterion method that uses doubly labeled water (DLW), in a study of 451 men and women. Underreporting was classified using recommended cutpoints and calculated values. Sensitivity and specificity, positive and negative predictive value (PPV and NPV), and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) were calculated. Predictive models of underreporting were contrasted for the Goldberg and DLW methods. Results AUC were 0.974 and 0.972 on the FFQ, and 0.961 and 0.938 on the 24HR for men and women, respectively. The sensitivity of the Goldberg method was higher for the FFQ (92%) than the 24HR (50%); specificity was higher for the 24HR (99%) than the FFQ (88%); PPV was high for the 24HR (92%) and FFQ (88%). Simulation studies indicate attenuation in odds ratio estimates and reduction of power in predictive models. Conclusions Although use of the Goldberg method may lead to bias and reduction in power in predictive models of underreporting, the method has high predictive value for both the FFQ and the 24HR. Thus, in the absence of objective measures of TEE or physical activity, the Goldberg method is a reasonable approach to characterizing underreporting. PMID:22127332

  15. 24-Hour Glucose Profiles on Diets Varying in Protein Content and Glycemic Index

    PubMed Central

    van Baak, Marleen A.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence is increasing that the postprandial state is an important factor contributing to the risk of chronic diseases. Not only mean glycemia, but also glycemic variability has been implicated in this effect. In this exploratory study, we measured 24-h glucose profiles in 25 overweight participants in a long-term diet intervention study (DIOGENES study on Diet, Obesity and Genes), which had been randomized to four different diet groups consuming diets varying in protein content and glycemic index. In addition, we compared 24-h glucose profiles in a more controlled fashion, where nine other subjects followed in random order the same four diets differing in carbohydrate content by 10 energy% and glycemic index by 20 units during three days. Meals were provided in the lab and had to be eaten at fixed times during the day. No differences in mean glucose concentration or glucose variability (SD) were found between diet groups in the DIOGENES study. In the more controlled lab study, mean 24-h glucose concentrations were also not different. Glucose variability (SD and CONGA1), however, was lower on the diet combining a lower carbohydrate content and GI compared to the diet combining a higher carbohydrate content and GI. These data suggest that diets with moderate differences in carbohydrate content and GI do not affect mean 24-h or daytime glucose concentrations, but may result in differences in the variability of the glucose level in healthy normal weight and overweight individuals. PMID:25093276

  16. Comparison of a web-based versus traditional diet recall among children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Self-administered instruments offer a low-cost diet assessment method for use in adult and pediatric populations. This study tested whether 8- to 13-year-old children could complete an early version of the Automated Self Administered 24 (ASA24) hour dietary recall and how this compared to an intervi...

  17. Dietary Patterns are similar using a population specific diet screening tool and multiple 24-hour recalls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary patterns (DP) are associated with nutritional and health status of older adults but requires comprehensive dietary assessment methods. We designed a dietary screening tool (DST) to assess DP using a population-specific data-based approach from a Geisinger Rural Aging Study (GRAS) cohort. Thi...

  18. Shortening the retention interval of 24-hour dietary recalls increases fourth-grade children’s accuracy for reporting energy and macronutrient intake at school meals

    PubMed Central

    Guinn, Caroline H.; Royer, Julie A.; Hardin, James W.; Mackelprang, Alyssa J.; Smith, Albert F.

    2010-01-01

    Background Accurate information about children’s intake is crucial for national nutrition policy and for research and clinical activities. To analyze accuracy for reporting energy and nutrients, most validation studies utilize the conventional approach which was not designed to capture errors of reported foods and amounts. The reporting-error-sensitive approach captures errors of reported foods and amounts. Objective To extend results to energy and macronutrients for a validation study concerning retention interval (elapsed time between to-be-reported meals and the interview) and accuracy for reporting school-meal intake, the conventional and reporting-error-sensitive approaches were compared. Design and participants/setting Fourth-grade children (n=374) were observed eating two school meals, and interviewed to obtain a 24-hour recall using one of six interview conditions from crossing two target periods (prior-24-hours; previous-day) with three interview times (morning; afternoon; evening). Data were collected in one district during three school years (2004–2005; 2005–2006; 2006–2007). Main outcome measures Report rates (reported/observed), correspondence rates (correctly reported/observed), and inflation ratios (intruded/observed) were calculated for energy and macronutrients. Statistical analyses performed For each outcome measure, mixed-model analysis of variance was conducted with target period, interview time, their interaction, and sex in the model; results were adjusted for school year and interviewer. Results Conventional approach — Report rates for energy and macronutrients did not differ by target period, interview time, their interaction, or sex. Reporting-error-sensitive approach — Correspondence rates for energy and macronutrients differed by target period (four P-values<0.0001) and the target-period by interview-time interaction (four P-values<0.0001); inflation ratios for energy and macronutrients differed by target period (four P-values<0.0001), and inflation ratios for energy and carbohydrate differed by the target-period by interview-time interaction (both P-values<0.005). Conclusions Shorten the retention interval of dietary recalls to increase accuracy for reporting energy and macronutrients. For validation studies, obtain reference information from a method that provides details about foods and amounts consumed, and use an analytic approach that captures errors of reported foods and amounts. PMID:20656093

  19. Computerized portion size estimation compared to multiple 24-hour dietary recalls for measurement of fat, fruit, and vegetable intake in overweight adults

    PubMed Central

    Toobert, Deborah J.; Strycker, Lisa A.; Hampson, Sarah E.; Westling, Erika; Christiansen, Steven M.; Hurley, Thomas G.; Hébert, James R.

    2011-01-01

    Validated self-report methods of dietary assessment exist, and might be improved both in terms of accuracy and cost-efficiency with computer technology. The objectives of this preliminary study were to develop an initial version of an interactive CD-ROM program to estimate fruit, vegetable, and fat intake, and to compare it to multiple 24-hour dietary recalls (24HR; averaged over 3 days). In 2009, overweight male and female adults (N = 205) from Lane County, OR completed computerized and paper versions of fruit, vegetable, and fat screening instruments, and multiple 24HR. Summary scores from the ten-item NCI Fruit and Vegetable Scan (FVS) and the 18-item Block Fat Screener (BFS) were compared to multiple 24HR-derived fruit/vegetable and fat intake estimates (criterion measures). Measurement models were used to derive deattenuated correlations with multiple 24HR of paper and CD-ROM administrations of FVS fruit intake, FVS vegetable intake, FVS fruit and vegetable intake, and BFS fat intake. The computerized assessment and paper surveys were related to multiple 24HR-derived fruit/vegetable and fat intake. Deattenuated correlation coefficients ranged from 0.50 to 0.73 (all P ?0.0001). The CD-ROM-derived estimate of fruit intake was more closely associated with the 24HR (r=0.73) than the paper-derived estimate (r=0.54; P<.05), but the other comparisons did not differ significantly. Findings from this preliminary study with overweight adults indicate the need for further enhancements to the CD-ROM assessment and more extensive validation studies. PMID:21963026

  20. Association between 24-hour urine sodium and potassium excretion and diet quality in six-year-old children: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Limited data is available on sodium (Na) and potassium (K) intake in young children estimated by 24 hour (24h) excretion in urine. The aim was to assess 24h urinary excretion of Na and K in six-year-old children and its relationship with diet quality. Methods The study population was a subsample of a national dietary survey, including six-year-old children living in the greater Reykjavik area (n=76). Three day weighed food records were used to estimate diet quality. Diet quality was defined as adherence to the Icelandic food based dietary guidelines. Na and K excretion was analyzed from 24h urine collections. PABA check was used to validate completeness of urine collections. The associations between Na and K excretion and diet quality were estimated by linear regression, adjusting for gender and energy intake. Results Valid urine collections and diet registrations were provided by 58 children. Na and K excretion was, mean (SD), 1.64 (0.54) g Na/24h (approx. 4.1 g salt/24h) and 1.22 (0.43) g K/24h. In covariate adjusted models Na excretion decreased by 0.16 g Na/24h (95% CI: 0.31, 0.06) per 1-unit increase in diet quality score (score range: 1–4) while K excretion was increased by 0.18 g K/24h (95% CI: 0.06, 0.29). Conclusions Na intake, estimated by 24h urinary excretion was on average higher than recommended. Increased diet quality was associated with lower Na excretion and higher K excretion in six-year-old children. PMID:23153276

  1. Development and Pilot Testing of 24-Hour Multiple-Pass Recall to Assess Dietary Intake of Toddlers of Somali- and Iraqi-Born Mothers Living in Norway

    PubMed Central

    Grewal, Navnit Kaur; Mosdøl, Annhild; Aunan, Marte Bergsund; Monsen, Carina; Torheim, Liv Elin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop, test, and evaluate a 24-h recall procedure to assess the dietary intake of toddlers of Somali- and Iraqi-born mothers living in Norway. A protocol for a 24-h multiple-pass recall procedure, registration forms, and visual tools (a picture library for food identification and portion size estimation) was developed and tested in 12 mothers from Somalia and Iraq with children aged 10–21 months. Five female field workers were recruited and trained to conduct the interviews. Evaluation data for the 24-h recall procedure were collected from both the mothers and the field workers. Nutrient intake was calculated using a Norwegian dietary calculation system. Each child’s estimated energy intake was compared with its estimated energy requirement. Both the mothers and the field workers found the method feasible and the visual tools useful. The estimated energy intake corresponded well with the estimated energy requirement for most of the children (within mean ± 2 SD, except for three). The pilot study identified the need for additional foods in the picture library and some crucial aspects in training and supervising the field workers to reduce sources of error in the data collection. PMID:24949548

  2. Estimated dietary intakes of flavonols, flavanones and flavones in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) 24 hour dietary recall cohort.

    PubMed

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Knaze, Viktoria; Luján-Barroso, Leila; Slimani, Nadia; Romieu, Isabelle; Fedirko, Veronika; de Magistris, Maria Santucci; Ericson, Ulrica; Amiano, Pilar; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Dilis, Vardis; Naska, Androniki; Engeset, Dagrun; Skeie, Guri; Cassidy, Aedin; Overvad, Kim; Peeters, Petra H M; Huerta, José María; Sánchez, María-José; Quirós, J Ramón; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Grioni, Sara; Tumino, Rosario; Johansson, Gerd; Johansson, Ingegerd; Drake, Isabel; Crowe, Francesca L; Barricarte, Aurelio; Kaaks, Rudolf; Teucher, Birgit; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; van Rossum, Caroline T M; Norat, Teresa; Romaguera, Dora; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjær, Jytte; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Touillaud, Marina; Salvini, Simonetta; Khaw, Kay-Thee; Wareham, Nicholas; Boeing, Heiner; Förster, Jana; Riboli, Elio; González, Carlos A

    2011-12-01

    Flavonols, flavanones and flavones (FLAV) are sub-classes of flavonoids that exert cardioprotective and anti-carcinogenic properties in vitro and in vivo. We aimed to estimate the FLAV dietary intake, their food sources and associated lifestyle factors in ten European countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. FLAV intake and their food sources for 36 037 subjects, aged between 35 and 74 years, in twenty-seven study centres were obtained using standardised 24 h dietary recall software (EPIC-SOFT). An ad hoc food composition database on FLAV was compiled using data from US Department of Agriculture and Phenol-Explorer databases and was expanded using recipes, estimations and flavonoid retention factors in order to increase its correspondence with the 24 h dietary recall. Our results showed that the highest FLAV-consuming centre was the UK health-conscious group, with 130·9 and 97·0 mg/d for men and women, respectively. The lowest FLAV intakes were 36·8 mg/d in men from Umeå and 37·2 mg/d in women from Malmö (Sweden). The flavanone sub-class was the main contributor to the total FLAV intake ranging from 46·6 to 52·9 % depending on the region. Flavonols ranged from 38·5 to 47·3 % and flavones from 5·8 to 8·6 %. FLAV intake was higher in women, non-smokers, increased with level of education and physical activity. The major food sources were citrus fruits and citrus-based juices (especially for flavanones), tea, wine, other fruits and some vegetables. We concluded that the present study shows heterogeneity in intake of these three sub-classes of flavonoids across European regions and highlights differences by sex and other sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. PMID:21679483

  3. Recalls

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 3 4 5 ... Next Search Recalls and News Alerts from to Find Recalls By: Company Country Where ... Stay Connected Follow us on Twitter Get Email Alerts Get the Recall Widget Find More Government Recalls ...

  4. 24-hour security contact (0115) 951 3013

    E-print Network

    Qu, Rong

    New Theatre Recital Hall Security Control Sports Student Services Centre Students' Union/Retail/Food24-hour security contact (0115) 951 3013 Lenton Lodge Pavement Research Building Pope Building Sir ENTRANCE NORTH ENTRANCE CHINA MALAYSIAUNITED KINGDOM Trent Building Portland Building N PD PD PD 55 5 52 14

  5. The 24-Hour Mathematical Modeling Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galluzzo, Benjamin J.; Wendt, Theodore J.

    2015-01-01

    Across the mathematics curriculum there is a renewed emphasis on applications of mathematics and on mathematical modeling. Providing students with modeling experiences beyond the ordinary classroom setting remains a challenge, however. In this article, we describe the 24-hour Mathematical Modeling Challenge, an extracurricular event that exposes…

  6. DOES FISH STILL MATTER? CHANGES IN THE DIET OF TWO BRAZILIAN FISHING COMMUNITIES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    NATALIA HANAZAKI; ALPINA BEGOSSI

    2003-01-01

    Coastal communities are experiencing rapid changes on their livelihood due to the degradation of coastal areas and growing tourism. We analyze the changes in the diet of two fishing communities from the southeastern Brazilian coast, in regard to their consumption of animal protein. Using multivariate methods, we followed the diet of 32 households through the 24-hour recall method (three days

  7. MEASUREMENT ERROR CORRECTED SODIUM AND POTASSIUM INTAKE ESTIMATION USING 24-HOUR URINARY EXCRETION

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ying; Van Horn, Linda; Tinker, Lesley F.; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Carbone, Laura; Mossavar-Rahmani, Yasmin; Thomas, Fridtjof; Prentice, Ross L.

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies of the association of sodium and potassium intake with cardiovascular disease risk have almost exclusively relied on self-reported dietary data. Here, 24-hour urinary excretion assessments are used to correct the dietary self-report data for measurement error, under the assumption that 24-hour urine recovery provides a biomarker that differs from usual intake according to a ‘classical’ measurement model. Under this assumption, dietary self-reports underestimate sodium by 0–15%, overestimate potassium by 8–15%, and underestimates the sodium-to-potassium ratio by about 20% using food frequency questionnaires, 4-day food records, or three 24-hour dietary recalls, in Women’s Health Initiative studies. ‘Calibration’ equations are developed by linear regression of log-transformed 24-hour urine assessments on corresponding log-transformed self-report assessments, and several study subject characteristics. For each self-report method the calibration equations turned out to depend on race and age, and strongly on body mass index. Following adjustment for temporal variation, calibration equations using food records or recalls explained 45–50% of the variation in (log-transformed) 24-hour urine assessments for sodium, 60–70% of the variation for potassium, and 55–60% of the variation for the sodium-to-potassium ratio. These equations may be suitable for use in epidemiologic disease association studies among postmenopausal women. The corresponding ‘signals’ from food frequency questionnaire data were weak, but calibration equations for the ratios of sodium and potassium to total energy explained about 35%, 50%, and 45% of log-biomarker variation for sodium, potassium, and their ratio, respectively, following adjustment for temporal biomarker variation, and may be suitable for cautious use in epidemiologic studies. PMID:24277763

  8. Nutritional Adequacy of Self–Selected Low–Fat Diets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. A. KRUMMEL; X. LIU

    1999-01-01

    To identify areas for nutrition interventions, nutrient intakes were examined in a cross-sectional sample of West Virginians. A random sample of adults (N=788, ages 18–74) completed one 24-hour recall over the telephone. Trained interviewers, using the University of Minnesota Nutrition Data System (vs.2.9), conducted the recalls. Forty-two percent of the sample had consumed a lower fat diet (?30% of Calories)

  9. Monitoring Dietary Change in a Low-Fat Diet Intervention Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. MARILYN BUZZARD; CHERYL L FAUCETT; ROBERT W JEFFERY; LAURIE McBANE; PAUL McGOVERN; JUDITH S BAXTER; ALICE C SHAPIRO; GEORGE L BLACKBURN; ROWAN T CHLEBOWSKI; ROBERT M ELASHOFF; ERNST L WYNDER

    1996-01-01

    Objective The purpose of the study was to evaluate two methods of dietary assessment for monitoring change in fat intake in a low-fat diet intervention study.Design The two dietary assessment methods were a 4-day food record (4DFR) and an unannounced 24-hour dietary recall conducted by telephone interview (referred to as a telephone recall [TR]). Subjects were assigned randomly to either

  10. 29 CFR 785.21 - Less than 24-hour duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...for less than 24 hours is working even though he is permitted to sleep or engage in other personal activities when not busy. A...for specified hours is working even though she is permitted to sleep when not busy answering calls. It makes no difference...

  11. 29 CFR 785.21 - Less than 24-hour duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...for less than 24 hours is working even though he is permitted to sleep or engage in other personal activities when not busy. A...for specified hours is working even though she is permitted to sleep when not busy answering calls. It makes no difference...

  12. 29 CFR 785.21 - Less than 24-hour duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...for less than 24 hours is working even though he is permitted to sleep or engage in other personal activities when not busy. A...for specified hours is working even though she is permitted to sleep when not busy answering calls. It makes no difference...

  13. Pineal Gland: 24Hour Rhythm in Norepinephrine Turnover

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Brownstein; Julius Axelrod

    1974-01-01

    There is a 24-hour rhythm in the turnover of norepinephrine in sympathetic nerves innervating the pineal gland. This rhythm persists in blinded animals but is suppressed in normal rats by light. The rhythm in norepinephrine turnover generates the rhythms in pineal indoleamines and N-acetyltransferase.

  14. Ambulatory 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. J. Wiener; T. M. Morgan; J. B. Copper; D. O. Castell; J. W. Sinclair; J. E. Richter

    1988-01-01

    If 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring is to be a useful diagnostic tool, it must reliably discriminate gastroesophageal reflux patients despite daily variations in distal esophageal acid exposure. To address this issue, we studied 53 subjects (14 healthy normals, 14 esophagitis patients, and 25 patients with atypical symptoms) with two ambulatory pH tests performed within 10 days of each other. Intrasubject

  15. Equilibrium Positions and Stability of 24Hour Satellite Orbits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leon Blitzer

    1965-01-01

    The influence of the entire spectrum of tesseral harmonics of the geopotentiM on synchronous (24-hour) satellite orbits of small eccentricity and inclination is investigated. The dominant forces are due to the longitude-dependent term (J=) associated with the earth's equatorial ellipticity. With the Jterm alone there exist four possible geostationary points, symmetrically situated on the extensions of the principal axes of

  16. Effect of daily oral omeprazole on 24 hour intragastric acidity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R P Walt; M D Gomes; E C Wood; L H Logan; R E Pounder

    1983-01-01

    Twenty four hour intragastric acidity was measured in nine patients with duodenal ulcer before and after one week of treatment with oral omeprazole 30 mg daily, a drug that inhibits gastric secretion by inhibition of parietal cell H+K+ adenosinetriphosphatase (ATPase). Omeprazole virtually eliminated intragastric acidity in all patients: the median 24 hour intragastric pH rose from 1.4 to 5.3 and

  17. Desenvolvimento de um questionário de freqüência alimentar para o estudo de dieta e doenças não transmissíveis Development of a food frequency questionnaire to study diet and non-communicable diseases in adult population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Renata Furlan-Viebig; Maria Pastor-Valero

    The study purpose was to develop a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to investigate potential relationships between diet and non-communicable diseases. Two hundred adults were selected among attendees at the general outpatient clinic of Heart Institute of São Paulo, Brazil. A 98-food item list was created from 24-hour recalls, based on the weighted contribution of each food to energy intake and

  18. Food Sources of Added Sweeteners in the Diets of Americans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOANNE F GUTHRIE; JOAN F MORTON

    2000-01-01

    Objective To identify food sources of added sweeteners in the US diet.Design A descriptive study using data from the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) 1994-1996 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals. Each subject provided one 24-hour dietary recall. Intake of added sweeteners was calculated using the USDA Food Guide Pyramid servings database.Subjects\\/setting A national sample of noninstitutionalized persons aged

  19. Patient Compliance during 24-Hour Dual pH Probe Monitoring for Extraesophageal Reflux.

    PubMed

    Musser, Joy; Kelchner, Lisa; Neils-Strunjas, Jean; Montrose, Marshall

    2011-01-01

    Objective. During ambulatory 24-hour dual pH probe monitoring for suspected extraesophageal reflux (EER), patients are responsible for indicating relevant study events. Study interpretation relies on patient accuracy and compliance to test instructions. This study sought to explore patient compliance during pH probe monitoring and evaluated the utility of a Post-Evaluation Questionnaire as a clinical tool. Participants and Methods. Participants were prospectively studied during 24-hour dual pH probe monitoring. Participants used both a food diary and monitor settings to indicate relevant study events. Following pH testing, participants completed a Post-Evaluation Questionnaire regarding test experiences. Results. Eighty-two participants completed the study. Means and standard deviations were calculated for individual responses on the Post-Evaluation Questionnaire. Means indicate high participant accuracy for study events, and adherence to typical activities and diet over the testing period. Factor analysis was performed on the Post-Evaluation Questionnaire items and identified two factors: "typical experiences" and "times forgot." Cronbach's alpha demonstrated acceptable reliability levels for questions related to "typical experiences," but poor reliability for "times forgot" questions. Conclusions. Assessment of participant compliance during pH probe testing can quickly and easily be completed through a Post-Evaluation Questionnaire. Participant compliance can be assessed for improved study interpretation. PMID:23724257

  20. Adapting a standardised international 24 h dietary recall methodology (GloboDiet software) for research and dietary surveillance in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Min Kyung; Park, Jin Young; Nicolas, Geneviève; Paik, Hee Young; Kim, Jeongseon; Slimani, Nadia

    2015-06-01

    During the past decades, a rapid nutritional transition has been observed along with economic growth in the Republic of Korea. Since this dramatic change in diet has been frequently associated with cancer and other non-communicable diseases, dietary monitoring is essential to understand the association. Benefiting from pre-existing standardised dietary methodologies, the present study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and describe the development of a Korean version of the international computerised 24 h dietary recall method (GloboDiet software) and its complementary tools, developed at the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), WHO. Following established international Standard Operating Procedures and guidelines, about seventy common and country-specific databases on foods, recipes, dietary supplements, quantification methods and coefficients were customised and translated. The main results of the present study highlight the specific adaptations made to adapt the GloboDiet software for research and dietary surveillance in Korea. New (sub-) subgroups were added into the existing common food classification, and new descriptors were added to the facets to classify and describe specific Korean foods. Quantification methods were critically evaluated and adapted considering the foods and food packages available in the Korean market. Furthermore, a picture book of foods/dishes was prepared including new pictures and food portion sizes relevant to Korean diet. The development of the Korean version of GloboDiet demonstrated that it was possible to adapt the IARC-WHO international dietary tool to an Asian context without compromising its concept of standardisation and software structure. It, thus, confirms that this international dietary methodology, used so far only in Europe, is flexible and robust enough to be customised for other regions worldwide. PMID:25899045

  1. TESTING FORM Please deliver exams with envelope & testing form at least 24 hours in advance to

    E-print Network

    Selmic, Sandra

    TESTING FORM Please deliver exams with envelope & testing form at least 24 hours in advance to: _________________________________ Class Time: __________ - __________ _________ Test Date: _______________________________ Time allotted): ____________________________ INSTRUCTOR PROCEDURES: 1. Please deliver tests to WYLY TOWER 318 at least 24 hours PRIOR to test time

  2. Baseline Analysis of 24-hour GPS-VLBI Hybrid Observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Y.; Kondo, T.; Gotoh, T.; Amagai, J.; Takiguchi, H.; Sekido, M.; Plank, L.; Ichikawa, R.; Cho, J.; Kim, T.; Sasao, T.

    2012-12-01

    GPS-VLBI (GV) Hybrid System is being developed to combine the VLBI and GPS techniques at the observation level. In the system, VLBI antennas and GPS antennas located at the same site receive signals from quasars and GPS satellites, respectively. Both signals are recorded and correlated in the normal VLBI way. We carried out a 24-hour validation experiment of the system on the baseline between Kashima and Koganei in 2009. In the experiment, we stably acquired a large amount of GPS data with the VLBI system and obtained correlation fringes with a high signal-to-noise ratio simultaneously from all GPS satellites in the sky. We could eventually ascertain the feasibility of the GV Hybrid System. In this paper, we present the baseline analysis results of the GV Hybrid Observation data and discuss future observation plans.

  3. Managing sleep and wakefulness in a 24-hour world

    PubMed Central

    Coveney, Catherine M

    2014-01-01

    This article contributes to literature on the sociology of sleep by exploring the sleeping practices and subjective sleep experiences of two social groups: shift workers and students. It draws on data, collected in the UK from 25 semi-structured interviews, to discuss the complex ways in which working patterns and social activities impact upon experiences and expectations of sleep in our wired awake world. The data show that, typically, sleep is valued and considered to be important for health, general wellbeing, appearance and physical and cognitive functioning. However, sleep time is often cut back on in favour of work demands and social activities. While shift workers described their efforts to fit in an adequate amount of sleep per 24-hour period, for students, the adoption of a flexible sleep routine was thought to be favourable for maintaining a work–social life balance. Collectively, respondents reported using a wide range of strategies, techniques, technologies and practices to encourage, overcome or delay sleep(iness) and boost, promote or enhance wakefulness/alertness at socially desirable times. The analysis demonstrates how social context impacts not only on how we come to think about sleep and understand it, but also how we manage or self-regulate our sleeping patterns. PMID:23957268

  4. 24-Hour Urine Phosphorus Excretion and Mortality and Cardiovascular Events

    PubMed Central

    Palomino, Heather L.; Rifkin, Dena E.; Anderson, Cheryl; Criqui, Michael H.; Whooley, Mary A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Higher morning serum phosphorus has been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with or without CKD. In patients with CKD and a phosphorous level >4.6 mg/dl, the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes guidelines recommend dietary phosphorus restriction. However, whether phosphorus restriction influences serum phosphorus concentrations and whether dietary phosphorus is itself associated with CVD or death are uncertain. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Among 880 patients with stable CVD and normal kidney function to moderate CKD, 24-hour urine phosphorus excretion (UPE) and serum phosphorus were measured at baseline. Participants were followed for a median of 7.4 years for CVD events and all-cause mortality. Results Mean ± SD age was 67±11 years, estimated GFR (eGFR) was 71±22 ml/min per 1.73 m2, and serum phosphorus was 3.7±0.6 mg/dl. Median UPE was 632 (interquartile range, 439, 853) mg/d. In models adjusted for demographic characteristics and eGFR, UPE was weakly and nonsignificantly associated with serum phosphorus (0.03 mg/dl higher phosphorus per 300 mg higher UPE; P=0.07). When adjusted for demographics, eGFR, and CVD risk factors, each 300-mg higher UPE was associated with 17% lower risk of CVD events. The association of UPE with all-cause mortality was not statistically significant (hazard ratio, 0.93; 95% confidence interval, 0.82 to 1.05). Results were similar irrespective of CKD status (P interactions > 0.87). Conclusions Among outpatients with stable CVD, the magnitude of the association of UPE with morning serum phosphorus is modest. Greater UPE is associated with lower risk for CVD events. The association was similar for all-cause mortality but was not statistically significant. PMID:23539231

  5. Nutrition habits in 24-hour mountain bike racers.

    PubMed

    Chlíbková, Daniela; Knechtle, Beat; Rosemann, Thomas; Tomášková, Ivana; Chadim, Vlastimil; Shortall, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    We investigated seventy-four ultra-mountain bikers (MTBers) competing in the solo category in the first descriptive field study to detail nutrition habits and the most common food before during and after the 24 hour race using questionnaires. During the race, bananas (86.5%), energy bars (50.0%), apples (43.2%) and cheese (43.2%) were the most commonly consumed food, followed by bread (44.6%), rice (33.8%) and bananas (33.8%) after the race. Average fluid intake was 0.5?±?0.2 l/h. The main beverage was isotonic sports drink (82.4%) during and pure water (66.2%) after the race. The most preferred four supplements in the four weeks before, the day before, during and after the race were vitamin C (35.1%), magnesium (44.6%), magnesium (43.2%) and branched-chain amino acids (24.3%), respectively. Total frequency of food intake (30.6?±?10.5 times/24 hrs) was associated with fluid intake (r?=?0.43, P?=?0.04) and both were highest at the beginning of the race and lower during the night hours and the last race segment in a subgroup of twenty-three ultra-MTBers. Supplement intake frequency (6.8?±?8.4 times/24 hrs) was highest during the night hours and lower at the beginning and end of the race. Elevated food and fluid intake among participants tracked across all race segments (P?

  6. The National Cancer Institute Diet History Questionnaire: Validation of Pyramid Food Servings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amy E. Millen; Douglas Midthune; Frances E. Thompson; Victor Kipnis; Amy F. Subar

    The performance of the National Cancer Institute's food frequency questionnaire, the Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ), in estimating servings of 30 US Department of Agriculture Food Guide Pyramid food groups was evaluated in the Eating at America's Table Study (1997-1998), a nationally representative sample of men and women aged 20-79 years. Participants who completed four nonconsecutive, telephone-administered 24-hour dietary recalls (n

  7. Effect of Chronic Ethanol Feeding on 24Hour Rhythms of Mitogenic Responses and Lymphocyte Subset Populations in Thymus and Spleen of Peripubertal Male Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vanessa Jiménez; Daniel P. Cardinali; María P. Alvarez; María P. Fernández; Verónica Boggio; Ana I. Esquifino

    2005-01-01

    This work analyzes the effect of chronic ethanol feeding on the 24-hour variation of mitogenic responses and lymphocyte subset populations in thymus and spleen. Animals were maintained under a 12:12-hour light\\/dark photoperiod and they received a liquid diet for 4 weeks, starting on day 35 of life. The ethanol-fed group received a similar diet to controls except that maltose was

  8. High Dietary Sodium Intake Assessed by 24-hour Urine Specimen Increase Urinary Calcium Excretion and Bone Resorption Marker

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sun Mi; Jee, Jaehwan; Joung, Ji Young; Cho, Yoon Young; Sohn, Seo Young; Jin, Sang-Man; Hur, Kyu Yeon; Kim, Jae Hyeon; Kim, Sun Wook; Chung, Jae Hoon; Lee, Moon Kyu

    2014-01-01

    Background The average dietary sodium intake of Koreans is 2.6 times higher than the World Health Organization's recommended amount. The effect of a diet high in sodium on the skeletal system, especially osteoporosis, has not previously been examined in Korean postmenopausal women with low bone mass. We assessed the daily sodium intake, and determined the impact of sodium intake on urinary calcium excretion and bone resorption marker. Methods A retrospective review of medical records was performed for 86 postmenopausal subjects who were initially diagnosed with osteopenia or osteoporosis at the health promotion center. They were subsequently referred to the Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism between 2010 and 2013. All subjects completed a modified food frequency questionnaire. Twenty-four hour urine collection for sodium, calcium and creatinine excretion, and serum C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen (CTX-I) were also obtained. Results The average amount of daily sodium and calcium intake were 3,466 mg and 813 mg, respectively. Average dietary sodium intake and 24-hour urinary sodium excretion showed significant positive linear correlation (r=0.29, P=0.006). There was also a significant positive linear correlation between 24-hour urine sodium and calcium excretion (r=0.42, P<0.001); CTX-I and 24-hour urinary calcium excretion (r=0.29, P=0.007). Conclusions Excessive sodium intake assessed by 24-hour urine specimen is associated with high calcium excretion in urine. High calcium excretion is also related to increasing bone resorption marker. PMID:25247156

  9. Dissociated 24Hour Patterns of Somatotropin and Prolactin in Fatal Familial Insomnia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francesco Portaluppi; Pietro Cortelli; Patrizia Avoni; Luciana Vergnani; Paolo Maltoni; Anna Pavani; Emilia Sforza; Roberto Manfredini; Pasquale Montagna; Ignazio Roiter; Pierluigi Gambetti; Carmelo Fersini; Elio Lugaresi

    1995-01-01

    To assess the changes in the 24-hour profiles of serum somatotropin and prolactin levels during total disruption of the sleep\\/wake cycle sustained over several months, we studied 2 subjects affected by fatal familial insomnia, a rare disease characterized by selective thalamic degeneration that causes chronic sleep loss. Under standardized conditions and polysomnographic control, the patients underwent repeated 24-hour study sessions

  10. Optimal dose of oral omeprazole for maximal 24 hour decrease of intragastric acidity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B K Sharma; R P Walt; R E Pounder; M D Gomes; E C Wood; L H Logan

    1984-01-01

    In a series of 59 experiments in nine duodenal ulcer patients, 24 hour intragastric acidity was measured before, during, and after treatment with daily oral omeprazole. Omeprazole 10, 20, and 30 mg\\/day for one week caused a 37, 90, and 97% decrease of 24 hour intragastric acidity, respectively. No further decrease of acidity was observed when the dose of omeprazole

  11. Serum Hyperglycemia Might Be Not Related to Fat Composition of Diet and Vegetable Composition of Diet Might Improve Sugar Control in Taiwanese Diabetic Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Yi-Cheng; Chang, Ya-Lin; Kuo, Shi-Ching; Chiang, Chih-Fan; Chiang, Cheng-Yang; Lin, Yu-Fang; Weng, Pei-Chen; Hu, Fang-Ching; Wu, Jing-Hui; Lai, Chien-Han

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This is an Asian study, which was designed to examine the correlations between biochemical data and food composition of diabetic patients in Taiwan. Methods: One hundred and seventy Taiwanese diabetic patients were enrolled. The correlations between biochemical data and diet composition (from 24-hour recall of intake food) of these patients were explored (Spearman correlation, p < 0.05). Diet components were also correlated with each other to show diet characteristics of diabetic patients in Taiwan. Linear regression was also performed for the significantly correlated groups to estimate possible impacts from diet composition to biochemical data. Results: Postprandial serum glucose level was negatively correlated with fat percentage of diet, intake amount of polyunsaturated fatty acid and fiber diet composition. Hemoglobin A1c was negatively correlated with fat diet, polyunsaturated fatty acid and vegetable diet. Fat composition, calorie percentage accounted by polyunsaturated fatty acid and monounsaturated fatty acid in diet seemed to be negatively correlated with sugar percentage of diet and positively correlated with vegetable and fiber composition of diet. Linear regression showed that intake amount of polyunsaturated fatty acid, calorie percentage accounted by polyunsaturated fatty acid, fat percentage of diet, vegetable composition of diet would predict lower hemoglobin A1c and postprandial blood sugar. Besides, higher percentage of fat diet composition could predict higher percentage of vegetable diet composition in Taiwanese diabetic patients. Conclusion: Fat diet might not elevate serum glucose. Vegetable diet and polyunsaturated fatty acid diet composition might be correlated with better sugar control in Taiwanese diabetic patients. PMID:24688317

  12. Mifepristone and Misoprostol Administered Simultaneously Versus 24 Hours Apart for Abortion

    E-print Network

    Creinin, Mitchell David

    2007-01-01

    The complete abortion rate in the standard care group (groupabortion rates in women who received mifepristone followed by vaginal misoprostol within 15 minutes (experimental group) and 24 hours later (standard care

  13. Effect of exogenous ANP on initial renal function following 24-hour cold preservation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Lewis; Robert Janney; Richard Osgood; James McAndrew; Regina Verani; Terrance Fried

    1989-01-01

    Effect of exogenous ANP on initial renal function following 24-hour cold preservation. The impact of synthetic atrial natriuretic peptide (sANP) on renal function following cold ischemic injury was studied in a canine autotransplant model. Following a prenephrectomy inulin clearance determination (CIn), the left kidney was excised, flushed with Eurocollins solution, and cold-stored for 24 hours. Immediately following reperfusion and a

  14. Estimation of 24-Hour Intraocular Pressure Peak Timing and Variation Using a Contact Lens Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Liu, John H. K.; Mansouri, Kaweh; Weinreb, Robert N.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To compare estimates of 24-hour intraocular pressure (IOP) peak timing and variation obtained using a contact lens sensor (CLS) and using a pneumatonometer. Methods Laboratory data collected from 30 healthy volunteers (ages, 20-66 years) in a randomized, controlled clinical trial were analyzed. Participants were housed for 24 hours in a sleep laboratory. One randomly selected right or left eye was fitted with a CLS that monitored circumferential curvature in the corneoscleral region related to the change of IOP. Electronic output signals of 30 seconds were averaged and recorded every 5 minutes. In the contralateral eye, habitual IOP measurements were taken using a pneumatonometer once every two hours. Simulated 24-hour rhythms in both eyes were determined by cosinor fitting. Simulated peak timings (acrophases) and simulated data variations (amplitudes) were compared between the paired eyes. Results Bilateral change patterns of average 24-hour data for the group were in parallel. The simulated peak timing in the CLS fitted eye occurred at 4:44 AM ± 210 min (mean ± SD) and the IOP peak timing in the contralateral eye at 4:11 AM ± 120 min (P=0.256, Wilcoxon signed-rank test). There was no significant correlation between the simulated data variations in the paired eyes (P=0.820, linear regression). Conclusions The 24-hour CLS data showed a simulated peak timing close to the 24-hour IOP peak timing obtained using the pneumatonometer. However, the simulated variations of 24-hour data in the paired eyes were not correlated. Estimated 24-hour IOP rhythms using the two devices should not be considered interchangeable. PMID:26076472

  15. Study of EEGs following 24Hour Sleep Deprivation in Patients with Posttraumatic Epilepsy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. N. Thomaides; E. P. Kerezoudi; Ray Chaudhuri; C. Cheropoulos

    1992-01-01

    Routine and awake EEGs following 24-hour sleep deprivation were studied in 119 patients with closed head injury, 64 epileptics without any history of head injury and 53 healthy controls. The results were compared to CT brain scan findings. There were no epileptic discharges in routine EEGs, while EEGs after 24-hour sleep deprivation showed considerable activation, ranging from 28 to 37.5%

  16. Dissociated 24-hour patterns of somatotropin and prolactin in fatal familial insomnia.

    PubMed

    Portaluppi, F; Cortelli, P; Avoni, P; Vergnani, L; Maltoni, P; Pavani, A; Sforza, E; Manfredini, R; Montagna, P; Roiter, I

    1995-06-01

    To assess the changes in the 24-hour profiles of serum somatotropin and prolactin levels during total disruption of the sleep/wake cycle sustained over several months, we studied 2 subjects affected by fatal familial insomnia, a rare disease characterized by selective thalamic degeneration that causes chronic sleep loss. Under standardized conditions and polysomnographic control, the patients underwent repeated 24-hour study sessions covering the entire clinical course of the disease. Hormones were assayed at 30-min intervals. Four healthy volunteers were used as controls. A sleep/wake cycle was always absent in fatal familial insomnia. Serum somatotropin and prolactin concentrations never exceeded the normal range of variation. The nocturnal elevation of somatotropin disappeared simultaneously with sleep loss, whereas a significant 24-hour component of variations in serum prolactin levels was present for months after total disruption of the sleep/wake cycle, with normally placed nocturnal acrophases. Complete obliteration of the 24-hour component was achieved for prolactin only in the advanced stages, through a progressive decrease in 24-hour amplitude of variation. Selective and progressive degeneration of the mediodorsal and anterior ventral nuclei of the thalamus causes an early obliteration of the 24-hour rhythm of somatotropin and a later disappearance of circadian prolactin rhythmicity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7659197

  17. The Road Ahead to Continuous 24-Hour Intraocular Pressure Monitoring in Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri, Kaweh

    2014-01-01

    Intraocular pressure (IOP) is the only treatable risk factor for glaucoma. Yet, current glaucoma management usually relies on single IOP measurements during clinic hours despite the fact that IOP is a dynamic parameter with individual rhythms. Single IOP measurements underpin all major clinical guidelines on treatment of glaucoma. Other potentially informative parameters, such as IOP fluctuations and peak IOP, have been neglected, and effects of IOP-lowering interventions on such measures are largely unknown. The search for continuous 24-hour IOP monitoring started over 50 years ago, but only recent technological advances have provided clinician-researchers with devices for continuous IOP monitoring. Herein, we discuss innovative approaches with permanent and temporary devices for 24-hour IOP monitoring, such as a contact lens sensor. Despite being in their infancy, these devices may soon enable clinicians to use 24-hour IOP data to improve glaucoma management and reduce the glaucoma-related burden of disease. PMID:25279129

  18. Nocturnal blood pressure and 24-hour pulse pressure are potent indicators of mortality in hemodialysis patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacques Amar; Isabelle Vernier; Elisabeth Rossignol; Vanina Bongard; Catherine Arnaud; Jean J. Conte; Michel Salvador; Bernard Chamontin

    2000-01-01

    Nocturnal blood pressure and 24-hour pulse pressure are potent indicators of mortality in hemodialysis patients.BackgroundCardiovascular (CV) complications are the leading cause of mortality in hemodialysis patients. The role of arterial hypertension on the prognosis of CV in hemodialysis patients is not as clear as in the general population. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prognostic role of

  19. 24-Hour Access: Responding to Students' Need for Late Library Hours at the University of Denver

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewell, Bethany B.

    2013-01-01

    The University of Denver's Penrose Library saw a substantial increase in use as a result of several new and enhanced services over a six-year period. In turn, longer operating hours and increased staffing for a 24-hours-a-day, five-days-a-week (24 x 5) operating schedule was funded. This case study analyzes student need for longer library hours…

  20. 24-hour ambulatory ECGs in the detection and management of cardiac dysrhythmias in infants and children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Co-burn J. Porter; Paul C. Gillette; Dan G. McNamara

    1980-01-01

    Summary Sixty-four 24-hour ambulatory ECGs (cardioscans) were recorded in 47 patients, 5 days to 24 years of age, using a new commercially available miniature tape recorder and analysis system to evaluate known or suspected dysrhythmias. Only two of the 64 cardioscans were inadequate for interpretation, and the study was based on the 62 that could be interpreted. A dysrhythmia was

  1. Mood-Dependent Cognitive Change in a Man with Bipolar Disorder Who Cycles Every 24 Hours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Dominic; Mansell, Warren

    2008-01-01

    A case study of a bipolar patient whose mood changes every 24 hours is described to illustrate the changes in cognitive processing and content during different phases of bipolar disorder. The participant completed a battery of questionnaires and tasks on 4 separate occasions: twice when depressed and twice when manic. Depression tended to be…

  2. 29 CFR 785.22 - Duty of 24 hours or more.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...to be on duty for 24 hours or more, the employer and the employee...scheduled sleeping period of not more than 8 hours from hours worked...and the employee can usually enjoy an uninterrupted night's sleep. If sleeping period is of more than 8 hours, only 8...

  3. 29 CFR 785.22 - Duty of 24 hours or more.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...to be on duty for 24 hours or more, the employer and the employee...scheduled sleeping period of not more than 8 hours from hours worked...and the employee can usually enjoy an uninterrupted night's sleep. If sleeping period is of more than 8 hours, only 8...

  4. 29 CFR 785.22 - Duty of 24 hours or more.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...to be on duty for 24 hours or more, the employer and the employee...scheduled sleeping period of not more than 8 hours from hours worked...and the employee can usually enjoy an uninterrupted night's sleep. If sleeping period is of more than 8 hours, only 8...

  5. 29 CFR 785.22 - Duty of 24 hours or more.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...to be on duty for 24 hours or more, the employer and the employee...scheduled sleeping period of not more than 8 hours from hours worked...and the employee can usually enjoy an uninterrupted night's sleep. If sleeping period is of more than 8 hours, only 8...

  6. 29 CFR 785.22 - Duty of 24 hours or more.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...to be on duty for 24 hours or more, the employer and the employee...scheduled sleeping period of not more than 8 hours from hours worked...and the employee can usually enjoy an uninterrupted night's sleep. If sleeping period is of more than 8 hours, only 8...

  7. Source: 24 Hours Edmonton | KEVIN MAIMANN | 29 Jun 2012 ANCIENT FOSSIL DISCOVERED

    E-print Network

    Machel, Hans

    Source: 24 Hours Edmonton | KEVIN MAIMANN | 29 Jun 2012 ANCIENT FOSSIL DISCOVERED University. Geologists Ernesto Pecoits and Natalie Aubet found fossilized tracks in Uruguay they believe was left behind-microbiologist at the university, co-authored the study published Thursday in the journal Science. He said the fossils have been

  8. Fertility factors in lactating rabbits mated 24 hours and 25 days after parturition

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Fertility factors in lactating rabbits mated 24 hours and 25 days after parturition Suzanne TORRÈS 78350 Jouy-en-Josas, France Summary. Fertility is compared in lactating rabbits mated 12-18 hours postpartum and 24 days postpartum. The lower fertility in the former group is the result of lower ovulation

  9. Thermal Status in Three Breeds of Newborn Lambs during the First 24 Hours of Postnatal Life

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. ALEKSIEV; D. GUDEV; G. DIMOV

    ALEKSIEV, Y., D. GUDEV and G. DIMOV, 2007. Thermal status in three breeds of newborn lambs during the first 24 hours of postnatal life. Bulg. J. Agric. Sci., 13: 563-573 Rectal temperature (RT) dynamics during the first 24 h after birth was studied in Pleven black head (PBH), Bulgarian fine wool (BFW) and Bulgarian fine wool x East-Friesian breed crosses

  10. Assigning Tasks in a 24-Hour Software Development Model Pankaj Jalote, Gourav Jain

    E-print Network

    Jalote, Pankaj

    - perience seems to suggest that the communication and co- ordination difficulties may have a negative effect of 24-hour software development by effectively utilizing the time zone differences. To harness, the communication among these distributed units has become easier and more efficient. Organizations that have units

  11. Effect of Ellipticity of the Equator on 24Hour Nearly Circular Satellite Orbits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leon Blitzer; E. M. Boughton; G. Kang; R. M. Page

    1962-01-01

    The influence of the principal longitude-dependent term of the earth's potential on the orbit of a 24-hour satellite is investigated. It is found that in a coordinate frame rotating with the earth there are four possible stationary points for circular orbits, symmetrically situ- ated on the extensions of the principal axes of the equatorial ellipse. The two points on the

  12. SOME CHANGES IN THE COMPOSITION OF BLOOD DURING THE FIRST 24 HOURS AFTER BIRTH

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    SOME CHANGES IN THE COMPOSITION OF BLOOD DURING THE FIRST 24 HOURS AFTER BIRTH IN NORMAL AND GROWTH of lambs from untreated ewes and from caruncle-ectomised ewes and compared the compositions of blood from not to stretch the umbilical cord which was then cut with s

  13. 24 hour and fractionated profiles of adrenocortical activity in asthmatic patients receiving inhaled and intranasal corticosteroids

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, A.; Lipworth, B.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—As both rhinitis and asthma are allergic conditions, they frequently occur together. The objective of this study was to assess the diurnal adrenocortical activity in asthmatics receiving inhaled (inh) and intranasal (n) formulations of two different corticosteroids, fluticasone propionate (FP) and triamcinolone acetonide (TAA), both given at clinically recommended doses.?METHODS—Twelve stable moderately severe asthmatic subjects of mean age 23.9 years and mean forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) 84% predicted were recruited into a randomised placebo (PL) controlled two-way crossover study comparing nPL + inhPL, nPL + inhFP (880 µg bid), and nFP (200 µg once daily) + inhFP (880 µg bid) with nPL + inhPL, nPL + inhTAA (800 µg bid) and nTAA (220 µg once daily) + inhTAA (800 µg bid), each given for five days with a 10 day washout period. Twenty four hour integrated and fractionated (overnight, 08.00 hours, daytime) serum cortisol levels and urinary cortisol/creatinine excretion were measured.?RESULTS—For 24 hour and fractionated serum cortisol levels and corrected urinary cortisol/creatinine excretion there were significant (p<0.05) differences between all active treatments and placebo. For 24 hour integrated serum cortisol levels the ratio between inhaled TAA and FP was 2.3 fold (95% CI 1.2 to 4.3), and for 24hour urinary cortisol/creatinine excretion the ratio was two-fold (95% CI 1.2 to 3.4). For 24 hour urinary cortisol excretion, with all active treatments, individual abnormal low values of <40 nmol (<14.4 µg) occurred in 17/24 with FP compared with 4/24 with TAA (p<0.0005). The 24 hour serum cortisol profile was flattened by FP but not with TAA. The addition of nasal corticosteroid did not produce further significant suppression of mean cortisol values, although with intranasal FP there were three more abnormal values for 24 hour urinary cortisol excretion than with inhaled FP alone.?CONCLUSIONS—Both inhaled FP and TAA caused significant suppression of adrenocortical activity which was twice as great with FP, the latter being associated with significantly more individual abnormal values and loss of the normal diurnal circadian rhythm. Fractionated serum cortisol levels and urinary cortisol/creatinine excretion were as sensitive as the respective integrated 24 hour measurements. Although the addition of intranasal formulations did not produce further significant suppression of mean values, there were more individual abnormal cortisol values associated with the addition of intranasal FP.?? PMID:10343626

  14. Microbial Growth in Neonatal Intravenous Fat Emulsion Administered Over 12 Versus 24 Hours

    PubMed Central

    DeDonato, Bethany M.; Bickford, Lisa I.; Gates, Ryan J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To determine whether an extended infusion time (24 hours) of intravenous fat emulsion is associated with an increase in microbial growth, versus a shorter infusion time (12 hours). METHODS Samples were collected from intravenous fat emulsions (n=132), from intravenous fat emulsions prepared in the current 24-hour infusion method (n=55), and from intravenous fat emulsions prepared in the twice-daily (12-hour infusion) method (n=55). In addition, samples were collected from pharmacy (n=22) to test for possible contamination. RESULTS No growth was observed in either arm of the study. CONCLUSIONS Current Kern Medical Center policy of preparation and administration of neonatal intensive care unit intravenous fat emulsion is safe and effective in regard to microbial growth. PMID:24719590

  15. Evaluation of a 12Lead Digital Holter System for 24Hour QT Interval Assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janos Molnar; Vassant Ranade; Ivana Cvetanovic; Zita Molnar; John C. Somberg

    2006-01-01

    Background: Drug induced QT prolongation may precipitate life threatening cardiac arrhythmias. Evaluation of the QT prolonging effect of new pharmaceutical agents in a ‘thorough QT\\/QTc study’ is being mandated by FDA. The purpose of this study was to evaluate an automated 12-lead digital Holter system for a thorough QT\\/QTc study. Methods: Five healthy volunteers underwent 24-hour digital Holter monitoring. Each

  16. Mechanical properties of direct and indirect composites after storage for 24 hours and 10 months

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Paula Barbosa; Brandt, William Cunha; Neves, Ana Christina Claro; Cunha, Leonardo Gonçalves; Silva-Concilio, Lais Regiane

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the diametral tensile strength (DTS) and Knoop hardness (KH) of direct (Filtek Z350-3M/ESPE and Charisma-Heraeus Kulzer) and indirect composites (Sinfony-3M/ESPE and Signum-Heraeus Kulzer) kept in storage for two periods of time, 24 hours and 10 months, in distilled water. Methods: Twenty-five specimens of each material were prepared. DTS (n=10) was tested using a universal testing machine (Versat, model 2000) at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/min. KH (n=5) was measured using Knoop micro-hardness (HMV-2000; 50 gf for 15 s). All tests were performed 24 hours after polymerization and after 10 months of storage in distilled water at 37°C. The data were statistically analyzed using Kolmogorov-Smirnov, ANOVA and t-Student (P=.05). Results: Filtek Z350, Sinfony, and Signum showed higher DTS values than Charisma after 24 hours. After storage, Sinfony and Signum showed higher DTS values because the storage did not influence the DTS values of the indirect composites. Filtek Z350 showed higher KH values after 24 hours and after storage than other composites; the storage influenced the KH of all composites except Sinfony. Conclusion: Storage for 10 months did not influence the properties of the indirect composite Sinfony. In general, the indirect composites showed higher DTS values than direct composites, especially after 10 months storage. The direct composite Filtek Z350 obtained the highest KH values regardless of storage. PMID:23407869

  17. Impedance and Electrically Evoked Compound Action Potential (ECAP) Drop within 24 Hours after Cochlear Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Joshua Kuang-Chao; Chuang, Ann Yi-Chiun; Sprinzl, Georg Mathias; Tung, Tao-Hsin; Li, Lieber Po-Hung

    2013-01-01

    Previous animal study revealed that post-implantation electrical detection levels significantly declined within days. The impact of cochlear implant (CI) insertion on human auditory pathway in terms of impedance and electrically evoked compound action potential (ECAP) variation within hours after surgery remains unclear, since at this time frequency mapping can only commence weeks after implantation due to factors associated with wound conditions. The study presented our experiences with regards to initial switch-on within 24 hours, and thus the findings about the milieus inside cochlea within the first few hours after cochlear implantation in terms of impedance/ECAP fluctuations. The charts of fifty-four subjects with profound hearing impairment were studied. A minimal invasive approach was used for cochlear implantation, characterized by a small skin incision (?2.5 cm) and soft techniques for cochleostomy. Impedance/ECAP was measured intro-operatively and within 24 hours post-operatively. Initial mapping within 24 hours post-operatively was performed in all patients without major complications. Impedance/ECAP became significantly lower measured within 24 hours post-operatively as compared with intra-operatively (p<0.001). There were no differences between pre-operative and post-operative threshold for air-conduction hearing. A significant drop of impedance/ECAP in one day after cochlear implantation was revealed for the first time in human beings. Mechanisms could be related to the restoration of neuronal sensitivity to the electrical stimulation, and/or the interaction between the matrix enveloping the electrodes and the electrical stimulation of the initial switch-on. Less wound pain/swelling and soft techniques both contributed to the success of immediate initial mapping, which implied a stable micro-environment inside the cochlea despite electrodes insertion. Our research invites further studies to correlate initial impedance/ECAP changes with long-term hearing/speech performance. PMID:23991008

  18. Patients in 24-hour home care striving for control and safety

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This article concerns Swedish patients receiving 24-hour home care from health care assistants (HC assistants) employed by the municipality. Home care is a complex interactive process involving the patient, family, HC assistants as well as professional care providers. Previous studies exploring patient perspectives on home care have been based mainly on patient interviews. In contrast, the present study took a broad perspective on patients’ experiences and thoughts by combining field observations on care situations with patient and HC assistant interviews. The aim of the study presented in this article was to promote a new and broadened understanding of patients receiving 24-hour home care by constructing a theoretical model to illuminate their main concern. Methods Field observations and semi-structured interviews were conducted with four patients receiving 24-hour home care and their HC assistants. Grounded theory methodology was used. Results The core process identified was Grasping the lifeline, which describes compensatory processes through which patients strived for control and safe care when experiencing a number of exposed states due to inadequate home care. Patients tried to take control by selecting their own HC assistants and sought safe hands by instructing untrained HC assistants in care procedures. When navigating the care system, the patients maintained contacts with professional care providers and coordinated their own care. When necessary, a devoted HC assistant could take over the navigating role. The results are illuminated in a theoretical model. Conclusions The results accentuate the importance to patients of participating in their own care, especially in the selection of HC assistants. The model illustrates some challenging areas for improvement within the organisation of 24-hour home care, such as personnel continuity and competence, collaboration, and routines for acute care. Furthermore, it may be used as a basis for reflection during the planning of care for individual patients within home care. PMID:22697419

  19. Case Study: Psychiatric Misdiagnosis of Non24Hours Sleep-Wake Schedule Disorder Resolved by Melatonin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    YARON DAGAN; LIAT AYALON

    2005-01-01

    This case study describes a 14-year-old male suffering from significant academic and personal difficulties, who has been diagnosed with depression, schizotypal personality disorder, and learning disabilities. Because of excessive sleepiness, assessment for a potential sleep disorder was performed. An overnight polysomnographic study revealed no primary sleep disorders. Wrist actigraphy revealed a non-24-hour sleep-wake pattern. Delay in temperature rhythm and dissociation

  20. Continuous 24-hour ocular dimensional profile recording in medically treated normal-tension glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jacky WY; Fu, Lin; Shum, Jennifer WH; Chan, Jonathan CH; Lai, Jimmy SM

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To analyze the 24-hour ocular dimensional profile in normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) patients on medical treatment. Methods Consecutive, medically treated NTG subjects were recruited from a university eye center. Subjects were on a mean of 1.7±0.7 types of antiglaucoma medications and 56.6% were on a prostaglandin analog. A contact lens-based sensor device was worn in one eye of NTG patients to record the intraocular pressure (IOP)-related profile for 24 hours, recording the following: variability from mean over 24 hours, nocturnally and diurnally, as well as the number of peaks and troughs diurnally and nocturnally. Results In 18 NTG subjects, the nocturnal variability around the mean contact lens-based sensor device signal was 48.9% less than the diurnal variability around the mean. The number of peaks was 54.7% less during the nocturnal period than during the diurnal period. The rate of increase in the ocular dimensional profile when going to sleep was significantly greater than the rate of decrease upon waking (P<0.001). Conclusion In medically treated NTG subjects, there was more variability in the IOP-related pattern during the daytime and there were fewer peaks during sleep. PMID:25678768

  1. A New Method to Make 24-Hour Urine Collection More Convenient: A Validity Study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives. This study proposes a novel urine collection device that can divide each urine collection into 20 parts and store and cool just one part. The aim of the current study is to compare measured biomarkers from the proposed urine collection device to those of conventional 24-hour sampling method. We also hypothesized that the new method would significantly increase patients' adherence to the timed urine collection. Methods. Two 24-hour urine samples with the conventional method and with the new automated urine collection device that uses just one-twentieth of each void were obtained from 40 healthy volunteers. Urine parameters including volume, creatinine, and protein levels were compared between the two methods and the agreement of two measurements for each subject was reported through Bland-Altman plots. Results. Our results confirmed that for all three variables, there is a positive correlation (P < 0.001) between the two measurements and high degree of agreement could be seen in Bland-Altman plots. Moreover, more subjects reported the new method as “more convenient” for 24-hour urine collection. Conclusions. Our results clearly indicate that a fixed proportion of each void may significantly reduce the urine volume in timed collections and this, in turn, may increase subjects' adherence to this difficult sampling. PMID:24963405

  2. Impact of recall period on primary brain tumor patient's self-report of symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Terri S.; Vera-Bolanos, Elizabeth; Acquaye, Alvina; Gilbert,, Mark R.; Mendoza, Tito R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Understanding the severity of symptoms is an integral part of patient care. The MD Anderson Symptom Inventory-Brain Tumor (MDASI-BT) was developed using a 24-hour recall period. The choice of recall period is dependent on the treatment and disease of interest. The aim of this study was to evaluate the congruence and equivalency of 24-hour and 7-day symptom reporting using the MDASI-BT. Method Adult brain tumor patients completed the MDASI-BT using 24-hour and 7-day recall periods and a tablet format. Equivalence and congruence were determined using equivalency testing and Bland-Altman analysis. Reliability and known group's validity were then assessed by use of Cronbach's alpha and evaluating differences based on performance status. Results One hundred patients (mean age, 48 y; range 19 y–77 y), who were primarily white (86%) males (62%) with a variety of brain tumors, most commonly glioblastoma (69%), participated. KPS scores ranged from 50%–100%, with 28% of participants scoring 80% or lower. Overall severity reporting using the 7-day recall was congruent and equivalent with the 24-hour rating, with difference scores of one point or less on the overall instrument and individual symptoms. The 7-day recall period instrument demonstrated psychometric properties similar to the established 24-hour recall instrument. Conclusion This study supports the use of the 7-day recall period in addition to the 24-hour recall period for symptom reports of patients with primary brain tumors. Future studies should continue to explore the reliability and validity of this recall period and its utility in other central nervous system tumor populations.

  3. 40 CFR 52.1990 - Interstate Transport for the 2006 24-hour PM2.5 NAAQS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Interstate Transport for the 2006 24-hour PM2...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL...Oregon § 52.1990 Interstate Transport for the 2006 24-hour PM2...addressing the requirement in Clean Air Act section...

  4. 40 CFR 52.1990 - Interstate Transport for the 2006 24-hour PM2.5 NAAQS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Interstate Transport for the 2006 24-hour PM2...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL...Oregon § 52.1990 Interstate Transport for the 2006 24-hour PM2...addressing the requirement in Clean Air Act section...

  5. 40 CFR 52.1990 - Interstate Transport for the 2006 24-hour PM2.5 NAAQS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Interstate Transport for the 2006 24-hour PM2...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL...Oregon § 52.1990 Interstate Transport for the 2006 24-hour PM2...addressing the requirement in Clean Air Act section...

  6. Influence of Physical Activity on 24Hour Measurements of Heart Rate Variability in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans-H Osterhues; Stefan R Hanzel; Matthias Kochs; Vinzenz Hombach

    1997-01-01

    This study assessed the influence of physical activity on time domain variables of heart rate variability (HRV) during 24-hour electrocardiographic registrations. Changes in time domain variables of HRV (in particular SDNN) obtained from Holter recordings were proven as strong predictors of cardiac events in patients with coronary artery disease. Although 24-hour measurements of HRV recordings are a standard technique, little

  7. THE FIRST 24 HOURS OF LIFE MORTALITY AT FOUR TEACHING HOSPITALS IN SOUTH OF TEHRAN: PREVALENCE AND RISK FACTORS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Tootoonchi

    Despite reduction in infant mortality rate, neonatal mortality rate particularly during the first 24 hours of life is still high in developing countries. A cross-sectional study was performed to determine neonatal mortality prevalence during the first 24 hours of life (F24NM) and its probable risk factors. Data collection were performed by a structured form containing maternal and neonatal characters. Newborns'

  8. Static stretching can impair explosive performance for at least 24 hours.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Monoem; Dridi, Amir; Chtara, Moktar; Chaouachi, Anis; Wong, Del P; Behm, David; Chamari, Karim

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of static vs. dynamic stretching (DS) on explosive performances and repeated sprint ability (RSA) after a 24-hour delay. Sixteen young male soccer players performed 15 minutes of static stretching (SS), DS, or a no-stretch control condition (CC) 24 hours before performing explosive performances and RSA tests. This was a within-subject repeated measures study with SS, DS, and CC being counterbalanced. Stretching protocols included 2 sets of 7 minutes 30 seconds (2 repetitions of 30 seconds with a 15-second passive recovery) for 5 muscle groups (quadriceps, hamstring, calves, adductors, and hip flexors). Twenty-four hours later (without any kind of stretching in warm-up), the players were tested for the 30-m sprint test (with 10- and 20-m lap times), 5 jump test (5JT), and RSA test. Significant differences were observed between CC, SS, and DS with 5JT (F = 9.99, p < 0.00, effect size [ES] = 0.40), 10-m sprint time (F = 46.52, p < 0.00, ES = 0.76), 20-m sprint time (F = 18.44, p < 0.000, ES = 0.55), and 30-m sprint time (F = 34.25, p < 0.000, ES = 0.70). The significantly better performance (p < 0.05) was observed after DS as compared with that after CC and SS in 5JT, and sprint times for 10, 20, and 30 m. In contrast, significantly worse performance (p < 0.05) was observed after SS as compared with that after CC in 5JT, and sprint times for 10, 20, and 30 m. With RSA, no significant difference was observed between different stretching protocols in the total time (F = 1.55, p > 0.05), average time (F = 1.53, p > 0.05), and fastest time (F = 2.30, p > 0.05), except for the decline index (F = 3.54, p < 0.04, ES = 0.19). Therefore, the SS of the lower limbs and hip muscles had a negative effect on explosive performances up to 24 hours poststretching with no major effects on the RSA. Conversely, the DS of the same muscle groups are highly recommended 24 hours before performing sprint and long-jump performances. In conclusion, the positive effects of DS on explosive performances seem to persist for 24 hours. PMID:23615481

  9. Exploring important influences on the healthfulness of prostate cancer survivors' diets.

    PubMed

    Coa, Kisha I; Smith, Katherine C; Klassen, Ann C; Thorpe, Roland J; Caulfield, Laura E

    2015-06-01

    A cancer diagnosis is often conceptualized as a teachable moment when individuals might be motivated to make lifestyle changes. Many prostate cancer survivors, however, do not adhere to dietary guidelines. In this article, we explore how cancer affected prostate cancer survivors' diets and identify important influences on diet. Twenty prostate cancer survivors completed three 24-hour dietary recalls and an in-depth dietary interview. We analyzed interviews using a constant comparison approach, and dietary recall data quantitatively to assess quality and qualitatively to identify food choice patterns. Most men reported not making dietary changes following their cancer diagnosis but did express an interest in healthy eating, primarily to facilitate weight loss. Men portrayed barriers to healthy eating that often outweighed their motivation to eat healthy. Public health programs should consider alternative ways of framing healthy eating programs for prostate cancer survivors that might be more effective than a cancer-specific focus. PMID:25857653

  10. A new compact 24-hour indirect blood-pressure recorder and its clinical application.

    PubMed

    Tochikubo, O; Minamisawa, K; Miyajima, E; Ishii, M; Yanaga, A; Yukinari, Y

    1988-05-01

    A new portable noninvasive recorder (4 X 6.5 X 14 cm in size, 390 g in weight) was developed for monitoring 24-hour blood pressure and its clinical applicability was investigated. Employing an ordinary-size cuff, this is the lightest and the most compact apparatus of its kind ever developed. It is powered by a rechargeable battery. The cuff is pressurized by a miniature, low-noise, rotary micropump. To eliminate noises resulting from body motion, two microphones are used to distinguish Korotkoff sounds. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and heart rate (HR) are measured automatically at intervals of 1 to 60 min throughout 24 hours. These data can be stored as many as 600 times in the recorder's semiconductor memory. After measurement, mean values; standard deviations (SD); and trendograms of SBP, DBP, and HR are printed out by means of an appurtenant, miniature analyzer measuring 5 X 7.5 X 15 cm. A comparison of values obtained with this new instrument and the values obtained with a conventional auscultatory method showed average errors of -1.2 +/- 4.7 (SD)mmHg for SBP and -2.7 +/- 5.0 mmHg for DBP. The correlation coefficient (r) of values obtained by two methods was r = 0.99 for SBP and r = 0.96 for DBP (n = 185). In 38 male and 31 female normotensive subjects (average casual BP: male 126 +/- 11/76 +/- 7 mmHg; female 116 +/- 13/69 +/- 10 mmHg), average 24-hour BP values recorded by the new recorder were 115 +/- 7.5 (SBP)/70 +/- 6 (DBP)mmHg for the males and 106 +/- 6/63 +/- 5 mmHg for the females. The new recorder seems to be convenient, easy to operate, and clinically useful in ambulatory monitoring. PMID:3172471

  11. 24-Hour Rhythms of DNA Methylation and Their Relation with Rhythms of RNA Expression in the Human Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Andrew S. P.; Srivastava, Gyan P.; Yu, Lei; Chibnik, Lori B.; Xu, Jishu; Buchman, Aron S.; Schneider, Julie A.; Myers, Amanda J.; Bennett, David A.; De Jager, Philip L.

    2014-01-01

    Circadian rhythms modulate the biology of many human tissues, including brain tissues, and are driven by a near 24-hour transcriptional feedback loop. These rhythms are paralleled by 24-hour rhythms of large portions of the transcriptome. The role of dynamic DNA methylation in influencing these rhythms is uncertain. While recent work in Neurospora suggests that dynamic site-specific circadian rhythms of DNA methylation may play a role in modulating the fungal molecular clock, such rhythms and their relationship to RNA expression have not, to our knowledge, been elucidated in mammalian tissues, including human brain tissues. We hypothesized that 24-hour rhythms of DNA methylation exist in the human brain, and play a role in driving 24-hour rhythms of RNA expression. We analyzed DNA methylation levels in post-mortem human dorsolateral prefrontal cortex samples from 738 subjects. We assessed for 24-hour rhythmicity of 420,132 DNA methylation sites throughout the genome by considering methylation levels as a function of clock time of death and parameterizing these data using cosine functions. We determined global statistical significance by permutation. We then related rhythms of DNA methylation with rhythms of RNA expression determined by RNA sequencing. We found evidence of significant 24-hour rhythmicity of DNA methylation. Regions near transcription start sites were enriched for high-amplitude rhythmic DNA methylation sites, which were in turn time locked to 24-hour rhythms of RNA expression of nearby genes, with the nadir of methylation preceding peak transcript expression by 1–3 hours. Weak ante-mortem rest-activity rhythms were associated with lower amplitude DNA methylation rhythms as were older age and the presence of Alzheimer's disease. These findings support the hypothesis that 24-hour rhythms of DNA methylation, particularly near transcription start sites, may play a role in driving 24-hour rhythms of gene expression in the human dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and may be affected by age and Alzheimer's disease. PMID:25375876

  12. Diets

    MedlinePLUS

    Your diet is made up of what you eat. A healthy diet May include fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and fat- ... added sugars There are many different types of diets. Some, like a vegetarian diet, don't include ...

  13. 76 FR 14812 - Additional Air Quality Designations for the 2006 24-Hour Fine Particle National Ambient Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ...Additional Air Quality Designations for the 2006 24-Hour Fine Particle National Ambient Air Quality Standards, 110(k)(6) Correction...Quality Designations and Classifications for the Annual Fine Particles National Ambient Air Quality Standards Correction In...

  14. Study on Operation Optimization of Pumping Station's 24 Hours Operation under Influences of Tides and Peak-Valley Electricity Prices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gong Yi; Cheng Jilin; Zhang Lihua; Zhang Rentian

    2010-01-01

    According to different processes of tides and peak-valley electricity prices, this paper determines the optimal start up time in pumping station's 24 hours operation between the rating state and adjusting blade angle state respectively based on the optimization objective function and optimization model for single-unit pump's 24 hours operation taking JiangDu No.4 Pumping Station for example. In the meantime, this

  15. After 24-hour scrub, another tower rollback for the Boeing Delta II rocket carrying Stardust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    As tower rollback begins, the Boeing Delta II rocket carrying the Stardust spacecraft waits on Launch Pad 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, for the second launch attempt at 4:04 p.m. EST. The original launch was scrubbed on Feb. 6 for 24 hours. Stardust is destined for a close encounter with the comet Wild 2 in January 2004. Using a silicon-based substance called aerogel, Stardust will capture comet particles flying off the nucleus of the comet. The spacecraft also will bring back samples of interstellar dust. These materials consist of ancient pre-solar interstellar grains and other remnants left over from the formation of the solar system. Scientists expect their analysis to provide important insights into the evolution of the sun and planets and possibly into the origin of life itself. The collected samples will return to Earth in a sample return capsule to be jettisoned as Stardust swings by Earth in January 2006.

  16. The effect of Operation 24 Hours on reducing collision in the City of Edmonton.

    PubMed

    Halim, Siana; Jiang, Heming

    2013-09-01

    In the City of Edmonton, in order to reduce the prevalence of collisions, the Operation 24 Hours program (OPS24) was developed by using existing police and transportation services resources. The program uses traditional manned police speed enforcement method, which are supplemented by traffic safety messages displayed on permanent and mobile dynamic messaging signs (DMS). In this paper, collision data analysis was performed by looking at the daily number of collisions from 2008 to 2011 that covers 28 Operation 24 Hours (OPS24) events. The objective of the collision data analysis is to analyze if there is a reduction in collision frequencies after OPS24 was held and examined how long the collision reduction effect last. Weather factors such as temperature, thickness of snow, and wind gust have been considered by many as a great influence on collision occurrences, especially in a city with long and cold winter such as Edmonton. Therefore, collision modeling was performed by considering these external weather factors. To analyze the linear and periodic trend of different collision types (injury, fatal, and property damage only (PDO)) and examine the influence of weather factors on collisions, negative binomial time series model that accounts for seasonality and weather factors was used to model daily collision data. The modeling also considered collision proportion to account for missing traffic volume data; the Gaussian time series model that accounts for seasonality and weather factors was used to model collision proportion. To estimate the collision trend and test for changes in collision levels before/after OPS24, interrupted time series model with segmented regression was used. While for estimating how long the effect of the OPS24 last, change point method was applied. PMID:23727551

  17. Heart rate variability and arrhythmic patterns of 24-hour Holter electrocardiography among Nigerians with cardiovascular diseases

    PubMed Central

    Adebayo, Rasaaq Ayodele; Ikwu, Amanze Nkemjika; Balogun, Michael Olabode; Akintomide, Anthony Olubunmi; Ajayi, Olufemi Eyitayo; Adeyeye, Victor Oladeji; Mene-Afejuku, Tuoyo Omasan; Bamikole, Olaniyi James; Ogunyemi, Suraj Adefabi; Ajibare, Adeola Olubunmi; Oketona, Omolola Abiodun

    2015-01-01

    Background Facilities for Holter electrocardiography (ECG) monitoring in many Nigerian hospitals are limited. There are few published works in Nigeria on the use of 24-hour Holter ECG in cardiac arrhythmic evaluation of patients with cardiovascular diseases. Objective To study the clinical indications, arrhythmic pattern, and heart rate variability (HRV) among subjects referred for 24-hour Holter ECG at our Cardiac Care Unit. Methods Three-hundred and ten patients (134 males and 176 females) were studied consecutively over a 48-month period using Schiller type (MT-101) Holter ECG machine. Results Out of the 310 patients reviewed, 134 were males (43.2%) and 176 were females (56.8%). The commonest indication for Holter ECG was palpitation followed by syncope in 71 (23%) and 49 (15.8%) of subjects, respectively. Premature ventricular complex and premature atrial complex were the commonest types of arrhythmia in 51.5% and 15% subjects, respectively. Ventricular arrhythmia was more prevalent in dilated cardiomyopathy patients (85.7%). The HRV of subjects with palpitation, stroke, and diabetes mellitus with autonomic neuropathy, using standard deviation of normal to normal intervals average (milliseconds), were 107.32±49.61, 79.15±49.15, and 66.50±15.54, respectively. The HRV, using standard deviation of averages of normal to normal intervals average (milliseconds), of patients with palpitation, stroke, and diabetes mellitus with autonomic neuropathy were 77.39±62.34, 57.82±37.05, and 55.50±12.71, respectively. Conclusion Palpitation and syncope were the commonest indications for Holter ECG among our subjects. The commonest arrhythmic patterns were premature ventricular complex and premature atrial complex, with ventricular arrhythmia being more prevalent in dilated cardiomyopathy. There was a reduction in HRV in patients with stroke and diabetic autonomic neuropathy. PMID:26170685

  18. Reduced antiplatelet effect of aspirin during 24 hours in patients with coronary artery disease and type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Kristian H; Grove, Erik L; Würtz, Morten; Kristensen, Steen D; Hvas, Anne-Mette

    2015-01-01

    Reduced antiplatelet effect of aspirin has been reported in patients with type 2 diabetes, and recent studies suggest that once-daily aspirin provides insufficient platelet inhibition. We investigated if the effect of aspirin declined during the 24-hour dosing interval in patients with coronary artery disease and type 2 diabetes, and whether this correlated with increased platelet turnover. Furthermore, the intra-individual variation in platelet aggregation was determined during a 28-day period. We included 47 patients with coronary artery disease and type 2 diabetes treated with aspirin 75?mg daily. Blood samples were obtained 1 and 24 hours after aspirin intake, and this was repeated three times with a 2-week interval between each visit. Platelet aggregation was evaluated by impedance aggregometry (Multiplate® Analyzer) using arachidonic acid (1.0?mM) and collagen (3.2?µg/ml) as agonists. Markers of platelet turnover were measured by flow cytometry. Compliance was confirmed by serum thromboxane B2. Platelet aggregation levels measured 1 and 24 hours after aspirin intake were compared using the mean of 1- and 24-hour measurements at the three study visits. The difference in platelet aggregation was 70?±?97?AU?×?min (p?24 hours after aspirin intake (p values 0.06 and 0.07). Median intra-individual variation of platelet aggregation was 9-16%. Patients with coronary artery disease and type 2 diabetes had increased platelet aggregation at the end of the 24-hour aspirin dosing interval. Platelet turnover did not correlate significantly with residual platelet aggregation, although a trend was observed. The intra-individual variation of platelet aggregation after aspirin intake was low. PMID:24750015

  19. Executive Functions are not Affected by 24 Hours of Sleep Deprivation: A Color-Word Stroop Task Study

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Abhinav; Mittal, Tushar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sleep is an important factor affecting cognitive performance. Sleep deprivation results in fatigue, lack of concentration, confusion and sleepiness along with anxiety, depression and irritability. Sleep deprivation can have serious consequences in professions like armed forces and medicine where quick decisions and actions need to be taken. Color-Word Stroop task is one of the reliable tests to assess attention and it analyzes the processing of information in two dimensions i.e., reading of words and naming of colour. The evidence regarding the effect of sleep deprivation on Stroop interference is conflicting. The present study evaluated the effect of 24 hours of sleep deprivation on reaction time and interference in Stroop task. Materials and Methods: The present study was done on 30 healthy male medical student volunteers in the age group of 18-25 years after taking their consent and clearance from Institute Ethics Committee. Recordings of Stroop task were at three times: baseline (between 7-9 am), after 12 hours (7-9 pm) and after 24 hours (7-9 am, next day). The subjects were allowed to perform normal daily activities. Results: The study revealed a significant increase in reaction time after 24 hours of sleep deprivation in comparison to baseline and after 12 hours of sleep deprivation. There was no significant change in interference and facilitation after sleep deprivation in comparison to baseline. The number of errors also did not show any significant change after sleep deprivation. Conclusion: The study indicated that there was slowing of responses without change in executive functions after 24 hours of sleep deprivation. It is probable that 24 hours of sleep deprivation does not bring about change in areas of brain affecting executive functions in healthy individuals who have normal sleep cycle. The present study indicated that in professions like armed forces and medicine working 24 hours at a stretch can lead to decrease in motor responses without affecting information processing and judgment ability. PMID:25969601

  20. Sex differences in 24-hour ultra-marathon performance - A retrospective data analysis from 1977 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Peter, Laura; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Knechtle, Beat; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined the changes in running performance and the sex differences between women and men in 24-hour ultra-marathons held worldwide from 1977 to 2012. METHOD: Changes in running speed and ages of the fastest 24-hour ultra-marathoners were determined using single- and multi-level regression analyses. RESULTS: From 1977 to 2012, the sex differences in 24-hour ultra-marathon performance were 4.6±0.5% for all women and men, 13.3% for the annual fastest finishers, 12.9±0.8% for the top 10 and 12.2±0.4% for the top 100 finishers. Over time, the sex differences decreased for the annual fastest finishers to 17%, for the annual 10 fastest finishers to 11.3±2.2% and for the annual 100 fastest finishers to 14.2±1.8%. For the annual fastest men, the age of peak running speed increased from 23 years (1977) to 53 years (2012). For the annual 10 and 100 fastest men, the ages of peak running speed were unchanged at 40.9±2.5 and 44.4±1.1 years, respectively. For women, the ages of the annual fastest, the annual 10 fastest and the annual 100 fastest remained unchanged at 43.0±6.1, 43.2±2.6 and 43.8±0.8 years, respectively. CONCLUSION: The gap between the annual top, annual top 10 and annual top 100 female and male 24-hour ultra-marathoners decreased over the last 35 years; however, it seems unlikely that women will outrun men in 24-hour ultra-marathons in the near future. The fastest 24-hour ultra-marathoners worldwide achieved their peak performance at the age of master athletes (>35 years). PMID:24473558

  1. Depressive Symptoms and 24-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Africans: The SABPA Study

    PubMed Central

    Hamer, Mark; Frasure-Smith, Nancy; Lespérance, François; Harvey, Brian H.; Malan, Nico T.; Malan, Leoné

    2012-01-01

    Disturbances in circadian rhythm might play a central role in the neurobiology of depression. We examined the association between depressive symptoms and 24-hour ambulatory BP in a sample of 405 (197 black and 208 Caucasian) urbanized African teachers aged 25 to 60 yrs (mean 44.6 ± 9.6 yrs). Depressive symptoms were assessed using the self-administered 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). After adjusting for age, sex, and ethnicity, participants with severe depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 ? 15) had higher odds of hypertension defined from ambulatory BP and/or use of antihypertensive medication (odds ratio = 2.19, 95% CI, 1.00–4.90) in comparison to participants with no symptoms. Compared to Caucasians with no depressive symptoms, those with severe symptoms had blunted nocturnal systolic BP drop of 4.7?mmHg (95% CI, ?0.5 to 10.0, P = 0.07). In summary, depressive symptoms were associated with the circadian BP profile in black and Caucasian Africans. PMID:22028954

  2. Depressive Symptoms and 24-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Africans: The SABPA Study.

    PubMed

    Hamer, Mark; Frasure-Smith, Nancy; Lespérance, François; Harvey, Brian H; Malan, Nico T; Malan, Leoné

    2012-01-01

    Disturbances in circadian rhythm might play a central role in the neurobiology of depression. We examined the association between depressive symptoms and 24-hour ambulatory BP in a sample of 405 (197 black and 208 Caucasian) urbanized African teachers aged 25 to 60 yrs (mean 44.6 ± 9.6 yrs). Depressive symptoms were assessed using the self-administered 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). After adjusting for age, sex, and ethnicity, participants with severe depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 ? 15) had higher odds of hypertension defined from ambulatory BP and/or use of antihypertensive medication (odds ratio = 2.19, 95% CI, 1.00-4.90) in comparison to participants with no symptoms. Compared to Caucasians with no depressive symptoms, those with severe symptoms had blunted nocturnal systolic BP drop of 4.7?mmHg (95% CI, -0.5 to 10.0, P = 0.07). In summary, depressive symptoms were associated with the circadian BP profile in black and Caucasian Africans. PMID:22028954

  3. Feasibility of using statellites in non-equatorial 24-hour circular orbits for communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Krishna; Kumar, K. D.

    2001-03-01

    The early sixties witnessed the debate among competing candidate orbits that led to the emergence of perfect geostationary systems as virtually the sole "instruments" for satellite communication. The subsequent problem of overcrowding of geostationary ring on one hand and explosive growth in demand on communication capacity on the other led comsat experts to focus on the alternate routes through various near-earth and medium attitude satellite constellations later proposed for uninterrupted communication. However, the opportunities thrown up by quasi-stationary orbits for augmentation of the space communication capacity have gone abegging. This paper attempts to draw attention of communication satellite designers/planners to the immense potential for utilization of the non-equatorial, 24-hour circular orbits for communication. For the proposed quasi-stationary orbits, the change and/or control of the inclination of the plane is not envisaged in the launch and/or operational phase. The resulting significant payload weight advantage is associated with the problem of periodic as well as secular apparent angular satellite drift relative to the ground terminal. However, the problem may be largely overcome through controlled satellite tilting using solar radiation pressure or through the use of tethered auxiliary mass attachment. Alternatively, it may be possible to overcome the attitude control problem by the use of systems such as on-bard electronically steerable phased array antenna capable of following the line-of-sight to the co-operative ground station.

  4. After 24-hour scrub, the Boeing Delta II rocket carrying Stardust waits for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    After a 24-hour postponement, the Boeing Delta II rocket carrying the Stardust spacecraft waits on Launch Pad 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, for its scheduled launch at 4:04 p.m. EST. Umbilical lines (at top) still attached to the fixed utility tower (at right) feed electricity, air conditioning and coolants for the Stardust spacecraft inside the fairing (enclosing the upper stage) before launch. Stardust is destined for a close encounter with the comet Wild 2 in January 2004. Using a silicon-based substance called aerogel, Stardust will capture comet particles flying off the nucleus of the comet. The spacecraft also will bring back samples of interstellar dust. These materials consist of ancient pre-solar interstellar grains and other remnants left over from the formation of the solar system. Scientists expect their analysis to provide important insights into the evolution of the sun and planets and possibly into the origin of life itself. The collected samples will return to Earth in a sample return capsule to be jettisoned as Stardust swings by Earth in January 2006.

  5. After 24-hour scrub, the Boeing Delta II rocket carrying Stardust waits for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In the late morning light at Launch Pad 17-A, Cape Cananveral Air Station, the fixed utility tower (right) casts a long shadow across the base of the Boeing Delta II rocket (left) waiting to launch the Stardust spacecraft. After a 24-hour scrub, the new targeted launch time is 4:04 p.m. EST. Stardust is destined for a close encounter with the comet Wild 2 in January 2004. Using a silicon-based substance called aerogel, Stardust will capture comet particles flying off the nucleus of the comet. The spacecraft also will bring back samples of interstellar dust. These materials consist of ancient pre-solar interstellar grains and other remnants left over from the formation of the solar system. Scientists expect their analysis to provide important insights into the evolution of the sun and planets and possibly into the origin of life itself. The collected samples will return to Earth in a sample return capsule to be jettisoned as Stardust swings by Earth in January 2006.

  6. After 24-hour scrub, the Boeing Delta II rocket carrying Stardust launches on time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Flames sear the pristine blue sky behind the Boeing Delta II rocket carrying the Stardust spacecraft after the 4:04:15 p.m. launch from Launch Pad 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Station. A 24- hour scrub postponed the launch from the originally scheduled date of Feb. 6. Stardust is destined for a close encounter with the comet Wild 2 in January 2004. Using a silicon-based substance called aerogel, Stardust will capture comet particles flying off the nucleus of the comet. The spacecraft also will bring back samples of interstellar dust. These materials consist of ancient pre-solar interstellar grains and other remnants left over from the formation of the solar system. Scientists expect their analysis to provide important insights into the evolution of the sun and planets and possibly into the origin of life itself. The collected samples will return to Earth in a sample return capsule to be jettisoned as Stardust swings by Earth in January 2006.

  7. Preliminary report: the effect of a 6-month dietary glycemic index manipulation in addition to healthy eating advice and weight loss on arterial compliance and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure in men: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Philippou, Elena; Bovill-Taylor, Candace; Rajkumar, Chakravarthi; Vampa, Maria Luisa; Ntatsaki, Eleana; Brynes, Audrey E; Hickson, Mary; Frost, Gary S

    2009-12-01

    We aimed to determine whether altering dietary glycemic index (GI) in addition to healthy eating and weight loss advice affects arterial compliance and 24-hour blood pressure (BP), both coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors. Middle-aged men with at least 1 CHD risk were randomized to a 6-month low-GI (LGI) or high-GI (HGI) diet. All were advised on healthy eating and weight loss. They were seen monthly to assess dietary compliance and anthropometrics. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), fasting blood lipid profile, and glucose and insulin concentrations were measured at baseline and at months 3 and 6. Six-hour postprandial glucose and insulin responses and 24-hour ambulatory BP were also assessed at baseline and month 6. Thirty-eight subjects (HGI group, n = 16; LGI group, n = 22) completed the study. At month 6, groups differed in dietary GI, glycemic load, and carbohydrate intake (P < .001). Fasting insulin concentration and insulin resistance (calculated by homeostatic model assessment) were lower in the LGI than the HGI group (P < .01). The reduction in total cholesterol and 24-hour BP was bigger in the LGI than the HGI group (P < .05); and only the LGI group had significant reductions (P < .05) in PWV, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triacylglycerol concentration. There were no differences in postprandial glucose or insulin responses between the groups. The results suggest that an LGI diet may be more beneficial in reducing CHD risk, including PWV and 24-hour BP, even in the setting of healthy eating and weight loss; and thus, further study is warranted. PMID:19604522

  8. The impact of weight loss on the 24-hour profile of circulating peptide YY and its association with 24-hour ghrelin in normal weight premenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Brenna R.; De Souza, Mary Jane; Wagstaff, David A.; Williams, Nancy I.

    2013-01-01

    Peptide YY (PYY) and ghrelin exhibit a reciprocal association and antagonistic physiological effects in the peripheral circulation. Research has yet to clarify the effect of weight loss on the 24h profile of PYY or its association to 24h ghrelin. We sought to determine if diet- and exercise-induced weight loss affects the 24h profile of PYY and its association with 24h ghrelin in normal weight, premenopausal women. Participants (n=13) were assessed at baseline (BL) and after a 3-month diet and exercise intervention (Post). Blood samples obtained q10 min for 24h were assayed for total PYY and total ghrelin q60 min from 0800–1000h and 2000–0800h and q20 min from 1000–2000h. The ghrelin/PYY ratio was used as an index of hormonal exposure. Statistical analyses included paired t-tests and linear mixed effects modeling. Body weight (?1.85±0.67kg; p=0.02), and body fat (?2.53±0.83%; p=0.01) decreased from BL to post. Ghrelin AUC (5252±2177pg/ml/24hr; p=0.03), 24h mean (216±90pg/ml; p=0.03) and peak (300±134pg/ml; p=0.047) increased from BL to post. No change occurred in PYY AUC (88.2±163.7pg/ml; p=0.60), 24h mean (4.8±6.9pg/ml; p=0.50) or peak (3.6±6.4pg/ml; p=0.58). The 24h association between PYY and ghrelin at baseline (p=0.04) was weakened at post (p=0.14); however, the ghrelin/PYY lunch ratio increased (p=0.01) indicating the potential for ghrelin predominance over PYY in the circulation. PYY and ghrelin are reciprocally associated during a period of weight stability, but not following weight loss. An “uncoupling” may have occurred, particularly at lunch, due to factors that modulate ghrelin in response to weight loss. PMID:24012997

  9. No Enhancement of 24-Hour Visuomotor Skill Retention by Post-Practice Caffeine Administration

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Sara J.; Cole, Kelly J.

    2015-01-01

    Caffeine is widely consumed throughout the world and appears to indirectly facilitate learning and memory through effects on attention and motivation. Animal work indicates that post-training caffeine administration augments inhibitory avoidance memory, spatial memory, and object memory. In humans, post-training caffeine administration enhances the ability to discern between familiar images and new, similar images. However, the effect of post-training caffeine administration on motor memory has not been examined. Therefore, we tested two groups of low caffeine consumers (average weekly consumption ?500 mg) in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study involving acquisition of a continuous isometric visuomotor tracking skill. On Day 1, subjects completed 5 blocks (150 repetitions) of training on the continuous isometric visuomotor skill and subsequently ingested either 200 mg of caffeine or placebo. On day 2, subjects completed an additional 5 blocks of training. Day 1 mean performance and performance variability were both similar between groups, suggesting that both groups acquired the motor skill similarly. For mean performance on Day 2, patterns of re-learning, mean performance learning magnitudes, mean performance learning rates, and mean performance retention magnitudes were all similar between groups. For performance variability on Day 2, there was a small trend towards increased variability in the caffeine group during re-learning, but performance variability learning magnitudes and performance variability retention magnitudes did not differ between groups. Because motor skill acquisition can also be conceptualized as a reduction in performance variability, these results suggest that there may be a small negative effect of post-practice caffeine administration on memory of a newly-learned visuomotor skill. Overall, we found no evidence to suggest that post-training caffeine administration enhances 24-hour retention of a newly-learned continuous visuomotor skill, and these results support the notion that memory-enhancing effects of post-training caffeine ingestion may be task-specific. PMID:26053288

  10. Comparison of 24-hour Holter Monitoring with 14-day Novel Adhesive Patch Electrocardiographic Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Paddy M.; Komatireddy, Ravi; Haaser, Sharon; Topol, Sarah; Sheard, Judith; Encinas, Jackie; Fought, Angela J.; Topol, Eric J.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Cardiac arrhythmias are remarkably common and routinely go undiagnosed because they are often transient and asymptomatic. Effective diagnosis and treatment can substantially reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with cardiac arrhythmias. The Zio Patch (iRhythm Technologies, Inc, San Francisco, Calif) is a novel, single-lead electrocardiographic (ECG), lightweight, Food and Drug Administration–cleared, continuously recording ambulatory adhesive patch monitor suitable for detecting cardiac arrhythmias in patients referred for ambulatory ECG monitoring. METHODS A total of 146 patients referred for evaluation of cardiac arrhythmia underwent simultaneous ambulatory ECG recording with a conventional 24-hour Holter monitor and a 14-day adhesive patch monitor. The primary outcome of the study was to compare the detection arrhythmia events over total wear time for both devices. Arrhythmia events were defined as detection of any 1 of 6 arrhythmias, including supraventricular tachycardia, atrial fibrillation/flutter, pause greater than 3 seconds, atrioventricular block, ventricular tachycardia, or polymorphic ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation. McNemar’s tests were used to compare the matched pairs of data from the Holter and the adhesive patch monitor. RESULTS Over the total wear time of both devices, the adhesive patch monitor detected 96 arrhythmia events compared with 61 arrhythmia events by the Holter monitor (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS Over the total wear time of both devices, the adhesive patch monitor detected more events than the Holter monitor. Prolonged duration monitoring for detection of arrhythmia events using single-lead, less-obtrusive, adhesive-patch monitoring platforms could replace conventional Holter monitoring in patients referred for ambulatory ECG monitoring. PMID:24384108

  11. 72 Genome Informatics 17(1): 72{79 (2006) Why Do Cells Cycle with a 24 Hour Period?

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    2006-01-01

    72 Genome Informatics 17(1): 72{79 (2006) Why Do Cells Cycle with a 24 Hour Period? Samuel Bernard, Greece hal-00371755,version1-2Apr2009 Author manuscript, published in "Genome informatics series : proceedings of the ... Workshop on Genome Informatics. Workshop on Genome Informatics. 17, 1 (2006) 72

  12. Accident/Incident Reporting Form & Investigation Report FAX COMPLETED FORM (Within 24 hours) TO: 519-661-2079 (82079)

    E-print Network

    Lennard, William N.

    Accident/Incident Reporting Form & Investigation Report FAX COMPLETED FORM (Within 24 hours) TO NO ________________________________________________________________________________________________ CLEAR FORM #12;SECTION #2 ­ Investigation Report PART D Immediately investigate if any of the following occur: Fatalities, Critical Injuries, Lost Time, Occupational Illness, Property Damage, Fire

  13. Closing and Check-Out Procedures You must check out 24 hours after your last final and no later than

    E-print Network

    Hutcheon, James M.

    Closing and Check-Out Procedures You must check out 24 hours after your last final and no later than 12:00 pm (noon), Saturday, May 10, 2014, (which ever time comes first). Check-out is mandatory. Failure to check out will result in charges being applied to your student account. Regular Check-Out

  14. Traumatic Brain Injury Has Not Prominent Effects on Cardiopulmonary Indices of Rat after 24 Hours: Hemodynamic, Histopathology, and Biochemical Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Najafipour, Hamid; Siahposht Khachaki, Ali; Khaksari, Mohammad; Shahouzehi, Beydolah; Joukar, Siyavash; Poursalehi, Hamid Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Accidents are the second reason for mortality and morbidity in Iran. Among them, brain injuries are the most important damage. Clarification of the effects of brain injuries on different body systems will help physicians to prioritize their treatment strategies. In this study, the effect of pure brain trauma on the cardiovascular system and lungs 24 hours post trauma was assessed. Methods: Male Wistar rats (n = 32) were divided into sham control and traumatic brain injury (TBI) groups. In TBI animals, under deep anesthesia, a blow to the head was induced by the fall of a 450 g weight from 2 m height. Twenty four hours later, heart electrocardiogram and functional indices, cardiac troponin I, IL-6, TNF-, IL-I? in tissue and serum, and the histopathology of heart and lung were assessed. Results: The results showed that none of the functional, biochemical, inflammatory, and histopathology indices was statistically different between the two groups at 24 hours post TBI. Indices of impulse conduction velocity in atrium (P wave duration and P-R interval) were significantly longer in the TBI group. Conclusion: Overall, no important functional and histopathologic disturbances were found in heart and lung of TBI group after 24 hours. If the data is reproduced in human studies, the medical team could allocate their priority to treatment of brain disorders of the victim in the first 24 hours of pure TBI and postpone extensive assessment of heart and lung health indices to later time, thus reducing patient and health system expenditures. PMID:25326021

  15. 24-Hour IOP Telemetry in the Nonhuman Primate: Implant System Performance and Initial Characterization of IOP at Multiple Timescales

    PubMed Central

    Burgoyne, Claude F.; Seigfreid, William P.; Reynaud, Juan F.; Strouthidis, Nicholas G.; Sallee, Verney

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. IOP is the most common independent risk factor for development and progression of glaucoma, but very little is known about IOP dynamics. Continuous IOP telemetry was used in three nonhuman primates to characterize IOP dynamics at multiple time scales for multiple 24-hour periods. Methods. An existing implantable telemetric pressure transducer system was adapted to monitoring anterior chamber IOP. The system records 500 IOP, ECG, and body temperature measurements per second and compensates for barometric pressure in real time. The continuous IOP signal was digitally filtered for noise and dropout and reported using time-window averaging for 19, 18, and 4 24-hour periods in three animals, respectively. Those data were analyzed for a nycthemeral pattern within each animal. Results. Ten-minute time-window averaging for multiple 24-hour periods showed that IOP fluctuated from 7 to 14 mm Hg during the day, and those changes occurred frequently and quickly. Two-hour time-window averages of IOP for multiple 24-hour periods in three animals showed a weak nycthemeral trend, but IOP was not repeatable from day-to-day within animals. Conclusions. The measured IOP was successfully measured continuously by using a new, fully implantable IOP telemetry system. IOP fluctuates as much as 10 mm Hg from day to day and hour to hour in unrestrained nonhuman primates, which indicates that snapshot IOP measurements may be inadequate to capture the true dynamic character of IOP. The distributions, magnitudes, and patterns of IOP are not reproducible from day to day within animals, but IOP tends to be slightly higher at night when IOP data are averaged across multiple 24-hour periods within animals. PMID:21791586

  16. Microleakage of Two Self-Adhesive Cements in the Enamel and Dentin After 24 Hours and Two Months

    PubMed Central

    Jaberi Ansari, Zahra; Kalantar Motamedi, Mojdeh

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Microleakage is a main cause of restorative treatment failure. In this study, we compared occlusal and cervical microleakage of two self-adhesive cements after 24 hours and two months. Materials and Methods: In this in-vitro experimental study, class II inlay cavities were prepared on 60 sound human third molars. Composite inlays were fabricated with Z100 composite resin. The teeth were randomly assigned to six groups. RelyX-Arc (control), RelyX-Unicem and Maxcem were used for the first three groups and specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 hours. The same cements were used for the remaining three groups, but the specimens were stored for 2 months. The teeth were subjected to 500 thermal cycles (5°C and 55°C) and immersed in 0.5% basic fuchsin for 24 hours and then sectioned mesiodistally and dye penetration was evaluated in a class II cavity with occlusal and cervical margins using X20 magnification stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed using Kruskal Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results: After 24 hours, cements had significant differences only in cervical margin microleakage (P=0.0001) and microleakage of RelyX-Unicem and Maxcem was significantly more than that of RelyX-Arc (both P=0.0001). Cervical microleakage in RelyX-Unicem and Maxcem was greater than occlusal (P=0.0001 and P=0.001, respectively). Microleakage was not significantly different between the occlusal and cervical margins after 2 months. Conclusion: Cervical microleakage was greater than occlusal in RelyX-Unicem and Maxcem after 24h. The greatest microleakage was reported for the cervical margin of RelyX-Unicem after 24 hours. PMID:25584053

  17. Circadian (about 24-hour) variation in malondialdehyde content and catalase activity of mouse erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Sani, Mamane; Sebai, Hichem; Ghanem-Boughanmi, Néziha; Boughattas, Naceur A; Ben-Attia, Mossadok

    2015-01-01

    Lipid peroxidation is a part of normal metabolism that may cause biological molecule damage leading to the formation of several specific metabolites that include aldehydes of variable chains, such as malondialdehyde (MDA). These biological effects are controlled in vivo by a wide spectrum of enzymatic and non-enzymatic defense mechanisms among which catalase (CAT) is considered as an important regulator of oxidative stress. The present study aimed to investigate the possible relationship between the temporal patterns of the formation of MDA and the activity of CAT in the erythrocytes of mice. Twenty-four-hour studies were performed on male Swiss albino mice, 12 weeks old, synchronized to a 12:12 light: dark cycle for 3 weeks. Different and comparable groups of animals (n = 10) were sacrificed at an interval of 4 hours (1, 5, 9, 13, 17, and 21 hours after light onset (HALO)). The levels of erythrocyte MDA concentration and CAT activity both significantly (analysis of variance: F = 6.4, P < 0.002) varied according to the time of sampling under non-stressed conditions. The characteristics of the waveform describing the temporal patterns differed between the two studied variables, e.g. MDA content showing one peak (?21 HALO) and CAT activity showing three peaks (?9, 17, and 21 HALO). Cosinor analysis revealed a significant (adjusted Cosinor: P ? 0.018) circadian (? ? 24 hours) rhythm in MDA level and no statistically significant rhythmicity in CAT activity. The differences and the absence of correlation between the curve patterns of erythrocyte MDA content and CAT activity under physiological conditions are hypothesized to explain that variation in lipid peroxidation may depend on several factors. Moreover, the identification of peak/trough levels of MDA accumulation in erythrocytes may reflect the degree of oxidative stress in these blood cells. In addition, the observed significant time-of-day effect suggests that, in both clinical and scientific settings, appropriate comparison of MDA production and CAT activity levels can only be achieved on data obtained at the same time of day. PMID:25142617

  18. Characterisation of sleep in intensive care using 24-hour polysomnography: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Many intensive care patients experience sleep disruption potentially related to noise, light and treatment interventions. The purpose of this study was to characterise, in terms of quantity and quality, the sleep of intensive care patients, taking into account the impact of environmental factors. Methods This observational study was conducted in the adult ICU of a tertiary referral hospital in Australia, enrolling 57 patients. Polysomnography (PSG) was performed over a 24-hour period to assess the quantity (total sleep time: hh:mm) and quality (percentage per stage, duration of sleep episode) of patients' sleep while in ICU. Rechtschaffen and Kales criteria were used to categorise sleep. Interrater checks were performed. Sound pressure and illuminance levels and care events were simultaneously recorded. Patients reported on their sleep quality in ICU using the Richards Campbell Sleep Questionnaire and the Sleep in Intensive Care Questionnaire. Data were summarised using frequencies and proportions or measures of central tendency and dispersion as appropriate and Cohen's Kappa statistic was used for interrater reliability of the sleep data analysis. Results Patients' median total sleep time was 05:00 (IQR: 02:52 to 07:14). The majority of sleep was stage 1 and 2 (medians: 19 and 73%) with scant slow wave and REM sleep. The median duration of sleep without waking was 00:03. Sound levels were high (mean Leq 53.95 dB(A) during the day and 50.20 dB(A) at night) and illuminance levels were appropriate at night (median <2 lux) but low during the day (median: 74.20 lux). There was a median 1.7 care events/h. Patients' mean self-reported sleep quality was poor. Interrater reliability of sleep staging was highest for slow wave sleep and lowest for stage 1 sleep. Conclusions The quantity and quality of sleep in intensive care patients are poor and may be related to noise, critical illness itself and treatment events that disturb sleep. The study highlights the challenge of quantifying sleep in the critical care setting and the need for alternative methods of measuring sleep. The results suggest that a sound reduction program is required and other interventions to improve clinical practices to promote sleep in intensive care patients. Trial registration Australian New Zealand clinical trial registry (http://www.anzctr.org.au/): ACTRN12610000688088. PMID:23506782

  19. Cognitive processes in children’s dietary recalls: Insight from methodological studies

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Suzanne Domel

    2009-01-01

    Objective This article summarises 12 dietary-reporting methodological studies with children (six validation studies, one non-validation study, five secondary analyses studies of data from one or more of the six validation studies), identifies research gaps, and provides recommendations for (a) improving children’s recall accuracy and (b) details to specify in publications of studies that utilise children’s dietary recalls. Subjects/Methods Randomly selected children (ages nine to ten) were observed eating school breakfast and school lunch, and interviewed to obtain dietary recalls. Results Children’s recall accuracy improved slightly between the first and third recalls, but individual children’s accuracy was inconsistent from one interview to the next. Although accuracy was poor overall, it was better for boys with reverse-order (evening-to-morning) prompts, but for girls with forward-order (morning-to-evening) prompts. Children recalled breakfast intake less accurately than lunch intake. Children’s accuracy did not depend on whether recalls were obtained in-person or by telephone, but was better for recalls obtained with open than meal format. Retention interval was crucial as children’s accuracy was better for prior-24-hour recalls (about the 24 hours immediately preceding the interview) than previous-day recalls (about midnight to midnight of the day before the interview). Observations of school meals did not affect children's recalls. Children’s recall accuracy was related to their age/sex body mass index percentile. Conventional report rates (which disregard accuracy for items and amounts) overestimated accuracy for energy and macronutrients, and masked complexities of recall error. Conclusions Research concerning errors in Children’s dietary recalls provides insight for improving children’s recall accuracy. PMID:19190640

  20. Changes in foot volume, body composition, and hydration status in male and female 24-hour ultra-mountain bikers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The effects of running and cycling on changes in hydration status and body composition during a 24-hour race have been described previously, but data for 24-hour ultra-mountain bikers are missing. The present study investigated changes in foot volume, body composition, and hydration status in male and female 24-hour ultra-mountain bikers. Methods We compared in 49 (37 men and 12 women) 24-hour ultra-mountain bikers (ultra-MTBers) changes (?) in body mass (BM). Fat mass (FM), percent body fat (%BF) and skeletal muscle mass (SM) were estimated using anthropometric methods. Changes in total body water (TBW), extracellular fluid (ECF) and intracellular fluid (ICF) were determined using bioelectrical impedance and changes in foot volume using plethysmography. Haematocrit, plasma [Na+], plasma urea, plasma osmolality, urine urea, urine specific gravity and urine osmolality were measured in a subgroup of 25 ultra-MTBers (16 men and 9 women). Results In male 24-hour ultra-MTBers, BM (P??0.05). A significant correlation was found between post-race BM and post-race FM (r?=?0.63, P??0.05). Absolute ranking in the race was related to ?%BM (P??0.05). Conclusions Male and female 24-hour ultra-MTBers experienced a significant loss in BM and FM, whereas SM remained stable. Body weight changes and increases in plasma urea do not reflect a change in body hydration status. No oedema of the lower limbs occurred. PMID:24661412

  1. Changes in left ventricular mitochondria in intact rabbits during the 24 hour period (data of scanning electron microscopy)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. A. Frolov; V. P. Pukhlyanko; T. A. Kazanskaya

    1985-01-01

    Experiments were carried out on 20 male chinchilla rabbits weighing 2.5-3.5 kg. The experiments were carried out during the 24 hours of March 21, 1984, when the heliogeomagnetic situation was quiet, for this is known [5] to have a significant effect on cardiac function. At midnight, 6 a.m., noon, and 6 p.m., in acute experiments under hexobarbital anesthesia, the peak

  2. Flow cytometric comparison of platelets from a whole blood and finger-prick sample: impact of 24 hours storage.

    PubMed

    Swanepoel, Albe C; Stander, Andre; Pretorius, Etheresia

    2013-03-01

    In this study, we investigate the validity and laboratory utility of flow cytometry when analyzing platelet activation by studying CD41, CD42b, CD62P and CD63. We compare flow cytometry results from citrated whole-blood and finger-prick samples directly after collection and also after storing both a finger-prick and whole-blood sample for 24 hours. Citrated whole-blood and finger-prick samples were taken from three healthy individuals on two occasions, and a total of 60,000 cells were analyzed for each of the four phycoerythrin-labeled monoclonal antibodies. Half of each sample was analyzed immediately after sampling while the other half was kept in the fridge at 6 °C for 24 hours before analysis. No significant difference was found between the sampling methods or the period of time before analysis. Results therefore suggest that an appropriately prepared finger-prick sample can be used for platelet function analysis, and samples can be stored for 24 hours in the fridge at 6 °C before analysis. PMID:23320994

  3. Assessment of 24-hours Aldosterone Administration on Protein Abundances in Fluorescence-Sorted Mouse Distal Renal Tubules by Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Thomas B; Pisitkun, Trairak; Hoffert, Jason D; Jensen, Uffe B; Fenton, Robert A; Praetorius, Helle A; Knepper, Mark A; Praetorius, Jeppe

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims Aldosterone exerts multiple long-term effects in the distal renal tubules. The aim of this study was to establish a method for identifying proteins in these tubules that change in abundance by only 24-hours aldosterone administration. Methods Mice endogenously expressing green fluorescent protein (eGFP) in the connecting tubule and cortical collecting ducts were treated with a subcutaneous injection of 2.0 mg/kg aldosterone or vehicle (n=5), and sacrificed 24 hours later. Suspensions of single cells were obtained enzymatically, and eGFP positive cells were isolated by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS). Samples of 100 ?g proteins were digested with trypsin and labeled with 8-plex iTRAQ reagents and processed for liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Results FACS yielded 1.4 million cells per mouse. The LC-MS/MS spectra were matched to peptides by the SEQUEST search algorithm, which identified 3002 peptides corresponding to 506 unique proteins of which 20 significantly changed abundance 24-hours after aldosterone injection. Conclusion We find the method suitable and useful for studying hormonal effects on protein abundance in distal tubular segments. PMID:23428628

  4. NHEXAS PHASE I ARIZONA STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR CLEANING: 24 HOUR FOOD DIARY (HAND ENTRY) (UA-D-40.0)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the SOP is to define the particular steps involved in cleaning the electronic data generated from data entry of the 24 Hour Food Diary. The procedure was developed to use during the Arizona NHEXAS project and the "Border" study. Keywords: data; cleaning; 24 hour ...

  5. NHEXAS PHASE I ARIZONA STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR CODING: 24-HOUR FOOD DIARY (HAND ENTRY) (UA-D-39.0)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this SOP is to define the coding strategy for the 24-Hour Food Diary. This diary was developed for use during the Arizona NHEXAS project and the "Border" study. Keywords: data; coding; 24-hour food diary. The National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS) i...

  6. Blood pressure differences associated with Optimal Macronutrient Intake Trial for Heart Health (OMNIHEART)-like diet compared with a typical American Diet.

    PubMed

    Molitor, John; Brown, Ian J; Chan, Queenie; Papathomas, Michail; Liverani, Silvia; Molitor, NuooTing; Richardson, Sylvia; Van Horn, Linda; Daviglus, Martha L; Dyer, Alan; Stamler, Jeremiah; Elliott, Paul

    2014-12-01

    The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension-Sodium (DASH-Sodium) trial demonstrated beneficial effects on blood pressure (BP) of the DASH diet with lower sodium intake when compared with typical American diet. The subsequent Optimal Macronutrient Intake Trial for Heart Health (OMNIHEART) trial reported additional BP benefits from replacing carbohydrate in the DASH diet with either protein or monounsaturated fats. The primary aim of this study is to assess possible BP benefits of an OMNIHEART-like diet in free-living Americans using cross-sectional US population data of the International Study of Macronutrients, Micronutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP) study. The INTERMAP data include four 24-hour dietary recalls, 2 timed 24-hour urine collections, 8 BP readings for 2195 individuals aged 40 to 59 years from 8 US INTERMAP population samples. Analyses are conducted using 2 approaches: (1) regression of BP on a linear OMNIHEART nutrient score calculated for each individual and (2) a Bayesian approach comparing estimated BP levels of an OMNIHEART-like nutrient profile with a typical American nutrient profile. After adjustment for potential confounders, an OMNIHEART score higher by 1 point was associated with systolic/diastolic BP differences of -1.0/-0.5 mm Hg (both P<0.001). Mean systolic/diastolic BPs were 111.3/68.4 and 115.2/70.6 mm Hg for Bayesian OMNIHEART and Control profiles, respectively, after controlling for possible confounders, with BP differences of -3.9/-2.2 mm Hg, P(difference?0)=0.98/0.96. Findings were comparable for men and women, for nonhypertensive participants, and with adjustment for antihypertensive treatment. Our findings from data on US population samples indicate broad generalizability of OMNIHEART results beyond the trial setting and support recommendations for an OMNIHEART-style diet for prevention/control of population-wide adverse BP levels. PMID:25201893

  7. Assessment of the accuracy of portion size reports using computer-based food photographs aids in the development of an automated self-administered 24-hour recall

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the study is to assess the accuracy of portion-size estimates and participant preferences using various presentations of digital images. Two observational feeding studies were conducted. In both, each participant selected and consumed foods for breakfast and lunch, buffet style, se...

  8. Effects on a Later Recall by Delaying Initial Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modigliani, Vito

    1976-01-01

    Attempts to define the relationships between four measures of recall in a two-recall task, namely (a) initial short-term recall (STR), (b) unconditional final free recall (FFR), (c) final free recall conditionalized on an initial successful recall (FFR/STR), and (d) final free recall conditionalized on an unsuccessful recall (FFR/STR). (Author/RK)

  9. Diet quality index adjusted for energy requirements in adults.

    PubMed

    Jaime, Patricia Constante; Bandoni, Daniel Henrique; Duran, Ana Clara da Fonseca Leitão; Fisberg, Regina Mara

    2010-11-01

    This study aimed to develop a diet quality index (DQI-a) adjusted for energy requirement. Dietary intake of adults was assessed using 24-hour food recall. The DQI was developed for scores evenly distributed across ten items characterizing different aspects of diet: food groups, nutrients, and variety. The components categorized under the food groups from the Dietary Guide for Brazilians were adjusted according to the estimated energy requirements of the population studied. Index consistency and correlation with nutrients of the diet was analyzed by Cronbach's alpha. A total of 737 individuals were assessed and energy requirements ranged from 1,800 to 2,500kcal among women and 2,500 to 3,400kcal in men. The food group with greatest variation in total portions was cereals and tubers. Cronbach's alpha of the DQI-a was 0.643 and the index correlated with most of the nutrients. The DQI-a can be considered a valuable instrument for assessing diet quality of the Brazilian population. PMID:21180985

  10. In vivo testing of a right heart mini-pump during a 24 hour period: is it safe?

    PubMed

    Mueller, Xavier M; Augstburger, Monique; Boone, Yves; Tevaearai, Hendrik T; von Segesser, Ludwig K

    2002-01-01

    A coaxial atrial cannula connected to a mini-centrifugal pump was developed to bypass the right heart during extreme exposures in off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery. This study was designed to test the effect of this pump, running during 24 hours, on blood elements to evaluate its use as a prolonged right heart support. In a calf model (body weight 68+/-5 kg), the pump was inserted and set to its maximal motor speed of 7000 rpm. Blood samples were drawn every 6 hours for blood gas analyses, as well as for hematology and chemistry. The right heart mini-pump performed perfectly at its maximal speed over the 24 hour period. Blood gas parameters and blood lactate levels reflected adequate tissue perfusion (baseline: 2.2+/-0.5 mmol/L vs. 24 h: 2+/-0.3 mmol/L; p = 0.64). Red blood cell count was stable (baseline: 9.8+/-1.4 x 10(12)/L vs. 24 h: 9.6+/-1.1 x 10(12)/L; p = 0.83). Free plasma hemoglobin remained below 100 mg/L throughout the experiment. Platelet count was stable during the first 6 hours and exhibited a tendency to drop thereafter (baseline: 749+/-104 x 10(9)/L vs. 24 h: 486+/-20 x 10(9)/L; p = 0.01). This right heart mini-pump appears to provide sufficient blood flow during a 24 hour period with minimal impact on red cell and moderate platelet damage after 6 hours. These results suggest a potential application of this system for postcardiotomy right heart support. PMID:12455766

  11. Estimation of salt intake by 24-hour urinary sodium excretion: a cross-sectional study in Yantai, China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background High levels of dietary sodium are associated with raised blood pressure and adverse cardiovascular health. To determine baseline salt intake, we investigated the average dietary salt intake from 24-hour urinary sodium excretion with a small sample of Yantai adults in the Shandong province of China. Methods One hundred ninety one adults aged 18–69 years were randomly selected from the Yantai adult population. Blood pressure, anthropometric indices and sodium excretion in a 24-hour urine collection were measured. Consumption of condiments was derived from 3-day weighted records. Completeness of urine collections was verified using creatinine excretion in relation to weight. Results The mean Na and K outputs over 24 hours were 201.5?±?77.7 mmol/day and 46.8?±?23.2 mmol/day, respectively (corresponding to 11.8 g NaCl and 1.8 g K). Overall, 92.1% of the subjects (96.9% of men and 87.1% of women) had intakes of over 6 g salt (NaCl)/d. The main sources of salt intake from weighed condiments records were from home cooking salt (74.7%) followed by soy sauce (15.0%). Salt intake from condiments and salt excretion were weakly correlated((r?=?0.20, p?=?0.005).A positive linear correlation between salt intake was associated with systolic blood pressure in all adjusted and unadjusted model (r?=?0.16, p?=?0.01). Each 100 mmol/day increase in sodium intake was associated with a 4.0 mmHg increase in systolic blood pressure. Conclusion Dietary salt intake in Yantai adults was high. Reducing the intake of table salt and soy sauce used in cooking will be an important strategy to reduce sodium intake among Yantai adults. PMID:24507470

  12. Caffeine does not entrain the circadian clock but improves daytime alertness in blind patients with non-24-hour rhythms

    PubMed Central

    St. Hilaire, Melissa A.; Lockley, Steven W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective/Background Totally blind individuals are highly likely to suffer from Non-24-Hour Sleep-Wake Disorder due to a failure of light to reset the circadian pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nuclei. In this outpatient case series, we investigated whether daily caffeine administration could entrain the circadian pacemaker in non-entrained blind patients to alleviate symptoms of non-24-hour sleep–wake disorder. Patients/Methods Three totally blind males (63.0?±?7.5 years old) were studied at home over ~4 months. Urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) rhythms were measured for 48?h every 1–2 weeks. Participants completed daily sleep–wake logs, and rated their alertness and mood using nine-point scales every ~2–4?h while awake on urine sampling days. Caffeine capsules (150?mg per os) were self-administered daily at 10 a.m. for approximately one circadian beat cycle based on each participant's endogenous circadian period ? and compared to placebo (n?=?2) or no treatment (n?=?1) in a single-masked manner. Results Non-24-h aMT6s rhythms were confirmed in all three participants (? range?=?24.32–24.57?h). Daily administration of 150?mg caffeine did not entrain the circadian clock. Caffeine treatment significantly improved daytime alertness at adverse circadian phases (p?24-Hour Sleep–Wake Disorder in the blind appropriately. PMID:25891543

  13. Estimation of Daily Salt Intake through a 24-Hour Urine Collection in Pohang, Korea

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    There is an established relationship between a high salt diet and public health problems, especially hypertension and cardiovascular disease. We estimated daily salt intake in a group of adults and assessed its association with related variables in Pohang, Korea. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in 2013 with 242 adults. Urine was collected for 24 hr to estimate daily salt intake, and questionnaires about salt preference were administered. The mean daily salt intake was 9.9±4.6 g. There was no difference in salt intake between high systolic blood pressure (SBP) participants and normal SBP participants (10.5±4.7 g/d vs. 9.6±4.3 g/d, P=0.339), but high diastolic blood pressure (DBP) participants reported more salt intake than normal DBP participants (10.4±4.9 g/d vs. 9.7±4.1 g/d, P=0.049). Salt intake and body mass index demonstrated a positive correlation (P=0.001). A preference for Korean soup or stew was associated with high salt intake (P=0.038). Dietary salt intake in Korean adults is still higher than the recommendation from the World Health Organization. More efforts should be made to reduce the salt consumption of Korean adults. PMID:25317022

  14. The Effect of Lateral Decubitus Position on Nocturnal Intraocular Pressure over a Habitual 24-Hour Period in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Jie; Zhen, Yi; Wang, Hao; Yang, Diya; Wang, Ningli

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effect of lateral decubitus position (LDP) on nocturnal intraocular pressure (IOP) and the effect of LDP on 24-hour habitual IOP pattern in healthy subjects. Methods Intraocular pressure was measured every 2-hours using an Accupen Applanation Tonometer (Accutome, USA). During the diurnal period (7:30 am, 9:30 am, 11:30 am, 1:30 pm, 3:30 pm, 5:30 pm, 7:30 pm, and 9:30 pm), IOP was measured in the sitting position under bright light (500–1000 lux) after the subjects had been seated for 5 min. The nocturnal IOP was measured in the supine position, right LDP, and left LDP, with randomized sequences, under dim light (<10 lux) at 11:30 pm, 1:30 am, 3:30 am, and 5:30 am. The subjects were awakened and maintained each position for 5 min before the measurement. The 24-hour habitual IOP patterns were obtained according to the nocturnal position (supine, right LDP and left LDP) for either eye. P<0.05 was considered to be significant. Results Nineteen healthy subjects were included with a mean age of 51.3±5.8 years. During the nocturnal period, a significant IOP difference was found between the dependent eye (the eye on the lower side) of LDP and the supine position, but not for all the nocturnal time points. Over a 24-hour period, the effect of LDP on habitual IOP pattern was not statistically significant, although the mean nocturnal IOP and the diurnal-nocturnal IOP change for the right and the left eye in the LDP pattern was slightly higher than that in the sitting-supine pattern. Conclusion Significant nocturnal IOP differences existed between the dependent eye and the supine, but did not occur consistently for all time points. Over a 24-hour period, the effect of LDP on habitual IOP pattern was not statistically significant in healthy subjects. PMID:25423190

  15. Enhanced carotid-cardiac baroreflex response and elimination of orthostatic hypotension 24 hours after acute exercise in paraplegics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engelke, K. A.; Shea, J. D.; Doerr, D. F.; Convertino, V. A.

    1992-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that an acute bout of maximal exercise can ameliorate orthostatic hypotension consequent to prolonged wheelchair confinement, we evaluated heart rate (HR), systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure responses during 15 minutes of 70 degrees head-up tilt (HUT) in 10 paraplegic subjects 24 hours after arm crank exercise designed to elicit maximal effort, and during a control (no exercise) conditions. Additionally, the carotid baroreceptor stimulus-cardiac response relationship was determined by measurement of R-R interval during external application of graded pressures to the carotid sinuses. One week separated the treatment conditions. The maximum slope of the carotid-cardiac baroreflex response was increased (p = 0.049) by exercise (6.2 +/- 1.7 msec/mmHg) compared to control (3.3 +/- 0.6). During control HUT, HR increased from 61 +/- 1 to 90 +/- 7 bpm (p = 0.001) while SBP decreased from 118 +/- 5 to 106 +/- 9 mmHg (p = 0.025). During HUT 24 hours after exercise, HR increased from 60 +/- 2 to 90 +/- 4 bpm (p = 0.001), but the reduction in SBP was essentially eliminated (116 +/- 5 to 113 +/- 5 mmHg).

  16. Transcranial direct current stimulation augments perceptual sensitivity and 24-hour retention in a complex threat detection task.

    PubMed

    Falcone, Brian; Coffman, Brian A; Clark, Vincent P; Parasuraman, Raja

    2012-01-01

    We have previously shown that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) improved performance of a complex visual perceptual learning task (Clark et al. 2012). However, it is not known whether tDCS can enhance perceptual sensitivity independently of non-specific, arousal-linked changes in response bias, nor whether any such sensitivity benefit can be retained over time. We examined the influence of stimulation of the right inferior frontal cortex using tDCS on perceptual learning and retention in 37 healthy participants, using signal detection theory to distinguish effects on perceptual sensitivity (d') from response bias (ß). Anodal stimulation with 2 mA increased d', compared to a 0.1 mA sham stimulation control, with no effect on ß. On completion of training, participants in the active stimulation group had more than double the perceptual sensitivity of the control group. Furthermore, the performance enhancement was maintained for 24 hours. The results show that tDCS augments both skill acquisition and retention in a complex detection task and that the benefits are rooted in an improvement in sensitivity (d'), rather than changes in response bias (ß). Stimulation-driven acceleration of learning and its retention over 24 hours may result from increased activation of prefrontal cortical regions that provide top-down attentional control signals to object recognition areas. PMID:22511978

  17. Comparison of Average Heart Rates Determined by Surface ECG and 24-Hour Ambulatory ECG (Holter) in Dogs with Spontaneous Atrial Fibrillation 

    E-print Network

    Perea Lugo, Adriana

    2012-02-14

    The purpose of this study was to compare the heart rates of dogs presenting with spontaneous atrial fibrillation (AF) by a surface electrocardiogram (ECG) and a 24 hour ambulatory ECG (Holter recording) in order to determine if there was a...

  18. Use of a food frequency questionnaire to assess diets of Jamaican adults: validation and correlation with biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Assessment of habitual diet is important in investigations of diet-disease relationships. Many epidemiological studies use the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to evaluate dietary intakes but few studies validate the instrument against biological markers. The aim of this study was to assess the validity and reproducibility of a previously validated 70-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) that was expanded to 120-items to assess diet - cancer relations. Methods Relative validity of the FFQ was assessed against twelve 24-hour recalls administered over 12 months in 70 subjects. The FFQ was repeated after one year (FFQ2) to assess reproducibility. The validity of the FFQ was evaluated by comparing nutrient and food group intakes from 24-hour recalls with the first and second FFQ. In addition, FFQ validity for cholesterol and folate were determined through correlation with biomarkers (serum cholesterol, serum folate and whole blood folate) in 159 control subjects participating in a case-control prostate cancer study. Results Compared to recalls the FFQ tended to overestimate energy and carbohydrate intakes but gave no differences in intake for protein and fat. Quartile agreement for energy-adjusted nutrient intakes between FFQ2 and recalls ranged from 31.8% - 77.3% for the lowest quartile and 20.8% - 81.0% in the highest quartile. Gross misclassification of nutrients was low with the exceptions of protein, vitamin E and retinol and weighted kappa values ranged from 0.33 to 0.64 for other nutrients. Validity correlations for energy-adjusted nutrients (excluding retinol) were moderate to high (0.38- 0.86). Correlation coefficients between multiple recalls and FFQ1 ranged from 0.27 (fruits) to 0.55 (red meat); the second FFQ gave somewhat higher coefficients (0.30 to 0.61). Reproducibility correlations for the nutrients ranged from 0.50 to 0.84. Calibration of the FFQ with biochemical markers showed modest correlations with serum cholesterol (0.24), serum folate (0.25) and whole blood folate (0.33) adjusted for age, energy, body mass index and smoking. Conclusions The expanded FFQ had good relative validity for estimating food group and nutrient intakes (except retinol and vitamin E) and was a reliable measure of habitual intake. Associations with biomarkers were comparable to other studies. PMID:21477338

  19. Prognostic Significance of Initial Serum Albumin and 24 Hour Daily Protein Excretion before Treatment in Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jia-Hong; Hsu, Shun-Neng; Huang, Tzu-Chuan; Wu, Yi-Ying; Lin, Chin; Chang, Ping-Ying; Chen, Yeu-Chin; Ho, Ching-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Renal failure is a common morbidity in multiple myeloma (MM). Although proteinuria has been increasingly reported in malignancies, it is not routinely used to refine risk estimates of survival outcomes in patients with MM. Here we aimed to investigate initial serum albumin and 24-hour daily protein excretion (24-h DPE) before treatment as prognostic factors in patients with MM. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 102 patients with myeloma who were ineligible for haematopoietic stem cell transplantation between October 2000 and December 2012. Initial proteinuria was assessed before treatment by quantitative analysis of 24-hour urine samples. The demographic and laboratory characteristics, survival outcome, and significance of pre-treatment 24-h DPE and albumin in the new staging system of MM were analyzed. Pre-treatment proteinuria (>300 mg/day) was present in 66 patients (64.7%). The optimal cut-off value of 24-h DPE before treatment was 500 mg/day. Analysis of the time-dependent area under the curve showed that the serum albumin and 24-h DPE before treatment were better than 24-h creatinine clearance rate and ?2-microglobulin. A subgroup analysis showed that an initial excess proteinuria (24-h DPE ? 500 mg) was associated with poor survival status (17.51 vs. 34.24 months, p = 0.002). Furthermore, initial serum albumin was an independent risk factor on multivariate analysis (<2.8 vs. ?2.8, hazard ratio = 0.486, p = 0.029). Using the A-DPE staging system, there was a significant survival difference among patients with stage I, II, and III MM (p < 0.001). Initial serum albumin and 24-h DPE before treatment showed significant prognostic factors in patients with MM, and the new A-DPE staging system may be utilized instead of the International Staging System. Its efficacy should be evaluated by further large prospective studies. PMID:26053837

  20. Biomechanical evaluation of three fixation modalities for preperitoneal inguinal hernia repair: a 24-hour postoperative study in pigs

    PubMed Central

    Guérin, Gaëtan; Bourges, Xavier; Turquier, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Tacks and sutures ensure a strong fixation of meshes, but they can be associated with pain and discomfort. Less invasive methods are now available. Three fixation modalities were compared: the ProGrip™ laparoscopic self-fixating mesh; the fibrin glue Tisseel™ with Bard™ Soft Mesh; and the SorbaFix™ absorbable fixation system with Bard™ Soft Mesh. Materials and methods Meshes (6 cm ×6 cm) were implanted in the preperitoneal space of swine. Samples were explanted 24 hours after surgery. Centered defects were created, and samples (either ten or eleven per fixation type) were loaded in a pressure chamber. For each sample, the pressure, the mesh displacement through the defect, and the measurements of the contact area were recorded. Results At all pressures tested, the ProGrip™ laparoscopic self-fixating mesh both exhibited a significantly lower displacement through the defect and retained a significantly higher percentage of its initial contact area than either the Bard™ Soft Mesh with Tisseel™ system or the Bard™ Soft Mesh with SorbaFix™ absorbable fixation system. Dislocations occurred with the Bard™ Soft Mesh with Tisseel™ system and with the Bard™ Soft Mesh with SorbaFix™ absorbable fixation system at physiological pressure (,225 mmHg). No dislocation was recorded for the ProGrip™ laparoscopic self-fixating mesh. Conclusion At 24 hours after implantation, the mechanical fixation of the ProGrip™ laparoscopic self-fixating mesh was found to be significantly better than the fixation of the Tisseel™ system or the SorbaFix™ absorbable fixation system. PMID:25525396

  1. Personalized diet management can optimize compliance to a high-fiber, high-water diet in children with refractory functional constipation.

    PubMed

    Karagiozoglou-Lampoudi, Thomais; Daskalou, Efstratia; Agakidis, Charalambos; Savvidou, Afroditi; Apostolou, Aggeliki; Vlahavas, Georges

    2012-05-01

    Diet modification to increase water and fiber consumption is considered an important component in the management of constipation. This prospective randomized study aimed to evaluate the compliance of 86 children with refractory functional constipation (mean age 4.4 years, range 1 to 11 years)-to a high-fiber, high-water diet following either physician's dietary advice (PI group) (n=42) or physician's dietary advice plus personalized diet management by a registered dietitian (DM group) (n=44). Dietary intake was assessed by a 24-hour dietary recall at baseline and 1 month later. The changes in water and fiber consumption were used as compliance criteria. DM group had comparable anthropometric measurements; sex distribution; and baseline intakes of energy, macronutrient, water, and dietary fiber compared with the PI group. Comparison of nutrient intakes between the two visits within each group showed a significant increase in fiber consumption in both groups that was more pronounced in the DM group. Water, energy, and carbohydrate consumption increased significantly only in the DM group. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that the intervention group was the only significant independent predictor for the change in fiber and water consumption after controlling for age, sex, and weight-for-age z score. Children receiving personalized diet management for refractory functional constipation achieved better compliance in increasing fiber and water consumption. PMID:22709778

  2. The prevalence of exercise-associated hyponatremia in 24-hour ultra-mountain bikers, 24-hour ultra-runners and multi-stage ultra-mountain bikers in the Czech Republic

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To assess the prevalence of exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) in two 24-hour mountain bike (MTB) (R1,R2), one 24-hour running (R3) and one multi-stage MTB (R4) races held in the Czech Republic in a cluster of four cross-sectional studies. Methods In 27 ultra-mountain bikers (ultra-MTBers), 12 ultra-runners, and 14 multi-stage MTBers, fluid intake, changes (?) in body mass, hematocrit, plasma volume, plasma [Na+], plasma [K+], plasma osmolality, urine [Na+], urine [K+], urine specific gravity, urine osmolality, K+/Na+ ratio in urine, transtubular potassium gradient and glomerular filtration rate were measured and calculated. The use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and symptoms of EAH were recorded using post-race questionnaires. Results Of the 53 finishers, three (5.7%) developed post-race EAH, thereof one (3.7%) ultra-MTBer, one (8.3%) ultra-runner and one (7.1%) multi-stage MTBer. Plasma [Na+] decreased significantly (p < 0.001) only in R4. Urine osmolality (R1, R3, R4 p < 0.001; R2 p < 0.05) and glomerular filtration rate (p < 0.001) increased, and body mass decreased in all races (p < 0.05). ? body mass was inversely related to the number of kilometers achieved (p < 0.001) in R2 where better ultra-MTBers tended to lose more weight. ? body mass (p < 0.001) and %? body mass (p = 0.05) were positively related to lower post-race plasma [Na+] in R3 that was associated with increased loss in body mass. Fluid intake was positively related to race performance in R1 and R2 (R1: p = 0.04; R2: p = 0.01) where ultra-MTBers in R1 and R2 who drank more finished ahead of those who drank less. Post-race plasma [Na+] was negatively associated with race performance in ultra-MTBers in R2 (p < 0.05), similarly ultra-runners in R3 (p < 0.05) where finishers with more kilometres had lower post-race plasma [Na+]. Conclusions The prevalence of EAH in the Czech Republic was no higher compared to existing reports on ultra-endurance athletes in other countries. Lower plasma [Na+] and development of EAH may be attributed to overdrinking, a pituitary secretion of vasopressin, an impaired mobilization of osmotically inactive sodium stores, and/or an inappropriate inactivation of osmotically active sodium. PMID:24512517

  3. Cross-Sectional Study of 24-Hour Urinary Electrolyte Excretion and Associated Health Outcomes in a Convenience Sample of Australian Primary Schoolchildren: The Salt and Other Nutrients in Children (SONIC) Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Janet R; Campbell, Karen J; Riddell, Lynn J; Rigo, Manuela; Liem, Djin Gie; Keast, Russell S; He, Feng J; Nowson, Caryl A

    2015-01-01

    Background Dietary sodium and potassium are involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Data exploring the cardiovascular outcomes associated with these electrolytes within Australian children is sparse. Furthermore, an objective measure of sodium and potassium intake within this group is lacking. Objective The primary aim of the Salt and Other Nutrient Intakes in Children (“SONIC”) study was to measure sodium and potassium intakes in a sample of primary schoolchildren located in Victoria, Australia, using 24-hour urine collections. Secondary aims were to identify the dietary sources of sodium and potassium, examine the association between these electrolytes and cardiovascular risk factors, and assess children’s taste preferences and saltiness perception of manufactured foods. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in a convenience sample of schoolchildren attending primary schools in Victoria, Australia. Participants completed one 24-hour urine collection, which was analyzed for sodium, potassium, and creatinine. Completeness of collections was assessed using collection time, total volume, and urinary creatinine. One 24-hour dietary recall was completed to assess dietary intake. Other data collected included blood pressure, body weight, height, waist and hip circumference. Children were also presented with high and low sodium variants of food products and asked to discriminate salt level and choose their preferred variant. Parents provided demographic information and information on use of discretionary salt. Descriptive statistics will be used to describe sodium and potassium intakes. Linear and logistic regression models with clustered robust standard errors will be used to assess the association between electrolyte intake and health outcomes (blood pressure and body mass index/BMI z-score and waist circumference) and to assess differences in taste preference and discrimination between high and low sodium foods, and correlations between preference, sodium intake, and covariates. Results A total of 780 children across 43 schools participated. The results from this study are expected at the end of 2015. Conclusions This study will provide the first objective measure of sodium and potassium intake in Australian schoolchildren and improve our understanding of the relationship of these electrolytes to cardiovascular risk factors. Furthermore, this study will provide insight into child taste preferences and explore related factors. Given the cardiovascular implications of consuming too much sodium and too little potassium, monitoring of these nutrients during childhood is an important public health initiative. PMID:25592666

  4. Making sense of agrobiodiversity, diet, and intensification of smallholder family farming in the Highland Andes of Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Oyarzun, Pedro J; Borja, Ross Mary; Sherwood, Stephen; Parra, Vicente

    2013-01-01

    Methods are needed for helping researchers and farmers to interactively describe and analyze local practices in search of opportunities for improving health, environment, and economy. The authors worked with smallholder family farmers in five Andean villages in Ecuador to apply participatory four-cell analysis (PFCA) in characterizing agrobiodiversity. Margelef and Shannon indices examined ecological richness and evenness, and a simplified 24-hour dietary recall characterized food consumption. Cross-analysis tested interactions among agrobiodiversity, farm size, and diet. Overall trends appeared to work against sustainable intensification, with notable heterogeneity and positive deviance found in the practices of relatively smaller enterprises, representing a potential resource for sustainable intensification. The suite of methods was determined useful for initiating researcher-farmer explorations of promising innovation pathways. PMID:24083517

  5. Diet Diversity in Pastoral and Agro-pastoral Households in Ugandan Rangeland Ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Mayanja, Maureen; Rubaire-Akiiki, Chris; Morton, John; Young, Stephen; Greiner, Ted

    2015-01-01

    We explore how diet diversity differs with agricultural seasons and between households within pastoral and agro-pastoral livelihood systems, using variety of foods consumed as a less complex proxy indicator of food insecurity than benchmark indicators like anthropometry and serum nutrients. The study was in the central part of the rangelands in Uganda. Seventy nine households were monitored for three seasons, and eight food groups consumed during a 24 hour diet recall period used to create a household diet diversity score (HDDS). Mean HDDS was 3.2, varied significantly with gender, age, livelihood system and season (p < .001, F = 15.04), but not with household size or household head's education level. Agro-pastoralists exhibited lower mean diet diversity than pastoralists (p < .01, F = 7.84) and among agro-pastoralists, households headed by persons over 65 years were most vulnerable (mean HDDS 2.1). This exploratory study raises issues requiring further investigation to inform policies on nutrition security in the two communities. PMID:26084040

  6. Continuous 24-hour Intraocular Pressure Monitoring With a Contact Lens Sensor: Safety, Tolerability, and Reproducibility in Glaucoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri, Kaweh; Medeiros, Felipe A.; Tafreshi, Ali; Weinreb, Robert N.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To determine the safety, tolerability, and reproducibility of intraocular pressure (IOP) patterns during repeated continuous 24-hour IOP monitoring with a telemetric contact-lens sensor (CLS). Design Prospective clinical trial. Participants Forty patients with suspect (n=21) or established glaucoma (n=19). Methods Patients participated in two 24-hour IOP monitoring sessions (S1 and S2) at a 1-week interval using the SENSIMED Triggerfish CLS (Sensimed AG, Switzerland). Patients pursued daily activities and sleep behavior was not controlled. The recordings were analyzed for differences between daytime and nighttime data and for reproducibility of signal patterns between the 2 sessions. Pearson correlations were obtained by pairing intervals across sessions. Main Outcome Measures Adverse events (AE), tolerability using the visual analogue score (VAS), and reproducibility of IOP patterns. Results Mean age was 55.5 ± 15.7 years and 60.0% were male. Main AEs were blurred vision (82.5%), conjunctival hyperemia (80.0%), and superficial punctate keratitis (15.0%). Patients reported a mean VAS of 27.2 ± 18.5 (S1) and 23.8 ± 18.7 (S2) (P = 0.216). Positive linear slopes of the sensor signal from the wake to the sleep period were detected for the ‘no glaucoma medication’ group (slope: 0.14 ± 0.15, p < 0.01, S1; slope: 0.12 ± 0.17, p = 0.03, S2) and for the ‘glaucoma medication’ group (slope: 0.03 ± 0.24, p = 0.52, S1; slope: 0.11 ± 0.16, p = 0.02, S2). Overall correlation between the two sessions was 0.59 (0.51 ‘no glaucoma medication’; 0.63 ‘glaucoma medication’) (P = 0.117). Conclusions Repeated use of the CLS demonstrated good safety and tolerability. The recorded IOP patterns showed fair reproducibility, suggesting that data from 24-h continuous IOP monitoring may be useful in the management of glaucoma patients. PMID:22892888

  7. Diet Quality and History of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Among Childbearing Women, United States, 2007–2010

    PubMed Central

    Simas, Tiffany A. Moore; Person, Sharina D.; Goldberg, Robert J.; Waring, Molly E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have elevated risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Diet quality plays an important role in the prevention of type 2 diabetes. We compared diet quality among childbearing women with a history of GDM with the diet quality of childbearing women without a history of GDM. Methods We used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 2007 through 2010. We included women without diabetes aged 20 to 44 years whose most recent live infant was born within the previous 10 years and who completed two 24-hour dietary recalls. The Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2010 estimated overall and component diet quality. Multivariable linear regression models estimated the association between a history of GDM and current diet quality, adjusting for age, education, smoking status, and health risk for diabetes. Results A history of GDM was reported by 7.7% of women. Compared with women without a history of GDM, women with a history of GDM had, on average, 3.4 points lower overall diet quality (95% confidence interval [CI], ?6.6 to ?0.2) and 0.9 points lower score for consumption of green vegetables and beans (95% CI, ?1.4 to ?0.4). Other dietary component scores did not differ by history of GDM. Conclusion In the United States, women with a history of GDM have lower diet quality compared with women who bore a child and do not have a history of GDM. Improving diet quality may be a strategy for preventing type 2 diabetes among childbearing women. PMID:25719215

  8. Global empirical model of TEC response to geomagnetic activity: Short-term (24 hours ahead) prediction model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andonov, Borislav

    2013-04-01

    A global empirical model of the rTEC=(TECobs-TECmed)/TECmed depending on the geomagnetic activity (described by the Kp-index) and at a given moment is built by using global TEC data for full 13 years between 1999 and 2011.The data are downloaded from the CODE (Center for Orbit Determination in Europe) database in the Astronomical Institute, University of Bern. By using a 2D cross-correlation analysis it is found that the ionospheric response to the geomagnetic activity revealed both positive and negative phases of the response. The both phases of the ionospheric response have different duration and time delay with respect to the geomagnetic storm. It was found that these two parameters of the ionospheric response depend on the season, geographical/geomagnetic coordinates and local time. The rTEC response is represented by 2D (longitude-time) sine waves with different zonal wavenumbers and periods being harmonics of the diurnal period. The input data for the current and predicted geomagnetic activity are obtained from the MAK model developed in NIGGG-BAS, which uses the solar wind measurements from the ACE satellite. The background condition is defined by the recent CODE TEC maps. For each current hour the model provides predicted global TEC maps in geographic frame for the next 24 hours.

  9. Predicting Free Recalls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laming, Donald

    2006-01-01

    This article reports some calculations on free-recall data from B. Murdock and J. Metcalfe (1978), with vocal rehearsal during the presentation of a list. Given the sequence of vocalizations, with the stimuli inserted in their proper places, it is possible to predict the subsequent sequence of recalls--the predictions taking the form of a…

  10. Creativity and Dream Recall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schredl, Michael

    1995-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between creative interests and dream recall frequency (DRF) by having 44 adults complete dream recall journals as well as a verbal creativity test. Results indicate that persons with both visual and verbal creative skills remember their dreams more. Visual memory may be a mediating variable between…

  11. Failure to Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laming, Donald

    2009-01-01

    Mathematical analysis shows that if the pattern of rehearsal in free-recall experiments (of necessity, the pattern observed when participants rehearse aloud) be continued without any further interruption by stimuli (as happens during recall), it terminates with the retrieval of the same 1 word over and over again. Such a terminal state is commonly…

  12. Recalls.gov

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    While many of us often hear about various product recalls, it can be difficult at times to find a one-stop online service center to see if any particular type of product has been recalled recently. The launch of this helpful website, provided by the federal government, should help alleviate the problem. Six federal agencies (such as the FDA, USDA, and several others) have joined together to bring pertinent recall information to the American public. The site is quite user-friendly, as visitors can click on one of six tabs (such as Consumer Products, Boats, or Food) to find out current information on current and recent recalls from across the United States. One particularly helpful feature includes the ability to sign to receive electronic newsletters and updates from the appropriate agencies when various products are deemed unsafe or when a recall is issued. Appropriately enough, the materials on the site are also available in Spanish.

  13. Respiratory and heart rate patterns in infants destined to be victims of sudden infant death syndrome: average rates and their variability measured over 24 hours

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A J Wilson; V Stevens; C I Franks; J Alexander; D P Southall

    1985-01-01

    From a prospective study in which 24 hour recordings of the electrocardiogram and respiratory activity (abdominal wall movement) were made on a population of full term infants, 22 recordings were obtained from 16 infants who later were victims of the sudden infant death syndrome. The average heart rate, average heart rate variability, average breath to breath interval, and average breath

  14. Evaluation of 24-Hour Arterial Stiffness Indices and Central Hemodynamics in Healthy Normotensive Subjects versus Treated or Untreated Hypertensive Patients: A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Omboni, Stefano; Posokhov, Igor N.; Rogoza, Anatoly N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Central blood pressure (BP) and vascular indices estimated noninvasively over the 24 hours were compared between normotensive volunteers and hypertensive patients by a pulse wave analysis of ambulatory blood pressure recordings. Methods. Digitalized waveforms obtained during each brachial oscillometric BP measurement were stored in the device memory and analyzed by the validated Vasotens technology. Averages for the 24 hours and for the awake and asleep subperiods were computed. Results. 142 normotensives and 661 hypertensives were evaluated. 24-hour central BP, pulse wave velocity (PWV), and augmentation index (AI) were significantly higher in the hypertensive group than in the normotensive group (119.3 versus 105.6?mmHg for systolic BP, 75.6 versus 72.3?mmHg for diastolic BP, 10.3 versus 10.0?m/sec for aortic PWV, ?9.7 versus ?40.7% for peripheral AI, and 24.7 versus 11.0% for aortic AI), whereas reflected wave transit time (RWTT) was significantly lower in hypertensive patients (126.6 versus 139.0?ms). After adjusting for confounding factors a statistically significant between-group difference was still observed for central BP, RWTT, and peripheral AI. All estimates displayed a typical circadian rhythm. Conclusions. Noninvasive assessment of 24-hour arterial stiffness and central hemodynamics in daily life dynamic conditions may help in assessing the arterial function impairment in hypertensive patients. PMID:25692032

  15. The effects of an olmesartan medoxomil-based treatment algorithm on 24-hour blood pressure levels in elderly patients aged 65 and older.

    PubMed

    Kereiakes, Dean J; Neutel, Joel; Stoakes, Kathy A; Waverczak, William F; Xu, Jianbo; Shojaee, Ali; Dubiel, Robert

    2009-08-01

    This study examined the effect of olmesartan medoxomil (OM) +/- hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) on mean 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure, mean seated cuff (Se) blood pressure (BP), and SeBP goal achievement in elderly (65 years and older) patients with hypertension. After a 2- to 3-week placebo run-in period, patients received OM 20 mg, up-titrated to OM 40 mg, and then added HCTZ 12.5 mg to 25 mg in a stepwise manner at 3-week intervals if SeBP remained >or=120/70 mm Hg. The primary end point was change from baseline in mean 24-hour ambulatory systolic BP. At study end, mean 24-hour ambulatory BP had decreased by 25.7/12.3 mm Hg (n=150) and mean SeBP by 25.4/10.5 mm Hg (n=176; all P<.00001 vs baseline). Drug-related treatment-emergent adverse events, most commonly dizziness (3.4%), hypotension (2.2%), and headache (1.1%), were observed in 11.8% of patients. An OM-based treatment algorithm effectively lowers BP in an elderly patient population throughout the 24-hour dosing interval without compromising tolerability. PMID:19695028

  16. Illinois Institute of Technology The following schools offer ESL classes in Chicago area. For some case they offer Intensive English courses (18-24 hours/week) and

    E-print Network

    Heller, Barbara

    Illinois Institute of Technology The following schools offer ESL classes in Chicago area. For some case they offer Intensive English courses (18-24 hours/week) and provide I-20 or DS-2019. Please programs · CPD--Professional Learning Programs at IIT 3424 S. State St. Ste. 2035 (on-campus) Phone: 312

  17. Measurement of parasympathetic activity from 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiograms and its reproducibility and sensitivity in normal subjects, patients with symptomatic myocardial ischemia, and patients with diabetes mellitus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Nolan; Andrew D. Flapan; Nicholas E. Goodfield; Robin J. Prescott; Peter Bloomfield; James M. M. Neilson; David J. Ewing

    1996-01-01

    The parasympathetic nervous system plays a major role in the pathophysiology of many cardiovascular diseases, particularly in modulating myocardial electrical stability. Measurements of heart rate variability have been widely used to assess parasympathetic activity. The reproducibility of measurements obtained from 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiograms has not been well documented. We have developed a technique for measuring parasympathetic activity from clinical quality

  18. COMPORTAMENTO E P ARÂMETROS FISIOLÓGICOS DE LEITÕES NAS PRIMEIRAS 24 HORAS DE VIDA Valuation of behavior and physiologic parameters of the first 24 hours of sucking pigs life

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rony Antonio Ferreira; Julien Chiquieri; Pedro Pierro Mendonça; Thiago Vasconcelos Melo; Mariana Duran Cordeiro; Rita da Trindade; Ribeiro Nobre Soares

    An experiment was carried out in the swine sector of North Fluminense State University to evaluate the behavior and physiological parameters of piglets in the first 24 hours of life. A total of 82 growing piglets from commercial genetic lines were used. Observations of individual piglet behavior were made each five minutes. Rectal and superficial temperature of the piglets were

  19. Comparison of 24-hour intraocular pressure reduction with two dosing regimens of latanoprost and timolol maleate in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anastasios G. P Konstas; Athanasios C Maltezos; Sofia Gandi; Alison C Hudgins; William C Stewart

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare the 24-hour diurnal ocular hypotensive efficacy of two dosing regimens of latanoprost, once daily (8 am or 10 pm), vs timolol maleate, twice daily.METHODS: We measured six diurnal intraocular pressure curves (6 am, 10 am, 2 pm, 6 pm, 10 pm, and 2 am) in one randomly selected eye of 34 Greek patients newly diagnosed with primary

  20. Diet quality in elderly nursing home residents evaluated by Diet Quality Index Revised (DQI-R).

    PubMed

    Rumbak, Ivana; Satali?, Zvonimir; Keser, Irena; Krbavci?, Ines Panjkota; Giljevi?, Zlatko; Zadro, Zvonko; Bari?, Irena Coli?

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate diet quality in elderly nursing home residents and to point out the critical dietary components. The participants (277 females and 62 males) were recruited from all elderly nursing homes in Zagreb and each of elderly nursing homes was equally represented in this study. The age of subjects was ranging from 61 to 93 years; most of the females (53.4%) and males (53.2%) were between 70 and 80 years old. The dietary data from the multi pass 24-hour recall were used to compute the Diet Quality Index Revised (DQI-R). DQI-R is an instrument that provides a summary assessment of a diet's overall healthfulness and is based on ten different aspects, including recommendations for both nutrient and food types. Pearson correlation analysis was used to compare the total DQI-R score with dietetic parameters and t-test was calculated between mean values of all the components of DQI-R as well as for total DQI-R score for men and women. The mean DQI-R score for the 339 sample was 62.1 +/- 11.7. The biggest number of participants satisfied recommendations about dietary cholesterol intake (88.5% of participants) and dietary moderation score (71.1% of participants) but nobody satisfied recommendation about dietary diversity score. Only 3.2% of subjects had an adequate calcium intake (6.5% of male participants and only 2.5% of female participants). Recommended servings of fruit intake were satisfied by 19.8% of population, 30.4% satisfied vegetables recommendations and 38.6% recommendations for grains. According to DQI-R, beside positive dietary habits regarding dietary moderation and dietary cholesterol intake the population of elderly nursing home residents in the capital of Croatia needs improvement in other dietary habits in order to enhance successful aging. PMID:20698132

  1. Breadfruit, banana, beef, and beer: Modernization of the Samoan diet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James R. Bindon

    1982-01-01

    The Samoans traditionally based their diet on breadfruit, banana, taro, yam and coconut, supplemented with fish and shellfish from coral reefs. Ocean fish, pigs and fowl were foods reserved for festive occasions. After 150 years of exposure to missionaries, traders and military personnel, the Samoan diet has been substantially altered. This paper provides a preliminary description of these changes.A 24?hour

  2. Mediterranean-style diet reduces metabolic syndrome components in obese children and adolescents with obesity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet have been amply proven in adults with cardiovascular risk factors. The effects of this diet have not been extensively assessed in pediatric populations with obesity, insulin resistance (IR) and metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of the Mediterranean style diet (MSD) to decrease cardiovascular risk factors in children and adolescents with obesity. Methods Participants were randomly assigned to a MSD rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, fiber, flavonoids and antioxidants (60% of energy from carbohydrate, 25% from fat, and 15% from protein, (n?=?24); or a standard diet (55% of carbohydrate, 30% from fat and 15% from protein, (n?=?25), the caloric ingest was individualized. At baseline and 16-week of intervention, the glucose, triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), HDL-C, LDL-C were measured as well as the body composition and anthropometric data. The diet compliance was determined by the 24-hour recalls. Paired Student’s t and Macnemar’s test were used to compare effects in biochemical, body composition, anthropometric, and dietary variables. Results The MSD group had a significantly decrease in BMI, lean mass, fat mass, glucose, TC, TG, HDL-C and LDL-C. (p?diet compliance increased consumption of omega 9 fatty acids, zinc, vitamin E, selenium, and decreased consumption of saturated fatty acids (p?diet group decrease in glucose levels and frequency of glucose >100 mg/dL (p?

  3. COMPARISON OF FIVE EXTRACTION METHODS ON INCURRED AND FORTIFIED PESTICIDES IN COMPOSITE DIETS: BLENDER, SOXHLET, ASE, MICROWAVE AND SFE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA National Exposure Research Laboratory studies dietary exposure to a diverse group of semi-volatile pesticides by analyzing 24 hour duplicate composite diets. The pesticides of interest include organochlorines, organophosphates, anilines, and triazines. Currently, there ...

  4. Adolescent diet and time use clusters and associations with overweight and obesity and socioeconomic position.

    PubMed

    Ferrar, Katia; Golley, Rebecca

    2015-06-01

    Risk factors for adolescent overweight and obesity include low levels of physical activity, high levels of sedentary behavior, low fruit and vegetable intake, and low socioeconomic position (SEP). To date, the vast majority of research investigating associations between lifestyle behaviors and weight status analyze dietary and time use factors separately. Our research aimed to describe Australian youth time use and diet clusters and explore relationships with weight status and SEP (parental education and income). Cluster analysis of the National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey data from Australians aged 9 to 16 years (random sample n = 1,853) was conducted. Time use data (17 age-adjusted time use variables) and dietary data (7 age-adjusted diet variables) were collected via 24-hour recalls. Two clusters were associated with a reduced frequency of overweight and obesity (the boys' Active Sitter and girls' Healthy Academic clusters) and one with an increased frequency of overweight and obesity (the boys' Unhealthy cluster). Of these three clusters, two demonstrated associations with parental income and/or parental education level. The boys' Unhealthy cluster was associated with low SEP status (parental income and education), and the girls' Healthy Academic cluster was associated with high parental income. Not all unhealthy adolescent clusters were associated with overweight and obesity. The findings suggest sex-specific diet and activity clusters can be used to identify at-risk subgroups and inform multifaceted interventions to address overweight and obesity. PMID:25576499

  5. Recent Medical Device Recalls

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Medical Devices Print this page Share this page E-mail this page Home Medical Devices Medical Device Safety Medical Device Recalls List ...

  6. Risk Factor Monitoring and Methods Branch | ASA24 Enables Web-based Collection of 24-hour Dietary Data

    Cancer.gov

    Following the findings from the OPEN study, RFMMB (led by Dr. Amy Subar) recognized the need for a better instrument to replace FFQs in nutritional epidemiology research. If a more effective instrument could be made affordable and feasible, it had the potential to enable better assessment of the associations between diet and health.

  7. Effect of cabergoline added to levodopa treatment on sleep-wake cycle in idiopathic Parkinson’s disease: an open label 24-hour polysomnographic study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Romigi; P. Stanzione; M. G. Marciani; F. Izzi; F. Placidi; A. Cervellino; P. Giacomini; L. Brusa; K. Grossi; M. Pierantozzi

    2006-01-01

    Summary.  Few studies focused on the effects of cabergoline on sleep-wake cycle in PD. Twelve patients affected by PD treated with levodopa\\u000a as monotherapy underwent two 24-hour ambulatory polysomnographic (A-PSG) sessions twice: in baseline condition (levodopa as\\u000a monotherapy) and after addition of cabergoline. In each condition, a subjective evaluation of sleep quality and daytime sleepiness\\u000a was obtained by means of Parkinson’s

  8. Egg Contribution Towards the Diet of Pregnant Latinas

    PubMed Central

    Bermúdez-Millán, Ángela; Hromi-Fiedler, Amber; Damio, Grace; Segura-Pérez, Sofia; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Proper nutrition during gestation is important to prevent adverse pregnancy outcomes. Eggs contain many important nutrients necessary for fetal development and human survival. Three focus groups were conducted with Latina women living in Connecticut to identify cultural beliefs toward egg consumption during pregnancy, traditional egg dishes, and methods of preparation. A cross-sectional study was then carried out with a sample of predominately Puerto Rican pregnant Latinas (N = 241) to identify the frequency of consumption of eggs and egg-containing dishes as well as methods of preparation using a tailored food frequency questionnaire modified for this population. Paired sample t-tests were used to examine if there were differences in weekly mean egg intake patterns between the year prior to the pregnancy and during pregnancy based on a Food Frequency Questionnaire. Women were categorized into eggs consumers and non-consumers if they consumed or did not consume eggs during the previous day based on 24-hour recall data. Independent-sample t-test and chi-square cross-tabulation analyses were conducted to examine the association between egg consumption and nutrient intake categories. Results showed that eggs and egg-containing traditional dishes are consumed by Latinas before and during pregnancy. Egg consumers had higher intakes of protein, fat, vitamin K, vitamin E, selenium, beta carotene, lutein and zeaxanthin, cholesterol, total polyunsaturated fatty acids, and docosahexaenoic acid. Eggs contribute significantly to the diet of pregnant Latinas. PMID:21883065

  9. Physical Environment, Diet Quality, and Body Weight in a Group of 12-year-old Children from Four Public Schools in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Roxana; Serrano, Mónica; Pérez, Cynthia M.; Palacios, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Objective Physical environment influences diet and has been proposed as a determinant of childhood obesity. This cross-sectional study explored physical environment and its associations with diet quality and weight status in a sample of 114 12-year-old children from 4 public schools in the metropolitan area of San Juan, PR. Methods Physical environment was assessed by asking questions regarding the availability and accessibility of healthy and unhealthy foods and food outlets as well as of recreational and sports facilities and equipment. Food intake was determined using a 24-hour diet-recall questionnaire, with the gathered data being used to assess diet quality and calculate the Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2010. The HEI includes 12 components that are used to determine the compliance of a given diet with federal guidelines. HEI-2010 total score ranges from 0 to100 and is divided into the following classifications: poor (?50), needs improvement (51–80), and good (>80). Body mass index was computed using measured weight and height and categorized according to the CDC Growth Charts. Results Thirty-six percent of the participating children were overweight or obese. Nearly 57% had poor diet quality. The lowest HEI-2010 component scores were found for total fruits, whole fruits, total vegetables, whole grains, seafood and plant proteins, and fatty acids. However, diet quality was not associated with weight status or physical environment factors. Compared to the other children in the study, overweight or obese children reported having a significantly (p<0.05) lower availability of unhealthy foods and the highest access to recreational and sports facilities at home but also lower utilization of recreational and sports facilities at school and reduced participation in the school breakfast program. Conclusion This study showed that some home- and school-environment factors influenced body weight in the children in this sample. However, these same factors did not appear to affect diet quality. PMID:24665604

  10. Development and validity assessment of a diet quality index for Australians.

    PubMed

    Zarrin, Rasoul; Ibiebele, Torukiri I; Marks, Geoffrey C

    2013-01-01

    Existing Australian diet quality indices have assumed links to health outcomes but their validity for this has not been reported. We extend the features of existing indices for Australian adults by constructing a new diet quality index (Aussie-DQI) using the national dietary guidelines linked to the Australia National Health Priority Areas. Construct validity was assessed using 24 hour dietary recalls from the 1995 National Nutrition Survey (n=10,851 adults aged 19 years and older). Construct and criterion validity were assessed using food frequency questionnaire data from the Nambour Skin Cancer study (n=1355), a community-based longitudinal study with 16 year follow-up and cause-specific mortality outcomes. Generalised linear regression was used to assess associations between Aussie-DQI scores and socio-economic, demographic, health-behaviour characteristics, and food and nutrient intakes, while Cox proportional-hazards modeling was used to assess associations with cancer and allcause mortality. A high Aussie-DQI score was associated with being female, being older, non-smoking status, and BMI in the normal range in both study populations; and Aussie-DQI scores were inversely associated with cancer mortality among men in multivariable-adjusted analyses (hazard ratio = 0.30, 95% CI: 0.11, 0.83; p for trends = 0.06). In conclusion, Aussie-DQI successfully discriminated diet quality and showed that men, younger adults, current smokers and those overweight/obese were less likely to consume foods that meet dietary recommendations; and that a high diet quality is associated with decreased risk of cancer mortality among men. This study adds further evidence to clarify the role of diet quality in decreasing mortality from chronic diseases. PMID:23635360

  11. Examining the Association between an Independent Variable & Diet as a Dependent Variable | Dietary Assessment Primer

    Cancer.gov

    For prospective or cross-sectional studies, we recommend that you use 24HRs (see the 24-hour Dietary Recall Profile). A single administration may be acceptable, but collecting and averaging repeat administrations will help improve your statistical power to detect effects (Row 7).

  12. Nomogram to predict uric acid kidney stones based on patient’s age, BMI and 24-hour urine profiles: A multicentre validation

    PubMed Central

    Torricelli, Fabio Cesar Miranda; Brown, Robert; Berto, Fernanda C.G.; Tarplin, Sarah; Srougi, Miguel; Mazzucchi, Eduardo; Monga, Manoj

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: We performed a multicentre validation of a nomogram to predict uric acid kidney stones in two populations. Methods: We reviewed the kidney stone database of two institutions, searching for patients with kidney stones who had stone composition analysis and 24-hour urine collection from January 2010 to December 2013. A nomogram to predict uric acid kidneys stones based on patient age, body mass index (BMI), and 24-hour urine collection was tested. Receiver-operating curves (ROC) were performed. Results: We identified 445 patients, 355 from Cleveland, United States, and 90 from Sao Paulo, Brazil. Uric acid stone formers were 7.9% and 8.9%, respectively. Uric acid patients had a significantly higher age and BMI, as well as significant lower urinary calcium than calcium stone formers in both populations. Uric acid had significantly higher total points when scored according to the nomogram. ROC curves showed an area under the curve of 0.8 for Cleveland and 0.92 for Sao Paulo. The cutoff value that provided the highest sensitivity and specificity was 179 points and 192 for Cleveland and Sao Paulo, respectively. Using 180 points as a cutoff provided a sensitivity and specificity of 87.5% and 68% for Cleveland, and 100% and 42% for Sao Paulo. Higher cutoffs were associated with higher specificity. The main limitation of this study is that only patients from high volume hospitals with uric acid or calcium stones were included. Conclusion: Predicting uric acid kidneys stone based on a nomogram, which includes only demographic data and 24-hour urine parameters, is feasible with a high degree of accuracy. PMID:26085876

  13. Mean 24-hour growth hormone and testosterone concentrations in relation to pubertal growth spurt in boys with normal or delayed puberty

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Butenandt; R. Eder; K. Wohlfarth; F. Bidlingmaier; D. Knorr

    1976-01-01

    The mean growth hormone concentration during a 24-hour period in 7 boys of short familial stature and a growth rate of 3.2–5.4 cm\\/year was between 1.0 and 4.6 ng\\/ml serum. In 7 boys with pubertal growth spurt and familial tallness (growth rate 7.2–11.0 cm\\/year) it varied from 0.97 to 4.4 ng\\/ml and in 6 boys with constitutional delay of puberty

  14. Radiation recall reaction following gemcitabine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerald Fogarty; David Ball; Danny Rischin

    2001-01-01

    A case of dermatitis and myositis in the upper thorax following administration of gemcitabine in a 65-year-old woman with metastatic non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is described. The reaction and time course suggest a radiation recall phenomenon. This report joins a small but increasing number of radiation recall events related to gemcitabine. The possibility of a radiation recall reaction

  15. Development of a diet quality index with special reference to micronutrient adequacy for adolescent girls consuming a lacto-vegetarian diet.

    PubMed

    Chiplonkar, Shashi A; Tupe, Rama

    2010-06-01

    Recent dietary guidelines emphasize micronutrient sufficiency by giving importance to consumption of whole grains and a variety of fruits and vegetables. The objective of this study was to identify a measure of micronutrient quality of diets in adolescent girls consuming a lacto-vegetarian diet. Data were collected on the nutritional status of 630 schoolgirls (ages 10 to 16 years) from Pune city, India, in a cross-sectional survey during 2006-2007. Dietary intakes were assessed by 24-hour recall on 3 nonconsecutive days. Nutrient intakes were calculated from the Indian nutritive value databases. Micronutrient adequacy was expressed as a ratio of observed intake to reference intake. An Adolescent Micronutrient Quality Index (AMQI) was formulated using the Indian and the recent US dietary guidelines. Fasting blood samples were analyzed for plasma levels of vitamin C, beta carotene, and zinc. The average energy intake of the majority of the girls was below the Indian recommended dietary intakes, whereas micronutrient intakes were 50% to 70% lower than recommended dietary intakes. The mean AMQI score was 41.5+/-9.4. The age of subjects as well as mother's education and occupation were significantly associated with the AMQI. The AMQI was correlated with nutrient intakes and the ratio of observed intake to reference intake (P<0.01) after controlling for energy intake and sociodemographic factors. Higher AMQI scores were associated with higher concentrations of plasma vitamin C (r=0.26), beta carotene (r=0.34), and zinc (r=0.12). The AMQI is a useful measure of the dietary adequacy and micronutrient quality of the diets of adolescent girls consuming lacto-vegetarian diets. PMID:20497784

  16. Lead Consumption of 18- to 36-Month-Old Children as Determined from Duplicate Diet Collections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K STANEK; W MANTON; C ANGLE; K ESKRIDGE; A KUEHNEMAN; C HANSON

    1998-01-01

    Objective To determine the amount of lead ingested in food by means of duplicate diet collections, nutrient intakes, and anthropometric measurements of young children.Design Once a month for a year, data were collected from 24-hour duplicate diets, hand wipes, a dust index, and anthropometric measurements. Quarterly, venous blood samples were obtained. Thermal ionization spectrometry by means of a lead-205 tracer

  17. Social Environment Factors, Diet Quality, and Body Weight in 12-Year-Old Children from Four Public Schools in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, Mónica; Torres, Roxana; Pérez, Cynthia M.; Palacios, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the association of social-environment (SE) factors and diet quality (DQ) with weight status in a group of children in Puerto Rico (PR). Methods A cross-sectional study in a sample of 114 12-year-old children enrolled in 4 public schools in the San Juan Metropolitan area in Puerto Rico (PR) during the 2012–2013 school year. These children completed a self-administered questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics and SE, with information on family meal patterns; parental feeding styles; parental, peer, and school support for healthy eating; physical activity (PA); and frequency of PA and sedentary times. The participants also completed at 24-hour dietary recall interview to determine DQ. This was assessed with the Healthy Eating Index (HIE)-2010, an instrument that evaluates compliance with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated and categorized as healthy weight, overweight, or obese. Results 36% of participants were overweight/obese. In terms of DQ, 55% had “poor” DQ, 45% had diets that “need improvement”, and none had “good” DQ. Children of healthy weight (75.0%) reported more frequent family meals than did overweight/obese children (57.5%; p = 0.05). No other significant associations were found between SE factors and DQ or body weight status. Conclusion Most of the participants were of healthy weight but had poor quality diets. Having a healthy weight was positively associated with frequent family meals. PMID:24964643

  18. Compound cueing in free recall

    PubMed Central

    Lohnas, Lynn J.; Kahana, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    According to the retrieved context theory of episodic memory, the cue for recall of an item is a weighted sum of recently activated cognitive states, including previously recalled and studied items as well as their associations. We show that this theory predicts there should be compound cueing in free recall. Specifically, the temporal contiguity effect should be greater when the two most recently recalled items were studied in contiguous list positions. A meta-analysis of published free recall experiments demonstrates evidence for compound cueing in both conditional response probabilities and inter-response times. To help rule out a rehearsal-based account of these compound cueing effects, we conducted an experiment with immediate, delayed and continual-distractor free recall conditions. Consistent with retrieved context theory but not with a rehearsal-based account, compound cueing was present in all conditions, and was not significantly influenced by the presence of interitem distractors. PMID:23957364

  19. Impact of Breakfast Consumption and RTE Cereals on Nutritional Adequacy of the Diets of Young Adults in Bogalusa, La

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. J. Schmidt; J. Garden-Robinson; B. B. North; T. A. Nicklas

    1998-01-01

    Breakfast consumption patterns of 504 young adults (× age: 23yrs.; 58% female, 70% white) were examined using the 24-hour dietary recall. Consumption patterns were then related to mean daily nutrient intake. Analysis of variance and logistic regression techniques were used to investigate the relationship of breakfast consumption, ethnicity, and gender on dietary adequacy.Thirty-seven percent of young adults skipped breakfast. For

  20. Achieving a predictable 24-hour return to normal activities after breast augmentation: part II. Patient preparation, refined surgical techniques, and instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Tebbetts, John B

    2006-12-01

    The goal of this study was to develop practices that would allow patients undergoing subpectoral augmentation to predictably return to full normal activities within 24 hours after the operation, free of postoperative adjuncts. Part I of this study used motion and time study principles to reduce operative times, medication dosages, perioperative morbidity, and recovery times in augmentation mammaplasty. Part II of the study focuses on details of patient education, preoperative planning, instrumentation, and surgical technique modifications that were identified, modified, and implemented to achieve the results reported in part I. Two groups of 16 patients each (groups 1 and 2) were studied retrospectively for comparison to a third group of 627 patients (group 3) studied prospectively. Patients in group 1 had axillary partial retropectoral breast augmentations in 1982-1983, using dissociative anesthesia, blunt instrument implant pocket dissection, and Dow Corning, double-lumen implants containing 20 mg of methylprednisolone and 20 cc of saline in the outer lumen of the implants. Patients in group 2 (1990) had inframammary, retromammary augmentations by using a combination of blunt and electrocautery dissection, Surgitek Replicon polyurethane-covered, silicone gel-filled implants, and general endotracheal anesthesia. Patients in group 3 (1998 to 2001, n = 627) had inframammary partial retropectoral, inframammary retromammary, and axillary partial retropectoral augmentations under general endotracheal anesthesia. Refined practices and surgical techniques from studies of groups 1 and 2 were applied in group 3. Videotapes from operative procedures of groups 1 and 2 were analyzed with macromotion and micromotion study principles, and tables of events were formulated for each move during the operation for all personnel in the operating room. Extensive details of surgical technique were examined and reexamined in 13 different stages by using principles of motion and time studies described in part I of this study to maximize efficiency without any change in quality. Unnecessary or unproductive motions and techniques were progressively eliminated, and essential, productive techniques were streamlined to eliminate wasted time and motion. Instrumentation and surgical techniques were evaluated in detail and modified to minimize bleeding and tissue trauma. Detailed data were presented in part I of this study that document shorter operative times, recovery times, time to discharge home, and time to return to normal activities. This part focuses on the patient education, preoperative planning, instrumentation, and surgical technique changes that were implemented on the basis of the findings in part I of the study. More extensive patient information integrated with staged informed consent resulted in a more in formed and confident patient. Applying motion and time study principles to analysis and refinement of instrumentation and surgical techniques resulted in a substantial reduction in perioperative morbidity and a simpler, shorter 24-hour return to full normal activity for 96 percent of the patients undergoing breast augmentation in group 3 compared with groups 1 and 2. More than 96 percent of patients in group 3 were able to return to normal activities, lift their arms above their heads, lift normal-weight objects, and drive their car within 24 hours after their partial retropectoral breast augmentation. Patient education, preoperative planning, instrumentation, and surgical technique modifications based on motion and time study video analyses reduced surgical trauma and bleeding, reduced perioperative morbidity, and allowed 96 percent of 627 breast augmentation patients in group 3 a predictable return to full, normal activity in 24 hours or less. Specific surgical factors that contributed to these results included (1) prospective hemostasis techniques with a zero tolerance for even the smallest amount of bleeding, (2) strict "no-touch" techniques for periosteum and perichondrium, (3) eliminating all blunt dissection, (4) per

  1. Achieving a predictable 24-hour return to normal activities after breast augmentation: Part II. Patient preparation, refined surgical techniques, and instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Tebbetts, John B

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this study was to develop practices that would allow patients undergoing subpectoral augmentation to predictably return to full normal activities within 24 hours after the operation, free of postoperative adjuncts. Part I of this study used motion and time study principles to reduce operative times, medication dosages, perioperative morbidity, and recovery times in augmentation mammaplasty. Part II of the study focuses on details of patient education, preoperative planning, instrumentation, and surgical technique modifications that were identified, modified, and implemented to achieve the results reported in part I. Two groups of 16 patients each (groups 1 and 2) were studied retrospectively for comparison to a third group of 627 patients (group 3) studied prospectively. Patients in group 1 had axillary partial retropectoral breast augmentations in 1982-1983, using dissociative anesthesia, blunt instrument implant pocket dissection, and Dow Corning, double-lumen implants containing 20 mg of methylprednisolone and 20 cc of saline in the outer lumen of the implants. Patients in group 2 (1990) had inframammary, retromammary augmentations by using a combination of blunt and electrocautery dissection, Surgitek Replicon polyurethane-covered, silicone gel-filled implants, and general endotracheal anesthesia. Patients in group 3 (1998 to 2001, n = 627) had inframammary partial retropectoral, inframammary retromammary, and axillary partial retropectoral augmentations under general endotracheal anesthesia. Refined practices and surgical techniques from studies of groups 1 and 2 were applied in group 3. Videotapes from operative procedures of groups 1 and 2 were analyzed with macromotion and micromotion study principles, and tables of events were formulated for each move during the operation for all personnel in the operating room. Extensive details of surgical technique were examined and reexamined in 13 different stages by using principles of motion and time studies described in part I of this study to maximize efficiency without any change in quality. Unnecessary or unproductive motions and techniques were progressively eliminated, and essential, productive techniques were streamlined to eliminate wasted time and motion. Instrumentation and surgical techniques were evaluated in detail and modified to minimize bleeding and tissue trauma. Detailed data were presented in part I of this study that document shorter operative times, recovery times, time to discharge home, and time to return to normal activities. This part focuses on the patient education, preoperative planning, instrumentation, and surgical technique changes that were implemented on the basis of the findings in part I of the study. More extensive patient information integrated with staged informed consent resulted in a more informed and confident patient. Applying motion and time study principles to analysis and refinement of instrumentation and surgical techniques resulted in a substantial reduction in perioperative morbidity and a simpler, shorter 24-hour return to full normal activity for 96 percent of the patients undergoing breast augmentation in group 3 compared with groups 1 and 2. More than 96 percent of patients in group 3 were able to return to normal activities, lift their arms above their heads, lift normal-weight objects, and drive their car within 24 hours after their partial retropectoral breast augmentation. Patient education, preoperative planning, instrumentation, and surgical technique modifications based on motion and time study video analyses reduced surgical trauma and bleeding, reduced perioperative morbidity, and allowed 96 percent of 627 breast augmentation patients in group 3 a predictable return to full, normal activity in 24 hours or less. Specific surgical factors that contributed to these results included (1) prospective hemostasis techniques with a zero tolerance for even the smallest amount of bleeding, (2) strict "no-touch" techniques for periosteum and perichondrium, (3) eliminating all blunt dissection, (4) perf

  2. [Evaluation of the informative value and safety of the transesophageal atrial electric stimulation test in patients with unstable stenocardia and myocardial infarction (data of 24-hour ECG monitoring)].

    PubMed

    Merkulova, I N; Khakimov, A G; Chikvashvili, D I; Karpov, Iu A

    1987-10-01

    The effect of the transesophageal pacing test (TEPT) on the occurrence of ventricular arrhythmias and ischemic episodes was examined on the basis of 24-hour ECG monitoring in patients with unstable angina (UA) and myocardial infarction (MI). It is demonstrated that TEPT is a relatively safe test for UA and MI patients (to be performed on day 10-14), which does not provoke severe arrhythmias during and after the testing, but for short paroxysms of ventricular tachycardia seen in 2-4% of the cases. Both painful and painless ST displacements were recorded during the test; ST elevation was only noted in MI patients. The time of ECG baseline recovery was longer in painful ischemic episodes, as compared to painless ones. The TEPT test is a valuable instrument for detecting latent atrioventricular conductivity disorders in UA and MI patients. PMID:3695090

  3. Tree nut consumption improves nutrient intake and diet quality in US adults: an analysis of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2004.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, Carol E; Keast, Debra R; Fulgoni, Victor L; Nicklas, Theresa A

    2010-01-01

    Recent epidemiologic studies assessing tree nut (almonds, Brazil nuts, cashews, hazelnuts, macadamia nuts, pecans, pine nuts, pistachios, and walnuts) consumption and the association with nutrient intake and diet quality are lacking. This study determined the association of tree nut consumption and nutrient intake and diet quality using a nationally representative sample of adults. Adults 19+ years (y) (n=13,292) participating in the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used. Intake was determined from 24-hour diet recalls; tree nut consumers were defined as those consuming > or =(1/4) ounce/day (7.09 g). Means, standard errors, and ANOVA (adjusted for covariates) were determined using appropriate sample weights. Diet quality was measured using the Healthy Eating Index-2005. Among consumers, mean intake of tree nuts/tree nut butters was 1.19 +/- 0.04 oz/d versus 0.01 +/- 0.00 oz/d for non-consumers. In this study, 5.5 +/- 0.3 % of individuals 19-50 y (n=7,049) and 8.4 +/- 0.6 % of individuals 51+ y (n=6,243) consumed tree nuts/tree nut butters. Mean differences (p<0.01) between tree nut consumers and non-consumers of adult shortfall nutrients were: fiber (+5.0 g/d), vitamin E (+3.7 mg AT/d), calcium (+73 mg/d), magnesium (+95 mg/d), and potassium (+260 mg/d). Tree nut consumers had lower sodium intake (-157 mg/d, p<0.01). Diet quality was significantly higher in tree nut consumers (58.0+/-0.4 vs. 48.5+/-0.3, p<0.01). Tree nut consumption was associated with a higher overall diet quality score and improved nutrient intakes. Specific dietary recommendations for nut consumption should be provided for consumers. PMID:20200000

  4. Demand and characteristics of a psychiatric 24-hour emergency service performed by mandatory rotation of licensed psychiatrists in Swiss primary care

    PubMed Central

    Chmiel, Corinne; Rosemann, Thomas; Senn, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Background To investigate characteristics of and satisfaction with psychiatric 24-hour emergency primary care performed by mandatory rotation of licensed psychiatrists as a viable baseline for possible reorganizational measures. Methods This was a questionnaire-based cross-sectional study (November 2010–April 2011). The number of patient–psychiatrist encounters, modes of contact, and patient and psychiatrist characteristics were assessed. Diagnoses were coded with ICD-10 (International Classification of Diseases, version 10). Results From 167 duty episodes, 74 (44%) were recorded. Of the psychiatrists (n=44), 52% were female, and mean age (standard deviation) was 49.9 (5.2) years. The median number of encounters per episode was 4 (interquartile range 0–8), mainly in the evenings. Demand for “face-to-face” (direct) patient visits was significantly more common (64.0%) than practice (1.3%) or telephone consultations (34.7%). In 83.8%, psychiatrists judged the encounter as adequate at the patient’s location. A total of 43 different diagnoses were recorded: mainly schizophrenic disorders (23.9%), suicidal behavior (15.2%), and acute stress reactions (10.3%). Psychiatrists felt burdened by services (62.5%): in 39.2%, they felt threatened; and in 6.8%, violence occurred. In 32.4%, bills were not paid for. If services were optional, 45.2% would participate. Conclusion Our findings indicate justified demand for direct mobile patient visits, suggesting that emergency care should be multifaceted, and sole provision of psychiatric care at stationed emergency facilities may not always be appropriate. Reorganization of 24-hour emergency services should carefully evaluate patient and provider’s needs before changing established structures. PMID:24707172

  5. Recall bias, MMR, and autism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N Andrews; E Miller; B Taylor; R Lingam; A Simmons; J Stowe; P Waight

    2002-01-01

    Parents of autistic children with regressive symptoms who were diagnosed after the publicity alleging a link with measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine tended to recall the onset as shortly after MMR more often than parents of similar children who were diagnosed prior to the publicity. This is consistent with the recall bias expected under such circumstances.

  6. Recall bias, MMR, and autism.

    PubMed

    Andrews, N; Miller, E; Taylor, B; Lingam, R; Simmons, A; Stowe, J; Waight, P

    2002-12-01

    Parents of autistic children with regressive symptoms who were diagnosed after the publicity alleging a link with measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine tended to recall the onset as shortly after MMR more often than parents of similar children who were diagnosed prior to the publicity. This is consistent with the recall bias expected under such circumstances. PMID:12456546

  7. The most amazing 24 hours.

    PubMed

    Posner, Tracy

    2010-01-01

    In this column, a mother shares the story of her son's birth with her prenatal yoga instructor. The mother was able to work with her labor, was well supported by her husband and doula, and negotiated successfully with the hospital staff to have a safe, healthy birth. She describes how difficult labor is and the ways in which comfort and support strategies help women manage contractions. PMID:21197125

  8. Teach Yourself in 24 Hours

    E-print Network

    Eckmiller, Rolf

    to the use of the information contained herein. Although every precaution has been taken in the preparation, address Sams Publishing, 201 W. 103rd St., Indianapolis, IN 46290. International Standard Book Number: 0

  9. Influence of irrigation protocols on the bond strength of fiber posts cemented with a self-adhesive luting agent 24 hours after endodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Lima, Jessica Ferraz Carvalho; Lima, Adriano Fonseca; Humel, Maria Malerba Colombi; Paulillo, Luis Alexandre Maffei Sartini; Marchi, Giselle Maria; Ferraz, Caio Cezar Randi

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of different irrigation protocols on the bond strength, at different root depths, of fiber posts cemented with a self-adhesive cement 24 hours after endodontic treatment. Fifty-six bovine incisor roots were endodontically prepared and separated into 7 groups (n = 8) according to irrigation protocols: group 1, sterile saline (control); group 2, chlorhexidine (CHX) gel 2% and saline; group 3, sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) 5.25% and saline; group 4, CHX and saline (final irrigation with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid [EDTA] 17%); group 5, NaOCl and saline (final irrigation with EDTA); group 6, CHX and saline (final irrigation with NaOCl and EDTA); and group 7, NaOCl (final irrigation with CHX and EDTA). No statistically significant difference was found among the groups. Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that the different irrigation protocols did not influence the bond strength of self-adhesive resin cement, which presented similar behaviors at the 3 root depths studied. PMID:26147163

  10. Computer simulation of the effect of dDAVP with saline loading on fluid balance after 24-hour head-down tilt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, R. S.; Simanonok, K. E.; Charles, J. B.

    1994-01-01

    Fluid loading (FL) before Shuttle reentry is a countermeasure currently in use by NASA to improve the orthostatic tolerance of astronauts during reentry and postflight. The fluid load consists of water and salt tablets equivalent to 32 oz (946 ml) of isotonic saline. However, the effectiveness of this countermeasure has been observed to decrease with the duration of spaceflight. The countermeasure's effectiveness may be improved by enhancing fluid retention using analogs of vasopressin such as lypressin (LVP) and desmopressin (dDAVP). In a computer simulation study reported previously, we attempted to assess the improvement in fluid retention obtained by the use of LVP administered before FL. The present study is concerned with the use of dDAVP. In a recent 24-hour, 6 degree head-down tilt (HDT) study involving seven men, dDAVP was found to improve orthostatic tolerance as assessed by both lower body negative pressure (LBNP) and stand tests. The treatment restored Luft's cumulative stress index (cumulative product of magnitude and duration of LBNP) to nearly pre-bedrest level. The heart rate was lower and stroke volume was marginally higher at the same LBNP levels with administration of dDAVP compared to placebo. Lower heart rates were also observed with dDAVP during stand test, despite the lower level of cardiovascular stress. These improvements were seen with only a small but significant increase in plasma volume of approximately 3 percent. This paper presents a computer simulation analysis of some of the results of this HDT study.

  11. Intersalt: an international study of electrolyte excretion and blood pressure. Results for 24 hour urinary sodium and potassium excretion. Intersalt Cooperative Research Group.

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    The relations between 24 hour urinary electrolyte excretion and blood pressure were studied in 10,079 men and women aged 20-59 sampled from 52 centres around the world based on a highly standardised protocol with central training of observers, a central laboratory, and extensive quality control. Relations between electrolyte excretion and blood pressure were studied in individual subjects within each centre and the results of these regression analyses pooled for all 52 centres. Relations between population median electrolyte values and population blood pressure values were also analysed across the 52 centres. Sodium excretion ranged from 0.2 mmol/24 h (Yanomamo Indians, Brazil) to 242 mmol/24 h (north China). In individual subjects (within centres) it was significantly related to blood pressure. Four centres found very low sodium excretion, low blood pressure, and little or no upward slope of blood pressure with age. Across the other 48 centres sodium was significantly related to the slope of blood pressure with age but not to median blood pressure or prevalence of high blood pressure. Potassium excretion was negatively correlated with blood pressure in individual subjects after adjustment for confounding variables. Across centres there was no consistent association. The relation of sodium to potassium ratio to blood pressure followed a pattern similar to that of sodium. Body mass index and heavy alcohol intake had strong, significant independent relations with blood pressure in individual subjects. PMID:3416162

  12. The relationship between parental labor force participation and adolescents' dietary intake and risks to cardiovascular health 

    E-print Network

    Godwin, Anne Louise

    1997-01-01

    venipuncture (to obtain a blood sample), and completed a step test, anthropometric measurements exam, 24-hour diet and activity recalls, and 2-day diet and activity records. Parents of the adolescent participants responded to a set of questions regarding...

  13. Development of a Korean Diet Score (KDS) and its application assessing adherence to Korean healthy diet based on the Korean Food Guide Wheels.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myoungsook; Chae, Soo Wan; Cha, Youn-Soo; Cho, Mi Sook; Oh, Hea Young; Kim, Mi Kyung

    2013-02-01

    The most critical point in the assessment of adherence to dietary guidelines is the development of a practical definition for adherence, such as a dietary pattern score. The purpose of this study was to develop the Korean Diet Score (KDS) based on the Korean Food Balance Wheel and to examine the association of KDS with various lifestyle characteristics and biochemical factors. The dietary data of 5,320 subjects from the 4th Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey were used for the final analysis. The food guide was composed of six food group categories; 'grain dishes', 'fish and meat dishes', 'vegetable dishes', 'fruits', 'milk' and 'oils and sugars'. Based on the recommended serving numbers for each group, the scores measuring adherence to this food guide were calculated from the dietary information from the 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire, and then its correlation with various characteristics was assessed. KDS was significantly associated with several clinical, lifestyle and socioeconomic factors as well as diagnosed disease history. The higher quintile group of KDS showed a significantly lower level in fasting blood glucose, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, current smoking and drinking as well as higher leisure time activity, house income and education. Furthermore, the KDS quintile group of women was inversely associated with hypertension, osteoporosis and diabetes. A higher KDS quintile was characterized with a higher intake of several critical nutrients, such as Ca, Fe and vitamins as well as a desirable nutrition balance such as the ratio of macronutrients. Our results demonstrate that KDS is a beneficial tool in assessing the adherence to a healthy diet based on the Korean dietary guidelines. We suggest that KDS could be a useful indicator for evaluating the dietary balance of the Korean population. PMID:23424060

  14. Chronic enteral leucine supplementation of a low protein diet increases skeletal muscle protein synthesis in neonatal pigs by stimulating mTOR-dependent translation initiation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leucine appears to be the key amino acid that positively regulates mTOR signalling. We hypothesized that prolonged feeding (24 hours) of a Leu supplemented low protein (LP) diet in neonatal pigs will increase protein synthesis in skeletal muscle to a rate similar to that of a high protein diet (HP)....

  15. "2001: A Space Odyssey" Revisited: The Feasibility of 24 Hour Commuter Flights to the Moon Using NTR Propulsion with LUNOX Afterburners. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Dudzinski, Leonard A.

    2001-01-01

    The prospects for "24 hour" commuter flights to the Moon. similar to that portrayed in 2001: A Space Odyssey but on a more Spartan scale. are examined using two near term. "high leverage" technologies-liquid oxygen (LOX)-augmented nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) propulsion and "lunar-derived" oxygen (LUNOX) production. Iron-rich volcanic glass. or "orange soil," discovered during the Apollo 17 mission to Taurus-Littrow. has produced a 4% oxygen yield in recent NASA experiments using hydrogen reduction. LUNOX development and utilization would eliminate the need to transport oxygen supplies from Earth and is expected to dramatically reduce the size, cost and complexity of space transportation systems. The LOX-augmented NTR concept (LANTR) exploits the high performance capability of the conventional liquid hydrogen (LH2)-cooled NTR and the mission leverage provided by LUNOX in a unique way. LANTR utilizes the large divergent section of its nozzle as an "afterburner" into which oxygen is injected and supersonically combusted with nuclear preheated hydrogen emerging from the engine's choked sonic throat-essentially "scramjet propulsion in reverse." By varying the oxygen-to-hydrogen mixture ratio, the LANTR engine can operate over a wide range of thrust and specific impulse (Isp) values while the reactor core power level remains relatively constant. The thrust augmentation feature of LANTR means that "big engine" performance can be obtained using smaller. more affordable. easier to test NTR engines. The use of high-density LOX in place of low-density LH2 also reduces hydrogen mass and tank volume resulting in smaller space vehicles. An implementation strategy and evolutionary lunar mission architecture is outlined which requires only Shuttle C or "in-line" Shuttle-derived launch vehicles, and utilizes conventional NTR-powered lunar transfer vehicles (LTVs), operating in an "expendable mode" initially, to maximize delivered surface payload on each mission. The increased payload is dedicated to installing "modular" LUNOX production units with the intent of supplying LUNOX to lunar landing vehicles (LLVs) and then LTVs at the earliest possible opportunity. Once LUNOX becomes available in low lunar orbit (LLO), monopropellant NTRs would be outfitted with an oxygen propellant module, feed system and afterburner nozzle for "bipropellant" operation. Transition to a "reusable" mission architecture now occurs with smaller, LANTR-powered LTVs delivering approximately 400% more payload on each piloted round trip mission than earlier expendable "all LH2" NTR systems. As initial lunar outposts grow to eventual lunar settlements and LUNOX production capacity increases, the LANTR concept can enable a rapid "commuter" shuttle capable of 24 hour "one way" trips to and from the Moon. A vast deposit of "iron-rich" volcanic glass beads identified at just one candidate site - located at the southeastern edge of Mare Serenitatis - could supply sufficient LUNOX to support daily commuter flights to the Moon for the next 9000 years'.

  16. Associations between the Intake of Miso Soup and Japanese Pickles and the Estimated 24-hour Urinary Sodium Excretion: A Population-based Cross-sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Wakasugi, Minako; James Kazama, Junichiro; Narita, Ichiei

    2015-01-01

    Objective In Japan, reducing the consumption of miso soup and Japanese pickles, both traditional Japanese dishes, is recommended in order to decrease dietary salt intake. With the Westernization of dietary habits, however, these dishes are now consumed less frequently, and thus a reduction in their effect on sodium intake is suspected. This study examined cross-sectional associations between the frequency of intake of miso soup and Japanese pickles and the estimated 24-hour urine sodium excretion using data obtained from health examination surveys conducted in 2013 in Sado City, Japan. Methods The level of daily salt intake was estimated based on spot urine sodium and creatinine measurements. The frequency of intake of miso soup and Japanese pickles was determined using a self-reported questionnaire. Multiple linear regression models were used to assess associations. Results Among a total of 8,821 participants (3,956 men; age range, 19-97 years), the mean daily salt intake was 9.4 g/day. The frequency of intake of miso soup and Japanese pickles increased with age and was associated with the level of daily salt intake (p for trend <0.0001). A linear regression model analysis adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia and chronic kidney disease revealed that daily salt intake was associated with the frequency of intake of miso soup (p<0.0001) and Japanese pickles (p<0.0001) in all age groups, except those ?80 years of age. Conclusion These findings suggest that reducing the consumption of miso soup and Japanese pickles may be an effective approach for decreasing the level of dietary salt intake in the general Japanese population, although not in octogenarians or nonagenarians. PMID:25876570

  17. Computer simulation of the effect of dDAVP with saline loading on fluid balance after 24-hour head-down tilt.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, R S; Simanonok, K E; Charles, J B

    1994-05-01

    Fluid loading (FL) before Shuttle reentry is a countermeasure currently in use by NASA to improve the orthostatic tolerance of astronauts during reentry and postflight. The fluid load consists of water and salt tablets equivalent to 32 oz (946 ml) of isotonic saline. However, the effectiveness of this countermeasure has been observed to decrease with the duration of spaceflight. The countermeasure's effectiveness may be improved by enhancing fluid retention using analogs of vasopressin such as lypressin (LVP) and desmopressin (dDAVP). In a computer simulation study reported previously, we attempted to assess the improvement in fluid retention obtained by the use of LVP administered before FL. The present study is concerned with the use of dDAVP. In a recent 24-hour, 6 degree head-down tilt (HDT) study involving seven men, dDAVP was found to improve orthostatic tolerance as assessed by both lower body negative pressure (LBNP) and stand tests. The treatment restored Luft's cumulative stress index (cumulative product of magnitude and duration of LBNP) to nearly pre-bedrest level. The heart rate was lower and stroke volume was marginally higher at the same LBNP levels with administration of dDAVP compared to placebo. Lower heart rates were also observed with dDAVP during stand test, despite the lower level of cardiovascular stress. These improvements were seen with only a small but significant increase in plasma volume of approximately 3 percent. This paper presents a computer simulation analysis of some of the results of this HDT study. PMID:11538732

  18. Epidemiology of Urban Traffic Accident Victims Hospitalized More Than 24 Hours in a Level III Trauma Center, Kashan County, Iran, During 2012-2013

    PubMed Central

    Mahdian, Mehrdad; Sehat, Mojtaba; Fazel, Mohammad Reza; Moraveji, Alireza; Mohammadzadeh, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Urban traffic accidents are an extensively significant problem in small and busy towns in Iran. This study tried to explore the epidemiological pattern of urban traffic accidents in Kashan and Aran-Bidgol cities, Iran. Objectives: This study aimed to assess various epidemiological factors affecting victims of trauma admitted to a main trauma center in Iran. Patients and Methods: During a retrospective study, data including age, sex, injury type and pattern, outcome, hospital stay and treatment expenditures regarding urban Road Traffic Accidents (RTAs) for one year (March 2012-March 2013) were obtained from the registry of trauma research center, emergency medical services and deputy of health of Kashan University of Medical Sciences. One-way ANOVA and chi-square tests were used to analyze data using SPSS version 16.0. P value < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: A total of 1723 victims (82.6% male, sex ratio of almost 5:1) were considered in this study. Mortality rate in trauma cases hospitalized more than 24 hours during our study was 0.8%. Young motorcyclist men with the rate of more than 103 per 10000 were the most vulnerable group. The most common injury was head injury (73.6%) followed by lower limb injury (33.2%). A significant association was found between mechanism of injury and head, lower limb, multiple injuries and high risk age group. Conclusions: Urban RTAs are one of the most important problems in Kashan and Aran-Bidgol cities, which impose a great economic burden on health system. Motorcyclists are the most vulnerable victims and multiple trauma and head injury are seen among them extensively. PMID:26101765

  19. A Multicenter Phase I/II Study of Obatoclax Mesylate Administered as a 3- or 24-Hour Infusion in Older Patients with Previously Untreated Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Schimmer, Aaron D.; Raza, Azra; Carter, Thomas H.; Claxton, David; Erba, Harry; DeAngelo, Daniel J.; Tallman, Martin S.; Goard, Carolyn; Borthakur, Gautam

    2014-01-01

    Purpose An open-label phase I/II study of single-agent obatoclax determined a maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and schedule, safety, and efficacy in older patients (?70 yr) with untreated acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Experimental Design Phase I evaluated the safety of obatoclax infused for 3 hours on 3 consecutive days (3 h×3 d) in 2-week cycles. Initial obatoclax dose was 30 mg/day (3 h×3 d; n?=?3). Obatoclax was increased to 45 mg/day (3 h×3 d) if ?1 patient had a dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) and decreased to 20 mg/day (3 h×3 d) if DLT occurred in ?2 patients. In the phase II study, 12 patients were randomized to receive obatoclax at the dose identified during phase I (3 h×3 d) or 60 mg/day administered by continuous infusion over 24 hours for 3 days (24 h×3 d) to determine the morphologic complete response rate. Results In phase I, two of three patients receiving obatoclax 30 mg/day (3 h×3 d) experienced grade 3 neurologic DLTs (confusion, ataxia, and somnolence). Obatoclax was decreased to 20 mg/day (3 h×3 d). In phase II, no clinically relevant safety differences were observed between the 20 mg/day (3 h×3 d; n?=?7) and 60 mg/day (24 h×3 d; n?=?5) arms. Neurologic and psychiatric adverse events were most common and were generally transient and reversible. Complete response was not achieved in any patient. Conclusions Obatoclax 20 mg/day was the MTD (3 h×3 d) in older patients with AML. In the schedules tested, single-agent obatoclax was not associated with an objective response. Evaluation in additional subgroups or in combination with other chemotherapy modalities may be considered for future study. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00684918 PMID:25285531

  20. Is scanning in probed order recall articulatory?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simon Farrell; Anna Lelièvre

    2009-01-01

    We consider how theories of serial recall might apply to other short-term memory tasks involving recall of order. In particular, we consider the possibility that when participants are cued to recall an item at an arbitrary position in a sequence, they covertly serially recall the list up to the cued position. One question is whether such “scanning” is articulatory in

  1. A full-time graduate student cannot commit more than 24 hours per week to employment. Any changes in a student's registration status will normally be made for a minimum

    E-print Network

    Oyet, Alwell

    and Graduate Student Support 1. General principles a. SGS baseline funds for the awarding of SGS Fellowships1 A full-time graduate student cannot commit more than 24 hours per week to employment. Any changes for the support of their graduate students according to the "Guidelines for Allocation of Academic Unit Baselines

  2. DIETARY PATTERNS AND DIET QUALITY AMONG DIVERSE OLDER ADULTS: THE UNIVERSITY OF ALABAMA AT BIRMINGHAM STUDY OF AGING

    PubMed Central

    HSIAO, P.Y.; MITCHELL, D.C.; COFFMAN, D.L.; ALLMAN, R.M.; LOCHER, J.L.; SAWYER, P.; JENSEN, G.L.; HARTMAN, T.J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To characterize dietary patterns among a diverse sample of older adults (? 65 years). Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Five counties in west central Alabama. Participants Community-dwelling Medicare beneficiaries (N=416; 76.8 ± 5.2 years, 56% female, 39% African American) in the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) Study of Aging. Measurements Dietary data collected via three, unannounced 24-hour dietary recalls was used to identify dietary patterns. Foods were aggregated into 13 groups. Finite mixture modeling (FMM) was used to classify individuals into three dietary patterns. Differences across dietary patterns for nutrient intakes, sociodemographic, and anthropometric measurements were examined using chi-square and general linear models. Results Three dietary patterns were derived. A “More healthful” dietary pattern, with relatively higher intakes of fruit, vegetables, whole grains, eggs, nuts, legumes and dairy, was associated with lower energy density, higher quality diets as determined by Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2005 scores and higher intakes of fiber, folate, vitamins C and B6, calcium, iron, magnesium, and zinc. The “Western-like” pattern was defined by an intake of starchy vegetables, refined grains, meats, fried poultry and fish, oils and fats and was associated with lower HEI-2005 scores. The “Low produce, high sweets” pattern was characterized by high saturated fat, and low dietary fiber and vitamin C intakes. The strongest predictors of better diet quality were female gender and non-Hispanic white race. Conclusion The dietary patterns identified may provide a useful basis on which to base dietary interventions targeted at older adults. Examination of nutrient intakes regardless of the dietary pattern suggests that older adults are not meeting nutrient recommendations and should continue to be encouraged to choose high quality diets. PMID:23299373

  3. The 18-Month Impact of Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children Food Package Revisions on Diets of Recipient Families

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Angela; Odoms-Young, Angela M.; Schiffer, Linda A.; Kim, Yoonsang; Berbaum, Michael L.; Porter, Summer J.; Blumstein, Lara B.; Bess, Stephanie L.; Fitzgibbon, Marian L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Beginning in 2009, the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) revised its food packages and provided more whole grains, fruits, and vegetables, and fewer foods with high saturated fat content. However, knowledge of the impact of this policy shift on the diets of WIC participants remains limited. Purpose To examine the longer-term impact of the 2009 WIC food package change on nutrient and food group intake and overall diet quality among African American and Hispanic WIC child participants and their mothers/caregivers. Methods In this natural experiment, 24-hour dietary recalls were collected in the summer of 2009, immediately before WIC food package revisions occurred in Chicago, Illinois, and at 18 months following the food package change (winter/spring 2011). Generalized estimating equation models were used to compare dietary intake at these two time points. Data were analyzed in July 2013. Results Eighteen months following the WIC food package revisions, significant decreases in total fat (p=0.002) and saturated fat (p=0.0004) and increases in dietary fiber (p=0.03), and overall diet quality (p=0.02) were observed among Hispanic children only. No significant changes in nutrient intake or diet quality were observed for any other group. The prevalence of reduced-fat milk intake significantly increased for African American and Hispanic children, whereas the prevalence of whole milk intake significantly decreased for all groups. Conclusions Positive dietary changes were observed at 18-months post-policy implementation, with the effects most pronounced among Hispanic children. PMID:24842730

  4. Associations of food group and nutrient intake, diet quality, and meal sizes between adults and children in the same household: a cross-sectional analysis of U.S. households

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background One might assume that individuals living in the same household have similar dietary intakes of food groups and nutrients. However, the manner in which an adult's dietary intake affects children's food consumption, diet quality (defined as meeting intake recommendations), and meal sizes is understudied to date. The objective of this study was to estimate these relationships between minor children and the female or male head of household. Methods Dietary intakes of one randomly selected child of each age group (2-5, 6-11, or 12-18 years old (n = 2,380)) and that of the female/male head of household ((HH), proxy for mother and father) using multiple 24-hour recalls from the Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Individuals (CSFII) 1994-1996 was coded to reflect food group and nutrient density (servings/grams per 1,000 kcal). Linear or logistic regression models were used to determine the association between intakes, whether individuals' diets trended toward meeting her/his intake recommendations, and whether individuals were in the highest quintile for food group densities at four distinct eating occasions (breakfast, brunch/lunch, supper/dinner, or other) in each subject group. Stata's survey commands were used to fit linear or logistic regression models and obtain adjusted regression coefficients or odds ratios. Results Associations between food group/nutrient densities were significant but weak to moderate. Adults with diets that trended toward meeting their intake recommendations doubled the odds for children to have diets that trended toward meeting the recommendations; for many meals, adults consuming in the highest quintile for food group density predicted that children's intakes were also in the highest quintile. Conclusions Female and male adults living in the same household significantly affect children's food group and nutrient intakes, diet quality, and meal sizes. There is an urgent need for in-depth analysis to elucidate the underlying mechanisms, especially for studies involving both the female and male HH. PMID:22123043

  5. Food Consumption Patterns in a Mediterranean Region: Does the Mediterranean Diet Still Exist?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Josep A. Tur; Dora Romaguera; Antoni Pons

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To assess the food consumption patterns in the adult population of a Mediterranean region: the Balearic Islands (BI). Methods: A cross-sectional nutritional survey was carried out in the BI between 1999 and 2000. A random sample (n = 1,200) of the adult population (16–65 years) was interviewed. Dietary habits were assessed by means of 24-hour recall during 2 non-consecutive

  6. Sex and age-related differences in performance in a 24-hour ultra-cycling draft-legal event – a cross-sectional data analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine the sex and age-related differences in performance in a draft-legal ultra-cycling event. Methods Age-related changes in performance across years were investigated in the 24-hour draft-legal cycling event held in Schötz, Switzerland, between 2000 and 2011 using multi-level regression analyses including age, repeated participation and environmental temperatures as co-variables. Results For all finishers, the age of peak cycling performance decreased significantly (? = ?0.273, p = 0.036) from 38 ± 10 to 35 ± 6 years in females but remained unchanged (? = ?0.035, p = 0.906) at 41.0 ± 10.3 years in males. For the annual fastest females and males, the age of peak cycling performance remained unchanged at 37.3 ± 8.5 and 38.3 ± 5.4 years, respectively. For all female and male finishers, males improved significantly (? = 7.010, p = 0.006) the cycling distance from 497.8 ± 219.6 km to 546.7 ± 205.0 km whereas females (? = ?0.085, p = 0.987) showed an unchanged performance of 593.7 ± 132.3 km. The mean cycling distance achieved by the male winners of 960.5 ± 51.9 km was significantly (p < 0.001) greater than the distance covered by the female winners with 769.7 ± 65.7 km but was not different between the sexes (p > 0.05). The sex difference in performance for the annual winners of 19.7 ± 7.8% remained unchanged across years (p > 0.05). The achieved cycling distance decreased in a curvilinear manner with advancing age. There was a significant age effect (F = 28.4, p < 0.0001) for cycling performance where the fastest cyclists were in age group 35–39 years. Conclusion In this 24-h cycling draft-legal event, performance in females remained unchanged while their age of peak cycling performance decreased and performance in males improved while their age of peak cycling performance remained unchanged. The annual fastest females and males were 37.3 ± 8.5 and 38.3 ± 5.4 years old, respectively. The sex difference for the fastest finishers was ~20%. It seems that women were not able to profit from drafting to improve their ultra-cycling performance. PMID:24883191

  7. 24-hour tape recordings of ECG and respiration in the newborn infant with findings related to sudden death and unexplained brain damage in infancy

    PubMed Central

    Southall, D P; Richards, Jean; Brown, D J; Johnston, P G B; De Swiet, M; Shinebourne, E A

    1980-01-01

    A system for simultaneous 24-hour tape recording of ECG and respiration has been developed and used in the study of 4 groups of newborn infants. In 50 randomly selected, healthy term infants, the mean lowest heart rate (>9 beats' duration; was 88 ± 13. 14 (28%) infants had junctional escape rhythms, 5 had supraventricular, and 2 ventricular premature beats. 34 (68%) subjects had apnoeic episodes ?10 seconds' duration; the 95th centile for maximum duration of apnoea was 18 seconds, the longest episode being 28 seconds. Episodes of bradycardia <100/minute were associated with 50 of a total of 288 episodes of apnoea of 10-14 seconds, with all 4 episodes of 15-19 seconds, and with both episodes ?20 seconds. In 100 randomly selected, healthy, preterm or low birthweight infants studied within 5 days of their discharge from hospital, the mean lowest heart rate was 91 ± 18. 18 had junctional, one idioventricular, and 3 both junctional and idioventricular escape rhythms. Two had supraventricular and 6 had ventricular premature beats. 66 subjects had apnoeic episodes ?10 seconds' duration; the 95th centile for maximum duration of apnoea was 20 seconds, the longest episode being 52 seconds. Episodes of bradycardia <100/min were associated with 84 of a total of 608 episodes of apnoea 10-14 seconds' duration, with 21 of 37 episodes of 15-19 seconds, and with 15 of 15?20 seconds. One preterm infant with a maximum apnoeic episode of 52 seconds had an associated bradycardia of 27/min. Three of 5 `near-miss' cot death infants and one preterm infant with a family history of cot death studied immediately before discharge showed prolonged apnoea >40 seconds, or extreme bradycardia <50/min, or both. Finally, 11 infants with arrhythmias on a standard ECG were studied. Of these, 6 with premature beats and 3 of 5 with episodes of bradycardia did not exhibit apnoea during arrhythmias. Two of the 5 babies with bradycardia however, demonstrated associated apnoea of 10-14 seconds. There may be a relationship between latent episodes of prolonged apnoea and bradycardia and hypoxaemic brain damage or sudden infant death. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:7377822

  8. Inhibition of prefrontal protein synthesis following recall does not disrupt memory for trace fear conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Blum, Sonja; Runyan, Jason D; Dash, Pramod K

    2006-01-01

    Background The extent of similarity between consolidation and reconsolidation is not yet fully understood. One of the differences noted is that not every brain region involved in consolidation exhibits reconsolidation. In trace fear conditioning, the hippocampus and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) are required for consolidation of long-term memory. We have previously demonstrated that trace fear memory is susceptible to infusion of the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin into the hippocampus following recall. In the present study, we examine whether protein synthesis inhibition in the mPFC following recall similarly results in the observation of reconsolidation of trace fear memory. Results Targeted intra-mPFC infusions of anisomycin or vehicle were performed immediately following recall of trace fear memory at 24 hours, or at 30 days, following training in a one-day or a two-day protocol. The present study demonstrates three key findings: 1) trace fear memory does not undergo protein synthesis dependent reconsolidation in the PFC, regardless of the intensity of the training, and 2) regardless of whether the memory is recent or remote, and 3) intra-mPFC inhibition of protein synthesis immediately following training impaired remote (30 days) memory. Conclusion These results suggest that not all structures that participate in memory storage are involved in reconsolidation. Alternatively, certain types of memory-related information may reconsolidate, while other components of memory may not. PMID:17026758

  9. Diets, equipment, and techniques for maintaining crawfish in the laboratory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tarshis, I.B.

    1978-01-01

    One commercial and 4 laboratory prepared extruded, water-stable diets were fed 3 times a week in 1-g portions to juvenile male and female White River crawfish, Procambarus acutus acutus (Girard), for 10 weeks. The. binding material in the laboratory preparation was alginate (Kelgin), whereas that in the commercial preparation was starch. No statistically significant weight differences developed between the groups of crawfish at the end of the 10-week period; all 5 diets were found satisfactory for feeding and maintaining P. acutus acutus in the laboratory, and all test crawfish survived throughout the experimental period. Weight gains were highest in a diet containing 50.5% protein; intermediate in those fed a diet with 46.0% protein; and lowest in those fed diets with 31.7 or 36.3% protein. Crawfish fed the commercial preparation of one of the 46.0% protein diets showed a slightly but not significantly higher weight gain than those fed the laboratory preparation of the diet. In an evaluation of the water stability of 5 commercially prepared animal chow diets and the commercial extruded diet, 2 of the commercial diets disintegrated after one hour exposure in water and the other 3 became bloated after one hour and remained on the surface throughout the 24-hour test. The commercial extruded diet maintained its water stability for the full 24 hours. The commercial preparation of the 46.0% protein diet was successfully used under laboratory conditions for feeding and maintaining the following crawfishes: Cambarellus shufeldtii (Faxon), Cambarus acuminatus Faxon, Orconectes limosus (Rafinesque), O. virilis (Hagen), Procambarus clarkii (Girard), and P. spiculifer (Le conte). In longevity experiments Cambarus diogenes diogenes Girard and Procambarus hinei (Ortmann) now have survived for 8 months on this diet in the laboratory.

  10. Serotonin turnover in rat brain during semistarvation with high-protein and high-carbohydrate diets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. Schweiger; A. Broocks; R. J. Tuschl; K.-M. Pirke

    1989-01-01

    Summary Serotonin (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA) were determined in seven brain regions of semistarved and control male rats. After semistarvation on a high carbohydrate diet serotonin turnover, as indicated by 5-HIAA\\/5-HT ratio, was increased in the total brain and several regions both three and 24 hours after the last meal. In contrast, after semistarvation on a high-protein diet serotonin

  11. Influence of Captopril on 24Hour Balances and the Diurnal Patterns of Urinary Output, Blood Pressure, Aldosterone and Atrial Natriuretic Peptide in Conscious Dogs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Willehad Boemke; Ülo Palm; Rainer Mohnhaupt; Marcel Corea; Erdmann Seeliger; Wolfgang Reinhardt

    1995-01-01

    The diurnal time course of urinary flow rate (UV), urinary sodium (UNaV), and potassium (UKV) excretion, and of hormones such as atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and aldosterone, was investigated during 5 days of continuous captopril infusion (15 ?g · kg body weigth-1 · min-1) in 4 conscious dogs on a high sodium diet (14.5 mmol Na·kg body weigth-1 24 h-1).

  12. Effect of exenatide on 24-hour blood glucose profile compared with placebo in patients with type 2 diabetes: A randomized, double-blind, two-arm, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, 2-week study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sherwyn L. Schwartz; Robert E. Ratner; Dennis D. Kim; Yongming Qu; Linda L. Fechner; Sheila M. Lenox; John H. Holcombe

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the glucose-lowering effect of exenatide over 24 hours in patients with type 2 diabetes with inadequate glycemic control using metformin, with or without a thiazolidinedione (TZD).Methods: This randomized, double-blind, 2-arm, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, 2-week study was conducted in patients with type 2 diabetes with inadequate glycemic control, despite metformin with or without

  13. For all emergencies dial 911. For non-emergencies call 994-2121. The University Police Department is staffed 24 hours a day and responds to all requests for emer-

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    is likely to be available by parking lot and time. You may access the map here: www.montana. edu/police/University%20Parking%20Time%20Slice%20Map.pdf. Click on the "Click Here" link on the bottom left corner to see. No Parking zones/Yellow zones v. 15, 30 or 45 minute timed parking vi. 24 hour reserved spaces c. Bicycles

  14. [Esophageal 24 hour-pH metry. Recommendations of the German Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility and the Study Group for Gastrointestinal Functional Disorders and Function Diagnostics of the Austrian Society of Gastroenterology and Hepatology].

    PubMed

    Pehl, C; Keller, J; Merio, R; Stacher, G

    2003-06-01

    This article presents the recommendations for 24-hour oesophageal pH-metry of the German Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility and the Study Group for Gastrointestinal Functional Disorders and Function Diagnostics of the Austrian Society of Gastroenterology and Hepatology. Indications for the examination, the procedures to be followed, the analysis of the obtained data and the conclusions to be drawn are delineated. The literature on which the recommendations are based is reviewed. PMID:12806540

  15. Effect of a Low Iodine Diet vs. Restricted Iodine Diet on Postsurgical Preparation for Radioiodine Ablation Therapy in Thyroid Carcinoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Chi Young; Kim, Jung-Yeon; Yoon, Mi-Jin; Chang, Hang Seok; Park, Cheong Soo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The radioiodine ablation therapy is required for patients who underwent a total thyroidectomy. Through a comparative review of a low iodine diet (LID) and a restricted iodine diet (RID), the study aims to suggest guidelines that are suitable for the conditions of Korea. Materials and Methods The study was conducted with 101 patients. With 24-hour urine samples from the patients after a 2-week restricted diet and after a 4-week restricted diet, the amount of iodine in the urine was estimated. The consumed radioiodine amounts for 2 hours and 24 hours were calculated. Results This study was conducted with 47 LID patients and 54 RID patients. The amounts of iodine in urine, the 2-week case and 4-week case for each group showed no significant differences. The amounts of iodine in urine between the two groups were both included in the range of the criteria for radioiodine ablation therapy. Also, 2 hours and 24 hours radioiodine consumption measured after 4-week restrictive diet did not show statistical differences between two groups. Conclusion A 2-week RID can be considered as a type of radioiodine ablation therapy after patients undergo a total thyroidectomy. PMID:26069126

  16. Pigeon Pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] Seed Meal in Layer Diets: 2. Laying Performance and Egg Quality Characteristics of Pullets Fed Raw or Processed Pigeon Pea Seed Meal Diets During Grower and Layer Stages of Life

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. U. Amaefule; U. K. Oke; F. C. Obioha

    2007-01-01

    1 Abstract: Laying performance and egg quality characteristics of grower pullets fed raw or processed pigeon pea seed meal diets during grower and layer stages of life were determined with 135 black Bovan Nera grower (126 days old) pullets. Each raw or processed (toasted for 30 minutes, boiled for 30 minutes, or soaked in water for 24 hours) seeds, which

  17. The Use of Hypnosis to Enhance Recall

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jane Dywan; Kenneth Bowers

    1983-01-01

    The forensic use of hypnosis is increasing. A hypermnesic procedure was used in an experiment that calls this practice into question. Subjects tried for a week to recall 60 previously presented pictures. They were then either hypnotized or not and encouraged to recall even more pictures. Most of the newly recalled material was incorrect, especially for highly hypnotizable subjects in

  18. An Improved Algorithm for Predicting Free Recalls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laming, Donald

    2008-01-01

    Laming [Laming, D. (2006). "Predicting free recalls." "Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition," 32, 1146-1163] has shown that, in a free-recall experiment in which the participants rehearsed out loud, entire sequences of recalls could be predicted, to a useful degree of precision, from the prior sequences of stimuli…

  19. 21 CFR 7.49 - Recall communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...the purpose of a recall communication is to convey: (1) That...Implementation. A recall communication can be accomplished by telegrams...preferably in bold red type, on the letter and the envelope...Contents. (1) A recall communication should be written in...

  20. 21 CFR 7.49 - Recall communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...the purpose of a recall communication is to convey: (1) That...Implementation. A recall communication can be accomplished by telegrams...preferably in bold red type, on the letter and the envelope...Contents. (1) A recall communication should be written in...

  1. Radiation recall reaction causing cardiotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Radiation recall phenomenon is a tissue reaction that develops within a previously irradiated area, precipitated by the subsequent administration of certain chemotherapeutic agents. It commonly affects the skin, but can also involve internal organs with functional consequences. To our best knowledge, this phenomenon has never been reported as a complication on the heart and should be consider as a potential cause of cardiotoxicity. PMID:24755097

  2. 21 CFR 7.53 - Recall status reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...the recall. The frequency of such reports will be determined by the relative...Drug Administration in each recall case; generally the reporting interval...given recall case, the recall status report should contain the following...

  3. Diet-Related Risk Factors for Leprosy: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Wagenaar, Inge; van Muiden, Lisanne; Alam, Khorshed; Bowers, Robert; Hossain, Md. Anwar; Kispotta, Kolpona; Richardus, Jan Hendrik

    2015-01-01

    Background Food shortage was associated with leprosy in two recent studies investigating the relation between socioeconomic factors and leprosy. Inadequate intake of nutrients due to food shortage may affect the immune system and influence the progression of infection to clinical leprosy. We aimed to identify possible differences in dietary intake between recently diagnosed leprosy patients and control subjects. Methods In a leprosy endemic area of Bangladesh, newly diagnosed leprosy patients and control subjects were interviewed about their socioeconomic situation, health and diet. Dietary intakes were recorded with a 24-hour recall, from which a Dietary Diversity Score (DDS) was calculated. Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated and Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) was filled out for every participant. Using logistic regression, a univariate, block wise multivariate, and an integrated analysis were carried out. Results 52 leprosy cases and 100 control subjects were included. Food shortage was more common, dietary diversity was lower and household food insecurity was higher in the patient group. Patients consumed significantly less items from the DDS food groups ‘Meat and fish’ and ‘Other fruits and vegetables.’ Lower food expenditure per capita, lower BMI, lower DDS and absence of household food stocks are the main factors associated with an increased risk of having leprosy. Conclusion Low income families have only little money to spend on food and consequently have a low intake of highly nutritious non-rice foods such as meat, fish, milk, eggs, fruits and vegetables. Development of clinical leprosy could be explained by deficiencies of the nutrients that these foods normally provide. PMID:25965879

  4. Origins of Intrusions in Children’s Dietary Recalls: Data from a Validation Study Concerning Retention Interval and Information from School Foodservice Production Records

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Suzanne Domel; Royer, Julie A; Guinn, Caroline H; Hardin, James W; Smith, Albert F

    2008-01-01

    Objective Use data from a published validation study concerning retention interval and school foodservice production records to examine intrusions (uneaten items reported eaten) in the school-meal parts of 24-hour recalls. Design For that study, children were observed eating two school meals (breakfast, lunch) and interviewed under one of six conditions from two target periods (previous day [PDTP], prior 24 hours [24TP]) crossed with three interview times (morning, afternoon [AIT], evening). For this article, a catalog was constructed of foods available for that study’s school meals. That study’s intrusions were classified as stretches (on children’s meal trays but uneaten), internal confabulations (in children’s school foodservice environments for that meal but not on children’s trays), or external confabulations (not in children’s school foodservice environments for that meal). Occurrence, types, and amounts of intrusions were investigated. Setting/subjects Six schools; 60 fourth-grade children (10/condition). Results For breakfast, for the 24TP versus PDTP, reported items were less likely to be intrusions, internal confabulations, and external confabulations; and intrusions were more likely to be stretches. For lunch, for the 24TP-AIT condition versus the other five conditions, reported items were less likely to be intrusions and external confabulations. Mean amounts reported eaten were smaller for stretches than internal confabulations or external confabulations at breakfast, and for stretches than internal confabulations at lunch. Conclusions Accuracy was better for the 24TP (with fewer intrusions of which proportionally more were stretches which had smaller amounts reported eaten) than PDTP. Studies with 24-hour recalls should minimize retention interval to improve accuracy. PMID:18992176

  5. Impact of the Edmonton Labeled Visual Information System on physician recall of metastatic cancer patient histories. a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Walker, P; Nordell, C; Cace; Neumann, C M; Bruera, E

    2001-01-01

    The Edmonton Labeled Visual Information System (ELVIS) is a novel method of documenting clinical information because it is a pictorial method of representing cancer burden and treatment. This randomized, crossover, multiperiod trial involved 16 physicians who each reviewed two ELVIS and two control (text) cancer patient cases (total 32 ELVIS and 32 text cases). Short-answer questionnaires were administered immediately and 18--24 hours following. Mean (+/- SD) recall of basic disease and treatment information was superior immediately following the ELVIS cases (83% +/- 14%) versus text cases (60% +/- 14%, P < 0.0001) and 18--24 hours later (ELVIS cases 65% +/- 21% versus text cases 43% +/- 21%, P < 0.0001). Mean (+/- SD) time required to memorize information was reduced in the ELVIS cases (4 +/- 2 min) versus text cases (13 +/- 6 min, P < 0.0001). Ratings of overall physician preference strongly favored the ELVIS over text. The data indicate that ELVIS aids the process of learning complex cancer patient histories. PMID:11223309

  6. U.S.-MEXICO BORDER PROGRAM ARIZONA BORDER STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR REIMBURSEMENT FOR FIELD COLLECTION OF DIET SAMPLES (UA-F-23.1)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this SOP is to provide a uniform procedure for the financial reimbursement of primary respondents for the collection of diet samples. Respondents were reimbursed for replicate food and beverage samples by type and amount collected over a 24-hour sampling period. ...

  7. Improved diet quality, nutrient intake, and health associated with out-of-hand tree nut consumption in U.S. adults: NHANES 1999–2004

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    HANES (1999–2004), data were used to examine the association of out-of-hand tree nut consumption (almonds, Brazil nuts, cashews, filberts, macadamias, pecans, pine nuts, pistachios, and walnuts) with diet quality, nutrient intakes, and health risks in adults 19+ yrs (n equals 13,292). Using 24 hour ...

  8. Examining the Relationship between Free Recall and Immediate Serial Recall: The Effect of Concurrent Task Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatarah, Parveen; Ward, Geoff; Tan, Lydia

    2006-01-01

    In 3 experiments, participants saw lists of 16 words for free recall with or without a 6-digit immediate serial recall (ISR) task after each word. Free recall was performed under standard visual silent and spoken-aloud conditions (Experiment 1), overt rehearsal conditions (Experiment 2), and fixed rehearsal conditions (Experiment 3). The authors…

  9. A dietary intervention to elicit rapid and complex dietary changes for studies investigating the effects of diet on tissues collected during invasive surgical procedures.

    PubMed

    Schenk, Jeannette M; Neuhouser, Marian L; Lin, Daniel W; Kristal, Alan R

    2009-03-01

    Nutrition intervention trials in patients undergoing surgical treatment for cancer offer a unique opportunity to study the mechanisms and pathways that underlie diet and cancer associations in target tissues. However, due to the short time period between diagnosis and treatment, traditional dietary intervention methods are not feasible. This report describes a novel dietary intervention program designed to elicit rapid and complex dietary change during a condensed study period. The intervention, based on Consumer Information Processing, used standardized menus and exchange lists to guide food choices, and was delivered using a single, in-person session followed by telephone-based counseling. This intervention program was used in a small pilot study evaluating the short-term effects of dietary change in men with newly diagnosed prostate cancer. Eight men were randomly assigned to either a low-fat/low-glycemic load or standard American diet during the 4 weeks preceding prostate surgery. Participants completed 24-hour dietary recalls each week, and were weighed at baseline and at surgery. Compared to men in the standard American arm (n=4), men in the low-fat/low-glycemic arm (n=4) reported consuming less total fat (51.0+/-36.0 vs 93.5+/-8.4 g/day, P=0.06), and had a lower glycemic load (134.8+/-6.0 vs 266.3+/-36.8 units/day, P<0.001). Men in the low-fat/low-glycemic arm lost a mean of 5.3+/-1.7 kg and men in the standard American arm gained 0.8+/-4.5 kg (P=0.04). Results of this small pilot study suggest that a relatively simple and minimally burdensome dietary intervention can elicit rapid and complex dietary changes that are maintained over a 4-week study period. Further studies in larger and more diverse populations are needed to fully understand the potential of this novel intervention approach. PMID:19248862

  10. A Cross-Sectional Study on the Diet and Nutritional Status of Adolescent Girls in Zambézia Province, Mozambique (the ZANE Study): Design, Methods, and Population Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Freese, Riitta; Fidalgo, Lourdes; Selvester, Kerry; Ismael, Carina; Mutanen, Marja

    2014-01-01

    Background There is very little published work on dietary intake and nutritional status of Mozambicans. We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study on the diet and nutritional status of adolescent girls in different types of communities in Zambézia Province, Central Mozambique, in two distinct seasons. Objective The purpose of this paper is to present the design, methods, and study population characteristics of the Estudo do Estado Nutricional e da Dieta em Raparigas Adolescentes na Zambézia (the ZANE Study). Methods Data was collected in January-February 2010 ("hunger season") and in May-June 2010 ("harvest season"). A total of 551 girls in the age group 14-19 years old were recruited from one urban area and two districts (district towns and rural villages). The study protocol included a background interview, a 24-hour dietary recall interview, a food frequency questionnaire, anthropometric measurements, bioimpedance, hemoglobin measurement, and venous blood, urine, buccal cell, and fecal sampling. Results Adolescent motherhood was common in all study regions. Stunting prevalence for the total study population as a weighted percentage was 17.8% (95/549; 95% CI 14.3-22.0) with no regional differences. Overweight was found mainly in the urban area where the prevalence was 12.6% (20/159; 95% CI 7.5-17.6), thinness was rare. There were regional differences in the prevalence of malaria parasitemia and intestinal helminth infestation, but not human immunodeficiency virus. Conclusions The fully analyzed data from the ZANE Study will yield results useful for setting priorities in nutrition policy and further research on the diet and nutritional status in Mozambique and other countries with similar nutritional problems. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01944891; http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01944891 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6L9OUrsq8). PMID:24598035

  11. Directed Forgetting of Recently Recalled Autobiographical Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnier, Amanda J.; Conway, Martin A.; Mayoh, Lyndel; Speyer, Joanne; Avizmil, Orit; Harris, Celia B.

    2007-01-01

    In 6 experiments, the authors investigated list-method directed forgetting of recently recalled autobiographical memories. Reliable directed forgetting effects were observed across all experiments. In 4 experiments, the authors examined the impact of memory valence on directed forgetting. The forget instruction impaired recall of negative,…

  12. Maternal Recall of Distant Pregnancy Events

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara P Yawn; Vera J Suman; Steven J Jacobsen

    1998-01-01

    Women themselves are often the most convenient source of information regarding their pregnancy and birth outcomes such as prematurity. However, the ability of mothers to recall birth information and the accuracy of information they do recall has rarely been assessed. This study used a mail survey of women who delivered either term or preterm infants in Rochester, Minnesota, between 1980

  13. Effectiveness of recall notification: community response to a nationwide recall of hot dogs and deli meats.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Mary E; Griffin, Patricia M; Voetsch, Andrew C; Mead, Paul S

    2007-10-01

    We examined the efficacy of recall notification and advertising in informing the public about a nationwide recall of hot dogs and deli meats. As part of an ongoing random population telephone survey, residents of seven states were interviewed. Data from the survey were weighted to account for the multistage sampling design. Overall, 307 (45%) of 633 knew about the recall. Knowledge was higher among persons older than 40 years (odds ratio = 2.1, 95% confidence interval = 1.4 to 3.3) and persons interviewed after major newspaper notices about the recall. Among those who knew about the recall, 5% believed the products were safe to eat; 23% were not sure. Seventy percent learned about the recall through television. Our findings indicate that routine recall notifications failed to reach a large portion of the population and were not well understood. Messages to the public about recalled products should clearly describe the risks of consuming the recalled product. Supplemental advertising by manufacturers can be beneficial if the risks of consuming the recalled product and recommendations to consumers are clearly described. These policies, coupled with broader distribution through the television and print media, may help increase the proportion of the persons who receive the information they need from future product recalls. PMID:17969620

  14. Drug recall: An incubus for pharmaceutical companies and most serious drug recall of history.

    PubMed

    Nagaich, Upendra; Sadhna, Divya

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increasing trend in the number of prescribed and over-the-counter drug recall over the last few years. The recall is usually due to company's discovery, customer's complaint or Food and Drug Administration (FDA) observation. The process of recall involves a planned specific course of action, which addresses the depth of recall, need for public warning, and the extent of effectiveness checks for the recall. The FDA review and/or recommend changes to the firm's recall strategy, as appropriate. The critical recall information list includes the identity of the product; summary of the failure; amount of product produced in the distribution chain and direct account. Product recalls clashes thousands of companies every year affecting: sales, testing customer relationships and disrupting supply chains. Drug recall is incubus for pharmaceutical companies. It effects the reputation of the company. The reason for the recall can be divided into two categories: manufacturing affined and safety/efficacy affined. It is essential to follow all the guidelines related to drug development and manufacturing procedure so as to minimize drug recall. PMID:25599028

  15. Drug recall: An incubus for pharmaceutical companies and most serious drug recall of history

    PubMed Central

    Nagaich, Upendra; Sadhna, Divya

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increasing trend in the number of prescribed and over-the-counter drug recall over the last few years. The recall is usually due to company's discovery, customer's complaint or Food and Drug Administration (FDA) observation. The process of recall involves a planned specific course of action, which addresses the depth of recall, need for public warning, and the extent of effectiveness checks for the recall. The FDA review and/or recommend changes to the firm's recall strategy, as appropriate. The critical recall information list includes the identity of the product; summary of the failure; amount of product produced in the distribution chain and direct account. Product recalls clashes thousands of companies every year affecting: sales, testing customer relationships and disrupting supply chains. Drug recall is incubus for pharmaceutical companies. It effects the reputation of the company. The reason for the recall can be divided into two categories: manufacturing affined and safety/efficacy affined. It is essential to follow all the guidelines related to drug development and manufacturing procedure so as to minimize drug recall. PMID:25599028

  16. Data from a Validation Study of Reporting Accuracy over Multiple Recalls, and School Foodservice Production Records Provide Insight into the Origins of Intrusions (Reports of Uneaten Food Items) in Children’s Dietary Recalls

    PubMed Central

    Hardin, James W.; Royer, Julie A.; Guinn, Caroline H.; Smith, Albert F.

    2008-01-01

    Background Intrusions in dietary recalls may originate in confusion of episodic memories manifested as temporal dating errors. Objective Data from a validation study (concerning reporting accuracy over multiple recalls) and school foodservice production records were used to investigate origins of intrusions in school meals in children’s 24-hour recalls. Design/subjects/setting During the 1999–2000 school year, 104 fourth-grade children were observed eating school meals on one to three non-consecutive days separated by ?25 days, and interviewed about the previous day’s intake in the morning on the day after each observation day. Statistical analyses performed For breakfast and lunch separately, logistic regression was used to investigate the effect of time (i.e., days) before the interview day on the probability that intrusions referred to items available in the school foodservice environment. Exploratory analyses were conducted for breakfast options observed and/or reported eaten. Results For interviews in which reported meals met criteria to be considered school meals and that contained intrusions, of 634 and 699 items reported eaten at breakfast and lunch, respectively, 394 and 331 were intrusions. Availability in the school foodservice environment of items referred to by intrusions in reports of lunch, but not breakfast, decreased as days increased before the interview day (P values=0.031 and 0.285, respectively). Concerning breakfast, children observed eating a cold option (i.e., ready-to-eat [RTE] cereal, milk, juice, crackers [graham; animal]) almost always reported a cold option, whereas children observed eating a hot option (i.e., non-RTE-cereal entrée [e.g., sausage biscuit], milk, fruit or juice) reported a cold option in approximately 50% of interviews. Conclusions In children’s 24-hour recalls, confusion of episodic memories contributes to intrusions in school lunch, and generic dietary information (e.g., cold option items available daily) or confusion of episodic memories may contribute to intrusions in school breakfast. Understanding the origins of intrusions may help in developing interview methods to decrease the occurrence of intrusions. PMID:18656570

  17. Radiation recall dermatitis with pemetrexed.

    PubMed

    Hureaux, J; Le Guen, Y; Tuchais, C; Savary, L; Urban, T

    2005-11-01

    Pemetrexed has recently been approved for use in combination with cisplatin as first-line chemotherapy for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). Radiation therapy is frequently administered to the thoracic orifices and no data are available about the interactions between radiotherapy and pemetrexed. We report the first case of radiation recall dermatitis occurring after pemetrexed chemotherapy in a patient with MPM previously treated with radiation therapy to the thoracoscopy and drainage orifices. The patient received chemotherapy with pemetrexed and cisplatin 19 days after completion of chest wall radiation therapy delivering 21 gray in 3 days. Conventional premedication by folic acid and intramuscular administration of Vitamin B12 and prednisolone was correctly performed. Twelve days later, confluent erythematous and pruritus rash of the irradiated skin was observed. The toxicity grade of this lesion was evaluated at 2 according to the Acute Radiation Morbidity Scoring Criteria proposed by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group. Pemetrexed challenge was performed without worsening of skin lesions. Three weeks later, skin cicatrisation was observed after a desquamative phase. Persistent hyperpigmentation was seen in the irradiated skin. Pemetrexed could also act as a radiosensitizing agent that should be used with care for several weeks after radiotherapy. PMID:16111784

  18. 21 CFR 7.55 - Termination of a recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...A recalling firm may request termination of its recall by submitting a written request to the appropriate Food and Drug Adminstration district office stating that the recall is effective in accordance with the criteria set forth in paragraph (a) of...

  19. 21 CFR 7.55 - Termination of a recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...A recalling firm may request termination of its recall by submitting a written request to the appropriate Food and Drug Adminstration district office stating that the recall is effective in accordance with the criteria set forth in paragraph (a) of...

  20. 21 CFR 7.55 - Termination of a recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...A recalling firm may request termination of its recall by submitting a written request to the appropriate Food and Drug Adminstration district office stating that the recall is effective in accordance with the criteria set forth in paragraph (a) of...

  1. 21 CFR 7.55 - Termination of a recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...A recalling firm may request termination of its recall by submitting a written request to the appropriate Food and Drug Adminstration district office stating that the recall is effective in accordance with the criteria set forth in paragraph (a) of...

  2. 21 CFR 7.55 - Termination of a recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...A recalling firm may request termination of its recall by submitting a written request to the appropriate Food and Drug Adminstration district office stating that the recall is effective in accordance with the criteria set forth in paragraph (a) of...

  3. Adiabatic Quantum Optimization for Associative Memory Recall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seddiqi, Hadayat; Humble, Travis

    2014-12-01

    Hopfield networks are a variant of associative memory that recall patterns stored in the couplings of an Ising model. Stored memories are conventionally accessed as fixed points in the network dynamics that correspond to energetic minima of the spin state. We show that memories stored in a Hopfield network may also be recalled by energy minimization using adiabatic quantum optimization (AQO). Numerical simulations of the underlying quantum dynamics allow us to quantify AQO recall accuracy with respect to the number of stored memories and noise in the input key. We investigate AQO performance with respect to how memories are stored in the Ising model according to different learning rules. Our results demonstrate that AQO recall accuracy varies strongly with learning rule, a behavior that is attributed to differences in energy landscapes. Consequently, learning rules offer a family of methods for programming adiabatic quantum optimization that we expect to be useful for characterizing AQO performance.

  4. The Complexity of the California Recall Election

    E-print Network

    Alvarez, R. Michael

    2003-11-06

    The October 7, 2003 California Recall Election strained California’s direct democracy. In recent California politics there has not been a statewide election conducted on such short notice; county election officials were ...

  5. Adiabatic Quantum Optimization for Associative Memory Recall

    SciTech Connect

    Seddiqi, Hadayat [ORNL; Humble, Travis S [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Hopfield networks are a variant of associative memory that recall patterns stored in the couplings of an Ising model. Stored memories are conventionally accessed as fixed points in the network dynamics that correspond to energetic minima of the spin state. We show that memories stored in a Hopfield network may also be recalled by energy minimization using adiabatic quantum optimization (AQO). Numerical simulations of the underlying quantum dynamics allow us to quantify AQO recall accuracy with respect to the number of stored memories and noise in the input key. We investigate AQO performance with respect to how memories are stored in the Ising model according to different learning rules. Our results demonstrate that AQO recall accuracy varies strongly with learning rule, a behavior that is attributed to differences in energy landscapes. Consequently, learning rules offer a family of methods for programming adiabatic quantum optimization that we expect to be useful for characterizing AQO performance.

  6. Zinc in diet

    MedlinePLUS

    ... reduce your risk of becoming sick with the common cold. Starting to take zinc supplements within 24 hours ... 2000. Singh M, Das RR. Zinc for the common cold. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011 Feb 16;2: ...

  7. Does an Adolescent’s Accuracy of Recall Improve with a Second 24-h Dietary Recall?

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Deborah A.; Wright, Janine L.; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S.; Boushey, Carol J.

    2015-01-01

    The multiple-pass 24-h dietary recall is used in most national dietary surveys. Our purpose was to assess if adolescents’ accuracy of recall improved when a 5-step multiple-pass 24-h recall was repeated. Participants (n = 24), were Chinese-American youths aged between 11 and 15 years and lived in a supervised environment as part of a metabolic feeding study. The 24-h recalls were conducted on two occasions during the first five days of the study. The four steps (quick list; forgotten foods; time and eating occasion; detailed description of the food/beverage) of the 24-h recall were assessed for matches by category. Differences were observed in the matching for the time and occasion step (p < 0.01), detailed description (p < 0.05) and portion size matching (p < 0.05). Omission rates were higher for the second recall (p < 0.05 quick list; p < 0.01 forgotten foods). The adolescents over-estimated energy intake on the first (11.3% ± 22.5%; p < 0.05) and second recall (10.1% ± 20.8%) compared with the known food and beverage items. These results suggest that the adolescents’ accuracy to recall food items declined with a second 24-h recall when repeated over two non-consecutive days. PMID:25984743

  8. Does an Adolescent's Accuracy of Recall Improve with a Second 24-h Dietary Recall?

    PubMed

    Kerr, Deborah A; Wright, Janine L; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S; Boushey, Carol J

    2015-01-01

    The multiple-pass 24-h dietary recall is used in most national dietary surveys. Our purpose was to assess if adolescents' accuracy of recall improved when a 5-step multiple-pass 24-h recall was repeated. Participants (n = 24), were Chinese-American youths aged between 11 and 15 years and lived in a supervised environment as part of a metabolic feeding study. The 24-h recalls were conducted on two occasions during the first five days of the study. The four steps (quick list; forgotten foods; time and eating occasion; detailed description of the food/beverage) of the 24-h recall were assessed for matches by category. Differences were observed in the matching for the time and occasion step (p < 0.01), detailed description (p < 0.05) and portion size matching (p < 0.05). Omission rates were higher for the second recall (p < 0.05 quick list; p < 0.01 forgotten foods). The adolescents over-estimated energy intake on the first (11.3% ± 22.5%; p < 0.05) and second recall (10.1% ± 20.8%) compared with the known food and beverage items. These results suggest that the adolescents' accuracy to recall food items declined with a second 24-h recall when repeated over two non-consecutive days. PMID:25984743

  9. 24-hour security contact (0115) 951 3013

    E-print Network

    Qu, Rong

    Wollaton Road A609 Wollaton Rd. Ilkeston Road A609 To University Park Campus (0.5 miles) To city centre Pedestrian/cycle route to University Park Campus (0.5 miles) To city centre To University Park Campus's Court (0.5 miles) metres0 100 TriumphRoad Derby Road A6200 Academic schools and departments Contemporary

  10. 24-hour security contact (0115) 951 3013

    E-print Network

    Aickelin, Uwe

    courts Sports pitch Exit only Railway SP 04/2014 © Crown Copyright Licence no. 100030223 Sports ground Resource Unit Central Stores Retail/Cafe Rushcliffe Restaurant Sports Student Services Centre Students Bonington Campus N ALL VISITORS MUST REPORT TO RECEPTION ON ARRIVAL Arboretum Academic buildings Residences

  11. Mediterranean Diet

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Mediterranean" diet. At least 16 countries border the Mediterranean Sea. Diets vary between these countries and also between regions within a country. Many differences in culture, ethnic background, religion, ... dietary pattern has these characteristics: high consumption of ...

  12. Vegetarian Diet

    MedlinePLUS

    A vegetarian diet focuses on plants for food. These include fruits, vegetables, dried beans and peas, grains, seeds and nuts. There is no single type of vegetarian diet. Instead, vegetarian eating patterns usually fall into the ...

  13. The food similarity index: a new measure of dietary acculturation based on dietary recall data.

    PubMed

    Van Hook, Jennifer; Quiros, Susana; Frisco, Michelle L

    2015-04-01

    This study introduces a flexible indicator of dietary acculturation that measures immigrants' eating behavior relative to U.S.-born persons. Using 24-hour dietary recall data from the continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey pooled across multiple years from 1999/00 through 2009/10, we developed and tested the validity of the "Food Similarity Index" (FSI), which indicates the similarity of the foods consumed by individuals to the foods most commonly consumed by same-aged U.S-born persons of all racial/ethnic groups. We demonstrate its utility here for children and adults of four racial-ethnic groups. FSI was positively associated with the consumption of common American foods and negatively associated with eating Hispanic and Asian foods. In addition, FSI was associated with generational status among all racial/ethnic groups and duration of U.S. residence among Hispanics. FSI was also negatively associated with the Healthy Eating Index 2010. The FSI enables researchers to compare immigrants' dietary patterns over generations and across groups. It can be used to study how dietary acculturation shapes health risk factors and diseases. PMID:25245371

  14. The Relationship of the Increase in the 'Time of the Earth Day,' from 18 Hours to 24 Hours, to the Increase in the Size of the Earth, Using the Laws of the Conservation of Momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cimorelli, S. A.; Samuels, C.

    2010-12-01

    There are three articles, by others, which discuss the increase in the Earth's day, from 18 hours to 24 hours, over a period of time of about a billion years. One article refers to Striations in the Substructure of Coral, C.T. Scrutton, et al, 1965. Another article refers to the Laws of the Conservation of Momentum, as related to the relationship of the Earth and the Moon, the lunar tides, the reduction of the Earth year from 481 days to our present 365.25 days, and an increase in the lunar orbit time from 20 days to 28 days. The third article is based on the dates of tidal sediment deposits, tidalites, C. P. Sonett, et al, in the late 1980's. In this paper, we explain how the Earth's Day could have increased from 18 hours to 24 hours, as related to the Laws of Conservation of Momentum (L). Wherein we use the simple formulation from the Law of the Conservation of Angular Momentum, L=I?, in which I=Moment of Inertia and ?=Angular Velocity; for which we assume the earth to be a perfect sphere, for which I=0.4MR2, where M and R are the Mass and radius of the earth, respectively. We evaluate the radius of the earth over a time period of several billion years, during which time the earth's angular momentum, L=I?, is conserved. In this formulation, we show a growth in the size of the earth; and present a curve, using just three points in time, which indicates that the rate of growth is increasing over time. The first point is from about 4.5 billion years ago, the second point is from about 1 billion years ago, and the third point represents present day, with an average growth of about 1mm per year. Although evidence has been presented, by others, showing circumferential growth at the Red Sea and in the Atlantic Ocean, at about 1.5cm per year, total. However, no proof of reduction in the size of the Earth has been shown to occur in the Pacific, or anywhere else, including in references to subduction. Some might say that the subduction is occurring at the rim of the Pacific Ocean to account for the expansion elsewhere, as their premise to negate the expansion. In this article, we contradict that premise; and accept the 1.5 cm growth, at present. We propose an experiment to validate our premise of the continual earth expansion. This experiment will also indicate why the Pacific Ocean is about two times the size (twice as wide) as the Atlantic Ocean.

  15. Managing recalls and withdrawals of blood components.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Glenn

    2004-01-01

    Donor centers are issuing a growing number of recalls and market withdrawals to hospital transfusion services about blood components. More than 1 in 2,000 units were recalled in the late 1990s in the United States. The most common reason for these notices from donor centers is postdonation donor information. Most of these units had been transfused, and many present a "risk of a risk" (ie, a problem might have been present that might have affected the recipient). A few regulations and standards address recalls in general terms, but transfusion services generally have wide discretion in the management of specific common recall problems. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is now including posttransfusion evaluations in its guidelines for emerging infectious threats to the blood supply. We suggest that hospital transfusion services should have standard operating procedures for managing recalls and that the hospital transfusion committee and the quality management program should provide local input or oversight. Using the FDA's categories of donor center biological product deviations, we provide recommendations to consider for when to notify the recipient's physician, after postdonation information is received about a previously transfused blood component. More study of this important everyday issue in transfusion medicine is highly desirable. PMID:14689376

  16. Intensively-Managed Young Children with Type 1 Diabetes Consume High-Fat, Low-Fiber Diets Similar to Age-Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Sanjeev N.; Volkening, Lisa K.; Quinn, Nicolle; Laffel, Lori M.B.

    2014-01-01

    Despite significant emphasis on nutrition, older children with diabetes demonstrate poor dietary quality. We tested the hypothesis that dietary quality in young children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) would be better than age-matched children in the US population. Dietary data from children with T1D (n=67), ages 2–12 years, attending a pediatric diabetes clinic were compared to a nationally representative, age-matched sample from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, n=1691). Multiple 24-hour dietary recalls were used. Recommended intakes were based on national guidelines, and dietary quality was assessed using the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005). More children with T1D were overweight or obese compared to children participating in NHANES (42% vs. 30%, p=0.04). Greater proportions of children with T1D met daily recommendations for vegetables (22% vs. 13%, p=0.03), whole grains (12% vs. 5%, p=0.005), and dairy (55% vs. 36%, p=0.001) compared to NHANES children while similar proportions met daily fruit recommendations (40% vs. 33%, p=0.2). Less than one-third of all children limited total fat to recommended levels; children with T1D consumed more saturated fat than NHANES children (14% vs. 12% total energy intake, p=0.0009). Fiber intakes were very low in both groups. Compared to NHANES children, children with T1D had higher HEI-2005 scores (59.6 vs. 49.7, p=0.0006) primarily due to lower intakes of added sugars. The nutritional intake of young children with T1D remains suboptimal in the contemporary era of diabetes management. Despite focused nutrition management, young children with T1D consume high-fat, low-fiber diets comparable to youth in the general population. PMID:24916556

  17. Intrusions in Children’s Dietary Recalls: The Roles of Body Mass Index, Sex, Race, Interview Protocol, and Social Desirability

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Suzanne Domel; Hardin, James W.; Royer, Julie A.; Smith, Albert F.

    2008-01-01

    Dietary-reporting validation study data and school foodservice production records were used to examine intrusions (reports of uneaten items) in school meals in 24-hour recalls. Fourth-grade children (20 low-body mass index [BMI; ?5th and <50th percentiles]; 20 high-BMI [?85th percentile];50% boys; 75% Black) were each observed eating two school meals (breakfast, lunch) and interviewed about the prior 24 hours that evening (24E) or the previous day the next morning (PDM). Social desirability was assessed. Intrusions were classified as stretches (on meal tray), internal confabulations (in school foodservice environment but not on meal tray), and external confabulations (not in school foodservice environment). For breakfast, reported items were less likely to be intrusions for Black than White children, and for low-BMI boys than the other BMI-x-sex groups, and to be external confabulations for high-BMI girls than high-BMI boys. For lunch, reported items and intrusions were more likely to be stretches for 24E than PDM interviews. As social desirability increased, fewer items were reported for breakfast, and reported items and intrusions were more likely to be internal confabulations for lunch. For breakfast, compared to low-BMI girls, as social desirability increased, intruded amounts were larger for high-BMI boys and smaller for high-BMI girls. For lunch, intruded amounts were smaller for high-BMI girls than the other BMI-x-sex groups. Amounts reported were smaller for stretches than internal confabulations and external confabulations for breakfast, and external confabulations for lunch. To better understand intrusions, dietary-reporting validation studies are needed with larger samples by BMI-group, sex, and race. PMID:18535542

  18. Fading Memories: Retrospective Recall Inaccuracies in ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Carlin J.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This longitudinal study examines the recall accuracy of childhood ADHD symptoms in late adolescence and early adulthood by youth and their parents, compared with reports obtained during childhood. Method: Participants (N = 94) are initially evaluated when they are aged between 7 and 11 and reassessed when they are aged between 16 and 22…

  19. Enhancing the Recall of Presented Material

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Ronald B.

    2009-01-01

    Many educators distribute either complete or incomplete handouts so students can follow along with their lectures. This research examines a teaching system that combines computer-generated graphics presentations and detailed outline handouts with blanks added. An experiment found that this system produced significantly higher short-term recall of…

  20. Improving Text Recall with Multiple Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Meij, Hans; van der Meij, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Background. QuikScan (QS) is an innovative design that aims to improve accessibility, comprehensibility, and subsequent recall of expository text by means of frequent within-document summaries that are formatted as numbered list items. The numbers in the QS summaries correspond to numbers placed in the body of the document where the summarized…

  1. Production deficiency in young children's clustered recall

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara E. Moely; Frances A. Olson; Terry G. Halwes; John H. Flavell

    1969-01-01

    Children in kindergarten and Grades 1, 3, and 5 (N = 160) were isolated for 2-min study periods, during which they were free to manipulate pictures of categorized objects (animals, furniture, etc.) which were later to be recalled. The 3 younger groups showed a production deficiency but no mediation deficiency in this task situation: (1) except when assisted to do

  2. 21 CFR 7.42 - Recall strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...developed by the agency for a Food and Drug Administration-requested...essential products. (2) The Food and Drug Administration...the level in the distribution chain to which the recall is to extend...product appear inadequate. The Food and Drug Administration...

  3. 21 CFR 7.42 - Recall strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...developed by the agency for a Food and Drug Administration-requested...essential products. (2) The Food and Drug Administration...the level in the distribution chain to which the recall is to extend...product appear inadequate. The Food and Drug Administration...

  4. 21 CFR 7.42 - Recall strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...developed by the agency for a Food and Drug Administration-requested...essential products. (2) The Food and Drug Administration...the level in the distribution chain to which the recall is to extend...product appear inadequate. The Food and Drug Administration...

  5. 21 CFR 7.42 - Recall strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...developed by the agency for a Food and Drug Administration-requested...essential products. (2) The Food and Drug Administration...the level in the distribution chain to which the recall is to extend...product appear inadequate. The Food and Drug Administration...

  6. 21 CFR 7.42 - Recall strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...developed by the agency for a Food and Drug Administration-requested...essential products. (2) The Food and Drug Administration...the level in the distribution chain to which the recall is to extend...product appear inadequate. The Food and Drug Administration...

  7. Healthy Diet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Parker

    2009-09-28

    This project will explain the importance of a balanced diet as well as learn nutrition facts to help them apply a healthy diet in their everyday lives Eating good foods is very important to living a healthy life. Click on 'food groups' pyramid below and learn about what types of food should be in your daily diet. Food groups 1. What makes a certain food healthy? 2. Do you eat the foods from the pyramid on a regular ...

  8. Comparison of thrombolysis in myocardial infarction, Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II risk scores in patients with acute myocardial infarction who require mechanical ventilation for more than 24 hours.

    PubMed

    Eran, Oren; Novack, Victor; Gilutz, Harel; Zahger, Doron

    2011-02-01

    The ability to provide an accurate prognosis in an intensive care unit is of major importance. Numerous risk scores have been developed to predict hospital mortality based on demographic, physiologic, and clinical data. These scores were universally developed in general medical or surgical intensive care units. Patients admitted to a cardiac care unit differ in many aspects from those admitted to general medical intensive care units. Few patients require mechanical ventilation and prolonged intensive care. Performance of risk scores developed for patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in this subgroup is unknown. We prospectively studied 51 consecutive patients who were admitted to a cardiac care unit from September 2006 to March 2008 for AMI and received mechanical ventilation for >24 hours. Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II), Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction, and Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events risk scores were calculated for each patient. Mortality rates were extrapolated based on these 3 risk scores. Twenty-two of 51 patients (43%) died in hospital. Age, mean arterial pressure, urea, albumin, hemoglobin, need for vasopressors, and estimated glomerular filtration rate were predictive of mortality. APACHE II and Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events scores were higher in nonsurvivors but Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction risk score was not predictive of mortality. APACHE II score had the highest value for area under receiver operator characteristics curve for mortality prediction. In conclusion, patients with AMI requiring mechanical ventilation have a high mortality rate. This risk is predicted by co-morbidities better than by direct cardiac parameters. Consequently, conventional AMI risk scores do not perform well in this very sick population and the APACHE II score better predicts their short-term outcome. PMID:21256996

  9. Diabetes and diet in Ramadan.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Kehkeshan; Zehra, Tabassum

    2015-05-01

    Ramadan, the month of fasting, is observed by Muslims all over the world. Fasting is obligatory for all healthy adult Muslims which amounts to refraining from eating and drinking from predawn to sunset. The dietary patterns therefore totally change. For people with diabetes, instead of taking 5-6 meals, it is reduced to 2 or 3 meals in 24 hours. Good glycaemic control can be accomplished by people with diabetes, maintaining appropriate diets. It is suggested that during Ramadan similar general dietary guidelines should be followed as those throughout the year. The pre dawn meal should be taken as late as possible, before the start of the fast and should have a high proportion of carbohydrates with fibre. The traditional sugar drinks and foods rich in fat taken at iftar should be avoided. The evening meal or dinner should be consumed as early as possible at iftar and contain whole wheat flour chapattis, vegetables and a meat dish. Salads increase the fiber intake. A glass of milk or fruit at bedtime will maintain normoglycaemia till suhur. PMID:26013795

  10. FILE WITHIN 5 DAYS OF INCIDENT. (In the event of a serious or fatal injury or illness, notify within 24 hours. It is the supervisors responsibility to report lost time due to an occupational injury or disease. Failure to do so

    E-print Network

    within 24 hours. It is the supervisors responsibility to report lost time due to an occupational injury or disease. Failure to do so immediately may result in departmental fines. NOTE: PLEASE FILL IN EACH BLANK) OCCUPATIONAL ACCIDENT OR ILLNESS REPORT Name

  11. 75 FR 3355 - Guidelines and Requirements for Mandatory Recall Notices

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-21

    ...Several commenters suggest making a Web site recall notice a mandatory requirement when a firm maintains a Web site. One commenter agrees that the...allow firms to bury recall notices deep within a Web site. These commenters support...

  12. Essays on Product Recalls, New Product Preannouncements, and Shareholder Value 

    E-print Network

    Yun, Wonjoo

    2014-08-08

    recall. In general, brand advertising tends to have a positive long-term effect on firm performance (Joshi and Hanssens 2010). For instance, after the major recall incident in January 2010, Toyota substantially increased brand advertising to refurbish...

  13. Comparison of yogurt, soybean, casein, and amino acid-based diets in children with persistent diarrhea.

    PubMed

    de Mattos, Angela P; Ribeiro, Tereza C M; Mendes, Patrícia S A; Valois, Sandra S; Mendes, Carlos M C; Ribeiro, Hugo C

    2009-07-01

    Although previous studies have shown successful treatment of persistent diarrhea (PD) with the use of yogurt-based diets, some recent ones speculate the need of special formulas for the nutritional management of PD complicated cases. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that the consumption of 3 lactose-free diets, with different degrees of complexity, is associated with lower stool output and shorter duration of diarrhea when compared with the use of a yogurt-based one on the nutritional management of PD. A total of 154 male infants, aged between 1 and 30 months, with PD and with or without dehydration, were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups. Throughout the study, the patients were placed in a metabolic unit; their body weights and intakes of oral rehydration solution, water, and formula diets, in addition to outputs of stool, urine, and vomit, were measured and recorded at 24-hour intervals. Four different diets were used in this study: diet 1, yogurt-based formula; diet 2, soy-based formula; diet 3, hydrolyzed protein-based formula; and diet 4, amino acid-based formula. Throughout the study, only these formula diets were fed to the children. The data showed that children fed the yogurt-based diet (diet 1) or the amino acid-based diet (diet 4) had a significant reduction in stool output and in the duration of diarrhea. The use of an inexpensive and worldwide-available yogurt-based diet is recommended as the first choice for the nutritional management of mild to moderate PD. For the few complicated PD cases, when available, a more complex amino acid-based diet should be reserved for the nutritional management of these unresponsive and severe presentations. Soy-based or casein-based diets do not offer any specific advantage or benefits and do not seem to have a place in the management of PD. PMID:19700033

  14. Disentangling Listening and Verbal Recall: Related but Separate Constructs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, L. Todd; Levine, Timothy R.

    1994-01-01

    Examines 73 participants on the relationship between verbal recall and listening, using measures of listening behavior as a criterion. Considers three possible models: (1) isomorphic, (2) confounding, and (3) recall ability as antecedent to listening. Finds that a model stipulating verbal recall ability as antecedent to listening provides the best…

  15. Using Pictographs To Enhance Recall of Spoken Medical Instructions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houts, Peter S.; Bachrach, Rebecca; Witmer, Judith T.; Tringali, Carol A.; Bucher, Julia A.; Localio, Russell A.

    1998-01-01

    Tests the hypothesis that pictographs can improve recall of spoken medical instructions. Junior college subjects (N=21) listened to two lists of actions, one of which was accompanied by pictographs during both listening and recall while the other was not. Mean correct recall was 85% with pictographs and 14% without, indicating that pictographs can…

  16. Posthypnotic Amnesia: Evaluation of Selective Recall of Successful Experiences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helen M. Pettinati; Frederick J. Evans

    1978-01-01

    Following suggestions of posthypnotic amnesia, Ss who are unresponsive to hypnosis tend to recall those suggestions that they passed rather than the ones that they failed; similar trends in hypnotizable Ss have been equivocal (Hilgard & Hommel, 1961; O'Connell, 1966). Modifications on the present selective recall index were developed to take into account the differences in the total recall pools

  17. Paclitaxel-carboplatin induced radiation recall colitis.

    PubMed

    Kundak, Isil; Oztop, Ilhan; Soyturk, Mujde; Ozcan, Mehmet Ali; Yilmaz, Ugur; Meydan, Nezih; Gorken, Ilknur Bilkay; Kupelioglu, Ali; Alakavuklar, Mehmet

    2004-01-01

    Some chemotherapeutic agents can "recall" the irradiated volumes by skin or pulmonary reactions in cancer patients who previously received radiation therapy. We report a recall colitis following the administration of paclitaxel-containing regimen in a patient who had been irradiated for a carcinoma of the uterine cervix. A 63-year-old woman underwent a Wertheim operation because of uterine cervix carcinoma. After 8 years of follow-up, a local recurrence was observed and she received curative external radiotherapy (45 Gy) to the pelvis. No significant adverse events were observed during the radiotherapy. Approximately one year later, she was hospitalized because of metastatic disease with multiple pulmonary nodules, and a chemotherapy regimen consisting of paclitaxel and carboplatin was administered. The day after the administration of chemotherapy the patient had diarrhea and rectal bleeding. Histological examination of the biopsy taken from rectal hyperemic lesions showed a radiation colitis. The symptoms reappeared after the administration of each course of chemotherapy and continued until the death of the patient despite the interruption of the chemotherapy. In conclusion, the probability of recall phenomena should be kept in mind in patients who received previously with pelvic radiotherapy and treated later with cytotoxic chemotherapy. PMID:15237594

  18. Elaborations in adults' text recall: relations to working memory and text recall.

    PubMed

    Zabrucky, K; Moore, D

    1995-01-01

    We examined differences in the elaborative statements produced by younger (mean age = 22.19) and older (mean age = 76.56) adults during text recall as well as relations between elaborative statements and text recall and working memory. Three types of elaborative statements were examined: personal (reactions to a text), inferential (inferences derivable about a text), and metacognitive (statements concerning understanding or memory of a text). Older adults made more personal elaborations during text recall than did younger adults. Younger and older adults did not differ in the amount of inferential or metacognitive elaborations they made, although all adults made more metacognitive comments when texts contained problematic information. Personal elaborations were negatively related to recall and accounted for a substantial portion of the age-related variance in recall. Personal elaborations were also negatively related to processing efficiency, and relations between personal elaborations and working memory and storage capacity were mediated by processing efficiency. The results are consistent with the view that an age-related increase in non-goal-path thoughts, due to inhibitory problems or a different style of text processing, may be related to age-related deficits in text processing. PMID:7628508

  19. Shared encoding and the costs and benefits of collaborative recall.

    PubMed

    Harris, Celia B; Barnier, Amanda J; Sutton, John

    2013-01-01

    We often remember in the company of others. In particular, we routinely collaborate with friends, family, or colleagues to remember shared experiences. But surprisingly, in the experimental collaborative recall paradigm, collaborative groups remember less than their potential, an effect termed collaborative inhibition. Rajaram and Pereira-Pasarin (2010) argued that the effects of collaboration on recall are determined by "pre-collaborative" factors. We studied the role of 2 pre-collaborative factors-shared encoding and group relationship-in determining the costs and benefits of collaborative recall. In Experiment 1, we compared groups of strangers who encoded alone versus together, before collaborating to recall. In Experiment 2, we compared groups of friends who encoded alone versus together, before collaborating to recall. We found that shared encoding abolished collaborative inhibition in both Experiments 1 and 2. But prior relationship did not influence collaborative inhibition over and above the effects of shared encoding. Regardless of encoding condition, collaborative group recall contained fewer intrusions than nominal group recall, and these benefits continued in subsequent individual recall. Our findings demonstrate that pre-collaborative factors-specifically shared encoding-have flow-on benefits for group and individual recall amount, but not recall accuracy. We discuss these findings in terms of self- and cross-cuing in collaborative recall. PMID:22686851

  20. Content-Specificity in Verbal Recall: A Randomized Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Zirk-Sadowski, Jan; Szucs, Denes; Holmes, Joni

    2013-01-01

    In this controlled experiment we examined whether there are content effects in verbal short-term memory and working memory for verbal stimuli. Thirty-seven participants completed forward and backward digit and letter recall tasks, which were constructed to control for distance effects between stimuli. A maximum-likelihood mixed-effects logistic regression revealed main effects of direction of recall (forward vs backward) and content (digits vs letters). There was an interaction between type of recall and content, in which the recall of digits was superior to the recall of letters in verbal short-term memory but not in verbal working memory. These results demonstrate that the recall of information from verbal short-term memory is content-specific, whilst the recall of information from verbal working memory is content-general. PMID:24223963

  1. Conceptual and perceptual encoding instructions differently affect event recall.

    PubMed

    García-Bajos, Elvira; Migueles, Malen; Aizpurua, Alaitz

    2014-11-01

    When recalling an event, people usually retrieve the main facts and a reduced proportion of specific details. The objective of this experiment was to study the effects of conceptually and perceptually driven encoding in the recall of conceptual and perceptual information of an event. The materials selected for the experiment were two movie trailers. To enhance the encoding instructions, after watching the first trailer participants answered conceptual or perceptual questions about the event, while a control group answered general knowledge questions. After watching the second trailer, all of the participants completed a closed-ended recall task consisting of conceptual and perceptual items. Conceptual information was better recalled than perceptual details and participants made more perceptual than conceptual commission errors. Conceptually driven processing enhanced the recall of conceptual information, while perceptually driven processing not only did not improve the recall of descriptive details, but also damaged the standard conceptual/perceptual recall relationship. PMID:24718934

  2. 21 CFR 107.230 - Elements of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Elements of an infant formula recall. 107...Infant Formula Recalls § 107.230 Elements of an infant formula recall. A recalling...infant formula recall with the following elements: (a) The recalling...

  3. Validation of dietary intakes of protein and energy against 24 hour urinary N and DLW energy expenditure in middle-aged women, retired men and post-obese subjects: comparisons with validation against presumed energy requirements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    AE Black; SA Bingham; G Johansson; WA Coward

    1997-01-01

    Objectives: To compare validation of reported dietary intakes from weighed records against urinary nitrogen excretion and energy expenditure measured by DLW, and to examine the utility of the Goldberg cut-off for EI:BMR in the identification of under-reporters. Design: Energy (EI) and nitrogen (protein) intake (NI) were measured by 16 d of weighed diet records collected over 1 y. They were

  4. Children’s recalls from five dietary-reporting validation studies: Intrusions in correctly reported and misreported options in school breakfast reports

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Suzanne Domel; Hardin, James W.; Royer, Julie A.; Guinn, Caroline H.; Smith, Albert F.

    2008-01-01

    For school breakfast each day, many elementary schools offer a choice between a cold option that includes ready-to-eat (RTE) cereal and a hot option that includes a non-RTE-cereal entrée such as waffles. For breakfast reports, intrusions (reports of uneaten items) in correctly reported and misreported breakfast options were examined using data from five dietary-reporting validation studies. In each study, fourth-grade children were observed eating school breakfast and school lunch and then interviewed to obtain a dietary recall. A breakfast option was correctly reported in 240 breakfast reports for 203 intrusions total, and misreported in 97 breakfast reports for 189 intrusions total. Asymmetry was evident in misreported options; specifically, children observed eating a cold option almost never misreported a hot option, but children observed eating a hot option often misreported a cold option. Proportionately more breakfast reports were intrusion-free when a breakfast option was correctly reported than misreported. Linking of intrusions (i.e., multiple intrusions from the same option in a breakfast report) was especially evident with misreported breakfast options. Methodological aspects of dietary recalls such as target period (prior 24 hours; previous day), interview time (morning; afternoon; evening), and interview format (meal; open) had implications for intrusions and misreported breakfast options. PMID:18501992

  5. Televised Self-Confrontation and Recalled Affect: A New Look at Videotape Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, David; Resnikoff, Arthur

    1977-01-01

    The extent to which individuals can recall feelings they experienced during a dyadic interaction, when shown a televised replay of that interaction, was investigated. Pairs of subjects (N=10) were trained rate their degree of comfort or discomfort during the actual ("live") interaction and, subsequently, as they watched a video-taped replay of…

  6. CORRELATIONS OF WEIGHT, LENGTH, AND OTHER BODY MEASUREMENTS IN THE WEAKFISH, CYNOSCION RECALlS

    E-print Network

    occupying more than five minutes. The possi- bility of shrinkage and of loss of weight through evaporationCORRELATIONS OF WEIGHT, LENGTH, AND OTHER BODY MEASUREMENTS IN THE WEAKFISH, CYNOSCION RECALl for pagination #12;CORRELATIONS OF WEIGHT, LENGTH, AND OTHER BODY MEASUREMENTS IN THE WEAKFISH, CYNOSCION REGALIS

  7. Metamemory appraisals in autobiographical event recall.

    PubMed

    Scoboria, Alan; Talarico, Jennifer M; Pascal, Lisa

    2015-03-01

    Two studies examined whether belief in the occurrence of events, recollecting events, and belief in the accuracy of recollections are distinct aspects of autobiographical remembering. In Study 1, 299 student participants received a cue to recall five childhood events, after which they rated each event on these constructs and other characteristics associated with remembering. Structural equation modelling revealed that variance in ratings was best explained by the three anticipated latent variables. In Study 2, an online sample of 1026 adults recalled and rated a childhood event and an event about which they were somehow uncertain. Confirmatory modelling replicated the three latent variables. The relationship of key predictors (perceptual detail, spatial detail, re-experiencing, and event plausibility) to the latent variables confirmed the distinction. These studies demonstrate that belief in occurrence and belief in accuracy appraisals are distinct, the former indexing the truth status of the event and the latter the degree to which the event representation accurately reflects prior experience. Further, they suggest that belief in accuracy indexes the monitoring of the quality of recollections. PMID:25525971

  8. Undivided attention improves postoperative anesthesia handover recall

    PubMed Central

    Arenas, Alejandro; Tabaac, Burton J; Fastovets, Galina; Patil, Vinod

    2014-01-01

    Background For years, undivided attention during the presurgical “timeout” has been utilized as a precaution to ensure patient safety. The information relayed during the timeout is presented in a confirmatory nature rather than a delegation of new information. However, it is a standard of practice in which all members of the operating theater provide their full and undivided attention. Standards of patient care should be contiguous throughout the preoperative, perioperative, and postoperative stages of surgery. In this manner, it is expected that the same undivided attention afforded during the timeout should be maintained when transferring the patient to the postanesthesia care unit. Methods In this study, information was collected regarding handover of information during the transfer status postsurgical procedures. Data were collected via observing interactions between the anesthesiologist and the nurse during verbal patient transfers. Results This study demonstrated that the presence of undivided attention during the handover of a surgical patient in the postanesthesia care unit has a direct correlation with improved recall of the information discussed during handover. Conclusion Focus is on the quantity of information that can be recalled by the transferring nurse, and whether or not undivided attention affects the outcome. Analysis focuses on suggestions to better improve patient safety and recovery when being transferred in an anesthetic setting. The practice of patient handover should be standardized to better improve the safety and quality of medical care. PMID:25031549

  9. A randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effect of incorporating peanuts into an American Diabetes Association meal plan on the nutrient profile of the total diet and cardiometabolic parameters of adults with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background According to the American Diabetes Association (ADA), the nutritional goals for patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) are to achieve an optimal nutrient intake to achieve normoglycemia and a cardioprotective lipid profile. Peanuts are nutrient dense foods that contain high levels of monounsaturated fat (MUFA) and are a natural source of arginine, fiber, phytosterols, resveritrol, niacin, folate, vitamin E and magnesium, which have the potential for improving blood lipids and glycemic control. This study sought to evaluate the effect of a peanut enriched ADA meal plan on the nutrient profile of the total diet and cardiometabolic parameters in adults with T2D. Methods This was a randomized, prospective 24-week parallel-group clinical trial with 60 adults with T2D [age range 34–84 years; body mass index (BMI) range 17.2-48.7 kg/m2]. Subjects consumed an ADA meal plan containing ~20% of energy from peanuts (peanut group) or a peanut-free ADA meal plan (control group). Weight, BMI, waist circumference (WC) and nutrient intake from 24-hour recalls were measured every 4 weeks and fasting blood glucose (FBG), HbA1c and blood lipids were measured every 12 weeks. A mixed-model repeated-measures analysis of covariance was performed to assess the significance of changes in the cardiometabolic parameters. Results A higher polyunsaturated fat (PUFA) to saturated fat diet ratio and higher intake of MUFA, PUFA, ?-tocopherol, niacin and magnesium was observed in the peanut group as compared to the control group (P?diet and is compatible with weight management and improvement in specific blood lipids. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00937222 PMID:24450471

  10. Chunk Limits and Length Limits in Immediate Recall: A Reconciliation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Zhijian; Cowan, Nelson

    2005-01-01

    Whereas some research on immediate recall of verbal lists has suggested that it is limited by the number of chunks that can be recalled (e.g., N. Cowan, Z. Chen, & J. N. Rouder, 2004; E. Tulving & J. E. Patkau, 1962), other research has suggested that it is limited by the length of the material to be recalled (e.g., A. D. Baddeley, N. Thomson, &…

  11. Can the effects of temporal grouping explain the similarities and differences between free recall and serial recall?

    PubMed

    Spurgeon, Jessica; Ward, Geoff; Matthews, William J; Farrell, Simon

    2015-04-01

    Temporal grouping can provide a principled explanation for changes in the serial position curves and output orders that occur with increasing list length in immediate free recall (IFR) and immediate serial recall (ISR). To test these claims, we examined the effects of temporal grouping on the order of recall in IFR and ISR of lists of between one and 12 words. Consistent with prior research, there were significant effects of temporal grouping in the ISR task with mid-length lists using serial recall scoring, and no overall grouping advantage in the IFR task with longer list lengths using free recall scoring. In all conditions, there was a general tendency to initiate recall with either the first list item or with one of the last four items, and then to recall in a forward serial order. In the grouped IFR conditions, when participants started with one of the last four words, there were particularly heightened tendencies to initiate recall with the first item of the most recent group. Moreover, there was an increased degree of forward-ordered transitions within groups than across groups in IFR. These findings are broadly consistent with Farrell's model, in which lists of items in immediate memory are parsed into distinct groups and participants initiate recall with the first item of a chosen cluster, but also highlight shortcomings of that model. The data support the claim that grouping may offer an important element in the theoretical integration of IFR and ISR. PMID:25331276

  12. Nutrient adequacy and Mediterranean Diet in Spanish school children and adolescents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ll Serra-Majem; L Ribas; A García; C Pérez-Rodrigo; J Aranceta

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate dietary habits and nutritional status of Spanish school children and adolescents, and their relationship with the Mediterranean Diet.Design: Cross-sectional study by face-to-face interview.Setting: Free living children and adolescents of all Spanish regions.Subjects: A random sample of 3166 people aged 6–24 y.Methods: Home interviews conducted by a team of 43 dietitians included 24-h recalls (a second 24-h recall

  13. Age-Related Facilitation in Recall Following Semantic Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Terry R.; Wright, Mavis

    1981-01-01

    Tested for the effects of differential word familiarity and one versus two semantic tasks on recall in young and older adults following semantic processing. The results demonstrated that word familiarity and number of processing tasks both had a strong effect on recall. (Author)

  14. Age and Schooling Effects in Story Recall and Story Production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Connie K. Varnhagen; Frederick J. Morrison; Robin Everall

    1994-01-01

    The relative influences of age- and schooling-related experiences on story memory and storytelling were examined. Forty kindergarten and 39 Grade 1 children whose birth dates clustered around the cutoff date for school entrance listened to and recalled short, 1-episode stories (story recall task) and completed other stories (story production task) for which they were given beginning information. Children were tested

  15. Temporal Associations and Prior-List Intrusions in Free Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaromb, Franklin M.; Howard, Marc W.; Dolan, Emily D.; Sirotin, Yevgeniy B.; Tully, Michele; Wingfield, Arthur; Kahana, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    When asked to recall the words from a just-presented target list, subjects occasionally recall words that were not on the list. These intrusions either appeared on earlier lists (prior-list intrusions, or PLIs) or had not appeared over the course of the experiment (extra-list intrusions). The authors examined the factors that elicit PLIs in free…

  16. The fSAM Model of False Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Daniel R.; Smith, Troy A.; Kahana, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    The authors report a new theory of false memory building upon existing associative memory models and implemented in fSAM, the first fully specified quantitative model of false recall. Participants frequently intrude unstudied critical words while recalling lists comprising their strongest semantic associates but infrequently produce other…

  17. Food Recall Attitudes and Behaviors of School Nutrition Directors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grisamore, Amber; Roberts, Kevin R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore school nutrition directors' attitudes and behaviors about food recalls. Specific objectives included: 1) Determine current food recall attitudes and the relationship between demographics and these attitudes; 2) Determine current practices of school nutrition directors related to…

  18. Bender Gestalt Recall: Memory Measure or Intelligence Estimate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armentrout, James A.

    1976-01-01

    WAIS subtset standard scores, IQ scores, and factorial deviation quotients were correlated with Bender Gestalt recall scores for 111 vocational rehabilitation clients. Results found that the Bender recall task could not classify Ss as to general intelligence level with greater accuracy than could be obtained with the WAIS Vocabulary subtest alone.…

  19. Dissimilar Items Benefit From Phonological Similarity in Serial Recall

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simon Farrell; Stephan Lewandowsky

    2003-01-01

    In short-term serial recall, similar sounding items are remembered less well than items that do not sound alike. This phonological similarity effect has been observed with lists composed only of similar items, and also with lists that mix together similar and dissimilar items. An additional consistent finding has been what the authors call dissimilar immunity, the finding that ordered recall

  20. Parent-Child Relationships and Quality of Children's Episodic Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priddis, Lynn E.; Howieson, Noel D.

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the ability of five- to six-year-old children to remember past experiences. A set of stimuli cards modelled on adaptations of the Separation Anxiety Test was generated. Interview transcripts are scored for the child's ability to recall past experience in episodic form. The quality of episodic recall is compared with attachment…

  1. Monaural and Binaural Story Recall by Schizophrenic Subjects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas R. Kwapil; Loren J. Chapman; Jean P. Chapman

    1992-01-01

    P. Green and other investigators have reported that schizophrenic Ss have poorer recall of stories presented to both ears than to the single best ear (binaural deficit) and poorer recall of stories presented to the left ear than to the right ear (monaural asymmetry) than do normal control Ss. These studies are plagued by potential methodological problems, including differences in

  2. Brief Communication Delayed Recall of Fear Extinction in Rats With

    E-print Network

    Quirk, Gregory J.

    Brief Communication Delayed Recall of Fear Extinction in Rats With Lesions of Ventral Medial School of Medicine, Ponce, Puerto Rico 00732, USA Extinction of auditory fear conditioning is thought within a session, but showed no recall of extinction 24 h later. One interpretation is that the vm

  3. Veridical and False Recall in Adults Who Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Courtney T.; Sheng, Li; Ratner, Nan Bernstein; Gkalitsiou, Zoi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study used a false memory paradigm to explore the veridical and false recall of adults who stutter. Method: Twelve adults who stutter and 12 age-matched typically fluent peers listened to and then verbally recalled lists of words that consisted of either semantic or phonological associates or an equal number of semantic and…

  4. Neural networks in the brain involved in memory and recall

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. T. Rolls; A. Treves

    1993-01-01

    We consider how the neuronal network architecture of the hippocampus may enable it to act as an intermediate term buffer store for recent memories, and how information may be recalled from it to the cerebral cortex using modified synapses in backprojection pathways from the hippocampus to the cerebral cortex. The recalled information in the cerebral neocortex could then by used

  5. Age effects on spectral electroencephalogram activity prior to dream recall.

    PubMed

    Chellappa, Sarah L; Münch, Mirjam; Knoblauch, Vera; Cajochen, Christian

    2012-06-01

    Ageing is associated with marked changes in sleep timing, structure and electroencephalographic (EEG) activity. Older people exhibit less slow-wave and spindle activity during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, together with attenuated levels of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep as compared to young individuals. However, the extent to which these age-related changes in sleep impact on dream processing remains largely unknown. Here we investigated NREM and REM sleep EEG activity prior to dream recall and no recall in 17 young (20-31 years) and 15 older volunteers (57-74 years) during a 40 h multiple nap protocol. Dream recall was assessed immediately after each nap. During NREM sleep prior to dream recall, older participants displayed higher frontal EEG delta activity (1-3 Hz) and higher centro-parietal sigma activity (12-15 Hz) than the young volunteers. Conversely, before no recall, older participants had less frontal-central delta activity and less sigma activity in frontal, central and parietal derivations than the young participants. REM sleep was associated to age-related changes, such that older participants had less frontal-central alpha (10-12 Hz) and beta (16-19 Hz) activity, irrespective of dream recall and no recall. Our data indicate that age-related differences in dream recall seem to be directly coupled to specific frequency and topography EEG patterns, particularly during NREM sleep. Thus, the spectral correlates of dreaming can help to understand the cortical pathways of dreaming. PMID:21851439

  6. Signal Detection Analysis of Recall and Recognition Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Wayne; Glathe, Herta

    Three paired-associate learning studies were run to compare signal detection analysis of recall and recognition memory performance. Experiment I showed that (a) rates of recall and recognition discriminability are substantially different in later trials and (b) a previously suggested correction for guessing does not transform the data to…

  7. Sleep can reduce the testing effect -it enhances recall of restudied items but can leave recall of retrieved items

    E-print Network

    Schubart, Christoph

    Sleep can reduce the testing effect - it enhances recall of restudied items but can leave recall intervals include both wake and sleep delay, which can influence memory contents differently. In fact, sleep. We investigated in a series of 5 experiments whether sleep influences the testing effect. After

  8. Effects of Training in Dream Recall and Dream Interpretation Skills on Dream Recall, Attitudes, and Dream Interpretation Outcome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochlen, Aaron B.; Ligiero, Daniela P.; Hill, Clara E.; Heaton, Kristin J.

    1999-01-01

    Volunteer clients (N=44) with below-average dream recall and attitudes toward dreams participated in training sessions focusing on either improving dream recall and attitudes toward dreams, building dream-interpretation skills, or educating about counseling. No significant differences were found within the three groups. Results suggest that…

  9. Ankylosing Spondylitis: Diet and Nutrition

    MedlinePLUS

    Diet & Nutrition: Quick Links Overview of Diet & Spondylitis >>> Medication & Diet >>> Dietary Supplements >>> Changing Your Diet >>> The London AS / Low Starch Diet >>> Back To The About Spondylitis Main Page >>> DIET & ...

  10. Coca-Cola Products Recalled in Europe

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Waters, Megan.

    This week's In the News reports on Coca-Cola product contamination in Belgium. The biggest product recall in Coca-Cola's 113-year history occurred on June 8, 1999 when 40 school children were hospitalized for poison symptoms in Lochristi, Belgium. Coca-Cola brands such as Fanta, Sprite, Nestea, Kinley tonic, Lift, and juice drinks sold under the Minute Maid name were pulled from store shelves in five European nations following the incident, costing the soft-drink giant an estimated $60 million. The company publicly apologized on June 24, but European officials expressed outrage over CEO M. Douglas Ivester's slow response, company allegations of "psychosomatic reactions" among Belgians, poorly constructed press conferences, and other public relations lapses. Coca-Cola Co. attributes the contamination to manufacturing mistakes made in Dunkirk, France where shipping pallets became tainted by the toxic chemical phenol, a corrosive substance frequently used as an antiseptic and disinfectant. These eight resources provide news analysis and company information regarding this important consumer issue.

  11. Risk management in hypnotic recall of near-death experiences.

    PubMed

    Holden, J M; MacHovec, F

    1993-07-01

    A substantial number of people facing physical and/or psychological crisis report having a near-death experience (NDE) involving a subjectively real experience of an alternate reality. Where NDE content is associated with positive emotions, benefit might be gained by hypnotic recall of the NDE, yet such recall might involve possible risk in the form of reactivation of the original crisis. In this article we describe a study involving hypnotic recall of positive NDEs by one male and five female subjects. We describe in detail some procedures to minimize risk, including a hypnosis protocol. PMID:8368195

  12. A comparative analysis of double-crested cormorant diets from stomachs and pellets from two Lake Ontario colonies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, James H.; Ross, Robert M.; McCullough, Russell D.; Mathers, Alastair

    2010-01-01

    Double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) diets were compared with evidence from the stomachs of shot birds and from regurgitated pellets at High Bluff Island and Little Galloo Island, Lake Ontario. The highest similarity in diets determined by stomach and pellet analyses occurred when both samples were collected on the same day. Diet overlap dropped substantially between the two methods when collection periods were seven to ten days apart, which suggested differences in prey availability between the two periods. Since the average number of fish recovered in pellets was significantly higher than that in stomachs, use of pellets to determine fish consumption of double-crested cormorants may be more valid than stomach analysis because pellet content represent an integrated sampling of food consumed over approximately 24 hours.

  13. Iodine in diet

    MedlinePLUS

    Diet - iodine ... Many months of iodine deficiency in a person's diet may cause goiter or hypothyroidism . Without enough iodine, ... and older children. Getting enough iodine in the diet may prevent a form of physical and intellectual ...

  14. 16 CFR 1115.27 - Recall notice content requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...ended. These dates must be included for each make and model of the product. (l) Price. A recall notice must state the approximate retail price or price range of the product. (m) Description of incidents, injuries, and...

  15. A Test of the Salience Hypothesis of Dream Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, David B.; MacNeilage, Peter F.

    1974-01-01

    A test was made of the hypothesis that dream salience (subjective impact of the generated dream) would be greater for frequent than infrequent dream recallers. Analysis of the verbal reports confirmed the hypothesis. (Author)

  16. Transformation, Associative Uncertainty, and Free Recall of Sentences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Edmund S.

    1970-01-01

    The analysis of errors made in free recall tests involving sentences under different transformation conditions indicates that syntactic and semantic errors may not be wholly independent of each other. (FB)

  17. The potential for recall insurance to improve food safety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jerry R. Skees; Aleta Botts; Kimberly A. Zeuli

    2001-01-01

    This paper explores the food safety implications of insurance products that compensate for business losses when food contamination causes a processing firm to initiate a recall. Discoveries of meat and poultry product contamination, in particular life-threatening pathogens, are increasing. The financial losses that follow a recall can be substantial as illustrated by several recent U.S. cases—Hudson Foods, Bil Mar, and

  18. Adult age differences in free classification and free recall

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David F. Hultsch

    1971-01-01

    Presented a verbal free classification and free recall task to 20 20-29, 40-49, and 60-69 yr. old white females. 1\\/2 the Ss categorized words into 2-7 categories prior to free recall, while the other Ss inspected the words but were prevented from physically sorting them. There were no significant age differences in free classification performance under the sorting condition. Analysis

  19. Effects of meaningfulness on child free-recall learning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles L. Richman; Steve Nida; Leslie Pittman

    1976-01-01

    Investigated the effects of experience (age) and stimulus meaningfulness on free-recall learning. In Study 1, meaningfulness values, assessed via the production method, were obtained on 40 trigrams for 120 kindergarten, second- and 6th-grade children. Employing these norms in a subsequent free-recall learning study (Study 2), it was found that trials to criterion and grade level were positively related when meaningfulness

  20. Recall of intraoperative events after general anaesthesia and cardiopulmonary bypass

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew A. Phillips; Richard E. McLean; J. Hugh Devitt; Ellen M. Harrington

    1993-01-01

    We wished to identify patients able to recall intraoperative events after general anaesthesia involving cardiopulmonary bypass\\u000a (CPB). A balanced anaesthetic technique consisting of benzodiazepines, low dose fentanyl (15.9 ± 8.5 ?g· kg? 1) and a volatile agent was employed. Perioperative recall was sought utilizing a structured interview on the fourth or fifth\\u000a postoperative day. During 20 mo 837 patients underwent

  1. Diet and nutritional status among children 24–59 months by seasons in a mountainous area of Northern Vietnam in 2012

    PubMed Central

    Huong, Le Thi; Xuan, Le Thi Thanh; Phuong, Le Hong; Huyen, Doan Thi Thu; Rocklöv, Joacim

    2014-01-01

    Background Seasonal variation affects food availability. However, it is not clear if it affects dietary intake and nutritional status of children in Vietnam. Objectives This paper aims at examining the seasonal variation in nutrition status and dietary intake of children aged 24–59 months. Design A repeated cross-sectional study design was used to collect data of changes in nutritional status and diets of children from 24 to 59 months through four seasons in Chiem Hoa district, Tuyen Quang province, a predominately rural mountainous province of northern Vietnam. The quantitative component includes anthropometric measurements, 24 hours dietary recall and socio-economic characteristics. The qualitative component was conducted through focus group discussions (FGDs) with mothers of the children surveyed in the quantitative component. The purpose of FGDs was to explore the food habits of children during the different seasons and the behaviours of their mothers in relation to the food that they provide during these seasons. Results The prevalence of underweight among children aged 24–59 months is estimated at around 20–25%; it peaked in summer (24.9%) and reached a low in winter (21.3%). The prevalence of stunting was highest in summer (29.8%) and lowest in winter (22.2%). The prevalence of wasting in children was higher in spring and autumn (14.3%) and lower in summer (9.3%). Energy intake of children was highest in the autumn (1259.3 kcal) and lowest in the summer (996.9 kcal). Most of the energy and the nutrient intakes during the four seasons did not meet the Vietnamese National Institute of Nutrition recommendation. Conclusions Our study describes some seasonal variation in nutrition status and energy intake among children in a mountainous area northern Vietnam. Our study indicated that the prevalence of stunting and underweight was higher in summer and autumn, while the prevalence of wasting was higher in spring and autumn. Energy intake did not always meet national recommendations, especially in summer. PMID:25511885

  2. A computational language approach to modeling prose recall in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Rosenstein, Mark; Diaz-Asper, Catherine; Foltz, Peter W.; Elvevåg, Brita

    2014-01-01

    Many cortical disorders are associated with memory problems. In schizophrenia, verbal memory deficits are a hallmark feature. However, the exact nature of this deficit remains elusive. Modeling aspects of language features used in memory recall have the potential to provide means for measuring these verbal processes. We employ computational language approaches to assess time-varying semantic and sequential properties of prose recall at various retrieval intervals (immediate, 30 min and 24 h later) in patients with schizophrenia, unaffected siblings and healthy unrelated control participants. First, we model the recall data to quantify the degradation of performance with increasing retrieval interval and the effect of diagnosis (i.e., group membership) on performance. Next we model the human scoring of recall performance using an n-gram language sequence technique, and then with a semantic feature based on Latent Semantic Analysis. These models show that automated analyses of the recalls can produce scores that accurately mimic human scoring. The final analysis addresses the validity of this approach by ascertaining the ability to predict group membership from models built on the two classes of language features. Taken individually, the semantic feature is most predictive, while a model combining the features improves accuracy of group membership prediction slightly above the semantic feature alone as well as over the human rating approach. We discuss the implications for cognitive neuroscience of such a computational approach in exploring the mechanisms of prose recall. PMID:24709122

  3. Memory recall in arousing situations – an emotional von Restorff effect?

    PubMed Central

    Wiswede, Daniel; Rüsseler, Jascha; Hasselbach, Simone; Münte, Thomas F

    2006-01-01

    Background Previous research has demonstrated a relationship between memory recall and P300 amplitude in list learning tasks, but the variables mediating this P300-recall relationship are not well understood. In the present study, subjects were required to recall items from lists consisting of 12 words, which were presented in front of pictures taken from the IAPS collection. One word per list is made distinct either by font color or by a highly arousing background IAPS picture. This isolation procedure was first used by von Restorff. Brain potentials were recorded during list presentation. Results Recall performance was enhanced for color but not for emotional isolates. Event-related brain potentials (ERP) showed a more positive P300-component for recalled non-isolated words and color-isolated words, compared to the respective non-remembered words, but not for words isolated by arousing background. Conclusion Our findings indicate that it is crucial to take emotional mediator variables into account, when using the P300 to predict later recall. Highly arousing environments might force the cognitive system to interrupt rehearsal processes in working memory, which might benefit transfer into other, more stable memory systems. The impact of attention-capturing properties of arousing background stimuli is also discussed. PMID:16863589

  4. Comparison of the Block Kid's Food Frequency Questionnaire with a 24 h dietary recall methodology among Hmong-American children, 9-18 years of age.

    PubMed

    Mulasi-Pokhriyal, Urvashi; Smith, Chery

    2013-01-28

    Hmong are one of the immigrant Asian subgroups with increasing rates of obesity, type 2 diabetes and CVD. Despite their population growth in the USA and declining health status, no research has investigated the appropriateness of dietary assessment measures, including FFQ and 24 h dietary recalls among Hmong. The present study compared the nutrient information obtained through a 24 h dietary recall method with that collected using the Block Kid's Food Frequency Questionnaire (Block FFQ) among Hmong-American children (n 335) of 9-18 years of age. For this purpose, two 24 h dietary recalls were collected during non-consecutive days and averaged for comparison. The Block FFQ was administered on the day of the second 24 h recall and the two methodologies were also compared using t tests. Among all children, Block FFQ nutrient estimates for vitamin A, vitamin C and food group servings for vegetables and fruits were significantly higher than those assessed through the 24 h dietary recalls (P< 0.001). Nutrient estimates for protein and food group servings for grains and meat and beans were significantly higher among all participants when assessed through the 24 h dietary recalls than through the Block FFQ (P< 0.05). The results suggest that the Block FFQ does not appear to be a good measure of protein, grain, and meat and bean intake among Hmong children of 9-18 years of age, and the 24 h dietary recall offers a better account of the Hmong diet and is inclusive of ethnic food options otherwise missed in the Block FFQ. We recommend the modification of the current Block FFQ to appropriately reflect cultural food/beverage items of the population in interest. PMID:22716765

  5. Rethinking Familiarity: Remember/Know Judgments in Free Recall

    PubMed Central

    Mickes, Laura; Seale-Carlisle, Travis M.; Wixted, John T.

    2013-01-01

    Although frequently used with recognition, a few studies have used the Remember/Know procedure with free recall. In each case, participants gave Know judgments to a significant number of recalled items (items that were presumably not remembered on the basis of familiarity). What do these Know judgments mean? We investigated this issue using a source memory/free-recall procedure. For each word that was recalled, participants were asked to (a) make a confidence rating on a 5-point scale, (b) make a Remember/Know judgment, and (c) recollect a source detail. The large majority of both Remember judgments and Know judgments were made with high confidence and high accuracy, but source memory was nevertheless higher for Remember judgments than for Know judgments. These source memory results correspond to what is found using recognition, and they raise the possibility that Know judgments in free recall identify the cue-dependent retrieval of item-only information from an episodic memory search set. In agreement with this idea, we also found that the temporal dynamics of free recall were similar for high-confidence Remember and high-confidence Know judgments (as if both judgments reflected retrieval from the same search set). If Know judgments in free recall do in fact reflect the episodic retrieval of item-only information, it seems reasonable to suppose that the same might be true of high-confidence Know judgments in recognition. If so, then a longstanding debate about the role of the hippocampus in recollection and familiarity may have a natural resolution. PMID:23637470

  6. Resting brain activity varies with dream recall frequency between subjects.

    PubMed

    Eichenlaub, Jean-Baptiste; Nicolas, Alain; Daltrozzo, Jérôme; Redouté, Jérôme; Costes, Nicolas; Ruby, Perrine

    2014-06-01

    Dreaming is still poorly understood. Notably, its cerebral underpinning remains unclear. Neuropsychological studies have shown that lesions in the temporoparietal junction (TPJ) and/or the white matter of the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) lead to the global cessation of dream reports, suggesting that these regions of the default mode network have key roles in the dreaming process (forebrain 'dream-on' hypothesis). To test this hypothesis, we measured regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using [(15)O]H2O positron emission tomography in healthy subjects with high and low dream recall frequencies (DRFs) during wakefulness (rest) and sleep (rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, N2, and N3). Compared with Low recallers (0.5 ± 0.3 dream recall per week in average), High recallers (5.2 ± 1.4) showed higher rCBF in the TPJ during REM sleep, N3, and wakefulness, and in the MPFC during REM sleep and wakefulness. We demonstrate that the resting states of High recallers and Low recallers differ during sleep and wakefulness. It coheres with previous ERP results and confirms that a high/low DRF is associated with a specific functional organization of the brain. These results support the forebrain 'dream-on' hypothesis and suggest that TPJ and MPFC are not only involved in dream recall during wakefulness but also have a role in dreaming during sleep (production and/or encoding). Increased activity in the TPJ and MPFC might promote the mental imagery and/or memory encoding of dreams. Notably, increased activity in TPJ might facilitate attention orienting toward external stimuli and promote intrasleep wakefulness, facilitating the encoding of the dreams in memory. PMID:24549103

  7. More on Recognition Failure of Recallable Words: Implications for Generation Recognition Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kintsch, Walter

    1978-01-01

    It is sometimes possible to recall an item, but not to recognize it. Traditional generation-recognition models view recall as a two-stage process. Such models can account for the recognition failure of recallable items if it is admitted that subjects employ less stringent criteria for editing implicitly retrieved responses in recall than in a…

  8. Effects of Semantic and Nonsemantic Orienting Tasks on the Free Recall of Words

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael L. Epstein; W. Daniel Phillips

    1977-01-01

    Three studies of male and female undergraduates examined the effects of incidental orienting tasks on the free recall of concrete nouns. In Experiments 1 (between-Ss design N = 53) and 2 (within-Ss design N = 54) semantic orienting tasks resulted in recall that was equal to or higher than recall following intentional learning. Nonsemantic orienting tasks produced poorest recall. In

  9. Human Figure Drawings and Children’s Recall of Touching

    PubMed Central

    Bruck, Maggie

    2010-01-01

    In 2 studies, children ages 3 to 7 years were asked to recall a series of touches that occurred during a previous staged event. The recall interview took place 1 week after the event in Study 1 and immediately after the event in Study 2. Each recall interview had 2 sections: In 1 section, children were given human figure drawings (HFDs) and were asked to show where the touching took place; in the other section, the same questions were asked without the HFDs (verbal condition). Children were randomly assigned to 2 different conditions: HFD 1st/verbal 2nd or verbal 1st/HFD 2nd. There were 2 major findings. First, HFDs elicited more errors than the verbal condition when used to probe for information that the child had already been asked. Second, regardless of interview method, children had poor recall of the touches even when these occurred minutes before the interview. It is suggested that cognitive mechanisms involving memory and semantics underlie children’s poor recall of touching in both verbal and HFD conditions. PMID:20025421

  10. Evaluating Nutrition Education Programs: A Comparative Study of Two Curricula Designs in EFNEP.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohs, Frederick R.; Wheeler, Janet Panter

    The Cooperative Extension Service improves the diets of low income families through the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP). In 1980 and 1983, low income homemakers with young children were chosen from eight counties in Georgia to participate in the program. The 24-Hour Food Recall instrument assessed the number of servings from…

  11. Dietary patterns and food choices of a population sample of adults on Guam

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rebecca S Pobocik; Alison Trager

    This study examined dietary patterns of adults on Guam. Four hundred subjects were selected via a multistage procedure to represent the island's population. A 24-hour dietary recall was administered via telephone in 1995 to 1996. Diets were computer analyzed. There were 4,913 food items reported, representing 1,042 individual foods. Most respondents, 51.3%, had a \\

  12. Dietary Diversity as a Correlate of Undernutrition among School-Age Children in Southwestern Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olumakaiye, M. F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: This study was conducted to determine the association between undernutrition and dietary diversity among school-age children in southwestern Nigeria. Methods: A total of 600 school children were randomly selected from six private and six public schools in the region. A standardized FAO-published 24-hour diet recall

  13. Relative Reliability and Validity of the Block Kids Questionnaire among Youth Aged 10 to 17 Years

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This cross-sectional study tested the reliability and validity of the Block Kids Questionnaire to assess diet during the past 7 days. Within a 7-day period, 10- to 17-year-old children and adolescents completed two 24-hour dietary recalls by telephone, followed by the Block Kids Questionnaire at the...

  14. On EMDR: eye movements during retrieval reduce subjective vividness and objective memory accessibility during future recall.

    PubMed

    van den Hout, Marcel A; Bartelski, Nicola; Engelhard, Iris M

    2013-01-01

    In eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR), a treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), patients make eye movements (EM) during trauma recall. Earlier experimental studies found that EM during recall reduces memory vividness during future recalls, and this was taken as laboratory support for the underlying mechanism of EMDR. However, reduced vividness was assessed with self-reports that may be affected by demand characteristics. We tested whether recall+EM also reduces memory vividness on a behavioural reaction time (RT) task. Undergraduates (N=32) encoded two pictures, recalled them, and rated their vividness. In the EM group, one of the pictures was recalled again while making EM. In the no-EM group one of the pictures was recalled without EM. Then fragments from both the recalled and non-recalled pictures, and new fragments were presented and participants rated whether these were (or were not) seen before. Both pictures were rated again for vividness. In the EM group, self-rated vividness of the recalled+EM picture decreased, relative to the non-recalled picture. In the no-EM group there was no difference between the recalled versus non-recalled picture. The RT task showed the same pattern. Reduction of memory vividness due to recall+EM is also evident from non-self-report data. PMID:22765837

  15. Blurring of emotional and non-emotional memories by taxing working memory during recall.

    PubMed

    van den Hout, Marcel A; Eidhof, Marloes B; Verboom, Jesse; Littel, Marianne; Engelhard, Iris M

    2014-01-01

    Memories that are recalled while working memory (WM) is taxed, e.g., by making eye movements (EM), become blurred during the recall + EM and later recall, without EM. This may help to explain the effects of Eye Movement and Desensitisation and Reprocessing (EMDR) in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in which patients make EM during trauma recall. Earlier experimental studies on recall + EM have focused on emotional memories. WM theory suggests that recall + EM is superior to recall only but is silent about effects of memory emotionality. Based on the emotion and memory literature, we examined whether recall + EM has superior effects in blurring emotional memories relative to neutral memories. Healthy volunteers recalled negative or neutral memories, matched for vividness, while visually tracking a dot that moved horizontally ("recall + EM") or remained stationary ("recall only"). Compared to a pre-test, a post-test (without concentrating on the dot) replicated earlier findings: negative memories are rated as less vivid after "recall + EM" but not after "recall only". This was not found for neutral memories. Emotional memories are more taxing than neutral memories, which may explain the findings. Alternatively, transient arousal induced by recall of aversive memories may promote reconsolidation of the blurred memory image that is provoked by EM. PMID:24199660

  16. Normative data for a battery of free recall, cued recall and recognition tests in the elderly Italian population.

    PubMed

    Coluccia, Emanuele; Gamboz, Nadia; Brandimonte, Maria A

    2011-12-01

    The present study aimed to provide normative data on a large sample of the elderly Italian population (N = 464; range of age = 49-94; range of education = 3-25) on both the word and the picture versions of a battery of free recall, cued recall, and recognition tests of memory. Results from multiple regression analyses showed that both age and education were significant predictors of performance. Therefore, norms were calculated taking into account these demographic variables. The availability of normative data based on a large sample will allow a more reliable use of the battery for clinical assessment in Italian-speaking dementia population. PMID:21918879

  17. Ergogenic demands of a 24 hour cycling event.

    PubMed

    White, J A; Ward, C; Nelson, H

    1984-09-01

    The maximal aerobic performance (VO2 max) and energy costs of cycling at various power outputs and equivalent road speeds of a highly trained endurance cyclist (age 23.4 yrs, height 1.95 m, weight 73.1 kg), were measured in the laboratory on an eddy-current cycle ergometer, and the physiological responses related to determinations made during a 24 h cycling time trial event, using continuous ECG recording from which estimates of ergogenic demands were obtained. The cyclist covered a distance of 694 km during the event at an average speed of 28.9 km.h-1 which corresponded to an equivalent oxygen cost of 38.5 ml.kg-1 min-1 and represented approximately 55% of his VO2 max. During the event, the cyclist expended an estimated 82,680 kJ of energy, of which approximately 44,278 kJ (54%) were supplied by repeated feedings of liquids, solids and semi-solids and some 38,402 kJ (46%) came from the stored energy reserves which resulted in a 1.19 kg loss of body weight during the event. The energy demands of the activity were more than three times greater than the highest recorded values of severe industrial work, and similar to the hourly rates of expenditure of shorter duration competitive events, but above the highest values reported over other extreme endurance events over the same period of time. The results thus represent near maximal levels of sustainable ergogenic effort by man over a complete 24 h cycle. PMID:6487942

  18. Collection of a 24-Hour Urine Specimen (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... MD Richard H Sterns, MD Editor-in-Chief — Nephrology Section Editor — Fluid and Electrolytes Professor of Medicine ... MSc John P Forman, MD, MSc Deputy Editor — Nephrology Assistant Professor of Medicine Harvard Medical School Find ...

  19. A 24-hour remote surveillance system for terrestrial wildlife studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sykes, P.W., Jr.; Ryman, W.E.; Kepler, C.B.; Hardy, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    The configuration, components, specifications and costs of a state-of-the-art closed-circuit television system with wide application for wildlife research and management are described. The principal system components consist of color CCTV camera with zoom lens, pan/tilt system, infrared illuminator, heavy duty tripod, coaxial cable, coaxitron system, half-duplex equalizing video/control amplifier, timelapse video cassette recorder, color video monitor, VHS video cassettes, portable generator, fuel tank and power cable. This system was developed and used in a study of Mississippi sandhiIl Crane (Grus canadensis pratensis) behaviors during incubation, hatching and fledging. The main advantages of the system are minimal downtime where a complete record of every event, its time of occurrence and duration, are permanently recorded and can be replayed as many times as necessary thereafter to retrieve the data. The system is particularly applicable for studies of behavior and predation, for counting individuals, or recording difficult to observe activities. The system can be run continuously for several weeks by two people, reducing personnel costs. This paper is intended to provide biologists who have litte knowledge of electronics with a system that might be useful to their specific needs. The disadvantages of this system are the initial costs (about $9800 basic, 1990-1991 U.S. dollars) and the time required to playback video cassette tapes for data retrieval, but the playback can be sped up when litte or no activity of interest is taking place. In our study, the positive aspects of the system far outweighed the negative.

  20. Recall in Older Cancer Patients: Measuring Memory for Medical Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, Jesse; van Weert, Julia; van der Meulen, Nienke; van Dulmen, Sandra; Heeren, Thea; Bensing, Jozien

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Remembering medical treatment information may be particularly taxing for older cancer patients, but to our knowledge this ability has never been assessed in this specific age group only. Our purpose in this study was to investigate older cancer patients' recall of information after patient education preceding chemotherapy. Design and…

  1. The Impact of Formal Schemata on L3 Reading Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmani Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali

    2010-01-01

    Rhetorical structure refers to a complex network of relationships and the way the underlying ideas are organized within a text. This study was conducted to see whether explicit instruction of descriptive and causative text organization positively affected L3 reading recall. 240 Turkish students of EFL who had Persian as their second language were…

  2. Context Effects on Recall and Recognition of Magazine Advertisements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claire E. Norris; Andrew M. Colman

    This experiment tested the hypothesis that depth of involvement in a magazine article is inversely related to subsequent recall and recognition of accompanying advertisements. Subjects read magazine articles interspersed with unfamiliar advertisements for common product types. Results showed that the more deeply the subjects were involved in the articles the less they remembered about the accompanying advertisements. Articles about recipes

  3. Radiation recall dermatitis and radiation pneumonitis during treatment with vemurafenib.

    PubMed

    Forschner, Andrea; Zips, Daniel; Schraml, Christina; Röcken, Martin; Iordanou, Eleni; Leiter, Ulrike; Weide, Benjamin; Garbe, Claus; Meier, Friedegund

    2014-10-01

    The basis of radiation recall reactions (RRR) is a subclinical radiation damage that is uncovered later by treatment with anticancer agents. Several drugs have been associated with RRR, in particular taxanes and anthracyclines. Recently, a few cases were reported concerning radiation recall dermatitis caused by vemurafenib. Up to now, there have been no reports of RRR in the lung induced by vemurafenib. We describe the occurrence of RRR in three melanoma patients who had undergone radiotherapy for metastases followed by systemic treatment with the BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib. Two patients developed radiation recall pneumonitis (RRP) and one patient developed radiation recall dermatitis (RRD) 5-7 weeks after the radiation treatment was finished and 2-4 weeks after vemurafenib was started. The early application of systemic (RRP) and topical corticosteroids (RRD) enabled us to continue the treatment with vemurafenib without dose reduction. Caution is needed when vemurafenib is planned for patients who have undergone previous radiotherapy, and RRR of the skin and the lung have to be taken into account. PMID:24743051

  4. Trait anxiety influences on judgments of frequency and recall

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karan S Kverno

    2000-01-01

    Individuals high in trait anxiety believe that they are more at risk for a variety of threatening events. Subjective probability estimates of risk presumably rely on frequency-of-occurrence information in memory. This study sought to compare individuals differing in the trait of anxiety on frequency estimates and recall. Neutral and threatening words were presented varying numbers of times. An interaction between

  5. Improving Basic Multiplication Fact Recall for Primary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Monica; Evans, David

    2007-01-01

    This study implemented a multiplication program based on systematic practice, aimed at improving children's recall of basic multiplication facts. Four Year 5 classes were recruited to participate in the study. Two classes practised multiplication facts using pencil and paper worksheets and another two classes practised on computers. Eleven…

  6. Parietal lesion effects on cued recall following pair associate learning.

    PubMed

    Ben-Zvi, Shir; Soroker, Nachum; Levy, Daniel A

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the involvement of the posterior parietal cortex in episodic memory in a lesion-effects study of cued recall following pair-associate learning. Groups of patients who had experienced first-incident stroke, generally in middle cerebral artery territory, and exhibited damage that included lateral posterior parietal regions, were tested within an early post-stroke time window. In three experiments, patients and matched healthy comparison groups executed repeated study and cued recall test blocks of pairs of words (Experiment 1), pairs of object pictures (Experiment 2), or pairs of object pictures and environmental sounds (Experiment 3). Patients' brain CT scans were subjected to quantitative analysis of lesion volumes. Behavioral and lesion data were used to compute correlations between area lesion extent and memory deficits, and to conduct voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping. These analyses implicated lateral ventral parietal cortex, especially the angular gyrus, in cued recall deficits, most pronouncedly in the cross-modal picture-sound pairs task, though significant parietal lesion effects were also found in the unimodal word pairs and picture pairs tasks. In contrast to an earlier study in which comparable parietal lesions did not cause deficits in item recognition, these results indicate that lateral posterior parietal areas make a substantive contribution to demanding forms of recollective retrieval as represented by cued recall, especially for complex associative representations. PMID:25998492

  7. The Effect of Humor on Advertising Credibility and Recall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, John C.

    A study examined the effect of humor on the perceived credibility, character, and authority of an advertisement and on the recall of that advertisement. Two groups of subjects each heard two radio spot announcements, one humorous and one serious. Two different products were advertised, so that the first group of subjects, 117 college advertising…

  8. Shared Encoding and the Costs and Benefits of Collaborative Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Celia B.; Barnier, Amanda J.; Sutton, John

    2013-01-01

    We often remember in the company of others. In particular, we routinely collaborate with friends, family, or colleagues to remember shared experiences. But surprisingly, in the experimental collaborative recall paradigm, collaborative groups remember less than their potential, an effect termed "collaborative inhibition". Rajaram and…

  9. The Production Effect: Costs and Benefits in Free Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Angela C.; Pyc, Mary A.

    2014-01-01

    The production effect, the memorial benefit for information read aloud versus silently, has been touted as a simple memory improvement tool. The current experiments were designed to evaluate the relative costs and benefits of production using a free recall paradigm. Results extend beyond prior work showing a production effect only when production…

  10. Examining American Indians' Recall of Cultural Inclusion in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freng, Scott; Freng, Adrienne; Moore, Helen

    2007-01-01

    This research examined American Indians' recall of cultural inclusion from their elementary through high school education. Sixteen American Indians described their experiences of schools to peer interviewers. Analysis of interviews revealed three themes: the nature of cultural inclusion, factors influencing cultural inclusion, and recommendations…

  11. The Disfluent Discourse: Effects of Filled Pauses on Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraundorf, Scott H.; Watson, Duane G.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the mechanisms by which fillers, such as "uh" and "um", affect memory for discourse. Participants listened to and attempted to recall recorded passages adapted from "Alice's Adventures in Wonderland". The type and location of interruptions were manipulated through digital splicing. In Experiment 1, we tested a processing time…

  12. Articulation of Phonologically Similar Items Disrupts Free Recall of Nonwords

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishiyama, Ryoji; Ukita, Jun

    2013-01-01

    The present study sought to clarify whether phonological similarity of encoded information impairs free recall performance (the phonological similarity effect: PSE) for nonwords. Five experiments examined the influence of the encoding process on the PSE in a step-by-step fashion, by using lists that consisted of phonologically similar (decoy)…

  13. Readability as a Factor in Magazine Ad Copy Recall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesson, David A.

    1989-01-01

    Examines the relationship between advertising copy readability and advertising effectiveness. Finds that recall is improved when the copy style is either fairly easy or fairly hard to read. Suggests the value of considering copy readability as a potential contributor, though a minor one, to the success of magazine advertising. (RS)

  14. Quality Improvement Incentives and Product Recall Cost Sharing Contracts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary H. Chao; Seyed M. R. Iravani; R. Canan Savaskan

    2009-01-01

    As companies outsource more product design and manufacturing activities to other members of the supply chain, improving end-product quality has become an endeavor extending beyond the boundaries of the firms' in-house process capabilities. In this paper, we discuss two contractual agreements by which product recall costs can be shared between a manufacturer and a supplier to induce quality improvement effort.

  15. Associative Information in Memory: Evidence from Cued Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aue, William R.; Criss, Amy H.; Fischetti, Nicholas W.

    2012-01-01

    The representation of item and associative information in episodic memory was investigated using cued recall and single item recognition. In the first four experiments, participants studied two lists constructed such that some items presented in a pair during List 1 were rearranged to create new pairs in List 2 and were accompanied by pairs…

  16. Radiation Recall Reaction to Idarubicin Resulting in Vaginal Necrosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine Gabel; Patricia J. Eifel; Carmen Tornos; Thomas W. Burke

    1995-01-01

    Radiation recall reactions are uncommon delayed tissue reactions seen in previously irradiated sites following treatment with cytotoxic agents. We evaluated a 64-year-old who developed two episodes of acute vulvitis and vaginal necrosis after receiving idarubicin therapy for acute myelogenous leukemia. Three years earlier she had undergone successful radiotherapeutic treatment of a stage I squamous cell carcinoma of the vagina. Her

  17. Chromium in diet

    MedlinePLUS

    Diet - chromium ... at the Institute of Medicine recommends the following dietary intake for chromium: Infants 0 - 6 months: 0. ... of essential vitamins is to eat a balanced diet that contains a variety of foods from the ...

  18. Mediterranean Diet of Crete

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ANTHONY KAFATOS; HANS VERHAGEN; JOANNA MOSCHANDREAS; IOANNA APOSTOLAKI; JOHANNES J. M. VAN WESTEROP

    2000-01-01

    Objectives To describe the traditional diet of Crete and evaluate the nutrient composition of 3 types of diet common in Crete by means of chemical analyses of composite food samples. To compare results with dietary analyses from a nutrient database developed at the University of Crete, Greece.Design Three composite diet samples were obtained based on 7-day weighed food records representing

  19. Examining the Relationship between Free Recall and Immediate Serial Recall: The Effects of List Length and Output Order

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Geoff; Tan, Lydia; Grenfell-Essam, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    In 4 experiments, participants were presented with lists of between 1 and 15 words for tests of immediate memory. For all tasks, participants tended to initiate recall with the first word on the list for short lists. As the list length was increased, so there was a decreased tendency to start with the first list item; and, when free to do so,…

  20. 21 CFR 107.250 - Termination of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false Termination of an infant formula recall. 107.250 Section 107.250 Food and...CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.250 Termination of an infant...

  1. 21 CFR 107.220 - Scope and effect of infant formula recalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Scope and effect of infant formula recalls. 107.220 Section 107.220 Food and...CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.220 Scope and effect of...

  2. 21 CFR 107.220 - Scope and effect of infant formula recalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Scope and effect of infant formula recalls. 107.220 Section 107.220 Food and...CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.220 Scope and effect of...

  3. 21 CFR 107.250 - Termination of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 false Termination of an infant formula recall. 107.250 Section 107.250 Food and...CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.250 Termination of an infant...

  4. Influence of re-exposure and retrieval disruption during group collaboration on later individual recall.

    PubMed

    Blumen, Helena M; Rajaram, Suparna

    2008-04-01

    This research examined the influence of prior group collaboration on later individual recall. We considered the negative effects of retrieval disruption and the potentially positive effects of re-exposure to additional items during group recall in the context of three hypotheses: the individual-strategy hypothesis, the combined-strategy hypothesis, and the group-strategy hypothesis. After a study phase and a brief delay, participants completed three successive recall trials in four different recall sequence conditions: III (individual-individual-individual), ICI (individual-collaborative-individual), CII (collaborative-individual-individual), and CCI (collaborative-collaborative-individual). Results show that repeated group recalls (CCI), and securing individual retrieval organisation prior to group recall (ICI), benefit later individual recall more than repeated individual recalls (III). These findings support the group-strategy hypothesis and the individual-strategy hypothesis, and have important implications for group versus individual learning practices in educational settings. PMID:18324549

  5. 40 CFR 205.163 - Recall of noncomplying motorcycles; relabeling of mislabeled motorcycles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Recall of noncomplying motorcycles; relabeling of mislabeled motorcycles. 205.163 Section 205.163 Protection...TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycles § 205.163 Recall of noncomplying...

  6. 40 CFR 205.163 - Recall of noncomplying motorcycles; relabeling of mislabeled motorcycles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 true Recall of noncomplying motorcycles; relabeling of mislabeled motorcycles. 205.163 Section 205.163 Protection...TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycles § 205.163 Recall of noncomplying...

  7. 40 CFR 205.163 - Recall of noncomplying motorcycles; relabeling of mislabeled motorcycles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Recall of noncomplying motorcycles; relabeling of mislabeled motorcycles. 205.163 Section 205.163 Protection...TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycles § 205.163 Recall of noncomplying...

  8. 40 CFR 205.163 - Recall of noncomplying motorcycles; relabeling of mislabeled motorcycles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Recall of noncomplying motorcycles; relabeling of mislabeled motorcycles. 205.163 Section 205.163 Protection...TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycles § 205.163 Recall of noncomplying...

  9. 16 CFR 1630.81 - Policy on recall of noncomplying carpets and rugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...false Policy on recall of noncomplying carpets and rugs. 1630.81 Section 1630...STANDARD FOR THE SURFACE FLAMMABILITY OF CARPETS AND RUGS (FF 1-70) Interpretations...81 Policy on recall of noncomplying carpets and rugs. (a) Purpose. The...

  10. Production deficiencies in free recall: A comparison of hyperactive, learning-disabled, and normal children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerald J. August

    1987-01-01

    Free recall of weakly categorizable words was compared in hyperactive (ADDH), reading-disabled, and normal boys. During a baseline trial, hyperactive boys recalled fewer words and showed less category organization than both reading-disabled and normal boys. Following a manipulation designed to encourage semantic encoding of words, hyperactive boys showed an immediate improvement in item recall and organization so that their free-recall

  11. Recall of Fear Extinction in Humans Activates the Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex and Hippocampus

    E-print Network

    Quirk, Gregory J.

    Recall of Fear Extinction in Humans Activates the Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex and HippocampusPFC) and hippocampus in extinction recall and its modulation by context, respectively. The aim of the present study is to investigate the mediating anatomy of extinction recall in healthy humans. Methods: Weusedevent

  12. On the prediction of occurrence of particular verbal intrusions in immediate recall

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Deese

    1959-01-01

    Lists consisting of 12 words each were presented to 50 Ss for a test of immediate recall. In the recall of these lists, particular words occurred as intrusions which varied in frequency from 0% for one list to 44% for another. Data gathered on word-association frequencies clearly showed that the probability of a particular word occurring in recall as an

  13. Jungian Personality Typology and the Recall of Everyday and Archetypal Dreams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas R. Cann; D. C. Donderi

    1986-01-01

    Hypotheses concerning the relations among personality types, neuroticism, and the recall of archetypal dreams were derived from Jungian theory. Dream records were obtained from a nonclinical population in two stages: first, recall of the most recent, most vivid, and earliest remembered dreams (N = 146), and then dream recall on awakening, over an average of 23 nights, from 30 of

  14. Free Recall Behaviour in Children with and without Spelling Impairment: The Impact of Working Memory Subcapacities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malstadt, Nadine; Hasselhorn, Marcus; Lehmann, Martin

    2012-01-01

    This study examined supraspan free recall in children with and without spelling impairment. A repeated free recall task involving overt rehearsal and three computer-based adaptive working memory tasks were administered to 54 eight-year-old children. Children without spelling impairments tended to recall more items than did those children with…

  15. Effects of Long-Term Representations on Free Recall of Unrelated Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katkov, Mikhail; Romani, Sandro; Tsodyks, Misha

    2015-01-01

    Human memory stores vast amounts of information. Yet recalling this information is often challenging when specific cues are lacking. Here we consider an associative model of retrieval where each recalled item triggers the recall of the next item based on the similarity between their long-term neuronal representations. The model predicts that…

  16. Neuropsychological Functioning and Recall of Research Consent Information Among Drug Court Clients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David S. Festinger; Kattiya Ratanadilok; Douglas B. Marlowe; Karen L. Dugosh; Nicholas S. Patapis; David S. DeMatteo

    2007-01-01

    Evidence suggests that research participants often fail to recall much of the information provided during the informed consent process. This study was conducted to determine the proportion of consent information recalled by drug court participants following a structured informed consent procedure and the neuropsychological factors that were related to recall. Eighty-five participants completed a standard informed consent procedure to participate

  17. Managing recalls in a consumer product supply chain – root cause analysis and measures to mitigate risks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sameer Kumar; Stephanie Schmitz

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this study is to analyse the management of recalls in a consumer products supply chain, as well as the reasons, costs, and measures to prevent recalls. A Six Sigma DMAIC methodology is used to understand the root causes and management of recalls and also analyse the costs in a consumer products supply chain. There are many variables

  18. Story Recall by Normal and Language-Disabled Prekindergarten Children: Analysis and Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenkoetter, Sharon E.; Fowler, Susan A.

    To determine normative story recall behavior for 5-year-old prekindergarten children, and to compare their recall of stories with recall of comparable chronological/descriptive passages, a study tested 30 nonhandicapped prekindergarten children. Each subject was read a 95-word, second-grade level story and immediately asked to "tell me what I…

  19. On EMDR: Eye movements during retrieval reduce subjective vividness and objective memory accessibility during future recall

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcel A. van den Hout; Nicola Bartelski; Iris M. Engelhard

    2012-01-01

    In eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR), a treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), patients make eye movements (EM) during trauma recall. Earlier experimental studies found that EM during recall reduces memory vividness during future recalls, and this was taken as laboratory support for the underlying mechanism of EMDR. However, reduced vividness was assessed with self-reports that may be affected

  20. Revisiting the rise and fall of false recall: Presentation rate effects depend on retention interval

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Troy A. Smith; Daniel R. Kimball

    2012-01-01

    Leading theories of false memory predict that veridical and false recall of lists of semantically associated words can be dissociated by varying the presentation speed during study. Specifically, as presentation rate increases from milliseconds to seconds, veridical recall is predicted to increase monotonically while false recall is predicted to show a rapid rise and then a slow decrease—a pattern shown

  1. Text 2 treat - using SMS to recall clients for treatment.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Samuel Michael; Scalley, Benjamin David; Gilles, Marisa Theresa

    2014-12-01

    Prompt treatment of patients with genital Chlamydia shortens the period of infectivity with benefits to the individual and wider community. With large numbers of genital Chlamydia notifications, predominantly occurring in younger age groups, short message service (SMS) is a potentially useful technology for recalling this patient group quickly and efficiently. In the sexual health unit of Population Health-Midwest, Western Australia, genital Chlamydia cases were recalled for treatment with an SMS. Ninety-four per cent (n?=?60) of clients responded to the SMS, with 84% (n?=?54) responding on the same day they were contacted. All clients (n?=?64) were treated for their infection, with 72% (n?=?46) having directly-observed treatment within one day of being informed of their results via SMS. Our results suggest that SMS is a highly effective, youth-friendly communication tool. PMID:24695015

  2. Bottled memories: on how alcohol affects eyewitness recall.

    PubMed

    Hagsand, Angelica; Hjelmsäter, Emma Roos Af; Granhag, Pär Anders; Fahlke, Claudia; Söderpalm-Gordh, Anna

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated how different doses of alcohol affected eyewitness recall. Participants (N = 126) were randomly assigned to three groups with different blood alcohol concentration (BAC), either a control group (mean BAC 0.00%, N = 42), a lower alcohol dose group (mean BAC 0.04%, N = 40), or a higher alcohol dose group (mean BAC 0.06%, N = 44). After consumption, participants witnessed a movie of a mock crime and were interviewed one week later. The main results showed that witnesses with the higher intoxication level recalled fewer details compared to witnesses with the lower intoxication level. The amount of alcohol consumed did not have an impact on the accuracy rate. No sex differences were found. The results are discussed in the light of past research. We conclude that more studies are needed before recommendations can be made to an applied setting. PMID:23384077

  3. Validation of the OMNI RPE Seven Day Exertional Recall Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schafer, Mark A.; Robertson, Robert J.; Thekkada, Savitha J.; Gallagher, Michael, Jr.; Hunt, Sarah E.; Goss, Fredric L.; Aaron, Deborah J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The present study examined the validity of the Seven Day Recall Questionnaire among recreationally active men and women. Method: Initially, participants completed a level walk (2.5 mph [4.0 kph]), hill walk (3.5 mph [5.6 kph], 5% grade), and run (5.0 mph [8.0 kph], 2.5% grade). Seven days later, participants were given the Seven Day…

  4. Mojibake – The rehearsal of word fragments in verbal recall

    PubMed Central

    Lange-Küttner, Christiane; Sykorova, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Theories of verbal rehearsal usually assume that whole words are being rehearsed. However, words consist of letter sequences, or syllables, or word onset-vowel-coda, amongst many other conceptualizations of word structure. A more general term is the ‘grain size’ of word units (Ziegler and Goswami, 2005). In the current study, a new method measured the quantitative percentage of correctly remembered word structure. The amount of letters in the correct letter sequence as per cent of word length was calculated, disregarding missing or added letters. A forced rehearsal was tested by repeating each memory list four times. We tested low frequency (LF) English words versus geographical (UK) town names to control for content. We also tested unfamiliar international (INT) non-words and names of international (INT) European towns to control for familiarity. An immediate versus distributed repetition was tested with a between-subject design. Participants responded with word fragments in their written recall especially when they had to remember unfamiliar words. While memory of whole words was sensitive to content, presentation distribution and individual sex and language differences, recall of word fragments was not. There was no trade-off between memory of word fragments with whole word recall during the repetition, instead also word fragments significantly increased. Moreover, while whole word responses correlated with each other during repetition, and word fragment responses correlated with each other during repetition, these two types of word recall responses were not correlated with each other. Thus there may be a lower layer consisting of free, sparse word fragments and an upper layer that consists of language-specific, orthographically and semantically constrained words. PMID:25941500

  5. Age, speed of information processing, recall, and fluid intelligence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas A. Bors; Bert Forrin

    1995-01-01

    On three occasions, 63 adults, ranging in age from 26 to 80 years, all in good health, were tested with three speed of information-processing paradigms (the Sternberg, the Posner, and the Hick), two long-term free-recall tasks, and, as a measure of fluid intelligence, the Raven Advanced Progressive Matrices (RAPM) test. Whereas within-condition latencies for the three of the information-processing tasks

  6. Improving basic multiplication fact recall for primary school students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monica Wong; David Evans

    2007-01-01

    This study implemented a multiplication program based on systematic practice, aimed at improving children’s recall of basic\\u000a multiplication facts. Four Year 5 classes were recruited to participate in the study. Two classes practised multiplication\\u000a facts using pencil and paper worksheets and another two classes practised on computers. Eleven practice sessions (each of\\u000a 15 minutes duration) were conducted over a four

  7. Within-session spacing improves delayed recall in children.

    PubMed

    Zigterman, Jessica R; Simone, Patricia M; Bell, Matthew C

    2015-01-01

    Multiple retrievals of a memory over a spaced manner improve long-term memory performance in infants, children, younger and older adults; however, few studies have examined spacing effects with young school-age children. To expand the understanding of the spacing benefit in children, the current study presented weakly associated English word-pairs to children aged 7-11 and cued their recall two times immediately (massed), after a delay of 5 or 10 items (spaced) or not at all (control). After this encoding session with or without two retrievals, participants were tested two times for memory of all word-pairs: immediately and 30 minutes after the encoding session. Multiple retrievals significantly improved memory on the tests. However, words repeated in a spaced design were remembered at higher rates than those that were massed, while gap size between repetitions (5 or 10) did not differentially impact performance. The data show that a within-session spacing strategy can benefit children's ability to remember word-pairs after 30 minutes. Thus, asking students to recall what they have learned within a lesson is a technique that can be used in a classroom to improve long-term recall. PMID:24805305

  8. Category clustering for immediate and delayed recall as a function of recall cue information and response dominance variability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert L. Hudson

    1969-01-01

    Presented words from the Underwood and Richardson norms for free recall to 84 25-34 yr. old Ss. Ss were instructed before word presentation (information-before) or after word presentation (information-after) that the words could be categorized. There was also a no-information control group. Ss were presented 1 of 2 lists equated for mean response dominance, but differing in response dominance variability.

  9. Vegetarian Diets in Pregnancy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ann Reed Mangels

    A vegetarian diet, defined as an eating style that avoids meat, fish, and poultry, can be healthful and nutritionally adequate\\u000a for a pregnant woman. Some vegetarians, called vegans, avoid dairy products and eggs as well as meat, fish, and poultry. Vegan\\u000a diets can also be healthful and nutritionally adequate for pregnancy. Vegetarian diets can provide numerous long-term health\\u000a benefits including

  10. Diet and Epigenetics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharon A. Ross

    \\u000a 1. Diet and dietary factors are important contributing factors to health and disease. Since an inappropriate diet may contribute\\u000a significantly to the causation of chronic disease, including cancer, it is important to uncover the molecular mechanisms of\\u000a dietary bioactive factors in health and disease in order to determine the best strategies for intervention.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 2. Evidence suggests that diet and other

  11. Is dream recall underestimated by retrospective measures and enhanced by keeping a logbook? A review.

    PubMed

    Aspy, Denholm J; Delfabbro, Paul; Proeve, Michael

    2015-05-01

    There are two methods commonly used to measure dream recall in the home setting. The retrospective method involves asking participants to estimate their dream recall in response to a single question and the logbook method involves keeping a daily record of one's dream recall. Until recently, the implicit assumption has been that these measures are largely equivalent. However, this is challenged by the tendency for retrospective measures to yield significantly lower dream recall rates than logbooks. A common explanation for this is that retrospective measures underestimate dream recall. Another is that keeping a logbook enhances it. If retrospective measures underestimate dream recall and if logbooks enhance it they are both unlikely to reflect typical dream recall rates and may be confounded with variables associated with the underestimation and enhancement effects. To date, this issue has received insufficient attention. The present review addresses this gap in the literature. PMID:25725324

  12. Prescription diets for rabbits.

    PubMed

    Proença, Laila Maftoum; Mayer, Jörg

    2014-09-01

    Dietary management can be used with drug therapy for the successful treatment of many diseases. Therapeutic nutrition is well-recognized in dogs and cats and is beginning to increase among other pet species, including rabbits. The nutritional component of some rabbit diseases (eg, urolithiasis) is not completely understood, and the clinician should evaluate the use of prescription diets based on the scientific literature and individual needs. Long-term feeding trials are needed to further evaluate the efficacy of prescription diets in rabbits. Prescription diets are available for selected diseases in rabbits, including diets for immediate-term, short-term, and long-term management. PMID:25155667

  13. The effect of elemental diet on intestinal permeability and inflammation in Crohn's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Teahon, K.; Smethurst, P.; Pearson, M.; Levi, A.J.; Bjarnason, I. (Section of Gastroenterology, Medical Research Council Clinical Research Centre, Harrow, Middlesex (England))

    1991-07-01

    This study examines whether treatment of acute Crohn's disease with an elemental diet improves intestinal integrity and inflammation as assessed by a 51Cr-labeled ethylenediaminetetraacetatic acid (EDTA) permeability test and the fecal excretion of 111In-labeled autologous leukocytes, respectively. Thirty-four patients with active Crohn's disease completed a 4-week treatment course with an elemental diet. Active disease was characterized by increased intestinal permeability (24-hour urine excretion of orally administered 51Cr-EDTA, 6.4% {plus minus} 0.6% (mean {plus minus} SE); normal, less than 3.0%) and by high fecal excretion of 111In-labeled leukocytes (14.2% {plus minus} 1.1%; normal, less than 1.0%). Twenty-seven (80%) went into clinical remission, usually within a week of starting treatment. After 4 weeks of treatment, there was a significant decrease in both the urine excretion of 51Cr-EDTA (to 3.4% {plus minus} 0.5%; P less than 0.01) and the fecal excretion of 111In (to 5.7% {plus minus} 1.0%; P less than 0.001), indicating that such treatment is not just symptomatic. A framework for the mechanism by which elemental diet works, centering around the importance of the integrity of the intestinal barrier function, is proposed, and also appears to provide a logical explanation for some relapses of the disease.

  14. Examining the Relationship between Immediate Serial Recall and Immediate Free Recall: Common Effects of Phonological Loop Variables but Only Limited Evidence for the Phonological Loop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spurgeon, Jessica; Ward, Geoff; Matthews, William J.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the contribution of the phonological loop to immediate free recall (IFR) and immediate serial recall (ISR) of lists of between one and 15 words. Following Baddeley (1986, 2000, 2007, 2012), we assumed that visual words could be recoded into the phonological store when presented silently but that recoding would be prevented by…

  15. Key Concepts about Measurement Error | Dietary Assessment Primer

    Cancer.gov

    Because dietary intake can rarely be directly observed, we typically rely on self-report instruments, such as 24-hour dietary recalls (24HR), food records, food frequency questionnaires (FFQ), screeners (see Instrument Profiles), and diet history instruments (Learn More about Diet History). Choosing a self-report dietary assessment instrument involves many considerations about the types and extent of measurement error that characterize data collected using these different instruments.

  16. Two random repeat recall methods to assess alcohol use.

    PubMed Central

    Midanik, L T

    1993-01-01

    Two random repeat recall methods were compared with a summary measure to assess alcohol use. Subjects (n = 142) were randomly assigned to one of two groups; they were called either on 14 random days during three 30-day waves and asked about drinking yesterday, or on 2 random days during each wave and asked about drinking in the past week. Follow-up telephone interviews obtained summary measures for each wave. Random repeat methods generally obtained higher estimates. However, the high dropout rate makes questionable the feasibility of using this approach with general population samples. PMID:8498631

  17. Iron in diet

    MedlinePLUS

    Diet - iron ... the body. Treatment consists of a low-iron diet, no iron supplements, and phlebotomy (blood removal) on ... The Food and Nutrition Board at the Institute of Medicine recommends the following: Infants and children Younger than 6 months: 0.27 milligrams ...

  18. The Recognition without Cued Recall Phenomenon: Support for a Feature-Matching Theory over a Partial Recollection Account

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryals, Anthony J.; Cleary, Anne M.

    2012-01-01

    Among cues that fail to elicit successful recall, participants can still discriminate between cues that do and do not resemble studied items. This ability is referred to as recognition without cued recall (RWCR). We hypothesized that whereas recognition with cued recall is at least partly based on recalled studied information, RWCR results from a…

  19. Snacking is associated with overall diet quality among adults.

    PubMed

    Zizza, Claire A; Xu, Beibei

    2012-02-01

    Snacking occasions are considered to contribute little more than energy to the diet; however, few studies have examined the role of snacking on overall diet quality. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between snacking frequency and overall diet quality. This study included 11,209 adults aged 20 years and older who participated in the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Twenty-four-hour dietary recall data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004 were used to assess snacking frequency and diet quality. Diet quality was assessed with the US Department of Agriculture's Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005). To adjust for confounding variables, multiple linear regression models were used to estimate the association between snacking frequency and HEI-2005 score, whereas the relationship between snacking frequency and HEI-2005 component scores were examined with Tobit regression models. Contrary to expectation, snacking was modestly associated (P<0.001) with higher total HEI-2005 scores (49.3±0.5, 49.9±0.3, 50.9±0.3, 51.9±0.4, and 51.6±0.6 for snacking zero, one, two, three, and four or more times per day, respectively). Total fruit (P<0.001), whole fruit (P<0.001), whole grains (P<0.001), milk (P<0.001), oils (P<0.001), and sodium (P<0.001) component scores were positively associated with snacking frequency. Inverse associations between snacking frequency and total vegetables (P=0.009); meat and beans (P=0.045); and the energy from solid fat, alcohol, and added sugars (P=0.007) components were observed. Although the magnitude of the association between snacking and overall diet quality was modest, snacking was associated with a more nutrient-dense diet. Focusing on the contribution snacking may have on single nutrient intakes may overlook its total nutritional impact. PMID:22741170

  20. Robust sequential working memory recall in heterogeneous cognitive networks

    PubMed Central

    Rabinovich, Mikhail I.; Sokolov, Yury; Kozma, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are often caused by partial heterogeneous disinhibition in cognitive networks, controlling sequential and spatial working memory (SWM). Such dynamic connectivity changes suggest that the normal relationship between the neuronal components within the network deteriorates. As a result, competitive network dynamics is qualitatively altered. This dynamics defines the robust recall of the sequential information from memory and, thus, the SWM capacity. To understand pathological and non-pathological bifurcations of the sequential memory dynamics, here we investigate the model of recurrent inhibitory-excitatory networks with heterogeneous inhibition. We consider the ensemble of units with all-to-all inhibitory connections, in which the connection strengths are monotonically distributed at some interval. Based on computer experiments and studying the Lyapunov exponents, we observed and analyzed the new phenomenon—clustered sequential dynamics. The results are interpreted in the context of the winnerless competition principle. Accordingly, clustered sequential dynamics is represented in the phase space of the model by two weakly interacting quasi-attractors. One of them is similar to the sequential heteroclinic chain—the regular image of SWM, while the other is a quasi-chaotic attractor. Coexistence of these quasi-attractors means that the recall of the normal information sequence is intermittently interrupted by episodes with chaotic dynamics. We indicate potential dynamic ways for augmenting damaged working memory and other cognitive functions. PMID:25452717

  1. Supraliminal But Not Subliminal Distracters Bias Working Memory Recall

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Information of which observers are not consciously aware can nevertheless influence perceptual processes. Whether subliminal information might exert an influence on working memory (WM) representations is less clear, and relatively few studies have examined the interactions between subliminal and supraliminal information in WM. We present 3 experiments examining this issue. Experiments 1a and b replicated the finding that orientation stimuli can influence behavior subliminally in a visuomotor priming task. Experiments 2 and 3 used the same orientation stimuli, but participants had to remember a target orientation and report it back by adjusting a probe orientation after a memory delay. Before or after presentation of the target orientation, a subliminal or supraliminal distracter orientation was presented that was either irrelevant for task completion and never had to be reported (Experiment 2), or was relevant for task completion because it had to be reported on some trials (Experiment 3). In both experiments, presentation of a supraliminal distracter influenced WM recall of the target orientation. When the distracter was presented subliminally, however, there was no bias in orientation recall. These results suggest that information stored in WM is protected from influences of subliminal stimuli, while online information processing is modulated by subliminal information. PMID:25867502

  2. Does verbatim sentence recall underestimate the language competence of near-native speakers?

    PubMed Central

    Schweppe, Judith; Barth, Sandra; Ketzer-Nöltge, Almut; Rummer, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Verbatim sentence recall is widely used to test the language competence of native and non-native speakers since it involves comprehension and production of connected speech. However, we assume that, to maintain surface information, sentence recall relies particularly on attentional resources, which differentially affects native and non-native speakers. Since even in near-natives language processing is less automatized than in native speakers, processing a sentence in a foreign language plus retaining its surface may result in a cognitive overload. We contrasted sentence recall performance of German native speakers with that of highly proficient non-natives. Non-natives recalled the sentences significantly poorer than the natives, but performed equally well on a cloze test. This implies that sentence recall underestimates the language competence of good non-native speakers in mixed groups with native speakers. The findings also suggest that theories of sentence recall need to consider both its linguistic and its attentional aspects. PMID:25698996

  3. Task experience and children's working memory performance: a perspective from recall timing.

    PubMed

    Towse, John N; Cowan, Nelson; Horton, Neil J; Whytock, Shealagh

    2008-05-01

    Working memory is an important theoretical construct among children, and measures of its capacity predict a range of cognitive skills and abilities. Data from 9- and 11-year-old children illustrate how a chronometric analysis of recall can complement and elaborate recall accuracy in advancing our understanding of working memory. A reading span task was completed by 130 children, 75 of whom were tested on 2 occasions, with sequence length either increasing or decreasing during test administration. Substantial pauses occur during participants' recall sequences, and they represent consistent performance traits over time, while also varying with recall circumstances and task history. Recall pauses help to predict reading and number skills, alongside as well as separate from levels of recall accuracy. The task demands of working memory change as a function of task experience, with a combination of accuracy and response timing in novel task situations being the strongest predictor of cognitive attainment. PMID:18473637

  4. Indicators for the evaluation of diet quality.

    PubMed

    Gil, Ángel; Martinez de Victoria, Emilio; Olza, Josune

    2015-01-01

    The role of diet quality and physical activity in reducing the progression of chronic disease is becoming increasingly important. Dietary Quality Indices or Indicators (DQIs) are algorithms aiming to evaluate the overall diet and categorize individuals according to the extent to which their eating behaviour is "healthy". Predefined indexes assess dietary patterns based on current nutrition knowledge and they have been developed primarily for nutritional epidemiology to assess dietary risk factors for non-communicable diseases. There are many different types of DQIs. There are three major categories of DQIs: a) nutrient-based indicators; b) food/food group based indicators; and c) combination indexes, the vast majority of DQIs, which often include a measure of diet variety within and across food groups, a measure of adequacy i.e. nutrients (compared to requirements) or food groups (quantities or servings), a measure of nutrients/foods to consume in moderation, and an overall balance of macronutrients. The Healthy Eating Index (HEI), the Diet Quality Index (DQI), the Healthy Diet Indicator (HDI) and the Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) are the four 'original' diet quality scores that have been referred to and validated most extensively. Several indexes have been adapted and modified from those originals. In particular, many variations on the MDS have been proposed, included different alternate MDS and Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener (MEDAS). Primary data source of DQI's are individual dietary data collection tools, namely 24 h quantitative intake recalls, dietary records and food frequency questionnaires. Nutrients found in many scores are total fat, saturated fatty acids or the ratio of monounsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids or the latter SFA to polyunsaturated fatty acids. Cholesterol, protein content and quality, complex carbohydrates, mono- and disaccharides, dietary fibre and sodium are also found in various scores. All DQIs, except those that only contain nutrients, include the components fruits and vegetables; additional attributes are legumes or pulses, nuts and seeds. Meat and meat products, namely red and processed meat, poultry, and milk and dairy products are also included in many scores. Other foods contained in some DQIs e.g. MDS are olive oil and fish. Nowadays, there is interest in defining more than DQIs, healthy life indices (HLIs), which give information on behaviours associated with specific patterns and beyond dietary habits they include physical activity, rest and selected socio-cultural habits. The Mediterranean Lifestyle (MEDLIFE) index has been recently created based on the current Spanish Mediterranean food guide pyramid and it includes both the assessment of food consumption directly related to the Mediterranean diet, physical activity and rest and other relevant cultural information. However, a global HLI should consider, based on the Iberoamerican Nutrition Foundation (FINUT) Pyramid of Healthy Lifestyles, in addition to food groups and nutrients, selected items on food safety e.g. consumption rate of proceed foods, food handling, preparation and storage and access to drinking water, selected food habits, including alcoholic beverage and salt consumption patterns, purchase of seasonal and local foods, home cooking and conviviality, as well as patterns of physical activity, sedentary and rest habits and some selected sociocultural habits, particularly those related to food selection, religious beliefs and socializing with friends. PMID:25719781

  5. Diet and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hislop, T. Gregory

    1990-01-01

    Most of the common cancers in Canada have been associated in some way with diet. More than half of all newly diagnosed cancers and cancer-related deaths are limited to three sites in each sex: lung, prostate, and colorectum in men and breast, colorectum, and lung in women. The earliest and strongest epidemiologic evidence associating diet and cancer has come from descriptive correlation studies. The findings of subsequent, more powerful, analytic studies have been inconsistent. The author reviews the importance of diet for common cancers in Canada and considers the methodologic limitations of various study designs. PMID:21233971

  6. Gender differences in preschool children’s recall of competitive and noncompetitive computer mathematics games

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katherine Grace Hendrix

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated whether competitive and noncompetitive educational mathematics computer games influence four? to seven?year?old boys’ and girls’ recall of game?playing experience. A qualitative analysis was performed to investigate what preschool children may have learned through their selective recall of game?playing experience. A difference emerged in six? to seven?year?old boys’ and girls’ recall after playing a competitive computer mathematics game,

  7. Word length and age influences on forward and backward immediate serial recall

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rosemary Baker; Gerald Tehan; Hannah Tehan

    The present research is aimed at understanding the processes involved in short-term memory and how they interact with age.\\u000a Specifically, word length effects were examined under forward serial recall, backward serial recall, and item recognition\\u000a tasks, with performance being interpreted within an item-order theoretical framework. The interaction of age, word length,\\u000a and direction of recall was examined in two experiments,

  8. Recall of details never experienced: Effects of age, repetition, and semantic cues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robyn E. Holliday; Valerie F. Reyna; Charles J. Brainerd

    2008-01-01

    To test theoretical predictions about the role of meaning connections in false memory, the effects of semantic cues and list repetition on children's false memories were evaluated across early childhood to mid-adolescence using the Deese–Roediger–McDermott (DRM) paradigm. True recall and false recall increased from 7 to 13 years. Study list repetition increased true recall of list words with the magnitude

  9. Two Modality Effects in Verbal Short-Term Memory: Evidence from Sentence Recall

    PubMed Central

    Rummer, Ralf; Schweppe, Judith; Martin, Randi C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the mechanisms underlying the standard modality effect (i.e., better recall performance for auditorily presented than for visually presented materials), and the modality congruency effect (i.e., better memory performance if the mode of recall and presentation are congruent rather than incongruent, Rummer, Schweppe, & Martin, 2009). We tested the assumption that the standard modality effect is restricted to the most recent word(s) of the sentences but occurs in both verbatim and gist recall (Experiments 1 and 2), whereas the modality congruency effect should be evident for the rest of the sentence when using verbatim recall (Experiment 3) but not when using gist recall (Experiment 4). All experiments used the Potter-Lombardi intrusion paradigm (Potter & Lombardi, 1990). When the target word was the most recent word of the sentence, a standard modality effect was found with both verbatim recall and gist recall. When the target word was included in the middle of the sentences, a modality congruency effect was found with verbatim recall but not with gist recall. PMID:23894695

  10. Magnesium in diet

    MedlinePLUS

    Diet - magnesium ... Magnesium is needed for more than 300 biochemical reactions in the body. It helps to maintain normal ... There is ongoing research into the role of magnesium in preventing and managing disorders such as high ...

  11. Copper in diet

    MedlinePLUS

    Diet - copper ... Copper works with iron to help the body form red blood cells. It also helps keep the ... organ meats (kidneys, liver) are good sources of copper. Dark leafy greens, dried fruits such as prunes, ...

  12. Diet - liver disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Liver disease can affect the absorption of food and the production of proteins and vitamins. Therefore, your diet may influence your weight, appetite, and the amounts of vitamins in your body. Do not limit ...

  13. Diet and Exercise

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Types Risk Factors Prevention & Early Detection Diet And Exercise Transplant recipients need to be aware of the ... help arrange for counseling and other support services. Exercise After a Transplant Most people are weak after ...

  14. Diet and Your Liver

    MedlinePLUS

    ... have a lot of fiber such as fresh fruits and vegetables, whole grain breads, rice and cereals Are there diet changes for those with liver disease? It is important for people with liver disease ...

  15. Vegan diets and hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Tonstad, Serena; Nathan, Edward; Oda, Keiji; Fraser, Gary

    2013-11-01

    Diets eliminating animal products have rarely been associated with hypothyroidism but may protect against autoimmune disease. Thus, we investigated whether risk of hypothyroidism was associated with vegetarian compared to omnivorous dietary patterns. The Adventist Health Study-2 was conducted among church members in North America who provided data in a self-administered questionnaire. Hypothyroidism was queried at baseline in 2002 and at follow-up to 2008. Diet was examined as a determinant of prevalent (n = 4237 of 65,981 [6.4%]) and incident cases (1184 of 41,212 [2.9%]) in multivariate logistic regression models, controlled for demographics and salt use. In the prevalence study, in addition to demographic characterstics, overweight and obesity increased the odds (OR 1.32, 95% CI: 1.22-1.42 and 1.78, 95% CI: 1.64-1.93, respectively). Vegan versus omnivorous diets tended to be associated with reduced risk (OR 0.89, 95% CI: 0.78-1.01, not statistically significant) while a lacto-ovo diet was associated with increased risk (OR 1.09, 95% CI: 1.01-1.18). In the incidence study, female gender, white ethnicity, higher education and BMI were predictors of hypothyroidism. Following a vegan diet tended to be protective (OR 0.78, 95% CI: 0.59-1.03, not statistically significant). In conclusion, a vegan diet tended to be associated with lower, not higher, risk of hypothyroid disease. PMID:24264226

  16. Risk Assessment-Based Individualized Treatment (RABIT): a comprehensive approach to dental patient recall.

    PubMed

    Teich, Sorin T

    2013-04-01

    Patient recall should be a tool to support prevention, allow early intervention, and ensure long-term dental health. Although the concept of patient-customized recall intervals has increased in popularity, recommendations vary significantly. Concepts of risk assessment-derived recalls are described in the literature separately for caries, periodontal disease, and edentulism, but no published guidelines exist for creating patient-centered recall systems that integrate all risks. Further, no recommendations exist regarding oral cancer risk assessment and recall intervals. The evidence shows that recall intervals of less than twelve months do not impact stage and tumor size at diagnosis although increasing this interval may significantly affect the outcome. The typical approach to recall scheduling is that the interval before the next oral health review should be chosen when no further treatment is indicated or on completion of a specific treatment journey. This article advocates a modified approach that supports individualized risk-based recall schedules not only after active therapy is completed but also during the course of treatment. The design of individualized recall schedules would address a patient's risk for caries and periodontal disease and the need to perform periodic oral cancer screenings. Evidence is also presented regarding the timing of recalls for edentulous patients. This article describes design principles for a Risk Assessment-Based Individualized Treatment (RABIT) system, presents an example of an electronic health record (EHR) recall module implemented at one dental school, and identifies barriers to implementation. As EHRs become more prevalent in dental practice, it is expected that the software industry and the profession will collaborate to include RABIT-like concepts in software management packages. PMID:23576590

  17. The Difference in Nutrient Intakes between Chinese and Mediterranean, Japanese and American Diets

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ronghua; Wang, Zhaopin; Fei, Ying; Zhou, Biao; Zheng, Shuangshuang; Wang, Lijuan; Huang, Lichun; Jiang, Shuying; Liu, Zeyu; Jiang, Jingxin; Yu, Yunxian

    2015-01-01

    Across countries, the predominant diets are clearly different and highly related with human health. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate dietary nutrients between them. This study aimed to evaluate dietary nutrients in China and compare those between Chinese and Mediterranean (Italian), Japanese and American diets. Dietary intakes of 2659 subjects in south-east China, Zhejiang province, from 2010 to 2012, were estimated by three consecutive 24-h dietary recalls. The contribution of carbohydrate to total energy in Chinese subjects was lower than that in Japanese and American subjects, but higher than that in Italian subjects. However, the energy contribution from fat in Chinese subjects was higher than that in Japanese and American subjects, and similar to that in Italian subjects. Moreover, the Chinese diet had lower daily intakes of fiber, calcium, phosphorus, potassium, selenium, vitamin A, vitamin B1, vitamin B2 and vitamin C, compared with the Japanese, American and Italian diets. Nevertheless, intakes of sodium, iron, copper and vitamin E were higher among Chinese people relative to the people of other three countries. The present study demonstrated that the structure of the Chinese diet has been shifting away from the traditional diet toward high-fat, low-carbohydrate and low-fiber diets, and nutrients intakes in Chinese people have been changing even worse than those in American people. PMID:26066014

  18. The Difference in Nutrient Intakes between Chinese and Mediterranean, Japanese and American Diets.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ronghua; Wang, Zhaopin; Fei, Ying; Zhou, Biao; Zheng, Shuangshuang; Wang, Lijuan; Huang, Lichun; Jiang, Shuying; Liu, Zeyu; Jiang, Jingxin; Yu, Yunxian

    2015-01-01

    Across countries, the predominant diets are clearly different and highly related with human health. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate dietary nutrients between them. This study aimed to evaluate dietary nutrients in China and compare those between Chinese and Mediterranean (Italian), Japanese and American diets. Dietary intakes of 2659 subjects in south-east China, Zhejiang province, from 2010 to 2012, were estimated by three consecutive 24-h dietary recalls. The contribution of carbohydrate to total energy in Chinese subjects was lower than that in Japanese and American subjects, but higher than that in Italian subjects. However, the energy contribution from fat in Chinese subjects was higher than that in Japanese and American subjects, and similar to that in Italian subjects. Moreover, the Chinese diet had lower daily intakes of fiber, calcium, phosphorus, potassium, selenium, vitamin A, vitamin B1, vitamin B2 and vitamin C, compared with the Japanese, American and Italian diets. Nevertheless, intakes of sodium, iron, copper and vitamin E were higher among Chinese people relative to the people of other three countries. The present study demonstrated that the structure of the Chinese diet has been shifting away from the traditional diet toward high-fat, low-carbohydrate and low-fiber diets, and nutrients intakes in Chinese people have been changing even worse than those in American people. PMID:26066014

  19. One-year delayed recall performance of the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure in a healthy young adult sample.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Hikari

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the performance of the very long-term delayed recall trial (1 year) of the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (ROCF) in a healthy young adult sample. Forty-one healthy university students were given the delayed recall trial, one year after receiving the copy and the 3-minutes delayed recall trial of the ROCF. Although a significant decrease of the recall score was shown by comparison with the 3-minutes delayed recall trial, all the participants were able to draw a certain figure including the main features of the ROCF on the 1-year delayed recall trial. PMID:19430996

  20. Scoring Recalls for L2 Readers of English in China: Pausal or Idea Units

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brantmeier, Cindy; Strube, Michael; Yu, Xiucheng

    2014-01-01

    Written recall may be a powerful tool used to address reading deficiencies in China. With 180 students enrolled in a third-year English class at a large university in northeastern China, the present investigation studies the relationship between pausal and idea units used to codify written recalls, and it investigates whether the strength of the…

  1. 21 CFR 107.260 - Revision of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Revision of an infant formula recall. 107.260 Section 107.260 Food and...CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.260 Revision of an infant...

  2. 21 CFR 107.230 - Elements of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Elements of an infant formula recall. 107.230 Section 107.230 Food and...CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.230 Elements of an infant...

  3. 21 CFR 107.260 - Revision of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Revision of an infant formula recall. 107.260 Section 107.260 Food and...CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.260 Revision of an infant...

  4. Episodic Memory in Adults with Autistic Spectrum Disorders: Recall for Self- versus Other-Experienced Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hare, Dougal Julian; Mellor, Christine; Azmi, Sabiha

    2007-01-01

    People with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) have difficulties in recalling recently experienced events, which is dependent upon intact functioning of several aspects of "self awareness". The current study examined impaired episodic recall in ASD and its relationship to specific impairments in aspects of "self awareness". Between-group…

  5. Recall for Context-Related Sentences and for Similar Unrelated Sentences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drum, Priscilla

    This study explored the effects of different sentence conditions upon reading comprehension as evidenced by reading rate and recall taken at various times. Thirty-two subjects from a California high school representing four sex-by-ability groups, read experimental material on a table-top programmer while being timed. Recall responses were recorded…

  6. Gender Differences in Preschool Children's Recall of Competitive and Noncompetitive Computer Mathematics Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Fang-Yi Flora; Hendrix, Katherine Grace

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated whether competitive and noncompetitive educational mathematics computer games influence four- to seven-year-old boys' and girls' recall of game-playing experience. A qualitative analysis was performed to investigate what preschool children may have learned through their selective recall of game-playing experience. A…

  7. Storage and Recall of Complex Temporal Sequences through a Contextually Guided Self-Organizing Neural Network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guilherme De A. Barreto; Aluizio F. R. Araújo

    2000-01-01

    A self-organizing neural network for learning and recall of complex temporal sequences is proposed. we consider a single sequence with repeated items, or several sequences with a common state. Both cases gives rise to ambiguities during recall of such sequences which is resolved through context i nput units. Competitive weights encode spatial features of the input sequence, while the temporal

  8. The Role of Visuo-Spatial Abilities in Recall of Spatial Descriptions: A Mediation Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meneghetti, Chiara; De Beni, Rossana; Pazzaglia, Francesca; Gyselinck, Valerie

    2011-01-01

    This research investigates how visuo-spatial abilities (such as mental rotation--MR--and visuo-spatial working memory--VSWM--) work together to influence the recall of environmental descriptions. We tested a mediation model in which VSWM was assumed to mediate the relationship between MR and spatial text recall. First, 120 participants were…

  9. Family history of breast cancer: what do women understand and recall about their genetic risk?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Watson; V Duvivier; M Wade Walsh; S Ashley; J Davidson; M Papaikonomou; V Murday; N Sacks; R Eeles

    1998-01-01

    The current study has two aims: (1) to look at people's recall of risk information after genetic counselling and (2) to determine the impact of receiving an audiotape of the genetic consultation on level of recall, cancer related worry, and women's uptake of risk management methods. Using a prospective randomised controlled design, subjects receiving an audiotape were compared with a

  10. Anxiety and memory: A recall bias for threatening words in high anxiety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Reidy; Anne Richards

    1997-01-01

    Few studies have directly examined the relationship between trait anxiety and explicit memory for emotionally congruent material. Evidence from clinically anxious subjects, however, suggests a recall bias favouring non-threatening words as opposed to threatening words. Two experiments are reported which examined the recall performance of high- and low-trait anxious subjects. Contrary to the clinical anxiety findings, there was evidence of

  11. The Effects of State Anxiety on Recall Performance in Older Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Robert D.; Vandervoort, Debbie

    1992-01-01

    Data from the State Trait Anxiety Inventory completed by 74 older adult participants in a memory improvement program revealed state anxiety to be a significant predictor of recall. State anxiety and age were negatively associated with recall; study time and vocabulary were positively associated. (SK)

  12. Effects of Active vs. Passive Review Strategies on Recalling Information from an Interactive Video Instructional Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tovar, Mariela

    1989-01-01

    Describes a study of college students that was conducted to investigate the effect of two review strategies on the recall of information from an interactive video program. Treatments for the active review group, the passive review group, and the control group are described. Recall posttests and amount of time required to complete the instruction…

  13. Recall of parent–child experience and performance on the Stroop Test

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian J. McCormick; Anne Toland; Patrick ONeill

    1980-01-01

    In 2 experiments, 108 college students who recalled different parent–child experiences performed the Stroop Color-Word Test while listening to aversive cues from actors simulating a mother or a father. Generally, Ss experienced more cognitive disruption (as measured by RT) when their recalled experience of aversive control matched the aversive cue. In an investigation of childrearing patterns and schizophrenia, A. J.

  14. Children's Recall and Motivation for an Environmental Education Video with Supporting Pedagogical Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viteri, Fátima; Clarebout, Geraldine; Crauwels, Marion

    2014-01-01

    This study examined recall (Rcl) differences of high, average and low achieving fifth-grade elementary students (72) for an environmental education video with supporting pedagogical materials. In addition, it assessed the motivational level of all students. Recall assessment was carried out one-week and twenty-weeks after intervention. Main…

  15. Transitional Information in Spatial Serial Memory: Path Characteristics Affect Recall Performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabrice B. R. Parmentier; Greg Elford; Murray Mayberry

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the role of stimulus characteristics in a visuospatial order reconstruction task in which participants were required to recall the order of sequences of spatial locations. The complexity of the to-be-remembered sequences, as measured by path crossing, path length, and angles, was found to affect serial memory, in terms of both recall accuracy and response times. The results

  16. TinyLex: Static N-Gram Index Pruning with Perfect Recall Derrick Coetzee

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    TinyLex: Static N-Gram Index Pruning with Perfect Recall Derrick Coetzee Microsoft Research of characters (n-grams) as terms provide an error-resilient and language-independent way to query for arbitrary of recall. Taking advantage of the unique inclusion structure of n-gram terms of different lengths, we show

  17. Dynamic Cortical and Subcortical Networks in Learning and Delayed Recall of Timed Motor Sequences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Virginia B. Penhune; Julien Doyon

    2002-01-01

    during different phases of learning and delayed recall. For the first time our findings show that recall of motor sequences in humans is mediated by a predominantly cortical network. Based on these results, we suggest that during early learning cerebellar mechanisms are involved in adjusting movement kinematics according to sensory input to produce accurate motor output. Thereafter, the cerebellar mechanisms

  18. Effect of Position of Information in a Passage's Organizational Structure on Recall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Bonnie J. F.; McConkie, George W.

    The purpose of this study to determine if information high in the logical structure of a passage tends to be recalled better than information low in the structure. Two groups of 24 Cornell undergraduates participated in the experiment. Subjects in each group read and recalled three passages. Group one read the Breeder Reactor High, Schizophrenia…

  19. Facilitating Lecture Recall: The Effects of Embedded Imagery-Evoking Phrases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thrailkill, Nancy J.; Ormrod, Jeanne Ellis

    Three experiments describe the effects of imagery on learning a large and integrated body of information from a college lecture. It was hypothesized that high-imagery phrases would be more easily recalled and would promote recall of abstract verbal phrases in close temporal proximity to them. In experiment 1, 22 undergraduates attended a lecture…

  20. Time-Varying Effects of Recall Expectation, a Reemployment Bonus, and Job Counseling on Unemployment Durations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia M. Anderson

    1992-01-01

    A simple search model that includes the possibility of recall provides predictions as to the changing effects of recall expectations, a bonus offer, and job counseling on new job finding rates over time. Using data from the New Jersey Unemployment Insurance Reemployment Demonstration Project, the author finds evidence for an initial positive effect of the bonus offer, which diminishes over

  1. Pauses in Elementary School Children's Verbatim and Gist Free Recall of a Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schonpflug, Ute

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the research was to explore the function of pauses in children's oral verbatim and gist-based free recall, assuming that pauses indicate cognitive processing. The main question guiding this research was whether verbatim and gist recall constituted two different ways of cognitive processing associated with different time patterns of…

  2. Reflections of Distraction in Memory: Transfer of Previous Distraction Improves Recall in Younger and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Ruthann C.; Hasher, Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Three studies explored whether younger and older adults' free recall performance can benefit from prior exposure to distraction that becomes relevant in a memory task. Participants initially read stories that included distracting text. Later, they studied a list of words for free recall, with half of the list consisting of previously distracting…

  3. Evidence of different underlying processes in pattern recall and decision-making.

    PubMed

    Gorman, Adam D; Abernethy, Bruce; Farrow, Damian

    2015-09-01

    The visual search characteristics of expert and novice basketball players were recorded during pattern recall and decision-making tasks to determine whether the two tasks shared common visual-perceptual processing strategies. The order in which participants entered the pattern elements in the recall task was also analysed to further examine the nature of the visual-perceptual strategies and the relative emphasis placed upon particular pattern features. The experts demonstrated superior performance across the recall and decision-making tasks [see also Gorman, A. D., Abernethy, B., & Farrow, D. (2012). Classical pattern recall tests and the prospective nature of expert performance. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 65, 1151-1160; Gorman, A. D., Abernethy, B., & Farrow, D. (2013a). Is the relationship between pattern recall and decision-making influenced by anticipatory recall? The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 66, 2219-2236)] but a number of significant differences in the visual search data highlighted disparities in the processing strategies, suggesting that recall skill may utilize different underlying visual-perceptual processes than those required for accurate decision-making performance in the natural setting. Performance on the recall task was characterized by a proximal-to-distal order of entry of the pattern elements with participants tending to enter the players located closest to the ball carrier earlier than those located more distal to the ball carrier. The results provide further evidence of the underlying perceptual processes employed by experts when extracting visual information from complex and dynamic patterns. PMID:25662705

  4. Product Recalls in the Medical Device Industry: An Empirical Exploration of the Sources and Financial Consequences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sriram Thirumalai; Kingshuk K. Sinha

    2011-01-01

    Medical devices play an increasingly significant role in the delivery of health care today. However, persistent quality problems with medical devices and the associated recalls present potential health risks to patients and personnel using these devices. This study addresses three key issues in this regard. First, it empirically assesses the financial implications of medical device recalls to understand if these

  5. Storage, degradation and recall of agent memory in Serious Games and Simulations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Irvine; Mario A. Góngora

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes our novel method for creating AI Agents that store and recall memories in a biologically inspired manner. We consider research on biological systems and note the limits on these systems in terms of both storage and recall capacity. We also examine existing technological methods for storing memories in Intelligent Agent systems and discuss their limitations for use

  6. An Examination of the Influence of Clicker Technology on College Student Involvement and Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaterlaus, J. Mitch; Beckert, Troy E.; Fauth, Elizabeth B.; Teemant, Boyd

    2012-01-01

    Educators in a variety of disciplines have used clicker technology to engage college students in the learning process. This study investigated the influence of clicker technology on student recall and student involvement in higher education. Student Involvement Theory was used to inform and guide this research. Student recall was evaluated using…

  7. Grain Size of Recall Practice for Lengthy Text Material: Fragile and Mysterious Effects on Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wissman, Kathryn T.; Rawson, Katherine A.

    2015-01-01

    The current research evaluated the extent to which the grain size of recall practice for lengthy text material affects recall during practice and subsequent memory. The "grain size hypothesis" states that a smaller vs. larger grain size will increase retrieval success during practice that in turn will enhance subsequent memory for…

  8. Repetition Learning in the Immediate Serial Recall of Visual and Auditory Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Mike P. A.; Cumming, Nick; Norris, Dennis; Hitch, Graham J.; McNeil, Alan M.

    2006-01-01

    In 5 experiments, a Hebb repetition effect, that is, improved immediate serial recall of an (unannounced) repeating list, was demonstrated in the immediate serial recall of visual materials, even when use of phonological short-term memory was blocked by concurrent articulation. The learning of a repeatedly presented letter list in one modality…

  9. Recall of Details Never Experienced: Effects of Age, Repetition, and Semantic Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holliday, Robyn E.; Reyna, Valerie F.; Brainerd, Charles J.

    2008-01-01

    To test theoretical predictions about the role of meaning connections in false memory, the effects of semantic cues and list repetition on children's false memories were evaluated across early childhood to mid-adolescence using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. True recall and false recall increased from 7 to 13 years. Study list…

  10. On the Auditory Modality Superiority Effect in Serial Recall: Separating Input and Output Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Nelson; Saults, J. Scott; Brown, Gordon D.A.

    2004-01-01

    The modality effect in immediate recall refers to superior recall of the last few items within lists presented in spoken as opposed to printed form. The locus of this well-known effect has been unclear. N. Cowan, J. S. Saults, E. M. Elliott, and M. Moreno (2002) introduced a new method to distinguish between the effects of input serial position,…

  11. Can Young Children Be More Accurate Predictors of Their Recall Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipko-Speed, Amanda R.

    2013-01-01

    Preschoolers persistently predict that they will perform better than they actually can perform on a picture recall task. The current investigation sought to explore a condition under which young children might be able to improve their predictive accuracy. Namely, children were asked to predict their recall twice for the same set of items.…

  12. Diet quality of young people in southern Spain evaluated by a Mediterranean adaptation of the Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I).

    PubMed

    Mariscal-Arcas, M; Romaguera, D; Rivas, A; Feriche, B; Pons, A; Tur, J A; Olea-Serrano, F

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether the recently developed Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I) was useful to evaluate the diet quality of a young Mediterranean population. A cross-sectional nutritional survey was carried out in southern Spain (Granada-Andalucia) from 2002 to 2005. Dietary information (24 h recall and FFQ) and socio-demographic and lifestyle data were collected from a representative sample of the population (n 288, 44.1 % females and 55.9 % males) aged 6-18 years (mean 12.88 (sd 2.78) years). DQI-I was designed according to the method of Kim et al. modified by Tur et al. for Mediterranean populations. It focused on four main characteristics of a high-quality diet (variety, adequacy, moderation and overall balance). This young population from southern Spain obtained 56.31 % of the total DQI-I score, indicating a poor-quality diet. A higher score was associated with a longer breakfast and greater physical activity. The DQI-I may require further modification for application in Mediterranean populations, differentiating between olive oil and saturated fats, among other changes. Further research is needed to develop a new diet quality index adapted to the Mediterranean diet. PMID:17640424

  13. Word length effect in free recall of randomly assembled word lists.

    PubMed

    Katkov, Mikhail; Romani, Sandro; Tsodyks, Misha

    2014-01-01

    In serial recall experiments, human subjects are requested to retrieve a list of words in the same order as they were presented. In a classical study, participants were reported to recall more words from study lists composed of short words compared to lists of long words, the word length effect. The world length effect was also observed in free recall experiments, where subjects can retrieve the words in any order. Here we analyzed a large dataset from free recall experiments of unrelated words, where short and long words were randomly mixed, and found a seemingly opposite effect: long words are recalled better than the short ones. We show that our recently proposed mechanism of associative retrieval can explain both these observations. Moreover, the direction of the effect depends solely on the way study lists are composed. PMID:25352804

  14. Trait and neurobiological correlates of individual differences in dream recall and dream content.

    PubMed

    Blagrove, Mark; Pace-Schott, Edward F

    2010-01-01

    Individuals differ greatly in their dream recall frequency, in their incidence of recalling types of dreams, such as nightmares, and in the content of their dreams. This chapter reviews work on the waking life correlates of these differences between people in their experience of dreaming and reviews some of the neurobiological correlates of these individual differences. The chapter concludes that despite there being trait-like aspects of general dream recall and of dream content, very few psychometrically assessed correlates for dream recall frequency and dream content have been found. More successful has been the investigation of correlates of frequency of particular types of dreams, such as nightmares and lucid dreams, and also of how waking-life experience is associated with dream content. There is also potential in establishing neurobiological correlates of individual differences in dream recall and dream content, and recent work on this is reviewed. PMID:20870067

  15. Reduced dream-recall frequency in left-handed adolescents: a replication.

    PubMed

    Schredl, Michael; Beaton, Alan A; Henley-Einion, Josie; Blagrove, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The ability to recall a dream upon waking up in the morning has been linked to a broad variety of factors such as personality, creativity, sleep behaviour and cognitive function. There have been conflicting findings as to whether dream recall is related more to the right or to the left hemisphere, and conflicting findings regarding the relationship of dream-recall frequency to handedness. We have found previously that right- and mixed-handers report having more dreams than left-handers, a finding more pronounced among adolescents than adults. In the present sample of 3535 participants aged from 6 to 18 years, right-handedness and mixed/inconsistent handedness were associated with higher dream-recall frequency compared to that of left-handed persons, again especially in adolescents compared with children. Further research is required to uncover the reason for the lower frequency of dream recall by left-handers. PMID:24286302

  16. Ultradian and circadian modulation of dream recall: EEG correlates and age effects.

    PubMed

    Chellappa, Sarah Laxhmi; Cajochen, Christian

    2013-08-01

    Dreaming occurs during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, which both are regulated by homeostatic, ultradian, and circadian processes. However, the magnitude of how ultradian REM and NREM sleep and its EEG correlates impact onto dream recall remains fairly unknown. In this review, we address three questions: 1. Is there an ultradian NREM-REM sleep modulation in successful dream recall, which is gated by the circadian clock? 2. What are the key electrophysiological correlates that account for dream recall during NREM and REM sleep and 3. Are there age-related changes in the ultradian and circadian regulation in dream recall and its electrophysiological correlates? Knowledge on the specific frequency and topography NREM and REM sleep differences prior to dream recall may pinpoint to the cerebral correlates that account for this cognitive process, and hint to their possible physiological meaning. PMID:23524011

  17. Comparison of Correlates of Bone Mineral Density in Individuals Adhering to Lacto-Ovo, Vegan, or Omnivore Diets: A Cross-Sectional Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Knurick, Jessica R.; Johnston, Carol S.; Wherry, Sarah J.; Aguayo, Izayadeth

    2015-01-01

    Vegetarian diets are associated with factors that may not support bone health, such as low body mass and low intakes of protein; yet, these diets are alkaline, a factor that favors bone mineral density (BMD). This study compared the correlates of BMD in young, non-obese adults consuming meat-based (n = 27), lacto-ovo vegetarian (n = 27), or vegan (n = 28) diets for ?1 year. A 24 h diet recall, whole body DXA scan, 24 h urine specimen, and fasting blood sample were collected from participants. BMD did not differ significantly between groups. Protein intake was reduced ~30% in individuals consuming lacto-ovo and vegan diets as compared to those consuming meat-based diets (68 ± 24, 69 ± 29, and 97 ± 47 g/day respectively, p = 0.006); yet dietary protein was only associated with BMD for those following vegan diets. Urinary pH was more alkaline in the lacto-ovo and vegan groups versus omnivores (6.5 ± 0.4, 6.7 ± 0.4, and 6.2 ± 0.4 respectively, p = 0.003); yet urinary pH was associated with BMD in omnivores only. These data suggest that plant-based diets are not detrimental to bone in young adults. Moreover, diet prescriptions for bone health may vary among diet groups: increased fruit and vegetable intake for individuals with high meat intakes and increased plant protein intake for individuals who follow a vegetarian diet plan. PMID:25970147

  18. Comparison of correlates of bone mineral density in individuals adhering to lacto-ovo, vegan, or omnivore diets: a cross-sectional investigation.

    PubMed

    Knurick, Jessica R; Johnston, Carol S; Wherry, Sarah J; Aguayo, Izayadeth

    2015-01-01

    Vegetarian diets are associated with factors that may not support bone health, such as low body mass and low intakes of protein; yet, these diets are alkaline, a factor that favors bone mineral density (BMD). This study compared the correlates of BMD in young, non-obese adults consuming meat-based (n = 27), lacto-ovo vegetarian (n = 27), or vegan (n = 28) diets for ?1 year. A 24 h diet recall, whole body DXA scan, 24 h urine specimen, and fasting blood sample were collected from participants. BMD did not differ significantly between groups. Protein intake was reduced ~30% in individuals consuming lacto-ovo and vegan diets as compared to those consuming meat-based diets (68 ± 24, 69 ± 29, and 97 ± 47 g/day respectively, p = 0.006); yet dietary protein was only associated with BMD for those following vegan diets. Urinary pH was more alkaline in the lacto-ovo and vegan groups versus omnivores (6.5 ± 0.4, 6.7 ± 0.4, and 6.2 ± 0.4 respectively, p = 0.003); yet urinary pH was associated with BMD in omnivores only. These data suggest that plant-based diets are not detrimental to bone in young adults. Moreover, diet prescriptions for bone health may vary among diet groups: increased fruit and vegetable intake for individuals with high meat intakes and increased plant protein intake for individuals who follow a vegetarian diet plan. PMID:25970147

  19. Diet-regulated anxiety.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Michelle; Mercer, Julian G

    2013-01-01

    A substantial proportion of noncommunicable disease originates in habitual overconsumption of calories, which can lead to weight gain and obesity and attendant comorbidities. At the other end of the spectrum, the consequences of undernutrition in early life and at different stages of adult life can also have major impact on wellbeing and quality of life. To help address some of these issues, greater understanding is required of interactions with food and contemporary diets throughout the life course and at a number of different levels: physiological, metabolic, psychological, and emotional. Here we review the current literature on the effects of dietary manipulation on anxiety-like behaviour. This evidence, assembled from study of preclinical models of diet challenge from gestation to adult life, supports a role for diet in the important connections between psychology, physiology, and behaviour. Analogous processes in the human population in our current obesogenic environment are likely to contribute to individual and societal challenges in this area. PMID:24027581

  20. 40 CFR 1068.535 - How can I do a voluntary recall for emission-related problems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...voluntary recall for emission-related problems? 1068.535 Section 1068.535 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED...voluntary recall for emission-related problems? If we have made a...

  1. 40 CFR 1068.535 - How can I do a voluntary recall for emission-related problems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...voluntary recall for emission-related problems? 1068.535 Section 1068.535 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED...voluntary recall for emission-related problems? If we have made a...

  2. Reliable recall of spontaneous activity patterns in cortical networks.

    PubMed

    Marre, Olivier; Yger, Pierre; Davison, Andrew P; Frégnac, Yves

    2009-11-18

    Irregular ongoing activity in cortical networks is often modeled as arising from recurrent connectivity. Yet it remains unclear to what extent its presence corrupts sensory signal transmission and network computational capabilities. In a recurrent cortical-like network, we have determined the activity patterns that are better transmitted and self-sustained by the network. We show that reproducible spiking and subthreshold dynamics can be triggered if the statistics of the imposed external drive are consistent with patterns previously seen in the ongoing activity. A subset of neurons in the network, constrained to replay temporal pattern segments extracted from the recorded ongoing activity of the same network, reliably drives the remaining, free-running neurons to call the rest of the pattern. Comparison with surrogate Poisson patterns indicates that the efficiency of the recall and completion process depends on the similarity between the statistical properties of the input with previous ongoing activity The reliability of evoked dynamics in recurrent networks is thus dependent on the stimulus used, and we propose that the similarity between spontaneous and evoked activity in sensory cortical areas could be a signature of efficient transmission and propagation across cortical networks. PMID:19923292

  3. [Recall errors in locating cities on a map].

    PubMed

    Pohl, R; Eisenhauer, M

    1995-01-01

    Three experiments investigated whether hindsight bias--a systematic distortion of the recollections of numerical estimates--is also observed with visuo-spatial material. Subjects estimated the location of 20 German cities on an empty map, received feedback about the true locations, and were then requested to recall their earlier estimates. Additionally, we tested each subject's intelligence, field dependency, and visuo-spatial abilities. In experiment 1, in which experimental and control items (i.e. those with and without feedback) were given to the same subjects, hindsight bias was observed, but only in one out of three dependent measures. The same pattern of results emerged in experiment 2, despite the use of a different mode of data collection. Experiment 3, in which experimental and control items were given to different subjects, found a strong hindsight bias in all three dependent measures. The personality features showed no correlation with the amount of individual hindsight bias. All three experiments provided evidence that hindsight bias occurs with visuo-spatial material. PMID:8646610

  4. Ketogenic diet for adults in super-refractory status epilepticus

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Kiran T.; Probasco, John C.; Hocker, Sara E.; Roehl, Kelly; Henry, Bobbie; Kossoff, Eric H.; Kaplan, Peter W.; Geocadin, Romergryko G.; Hartman, Adam L.; Venkatesan, Arun

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To describe a case series of adult patients in the intensive care unit in super-refractory status epilepticus (SRSE; refractory status lasting 24 hours or more despite appropriate anesthetic treatment) who received treatment with the ketogenic diet (KD). Methods: We performed a retrospective case review at 4 medical centers of adult patients with SRSE treated with the KD. Data collected included demographic features, clinical presentation, diagnosis, EEG data, anticonvulsant treatment, and timing and duration of the KD. Primary outcome measures were resolution of status epilepticus (SE) after initiation of KD and ability to wean from anesthetic agents. Results: Ten adult patients at 4 medical centers were started on the KD for SRSE. The median age was 33 years (interquartile range [IQR] 21), 4 patients (40%) were male, and 7 (70%) had encephalitis. The median duration of SE before initiation of KD was 21.5 days (IQR 28) and the median number of antiepileptic medications used before initiation of KD was 7 (IQR 7). Ninety percent of patients achieved ketosis, and SE ceased in all patients achieving ketosis in a median of 3 days (IQR 8). Three patients had minor complications of the KD including transient acidosis and hypertriglyceridemia and 2 patients ultimately died of causes unrelated to the KD. Conclusion: We describe treatment of critically ill adult patients with SRSE with the KD, with 90% of patients achieving resolution of SE. Prospective trials are warranted to examine the efficacy of the KD in adults with refractory SE. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class IV evidence that for intensive care unit patients with refractory SE, a KD leads to resolution of the SE. PMID:24453083

  5. Speed of presentation influences story recall in college students and persons with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Arnett, Peter A

    2004-06-01

    Story memory tests are commonly used in clinical neuropsychology. Surprisingly, no guidelines are provided for speed of presentation for two of the most commonly used story memory tests in clinical neuropsychology. The current investigation was designed to explore whether speed of presentation influences recall on the Story subtest from the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test. Consistent with predictions, college students in Study 1 and multiple sclerosis participants in Study 2 recalled significantly more story elements at immediate recall when the story was presented slow versus fast. This effect, however, was limited to the conditions where the fast story was presented before the slow story. At delayed recall, participants in both studies recalled more story elements in the slow versus fast story independent of presentation conditions. Both studies also revealed that significantly more participants fell in the "impaired" range on immediate recall for the fast story in the condition where it was presented first. Data from these studies show that speed of presentation can substantially alter story recall in a wide range of individuals. It will be important to develop story tests for which speed of presentation is standardized to ensure that erroneous conclusions regarding memory are not drawn about individuals seen in clinical neuropsychological practice. PMID:15163452

  6. Sodium in diet

    MedlinePLUS

    Diet - sodium (salt) ... salt is 40% sodium; 1 teaspoon of table salt contains 2,300 mg of sodium. Healthy adults should limit sodium intake to 2,300 mg per day. Adults with high blood pressure should have no more than 1,500 mg ...

  7. Diet and dental caries.

    PubMed

    Jensen, M E

    1999-10-01

    Dental caries is a diet-related disease that continues to be a problem for certain dental patients. Frequent consumption of fermentable carbohydrates that have low oral clearance rates increases the risk for enamel caries and perhaps is even more dangerous for root surfaces. Highly acidogenic snack foods should be consumed at mealtimes to reduce the risk, and between-meal snacks should be either nonacidogenic (such as xylitol products) or hypoacidogenic (such as sorbitol and HSH products). Cheeses present a naturally occurring situation that may provide anticariogenic effects from the diet. Certain additives as well as sugar substitutes show great promise for the provision of between-meal snack foods that reduce the risk of dental caries. The dental team should thoroughly understand the relationship of diet to caries and conscientiously apply that knowledge to educate the patients in general as well as counsel specific high-risk individuals. Further emphasis should be placed on the acquisition of sound scientific data for counseling caries patients concerning diet and dental caries. PMID:10553247

  8. Diet and Transplantation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Do I still need to follow a low-salt diet? Most people still need to limit salt after they get a transplant, although it is ... your body to hold on to fluid, and salt makes this problem worse. Increased fluid in the ...

  9. Diet History Questionnaire

    Cancer.gov

    NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH Diet History Questionnaire Today's date: MONTH DAY YEAR |___|___| 0 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 5 6 7 8 01 Jan 02 Feb 03 Mar 04 Apr 05 May 06 Jun 07 Jul 08 Aug 09 Sep 10 Oct 11 Nov 12

  10. Short-term and long-term collaboration benefits on individual recall in younger and older adults.

    PubMed

    Blumen, Helena M; Stern, Yaakov

    2011-01-01

    A recent study of younger adults suggests that, compared to repeated individual recall trials, repeated collaborative recall trials produce better individual recall after a short delay (Blumen & Rajaram, 2008). Our study was designed to determine if such collaboration benefits would remain after a one-week delay, in both younger and older adults. Sixty younger (M age = 24.60) and 60 older (M age = 67.35) adults studied a list of words and then completed either two collaborative recall trials followed by two individual recall trials, or four individual recall trials. A five-min delay was inserted between the first three recall trials. The fourth recall trial was administered 1 week later. Collaborative recall was completed in groups of three individuals working together. Both younger and older adults benefitted from repeated collaborative recall trials to a greater extent than repeated individual recall trials, and such collaboration benefits remained after a one-week delay. This is the first demonstration of collaboration benefits on later individual recall at delays as long as 1 week, in both younger and older adults. Findings are discussed within the context of the negative effects of collaboration associated with group memory (collaborative inhibition) and the positive effects of collaboration associated with later individual memory (collaboration benefits). PMID:21264617

  11. Short-term and long-term collaboration benefits on individual recall in younger and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Yaakov

    2011-01-01

    A recent study of younger adults suggests that, compared to repeated individual recall trials, repeated collaborative recall trials produce better individual recall after a short delay (Blumen & Rajaram, 2008). Our study was designed to determine if such collaboration benefits would remain after a one-week delay, in both younger and older adults. Sixty younger (M age = 24.60) and 60 older (M age = 67.35) adults studied a list of words and then completed either two collaborative recall trials followed by two individual recall trials, or four individual recall trials. A five-min delay was inserted between the first three recall trials. The fourth recall trial was administered 1 week later. Collaborative recall was completed in groups of three individuals working together. Both younger and older adults benefitted from repeated collaborative recall trials to a greater extent than repeated individual recall trials, and such collaboration benefits remained after a one-week delay. This is the first demonstration of collaboration benefits on later individual recall at delays as long as 1 week, in both younger and older adults. Findings are discussed within the context of the negative effects of collaboration associated with group memory (collaborative inhibition) and the positive effects of collaboration associated with later individual memory (collaboration benefits). PMID:21264617

  12. actSheetFFood, Agricultural and Biological Engineering, 590 Woody Hayes Drive, Columbus, OH 43210 What is a Recall?

    E-print Network

    and state agencies. Manufacturers strive to prevent a recall. Employing Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP the undesirable nature of a recall event, it is in the best interest of the manufacturing company to complete the recall quickly. Because the manufacturer is responsible for all of the costs involved in this process

  13. Sketching to Remember: Episodic Free Recall Task Support for Child Witnesses and Victims with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattison, Michelle L. A.; Dando, Coral J.; Ormerod, Thomas C.

    2015-01-01

    Deficits in episodic free-recall memory performance have been reported in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), yet best practice dictates that child witness/victim interviews commence with a free-recall account. No "tools" exist to support children with ASD to freely recall episodic information. Here, the efficacy of a novel…

  14. 9 CFR 390.10 - Availability of Lists of Retail Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Availability of Lists of Retail Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls. 390.10...Availability of Lists of Retail Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls. The Administrator...locations of retail consignees of recalled meat or poultry products that the...

  15. 9 CFR 390.10 - Availability of Lists of Retail Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Availability of Lists of Retail Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls. 390.10...Availability of Lists of Retail Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls. The Administrator...locations of retail consignees of recalled meat or poultry products that the...

  16. ACCURACY OF DIETARY RECALL USING THE USDA 5-STEP MULTIPLE PASS METHOD IN MEN: AN OBSERVATIONAL VALIDATION STUDY.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This observational validation study was conducted under controlled conditions to test the accuracy of dietary recall in normal weight, overweight, and obese men using the USDA 5-Step Multiple-Pass Method for dietary recall. This was a Cross-sectional analysis of actual and recalled intake of food du...

  17. The Dynamics of Free Recall and Their Relation to Rehearsal between 8 and 10 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehmann, Martin; Hasselhorn, Marcus

    2010-01-01

    The present study longitudinally examined changes in recall in children between the ages of 8 and 10 years. Given the increasingly sophisticated use of memory strategies during this developmental period, correspondences between study and recall dynamics were of particular interest. Seventy-six children performed free-recall tasks on 5 occasions…

  18. Natural Selection: 2006 E. coli Recall of Fresh Spinach A Case Study by The Food Industry Center

    E-print Network

    Weiblen, George D

    also helps illustrate the complexity of the food supply chain and the food recall process. A similar1 Natural Selection: 2006 E. coli Recall of Fresh Spinach A Case Study by The Food Industry Center. While every food recall is important and unique, the contamination of fresh spinach with the bacteria

  19. The Diet Quality Index Revised

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PAMELA S. HAINES; ANNA MARIA SIEGA-RIZ; BARRY M. POPKIN

    1999-01-01

    Objective To evaluate a revision of the Diet Quality Index called the Diet Quality Index Revised (DQI-R)Design The original Diet Quality Index was revised to reflect current dietary guidance, to incorporate improved methods of estimating food servings, and to develop and incorporate measures of dietary variety and moderation. The scoring of the original scale was reversed in direction and expanded

  20. Absorption in imaginings, sex-role orientation, and the recall of dreams by males and females.

    PubMed

    Spanos, N P; Stam, H J; Radtke, H L; Nightingale, M E

    1980-06-01

    Questionnaire measures of dream recall frequency, number of sensory qualities in dreams and emotion in dreams were correlated with several imaginal ability and personality variables in male and female college students. Absorption (i.e., subjects' degree of involvement in such activities as daydreaming, watching a movie, etc.) was the most important predictor of dream variables in females. In males sex-role orientation contrary to stereotype (i.e., femininity) was the only variable significantly related to a dream variable (i.e., frequency of dream recall). The implications of these sex differences for research on dream recall are discussed. PMID:16366937

  1. Noise Effect on Memory Recall in Dynamical Neural Network Model of Hippocampus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omori, Toshiaki; Horiguchi, Tsuyoshi

    2002-06-01

    We investigate some noise effect on a neural network model proposed by Araki and Aihara for the memory recall of dynamical patterns in the hippocampus and the entorhinal cortex; the noise effect is important since the release of transmitters at synaptic clefts, the operation of gate of ion channels and so on are known as stochastic phenomena. We consider two kinds of noise effect due to a deterministic noise and a stochastic noise. By numerical simulations, we find that reasonable values of noise give better performance on the memory recall of dynamical patterns. Furthermore we investigate the effect of the strength of external inputs on the memory recall.

  2. Adult age differences in hindsight bias: The role of recall ability.

    PubMed

    Groß, Julia; Bayen, Ute J

    2015-06-01

    Hindsight bias, that is, the overestimation of one's prior knowledge of outcomes after the actual outcomes are known, is stronger in older than young adults (e.g., Bayen, Erdfelder, Bearden, & Lozito, 2006). The authors investigated whether age differences in the recall of original judgments account for this difference. Multinomial model-based analyses of data from a hindsight memory task revealed that biased reconstruction of original judgments was equally likely in both age groups when recall of original judgments was lowered in young adults via a manipulation of retention interval. These results support a recall-based explanation of age differences in hindsight bias. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25894483

  3. Recalls of Cardiac Implants in the Last Decade: What Lessons Can We Learn?

    PubMed Central

    Schaller, Sandra; Kolominsky-Rabas, Peter L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Due to an ageing population and demographic changes worldwide, a higher prevalence of heart disease is forecasted, which causes an even higher demand for cardiac implants in future. The increasing high incidence of clinical adverse events attributed especially to high-risk medical devices has led an advocated change from many stakeholders. This holds especially true for devices like cardiac implants, with their high-risk nature and high complication rates associated with considerable mortality, due to their frequent use in older populations with frequent co-morbidities. To ensure patients’ safety, the objective of this study is to analyze different cardiac implants recall reasons and different recall systems, based on an overview of the recalls of cardiac implant medical devices in the last decade. On the basis of the results from this structured analysis, this study provides recommendations on how to avoid such recalls from a manufacturer perspective, as well as how to timely react to an adverse event from a post-surveillance system perspective. Methods and Findings A systematic search of cardiac implant recalls information has been performed in the PubMed, ScienceDirect and Scopus databases, as well as data sources in regulatory authorities from 193 UN Member States. Data has been extracted for the years 2004-2014 with the following criteria applied: cardiac implant medical device recalls and reasons for recall, associated harm or risk to patients. From the data sources described above, eleven regulatory authorities and 103 recall reports have been included in this study. The largest cardiac implant categories include ICDs 40.8%, pacemakers 14.5% and stents 14.5%. Regarding the recall reasons, the majority of reports were related to device battery problems (33.0%) and incorrect therapy delivery (31.1%). From a total of 103 recall reports, five reported death and serious injuries. Our review highlights weaknesses in the current cardiac implant recall system, including data reporting and management issues and provides recommendations for the improvement of safety information and management. Conclusion Due to the mortality associated with the nature of cardiac implants, the traceability and transparency of safety hazards information is crucial. By a structured analysis of recall reasons and their efficient management, important knowledge is gained to inform an effective safety-reporting system for monitoring the safety of cardiac implanted patients, ideally by building up cardiac implant registries worldwide in the future. PMID:25962074

  4. Is a healthy diet an environmentally sustainable diet?

    PubMed

    Macdiarmid, Jennie I

    2013-02-01

    The concept of a healthy and environmentally sustainable diet is not new, but with increasing concern about future global food security and climate change there is a renewed interest in this topic. Dietary intakes in UK accounts for approximately 20-30% of total annual greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE), with the greatest contributions coming from high intakes of meat and dairy products. Dietary proposals to help mitigate climate change (i.e. reduce GHGE) have focused on reducing consumption of meat and dairy products, but this must be considered in the context of the whole diet, alongside any possible nutritional consequences for health. Bringing together health and environmental impact of the diet raises the question of whether a healthy diet can also be an environmentally sustainable diet. While recent research showed that it is possible to achieve a realistic diet that meets dietary requirement for health and has lower GHGE, it cannot be assumed that a healthy diet will always have lower GHGE. With different combinations of food it is possible to consume a diet that meets dietary requirements for health, but has high GHGE. It is important to understand what constitutes a sustainable diet, but this then needs to be communicated effectively to try and change well-established dietary intakes of the population. Studies show that understanding of sustainable diets is poor and there are many misconceptions (e.g. the overestimation of the protein requirements for a healthy diet), which could contribute to the barriers towards changing dietary intakes. PMID:23186839

  5. Diet-induced obesity attenuates cytokine production following an immune challenge

    PubMed Central

    Baumgarner, Katherine M.; Setti, Sharay; Diaz, Carolyn; Littlefield, Alyssa; Jones, Amanda; Kohman, Rachel A.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity increases susceptibility for numerous diseases and neurological disorders including cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, and dementia. One factor that may contribute to the increased risk for these conditions is the development of chronic inflammation. The current study evaluated whether diet-induced obesity (DIO) affects cognitive performance by increasing neuroinflammation and prolonging the behavioral and inflammatory response to an immune challenge. Adult male C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat (60% fat) or control diet (10% fat) for 2 or 5 months. After consuming their respective diets for two months, sickness associated behaviors were assessed 4 and 24 hours after a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or saline injection. In a separate experiment, DIO and control mice were tested for spatial learning in the water maze and challenged with LPS one month later. Peripheral cytokine production was assessed in adipose and spleen samples and the neuroinflammatory response was assessed in hippocampal, cortical, and brain samples. DIO impaired acquisition of a spatial learning task relative to control mice. However, these deficits are unlikely to be related to inflammation as DIO showed no changes in basal cytokine levels within the periphery or brain. Further, in response to LPS DIO mice showed comparable or attenuated levels of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1? and interleukin-6 relative to control mice. DIO also reduced hippocampal expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and the pre-synaptic marker synaptophysin. Presently, the data indicate that DIO suppresses aspects of the immune response and that cognitive deficits associated with DIO may be related to reduced neurotrophic support rather than inflammation. PMID:24657736

  6. Radiation recall phenomenon presenting as myositis triggered by carboplatin plus paclitaxel and related literature review.

    PubMed

    Maeng, Chi Hoon; Park, Jun Sang; Lee, Seung Ah; Kim, Dong Hwan; Yun, Dong Hwan; Yoo, Seung-Don; Kim, Hee-Sang; Chon, Jinmann

    2014-01-01

    While most case reports to date are radiation recall dermatitis, radiation recall myositis, which is a distinct form of radiation recall phenomenon caused by carboplatin plus paclitaxel, has not been reported. We treated a 57-year-old female patient who suffered from recurrent cervical cancer. When the patient developed a new left sacral metastasis, salvage radiotherapy (total dose 60 Gy) was administered. Four weeks later, chemotherapy using carboplatin plus paclitaxel was initiated. Four months after chemotherapy, the patient complained of severe pain in her left buttock. On magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), edematous changes and increased signal densities of left gluteus maximus and medius muscles were noted suggesting myositis. The border of the high signal intensity territory of the muscles was sharp and clearly corresponded with the recent irradiation field. We concluded that the patient had radiation recall myositis triggered by paclitaxel-carboplatin. Symptoms were controlled by analgesics, and there was no recurrence. PMID:25579560

  7. Looking for long-term mnemonic effects on serial recall: the legacy of Simonides.

    PubMed

    Wang, A Y; Thomas, M H

    2000-01-01

    We investigated three issues with respect to the long-term serial recall of adults. First, retention interval was manipulated to obtain uncontaminated measures of long-term serial recall. Second, we compared serial recall of concrete and abstract nouns to determine how these materials might interact with various learning strategies over time. Third, control group participants were asked to describe the learning strategies used, allowing a comparison of technical mnemonic techniques with the spontaneously generated strategies of adults. We found that the delayed recall performance of participants who spontaneously used organizational or imagery-based strategies was comparable to that of those instructed in the method of loci and pegword technique. Word concreteness did not interact with any other variable. These results are discussed with regard to their implications for serial learning in educational settings. PMID:10997231

  8. Effects of noise on identification and serial recall of nonsense syllables in older and younger adults.

    PubMed

    Surprenant, Aimee M

    2007-03-01

    The present experiment investigated the hypothesis that age-related declines in cognitive functioning are partly due to a decrease in peripheral sensory functioning. In particular, it was suggested that some of the decline in serial recall for verbal material might be due to even small amounts of degradation due to noise or hearing loss. Older and younger individuals identified and recalled nonsense syllables in order at a number of different speech-to-noise ratios. Performance on the identification task was significantly correlated with performance on a subsequent serial recall task. However, this was restricted to the case in which the stimuli were presented in a substantial amount of noise. These data show that even small changes in sensory processing can lead to real and measurable declines in cognitive functioning as measured by a serial recall task. PMID:17364376

  9. Blood component recalls and market withdrawals: frequency, reasons, and management in the United States.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Glenn

    2013-04-01

    In a previous article, we reviewed the management of blood component recalls and withdrawals (G. Ramsey. Transfusion Med Rev 2004;18:36-45). Since then, US rates of recall and biological product deviation for blood components have improved significantly, particularly with regard to reduced recalls for donor infectious disease risks or testing. However, analysis of the current data from the US Food and Drug Administration suggests that 1 (0.4%) in 250 blood components is involved in market withdrawals and quarantines, with 1 in 5800 components formally recalled. Most of these units, unfortunately, had already have been transfused. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has issued several recent guidances that address transfusion service actions for dealing with specific infectious disease problems. This present article updates our 2004 recommendations as to when to notify physicians about transfused nonconforming blood components. PMID:23375736

  10. 49 CFR 573.15 - Public availability of motor vehicle recall information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...manufactured available to the public on the Internet. The information shall be in a format...number (VIN), that preserves consumer privacy, and that includes information about...recalls; (2) Have a hyperlink (Internet link) to it conspicuously placed...

  11. 40 CFR 204.59 - Recall of non-complying compressors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Recall of non-complying compressors. (a) Pursuant to...and repair or modify any compressor distributed in commerce...by the Administrator that compressors of a specified category...analysis of the noise emission characteristics of the category or...

  12. 40 CFR 204.59 - Recall of non-complying compressors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Recall of non-complying compressors. (a) Pursuant to...and repair or modify any compressor distributed in commerce...by the Administrator that compressors of a specified category...analysis of the noise emission characteristics of the category or...

  13. 40 CFR 204.59 - Recall of non-complying compressors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Recall of non-complying compressors. (a) Pursuant to...and repair or modify any compressor distributed in commerce...by the Administrator that compressors of a specified category...analysis of the noise emission characteristics of the category or...

  14. 40 CFR 204.59 - Recall of non-complying compressors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Recall of non-complying compressors. (a) Pursuant to...and repair or modify any compressor distributed in commerce...by the Administrator that compressors of a specified category...analysis of the noise emission characteristics of the category or...

  15. 21 CFR 1270.43 - Retention, recall, and destruction of human tissue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Retention, recall, and destruction of human tissue. 1270.43 Section 1270.43 Food...BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION HUMAN TISSUE INTENDED FOR TRANSPLANTATION Inspection of Tissue Establishments § 1270.43...

  16. 21 CFR 1270.43 - Retention, recall, and destruction of human tissue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Retention, recall, and destruction of human tissue. 1270.43 Section 1270.43 Food...BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION HUMAN TISSUE INTENDED FOR TRANSPLANTATION Inspection of Tissue Establishments § 1270.43...

  17. 21 CFR 1270.43 - Retention, recall, and destruction of human tissue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Retention, recall, and destruction of human tissue. 1270.43 Section 1270.43 Food...BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION HUMAN TISSUE INTENDED FOR TRANSPLANTATION Inspection of Tissue Establishments § 1270.43...

  18. 77 FR 26769 - Educational Forum on Medical Device Reporting, Complaint Files, and Recalls, Corrections, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-07

    ...public workshop entitled ``Educational Forum on Medical Device Reporting, Complaint Files, and Recalls, Corrections...workshop is to provide information about FDA's Medical Device Quality Systems Regulation (QSR) to the regulated...

  19. 21 CFR 1270.43 - Retention, recall, and destruction of human tissue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Retention, recall, and destruction of human tissue. 1270.43 Section 1270.43...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS...ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION HUMAN TISSUE INTENDED FOR TRANSPLANTATION...

  20. 78 FR 12329 - Distinguishing Medical Device Recalls From Product Enhancements; Reporting Requirements; Draft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ...Distinguishing Medical Device Recalls From...Center for Devices and Radiological...of Dockets Management (HFA-305...Center for Devices and Radiological...of marketed medical devices can...an effective quality system, often...