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Sample records for 24-hour diet recall

  1. Chapter 4: 24-hour recall and diet record methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The two methods described in this chapter, the 24-hour dietary recall (24hdr) and the food record (FR) method, are the currently preferred methods of dietary intake assessment, and are based on foods and amounts actually consumed by an individual on one or more specific days. This minimizes some sou...

  2. Assessing dietary intake in childhood cancer survivors: Food frequency questionnaire versus 24-hour diet recalls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cancer diagnosis and treatment may influence dietary intake. The validity of using self-reported methods to quantify dietary intake has not been evaluated in childhood cancer survivors. We validated total energy intake (EI) reported from Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and repeated 24-hour diet r...

  3. The 24-hour recall for Senegalese weanlings: a validation exercise.

    PubMed

    Dop, M C; Milan, C; Milan, C; N'Diaye, A M

    1994-09-01

    Growth retardation is highly prevalent in Africa. Given the limited available financial resources across most of the continent for the collection of dietary data on large samples of children, alternatives to expensive and time-consuming diet assessment techniques are called for. 24-hour recall may be one such alternative. The authors report their findings from an exploration of the validity and reproducibility of this approach compared to the precise weighing technique. The intakes of complementary foods were estimated for 45 Senegalese weanlings aged 11-18 months with both techniques on the same days. For each child, the study lasted four days spread over one day of qualitative observation, two days of precise weighing, and three days of 24-hour interviews. The study found the 24-hour recall approach to have neither a level-dependent nor systematic bias with regard to energy and macronutrient intakes. Mean differences between techniques were 11% of mean intakes. Analysis by food group found recall to be less precise than the reference, especially for food from the household common pot such as rice, oil, and fish. The authors conclude that the recall approach's ability to provide unbiased estimates of weanling's intakes makes it a viable assessment tool in diet surveys of groups of children. Its lack of precision can be compensated by increasing the number of days of the survey. Findings suggest that the precision of a one-day weighed survey could be obtained with two 24-hour recalls at considerably lower cost. PMID:8001521

  4. DASH-Style Diet and 24-Hour Urine Composition

    PubMed Central

    Stampfer, Meir J.; Mount, David B.; Curhan, Gary C.

    2010-01-01

    Background and objectives: We previously observed associations between a Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH)-style diet and large reductions in kidney stone risk. This study examined associations between a DASH-style diet and 24-hour excretions of urinary lithogenic factors. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: We studied 3426 participants with and without nephrolithiasis in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS) and the Nurses' Health Studies (NHS) I and II. A dietary DASH score was based on seven components: high intake of fruits, vegetables, nuts and legumes, dairy products, and whole grains and low intake of sweetened beverages and red and processed meats. We used analysis of covariance to adjust for age, stone history, body size, and other factors. Results: Comparing participants in the highest to lowest quintiles of DASH score, multivariate-adjusted urinary calcium excretion was 3% greater in HPFS (P trend 0.12), 10% greater in NHS I (P trend <0.01), and 12% greater in NHS II (P trend 0.05). Urinary oxalate was 4% to 18% greater (P trend all ≤0.03), urinary citrate was 11% to 16% greater (P trend all <0.01), and urinary volume was 16% to 32% greater (P trend all <0.001). Higher DASH score was associated with higher urine potassium, magnesium, phosphate, and pH, and lower relative supersaturations (RSS) of calcium oxalate (women only) and uric acid. Conclusions: A DASH-style diet may reduce stone risk by increasing urinary citrate and volume. The small associations between higher DASH score and lower RSS suggest unidentified stone inhibitors in dairy products and/or plants. PMID:20847091

  5. Methodology for adding glycemic index and glycemic load values to 24-hour dietary recall database

    PubMed Central

    Olendzki, Barbara C.; Ma, Yunsheng; Culver, Annie L.; Ockene, Ira S.; Griffith, Jennifer A.; Hafner, Andrea R.; Hebert, James R.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives We describe a method of adding the glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) values to the nutrient database of the 24-hour dietary recall interview (24HR), a widely used dietary assessment. We also calculated daily GI and GL values from the 24HR. Methods Subjects were 641 healthy adults from central Massachusetts who completed 9067 24HRs. The 24HR-derived food data were matched to the International Table of Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load Values. The GI values for specific foods not in the table were estimated against similar foods according to physical and chemical factors that determine GI. Mixed foods were disaggregated into individual ingredients. Results Of 1261 carbohydrate-containing foods in the database, GI values of 602 foods were obtained from a direct match (47.7%), accounting for 22.36% of dietary carbohydrate. GI values from 656 foods (52.1%) were estimated, contributing to 77.64% of dietary carbohydrate. The GI values from three unknown foods (0.2%) could not be assigned. The average daily GI was 84 (SD 5.1, white bread as referent) and the average GL was 196 (SD 63). Conclusion Using this methodology for adding GI and GL values to nutrient databases, it is possible to assess associations between GI and/or GL and body weight and chronic disease outcomes (diabetes, cancer, heart disease). This method can be used in clinical and survey research settings where 24HRs are a practical means for assessing diet. The implications for using this methodology compel a broader evaluation of diet with disease outcomes. PMID:17029903

  6. The Automated Self-Administered 24-hour dietary recall (ASA24): A resource for researchers, clinicians, and educators from the National Cancer Institute

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extensive evidence has demonstrated that 24-hour dietary recalls (24HDRs) provide high-quality dietary intake data with minimal bias, making them the preferred tool for monitoring the diets of populations and, increasingly, for studying diet and disease associations. Traditional 24HDRs, however, are...

  7. Eight Self-Administered 24-hour Dietary Recalls Using the Internet are Feasible in African Americans and Caucasians: The Energetics Study

    PubMed Central

    Arab, Lenore; Wesseling-Perry, Kate; Jardack, Patricia; Henry, Judith; Winter, Ashley

    2010-01-01

    Background To support research and to provide dietitians with a strong foundation for nutrient-based counseling, there is a need for affordable automated 24-hour dietary recalls. Multiple days of intake, along with repeated reports over time, are needed to achieve stable indicators of individual intakes and to support evaluation of success in meeting dietary goals due to intra-individual intake variability. Little information has been published on subject responses, participation rates, and the perceived subject burden of repeated 24-hour recalls. Objective To determine the willingness of subjects to conduct eight 24-hour recalls via the internet. Design and Subjects/Setting 261 Caucasians and African Americans within 50 miles of UCLA participated in a study to validate a web-based, automated, self-administered 24-hour recall (DietDay). Subjects completed three DietDays at the study visits and another five on their own. The last two DietDays were completed one and two months after the final clinic visit. Subjects were notified by automatic email of the need for DietDay completion, and non-responders were pursued by personalized emails and phone calls. Results The perceived subject burden was minimal and, even after completing six recalls, 92% were willing to continue reporting their daily diets one and two months later. Caucasians had a slightly higher rate of return, with 94% completing all eight recalls, compared to 91% of African American subjects. Participants were able to access the internet in their homes, offices, library, or homes of friends or family. It is also of interest that 82% of subjects believed the 24-hour recall was superior to a diet history in reflecting their normal diet. This opens up new opportunities for dietitians to strengthen their nutritional counseling in an efficient and affordable manner without additional time investment. PMID:20497774

  8. Usability of a smartphone food picture app for assisting 24-hour dietary recall: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Pope, Benjamin T.; Bilgiç, Pelin; Orr, Barron J.; Suzuki, Asuka; Kim, Angela Sarah; Merchant, Nirav C.; Roe, Denise J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The Recaller app was developed to help individuals record their food intakes. This pilot study evaluated the usability of this new food picture application (app), which operates on a smartphone with an embedded camera and Internet capability. SUBJECTS/METHODS Adults aged 19 to 28 years (23 males and 22 females) were assigned to use the Recaller app on six designated, nonconsecutive days in order to capture an image of each meal and snack before and after eating. The images were automatically time-stamped and uploaded by the app to the Recaller website. A trained nutritionist administered a 24-hour dietary recall interview 1 day after food images were taken. Participants' opinions of the Recaller app and its usability were determined by a follow-up survey. As an evaluation indicator of usability, the number of images taken was analyzed and multivariate Poisson regression used to model the factors determining the number of images sent. RESULTS A total of 3,315 food images were uploaded throughout the study period. The median number of images taken per day was nine for males and 13 for females. The survey showed that the Recaller app was easy to use, and 50% of the participants would consider using the app daily. Predictors of a higher number of images were as follows: greater interval (hours) between the first and last food images sent, weekend, and female. CONCLUSIONS The results of this pilot study provide valuable information for understanding the usability of the Recaller smartphone food picture app as well as other similarly designed apps. This study provides a model for assisting nutrition educators in their collection of food intake information by using tools available on smartphones. This innovative approach has the potential to improve recall of foods eaten and monitoring of dietary intake in nutritional studies. PMID:25861429

  9. Comparison of Interviewer-Administered and Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Recalls in 3 Diverse Integrated Health Systems.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Frances E; Dixit-Joshi, Sujata; Potischman, Nancy; Dodd, Kevin W; Kirkpatrick, Sharon I; Kushi, Lawrence H; Alexander, Gwen L; Coleman, Laura A; Zimmerman, Thea P; Sundaram, Maria E; Clancy, Heather A; Groesbeck, Michelle; Douglass, Deirdre; George, Stephanie M; Schap, TusaRebecca E; Subar, Amy F

    2015-06-15

    Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls provide high-quality intake data but have been prohibitively expensive for large epidemiologic studies. This study's goal was to assess whether the web-based Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Recall (ASA24) performs similarly enough to the standard interviewer-administered, Automated Multiple-Pass Method (AMPM) 24-hour dietary recall to be considered a viable alternative. In 2010-2011, 1,081 adults from 3 integrated health systems in Detroit, Michigan; Marshfield, Wisconsin; and Kaiser-Permanente Northern California participated in a field trial. A quota design ensured a diverse sample by sex, age, and race/ethnicity. Each participant was asked to complete 2 recalls and was randomly assigned to 1 of 4 protocols differing by type of recall and administration order. For energy, the mean intakes were 2,425 versus 2,374 kcal for men and 1,876 versus 1,906 kcal for women by AMPM and ASA24, respectively. Of 20 nutrients/food groups analyzed and controlling for false discovery rate, 87% were judged equivalent at the 20% bound. ASA24 was preferred over AMPM by 70% of the respondents. Attrition was lower in the ASA24/AMPM study group than in the AMPM/ASA24 group, and it was lower in the ASA24/ASA24 group than in the AMPM/AMPM group. ASA24 offers the potential to collect high-quality dietary intake information at low cost with less attrition. PMID:25964261

  10. The Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Recall for Children, 2012 version, for youth aged 9 to 11 Years: A validation study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to validate the 2012 version of the Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Recall for Children (ASA24-Kids-2012), a self-administered web-based 24-hour dietary recall (24hDR) instrument, among children aged 9 to 11 years, in two sites using a quasiexperimental design. In one s...

  11. Formative research of a quick list for an automated self-administered 24-Hour dietary recall

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls are used to collect high-quality dietary data. Because they require highly trained interviewers, recalls are expensive and impractical for large-scale nutrition research, leading to the use of food frequency questionnaires. We are developing a computer-based, self-ad...

  12. Performance of the Automated Self-Administered 24-hour Recall relative to a measure of true intakes and to an interviewer-administered 24-h recall123

    PubMed Central

    Kirkpatrick, Sharon I; Subar, Amy F; Douglass, Deirdre; Zimmerman, Thea P; Thompson, Frances E; Kahle, Lisa L; George, Stephanie M; Dodd, Kevin W; Potischman, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Automated Self-Administered 24-hour Recall (ASA24), a freely available Web-based tool, was developed to enhance the feasibility of collecting high-quality dietary intake data from large samples. Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the criterion validity of ASA24 through a feeding study in which the true intake for 3 meals was known. Design: True intake and plate waste from 3 meals were ascertained for 81 adults by inconspicuously weighing foods and beverages offered at a buffet before and after each participant served him- or herself. Participants were randomly assigned to complete an ASA24 or an interviewer-administered Automated Multiple-Pass Method (AMPM) recall the following day. With the use of linear and Poisson regression analysis, we examined the associations between recall mode and 1) the proportions of items consumed for which a match was reported and that were excluded, 2) the number of intrusions (items reported but not consumed), and 3) differences between energy, nutrient, food group, and portion size estimates based on true and reported intakes. Results: Respondents completing ASA24 reported 80% of items truly consumed compared with 83% in AMPM (P = 0.07). For both ASA24 and AMPM, additions to or ingredients in multicomponent foods and drinks were more frequently omitted than were main foods or drinks. The number of intrusions was higher in ASA24 (P < 0.01). Little evidence of differences by recall mode was found in the gap between true and reported energy, nutrient, and food group intakes or portion sizes. Conclusions: Although the interviewer-administered AMPM performed somewhat better relative to true intakes for matches, exclusions, and intrusions, ASA24 performed well. Given the substantial cost savings that ASA24 offers, it has the potential to make important contributions to research aimed at describing the diets of populations, assessing the effect of interventions on diet, and elucidating diet and health relations. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00978406. PMID:24787491

  13. Development and validity of a 3-day smartphone-assisted 24-hour recall to assess beverage consumption in a Chinese population: a randomized cross-over study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Lindsey P.; Hua, Jenna; Seto, Edmund; Du, Shufa; Zang, Jiajie; Zou, Shurong; Popkin, Barry M.; Mendez, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the need for diet assessment methods that capture the rapidly changing beverage consumption patterns in China. The objective of this study was to develop a 3-day smartphone-assisted 24-hour recall to improve the quantification of beverage intake amongst young Chinese adults (n=110) and validate, in a small subset (n=34), the extent to which the written record and smartphone-assisted recalls adequately estimated total fluid intake, using 24-hour urine samples. The smartphone-assisted method showed improved validity compared to the written-assisted method, when comparing reported total fluid intake to total urine volume. However, participants reported consuming fewer beverages on the smartphone-assisted method compared to the written-assisted method, primarily due to decreased consumption of traditional zero-energy beverages (i.e. water, tea) in the smartphone-assisted method. It is unclear why participants reported fewer beverages in the smartphone-assisted method than the written-assisted method. One possibility is that participants found the smartphone method too cumbersome, and responded by decreasing beverage intake. These results suggest that smartphone-assisted 24-hour recalls perform comparably but do not appear to substantially improve beverage quantification compared to the current written record based approach. In addition, we piloted a beverage screener to identify consumers of episodically consumed SSBs. As expected, a substantially higher proportion of consumers reported consuming SSBs on the beverage screener compared to either recall type, suggesting that a beverage screener may be useful in characterizing consumption of episodically consumed beverages in China’s dynamic food and beverage landscape. PMID:25516327

  14. Impact of diet on 24-hour intragastric pH profile in healthy horses.

    PubMed

    Damkel, Cornelia; Snyder, Alice; Uhlig, Albrecht; Coenen, Manfred; Schusser, Gerald Fritz

    2015-01-01

    An electrode incorporated into a polyethylene hose was introduced under endoscopic control into the stomach of six fasting adult horses for long-lasting pH measurements. The intragastric pH was recorded every four seconds for a period of 24 hours. The Warmblood horses were assigned randomly to receive hay ad libitum (H group); 1.5 kg hay/100 kg BW/day and 1 kg concentrate/100 kg BW/ day (C group) or protocol C plus 75 g pectin-lecithin supplement/100 kg BW/day (P group). The horses were adapted to each diet for 14 days. The 24-hour median pH value for protocol H (2.69) was significantly lower compared to protocol C (3.35) and P (3.44) (p < 0.05). The horses in protocol P had a significant higher percentage (40.1 %) of 24-hour intragastric pH values ≥ 4 than in protocol C (36.2 %) or in protocol H (25.3 %) (p < 0.05). PMID:26591378

  15. Influence of the ketogenic diet on 24-hour electroencephalogram in children with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Remahl, Sten; Dahlin, Maria G; Amark, Per E

    2008-01-01

    The ketogenic diet is a therapeutic diet used to treat medically refractory epilepsy in children. It was found to be effective and safe. Apart from a reduced number of seizures, positive cognitive effects were described. The mechanisms of action are not fully understood, but both antiseizure and antiepileptogenic effects were proposed. Among other changes ascribed to the introduction of the diet, changes in electroencephalogram patterns might contribute to an understanding of the effects of the ketogenic diet. In this study, 23 children (mean age, 6.5 years) with pharmacoresistant epilepsy were started on the diet. They were examined via 24-hour ambulatory electroencephalogram directly before starting the diet, and after 3 months of treatment. The changing electroencephalogram pattern was evaluated qualitatively and semiquantitatively. Background activity, interictal epileptiform activity, ictal activity, and seizure reduction were evaluated. Quality of life was estimated on a visual analog scale. In 15 of 23 patients, the electroencephalogram indicated improvement in terms of more normal background activity or decreased interictal epileptiform activity. This improvement was seen in both seizure-reduction responders and nonresponders, and was not predictive of response to treatment. PMID:18054691

  16. Validation of the Portuguese self-administered computerised 24-hour dietary recall among second-, third- and fourth-grade children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current methods for assessing children's dietary intake, such as interviewer-administered 24-h dietary recall (24-h DR), are time consuming and resource intensive. Self-administered instruments offer a low-cost diet assessment method for use with children. The present study assessed the validity of ...

  17. Children’s dietary reporting accuracy over multiple 24-hour recalls varies by body mass index category

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Suzanne Domel; Smith, Albert F.; Nichols, Michele D.; Guinn, Caroline H.; Hardin, James W.

    2007-01-01

    This secondary analysis investigated the influence of body mass index (BMI) category and sex on reporting accuracy during multiple 24-hour dietary recalls. On three occasions, each of 79 children (40 girls) was observed eating school meals and interviewed the next morning about the previous day’s intake, with ≥ 25 days between any two consecutive occasions for a child. Using age/sex BMI percentiles, we categorized 48 children as healthy weight (≥ 5th percentile <85th), 14 as at risk of overweight (≥ 85th percentile <95th), and 17 as overweight (≥95th percentile). A repeated-measures analysis was conducted for each of five outcomes (number of items observed eaten, number of items reported eaten, omission rate, intrusion rate, total inaccuracy). For items observed, BMI category x trial was marginally significant (P=0.079); over trials, this outcome was stable for healthy-weight children, decreased and stabilized for at-risk-of-overweight children, and was stable and decreased for overweight children. This outcome was greatest for overweight children and least for healthy-weight children (P=0.015). For items reported, no significant effects were found. For omission rate (P=0.028) and intrusion rate (P=0.083), BMI category x trial was significant and marginally significant; over trials, both decreased for healthy-weight children, decreased and stabilized for at-risk-of-overweight children, and increased and stabilized for overweight children. Total inaccuracy decreased slightly over trials (P=0.076); this outcome was greater for boys than for girls (P=0.049). Results suggest that children’s dietary reporting accuracy over multiple recalls varies by BMI category. Validation studies with adequate samples for each BMI category, sex, and race are needed. PMID:17541449

  18. Dietary quality varies according to data collection instrument: a comparison between a food frequency questionnaire and 24-hour recall.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Paulo Rogério Melo; Souza, Rita Adriana Gomes de; Cnop, Mara Lima De; Monteiro, Luana Silva; Coura, Camila Pinheiro; Brito, Alessandra Page; Pereira, Rosangela Alves

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the agreement between the Brazilian Healthy Eating Index - Revised (BHEI-R), estimated by a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and multiple 24-hour recalls (24h-R). The Wilcoxon paired test, partial correlations (PC), intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and Bland-Altman method were used. The total BHEI-R scores and its components ("total fruits", "whole fruits", "total vegetables", "integral cereals", "saturated fat", "sodium", and "energy intake derived from solid fat, added sugar, and alcoholic beverages") were statistically different, with the ICC and PC indicating poor concordance and correlation. The mean concordance estimated for the total BHEI-R and its components varied from 68% for "integral cereals" to 147% for "whole fruits". The suitable concordance limits were violated for most of the components of the BHEI-R. Poor concordance was observed between the BHEI-R estimated by the FFQ and by multiple 24h-R, which indicated a strong reliability of the BHEI-R on the instrument used to collect information on food consumption. PMID:26910251

  19. VALIDATION OF THREE FOOD FREQUENCY QUESTIONNAIRES AND 24-HOUR RECALLS WITH SERUM CAROTENOID LEVELS IN A SAMPLE OF AFRICAN-AMERICAN ADULTS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The validity of self-reported fruit and vegetable intake in minority populations has not been adequately established. In this study, the authors examined the association of three food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) and 24-hour dietary recalls with serum carotenoid levels. Approximately 1,000 Africa...

  20. Validation of the automated self-administered 24-hour dietary recall for children (ASA24-Kids) among 9- to 11-year-old youth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our purpose was to validate ASA24-Kids-2012, a self-administered web-based 24-hour dietary recall (24hDR) among 9- to 11-year-old children. Sixty-nine children in two sites participated in the study. In one site, trained staff observed and recorded types and portions of foods and drinks consumed by ...

  1. Identifying nutrients that are under-reported by an automated 24-hour dietary recall method in overweight and obese women after weight loss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Underreporting of energy intake by 15-50% is a common problem in dietary assessment. Evidence suggests overweight/obese respondents are more likely to under-report than normal weight. This study compared Automated Self-Administered 24-hour recall (ASA24)-reported dietary intake to true intake in ove...

  2. Extent and Determinants of Thermogenic Responses to 24 Hours of Fasting, Energy Balance, and Five Different Overfeeding Diets in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Pannacciulli, Nicola; Bonfiglio, Susan; Pacak, Karel; Krakoff, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Context: Individual variation in the ability to convert excess calories to heat and the effects of dietary macronutrient composition are unclear. Objective: Stability and determinants of the energy expenditure (EE) response to overconsumption were assessed. Design, Setting, and Participants: Twenty subjects (75% male) with normal glucose regulation were evaluated during 24 hours each of energy balance, fasting, and 5 different diets with 200% energy requirements in a clinical research unit. Interventions: Five 1-day overfeeding diets were given in random order: high carbohydrate (75%) and low protein (3%); high carbohydrate and normal protein (20%); high fat (46%) and low protein; high fat (60%) and normal protein; and balanced (50% carbohydrates, 20% protein). Main Outcome Measures: The 24-hour EE, sleeping EE, and thermic effect of food (TEF) during each diet were measured with a metabolic chamber. Appetitive hormones were measured before and after the diets. Results: The EE response to overfeeding exhibited good intraindividual reproducibility. Similar increases above eucaloric feeding in 24-hour EE (mean 10.7 ± 5.7%, P < .001; range 2.9–18.8%) and sleeping EE (14.4 ± 11.3%, P < .001; range 1.0–45.1%) occurred when overfeeding diets containing 20% protein, despite differences in fat and carbohydrate content, but the EE response during overfeeding diets containing 3% protein was attenuated. The percent body fat negatively correlated with TEF during normal protein overfeeding (r = −0.53, P < .01). Fasting peptide YY negatively correlated with TEF (r = −0.56, P < .01) and the increase in sleeping EE (r = −0.54, P < .01) during overfeeding. Conclusions: There is an intrinsic EE response to overfeeding that negatively associates with adiposity, although it represents a small percentage of consumed calories. PMID:23666976

  3. Body weight and tissue composition in rats made obese by a cafeteria diet. Effect of 24 hours starvation.

    PubMed

    Gianotti, M; Roca, P; Palou, A

    1988-04-01

    Rat body size and tissue composition changes from pre-weaning to three months age resulted from voluntary hyperphagia triggered by offering a cafeteria diet. The effects of a 24 hour starvation period in both cafeteria and chow fed controls were compared. Obesity develops earlier in females than in males. This difference is related to the growth patterns in both sexes. Obesity occurs at the stages of development when growth rate decreases. Cafeteria fed female rats attained a 32% greater weight than their controls, with lumbar adipose cords that were 4 times heavier and brown interscapular adipose tissue 2 times heavier than controls. The overall cafeteria fed versus chow fed rat differences in the effects of a 24 hour starvation, were minor but less liver glycogen and much more skeletal muscle lipids were mobilized in the cafeteria fed rats than in controls. PMID:3397032

  4. 24-Hour Glucose Profiles on Diets Varying in Protein Content and Glycemic Index

    PubMed Central

    van Baak, Marleen A.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence is increasing that the postprandial state is an important factor contributing to the risk of chronic diseases. Not only mean glycemia, but also glycemic variability has been implicated in this effect. In this exploratory study, we measured 24-h glucose profiles in 25 overweight participants in a long-term diet intervention study (DIOGENES study on Diet, Obesity and Genes), which had been randomized to four different diet groups consuming diets varying in protein content and glycemic index. In addition, we compared 24-h glucose profiles in a more controlled fashion, where nine other subjects followed in random order the same four diets differing in carbohydrate content by 10 energy% and glycemic index by 20 units during three days. Meals were provided in the lab and had to be eaten at fixed times during the day. No differences in mean glucose concentration or glucose variability (SD) were found between diet groups in the DIOGENES study. In the more controlled lab study, mean 24-h glucose concentrations were also not different. Glucose variability (SD and CONGA1), however, was lower on the diet combining a lower carbohydrate content and GI compared to the diet combining a higher carbohydrate content and GI. These data suggest that diets with moderate differences in carbohydrate content and GI do not affect mean 24-h or daytime glucose concentrations, but may result in differences in the variability of the glucose level in healthy normal weight and overweight individuals. PMID:25093276

  5. DASH for Health: Validation of Web-based 24-Hour Recall Questionnaire Designed for a Lifestyle Modification Program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The DASH eating plan is nationally recognized and recommended by the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, among others, as a healthful way to reduce hypertension and hypercholesterolemia, and as being an overall healthy diet for all Americans. We created a web-based nutrition and physical activity...

  6. Electronic Dietary Intake Assessment (e-DIA): Comparison of a Mobile Phone Digital Entry App for Dietary Data Collection With 24-Hour Dietary Recalls

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, Sarah; Giannelli, Valentina; Yap, Megan LH; Tang, Lie Ming; Roy, Rajshri; Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu; Hebden, Lana; Kay, Judy; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Background The electronic Dietary Intake Assessment (e-DIA), a digital entry food record mobile phone app, was developed to measure energy and nutrient intake prospectively. This can be used in monitoring population intakes or intervention studies in young adults. Objective The objective was to assess the relative validity of e-DIA as a dietary assessment tool for energy and nutrient intakes using the 24-hour dietary recall as a reference method. Methods University students aged 19 to 24 years recorded their food and drink intake on the e-DIA for five days consecutively and completed 24-hour dietary recalls on three random days during this 5-day study period. Mean differences in energy, macro-, and micronutrient intakes were evaluated between the methods using paired t tests or Wilcoxon signed-rank tests, and correlation coefficients were calculated on unadjusted, energy-adjusted, and deattenuated values. Bland-Altman plots and cross-classification into quartiles were used to assess agreement between the two methods. Results Eighty participants completed the study (38% male). No significant differences were found between the two methods for mean intakes of energy or nutrients. Deattenuated correlation coefficients ranged from 0.55 to 0.79 (mean 0.68). Bland-Altman plots showed wide limits of agreement between the methods but without obvious bias. Cross-classification into same or adjacent quartiles ranged from 75% to 93% (mean 85%). Conclusions The e-DIA shows potential as a dietary intake assessment tool at a group level with good ranking agreement for energy and all nutrients. PMID:26508282

  7. Shortening the retention interval of 24-hour dietary recalls increases fourth-grade children’s accuracy for reporting energy and macronutrient intake at school meals

    PubMed Central

    Guinn, Caroline H.; Royer, Julie A.; Hardin, James W.; Mackelprang, Alyssa J.; Smith, Albert F.

    2010-01-01

    Background Accurate information about children’s intake is crucial for national nutrition policy and for research and clinical activities. To analyze accuracy for reporting energy and nutrients, most validation studies utilize the conventional approach which was not designed to capture errors of reported foods and amounts. The reporting-error-sensitive approach captures errors of reported foods and amounts. Objective To extend results to energy and macronutrients for a validation study concerning retention interval (elapsed time between to-be-reported meals and the interview) and accuracy for reporting school-meal intake, the conventional and reporting-error-sensitive approaches were compared. Design and participants/setting Fourth-grade children (n=374) were observed eating two school meals, and interviewed to obtain a 24-hour recall using one of six interview conditions from crossing two target periods (prior-24-hours; previous-day) with three interview times (morning; afternoon; evening). Data were collected in one district during three school years (2004–2005; 2005–2006; 2006–2007). Main outcome measures Report rates (reported/observed), correspondence rates (correctly reported/observed), and inflation ratios (intruded/observed) were calculated for energy and macronutrients. Statistical analyses performed For each outcome measure, mixed-model analysis of variance was conducted with target period, interview time, their interaction, and sex in the model; results were adjusted for school year and interviewer. Results Conventional approach — Report rates for energy and macronutrients did not differ by target period, interview time, their interaction, or sex. Reporting-error-sensitive approach — Correspondence rates for energy and macronutrients differed by target period (four P-values<0.0001) and the target-period by interview-time interaction (four P-values<0.0001); inflation ratios for energy and macronutrients differed by target period (four P-values<0.0001), and inflation ratios for energy and carbohydrate differed by the target-period by interview-time interaction (both P-values<0.005). Conclusions Shorten the retention interval of dietary recalls to increase accuracy for reporting energy and macronutrients. For validation studies, obtain reference information from a method that provides details about foods and amounts consumed, and use an analytic approach that captures errors of reported foods and amounts. PMID:20656093

  8. Assessment of the Accuracy of Portion Size Reports Using Computer-Based Food Photographs Aids in the Development of an Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Recall

    PubMed Central

    Subar, Amy F.; Crafts, Jennifer; Zimmerman, Thea Palmer; Wilson, Michael; Mittl, Beth; Islam, Noemi G.; Mcnutt, Suzanne; Potischman, Nancy; Buday, Richard; Hull, Stephen G.; Baranowski, Tom; Guenther, Patricia M.; Willis, Gordon; Tapia, Ramsey; Thompson, Frances E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the accuracy of portion-size estimates and participant preferences using various presentations of digital images. Design Two observational feeding studies were conducted. In both, each participant selected and consumed foods for breakfast and lunch, buffet style, serving themselves portions of nine foods representing five forms (eg, amorphous, pieces). Serving containers were weighed unobtrusively before and after selection as was plate waste. The next day, participants used a computer software program to select photographs representing portion sizes of foods consumed the previous day. Preference information was also collected. In Study 1 (n=29), participants were presented with four different types of images (aerial photographs, angled photographs, images of mounds, and household measures) and two types of screen presentations (simultaneous images vs an empty plate that filled with images of food portions when clicked). In Study 2 (n=20), images were presented in two ways that varied by size (large vs small) and number (4 vs 8). Subjects/setting Convenience sample of volunteers of varying background in an office setting. Statistical analyses performed Repeated-measures analysis of variance of absolute differences between actual and reported portions sizes by presentation methods. Results Accuracy results were largely not statistically significant, indicating that no one image type was most accurate. Accuracy results indicated the use of eight vs four images was more accurate. Strong participant preferences supported presenting simultaneous vs sequential images. Conclusions These findings support the use of aerial photographs in the automated self-administered 24-hour recall. For some food forms, images of mounds or household measures are as accurate as images of food and, therefore, are a cost-effective alternative to photographs of foods. PMID:20102828

  9. Comparison of a web-based versus traditional diet recall among children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Self-administered instruments offer a low-cost diet assessment method for use in adult and pediatric populations. This study tested whether 8- to 13-year-old children could complete an early version of the Automated Self Administered 24 (ASA24) hour dietary recall and how this compared to an intervi...

  10. Development and Pilot Testing of 24-Hour Multiple-Pass Recall to Assess Dietary Intake of Toddlers of Somali- and Iraqi-Born Mothers Living in Norway

    PubMed Central

    Grewal, Navnit Kaur; Mosdøl, Annhild; Aunan, Marte Bergsund; Monsen, Carina; Torheim, Liv Elin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop, test, and evaluate a 24-h recall procedure to assess the dietary intake of toddlers of Somali- and Iraqi-born mothers living in Norway. A protocol for a 24-h multiple-pass recall procedure, registration forms, and visual tools (a picture library for food identification and portion size estimation) was developed and tested in 12 mothers from Somalia and Iraq with children aged 10–21 months. Five female field workers were recruited and trained to conduct the interviews. Evaluation data for the 24-h recall procedure were collected from both the mothers and the field workers. Nutrient intake was calculated using a Norwegian dietary calculation system. Each child’s estimated energy intake was compared with its estimated energy requirement. Both the mothers and the field workers found the method feasible and the visual tools useful. The estimated energy intake corresponded well with the estimated energy requirement for most of the children (within mean ± 2 SD, except for three). The pilot study identified the need for additional foods in the picture library and some crucial aspects in training and supervising the field workers to reduce sources of error in the data collection. PMID:24949548

  11. Estimated dietary intakes of flavonols, flavanones and flavones in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) 24 hour dietary recall cohort.

    PubMed

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Knaze, Viktoria; Luján-Barroso, Leila; Slimani, Nadia; Romieu, Isabelle; Fedirko, Veronika; de Magistris, Maria Santucci; Ericson, Ulrica; Amiano, Pilar; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Dilis, Vardis; Naska, Androniki; Engeset, Dagrun; Skeie, Guri; Cassidy, Aedin; Overvad, Kim; Peeters, Petra H M; Huerta, José María; Sánchez, María-José; Quirós, J Ramón; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Grioni, Sara; Tumino, Rosario; Johansson, Gerd; Johansson, Ingegerd; Drake, Isabel; Crowe, Francesca L; Barricarte, Aurelio; Kaaks, Rudolf; Teucher, Birgit; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; van Rossum, Caroline T M; Norat, Teresa; Romaguera, Dora; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjær, Jytte; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Touillaud, Marina; Salvini, Simonetta; Khaw, Kay-Thee; Wareham, Nicholas; Boeing, Heiner; Förster, Jana; Riboli, Elio; González, Carlos A

    2011-12-01

    Flavonols, flavanones and flavones (FLAV) are sub-classes of flavonoids that exert cardioprotective and anti-carcinogenic properties in vitro and in vivo. We aimed to estimate the FLAV dietary intake, their food sources and associated lifestyle factors in ten European countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. FLAV intake and their food sources for 36 037 subjects, aged between 35 and 74 years, in twenty-seven study centres were obtained using standardised 24 h dietary recall software (EPIC-SOFT). An ad hoc food composition database on FLAV was compiled using data from US Department of Agriculture and Phenol-Explorer databases and was expanded using recipes, estimations and flavonoid retention factors in order to increase its correspondence with the 24 h dietary recall. Our results showed that the highest FLAV-consuming centre was the UK health-conscious group, with 130·9 and 97·0 mg/d for men and women, respectively. The lowest FLAV intakes were 36·8 mg/d in men from Umeå and 37·2 mg/d in women from Malmö (Sweden). The flavanone sub-class was the main contributor to the total FLAV intake ranging from 46·6 to 52·9 % depending on the region. Flavonols ranged from 38·5 to 47·3 % and flavones from 5·8 to 8·6 %. FLAV intake was higher in women, non-smokers, increased with level of education and physical activity. The major food sources were citrus fruits and citrus-based juices (especially for flavanones), tea, wine, other fruits and some vegetables. We concluded that the present study shows heterogeneity in intake of these three sub-classes of flavonoids across European regions and highlights differences by sex and other sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. PMID:21679483

  12. 24-Hour Academic Libraries: Adjusting to Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Adam C.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the adaptive measures that academic libraries perform when implementing and operating a 24-hour schedule. Five in-depth interviews were conducted with current managerial-level librarians at 24-hour academic libraries. The exploratory interviews revealed similar measures for security, budgeting, employee…

  13. 24-Hour Academic Libraries: Adjusting to Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Adam C.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the adaptive measures that academic libraries perform when implementing and operating a 24-hour schedule. Five in-depth interviews were conducted with current managerial-level librarians at 24-hour academic libraries. The exploratory interviews revealed similar measures for security, budgeting, employee

  14. Recalls

    MedlinePlus

    ... Recall Portal . Inside CPSC: Recalls Safety Education Regulations, Laws & Standards Research & Statistics Business & Manufacturing Small Business Resources International Newsroom About CPSC Contact Us Sitemap RSS E- ...

  15. The 24-Hour Mathematical Modeling Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galluzzo, Benjamin J.; Wendt, Theodore J.

    2015-01-01

    Across the mathematics curriculum there is a renewed emphasis on applications of mathematics and on mathematical modeling. Providing students with modeling experiences beyond the ordinary classroom setting remains a challenge, however. In this article, we describe the 24-hour Mathematical Modeling Challenge, an extracurricular event that exposes…

  16. Human prolactin - 24-hour pattern with increased release during sleep.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sassin, J. F.; Weitzman, E. D.; Kapen, S.; Frantz, A. G.

    1972-01-01

    Human prolactin was measured in plasma by radioimmunoassay at 20-minute intervals for a 24-hour period in each of six normal adults, whose sleep-wake cycles were monitored polygraphically. A marked diurnal variation in plasma concentrations was demonstrated, with highest values during sleep. Periods of episodic release occurred throughout the 24 hours.

  17. HEART RATE VARIABILITY AND 24-HOUR MINIMUM HEART RATE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heart rate variability (HRV) indices based on 24-hour electrocardiograph recordings have been used in clinical research studies to assess the aggregate activity of the autonomic nervous system. While 24-hour HRV is generally considered non-invasive, use in research protocols typically involves cons...

  18. 29 CFR 785.21 - Less than 24-hour duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... be on duty for less than 24 hours is working even though he is permitted to sleep or engage in other... specified hours is working even though she is permitted to sleep when not busy answering calls. It makes...

  19. 29 CFR 785.21 - Less than 24-hour duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... be on duty for less than 24 hours is working even though he is permitted to sleep or engage in other... specified hours is working even though she is permitted to sleep when not busy answering calls. It makes...

  20. 29 CFR 785.21 - Less than 24-hour duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... be on duty for less than 24 hours is working even though he is permitted to sleep or engage in other... specified hours is working even though she is permitted to sleep when not busy answering calls. It makes...

  1. 29 CFR 785.21 - Less than 24-hour duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... be on duty for less than 24 hours is working even though he is permitted to sleep or engage in other... specified hours is working even though she is permitted to sleep when not busy answering calls. It makes...

  2. 29 CFR 785.21 - Less than 24-hour duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... be on duty for less than 24 hours is working even though he is permitted to sleep or engage in other... specified hours is working even though she is permitted to sleep when not busy answering calls. It makes...

  3. The Need to maintain Intraocular Pressure over 24 Hours

    PubMed Central

    Ichhpujani, Parul

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Glaucoma patients who appear to be stable based on daytime in-clinic intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements may not be fully controlled over each 24-hour period. Given that there is sufficient evidence that IOP fluctuation may impact progression, the aim of management of glaucoma thus, is to achieve a target IOP with minimal diurnal fluctuation. How to cite this article: Bhartiya S, Ichhpujani P. The Need to Maintain Intraocular Pressure over 24 Hours. J Current Glau Prac 2012;6(3):120-123.

  4. Adult Recall of Adolescent Diet: Reproducibility and Comparison with Maternal Reporting

    PubMed Central

    Maruti, Sonia S.; Feskanich, Diane; Colditz, Graham A.; Frazier, A. Lindsay; Sampson, Laura A.; Michels, Karin B.; Hunter, David J.; Spiegelman, Donna; Willett, Walter C.

    2007-01-01

    Many cancers have long latency periods, and dietary factors in adolescence may plausibly affect cancer occurrence in adulthood. Because of a lack of prospective data, retrospective collection of data on adolescent diet is essential. The authors evaluated a 124-item high school food frequency questionnaire (HS-FFQ) assessing diet during high school (15–35 years in the past) that was completed in 1998 by 45,947 US women in the Nurses' Health Study II (NHSII) cohort. To assess reproducibility, the authors readministered the HS-FFQ approximately 4 years later to 333 of these women. The mean Pearson correlation for 38 nutrient intakes was 0.65 (range, 0.50–0.77), and the mean Spearman rank correlation for food intakes was 0.60 (range, 0.37–0.77). Current adult diet was only weakly correlated with recalled adolescent diet (for nutrient intakes, mean r = 0.20). For assessment of validity, 272 mothers of the NHSII participants were asked to report information on their daughters' adolescent diets using the HS-FFQ. In this comparison, the mean Pearson correlation was 0.40 (range, 0.13–0.59) for nutrients, and the mean Spearman rank correlation for foods was 0.30 (range, 0.10–0.61). While further studies are warranted, these findings imply that this food frequency questionnaire provides a reasonable record of adolescent diet. PMID:15615919

  5. 24-hour rhythmicity of seizures in refractory focal epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Nzwalo, Hipólito; Menezes Cordeiro, Inês; Santos, Ana Catarina; Peralta, Rita; Paiva, Teresa; Bentes, Carla

    2016-02-01

    The occurrence of seizures in specific types of epilepsies can follow a 24-hour nonuniform or nonrandom pattern. We described the 24-hour pattern of clinical seizures in patients with focal refractory epilepsy who underwent video-electroencephalography monitoring. Only patients who were candidates for epilepsy surgery with an unequivocal seizure focus were included in the study. A total of 544 seizures from 123 consecutive patients were analyzed. Specific time of seizures were distributed along 3- or 4-hour time blocks or bins throughout the 24-hour period. The mean age of the subjects was 37.7years, with standard deviation of 11.5years, median of 37. The majority were females (70/56%). The majority of patients had a seizure focus located in the mesial temporal lobe (102/83%) and in the neocortical temporal lobe (13/11%). The remaining patients had a seizure focus located in the extratemporal lobe (8/6%). The most common etiology was mesial temporal sclerosis (86/69.9%). Nonuniform seizure distribution was observed in seizures arising from the temporal lobe (mesial temporal lobe and neocortical temporal lobe), with two peaks found in both 3- and 4-hour bins: 10:00-13:00/16:00-19:00 and 08:00-12:00/16:00-20:00 respectively (p=0.004). No specific 24-hour pattern was identified in seizures from extratemporal location. The 24-hour rhythmicity of seizure distribution is recognized in certain types of epilepsy, but studies on the topic are scarce. Their replication and validation is therefore needed. Our study confirms the bimodal pattern of temporal lobe epilepsy independently of the nature of the lesion. However, peak times differ between different studies, suggesting that the ambient, rhythmic exogenous factors or environmental/social zeitgebers, may modulate the 24-hour rhythmicity of seizures. Characterization of these 24-hour patterns of seizure occurrence can influence diagnosis and treatment in selected types of epilepsy, such as the case of temporal lobe epilepsy, the most common drug-resistant epilepsy. PMID:26773673

  6. Feasibility of ambulatory, continuous 24-hour finger arterial pressure recording.

    PubMed

    Imholz, B P; Langewouters, G J; van Montfrans, G A; Parati, G; van Goudoever, J; Wesseling, K H; Wieling, W; Mancia, G

    1993-01-01

    We tested Portapres, an innovative portable, battery-operated device for the continuous, noninvasive, 24-hour ambulatory measurement of blood pressure in the finger. Portapres is based on Finapres, a stationary device for the measurement of finger arterial pressure. Systems were added to record signals on tape, to alternate measurements between fingers automatically each 30 minutes, and to correct for the hydrostatic height of the hand. We compared the pressure as measured by Portapres with contralateral intrabrachial pressure measured with an Oxford device. Results were obtained in eight volunteers and 16 hypertensive patients. Time lost due to artifact was about 10% for each device. In two patients a full 24-hour Oxford profile was not obtained. In the remaining 22 subjects finger systolic, diastolic, and mean pressures differed +1 (SD 9), -8 (6), and -10 (6) mm Hg, respectively, from intrabrachial pressure. These diastolic and mean pressure underestimations are similar to what was found earlier for Finapres, are typical for the technique, and are systematic. Avoiding brisk hand movements resulted in fewer waveform artifacts. The hand had to be kept covered to continue recording at low outside temperatures. Sleep was not disturbed by Portapres, and arterial pressure showed a marked fall during siesta and nighttime. There were no major limitations in behavior, and no discomfort that originated from continuous monitoring was reported. Measurements continued normally during physical exercise. Portapres provides for the first time continuous 24-hour, noninvasive ambulatory blood pressure waveform monitoring and offers real and obvious advantages over current noninvasive and invasive devices. PMID:8418025

  7. The 24-hour society between myth and reality.

    PubMed

    Costa, G

    2001-12-01

    The 24-hour society appears to be an ineluctable process towards a social organisation where time constraints are no more "restricting" the human life. But, what kind of 24-hour society do we need? At what costs? Are they acceptable/sustainable? Shift work, night work, irregular and flexible working hours, together with new technologies, are the milestone of this epochal passage, of which shift workers are builders and victims at the same time. The borders between working and social times are no more fixed and rigidly determined: not only the link between work place and working hours is broken, but also the value of working time changes according to the different economic/productive/social effects it can make. What are the advantages and disadvantages for the individual, the companies, and the society? What is the cost/benefit ratio in terms of physical health; psychological well-being, family and social life? The research on irregular working hours and health shows us what can be the negative consequences of non-human-centered working times organisations. Coping properly with this process means avoiding a passive acceptance of it with consequent maladjustments at both individual and social level, but adopting effective preventive and compensative strategies aimed at building a more sustainable society, at acceptable costs and with the highest possible benefits. PMID:14564852

  8. Dietary patterns are similar in multiple 24-hour recalls and a dietary screening tool

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary patterns (DP) have been associated with nutritional and health status of older adults but are usually derived by comprehensive dietary assessment methods. We designed a dietary screening tool (DST) to assess DP using a population-specific data-based approach from a cohort of the Geisinger R...

  9. Managing sleep and wakefulness in a 24-hour world

    PubMed Central

    Coveney, Catherine M

    2014-01-01

    This article contributes to literature on the sociology of sleep by exploring the sleeping practices and subjective sleep experiences of two social groups: shift workers and students. It draws on data, collected in the UK from 25 semi-structured interviews, to discuss the complex ways in which working patterns and social activities impact upon experiences and expectations of sleep in our wired awake world. The data show that, typically, sleep is valued and considered to be important for health, general wellbeing, appearance and physical and cognitive functioning. However, sleep time is often cut back on in favour of work demands and social activities. While shift workers described their efforts to fit in an adequate amount of sleep per 24-hour period, for students, the adoption of a flexible sleep routine was thought to be favourable for maintaining a work–social life balance. Collectively, respondents reported using a wide range of strategies, techniques, technologies and practices to encourage, overcome or delay sleep(iness) and boost, promote or enhance wakefulness/alertness at socially desirable times. The analysis demonstrates how social context impacts not only on how we come to think about sleep and understand it, but also how we manage or self-regulate our sleeping patterns. PMID:23957268

  10. Managing sleep and wakefulness in a 24-hour world.

    PubMed

    Coveney, Catherine M

    2014-01-01

    This article contributes to literature on the sociology of sleep by exploring the sleeping practices and subjective sleep experiences of two social groups: shift workers and students. It draws on data, collected in the UK from 25 semi-structured interviews, to discuss the complex ways in which working patterns and social activities impact upon experiences and expectations of sleep in our wired awake world. The data show that, typically, sleep is valued and considered to be important for health, general wellbeing, appearance and physical and cognitive functioning. However, sleep time is often cut back on in favour of work demands and social activities. While shift workers described their efforts to fit in an adequate amount of sleep per 24-hour period, for students, the adoption of a flexible sleep routine was thought to be favourable for maintaining a work-social life balance. Collectively, respondents reported using a wide range of strategies, techniques, technologies and practices to encourage, overcome or delay sleep(iness) and boost, promote or enhance wakefulness/alertness at socially desirable times. The analysis demonstrates how social context impacts not only on how we come to think about sleep and understand it, but also how we manage or self-regulate our sleeping patterns. PMID:23957268

  11. Flexibility of working hours in the 24-hour society.

    PubMed

    Costa, G

    2006-01-01

    The 24-hour Society undergoes an ineluctable process towards a social organisation where time constraints are no more restricting human life. The borders between working and social times are no more fixed and rigidly determined, and the value of working time changes according to the different economic and social effects you may consider. Shift and night work, irregular and flexible working hours, together with new technologies, are the milestone of this epochal passage. What are the advantages and disadvantages for the individual, the companies, and the society? What is the cost/benefit ratio in terms of health and social well-being? Coping properly with this process means avoiding a passive acceptance of it with consequent maladjustments at both individual and social level, but adopting effective preventive and compensative strategies aimed at building up a more sustainable society. Flexible working times now appear to be one of the best ways to cope with the demands of the modern life, but there are different points of view about labour and temporal 'flexibility" between employers and employees. For the former it means a prompt adaptation to market demands and technological innovations; for the latter it is a way to improve working and social life, by decreasing work constraints and increasing control and autonomy. Although it can be easily speculated that individual-based 'flexibility" should improve health and well-being, and especially satisfaction, whereas company-based flexibility" might interfere negatively, the effective consequences on health and well-being have still to be analysed properly. PMID:17017360

  12. Assessment of usual dietary intake in population studies of gene-diet interaction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary intake is a critical exposure when examining genetic factors on disease risk. Weighed diet records can provide the most accurate assessment of intake, but are usually not realistic in large population studies. Multiple 24 hour dietary recalls provide detail, allowing for diverse dietary prac...

  13. Mushroom intake is associated with better nutrient intake and diet quality: 2001-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The association between mushroom consumption and nutrient intake or diet quality has not been reported. The purpose of this study was to determine the associations between these variables in a nationally representative sample of adults. Dietary intake was determined using a 24-hour recall on adult 1...

  14. Adapting a standardised international 24 h dietary recall methodology (GloboDiet software) for research and dietary surveillance in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Min Kyung; Park, Jin Young; Nicolas, Geneviève; Paik, Hee Young; Kim, Jeongseon; Slimani, Nadia

    2015-06-14

    During the past decades, a rapid nutritional transition has been observed along with economic growth in the Republic of Korea. Since this dramatic change in diet has been frequently associated with cancer and other non-communicable diseases, dietary monitoring is essential to understand the association. Benefiting from pre-existing standardised dietary methodologies, the present study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and describe the development of a Korean version of the international computerised 24 h dietary recall method (GloboDiet software) and its complementary tools, developed at the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), WHO. Following established international Standard Operating Procedures and guidelines, about seventy common and country-specific databases on foods, recipes, dietary supplements, quantification methods and coefficients were customised and translated. The main results of the present study highlight the specific adaptations made to adapt the GloboDiet software for research and dietary surveillance in Korea. New (sub-) subgroups were added into the existing common food classification, and new descriptors were added to the facets to classify and describe specific Korean foods. Quantification methods were critically evaluated and adapted considering the foods and food packages available in the Korean market. Furthermore, a picture book of foods/dishes was prepared including new pictures and food portion sizes relevant to Korean diet. The development of the Korean version of GloboDiet demonstrated that it was possible to adapt the IARC-WHO international dietary tool to an Asian context without compromising its concept of standardisation and software structure. It, thus, confirms that this international dietary methodology, used so far only in Europe, is flexible and robust enough to be customised for other regions worldwide. PMID:25899045

  15. Ocean tide loading effects on 24 hour GPS height estimates and resulting time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penna, N. T.; Stewart, M. P.

    2003-04-01

    GPS data from continuously operating GPS receivers are usually made available on a daily basis in 24 hour data files, so it is convenient for the user to adopt 24 hour data processing sessions. Time series are often then formed from the discrete 24 hour solutions, used for such applications as crustal deformation monitoring or high quality coordinate determination. When heights are estimated, ocean tide loading is a systematic error source that must be considered. Since the principal ocean tide loading effects have periods close to 12 and 24 hours respectively, it has been suggested from previous works that if models for ocean tide loading are not applied when processing GPS data as 24 hour sessions, at worst a small increase in the variance of the height time series will result. This paper further investigates the effects of ocean tide loading on 24 hour GPS height estimates and resulting time series, by considering a year of both simulated and real data from sites in Australia, at which the ocean tide loading effects differ substantially. The effect of each of the individual constituents is also considered. The role of the tropospheric delay mitigation strategy is addressed, regarding the effect on the height estimates when ocean tide loading effects are modelled or ignored.

  16. The importance of 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in patients at risk of cardiovascular events.

    PubMed

    Redon, Josep

    2013-03-01

    The accuracy of clinic blood pressure (BP) measurements is limited due to the presence of 24-hour BP variability and white-coat or masked hypertension. In contrast, 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) has evolved into an accurate and reproducible tool for the assessment and management of hypertension. Various out-of-office measurements can be obtained using ABPM data, including morning, daytime, night-time and average 24-hour BP. Thus, in clinical practice, ABPM can be used to identify masked hypertension or excessive BP reduction. Furthermore, ABPM data can identify early-morning hypertension and excessive BP variability, both of which correlate with target-organ damage and cardiovascular outcomes. In large outcomes trials, ABPM sub-studies are increasingly performed to help further understand patient outcomes. However, it is evident that control of BP over the full 24-hour period, particularly during the risky early morning period, is not being achieved in general practice. In clinical trials of antihypertensive efficacy, a useful calculation is the smoothness index. This measure assesses the degree of 24-hour BP reduction, as well as its distribution pattern, throughout the 24-hour period. Importantly, the index correlates with hypertension-associated target organ damage, unlike the commonly used trough to peak ratio. Smooth BP control according to this index is achieved with long-acting drugs, such as telmisartan or amlodipine, which provide smooth 24-hour BP control, even during the early morning period. In summary, the use of ABPM is expanding, both in clinical practice and in trials, as it provides a closer correlation to prognosis than clinic BP measures. When choosing an antihypertensive agent for patients with hypertension, it is important to consider reducing BP variability by using longer acting antihypertensives, which may help to prevent cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. PMID:23532740

  17. Agreement between 24-hour salt ingestion and sodium excretion in a controlled environment.

    PubMed

    Lerchl, Kathrin; Rakova, Natalia; Dahlmann, Anke; Rauh, Manfred; Goller, Ulrike; Basner, Mathias; Dinges, David F; Beck, Luis; Agureev, Alexander; Larina, Irina; Baranov, Victor; Morukov, Boris; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Vassilieva, Galina; Wabel, Peter; Vienken, Jörg; Kirsch, Karl; Johannes, Bernd; Krannich, Alexander; Luft, Friedrich C; Titze, Jens

    2015-10-01

    Accurately collected 24-hour urine collections are presumed to be valid for estimating salt intake in individuals. We performed 2 independent ultralong-term salt balance studies lasting 105 (4 men) and 205 (6 men) days in 10 men simulating a flight to Mars. We controlled dietary intake of all constituents for months at salt intakes of 12, 9, and 6 g/d and collected all urine. The subjects' daily menus consisted of 27 279 individual servings, of which 83.0% were completely consumed, 16.5% completely rejected, and 0.5% incompletely consumed. Urinary recovery of dietary salt was 92% of recorded intake, indicating long-term steady-state sodium balance in both studies. Even at fixed salt intake, 24-hour urine collection for sodium excretion (UNaV) showed infradian rhythmicity. We defined a ±25 mmol deviation from the average difference between recorded sodium intake and UNaV as the prediction interval to accurately classify a 3-g difference in salt intake. Because of the biological variability in UNaV, only every other daily urine sample correctly classified a 3-g difference in salt intake (49%). By increasing the observations to 3 consecutive 24-hour collections and sodium intakes, classification accuracy improved to 75%. Collecting seven 24-hour urines and sodium intake samples improved classification accuracy to 92%. We conclude that single 24-hour urine collections at intakes ranging from 6 to 12 g salt per day were not suitable to detect a 3-g difference in individual salt intake. Repeated measurements of 24-hour UNaV improve precision. This knowledge could be relevant to patient care and the conduct of intervention trials. PMID:26259596

  18. 24-Hour Access: Responding to Students' Need for Late Library Hours at the University of Denver

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewell, Bethany B.

    2013-01-01

    The University of Denver's Penrose Library saw a substantial increase in use as a result of several new and enhanced services over a six-year period. In turn, longer operating hours and increased staffing for a 24-hours-a-day, five-days-a-week (24 x 5) operating schedule was funded. This case study analyzes student need for longer library hours

  19. The Three-Continent, 24-Hour Help Desk: An Academic First?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sykes, Jean

    2002-01-01

    Describes Follow the Sun, a computer help-desk service that takes advantage of time differences around the world to permit four universities (University of Colorado Boulder, Australia's Macquarie and Newcastle universities, and the London School of Economics) to share services and provide 24-hour support to users. (EV)

  20. Mood-Dependent Cognitive Change in a Man with Bipolar Disorder Who Cycles Every 24 Hours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Dominic; Mansell, Warren

    2008-01-01

    A case study of a bipolar patient whose mood changes every 24 hours is described to illustrate the changes in cognitive processing and content during different phases of bipolar disorder. The participant completed a battery of questionnaires and tasks on 4 separate occasions: twice when depressed and twice when manic. Depression tended to be

  1. [24-hour dynamics of electric ventricular systole in patients with arterial hypertension and obesity: gender peculiarities].

    PubMed

    Radchenko, O M; Bek, N S

    2014-01-01

    The features of 24-hour dynamics of the corrected electric ventricular systole and QT-interval dispersion were investigated in patients with stage II arterial hypertension and overweight or obesity, according to a gender. Gender distinctions of investigated criteria's were established, which depend on the body mass index. PMID:25796836

  2. Mood-Dependent Cognitive Change in a Man with Bipolar Disorder Who Cycles Every 24 Hours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Dominic; Mansell, Warren

    2008-01-01

    A case study of a bipolar patient whose mood changes every 24 hours is described to illustrate the changes in cognitive processing and content during different phases of bipolar disorder. The participant completed a battery of questionnaires and tasks on 4 separate occasions: twice when depressed and twice when manic. Depression tended to be…

  3. Plasma Volume Expansion 24-Hours Post-Exercise: Effect of Doubling the Volume of Replacement Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Kay, Bartholomew; O’Brien, Brendan J.; Gill, Nicholas D.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of two volumes (1.5 L or 3.0 L) of commercially available electrolyte beverage (1.44 mM·L-1 Na+) taken during a 24-hour recovery period post-exercise, on plasma volume (PV) expansion 24-hours post-exercise were assessed. A simple random-order crossover research design was used. Subjects (n = 9 males: age 21 ± 4 years, body mass 80.0 ± 9.0 kg, peak incremental 60-second cycling power output 297 ± 45 W [means ± SD]) completed an identical exercise protocol conducted in hot ambient conditions (35oC, 50% relative humidity) on two occasions; separated by 7-days. On each occasion, subjects received a different volume of 24-hour fluid intake (commercial beverage) in random order. In each case, the fluid was taken in five equal aliquots over 24-hours. PV expansions 24-hours post-exercise were estimated from changes in haemoglobin and haematocrit. Dependent t-testing revealed no significant differences in PV expansions between trials, however a significant expansion with respect to zero was identified in the 3.0 L trial only. Specifically, PV expansions (%) were; 1.5 L trial: (mean ± SE) 2.3 ± 2.0 (not significant with respect to zero), 3.0 L trial: 5.0 ± 2.0 (p < 0.05, with respect to zero). Under the conditions imposed in the current study, ingesting the greater volume of the beverage lead to larger mean PV expansion. Key Points Greater volume of re-hydration beverage is beneficial to mean PV expansion 3-hours post-exercise, however this relationship has not been previously tested under adequate controls over 24-hours to our knowledge. This study indicates that under the conditions we imposed, over 24-hours increased volume (1.5 Vs. 3.0 L) of oral re-hydration fluid is associated with increased mean PV expansion. Although we used an almost identical exercise stimulus as previous researchers, relative intensity was slightly lower in the current study. Coincidentally, PV expansions noted during this study were approximately half those reported by others. PMID:24431974

  4. [Identification of paroxysmal, transient arrhythmias: Intermittent registration more efficient than the 24-hour Holter monitoring].

    PubMed

    Hendrikx, Tijn; Rosenqvist, Mårten; Sandström, Herbert; Persson, Mats; Hörnsten, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Many patients suffer from palpitations or dizziness/presyncope. These patients are often referred for Holter ECG (24 hour), although the sensitivity for detecting arrhythmias is low. A new method, short intermittent regular and symptomatic ECG registrations at home, might be a convenient and more sensitive alternative also suitable for primary health care. In this case report we present a patient who had contacted health care several times during a seven year period for paroxysmal palpitations. Routine examination with 24 hour Holter ECG and event recorder did not result in a diagnosis. Using intermittent handheld ECG registration at home, a paroxysmal supraventricular arrhythmia was diagnosed. Further investigation revealed that the patient had a concealed Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome. PMID:25584602

  5. Circadian polymorphisms in night owls, in bipolars, and in non-24-hour sleep cycles.

    PubMed

    Kripke, Daniel F; Klimecki, Walter T; Nievergelt, Caroline M; Rex, Katharine M; Murray, Sarah S; Shekhtman, Tatyana; Tranah, Gregory J; Loving, Richard T; Lee, Heon-Jeong; Rhee, Min Kyu; Shadan, Farhad F; Poceta, J Steven; Jamil, Shazia M; Kline, Lawrence E; Kelsoe, John R

    2014-10-01

    People called night owls habitually have late bedtimes and late times of arising, sometimes suffering a heritable circadian disturbance called delayed sleep phase syndrome (DSPS). Those with DSPS, those with more severe progressively-late non-24-hour sleep-wake cycles, and those with bipolar disorder may share genetic tendencies for slowed or delayed circadian cycles. We searched for polymorphisms associated with DSPS in a case-control study of DSPS research participants and a separate study of Sleep Center patients undergoing polysomnography. In 45 participants, we resequenced portions of 15 circadian genes to identify unknown polymorphisms that might be associated with DSPS, non-24-hour rhythms, or bipolar comorbidities. We then genotyped single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in both larger samples, using Illumina Golden Gate assays. Associations of SNPs with the DSPS phenotype and with the morningness-eveningness parametric phenotype were computed for both samples, then combined for meta-analyses. Delayed sleep and "eveningness" were inversely associated with loci in circadian genes NFIL3 (rs2482705) and RORC (rs3828057). A group of haplotypes overlapping BHLHE40 was associated with non-24-hour sleep-wake cycles, and less robustly, with delayed sleep and bipolar disorder (e.g., rs34883305, rs34870629, rs74439275, and rs3750275 were associated with n=37, p=4.58E-09, Bonferroni p=2.95E-06). Bright light and melatonin can palliate circadian disorders, and genetics may clarify the underlying circadian photoperiodic mechanisms. After further replication and identification of the causal polymorphisms, these findings may point to future treatments for DSPS, non-24-hour rhythms, and possibly bipolar disorder or depression. PMID:25395965

  6. Mechanical properties of direct and indirect composites after storage for 24 hours and 10 months

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Paula Barbosa; Brandt, William Cunha; Neves, Ana Christina Claro; Cunha, Leonardo Gonçalves; Silva-Concilio, Lais Regiane

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the diametral tensile strength (DTS) and Knoop hardness (KH) of direct (Filtek Z350-3M/ESPE and Charisma-Heraeus Kulzer) and indirect composites (Sinfony-3M/ESPE and Signum-Heraeus Kulzer) kept in storage for two periods of time, 24 hours and 10 months, in distilled water. Methods: Twenty-five specimens of each material were prepared. DTS (n=10) was tested using a universal testing machine (Versat, model 2000) at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/min. KH (n=5) was measured using Knoop micro-hardness (HMV-2000; 50 gf for 15 s). All tests were performed 24 hours after polymerization and after 10 months of storage in distilled water at 37°C. The data were statistically analyzed using Kolmogorov-Smirnov, ANOVA and t-Student (P=.05). Results: Filtek Z350, Sinfony, and Signum showed higher DTS values than Charisma after 24 hours. After storage, Sinfony and Signum showed higher DTS values because the storage did not influence the DTS values of the indirect composites. Filtek Z350 showed higher KH values after 24 hours and after storage than other composites; the storage influenced the KH of all composites except Sinfony. Conclusion: Storage for 10 months did not influence the properties of the indirect composite Sinfony. In general, the indirect composites showed higher DTS values than direct composites, especially after 10 months storage. The direct composite Filtek Z350 obtained the highest KH values regardless of storage. PMID:23407869

  7. Circadian Polymorphisms in Night Owls, in Bipolars, and in Non-24-Hour Sleep Cycles

    PubMed Central

    Klimecki, Walter T.; Nievergelt, Caroline M.; Rex, Katharine M.; Murray, Sarah S.; Shekhtman, Tatyana; Tranah, Gregory J.; Loving, Richard T.; Lee, Heon-Jeong; Rhee, Min Kyu; Shadan, Farhad F.; Poceta, J. Steven; Jamil, Shazia M.; Kline, Lawrence E.; Kelsoe, John R.

    2014-01-01

    People called night owls habitually have late bedtimes and late times of arising, sometimes suffering a heritable circadian disturbance called delayed sleep phase syndrome (DSPS). Those with DSPS, those with more severe progressively-late non-24-hour sleep-wake cycles, and those with bipolar disorder may share genetic tendencies for slowed or delayed circadian cycles. We searched for polymorphisms associated with DSPS in a case-control study of DSPS research participants and a separate study of Sleep Center patients undergoing polysomnography. In 45 participants, we resequenced portions of 15 circadian genes to identify unknown polymorphisms that might be associated with DSPS, non-24-hour rhythms, or bipolar comorbidities. We then genotyped single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in both larger samples, using Illumina Golden Gate assays. Associations of SNPs with the DSPS phenotype and with the morningness-eveningness parametric phenotype were computed for both samples, then combined for meta-analyses. Delayed sleep and "eveningness" were inversely associated with loci in circadian genes NFIL3 (rs2482705) and RORC (rs3828057). A group of haplotypes overlapping BHLHE40 was associated with non-24-hour sleep-wake cycles, and less robustly, with delayed sleep and bipolar disorder (e.g., rs34883305, rs34870629, rs74439275, and rs3750275 were associated with n=37, p=4.58E-09, Bonferroni p=2.95E-06). Bright light and melatonin can palliate circadian disorders, and genetics may clarify the underlying circadian photoperiodic mechanisms. After further replication and identification of the causal polymorphisms, these findings may point to future treatments for DSPS, non-24-hour rhythms, and possibly bipolar disorder or depression. PMID:25395965

  8. Mechanical properties of the aortic arterial wall during 24 hours: a preliminary study in conscious sheep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, S.; Craiem, D.; Valero, M.; Alfonso, M.; Barra, J. G.; Armentano, R. L.

    2011-12-01

    Previous experiences in animals showed a different behavior between the variability of pressure, arterial diameter and elasticity when they were registered for a couple of hours. To better understand arterial mechanics variability, we propose to measure simultaneously aortic pressure and diameter during 24 hours in a sheep. For that purpose, we developed a portable prototype device. It allows continuously recording physiological signals throughout the day and storing them in a solid state memory for later analysis. Pulse wave velocity and Peterson modulus were assessed beat-to-beat as arterial stiffness indexes. We identified 53,762 heart beats during 24 hours that were separated into 2 groups: below or above median mean pressure (71 mmHg). Mean diameter, pulse wave velocity and Peterson modulus increased for higher pressure values (p<0.05) whereas heart rate slowed down (p<0.05). Pressure-diameter loops were successfully recreated all along the experience. This new methodology sets the basis for further experiences involving the estimation of 24 hours arterial mechanics variability.

  9. Continuous 24-hour ocular dimensional profile recording in medically treated normal-tension glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jacky WY; Fu, Lin; Shum, Jennifer WH; Chan, Jonathan CH; Lai, Jimmy SM

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To analyze the 24-hour ocular dimensional profile in normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) patients on medical treatment. Methods Consecutive, medically treated NTG subjects were recruited from a university eye center. Subjects were on a mean of 1.7±0.7 types of antiglaucoma medications and 56.6% were on a prostaglandin analog. A contact lens-based sensor device was worn in one eye of NTG patients to record the intraocular pressure (IOP)-related profile for 24 hours, recording the following: variability from mean over 24 hours, nocturnally and diurnally, as well as the number of peaks and troughs diurnally and nocturnally. Results In 18 NTG subjects, the nocturnal variability around the mean contact lens-based sensor device signal was 48.9% less than the diurnal variability around the mean. The number of peaks was 54.7% less during the nocturnal period than during the diurnal period. The rate of increase in the ocular dimensional profile when going to sleep was significantly greater than the rate of decrease upon waking (P<0.001). Conclusion In medically treated NTG subjects, there was more variability in the IOP-related pattern during the daytime and there were fewer peaks during sleep. PMID:25678768

  10. Static stretching can impair explosive performance for at least 24 hours.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Monoem; Dridi, Amir; Chtara, Moktar; Chaouachi, Anis; Wong, Del P; Behm, David; Chamari, Karim

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of static vs. dynamic stretching (DS) on explosive performances and repeated sprint ability (RSA) after a 24-hour delay. Sixteen young male soccer players performed 15 minutes of static stretching (SS), DS, or a no-stretch control condition (CC) 24 hours before performing explosive performances and RSA tests. This was a within-subject repeated measures study with SS, DS, and CC being counterbalanced. Stretching protocols included 2 sets of 7 minutes 30 seconds (2 repetitions of 30 seconds with a 15-second passive recovery) for 5 muscle groups (quadriceps, hamstring, calves, adductors, and hip flexors). Twenty-four hours later (without any kind of stretching in warm-up), the players were tested for the 30-m sprint test (with 10- and 20-m lap times), 5 jump test (5JT), and RSA test. Significant differences were observed between CC, SS, and DS with 5JT (F = 9.99, p < 0.00, effect size [ES] = 0.40), 10-m sprint time (F = 46.52, p < 0.00, ES = 0.76), 20-m sprint time (F = 18.44, p < 0.000, ES = 0.55), and 30-m sprint time (F = 34.25, p < 0.000, ES = 0.70). The significantly better performance (p < 0.05) was observed after DS as compared with that after CC and SS in 5JT, and sprint times for 10, 20, and 30 m. In contrast, significantly worse performance (p < 0.05) was observed after SS as compared with that after CC in 5JT, and sprint times for 10, 20, and 30 m. With RSA, no significant difference was observed between different stretching protocols in the total time (F = 1.55, p > 0.05), average time (F = 1.53, p > 0.05), and fastest time (F = 2.30, p > 0.05), except for the decline index (F = 3.54, p < 0.04, ES = 0.19). Therefore, the SS of the lower limbs and hip muscles had a negative effect on explosive performances up to 24 hours poststretching with no major effects on the RSA. Conversely, the DS of the same muscle groups are highly recommended 24 hours before performing sprint and long-jump performances. In conclusion, the positive effects of DS on explosive performances seem to persist for 24 hours. PMID:23615481

  11. Factors Associated With High Sodium Intake Based on Estimated 24-Hour Urinary Sodium Excretion

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although reducing dietary salt consumption is the most cost-effective strategy for preventing progression of cardiovascular and renal disease, policy-based approaches to monitor sodium intake accurately and the understanding factors associated with excessive sodium intake for the improvement of public health are lacking. We investigated factors associated with high sodium intake based on the estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion, using data from the 2009 to 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Among 21,199 adults (≥19 years of age) who participated in the 2009 to 2011 KNHANES, 18,000 participants (weighted n = 33,969,783) who completed urinary sodium and creatinine evaluations were analyzed in this study. The 24-hour urinary sodium excretion was estimated using Tanaka equation. The mean estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion level was 4349 (4286–4413) mg per day. Only 18.5% (weighted n = 6,298,481/3,396,973, unweighted n = 2898/18,000) of the study participants consumed less the 2000 mg sodium per day. Female gender (P < 0.001), older age (P < 0.001), total energy intake ≥50 percentile (P < 0.005), and obesity (P < 0.001) were associated with high sodium intake, even after adjusting for potential confounders. Senior high school/college graduation in education and managers/professionals in occupation were associated with lower sodium intake (P < 0.001). According to hypertension management status, those who had hypertension without medication consumed more sodium than those who were normotensive. However, those who receiving treatment for hypertension consumed less sodium than those who were normotensive (P < 0.001). The number of family members, household income, and alcohol drinking did not affect 24-hour urinary sodium excretion. The logistic regression analysis for the highest estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion quartile (>6033 mg/day) using the abovementioned variables as covariates yielded identical results. Our data suggest that age, sex, education level, occupation, total energy intake, obesity, and hypertension management status are associated with excessive sodium intake in Korean adults using nationally representative data. Factors associated with high sodium intake should be considered in policy-based interventions to reduce dietary salt consumption and prevent cardiovascular disease as a public health target. PMID:26945369

  12. Estimation of blood pressure variability from 24-hour ambulatory finger blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Omboni, S; Parati, G; Castiglioni, P; Di Rienzo, M; Imholz, B P; Langewouters, G J; Wesseling, K H; Mancia, G

    1998-07-01

    Portapres is a noninvasive, beat-to-beat finger blood pressure (BP) monitor that has been shown to accurately estimate 24-hour intra-arterial BP at normal and high BPs. However, no information is available on the ability of this device to accurately track ambulatory BP variability. In 20 ambulatory normotensive and hypertensive subjects, we measured 24-hour BP by Portapres and through a brachial artery catheter. BP and pulse interval variabilities were quantified by (1) the SDs of the mean values (overall variability) and (2) spectral power, computed either by fast Fourier transform and autoregressive modeling of segments of 120-second duration for spectral components from 0.025 to 0.50 Hz or in a very low frequency range (between 0.00003 and 0.01 Hz) by broadband spectral analysis. The 24-hour SD of systolic BP obtained from Portapres (24+/-2 mm Hg) was greater than that obtained intra-arterially (17+/-1 mm Hg, P<0.01), but the overestimation was less evident for diastolic (3+/-1 mm Hg, P<0.01) and mean (3+/-1 mm Hg, P<0.01) BP. The BP spectral power <0.15 Hz was also overestimated by Portapres more for systolic than for diastolic and mean BPs; similar findings were obtained by the fast Fourier transform, the autoregressive approach, and focusing on the broadband spectral analysis. BP spectral power >0.15 Hz obtained by the Portapres was similar during the day but lower during the night when compared with those obtained by intra-arterial recordings (P<0.01). No differences were observed between Portapres and intra-arterial recordings for any estimation of pulse interval variabilities. The overestimation of BP variability by Portapres remained constant over virtually the entire 24-hour recording period. Thus, although clinical studies are still needed to demonstrate the clinical relevance of finger BP variability, our study shows that Portapres can be used with little error to estimate 24-hour BP variabilities if diastolic and mean BPs are used. For systolic BP, the greater error can be minimized by using correction factors. PMID:9674637

  13. 40 CFR 52.1990 - Interstate Transport for the 2006 24-hour PM2.5 NAAQS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Interstate Transport for the 2006 24-hour PM2.5 NAAQS. 52.1990 Section 52.1990 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 52.1990 Interstate Transport for the 2006 24-hour PM2.5 NAAQS. (a) EPA approves the portion of...

  14. 40 CFR 52.1990 - Interstate Transport for the 2006 24-hour PM2.5 NAAQS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Interstate Transport for the 2006 24-hour PM2.5 NAAQS. 52.1990 Section 52.1990 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 52.1990 Interstate Transport for the 2006 24-hour PM2.5 NAAQS. (a) EPA approves the portion of...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1990 - Interstate Transport for the 2006 24-hour PM2.5 NAAQS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Interstate Transport for the 2006 24-hour PM2.5 NAAQS. 52.1990 Section 52.1990 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 52.1990 Interstate Transport for the 2006 24-hour PM2.5 NAAQS. (a) EPA approves the portion of...

  16. Heterogeneity of Prognostic Studies of 24-Hour Blood Pressure Variability: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Kathryn S.; Heneghan, Carl J.; Stevens, Richard J.; Adams, Emily C.; Nunan, David; Ward, Alison

    2015-01-01

    In addition to mean blood pressure, blood pressure variability is hypothesized to have important prognostic value in evaluating cardiovascular risk. We aimed to assess the prognostic value of blood pressure variability within 24 hours. Using MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library to April 2013, we conducted a systematic review of prospective studies of adults, with at least one year follow-up and any day, night or 24-hour blood pressure variability measure as a predictor of one or more of the following outcomes: all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, all cardiovascular events, stroke and coronary heart disease. We examined how blood pressure variability is defined and how its prognostic use is reported. We analysed relative risks adjusted for covariates including the appropriate mean blood pressure and considered the potential for meta-analysis. Our analysis of methods included 24 studies and analysis of predictions included 16 studies. There were 36 different measures of blood pressure variability and 13 definitions of night- and day-time periods. Median follow-up was 5.5 years (interquartile range 4.2–7.0). Comparing measures of dispersion, coefficient of variation was less well researched than standard deviation. Night dipping based on percentage change was the most researched measure and the only measure for which data could be meaningfully pooled. Night dipping or lower night-time blood pressure was associated with lower risk of cardiovascular events. The interpretation and use in clinical practice of 24-hour blood pressure variability, as an important prognostic indicator of cardiovascular events, is hampered by insufficient evidence and divergent methodologies. We recommend greater standardisation of methods. PMID:25984791

  17. Bioenergetical and Cardiac Adaptations of Pilots to a 24-Hour Team Kart Race.

    PubMed

    Durand, Sylvain; Ripamonti, Michael; Rahmani, Abderrahmane; Beaune, Bruno

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate energy expenditure (EE) and heart rate (HR) response in kart pilots to successive driving bouts during a 24-hour team race. Eight adult male pilots (22.8 4.1 years) participated to a team 24-hour speedway kart race in Le Mans (France). They alternatively piloted a 390 cm kart. Each relay was 45 minutes long and each pilot performed 4 relays. For each pilot, mean speeds were calculated from lap-to-lap duration recordings using a telemetric infrared timing device. Heart rate values were recorded continuously on 5-second intervals using a portable cardiometric device. Total energy expenditure (EET) and physical activity ratio (PAR) were determined by accelerometry. To pilot a kart during 45 minutes at a mean speed around 62 kmh induces a 300-kcal EET, corresponding to a 5.6-Mets PAR. This effort is responsive for a 73 bmin increase in HR, from 84.1 7.6 to 157.4 11.0 bmin (82% maximal heart rate intensity). However, during this relay period, HR values seemed independent to mean speed performance and bioenergetical values. Thus, in the context of the 24-hour team race, the variability in effort made during each relay and relay succession did not alter bioenergetical adaptation of pilots to kart driving. The high EE and HR values would be better explained by both emotional stress and environmental constraints such as speedway configuration and vibrations. The way how these factors specifically influence bioenergetical demand, and their relative importance, has to be specified to optimize training procedure and recommendations. PMID:25029011

  18. Heterogeneity of prognostic studies of 24-hour blood pressure variability: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Kathryn S; Heneghan, Carl J; Stevens, Richard J; Adams, Emily C; Nunan, David; Ward, Alison

    2015-01-01

    In addition to mean blood pressure, blood pressure variability is hypothesized to have important prognostic value in evaluating cardiovascular risk. We aimed to assess the prognostic value of blood pressure variability within 24 hours. Using MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library to April 2013, we conducted a systematic review of prospective studies of adults, with at least one year follow-up and any day, night or 24-hour blood pressure variability measure as a predictor of one or more of the following outcomes: all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, all cardiovascular events, stroke and coronary heart disease. We examined how blood pressure variability is defined and how its prognostic use is reported. We analysed relative risks adjusted for covariates including the appropriate mean blood pressure and considered the potential for meta-analysis. Our analysis of methods included 24 studies and analysis of predictions included 16 studies. There were 36 different measures of blood pressure variability and 13 definitions of night- and day-time periods. Median follow-up was 5.5 years (interquartile range 4.2-7.0). Comparing measures of dispersion, coefficient of variation was less well researched than standard deviation. Night dipping based on percentage change was the most researched measure and the only measure for which data could be meaningfully pooled. Night dipping or lower night-time blood pressure was associated with lower risk of cardiovascular events. The interpretation and use in clinical practice of 24-hour blood pressure variability, as an important prognostic indicator of cardiovascular events, is hampered by insufficient evidence and divergent methodologies. We recommend greater standardisation of methods. PMID:25984791

  19. 24-Hour Measurement of Gastric pH in Rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Sammon, Alastair M.; Ndebia, Eugene J.; Umapathy, Ekambaram; Iputo, Jehu E.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Previous studies have established norms of 24-hour gastric pH profiles for western countries. This study was designed to establish the pattern for a rural African population with a high incidence of oesophageal cancer. Methods. After lower oesophageal manometry a probe was placed 10 cm distal to the lower oesophageal sphincter. We carried out 24-hour ambulatory monitoring of gastric pH on 59 healthy subjects. This was satisfactorily completed on 26 female and 18 male (age 21–64, median 35) subjects in the Transkei region of South Africa. Results. The mean 24 hour gastric pH was 2.84 and the mean night-time pH was 3.7. 40 volunteers recorded a night-time pH reaching over 4. 33 volunteers recorded a night-time pH over 7. Night-time alkalinisation was present for 136.4 minutes (25th centile 22.8, 75th centile 208.1) at pH4 or over, and 79.3 (2.5, 122.7) minutes at pH7 or over. Episodes of rapid alkaline rise were 17 (10, 47). 21.1% of these occurred while supine. 35 of 36 tested subjects were positive for H. pylori IgG. Conclusion. Gastric alkalinisation is common in Transkei, at a higher pH than that reported in other studies, and is sustained longer. Nighttime alkalinisation is frequent. This suggests a high level of duodenogastric reflux. PMID:25861260

  20. Spinal blood flow in 24-hour megadose glucocorticoid treatment in awake pigs.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Drescher WR; Weigert KP; Bnger MH; Hansen ES; Bnger CE

    2003-10-01

    OBJECT: Because of the controversy regarding the benefits of 24-hour administration of methylprednisolone in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI), it is important to investigate its mechanism of action and side effects. This study was conducted to determine if high-dose methylprednisolone modulates neural and vertebral blood flow in an awake large-sized animal model without SCI.METHODS: From a group of 18 immature female domestic pigs born to nine different litters, nine animals were randomly allocated to receive methylprednisolone treatment, whereas their nine female siblings served as controls. Drug or placebo was applied in a blinded fashion by a third person not involved in the study. The following treatment for SCI, as suggested by the North American Spinal Cord Injury Study, was administered to the awake pig: methylprednisolone (30 mg/kg of body weight) was infused into the jugular vein during a 15-minute period, followed by a 45-minute pause, and the infusion was maintained over a 23-hour period at a dose of 5.4 mg/kg body weight/hour. By means of the radioactive tracer microsphere technique, spinal cord blood flow (SCBF) was measured in the awake standing pig in the cerebrum, and in spinal gray and white matter, nerve roots, endplates, cancellous bone, cortical shell, and T12-L2 discs. Blood flow was measured before, 1 hour after initiation of infusion, and 24 hours postinfusion. Examination of blood flow in the neural and vertebral tissue samples, as well as of central hemodynamics, revealed no significant difference between the experimental and control groups, and this parity was maintained throughout the experimental phases.CONCLUSIONS: In the awake pig model, 24-hour methylprednisolone treatment does not modulate cerebral or SCBF, nor does it increase the risk for vertebral osteonecrosis by producing vertebral ischemia.

  1. Tasimelteon for the treatment of non-24-hour sleep-wake disorder.

    PubMed

    Neubauer, D N

    2015-01-01

    Tasimelteon (Hetlioz®), a melatonin receptor agonist, is the first, and, at the time of the publication, the only drug to be approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of non-24-hour sleep-wake disorder (non-24). This circadian rhythm disorder occurs most commonly in blind individuals without light perception, and it results from their inability to entrain to the 24-hour photoperiod, although the indication does not specify a particular patient population. Non-24 is characterized by a persistent cycle of nighttime insomnia and daytime sleepiness, alternating with asymptomatic periods depending on an individual's degree of circadian rhythm synchronization with the photoperiod at any particular time. Phase II clinical trials in healthy individuals confirmed the circadian phase-shifting potential of tasimelteon. Phase III trials in totally blind subjects diagnosed with non-24 demonstrated the efficacy of tasimelteon in reducing both nighttime wakefulness and daytime napping. Physiologic monitoring revealed that tasimelteon resulted in a higher proportion of individuals becoming entrained to the 24-hour cycle compared with placebo. Safety assessments indicated that tasimelteon is well tolerated, with the most common adverse events being headache, alanine aminotransferase elevation, nightmares or unusual dreams, and upper respiratory or urinary tract infections. Tasimelteon is available as a capsule in a single 20-mg dose and it must be obtained through Vanda Pharmaceutical's HetliozSolutions program with dispensing through a specialty pharmacy. Safety studies in blind individuals diagnosed with non-24 are ongoing and a future clinical trial with Smith-Magenis syndrome patients is planned. PMID:25685859

  2. Gender differences in unilateral spatial neglect within 24 hours of ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Kleinman, Jonathan T.; Gottesman, Rebecca F.; Davis, Cameron; Newhart, Melissa; Heidler-Gary, Jennifer; Hillis, Argye E.

    2008-01-01

    Hemispatial neglect is a common and disabling consequence of stroke. Previous reports examining the relationship between gender and the incidence of unilateral spatial neglect (USN) have included either a large numbers of patients with few neglect tests or small numbers of patients with multiple tests. To determine if USN was more common and/or severe in men or women, we examined a large group of patients (312 right-handed) within 24 hours of acute right hemisphere ischemic stroke. Multiple spatial neglect tasks were used to increase the sensitivity of neglect detection. No differences based upon gender were observed for the prevalence, severity, or a combined task measure of USN. PMID:18406504

  3. Nutritional behavior of cyclists during a 24-hour team relay race: a field study report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Information about behavior of energy intake in ultra-endurance cyclists during a 24-hour team relay race is scarce. The nutritional strategy during such an event is an important factor which athletes should plan carefully before the race. The purpose of this study was to examine and compare the nutritional intake of ultra-endurance cyclists during a 24-hour team relay race with the current nutritional guidelines for endurance events. Additionally, we analyzed the relationship among the nutritional and performance variables. Methods Using a observational design, nutritional intake of eight males (mean ± SD: 36.7 ± 4.7 years; 71.6 ± 4.9 kg; 174.6 ± 7.3 cm; BMI 23.5 ± 0.5 kg/m2) participating in a 24-hour team relay cycling race was assessed. All food and fluid intake by athletes were weighed and recorded. Additionally, distance and speed performed by each rider were also recorded. Furthermore, before to the race, all subjects carried out an incremental exercise test to determine two heart rate-VO2 regression equations which were used to estimate the energy expenditure. Results The mean ingestion of macronutrients during the event was 943 ± 245 g (13.1 ± 4.0 g/kg) of carbohydrates, 174 ± 146 g (2.4 ± 1.9 g/kg) of proteins and 107 ± 56 g (1.5 ± 0.7 g/kg) of lipids, respectively. This amount of nutrients reported an average nutrient intake of 22.8 ± 8.9 MJ which were significantly lower compared with energy expenditure 42.9 ± 6.8 MJ (P = 0.012). Average fluid consumption corresponded to 10497 ± 2654 mL. Mean caffeine ingestion was 142 ± 76 mg. Additionally, there was no relationship between the main nutritional variables (i.e. energy intake, carbohydrates, proteins, fluids and caffeine ingestion) and the main performance variables (i.e. distance and speed). Conclusions A 24-hour hours cycling competition in a team relay format elicited high energy demands which were not compensated by energy intake of the athletes despite that dietary consumption of macronutrients did not differ to the nutritional guidelines for longer events. PMID:22309475

  4. [Program for early detection of illness level in foals during the first 24 hours of life].

    PubMed

    Bostedt, H; Hospes, R; Herfen, K

    1997-11-01

    Basing on exact investigations of normal behaviour and abnormalities in newborn and up to 24 hours old foals a program for evaluation, comprehending exogeniously judgable criteria, was developed. It aims at a quick recognition of aberrations in behaviour. The program includes a score, which allows early diagnosis of even subtile abnormalities. As a result, a veterinary surgeon should be consulted if the score exposes a critical situation, so that therapy can be started in time. Furthermore informations about investigations on blood-glucose- and immunoglobulin-G-concentration in relation to neonatal foal diseases are given. PMID:9451764

  5. The National Cancer Institute diet history questionnaire: validation of pyramid food servings.

    PubMed

    Millen, Amy E; Midthune, Douglas; Thompson, Frances E; Kipnis, Victor; Subar, Amy F

    2006-02-01

    The performance of the National Cancer Institute's food frequency questionnaire, the Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ), in estimating servings of 30 US Department of Agriculture Food Guide Pyramid food groups was evaluated in the Eating at America's Table Study (1997-1998), a nationally representative sample of men and women aged 20-79 years. Participants who completed four nonconsecutive, telephone-administered 24-hour dietary recalls (n = 1,301) were mailed a DHQ; 965 respondents completed both the 24-hour dietary recalls and the DHQ. The US Department of Agriculture's Pyramid Servings Database was used to estimate intakes of pyramid servings for both diet assessment tools. The correlation (rho) between DHQ-reported intake and true intake and the attenuation factor (lambda) were estimated using a measurement error model with repeat 24-hour dietary recalls as the reference instrument. Correlations for energy-adjusted pyramid servings of foods ranged from 0.43 (other starchy vegetables) to 0.84 (milk) among women and from 0.42 (eggs) to 0.80 (total dairy food) among men. The mean rho and lambda after energy adjustment were 0.62 and 0.60 for women and 0.63 and 0.66 for men, respectively. This food frequency questionnaire validation study of foods measured in pyramid servings allowed for a measure of food intake consistent with national dietary guidance. PMID:16339051

  6. A Compute Perspective: Delivering Decision Support Products in 24 Hours from the Airborne Snow Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, P.; Mattmann, C. A.; Painter, T. H.; Seidel, F. C.; Trangsrud, A.; Hart, A. F.; Goodale, C. E.; Boardman, J. W.; Heneghan, C.; Verma, R.; Khudikyan, S.; Boustani, M.; Zimdars, P. A.; Horn, J.; Neely, S.

    2013-12-01

    The JPL Airborne Snow Observatory (ASO) must process 100s of GB of raw data to 100s of Terabytes of derived data in 24 hour Near Real Time (NRT) latency in a geographically distributed mobile compute and data-intensive processing setting. ASO provides meaningful information to water resource managers in the Western US letting them know how much water to maintain; or release, and what the prospectus of the current snow season is in the Sierra Nevadas. Providing decision support products processed from airborne data in a 24 hour timeframe is an emergent field and required the team to develop a novel solution as this process is typically done over months. We've constructed a system that combines Apache OODT; with Apache Tika; with the Interactive Data Analysis (IDL)/ENVI programming environment to rapidly and unobtrusively generate, distribute and archive ASO data as soon as the plane lands near Mammoth Lakes, CA. Our system is flexible, underwent several redeployments and reconfigurations, and delivered this critical information to stakeholders during the recent "Snow On" campaign March 2013 - June 2013. This talk will take you through a day in the life of the compute team from data acquisition, delivery, processing, and dissemination. Within this context, we will discuss the architecture of ASO; the open source software we used; the data we stored; and how it was delivered to its users. Moreover we will discuss the logistics, system engineering, and staffing that went into the developing, deployment, and operation of the mobile compute system.

  7. Mean 24-hours sympathetic nervous system activity decreases during head-down tilted bed rest but not during microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Nj; Heer, M.; Ivanova, K.; Norsk, P.

    Sympathetic nervous system activity is closely related to gravitational stress in ground based experiments. Thus a high activity is present in the standing-up position and a very low activity is observed during acute head-out water immersion. Adjustments in sympathetic activity are necessary to maintain a constant blood pressure during variations in venous return. Head-down tilted bed rest is applied as a model to simulate changes observed during microgravity. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that mean 24-hours sympathetic activity was low and similar during space flight and in ground based observation obtained during long-term head-down tilted bed rest. Forearm venous plasma noradrenaline was measured by a radioenzymatic technique as an index of muscle sympathetic activity and thrombocyte noradrenaline and adrenaline were measured as indices of mean 24-hours sympathoadrenal activity. Previous results have indicated that thrombocyte noradrenaline level has a half-time of 2 days. Thus to reflect sympathetic activity during a specific experiment the study period must last for at least 6 days and a sample must be obtained within 12 hours after the experiment has ended. Ten normal healthy subjects were studied before and during a 14 days head-down tilted bed rest as well as during an ambulatory study period of a similar length. The whole experiment was repeated while the subjects were on a low calorie diet. Thrombocyte noradrenaline levels were studied in 4 cosmonauts before and within 12 hours after landing after more than 7 days in flight. Thrombocyte noradrenaline decreased markedly during the head-down tilted bed rest (p<0.001), whereas there were no significant changes in the ambulatory study. Plasma noradrenaline decreased in the adaptation period but not during the intervention. During microgravity thrombocyte noradrenaline increased in four cosmonauts and the percentage changes were significantly different in cosmonauts and in subjects participating in the head down tilted bed rest study (170± 29% (Mean± SEM) vs. 57± 7%, respectively; p<0.001). The elevated sympathetic nervous system activity is most likely a regulatory response to combined effects of a reduced plasma volume and an increased vascular capacity in flight.

  8. Serum Hyperglycemia Might Be Not Related to Fat Composition of Diet and Vegetable Composition of Diet Might Improve Sugar Control in Taiwanese Diabetic Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Yi-Cheng; Chang, Ya-Lin; Kuo, Shi-Ching; Chiang, Chih-Fan; Chiang, Cheng-Yang; Lin, Yu-Fang; Weng, Pei-Chen; Hu, Fang-Ching; Wu, Jing-Hui; Lai, Chien-Han

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This is an Asian study, which was designed to examine the correlations between biochemical data and food composition of diabetic patients in Taiwan. Methods: One hundred and seventy Taiwanese diabetic patients were enrolled. The correlations between biochemical data and diet composition (from 24-hour recall of intake food) of these patients were explored (Spearman correlation, p < 0.05). Diet components were also correlated with each other to show diet characteristics of diabetic patients in Taiwan. Linear regression was also performed for the significantly correlated groups to estimate possible impacts from diet composition to biochemical data. Results: Postprandial serum glucose level was negatively correlated with fat percentage of diet, intake amount of polyunsaturated fatty acid and fiber diet composition. Hemoglobin A1c was negatively correlated with fat diet, polyunsaturated fatty acid and vegetable diet. Fat composition, calorie percentage accounted by polyunsaturated fatty acid and monounsaturated fatty acid in diet seemed to be negatively correlated with sugar percentage of diet and positively correlated with vegetable and fiber composition of diet. Linear regression showed that intake amount of polyunsaturated fatty acid, calorie percentage accounted by polyunsaturated fatty acid, fat percentage of diet, vegetable composition of diet would predict lower hemoglobin A1c and postprandial blood sugar. Besides, higher percentage of fat diet composition could predict higher percentage of vegetable diet composition in Taiwanese diabetic patients. Conclusion: Fat diet might not elevate serum glucose. Vegetable diet and polyunsaturated fatty acid diet composition might be correlated with better sugar control in Taiwanese diabetic patients. PMID:24688317

  9. The Effects of 24-hour Sleep Deprivation on the Exploration-Exploitation Trade-off

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Brian D.; Maddox, W. Todd; Bowen, Christopher; Savarie, Zachary R.; Matthews, Michael D.; Markman, Arthur B.; Schnyer, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Sleep deprivation has a complex set of neurological effects that go beyond a mere slowing of mental processes. While cognitive and perceptual impairments in sleep deprived individuals are widespread, some abilities remain intact. In an effort to characterize these effects, some have suggested an impairment of complex decision making ability despite intact ability to follow simple rules. To examine this trade-off, 24-hour total sleep deprived individuals performed two versions of a resource acquisition foraging task, one in which exploration is optimal (to succeed, abandon low value, high saliency options) and another in which exploitation is optimal (to succeed, refrain from switching between options). Sleep deprived subjects exhibited decreased performance on the exploitation task compared to non-sleep deprived controls, yet both groups exhibited increased performance on the exploratory task. These results speak to previous neuropsychological work on cognitive control. PMID:21686036

  10. Setting Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for 1 hour or 24 hour contingency exposures to airborne chemicals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Hector D.; Limero, Thomas F.; James, John T.

    1992-01-01

    Since the early years of the manned space program, NASA has developed and used exposure limits called Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs) to help protect astronauts from airborne toxicants. Most of these SMACS are based on an exposure duration of 7 days, since this is the duration of a 'typical' mission. A set of 'contingency SMACs' is also being developed for scenarios involving brief (1-hour or 24- hour) exposures to relatively high levels of airborne toxicants from event-related 'contingency' releases of contaminants. The emergency nature of contingency exposures dictates the use of different criteria for setting exposure limits. The NASA JSC Toxicology Group recently began a program to document the rationales used to set new SMACs and plans to review the older, 7-day SMACs. In cooperation with the National Research Council's Committee on Toxicology, a standard procedure has been developed for researching, setting, and documenting SMAC values.

  11. Tasimelteon: A Review in Non-24-Hour Sleep-Wake Disorder in Totally Blind Individuals.

    PubMed

    Keating, Gillian M

    2016-05-01

    Tasimelteon (Hetlioz(®)) is a dual melatonin receptor agonist indicated for the treatment of Non-24-Hour Sleep-Wake Disorder (Non-24) (free-running disorder). In two randomized, double-masked, multicentre, phase III trials, totally blind individuals with Non-24 who received oral tasimelteon 20 mg once nightly were significantly more likely than those receiving placebo to entrain the circadian pacemaker (the SET trial) and maintain entrainment (the RESET trial). Sleep/wake parameters and functioning were also improved with tasimelteon. Oral tasimelteon was generally well tolerated in totally blind patients with Non-24. In conclusion, tasimelteon is a useful drug for the treatment of Non-24 in totally blind individuals. PMID:27003694

  12. 24 Hour pumping test of production well 905-120P

    SciTech Connect

    Bledsoe, H.W.

    1990-12-01

    As part of the Savannah River Site (SRS) Aquifer Characterization Program, the Environmental Sciences Section (ESS) of the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) is attempting to determine the water transmitting characteristics of the different aquifer units underlying the SRS by conducting single well pumping tests on wells installed as part of the SRS Baseline Hydrogeologic Investigation. In April 1990, while performing the single well pumping test, an opportunity became available to collect data on aquifer properties utilizing a production well and observation wells. At this time the US Army Corps of Engineers (COE) was completing a new production well (well 905-120P) in P-Area. This well, located in close proximity to well cluster P-24, was to undergo a 24-hour performance test by the COE. ESS arranged with the subcontractor working on the Single Well pumping Test project. Dames Moore, to instrument the appropriate observation wells and to coordinate data collection with the COE.

  13. 24 Hour pumping test of production well 905-120P

    SciTech Connect

    Bledsoe, H.W.

    1990-12-01

    As part of the Savannah River Site (SRS) Aquifer Characterization Program, the Environmental Sciences Section (ESS) of the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) is attempting to determine the water transmitting characteristics of the different aquifer units underlying the SRS by conducting single well pumping tests on wells installed as part of the SRS Baseline Hydrogeologic Investigation. In April 1990, while performing the single well pumping test, an opportunity became available to collect data on aquifer properties utilizing a production well and observation wells. At this time the US Army Corps of Engineers (COE) was completing a new production well (well 905-120P) in P-Area. This well, located in close proximity to well cluster P-24, was to undergo a 24-hour performance test by the COE. ESS arranged with the subcontractor working on the Single Well pumping Test project. Dames & Moore, to instrument the appropriate observation wells and to coordinate data collection with the COE.

  14. Pattern of 24 hour intragastric acidity in active duodenal ulcer disease and in healthy controls.

    PubMed Central

    Merki, H S; Fimmel, C J; Walt, R P; Harre, K; Röhmel, J; Witzel, L

    1988-01-01

    Twenty four hour intragastric acidity was measured by continuous recording using intragastric combined glass electrodes in 46 duodenal ulcer patients within 48 hours of endoscopic confirmation of active ulceration. Acidity during predefined time periods was compared with that measured in 40 healthy controls without gastrointestinal disease: it was significantly higher in duodenal ulcer patients at all times, but 25% of ulcer patients had median 24 hour acidity within the interquartile range of the normal group. During the evening (18,00 to 22,00 h) ulcer patients had considerable acidity with a median of 39.8 (63.1-31.6) mmol/l (interquartile range) compared with 5.6 (22.3-0.4) mmol/l of controls. It is suggested that antisecretory treatment be directed to decrease this period of unbuffered acidity, as well as during the night, which is presently considered of prime importance. PMID:3209116

  15. Effects of exenatide and liraglutide on 24-hour glucose fluctuations in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Nagakura, Jo; Yamakawa, Tadashi; Taguri, Masataka; Tsuchiya, Hirohisa; Shigematsu, Erina; Suzuki, Jun; Morita, Satoshi; Kadonosono, Kazuaki; Terauchi, Yasuo

    2016-03-31

    We evaluated the influence of short-term treatment with exenatide twice daily or liraglutide once daily on daily blood glucose fluctuations in 40 patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled by sulfonylureas. The patients in a multicenter, open-label trial were randomly assigned to receive add-on exenatide (10 μg/day, n = 21) or add-on liraglutide (0.3-0.9 mg/day, n = 19), and underwent 24-hour continuous subcutaneous glucose monitoring. There was no significant between-group difference in glucose fluctuations during the day, as assessed by calculating mean amplitude of glycemic excursion (MAGE) and standard deviation (SD). However, the mean blood glucose levels at 3 hours after breakfast and dinner were significantly lower in the exenatide group than the liraglutide group (breakfast: 127.3 ± 24.1 vs. 153.4 ± 28.7 mg/dL; p = 0.006, dinner: 108.7 ± 17.3 vs. 141.9 ± 24.2 mg/dL; p < 0.001). In contrast, mean blood glucose levels and their SD were significantly lower between 0000 h and 0600 h in the liraglutide group than the exenatide group (average glucose: 126.9 ± 27.1 vs. 107.1 ± 24.0 mg/dL; p = 0.029, SD: 15.2 ± 10.5 vs. 8.7 ± 3.8; p = 0.020). Both groups had similar glucose fluctuations despite differences in 24-hour blood glucose profiles. Therefore, each of these agents may have advantages or disadvantages and should be selected according to the blood glucose profile of the patient. PMID:26743240

  16. A 24-Hour Study of the Hypothalamo-Pituitary Axes in Huntington’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nambron, Rajasree; Costelloe, Seán J.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Hill, Nathan R.; Frost, Chris; Watt, Hilary C.; Hindmarsh, Peter; Björkqvist, Maria; Warner, Thomas T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Huntington’s disease is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterised by motor, cognitive and psychiatric disturbances. Patients exhibit other symptoms including sleep and mood disturbances, muscle atrophy and weight loss which may be linked to hypothalamic pathology and dysfunction of hypothalamo-pituitary axes. Methods We studied neuroendocrine profiles of corticotropic, somatotropic and gonadotropic hypothalamo-pituitary axes hormones over a 24-hour period in controlled environment in 15 healthy controls, 14 premanifest and 13 stage II/III Huntington’s disease subjects. We also quantified fasting levels of vasopressin, oestradiol, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, thyroid stimulating hormone, free triiodothyronine, free total thyroxine, prolactin, adrenaline and noradrenaline. Somatotropic axis hormones, growth hormone releasing hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1 and insulin-like factor binding protein-3 were quantified at 06:00 (fasting), 15:00 and 23:00. A battery of clinical tests, including neurological rating and function scales were performed. Results 24-hour concentrations of adrenocorticotropic hormone, cortisol, luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone did not differ significantly between the Huntington’s disease group and controls. Daytime growth hormone secretion was similar in control and Huntington’s disease subjects. Stage II/III Huntington’s disease subjects had lower concentration of post-sleep growth hormone pulse and higher insulin-like growth factor-1:growth hormone ratio which did not reach significance. In Huntington’s disease subjects, baseline levels of hypothalamo-pituitary axis hormones measured did not significantly differ from those of healthy controls. Conclusions The relatively small subject group means that the study may not detect subtle perturbations in hormone concentrations. A targeted study of the somatotropic axis in larger cohorts may be warranted. However, the lack of significant results despite many variables being tested does imply that the majority of them do not differ substantially between HD and controls. PMID:26431314

  17. Heart rate variability and arrhythmic patterns of 24-hour Holter electrocardiography among Nigerians with cardiovascular diseases

    PubMed Central

    Adebayo, Rasaaq Ayodele; Ikwu, Amanze Nkemjika; Balogun, Michael Olabode; Akintomide, Anthony Olubunmi; Ajayi, Olufemi Eyitayo; Adeyeye, Victor Oladeji; Mene-Afejuku, Tuoyo Omasan; Bamikole, Olaniyi James; Ogunyemi, Suraj Adefabi; Ajibare, Adeola Olubunmi; Oketona, Omolola Abiodun

    2015-01-01

    Background Facilities for Holter electrocardiography (ECG) monitoring in many Nigerian hospitals are limited. There are few published works in Nigeria on the use of 24-hour Holter ECG in cardiac arrhythmic evaluation of patients with cardiovascular diseases. Objective To study the clinical indications, arrhythmic pattern, and heart rate variability (HRV) among subjects referred for 24-hour Holter ECG at our Cardiac Care Unit. Methods Three-hundred and ten patients (134 males and 176 females) were studied consecutively over a 48-month period using Schiller type (MT-101) Holter ECG machine. Results Out of the 310 patients reviewed, 134 were males (43.2%) and 176 were females (56.8%). The commonest indication for Holter ECG was palpitation followed by syncope in 71 (23%) and 49 (15.8%) of subjects, respectively. Premature ventricular complex and premature atrial complex were the commonest types of arrhythmia in 51.5% and 15% subjects, respectively. Ventricular arrhythmia was more prevalent in dilated cardiomyopathy patients (85.7%). The HRV of subjects with palpitation, stroke, and diabetes mellitus with autonomic neuropathy, using standard deviation of normal to normal intervals average (milliseconds), were 107.32±49.61, 79.15±49.15, and 66.50±15.54, respectively. The HRV, using standard deviation of averages of normal to normal intervals average (milliseconds), of patients with palpitation, stroke, and diabetes mellitus with autonomic neuropathy were 77.39±62.34, 57.82±37.05, and 55.50±12.71, respectively. Conclusion Palpitation and syncope were the commonest indications for Holter ECG among our subjects. The commonest arrhythmic patterns were premature ventricular complex and premature atrial complex, with ventricular arrhythmia being more prevalent in dilated cardiomyopathy. There was a reduction in HRV in patients with stroke and diabetic autonomic neuropathy. PMID:26170685

  18. The effect of Operation 24 Hours on reducing collision in the City of Edmonton.

    PubMed

    Halim, Siana; Jiang, Heming

    2013-09-01

    In the City of Edmonton, in order to reduce the prevalence of collisions, the Operation 24 Hours program (OPS24) was developed by using existing police and transportation services resources. The program uses traditional manned police speed enforcement method, which are supplemented by traffic safety messages displayed on permanent and mobile dynamic messaging signs (DMS). In this paper, collision data analysis was performed by looking at the daily number of collisions from 2008 to 2011 that covers 28 Operation 24 Hours (OPS24) events. The objective of the collision data analysis is to analyze if there is a reduction in collision frequencies after OPS24 was held and examined how long the collision reduction effect last. Weather factors such as temperature, thickness of snow, and wind gust have been considered by many as a great influence on collision occurrences, especially in a city with long and cold winter such as Edmonton. Therefore, collision modeling was performed by considering these external weather factors. To analyze the linear and periodic trend of different collision types (injury, fatal, and property damage only (PDO)) and examine the influence of weather factors on collisions, negative binomial time series model that accounts for seasonality and weather factors was used to model daily collision data. The modeling also considered collision proportion to account for missing traffic volume data; the Gaussian time series model that accounts for seasonality and weather factors was used to model collision proportion. To estimate the collision trend and test for changes in collision levels before/after OPS24, interrupted time series model with segmented regression was used. While for estimating how long the effect of the OPS24 last, change point method was applied. PMID:23727551

  19. Molecular mechanism regulating 24-hour rhythm of dopamine D3 receptor expression in mouse ventral striatum.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Eriko; Matsunaga, Naoya; Kakimoto, Keisuke; Hamamura, Kengo; Hayashi, Akane; Koyanagi, Satoru; Ohdo, Shigehiro

    2013-05-01

    The dopamine D3 receptor (DRD3) in the ventral striatum is thought to influence motivation and motor functions. Although the expression of DRD3 in the ventral striatum has been shown to exhibit 24-hour variations, the mechanisms underlying the variation remain obscure. Here, we demonstrated that molecular components of the circadian clock act as regulators that control the 24-hour variation in the expression of DRD3. The transcription of DRD3 was enhanced by the retinoic acid-related orphan receptor α (RORα), and its activation was inhibited by the orphan receptor REV-ERBα, an endogenous antagonist of RORα. The serum or dexamethasone-induced oscillation in the expression of DRD3 in cells was abrogated by the downregulation or overexpression of REV-ERBα, suggesting that REV-ERBα functions as a regulator of DRD3 oscillations in the cellular autonomous clock. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays of the DRD3 promoter indicated that the binding of the REV-ERBα protein to the DRD3 promoter increased in the early dark phase. DRD3 protein expression varied with higher levels during the dark phase. Moreover, the effects of the DRD3 agonist 7-hydroxy-N,N-dipropyl-2-aminotetralin (7-OH-DPAT)-induced locomotor hypoactivity were significantly increased when DRD3 proteins were abundant. These results suggest that RORα and REV-ERBα consist of a reciprocating mechanism wherein RORα upregulates the expression of DRD3, whereas REV-ERBα periodically suppresses the expression at the time of day when REV-ERBα is abundant. Our present findings revealed that a molecular link between the circadian clock and the function of DRD3 in the ventral striatum acts as a modulator of the pharmacological actions of DRD3 agonists/antagonists. PMID:23429911

  20. Time-Based Measurement of Personal Mite Allergen Bioaerosol Exposure over 24 Hour Periods

    PubMed Central

    Tovey, Euan R.; Liu-Brennan, Damien; Garden, Frances L.; Oliver, Brian G.; Perzanowski, Matthew S.; Marks, Guy B.

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases such as asthma and rhinitis are common in many countries. Globally the most common allergen associated with symptoms is produced by house dust mites. Although the bed has often been cited as the main site of exposure to mite allergens, surprisingly this has not yet been directly established by measurement due to a lack of suitable methods. Here we report on the development of novel methods to determine the pattern of personal exposure to mite allergen bioaerosols over 24-hour periods and applied this in a small field study using 10 normal adults. Air was sampled using a miniature time-based air-sampler of in-house design located close to the breathing zone of the participants, co-located with a miniature time-lapse camera. Airborne particles, drawn into the sampler at 2L/min via a narrow slot, were impacted onto the peripheral surface of a disk mounted on the hour-hand of either a 12 or 24 hour clock motor. The impaction surface was either an electret cloth, or an adhesive film; both novel for these purposes. Following a review of the time-lapse images, disks were post-hoc cut into subsamples corresponding to eight predetermined categories of indoor or outdoor location, extracted and analysed for mite allergen Der p 1 by an amplified ELISA. Allergen was detected in 57.2% of the total of 353 subsamples collected during 20 days of sampling. Exposure patterns varied over time. Higher concentrations of airborne mite allergen were typically measured in samples collected from domestic locations in the day and evening. Indoor domestic Der p 1 exposures accounted for 59.5% of total exposure, whereas total in-bed-asleep exposure, which varied 80 fold between individuals, accounted overall for 9.85% of total exposure, suggesting beds are not often the main site of exposure. This study establishes the feasibility of novel methods for determining the time-geography of personal exposure to many bioaerosols and identifies new areas for future technical development and clinical applications. PMID:27192200

  1. Non-24-Hour Sleep-Wake Disorder Revisited - A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Garbazza, Corrado; Bromundt, Vivien; Eckert, Anne; Brunner, Daniel P; Meier, Fides; Hackethal, Sandra; Cajochen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The human sleep-wake cycle is governed by two major factors: a homeostatic hourglass process (process S), which rises linearly during the day, and a circadian process C, which determines the timing of sleep in a ~24-h rhythm in accordance to the external light-dark (LD) cycle. While both individual processes are fairly well characterized, the exact nature of their interaction remains unclear. The circadian rhythm is generated by the suprachiasmatic nucleus ("master clock") of the anterior hypothalamus, through cell-autonomous feedback loops of DNA transcription and translation. While the phase length (tau) of the cycle is relatively stable and genetically determined, the phase of the clock is reset by external stimuli ("zeitgebers"), the most important being the LD cycle. Misalignments of the internal rhythm with the LD cycle can lead to various somatic complaints and to the development of circadian rhythm sleep disorders (CRSD). Non-24-hour sleep-wake disorders (N24HSWD) is a CRSD affecting up to 50% of totally blind patients and characterized by the inability to maintain a stable entrainment of the typically long circadian rhythm (tau > 24.5 h) to the LD cycle. The disease is rare in sighted individuals and the pathophysiology less well understood. Here, we present the case of a 40-year-old sighted male, who developed a misalignment of the internal clock with the external LD cycle following the treatment for Hodgkin's lymphoma (ABVD regimen, four cycles and AVD regimen, four cycles). A thorough clinical assessment, including actigraphy, melatonin profiles and polysomnography led to the diagnosis of non-24-hour sleep-wake disorders (N24HSWD) with a free-running rhythm of tau = 25.27 h. A therapeutic intervention with bright light therapy (30 min, 10,000 lux) in the morning and melatonin administration (0.5-0.75 mg) in the evening failed to entrain the free-running rhythm, although a longer treatment duration and more intense therapy might have been successful. The sudden onset and close timely connection led us to hypothesize that the chemotherapy might have caused a mutation of the molecular clock components leading to the observed elongation of the circadian period. PMID:26973592

  2. Non-24-Hour Sleep-Wake Disorder Revisited – A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Garbazza, Corrado; Bromundt, Vivien; Eckert, Anne; Brunner, Daniel P.; Meier, Fides; Hackethal, Sandra; Cajochen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The human sleep-wake cycle is governed by two major factors: a homeostatic hourglass process (process S), which rises linearly during the day, and a circadian process C, which determines the timing of sleep in a ~24-h rhythm in accordance to the external light–dark (LD) cycle. While both individual processes are fairly well characterized, the exact nature of their interaction remains unclear. The circadian rhythm is generated by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (“master clock”) of the anterior hypothalamus, through cell-autonomous feedback loops of DNA transcription and translation. While the phase length (tau) of the cycle is relatively stable and genetically determined, the phase of the clock is reset by external stimuli (“zeitgebers”), the most important being the LD cycle. Misalignments of the internal rhythm with the LD cycle can lead to various somatic complaints and to the development of circadian rhythm sleep disorders (CRSD). Non-24-hour sleep-wake disorders (N24HSWD) is a CRSD affecting up to 50% of totally blind patients and characterized by the inability to maintain a stable entrainment of the typically long circadian rhythm (tau > 24.5 h) to the LD cycle. The disease is rare in sighted individuals and the pathophysiology less well understood. Here, we present the case of a 40-year-old sighted male, who developed a misalignment of the internal clock with the external LD cycle following the treatment for Hodgkin’s lymphoma (ABVD regimen, four cycles and AVD regimen, four cycles). A thorough clinical assessment, including actigraphy, melatonin profiles and polysomnography led to the diagnosis of non-24-hour sleep-wake disorders (N24HSWD) with a free-running rhythm of tau = 25.27 h. A therapeutic intervention with bright light therapy (30 min, 10,000 lux) in the morning and melatonin administration (0.5–0.75 mg) in the evening failed to entrain the free-running rhythm, although a longer treatment duration and more intense therapy might have been successful. The sudden onset and close timely connection led us to hypothesize that the chemotherapy might have caused a mutation of the molecular clock components leading to the observed elongation of the circadian period. PMID:26973592

  3. Feasibility Testing of an Automated Image-Capture Method to Aid Dietary Recall

    PubMed Central

    Arab, Lenore; Estrin, Deborah; Kim, Donnie H.; Burke, Jeff; Goldman, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objectives The accuracy of dietary recalls might be enhanced by providing participants with photo images of foods they consumed during the test period. Subjects/Methods We examined the feasibility of a system (Image-Diet Day) that is a user-initiated camera-equipped mobile phone that is programmed to automatically capture and transmit images to a secure website in conjunction with computer-assisted, multi-pass, 24-hour dietary recalls in 14 participants during 2007. Participants used the device during eating periods on each of the three independent days. Image processing filters successfully eliminated underexposed, over-exposed, and blurry images. Captured images were accessed by participants using the ImageViewer software while completing the 24-hour dietary recall on the following day. Results None of the participants reported difficulty using the ImageViewer. Images were deemed “helpful” or “sort of helpful” by 93% of participants. A majority (79%) of users reported having no technical problems, but 71% rated the burden of wearing the device as somewhat to very difficult, owing to issues such as limited battery life, self-consciousness about wearing the device in public, and concerns about the camera’s field of view. Conclusion Overall, these findings suggest that automated imaging is a promising technology to facilitate dietary recall. The challenge of managing the thousands of images generated can be met. Smaller devices with a broader field of view may aid in overcoming user’s self-consciousness with using or wearing the device PMID:21587282

  4. Low mean impedance in 24-hour tracings and esophagitis in children: a strong connection.

    PubMed

    Salvatore, S; Salvatoni, A; Ummarino, D; Ghanma, A; Van der Pol, R; Rongen, A; Fuoti, M; Meneghin, F; Benninga, M Alexander; Vandenplas, Y

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal multiple intraluminal impedance baseline is an additional impedance parameter that was recently related to esophageal integrity. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between mean esophageal impedance value and endoscopic findings in a large group of children. Children with symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux submitted to both endoscopy and impedance were included. Esophagitis was graded according to the Los Angeles classification. Mean impedance value was automatically calculated over 24-hour tracings. Data were adjusted for age through z-score transformation using percentiles normalized by the LMS (Lambda for the skew, Mu for the median, and Sigma for the generalized coefficient of variation) method. Nonparametric Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests, multiple, and stepwise regression were used. P-value <0.05 was considered as statistically significant. A total of 298 impedance tracings were analyzed. Endoscopic and histological esophagitis were detected in 30 and 29% patients, respectively. Median baseline z-score was significantly decreased both in proximal (P = 0.02) and distal (P = 0.01) esophagus in patients with endoscopic (but not histological) esophagitis. Patients with more severe esophagitis showed the lowest z-score. Bolus exposure index and the number of reflux episodes were the variables that were significantly associated with the baseline z-score. Impedance z-score is significantly decreased in infants and children with endoscopic esophagitis. Severity of esophagitis, bolus exposure index, and number of reflux episodes are factors influencing mean esophageal impedance. PMID:25345864

  5. The relationship between 24-hour ambulatory blood pressures and laboratory measures of cardiovascular reactivity.

    PubMed

    Cornish, P J; Blanchard, E B; Jaccard, J

    1994-09-01

    The relationship between 24-hour ambulatory blood pressures (ABP) and blood pressures (BP) obtained during laboratory stressors was examined. Thirty normotensives (equal males and females) underwent ABP monitoring on three occasions separated by a week. They also underwent a laboratory assessment which included standard stressors (i.e., mental arithmetic, cold pressor, orthostatic response, treadmill exercise). Correlational analyses found laboratory pressures to be significantly correlated with ambulatory pressures, with laboratory baseline BPs showing higher correlations to the ambulatory BPs than the BPs obtained during laboratory stressors. In addition, gender effects were examined. In the correlational analyses between ABPs and laboratory BPs, males and females did not differ significantly in the strength of the correlations. In terms of absolute values, males were found to have significantly higher SBP during ambulatory monitoring, random-zero recordings, calibration readings, and during baselines of the laboratory assessment. There were no gender effects for these measures with respect to diastolic blood pressure or heart rate. There were also no gender effects on reactivity to laboratory stressors as measured by change scores. Exploratory analyses found no significant effect of history of familial hypertension on either the ABPs or the laboratory pressures. PMID:7811784

  6. After 24-hour scrub, the Boeing Delta II rocket carrying Stardust waits for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    After a 24-hour postponement, the Boeing Delta II rocket carrying the Stardust spacecraft waits on Launch Pad 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, for its scheduled launch at 4:04 p.m. EST. Umbilical lines (at top) still attached to the fixed utility tower (at right) feed electricity, air conditioning and coolants for the Stardust spacecraft inside the fairing (enclosing the upper stage) before launch. Stardust is destined for a close encounter with the comet Wild 2 in January 2004. Using a silicon-based substance called aerogel, Stardust will capture comet particles flying off the nucleus of the comet. The spacecraft also will bring back samples of interstellar dust. These materials consist of ancient pre-solar interstellar grains and other remnants left over from the formation of the solar system. Scientists expect their analysis to provide important insights into the evolution of the sun and planets and possibly into the origin of life itself. The collected samples will return to Earth in a sample return capsule to be jettisoned as Stardust swings by Earth in January 2006.

  7. [Ambulatory 24-hour blood pressure monitoring in patients with resistant hypertension].

    PubMed

    Sznajderman, M; Popławska, W; Cybulska, I; Niegowska, J; Makowiecka-Cieśla, M; Baranowski, R

    1990-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the usefulness of 24-hour blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) monitoring in patients with "resistant" hypertension. 30 patients (44.1 +/- 9.9 years) with diastolic BP 100 mm Hg or more in spite of treatment with three or more antihypertensive drugs were studied. Ambulatory recording of BP and HR was performed by means of Del Mar Avionics monitoring system 9000. Mean recording time was 21.5 hours and mean number of measurements during one recording--56.7. Mean ambulatory systolic and diastolic BP values were significantly lower than mean value of three casual measurements (146.0 +/- 24.6 vs 171.5 +/- 21.2 mm Hg for systolic and 97.2 +/- 11.3 vs 110.4 +/- 7.5 mm Hg for diastolic BP p less than 0.01) In 14 (46.6%) systolic BP and in 10 patients (33.3%) diastolic BP were normal. The patients with normal and abnormal ambulatory BP recordings did not differ in regard to age and mean clinic BP levels. However, patients with abnormal ambulatory BP recordings were more often overweight and showed a greater frequency of left ventricular hypertrophy and family history of hypertension and its complications. The results of the study show that ambulatory BP monitoring may be of value in assessing the response to antihypertensive treatment in patients with so called resistant hypertension as judged on the basis of clinic pressure. PMID:2074634

  8. Accuracy of commercial 24-hour electrocardiogram analyzers for quantitation of total and repetitive ventricular arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Salerno, D M; Granrud, G; Hodges, M

    1987-12-01

    The accuracy of 2 commercial 24-hour electrocardiogram analyzers was tested for quantitation of ventricular premature complexes (VPCs). Scanner 1 was the Cardiodata Systems Mark III and scanner 2 was the Avionics Trendsetter DCG VII. Twenty-four-hour electrocardiographic recordings from 19 consecutive ambulatory patients with frequent VPCs were analyzed by each device. Results were compared with those from hand counts of complete printouts of each of the 19 recordings. For total VPCs, scanner 1 had an average error of 13% (range 0 to 58%) and scanner 2 had an average error of 24% (range (1 to 80%). Scanner 1 had an error of more than 10% for 9 of the 19 recordings and scanner 2 more than 10% for 11 of the 19 recordings. For paired VPCs, scanner 1 had a mean error of 23% (range 4 to 77%), and scanner 2 of 56% (range 34 to 79%). For nonsustained ventricular tachycardia, scanner 1 had an average error of 20% (range 8 to 41%) and scanner 2 had an error of 56% (range 34 to 78%). Thus, when recordings from consecutive ambulatory patients with frequent VPCs were analyzed, neither device was consistently accurate for quantitation of total VPCs. Both analyzers had an unacceptable error for quantitation of repetitive VPCs. All currently available devices may have comparably large errors. This possibility is confirmed by recalculation of the reported data from a third scanner. PMID:2446488

  9. Depressive Symptoms and 24-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Africans: The SABPA Study

    PubMed Central

    Hamer, Mark; Frasure-Smith, Nancy; Lesprance, Franois; Harvey, Brian H.; Malan, Nico T.; Malan, Leon

    2012-01-01

    Disturbances in circadian rhythm might play a central role in the neurobiology of depression. We examined the association between depressive symptoms and 24-hour ambulatory BP in a sample of 405 (197 black and 208 Caucasian) urbanized African teachers aged 25 to 60 yrs (mean 44.6 9.6 yrs). Depressive symptoms were assessed using the self-administered 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). After adjusting for age, sex, and ethnicity, participants with severe depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 ? 15) had higher odds of hypertension defined from ambulatory BP and/or use of antihypertensive medication (odds ratio = 2.19, 95% CI, 1.004.90) in comparison to participants with no symptoms. Compared to Caucasians with no depressive symptoms, those with severe symptoms had blunted nocturnal systolic BP drop of 4.7?mmHg (95% CI, ?0.5 to 10.0, P = 0.07). In summary, depressive symptoms were associated with the circadian BP profile in black and Caucasian Africans. PMID:22028954

  10. High energy deficit in an ultraendurance athlete in a 24-hour ultracycling race

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Ferran A.; Iglesias, Xavier; Benítez, Adolfo; Marina, Míchel; Padullés, Josep M.; Torrado, Priscila; Vázquez, Jairo; Knechtle, Beat

    2012-01-01

    This case study examined the nutritional behavior and energy balance in an official finisher of a 24-hour ultracycling race. The food and beverages consumed by the cyclist were continuously weighed and recorded to estimate intake of energy, macronutrients, sodium, and caffeine. In addition, during the race, heart rate was continuously monitored. Energy expenditure was assessed using a heart rate–oxygen uptake regression equation obtained previously from a laboratory test. The athlete (39 years, 175.6 cm, 84.2 kg, maximum oxygen uptake, 64 mL/kg/min) cycled during 22 h 22 min, in which he completed 557.3 km with 8760 m of altitude at an average speed of 25.1 km/h. The average heart rate was 131 beats/min. Carbohydrates were the main macronutrient intake (1102 g, 13.1 g/kg); however, intake was below current recommendations. The consumption of protein and fat was 86 g and 91 g, respectively. He ingested 20.7 L (862 mL/h) of fluids, with sport drinks the main fluid used for hydration. Sodium concentration in relation to total fluid intake was 34.0 mmol/L. Caffeine consumption over the race was 231 mg (2.7 mg/kg). During the race, he expended 15,533 kcal. Total energy intake was 5571 kcal, with 4058 (73%) and 1513 (27%) kcal derived from solids and fluids, respectively. The energy balance resulted in an energy deficit of 9915 kcal. PMID:22481841

  11. Deep venous thrombophlebitis: detection with 4-hour versus 24-hour platelet scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Seabold, J.E.; Conrad, G.R.; Ponto, J.A.; Kimball, D.A.; Frey, E.E.; Ahmed, F.; Coughlan, J.D.; Jensen, K.C.

    1987-11-01

    Thirty-one nonheparinized patients with suspected deep venous thrombophlebitis (DVT) underwent contrast venography and indium-111 platelet scintigraphy (In-111 PS). Venography permitted identification of acute DVT in 12 of 31 cases (39%). One additional patient was considered to have acute DVT despite nonconclusive venography results. In-111 PS results were positive at 4 hours in nine of 13 cases (69%) and at 24 hours in 12 of 13 cases (92%). Two of four patients with false-negative 4-hour In-111 PS studies had received warfarin. Thus, the sensitivity of 4-hour In-111 PS in patients not receiving anticoagulants was 82%. Venography results were negative for acute DVT in 18 cases, and 4-hour In-111 PS studies were negative or equivocal in each. In-111 PS is an alternative to contrast venography for detecting acute DVT. If 4-hour In-111 PS results are positive, anticoagulation can be initiated. Delayed images are necessary if the 4-hour images are negative or equivocal.

  12. Association between Diurnal Variation of Ozone Concentration and Stroke Occurrence: 24-Hour Time Series Study

    PubMed Central

    Han, Myung-Hoon; Yi, Hyeong-Joong; Kim, Young-Seo; Ko, Yong; Kim, Young-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Increasing ozone concentrations have been known to damage human health and ecosystems. Although ozone tends to display diurnal variation, most studies have reported only on the association between daily ozone concentrations and ischemic stroke occurrence on the same day, or with a 1-day lag. We investigated the effect of the diurnal variation of ozone on ischemic stroke occurrence during the same day. Methods We included a consecutive series of 1,734 patients from January 1, 2008, to December 31, 2014, at a single tertiary hospital in Seoul, South Korea. We evaluated differences between temperature and pollutants at the time of stroke onset for each time interval and averaged those parameters across the 7-year study period. Results During the interval from 13:00 to 16:59, we found a positive association between ischemic stroke occurrence and ozone concentration relative to other time periods. Upper median ozone levels from 13:00 to 16:59 were positively correlated with ischemic stroke (odds ratio, 1.550; 95% confidence intervals, 1.220 to 1.970; P = <0.001) when compared with lower median levels. Conclusions The results show diurnal patterns of ischemic stroke occurrence based on upper and lower median ozone levels for a 24-hour period, which extends understanding of the association between stroke occurrence and environmental influences. PMID:27015421

  13. Feasibility of using statellites in non-equatorial 24-hour circular orbits for communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Krishna; Kumar, K. D.

    2001-03-01

    The early sixties witnessed the debate among competing candidate orbits that led to the emergence of perfect geostationary systems as virtually the sole "instruments" for satellite communication. The subsequent problem of overcrowding of geostationary ring on one hand and explosive growth in demand on communication capacity on the other led comsat experts to focus on the alternate routes through various near-earth and medium attitude satellite constellations later proposed for uninterrupted communication. However, the opportunities thrown up by quasi-stationary orbits for augmentation of the space communication capacity have gone abegging. This paper attempts to draw attention of communication satellite designers/planners to the immense potential for utilization of the non-equatorial, 24-hour circular orbits for communication. For the proposed quasi-stationary orbits, the change and/or control of the inclination of the plane is not envisaged in the launch and/or operational phase. The resulting significant payload weight advantage is associated with the problem of periodic as well as secular apparent angular satellite drift relative to the ground terminal. However, the problem may be largely overcome through controlled satellite tilting using solar radiation pressure or through the use of tethered auxiliary mass attachment. Alternatively, it may be possible to overcome the attitude control problem by the use of systems such as on-bard electronically steerable phased array antenna capable of following the line-of-sight to the co-operative ground station.

  14. No Enhancement of 24-Hour Visuomotor Skill Retention by Post-Practice Caffeine Administration

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Sara J.; Cole, Kelly J.

    2015-01-01

    Caffeine is widely consumed throughout the world and appears to indirectly facilitate learning and memory through effects on attention and motivation. Animal work indicates that post-training caffeine administration augments inhibitory avoidance memory, spatial memory, and object memory. In humans, post-training caffeine administration enhances the ability to discern between familiar images and new, similar images. However, the effect of post-training caffeine administration on motor memory has not been examined. Therefore, we tested two groups of low caffeine consumers (average weekly consumption ≤500 mg) in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study involving acquisition of a continuous isometric visuomotor tracking skill. On Day 1, subjects completed 5 blocks (150 repetitions) of training on the continuous isometric visuomotor skill and subsequently ingested either 200 mg of caffeine or placebo. On day 2, subjects completed an additional 5 blocks of training. Day 1 mean performance and performance variability were both similar between groups, suggesting that both groups acquired the motor skill similarly. For mean performance on Day 2, patterns of re-learning, mean performance learning magnitudes, mean performance learning rates, and mean performance retention magnitudes were all similar between groups. For performance variability on Day 2, there was a small trend towards increased variability in the caffeine group during re-learning, but performance variability learning magnitudes and performance variability retention magnitudes did not differ between groups. Because motor skill acquisition can also be conceptualized as a reduction in performance variability, these results suggest that there may be a small negative effect of post-practice caffeine administration on memory of a newly-learned visuomotor skill. Overall, we found no evidence to suggest that post-training caffeine administration enhances 24-hour retention of a newly-learned continuous visuomotor skill, and these results support the notion that memory-enhancing effects of post-training caffeine ingestion may be task-specific. PMID:26053288

  15. Difference in 24-Hour Urine Composition between Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Adults without Nephrolithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Jing; Duan, Xiaolu; Liu, Yang; Zhao, Zhijian; Yuan, Jian; Wan, Shaw P.; Zeng, Guohua

    2016-01-01

    Background Diabetic patients are more likely to develop kidney stones than the general population. The underlying mechanisms for this disparity remain to be elucidated. Little is known about the relationship between urine composition and diabetes mellitus in non-stone-forming individuals. We sought to examine the differences in the 24-hour (24-h) urine composition between diabetic and non-diabetic adults who were not stone formers. Methods A convenience sample of 538 individuals without a history of nephrolithiasis, gout, hyperparathyroidism, or gastroenteric diseases participated in this study. The 24-h urine profiles of 115 diabetic adults were compared with those of 423 non-diabetic adults. Diabetes was defined by self-reported physician diagnosis or medication use. All participants were non-stone formers confirmed by urinary tract ultrasonography. Participants provided a fasting blood sample and a single 24-h urine collection for stone risk analysis. Student’s t-test was used to compare mean urinary values. Linear regression models were adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, hypertension, fasting serum glucose, serum total cholesterol, estimated creatinine clearance rate and urinary factors. Results Univariable analysis showed that the diabetic participants had significantly higher 24-h urine volumes and lower urine calcium and magnesium excretions than non-diabetic participants (all P < 0.05). After multivariate adjustment, no significant differences in 24-h urine composition were observed between diabetic and non-diabetic participants except for a slightly increased 24-h urine volume in diabetic participants (all P > 0.05). The main limitation of this study is that the convenience samples and self-reported data may have been sources of bias. Conclusion Our data showed that there were no differences in 24-h urine composition between diabetic and non-diabetic adults who are not stone formers. The reason for it might be the improved glycemic control in diabetic individuals in our study. Therefore, a tighter glycemic control might reduce stone formation in diabetic adults. PMID:26906900

  16. Effect of cimetidine and pirenzepine in combination on 24 hour intragastric acidity in subjects with previous duodenal ulceration.

    PubMed

    Williams, J G; Deakin, M; Ramage, J K

    1986-04-01

    Intragastric pH was monitored during 24 hours in eight volunteers with duodenal ulcer disease in remission, while on placebo, cimetidine 400 mg bd, pirenzepine 50 mg bd, cimetidine 400 mg bd + pirenzepine 50 mg bd, cimetidine 200 mg bd + pirenzepine 25 mg bd. The control of intragastric acidity during the 24 hour period by the combination of low dose cimetidine and pirenzepine was significantly better than with cimetidine, or pirenzepine alone in full dosage. This difference was most apparent after breakfast but was still present after lunch when cimetidine had no significant effect. Combination treatment is a logical approach when continuous control of intragastric acidity is needed, but a three times daily regimen will be necessary to cover the 24 hours. PMID:3754233

  17. Executive Functions are not Affected by 24 Hours of Sleep Deprivation: A Color-Word Stroop Task Study

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Abhinav; Mittal, Tushar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sleep is an important factor affecting cognitive performance. Sleep deprivation results in fatigue, lack of concentration, confusion and sleepiness along with anxiety, depression and irritability. Sleep deprivation can have serious consequences in professions like armed forces and medicine where quick decisions and actions need to be taken. Color-Word Stroop task is one of the reliable tests to assess attention and it analyzes the processing of information in two dimensions i.e., reading of words and naming of colour. The evidence regarding the effect of sleep deprivation on Stroop interference is conflicting. The present study evaluated the effect of 24 hours of sleep deprivation on reaction time and interference in Stroop task. Materials and Methods: The present study was done on 30 healthy male medical student volunteers in the age group of 18-25 years after taking their consent and clearance from Institute Ethics Committee. Recordings of Stroop task were at three times: baseline (between 7-9 am), after 12 hours (7-9 pm) and after 24 hours (7-9 am, next day). The subjects were allowed to perform normal daily activities. Results: The study revealed a significant increase in reaction time after 24 hours of sleep deprivation in comparison to baseline and after 12 hours of sleep deprivation. There was no significant change in interference and facilitation after sleep deprivation in comparison to baseline. The number of errors also did not show any significant change after sleep deprivation. Conclusion: The study indicated that there was slowing of responses without change in executive functions after 24 hours of sleep deprivation. It is probable that 24 hours of sleep deprivation does not bring about change in areas of brain affecting executive functions in healthy individuals who have normal sleep cycle. The present study indicated that in professions like armed forces and medicine working 24 hours at a stretch can lead to decrease in motor responses without affecting information processing and judgment ability. PMID:25969601

  18. To Compare the Microleakage Among Experimental Adhesives Containing Nanoclay Fillers after the Storages of 24 Hours and 6 Months

    PubMed Central

    Mousavinasab, Seyed Mostafa; Atai, Mohammad; Alavi, Bagher

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the microleakage among experimental adhesives containing nanoclay fillers after the storages of 24 hours and 6 months. Materials and Methods: Class V cavities were prepared on extracted human molars with the occlusal margins located in enamel and the cervical margins in cementum. Phosphoric acid was applied to the enamel and dentin margins.Subsequently, the cavities were treated using four groups of experimental adhesive systems and restored with a resin composite. Adper Single Bond® was used as control group. After 24- hour and 6- month storages, the samples were subjected to thermocycling shocks and then immersed in silver nitrate as well as developer solution and finally evaluated for leakage. The data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: Based on Kruskal –Wallis test, significant differences were found between groups regarding microleakage. The Mann- Whitney test showed that Leakage was significantly lower in Adper Single Bond® compared to the other groups in dentinal margins after 24 hours and 6 months and in enamel margins after 6 months. The Wilcoxon Signed Ranks test showed that the enamel leakage in experimental adhesives was significantly lower than dentinal leakage after 24 hours as well as enamel leakage in Adper Single Bond and adhesive with 0.5% PMAA-g-nanoclay was significantly lower than dentinal margins after storage period of 6 months. Conclusion: All the experimental adhesives were effective in reducing enamel leakage after 24 hours, but were not effective in reducing dentinal leakage after 24 hours as well as in enamel and dentinal leakage after a 6-month storage. No improvement was observed in the microleakage in dentin in both short (24 hrs) and long times (6 months). The high microleakage in the adhesives is probably attributed to the high concentration of HEMA in the recipe of the bonding agent. PMID:21566692

  19. Tasimelteon (Hetlioz™): A New Melatonin Receptor Agonist for the Treatment of Non-24-Hour Sleep-Wake Disorder.

    PubMed

    Bonacci, Janene M; Venci, Jineane V; Gandhi, Mona A

    2015-10-01

    In January 2014, the US Food and Drug Administration approved tasimelteon (Hetlioz™), a melatonin-receptor agonist for the treatment of non-24-hour sleep-wake disorder. This article provides an overview of the mechanism of action, pharmacokinetic properties, as well as the clinical efficacy, safety, and tolerability of tasimelteon. Relevant information was identified through a comprehensive literature search of several databases using the key words tasimelteon, Non-24-hour Sleep-Wake disorder, Non-24, and melatonin. Further information was obtained from the tasimelteon package insert, fda.gov, clinicaltrials.gov, briefing materials provided by Vanda Pharmaceuticals, and posters from scientific meetings. PMID:25092604

  20. Interchangeability between 24-hour collection and single spot urines for vanillylmandelic and homovanillic acid levels in the diagnosis of neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Cangemi, Giuliana; Barco, Sebastiano; Reggiardo, Giorgio; Viscardi, Elisabetta; Di Cataldo, Andrea; Garaventa, Alberto; Melioli, Giovanni; Conte, Massimo

    2013-12-01

    The determination of the two urinary catecholamine metabolites homovanillic acid (HVA) and vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) is of crucial importance for the diagnosis and follow-up of neuroblastoma (NB). The standard practice for their measurement requires the use of 24-hour collections that are time consuming and difficult to obtain. In this article, we directly demonstrate that 24-hour collections and single spot urines are interchangeable for the determination of HVA and VMA expressed as ratio on creatinine concentration. This study can be useful for a faster management of NB at onset. PMID:23813598

  1. Circadian (about 24-hour) variation in malondialdehyde content and catalase activity of mouse erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Sani, Mamane; Sebai, Hichem; Ghanem-Boughanmi, Néziha; Boughattas, Naceur A; Ben-Attia, Mossadok

    2015-01-01

    Lipid peroxidation is a part of normal metabolism that may cause biological molecule damage leading to the formation of several specific metabolites that include aldehydes of variable chains, such as malondialdehyde (MDA). These biological effects are controlled in vivo by a wide spectrum of enzymatic and non-enzymatic defense mechanisms among which catalase (CAT) is considered as an important regulator of oxidative stress. The present study aimed to investigate the possible relationship between the temporal patterns of the formation of MDA and the activity of CAT in the erythrocytes of mice. Twenty-four-hour studies were performed on male Swiss albino mice, 12 weeks old, synchronized to a 12:12 light: dark cycle for 3 weeks. Different and comparable groups of animals (n = 10) were sacrificed at an interval of 4 hours (1, 5, 9, 13, 17, and 21 hours after light onset (HALO)). The levels of erythrocyte MDA concentration and CAT activity both significantly (analysis of variance: F = 6.4, P < 0.002) varied according to the time of sampling under non-stressed conditions. The characteristics of the waveform describing the temporal patterns differed between the two studied variables, e.g. MDA content showing one peak (≅21 HALO) and CAT activity showing three peaks (≅9, 17, and 21 HALO). Cosinor analysis revealed a significant (adjusted Cosinor: P ≤ 0.018) circadian (τ ≅ 24 hours) rhythm in MDA level and no statistically significant rhythmicity in CAT activity. The differences and the absence of correlation between the curve patterns of erythrocyte MDA content and CAT activity under physiological conditions are hypothesized to explain that variation in lipid peroxidation may depend on several factors. Moreover, the identification of peak/trough levels of MDA accumulation in erythrocytes may reflect the degree of oxidative stress in these blood cells. In addition, the observed significant time-of-day effect suggests that, in both clinical and scientific settings, appropriate comparison of MDA production and CAT activity levels can only be achieved on data obtained at the same time of day. PMID:25142617

  2. 77 FR 65310 - Additional Air Quality Designations for the 2006 24-Hour Fine Particle National Ambient Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-26

    ... Federal Regulations DC District of Columbia EO Executive Order EPA Environmental Protection Agency FR... EPA finalized designations for the 2006 24-hour PM 2.5 NAAQS (74 FR 58688, November 13, 2009), the EPA... near the deferred counties. On February 3, 2011 (76 FR 6056),\\1\\ the EPA took action to...

  3. Self-Renewal and Differentiation Capacity of Urine-Derived Stem Cells after Urine Preservation for 24 Hours

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yingai; Bharadwaj, Shantaram; Leng, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Xiaobo; Liu, Hong; Atala, Anthony; Zhang, Yuanyuan

    2013-01-01

    Despite successful approaches to preserve organs, tissues, and isolated cells, the maintenance of stem cell viability and function in body fluids during storage for cell distribution and transportation remains unexplored. The aim of this study was to characterize urine-derived stem cells (USCs) after optimal preservation of urine specimens for up to 24 hours. A total of 415 urine specimens were collected from 12 healthy men (age range 2054 years old). About 6104 cells shed off from the urinary tract system in 24 hours. At least 100 USC clones were obtained from the stored urine specimens after 24 hours and maintained similar biological features to fresh USCs. The stored USCs had a rice grain shape in primary culture, and expressed mesenchymal stem cell surface markers, high telomerase activity, and normal karyotypes. Importantly, the preserved cells retained bipotent differentiation capacity. Differentiated USCs expressed myogenic specific proteins and contractile function when exposed to myogenic differentiation medium, and they expressed urothelial cell-specific markers and barrier function when exposed to urothelial differentiation medium. These data demonstrated that up to 75% of fresh USCs can be safely persevered in urine for 24 hours and that these cells stored in urine retain their original stem cell properties, indicating that preserved USCs could be available for potential use in cell-based therapy or clinical diagnosis. PMID:23349776

  4. Population Pharmacokinetic Model Characterizing 24-Hour Variation in the Pharmacokinetics of Oral and Intravenous Midazolam in Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    van Rongen, A; Kervezee, L; Brill, MJE; van Meir, H; den Hartigh, J; Guchelaar, H-J; Meijer, JH; Burggraaf, J; van Oosterhout, F

    2015-01-01

    Daily rhythms in physiology may affect the pharmacokinetics of a drug. The aim of this study was to evaluate 24-hour variation in the pharmacokinetics of the CYP3A substrate midazolam. Oral (2 mg) and intravenous (1 mg) midazolam was administered at six timepoints throughout the 24-hour period in 12 healthy volunteers. Oral bioavailability (population mean value [RSE%] of 0.28 (7.1%)) showed 24-hour variation that was best parameterized as a cosine function with an amplitude of 0.04 (17.3%) and a peak at 12:14 in the afternoon. The absorption rate constant was 1.41 (4.7%) times increased after drug administration at 14:00. Clearance (0.38 L/min (4.8%)) showed a minor 24-hour variation with an amplitude of 0.03 (14.8%) L/min and a peak at 18:50. Simulations show that dosing time minimally affects the concentration time profiles after intravenous administration, while concentrations are higher during the day compared to the night after oral dosing, reflecting considerable variation in intestinal processes. PMID:26380154

  5. Population Pharmacokinetic Model Characterizing 24-Hour Variation in the Pharmacokinetics of Oral and Intravenous Midazolam in Healthy Volunteers.

    PubMed

    van Rongen, A; Kervezee, L; Brill, Mje; van Meir, H; den Hartigh, J; Guchelaar, H-J; Meijer, J H; Burggraaf, J; van Oosterhout, F

    2015-08-01

    Daily rhythms in physiology may affect the pharmacokinetics of a drug. The aim of this study was to evaluate 24-hour variation in the pharmacokinetics of the CYP3A substrate midazolam. Oral (2 mg) and intravenous (1 mg) midazolam was administered at six timepoints throughout the 24-hour period in 12 healthy volunteers. Oral bioavailability (population mean value [RSE%] of 0.28 (7.1%)) showed 24-hour variation that was best parameterized as a cosine function with an amplitude of 0.04 (17.3%) and a peak at 12:14 in the afternoon. The absorption rate constant was 1.41 (4.7%) times increased after drug administration at 14:00. Clearance (0.38 L/min (4.8%)) showed a minor 24-hour variation with an amplitude of 0.03 (14.8%) L/min and a peak at 18:50. Simulations show that dosing time minimally affects the concentration time profiles after intravenous administration, while concentrations are higher during the day compared to the night after oral dosing, reflecting considerable variation in intestinal processes. PMID:26380154

  6. Physical and Mental Health of Patients Immediately After Discharge From Intensive Care Unit and 24 Hours Later

    PubMed Central

    Momennasab, Marzieh; Ghahramani, Tahereh; Yektatalab, Shahrzad; Zand, Farid

    2016-01-01

    Background: Monitoring the health status of patients discharged from intensive care units is a crucial method of service evaluation. Objectives: This study aimed to assess the physical and mental health status of patients immediately after discharge from the ICU and 24 hours later. Patients and Methods: This descriptive comparative study was conducted on 104 patients discharged from the ICUs of a referral trauma center in Shiraz, Southwest Iran. Physical parameters, including respiratory rate, need for supplemental oxygen, heart rate, blood pressure, and need for cardiac monitoring, were assessed. Hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS) was used for mental health evaluation. The mental and physical status of patients were assessed before ICU discharge and 24 hours later; data were recorded in information forms and were analyzed using SPSS statistical software version 17. Results: At the time of discharge, the respiratory rate of 28% of the participants was more than 24 minutes, and 95.2% received supplemental oxygen. However, after 24 hours these values decreased to 10% and 21.6%, respectively. The mean heart rate and systolic blood pressure were within the normal range at both time points. Additionally, 63% of the patients had anxiety scores above 11 at both time points, reflecting high anxiety. The number of patients who reported depression increased from 58.7% at ICU discharge to 69.6% after 24 hours. Conclusions: Despite the considerable improvement in most of the patients’ physical condition in the first 24 hours after discharge from ICU, a significant number of them remain at risk for the development of adverse effects from this transition. The high prevalence of mental health disorders in these patients reveals the necessity to conduct follow-up consultations. PMID:27218059

  7. Microleakage of Two Self-Adhesive Cements in the Enamel and Dentin After 24 Hours and Two Months

    PubMed Central

    Jaberi Ansari, Zahra; Kalantar Motamedi, Mojdeh

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Microleakage is a main cause of restorative treatment failure. In this study, we compared occlusal and cervical microleakage of two self-adhesive cements after 24 hours and two months. Materials and Methods: In this in-vitro experimental study, class II inlay cavities were prepared on 60 sound human third molars. Composite inlays were fabricated with Z100 composite resin. The teeth were randomly assigned to six groups. RelyX-Arc (control), RelyX-Unicem and Maxcem were used for the first three groups and specimens were stored in distilled water at 37C for 24 hours. The same cements were used for the remaining three groups, but the specimens were stored for 2 months. The teeth were subjected to 500 thermal cycles (5C and 55C) and immersed in 0.5% basic fuchsin for 24 hours and then sectioned mesiodistally and dye penetration was evaluated in a class II cavity with occlusal and cervical margins using X20 magnification stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed using Kruskal Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results: After 24 hours, cements had significant differences only in cervical margin microleakage (P=0.0001) and microleakage of RelyX-Unicem and Maxcem was significantly more than that of RelyX-Arc (both P=0.0001). Cervical microleakage in RelyX-Unicem and Maxcem was greater than occlusal (P=0.0001 and P=0.001, respectively). Microleakage was not significantly different between the occlusal and cervical margins after 2 months. Conclusion: Cervical microleakage was greater than occlusal in RelyX-Unicem and Maxcem after 24h. The greatest microleakage was reported for the cervical margin of RelyX-Unicem after 24 hours. PMID:25584053

  8. Changes in foot volume, body composition, and hydration status in male and female 24-hour ultra-mountain bikers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The effects of running and cycling on changes in hydration status and body composition during a 24-hour race have been described previously, but data for 24-hour ultra-mountain bikers are missing. The present study investigated changes in foot volume, body composition, and hydration status in male and female 24-hour ultra-mountain bikers. Methods We compared in 49 (37 men and 12 women) 24-hour ultra-mountain bikers (ultra-MTBers) changes (Δ) in body mass (BM). Fat mass (FM), percent body fat (%BF) and skeletal muscle mass (SM) were estimated using anthropometric methods. Changes in total body water (TBW), extracellular fluid (ECF) and intracellular fluid (ICF) were determined using bioelectrical impedance and changes in foot volume using plethysmography. Haematocrit, plasma [Na+], plasma urea, plasma osmolality, urine urea, urine specific gravity and urine osmolality were measured in a subgroup of 25 ultra-MTBers (16 men and 9 women). Results In male 24-hour ultra-MTBers, BM (P < 0.001), FM (P < 0.001), %BF (P < 0.001) and ECF (P < 0.05) decreased whereas SM and TBW did not change (P > 0.05). A significant correlation was found between post-race BM and post-race FM (r = 0.63, P < 0.001). In female ultra-MTBers, BM (P < 0.05), %BF (P < 0.05) and FM (P < 0.001) decreased, whereas SM, ECF and TBW remained stable (P > 0.05). Absolute ranking in the race was related to Δ%BM (P < 0.001) and Δ%FM in men (P < 0.001) and to Δ%BM (P < 0.05) in women. In male ultra-MTBers, increased post-race plasma urea (P < 0.001) was negatively related to absolute ranking in the race, Δ%BM, post-race FM and Δ%ECF (P < 0.05). Foot volume remained stable in both sexes (P > 0.05). Conclusions Male and female 24-hour ultra-MTBers experienced a significant loss in BM and FM, whereas SM remained stable. Body weight changes and increases in plasma urea do not reflect a change in body hydration status. No oedema of the lower limbs occurred. PMID:24661412

  9. Moderate Alcohol Consumption and 24-Hour Urinary Levels of Melatonin in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Mahabir, S.; Baer, D. J.; Stevens, R. G.; Albert, P. S.; Dorgan, J. F.; Kesner, J. S.; Meadows, J. W.; Shields, R.; Taylor, P. R.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Low overnight urinary melatonin metabolite concentrations have been associated with increased risk for breast cancer among postmenopausal women. The Postmenopausal Women's Alcohol Study was a controlled feeding study to test the effects of low to moderate alcohol intake on potential risk factors for breast cancer including serum and urinary levels of hormones and other biomarkers. Previously, we observed significant increases in concentrations of serum estrone sulfate and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate in participants after consumption of 15 or 30 g (one or two drinks) of alcohol per day. Objective: In the present analysis, we evaluated the relationship of alcohol consumption with 24-h urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (6-SMT) concentration (micrograms per 24 h). Design and Participants: Healthy postmenopausal women (n = 51) consumed a controlled diet plus each of three treatments (a nonalcoholic placebo beverage or 15 or 30 g alcohol/d) during three 8-wk periods in random order under conditions of weight maintenance. Measures: 6-SMT was measured in 24-h urine samples that were collected at entry into the study (baseline) and at the midpoint (4 wk) and end (8 wk) of each of the three diet periods. Results: Concentration of 6-SMT was not significantly modified by the alcohol treatment after adjustment for body mass index, hours of sleep, daylight hours, and baseline level of 6-SMT. Conclusions: These results suggest that low to moderate daily alcohol consumption does not significantly affect 24-h urinary levels of melatonin among healthy postmenopausal women. PMID:22013099

  10. Exploring important influences on the healthfulness of prostate cancer survivors' diets.

    PubMed

    Coa, Kisha I; Smith, Katherine C; Klassen, Ann C; Thorpe, Roland J; Caulfield, Laura E

    2015-06-01

    A cancer diagnosis is often conceptualized as a teachable moment when individuals might be motivated to make lifestyle changes. Many prostate cancer survivors, however, do not adhere to dietary guidelines. In this article, we explore how cancer affected prostate cancer survivors' diets and identify important influences on diet. Twenty prostate cancer survivors completed three 24-hour dietary recalls and an in-depth dietary interview. We analyzed interviews using a constant comparison approach, and dietary recall data quantitatively to assess quality and qualitatively to identify food choice patterns. Most men reported not making dietary changes following their cancer diagnosis but did express an interest in healthy eating, primarily to facilitate weight loss. Men portrayed barriers to healthy eating that often outweighed their motivation to eat healthy. Public health programs should consider alternative ways of framing healthy eating programs for prostate cancer survivors that might be more effective than a cancer-specific focus. PMID:25857653

  11. 24-hour evaluation of dental plaque bacteria and halitosis after consumption of a single placebo or dental treat by dogs.

    PubMed

    Jeusette, Isabelle C; Román, Aurora Mateo; Torre, Celina; Crusafont, Josep; Sánchez, Nuria; Sánchez, Maria C; Pérez-Salcedo, Leire; Herrera, David

    2016-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether consumption of a single dental treat with specific mechanical properties and active ingredients would provide a 24-hour effect on dental plaque bacteria and halitosis in dogs. ANIMALS 10 dogs of various breeds from a privately owned colony that had received routine dental scaling and polishing 4 weeks before the study began. PROCEDURES Dogs were randomly assigned to receive 1 placebo or dental treat first. A 4-week washout period was provided, and then dogs received the opposite treatment. Oral plaque and breath samples were collected before and 0.5, 3, 12, and 24 hours after treat consumption. Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) concentration was measured in breath samples. Total aerobic, total anaerobic, Porphyromonas gulae, Prevotella intermedia-like, Tannerella forsythia, and Fusobacterium nucleatum bacterial counts (measured via bacterial culture) and total live bacterial counts, total live and dead bacterial counts, and bacterial vitality (measured via quantitative real-time PCR assay) were assessed in plaque samples. RESULTS Compared with placebo treat consumption, dental treat consumption resulted in a significant decrease in breath VSCs concentration and all plaque bacterial counts, without an effect on bacterial vitality. Effects of the dental treat versus the placebo treat persisted for 12 hours for several bacterial counts and for 24 hours for breath VSCs concentration. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Although clinical benefits should be investigated in larger scale, longer-term studies, results of this study suggested that feeding the evaluated dental treat may help to decrease oral bacterial growth in dogs for 12 hours and oral malodor for 24 hours. A feeding interval of 12 hours is therefore recommended. PMID:27227499

  12. Flow cytometric comparison of platelets from a whole blood and finger-prick sample: impact of 24 hours storage.

    PubMed

    Swanepoel, Albe C; Stander, Andre; Pretorius, Etheresia

    2013-03-01

    In this study, we investigate the validity and laboratory utility of flow cytometry when analyzing platelet activation by studying CD41, CD42b, CD62P and CD63. We compare flow cytometry results from citrated whole-blood and finger-prick samples directly after collection and also after storing both a finger-prick and whole-blood sample for 24 hours. Citrated whole-blood and finger-prick samples were taken from three healthy individuals on two occasions, and a total of 60,000 cells were analyzed for each of the four phycoerythrin-labeled monoclonal antibodies. Half of each sample was analyzed immediately after sampling while the other half was kept in the fridge at 6 °C for 24 hours before analysis. No significant difference was found between the sampling methods or the period of time before analysis. Results therefore suggest that an appropriately prepared finger-prick sample can be used for platelet function analysis, and samples can be stored for 24 hours in the fridge at 6 °C before analysis. PMID:23320994

  13. Assessment of 24-hours Aldosterone Administration on Protein Abundances in Fluorescence-Sorted Mouse Distal Renal Tubules by Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Thomas B; Pisitkun, Trairak; Hoffert, Jason D; Jensen, Uffe B; Fenton, Robert A; Praetorius, Helle A; Knepper, Mark A; Praetorius, Jeppe

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims Aldosterone exerts multiple long-term effects in the distal renal tubules. The aim of this study was to establish a method for identifying proteins in these tubules that change in abundance by only 24-hours aldosterone administration. Methods Mice endogenously expressing green fluorescent protein (eGFP) in the connecting tubule and cortical collecting ducts were treated with a subcutaneous injection of 2.0 mg/kg aldosterone or vehicle (n=5), and sacrificed 24 hours later. Suspensions of single cells were obtained enzymatically, and eGFP positive cells were isolated by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS). Samples of 100 μg proteins were digested with trypsin and labeled with 8-plex iTRAQ reagents and processed for liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Results FACS yielded 1.4 million cells per mouse. The LC-MS/MS spectra were matched to peptides by the SEQUEST search algorithm, which identified 3002 peptides corresponding to 506 unique proteins of which 20 significantly changed abundance 24-hours after aldosterone injection. Conclusion We find the method suitable and useful for studying hormonal effects on protein abundance in distal tubular segments. PMID:23428628

  14. Diets

    MedlinePlus

    Your diet is made up of what you eat. A healthy diet May include fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and fat- ... added sugars There are many different types of diets. Some, like a vegetarian diet, don't include ...

  15. Food-anticipatory rhythms under 24-hour schedules of limited access to single macronutrients.

    PubMed

    Mistlberger, R E; Houpt, T A; Moore-Ede, M C

    1990-01-01

    Food-restricted rats anticipate a fixed daily mealtime by entrainment of a circadian timekeeping mechanism separate from that which generates daily light-entrainable activity rhythms. The entrainment pathways and rhythm-generating substrates for food-anticipatory rhythms are unknown. In this study, we attempted to define minimal food-related stimuli necessary or sufficient for food anticipation by employing schedules of restricted macronutrient availability, with or without free access to a complementary diet. Rats did not anticipate a daily meal of protein, carbohydrate, or fat, as measured by tilt-cage, running-wheel, or food-bin activity, when they had free access to other nutrients. However, rats did anticipate single-macronutrient meals when they were limited to only two, larger, complementary meals each day (protein-fat, protein-carbohydrate) providing a reduced total number of calories. Previous work has shown that caloric restriction per se is not a prerequisite for food anticipation. In combination with that study, the present results indicate that the size of a nutrient meal, in absolute terms or relative to total daily nutrient intake, is of pre-eminent importance in determining its value as a synchronizer of anticipatory rhythms. The results further suggest that physiological responses unique to the ingestion and absorption of any particular macronutrient are not necessary components of the entrainment pathway. PMID:2133118

  16. [Sequential changes in inflammatory and stress responses during 24-hour running].

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Tomomi; Imanishi, Akio; Sugimoto, Kenichi; Takeda, Nobuaki; Hirata, Ryuuzou; Andou, Takashi; Morikawa, Seiichi; Suzuki, Yoshio; Watanabe, Masayuki; Okuta, Miho; Kawana, Takayuki; Namikawa, Yui; Suzuki, Masato; Watanabe, Makino; Okada, Takao; Ohta, Makoto

    2011-10-01

    Running for an extended period of time can cause severe stress on the body, subsequently damaging skeletal muscle and resulting in changes in blood components. However, few reports have examined vital responses during and after running. This study analyzed inflammatory responses during and after running and changes in stress responses as determined by serial changes in blood components. Venous blood was obtained before starting, 6 h after starting, 12 h after starting, and immediately after finishing 24 h of continuous running. Samples were analyzed for high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), pentraxin 3 (ptx3), white blood cells (WBC), myoglobin, creatine kinase (CK), and hormones. Diet and physical activity were standardized 24 h before and after running. Subjects comprised 16 men who agreed to participate in experimental running on November 8 and 9, 2008, at Tokyo Gakugei University. Mean running distance was 151.32 +/- 32.1 km (range, 83.6-210.0 km) in 24 h. A significant increase in hsCRP was seen from 12 h after starting to completion. Compared to hsCRP, ptx3 gradually increased from before starting to after completion, showing a significant difference between pre and post-run ptx3 levels. WBC count increased significantly until 6 h after starting. Neutrophils in leukocytosis increased significantly during the first 6 h. Eosinophils decreased significantly over the course of the 24 h. Cortisol increased, and testosterone decreased significantly from 6 h after starting. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), myoglobin, and CK increased over the course of the 24 h. Reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs) changed within the normal range though there was a significant decrease, and biological anti-oxidant potential (BAP) stabilized. Active natural killer cells decreased significantly after 24 h running. Biopyrrin (BPn) increased significantly. Changes in stress oxide were small both during and after running, and adaptation for antioxidation was good. DHEAS, a biomarker of aging, was found to increase over the course of the 24 h, suggesting that controlling decreases in DHEA-S may be possible using exercise, particularly in males. The key finding was that DHEA S levels tended to increase with continuous aerobic exercise. PMID:22184874

  17. Assessment of the accuracy of portion size reports using computer-based food photographs aids in the development of an automated self-administered 24-hour recall

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the study is to assess the accuracy of portion-size estimates and participant preferences using various presentations of digital images. Two observational feeding studies were conducted. In both, each participant selected and consumed foods for breakfast and lunch, buffet style, se...

  18. NHEXAS PHASE I ARIZONA STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR CLEANING: 24 HOUR FOOD DIARY (HAND ENTRY) (UA-D-40.0)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the SOP is to define the particular steps involved in cleaning the electronic data generated from data entry of the 24 Hour Food Diary. The procedure was developed to use during the Arizona NHEXAS project and the "Border" study. Keywords: data; cleaning; 24 hour ...

  19. NHEXAS PHASE I ARIZONA STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR CODING: 24-HOUR FOOD DIARY (HAND ENTRY) (UA-D-39.0)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this SOP is to define the coding strategy for the 24-Hour Food Diary. This diary was developed for use during the Arizona NHEXAS project and the "Border" study. Keywords: data; coding; 24-hour food diary.

    The National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS) i...

  20. Developing a Method to Test the Validity of 24 Hour Time Use Diaries Using Wearable Cameras: A Feasibility Pilot

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Paul; Thomas, Emma; Doherty, Aiden; Harms, Teresa; Burke, Órlaith; Gershuny, Jonathan; Foster, Charlie

    2015-01-01

    Self-report time use diaries collect a continuous sequenced record of daily activities but the validity of the data they produce is uncertain. This study tests the feasibility of using wearable cameras to generate, through image prompted interview, reconstructed 'near-objective' data to assess their validity. 16 volunteers completed the Harmonised European Time Use Survey (HETUS) diary and used an Autographer wearable camera (recording images at approximately 15 second intervals) for the waking hours of the same 24-hour period. Participants then completed an interview in which visual images were used as prompts to reconstruct a record of activities for comparison with the diary record. 14 participants complied with the full collection protocol. We compared time use and number of discrete activities from the diary and camera records (using 10 classifications of activity). In terms of aggregate totals of daily time use we found no significant difference between the diary and camera data. In terms of number of discrete activities, participants reported a mean of 19.2 activities per day in the diaries, while image prompted interviews revealed 41.1 activities per day. The visualisations of the individual activity sequences reveal some potentially important differences between the two record types, which will be explored at the next project stage. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using wearable cameras to reconstruct time use through image prompted interview in order to test the concurrent validity of 24-hour activity time-use budgets. In future we need a suitably powered study to assess the validity and reliability of 24-hour time use diaries. PMID:26633807

  1. Axial Diffusivity of the Corona Radiata at 24 Hours Post-Stroke: A New Biomarker for Motor and Global Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Moulton, Eric; Amor-Sahli, Mélika; Perlbarg, Vincent; Pires, Christine; Crozier, Sophie; Galanaud, Damien; Valabregue, Romain; Yger, Marion; Baronnet-Chauvet, Flore; Samson, Yves; Dormont, Didier; Rosso, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Fractional anisotropy (FA) is an effective marker of motor outcome at the chronic stage of stroke yet proves to be less efficient at early time points. This study aims to determine which diffusion metric in which location is the best marker of long-term stroke outcome after thrombolysis with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) at 24 hours post-stroke. Twenty-eight thrombolyzed patients underwent DTI at 24 hours post-stroke onset. Ipsilesional and contralesional FA, mean (MD), axial (AD), and radial (RD) diffusivities values were calculated in different Regions-of-Interest (ROIs): (1) the white matter underlying the precentral gyrus (M1), (2) the corona radiata (CoRad), (3) the posterior limb of the internal capsule (PLIC) and (4) the cerebral peduncles (CP). NIHSS scores were acquired at admission, day 1, and day 7; modified Rankin Scores (mRS) at 3 months. Significant decreases were found in FA, MD, and AD of the ipsilesional CoRad and M1. MD and AD were also significantly lower in the PLIC. The ratio of ipsi and contralesional AD of the CoRad (CoRad-rAD) was the strongest diffusion parameter correlated with motor NIHSS scores on day 7 and with the mRS at 3 months. A Receiver-Operator Curve analysis yielded a model for the CoRad-rAD to predict good outcome based on upper limb NIHSS motor scores and mRS with high specificity and sensitivity. FA values were not correlated with clinical outcome. In conclusion, axial diffusivity of the CoRad from clinical DTI at 24 hours post-stroke is the most appropriate diffusion metric for quantifying stroke damage to predict outcome, suggesting the importance of early axonal damage. PMID:26562509

  2. Caffeine does not entrain the circadian clock but improves daytime alertness in blind patients with non-24-hour rhythms

    PubMed Central

    St. Hilaire, Melissa A.; Lockley, Steven W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective/Background Totally blind individuals are highly likely to suffer from Non-24-Hour Sleep-Wake Disorder due to a failure of light to reset the circadian pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nuclei. In this outpatient case series, we investigated whether daily caffeine administration could entrain the circadian pacemaker in non-entrained blind patients to alleviate symptoms of non-24-hour sleep–wake disorder. Patients/Methods Three totally blind males (63.0 ± 7.5 years old) were studied at home over ~4 months. Urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) rhythms were measured for 48 h every 1–2 weeks. Participants completed daily sleep–wake logs, and rated their alertness and mood using nine-point scales every ~2–4 h while awake on urine sampling days. Caffeine capsules (150 mg per os) were self-administered daily at 10 a.m. for approximately one circadian beat cycle based on each participant's endogenous circadian period τ and compared to placebo (n = 2) or no treatment (n = 1) in a single-masked manner. Results Non-24-h aMT6s rhythms were confirmed in all three participants (τ range = 24.32–24.57 h). Daily administration of 150 mg caffeine did not entrain the circadian clock. Caffeine treatment significantly improved daytime alertness at adverse circadian phases (p < 0.0001) but did not decrease the occurrence of daytime naps compared with placebo. Conclusions Although caffeine was able to improve daytime alertness acutely and may therefore provide temporary symptomatic relief, the inability of caffeine to correct the underlying circadian disorder means that an entraining agent is required to treat Non-24-Hour Sleep–Wake Disorder in the blind appropriately. PMID:25891543

  3. Aldosterone-to-Renin Ratio Is Associated With Reduced 24-Hour Heart Rate Variability and QTc Prolongation in Hypertensive Patients

    PubMed Central

    Grübler, Martin R.; Kienreich, Katharina; Gaksch, Martin; Verheyen, Nicolas; Hartaigh, Bríain Ó.; Fahrleitner-Pammer, Astrid; März, Winfried; Schmid, Johannes; Oberreither, Eva-Maria; Wetzel, Julia; Catena, Cristiana; Sechi, Leonardo A.; Pieske, Burkert; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Pilz, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aldosterone is considered to exert direct effects on the myocardium and the sympathetic nervous system. Both QT time and heart rate (HR) variability (HRV) are considered to be markers of arrhythmic risk and autonomous dysregulation. In this study, we investigated the associations between aldosterone, QT time, and HRV in patients with arterial hypertension. We recruited 477 hypertensive patients (age: 60.2 ± 10.2 years; 52.3% females) with a mean systolic/diastolic 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) value of 128 ± 12.8/77.1 ± 9.2 mmHg and with a median of 2 (IQR: 1–3) antihypertensive agents. Patients were recruited from the outpatient clinic at the Department of Internal Medicine of the Medical University of Graz, Austria. Blood samples, 24-hour HRV derived from 24-hour blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) and ECG's were obtained. Plasma aldosterone and plasma renin concentrations were measured by means of a radioimmunoassay. Twenty-four-hour urine specimens were collected in parallel with ABPM. Mean QTc was 423.3 ± 42.0 milliseconds for males and 434.7 ± 38.3 milliseconds for females. Mean 24H-HR and 24H-HRV was 71.9 ± 9.8 and 10.0 ± 3.6 bpm, respectively. In linear regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, ABPM, and current medication, aldosterone to active renin ratio (AARR) was significantly associated with the QTc interval, a marker for cardiac repolarization abnormalities (mean = 426 ± 42.4 milliseconds; β-coefficient = 0.121; P = 0.03) as well as with the 24-hour heart rate variability a surrogate for autonomic dysfunction (median = 9.67 [IQR = 7.38–12.22 bpm]; β-coefficient = −0.133; P = 0.01). In hypertensive patients, AARR is significantly related to QTc prolongation as well as HRV. Further studies investigating the effects of mineralocorticoid receptor blocker and aldosterone synthase inhibitors on QTc and HRV are warranted. PMID:26937909

  4. The role of healthy diet in the prevention of osteoporosis in perimenopausal period

    PubMed Central

    Kostecka, Ma?gorzata

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to assess the diet for its effect on normal bone mineralization and qualitative analysis of dietary supplements used in the prevention of osteoporosis. Methods: Research data were acquired based on a questionnaire developed by the author. A 24-hour diet recall method was used with the involvement of Dieta 5.0 software developed by the National Food and Nutrition Institute in Warsaw in Poland. The second part of the study involved an analysis of the most popular dietary supplements available over the counter. Complexometric titration was used to separate and identify calcium. Results: The results of a 24-hour diet recall indicate that 47% of the respondents consumed 550-750 mg of calcium daily, and only 21% of the subjects consumed more than 1200 mg of calcium every day. The results give cause for concern: none of the analyzed diets supplied the recommended daily amounts of vitamin D, and only 29% of the respondents admitted taking vitamin D supplements. The results of the survey indicate that consumers have insufficient knowledge about lifestyle diseases, including osteoporosis. Conclusion: Diet of large part of society is not properly balanced which can cause abnormalities in achieving proper bone mineralization. Long-term deficiencies in calcium and vitamin D in daily diet are the cause for taking dietary supplements. Unfortunately, some preparations on the market do not have adequate storage. It happens that these preparations are poorly absorbed and the amount of active compound is too low. Changes in the nutritional regimen are required already during childhood because nutritional mistakes are the main cause of diet-related diseases in adulthood. PMID:25097513

  5. The impact of kidney transplantation on 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure in end-stage renal disease patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myung Hyun; Ko, Kyung Min; Ahn, Seung Won; Bae, Myoung Nam; Choi, Bum Soon; Park, Cheol Whee; Kim, Yong-Soo; Yang, Chul Woo; Chung, Byung Ha

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we prospectively investigated the impact of kidney transplantation (KT) on the status of hypertension, including circadian rhythm in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. We performed 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring and office BP measurement in 48 patients before and 1 year after KT. According to the nocturnal reduction in systolic BP (ΔSBP), the patients were divided into dippers, non-dippers, and reverse dippers. After KT, the mean BP value in office BP and 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring did not change, but the proportion of patients taking anti-hypertensive drugs and the pill number significantly decreased. In contrast, the mean ΔSBP significantly decreased, and the proportion of non-dippers and reverse dippers did not decrease. Decrease in ΔSBP after KT was associated with inferior allograft function during follow-up. Our study suggests that KT improved the overall BP level, but it did not affect abnormal circadian rhythm in ESRD patients. PMID:26051924

  6. Enhanced carotid-cardiac baroreflex response and elimination of orthostatic hypotension 24 hours after acute exercise in paraplegics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engelke, K. A.; Shea, J. D.; Doerr, D. F.; Convertino, V. A.

    1992-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that an acute bout of maximal exercise can ameliorate orthostatic hypotension consequent to prolonged wheelchair confinement, we evaluated heart rate (HR), systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure responses during 15 minutes of 70 degrees head-up tilt (HUT) in 10 paraplegic subjects 24 hours after arm crank exercise designed to elicit maximal effort, and during a control (no exercise) conditions. Additionally, the carotid baroreceptor stimulus-cardiac response relationship was determined by measurement of R-R interval during external application of graded pressures to the carotid sinuses. One week separated the treatment conditions. The maximum slope of the carotid-cardiac baroreflex response was increased (p = 0.049) by exercise (6.2 +/- 1.7 msec/mmHg) compared to control (3.3 +/- 0.6). During control HUT, HR increased from 61 +/- 1 to 90 +/- 7 bpm (p = 0.001) while SBP decreased from 118 +/- 5 to 106 +/- 9 mmHg (p = 0.025). During HUT 24 hours after exercise, HR increased from 60 +/- 2 to 90 +/- 4 bpm (p = 0.001), but the reduction in SBP was essentially eliminated (116 +/- 5 to 113 +/- 5 mmHg).

  7. QTc interval prolongation in HIV-infected patients: a case–control study by 24-hour Holter ECG recording

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Aim of the study was to assess QTc interval by a 24-hour ECG recording in a group of HIV-infected individuals with a basal prolonged QTc. The risk factors associated with QTc prolongation and the indices of cardiovascular autonomic control were also evaluated. Methods A case–control study was performed using as cases 32 HIV-infected patients with prolonged (>440 msec) QTc interval as assessed by Holter ECG, and as controls 64 HIV-infected subjects with normal QTc interval. Autonomic function was evaluated by heart rate variability analysis during 24-hour recording. Results Duration of HIV disease was significantly longer among cases than among controls (p=0.04). Waist/hip ratio was also higher among cases than among controls (p=0.05). Frequency domain analysis showed the absence of physiologic decrease of low frequency (LF) in the night period in both cases and controls. The LF night in cases showed a statistically significant reduction when compared with controls (p=0.007). Conclusions In our study group, QTc interval prolongation was associated with a longer duration of HIV infection and with a greater waist/hip ratio. HIV patients with QTc interval prolongation and with a longer duration of HIV infection were more likely to have an impairment of parasympathetic and sympathetic cardiac component. PMID:23259665

  8. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Augments Perceptual Sensitivity and 24-Hour Retention in a Complex Threat Detection Task

    PubMed Central

    Falcone, Brian; Coffman, Brian A.; Clark, Vincent P.; Parasuraman, Raja

    2012-01-01

    We have previously shown that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) improved performance of a complex visual perceptual learning task (Clark et al. 2012). However, it is not known whether tDCS can enhance perceptual sensitivity independently of non-specific, arousal-linked changes in response bias, nor whether any such sensitivity benefit can be retained over time. We examined the influence of stimulation of the right inferior frontal cortex using tDCS on perceptual learning and retention in 37 healthy participants, using signal detection theory to distinguish effects on perceptual sensitivity (d′) from response bias (ß). Anodal stimulation with 2 mA increased d′, compared to a 0.1 mA sham stimulation control, with no effect on ß. On completion of training, participants in the active stimulation group had more than double the perceptual sensitivity of the control group. Furthermore, the performance enhancement was maintained for 24 hours. The results show that tDCS augments both skill acquisition and retention in a complex detection task and that the benefits are rooted in an improvement in sensitivity (d′), rather than changes in response bias (ß). Stimulation-driven acceleration of learning and its retention over 24 hours may result from increased activation of prefrontal cortical regions that provide top-down attentional control signals to object recognition areas. PMID:22511978

  9. Urine 24-hour volume

    MedlinePlus

    ... volumes of urine), such as is seen in diabetes insipidus . ... the conditions that cause increased urine volume include: Diabetes insipidus - renal Diabetes insipidus - central Diabetes High fluid intake ...

  10. 24-hour care programs.

    PubMed

    Hergenrader, R

    1996-06-01

    Twenty-four-hour care programs, which combine group health programs with workers' compensation and disability benefits, hold considerable potential for cost savings and greater efficiency. This article explains these programs and uses a care history to show the savings they can achieve. PMID:10157798

  11. 24-hour urine protein

    MedlinePlus

    ... sure your provider knows about all medicines, herbs, vitamins, and supplements you are taking. The following may also affect test results: A lack of fluid (dehydration) Any type of x-ray exam with dye (contrast material) within 3 ...

  12. A 24-hour Approach to the Study of Health Behaviors: Temporal Relationships between Waking Health Behaviors and Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Irish, Leah A.; Kline, Christopher E.; Rothenberger, Scott D.; Krafty, Robert T.; Buysse, Daniel J.; Kravitz, Howard M.; Bromberger, Joyce T.; Zheng, Huiyong; Hall, Martica H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Although sleep is often associated with waking health behaviors (WHB) such as alcohol consumption, caffeine use, smoking, and exercise, the causal direction of these relationships is unclear. Purpose The present study used time-series data to examine the temporal dynamics of WHB and sleep characteristics in participants of the SWAN Sleep Study. Methods 303 women completed daily assessments of WHB and wore wrist actigraphs to measure sleep characteristics for the duration of the study (Mean=29.42 days, SD=6.71). Results Vector autoregressive modeling revealed that weekly patterns of sleep and WHB best predicted subsequent sleep and WHB, suggesting that the associations between WHB and sleep persist beyond their immediate influence. Some WHB predicted some subsequent sleep characteristics, but sleep did not predict subsequent WHB. Conclusions These novel findings provide insight into the temporal dynamics of 24-hour behaviors and encourage consideration of both sleep and WHB in health promotion and behavior change efforts. PMID:24043549

  13. Investigation of cattle methane production and emission over a 24-hour period using measurements of δ13C and δD of emitted CH4 and rumen water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilek, R. S.; Tyler, S. C.; Kurihara, M.; Yagi, K.

    2001-07-01

    We have conducted a series of experiments to determine the effects different diets, including the addition of unsaturated fatty acids, had on isotopic signatures of CH4 emissions from dairy cattle. Measurements of emitted δ13CH4, δ13CO2, and δD-CH4 were made on gases collected over a 24-hour period from animal chambers containing individual Holstein cows. Some measurements of δD-H2O from samples collected directly from the rumen were also made. We observed variation in δ13CH4 values with time after feeding and a correlation in δ13C between emitted gases and diet. The average δ13CH4 value, which includes all samples of emitted gases, was -70.6±4.9‰ (n = 57). Measurements of δD-CH4 over the 24-hour sampling period had an average value of -357.8±15.0‰ (n = 56). These δD measurements are among the lightest reported for CH4 produced by cattle. Our cattle data indicate that hydrogen incorporated into the CH4 produced by CO2 reduction in high H2 concentration environments is fractionated to a greater degree than that incorporated in systems with relatively low H2 conditions, such as wetlands. Our results support bacterial studies that have demonstrated large hydrogen fractionation in high H2 concentration systems during methanogenesis.

  14. Tolvaptan Prolongs Blockage of the Vasopressin Type II Receptor Over 24 Hours in Responders With Stage D Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Teruhiko; Kinugawa, Koichiro; Komuro, Issei

    2016-01-19

    The urine aquaporin-2 (U-AQP2) level relative to the plasma arginine vasopressin (P-AVP) level is a novel predictor of the responsiveness to the vasopressin type 2 receptor (V2R) antagonist tolvaptan (TLV). However, little has been reported about the concentration-time profile of U-AQP2 after TLV treatment. We evaluated 24 patients with decompensated stage D heart failure (HF) who had received 3.75 mg/day of TLV on a de novo basis for > 7 days to treat congestion refractory to conventional diuretics. Seventeen patients were TLV-responders, whose 24-hour urine volume (UV) increased after TLV initiation; the other 7 patients were TLV-non-responders. The U-AQP2 of the TLV-responders, corrected for the urine creatinine concentration, decreased significantly at 4 hours after TLV administration without returning to the day-1 morning level on the morning of day-7. The TLV-non-responder U-AQP2 levels remained low even before the TLV treatment. On the morning of day-7, the TLV-responder U-AQP2/P-AVP ratio was comparable to that of the TLV-non-responders. Among 18 patients (11 responders and 7 non-responders), the day-7 TLV trough concentration was 64 ± 62 ng/mL and was negatively correlated with the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). TLV has antagonistic effects on the V2R over 24 hours in TLV-responders with advanced heart failure and chronic kidney disease, probably due to persistently elevated blood TLV concentration. The unresponsiveness to TLV in the TLV-non-responders is not attributable to malabsorption. PMID:26742881

  15. Biomechanical evaluation of three fixation modalities for preperitoneal inguinal hernia repair: a 24-hour postoperative study in pigs

    PubMed Central

    Guérin, Gaëtan; Bourges, Xavier; Turquier, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Tacks and sutures ensure a strong fixation of meshes, but they can be associated with pain and discomfort. Less invasive methods are now available. Three fixation modalities were compared: the ProGrip™ laparoscopic self-fixating mesh; the fibrin glue Tisseel™ with Bard™ Soft Mesh; and the SorbaFix™ absorbable fixation system with Bard™ Soft Mesh. Materials and methods Meshes (6 cm ×6 cm) were implanted in the preperitoneal space of swine. Samples were explanted 24 hours after surgery. Centered defects were created, and samples (either ten or eleven per fixation type) were loaded in a pressure chamber. For each sample, the pressure, the mesh displacement through the defect, and the measurements of the contact area were recorded. Results At all pressures tested, the ProGrip™ laparoscopic self-fixating mesh both exhibited a significantly lower displacement through the defect and retained a significantly higher percentage of its initial contact area than either the Bard™ Soft Mesh with Tisseel™ system or the Bard™ Soft Mesh with SorbaFix™ absorbable fixation system. Dislocations occurred with the Bard™ Soft Mesh with Tisseel™ system and with the Bard™ Soft Mesh with SorbaFix™ absorbable fixation system at physiological pressure (,225 mmHg). No dislocation was recorded for the ProGrip™ laparoscopic self-fixating mesh. Conclusion At 24 hours after implantation, the mechanical fixation of the ProGrip™ laparoscopic self-fixating mesh was found to be significantly better than the fixation of the Tisseel™ system or the SorbaFix™ absorbable fixation system. PMID:25525396

  16. Prognostic Value of the 24-Hour Neurological Examination in Anterior Circulation Ischemic Stroke: A post hoc Analysis of Two Randomized Controlled Stroke Trials

    PubMed Central

    Rangaraju, Srikant; Frankel, Michael; Jovin, Tudor G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Early prognostication of long-term outcomes following ischemic stroke can facilitate medical decision-making. We hypothesized that the 24-hour National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) predicts 3-month clinical outcomes in anterior circulation stroke. Methods Secondary analyses of the Interventional Management of Stroke 3 (IMS3) and intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IV tPA) for acute ischemic stroke [National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke (NINDS) IV tPA] trials were performed. In participants with documented 24-hour NIHSS and 3-month Modified Rankin Scale (mRS), the predictive power of the 24-hour NIHSS and 24-hour NIHSS improvement for 3-month outcomes [mRS 0-2 and Barthel Index (BI) ≥95] was assessed. Percentages of good outcome (mRS 0-2 or BI ≥95) at 3, 6, and 12 months and mean quality of life (EQ5D™) index at 3 months across 24-hour NIHSS quartiles were compared. Results The majority of the study participants were included (IMS3 n = 587/656, NINDS IV tPA n = 619/624). The 24-hour NIHSS was correlated with 3-month mRS (R = 0.73) with excellent predictive power for mRS 0-2 [area under the curve (AUC) = 0.91] and BI ≥95 (AUC = 0.9) in both cohorts. A model with the 24-hour NIHSS alone correctly classified 82-84% of patients in both cohorts. The percentages of good outcomes at 3-12 months across 24-hour NIHSS quartiles were similar in both cohorts. mRS 0-2 was achieved by 75.6-77.7% of patients with 24-hour NIHSS ≤11 but by only 1.4-3.6% with 24-hour NIHSS ≥20. The EQ5D index at 3 months varied among NIHSS 0-4 (mean 0.86 ± 0.16), 5-11 (0.77 ± 0.18), and 12-19 (0.59 ± 0.26) quartiles. Conclusions The 24-hour NIHSS strongly predicts long-term stroke outcomes and is associated with quality of life. Its easy availability, reliability, and validity support its use as an early prognostic marker and surrogate of clinical outcome in ischemic stroke. PMID:27051408

  17. The prevalence of exercise-associated hyponatremia in 24-hour ultra-mountain bikers, 24-hour ultra-runners and multi-stage ultra-mountain bikers in the Czech Republic

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To assess the prevalence of exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) in two 24-hour mountain bike (MTB) (R1,R2), one 24-hour running (R3) and one multi-stage MTB (R4) races held in the Czech Republic in a cluster of four cross-sectional studies. Methods In 27 ultra-mountain bikers (ultra-MTBers), 12 ultra-runners, and 14 multi-stage MTBers, fluid intake, changes (Δ) in body mass, hematocrit, plasma volume, plasma [Na+], plasma [K+], plasma osmolality, urine [Na+], urine [K+], urine specific gravity, urine osmolality, K+/Na+ ratio in urine, transtubular potassium gradient and glomerular filtration rate were measured and calculated. The use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and symptoms of EAH were recorded using post-race questionnaires. Results Of the 53 finishers, three (5.7%) developed post-race EAH, thereof one (3.7%) ultra-MTBer, one (8.3%) ultra-runner and one (7.1%) multi-stage MTBer. Plasma [Na+] decreased significantly (p < 0.001) only in R4. Urine osmolality (R1, R3, R4 p < 0.001; R2 p < 0.05) and glomerular filtration rate (p < 0.001) increased, and body mass decreased in all races (p < 0.05). Δ body mass was inversely related to the number of kilometers achieved (p < 0.001) in R2 where better ultra-MTBers tended to lose more weight. Δ body mass (p < 0.001) and %Δ body mass (p = 0.05) were positively related to lower post-race plasma [Na+] in R3 that was associated with increased loss in body mass. Fluid intake was positively related to race performance in R1 and R2 (R1: p = 0.04; R2: p = 0.01) where ultra-MTBers in R1 and R2 who drank more finished ahead of those who drank less. Post-race plasma [Na+] was negatively associated with race performance in ultra-MTBers in R2 (p < 0.05), similarly ultra-runners in R3 (p < 0.05) where finishers with more kilometres had lower post-race plasma [Na+]. Conclusions The prevalence of EAH in the Czech Republic was no higher compared to existing reports on ultra-endurance athletes in other countries. Lower plasma [Na+] and development of EAH may be attributed to overdrinking, a pituitary secretion of vasopressin, an impaired mobilization of osmotically inactive sodium stores, and/or an inappropriate inactivation of osmotically active sodium. PMID:24512517

  18. What a Difference a Day Makes: Change in Memory for Newly Learned Word Forms over 24 Hours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGregor, Karla K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study explored the role of time and retrieval experience in the consolidation of word forms. Method: Participants were 106 adults trained on 16 novel word-referent pairs, then tested immediately and 24 hr later for recognition and recall of word forms. In the interim, tests were repeated 2 hr or 12 hr after training, or not at all,…

  19. Continuous 24-hour Intraocular Pressure Monitoring With a Contact Lens Sensor: Safety, Tolerability, and Reproducibility in Glaucoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri, Kaweh; Medeiros, Felipe A.; Tafreshi, Ali; Weinreb, Robert N.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To determine the safety, tolerability, and reproducibility of intraocular pressure (IOP) patterns during repeated continuous 24-hour IOP monitoring with a telemetric contact-lens sensor (CLS). Design Prospective clinical trial. Participants Forty patients with suspect (n=21) or established glaucoma (n=19). Methods Patients participated in two 24-hour IOP monitoring sessions (S1 and S2) at a 1-week interval using the SENSIMED Triggerfish CLS (Sensimed AG, Switzerland). Patients pursued daily activities and sleep behavior was not controlled. The recordings were analyzed for differences between daytime and nighttime data and for reproducibility of signal patterns between the 2 sessions. Pearson correlations were obtained by pairing intervals across sessions. Main Outcome Measures Adverse events (AE), tolerability using the visual analogue score (VAS), and reproducibility of IOP patterns. Results Mean age was 55.5 ± 15.7 years and 60.0% were male. Main AEs were blurred vision (82.5%), conjunctival hyperemia (80.0%), and superficial punctate keratitis (15.0%). Patients reported a mean VAS of 27.2 ± 18.5 (S1) and 23.8 ± 18.7 (S2) (P = 0.216). Positive linear slopes of the sensor signal from the wake to the sleep period were detected for the ‘no glaucoma medication’ group (slope: 0.14 ± 0.15, p < 0.01, S1; slope: 0.12 ± 0.17, p = 0.03, S2) and for the ‘glaucoma medication’ group (slope: 0.03 ± 0.24, p = 0.52, S1; slope: 0.11 ± 0.16, p = 0.02, S2). Overall correlation between the two sessions was 0.59 (0.51 ‘no glaucoma medication’; 0.63 ‘glaucoma medication’) (P = 0.117). Conclusions Repeated use of the CLS demonstrated good safety and tolerability. The recorded IOP patterns showed fair reproducibility, suggesting that data from 24-h continuous IOP monitoring may be useful in the management of glaucoma patients. PMID:22892888

  20. Characterization of lymphocyte subsets over a 24-hour period in Pineal-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (PALT) in the chicken

    PubMed Central

    Mosenson, Jeffrey A; McNulty, John A

    2006-01-01

    Background Homeostatic trafficking of lymphocytes in the brain has important relevance to the understanding of CNS disease processes. The pineal gland of the chicken contains large accumulations of lymphocytes that suggest an important role related to homeostatic circadian neuro-immune interactions. The purpose of this initial study was to characterize the lymphocyte subsets in the pineal gland and quantitate the distribution and frequency of lymphocyte phenotypes at two time points over the 24-hour light:dark cycle. Results PALT comprised approximately 10% of the total pineal area. Image analysis of immunocytochemically stained sections showed that the majority of lymphocytes were CD3+ (80%) with the remaining 20% comprising B-cells and monocytes (Bu-1+), which tended to distribute along the periphery of the PALT. T-cell subsets in PALT included CD4+ (75–80%), CD8+ (20–25%), TCRαβ/Vβ1+ (60%), and TCRγδ+ (15%). All of the T-cell phenotypes were commonly found within the interfollicular septa and follicles of the pineal gland. However, the ratios of CD8+/CD4+ and TCRγδ+/TCRαβ/Vβ1+ within the pineal tissue were each 1:1, in contrast to the PALT where the ratios of CD8+/CD4+ and TCRγδ+/TCRαβ/Vβ1+ each approximated 1:4. Bu-1+ cells were only rarely seen in the pineal interstitial spaces, but ramified Bu-1+ microglia/macrophages were common in the pineal follicles. Effects of the 24-h light:dark cycle on these lymphocyte-pineal interactions were suggested by an increase in the area of PALT, a decline in the density of TCRαβ/Vβ1+ cells, and a decline in the area density of Bu-1+ microglia at the light:dark interphase (1900 h) compared to the dark:light interphase (0700 h). Conclusion The degree of lymphocyte infiltration in the pineal suggests novel mechanisms of neuro-immune interactions in this part of the brain. Our results further suggest that these interactions have a temporal component related to the 24-hour light:dark cycle and that CD8+ and TCRγδ+ T-cells are preferentially recruited to the pineal follicles. Pineal microglia/macrophages were common and represent an important candidate for mediating these lymphocyte-pineal interactions via secretion of cytokines and chemokines. PMID:16405726

  1. Global empirical model of TEC response to geomagnetic activity: Short-term (24 hours ahead) prediction model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andonov, Borislav

    2013-04-01

    A global empirical model of the rTEC=(TECobs-TECmed)/TECmed depending on the geomagnetic activity (described by the Kp-index) and at a given moment is built by using global TEC data for full 13 years between 1999 and 2011.The data are downloaded from the CODE (Center for Orbit Determination in Europe) database in the Astronomical Institute, University of Bern. By using a 2D cross-correlation analysis it is found that the ionospheric response to the geomagnetic activity revealed both positive and negative phases of the response. The both phases of the ionospheric response have different duration and time delay with respect to the geomagnetic storm. It was found that these two parameters of the ionospheric response depend on the season, geographical/geomagnetic coordinates and local time. The rTEC response is represented by 2D (longitude-time) sine waves with different zonal wavenumbers and periods being harmonics of the diurnal period. The input data for the current and predicted geomagnetic activity are obtained from the MAK model developed in NIGGG-BAS, which uses the solar wind measurements from the ACE satellite. The background condition is defined by the recent CODE TEC maps. For each current hour the model provides predicted global TEC maps in geographic frame for the next 24 hours.

  2. Relative prognostic value of rest thallium-201 imaging, radionuclide ventriculography and 24 hour ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring after acute myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Hakki, A.H.; Nestico, P.F.; Heo, J.; Unwala, A.A.; Iskandrian, A.S.

    1987-07-01

    Rest thallium-201 scintigraphy, radionuclide ventriculography and 24 hour Holter monitoring are acceptable methods to assess myocardial necrosis, performance and electrical instability. This study examined the relative value of the three tests, when obtained a mean of 7 days after acute myocardial infarction, in predicting 1 year mortality in 93 patients. Planar thallium-201 images were obtained in three projections and were scored on a scale of 0 to 4 in 15 segments (normal score = 60). Patients were classified as having high risk test results as follows: thallium score less than or equal to 45 (33 patients), left ventricular ejection fraction less than or equal to 40% (51 patients) and complex ventricular arrhythmias on Holter monitoring (36 patients). During the follow-up of 6.4 +/- 3.4 months (mean +/- SD), 15 patients died of cardiac causes. All three tests were important predictors of survival by univariate Cox survival analysis; the thallium score, however, was the only important predictor by multivariate analysis. The predictive power of the thallium score was comparable with that of combined ejection fraction and Holter monitoring (chi-square = 21 versus chi-square = 22). Thus, rest thallium-201 imaging performed before hospital discharge provides important prognostic information in survivors of acute myocardial infarction which is comparable with that provided by left ventricular ejection fraction and Holter monitoring. Patients with a lower thallium score (large perfusion defects) are at high risk of cardiac death during the first year after infarction.

  3. [Trial of typological classification of the blood pressure profile over 24 hours in aged patients by Fourier analysis].

    PubMed

    Bousquet, F; Chau, N P; Poncelet, P; Warembourg, A; Carre, A

    1988-06-01

    The profiles of 24-hour systolic and diastolic arterial pressures and heart rates obtained with the Bard-Sentron system were studied in 36 untreated subjects (24 women and 12 men, aged from 65 to 89 years) with normal or borderline blood pressure. Each profile was modelized by a Fourier's serie. Multivariate analysis showed that 4 first harmonics were sufficient for a good description of the values observed. A programme of redistribution in subgroups, using McQueen's reallocation method and based on diastolic pressure spectrum, divided the subjects into two groups (A and B) such that the diastolic pressure spectrum of subjects in the same group were "similar" and those of subjects in different groups were "dissimilar". Subjects in both groups were of the same age and had the same man/woman ratio. The diastolic profile of group A showed marked day-night variations, while that of group B had almost the same level day and night. The same method can be applied to systolic pressure. Although the exact role of ambulatory blood pressure as a risk factor remains to be determined, a strong day-night variation of pressure observed in a given subject ought to be closely watched by the clinician. This study suggests a method to evaluate the different types of arterial pressure and heart rate profiles in any population of subjects and to identify a group at higher cardiovascular risk, if it is present. PMID:3142418

  4. Transient filament occlusion of the middle cerebral artery in rats: does the reperfusion method matter 24 hours after perfusion?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There are two widely used transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) methods, which differ in the use of unilateral or bilateral carotid artery reperfusion (UNICAR and BICAR). Of the two methods, UNICAR is easier to perform. This study was designed to comprehensively compare the two reperfusion methods to determine if there are any differences in outcomes. Results The UNICAR and BICAR groups each included 9 rats. At baseline, the average pO2 was 20.54 ± 9.35 and 26.43 ± 7.39, for the UNICAR and BICAR groups, respectively (P = 0.519). Changes in pO2, as well as other physiological parameters measured within the ischemic lesion, were similar between the UNICAR and BICAR groups during 90 min of MCAO and the first 30 min of reperfusion (all P > 0.05). Furthermore, both the Bederson score and Garcia score, which are used for neurological assessment, were also similar (both P > 0.05). There were also no significant differences in T2WI lesion volume, DWI lesion volume, PWI lesion volume, or TTC staining infarct volume between the two groups (all P > 0.05). Conclusion UNICAR and BICAR have similar capability for inducing acute brain ischemic injury and can be considered interchangeable up to 24 hours after reperfusion. PMID:23272656

  5. What a Difference a Day Makes: Change in Memory for Newly Learned Word Forms Over 24 Hours

    PubMed Central

    McGregor, Karla K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study explored the role of time and retrieval experience in the consolidation of word forms. Method Participants were 106 adults trained on 16 novel word-referent pairs, then tested immediately and 24 hr later for recognition and recall of word forms. In the interim, tests were repeated 2 hr or 12 hr after training, or not at all, thus varying the amount and timing of retrieval experience. Results Recognition accuracy was stable and speed improved over the 24-hr period. But these manifestations of consolidation did not depend on interim retrieval experience; in fact, the 2-hr interim test interfered with improvements in speed. In contrast, the number of word forms recalled increased only with interim retrieval experiences, and the 12-hr interim test was more advantageous to recall than the 2-hr test. Conclusions After a word form is encoded, it can become stronger with time. Retrieval experience can also strengthen the trace, but, if retrieval occurs when the memory is still labile, it can be disruptive. This complex interplay between retrieval experience and time holds implications for measuring learning outcomes and for scheduling practice in classrooms and clinics. PMID:24845578

  6. Returning to the Scene: Reminders and Context Reinstatement Enhance Children's Recall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priestley, Gina; Roberts, Susan; Pipe, Margaret-Ellen

    1999-01-01

    Two studies examined efficacy of context reinstatement in enhancing 5- to 7-year olds' recall. Results showed that children exposed to a context reminder 24 hours before the six-month interview and children interviewed in the event context did not differ but reported significantly more information than children in standard interview. (Author/KB)

  7. Randomization to plant-based dietary approaches leads to larger short-term improvements in Dietary Inflammatory Index scores and macronutrient intake compared with diets that contain meat.

    PubMed

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Wirth, Michael D; Shivappa, Nitin; Wingard, Ellen E; Fayad, Raja; Wilcox, Sara; Frongillo, Edward A; Hébert, James R

    2015-02-01

    Studies have examined nutrient differences among people following different plant-based diets. However, all of these studies have been observational. The aim of the present study was to examine differences in nutrient intake and Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) scores among overweight and obese (body mass index 25.0-49.9 kg/m(2)) adults randomized to receive dietary instruction on a vegan (n = 12), vegetarian (n = 13), pescovegetarian (n = 13), semivegetarian (n = 13), or omnivorous (n = 12) diet during a 6-month randomized controlled trial. Nutrient intake, nutrient adequacy, and DII score were assessed via two 24-hour dietary recalls (Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Recall) at baseline and at 2 and 6 months. Differences in nutrient intake and the DII were examined using general linear models with follow-up tests at each time point. We hypothesized that individuals randomized to the vegan diet would have lower DII scores and greater improvements in fiber, carbohydrate, fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol at both 2 and 6 months as compared with the other 4 diets. Participants randomized to the vegan diet had significantly greater changes in most macronutrients at both time points, including fat and saturated fat, as well as cholesterol and, at 2 months, fiber, as compared with most of the other diet groups (Ps < .05). Vegan, vegetarian, and pescovegetarian participants all saw significant improvements in the DII score as compared with semivegetarian participants at 2 months (Ps < .05) with no differences at 6 months. Given the greater impact on macronutrients and the DII during the short term, finding ways to provide support for adoption and maintenance of plant-based dietary approaches, such as vegan and vegetarian diets, should be given consideration. PMID:25532675

  8. The association of resting state heart rate variability and 24-hour blood pressure variability in spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Thayer, Julian F; Sollers, John J; Clamor, Annika; Koenig, Julian; Hagglund, Kristofer J

    2016-02-15

    Patients with high cervical complete spinal cord injuries (tetraplegia) sustain damage to the autonomic neural pathways that influence cardiovascular functioning and produce variability in the heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP). In non-injured individuals, an inverse relationship exists between resting autonomic control of the heart (as evidenced by HR variability (HRV)) and BP variability (BPV). This study examined the relationship between HRV, BP and BPV in individuals with tetraplegic (n=10) and paraplegic (n=10) spinal cord injuries, and a group of healthy controls (n=14). Resting HRV at baseline and 24-hour ambulatory BP measurements were collected from electrocardiogram measures of each participant. HRV was quantified using time- and frequency-domain measures. The standard deviation of the BP measurements was used as an index of BPV. Multivariate analyses of variance were performed to examine group differences for laboratory-based and 24-h dependent variables. The MANOVAs for HRV parameters (λ(14,50)=.352, p=.010, η(2)=.407) and for BP indices and HR (λ(16,48)=.318, p=.013, η(2)=.436) were significant. Furthermore, in line with existing evidence, we found that vagally mediated HRV was inversely related to BPV in healthy controls. However, this relationship did not hold for the tetraplegia group (ρ<|.42|), and mixed results were found for the paraplegia group (e.g., ρ<|.29| for time domain HRV, ρ>|.65| for low-frequency power). These results support the conclusion that the damage to the spinal sympathetic pathways to the heart found in people with tetraplegia causes a significant disruption in baroreflex control of BP. PMID:26810517

  9. Cross-Sectional Study of 24-Hour Urinary Electrolyte Excretion and Associated Health Outcomes in a Convenience Sample of Australian Primary Schoolchildren: The Salt and Other Nutrients in Children (SONIC) Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Janet R; Campbell, Karen J; Riddell, Lynn J; Rigo, Manuela; Liem, Djin Gie; Keast, Russell S; He, Feng J; Nowson, Caryl A

    2015-01-01

    Background Dietary sodium and potassium are involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Data exploring the cardiovascular outcomes associated with these electrolytes within Australian children is sparse. Furthermore, an objective measure of sodium and potassium intake within this group is lacking. Objective The primary aim of the Salt and Other Nutrient Intakes in Children (“SONIC”) study was to measure sodium and potassium intakes in a sample of primary schoolchildren located in Victoria, Australia, using 24-hour urine collections. Secondary aims were to identify the dietary sources of sodium and potassium, examine the association between these electrolytes and cardiovascular risk factors, and assess children’s taste preferences and saltiness perception of manufactured foods. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in a convenience sample of schoolchildren attending primary schools in Victoria, Australia. Participants completed one 24-hour urine collection, which was analyzed for sodium, potassium, and creatinine. Completeness of collections was assessed using collection time, total volume, and urinary creatinine. One 24-hour dietary recall was completed to assess dietary intake. Other data collected included blood pressure, body weight, height, waist and hip circumference. Children were also presented with high and low sodium variants of food products and asked to discriminate salt level and choose their preferred variant. Parents provided demographic information and information on use of discretionary salt. Descriptive statistics will be used to describe sodium and potassium intakes. Linear and logistic regression models with clustered robust standard errors will be used to assess the association between electrolyte intake and health outcomes (blood pressure and body mass index/BMI z-score and waist circumference) and to assess differences in taste preference and discrimination between high and low sodium foods, and correlations between preference, sodium intake, and covariates. Results A total of 780 children across 43 schools participated. The results from this study are expected at the end of 2015. Conclusions This study will provide the first objective measure of sodium and potassium intake in Australian schoolchildren and improve our understanding of the relationship of these electrolytes to cardiovascular risk factors. Furthermore, this study will provide insight into child taste preferences and explore related factors. Given the cardiovascular implications of consuming too much sodium and too little potassium, monitoring of these nutrients during childhood is an important public health initiative. PMID:25592666

  10. Perfusion-CT - Can We Predict Acute Pancreatitis Outcome within the First 24 Hours from the Onset of Symptoms?

    PubMed Central

    Pieńkowska, Joanna; Gwoździewicz, Katarzyna; Skrobisz-Balandowska, Katarzyna; Marek, Iwona; Kostro, Justyna; Szurowska, Edyta; Studniarek, Michał

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Severe acute pancreatitis (AP) is still a significant clinical problem which is associated with a highly mortality. The aim of this study was the evaluation of prognostic value of CT regional perfusion measurement performed on the first day of onset of symptoms of AP, in assessing the risk of developing severe form of acute pancreatitis. Material and Methods 79 patients with clinical symptoms and biochemical criteria indicative of acute pancreatitis (acute upper abdominal pain, elevated levels of serum amylase and lipase) underwent perfusion CT within 24 hours after onset of symptoms. The follow-up examinations were performed after 4–6 days to detect progression of the disease. Perfusion parameters were compared in 41 people who developed severe form of AP (pancreatic and/or peripancreatic tissue necrosis) with parameters in 38 consecutive patients in whom course of AP was mild. Blood flow, blood volume, mean transit time and permeability surface area product were calculated in the three anatomic pancreatic subdivisions (head, body and tail). At the same time the patient's clinical status was assessed by APACHE II score and laboratory parameters such as CRP, serum lipase and amylase, AST, ALT, GGT, ALP and bilirubin were compared. Results Statistical differences in the perfusion parameters between the group of patients with mild and severe AP were shown. Blood flow, blood volume and mean transit time were significantly lower and permeability surface area product was significantly higher in patients who develop severe acute pancreatitis and presence of pancreatic and/or peripancreatic necrosis due to pancreatic ischemia. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in terms of evaluated on admission severity of pancreatitis assessed using APACHE II score and laboratory tests. Conclusions CT perfusion is a very useful indicator for prediction and selection patients in early stages of acute pancreatitis who are at risk of developing pancreatic and/or peripancreatic necrosis already on the first day of the onset of symptoms and can be used for treatment planning and monitoring of therapy of acute pancreatitis. Early suspicion of possible pancreatic necrosis both on the basis of scores based on clinical status and laboratory tests have low predictive value. PMID:26784348

  11. Dietary adherence and acceptability of five different diets, including vegan and vegetarian diets, for weight loss: The New DIETs study.

    PubMed

    Moore, Wendy J; McGrievy, Michael E; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M

    2015-12-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine dietary adherence and acceptability among participants from the New DIETs study who were randomized to one of four plant-based diets (vegan, vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian, semi-vegetarian) or an omnivore diet. Primary outcomes at two- and six months included dietary adherence (24-hour dietary recalls), weight loss and changes in animal product intake (mg cholesterol) by adherence status, Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ), Power of Food Scale (PFS), dietary acceptability (Food Acceptability Questionnaire), and impact of diet preference on adherence. No differences were found in dietary adherence or changes in FAQ, TFEQ, or PFS among the groups. At six months, non-adherent vegan and vegetarian participants (n=16) had a significantly greater decrease in cholesterol intake (-190.2 ± 199.2 mg) than non-adherent pesco-vegetarian/semi-vegetarian (n=15, -2.3 ± 200.3 mg, P=0.02) or omnivore participants (n=7, 17.0 ± 36.0, P=0.04). Non-adherent vegan/vegetarian participants lost significantly more weight at six months (-6.0 ± 6.7%) than non-adherent omnivore participants (-0.4 ± 0.6%, P=0.04). Dietary preference had no impact on adherence at six months. Due to equal rates of adherence and acceptability among the diet groups, instructing participants to follow vegan or vegetarian diets may have a greater impact on weight loss and animal product intake than providing instruction in more moderate approaches even among non-adherent participants. PMID:26164391

  12. Engineering and governmental challenge: 7-day/24-hour chronobiologic blood pressure and heart rate screening: Part I.

    PubMed

    Halberg, Franz; Cornélissen, Germaine; Wall, Dan; Otsuka, Kuniaki; Halberg, Julia; Katinas, George; Watanabe, Yoshihiko; Halhuber, Max; Bohn, Thomas Müller; Delmore, Patrick; Siegelova, Jarmila; Homolka, Pavel; Fiser, Bohumil; Dusek, Jiri; Sánchez de la Peña, Salvador; Maggioni, Cristina; Delyukov, Anatoly; Gorgo, Yuri; Gubin, Denis; Carandente, Franca; Schaffer, Erwin; Rhodus, Nelson; Borer, Katarina; Sonkowsky, Robert P; Schwartzkopff, Othild

    2002-01-01

    This review provides evidence that the bioengineering community needs to develop cost-effective, fully unobtrusive, truly ambulatory instrumentation for the surveillance of blood pressure and heart rate. With available instrumentation, we document a disease risk syndrome, circadian blood pressure overswinging (CHAT, short for circadian hyper-amplitude-tension). Circadian hyper-amplitude-tension is defined as a week-long overall increase in the circadian amplitude or otherwise-measured circadian variability of blood pressure above a mapped threshold, corresponding to the upper 95% prediction limit of clinically healthy peers of the corresponding gender and age. A consistently reduced heart rate variability, gauged by a circadian standard deviation below the lower 5% prediction limit of peers of the corresponding gender and age, is an index of a separate yet additive major risk, a deficient heart rate variability (DHRV). The circadian amplitude, a measure of the extent of reproducible variability within a day, is obtained by linear curve-fitting, which yields added parameters: a midline-estimating statistic of rhythm, the MESOR (a time structure or chronome-adjusted mean), the circadian acrophase, a measure of timing of overall high values recurring in each cycle, and the amplitudes and acrophases of the 12-hour (and higher order) harmonic(s) of the circadian variation that, with the characteristics of the fundamental 24-hour component, describe the circadian waveform. The MESOR is a more precise and more accurate estimate of location than the arithmetic mean. The major risks associated with CHAT and/or DHRV have been documented by measurements of blood pressure and heart rate at 1-hour or shorter intervals for 48 hours on populations of several hundred people, but these risks are to be assessed in a 7-day/24-hour record in individuals before a physical examination, for the following reasons. (1) The average derived from an around-the-clock series of blood pressure measurements, computed as its MESOR, the proven etiopathogenetic factor of catastrophic vascular disease, can be above chronobiologic as well as World Health Organization limits for 5 days or longer and can be satisfactory for months thereafter, as validated by continued automatic monitoring. The MESOR can be interpreted in light of clock-hour-, gender-, and age-specified reference limits and thus can be more reliably estimated with a systematic account of major sources of variability than by casual time-unspecified spot checks (that conventionally are interpreted by a fixed and, thus, rhythm, gender-, and age-ignoring limit). With spot checks, in a diagnostically critical range of "borderline" blood pressures, an inference can depend on the clock-hour of the measurement, usually providing a diagnosis of normotension in the morning and of hypertension in the afternoon (for the same diurnally active, nocturnally resting patient!). Long-term treatment must not be based upon the possibility of an afternoon vs a morning appointment. Moreover, the conventional approach will necessarily miss cases of CHAT that are not accompanied by MESOR hypertension. (2) Circadian hyper-amplitude-tension indicates a greater risk for stroke than does an increase in the around-the-clock average blood pressure (above 130/80 mm Hg) or old age, whereas (3) CHAT can be asymptomatic, as can MESOR hyptertension. (4) Deficient heart rate variability, the fall below a threshold of the circadian standard deviation of heart rate, an entity in its own right, is also a chronome alteration of heart rate variability (CAHRV). Deficient heart rate variability can be present together with CHAT, doubling the relative risk of morbid events. In each case--either combined with CHAT or as an isolated CAHRV--a DHRV constitutes an independent diagnostic assessment provided as a dividend by current blood pressure monitors that should be kept in future instrumentation designs. CHAT and DHRV can be screened by systematic focus on variability, preferably by the use of automatic instrumentation and analyses, which are both available (affordably) for research in actual practice, in conjunction with the Halberg Chronobiology Center at the University of Minnesota. PMID:11938620

  13. Diet-Beverage Consumption and Caloric Intake Among US Adults, Overall and by Body Weight

    PubMed Central

    Bleich, Sara N.; Wolfson, Julia A.; Vine, Seanna; Wang, Y. Claire

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined national patterns in adult diet-beverage consumption and caloric intake by body-weight status. Methods. We analyzed 24-hour dietary recall with National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2010 data (adults aged ≥ 20 years; n = 23 965). Results. Overall, 11% of healthy-weight, 19% of overweight, and 22% of obese adults drink diet beverages. Total caloric intake was higher among adults consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) compared with diet beverages (2351 kcal/day vs 2203 kcal/day; P = .005). However, the difference was only significant for healthy-weight adults (2302 kcal/day vs 2095 kcal/day; P < .001). Among overweight and obese adults, calories from solid-food consumption were higher among adults consuming diet beverages compared with SSBs (overweight: 1965 kcal/day vs 1874 kcal/day; P = .03; obese: 2058 kcal/day vs 1897 kcal/day; P < .001). The net increase in daily solid-food consumption associated with diet-beverage consumption was 88 kilocalories for overweight and 194 kilocalories for obese adults. Conclusions. Overweight and obese adults drink more diet beverages than healthy-weight adults and consume significantly more solid-food calories and a comparable total calories than overweight and obese adults who drink SSBs. Heavier US adults who drink diet beverages will need to reduce solid-food calorie consumption to lose weight. PMID:24432876

  14. The effect of low level radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation on the excretion rates of stress hormones in operators during 24-hour shifts.

    PubMed

    Vangelova, K; Israel, M; Mihaylov, S

    2002-06-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of long term exposure to low level radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic (EM) radiation on the excretion rates of stress hormones in satellite station operators during 24-hour shifts. Twelve male operators at a satellite station for TV communications and space research were studied during 24-hour shifts. Dosimetric evaluation of the exposure was carried out and showed low level exposure with specific absorption of 0.1127 J.kg-1. A control group of 12 unexposed male operators with similar job task and the same shift system were studied, too. The 11-oxycorticosteroids (11-OCS), adrenaline and noradrenaline were followed by spectrofluorimetric methods on 3-hour intervals during the 24-hour shifts. The data were analyzed by tests for interindividual analysis, Cosinor analysis and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Significant increase in the 24-hour excretion of 11-OCS and disorders in its circadian rhythm, manifested by increase in the mesor, decrease in the amplitude and shift in the acrophase were found in the exposed operators. The changes in the excretion rates of the catecholamines were significant and showed greater variability of both variables. The long term effect of the exposure to low-level RF EM radiation evoked pronounced stress reaction with changes in the circadian rhythm of 11-OCS and increased variability of catecholamines secretion. The possible health hazards associated with observed alteration in the stress system need to be clarified by identification of their significance and prognostic relevance. PMID:12096679

  15. Characterization of pulmonary protein profiles in response to zinc oxide nanoparticles in mice: a 24-hour and 28-day follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Chih-Hong; Chuang, Kai-Jen; Chen, Jen-Kun; Hsiao, Ta-Chih; Lai, Ching-Huang; Jones, Tim P; BéruBé, Kelly A; Hong, Gui-Bing; Ho, Kin-Fai; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi

    2015-01-01

    Although zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) are recognized to cause systemic disorders, little is known about the mechanisms that underlie the time-dependent differences that occur after exposure. The objective of this study was to investigate the mechanistic differences at 24 hours and 28 days after the exposure of BALB/c mice to ZnONPs via intratracheal instillation. An isobaric tag for the relative and absolute quantitation coupled with liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry was used to identify the differential protein expression, biological processes, molecular functions, and pathways. A total of 18 and 14 proteins displayed significant changes in the lung tissues at 24 hours and 28 days after exposure, respectively, with the most striking changes being observed for S100-A9 protein. Metabolic processes and catalytic activity were the main biological processes and molecular functions, respectively, in the responses at the 24-hour and 28-day follow-up times. The glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathway was continuously downregulated from 24 hours to 28 days, whereas detoxification pathways were activated at the 28-day time-point after exposure. A comprehensive understanding of the potential time-dependent effects of exposure to ZnONPs was provided, which highlights the metabolic mechanisms that may be important in the responses to ZnONP. PMID:26251593

  16. Abnormal Pulsatile Hemodynamics in Hypertensive Patients With Normalized 24-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure by Combination Therapy of Three or More Antihypertensive Agents.

    PubMed

    Lu, Dai-Yin; You, Li-Kai; Sung, Shih-Hsien; Cheng, Hao-Min; Lin, Shing-Jong; Chiang, Fu-Tien; Chen, Chen-Huan; Yu, Wen-Chung

    2016-04-01

    It remains uncertain whether intensive antihypertensive therapy can normalize pulsatile hemodynamics resulting in minimized residual cardiovascular risks. In this study, office and 24-hour ambulatory systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), pulse pressure, carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), and forward (Pf) and reflected (Pb) pressure wave from a decomposed carotid pressure wave were measured in hypertensive participants. Among them, 57 patients whose 24-hour SBP and DBP were normalized by three or more classes of antihypertensive medications were included. Another 57 age- and sex-matched normotensive participants were randomly selected from a community survey. The well-treated hypertensive patients had similar 24-hour SBP, lower DBP, and higher PP values. The treated patients had higher PWV (11.7±0.3 vs 8.3±0.2 m/s, P<.001), Pf, Pb, Pb/Pf, and left ventricular mass index values. After adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, and office SBP, the differences for PWV, Pb, and Pb/Pf remained significant. Hypertensive patients whose 24-hour SBP and DBP are normalized may still have markedly increased arterial stiffness and wave reflection. PMID:26663809

  17. 24-HOUR DIFFUSIVE SAMPLING OF 1,3-BUTADIENE IN AIR ONTO CARBONPAK X SOLID ADSORBENT WITH THEMAL DESORPTION/GC/MS ANALYSIS - FEASIBILITY STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diffusive sampling of 1,3-butadiene for 24 hours onto the graphitic adsorbent Carbopack X contained in a stainless steel tube badge (6.3 mm OD, 5 mm ID, and 90 mm in length) with analysis by thermal desorption/GC/MS has been evaluated in controlled tests. A test matrix of 42 tr...

  18. Retrieval opportunities while multitasking improve name recall.

    PubMed

    Helder, Elizabeth; Shaughnessy, John J

    2008-11-01

    In two experiments we tested whether providing retrieval opportunities while people were multitasking would improve memory for names. College students (n=195) in Experiment 1 did addition problems and intermittently were "introduced" to 12 face-name pairs to learn. For half the names students were given three within-list retrieval opportunities. Name recall (cued with the faces) was tested either immediately or after 24 hours. Retrieval opportunities improved name recall with both immediate and delayed tests. Experiment 2 more closely resembled the multitasking required in a real-life social situation. College students (n=98) viewed a videotape and were asked to learn the names of 12 dormitory residents who were introduced during an ongoing conversation. Retrieval opportunities were provided for 8 of the 12 residents by having them appear three additional times in the video without repeating their names. Retrieval opportunities improved name recall, but the effect was much smaller than in Experiment 1. The present research demonstrates that distributed retrieval can be effective when people are multitasking including when the multitasking involves a conversation. PMID:18821268

  19. Are energy dense diets also nutrient dense?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some beverages are nutrient dense, but they are often excluded from nutrient density calculations. The purpose of this study was to assess whether the energy-nutrient association changed when beverages were included in these calculations. Applying a cross-sectional design, a 24-hour dietary recall ...

  20. Iron and zinc content of selected foods in the diet of schoolchildren in Kumi district, east of Uganda: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Iron and zinc are essential micronutrients for humans and deficiency of the two elements is widespread in the world with the highest prevalence in less developed countries. There are few data on dietary intake of iron and zinc in Uganda, and no food composition table is available. There is hardly any widely published literature that clearly documents the quality of Ugandan children's diet. Thus information of both food intake and the concentration of these trace elements in local food ingredients are needed in order to assess daily intake. Methods The present study focused on the iron and zinc content in selected foods and intake of the micronutrients iron and zinc among schoolchildren in Kumi District, Uganda. Over a period of 4 weeks single 24-hour dietary recall interviews were carried out on a convenience sample of 178 schoolchildren (9-15 years old). Data from the dietary recalls was used when selecting foods for chemical analysis. Results Results from this study showed that the iron concentrations varied, and were high in some cereals and vegetables. The zinc concentrations in foods generally corresponded with results from other African countries (Mali and Kenya). Data from the 24-hour dietary recall showed that the daily Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI) was met for iron but not for zinc. Conclusions The schoolchildren of Kumi district had a predominantly vegetable based diet. Foods of animal origin were consumed occasionally. The iron content in the selected foods was high and variable, and higher than in similar ingredients from Kenya and Mali, while the zinc concentrations were generally in accordance with reported values. The total daily zinc (mg) intake does not meet the daily RNI. The iron intake is adequate according to RNI, but due to iron contamination and reduced bioavailability, RNI may not be met in a vegetable based diet. More studies are needed to investigate possible sources of contamination. PMID:21827701

  1. Reductions in Mean 24-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure After 6-Week Treatment With Canagliflozin in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Raymond R; Machin, Israel; Ren, Jimmy; Trujillo, Angelina; Kawaguchi, Masato; Vijapurkar, Ujjwala; Damaraju, Chandrasekharrao V; Pfeifer, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluated the early effects of canagliflozin on blood pressure (BP) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and hypertension. Patients were randomized to canagliflozin 300 mg, canagliflozin 100 mg, or placebo for 6 weeks and underwent 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring before randomization, on day 1 of treatment, and after 6 weeks. The primary endpoint was change in mean 24-hour systolic BP (SBP) from baseline to week 6. Overall, 169 patients were included (mean age, 58.6 years; glycated hemoglobin, 8.1%; seated BP 138.5/82.7 mm Hg). At week 6, canagliflozin 300 mg provided greater reductions in mean 24-hour SBP than placebo (least squares mean -6.2 vs -1.2 mm Hg, respectively; P=.006). Numerical reductions in SBP were observed with canagliflozin 100 mg. Canagliflozin was generally well tolerated, with side effects similar to those reported in previous studies. These results suggest that canagliflozin rapidly reduces BP in patients with T2DM and hypertension. PMID:26663712

  2. Factors Associated With High Sodium Intake Based on Estimated 24-Hour Urinary Sodium Excretion: The 2009-2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-03-01

    Although reducing dietary salt consumption is the most cost-effective strategy for preventing progression of cardiovascular and renal disease, policy-based approaches to monitor sodium intake accurately and the understanding factors associated with excessive sodium intake for the improvement of public health are lacking.We investigated factors associated with high sodium intake based on the estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion, using data from the 2009 to 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES).Among 21,199 adults (≥19 years of age) who participated in the 2009 to 2011 KNHANES, 18,000 participants (weighted n = 33,969,783) who completed urinary sodium and creatinine evaluations were analyzed in this study. The 24-hour urinary sodium excretion was estimated using Tanaka equation.The mean estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion level was 4349 (4286-4413) mg per day. Only 18.5% (weighted n = 6,298,481/3,396,973, unweighted n = 2898/18,000) of the study participants consumed less the 2000 mg sodium per day. Female gender (P < 0.001), older age (P < 0.001), total energy intake ≥50 percentile (P < 0.005), and obesity (P < 0.001) were associated with high sodium intake, even after adjusting for potential confounders. Senior high school/college graduation in education and managers/professionals in occupation were associated with lower sodium intake (P < 0.001). According to hypertension management status, those who had hypertension without medication consumed more sodium than those who were normotensive. However, those who receiving treatment for hypertension consumed less sodium than those who were normotensive (P < 0.001). The number of family members, household income, and alcohol drinking did not affect 24-hour urinary sodium excretion. The logistic regression analysis for the highest estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion quartile (>6033 mg/day) using the abovementioned variables as covariates yielded identical results.Our data suggest that age, sex, education level, occupation, total energy intake, obesity, and hypertension management status are associated with excessive sodium intake in Korean adults using nationally representative data. Factors associated with high sodium intake should be considered in policy-based interventions to reduce dietary salt consumption and prevent cardiovascular disease as a public health target. PMID:26945369

  3. Use of a food frequency questionnaire to assess diets of Jamaican adults: validation and correlation with biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Assessment of habitual diet is important in investigations of diet-disease relationships. Many epidemiological studies use the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to evaluate dietary intakes but few studies validate the instrument against biological markers. The aim of this study was to assess the validity and reproducibility of a previously validated 70-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) that was expanded to 120-items to assess diet - cancer relations. Methods Relative validity of the FFQ was assessed against twelve 24-hour recalls administered over 12 months in 70 subjects. The FFQ was repeated after one year (FFQ2) to assess reproducibility. The validity of the FFQ was evaluated by comparing nutrient and food group intakes from 24-hour recalls with the first and second FFQ. In addition, FFQ validity for cholesterol and folate were determined through correlation with biomarkers (serum cholesterol, serum folate and whole blood folate) in 159 control subjects participating in a case-control prostate cancer study. Results Compared to recalls the FFQ tended to overestimate energy and carbohydrate intakes but gave no differences in intake for protein and fat. Quartile agreement for energy-adjusted nutrient intakes between FFQ2 and recalls ranged from 31.8% - 77.3% for the lowest quartile and 20.8% - 81.0% in the highest quartile. Gross misclassification of nutrients was low with the exceptions of protein, vitamin E and retinol and weighted kappa values ranged from 0.33 to 0.64 for other nutrients. Validity correlations for energy-adjusted nutrients (excluding retinol) were moderate to high (0.38- 0.86). Correlation coefficients between multiple recalls and FFQ1 ranged from 0.27 (fruits) to 0.55 (red meat); the second FFQ gave somewhat higher coefficients (0.30 to 0.61). Reproducibility correlations for the nutrients ranged from 0.50 to 0.84. Calibration of the FFQ with biochemical markers showed modest correlations with serum cholesterol (0.24), serum folate (0.25) and whole blood folate (0.33) adjusted for age, energy, body mass index and smoking. Conclusions The expanded FFQ had good relative validity for estimating food group and nutrient intakes (except retinol and vitamin E) and was a reliable measure of habitual intake. Associations with biomarkers were comparable to other studies. PMID:21477338

  4. Differences in Paramedic Fatigue before and after Changing from a 24-hour to an 8-hour Shift Schedule: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Patterson, P Daniel; Klapec, Sharon E; Weaver, Matthew D; Guyette, Francis X; Platt, Thomas E; Buysse, Daniel J

    2016-01-01

    Emergency medical services (EMS) clinicians often work 24-hour shifts. There is a growing body of literature, with an elevated level of concern among EMS leaders that longer shifts contribute to fatigued workers and negative safety outcomes. However, many questions remain about shift length, fatigue, and outcomes. We describe a case of a 26-year-old male paramedic who switched shift schedules during the midpoint of a randomized trial that addressed fatigue in EMS workers (clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT02063737). The participant (case) began the study working full-time with a critical care, advanced life support EMS system that utilized 24-hour shifts. He then transitioned to an EMS system that deploys workers on 8-hour shifts. Per protocol for the randomized trial, the participant completed a battery of sleep health and fatigue surveys at baseline and at the end of 90 days of study. He also reported perceived fatigue, sleepiness, and difficulty with concentration at the beginning, every 4 hours during, and at the end of scheduled shifts, for a total of ten 24-hour shifts and twenty-four 8-hour shifts. We discuss differences in measures taken before and after switching shift schedules, and highlight differences in fatigue, sleepiness, and difficulty with concentration taken at the end of all 34 scheduled shifts stratified by shift duration (24 hours versus 8 hours). Findings from this case report present a unique opportunity to 1) observe and analyze a phenomenon that has not been investigated in great detail in the EMS setting; and 2) address an issue of significance to employers and EMS clinicians alike. PMID:25978152

  5. Adherence to Mediterranean diet in a Spanish university population.

    PubMed

    García-Meseguer, María José; Burriel, Faustino Cervera; García, Cruz Vico; Serrano-Urrea, Ramón

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this work was to characterize food habits of Spanish University students and to assess the quality of their diet and some possible determinant factors according to Mediterranean food pattern among other indices. Two hundred eighty-four enrolled students during the academic year 2012-2013 participated in this survey. For each individual a questionnaire involving anthropometric measurements, types of housing, smoking habits and levels of physical activity were self-reported. Food consumption was gathered by two nonconsecutive 24 hour recalls including one weekend day. BMI within the normal range was showed by 72.5% of students and 75% of the sample reflected a sedentary lifestyle or low physical activity. The percentage of total energy from each macronutrient was approximately 17% proteins, 40% carbohydrates and 40% lipids. The ratio of polyunsaturated to monounsaturated fat only reached 0.32. Cholesterol consumption in men exceeded the intake in women by 70 mg/day but nutritional objectives were exceeded in both genders. The main source of protein had an animal origin from meat (38.1%), followed by cereals (19.4%) and dairy products (15.6%). The assessment of diet quality conducted by Healthy Eating Index (HEI) and Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) revealed a low-intermediate score in both (51.2 ± 12.8 and 4.0 ± 1.5, respectively). The main deviations from Mediterranean pattern were a low intake of vegetables and fruit and a high consumption of meat and dairy products. According to HEI classification, 96.1% of subjects scored "poor" or "needs improvement" about the quality of their diet and only 5.3% of students achieved a high adherence to Mediterranean diet. It is necessary to foster changes toward a healthier diet pattern according to cultural context in this population for preventing cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance. PMID:24681406

  6. Self-Perception of Swallowing-Related Problems in Laryngopharyngeal Reflux Patients Diagnosed with 24-Hour Oropharyngeal pH Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Mesallam, Tamer A; Farahat, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives. Swallowing difficulty is considered one of the nonspecific symptoms that many patients with laryngopharyngeal reflux complain of. However, the relationship between laryngopharyngeal reflux and swallowing problems is not clear. The purpose of this work is to explore correlation between swallowing-related problems and laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) in a group of patients diagnosed with oropharyngeal pH monitoring and to study the effect of laryngopharyngeal reflux on the patients' self-perception of swallowing problems. Methods. 44 patients complaining of reflux-related problems were included in the study. Patients underwent 24-hour oropharyngeal pH monitoring and were divided into positive and negative LPR groups based on the pH monitoring results. All patient filled out the Dysphagia Handicap Index (DHI) and Reflux Symptom Index (RSI) questionnaires. Comparison was made between the positive and negative LPR groups regarding the results of the DHI and RSI ratings. Also, correlation between DHI scores, RSI scores, and pH monitoring results was studied. Results. Significant difference was reported between positive and negative LPR groups regarding DHI scores, RSI scores, and overall rating of swallowing difficulty. There was significant correlation demonstrated between DHI scores, RSI scores, and 24-hour oropharyngeal pH results. Conclusion. Laryngopharyngeal reflux appears to have a significant impact on patients' self-perception of swallowing problems as measured by DHI. PMID:26966689

  7. Self-Perception of Swallowing-Related Problems in Laryngopharyngeal Reflux Patients Diagnosed with 24-Hour Oropharyngeal pH Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Mesallam, Tamer A.; Farahat, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives. Swallowing difficulty is considered one of the nonspecific symptoms that many patients with laryngopharyngeal reflux complain of. However, the relationship between laryngopharyngeal reflux and swallowing problems is not clear. The purpose of this work is to explore correlation between swallowing-related problems and laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) in a group of patients diagnosed with oropharyngeal pH monitoring and to study the effect of laryngopharyngeal reflux on the patients' self-perception of swallowing problems. Methods. 44 patients complaining of reflux-related problems were included in the study. Patients underwent 24-hour oropharyngeal pH monitoring and were divided into positive and negative LPR groups based on the pH monitoring results. All patient filled out the Dysphagia Handicap Index (DHI) and Reflux Symptom Index (RSI) questionnaires. Comparison was made between the positive and negative LPR groups regarding the results of the DHI and RSI ratings. Also, correlation between DHI scores, RSI scores, and pH monitoring results was studied. Results. Significant difference was reported between positive and negative LPR groups regarding DHI scores, RSI scores, and overall rating of swallowing difficulty. There was significant correlation demonstrated between DHI scores, RSI scores, and 24-hour oropharyngeal pH results. Conclusion. Laryngopharyngeal reflux appears to have a significant impact on patients' self-perception of swallowing problems as measured by DHI. PMID:26966689

  8. Prognostic factors for death and survival with or without complications in cardiac arrest patients receiving CPR within 24 hours of anesthesia for emergency surgery

    PubMed Central

    Siriphuwanun, Visith; Punjasawadwong, Yodying; Lapisatepun, Worawut; Charuluxananan, Somrat; Uerpairojkit, Ketchada

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine prognostic factors for death and survival with or without complications in cardiac arrest patients who received cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) within 24 hours of receiving anesthesia for emergency surgery. Patients and methods A retrospective cohort study approved by the Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai University Hospital Ethical Committee. Data used were taken from records of 751 cardiac arrest patients who received their first CPR within 24 hours of anesthesia for emergency surgery between January 1, 2003 and October 31, 2011. The reviewed data included patient characteristics, surgical procedures, American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA) physical status classification, anesthesia information, the timing of cardiac arrest, CPR details, and outcomes at 24 hours after CPR. Univariate and polytomous logistic regression analyses were used to determine prognostic factors associated with the outcome variable. P-values of less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results The outcomes at 24 hours were death (638/751, 85.0%), survival with complications (73/751, 9.7%), and survival without complications (40/751, 5.3%). The prognostic factors associated with death were: age between 13–34 years (OR =3.08, 95% CI =1.03–9.19); ASA physical status three and higher (OR =6.60, 95% CI =2.17–20.13); precardiopulmonary comorbidity (OR =3.28, 95% CI =1.09–9.90); the condition of patients who were on mechanical ventilation prior to receiving anesthesia (OR =4.11, 95% CI =1.17–14.38); surgery in the upper abdominal site (OR =14.64, 95% CI =2.83–75.82); shock prior to cardiac arrest (OR =6.24, 95% CI =2.53–15.36); nonshockable electrocardiography (EKG) rhythm (OR =5.67, 95% CI =1.93–16.62); cardiac arrest occurring in postoperative period (OR =7.35, 95% CI =2.89–18.74); and duration of CPR more than 30 minutes (OR =4.32, 95% CI =1.39–13.45). The prognostic factors associated with survival with complications were being greater than or equal to 65 years of age (OR =4.30, 95% CI =1.13–16.42), upper abdominal site of surgery (OR =10.86, 95% CI =1.99–59.13), shock prior to cardiac arrest (OR =3.62, 95% CI =1.30–10.12), arrhythmia prior to cardiac arrest (OR =4.61, 95% CI =1.01–21.13), and cardiac arrest occurring in the postoperative period (OR =3.63, 95% CI =1.31–10.02). Conclusion The mortality and morbidity in patients who received anesthesia for emergency surgery within 24 hours of their first CPR were high, and were associated with identifiable patient comorbidity, age, shock, anatomic site of operation, the timing of cardiac arrest, EKG rhythm, and the duration of CPR. EKG monitoring helps to identify cardiac arrest quickly and diagnose the EKG rhythm as a shockable or nonshockable rhythm, with CPR being performed as per the American Heart Association (AHA) CPR Guidelines 2010. The use of the fast track system in combination with an interdisciplinary team for surgery, CPR, and postoperative care helps to rescue patients in a short time. PMID:25378961

  9. Diet quality inversely associated with C-reactive protein levels in urban, low-income African American and White adults

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Marc A; Allegro, Deanne; Zonderman, Alan B.; Evans, Michele K.

    2013-01-01

    Background C-Reactive Protein (CRP), an inflammatory biomarker, is influenced by many factors including socioeconomic position, genetics and diet. The inverse association between diet and CRP is biologically feasible because micronutrients with antioxidative properties may enable the body to manage the balance between production and accumulation of reactive species that cause oxidative stress. Objective To determine the quality of the diet consumed by urban, low-income African American and White adults aged 30 to 64 years, and association of diet quality with CRP. Design Data from a cross-sectional study were used to evaluate diet quality assessed by mean adequacy ratio (MAR). Two 24-hour recalls were collected by trained interviewers using the USDA automated multiple pass method. Participants The sample consisted of Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span baseline study participants, 2004–2009, who completed both recalls (n=2017). Main outcome measures MAR equaled the average of the ratio of intakes to RDA for 15 vitamins and minerals. CRP levels were assessed by the nephelometric method utilizing latex particles coated with CRP monoclonal antibodies. Statistical analysis performed Linear ordinary least square regression and generalized linear models were performed to determine the association of MAR (independent variable) with CRP (dependent variable) while adjusting for potential confounders. Results MAR scores ranged from 74.3 to 82.2. Intakes of magnesium and Vitamins A, C, and E were the most inadequate compared to Estimated Average Requirements. CRP levels were significantly associated with MAR, DXA-measured body fat, and hypertension. A 10% increase in MAR was associated to a 4% decrease in CRP. Conclusions The MAR was independently and significantly inversely associated with CRP, suggesting diet is associated with the regulation of inflammation. Interventions to assist people make better food choices may not only improve diet quality but also their health, possibly reducing risk for cardiovascular disease. PMID:24035460

  10. Diet Quality among Preschool-Age Children of Latino Migrant and Seasonal Farmworkers in the United States.

    PubMed

    Quandt, Sara A; Trejo, Grisel; Suerken, Cynthia K; Pulgar, Camila A; Ip, Edward H; Arcury, Thomas A

    2016-06-01

    Dietary quality has been linked to obesity in children. Obesity among children of farmworker families exceeds that of other US Hispanic children. Knowledge of their dietary quality is needed to understand the origins and prevention of this obesity. Mothers (n = 237) of 3-year old children in farmworker families completed 3 24-hour recalls with trained interviewers using the Nutrition Data System for Research (NDS-R). Output was used to calculate total and component scores of the Revised Children's Diet Quality Index (RC-DQI). Mean total score was 62 (range 36-86) of an optimal score of 90. Scores for total fat, total grains, excess juice and iron were >80 % of the optimum, but scores for added sugar, whole grains, fruits, and vegetables were considerably lower. Children in farmworker families have low overall dietary quality. Intervention targeted to specific food issues may be an efficient way to addressing the problem. PMID:26514151

  11. Making sense of agrobiodiversity, diet, and intensification of smallholder family farming in the Highland Andes of Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Oyarzun, Pedro J; Borja, Ross Mary; Sherwood, Stephen; Parra, Vicente

    2013-01-01

    Methods are needed for helping researchers and farmers to interactively describe and analyze local practices in search of opportunities for improving health, environment, and economy. The authors worked with smallholder family farmers in five Andean villages in Ecuador to apply participatory four-cell analysis (PFCA) in characterizing agrobiodiversity. Margelef and Shannon indices examined ecological richness and evenness, and a simplified 24-hour dietary recall characterized food consumption. Cross-analysis tested interactions among agrobiodiversity, farm size, and diet. Overall trends appeared to work against sustainable intensification, with notable heterogeneity and positive deviance found in the practices of relatively smaller enterprises, representing a potential resource for sustainable intensification. The suite of methods was determined useful for initiating researcher-farmer explorations of promising innovation pathways. PMID:24083517

  12. Diet Quality among Preschool-Age Children of Latino Migrant and Seasonal Farmworkers in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Quandt, Sara A.; Trejo, Grisel; Suerken, Cynthia K.; Pulgar, Camila A.; Ip, Edward H.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Dietary quality has been linked to obesity in children. Obesity among children of farmworker families exceeds that of other US Hispanic children. Knowledge of their dietary quality is needed to understand the origins and prevention of this obesity. METHODS Mothers (n=237) of 3-year old children in farmworker families completed 3 24-hour recalls with trained interviewers using the Nutrition Data System for Research (NDS-R). Output was used to calculate total and component scores of the Revised Children’s Diet Quality Index (RC-DQI). RESULTS Mean total score was 62 (range 36–86) of an optimal score of 90. Scores for total fat, total grains, excess juice and iron were >80% of the optimum, but scores for added sugar, whole grains, fruits, and vegetables were considerably lower. DISCUSSION Children in farmworker families have low overall dietary quality. Intervention targeted to specific food issues may be an efficient way to addressing the problem. PMID:26514151

  13. Effects of telmisartan on office and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure: an observational study in hypertensive patients managed in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Kontny, Frederic; Risanger, Terje; Bye, Arne; Arnesen, Øyvind; Johansen, Odd Erik

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Although elevated blood pressure (BP) predicts future cardiovascular events, recommended BP targets often is not reached in the general community. In a clinical real-life setting we evaluated BP impact and tolerability of the angiotensin-II receptor blocker telmisartan in patients with essential hypertension. Patients and methods: Patients in this observational study not at target BP started or switched to telmisartan monotherapy (40 or 80 mg) or a fixed-dose combination of telmisartan and hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) 80 mg/12.5 mg. Office and 24-hour ambulatory BP (AMBP) were measured before and after 8 weeks of treatment and physicians reported perceived drug efficacy and tolerability as “Very good”, “Good”, “Moderate” or “Bad”. Results: 100 patients (34% female, 60 years, BMI 29.4 kg/m2, mean office BP 159/92 mmHg) of whom 38% were treatment naïve and 30%, 17%, 9% and 6% respectively were on 1, 2, 3 or 4 BP-lowering drugs, completed 8 weeks of treatment. The proportion of patients with office BP < 140/90 mmHg increased from 3% to 54% for systolic (P < 0.001), 38% to 75% for diastolic (P < 0.001), and 2% to 45% for systolic and diastolic BP (P < 0.001). A significant effect on BP levels was seen in patients being either treatment naïve or on 1 to 3 BP-lowering drugs at study entry, whereas no BP improvement occurred in those who switched from 4 drugs. Overall, mean 24-hour AMBP was reduced from 141/85 to 131/79 mmHg (P < 0.001). Drug efficacy and tolerability were perceived as “Very good” or “Good” by 44%/34% and 66%/27%, respectively. No drug discontinuations or serious adverse events were observed. Conclusions: In this observational study, telmisartan 40 to 80 mg, or the fixed-dose combination telmisartan 80 mg/HCT 12.5 mg, significantly increased the number of patients reaching target BP < 140/90 mmHg if treatment naïve or previously receiving 1 to 3 BP-lowering drugs. The BP reduction achieved was sustained for 24-hour and treatment tolerability was high. PMID:20191081

  14. Relative Importance of Informational Units and Their Role in Long-Term Recall by Closed-Head-Injured Patients and Control Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vakil, Eli; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Administered Logical Memory subtest of Wechsler Memory Scale to 40 closed-head-injured (CHI) and 40 control subjects. Tested recall immediately after administration, 40 minutes later, and 24 hours later. Results suggest that CHI patients have difficulty selectively retrieving most important information after long delay. (Author/NB)

  15. Demand and characteristics of a psychiatric 24-hour emergency service performed by mandatory rotation of licensed psychiatrists in Swiss primary care

    PubMed Central

    Chmiel, Corinne; Rosemann, Thomas; Senn, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Background To investigate characteristics of and satisfaction with psychiatric 24-hour emergency primary care performed by mandatory rotation of licensed psychiatrists as a viable baseline for possible reorganizational measures. Methods This was a questionnaire-based cross-sectional study (November 2010–April 2011). The number of patient–psychiatrist encounters, modes of contact, and patient and psychiatrist characteristics were assessed. Diagnoses were coded with ICD-10 (International Classification of Diseases, version 10). Results From 167 duty episodes, 74 (44%) were recorded. Of the psychiatrists (n=44), 52% were female, and mean age (standard deviation) was 49.9 (5.2) years. The median number of encounters per episode was 4 (interquartile range 0–8), mainly in the evenings. Demand for “face-to-face” (direct) patient visits was significantly more common (64.0%) than practice (1.3%) or telephone consultations (34.7%). In 83.8%, psychiatrists judged the encounter as adequate at the patient’s location. A total of 43 different diagnoses were recorded: mainly schizophrenic disorders (23.9%), suicidal behavior (15.2%), and acute stress reactions (10.3%). Psychiatrists felt burdened by services (62.5%): in 39.2%, they felt threatened; and in 6.8%, violence occurred. In 32.4%, bills were not paid for. If services were optional, 45.2% would participate. Conclusion Our findings indicate justified demand for direct mobile patient visits, suggesting that emergency care should be multifaceted, and sole provision of psychiatric care at stationed emergency facilities may not always be appropriate. Reorganization of 24-hour emergency services should carefully evaluate patient and provider’s needs before changing established structures. PMID:24707172

  16. Validation of the BPLab® 24-hour blood pressure monitoring system in a pediatric population according to the 1993 British Hypertension Society protocol

    PubMed Central

    Ledyaev, Mikhail Y; Stepanova, Olga V; Ledyaeva, Anastasia M

    2015-01-01

    Background Automatic 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring (ABPM) is a basic procedure performed in adults with arterial hypertension, but ABPM monitors have become widely used in pediatric practice only recently. The main problem is the lack of common normative data sets for ABPM in children and the small number of appropriate monitors that can be used for analysis of the 24-hour BP profile in this age group. The aim of this study was to validate the BPLab® ABPM monitor according to the 1993 British Hypertension Society (BHS-93) protocol, as well as to work out solutions regarding the feasibility of this device in pediatric practice. Methods Our study included 30 children of both sexes and aged 5–15 years, ie, “older” children according to the BHS-93 protocol. Before starting the study, we obtained ethical approval from the regional scientific ethics committee. All participants and their parents signed their written consent for participation in the study. The data were simultaneously obtained by three experts, who had completed a noninvasive BP measurement training course. BP values were measured using the Korotkoff auscultatory method (Phase I for systolic BP and Phase V for diastolic BP). Discrepancies in the systolic and diastolic BP measurements (n=180; 90 for each expert) were analyzed according to the criteria specified in the BHS-93 protocol. Results The device was graded “A” for both systolic BP and diastolic BP according to the criteria of the BHS-93 protocol. Conclusion The BPLab ABPM device may be recommended for extensive pediatric use. PMID:25674018

  17. Correlation of Occupational Stress Index with 24-hour Urine Cortisol and Serum DHEA Sulfate among City Bus Drivers: A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Mia Chihya; Lu, Luo; Tai, John Jen

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The questionnaire of occupational stress index (OSI) has been popular in the workplace, and it has been tailored for bus drivers in Taiwan. Nevertheless, its outcomes for participants are based on self-evaluations, thus validation by their physiological stress biomarker is warranted and this is the main goal of this study. Methods A cross-sectional study of sixty-three city bus drivers and fifty-four supporting staffs for comparison was conducted. Questionnaire surveys, 24-hour urine cortisol testing, and blood draws for dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S) testing were performed. The measured concentrations of these biological measures were logarithmically transformed before the statistical analysis where various scores of stressor factors, moderators, and stress effects of each OSI domain were analyzed by applying multiple linear regression models. Results For drivers, the elevated 24-hour urine cortisol level was associated with a worker's relationship with their supervisor and any life change events in the most recent 3 months. The DHEA-S level was higher in drivers of younger age as well as drivers with more concerns relating to their salary and bonuses. Non-drivers showed no association between any stressor or satisfaction and urine cortisol and blood DHEA-S levels. Conclusion Measurements of biomarkers may offer additional stress evaluations with OSI questionnaires for bus drivers. Increased DHEA-S and cortisol levels may result from stressors like income security. Prevention efforts towards occupational stress and life events and health promotional efforts for aged driver were important anti-stress remedies. PMID:22953199

  18. Adaptive Memory: Animacy Enhances Free Recall but Impairs Cued Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popp, Earl Y.; Serra, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research suggests that human memory systems evolved to remember animate things better than inanimate things. In the present experiments, we examined whether these effects occur for both free recall and cued recall. In Experiment 1, we directly compared the effect of animacy on free recall and cued recall. Participants studied lists of…

  19. Adaptive Memory: Animacy Enhances Free Recall but Impairs Cued Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popp, Earl Y.; Serra, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research suggests that human memory systems evolved to remember animate things better than inanimate things. In the present experiments, we examined whether these effects occur for both free recall and cued recall. In Experiment 1, we directly compared the effect of animacy on free recall and cued recall. Participants studied lists of

  20. Mediterranean-style diet reduces metabolic syndrome components in obese children and adolescents with obesity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet have been amply proven in adults with cardiovascular risk factors. The effects of this diet have not been extensively assessed in pediatric populations with obesity, insulin resistance (IR) and metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of the Mediterranean style diet (MSD) to decrease cardiovascular risk factors in children and adolescents with obesity. Methods Participants were randomly assigned to a MSD rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, fiber, flavonoids and antioxidants (60% of energy from carbohydrate, 25% from fat, and 15% from protein, (n = 24); or a standard diet (55% of carbohydrate, 30% from fat and 15% from protein, (n = 25), the caloric ingest was individualized. At baseline and 16-week of intervention, the glucose, triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), HDL-C, LDL-C were measured as well as the body composition and anthropometric data. The diet compliance was determined by the 24-hour recalls. Paired Student’s t and Macnemar’s test were used to compare effects in biochemical, body composition, anthropometric, and dietary variables. Results The MSD group had a significantly decrease in BMI, lean mass, fat mass, glucose, TC, TG, HDL-C and LDL-C. (p < 0.05); the diet compliance increased consumption of omega 9 fatty acids, zinc, vitamin E, selenium, and decreased consumption of saturated fatty acids (p < 0.05). The standard diet group decrease in glucose levels and frequency of glucose >100 mg/dL (p < 0.05). Conclusion The MSD improves the BMI, glucose and lipid profile in children and adolescents with obesity and any MetS component. PMID:24997634

  1. Ambulatory Hypertension Subtypes and 24-Hour Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressure as Distinct Outcome Predictors in 8341 Untreated People Recruited From 12 Populations

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Wei, Fang-Fei; Thijs, Lutgarde; Boggia, José; Asayama, Kei; Hansen, Tine W.; Kikuya, Masahiro; Björklund-Bodegård, Kristina; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Gu, Yu-Mei; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Dolan, Eamon; Liu, Yan-Ping; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Stolarz-Skrzypek, Katarzyna; Tikhonoff, Valérie; Malyutina, Sofia; Casiglia, Edoardo; Nikitin, Yuri; Lind, Lars; Sandoya, Edgardo; Kawecka-Jaszcz, Kalina; Mena, Luis; Maestre, Gladys E.; Filipovský, Jan; Imai, Yutaka; O’Brien, Eoin; Wang, Ji-Guang; Staessen, Jan A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Data on risk associated with 24-hour ambulatory diastolic (DBP24) versus systolic (SBP24) blood pressure are scarce. Methods and Results We recorded 24-hour blood pressure and health outcomes in 8341 untreated people (mean age, 50.8 years; 46.6% women) randomly recruited from 12 populations. We computed hazard ratios (HRs) using multivariable-adjusted Cox regression. Over 11.2 years (median), 927 (11.1%) participants died, 356 (4.3%) from cardiovascular causes, and 744 (8.9%) experienced a fatal or nonfatal cardiovascular event. Isolated diastolic hypertension (DBP24≥80 mm Hg) did not increase the risk of total mortality, cardiovascular mortality, or stroke (HRs≤1.54; P≥0.18), but was associated with a higher risk of fatal combined with nonfatal cardiovascular, cardiac, or coronary events (HRs≥1.75; P≤0.0054). Isolated systolic hypertension (SBP24≥130 mm Hg) and mixed diastolic plus systolic hypertension were associated with increased risks of all aforementioned end points (P≤0.0012). Below age 50, DBP24 was the main driver of risk, reaching significance for total (HR for 1-SD increase, 2.05; P=0.0039) and cardiovascular mortality (HR, 4.07; P=0.0032) and for all cardiovascular end points combined (HR, 1.74; P=0.039) with a nonsignificant contribution of SBP24 (HR≤0.92; P≥0.068); above age 50, SBP24 predicted all end points (HR≥1.19; P≤0.0002) with a nonsignificant contribution of DBP24 (0.96≤HR≤1.14; P≥0.10). The interactions of age with SBP24 and DBP24 were significant for all cardiovascular and coronary events (P≤0.043). Conclusions The risks conferred by DBP24 and SBP24 are age dependent. DBP24 and isolated diastolic hypertension drive coronary complications below age 50, whereas above age 50 SBP24 and isolated systolic and mixed hypertension are the predominant risk factors. PMID:24906822

  2. Nighttime sleep duration, 24-hour sleep duration and risk of all-cause mortality among adults: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xiaoli; Wu, Yili; Zhang, Dongfeng

    2016-01-01

    A dose-response meta-analysis was conducted to summarize evidence from prospective cohort studies about the association of nighttime sleep duration and 24-hour sleep duration with risk of all-cause mortality among adults. Pertinent studies were identified by a search of Embase and PubMed databases to March 2015. A two-stage random-effects dose–response meta-analysis was used to combine study-specific relative risks and 95% confidence intervals [RRs (95% CIs)]. Thirty-five articles were included. Compared with 7 hours/day, the RRs (95% CIs) of all-cause mortality were 1.07 (1.03–1.13), 1.04 (1.01–1.07), 1.01 (1.00–1.02), 1.07 (1.06–1.09), 1.21 (1.18–1.24), 1.37 (1.32–1.42) and 1.55 (1.47–1.63) for 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10 and 11 hours/day of nighttime sleep, respectively (146,830 death cases among 1,526,609 participants), and the risks were 1.09 (1.04–1.14), 1.05 (1.02–1.09), 1.02 (1.00–1.03), 1.08 (1.05–1.10), 1.27 (1.20–1.36), 1.53 (1.38–1.70) and 1.84 (1.59–2.13) for 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10 and 11 hours/day of 24-hour sleep, respectively (101,641 death cases among 903,727 participants). The above relationships were also found in subjects without cardiovascular diseases and cancer at baseline, and other covariates did not influence the relationships substantially. The results suggested that 7 hours/day of sleep duration should be recommended to prevent premature death among adults. PMID:26900147

  3. Metabolic Engineering of Light and Dark Biochemical Pathways in Wild-Type and Mutant Strains of Synechocystis PCC 6803 for Maximal, 24-Hour Production of Hydrogen Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Ely, Roger L.; Chaplen, Frank W.R.

    2014-03-11

    This project used the cyanobacterial species Synechocystis PCC 6803 to pursue two lines of inquiry, with each line addressing one of the two main factors affecting hydrogen (H2) production in Synechocystis PCC 6803: NADPH availability and O2 sensitivity. H2 production in Synechocystis PCC 6803 requires a very high NADPH:NADP+ ratio, that is, the NADP pool must be highly reduced, which can be problematic because several metabolic pathways potentially can act to raise or lower NADPH levels. Also, though the [NiFe]-hydrogenase in PCC 6803 is constitutively expressed, it is reversibly inactivated at very low O2 concentrations. Largely because of this O2 sensitivity and the requirement for high NADPH levels, a major portion of overall H2 production occurs under anoxic conditions in the dark, supported by breakdown of glycogen or other organic substrates accumulated during photosynthesis. Also, other factors, such as N or S limitation, pH changes, presence of other substances, or deletion of particular respiratory components, can affect light or dark H2 production. Therefore, in the first line of inquiry, under a number of culture conditions with wild type (WT) Synechocystis PCC 6803 cells and a mutant with impaired type I NADPH-dehydrogenase (NDH-1) function, we used H2 production profiling and metabolic flux analysis, with and without specific inhibitors, to examine systematically the pathways involved in light and dark H2 production. Results from this work provided rational bases for metabolic engineering to maximize photobiological H2 production on a 24-hour basis. In the second line of inquiry, we used site-directed mutagenesis to create mutants with hydrogenase enzymes exhibiting greater O2 tolerance. The research addressed the following four tasks: 1. Evaluate the effects of various culture conditions (N, S, or P limitation; light/dark; pH; exogenous organic carbon) on H2 production profiles of WT cells and an NDH-1 mutant; 2. Conduct metabolic flux analyses for enhanced H2 production profiles using selected culture conditions and inhibitors of specific pathways in WT cells and an NDH-1 mutant; 3. Create Synechocystis PCC 6803 mutant strains with modified hydrogenases exhibiting increased O2 tolerance and greater H2 production; and 4. Integrate enhanced hydrogenase mutants and culture and metabolic factor studies to maximize 24-hour H2 production.

  4. Diet quality improves for parents and children when almonds are incorporated into their daily diet: a randomized, crossover study.

    PubMed

    Burns, Alyssa M; Zitt, Michelle A; Rowe, Cassie C; Langkamp-Henken, Bobbi; Mai, Volker; Nieves, Carmelo; Ukhanova, Maria; Christman, Mary C; Dahl, Wendy J

    2016-01-01

    The health benefits of nuts may, in part, be due to the fiber that provides substrate for the maintenance of a healthy and diverse microbiota. We hypothesized that consuming almonds would benefit immune status through improving diet quality and modulation of microbiota composition in parents and their children, while improving gastrointestinal function. In a crossover trial, 29 parents (35 ± 0.6 years) and their children (n = 29; 4 ± 0.2 years; pairs) consumed 1.5 and 0.5 oz, respectively, of almonds and/or almond butter or control (no almonds) for 3 weeks followed by 4-week washouts. Parents completed daily questionnaires of stool frequency and compliance with nut intake. The Gastrointestinal Symptom Response Scale was administered weekly. Participants provided stools for microbiota analysis and saliva for secretory immunoglobulin A. Serum antioxidant/proinflammatory balance was determined in parents. From weekly dietary recalls (Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Recall), nutrient and energy intake were assessed and Healthy Eating Index-2010 scores were calculated. Consuming almonds increased total Healthy Eating Index score from 53.7 ± 1.8 to 61.4 ± 1.4 (parents) and 53.7 ± 2.6 to 61.4 ± 2.2 (children; P < .001). Minimal changes in gastrointestinal symptoms and no change in stool frequency were noted with the almond intervention. Microbiota was stable at the phylum and family level, but genus-level changes occurred with nut intake, especially in children. No differences were observed for immune markers. Although higher intakes of almonds or longer interventions may be needed to demonstrate effects on immune status, a moderate intake of almonds improves diet quality in adults and their young children and modulates microbiota composition. PMID:26773784

  5. Tele-ECG and 24-hour physician support over telephone for rural doctors can help early treatment of acute myocardial infarction in rural areas.

    PubMed

    Vivek, Chauhan; Vikrant, Kanwar

    2016-04-01

    We observed that many patients of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) were reaching our hospital out of the 12 hour window period for thrombolysis. This led to poor patient outcomes. There were multiple reasons for the delay, prominent among them was lack of diagnostic facilities in the rural health care centers. We therefore planned a Tele-Electrocardiography (Tele-ECG) based pilot project in Kangra District of Himachal Pradesh in India, which was funded by the Indian Council of Medical Research. The intention was to reduce the pre-hospital delay in AMI by enabling the rural doctors of Kangra using Tele-ECG facility and a 24-hour physician support to manage patients of AMI. We did a baseline knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) assessment study of the doctors in our intervention centers to understand their needs. The data obtained through the KAP study was an eye opener for us and justifies the need for a Tele-ECG facility for rural doctors in India. PMID:26187625

  6. Influence of irrigation protocols on the bond strength of fiber posts cemented with a self-adhesive luting agent 24 hours after endodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Lima, Jessica Ferraz Carvalho; Lima, Adriano Fonseca; Humel, Maria Malerba Colombi; Paulillo, Luis Alexandre Maffei Sartini; Marchi, Giselle Maria; Ferraz, Caio Cezar Randi

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of different irrigation protocols on the bond strength, at different root depths, of fiber posts cemented with a self-adhesive cement 24 hours after endodontic treatment. Fifty-six bovine incisor roots were endodontically prepared and separated into 7 groups (n = 8) according to irrigation protocols: group 1, sterile saline (control); group 2, chlorhexidine (CHX) gel 2% and saline; group 3, sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) 5.25% and saline; group 4, CHX and saline (final irrigation with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid [EDTA] 17%); group 5, NaOCl and saline (final irrigation with EDTA); group 6, CHX and saline (final irrigation with NaOCl and EDTA); and group 7, NaOCl (final irrigation with CHX and EDTA). No statistically significant difference was found among the groups. Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that the different irrigation protocols did not influence the bond strength of self-adhesive resin cement, which presented similar behaviors at the 3 root depths studied. PMID:26147163

  7. Computer simulation of the effect of dDAVP with saline loading on fluid balance after 24-hour head-down tilt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, R. S.; Simanonok, K. E.; Charles, J. B.

    1994-01-01

    Fluid loading (FL) before Shuttle reentry is a countermeasure currently in use by NASA to improve the orthostatic tolerance of astronauts during reentry and postflight. The fluid load consists of water and salt tablets equivalent to 32 oz (946 ml) of isotonic saline. However, the effectiveness of this countermeasure has been observed to decrease with the duration of spaceflight. The countermeasure's effectiveness may be improved by enhancing fluid retention using analogs of vasopressin such as lypressin (LVP) and desmopressin (dDAVP). In a computer simulation study reported previously, we attempted to assess the improvement in fluid retention obtained by the use of LVP administered before FL. The present study is concerned with the use of dDAVP. In a recent 24-hour, 6 degree head-down tilt (HDT) study involving seven men, dDAVP was found to improve orthostatic tolerance as assessed by both lower body negative pressure (LBNP) and stand tests. The treatment restored Luft's cumulative stress index (cumulative product of magnitude and duration of LBNP) to nearly pre-bedrest level. The heart rate was lower and stroke volume was marginally higher at the same LBNP levels with administration of dDAVP compared to placebo. Lower heart rates were also observed with dDAVP during stand test, despite the lower level of cardiovascular stress. These improvements were seen with only a small but significant increase in plasma volume of approximately 3 percent. This paper presents a computer simulation analysis of some of the results of this HDT study.

  8. COMPARISON OF FIVE EXTRACTION METHODS ON INCURRED AND FORTIFIED PESTICIDES IN COMPOSITE DIETS: BLENDER, SOXHLET, ASE, MICROWAVE AND SFE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA National Exposure Research Laboratory studies dietary exposure to a diverse group of semi-volatile pesticides by analyzing 24 hour duplicate composite diets. The pesticides of interest include organochlorines, organophosphates, anilines, and triazines. Currently, there ...

  9. 2001: A Space Odyssey Revisited: The Feasibility of 24 Hour Commuter Flights to the Moon Using NTR Propulsion with LUNOX Afterburners. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borowski, Stanley; Dudzinski, Leonard A.

    2003-01-01

    The prospects for 24 hour commuter flights to the Moon, similar to that portrayed in 2001: A Space Odyssey but on a more Spartan scale, are examined using two near term, high leverage technologies: liquid oxygen (LOX)-augmented nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) propulsion and lunar-derived oxygen (LUNOX) production. Iron-rich volcanic glass, or orange soil, discovered during the Apollo 17 mission to Taurus-Littrow, has produced a 4 percent oxygen yield in recent NASA experiments using hydrogen reduction. LUNOX development and utilization would eliminate the need to transport oxygen supplies from Earth and is expected to dramatically reduce the size, cost and complexity of space transportation systems. The LOX-augmented NTR concept (LANTR) exploits the high performance capability of the conventional liquid hydrogen (LH2)-cooled NTR and the mission leverage provided by LUNOX in a unique way. LANTR utilizes the large divergent section of its nozzle as an afterburner into which oxygen is injected and supersonically combusted with nuclear preheated hydrogen emerging from the engine's choked sonic throat, essentially scramjet propulsion in reverse. By varying the oxygen-to-hydrogen mixture ratio, the LANTR engine can operate over a wide range of thrust and specific impulse (Isp) values while the reactor core power level remains relatively constant. The thrust augmentation feature of LANTR means that big engine performance can be obtained using smaller, more affordable, easier to test NTR engines. The use of high-density LOX in place of low density LH2 also reduces hydrogen mass and tank volume resulting in smaller space vehicles. An implementation strategy and evolutionary lunar mission architecture is outlined which requires only Shuttle C or in-line Shuttle-derived launch vehicles, and utilizes conventional NTR-powered lunar transfer vehicles (LTVs), operating in an expendable mode initially, to maximize delivered surface payload on each mission. The increased payload is dedicated to installing modular LUNOX production units with the intent of supplying LUNOX to lunar landing vehicles (LLVs) and then LTVs at the earliest possible opportunity. Once LUNOX becomes available in low lunar orbit (LLO), monopropellant NTRs would be outfitted with an oxygen propellant module, feed system and afterburner nozzle for bipropellant operation. Transition to a reusable mission architecture now occurs with smaller, LANTR-powered LTVs delivering 400% more payload on each piloted round trip mission than earlier expendable all LH2 NTR systems. As initial lunar outposts grow to eventual lunar settlements and LUNOX production capacity increases, the LANTR concept can enable a rapid commuter shuttle capable of 24 hour one way trips to and from the Moon. A vast deposit of iron-rich volcanic glass beads identified at just one candidate site located at the southeastern edge of Mare Serenitatis could supply sufficient LUNOX to support daily commuter flights to the Moon for the next 9000 years!

  10. "2001: A Space Odyssey" Revisited--The Feasibility of 24 Hour Commuter Flights to the Moon Using NTR Propulsion with LUNOX Afterburners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Dudzinski, Leonard A.

    1998-01-01

    The prospects for "24 hour" commuter flights to the Moon, similar to that portrayed in 2001: A Space Odyssey but on a more Spartan scale, are examined using two near term, "high leverage" technologies--liquid oxygen (LOX)-augmented nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) propulsion and "lunar-derived" oxygen (LUNOX) production. Ironrich volcanic glass, or "orange soil," discovered during the Apollo 17 mission to Taurus-Littrow, has produced a 4% oxygen yield in recent NASA experiments using hydrogen reduction. LUNOX development and utilization would eliminate the need to transport oxygen supplies from Earth and is expected to dramatically reduce the size, cost and complexity of space transportation systems. The LOX-augmented NTR concept (LANTR) exploits the high performance capability of the conventional liquid hydrogen (LH2)-cooled NTR and the mission leverage provided by LUNOX in a unique way, LANTR utilizes the large divergent section of its nozzle as an "afterburner" into which oxygen is injected and supersonically combusted with nuclear preheated hydrogen emerging front the engine's choked sonic throat--essentially "scramjet propulsion in reverse." By varying the oxygen-to-hydrogen mixture ratio, the LANTR engine can operate over a wide range of thrust and specific impulse (Isp) values while the reactor core power level remains relatively constant. The thrust augmentation feature of LANTR means that "big engine" performance can be obtained using smaller, more affordable, easier to test NTR engines. The use of high-density LOX in place of low-density LH2 also reduces hydrogen mass and tank volume resulting in smaller space vehicles. An implementation strategy and evolutionary lunar mission architecture is outlined which requires only Shuttle C or "in-line" Shuttle-derived launch vehicles, and utilizes conventional NTR-powered lunar transfer vehicles (LTVs), operating in an "expendable mode" initially, to maximize delivered surface payload on each mission. The increased payload is dedicated to installing "modular" LUNOX production units with the intent of supplying LUNOX to lunar landing vehicles (LLVS) and then LTVs at the earliest possible opportunity. Once LUNOX becomes available in low lunar orbit (LLO), monopropellant NTRs would be outfitted with an oxygen propellant module, feed system and afterburner nozzle for "bipropellant" operation. Transition to a "reusable" mission architecture now occurs with smaller, LANTR-powered LTVs delivering approximately 400% more payload on each piloted round trip mission than earlier expendable "all LH2" NTR systems. As initial lunar outposts grow to eventual lunar settlements and LUNOX production capacity increases, the LANTR concept can enable a rapid "commuter" shuttle capable of 24 hour "one way" trips to and from the Moon, A vast deposit of"iron-rich" volcanic glass beads identified at just one candidate site--located at the southeastern edge of Mare Serenitatis--could supply, sufficient LUNOX to support daily commuter flights to the Moon for the next 9000 years!

  11. "2001: A Space Odyssey" Revisited: The Feasibility of 24 Hour Commuter Flights to the Moon Using NTR Propulsion with LUNOX Afterburners. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Dudzinski, Leonard A.

    2001-01-01

    The prospects for "24 hour" commuter flights to the Moon. similar to that portrayed in 2001: A Space Odyssey but on a more Spartan scale. are examined using two near term. "high leverage" technologies-liquid oxygen (LOX)-augmented nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) propulsion and "lunar-derived" oxygen (LUNOX) production. Iron-rich volcanic glass. or "orange soil," discovered during the Apollo 17 mission to Taurus-Littrow. has produced a 4% oxygen yield in recent NASA experiments using hydrogen reduction. LUNOX development and utilization would eliminate the need to transport oxygen supplies from Earth and is expected to dramatically reduce the size, cost and complexity of space transportation systems. The LOX-augmented NTR concept (LANTR) exploits the high performance capability of the conventional liquid hydrogen (LH2)-cooled NTR and the mission leverage provided by LUNOX in a unique way. LANTR utilizes the large divergent section of its nozzle as an "afterburner" into which oxygen is injected and supersonically combusted with nuclear preheated hydrogen emerging from the engine's choked sonic throat-essentially "scramjet propulsion in reverse." By varying the oxygen-to-hydrogen mixture ratio, the LANTR engine can operate over a wide range of thrust and specific impulse (Isp) values while the reactor core power level remains relatively constant. The thrust augmentation feature of LANTR means that "big engine" performance can be obtained using smaller. more affordable. easier to test NTR engines. The use of high-density LOX in place of low-density LH2 also reduces hydrogen mass and tank volume resulting in smaller space vehicles. An implementation strategy and evolutionary lunar mission architecture is outlined which requires only Shuttle C or "in-line" Shuttle-derived launch vehicles, and utilizes conventional NTR-powered lunar transfer vehicles (LTVs), operating in an "expendable mode" initially, to maximize delivered surface payload on each mission. The increased payload is dedicated to installing "modular" LUNOX production units with the intent of supplying LUNOX to lunar landing vehicles (LLVs) and then LTVs at the earliest possible opportunity. Once LUNOX becomes available in low lunar orbit (LLO), monopropellant NTRs would be outfitted with an oxygen propellant module, feed system and afterburner nozzle for "bipropellant" operation. Transition to a "reusable" mission architecture now occurs with smaller, LANTR-powered LTVs delivering approximately 400% more payload on each piloted round trip mission than earlier expendable "all LH2" NTR systems. As initial lunar outposts grow to eventual lunar settlements and LUNOX production capacity increases, the LANTR concept can enable a rapid "commuter" shuttle capable of 24 hour "one way" trips to and from the Moon. A vast deposit of "iron-rich" volcanic glass beads identified at just one candidate site - located at the southeastern edge of Mare Serenitatis - could supply sufficient LUNOX to support daily commuter flights to the Moon for the next 9000 years'.

  12. External Beam Radiotherapy Plus 24-Hour Continuous Infusion of Gemcitabine in Unresectable Pancreatic Carcinoma: Long-Term Results of a Phase II Study

    SciTech Connect

    Mattiucci, Gian C.; Morganti, Alessio G.; Valentini, Vincenzo; Ippolito, Edy; Alfieri, Sergio; Antinori, Armando; Crucitti, Antonio; D'Agostino, Giuseppe R.; Di Lullo, Liberato; Luzi, Stefano; Mantini, Giovanna; Smaniotto, Daniela; Doglietto, Gian B.; Cellini, Numa

    2010-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of gemcitabine-based chemoradiation (CT-RT) in treating patients (pts) affected by locally advanced pancreatic cancers (LAPC). Methods and Materials: Weekly gemcitabine (100 mg/m{sup 2}) was given as a 24-hour infusion during the course of three-dimensional radiotherapy (50.4 Gy to the tumor, 39.6 Gy to the nodes). After CT-RT, pts received five cycles of sequential chemotherapy with gemcitabine (1000 mg/m{sup 2}; 1, 8, q21). Response rate was assessed according to World Health Organization criteria 6 weeks after the end of CT-RT. Local control (LC), time to progression (TTP), metastases-free survival (MFS), and overall survival (OS) were analyzed by the Kaplan Meier method. Results: Forty pts (male/female 22/18; median age 62 years, range, 36-76) were treated from 2000 to 2005. The majority had T4 tumour (n = 34, 85%), six pts (15%) had T3 tumour. Sixteen pts (40%) were node positive at diagnosis. Grade 3-4 acute toxicity was observed in 21 pts (52.5%). Thirty pts (75%) completed the treatment schedule. A clinical response was achieved in 12 pts (30%). With a median follow-up of 76 months (range, 32-98), 2-year LC was 39.6% (median, 12 months), 2-year TTP was 18.4% (median, 10 months), and 2-year MFS was 29.7% (median, 10 months). Two-year OS (25%; median, 15.5 months) compared with our previous study on 5-fluorouracil-based CT-RT (2.8%) was significantly improved (p <0.001). Conclusions: Gemcitabine CT-RT seems correlated with improved outcomes. Healthier patients who are likely to complete the treatment schedule may benefit most from this therapy.

  13. The Abilities and Differential Difficulties of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Children with Specific Language Impairment to Use Semantic and Social Contexts to Infer and Recall Novel Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Melody R.

    2010-01-01

    Two studies assessed the ability of 12 pre-school children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD; N = 7) or Specific Language Impairment (SLI; N = 5) to use semantic context and eye gaze to infer the meanings of novel nouns, and to recall those meanings after a 24-hour delay. In Experiment 1, the children heard statements containing a familiar,…

  14. The Abilities and Differential Difficulties of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Children with Specific Language Impairment to Use Semantic and Social Contexts to Infer and Recall Novel Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Melody R.

    2010-01-01

    Two studies assessed the ability of 12 pre-school children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD; N = 7) or Specific Language Impairment (SLI; N = 5) to use semantic context and eye gaze to infer the meanings of novel nouns, and to recall those meanings after a 24-hour delay. In Experiment 1, the children heard statements containing a familiar,

  15. Compound Cuing in Free Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohnas, Lynn J.; Kahana, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    According to the retrieved context theory of episodic memory, the cue for recall of an item is a weighted sum of recently activated cognitive states, including previously recalled and studied items as well as their associations. We show that this theory predicts there should be compound cuing in free recall. Specifically, the temporal contiguity

  16. Compound Cuing in Free Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohnas, Lynn J.; Kahana, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    According to the retrieved context theory of episodic memory, the cue for recall of an item is a weighted sum of recently activated cognitive states, including previously recalled and studied items as well as their associations. We show that this theory predicts there should be compound cuing in free recall. Specifically, the temporal contiguity…

  17. Egg Contribution Towards the Diet of Pregnant Latinas

    PubMed Central

    Bermúdez-Millán, Ángela; Hromi-Fiedler, Amber; Damio, Grace; Segura-Pérez, Sofia; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Proper nutrition during gestation is important to prevent adverse pregnancy outcomes. Eggs contain many important nutrients necessary for fetal development and human survival. Three focus groups were conducted with Latina women living in Connecticut to identify cultural beliefs toward egg consumption during pregnancy, traditional egg dishes, and methods of preparation. A cross-sectional study was then carried out with a sample of predominately Puerto Rican pregnant Latinas (N = 241) to identify the frequency of consumption of eggs and egg-containing dishes as well as methods of preparation using a tailored food frequency questionnaire modified for this population. Paired sample t-tests were used to examine if there were differences in weekly mean egg intake patterns between the year prior to the pregnancy and during pregnancy based on a Food Frequency Questionnaire. Women were categorized into eggs consumers and non-consumers if they consumed or did not consume eggs during the previous day based on 24-hour recall data. Independent-sample t-test and chi-square cross-tabulation analyses were conducted to examine the association between egg consumption and nutrient intake categories. Results showed that eggs and egg-containing traditional dishes are consumed by Latinas before and during pregnancy. Egg consumers had higher intakes of protein, fat, vitamin K, vitamin E, selenium, beta carotene, lutein and zeaxanthin, cholesterol, total polyunsaturated fatty acids, and docosahexaenoic acid. Eggs contribute significantly to the diet of pregnant Latinas. PMID:21883065

  18. Variability of Metal Levels in Spot, First Morning, and 24-Hour Urine Samples over a 3-Month Period in Healthy Adult Chinese Men

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi-Xin; Feng, Wei; Zeng, Qiang; Sun, Yang; Wang, Peng; You, Ling; Yang, Pan; Huang, Zhen; Yu, Song-Lin; Lu, Wen-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Background: Metals in single spot urine samples are often used to estimate individual exposure in human studies. However, measurements in urine could vary greatly over time due to variable exposure, potentially leading to exposure misclassification. Objective: We examined the variability of metal levels in the urine of 11 men who provided 529 samples on 8 days during a 3-month period, which corresponds to the duration of spermatogenesis. Method: The urinary levels of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), molybdenum (Mo), and nickel (Ni) were measured using inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry. We calculated the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) to assess the reproducibility of metal measures and computed the sensitivity and specificity to evaluate how well spot urine samples determined the individuals’ 3-month average exposure. Results: Fair to good reproducibility was observed for the serial measurements of Cd (ICC = 0.53) in spot samples collected during the 3-month period, whereas the serial measurements of As, Co, Cu, Pb, Mo, and Ni showed poor reproducibility (ICCs = 0.01–0.29). Use of single spot urine samples to classify the high (top 33%) 3-month average metal levels had uniformly high specificities (0.70–0.84) but relatively low sensitivities (0.40–0.57), except for Cd (0.77). The minimum number of specimens (k) required to estimate the participant-specific mean for the seven metals within 20% of the “true” values ranged from 3 for Cd to 27 for Ni. Conclusions: The high variability observed in the urinary levels of As, Co, Cu, Pb, Mo, and Ni suggests that a single measurement provides only a brief snapshot in time of the exposure levels of an individual, which can result in a moderate degree of exposure misclassification. Citation: Wang YX, Feng W, Zeng Q, Sun Y, Wang P, You L, Yang P, Huang Z, Yu SL, Lu WQ. 2016. Variability of metal levels in spot, first morning, and 24-hour urine samples over a 3-month period in healthy adult Chinese men. Environ Health Perspect 124:468–476; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409551 PMID:26372665

  19. Sex and age-related differences in performance in a 24-hour ultra-cycling draft-legal event – a cross-sectional data analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine the sex and age-related differences in performance in a draft-legal ultra-cycling event. Methods Age-related changes in performance across years were investigated in the 24-hour draft-legal cycling event held in Schötz, Switzerland, between 2000 and 2011 using multi-level regression analyses including age, repeated participation and environmental temperatures as co-variables. Results For all finishers, the age of peak cycling performance decreased significantly (β = −0.273, p = 0.036) from 38 ± 10 to 35 ± 6 years in females but remained unchanged (β = −0.035, p = 0.906) at 41.0 ± 10.3 years in males. For the annual fastest females and males, the age of peak cycling performance remained unchanged at 37.3 ± 8.5 and 38.3 ± 5.4 years, respectively. For all female and male finishers, males improved significantly (β = 7.010, p = 0.006) the cycling distance from 497.8 ± 219.6 km to 546.7 ± 205.0 km whereas females (β = −0.085, p = 0.987) showed an unchanged performance of 593.7 ± 132.3 km. The mean cycling distance achieved by the male winners of 960.5 ± 51.9 km was significantly (p < 0.001) greater than the distance covered by the female winners with 769.7 ± 65.7 km but was not different between the sexes (p > 0.05). The sex difference in performance for the annual winners of 19.7 ± 7.8% remained unchanged across years (p > 0.05). The achieved cycling distance decreased in a curvilinear manner with advancing age. There was a significant age effect (F = 28.4, p < 0.0001) for cycling performance where the fastest cyclists were in age group 35–39 years. Conclusion In this 24-h cycling draft-legal event, performance in females remained unchanged while their age of peak cycling performance decreased and performance in males improved while their age of peak cycling performance remained unchanged. The annual fastest females and males were 37.3 ± 8.5 and 38.3 ± 5.4 years old, respectively. The sex difference for the fastest finishers was ~20%. It seems that women were not able to profit from drafting to improve their ultra-cycling performance. PMID:24883191

  20. Effect of road transport for up to 24 hours followed by twenty-four hour recovery on live weight and physiological responses of bulls

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The transport of livestock can have major implications for their welfare, and there is strong public interest and scientific endeavour aimed at ensuring that the welfare of transported animals is optimal. The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of transport on live weight, physiological and haematological responses of bulls after road transport of 0, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 hours (h). Seventy-two Charolais bulls (mean weight (s.d.) 367 (35) kg), naïve to transport, were randomly assigned to one of six journey (J) times of 0 h, 6 h, 9 h, 12 h, 18 h and 24 h transport (n = 12 animals/treatment) at a stocking density of 1.02 m2/bull. Blood samples were collected by jugular venipuncture before transport (-0.25 h), immediately after (0 h) and at 1 h, 2 h, 4 h, 6 h, 8 h, 12 h and 24 h relative to time 0 h. The bulls were weighed before transport (- 24 h and - 0.25 h), immediately after (0 h), and at 4 h, 12 h and 24 h relative to time 0 h. Control animals were blood sampled before assignment (-0.25 h) to novel pens, after (24 h), and at 1 h, 2 h, 4 h, 6 h, 8 h, 12 h and 24 h relative to the 24 h sampling time point. Results Bulls travelling for 6 h (280 km), 9 h (435 km), 12 h (582 km), 18 h (902 km) and 24 h (1192 km) lost 4.7, 4.5, 5.7 (P < 0.05), 6.6 (P < 0.05) and 7.5 (P < 0.05) percentage (%) live weight compared with baseline. Live weight re-gained to pre-transport levels during the 24 h recovery period. Lymphocyte percentages were lower (P < 0.05) and neutrophil percentages were greater (P < 0.05) in all animals. Blood protein, glucose and NEFA concentrations and creatine kinase activity were greater (P < 0.05) in the bulls following transport and returned to baseline within 24 h. Conclusions Under the conditions of the present study, transport of bulls on journeys by road, ranging from 6 h (280 km) to 24 h (1192 km) duration, affected live weight, haematological and physiological measurements of metabolism and inflammation. Our findings showed that live weight and some physiological and haematological responses of bulls returned to pre-transport levels within 24 h with animals having had access to feed and water. PMID:20646269

  1. Oatmeal consumption is associated with better diet quality and lower body mass index in adults: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2001-2010.

    PubMed

    Fulgoni, Victor L; Chu, YiFang; O'Shea, Marianne; Slavin, Joanne L; DiRienzo, Maureen A

    2015-12-01

    Data from the 2001-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed to assess the relationship between oatmeal consumption and nutrient intake, diet quality, and physiological measures in adults 19 years and older (n = 22,823). We hypothesized that oatmeal consumption is associated with a more favorable nutrient intake profile, better diet quality, and healthier physiological end points. Oatmeal consumers (n = 1429) were defined as those who had consumed any amount of cooked oatmeal cereal during a 24-hour recall period. Multiple regression analysis, after transforming variables to normality and using appropriate sample weights to ensure national representation, was used to assess differences between oatmeal consumers and nonconsumers in terms of demographics, and covariate-adjusted analysis of variance was used to assess differences between consumers and nonconsumers in nutrient intakes, diet quality (calculated using the Healthy Eating Index-2010), and physiological measures. Our results show that oatmeal consumers were older than nonconsumers and more likely to be female; they also were less likely to smoke and consumed less alcohol. Consumers had higher intakes of protein, dietary fiber, vitamin A, thiamin, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron, copper, selenium, and potassium and lower intakes of total, monounsaturated, and saturated fats; cholesterol; and vitamin B12. Oatmeal consumers had higher Healthy Eating Index-2010 scores and lower body weights, waist circumferences, and body mass indices. To conclude, our results suggest that consuming oatmeal is consistent with better nutrient intakes and a higher diet quality. PMID:26494025

  2. Adaptive memory: Animacy enhances free recall but impairs cued recall.

    PubMed

    Popp, Earl Y; Serra, Michael J

    2016-02-01

    Recent research suggests that human memory systems evolved to remember animate things better than inanimate things. In the present experiments, we examined whether these effects occur for both free recall and cued recall. In Experiment 1, we directly compared the effect of animacy on free recall and cued recall. Participants studied lists of objects and lists of animals for free-recall tests, and studied sets of animal-animal pairs and object-object pairs for cued-recall tests. In Experiment 2, we compared participants' cued recall for English-English, Swahili-English, and English-Swahili word pairs involving either animal or object English words. In Experiment 3, we compared participants' cued recall for animal-animal, object-object, animal-object, and object-animal pairs. Although we were able to replicate past effects of animacy aiding free recall, animacy typically impaired cued recall in the present experiments. More importantly, given the interactions found in the present experiments, we conclude that some factor associated with animacy (e.g., attention capture or mental arousal) is responsible for the present patterns of results. This factor seems to moderate the relationship between animacy and memory, producing a memory advantage for animate stimuli in scenarios where the moderator leads to enhanced target retrievability but a memory disadvantage for animate stimuli in scenarios where the moderator leads to impaired association memory. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26375781

  3. Physical Environment, Diet Quality, and Body Weight in a Group of 12-year-old Children from Four Public Schools in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Roxana; Serrano, Mnica; Prez, Cynthia M.; Palacios, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Objective Physical environment influences diet and has been proposed as a determinant of childhood obesity. This cross-sectional study explored physical environment and its associations with diet quality and weight status in a sample of 114 12-year-old children from 4 public schools in the metropolitan area of San Juan, PR. Methods Physical environment was assessed by asking questions regarding the availability and accessibility of healthy and unhealthy foods and food outlets as well as of recreational and sports facilities and equipment. Food intake was determined using a 24-hour diet-recall questionnaire, with the gathered data being used to assess diet quality and calculate the Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2010. The HEI includes 12 components that are used to determine the compliance of a given diet with federal guidelines. HEI-2010 total score ranges from 0 to100 and is divided into the following classifications: poor (?50), needs improvement (5180), and good (>80). Body mass index was computed using measured weight and height and categorized according to the CDC Growth Charts. Results Thirty-six percent of the participating children were overweight or obese. Nearly 57% had poor diet quality. The lowest HEI-2010 component scores were found for total fruits, whole fruits, total vegetables, whole grains, seafood and plant proteins, and fatty acids. However, diet quality was not associated with weight status or physical environment factors. Compared to the other children in the study, overweight or obese children reported having a significantly (p<0.05) lower availability of unhealthy foods and the highest access to recreational and sports facilities at home but also lower utilization of recreational and sports facilities at school and reduced participation in the school breakfast program. Conclusion This study showed that some home- and school-environment factors influenced body weight in the children in this sample. However, these same factors did not appear to affect diet quality. PMID:24665604

  4. Stress, depression, social support, and eating habits reduce diet quality in the first trimester in low-income women: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Fowles, Eileen R; Stang, Jamie; Bryant, Miranda; Kim, Sunghun

    2012-10-01

    Maternal diet quality influences birth outcomes. Yet, little research exists that assesses women's diet quality during the first trimester of pregnancy, a crucial time of placental and fetal development. This cross-sectional study, describing diet quality and its relationship with stress, depression, social support, and eating habits in the first trimester, may identify low-income women needing intensive dietary intervention. Seventy-one low-income women completed validated instruments measuring stress, depression, social support, and eating habits; had their height and weight measured; received training on portion-size estimation; and completed three 24-hour dietary recalls (1 weekend day and 2 nonconsecutive weekdays) from July 2009 to February 2010. Comparative and correlational analyses were done. Women with diet quality scores below the median (n=35) had more depression (9.6±5.1 vs 6.7±5.1) and stress (22.1±5.4 vs 19.3±4.8) and less control over meal preparation (5.0±1.5 vs 4.2±1.5) and support from others (52.0±12.0 vs 57.4±7.2) than did women with high diet quality scores (n=36). Diet quality was negatively related to depression (r=-0.41), stress (r=-0.35), skipping meals (r=-0.41), and control over meal preparation (r=-0.33), and positively related to support from others (r=0.38). Low-income women experiencing life stressors represent an at-risk group for low diet quality and may need intensive dietary intervention before and during pregnancy. More research designed to improve diet quality in low-income pregnant women is needed. PMID:23017572

  5. Diet and serum lipids in vegan vegetarians: a model for risk reduction.

    PubMed

    Resnicow, K; Barone, J; Engle, A; Miller, S; Haley, N J; Fleming, D; Wynder, E

    1991-04-01

    The lipid levels and dietary habits of 31 Seventh-Day Adventist vegan vegetarians (aged 5 to 46 years) who consume no animal products were assessed. Mean serum total cholesterol (3.4 mmol/L), low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (1.8 mmol/L), and triglyceride (0.8 mmol/L) levels were lower than expected values derived from the Lipid Research Clinics Population Studies prevalence data. Mean high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (1.3 mmol/L) was comparable to expected values. Analysis of quantitative food frequency data showed that vegans had a significantly lower daily intake of total energy, percentage of energy from fat (31% vs 38%), total fat, saturated fat, monounsaturated fatty acids, cholesterol, and protein and a significantly higher intake of fiber than a sample of matched omnivore controls. Vegans' food intake was also compared with expected values, matched for sex and age, derived from the second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals 24-hour recall data. The vegan diet was characterized by increased consumption of almonds, cashews, and their nut butters; dried fruits; citrus fruits; soy milk; and greens. We conclude from the present study that a strict vegan diet, which is typically very low in saturated fat and dietary cholesterol and high in fiber, can help children and adults maintain or achieve desirable blood lipid levels. PMID:1849932

  6. Writing superiority in cued recall.

    PubMed

    Fueller, Carina; Loescher, Jens; Indefrey, Peter

    2013-01-01

    In list learning paradigms with free recall, written recall has been found to be less susceptible to intrusions of related concepts than spoken recall when the list items had been visually presented. This effect has been ascribed to the use of stored orthographic representations from the study phase during written recall (Kellogg, 2001). In other memory retrieval paradigms, by contrast, either better recall for modality-congruent items or an input-independent writing superiority effect have been found (Grabowski, 2005). In a series of four experiments using a paired associate learning paradigm we tested (a) whether output modality effects on verbal recall can be replicated in a paradigm that does not involve the rejection of semantically related intrusion words, (b) whether a possible superior performance for written recall was due to a slower response onset for writing as compared to speaking in immediate recall, and (c) whether the performance in paired associate word recall was correlated with performance in an additional episodic memory recall task. We observed better written recall in the first half of the recall phase, irrespective of the modality in which the material was presented upon encoding. An explanation for this effect based on longer response latencies for writing and hence more time for memory retrieval could be ruled out by showing that the effect persisted in delayed response versions of the task. Although there was some evidence that stored additional episodic information may contribute to the successful retrieval of associate words, this evidence was only found in the immediate response experiments and hence is most likely independent from the observed output modality effect. In sum, our results from a paired associate learning paradigm suggest that superior performance for written vs. spoken recall cannot be (solely) explained in terms of additional access to stored orthographic representations from the encoding phase. Our findings rather suggest a general writing-superiority effect at the time of memory retrieval. PMID:24151483

  7. Writing superiority in cued recall

    PubMed Central

    Fueller, Carina; Loescher, Jens; Indefrey, Peter

    2013-01-01

    In list learning paradigms with free recall, written recall has been found to be less susceptible to intrusions of related concepts than spoken recall when the list items had been visually presented. This effect has been ascribed to the use of stored orthographic representations from the study phase during written recall (Kellogg, 2001). In other memory retrieval paradigms, by contrast, either better recall for modality-congruent items or an input-independent writing superiority effect have been found (Grabowski, 2005). In a series of four experiments using a paired associate learning paradigm we tested (a) whether output modality effects on verbal recall can be replicated in a paradigm that does not involve the rejection of semantically related intrusion words, (b) whether a possible superior performance for written recall was due to a slower response onset for writing as compared to speaking in immediate recall, and (c) whether the performance in paired associate word recall was correlated with performance in an additional episodic memory recall task. We observed better written recall in the first half of the recall phase, irrespective of the modality in which the material was presented upon encoding. An explanation for this effect based on longer response latencies for writing and hence more time for memory retrieval could be ruled out by showing that the effect persisted in delayed response versions of the task. Although there was some evidence that stored additional episodic information may contribute to the successful retrieval of associate words, this evidence was only found in the immediate response experiments and hence is most likely independent from the observed output modality effect. In sum, our results from a paired associate learning paradigm suggest that superior performance for written vs. spoken recall cannot be (solely) explained in terms of additional access to stored orthographic representations from the encoding phase. Our findings rather suggest a general writing-superiority effect at the time of memory retrieval. PMID:24151483

  8. Compound cuing in free recall.

    PubMed

    Lohnas, Lynn J; Kahana, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    According to the retrieved context theory of episodic memory, the cue for recall of an item is a weighted sum of recently activated cognitive states, including previously recalled and studied items as well as their associations. We show that this theory predicts there should be compound cuing in free recall. Specifically, the temporal contiguity effect should be greater when the 2 most recently recalled items were studied in contiguous list positions. A meta-analysis of published free recall experiments demonstrates evidence for compound cuing in both conditional response probabilities and interresponse times. To help rule out a rehearsal-based account of these compound cuing effects, we conducted an experiment with immediate, delayed, and continual-distractor free recall conditions. Consistent with retrieved context theory but not with a rehearsal-based account, compound cuing was present in all conditions, and was not significantly influenced by the presence of interitem distractors. PMID:23957364

  9. Age Differences in Adults' Free Recall, Cued Recall, and Recognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlmutter, Marion

    1979-01-01

    Adults in their twenties and sixties were tested for free recall, cued recall, and recognition of words that they had studied in an intentional memory task or generated associations to in an incidental orienting task. Significant age-related declines in performance on intentional items were observed regardless of type of memory test. (Author)

  10. Social Environment Factors, Diet Quality, and Body Weight in 12-Year-Old Children from Four Public Schools in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, Mónica; Torres, Roxana; Pérez, Cynthia M.; Palacios, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the association of social-environment (SE) factors and diet quality (DQ) with weight status in a group of children in Puerto Rico (PR). Methods A cross-sectional study in a sample of 114 12-year-old children enrolled in 4 public schools in the San Juan Metropolitan area in Puerto Rico (PR) during the 2012–2013 school year. These children completed a self-administered questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics and SE, with information on family meal patterns; parental feeding styles; parental, peer, and school support for healthy eating; physical activity (PA); and frequency of PA and sedentary times. The participants also completed at 24-hour dietary recall interview to determine DQ. This was assessed with the Healthy Eating Index (HIE)-2010, an instrument that evaluates compliance with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated and categorized as healthy weight, overweight, or obese. Results 36% of participants were overweight/obese. In terms of DQ, 55% had “poor” DQ, 45% had diets that “need improvement”, and none had “good” DQ. Children of healthy weight (75.0%) reported more frequent family meals than did overweight/obese children (57.5%; p = 0.05). No other significant associations were found between SE factors and DQ or body weight status. Conclusion Most of the participants were of healthy weight but had poor quality diets. Having a healthy weight was positively associated with frequent family meals. PMID:24964643

  11. [Esophageal 24 hour-pH metry. Recommendations of the German Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility and the Study Group for Gastrointestinal Functional Disorders and Function Diagnostics of the Austrian Society of Gastroenterology and Hepatology].

    PubMed

    Pehl, C; Keller, J; Merio, R; Stacher, G

    2003-06-01

    This article presents the recommendations for 24-hour oesophageal pH-metry of the German Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility and the Study Group for Gastrointestinal Functional Disorders and Function Diagnostics of the Austrian Society of Gastroenterology and Hepatology. Indications for the examination, the procedures to be followed, the analysis of the obtained data and the conclusions to be drawn are delineated. The literature on which the recommendations are based is reviewed. PMID:12806540

  12. Food insecurity is inversely associated with diet quality of lower-income adults.

    PubMed

    Leung, Cindy W; Epel, Elissa S; Ritchie, Lorrene D; Crawford, Patricia B; Laraia, Barbara A

    2014-12-01

    Food insecurity acts as a chronic stressor independent of poverty. Food-insecure adults may consume more highly palatable foods as a coping mechanism, leading to poorer diet quality and increased risks of chronic disease over time. Using data from the 1999-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, this study aimed to examine the cross-sectional differences in dietary intake and diet quality by household food security among 8,129 lower-income adults (≤300% of the federal poverty level). Food insecurity was assessed using the 18-item US Household Food Security Survey Module. Dietary intake was assessed from 24-hour recalls and diet quality was measured using the Healthy Eating Index-2005 and the Alternate Healthy Eating Index-2010. Relative mean differences in dietary outcomes by household food security were estimated using linear regression models, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics. Lower-income food-insecure adults reported higher consumption of some highly palatable foods, including high-fat dairy products (P trend<0.0001) and salty snacks (P trend=0.01) compared with lower-income food-secure adults. Food insecurity was also associated with more sugar-sweetened beverages (P trend=0.003); more red/processed meat (P trend=0.005); more nuts, seeds, and legumes (P trend=0.0006); fewer vegetables (P trend<0.0001); and fewer sweets and bakery desserts (P trend=0.0002). No differences were observed for intakes of total energy and macronutrients. Food insecurity was significantly associated with lower Healthy Eating Index-2005 (P trend<0.0001) and Alternate Healthy Eating Index-2010 scores (P trend<0.0001). Despite no macronutrient differences, food insecurity was associated with characteristics of poor diet quality known to increase chronic disease risk. PMID:25091796

  13. Public Relations Considerations of Consumer Product Recall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Dirk C.

    1995-01-01

    Points out that consumer product recalls are a pervasive phenomenon of enormous consequence: (1) product recalls are quantitatively and qualitatively significant; (2) product recalls vary in effectiveness; (3) numerous variables influence recall effectiveness; and (4) despite the great variance in recall outcome, and the plethora of variables, it…

  14. A Systematic Review of the Relationship between Acculturation and Diet among Latinos in the United States: Implications for Future Research

    PubMed Central

    AYALA, GUADALUPE X.; BAQUERO, BARBARA; KLINGER, SYLVIA

    2013-01-01

    Dietary intake is an important determinant of obesity and numerous chronic health conditions. A healthful diet is an essential component of chronic disease self-management. Researchers have indicated that the healthfulness of the Latino diet deteriorates during the acculturation process. However, given the many operationalizations of acculturation, conclusive evidence regarding this relationship is still lacking. This comprehensive and systematic literature review examines the relationship between acculturation and diet by examining national, quantitative, and qualitative studies involving Latinos living in the United States. Studies of diet included those that examined dietary intake using one of several validated measures (eg, food frequency questionnaire, 24-hour dietary recall, or dietary screener) and/or dietary behaviors (eg, away-from-home-eating and fat avoidance). Articles were identified through two independent searches yielding a final sample of 34 articles. Articles were abstracted by two independent reviewers and inter-rater reliability was assessed. Analyses examined the extent to which various measures of acculturation (ie, acculturation score, years in the United States, birthplace, generational status, and language use) were associated with macronutrient intake, micronutrient intake, and dietary behaviors. Several relationships were consistent irrespective of how acculturation was measured: no relationship with intake of dietary fat and percent energy from fat; the less vs more acculturated consumed more fruit, rice, beans, and less sugar and sugar-sweetened beverages. Additional observed relationships depended on the measure of acculturation used in the study. These findings suggest a differential influence of acculturation on diet, requiring greater specificity in our dietary interventions by acculturation status. PMID:18656573

  15. [Nutrition disorders in persons qualified for the methadone treatment. Part II. Food choice and intake in diets of opiate addicts].

    PubMed

    Szpanowska-Wohn, A; Dłuzniewska, K; Groszek, B; Lang-Młynarska, D

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the study is to establish the composition and nutritional value of daily food in the group of opiate addicted patients qualified to methadone therapy. The presented data show the results of the survey carried out at the start of the treatment in the group of 42 patients (13 women aged from 21-33 years and 29 men aged from 21-46 years). For the dietary survey the method of 24 hour recall was used: nutrients of daily individual diets and mean values with standard deviations for examined groups were calculated with use of own computer programme and polish food composition data. The proportion of energy covered by groups of food products was also calculated. The results show wide distribution of food consumption: the mean level of the daily energy intake was 2438 kcal (SD +/- 976, range 492 kcal to 4193 kcal.) in the group of men, and 2039 kcal (SD +/- 925, range 561-3860 kcal) in the group of women. The mean protein intake was 82 g (13.4 E%) for men and 63 g (12.4 E%) for women. In the diet of 5 men and 6 women carbohydrate energy exceeded 70% of the total energy intake, indicating high consumption of food items containing considerable amounts of sugar (bonbons, confectionery, cakes, sweets, chocolate, sweet drinks and similar). PMID:11199883

  16. Home-Schooled Children are thinner, leaner, and report better diets relative to traditionally-schooled children

    PubMed Central

    Cardel, Michelle; Willig, Amanda L.; Dulin-Keita, Akilah; Casazza, Krista; Cherrington, Andrea; Gunnarsdottir, Thrudur; Johnson, Susan L.; Peters, John C.; Hill, James O.; Allison, David B.; Fernández, José R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine and compare the relationships among diet, physical activity, and adiposity between home-schooled children (HSC) and traditionally-schooled children (TSC). Design and Methods Subjects were HSC (n=47) and TSC (n=48) aged 7 to 12 years old. Dietary intakes were determined via two 24-hour recalls and physical activity was assessed with 7 days of accelerometry. Fat mass (FM), trunk fat, and percent body fat (%BF) were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Results Relative to HSC, TSC demonstrated significantly higher BMI percentiles, FM, trunk fat, and %BF; consumed 120 total kilocalories more per day; and reported increased intakes of trans fats, total sugar, added sugars, calcium, and lower intakes of fiber, fruits, and vegetables (p<0.05). At lunch, TSC consumed significantly more calories, sugar, sodium, potassium, and calcium compared to HSC (p<0.05). Physical activity did not differ between groups. Traditional schooling was associated with increased consumption of trans fat, sugar, calcium (p<.05); lower intakes of fiber, and fruits and vegetables (p<.05); and higher FM, %BF, and trunk fat (p<0.01), after adjustment for covariates. Conclusions These data suggest HSC may consume diets that differ in energy and nutrient density relative to TSC, potentially contributing to differences in weight and adiposity. PMID:24039204

  17. Tree nut consumption improves nutrient intake and diet quality in US adults: an analysis of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2004.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, Carol E; Keast, Debra R; Fulgoni, Victor L; Nicklas, Theresa A

    2010-01-01

    Recent epidemiologic studies assessing tree nut (almonds, Brazil nuts, cashews, hazelnuts, macadamia nuts, pecans, pine nuts, pistachios, and walnuts) consumption and the association with nutrient intake and diet quality are lacking. This study determined the association of tree nut consumption and nutrient intake and diet quality using a nationally representative sample of adults. Adults 19+ years (y) (n=13,292) participating in the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used. Intake was determined from 24-hour diet recalls; tree nut consumers were defined as those consuming > or =(1/4) ounce/day (7.09 g). Means, standard errors, and ANOVA (adjusted for covariates) were determined using appropriate sample weights. Diet quality was measured using the Healthy Eating Index-2005. Among consumers, mean intake of tree nuts/tree nut butters was 1.19 +/- 0.04 oz/d versus 0.01 +/- 0.00 oz/d for non-consumers. In this study, 5.5 +/- 0.3 % of individuals 19-50 y (n=7,049) and 8.4 +/- 0.6 % of individuals 51+ y (n=6,243) consumed tree nuts/tree nut butters. Mean differences (p<0.01) between tree nut consumers and non-consumers of adult shortfall nutrients were: fiber (+5.0 g/d), vitamin E (+3.7 mg AT/d), calcium (+73 mg/d), magnesium (+95 mg/d), and potassium (+260 mg/d). Tree nut consumers had lower sodium intake (-157 mg/d, p<0.01). Diet quality was significantly higher in tree nut consumers (58.0+/-0.4 vs. 48.5+/-0.3, p<0.01). Tree nut consumption was associated with a higher overall diet quality score and improved nutrient intakes. Specific dietary recommendations for nut consumption should be provided for consumers. PMID:20200000

  18. Recalls, Market Withdrawals and Safety Alerts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Safety Home Safety Recalls, Market Withdrawals, & Safety Alerts Recalls, Market Withdrawals, & Safety Alerts Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ...

  19. High recall document content extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Chang; Baird, Henry S.

    2011-01-01

    We report methodologies for computing high-recall masks for document image content extraction, that is, the location and segmentation of regions containing handwriting, machine-printed text, photographs, blank space, etc. The resulting segmentation is pixel-accurate, which accommodates arbitrary zone shapes (not merely rectangles). We describe experiments showing that iterated classifiers can increase recall of all content types, with little loss of precision. We also introduce two methodological enhancements: (1) a multi-stage voting rule; and (2) a scoring policy that views blank pixels as a "don't care" class with other content classes. These enhancements improve both recall and precision, achieving at least 89% recall and at least 87% precision among three content types: machine-print, handwriting, and photo.

  20. Children's diets, pesticide uptake, and implications for risk assessment: An Israeli case study.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Shirra; Kaufman-Shriqui, Vered; Berman, Tamar; Varsano, Rina; Shahar, Danit R; Manor, Orly

    2016-01-01

    The presence of pesticides in the Israeli food supply is well documented but little is known about the risks posed by children's diets for potential exposures. We investigated potential exposures to food-borne pesticides in a sample of 301 urban Israeli children (2008-10). Data from a food frequency questionnaire, 24 hour food recall, and Israel's national pesticide monitoring program were used to estimate uptake factors for 26 compounds in 27 fruits and vegetables. A pilot risk assessment was performed and the findings were compared with the Israel Ministry of Health's 2012 pesticide risk assessment for the general population. The surveyed children had higher potential exposures than the general population for over one third of the compounds, and uptake factors exceeded the Acceptable Daily Intake in ten compounds. Methamidophos, exceeded the ADI at the 25th percentile and fenamiphos, iprodione, and oxydemethon methyl, exceeded the ADI at the 50 percentile. ADIs for several compounds were exceeded even though the residues detected were below the statutory limit. Improved monitoring, enforcement, and revision of the Maximum Residue Limit for certain food/pesticide pairs are indicated as is the need to incorporate data on children's actual food consumption in national risk assessments. PMID:26585921

  1. Sodium nitroprusside enhanced cardiopulmonary resuscitation prevents post-resuscitation left ventricular dysfunction and improves 24-hour survival and neurological function in a porcine model of prolonged untreated ventricular fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Jason; Segal, Nicolas; Kolbeck, James; Caldwell, Emily; Thorsgard, Marit; McKnite, Scott; Aufderheide, Tom P.; Lurie, Keith G.; Yannopoulos, Demetris

    2014-01-01

    Aim of study Sodium nitroprusside-enhanced CPR, or SNPeCPR, consists of active compression-decompression CPR with an impedance threshold device, abdominal compression, and intravenous sodium nitroprusside (SNP). We hypothesize that SNPeCPR will improve post resuscitation left ventricular function and neurological function compared to standard (S) CPR after 15 min of untreated ventricular fibrillation in a porcinemodel of cardiac arrest. Methods Pigs (n = 22) anesthetized with isoflurane underwent 15 min of untreated ventricular fibrillation, were then randomized to 6 min of S-CPR (n = 11) or SNPeCPR (n = 11) followed by defibrillation. The primary endpoints were neurologic function as measured by cerebral performance category (CPC) score and left ventricular ejection fraction. Results SNPeCPR increased 24-hour survival rates compared to S-CPR (10/11 versus 5/11, p = 0.03) and improved neurological function (CPC score 2.5± 1, versus 3.8 ± 0.4, respectively, p = 0.004). Left ventricular ejection fractions at 1, 4 and 24 hours after defibrillation were 72± 11, 57± 11.4 and 64 ± 11 with SNPeCPR versus 29 ± 10, 30 ± 17 and 39 ± 6 with S-CPR, respectively (p < 0.01 for all). Conclusions In this pig model, after 15 min of untreated ventricular fibrillation, SNPeCPR significantly improved 24-hour survival rates, neurologic function and prevented post-resuscitation left ventricular dysfunction compared to S-CPR. PMID:22208176

  2. Association of fathers' feeding practices and feeding style on preschool age children's diet quality, eating behavior and body mass index.

    PubMed

    Vollmer, Rachel L; Adamsons, Kari; Foster, Jaime S; Mobley, Amy R

    2015-06-01

    The associations of parental feeding practices and feeding style with childhood obesity have gained more attention in the literature recently; however, fathers are rarely included within these studies. The aim of this research was to determine the relationship of paternal feeding practices on child diet quality, weight status, and eating behavior, and the moderating effect of paternal feeding style on these relationships in preschool age children. This study included a one-time, one-on-one interview with biological fathers of preschoolers (n = 150) to assess feeding practices (Child Feeding Questionnaire), feeding style (Caregiver Feeding Style Questionnaire), child eating behaviors (Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire), and diet quality (24 hour recall, Healthy Eating Index). Height and weight for each father and child were also measured and Body Mass Index (BMI) or BMI z-score calculated. Linear regression was used to test the relationship between paternal feeding practices, style and child diet quality and/or body weight. Overall, the findings revealed that a father's feeding practices and feeding style are not associated with children's diet quality or weight status. However, child eating behaviors are associated with child BMI z-score and these relationships are moderated by paternal feeding practices. For example, child satiety responsiveness is inversely (β = -.421, p = 0.031) associated with child BMI z-score only if paternal restriction scores are high. This relationship is not significant when paternal restriction scores are low (β = -.200, p = 0.448). These results suggest that some child appetitive traits may be related to child weight status when exposed to certain paternal feeding practices. Future studies should consider the inclusion of fathers as their feeding practices and feeding style may be related to a child's eating behavior. PMID:25700629

  3. 21 CFR 7.49 - Recall communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... communication should be commensurate with the hazard of the product being recalled and the strategy developed for that recall. In general terms, the purpose of a recall communication is to convey: (1) That the.... (b) Implementation. A recall communication can be accomplished by telegrams, mailgrams, or...

  4. 21 CFR 7.49 - Recall communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... communication should be commensurate with the hazard of the product being recalled and the strategy developed for that recall. In general terms, the purpose of a recall communication is to convey: (1) That the.... (b) Implementation. A recall communication can be accomplished by telegrams, mailgrams, or...

  5. 21 CFR 7.49 - Recall communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... communication should be commensurate with the hazard of the product being recalled and the strategy developed for that recall. In general terms, the purpose of a recall communication is to convey: (1) That the.... (b) Implementation. A recall communication can be accomplished by telegrams, mailgrams, or...

  6. Snacking patterns, diet quality, and cardiovascular risk factors in adults

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The relationship of snacking patterns on nutrient intake and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in adults is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of snacking patterns with nutrient intake, diet quality, and a selection of CVRF in adults participating in the 2001-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Methods 24-hour dietary recalls were used to determine intake and cluster analysis was used to identify the snacking patterns. Height and weight were obtained and the health indices that were evaluated included diastolic and systolic blood pressure, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, triacylglycerides, blood glucose, and insulin. Results The sample was participants (n = 18,988) 19+ years (50% males; 11% African-Americans; 72% white, 12% Hispanic-Americans, and 5% other). Cluster analyses generated 12 distinct snacking patterns, explaining 61% of the variance in snacking. Comparisons of snacking patterns were made to the no snack pattern. It was found that miscellaneous snacks constituted the most common snacking pattern (17%) followed by cakes/cookies/pastries (12%) and sweets (9%). Most snacking patterns were associated with higher energy intakes. Snacking patterns cakes/cookies/pastries, vegetables/legumes, crackers/salty snacks, other grains and whole fruit were associated with lower intakes of saturated fatty acids. Added sugars intakes were higher in the cakes/cookies/pastries, sweets, milk desserts, and soft drinks patterns. Five snack patterns (cakes/cookies/pastries, sweets, vegetable/legumes, milk desserts, soft drinks) were associated with lower sodium intakes. Several snack patterns were associated with higher intakes of potassium, calcium, fiber, vitamin A, and magnesium. Five snacking patterns (miscellaneous snacks; vegetables/legumes; crackers/salty snacks; other grains; and whole fruit) were associated with better diet quality scores. Alcohol was associated with a lower body mass index and milk desserts were associated with a lower waist circumference. No snack patterns were associated with other CVRF studied. Conclusions Overall, several snacking patterns were associated with better diet quality than those consuming no snacks. Yet, the majority of the snacking patterns were not associated with CVRF. Education is needed to improve snacking patterns in terms of nutrients to limit in the diet along with more nutrient-dense foods to be included in snacks. PMID:24754905

  7. Is There a Possible Association between Dietary Habits and Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo in the Elderly? The Importance of Diet and Counseling

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Adriane Rocha; Neves-Souza, Rejane Dias; Costa, Viviane de Souza Pinho; Meneses-Barriviera, Caroline Luiz; Franco, Pricila Perini Rigotti; Marchiori, Luciana Lozza de Moraes

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Poor diet habits and inadequate intake of nutrients are a concern in the elderly. Nutritional education with guidance may improve the results of the treatment of vertigo. Objective Evaluate the presence of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) associated with feeding habits. Methods Cross-sectional study with elderly people living independently. We evaluated nutritional habits through the method of dietary 24-hour recall and manipulation of Dix-Hallpike. Results Based on a sample of 487 individuals, 117 had BPPV. Among the 117 elderly patients with BPPV, 37 (31.62%) had inadequate feeding. From those 370 individuals without BPPV, 97 (26.21%) had inappropriate feeding. No significant association between nutritional habits and BPPV in the total population was observed (p = 0.3064). However, there was significant relation between BPPV and inadequate carbohydrate intake (p = 0.0419) and insufficient fiber intake (p = 0.03), and the diet of these subjects was rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (p = 0.0084). Conclusion These data correlate with the dyslipidemia and hypertriglyceridemia status, making it extremely important to reduce the intake of fats and carbohydrates and increase the fiber intake to stabilize triglycerides and thus minimize harmful effects on the inner ear. Food readjustment is suggested in patients with BPPV, along with the work of a multidisciplinary team to improve the quality of the elderly. PMID:26491473

  8. Is There a Possible Association between Dietary Habits and Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo in the Elderly? The Importance of Diet and Counseling.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Adriane Rocha; Neves-Souza, Rejane Dias; Costa, Viviane de Souza Pinho; Meneses-Barriviera, Caroline Luiz; Franco, Pricila Perini Rigotti; Marchiori, Luciana Lozza de Moraes

    2015-10-01

    Introduction?Poor diet habits and inadequate intake of nutrients are a concern in the elderly. Nutritional education with guidance may improve the results of the treatment of vertigo. Objective?Evaluate the presence of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) associated with feeding habits. Methods?Cross-sectional study with elderly people living independently. We evaluated nutritional habits through the method of dietary 24-hour recall and manipulation of Dix-Hallpike. Results?Based on a sample of 487 individuals, 117 had BPPV. Among the 117 elderly patients with BPPV, 37 (31.62%) had inadequate feeding. From those 370 individuals without BPPV, 97 (26.21%) had inappropriate feeding. No significant association between nutritional habits and BPPV in the total population was observed (p?=?0.3064). However, there was significant relation between BPPV and inadequate carbohydrate intake (p?=?0.0419) and insufficient fiber intake (p?=?0.03), and the diet of these subjects was rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (p?=?0.0084). Conclusion?These data correlate with the dyslipidemia and hypertriglyceridemia status, making it extremely important to reduce the intake of fats and carbohydrates and increase the fiber intake to stabilize triglycerides and thus minimize harmful effects on the inner ear. Food readjustment is suggested in patients with BPPV, along with the work of a multidisciplinary team to improve the quality of the elderly. PMID:26491473

  9. Action research through stimulated recall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, John

    1993-12-01

    The emphasis in classroom learning research has moved from process-product models to the mediating process paradigm. The stimulated-recall interview and thik aloud techniques are the two main processes that have been used in attempts to find out what goes on inside students' heads while they are learning. For example, this researcher has used the stimulated-recall interview technique to identify the workplace thinking of a marine science researcher, and the in-class thinking of a year eleven biology student. Such studies as these have produced findings with important implications for the classroom teacher in the role of action researcher. This paper describes how to conduct stimulated-recall interviews and discusses some classroom implications from the two studies.

  10. Avocado consumption is associated with better diet quality and nutrient intake, and lower metabolic syndrome risk in US adults: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001–2008

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Avocados contain monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) dietary fiber, essential nutrients and phytochemicals. However, no epidemiologic data exist on their effects on diet quality, weight management and other metabolic disease risk factors. The objective of this research was to investigate the relationships between avocado consumption and overall diet quality, energy and nutrient intakes, physiological indicators of health, and risk of metabolic syndrome. Methods Avocado consumption and nutrition data were based on 24-hour dietary recalls collected by trained NHANES interviewers using the USDA Automated Multiple Pass Method (AMPM). Physiological data were collected from physical examinations conducted in NHANES Mobile Examination Centers. Diet quality was calculated using the USDA’s Healthy Eating Index-2005. Subjects included 17,567 US adults  ≥ 19 years of age (49% female), including 347 avocado consumers (50% female), examined in NHANES 2001–2008. Least square means, standard errors, and ANOVA were determined using appropriate sample weights, with adjustments for age, gender, ethnicity, and other covariates depending on dependent variable of interest. Results Avocado consumers had significantly higher intakes of vegetables (p < 0.05); fruit, diet quality, total fat, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats, dietary fiber, vitamins E, K, magnesium, and potassium (p < 0.0001); vitamin K (p = 0.0013); and lower intakes of added sugars (p < 0.0001). No significant differences were seen in calorie or sodium intakes. Body weight, BMI, and waist circumference were significantly lower (p < 0.01), and HDL-C was higher (p < 0.01) in avocado consumers. The odds ratio for metabolic syndrome was 50% (95th CI: 0.32-0.72) lower in avocado consumers vs. non-consumers. Conclusions Avocado consumption is associated with improved overall diet quality, nutrient intake, and reduced risk of metabolic syndrome. Dietitians should be aware of the beneficial associations between avocado intake, diet and health when making dietary recommendations. PMID:23282226

  11. Development of a Korean Diet Score (KDS) and its application assessing adherence to Korean healthy diet based on the Korean Food Guide Wheels.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myoungsook; Chae, Soo Wan; Cha, Youn-Soo; Cho, Mi Sook; Oh, Hea Young; Kim, Mi Kyung

    2013-02-01

    The most critical point in the assessment of adherence to dietary guidelines is the development of a practical definition for adherence, such as a dietary pattern score. The purpose of this study was to develop the Korean Diet Score (KDS) based on the Korean Food Balance Wheel and to examine the association of KDS with various lifestyle characteristics and biochemical factors. The dietary data of 5,320 subjects from the 4th Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey were used for the final analysis. The food guide was composed of six food group categories; 'grain dishes', 'fish and meat dishes', 'vegetable dishes', 'fruits', 'milk' and 'oils and sugars'. Based on the recommended serving numbers for each group, the scores measuring adherence to this food guide were calculated from the dietary information from the 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire, and then its correlation with various characteristics was assessed. KDS was significantly associated with several clinical, lifestyle and socioeconomic factors as well as diagnosed disease history. The higher quintile group of KDS showed a significantly lower level in fasting blood glucose, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, current smoking and drinking as well as higher leisure time activity, house income and education. Furthermore, the KDS quintile group of women was inversely associated with hypertension, osteoporosis and diabetes. A higher KDS quintile was characterized with a higher intake of several critical nutrients, such as Ca, Fe and vitamins as well as a desirable nutrition balance such as the ratio of macronutrients. Our results demonstrate that KDS is a beneficial tool in assessing the adherence to a healthy diet based on the Korean dietary guidelines. We suggest that KDS could be a useful indicator for evaluating the dietary balance of the Korean population. PMID:23424060

  12. Effects of sleep restriction on glucose control and insulin secretion during diet-induced weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Nedeltcheva, A. V.; Imperial, J. G.; Penev, P. D.

    2012-01-01

    Insufficient sleep is associated with changes in glucose tolerance, insulin secretion, and insulin action. Despite widespread use of weight-loss diets for metabolic risk reduction, the effects of insufficient sleep on glucose regulation in overweight dieters are not known. To examine the consequences of recurrent sleep restriction on 24-hour blood glucose control during diet-induced weight loss, 10 overweight and obese adults (3F/7M; mean [SD] age 41 [5] y; BMI 27.4 [2.0] kg/m2) completed two 14-day treatments with hypocaloric diet and 8.5 or 5.5-h nighttime sleep opportunity in random order 7 [3] months apart. Oral and intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) data, fasting lipids and free-fatty acids (FFA), and 24-hour blood glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and counter-regulatory hormone measurements were collected after each treatment. Participants had comparable weight loss (1.0 [0.3] BMI units) during each treatment. Bedtime restriction reduced sleep by 131 [30] min/day. Recurrent sleep curtailment decreased 24-hour serum insulin concentrations (i.e. enhanced 24-hour insulin economy) without changes in oral glucose tolerance and 24-hour glucose control. This was accompanied by a decline in fasting blood glucose, increased fasting FFA which suppressed normally following glucose ingestion, and lower total and LDL cholesterol concentrations. Sleep-loss-related changes in counter-regulatory hormone secretion during the IVGTT limited the utility of the test in this study. In conclusion, sleep restriction enhanced 24-hour insulin economy without compromising glucose homeostasis in overweight individuals placed on a balanced hypocaloric diet. The changes in fasting blood glucose, insulin, lipid and FFA concentrations in sleep-restricted dieters resembled the pattern of human metabolic adaptation to reduced carbohydrate availability. PMID:22513492

  13. Recall in Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walen, Susan R.

    1970-01-01

    The learning and retention performances of children and adults were compared on free and serialized reproductions of meaningful words. Although the children took longer than the adults to reach the learning criterion, and short-term retention was equivalent for both groups, the children displayed a superior serial recall at 7-day retention.…

  14. Study modality and false recall.

    PubMed

    Smith, Rebekah E; Engle, Randall W

    2011-01-01

    False memories occur when individuals mistakenly report an event as having taken place when that event did not in fact occur. The DRM (Deese, 1959; Roediger & McDermott, 1995) paradigm provides an effective technique for creating and investigating false memories. In this paradigm participants study a list of words (e.g., SOUR, CANDY,…) that are highly associated to a non-presented critical item (e.g., SWEET). The study phase is followed by a test of memory for the study list words. Researchers typically find very high levels of false recall of the critical non-presented item. However, the likelihood of falsely remembering the non-presented critical items can be reduced by presenting studied associates visually rather than auditorally (e.g., Smith & Hunt, 1998). This is referred to as the modality effect in false memory. The current study investigated the role of resource availability in the expression of this modality effect in false recall. In Experiment 1 false recall was reduced in the visual study presentation condition relative to the auditory condition for participants with higher working memory capacity, but not for participants with lower working memory capacity. In Experiment 2 the effect of study modality on false recall was eliminated by the addition of a divided attention task at encoding. Both studies support the proposal that resource availability plays a role in the expression of the modality effect in the DRM paradigm (Smith, Lozito, & Bayen, 2005). PMID:20494859

  15. Cannabinoid modulation of prefrontal-limbic activation during fear extinction learning and recall in humans

    PubMed Central

    Rabinak, Christine A.; Angstadt, Mike; Lyons, Maryssa; Mori, Shoko; Milad, Mohammed R.; Liberzon, Israel; Phan, K. Luan

    2013-01-01

    Pre-extinction administration of ∆9-tetrahydrocannibinol (THC) facilitates recall of extinction in healthy humans, and evidence from animal studies suggest that this likely involves via enhancement of the cannabinoid system within the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and hippocampus (HIPP), brain structures critical to fear extinction. However, the effect of cannabinoids on the underlying neural circuitry of extinction memory recall in humans has not been demonstrated. We conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, between-subjects design (N=14/group) coupled with a standard Pavlovian fear extinction paradigm and an acute pharmacological challenge with oral dronabinol (synthetic THC) in healthy adult volunteers. We examined the effects of THC on vmPFC and HIPP activation when tested for recall of extinction learning 24 hours after extinction learning. Compared to subjects who received placebo, participants who received THC showed increased vmPFC and HIPP activation to a previously extinguished conditioned stimulus (CS+E) during extinction memory recall. This study provides the first evidence that pre-extinction administration of THC modulates prefrontal-limbic circuits during fear extinction in humans and prompts future investigation to test if cannabinoid agonists can rescue or correct the impaired behavioral and neural function during extinction recall in patients with PTSD. Ultimately, the cannabinoid system may serve as a promising target for innovative intervention strategies (e.g. pharmacological enhancement of exposure-based therapy) in PTSD and other fear learning-related disorders. PMID:24055595

  16. Inhibition of prefrontal protein synthesis following recall does not disrupt memory for trace fear conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Blum, Sonja; Runyan, Jason D; Dash, Pramod K

    2006-01-01

    Background The extent of similarity between consolidation and reconsolidation is not yet fully understood. One of the differences noted is that not every brain region involved in consolidation exhibits reconsolidation. In trace fear conditioning, the hippocampus and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) are required for consolidation of long-term memory. We have previously demonstrated that trace fear memory is susceptible to infusion of the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin into the hippocampus following recall. In the present study, we examine whether protein synthesis inhibition in the mPFC following recall similarly results in the observation of reconsolidation of trace fear memory. Results Targeted intra-mPFC infusions of anisomycin or vehicle were performed immediately following recall of trace fear memory at 24 hours, or at 30 days, following training in a one-day or a two-day protocol. The present study demonstrates three key findings: 1) trace fear memory does not undergo protein synthesis dependent reconsolidation in the PFC, regardless of the intensity of the training, and 2) regardless of whether the memory is recent or remote, and 3) intra-mPFC inhibition of protein synthesis immediately following training impaired remote (30 days) memory. Conclusion These results suggest that not all structures that participate in memory storage are involved in reconsolidation. Alternatively, certain types of memory-related information may reconsolidate, while other components of memory may not. PMID:17026758

  17. Separable Prefrontal Cortex Contributions to Free Recall

    PubMed Central

    Long, Nicole M.; Öztekin, Ilke; Badre, David

    2012-01-01

    In everyday life, we often must remember the past in the absence of helpful cues in the environment. In these cases, the brain directs retrieval by relying on internally maintained cues and strategies. Free recall is a widely used behavioral paradigm for studying retrieval with minimal cue support. During free recall, individuals often recall semantically related items consecutively—an effect termed semantic clustering—and previous studies have sought to understand clustering to gain leverage on the basic mechanisms supporting strategic recall. Successful recall and semantic clustering depend on the prefrontal cortex (PFC). However, as a result of methodological limitations, few functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have assessed the neural mechanisms at encoding that support subsequent recall, and none have tested the event-related correlates of recall itself. Thus, it remains open whether one or several frontal control mechanisms operate during encoding and recall. Here, we applied a recently developed method (Öztekin et al., 2010) to assess event-related fMRI signal changes during free recall. During encoding, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) activation was predictive of subsequent semantic clustering. In contrast, subregions of ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) were predictive of subsequent recall, whether clustered or nonclustered, and were inversely associated with clustering during recall. These results suggest that DLPFC supports relational processes at encoding that are sufficient to produce category clustering effects during recall. Conversely, controlled retrieval mechanisms supported by VLPFC support item-specific search during recall. PMID:20720103

  18. Chronic enteral leucine supplementation of a low protein diet increases skeletal muscle protein synthesis in neonatal pigs by stimulating mTOR-dependent translation initiation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leucine appears to be the key amino acid that positively regulates mTOR signalling. We hypothesized that prolonged feeding (24 hours) of a Leu supplemented low protein (LP) diet in neonatal pigs will increase protein synthesis in skeletal muscle to a rate similar to that of a high protein diet (HP)....

  19. Isolation Effect in Immediate and Delayed Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellezza, Francis S.; Cheney, Terry L.

    1973-01-01

    If the hypothesis of selective rehearsal is used to account for the isolation effect, then the recall of isolated items will depend both on the serial position of the isolated item and on whether recall is immediate or delayed. (Author)

  20. Bottle and sippy cup use is associated with diet and energy intake in toddlers.

    PubMed

    Ben-Avraham, Sivan; Hyden, Christel J; Fletcher, Jason; Bonuck, Karen A

    2015-10-01

    The second year of life incorporates a continued shift from a liquid- to solid-based diet. Little is known about the prevalence and dietary impact of bottle and sippy cup use. This paper describes associations between percent of energy consumed via drinking containers (bottles and sippy cups combined) and dietary outcomes, between 1 and 2 years of age. This observational study recruited n = 299 low-income, nutrition programme clients from the Bronx, NY, whose 12 month olds consumed ≥ 2 non-water bottles per day. The main exposure variable was percent of energy intake via drinking containers (PEDC), dichotomized at the median into low-percent-energy-from-drinking-containers (LOW-C) and high-percent-energy-from-drinking-containers (HIGH-C) groups, assessed quarterly, for 1 year. We report 24-hour dietary recall nutrient and food serving data by LOW-C vs. HIGH-C. We employed linear mixed models to study associations between PEDC and nutrient intake. PEDC decreased from 52% to 33% between 1 and 2 years of age in both groups. The LOW-C group had higher intake of energy, dietary fibre, iron and sodium, grains, protein-rich foods and sweets. Conversely, LOW-C group had lower intake of Vitamin D and calcium vs. the HIGH-C group. PEDC was inversely associated with total energy intake in a model controlling for baseline age, baseline-weight-for-length and gender (β = -5.8, P = 0.029, 95% confidence interval (-10.96, -0.6). Lower bottle and sippy cup use had significant, albeit mixed association with diet quality in the second year of life, and was associated with higher energy intake. Evidence-based guidelines are needed to determine the appropriate use of those feeding methods. PMID:24784143

  1. Diet of children under the government-funded meal support program in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Sooyoun; Lee, Kiwon; Yoon, Jihyun

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the diet of children under the government-funded meal support program. The 143 children (67 boys and 76 girls) participated in this study among 4(th)-6(th) elementary school students receiving free lunches during the summer vacation of 2007 and living in Gwanak-gu, Seoul, Korea. The subjects consisted of four groups supported by Meal Box Delivery (n = 26), Institutional Foodservice (n = 53), Restaurant Foodservice (n = 27), or Food Delivery (n = 37). A three-day 24-hour dietary recall and a self-administered survey were conducted. In addition, the children's heights and weights were measured. The average energy intake of the children was 1,400 kcal per day, much lower than the Estimated Energy Requirements of the pertinent age groups. The results also showed inadequate intake of all examined nutrients; of particular concern was the extremely low intake of calcium. On average, the children consumed eight dishes and 25 food items per day. The children supported by Meal Box Delivery consumed more various dishes and food items than the other groups. The percentage of children preferring their current meal support method was the highest in those supported by Meal Box Delivery and the lowest in those supported by Food Delivery. We requested 15 children among the 143 children participating in the survey to draw the scene of their lunch time. The drawings of the children supported by Institutional Foodservice showed more positive scenes than the other groups, especially in terms of human aspects. In conclusion, the overall diet of children under the government-funded meal support program was nutritionally inadequate, although the magnitude of the problems tended to differ by the meal support method. The results could be utilized as basic data for policy and programs regarding the government-funded meal support program for children from low-income families. PMID:21286410

  2. The Healthy Communities Study Nutrition Assessments: Child Diet and the School Nutrition Environment.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Lorrene D; Wakimoto, Patricia; Woodward-Lopez, Gail; Thompson, Frances E; Loria, Catherine M; Wilson, Dawn K; Kao, Janice; Crawford, Patricia B; Webb, Karen L

    2015-10-01

    Multifaceted community interventions directed at improving food environments are emerging, but their impact on dietary change and obesity prevalence has not been adequately documented. The Healthy Communities Study (HCS) is seeking to identify characteristics and combinations of programs and policies that are associated with children's diets and obesity-related outcomes in various types of communities across the U.S. The purpose of this paper is to describe the methods used in 2013-2015 in the HCS to assess dietary intake, school nutrition environments, and other nutrition-related behaviors. The conceptual framework of the HCS is based on the socioecological model and behaviors shown in previous studies to be related to obesity in children guided selection of domains. Nine domains were identified as essential measures of nutrition in the HCS: (1) intake of selected foods and beverages; (2) food patterns and behaviors; (3) social support; (4) home environment; (5) school environment; (6) community environment; (7) breastfeeding history; (8) household food insecurity; and (9) dieting behaviors and body image. Children's dietary intake was assessed using a dietary screener and up to two automated 24-hour recalls. Dietary-related behaviors were assessed by a survey administered to the parent, child, or both, depending on child age. School nutrition measures were obtained from a combination of school staff surveys and researcher observations. Information from these measures is expected to contribute to a better understanding of "what is working" to improve the dietary behaviors that are likely to prevent obesity and improve health in children. PMID:26384936

  3. Diet, tillage and soil moisture effects on odorous emissions following land application of beef manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beef manure from animals fed diets containing different amounts of wet distillers grain with solubles (WDGS) was applied to soil as a fertilizer to plot located across the slope. The applied manure and soil were either tilled or not tilled. The odor emissions were measured for 24 hours. Then a sing...

  4. 21 CFR 7.49 - Recall communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENFORCEMENT POLICY... communication should be commensurate with the hazard of the product being recalled and the strategy developed for that recall. In general terms, the purpose of a recall communication is to convey: (1) That...

  5. Instructions and Grouped Presentation in Free Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sneed, Pamela R.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Subjects were presented either single items over trials for free recall, constant groupings of two words each over trials, increasingly larger groupings over trials, or progressively smaller groupings over trials. Evaluates the effect of these presentations on recall as well as instructions to use images for more organized recall. (Editor/RK)

  6. The Child's Conception of Organization and Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenney, Yvette J.

    1975-01-01

    Assessed organizational strategies for recall by comparing lists designed for recall by children in kindergarten, third and sixth grade with ordinary free associations, and by observing whether the lists served as units of organization in a subsequent free recall task. (Author/SDH)

  7. Cognitive Processes Functional in Spatial Recall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaha, Steven H.

    Little is known about the precise nature of the processing, storage, and recall strategies functional in spatial recall. High school and college samples completed tasks in field-dependence-independence, figural creativity, and verbal abilities. Spatial recall ability was assessed through a map reconstruction task in which subjects were required to…

  8. An Improved Algorithm for Predicting Free Recalls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laming, Donald

    2008-01-01

    Laming [Laming, D. (2006). "Predicting free recalls." "Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition," 32, 1146-1163] has shown that, in a free-recall experiment in which the participants rehearsed out loud, entire sequences of recalls could be predicted, to a useful degree of precision, from the prior sequences of stimuli…

  9. 21 CFR 7.42 - Recall strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Recall strategy. 7.42 Section 7.42 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENFORCEMENT POLICY Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities § 7.42 Recall strategy. (a) General. (1) A...

  10. Loss of Retrieval Information in Prose Recall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sehulster, Jerome R.; And Others

    The purpose of this research was to experimentally manipulate input and output orders of information and separate storage and retrieval components of prose free recall. The cued partial recall method, used in word list recall, was adapted to a prose learning task. Four short biographical stories of about 55 words each were systematically combined…

  11. Radiation recall reaction causing cardiotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Masri, Sofia Carolina; Misselt, Andrew James; Dudek, Arkadiusz; Konety, Suma H

    2014-01-01

    Radiation recall phenomenon is a tissue reaction that develops within a previously irradiated area, precipitated by the subsequent administration of certain chemotherapeutic agents. It commonly affects the skin, but can also involve internal organs with functional consequences. To our best knowledge, this phenomenon has never been reported as a complication on the heart and should be consider as a potential cause of cardiotoxicity. PMID:24755097

  12. The association of pre-sweetened or non-presweetened ready to eat cereal or other breakfast with nutrient intake, diet quality, and body weight of children aged 1 to 8 years: NHANES 1999-2002

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ready-to-eat-cereal (RTEC) has been associated with improved nutrient intake and weight status; presweetened ready-to-eat cereal (PSRTEC) has not been evaluated separately. Nutrient intakes, mean adequacy ratios (MAR) (average percentage of the Estimated Average Requirement from 24-hour recalls of 1...

  13. Modality effects in sentence recall.

    PubMed

    Goolkasian, Paula; Foos, Paul W; Eaton, Mirrenda

    2009-04-01

    The authors examined the intrusion of lures into sentence recall when manipulating the modality of distractor-word lists and sentences separately. Participants received a list of words followed by a sentence, and the list did or did not contain a lure related to a target in the sentence. Conceptual regeneration of the sentence during recall predicted higher lure intrusions than spontaneous intrusions in all conditions. However, if surface information is remembered, the modality of sentence and list should influence intrusions. The results from Experiment 1 showed that both factors are important, as intrusions were always higher when lures were contained in the distractor-word list and when visual, rather than auditory, sentences were recalled. The authors also found distractor modality to influence the results. In Experiment 2, when interference from the word probe was reduced by removing 40% of the word probes, the disruptive effect of the auditory distractors was attenuated on the trials without the word probe. Also, the authors found lure intrusions to be dependent on the presence of the word probe. PMID:19350835

  14. POSITIVE EMOTIONS ENHANCE RECALL OF PERIPHERAL DETAILS

    PubMed Central

    Talarico, Jennifer M.; Berntsen, Dorthe; Rubin, David C.

    2011-01-01

    Emotional arousal and negative affect enhance recall of central aspects of an event. However, the role of discrete emotions in selective memory processing is understudied. Undergraduates were asked to recall and rate autobiographical memories of eight emotional events. Details of each memory were rated as central or peripheral to the event. Significance of the event, vividness, reliving and other aspects of remembering were also rated for each event. Positive affect enhanced recall of peripheral details. Furthermore, the impairment of peripheral recall was greatest in memories of anger, not of fear. Reliving the experience at retrieval was negatively correlated with recall of peripheral details for some emotions (e.g., anger) but not others (e.g., fear), irrespective of similarities in affect and intensity. Within individuals, recall of peripheral details was correlated with less belief in the memory’s accuracy and more likelihood to recall the memory from one’s own eyes (i.e., a field perspective). PMID:21359127

  15. Diets, equipment, and techniques for maintaining crawfish in the laboratory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tarshis, I.B.

    1978-01-01

    One commercial and 4 laboratory prepared extruded, water-stable diets were fed 3 times a week in 1-g portions to juvenile male and female White River crawfish, Procambarus acutus acutus (Girard), for 10 weeks. The. binding material in the laboratory preparation was alginate (Kelgin), whereas that in the commercial preparation was starch. No statistically significant weight differences developed between the groups of crawfish at the end of the 10-week period; all 5 diets were found satisfactory for feeding and maintaining P. acutus acutus in the laboratory, and all test crawfish survived throughout the experimental period. Weight gains were highest in a diet containing 50.5% protein; intermediate in those fed a diet with 46.0% protein; and lowest in those fed diets with 31.7 or 36.3% protein. Crawfish fed the commercial preparation of one of the 46.0% protein diets showed a slightly but not significantly higher weight gain than those fed the laboratory preparation of the diet. In an evaluation of the water stability of 5 commercially prepared animal chow diets and the commercial extruded diet, 2 of the commercial diets disintegrated after one hour exposure in water and the other 3 became bloated after one hour and remained on the surface throughout the 24-hour test. The commercial extruded diet maintained its water stability for the full 24 hours. The commercial preparation of the 46.0% protein diet was successfully used under laboratory conditions for feeding and maintaining the following crawfishes: Cambarellus shufeldtii (Faxon), Cambarus acuminatus Faxon, Orconectes limosus (Rafinesque), O. virilis (Hagen), Procambarus clarkii (Girard), and P. spiculifer (Le conte). In longevity experiments Cambarus diogenes diogenes Girard and Procambarus hinei (Ortmann) now have survived for 8 months on this diet in the laboratory.

  16. Recall Latencies, Confidence, and Output Positions of True and False Memories: Implications for Recall and Metamemory Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jou, Jerwen

    2008-01-01

    Recall latency, recall accuracy rate, and recall confidence were examined in free recall as a function of recall output serial position using a modified Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm to test a strength-based theory against the dual-retrieval process theory of recall output sequence. The strength theory predicts the item output sequence to be…

  17. Effect of a Low Iodine Diet vs. Restricted Iodine Diet on Postsurgical Preparation for Radioiodine Ablation Therapy in Thyroid Carcinoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Chi Young; Kim, Jung-Yeon; Yoon, Mi-Jin; Chang, Hang Seok; Park, Cheong Soo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The radioiodine ablation therapy is required for patients who underwent a total thyroidectomy. Through a comparative review of a low iodine diet (LID) and a restricted iodine diet (RID), the study aims to suggest guidelines that are suitable for the conditions of Korea. Materials and Methods The study was conducted with 101 patients. With 24-hour urine samples from the patients after a 2-week restricted diet and after a 4-week restricted diet, the amount of iodine in the urine was estimated. The consumed radioiodine amounts for 2 hours and 24 hours were calculated. Results This study was conducted with 47 LID patients and 54 RID patients. The amounts of iodine in urine, the 2-week case and 4-week case for each group showed no significant differences. The amounts of iodine in urine between the two groups were both included in the range of the criteria for radioiodine ablation therapy. Also, 2 hours and 24 hours radioiodine consumption measured after 4-week restrictive diet did not show statistical differences between two groups. Conclusion A 2-week RID can be considered as a type of radioiodine ablation therapy after patients undergo a total thyroidectomy. PMID:26069126

  18. Impact of Dairy and Sweetened Beverage Consumption on Diet and Weight of a Multiethnic Population of Head Start Mothers

    PubMed Central

    ONEIL, CAROL E.; NICKLAS, THERESA A.; LIU, YAN; FRANKLIN, FRANK A.

    2009-01-01

    Mothers with children in Head Start play a critical role in providing healthful diets and modeling good dietary behaviors to their children, but there is little information available on their diet, especially on beverage consumption. The objective of this study was to assess the association of milk and sweetened beverage consumption with nutrient intake, dietary adequacy, and weight of a multiethnic population of Head Start mothers. Using a cross-sectional, secondary analysis, African-American (43%), Hispanic (33%), and white (24%) women (n=609) were divided into four beverage consumption groups: high milk/low sweetened beverage, high milk/high sweetened beverage, low milk/low sweetened beverage, and low milk/high sweetened beverage. Nutrient intake was determined by averaging 24-hour dietary recalls from 3 nonconsecutive days. Dietary adequacy was determined with the Mean Adequacy Ratio. Mean body mass index for the four beverage consumption groups was compared; there were no differences among the groups (overall meanstandard error=30.80.3). Women in the high milk/low sweetened beverage group had higher mean intakes of vitamins A, D, and B-6; riboflavin; thiamin; folate; phosphorus; calcium; iron; magnesium; and potassium (P<0.0125 for all) when compared with the other beverage consumption groups. Mean Adequacy Ratio was highest in the high milk/low sweetened beverage (71.80.8) and lowest in the low milk/high sweetened beverage (58.40.8) consumption groups (P<0.0125). Women in the high milk/low sweetened beverage group consumed more nutrient-dense foods. Overall consumption of milk was low. Consumption of high milk/low sweetened beverage was associated with improved nutrient intake, including the shortfall nutrients, ie, calcium, potassium, magnesium, and vitamin A. PMID:19394474

  19. Nutritional contribution of lean beef in diets of adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2004

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The learning outcome was to understand the important contribution of lean beef to total nutrient intake in diets of American adults and to determine dietary intake differences between lean beef consumers and non-consumers. The National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey, 1999-2004, 24-hour di...

  20. Diet in 45- to 74-year-old individuals with diagnosed diabetes: comparison to counterparts without diabetes in a nationally representative survey (Etude Nationale Nutrition Santé 2006-2007).

    PubMed

    Castetbon, Katia; Bonaldi, Christophe; Deschamps, Valérie; Vernay, Michel; Malon, Aurélie; Salanave, Benoit; Druet, Céline

    2014-06-01

    A healthy diet has been shown to prevent diabetes complications. However, the eating habits of individuals with diabetes who are aware of their glycemic condition have been poorly studied. This study's objective was to assess the dietary behavior overall and according to dietary recommendations in adults diagnosed with diabetes compared with those of a general population of the same age (45 to 74 years) in a nationally representative survey carried out in France in 2006-2007 (Etude Nationale Nutrition Santé) (n=1,476 including 101 patients with diabetes). Trained dietitians assessed diet using three 24-hour recalls and diabetes was self-declared. After weighting and using multiple adjustments, mean food and nutrient intakes were compared according to diabetes status. Interactions with age and sex were sought. Adults with diabetes had lower intakes of sweetened foods (40 g/day vs 125 g/day), alcohol (1.45 g/day vs 1.64 g/day), energy (1,790 kcal/day vs 1,986 kcal/day), and simple sugar (63.1 g/day vs 89.8 g/day) and higher intakes of meat (126 g/day vs 109 g/day), complex carbohydrates (26.3% energy intake vs 23.6% energy intake), and vitamins B and E (628 μg/day vs 541 μg/day). In addition, 45- to 59-year-old individuals with diabetes ate more fruits and vegetables, fiber, beta carotene, folate, vitamin C, and potassium than adults of the same age who did not have diabetes. Overall, 45- to 74-year-old adults with diabetes had a higher-quality diet than individuals without diabetes. However, compared with recommendations, a healthy diet continues to represent a public health challenge in terms of preventing diabetes complications. PMID:24183995

  1. Quantum Bounce and Cosmic Recall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corichi, Alejandro; Singh, Parampreet

    2008-04-01

    Loop quantum cosmology predicts that, in simple models, the big bang is replaced by a quantum bounce. A natural question is whether the universe retains, after the bounce, its memory about the previous epoch. More precisely, does the Universe retain various properties of the state after evolving unitarily through the bounce, or does it suffer from recently suggested cosmic amnesia? We show that this issue can be answered unambiguously at least within an exactly solvable model. A semiclassical state at late times on one side of the bounce, peaked on a pair of canonically conjugate variables, strongly bounds the fluctuations on the other side, implying semiclassicality. For a model universe growing to 1 megaparsec, the change in relative fluctuation across the bounce is less than 10-56 (becoming smaller for larger universes). The universe maintains (an almost) total recall.

  2. Quantum bounce and cosmic recall.

    PubMed

    Corichi, Alejandro; Singh, Parampreet

    2008-04-25

    Loop quantum cosmology predicts that, in simple models, the big bang is replaced by a quantum bounce. A natural question is whether the universe retains, after the bounce, its memory about the previous epoch. More precisely, does the Universe retain various properties of the state after evolving unitarily through the bounce, or does it suffer from recently suggested cosmic amnesia? We show that this issue can be answered unambiguously at least within an exactly solvable model. A semiclassical state at late times on one side of the bounce, peaked on a pair of canonically conjugate variables, strongly bounds the fluctuations on the other side, implying semiclassicality. For a model universe growing to 1 megaparsec, the change in relative fluctuation across the bounce is less than 10(-56) (becoming smaller for larger universes). The universe maintains (an almost) total recall. PMID:18518182

  3. Examining the Relationship between Free Recall and Immediate Serial Recall: The Effect of Concurrent Task Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatarah, Parveen; Ward, Geoff; Tan, Lydia

    2006-01-01

    In 3 experiments, participants saw lists of 16 words for free recall with or without a 6-digit immediate serial recall (ISR) task after each word. Free recall was performed under standard visual silent and spoken-aloud conditions (Experiment 1), overt rehearsal conditions (Experiment 2), and fixed rehearsal conditions (Experiment 3). The authors…

  4. Exceptions to Recognition Failure of Recallable Words.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardiner, John M.

    1980-01-01

    Two experiments showed the proportion of recalled words recognized to be higher than expected when the experiment was conducted under typical study conditions. Under special study conditions, the proportion of recalled words recognized more closely approximated expected values. Exceptions depend on encoding operations rather than on the properties…

  5. Significant Category Clustering in Free Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Barry C.

    1975-01-01

    Frender and Doubilet suggest that Bousfield's ratio of repetitions (RR) is the best measure of clustering in free recall presently available. Conditioning only on the number of words recalled, they determine the mean of RR in the absence of clustering. In this note the null variance of RR is presented. (Author)

  6. GPO Recalls of Depository Documents: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Saragail Runyon

    1995-01-01

    Government agencies have increasingly requested depository libraries and the Government Printing Office to destroy or return certain documents. Most recalls fall into the categories of military security, administrative and operational security, falsified data, outright censorship, and environmental security. Requests and recalls should be…

  7. Directed Forgetting of Recently Recalled Autobiographical Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnier, Amanda J.; Conway, Martin A.; Mayoh, Lyndel; Speyer, Joanne; Avizmil, Orit; Harris, Celia B.

    2007-01-01

    In 6 experiments, the authors investigated list-method directed forgetting of recently recalled autobiographical memories. Reliable directed forgetting effects were observed across all experiments. In 4 experiments, the authors examined the impact of memory valence on directed forgetting. The forget instruction impaired recall of negative,

  8. Directed Forgetting of Recently Recalled Autobiographical Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnier, Amanda J.; Conway, Martin A.; Mayoh, Lyndel; Speyer, Joanne; Avizmil, Orit; Harris, Celia B.

    2007-01-01

    In 6 experiments, the authors investigated list-method directed forgetting of recently recalled autobiographical memories. Reliable directed forgetting effects were observed across all experiments. In 4 experiments, the authors examined the impact of memory valence on directed forgetting. The forget instruction impaired recall of negative,…

  9. Developmental Differences in Rehearsal and Free Recall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuvo, Anthony J.

    The purpose of this experiment was to analyze developmental differences in rehearsal strategies which may mediate the commonly found age effect on free recall. As expected, significant age differences in recall were found; analysis of rehearsal strategies showed that fifth and eighth graders tended to repeat stimulus words immediately after…

  10. 21 CFR 7.40 - Recall policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recall policy. 7.40 Section 7.40 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENFORCEMENT POLICY Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities §...

  11. 21 CFR 7.42 - Recall strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recall strategy. 7.42 Section 7.42 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENFORCEMENT POLICY... will be developed by the agency for a Food and Drug Administration-requested recall and by...

  12. 21 CFR 7.42 - Recall strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Recall strategy. 7.42 Section 7.42 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENFORCEMENT POLICY... will be developed by the agency for a Food and Drug Administration-requested recall and by...

  13. 21 CFR 7.42 - Recall strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Recall strategy. 7.42 Section 7.42 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENFORCEMENT POLICY... will be developed by the agency for a Food and Drug Administration-requested recall and by...

  14. 21 CFR 7.42 - Recall strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Recall strategy. 7.42 Section 7.42 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENFORCEMENT POLICY... will be developed by the agency for a Food and Drug Administration-requested recall and by...

  15. Passage Recall: Schema Change and Cognitive Flexibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertel, Paula T.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The effects of subsequent related information and cognitive flexibility on prose recall were studied. Subjects read a passage; then were given either consistent or contradictory information. Errors in cued recall, reflecting the subsequent information, were more frequently produced after a three-week delay than after two days. (Author/GDC)

  16. Development of Strategies for Recall and Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tversky, Barbara; Teiffer, Evelyn

    1976-01-01

    A total of 122 kindergartners, third and fifth graders viewed 30 pictures of familiar objects and interested on their free recall of the object names and their recognition of the original pictures. Half received instruction in adult recognition strategies, half in adult recall strategies. (MS)

  17. Dream recall and the full moon.

    PubMed

    Schredl, Michael; Fulda, Stephany; Reinhard, Iris

    2006-02-01

    There is ongoing debate on whether the full moon is associated with sleep and dreaming. The analysis of diaries kept by the participants (N = 196) over 28 to 111 nights showed no association of a full moon and dream recall. Psychological factors might explain why some persons associate a full moon with increased dream recall. PMID:16671592

  18. Spatial recall improved by retrieval enactment.

    PubMed

    Jones, Gregory V; Martin, Maryanne

    2009-06-01

    Evidence from studies of intentional learning suggests that the accuracy of recall is not assisted by appropriate enactment at retrieval, as opposed to encoding. In the present study, long-term recall of spatial arrays following incidental learning (text messaging or calculator use) was tested under three different motor conditions at retrieval. For both letter and number arrays, the accuracy of recall was found to be improved by relevant enactment at the time of retrieval, relative to retrieval with no movement. In contrast, irrelevant movement was found to produce an impairment in accuracy. The overall accuracy of recalling a letter array was found to be a power-law function of the frequency of exposure to the array. The findings are discussed in terms of the hypothesis that appropriate movement during memory retrieval recruits egocentric representations that supplement allocentric representations subserving longer term spatial recall. PMID:19451379

  19. Drug recall: An incubus for pharmaceutical companies and most serious drug recall of history.

    PubMed

    Nagaich, Upendra; Sadhna, Divya

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increasing trend in the number of prescribed and over-the-counter drug recall over the last few years. The recall is usually due to company's discovery, customer's complaint or Food and Drug Administration (FDA) observation. The process of recall involves a planned specific course of action, which addresses the depth of recall, need for public warning, and the extent of effectiveness checks for the recall. The FDA review and/or recommend changes to the firm's recall strategy, as appropriate. The critical recall information list includes the identity of the product; summary of the failure; amount of product produced in the distribution chain and direct account. Product recalls clashes thousands of companies every year affecting: sales, testing customer relationships and disrupting supply chains. Drug recall is incubus for pharmaceutical companies. It effects the reputation of the company. The reason for the recall can be divided into two categories: manufacturing affined and safety/efficacy affined. It is essential to follow all the guidelines related to drug development and manufacturing procedure so as to minimize drug recall. PMID:25599028

  20. Drug recall: An incubus for pharmaceutical companies and most serious drug recall of history

    PubMed Central

    Nagaich, Upendra; Sadhna, Divya

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increasing trend in the number of prescribed and over-the-counter drug recall over the last few years. The recall is usually due to company's discovery, customer's complaint or Food and Drug Administration (FDA) observation. The process of recall involves a planned specific course of action, which addresses the depth of recall, need for public warning, and the extent of effectiveness checks for the recall. The FDA review and/or recommend changes to the firm's recall strategy, as appropriate. The critical recall information list includes the identity of the product; summary of the failure; amount of product produced in the distribution chain and direct account. Product recalls clashes thousands of companies every year affecting: sales, testing customer relationships and disrupting supply chains. Drug recall is incubus for pharmaceutical companies. It effects the reputation of the company. The reason for the recall can be divided into two categories: manufacturing affined and safety/efficacy affined. It is essential to follow all the guidelines related to drug development and manufacturing procedure so as to minimize drug recall. PMID:25599028

  1. Recall of order information by deaf signers: phonetic coding in temporal order recall.

    PubMed

    Hanson, V L

    1990-11-01

    To examine the claim that phonetic coding plays a special role in temporal order recall, deaf and hearing college students were tested on their recall of temporal and spatial order information at two delay intervals. The deaf subjects were all native signers of American Sign Language. The results indicated that both the deaf and hearing subjects used phonetic coding in short-term temporal recall, and visual coding in spatial recall. There was no evidence of manual or visual coding among either the hearing or the deaf subjects in the temporal order recall task. The use of phonetic coding for temporal recall is consistent with the hypothesis that recall of temporal order information is facilitated by a phonetic code. PMID:2266862

  2. Erroneous and Veridical Recall Are Not Two Sides of the Same Coin: Evidence from Semantic Distraction in Free Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, John E.; Hughes, Robert W.; Srqvist, Patrik; Beaman, C. Philip; Jones, Dylan M.

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments examined the extent to which erroneous recall blocks veridical recall using, as a vehicle for study, the disruptive impact of distractors that are semantically similar to a list of words presented for free recall. Instructing participants to avoid erroneous recall of to-be-ignored spoken distractors attenuated their recall but this

  3. Erroneous and Veridical Recall Are Not Two Sides of the Same Coin: Evidence from Semantic Distraction in Free Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, John E.; Hughes, Robert W.; Sörqvist, Patrik; Beaman, C. Philip; Jones, Dylan M.

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments examined the extent to which erroneous recall blocks veridical recall using, as a vehicle for study, the disruptive impact of distractors that are semantically similar to a list of words presented for free recall. Instructing participants to avoid erroneous recall of to-be-ignored spoken distractors attenuated their recall but this…

  4. Oak Ridge callibration recall program

    SciTech Connect

    Falter, K.G.; Wright, W.E.; Pritchard, E.W.

    1996-12-31

    A development effort was initiated within the Oak Ridge metrology community to address the need for a more versatile and user friendly tracking database that could be used across the Oak Ridge complex. This database, which became known as the Oak Ridge Calibration Recall Program (ORCRP), needed to be diverse enough for use by all three Oak Ridge facilities, as well as the seven calibration organizations that support them. Various practical functions drove the initial design of the program: (1) accessible by any user at any site through a multi-user interface, (2) real-time database that was able to automatically generate e-mail notices of due and overdue measuring and test equipment, (3) large memory storage capacity, and (4) extremely fast data access times. In addition, the program needed to generate reports on items such as instrument turnaround time, workload projections, and laboratory efficiency. Finally, the program should allow the calibration intervals to be modified, based on historical data. The developed program meets all of the stated requirements and is accessible over a network of computers running Microsoft Windows software.

  5. Women with endometriosis improved their peripheral antioxidant markers after the application of a high antioxidant diet

    PubMed Central

    Mier-Cabrera, Jennifer; Aburto-Soto, Tania; Burrola-Méndez, Soraya; Jiménez-Zamudio, Luis; Tolentino, Mari C; Casanueva, Esther; Hernández-Guerrero, César

    2009-01-01

    Background Oxidative stress has been identified in the peritoneal fluid and peripheral blood of women with endometriosis. However, there is little information on the antioxidant intake for this group of women. The objectives of this work were 1) to compare the antioxidant intake among women with and without endometriosis and 2) to design and apply a high antioxidant diet to evaluate its capacity to reduce oxidative stress markers and improve antioxidant markers in the peripheral blood of women with endometriosis. Methods Women with (WEN, n = 83) and without endometriosis (WWE, n = 80) were interviewed using a Food Frequency Questionnaire to compare their antioxidant intake (of vitamins and minerals). Then, the WEN participated in the application of a control (n = 35) and high antioxidant diet (n = 37) for four months. The high antioxidant diet (HAD) guaranteed the intake of 150% of the suggested daily intake of vitamin A (1050 μg retinol equivalents), 660% of the recommended daily intake (RDI) of vitamin C (500 mg) and 133% of the RDI of vitamin E (20 mg). Oxidative stress and antioxidant markers (vitamins and antioxidant enzymatic activity) were determined in plasma every month. Results Comparison of antioxidant intake between WWE and WEN showed a lower intake of vitamins A, C, E, zinc, and copper by WEN (p < 0.05, Mann Whitney Rank test). The selenium intake was not statistically different between groups. During the study, the comparison of the 24-hour recalls between groups showed a higher intake of the three vitamins in the HAD group. An increase in the vitamin concentrations (serum retinol, alpha-tocopherol, leukocyte and plasma ascorbate) and antioxidant enzyme activity (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) as well as a decrease in oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde and lipid hydroperoxides) were observed in the HAD group after two months of intervention. These phenomena were not observed in the control group. Conclusion WEN had a lower intake of antioxidants in comparison to WWE. Peripheral oxidative stress markers diminished, and antioxidant markers were enhanced, in WEN after the application of the HAD. PMID:19476631

  6. Associations between Apolipoprotein E Genotype, Diet, Body Mass Index, and Serum Lipids in Lithuanian Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Petkeviciene, Janina; Smalinskiene, Alina; Luksiene, Dalia Ieva; Jureniene, Kristina; Ramazauskiene, Vitalija; Klumbiene, Jurate; Lesauskaite, Vaiva

    2012-01-01

    Background Apolipoprotein E (APOE) polymorphism is associated with lipid levels. Some studies have reported that blood lipid response to diet or obesity varies depending on APOE genotypes. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of APOE genotypes, the intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA), and obesity on serum lipid levels in Lithuanian adult population. Methodology/Principal Findings A cross-sectional health survey was carried out in five municipalities of Lithuania. The random sample was obtained from lists of 25–64 year-old inhabitants registered at primary health care centres. The data from 996 subjects (416 men and 580 women) were analysed in this study. Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (rs429358 and rs7412) were assessed using a real-time polymerase chain reaction. 24-hour recall and food frequency questionnaire were used for evaluation of dietary habits. Serum lipids were determined using enzymatic methods. Men and women with the APOE2 genotype had the lowest level of total cholesterol (TC) (p = 0.002 for men, and p = 0.02 for women) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (p<0.001). Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that age, genotype APOE2, SFA intake, and body mass index (BMI) were significant determinants of TC and LDL-C level (with p values ranging from 0.043 to 0.001). Our data did not reveal any statistically significant interactions between APOE genotype and SFA intake or between APOE genotype and BMI regarding TC and LDL-C level (all p>0.05). However, the predictive power of the regression model for LDL-C improved when gene-BMI interaction and gene-BMI interaction plus gene-nutrient interaction were added (p = 0.04 and p = 0.032 for R2 change, respectively). Conclusions/Significance APOE genotypes, SFA intake, and obesity were found to be associated with blood lipid levels in Lithuanian adult population. Analysis of gene-diet and gene-obesity interactions did not confirm that the effects of diet and obesity on TC and LDL-C level significantly depended on APOE genotype. PMID:22844488

  7. Category clustering calculator for free recall

    PubMed Central

    Senkova, Olesya; Otani, Hajime

    2012-01-01

    The free recall measure is one of the most popular measures in memory research. Using this measure, researchers can assess not only the amount of recall but also the strategy participants used to recall the material. Category clustering is a strategy participants often use when the input list is categorized. Unfortunately, computing category clustering measures is laborious. The present paper introduces a calculator that computes these measures for each participant using a platform that is accessible to most researchers in an attempt to make these measures more user-friendly. PMID:23717345

  8. Data from a Validation Study of Reporting Accuracy over Multiple Recalls, and School Foodservice Production Records Provide Insight into the Origins of Intrusions (Reports of Uneaten Food Items) in Children’s Dietary Recalls

    PubMed Central

    Hardin, James W.; Royer, Julie A.; Guinn, Caroline H.; Smith, Albert F.

    2008-01-01

    Background Intrusions in dietary recalls may originate in confusion of episodic memories manifested as temporal dating errors. Objective Data from a validation study (concerning reporting accuracy over multiple recalls) and school foodservice production records were used to investigate origins of intrusions in school meals in children’s 24-hour recalls. Design/subjects/setting During the 1999–2000 school year, 104 fourth-grade children were observed eating school meals on one to three non-consecutive days separated by ≥25 days, and interviewed about the previous day’s intake in the morning on the day after each observation day. Statistical analyses performed For breakfast and lunch separately, logistic regression was used to investigate the effect of time (i.e., days) before the interview day on the probability that intrusions referred to items available in the school foodservice environment. Exploratory analyses were conducted for breakfast options observed and/or reported eaten. Results For interviews in which reported meals met criteria to be considered school meals and that contained intrusions, of 634 and 699 items reported eaten at breakfast and lunch, respectively, 394 and 331 were intrusions. Availability in the school foodservice environment of items referred to by intrusions in reports of lunch, but not breakfast, decreased as days increased before the interview day (P values=0.031 and 0.285, respectively). Concerning breakfast, children observed eating a cold option (i.e., ready-to-eat [RTE] cereal, milk, juice, crackers [graham; animal]) almost always reported a cold option, whereas children observed eating a hot option (i.e., non-RTE-cereal entrée [e.g., sausage biscuit], milk, fruit or juice) reported a cold option in approximately 50% of interviews. Conclusions In children’s 24-hour recalls, confusion of episodic memories contributes to intrusions in school lunch, and generic dietary information (e.g., cold option items available daily) or confusion of episodic memories may contribute to intrusions in school breakfast. Understanding the origins of intrusions may help in developing interview methods to decrease the occurrence of intrusions. PMID:18656570

  9. High-Fat and Low-Carbohydrate Diets Are Associated with Allergic Rhinitis But Not Asthma or Atopic Dermatitis in Children

    PubMed Central

    Kim, So Young; Sim, Songyong; Park, Bumjung; Kim, Jin-Hwan; Choi, Hyo Geun

    2016-01-01

    Background Numerous studies have suggested that nutritional intake is related to allergic diseases. Although conflicting results exist, fat intake is often associated with allergic diseases. We investigated the relationship between allergic diseases and nutritional intake after adjusting for various demographic and socioeconomic factors in a large, representative sample of Korean children. Methods A total of 3,040 participants, aged 4 to 13 years old, were enrolled in the present study from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 2010–2012. Nutritional intake data, including total calories, protein, fat, carbohydrate, vitamin A, vitamin C, thiamine, riboflavin, and niacin, were retrieved from the survey using the complete 24-hour recall method. The associations between each nutritional factor and allergic rhinitis/asthma/atopic dermatitis were analyzed using simple and multiple logistic regression analyses with complex sampling. Age, sex, body mass index (BMI), number of household members, income level, and region of residence were adjusted for as covariates. Results Of the participants, 22.1%, 6.0%, and 15.5% suffered from allergic rhinitis, asthma, and atopic dermatitis, respectively. Allergic rhinitis was significantly correlated with high-fat and low-carbohydrate diets. The adjusted odds ratio (AOR) was 1.25 (95% CIs = 1.06–1.46, P = 0.007) for fat intake, denoting a 10% increase. Carbohydrate intake (10% increase) was negatively related to allergic rhinitis with an AOR of 0.84 (95% CIs = 0.74–0.95, P = 0.004). No other significant relationships were found between the retrieved nutritional factors and either asthma or atopic dermatitis. Conclusion Allergic rhinitis was related to high-fat and low-carbohydrate diets. Although the underlying mechanisms and causal relationships remain elusive, the present study provides reliable evidence regarding the associations between nutritional factors and allergic rhinitis by considering numerous factors within a large and representative population. PMID:26919190

  10. Improved diet quality, nutrient intake, and health associated with out-of-hand tree nut consumption in U.S. adults: NHANES 1999–2004

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    HANES (1999–2004), data were used to examine the association of out-of-hand tree nut consumption (almonds, Brazil nuts, cashews, filberts, macadamias, pecans, pine nuts, pistachios, and walnuts) with diet quality, nutrient intakes, and health risks in adults 19+ yrs (n equals 13,292). Using 24 hour ...

  11. U.S.-MEXICO BORDER PROGRAM ARIZONA BORDER STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR REIMBURSEMENT FOR FIELD COLLECTION OF DIET SAMPLES (UA-F-23.1)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this SOP is to provide a uniform procedure for the financial reimbursement of primary respondents for the collection of diet samples. Respondents were reimbursed for replicate food and beverage samples by type and amount collected over a 24-hour sampling period. ...

  12. Adiabatic quantum optimization for associative memory recall

    SciTech Connect

    Seddiqi, Hadayat; Humble, Travis S.

    2014-12-22

    Hopfield networks are a variant of associative memory that recall patterns stored in the couplings of an Ising model. Stored memories are conventionally accessed as fixed points in the network dynamics that correspond to energetic minima of the spin state. We show that memories stored in a Hopfield network may also be recalled by energy minimization using adiabatic quantum optimization (AQO). Numerical simulations of the underlying quantum dynamics allow us to quantify AQO recall accuracy with respect to the number of stored memories and noise in the input key. We investigate AQO performance with respect to how memories are stored in the Ising model according to different learning rules. Our results demonstrate that AQO recall accuracy varies strongly with learning rule, a behavior that is attributed to differences in energy landscapes. Consequently, learning rules offer a family of methods for programming adiabatic quantum optimization that we expect to be useful for characterizing AQO performance.

  13. Adiabatic Quantum Optimization for Associative Memory Recall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seddiqi, Hadayat; Humble, Travis

    2014-12-01

    Hopfield networks are a variant of associative memory that recall patterns stored in the couplings of an Ising model. Stored memories are conventionally accessed as fixed points in the network dynamics that correspond to energetic minima of the spin state. We show that memories stored in a Hopfield network may also be recalled by energy minimization using adiabatic quantum optimization (AQO). Numerical simulations of the underlying quantum dynamics allow us to quantify AQO recall accuracy with respect to the number of stored memories and noise in the input key. We investigate AQO performance with respect to how memories are stored in the Ising model according to different learning rules. Our results demonstrate that AQO recall accuracy varies strongly with learning rule, a behavior that is attributed to differences in energy landscapes. Consequently, learning rules offer a family of methods for programming adiabatic quantum optimization that we expect to be useful for characterizing AQO performance.

  14. Adiabatic Quantum Optimization for Associative Memory Recall

    SciTech Connect

    Seddiqi, Hadayat; Humble, Travis S

    2014-01-01

    Hopfield networks are a variant of associative memory that recall patterns stored in the couplings of an Ising model. Stored memories are conventionally accessed as fixed points in the network dynamics that correspond to energetic minima of the spin state. We show that memories stored in a Hopfield network may also be recalled by energy minimization using adiabatic quantum optimization (AQO). Numerical simulations of the underlying quantum dynamics allow us to quantify AQO recall accuracy with respect to the number of stored memories and noise in the input key. We investigate AQO performance with respect to how memories are stored in the Ising model according to different learning rules. Our results demonstrate that AQO recall accuracy varies strongly with learning rule, a behavior that is attributed to differences in energy landscapes. Consequently, learning rules offer a family of methods for programming adiabatic quantum optimization that we expect to be useful for characterizing AQO performance.

  15. Adiabatic quantum optimization for associative memory recall

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Seddiqi, Hadayat; Humble, Travis S.

    2014-12-22

    Hopfield networks are a variant of associative memory that recall patterns stored in the couplings of an Ising model. Stored memories are conventionally accessed as fixed points in the network dynamics that correspond to energetic minima of the spin state. We show that memories stored in a Hopfield network may also be recalled by energy minimization using adiabatic quantum optimization (AQO). Numerical simulations of the underlying quantum dynamics allow us to quantify AQO recall accuracy with respect to the number of stored memories and noise in the input key. We investigate AQO performance with respect to how memories are storedmore » in the Ising model according to different learning rules. Our results demonstrate that AQO recall accuracy varies strongly with learning rule, a behavior that is attributed to differences in energy landscapes. Consequently, learning rules offer a family of methods for programming adiabatic quantum optimization that we expect to be useful for characterizing AQO performance.« less

  16. EFFECTIVENESS OF NUTRITIONAL TREATMENT ASSESSED BY THE QUALITY OF THE DIET IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Dilui; Moraes, Glaucia; Rosa, Glorimar; Bello Moreira, Annie Seixas

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of nutritional treatment is important protective factor for the prevention of recurrences of cardiovascular diseases. The goal of this study was to assess the effectiveness of nutritional treatment and to know the eating pattern and the quality of an adjuvant diet for optimized clinical treatment in patients with chronic coronary artery disease (CCAD). This is a clinical trial with a three-month duration conducted with 116 patients of both sexes with (CCAD) in secondary prevention. The patients underwent nutritional treatment and blood pressure, anthropometric, biochemical and dietetic (24-hour recall) measures were collected. The Brazilian Healthy Eating Index (BHEI-R) was calculated for assessing diet quality. The average age was 62.5 ± 7.8 years. The nutritional treatment reduced: weight -1.5 ± 2.3 kg; p < 0.01; body mass index -0.5 ± 0.9 kg/m2; p < 0.01; waist circumference -2.0 ± 0.1cm; p < 0.01; neck circumference -0.8 ± 0.1; p < 0.01 cm; concentrations of plasma insulin -1.3 ± 0.5mU/ mL p < 0.03, glycated hemoglobin -0.4 ± 0.1 mg/dL; p < 0.01 (- 0,004 mmol/L), and HOMA-IR (-0.8 ± 3.9; p < 0.03); and increased insulin sensitivity 6.64 ± 23,9 x10-3; p < 0.01. The nutritional treatment increased HDL-cholesterol concentrations in patients who adhered to the diet after BHEI-R control 1.7 ± 1.4 mg/dL; p = 0.04 (0,04 mmol/L). Three-month nutritional treatment promoted reduction of saturated fats consumption (-1.9 ± 0.5%; p=<0.01), cholesterol (-67.7 ± 18.6 mg/d; p < 0.01), and sodium(815.2 ± 146.5 mg/d; p < 0.01); and 20.7% of the patients finished the study with a healthy diet. The intensive nutritional treatment was effective in reducing anthropometric measures and improving glycemic control. PMID:26319859

  17. Word Recall: Cognitive Performance Within Internet Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Benjamin M; Jim, Heather S

    2015-01-01

    Background The use of online surveys for data collection has increased exponentially, yet it is often unclear whether interview-based cognitive assessments (such as face-to-face or telephonic word recall tasks) can be adapted for use in application-based research settings. Objective The objective of the current study was to compare and characterize the results of online word recall tasks to those of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) and determine the feasibility and reliability of incorporating word recall tasks into application-based cognitive assessments. Methods The results of the online immediate and delayed word recall assessment, included within the Women’s Health and Valuation (WHV) study, were compared to the results of the immediate and delayed recall tasks of Waves 5-11 (2000-2012) of the HRS. Results Performance on the WHV immediate and delayed tasks demonstrated strong concordance with performance on the HRS tasks (ρc=.79, 95% CI 0.67-0.91), despite significant differences between study populations (P<.001) and study design. Sociodemographic characteristics and self-reported memory demonstrated similar relationships with performance on both the HRS and WHV tasks. Conclusions The key finding of this study is that the HRS word recall tasks performed similarly when used as an online cognitive assessment in the WHV. Online administration of cognitive tests, which has the potential to significantly reduce participant and administrative burden, should be considered in future research studies and health assessments. PMID:26543924

  18. Does an Adolescent’s Accuracy of Recall Improve with a Second 24-h Dietary Recall?

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Deborah A.; Wright, Janine L.; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S.; Boushey, Carol J.

    2015-01-01

    The multiple-pass 24-h dietary recall is used in most national dietary surveys. Our purpose was to assess if adolescents’ accuracy of recall improved when a 5-step multiple-pass 24-h recall was repeated. Participants (n = 24), were Chinese-American youths aged between 11 and 15 years and lived in a supervised environment as part of a metabolic feeding study. The 24-h recalls were conducted on two occasions during the first five days of the study. The four steps (quick list; forgotten foods; time and eating occasion; detailed description of the food/beverage) of the 24-h recall were assessed for matches by category. Differences were observed in the matching for the time and occasion step (p < 0.01), detailed description (p < 0.05) and portion size matching (p < 0.05). Omission rates were higher for the second recall (p < 0.05 quick list; p < 0.01 forgotten foods). The adolescents over-estimated energy intake on the first (11.3% ± 22.5%; p < 0.05) and second recall (10.1% ± 20.8%) compared with the known food and beverage items. These results suggest that the adolescents’ accuracy to recall food items declined with a second 24-h recall when repeated over two non-consecutive days. PMID:25984743

  19. Reliability and Validity of the Multimedia Activity Recall in Children and Adults (MARCA) in People with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Toby; Williams, Marie T.; Olds, Tim S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the reliability and validity of the Multimedia Activity Recall for Children and Adults (MARCA) in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Design People with COPD and their carers completed the Multimedia Activity Recall for Children and Adults (MARCA) for four, 24-hour periods (including test-retest of 2 days) while wearing a triaxial accelerometer (Actigraph GT3X+®), a multi-sensor armband (Sensewear Pro3®) and a pedometer (New Lifestyles 1000®). Setting Self reported activity recalls (MARCA) and objective activity monitoring (Accelerometry) were recorded under free-living conditions. Participants 24 couples were included in the analysis (COPD; age 74.4±7.9 yrs, FEV1 54±13% Carer; age 69.6±10.9 yrs, FEV1 99±24%). Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measure(s) Test-retest reliability was compared for MARCA activity domains and different energy expenditure zones. Validity was assessed between MARCA-derived physical activity level (in metabolic equivalent of task (MET) per minute), duration of moderate to vigorous physical activity (min) and related data from the objective measurement devices. Analysis included intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC), Bland-Altman analyses, paired t-tests (p) and Spearman's rank correlation coefficients (rs). Results Reliability between occasions of recall for all activity domains was uniformly high, with test-retest correlations consistently >0.9. Validity correlations were moderate to strong (rs = 0.43–0.80) across all comparisons. The MARCA yields comparable PAL estimates and slightly higher moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) estimates. Conclusion In older adults with chronic illness, the MARCA is a valid and reliable tool for capturing not only the time and energy expenditure associated with physical and sedentary activities but also information on the types of activities. PMID:24312284

  20. Validation of a food frequency questionnaire for retrospective estimation of diet during the first 2 years of life

    PubMed Central

    Mejía-Rodríguez, Fabiola; Neufeld, Lynnette M.; García-Guerra, Armando; Quezada-Sanchez, Amado D.; Orjuela, Manuela A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study aims to validate a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), specifically designed to retrospectively estimate dietary intake and supplement consumption during the first two years of life in children from resource poor households in semi-rural Mexico. Methods The FFQ querying about diet during the first 2 years of life was administered to mothers of children (N=84), who participated in a prospective study 3 to 5 years earlier, in which complementary feeding practice questionnaires and 24-hour recall (24hrR) were collected at several time points during the first 2 years of life to evaluate dietary and vitamin supplement intake. The resulting FFQ data were compared to intake data collected during the original study using Spearman correlations, deattenuated correlations and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Results Total energy intake, as estimated by the retrospective and original instruments, did not differ in the second year (Yr2); correlations between the measures were significant (r=0.40, p<0.001). The 24hrR and FFQ-Yr2 were significantly correlated for dietary intake of vitamins B6, B12 (p<0.001) and folate (p<0.01); however, after including vitamin supplement intake, the two dietary instruments were correlated only for vitamins A and B12 (p<0.05). Conclusions The FFQ provides a reasonable estimate of a child’s dietary intake of energy and key micronutrients during the second year of life, and permits accurate ranking of intake 3 to 5 years after birth. PMID:23532627

  1. Memory as a hologram: an analysis of learning and recall.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Donald R J; Mewhort, D J K

    2015-03-01

    We present a holographic theory of human memory. According to the theory, a subject's vocabulary resides in a dynamic distributed representation-a hologram. Studying or recalling a word alters both the existing representation of that word in the hologram and all words associated with it. Recall is always prompted by a recall cue (either a start instruction or the word just recalled). Order of report is a joint function of the item and associative information residing in the hologram at the time the report is made. We apply the model to archival data involving simple free recall, learning in multitrial free recall, simple serial recall, and learning in multitrial serial recall. The model captures accuracy and order of report in both free and serial recall. It also captures learning and subjective organisation in multitrial free recall. We offer the model as an alternative to the short- and long-term account of memory postulated in the modal model. PMID:25730645

  2. Erroneous and Veridical Recall Are Not Two Sides of the Same Coin: Evidence From Semantic Distraction in Free Recall

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments examined the extent to which erroneous recall blocks veridical recall using, as a vehicle for study, the disruptive impact of distractors that are semantically similar to a list of words presented for free recall. Instructing participants to avoid erroneous recall of to-be-ignored spoken distractors attenuated their recall but this did not influence the disruptive effect of those distractors on veridical recall (Experiment 1). Using an externalized output-editing procedure—whereby participants recalled all items that came to mind and identified those that were erroneous—the usual between-sequences semantic similarity effect on erroneous and veridical recall was replicated but the relationship between the rate of erroneous and veridical recall was weak (Experiment 2). The results suggest that forgetting is not due to veridical recall being blocked by similar events. PMID:25938326

  3. Scopolamine impairs memory recall in Octopus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Fiorito, G; Agnisola, C; d'Addio, M; Valanzano, A; Calamandrei, G

    1998-09-01

    The involvement of the central cholinergic system in predatory performance, and on the recall of individual and observational memory in Octopus vulgaris was studied by treating the animals with the muscarinic antagonist scopolamine (2 mg/kg). The absence of the effects of the injection of scopolamine on blood circulation was also checked. Scopolamine did not affect the ability of octopuses to prey on live crabs. However, it interfered significantly with memory recall. In fact, the ability to solve the jar problem was impaired within the first hour after injection (short-term effects) and was only partially recovered after 24 h (long-term). Moreover, both individual and observational learning of a visual discrimination were significantly reduced at the short- and long-term testing. These results support a role of the cholinergic system in the processes of memory recall of O. vulgaris. PMID:9774156

  4. Negative priming in free recall reconsidered.

    PubMed

    Hanczakowski, Maciej; Beaman, C Philip; Jones, Dylan M

    2016-05-01

    Negative priming in free recall is the finding of impaired memory performance when previously ignored auditory distracters become targets of encoding and retrieval. This negative priming has been attributed to an aftereffect of deploying inhibitory mechanisms that serve to suppress auditory distraction and minimize interference with learning and retrieval of task-relevant information. In 6 experiments, we tested the inhibitory account of the effect of negative priming in free recall against alternative accounts. We found that ignoring auditory distracters is neither sufficient nor necessary to produce the effect of negative priming in free recall. Instead, the effect is more readily accounted for by a buildup of proactive interference occurring whenever 2 successively presented lists of words are drawn from the same semantic category. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26595066

  5. Babcock and Wilcox recall system experience

    SciTech Connect

    Lexa, A.F.; Oelschlager, R.O.; Rapp, E.A.

    1982-05-01

    Late in 1979, Babcock and Wilcox began development of a dedicated data acquisition and display system called RECALL. This system was in response to industry's needs as put forth in the TMI-II Lesson Learned Reports. The starting point of this design was the B and W Reactimeter, which performed a vital role of transient data capture at TMI-II. A full discussion of the role that the Reactimeter played during the accident at TMI-II is contained. Since the development of the RECALL System, one such system has been installed at the Prairie Island Nuclear Power Plant, which is owned by Northern States Power Company. Other systems are in the process of being installed and assembled. The purpose of this paper is to report on the progress, to date, of the RECALL System and how it is being expanded to meet more stringent industry requirements.

  6. Negative Priming in Free Recall Reconsidered

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Negative priming in free recall is the finding of impaired memory performance when previously ignored auditory distracters become targets of encoding and retrieval. This negative priming has been attributed to an aftereffect of deploying inhibitory mechanisms that serve to suppress auditory distraction and minimize interference with learning and retrieval of task-relevant information. In 6 experiments, we tested the inhibitory account of the effect of negative priming in free recall against alternative accounts. We found that ignoring auditory distracters is neither sufficient nor necessary to produce the effect of negative priming in free recall. Instead, the effect is more readily accounted for by a buildup of proactive interference occurring whenever 2 successively presented lists of words are drawn from the same semantic category. PMID:26595066

  7. The Food Similarity Index: A New Dimension of Dietary Acculturation Based on Dietary Recall Data

    PubMed Central

    Van Hook, Jennifer; Quiros, Susana; Frisco, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Background This study introduces a flexible indicator of dietary acculturation that measures immigrants’ eating behavior relative to U.S.-born persons. Methods Using 24-hour dietary recall data from the continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey pooled across multiple years from 1999/00 through 2009/10, we developed and tested the validity of the “Food Similarity Index” (FSI), which indicates the similarity of the foods consumed by individuals to the foods most commonly consumed by same-aged U.S-born persons of all racial/ethnic groups. We demonstrate its utility here for children and adults of four racial-ethnic groups. Results FSI was positively associated with the consumption of common American foods and negatively associated with eating Hispanic and Asian foods. In addition, FSI was associated with generational status among all racial/ethnic groups and duration of U.S. residence among Hispanics. FSI was also negatively associated with the Healthy Eating Index 2010. Discussion The FSI enables researchers to compare immigrants’ dietary patterns over generations and across groups. It can be used to study how dietary acculturation shapes health risk factors and diseases. PMID:25245371

  8. Recalling visual serial order for verbal sequences.

    PubMed

    Logie, Robert H; Saito, Satoru; Morita, Aiko; Varma, Samarth; Norris, Dennis

    2016-05-01

    We report three experiments in which participants performed written serial recall of visually presented verbal sequences with items varying in visual similarity. In Experiments 1 and 2 native speakers of Japanese recalled visually presented Japanese Kanji characters. In Experiment 3, native speakers of English recalled visually presented words. In all experiments, items varied in visual similarity and were controlled for phonological similarity. For Kanji and for English, performance on lists comprising visually similar items was overall poorer than for lists of visually distinct items across all serial positions. For mixed lists in which visually similar and visually distinct items alternated through the list, a clear "zig-zag" pattern appeared with better recall of the visually distinct items than for visually similar items. This is the first time that this zig-zag pattern has been shown for manipulations of visual similarity in serial-ordered recall. These data provide new evidence that retaining a sequence of visual codes relies on similar principles to those that govern the retention of a sequence of phonological codes. We further illustrate this by demonstrating that the data patterns can be readily simulated by at least one computational model of serial-ordered recall, the Primacy model (Page and Norris, Psychological Review, 105(4), 761-81, 1998). Together with previous evidence from neuropsychological studies and experimental studies with healthy adults, these results are interpreted as consistent with two domain-specific, limited-capacity, temporary memory systems for phonological material and for visual material, respectively, each of which uses similar processes that have evolved to be optimal for retention of serial order. PMID:26704711

  9. Diet and serum lipids: changes over socio-economic transition period in Lithuanian rural population

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Since regaining of independence in 1990, Lithuania has been undergoing substantial political, economic, and social changes that affected the nutrition habits of population. Dietary changes might have impact on the trends of dietary related risk factors of chronic diseases. The aim of the study was to compare trends in diet and lipid profile of Lithuanian rural population aged 25-64 during two decades of transition period (1987-2007). Methods Four cross-sectional surveys were conducted within the framework of the Countrywide Integrated Noncommunicable Diseases Intervention Programme in five regions of Lithuania in 1987, 1993, 1999, and 2007. For each survey, a stratified independent random sample was drawn from the lists of the inhabitants aged 25-64 years registered at the primary health care centres. Altogether 3127 men and 3857 women participated in the surveys. 24-hour recall was used for evaluation of dietary habits. Serum lipids were determined using enzymatic methods. Predicted changes of serum cholesterol were calculated by Keys equation. Results The percentage of energy from saturated fatty acids has decreased from 18.0 to 15.1 among men and from 17.6 to 14.8 among women over the period of 20 years. The average share of polyunsaturated fatty acids in total energy intake increased from 5.3% to 7.1% among men and from 4.9% to 7.3% among women. The mean intake of cholesterol declined among women. Favourable trends in fatty acids composition were caused by increased use of vegetable oil for cooking and replacement of butter spread with margarine. Since 1987, the mean value of total cholesterol has decreased by 0.6 mmol/l. Total dietary effect accounts for a 0.26 mmol/l (43.3%) decline in serum cholesterol among men and 0.31 mmol/l (50.8%) decline among women. Conclusions Improvement in the quality of fat intake was observed in Lithuanian rural population over two decades of transition period. Positive changes in diet, mainly reduction in saturated fatty acids intake, contributed to decline in serum cholesterol level. Strengthening of favourable trends in nutrition habits in Lithuanian population should be one of the most important strategies of cardiovascular diseases prevention. PMID:21651754

  10. Vegetarian Diet

    MedlinePlus

    A vegetarian diet focuses on plants for food. These include fruits, vegetables, dried beans and peas, grains, seeds and nuts. There is no single type of vegetarian diet. Instead, vegetarian eating patterns usually fall into the ...

  11. Recalling and forgetting dreams: theta and alpha oscillations during sleep predict subsequent dream recall.

    PubMed

    Marzano, Cristina; Ferrara, Michele; Mauro, Federica; Moroni, Fabio; Gorgoni, Maurizio; Tempesta, Daniela; Cipolli, Carlo; De Gennaro, Luigi

    2011-05-01

    Under the assumption that dream recall is a peculiar form of declarative memory, we have hypothesized that (1) the encoding of dream contents during sleep should share some electrophysiological mechanisms with the encoding of episodic memories of the awake brain and (2) recalling a dream(s) after awakening from non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep should be associated with different brain oscillations. Here, we report that cortical brain oscillations of human sleep are predictive of successful dream recall. In particular, after morning awakening from REM sleep, a higher frontal 5-7 Hz (theta) activity was associated with successful dream recall. This finding mirrors the increase in frontal theta activity during successful encoding of episodic memories in wakefulness. Moreover, in keeping with the different EEG background, a different predictive relationship was found after awakening from stage 2 NREM sleep. Specifically, a lower 8-12 Hz (alpha) oscillatory activity of the right temporal area was associated with a successful dream recall. These findings provide the first evidence of univocal cortical electroencephalographic correlates of dream recall, suggesting that the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying the encoding and recall of episodic memories may remain the same across different states of consciousness. PMID:21543596

  12. Prose recall: effects of aging, verbal ability, and reading behavior.

    PubMed

    Rice, G E; Meyer, B J

    1986-07-01

    This paper describes an exploratory multivariate analysis designed to determine the relative contributions of age, verbal ability, education, reading habits, and recall strategies to the explanation of variation in performance on prose recall tasks among adults. Four hundred twenty-two adults in three age groups--young (18 to 32), middle (40 to 54) and old (62 to 80)--read and recalled in writing two 388-word prose passages and answered questions about their background, reading habits, and recall strategies. Results indicate that a decrease in quantity of recall appears with increasing age, though verbal ability is a better predictor of recall than is age. In addition, a recall strategy factor representing a paragraph-by-paragraph retrieval strategy produces the highest simple correlations with total recall and contributes significantly to the other recall measures. PMID:3722731

  13. 21 CFR 7.49 - Recall communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENFORCEMENT POLICY Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities § 7... brief and to the point; (ii) Identify clearly the product, size, lot number(s), code(s) or serial...

  14. Task Context and Organization in Free Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polyn, Sean M.; Norman, Kenneth A.; Kahana, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Prior work on organization in free recall has focused on the ways in which semantic and temporal information determine the order in which material is retrieved from memory. Tulving's theory of ecphory suggests that these organizational effects arise from the interaction of a retrieval cue with the contents of memory. Using the…

  15. Fading Memories: Retrospective Recall Inaccuracies in ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Carlin J.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This longitudinal study examines the recall accuracy of childhood ADHD symptoms in late adolescence and early adulthood by youth and their parents, compared with reports obtained during childhood. Method: Participants (N = 94) are initially evaluated when they are aged between 7 and 11 and reassessed when they are aged between 16 and 22

  16. Genetic Counselling: Information Given, Recall and Satisfaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michie, Susan; McDonald, Valerie; Marteau, Theresa M.

    1997-01-01

    A questionnaire was sent to counselors (N=32) to categorize the key points given in genetic counseling; to assess the amount and type of information recalled; and to examine the relationships between counselees' knowledge, satisfaction with information received, the meeting of expectations, concern, and anxiety. Results emphasize the importance of…

  17. On the recall of vestibular sensations.

    PubMed

    zu Eulenburg, Peter; Müller-Forell, W; Dieterich, M

    2013-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies on the recall or imagination of a distinctive task in the motor network or of sensations in sensory systems (visual, acoustic, nociceptive, gustatory, and olfactory) demonstrated that the respective primary cortex is often involved in the mental imagery process. Our aim was to examine this phenomenon in the vestibular system using fMRI. Sixteen healthy subjects were asked to remember the feeling of a rotatory chair procedure in contrast to an identical situation at rest. Shortly afterwards they were asked to recall the vestibular experience in a 1.5-T scanner. The resulting activations were then compared with the responses of a galvanic vestibular control experiment and a rest condition. The vestibular recall showed significant bihemispheric activations in the inferior frontal gyri, the anterior operculum, the middle cingulate, the putamen, the globus pallidus, the premotor motor cortex, and the anterior insula. We found activations in regions known to play a role in spatial referencing, motor programs, and attention in the recall of vestibular sensations. But important known relay stations for the cortical processing of vestibular information showed neither relevant activations nor deactivations. PMID:22367249

  18. Fading Memories: Retrospective Recall Inaccuracies in ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Carlin J.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This longitudinal study examines the recall accuracy of childhood ADHD symptoms in late adolescence and early adulthood by youth and their parents, compared with reports obtained during childhood. Method: Participants (N = 94) are initially evaluated when they are aged between 7 and 11 and reassessed when they are aged between 16 and 22…

  19. Spatial Grouping, Imagery, and Free Recall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Wayne H.; Wheatley, Paula C.

    1982-01-01

    One hundred undergraduates learned lists of high- or low-imagery nouns in one column (ungrouped) or in three columns (grouped). Grouped-list recall was significantly greater than ungrouped on the third and fourth trials. Spatial grouping seems to provide important cues which are independent of the words learned or imagery level. (Author/CM)

  20. A Composite Holographic Associative Recall Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalfe Eich, Janet

    1982-01-01

    A model of association formation, storage, and retrieval is described. Experiments which test new predictions derived from the model against human recall are reported. The model is applied to previous findings: prototype abstraction, the A-B A-D paradigm and the Osgood transfer surface. Previous models of memory are discussed. (Author/RD)

  1. Working Memory and Binding in Sentence Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baddeley, A. D.; Hitch, G. J.; Allen, R. J.

    2009-01-01

    A series of experiments explored whether chunking in short-term memory for verbal materials depends on attentionally limited executive processes. Secondary tasks were used to disrupt components of working memory and chunking was indexed by the sentence superiority effect, whereby immediate recall is better for sentences than word lists. To

  2. Enhancing the Recall of Presented Material

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Ronald B.

    2009-01-01

    Many educators distribute either complete or incomplete handouts so students can follow along with their lectures. This research examines a teaching system that combines computer-generated graphics presentations and detailed outline handouts with blanks added. An experiment found that this system produced significantly higher short-term recall of…

  3. Recalling data in a distributed processing system

    SciTech Connect

    Kamionka, H.E.

    1983-07-01

    A multihost system includes programming controls that migrate aged data from the primary external data storage DASD (direct-access storage device) to magnetic recording tape for long-term storage. The author describes an independent recall operation which retrieves tape stored data for a particular host.

  4. Negative Priming in Free Recall Reconsidered

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanczakowski, Maciej; Beaman, C. Philip; Jones, Dylan M.

    2016-01-01

    Negative priming in free recall is the finding of impaired memory performance when previously ignored auditory distracters become targets of encoding and retrieval. This negative priming has been attributed to an aftereffect of deploying inhibitory mechanisms that serve to suppress auditory distraction and minimize interference with learning and…

  5. Story Structure versus Content in Children's Recall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nezworski, Teresa; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Study examines possibility that certain story constituents are better recalled than others, suggesting a universal, underlying representation for a story by controlling for semantic content of settings, initiating events, internal responses, consequences, and reactions across versions of same story. Results show subjects transformed syntactic form…

  6. Adults' Event Recall: Is Context Enough?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratner, Hilary Horn; Padgett, Robert J.

    In studies of retention of verbal material adults have repeatedly remembered less than younger adults have. A study was conducted which asked older adults to remember an experienced event, retention of experiences being considered a better indicator of functioning ability than retention of word lists. In an initial study, older adults' recall was…

  7. The Structure and Recall of Narrative Prose.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentner, Donald R.

    This study examines recall of narrative prose for evidence of underlying structures such as the grammar used in the story's sentence structure. Subjects listened to repeated presentations of a tape recording of two pages from a history book, with verbals collected after each presentation. The subjects used in this experiment were 13 undergraduate…

  8. Exploring the relationship between retrieval disruption from collaboration and recall

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Sarah J.; Rajaram, Suparna

    2011-01-01

    When people recall together in a collaborative group, they recall less than their potential. This phenomenon of collaborative inhibition is explained in terms of retrieval disruption. However, collaborative recall also re-exposes individuals to items recalled by others that they themselves might otherwise have forgotten. This re-exposure produces post-collaborative benefits in individual recall. The current study examined whether reduced retrieval disruption during group recall is related not only to less collaborative inhibition, but also to greater post-collaborative recall benefits. To test this, we devised a paradigm to calculate the extent to which each individual experienced retrieval disruption during group recall. We also included two types of collaborative groups, one of which was expected to experience greater retrieval disruption than the other. Results suggest that the relationship between retrieval disruption and recall performance depends upon the level at which retrieval disruption is measured. When retrieval disruption was assessed at the individual level, then minimizing retrieval disruption was associated with higher recall (i.e., less collaborative inhibition and greater post-collaborative individual recall). However, when retrieval disruption was assessed at the group level there was no relationship with recall. Furthermore, the findings from this design suggest a role of cross-cueing in modulating group recall levels. PMID:21736433

  9. 19 CFR 141.67 - Recall of documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Presentation of Entry Papers § 141.67 Recall of documentation. The importer may recall the entry and entry summary documentation at any time before the...

  10. The combined effects of diet quality and physical activity on maintenance of muscle strength among diabetic older adults from the NuAge cohort.

    PubMed

    Rahi, Berna; Morais, José A; Dionne, Isabelle J; Gaudreau, Pierrette; Payette, Hélène; Shatenstein, Bryna

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic older adults are at a higher risk of muscle strength (MS) decline than their non-diabetic counterparts. Adequate protein and energy intakes and physical activity (PA) may preserve MS during aging. However, the role of diet quality (DQ) in MS maintenance is still unknown. This study aimed to determine the association between DQ - alone or combined with PA - and changes in MS over 3 years in diabetic participants aged 67 to 84 years at recruitment in a secondary analysis of the longitudinal observational NuAge study. Changes in handgrip, knee extensor and elbow flexor strengths were calculated as the difference between recruitment (T1) and after 3 years (T4) in 156 diabetic older adults. Baseline DQ was calculated from 3 non-consecutive 24-hour dietary recalls collected at T1 using the validated Canadian Healthy Eating Index (C-HEI). Change in PA was calculated from Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) as PASE T4-PASE T1. Four combinations of variables were created: C-HEI<70 with PASE change either < or > median and C-HEI ≥ 70 with PASE change either < or > median. The association between these four categories and MS maintenance was evaluated using General Linear Modeling (GLM). Analyses were stratified by sex and controlled for covariates. Baseline DQ alone was not associated with MS maintenance. Baseline DQ combined with PASE change showed associations with crude and baseline adjusted handgrip strength (p=0.031, p=0.018) and crude and baseline adjusted elbow flexor change (p=0.028, p=0.017) in males only; no significant results were found for knee extensor strength in either males or females. While findings for females were inconclusive, results demonstrate that better adherence to dietary guidelines combined with a more active lifestyle may prevent MS decline among diabetic older males. Additional research is needed on a larger sample since generalization of these results is limited by the small sample size. PMID:24269377

  11. Intensively managed young children with type 1 diabetes consume high-fat, low-fiber diets similar to age-matched controls.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Sanjeev N; Volkening, Lisa K; Quinn, Nicolle; Laffel, Lori M B

    2014-05-01

    Despite significant emphasis on nutrition, older children with diabetes demonstrate poor dietary quality. We tested the hypothesis that dietary quality in young children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) would be better than age-matched children in the US population. Dietary data from children with T1D (n = 67) aged 2 to 12 years attending a pediatric diabetes clinic were compared with a nationally representative, age-matched sample from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES; n = 1691). Multiple 24-hour dietary recalls were used. Recommended intakes were based on national guidelines, and dietary quality was assessed using the Healthy Eating Index-2005. More children with T1D were overweight or obese compared with children participating in NHANES (42% vs 30%, P = .04). Greater proportions of children with T1D met daily recommendations for vegetables (22% vs 13%, P = .03), whole grains (12% vs 5%, P = .005), and dairy (55% vs 36%, P = .001) compared with NHANES children, whereas similar proportions met daily fruit recommendations (40% vs 33%, P = .2). Less than one-third of all children limited total fat to recommended levels; children with T1D consumed more saturated fat than did NHANES children (14% vs 12% total energy intake, P = .0009). Fiber intakes were very low in both groups. Compared with NHANES children, children with T1D had higher Healthy Eating Index-2005 scores (59.6 vs 49.7, P = .0006) primarily because of lower intakes of added sugars. The nutritional intake of young children with T1D remains suboptimal in the contemporary era of diabetes management. Despite focused nutrition management, young children with T1D consume high-fat, low-fiber diets comparable with youth in the general population. PMID:24916556

  12. Monkeys recall and reproduce simple shapes from memory.

    PubMed

    Basile, Benjamin M; Hampton, Robert R

    2011-05-10

    If you draw from memory a picture of the front of your childhood home, you will have demonstrated recall. You could also recognize this house upon seeing it. Unlike recognition, recall demonstrates memory for things that are not present. Recall is necessary for planning and imagining, and it can increase the flexibility of navigation, social behavior, and other cognitive skills. Without recall, memory is more limited to recognition of the immediate environment. Amnesic patients are impaired on recall tests [1, 2], and recall performance often declines with aging [3]. Despite its importance, we know relatively little about nonhuman animals' ability to recall information; we lack suitable recall tests for them and depend instead on recognition tests to measure nonhuman memory. Here we report that rhesus monkeys can recall simple shapes from memory and reproduce them on a touchscreen. As in humans [4, 5], monkeys remembered less in recall than recognition tests, and their recall performance deteriorated more slowly. Transfer tests showed that monkeys used a flexible memory mechanism rather than memorizing specific actions for each shape. Observation of recall in Old World monkeys suggests that it has been adaptive for over 30 million years [6] and does not depend on language. PMID:21530257

  13. Encoding Specificity: Relation Between Recall Superiority and Recognition Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiseman, Sandor; Tulving, Endel

    1976-01-01

    The results of four experiments show that (a) recall superiority over recognition is reversed by the use of unrelated word pairs in the study list, and (b) the reversal of recall superiority leaves intact the phenomenon of recognition failure of recallable words. (Editor)

  14. Source Recall Enhances Children's Discrimination of Seen and Heard Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thierry, Karen L.; Goh, Chee Leong; Pipe, Margaret-Ellen; Murray, Janice

    2005-01-01

    The effects of rehearsing actions by source (slideshow vs. story) and of test modality (picture vs. verbal) on source monitoring were examined. Seven- to 8-year-old children (N = 30) saw a slideshow event and heard a story about a similar event. One to 2 days later, they recalled the events by source (source recall), recalled the events without…

  15. 21 CFR 810.13 - Mandatory recall order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE RECALL AUTHORITY Mandatory Medical Device Recall Procedures 810.13 Mandatory... 810.12, FDA determines that the order should be amended to require a recall of the device with...

  16. 21 CFR 810.13 - Mandatory recall order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE RECALL AUTHORITY Mandatory Medical Device Recall Procedures 810.13 Mandatory... 810.12, FDA determines that the order should be amended to require a recall of the device with...

  17. Intonation Grouping and Related Words in Free Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glanzer, Murray

    1976-01-01

    Two studies were carried out demonstrating the interaction of intonation grouping and meaning relations between words in free recall. When the intonation grouping is in phase with the word relations, recall is facilitated. When it is out of phase, recall is lowered. (Author/RM)

  18. The Effects of Presentation Order in Multitrial Free Recall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maitland, Anthony J.

    The experiment tested the effects of presentation word orders in a multitrial free-recall task. Three types of presentation were used: (1) randomized; (2) constant order; and (3) maintained order (maintenance of subjects order of recall on the subsequent presentation). In addition, the effects of number of recalls per presentation (1 or 3) were…

  19. Source Memory in the Absence of Successful Cued Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Gabriel I.; Marsh, Richard L.; Hicks, Jason L.

    2006-01-01

    Five experiments were conducted to address the question of whether source information could be accessed in the absence of being able to recall an item. The authors used a paired-associate learning paradigm in which cue-target word pairs were studied, and target recall was requested in the presence of the cue. When target recall failed,…

  20. Reconstructive Recall of Linguistic Style. Technical Report No. 286.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, William F.; Hay, Anne E.

    A study investigated reconstructive recall for linguistic style. It was hypothesized that (1) features of linguistic style would be more difficult to recall than underlying content, (2) reconstructive errors would include stylistic forms recalled as standard forms when subjects lacked productive control of a particular feature of a style, and (3)…

  1. Stimulated recall interviews for describing pragmatic epistemology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shubert, Christopher W.; Meredith, Dawn C.

    2015-12-01

    Students' epistemologies affect how and what they learn: do they believe physics is a list of equations, or a coherent and sensible description of the physical world? In order to study these epistemologies as part of curricular assessment, we adopt the resources framework, which posits that students have many productive epistemological resources that can be brought to bear as they learn physics. In previous studies, these epistemologies have been either inferred from behavior in learning contexts or probed through surveys or interviews outside of the learning context. We argue that stimulated recall interviews provide a contextually and interpretively valid method to access students' epistemologies that complement existing methods. We develop a stimulated recall interview methodology to assess a curricular intervention and find evidence that epistemological resources aptly describe student epistemologies.

  2. The number of 24 h dietary recalls using the U.S. Department of Agriculture's automated multiple-pass method required to estimate nutrient intake in overweight and obese adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA’s Automated Multiple Pass Method (AMPM) is a five-step, multiple-pass, interviewer-administered, computerized, 24-h dietary recall. The objective of the study was to quantify sources of variation such as day of the week, season, sequence of the diet interviews (training effect), diet interv...

  3. Ileostomy and your diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... ileostomy - diet; Abdominal pouch - diet; End ileostomy - diet; Ostomy - diet ... odor: Eating parsley, yogurt, and buttermilk Keeping your ostomy devices clean Using special deodorants or adding vanilla ...

  4. Examining the Relationship between Free Recall and Immediate Serial Recall: The Role of List Length, Strategy Use, and Test Expectancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grenfell-Essam, Rachel; Ward, Geoff

    2012-01-01

    Recent findings suggest that the immediate free recall (IFR) of short lists is similar to immediate serial recall (ISR). These findings were obtained using a methodology in which participants did not know the list length in advance of each list, and this uncertainty may have encouraged participants to adopt atypical recall strategies. Therefore,…

  5. Diabetes and diet in Ramadan.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Kehkeshan; Zehra, Tabassum

    2015-05-01

    Ramadan, the month of fasting, is observed by Muslims all over the world. Fasting is obligatory for all healthy adult Muslims which amounts to refraining from eating and drinking from predawn to sunset. The dietary patterns therefore totally change. For people with diabetes, instead of taking 5-6 meals, it is reduced to 2 or 3 meals in 24 hours. Good glycaemic control can be accomplished by people with diabetes, maintaining appropriate diets. It is suggested that during Ramadan similar general dietary guidelines should be followed as those throughout the year. The pre dawn meal should be taken as late as possible, before the start of the fast and should have a high proportion of carbohydrates with fibre. The traditional sugar drinks and foods rich in fat taken at iftar should be avoided. The evening meal or dinner should be consumed as early as possible at iftar and contain whole wheat flour chapattis, vegetables and a meat dish. Salads increase the fiber intake. A glass of milk or fruit at bedtime will maintain normoglycaemia till suhur. PMID:26013795

  6. The effects of social pressure on group recall.

    PubMed

    Reysen, Matthew B

    2003-12-01

    In two experiments, individual subjects worked in conjunction with two perceived group members to recall six 30-item categorized word lists. The perceived group members' recall levels were manipulated to establish either high or low group standards. After participating in the perceived group, subjects completed a surprise final individual recall test that covered all of the presented material. On the basis of the hypothesis that the subjects' performance would be affected by social pressure, it was predicted that subjects working in high-performing groups would recall more words than subjects working in low-performing groups on both the group recall tests and the final individual recall test. These predicted results were observed. Thus, a complete analysis of the group recall environment should include a consideration of conformity theory whereby subjects' memories can be affected by their group members' output levels. PMID:15058677

  7. Content-Specificity in Verbal Recall: A Randomized Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Zirk-Sadowski, Jan; Szucs, Denes; Holmes, Joni

    2013-01-01

    In this controlled experiment we examined whether there are content effects in verbal short-term memory and working memory for verbal stimuli. Thirty-seven participants completed forward and backward digit and letter recall tasks, which were constructed to control for distance effects between stimuli. A maximum-likelihood mixed-effects logistic regression revealed main effects of direction of recall (forward vs backward) and content (digits vs letters). There was an interaction between type of recall and content, in which the recall of digits was superior to the recall of letters in verbal short-term memory but not in verbal working memory. These results demonstrate that the recall of information from verbal short-term memory is content-specific, whilst the recall of information from verbal working memory is content-general. PMID:24223963

  8. Improvement of memory recall by quercetin in rodent contextual fear conditioning and human early-stage Alzheimer's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Toshiyuki; Itoh, Masanori; Ohta, Kazunori; Hayashi, Yuichi; Hayakawa, Miki; Yamada, Yasushi; Akanabe, Hiroshi; Chikaishi, Tokio; Nakagawa, Kiyomi; Itoh, Yoshinori; Muro, Takato; Yanagida, Daisuke; Nakabayashi, Ryo; Mori, Tetsuya; Saito, Kazuki; Ohzawa, Kaori; Suzuki, Chihiro; Li, Shimo; Ueda, Masashi; Wang, Miao-Xing; Nishida, Emika; Islam, Saiful; Tana; Kobori, Masuko; Inuzuka, Takashi

    2016-06-15

    Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) experience a wide array of cognitive deficits, which typically include the impairment of explicit memory. In previous studies, the authors reported that a flavonoid, quercetin, reduces the expression of ATF4 and delays memory deterioration in an early-stage AD mouse model. In the present study, the effects of long-term quercetin intake on memory recall were assessed using contextual fear conditioning in aged wild-type mice. In addition, the present study examined whether memory recall was affected by the intake of quercetin-rich onion (a new cultivar of hybrid onion 'Quergold') powder in early-stage AD patients. In-vivo analysis indicated that memory recall was enhanced in aged mice fed a quercetin-containing diet. Memory recall in early-stage AD patients, determined using the Revised Hasegawa Dementia Scale, was significantly improved by the intake of quercetin-rich onion (Quergold) powder for 4 weeks compared with the intake of control onion ('Mashiro' white onion) powder. These results indicate that quercetin might influence memory recall. PMID:27145228

  9. Awareness and recall during general anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Anesthesia awareness is defined as both consciousness and recall of surgical events. New research has been conducted out to test this phenomenon. However, testing methods have not proven reliable, including those using devices based on electroencephalographic techniques to detect and prevent intraoperative awareness. The limitations of a standard intraoperative brain monitor reflect our insufficient understanding of consciousness. Moreover, patients who experience an intraoperative awareness can develop serious post-traumatic stress disorders that should not be overlooked. In this review, we introduce the incidence of intraoperative awareness during general anesthesia and discuss the mechanisms of consciousness, as well as risk factors, various monitoring methods, outcome and prevention of intraoperative awareness. PMID:24910724

  10. Mediterranean Diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... and other cereals, potatoes, beans, nuts and seeds olive oil is an important monounsaturated fat source dairy ... Mediterranean diet come from monounsaturated fats (mainly from olive oil). Monounsaturated fat doesn't raise blood cholesterol ...

  11. Vegetarian diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... made up of foods that come mostly from plants. These include: Vegetables Fruits Whole grains Legumes Seeds ... different types of vegetarian diets: Vegan: includes only plant-based foods. No animal proteins or animal by- ...

  12. Televised Self-Confrontation and Recalled Affect: A New Look at Videotape Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, David; Resnikoff, Arthur

    1977-01-01

    The extent to which individuals can recall feelings they experienced during a dyadic interaction, when shown a televised replay of that interaction, was investigated. Pairs of subjects (N=10) were trained rate their degree of comfort or discomfort during the actual ("live") interaction and, subsequently, as they watched a video-taped replay of…

  13. Undivided attention improves postoperative anesthesia handover recall

    PubMed Central

    Arenas, Alejandro; Tabaac, Burton J; Fastovets, Galina; Patil, Vinod

    2014-01-01

    Background For years, undivided attention during the presurgical “timeout” has been utilized as a precaution to ensure patient safety. The information relayed during the timeout is presented in a confirmatory nature rather than a delegation of new information. However, it is a standard of practice in which all members of the operating theater provide their full and undivided attention. Standards of patient care should be contiguous throughout the preoperative, perioperative, and postoperative stages of surgery. In this manner, it is expected that the same undivided attention afforded during the timeout should be maintained when transferring the patient to the postanesthesia care unit. Methods In this study, information was collected regarding handover of information during the transfer status postsurgical procedures. Data were collected via observing interactions between the anesthesiologist and the nurse during verbal patient transfers. Results This study demonstrated that the presence of undivided attention during the handover of a surgical patient in the postanesthesia care unit has a direct correlation with improved recall of the information discussed during handover. Conclusion Focus is on the quantity of information that can be recalled by the transferring nurse, and whether or not undivided attention affects the outcome. Analysis focuses on suggestions to better improve patient safety and recovery when being transferred in an anesthetic setting. The practice of patient handover should be standardized to better improve the safety and quality of medical care. PMID:25031549

  14. Rethinking the Youth Weight Debate: The 24 Hour Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodd, Graham; Biggs, Sarah; Agley, Daniel; Dollman, James; Lushington, Kurt

    2008-01-01

    Approaches to weight management have traditionally focussed on caloric intake versus caloric expenditure. Despite a range of interventions based on these approaches, the proportion of overweight children and adolescents continues to rise. There are increasing indications that other factors, such as sleep duration, may be at play. This commentary…

  15. A 24-hour remote surveillance system for terrestrial wildlife studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sykes, P.W., Jr.; Ryman, W.E.; Kepler, C.B.; Hardy, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    The configuration, components, specifications and costs of a state-of-the-art closed-circuit television system with wide application for wildlife research and management are described. The principal system components consist of color CCTV camera with zoom lens, pan/tilt system, infrared illuminator, heavy duty tripod, coaxial cable, coaxitron system, half-duplex equalizing video/control amplifier, timelapse video cassette recorder, color video monitor, VHS video cassettes, portable generator, fuel tank and power cable. This system was developed and used in a study of Mississippi sandhiIl Crane (Grus canadensis pratensis) behaviors during incubation, hatching and fledging. The main advantages of the system are minimal downtime where a complete record of every event, its time of occurrence and duration, are permanently recorded and can be replayed as many times as necessary thereafter to retrieve the data. The system is particularly applicable for studies of behavior and predation, for counting individuals, or recording difficult to observe activities. The system can be run continuously for several weeks by two people, reducing personnel costs. This paper is intended to provide biologists who have litte knowledge of electronics with a system that might be useful to their specific needs. The disadvantages of this system are the initial costs (about $9800 basic, 1990-1991 U.S. dollars) and the time required to playback video cassette tapes for data retrieval, but the playback can be sped up when litte or no activity of interest is taking place. In our study, the positive aspects of the system far outweighed the negative.

  16. Elimination of 24-hour continuous medical resident duty in Quebec

    PubMed Central

    Hamadani, Fadi; Deckelbaum, Dan; Shaheen, Mohammed; Sauvé, Alexandre; Dumitra, Sinziana; Ahmed, Najma; Latulippe, Jean-François; Balaa, Fady; Walsh, Mark; Fata, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Summary In 2012 Quebec limited continuous in-hospital duty to 16 consecutive hours for all residents regardless of postgraduate (PGY) level. The new restrictions in Quebec appeared to have a profound, negative effect on the quality of life of surgical residents at McGill University and a perceived detrimental effect on the delivery of surgical education and patient care. Here we discuss the results of a nationwide survey that we created and distributed to general surgery residents across Canada to capture and compare their perceptions of the changes to duty hour restrictions. PMID:26574704

  17. Ergogenic demands of a 24 hour cycling event.

    PubMed

    White, J A; Ward, C; Nelson, H

    1984-09-01

    The maximal aerobic performance (VO2 max) and energy costs of cycling at various power outputs and equivalent road speeds of a highly trained endurance cyclist (age 23.4 yrs, height 1.95 m, weight 73.1 kg), were measured in the laboratory on an eddy-current cycle ergometer, and the physiological responses related to determinations made during a 24 h cycling time trial event, using continuous ECG recording from which estimates of ergogenic demands were obtained. The cyclist covered a distance of 694 km during the event at an average speed of 28.9 km.h-1 which corresponded to an equivalent oxygen cost of 38.5 ml.kg-1 min-1 and represented approximately 55% of his VO2 max. During the event, the cyclist expended an estimated 82,680 kJ of energy, of which approximately 44,278 kJ (54%) were supplied by repeated feedings of liquids, solids and semi-solids and some 38,402 kJ (46%) came from the stored energy reserves which resulted in a 1.19 kg loss of body weight during the event. The energy demands of the activity were more than three times greater than the highest recorded values of severe industrial work, and similar to the hourly rates of expenditure of shorter duration competitive events, but above the highest values reported over other extreme endurance events over the same period of time. The results thus represent near maximal levels of sustainable ergogenic effort by man over a complete 24 h cycle. PMID:6487942

  18. Attenuated sympathetic nerve responses after 24 hours of bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khan, Mazhar H.; Kunselman, Allen R.; Leuenberger, Urs A.; Davidson, William R Jr; Ray, Chester A.; Gray, Kristen S.; Hogeman, Cynthia S.; Sinoway, Lawrence I.

    2002-01-01

    Bed rest reduces orthostatic tolerance. Despite decades of study, the cause of this phenomenon remains unclear. In this report we examined hemodynamic and sympathetic nerve responses to graded lower body negative pressure (LBNP) before and after 24 h of bed rest. LBNP allows for baroreceptor disengagement in a graded fashion. We measured heart rate (HR), cardiac output (HR x stroke volume obtained by echo Doppler), and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) during a progressive and graded LBNP paradigm. Negative pressure was increased by 10 mmHg every 3 min until presyncope or completion of -60 mmHg. After bed rest, LBNP tolerance was reduced in 11 of 13 subjects (P <.023), HR was greater (P <.002), cardiac output was unchanged, and the ability to augment MSNA at high levels of LBNP was reduced (rate of rise for 30- to 60-mmHg LBNP before bed rest 0.073 bursts x min(-1) x mmHg(-1); after bed rest 0.035 bursts x min(-1) x mmHg(-1); P < 0.016). These findings suggest that 24 h of bed rest reduces sympathetic nerve responses to LBNP.

  19. Collection of a 24-Hour Urine Specimen (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods. 10. GENERAL: If any provision of this Agreement is determined to be invalid or unenforceable under any applicable law, it shall be deemed omitted and the remaining ...

  20. Newborn Infants' Memory for Speech Sounds Retained over 24 Hours.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swain, Irina U.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Neonates who were exposed to the same or different words on two consecutive days habituated to the sound on day one and recovered head turning on day two. Infants who heard the same word again on day two responded less well than infants exposed to the word for the first time on day two. (BC)

  1. The impact of fertilization on the chicken egg yolk plasma and granule proteome 24 hours post-lay at room temperature: capitalizing on high-pH/low-pH reverse phase chromatography in conjunction with tandem mass tag (TMT) technology.

    PubMed

    Padliya, Neerav D; Qian, Meiqian; Mimi Roy, Sushmita; Chu, Patrick; Zheng, Haiyan; Tess, Alex; Dariani, Maghsoud; Hariri, Robert J

    2015-07-01

    Chicken egg yolk is a rich source of nutrients providing high quality proteins, vitamins, minerals, carotenoids and antioxidants. Chicken egg yolk, recovered from whole egg within 24 hours post-lay has been utilized as a starting material in the preparation of a dietary supplement that has been demonstrated to lead to gains in muscle mass in a human clinical study. Further, an oil derived from chicken egg yolk has been utilized as a topical agent to treat third degree burn injury. The molecular changes that take place in fertilized, chicken egg yolk during the first 24 hours post-lay are not well understood. By studying how the protein composition of egg yolk varies with fertility status, one can utilize this knowledge to develop egg yolk-based products that have been optimized for specific applications. In this study, a direct quantitative comparison was made between the proteome of fertilized chicken egg yolk and the proteome of unfertilized chicken egg yolk, both maintained at 20 °C and analyzed within 24 hours post-lay. Egg yolk proteins from each fertility state were digested with trypsin, labeled with distinct chemical labels (tandem mass tag reagents) and then combined in a 1 : 1 ratio. A TMT-labeled tryptic digest derived from chicken egg yolk proteins (fertilized and unfertilized) was separated using high-pH/low-pH reverse-phase chromatography and analyzed using mass spectrometry. 225 protein identifications were made from this TMT-labeled tryptic digest based on a minimum of 2 unique peptides observed per protein. 9 proteins increased in abundance in fertilized egg yolk relative to unfertilized egg yolk and 9 proteins decreased in abundance in fertilized egg yolk relative to unfertilized egg yolk. Some proteins that increased in abundance in fertilized egg yolk play an important role in angiogenesis (pleiotrophin, histidine rich glycoprotein) and defense against pathogens (mannose-binding lectin, β-defensin 11, serum amyloid P-component, ovostatin). Based on this study, fertilized chicken egg yolk may be more useful as a starting material relative to unfertilized chicken egg yolk for the purpose of enriching or isolating proteins with pro-angiogenic and anti-microbial properties. PMID:26073176

  2. Chunk Limits and Length Limits in Immediate Recall: A Reconciliation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Zhijian; Cowan, Nelson

    2005-01-01

    Whereas some research on immediate recall of verbal lists has suggested that it is limited by the number of chunks that can be recalled (e.g., N. Cowan, Z. Chen, & J. N. Rouder, 2004; E. Tulving & J. E. Patkau, 1962), other research has suggested that it is limited by the length of the material to be recalled (e.g., A. D. Baddeley, N. Thomson, &…

  3. Children’s recalls from five dietary-reporting validation studies: Intrusions in correctly reported and misreported options in school breakfast reports

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Suzanne Domel; Hardin, James W.; Royer, Julie A.; Guinn, Caroline H.; Smith, Albert F.

    2008-01-01

    For school breakfast each day, many elementary schools offer a choice between a cold option that includes ready-to-eat (RTE) cereal and a hot option that includes a non-RTE-cereal entrée such as waffles. For breakfast reports, intrusions (reports of uneaten items) in correctly reported and misreported breakfast options were examined using data from five dietary-reporting validation studies. In each study, fourth-grade children were observed eating school breakfast and school lunch and then interviewed to obtain a dietary recall. A breakfast option was correctly reported in 240 breakfast reports for 203 intrusions total, and misreported in 97 breakfast reports for 189 intrusions total. Asymmetry was evident in misreported options; specifically, children observed eating a cold option almost never misreported a hot option, but children observed eating a hot option often misreported a cold option. Proportionately more breakfast reports were intrusion-free when a breakfast option was correctly reported than misreported. Linking of intrusions (i.e., multiple intrusions from the same option in a breakfast report) was especially evident with misreported breakfast options. Methodological aspects of dietary recalls such as target period (prior 24 hours; previous day), interview time (morning; afternoon; evening), and interview format (meal; open) had implications for intrusions and misreported breakfast options. PMID:18501992

  4. Parapraxes in song recall: a neglected variable.

    PubMed

    Díaz de Chumaceiro, C L

    1993-09-01

    In addition to expressing themselves with verbal and nonverbal communications, and by the countertransference reactions perceived by analysts, patients also reveal their inner world of images and feelings specifically with music evocations. This paper presents an initial attempt to identify and classify some of the parapraxes produced in the evocation of lyrics and music by polyglot members of treatment dyads in two empirical studies and in private practice. There may be many others, particularly related to the music per se. This paper has focused mainly on the lyrics, the equivalent of the manifest content of dreams, which nonmusician therapists can learn to handle well. Instead, in the case of the musical latent content, some knowledge of music is necessary. Supervisors' songs were considered beyond the scope of this paper and will be addressed separately. Parapraxes in song recall signal unconscious transference-countertransference states in process at the moment of evocation. PMID:8214208

  5. Beyond Memorability: Visualization Recognition and Recall.

    PubMed

    Borkin, Michelle A; Bylinskii, Zoya; Kim, Nam Wook; Bainbridge, Constance May; Yeh, Chelsea S; Borkin, Daniel; Pfister, Hanspeter; Oliva, Aude

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we move beyond memorability and investigate how visualizations are recognized and recalled. For this study we labeled a dataset of 393 visualizations and analyzed the eye movements of 33 participants as well as thousands of participant-generated text descriptions of the visualizations. This allowed us to determine what components of a visualization attract people's attention, and what information is encoded into memory. Our findings quantitatively support many conventional qualitative design guidelines, including that (1) titles and supporting text should convey the message of a visualization, (2) if used appropriately, pictograms do not interfere with understanding and can improve recognition, and (3) redundancy helps effectively communicate the message. Importantly, we show that visualizations memorable "at-a-glance" are also capable of effectively conveying the message of the visualization. Thus, a memorable visualization is often also an effective one. PMID:26390488

  6. Recall Latencies, Confidence, and Output Positions of True and False Memories: Implications for Recall and Metamemory Theories

    PubMed Central

    Jou, Jerwen

    2012-01-01

    Recall latency, recall accuracy rate, and recall confidence were examined in free recall as a function of recall output serial position using a modified Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm to test a strength-based theory against the dual-retrieval process theory of recall output sequence. The strength theory predicts the item output sequence to be in the descending order of memory strength. The dual-retrieval process theory postulates two phases in a free recall, a first direct access phase in which items are output verbatim in the weakest-to-strongest order (cognitive triage) and a second reconstructive phase in which reconstructed items are output in the strongest-to-weakest order. In three experiments, all three indicators of memory strength (latency, accuracy, and confidence) consistently showed a descending-strength order of recall both for true and false memories. Additionally, false memory was found to be output in two phases and subjects’ confidence judgment of their own memory to be unaccountable by retrieval fluency (recall latency). PMID:22582008

  7. Accuracy in Recalling Interest Inventory Information at Three Time Intervals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Jane L.; Gore, Paul A., Jr.; Leuwerke, Wade; D'Achiardi, Catalina; Edwards, Jorie Hitch; Edwards, Jared

    2006-01-01

    Rates of accurate recall of the Strong Interest Inventory (SII; L. W. Harmon, J. C. Hansen, F. H. Borgen, & A. L. Hammer, 1994) profile information varied with the amount of time elapsed since the interpretation, the type of SII scale, and whether immediate recall was elicited, but rates did not vary with the strategy used to provide the…

  8. Using Recall to Reduce False Recognition: Diagnostic and Disqualifying Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallo, David A.

    2004-01-01

    Whether recall of studied words (e.g., parsley, rosemary, thyme) could reduce false recognition of related lures (e.g., basil) was investigated. Subjects studied words from several categories for a final recognition memory test. Half of the subjects were given standard test instructions, and half were instructed to use recall to reduce false…

  9. Prior-List Intrusions in Serial Recall Are Positional

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osth, Adam F.; Dennis, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Henson (1996) provided a number of demonstrations of error patterns in serial recall that contradict chaining models. One such error pattern concerned when participants make intrusions from prior lists: Rather than originating from random positions in the prior list, intrusions tend to be recalled in the same position as their position in the…

  10. 19 CFR 141.67 - Recall of documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Recall of documentation. 141.67 Section 141.67 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Presentation of Entry Papers § 141.67 Recall of...

  11. Veridical and False Recall in Adults Who Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Courtney T.; Sheng, Li; Ratner, Nan Bernstein; Gkalitsiou, Zoi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study used a false memory paradigm to explore the veridical and false recall of adults who stutter. Method: Twelve adults who stutter and 12 age-matched typically fluent peers listened to and then verbally recalled lists of words that consisted of either semantic or phonological associates or an equal number of semantic and…

  12. 40 CFR 205.59 - Recall of noncomplying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... manufacturer to recall and repair or modify any vehicle distributed in commerce not in compliance with this... Administrator that vehicles of a specified category or configuration have been distributed in commerce which do... opportunity for a hearing. (e) All costs, including labor and parts, associated with the recall and repair...

  13. Rethinking Familiarity: Remember/Know Judgments in Free Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickes, Laura; Seale-Carlisle, Travis M.; Wixted, John T.

    2013-01-01

    Although frequently used with recognition, a few studies have used the Remember/Know procedure with free recall. In each case, participants gave Know judgments to a significant number of recalled items (items that were presumably not remembered on the basis of familiarity). What do these Know judgments mean? We investigated this issue using a

  14. Bender Gestalt Recall: Memory Measure or Intelligence Estimate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armentrout, James A.

    1976-01-01

    WAIS subtset standard scores, IQ scores, and factorial deviation quotients were correlated with Bender Gestalt recall scores for 111 vocational rehabilitation clients. Results found that the Bender recall task could not classify Ss as to general intelligence level with greater accuracy than could be obtained with the WAIS Vocabulary subtest alone.…

  15. Note-Taking and Information Recall: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Jerry R.; Miller, Paul R.

    1977-01-01

    The amount of recorded information from a medical interview by note-taking was compared with that received with no note-taking. The study with 46 medical students suggests that note-taking facilitates recall and that there is a progressive decay of memory recall with the passage of time between the physician-patient interview and the recording of…

  16. Food Recall Attitudes and Behaviors of School Nutrition Directors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grisamore, Amber; Roberts, Kevin R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore school nutrition directors' attitudes and behaviors about food recalls. Specific objectives included: 1) Determine current food recall attitudes and the relationship between demographics and these attitudes; 2) Determine current practices of school nutrition directors related to…

  17. Age effects on spectral electroencephalogram activity prior to dream recall.

    PubMed

    Chellappa, Sarah L; Münch, Mirjam; Knoblauch, Vera; Cajochen, Christian

    2012-06-01

    Ageing is associated with marked changes in sleep timing, structure and electroencephalographic (EEG) activity. Older people exhibit less slow-wave and spindle activity during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, together with attenuated levels of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep as compared to young individuals. However, the extent to which these age-related changes in sleep impact on dream processing remains largely unknown. Here we investigated NREM and REM sleep EEG activity prior to dream recall and no recall in 17 young (20-31 years) and 15 older volunteers (57-74 years) during a 40 h multiple nap protocol. Dream recall was assessed immediately after each nap. During NREM sleep prior to dream recall, older participants displayed higher frontal EEG delta activity (1-3 Hz) and higher centro-parietal sigma activity (12-15 Hz) than the young volunteers. Conversely, before no recall, older participants had less frontal-central delta activity and less sigma activity in frontal, central and parietal derivations than the young participants. REM sleep was associated to age-related changes, such that older participants had less frontal-central alpha (10-12 Hz) and beta (16-19 Hz) activity, irrespective of dream recall and no recall. Our data indicate that age-related differences in dream recall seem to be directly coupled to specific frequency and topography EEG patterns, particularly during NREM sleep. Thus, the spectral correlates of dreaming can help to understand the cortical pathways of dreaming. PMID:21851439

  18. Semantic Processing and Recall Improvement of EMR Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glidden, Laraine Masters; Warner, Darcey A.

    1983-01-01

    Semantic processing, the form of stories linking to-be-remembered words, was compared with cumulative rehearsal in a free-recall task for 60 educable mentally retarded adolescents. Semantic-processing Ss showed better recall at original learning and, to a lesser extent, at a 2-week retention test. (Author/CL)

  19. Accuracy in Recalling Interest Inventory Information at Three Time Intervals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Jane L.; Gore, Paul A., Jr.; Leuwerke, Wade; D'Achiardi, Catalina; Edwards, Jorie Hitch; Edwards, Jared

    2006-01-01

    Rates of accurate recall of the Strong Interest Inventory (SII; L. W. Harmon, J. C. Hansen, F. H. Borgen, & A. L. Hammer, 1994) profile information varied with the amount of time elapsed since the interpretation, the type of SII scale, and whether immediate recall was elicited, but rates did not vary with the strategy used to provide the

  20. 40 CFR 205.59 - Recall of noncomplying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recall of noncomplying vehicles. 205... of noncomplying vehicles. (a) Pursuant to section 11(d)(1) of the Act, the Administrator may issue an order to the manufacturer to recall and repair or modify any vehicle distributed in commerce not...

  1. 40 CFR 205.59 - Recall of noncomplying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Recall of noncomplying vehicles. 205... of noncomplying vehicles. (a) Pursuant to section 11(d)(1) of the Act, the Administrator may issue an order to the manufacturer to recall and repair or modify any vehicle distributed in commerce not...

  2. Book Availability Revisited: Turnaround Time for Recalls versus Interlibrary Loans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, David J.; Pedersen, Wayne A.

    2003-01-01

    Describes a study that tests the assumption that locally owned books that an academic library patron finds unavailable due to checkout can be obtained more quickly via recall than via interlibrary loan. Establishes average turnaround time for circulation recalls for comparison with turnaround times for interlibrary loans. (Contains 50 references.)…

  3. The fSAM Model of False Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Daniel R.; Smith, Troy A.; Kahana, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    The authors report a new theory of false memory building upon existing associative memory models and implemented in fSAM, the first fully specified quantitative model of false recall. Participants frequently intrude unstudied critical words while recalling lists comprising their strongest semantic associates but infrequently produce other…

  4. Food Recall Attitudes and Behaviors of School Nutrition Directors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grisamore, Amber; Roberts, Kevin R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore school nutrition directors' attitudes and behaviors about food recalls. Specific objectives included: 1) Determine current food recall attitudes and the relationship between demographics and these attitudes; 2) Determine current practices of school nutrition directors related to

  5. Using Recall to Reduce False Recognition: Diagnostic and Disqualifying Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallo, David A.

    2004-01-01

    Whether recall of studied words (e.g., parsley, rosemary, thyme) could reduce false recognition of related lures (e.g., basil) was investigated. Subjects studied words from several categories for a final recognition memory test. Half of the subjects were given standard test instructions, and half were instructed to use recall to reduce false

  6. Speech and Language Processing Mechanisms in Verbal Serial Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Richard; Hulme, Charles

    2006-01-01

    We report two experiments examining the role of concreteness and word phonological neighborhood characteristics on immediate serial recall. In line with previous findings concreteness, word frequency, and larger neighborhood size are associated with better serial recall. Both concreteness and word neighborhood size were also positively associated

  7. Rethinking Familiarity: Remember/Know Judgments in Free Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickes, Laura; Seale-Carlisle, Travis M.; Wixted, John T.

    2013-01-01

    Although frequently used with recognition, a few studies have used the Remember/Know procedure with free recall. In each case, participants gave Know judgments to a significant number of recalled items (items that were presumably not remembered on the basis of familiarity). What do these Know judgments mean? We investigated this issue using a…

  8. Assessing the effect of lexical variables in backward recall.

    PubMed

    Guérard, Katherine; Saint-Aubin, Jean

    2012-03-01

    In a recent study, Bireta et al. (2010) suggested that when participants are required to recall lists of items in the reverse order, more attention is devoted to the recall of order at the expense of item information, leading to the abolition of item-based phenomena (the item and order trade-off hypothesis). In order to test the item and order trade-off hypothesis, we manipulated 4 lexical factors that are well known to influence item retention. The effects of word frequency, of lexicality, of semantic similarity, and of imageability were tested in forward and backward recall. All 4 phenomena were maintained in backward recall, which contradicts the item and order trade-off hypothesis. Instead, we suggest that backward recall might rely on semantic retrieval strategies. PMID:21928932

  9. Aha! experiences leave a mark: facilitated recall of insight solutions.

    PubMed

    Danek, Amory H; Fraps, Thomas; von Müller, Albrecht; Grothe, Benedikt; Ollinger, Michael

    2013-09-01

    The present study investigates a possible memory advantage for solutions that were reached through insightful problem solving. We hypothesized that insight solutions (with Aha! experience) would be remembered better than noninsight solutions (without Aha! experience). 34 video clips of magic tricks were presented to 50 participants as a novel problem-solving task, asking them to find out how the trick was achieved. Upon discovering the solution, participants had to indicate whether they had experienced insight during the solving process. After a delay of 14 days, a recall of solutions was conducted. Overall, 55 % of previously solved tricks were recalled correctly. Comparing insight and noninsight solutions, 64.4 % of all insight solutions were recalled correctly, whereas only 52.4 % of all noninsight solutions were recalled correctly. We interpret this finding as a facilitating effect of previous insight experiences on the recall of solutions. PMID:23007629

  10. A randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effect of incorporating peanuts into an American Diabetes Association meal plan on the nutrient profile of the total diet and cardiometabolic parameters of adults with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background According to the American Diabetes Association (ADA), the nutritional goals for patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) are to achieve an optimal nutrient intake to achieve normoglycemia and a cardioprotective lipid profile. Peanuts are nutrient dense foods that contain high levels of monounsaturated fat (MUFA) and are a natural source of arginine, fiber, phytosterols, resveritrol, niacin, folate, vitamin E and magnesium, which have the potential for improving blood lipids and glycemic control. This study sought to evaluate the effect of a peanut enriched ADA meal plan on the nutrient profile of the total diet and cardiometabolic parameters in adults with T2D. Methods This was a randomized, prospective 24-week parallel-group clinical trial with 60 adults with T2D [age range 34–84 years; body mass index (BMI) range 17.2-48.7 kg/m2]. Subjects consumed an ADA meal plan containing ~20% of energy from peanuts (peanut group) or a peanut-free ADA meal plan (control group). Weight, BMI, waist circumference (WC) and nutrient intake from 24-hour recalls were measured every 4 weeks and fasting blood glucose (FBG), HbA1c and blood lipids were measured every 12 weeks. A mixed-model repeated-measures analysis of covariance was performed to assess the significance of changes in the cardiometabolic parameters. Results A higher polyunsaturated fat (PUFA) to saturated fat diet ratio and higher intake of MUFA, PUFA, α-tocopherol, niacin and magnesium was observed in the peanut group as compared to the control group (P < 0.01-P = 0.04). Both groups experienced mild reductions in weight, BMI, and WC during the study (P = 0.01-P = 0.03), however there were no differences between the two groups in these measurements or in FBG, HbA1c or blood lipids. For each kilogram of weight loss in the entire cohort there were associations for reductions in WC of 0.48 cm (P < 0.01), FBG of 0.11 mmol/l (P = 0.01) and HbA1c of 0.07% (P < 0.01). Conclusions Daily consumption of a peanut enriched (46 g/d) ADA meal plan over 24 weeks improves the nutrient profile of the total diet and is compatible with weight management and improvement in specific blood lipids. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00937222 PMID:24450471

  11. 21 CFR 107.230 - Elements of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Elements of an infant formula recall. 107.230... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.230 Elements of an infant formula recall. A recalling firm shall conduct an infant formula recall with the following elements:...

  12. 21 CFR 107.230 - Elements of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Elements of an infant formula recall. 107.230... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.230 Elements of an infant formula recall. A recalling firm shall conduct an infant formula recall with the following elements:...

  13. 21 CFR 107.230 - Elements of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Elements of an infant formula recall. 107.230... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.230 Elements of an infant formula recall. A recalling firm shall conduct an infant formula recall with the following elements:...

  14. 21 CFR 107.230 - Elements of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Elements of an infant formula recall. 107.230... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.230 Elements of an infant formula recall. A recalling firm shall conduct an infant formula recall with the following elements:...

  15. Diet and Spondylitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Spondylitis Info For Teens Message Boards & Forums Donate Diet & Spondylitis Learn About Spondyloarthritis / Diet & Spondylitis Overview For ... Diet Blood Work and Spondylitis Spondylitis Awareness Month Diet's Effect On Spondylitis Symptoms In recent years many ...

  16. Diet and Spondylitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Changing Your Diet The London AS / Low Starch Diet Blood Work and Spondylitis Spondylitis Awareness Month ... Your Diet Dietary Supplements The London AS / Low Starch Diet Join us on: About Spondylitis / Spondyloarthritis Overview ...

  17. Effects of Training in Dream Recall and Dream Interpretation Skills on Dream Recall, Attitudes, and Dream Interpretation Outcome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochlen, Aaron B.; Ligiero, Daniela P.; Hill, Clara E.; Heaton, Kristin J.

    1999-01-01

    Volunteer clients (N=44) with below-average dream recall and attitudes toward dreams participated in training sessions focusing on either improving dream recall and attitudes toward dreams, building dream-interpretation skills, or educating about counseling. No significant differences were found within the three groups. Results suggest that…

  18. Observed vs. Recalled Exercise Behavior: A Validation of a Seven Day Exercise Recall for Boys 11 to 13 Years Old.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Janet P.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Eleven boys at a summer camp were asked to recall the mode, duration, and intensity of their physical activity during the preceding seven days. When compared with their counselor's records, the boys were accurate enough to make seven-day recall applicable as a summary tool of children's total energy expenditure. (Author/MT)

  19. Context Retrieval and Context Change in Free Recall: Recalling from Long-Term Memory Drives List Isolation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jang, Yoonhee; Huber, David E.

    2008-01-01

    Three experiments used the "list-before-the-last" free recall paradigm (Shiffrin, 1970) to investigate retrieval for context and the manner in which context changes. This paradigm manipulates target and intervening list lengths to measure the interference from each list, providing a measure of list isolation. Correct target list recall was only

  20. Physical activity information seeking and advertising recall.

    PubMed

    Berry, Tanya R; Spence, John C; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Bauman, Adrian

    2011-04-01

    The purposes of this research were to examine the characteristics of those who look for physical activity-related information, where they find it, and to examine what types of physical activity-related advertisements are recalled (i.e., publicly funded or commercial). These purposes were tested using secondary data analyses from two population health surveys. Results from the first survey (n=1211) showed gender, age, education, and activity-level differences in who is more likely to search for physical activity-related information. Adding the goal of being active into the model made age and activity level no longer significant but gender and education remained significant factors. The Internet was the most often cited source of physical activity information. The second survey (n=1600) showed that adults 55 years of age or older and participants with the least amount of education were more than twice as likely to name commercial advertisements than were participants aged 18-54 years or those with more education. These results help further our understanding of how publicly funded promotional campaigns fare against commercial advertising and also highlight the need to understand physical activity information-seeking behavior on the Internet and its implications for health promotion. PMID:21347937

  1. Recall and recognition hypermnesia for Socratic stimuli.

    PubMed

    Kazn, Miguel; Sols-Macas, Vctor M

    2016-01-01

    In two experiments, we investigate hypermnesia, net memory improvements with repeated testing of the same material after a single study trial. In the first experiment, we found hypermnesia across three trials for the recall of word solutions to Socratic stimuli (dictionary-like definitions of concepts) replicating Erdelyi, Buschke, and Finkelstein and, for the first time using these materials, for their recognition. In the second experiment, we had two "yes/no" recognition groups, a Socratic stimuli group presented with concrete and abstract verbal materials and a word-only control group. Using signal detection measures, we found hypermnesia for concrete Socratic stimuli-and stable performance for abstract stimuli across three recognition tests. The control group showed memory decrements across tests. We interpret these findings with the alternative retrieval pathways (ARP) hypothesis, contrasting it with alternative theories of hypermnesia, such as depth of processing, generation and retrieve-recognise. We conclude that recognition hypermnesia for concrete Socratic stimuli is a reliable phenomenon, which we found in two experiments involving both forced-choice and yes/no recognition procedures. PMID:25523628

  2. [Osteoporosis diet].

    PubMed

    Morselli, B; Neuenschwander, B; Perrelet, R; Lippuner, K

    2000-03-01

    Bone requires a wide variety of nutrients to develop normally and to maintain itself after growth. Most important--in the sense that bony abnormalities are associated with their deficiencies--are protein, calcium, phosphorus, vitamin D, C and K, zinc, manganese and copper. The nutrients most likely to be deficient in citizens of industrialized countries are calcium and vitamin D. In this review of the current literature about nutritional aspects of osteoporosis, we have focused on factors influencing calcium requirement: the principal interacting nutrients are sodium, protein, caffeine, fiber, oxalate, phytate, and the acid/alkaline ash character of the overall diet. Fiber and caffeine decrease calcium absorption from the gut and typically exert relatively minor effects, while sodium, protein and the acid/alkaline balance of the diet increase urinary excretion of calcium and are of much greater significance for the calcium homeostasis. Alkali buffers, whether vegetables or fruits reverse this urinary calcium loss. As long as accompanied by adequate calcium intake, protein-rich diet is not deleterious to bone: a calcium-to-protein ratio of 20:1 (mg calcium/g protein) is recommended. Whether a nutrition-based therapeutic approach to osteoporosis is feasible in the near future is yet unclear: at least there are some recent promising data from in-vitro as well as from rat studies showing that extracts taken from various vegetables, mainly from the onion family inhibit bone resorption in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:10756695

  3. The impact of chewing gum resistance on immediate free recall.

    PubMed

    Rickman, Sarah; Johnson, Andrew; Miles, Christopher

    2013-08-01

    Although the facilitative effects of chewing gum on free recall have proved contentious (e.g., Tucha, Mecklinger, Maier, Hammerl, & Lange, 2004; Wilkinson, Scholey, & Wesnes, 2002), there are strong physiological grounds, for example, increased cerebral activity and blood flow following the act of mastication, to suppose facilitation. The present study manipulated resistance to mastication, that is, chewing four pellets versus one pellet of gum, with the assumption that increased resistance will accentuate cerebral activity and blood flow. Additionally, chewing rate was recorded for all participants. In a within-participants design, participants performed a series of immediate free recall tasks while chewing gum at learning (one or four pellets) and recall (one or four pellets). Increased chewing resistance was not associated with increased memory performance, despite consistent chewing rates for both the one and four pellet conditions at both learning and recall. However, a pattern of recall consistent with context-dependent memory was observed. Here, participants who chewed the equivalent number of gum pellets at both learning and recall experienced significantly superior word recall compared to those conditions where the number of gum pellets differed. PMID:23848385

  4. Backward recall and benchmark effects of working memory.

    PubMed

    Bireta, Tamra J; Fry, Sheena E; Jalbert, Annie; Neath, Ian; Surprenant, Aimée M; Tehan, Gerald; Tolan, Georgina Anne

    2010-04-01

    Working memory was designed to explain four benchmark memory effects: the word length effect, the irrelevant speech effect, the acoustic confusion effect, and the concurrent articulation effect. However, almost all research thus far has used tests that emphasize forward recall. In four experiments, we examine whether each effect is observable when the items are recalled in reverse order. Subjects did not know which recall direction would be required until the time of test, ensuring that encoding processes would be identical for both recall directions. Contrary to predictions of both the primacy model and the feature model, the benchmark memory effect was either absent or greatly attenuated with backward recall, despite being present with forward recall. Direction of recall had no effect on the more difficult conditions (e.g., long words, similar-sounding items, items presented with irrelevant speech, and items studied with concurrent articulation). Several factors not considered by the primacy and feature models are noted, and a possible explanation within the framework of the SIMPLE model is briefly presented. PMID:20234018

  5. Collaborative recall of details of an emotional film.

    PubMed

    Wessel, Ineke; Zandstra, Anna Roos E; Hengeveld, Hester M E; Moulds, Michelle L

    2015-01-01

    Collaborative inhibition refers to the phenomenon that when several people work together to produce a single memory report, they typically produce fewer items than when the unique items in the individual reports of the same number of participants are combined (i.e., nominal recall). Yet, apart from this negative effect, collaboration may be beneficial in that group members remove errors from a collaborative report. Collaborative inhibition studies on memory for emotional stimuli are scarce. Therefore, the present study examined both collaborative inhibition and collaborative error reduction in the recall of the details of emotional material in a laboratory setting. Female undergraduates (n = 111) viewed a film clip of a fatal accident and subsequently engaged in either collaborative (n = 57) or individual recall (n = 54) in groups of three. The results show that, across several detail categories, collaborating groups recalled fewer details than nominal groups. However, overall, nominal recall produced more errors than collaborative recall. The present results extend earlier findings on both collaborative inhibition and error reduction to the recall of affectively laden material. These findings may have implications for the applied fields of forensic and clinical psychology. PMID:24628679

  6. Recall is not necessary for verbal sequence learning.

    PubMed

    Kalm, Kristjan; Norris, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    The question of whether overt recall of to-be-remembered material accelerates learning is important in a wide range of real-world learning settings. In the case of verbal sequence learning, previous research has proposed that recall either is necessary for verbal sequence learning (Cohen & Johansson Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 6, 139-143, 1967; Cunningham, Healy, & Williams Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 10, 575-597, 1984), or at least contributes significantly to it (Glass, Krejci, & Goldman Journal of Memory and Language, 28, 189-199, 1989; Oberauer & Meyer Memory, 17, 774-781, 2009). In contrast, here we show that the amount of previous spoken recall does not predict learning and is not necessary for it. We suggest that previous research may have underestimated participants' learning by using suboptimal performance measures, or by using manual or written recall. However, we show that the amount of spoken recall predicted how much interference from other to-be-remembered sequences would be observed. In fact, spoken recall mediated most of the error learning observed in the task. Our data support the view that the learning of overlapping auditory-verbal sequences is driven by learning the phonological representations and not the articulatory motor responses. However, spoken recall seems to reinforce already learned representations, whether they are correct or incorrect, thus contributing to a participant identifying a specific stimulus as either "learned" or "new" during the presentation phase. PMID:26289546

  7. Rehearsal development as development of iterative recall processes

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Although much is known about the critical importance of active verbal rehearsal for successful recall, knowledge about the mechanisms of rehearsal and their respective development in children is very limited. To be able to rehearse several items together, these items have to be available, or, if presented and rehearsed previously, retrieved from memory. Therefore, joint rehearsal of several items may itself be considered recall. Accordingly, by analyzing free recall, one cannot only gain insight into how recall and rehearsal unfold, but also into how principles that govern children’s recall govern children’s rehearsal. Over a period of three and a half years (beginning at grade 3) 54 children were longitudinally assessed seven times on several overt rehearsal free recall trials. A first set of analyses on recall revealed significant age-related increases in the primacy effect and an age-invariant recency effect. In the middle portion of the list, wave-shaped recall characteristics emerged and increased with age, indicating grouping of the list into subsequences. In a second set of analyses, overt rehearsal behavior was decomposed into distinct rehearsal sets. Analyses of these sets revealed that the distribution of rehearsals within each set resembled the serial position curves with one- or two-item primacy and recency effects and wave-shaped rehearsal patterns in between. In addition, rehearsal behavior throughout the list was characterized by a decreasing tendency to begin rehearsal sets with the first list item. This result parallels the phenomenon of beginning recall with the first item on short lists and with the last item on longer lists. PMID:25870569

  8. Conscious recall of different aspects of skill memory.

    PubMed

    Song, Sunbin; Cohen, Leonardo G

    2014-01-01

    Different mechanisms are involved in the formation of memories necessary for daily living. For example, different memory representations are formed for the practiced transitions between key-presses (i.e., pressing key "2" after "3" in "4-3-2-1") and for the ordinal position of each key-press (i.e., pressing key "2" in the third ordinal position in "4-3-2-1") in a motor sequence. Whether the resulting transition-based and ordinal-based memories (Song and Cohen, 2014) can be consciously recalled is unknown. Here, we studied subjects who over a week of training and testing formed transition and ordinal-based memory representations of skill for a 12-item sequence of key-presses. Afterwards, subjects were first asked to recall and type the trained sequence and then to perform random key-presses avoiding the trained sequence. The difference in the ability to purposefully recall and avoid a trained sequence represents conscious recall (Destrebecqz and Cleeremans, 2001). We report that (a) the difference in the ability to purposefully recall and to avoid the trained sequence correlated with ordinal-based but not with transition-based memory; (b) subjects with no ability to recall or avoid the trained sequence formed transition-based but not ordinal-based memories; and (c) subjects with full ability to recall and avoid the trained sequence formed both transition-based and ordinal-based memories. We conclude that ordinal-based memory can be voluntarily recalled when transition-based memory cannot, documenting a differential capacity to recall memories forming a motor skill. Understanding that different memories form a motor skill, with different neural substrates (Cohen and Squire, 1980), may help develop novel training strategies in neurorehabilitation of patients with brain lesions. PMID:25071489

  9. Risk management in hypnotic recall of near-death experiences.

    PubMed

    Holden, J M; MacHovec, F

    1993-07-01

    A substantial number of people facing physical and/or psychological crisis report having a near-death experience (NDE) involving a subjectively real experience of an alternate reality. Where NDE content is associated with positive emotions, benefit might be gained by hypnotic recall of the NDE, yet such recall might involve possible risk in the form of reactivation of the original crisis. In this article we describe a study involving hypnotic recall of positive NDEs by one male and five female subjects. We describe in detail some procedures to minimize risk, including a hypnosis protocol. PMID:8368195

  10. Clinical Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Intrinsic Circadian Rhythm Sleep-Wake Disorders: Advanced Sleep-Wake Phase Disorder (ASWPD), Delayed Sleep-Wake Phase Disorder (DSWPD), Non-24-Hour Sleep-Wake Rhythm Disorder (N24SWD), and Irregular Sleep-Wake Rhythm Disorder (ISWRD). An Update for 2015

    PubMed Central

    Auger, R. Robert; Burgess, Helen J.; Emens, Jonathan S.; Deriy, Ludmila V.; Thomas, Sherene M.; Sharkey, Katherine M.

    2015-01-01

    A systematic literature review and meta-analyses (where appropriate) were performed and the GRADE approach was used to update the previous American Academy of Sleep Medicine Practice Parameters on the treatment of intrinsic circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders. Available data allowed for positive endorsement (at a second-tier degree of confidence) of strategically timed melatonin (for the treatment of DSWPD, blind adults with N24SWD, and children/ adolescents with ISWRD and comorbid neurological disorders), and light therapy with or without accompanying behavioral interventions (adults with ASWPD, children/adolescents with DSWPD, and elderly with dementia). Recommendations against the use of melatonin and discrete sleep-promoting medications are provided for demented elderly patients, at a second- and first-tier degree of confidence, respectively. No recommendations were provided for remaining treatments/ populations, due to either insufficient or absent data. Areas where further research is needed are discussed. Citation: Auger RR, Burgess HJ, Emens JS, Deriy LV, Thomas SM, Sharkey KM. Clinical practice guideline for the treatment of intrinsic circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders: advanced sleep-wake phase disorder (ASWPD), delayed sleep-wake phase disorder (DSWPD), non-24-hour sleep-wake rhythm disorder (N24SWD), and irregular sleep-wake rhythm disorder (ISWRD). An update for 2015. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(10):1199–1236. PMID:26414986

  11. Patterns of hemispheric lateralization in dream recallers and non-dream recallers.

    PubMed

    Doricchi, F; Milana, I; Violani, C

    1993-01-01

    Eighteen right handed females reporting 6 or more dreams per week on a home dream and sleep diary (Dream Recallers: DR), and 11 reporting 1 or 0 dreams per week (Non Dream Recallers: NDR) drawn from a sample of 233 college students, were individually tested on two tasks assessing the hemispheric lateralization of visuo-constructive and verbal-semantic functions. NDR showed a significant degree of hemispheric asymmetry of both visuo-constructive (right asymmetry of both visuo-constructive (right hemisphere advantage) and semantic (left hemisphere advantage) functions. DR showed no hemispheric advantage on both tasks. The two groups of subjects did not differ in mean daily amount of sleep time. In keeping with previous studies showing that NDR have an imbalance of interhemispheric activation upon REM awakenings, results from the present research suggest that DR and NDR can be characterized by a different pattern of hemispheric lateralization of cognitive skills. This finding may stimulate further research aimed at evaluating both the possible existence of differences in the lateralization of functions not considered in this study and the concomitance of REM sleep dependent differences in balance of hemispheric functioning. PMID:8082996

  12. A Therapist's Induced Recall of Sinatra Singing "My Way."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz de Chumaceiro, Cora L.

    2001-01-01

    Describes how a therapist's induced recall of Frank Sinatra's rendition of the song "My Way" illuminated transference-countertransference dynamics active at that moment in a patient-therapist dyad being discussed at a post-conference workshop. (SR)

  13. Category cued recall evokes a generate-recognize retrieval process.

    PubMed

    Hunt, R Reed; Smith, Rebekah E; Toth, Jeffrey P

    2016-03-01

    The experiments reported here were designed to replicate and extend McCabe, Roediger, and Karpicke's (2011) finding that retrieval in category cued recall involves both controlled and automatic processes. The extension entailed identifying whether distinctive encoding affected 1 or both of these 2 processes. The first experiment successfully replicated McCabe et al., but the second, which added a critical baseline condition, produced data inconsistent with a 2 independent process model of recall. The third experiment provided evidence that retrieval in category cued recall reflects a generate-recognize strategy, with the effect of distinctive processing being localized to recognition. Overall, the data suggest that category cued recall evokes a generate-recognize retrieval strategy and that the subprocesses underlying this strategy can be dissociated as a function of distinctive versus relational encoding processes. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26280355

  14. [Variations of encoding and false memories in recall].

    PubMed

    Corson, Yves; Mahé, Aurélia; Verrier, Nadège; Colombel et Luc Jagot, Fabienne

    2011-12-01

    This article presents two experiments using the DRM paradigm and examining the effects of variations in the depth of processing on the occurrence of false memories at recall. Contrary to what is generally observed, the results of the first experiment indicate that deep processing, maximizing the possibility of implication of distinctive characteristics, leads to an increase of the recall of hits without increasing the recall of lures. The second experiment uses instructions of inclusion requiring participants to recall not only the presented items but also all the words that were activated in memory both during the encoding and retrieval phases. These instructions, which deactivate the strategy of control of the source, support the notion that deep processing favours the activation of distinctive characteristics that facilitate the process of discrimination during the identification of the source. PMID:21728403

  15. Jim Lovell Recalls Apollo 8 Launch Day - Duration: 71 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Astronaut Jim Lovell, veteran of two Gemini flights as well as the legendary missions of Apollo 8 and Apollo 13, recalls his thoughts on launch day of Apollo 8 in 1968, when humans first left the E...

  16. Imagery and deep structure in the recall of English nominalizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, John T. E.

    1975-01-01

    Article described experiments that investigated the immediate free recall of homogeneous lists of items and found that deep-structure complexity had little effect when imageability was controlled. (Editor/RK)

  17. Radiation Recall Pneumonitis During Systemic Treatment With Everolimus.

    PubMed

    Clark, Douglas; Gauchan, Dron; Ramaekers, Ryan; Norvell, Max; Copur, Mehmet Sitki

    2014-01-01

    Radiation recall syndrome is an acute inflammatory reaction developing at anatomical sites of previously irradiated tissue, weeks to months after the completion of radiation therapy. The distribution pattern of inflammation typically involves, and remains limited to, the boundaries of prior radiation treatment fields. Several classical chemotherapy drugs have been reported to have the potential for causing radiation recall syndrome. With the increasing availability and expanding use of novel biologic and targeted therapy anticancer drugs, isolated reports of radiation recall syndrome secondary to this class of agents are starting to appear in the literature. We describe a case of everolimus-induced radiation recall pneumonitis in a patient with metastatic renal cell cancer. PMID:26629944

  18. Improving Recall Using Database Management Systems: A Learning Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonassen, David H.

    1986-01-01

    Describes the use of microcomputer database management systems to facilitate the instructional uses of learning strategies relating to information processing skills, especially recall. Two learning strategies, cross-classification matrixing and node acquisition and integration, are highlighted. (Author/LRW)

  19. The disfluent discourse: Effects of filled pauses on recall

    PubMed Central

    Fraundorf, Scott H.; Watson, Duane G.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the mechanisms by which fillers, such as uh and um, affect memory for discourse. Participants listened to and attempted to recall recorded passages adapted from Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland. The type and location of interruptions were manipulated through digital splicing. In Experiment 1, we tested a processing time account of fillers’ effects. While fillers facilitated recall, coughs matched in duration to the fillers impaired recall, suggesting that fillers’ benefits cannot be attributed to adding processing time. In Experiment 2, fillers’ locations were manipulated based on norming data to be either predictive or non-predictive of upcoming material. Fillers facilitated recall in both cases, inconsistent with an account in which listeners predict upcoming material using past experience with the distribution of fillers. Instead, these results suggest an attentional orienting account in which fillers direct attention to the speech stream but do not always result in specific predictions about upcoming material. PMID:21765590

  20. A computational language approach to modeling prose recall in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Rosenstein, Mark; Diaz-Asper, Catherine; Foltz, Peter W.; Elvevg, Brita

    2014-01-01

    Many cortical disorders are associated with memory problems. In schizophrenia, verbal memory deficits are a hallmark feature. However, the exact nature of this deficit remains elusive. Modeling aspects of language features used in memory recall have the potential to provide means for measuring these verbal processes. We employ computational language approaches to assess time-varying semantic and sequential properties of prose recall at various retrieval intervals (immediate, 30 min and 24 h later) in patients with schizophrenia, unaffected siblings and healthy unrelated control participants. First, we model the recall data to quantify the degradation of performance with increasing retrieval interval and the effect of diagnosis (i.e., group membership) on performance. Next we model the human scoring of recall performance using an n-gram language sequence technique, and then with a semantic feature based on Latent Semantic Analysis. These models show that automated analyses of the recalls can produce scores that accurately mimic human scoring. The final analysis addresses the validity of this approach by ascertaining the ability to predict group membership from models built on the two classes of language features. Taken individually, the semantic feature is most predictive, while a model combining the features improves accuracy of group membership prediction slightly above the semantic feature alone as well as over the human rating approach. We discuss the implications for cognitive neuroscience of such a computational approach in exploring the mechanisms of prose recall. PMID:24709122

  1. A computational language approach to modeling prose recall in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Rosenstein, Mark; Diaz-Asper, Catherine; Foltz, Peter W; Elvevåg, Brita

    2014-06-01

    Many cortical disorders are associated with memory problems. In schizophrenia, verbal memory deficits are a hallmark feature. However, the exact nature of this deficit remains elusive. Modeling aspects of language features used in memory recall have the potential to provide means for measuring these verbal processes. We employ computational language approaches to assess time-varying semantic and sequential properties of prose recall at various retrieval intervals (immediate, 30 min and 24 h later) in patients with schizophrenia, unaffected siblings and healthy unrelated control participants. First, we model the recall data to quantify the degradation of performance with increasing retrieval interval and the effect of diagnosis (i.e., group membership) on performance. Next we model the human scoring of recall performance using an n-gram language sequence technique, and then with a semantic feature based on Latent Semantic Analysis. These models show that automated analyses of the recalls can produce scores that accurately mimic human scoring. The final analysis addresses the validity of this approach by ascertaining the ability to predict group membership from models built on the two classes of language features. Taken individually, the semantic feature is most predictive, while a model combining the features improves accuracy of group membership prediction slightly above the semantic feature alone as well as over the human rating approach. We discuss the implications for cognitive neuroscience of such a computational approach in exploring the mechanisms of prose recall. PMID:24709122

  2. Children's school-breakfast reports and school-lunch reports (in 24-h dietary recalls): conventional and reporting-error-sensitive measures show inconsistent accuracy results for retention interval and breakfast location.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Suzanne D; Guinn, Caroline H; Smith, Albert F; Hitchcock, David B; Royer, Julie A; Puryear, Megan P; Collins, Kathleen L; Smith, Alyssa L

    2016-04-01

    Validation-study data were analysed to investigate retention interval (RI) and prompt effects on the accuracy of fourth-grade children's reports of school-breakfast and school-lunch (in 24-h recalls), and the accuracy of school-breakfast reports by breakfast location (classroom; cafeteria). Randomly selected fourth-grade children at ten schools in four districts were observed eating school-provided breakfast and lunch, and were interviewed under one of eight conditions created by crossing two RIs ('short' - prior-24-hour recall obtained in the afternoon and 'long' - previous-day recall obtained in the morning) with four prompts ('forward' - distant to recent, 'meal name' - breakfast, etc., 'open' - no instructions, and 'reverse' - recent to distant). Each condition had sixty children (half were girls). Of 480 children, 355 and 409 reported meals satisfying criteria for reports of school-breakfast and school-lunch, respectively. For breakfast and lunch separately, a conventional measure - report rate - and reporting-error-sensitive measures - correspondence rate and inflation ratio - were calculated for energy per meal-reporting child. Correspondence rate and inflation ratio - but not report rate - showed better accuracy for school-breakfast and school-lunch reports with the short RI than with the long RI; this pattern was not found for some prompts for each sex. Correspondence rate and inflation ratio showed better school-breakfast report accuracy for the classroom than for cafeteria location for each prompt, but report rate showed the opposite. For each RI, correspondence rate and inflation ratio showed better accuracy for lunch than for breakfast, but report rate showed the opposite. When choosing RI and prompts for recalls, researchers and practitioners should select a short RI to maximise accuracy. Recommendations for prompt selections are less clear. As report rates distort validation-study accuracy conclusions, reporting-error-sensitive measures are recommended. PMID:26865356

  3. Intrusions in story recall: when over-learned information interferes with episodic memory recall. Evidence from Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    De Anna, Francesca; Attali, Eve; Freynet, Laurence; Foubert, Lucie; Laurent, Aurore; Dubois, Bruno; Dalla Barba, Gianfranco

    2008-03-01

    Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) suffer from distortions of memory. Among such distortions, intrusions in memory tests are frequently observed. In this study we describe the performance of a group of mild AD patients and a group of normal controls on the recall of three different types of stories: a previously unknown story, a well-known fairy-tale (Cinderella), and a modified well-known fairy-tale (Little Red Riding Hood is not eaten by the wolf). The aim of our study was to test the hypothesis that in patients who tend to produce intrusions, over-learned information interferes with episodic recall, i.e., the retrieval of specific, unique past episodes. AD patients produced significantly more intrusions in the recall of the modified fairy-tale compared to the recall of the two other stories. Intrusions in the recall of the modified fairy-tale always consisted of elements of the original version of the story. We suggest that in AD patients intrusions may be traced back to the interference of strongly represented, over-learned information in episodic memory recall. PMID:18387559

  4. Effects of language dominance on item and order memory in free recall, serial recall and order reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Francis, Wendy S; Baca, Yuzeth

    2014-01-01

    Spanish-English bilinguals (N = 144) performed free recall, serial recall and order reconstruction tasks in both English and Spanish. Long-term memory for both item and order information was worse in the less fluent language (L2) than in the more fluent language (L1). Item scores exhibited a stronger disadvantage for the L2 in serial recall than in free recall. Relative order scores were lower in the L2 for all three tasks, but adjusted scores for free and serial recall were equivalent across languages. Performance of English-speaking monolinguals (N = 72) was comparable to bilingual performance in the L1, except that monolinguals had higher adjusted order scores in free recall. Bilingual performance patterns in the L2 were consistent with the established effects of concurrent task performance on these memory tests, suggesting that the cognitive resources required for processing words in the L2 encroach on resources needed to commit item and order information to memory. These findings are also consistent with a model in which item memory is connected to the language system, order information is processed by separate mechanisms and attention can be allocated differentially to these two systems. PMID:24303779

  5. Developing a complex intervention for diet and activity behaviour change in obese pregnant women (the UPBEAT trial); assessment of behavioural change and process evaluation in a pilot randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Complex interventions in obese pregnant women should be theoretically based, feasible and shown to demonstrate anticipated behavioural change prior to inception of large randomised controlled trials (RCTs). The aim was to determine if a) a complex intervention in obese pregnant women leads to anticipated changes in diet and physical activity behaviours, and b) to refine the intervention protocol through process evaluation of intervention fidelity. Methods We undertook a pilot RCT of a complex intervention in obese pregnant women, comparing routine antenatal care with an intervention to reduce dietary glycaemic load and saturated fat intake, and increase physical activity. Subjects included 183 obese pregnant women (mean BMI 36.3 kg/m2). Diet was assessed by repeated triple pass 24-hour dietary recall and physical activity by accelerometry and questionnaire, at 16+0 to 18+6 and at 27+0 to 28+6 weeks’ gestation in women in control and intervention arms. Attitudes to behaviour change and quality of life were assessed and a process evaluation undertaken. The full RCT protocol was undertaken to assess feasibility. Results Compared to women in the control arm, women in the intervention arm had a significant reduction in dietary glycaemic load (33 points, 95% CI −47 to −20), (p < 0.001) and saturated fat intake (−1.6% energy, 95% CI −2.8 to −0. 3) at 28 weeks’ gestation. Objectively measured physical activity did not change. Physical discomfort and sustained barriers to physical activity were common at 28 weeks’ gestation. Process evaluation identified barriers to recruitment, group attendance and compliance, leading to modification of intervention delivery. Conclusions This pilot trial of a complex intervention in obese pregnant women suggests greater potential for change in dietary intake than for change in physical activity, and through process evaluation illustrates the considerable advantage of performing an exploratory trial of a complex intervention in obese pregnant women before undertaking a large RCT. Trial registration Trial Registration Number: ISRCTN89971375 PMID:23855708

  6. Caffeine in the diet

    MedlinePlus

    Diet - caffeine ... for caffeine. It can be avoided in the diet. Caffeine stimulates, or excites, the brain and nervous ... medications such as pain relievers , over-the-counter diet pills, and cold medicines. Caffeine has no flavor. ...

  7. Iodine in diet

    MedlinePlus

    Diet - iodine ... Many months of iodine deficiency in a person's diet may cause goiter or hypothyroidism . Without enough iodine, ... and older children. Getting enough iodine in the diet may prevent a form of physical and intellectual ...

  8. Diet and Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rings Frequently Asked Questions Definitions Transplantation Diet and Nutrition Food . . . . Adherence to a low copper diet is ... Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Generic Zinc Options Inheritence Diet & Nutrition Kayser-Fleischer Rings Wilson Disease FAQs Definitions Transplantation ...

  9. Dieting and Gallstones

    MedlinePlus

    ... such as weight-loss surgery and very low-calorie diets (VLCDs), may increase your chances of developing ... affecting how food is digested. A very low-calorie diet is a very restrictive diet that uses ...

  10. Resting brain activity varies with dream recall frequency between subjects.

    PubMed

    Eichenlaub, Jean-Baptiste; Nicolas, Alain; Daltrozzo, Jérôme; Redouté, Jérôme; Costes, Nicolas; Ruby, Perrine

    2014-06-01

    Dreaming is still poorly understood. Notably, its cerebral underpinning remains unclear. Neuropsychological studies have shown that lesions in the temporoparietal junction (TPJ) and/or the white matter of the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) lead to the global cessation of dream reports, suggesting that these regions of the default mode network have key roles in the dreaming process (forebrain 'dream-on' hypothesis). To test this hypothesis, we measured regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using [(15)O]H2O positron emission tomography in healthy subjects with high and low dream recall frequencies (DRFs) during wakefulness (rest) and sleep (rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, N2, and N3). Compared with Low recallers (0.5 ± 0.3 dream recall per week in average), High recallers (5.2 ± 1.4) showed higher rCBF in the TPJ during REM sleep, N3, and wakefulness, and in the MPFC during REM sleep and wakefulness. We demonstrate that the resting states of High recallers and Low recallers differ during sleep and wakefulness. It coheres with previous ERP results and confirms that a high/low DRF is associated with a specific functional organization of the brain. These results support the forebrain 'dream-on' hypothesis and suggest that TPJ and MPFC are not only involved in dream recall during wakefulness but also have a role in dreaming during sleep (production and/or encoding). Increased activity in the TPJ and MPFC might promote the mental imagery and/or memory encoding of dreams. Notably, increased activity in TPJ might facilitate attention orienting toward external stimuli and promote intrasleep wakefulness, facilitating the encoding of the dreams in memory. PMID:24549103

  11. Rethinking Familiarity: Remember/Know Judgments in Free Recall

    PubMed Central

    Mickes, Laura; Seale-Carlisle, Travis M.; Wixted, John T.

    2013-01-01

    Although frequently used with recognition, a few studies have used the Remember/Know procedure with free recall. In each case, participants gave Know judgments to a significant number of recalled items (items that were presumably not remembered on the basis of familiarity). What do these Know judgments mean? We investigated this issue using a source memory/free-recall procedure. For each word that was recalled, participants were asked to (a) make a confidence rating on a 5-point scale, (b) make a Remember/Know judgment, and (c) recollect a source detail. The large majority of both Remember judgments and Know judgments were made with high confidence and high accuracy, but source memory was nevertheless higher for Remember judgments than for Know judgments. These source memory results correspond to what is found using recognition, and they raise the possibility that Know judgments in free recall identify the cue-dependent retrieval of item-only information from an episodic memory search set. In agreement with this idea, we also found that the temporal dynamics of free recall were similar for high-confidence Remember and high-confidence Know judgments (as if both judgments reflected retrieval from the same search set). If Know judgments in free recall do in fact reflect the episodic retrieval of item-only information, it seems reasonable to suppose that the same might be true of high-confidence Know judgments in recognition. If so, then a longstanding debate about the role of the hippocampus in recollection and familiarity may have a natural resolution. PMID:23637470

  12. Persistent Overconfidence despite Practice: The Role of Task Experience in Preschoolers' Recall Predictions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipko, Amanda R.; Dunlosky, John; Merriman, William E.

    2009-01-01

    In three experiments, preschoolers' ability to predict their picture recall was examined. Children studied 10 pictures, predicted how many they would recall, and then attempted to recall them. This study-prediction-recall trial was repeated multiple times with new pictures on each trial. In Experiment 1, children were overconfident on the initial…

  13. Serial Recall, Word Frequency, and Mixed Lists: The Influence of Item Arrangement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Leonie M.; Roodenrys, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Studies of the effect of word frequency in the serial recall task show that lists of high-frequency words are better recalled than lists of low-frequency words; however, when high- and low-frequency words are alternated within a list, there is no difference in the level of recall for the two types of words, and recall is intermediate between lists…

  14. Subjective Organisation in the Free Recall Learning of Adults with Asperger's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowler, Dermot M.; Gaigg, Sebastian B.; Gardiner, John M.

    2008-01-01

    Single trial methods reveal unimpaired free recall of unrelated words in Asperger's syndrome (AS). When repeated trials are used (free recall learning), typical individuals show improved recall over trials, subjective organization of material (SO) and a correlation between free recall and SO. We tested oral (Experiment 1) and written (Experiment…

  15. 21 CFR 7.41 - Health hazard evaluation and recall classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... evaluation of the health hazard presented by a product being recalled or considered for recall will be... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Health hazard evaluation and recall classification... SERVICES GENERAL ENFORCEMENT POLICY Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy,...

  16. 21 CFR 107.250 - Termination of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Termination of an infant formula recall. 107.250 Section 107.250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.250 Termination of an infant formula recall. The recalling firm...

  17. 76 FR 38184 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; FDA Recall...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ...). These responsibilities include development of a recall strategy that requires time by the firm to... produced, distribution information, firm's recall strategy, a copy of any recall communication(s), and a... respondent responses response Recall strategy (Sec. 7.42)... 3,101 1 3,101 20 62,020 Firm initiated...

  18. A comparative analysis of double-crested cormorant diets from stomachs and pellets from two Lake Ontario colonies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, James H.; Ross, Robert M.; McCullough, Russell D.; Mathers, Alastair

    2010-01-01

    Double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) diets were compared with evidence from the stomachs of shot birds and from regurgitated pellets at High Bluff Island and Little Galloo Island, Lake Ontario. The highest similarity in diets determined by stomach and pellet analyses occurred when both samples were collected on the same day. Diet overlap dropped substantially between the two methods when collection periods were seven to ten days apart, which suggested differences in prey availability between the two periods. Since the average number of fish recovered in pellets was significantly higher than that in stomachs, use of pellets to determine fish consumption of double-crested cormorants may be more valid than stomach analysis because pellet content represent an integrated sampling of food consumed over approximately 24 hours.

  19. Moringa oleifera Supplemented Diets Prevented Nickel-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Adeyemi, O. S.; Elebiyo, T. C.

    2014-01-01

    Background. The Moringa oleifera plant has been implicated for several therapeutic potentials. Objective. To evaluate whether addition of M. oleifera to diet has protective effect against nickel-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Methodology. Male Wistar rats were assigned into six groups of five. The rats were given oral exposure to 20 mg/kg nickel sulphate (NiSO4) in normal saline and sustained on either normal diet or diets supplemented with Moringa oleifera at different concentrations for 21 days. 24 hours after cessation of treatments, all animals were sacrificed under slight anesthesia. The blood and kidney samples were collected for biochemical and histopathology analyses, respectively. Results. NiSO4 exposure reduced the kidney-to-body weight ratio in rats and caused significant elevation in the levels of plasma creatinine, urea, and potassium. Also, the plasma level of sodium was decreased by NiSO4 exposure. However, addition of M. oleifera to diets averted the nickel-induced alteration to the level of creatinine and urea. The histopathology revealed damaged renal tubules and glomerular walls caused by NiSO4 exposure. In contrast, the damages were ameliorated by the M. oleifera supplemented diets. Conclusion. The addition of M. oleifera to diet afforded significant protection against nickel-induced nephrotoxicity. PMID:25295181

  20. Goal-seeking neural net for recall and recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omidvar, Omid M.

    1990-07-01

    Neural networks have been used to mimic cognitive processes which take place in animal brains. The learning capability inherent in neural networks makes them suitable candidates for adaptive tasks such as recall and recognition. The synaptic reinforcements create a proper condition for adaptation, which results in memorization, formation of perception, and higher order information processing activities. In this research a model of a goal seeking neural network is studied and the operation of the network with regard to recall and recognition is analyzed. In these analyses recall is defined as retrieval of stored information where little or no matching is involved. On the other hand recognition is recall with matching; therefore it involves memorizing a piece of information with complete presentation. This research takes the generalized view of reinforcement in which all the signals are potential reinforcers. The neuronal response is considered to be the source of the reinforcement. This local approach to adaptation leads to the goal seeking nature of the neurons as network components. In the proposed model all the synaptic strengths are reinforced in parallel while the reinforcement among the layers is done in a distributed fashion and pipeline mode from the last layer inward. A model of complex neuron with varying threshold is developed to account for inhibitory and excitatory behavior of real neuron. A goal seeking model of a neural network is presented. This network is utilized to perform recall and recognition tasks. The performance of the model with regard to the assigned tasks is presented.

  1. Human figure drawings and children's recall of touching.

    PubMed

    Bruck, Maggie

    2009-12-01

    In 2 studies, children ages 3 to 7 years were asked to recall a series of touches that occurred during a previous staged event. The recall interview took place 1 week after the event in Study 1 and immediately after the event in Study 2. Each recall interview had 2 sections: In 1 section, children were given human figure drawings (HFDs) and were asked to show where the touching took place; in the other section, the same questions were asked without the HFDs (verbal condition). Children were randomly assigned to 2 different conditions: HFD 1st/verbal 2nd or verbal 1st/HFD 2nd. There were 2 major findings. First, HFDs elicited more errors than the verbal condition when used to probe for information that the child had already been asked. Second, regardless of interview method, children had poor recall of the touches even when these occurred minutes before the interview. It is suggested that cognitive mechanisms involving memory and semantics underlie children's poor recall of touching in both verbal and HFD conditions. PMID:20025421

  2. Superior memorizers employ different neural networks for encoding and recall

    PubMed Central

    Mallow, Johannes; Bernarding, Johannes; Luchtmann, Michael; Bethmann, Anja; Brechmann, André

    2015-01-01

    Superior memorizers often employ the method of loci (MoL) to memorize large amounts of information. The MoL, known since ancient times, relies on a complex process where information to be memorized is bound to landmarks along mental routes in a previously memorized environment. However, functional magnetic resonance imaging data on groups of trained superior memorizer are rare. Based on the memorizing strategy reported by superior memorizers, we developed a scheme of the processes successively employed during memorizing and recalling digits and relate these to brain activation that is specific for the encoding and recall period. In the examined superior memorizers several regions, suggested to be involved in mental navigation and digit-to-word processing, were specifically activated during encoding: bilateral early visual cortex, retrosplenial cortex, left parahippocampus, left visual cortex, and left superior parietal cortex. Although the scheme suggests that some steps during encoding and recall seem to be analog, none of the encoding areas were specifically activated during the recall. Instead, we found strong activation in left anterior superior temporal gyrus, which we relate to recalling the sequential order of the digits, and right motor cortex that may be related to reciting the digits. PMID:26441560

  3. Prior knowledge in recalling arguments in bioethical dilemmas

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Hiemke K.; Rothgangel, Martin; Grube, Dietmar

    2015-01-01

    Prior knowledge is known to facilitate learning new information. Normally in studies confirming this outcome the relationship between prior knowledge and the topic to be learned is obvious: the information to be acquired is part of the domain or topic to which the prior knowledge belongs. This raises the question as to whether prior knowledge of various domains facilitates recalling information. In this study 79 eleventh-grade students completed a questionnaire on their prior knowledge of seven different domains related to the bioethical dilemma of prenatal diagnostics. The students read a text containing arguments for and arguments against prenatal diagnostics. After 1 week and again 12 weeks later they were asked to write down all the arguments they remembered. Prior knowledge helped them recall the arguments 1 week (r = 0.350) and 12 weeks (r = 0.316) later. Prior knowledge of three of the seven domains significantly helped them recall the arguments 1 week later (correlations between r = 0.194 and 0.394). Partial correlations with interest as a control item revealed that interest did not explain the relationship between prior knowledge and recall. Prior knowledge of different domains jointly supports the recall of arguments related to bioethical topics. PMID:26441702

  4. Prior knowledge in recalling arguments in bioethical dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Hiemke K; Rothgangel, Martin; Grube, Dietmar

    2015-01-01

    Prior knowledge is known to facilitate learning new information. Normally in studies confirming this outcome the relationship between prior knowledge and the topic to be learned is obvious: the information to be acquired is part of the domain or topic to which the prior knowledge belongs. This raises the question as to whether prior knowledge of various domains facilitates recalling information. In this study 79 eleventh-grade students completed a questionnaire on their prior knowledge of seven different domains related to the bioethical dilemma of prenatal diagnostics. The students read a text containing arguments for and arguments against prenatal diagnostics. After 1 week and again 12 weeks later they were asked to write down all the arguments they remembered. Prior knowledge helped them recall the arguments 1 week (r = 0.350) and 12 weeks (r = 0.316) later. Prior knowledge of three of the seven domains significantly helped them recall the arguments 1 week later (correlations between r = 0.194 and 0.394). Partial correlations with interest as a control item revealed that interest did not explain the relationship between prior knowledge and recall. Prior knowledge of different domains jointly supports the recall of arguments related to bioethical topics. PMID:26441702

  5. Recognition during recall failure: Semantic feature matching as a mechanism for recognition of semantic cues when recall fails.

    PubMed

    Cleary, Anne M; Ryals, Anthony J; Wagner, Samantha R

    2016-01-01

    Research suggests that a feature-matching process underlies cue familiarity-detection when cued recall with graphemic cues fails. When a test cue (e.g., potchbork) overlaps in graphemic features with multiple unrecalled studied items (e.g., patchwork, pitchfork, pocketbook, pullcork), higher cue familiarity ratings are given during recall failure of all of the targets than when the cue overlaps in graphemic features with only one studied target and that target fails to be recalled (e.g., patchwork). The present study used semantic feature production norms (McRae et al., Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 37, 547-559, 2005) to examine whether the same holds true when the cues are semantic in nature (e.g., jaguar is used to cue cheetah). Indeed, test cues (e.g., cedar) that overlapped in semantic features (e.g., a_tree, has_bark, etc.) with four unretrieved studied items (e.g., birch, oak, pine, willow) received higher cue familiarity ratings during recall failure than test cues that overlapped in semantic features with only two (also unretrieved) studied items (e.g., birch, oak), which in turn received higher familiarity ratings during recall failure than cues that did not overlap in semantic features with any studied items. These findings suggest that the feature-matching theory of recognition during recall failure can accommodate recognition of semantic cues during recall failure, providing a potential mechanism for conceptually-based forms of cue recognition during target retrieval failure. They also provide converging evidence for the existence of the semantic features envisaged in feature-based models of semantic knowledge representation and for those more concretely specified by the production norms of McRae et al. (Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 37, 547-559, 2005). PMID:26282623

  6. Diet and nutritional status among children 24–59 months by seasons in a mountainous area of Northern Vietnam in 2012

    PubMed Central

    Huong, Le Thi; Xuan, Le Thi Thanh; Phuong, Le Hong; Huyen, Doan Thi Thu; Rocklöv, Joacim

    2014-01-01

    Background Seasonal variation affects food availability. However, it is not clear if it affects dietary intake and nutritional status of children in Vietnam. Objectives This paper aims at examining the seasonal variation in nutrition status and dietary intake of children aged 24–59 months. Design A repeated cross-sectional study design was used to collect data of changes in nutritional status and diets of children from 24 to 59 months through four seasons in Chiem Hoa district, Tuyen Quang province, a predominately rural mountainous province of northern Vietnam. The quantitative component includes anthropometric measurements, 24 hours dietary recall and socio-economic characteristics. The qualitative component was conducted through focus group discussions (FGDs) with mothers of the children surveyed in the quantitative component. The purpose of FGDs was to explore the food habits of children during the different seasons and the behaviours of their mothers in relation to the food that they provide during these seasons. Results The prevalence of underweight among children aged 24–59 months is estimated at around 20–25%; it peaked in summer (24.9%) and reached a low in winter (21.3%). The prevalence of stunting was highest in summer (29.8%) and lowest in winter (22.2%). The prevalence of wasting in children was higher in spring and autumn (14.3%) and lower in summer (9.3%). Energy intake of children was highest in the autumn (1259.3 kcal) and lowest in the summer (996.9 kcal). Most of the energy and the nutrient intakes during the four seasons did not meet the Vietnamese National Institute of Nutrition recommendation. Conclusions Our study describes some seasonal variation in nutrition status and energy intake among children in a mountainous area northern Vietnam. Our study indicated that the prevalence of stunting and underweight was higher in summer and autumn, while the prevalence of wasting was higher in spring and autumn. Energy intake did not always meet national recommendations, especially in summer. PMID:25511885

  7. Recency and suffix effects in serial recall of musical stimuli.

    PubMed

    Greene, R L; Samuel, A G

    1986-10-01

    Auditory presentation of verbal items leads to larger recency effects in recall than visual presentation. This enhanced recency can be eliminated if a stimulus suffix (an irrelevant sound) follows the last item. Four experiments tested the hypothesis that recency and suffix effects in serial recall result from a speech-specific process. It was demonstrated that serial recall of musical notes played on a piano exhibited substantial recency effects. These recency effects were reduced when the list items were followed by either a piano chord or the word start. However, a white-noise suffix had no effect on recency. This pattern of data is consistent with current work on auditory perception and places constraints on theories of recency and suffix effects. PMID:2945898

  8. Tooth loss, apolipoprotein E, and decline in delayed word recall.

    PubMed

    Stein, P S; Kryscio, R J; Desrosiers, M; Donegan, S J; Gibbs, M B

    2010-05-01

    Our previous research suggests an association between a low number of teeth and increased risk of dementia. The aim of the present study was to determine if a low number of teeth is specifically related to memory decline as evidenced by low Delayed Word Recall scores. In addition, we examined the combined effect of a low number of teeth and the apolipoprotein E epsilon4 allele on Delayed Word Recall scores. We hypothesized that the scores of those who had the allele and a low number of teeth (0-9) would decline more rapidly over time than those participants with a greater number of teeth who lacked the allele. We found that individuals with both risk factors (the allele and fewer teeth) had lower Delayed Word Recall scores at the first examination and declined more quickly compared with participants with neither of these risk factors or with either risk factor alone. PMID:20139337

  9. Extent of hippocampal atrophy predicts degree of deficit in recall.

    PubMed

    Patai, Eva Zita; Gadian, David G; Cooper, Janine M; Dzieciol, Anna M; Mishkin, Mortimer; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh

    2015-10-13

    Which specific memory functions are dependent on the hippocampus is still debated. The availability of a large cohort of patients who had sustained relatively selective hippocampal damage early in life enabled us to determine which type of mnemonic deficit showed a correlation with extent of hippocampal injury. We assessed our patient cohort on a test that provides measures of recognition and recall that are equated for difficulty and found that the patients' performance on the recall tests correlated significantly with their hippocampal volumes, whereas their performance on the equally difficult recognition tests did not and, indeed, was largely unaffected regardless of extent of hippocampal atrophy. The results provide new evidence in favor of the view that the hippocampus is essential for recall but not for recognition. PMID:26417089

  10. Dissociation between recognition and recall in developmental amnesia.

    PubMed

    Adlam, Anna-Lynne R; Malloy, Megan; Mishkin, Mortimer; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh

    2009-09-01

    Developmental amnesia (DA) is a memory disorder due to hypoxia/ischaemia-induced damage to the hippocampus early in life. To test the hypothesis that this disorder is associated with a disproportionate impairment in recall vis-à-vis recognition, we examined a group of 10 patients with DA on the Doors and People test, which affords a quantitative comparison between measures of the two memory processes. The results supported the hypothesis in that the patients showed a sharp, though not complete, recall-recognition dissociation, exhibiting impairment on both measures relative to their matched controls, but with a far greater loss in recall than in recognition. Whether their relatively spared recognition ability is due to restriction of their medial temporal lobe damage to the hippocampus or whether it is due instead to their early age at injury is still uncertain. PMID:19524088

  11. Extent of hippocampal atrophy predicts degree of deficit in recall

    PubMed Central

    Patai, Eva Zita; Gadian, David G.; Cooper, Janine M.; Dzieciol, Anna M.; Mishkin, Mortimer; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh

    2015-01-01

    Which specific memory functions are dependent on the hippocampus is still debated. The availability of a large cohort of patients who had sustained relatively selective hippocampal damage early in life enabled us to determine which type of mnemonic deficit showed a correlation with extent of hippocampal injury. We assessed our patient cohort on a test that provides measures of recognition and recall that are equated for difficulty and found that the patients' performance on the recall tests correlated significantly with their hippocampal volumes, whereas their performance on the equally difficult recognition tests did not and, indeed, was largely unaffected regardless of extent of hippocampal atrophy. The results provide new evidence in favor of the view that the hippocampus is essential for recall but not for recognition. PMID:26417089

  12. Brooding deficits in memory: focusing attention improves subsequent recall.

    PubMed

    Hertel, Paula T; Benbow, Amanda A; Geraerts, Elke

    2012-01-01

    Ruminative habits of thought about one's problems and the resulting consequences are correlated with symptoms of depression and cognitive biases (Nolen-Hoeksema, Wisco, & Lyubomirsky, 2008). In our orienting task, brooders and non-brooders concentrated on self-focusing phrases while they were also exposed to neutral target words. On each trial in the unfocused condition, participants saw and then reported the target before concentrating on the phrase; in the focused condition, the target was reported after phrase concentration. A brooding-related deficit on a subsequent unexpected test of free and forced recall was obtained in the unfocused condition only. Brooders recalled more successfully in the focused than in the unfocused condition. Thus, impaired recall of material unrelated to self-concerns may be corrected in situations that constrain attention. PMID:22671938

  13. Nutritional status at diagnosis in children with cancer I. An assessment by dietary recall--compared with body mass index and body composition measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Collins, Laura; Nayiager, Trishana; Doring, Nancy; Kennedy, Charlene; Webber, Colin; Halton, Jacqueline; Walker, Scott; Sala, Alessandra; Barr, Ronald D

    2010-11-01

    The nutritional status of children with cancer is clinically important. In an effort to separate the influences of disease and treatment, we studied children at the time of diagnosis. A total of 99 children underwent assessment by 24 hours dietary recall, measurement of body mass index (BMI), and analysis of body composition by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA scan). The group averages for calorie intake and BMI were close to the median population norms but ranged widely among individuals. As a group the study participants exceeded the Dietary Reference Intake for protein. Nine children (9%) had a BMI recall may not provide accurate assessment of nutritional status in individual children with cancer at diagnosis. However, DXA scans cannot be undertaken in a timely fashion on all children at this point. Alternative methods of assessment are being explored. PMID:20962676

  14. Blending technology and teamwork for successful management of product recalls.

    PubMed

    Frush, Karen; Pleasants, Jane; Shulby, Gail; Hendrix, Barbara; Berson, Brooke; Gordon, Cynthia; Cuffe, Michael S

    2009-12-01

    Patient safety programs have been developed in many hospitals to reduce the risk of harm to patients. Proactive, real-time, and retrospective risk-reduction strategies should be implemented in hospitals, but patient safety leaders should also be cognizant of the risks associated with thousands of products that enter the hospital through the supply chain. A growing number of recalls and alerts related to these products are received by health care facilities each year, through a recall process that is fraught with challenges. Despite the best efforts of health care providers, weaknesses and gaps in the process lead to delays, fragmentation, and disruptions, thus extending the number of days patients may be at risk from potentially faulty or misused products. To address these concerns, Duke Medicine, which comprises an academic medical center, two community hospitals, outlying clinics, physicians' offices, and home health and hospice, implemented a Web-based recall management system. Within three months, the time required to receive, deliver, and close alerts decreased from 43 days to 2.74 days. To maximize the effectiveness of the recall management process, a team of senior Duke Medicine leaders was established to evaluate the impact of product recalls and alerts on patient safety, to evaluate response action plans, and to provide oversight of patient and provider communication strategies. Alerts are now communicated more effectively and responded to in a more consistent and global manner. This comprehensive approach to product recalls is a critical component of a broader Duke Medicine strategy to improve patient safety. PMID:19940578

  15. Effects of the DASH Diet and Walking on Blood Pressure in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes and Uncontrolled Hypertension: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Paula, Tatiana P; Viana, Luciana V; Neto, Alessandra T Z; Leitão, Cristiane B; Gross, Jorge L; Azevedo, Mirela J

    2015-11-01

    Data on the potential beneficial effects of combining diet and exercise on blood pressure (BP) are still scarce. A 4-week randomized controlled clinical trial was undertaken in 40 hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes with uncontrolled blood pressure (BP) in office and daytime ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM). Patients were assigned to follow a Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet associated with advice to increase walking using a pedometer (intervention group) or a diet based on the American Diabetes Association recommendations (control group). The lifestyle intervention caused a greater ABPM (mm Hg) reduction in systolic 24-hour, diastolic 24-hour, nighttime systolic, daytime systolic, and daytime diastolic measurements than observed in the control group. In the intervention group there was a decrease in urinary sodium and an increase in urinary potassium, plasma aldosterone, and the number of steps per day (P<.05). The DASH diet and increased walking were associated with clinically significant reductions in ABPM values in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:26041459

  16. Diet Quality of Multiethnic Mothers with Limited Incomes in the Southern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study compared nutrient intakes of a multiethnic sample of mothers with children in Head Start in 2 southern states in the U.S.: 24% white (W), 43% African American (AA) and 33% Hispanic (HSP). Interviewers elicited 3 nonconsecutive days of dietary recalls. Diet quality was evaluated using th...

  17. Persistent deficits of visual recall in Kleine-Levin syndrome.

    PubMed

    Körtner, K; Hansen, M L; Danker-Hopfe, H; Neuhaus, A H; Jockers-Scherübl, M C

    2011-03-01

    Kleine-Levin syndrome (KLS) is commonly described as a self-limiting disorder exhibiting episodes of hypersomnia and psychiatric symptoms but without any enduring disabilities. Recently, some authors have reported persistent or even progressive memory deficits associated with the disorder. Nevertheless, literature about cognitive disturbances in KLS is rare. Our report describes a patient with deficits of visual and verbal recall after remission of an episode, as well as selective deficits of visual recall 6 months later. Neuropsychological testing is necessary in all patients with KLS to further characterize the profile and impact of associated cognitive deficits. PMID:21236684

  18. Blurring of emotional and non-emotional memories by taxing working memory during recall.

    PubMed

    van den Hout, Marcel A; Eidhof, Marloes B; Verboom, Jesse; Littel, Marianne; Engelhard, Iris M

    2014-01-01

    Memories that are recalled while working memory (WM) is taxed, e.g., by making eye movements (EM), become blurred during the recall + EM and later recall, without EM. This may help to explain the effects of Eye Movement and Desensitisation and Reprocessing (EMDR) in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in which patients make EM during trauma recall. Earlier experimental studies on recall + EM have focused on emotional memories. WM theory suggests that recall + EM is superior to recall only but is silent about effects of memory emotionality. Based on the emotion and memory literature, we examined whether recall + EM has superior effects in blurring emotional memories relative to neutral memories. Healthy volunteers recalled negative or neutral memories, matched for vividness, while visually tracking a dot that moved horizontally ("recall + EM") or remained stationary ("recall only"). Compared to a pre-test, a post-test (without concentrating on the dot) replicated earlier findings: negative memories are rated as less vivid after "recall + EM" but not after "recall only". This was not found for neutral memories. Emotional memories are more taxing than neutral memories, which may explain the findings. Alternatively, transient arousal induced by recall of aversive memories may promote reconsolidation of the blurred memory image that is provoked by EM. PMID:24199660

  19. Induced Recall of Jane Austen's Novels: Films, Television, Videos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz de Chumaceiro, Cora L.

    2000-01-01

    Notes that the popularity of Jane Austen adaptations in theaters, television, and videos increases the probability that patients and therapists may recall these movies in treatment. Underscores excerpts from a comparison of an Austen novel with the psychoanalytic process and highlights available film adaptations in video format. (SC)

  20. Communication during Prose Recall Conversations by Young and Old Dyads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Odette; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Focuses on the cooperative processes occurring during collaborative prose recall by adult dyads differing in age and relationship. Indicates that all groups produced similar proportions of story-related and conversation-related products. Notes that group differences in collaboration strategies were observed only at the end of conversations. (HB)

  1. Phonological Similarity in Serial Recall: Constraints on Theories of Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewandowsky, Stephan; Farrell, Simon

    2008-01-01

    In short-term serial recall, similar-sounding items are remembered more poorly than items that do not sound alike. When lists mix similar and dissimilar items, performance on the dissimilar items is of considerable theoretical interest. Farrell and Lewandowsky [Farrell, S., & Lewandowsky, S. (2003). Dissimilar items benefit from phonological…

  2. 40 CFR 205.59 - Recall of noncomplying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... order to the manufacturer to recall and repair or modify any vehicle distributed in commerce not in... in commerce which do not conform to the regulations. Such determination may be based on: (1) A... issued only after notice and an opportunity for a hearing. (e) All costs, including labor and...

  3. The Production Effect: Costs and Benefits in Free Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Angela C.; Pyc, Mary A.

    2014-01-01

    The production effect, the memorial benefit for information read aloud versus silently, has been touted as a simple memory improvement tool. The current experiments were designed to evaluate the relative costs and benefits of production using a free recall paradigm. Results extend beyond prior work showing a production effect only when production

  4. Associative Information in Memory: Evidence from Cued Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aue, William R.; Criss, Amy H.; Fischetti, Nicholas W.

    2012-01-01

    The representation of item and associative information in episodic memory was investigated using cued recall and single item recognition. In the first four experiments, participants studied two lists constructed such that some items presented in a pair during List 1 were rearranged to create new pairs in List 2 and were accompanied by pairs

  5. The Endurance of Children's Working Memory: A Recall Time Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towse, John N.; Hitch, Graham J.; Hamilton, Z.; Pirrie, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    We analyze the timing of recall as a source of information about children's performance in complex working memory tasks. A group of 8-year-olds performed a traditional operation span task in which sequence length increased across trials and an operation period task in which processing requirements were extended across trials of constant sequence

  6. 16 CFR 1115.27 - Recall notice content requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...-free or collect; and telephone number days and hours of operation including time zone. (o) Other... firm conducting the recall by stating the firm's legal name and commonly known trade name, and the city... commonly known trade name. Under the definition in section 3(a)(13) of the CPSA (15 U.S.C. 2052(a)(13)),...

  7. Proximity Analysis and the Structure of Organization in Free Recall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friendly, Michael L.

    A method for assessing the structure of organization was developed on the basis of the ordinal separation, or proximity, between pairs ot items in recall protocols over a series of trials. The proximity measure is based on the assumption, common to all indices of organization, that items which are coded together in subjective memory units will…

  8. Shared Encoding and the Costs and Benefits of Collaborative Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Celia B.; Barnier, Amanda J.; Sutton, John

    2013-01-01

    We often remember in the company of others. In particular, we routinely collaborate with friends, family, or colleagues to remember shared experiences. But surprisingly, in the experimental collaborative recall paradigm, collaborative groups remember less than their potential, an effect termed "collaborative inhibition". Rajaram and…

  9. Influence of Depression and Alcoholism on Learning, Recall, and Recognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Query, William T.; Megran, Jim

    1984-01-01

    Tested four groups (N=491) of male general hospital subjects with the Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test to determine differences between alcoholic and depressed subjects (measured by Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory). Results showed that alcoholism lowers initial repetition, recall, and recognition scores; depression lowers only the

  10. Reading and Recall among Bilingual and Dialect Speaking Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiege-Kollmann, Laila Maria

    This study compares the oral reading performance of Black English (BE) speaking children, bilingual Mexican American (MA) children, and Standard English (SE) speaking children who were average third grade readers. Reading performance was evaluated by a system-oriented analysis of reading errors, of recall, and of reading speed. For the reading…

  11. Prior-list intrusions in serial recall are positional.

    PubMed

    Osth, Adam F; Dennis, Simon

    2015-11-01

    Henson (1996) provided a number of demonstrations of error patterns in serial recall that contradict chaining models. One such error pattern concerned when participants make intrusions from prior lists: Rather than originating from random positions in the prior list, intrusions tend to be recalled in the same position as their position in the prior list, a finding which led to the endorsement of positional models of serial recall. However, all of the demonstrations of positional intrusions occurred in designs in which relatively small sets of items were repeatedly employed as stimuli. In recent years, a number of investigations have found evidence for chaining in designs in which large sets of items are employed and items are never reused across trials (open sets). We conducted 2 experiments using open sets of items to test whether a pure chaining model is a viable model for open-set conditions. Both experiments revealed that intrusions from the immediately preceding list exhibited a strong tendency to be output in the same position as their position in the prior list, suggesting the usage of positional representations in open-set designs. A chaining model that lacks positional representations provides an inadequate account of serial recall in open-set conditions. PMID:26010828

  12. Advance Organizers in Advisory Reports: Selective Reading, Recall, and Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagerwerf, Luuk; Cornelis, Louise; de Geus, Johannes; Jansen, Phidias

    2008-01-01

    According to research in educational psychology, advance organizers lead to better learning and recall of information. In this research, the authors explored advance organizers from a business perspective, where larger documents are read under time pressure. Graphic and verbal advance organizers were manipulated into six versions of an advisory…

  13. Retrieval-Induced Forgetting in Recall: Competitor Interference Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verde, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    Participants studied category-exemplar pairs ("FRUIT Cherry," "FRUIT Grape") and then practiced some of the items ("Cherry"). In Experiment 1, practice that involved retrieving the item from memory suppressed recall of related items ("Grape"), a finding known as the retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF) effect.…

  14. Memory Strategy Instruction, Contextual Learning and ESP Vocabulary Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atay, Derin; Ozbulgan, Cengiz

    2007-01-01

    In the last decades there has been an increasing interest in vocabulary learning strategies given that they are found to facilitate second/foreign language vocabulary learning and recall. As many learners do not develop sufficient mastery of the strategy repertoire, explicit instruction on vocabulary learning strategies may help them to become…

  15. The Disfluent Discourse: Effects of Filled Pauses on Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraundorf, Scott H.; Watson, Duane G.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the mechanisms by which fillers, such as "uh" and "um", affect memory for discourse. Participants listened to and attempted to recall recorded passages adapted from "Alice's Adventures in Wonderland". The type and location of interruptions were manipulated through digital splicing. In Experiment 1, we tested a processing time…

  16. The impact of cognitive load on delayed recall.

    PubMed

    Camos, Valérie; Portrat, Sophie

    2015-08-01

    Recent studies have suggested that long-term retention of items studied in a working memory span task depends on the refreshing of memory items-more specifically, on the number of refreshing opportunities. However, it was previously shown that refreshing depends on the cognitive load of the concurrent task introduced in the working memory span task. Thus, cognitive load should determine the long-term retention of items assessed in a delayed-recall test if such retention relies on refreshing. In two experiments, while the amount of refreshing opportunities remained constant, we varied the cognitive load of the concurrent task by either introducing tasks differing in their attentional demands or varying the pace of the concurrent task. To verify that this effect was related to refreshing and not to any maintenance mechanism, we also manipulated the availability of subvocal rehearsal. Replicating previous results, increasing cognitive load reduced immediate recall. This increase also had a detrimental effect on delayed recall. Conversely, the addition of concurrent articulation reduced immediate but not delayed recall. This study shows that both working and episodic memory traces depend on the cognitive load of the concurrent task, whereas the use of rehearsal affects only working memory performance. These findings add further evidence of the dissociation between subvocal rehearsal and attentional refreshing. PMID:25421406

  17. The Impact of Interactive Storybook on Elementary School Students' Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seyit, Ertem Ihsan

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of animated interactive storybook on elementary school students' recall. This experiment utilized 77 fourth grade students in three groups. Each student was randomly assigned with one of the three conditions: (1) computer presentation of interactive storybooks with animation; (2) computer presentation of…

  18. Recall and Recognition in Industrial Technology Education Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Andrew E.

    A study determined whether sensate and intuitive learners differed in their capacity to recall and recognize images given two different times of exposure. The 158 subjects--elementary school technology teachers in Southern California--put themselves into 2 groups of 80 and 78 by registering for a first or second session of the Elementary Summer…

  19. Disrupting frontal eye-field activity impairs memory recall.

    PubMed

    Wantz, Andrea L; Martarelli, Corinna S; Cazzoli, Dario; Kalla, Roger; Müri, René; Mast, Fred W

    2016-04-13

    A large body of research demonstrated that participants preferably look back to the encoding location when retrieving visual information from memory. However, the role of this 'looking back to nothing' is still debated. The goal of the present study was to extend this line of research by examining whether an important area in the cortical representation of the oculomotor system, the frontal eye field (FEF), is involved in memory retrieval. To interfere with the activity of the FEF, we used inhibitory continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS). Before stimulation was applied, participants encoded a complex scene and performed a short-term (immediately after encoding) or long-term (after 24 h) recall task, just after cTBS over the right FEF or sham stimulation. cTBS did not affect overall performance, but stimulation and statement type (object vs. location) interacted. cTBS over the right FEF tended to impair object recall sensitivity, whereas there was no effect on location recall sensitivity. These findings suggest that the FEF is involved in retrieving object information from scene memory, supporting the hypothesis that the oculomotor system contributes to memory recall. PMID:26901058

  20. Associative Information in Memory: Evidence from Cued Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aue, William R.; Criss, Amy H.; Fischetti, Nicholas W.

    2012-01-01

    The representation of item and associative information in episodic memory was investigated using cued recall and single item recognition. In the first four experiments, participants studied two lists constructed such that some items presented in a pair during List 1 were rearranged to create new pairs in List 2 and were accompanied by pairs…