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1

Chapter 4: 24-hour recall and diet record methods  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The two methods described in this chapter, the 24-hour dietary recall (24hdr) and the food record (FR) method, are the currently preferred methods of dietary intake assessment, and are based on foods and amounts actually consumed by an individual on one or more specific days. This minimizes some sou...

2

Number of 24-Hour Diet Recalls Needed to Estimate Energy Intake  

PubMed Central

Purpose Twenty-four-hour diet recall interviews (24HRs) are used to assess diet and to validate other diet assessment instruments. Therefore it is important to know how many 24HRs are required to describe an individual's intake. Method Seventy-nine middle-aged white women completed seven 24HRs over a 14-day period, during which energy expenditure (EE) was determined by the doubly labeled water method (DLW). Mean daily intakes were compared to DLW-derived EE using paired t tests. Linear mixed models were used to evaluate the effect of call sequence and day of the week on 24HR-derived energy intake while adjusting for education, relative body weight, social desirability, and an interaction between call sequence and social desirability. Results Mean EE from DLW was 2115 kcal/day. Adjusted 24HR-derived energy intake was lowest at call 1 (1501 kcal/day); significantly higher energy intake was observed at calls 2 and 3 (2246 and 2315 kcal/day, respectively). Energy intake on Friday was significantly lower than on Sunday. Averaging energy intake from the first two calls better approximated true energy expenditure than did the first call, and averaging the first three calls further improved the estimate (p = 0.02 for both comparisons). Additional calls did not improve estimation. Conclusions Energy intake is underreported on the first 24HR. Three 24HRs appear optimal for estimating energy intake. PMID:19576535

MA, Yunsheng; Olendzki, Barbara C.; Pagoto, Sherry L.; Hurley, Thomas G.; Magner, Robert P.; Ockene, Ira S.; Schneider, Kristin L.; Merriam, Philip A.; Hébert, James R.

2009-01-01

3

Quantifying portion sizes for selected snack foods and beverages in 24-hour dietary recalls  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine individual recall accuracy for selected snack foods and beverages using various measurement aids and to investigate the cognitive strategies associated with aid selection for snacks and beverages in a 24-hour recall. Individuals (n=202) estimated the amounts of snack foods and beverages consumed the previous day while watching a 30-minute videotaped television program.

Edgar Chambers; Bruce McGuire; Sandria Godwin; Margaret McDowell; Fran Vecchio

2000-01-01

4

The Automated Self-Administered 24-hour dietary recall (ASA24): A resource for researchers, clinicians, and educators from the National Cancer Institute  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Extensive evidence has demonstrated that 24-hour dietary recalls (24HDRs) provide high-quality dietary intake data with minimal bias, making them the preferred tool for monitoring the diets of populations and, increasingly, for studying diet and disease associations. Traditional 24HDRs, however, are...

5

VALIDITY OF THE 24HOUR RECALL TO DETERMINE DIETARY STATUS OF ELDERLY IN AN EXTENDED CARE FACILITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research was to compare the 24-hour recall with the food record method and assess its validity as applied to elderly populations in institutionalized settings. The population studied was a group if 89 elderly residents in the Loretto Geriatric Center, Syracuse, New York. The major hypothesis was that the 24-hour recall is a valid dietary survey method

Mary Alice Caliendo

1981-01-01

6

Comparison of intakes of US Chinese women based on food frequency and 24-hour recall data.  

PubMed

The objective of this cross-sectional study was to compare dietary reports from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for US Chinese women with 24-hour recall estimates. The subjects were 56 women recruited through organizations in Philadelphia's Chinese community. Spearman correlations were used to describe FFQ estimates of food servings per month and nutrient intake per day vs estimates from three 24-hour recalls over 1 month. On average, women reported at least weekly consumption of 28 of 96 FFQ food items. The three most frequently consumed were rice (38 times/month), tea (29 times/month), and dark green, leafy vegetables (18 times/month). Comparing reported frequencies of the 28 foods to 24-hour recall estimates, the median Spearman correlation was 0.36. For nutrient estimates, correlations were high (r >0.5) for dietary fiber and calcium; moderate ( r =0.25 to 0.5) for energy, saturated fat, cholesterol, carbohydrates, protein, folic acid, and iron; but poor (r <0.25) for total fat, vitamin C, vitamin A, and carotene. These findings provide some assurance of the FFQ's adequacy for describing US Chinese women's intake of commonly consumed foods and selected nutrients. They also provide a basis for further improvements to, and evaluations of, the FFQ. PMID:15983537

Tseng, Marilyn; Hernández, Teresita

2005-07-01

7

Usability of a smartphone food picture app for assisting 24-hour dietary recall: a pilot study  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The Recaller app was developed to help individuals record their food intakes. This pilot study evaluated the usability of this new food picture application (app), which operates on a smartphone with an embedded camera and Internet capability. SUBJECTS/METHODS Adults aged 19 to 28 years (23 males and 22 females) were assigned to use the Recaller app on six designated, nonconsecutive days in order to capture an image of each meal and snack before and after eating. The images were automatically time-stamped and uploaded by the app to the Recaller website. A trained nutritionist administered a 24-hour dietary recall interview 1 day after food images were taken. Participants' opinions of the Recaller app and its usability were determined by a follow-up survey. As an evaluation indicator of usability, the number of images taken was analyzed and multivariate Poisson regression used to model the factors determining the number of images sent. RESULTS A total of 3,315 food images were uploaded throughout the study period. The median number of images taken per day was nine for males and 13 for females. The survey showed that the Recaller app was easy to use, and 50% of the participants would consider using the app daily. Predictors of a higher number of images were as follows: greater interval (hours) between the first and last food images sent, weekend, and female. CONCLUSIONS The results of this pilot study provide valuable information for understanding the usability of the Recaller smartphone food picture app as well as other similarly designed apps. This study provides a model for assisting nutrition educators in their collection of food intake information by using tools available on smartphones. This innovative approach has the potential to improve recall of foods eaten and monitoring of dietary intake in nutritional studies.

Pope, Benjamin T.; Bilgiç, Pelin; Orr, Barron J.; Suzuki, Asuka; Kim, Angela Sarah; Merchant, Nirav C.; Roe, Denise J.

2015-01-01

8

Development and validity of a 3-day smartphone-assisted 24-hour recall to assess beverage consumption in a Chinese population: a randomized cross-over study  

PubMed Central

This paper addresses the need for diet assessment methods that capture the rapidly changing beverage consumption patterns in China. The objective of this study was to develop a 3-day smartphone-assisted 24-hour recall to improve the quantification of beverage intake amongst young Chinese adults (n=110) and validate, in a small subset (n=34), the extent to which the written record and smartphone-assisted recalls adequately estimated total fluid intake, using 24-hour urine samples. The smartphone-assisted method showed improved validity compared to the written-assisted method, when comparing reported total fluid intake to total urine volume. However, participants reported consuming fewer beverages on the smartphone-assisted method compared to the written-assisted method, primarily due to decreased consumption of traditional zero-energy beverages (i.e. water, tea) in the smartphone-assisted method. It is unclear why participants reported fewer beverages in the smartphone-assisted method than the written-assisted method. One possibility is that participants found the smartphone method too cumbersome, and responded by decreasing beverage intake. These results suggest that smartphone-assisted 24-hour recalls perform comparably but do not appear to substantially improve beverage quantification compared to the current written record based approach. In addition, we piloted a beverage screener to identify consumers of episodically consumed SSBs. As expected, a substantially higher proportion of consumers reported consuming SSBs on the beverage screener compared to either recall type, suggesting that a beverage screener may be useful in characterizing consumption of episodically consumed beverages in China’s dynamic food and beverage landscape. PMID:25516327

Smith, Lindsey P.; Hua, Jenna; Seto, Edmund; Du, Shufa; Zang, Jiajie; Zou, Shurong; Popkin, Barry M.; Mendez, Michelle A.

2014-01-01

9

Formative research of a quick list for an automated self-administered 24-Hour dietary recall  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls are used to collect high-quality dietary data. Because they require highly trained interviewers, recalls are expensive and impractical for large-scale nutrition research, leading to the use of food frequency questionnaires. We are developing a computer-based, self-ad...

10

Low adherence to exclusive breastfeeding in Eastern Uganda: A community-based cross-sectional study comparing dietary recall since birth with 24-hour recall  

PubMed Central

Background Exclusive breastfeeding is recommended as the best feeding alternative for infants up to six months and has a protective effect against mortality and morbidity. It also seems to lower HIV-1 transmission compared to mixed feeding. We studied infant feeding practices comparing dietary recall since birth with 24-hour dietary recall. Methods A cross-sectional survey on infant feeding practices was performed in Mbale District, Eastern Uganda in 2003 and 727 mother-infant (0–11 months) pairs were analysed. Four feeding categories were made based on WHO's definitions: 1) exclusive breastfeeding, 2) predominant breastfeeding, 3) complementary feeding and 4) replacement feeding. We analyzed when the infant fell into another feeding category for the first time. This was based on the recall since birth. Life-table analysis was made for the different feeding categories and Cox regression analysis was done to control for potential associated factors with the different practices. Prelacteal feeding practices were also addressed. Results Breastfeeding was practiced by 99% of the mothers. Dietary recall since birth showed that 7% and 0% practiced exclusive breastfeeding by 3 and 6 months, respectively, while 30% and 3% practiced predominant breastfeeding and had not started complementary feeding at the same points in time. The difference between the 24-hour recall and the recall since birth for the introduction of complementary feeds was 46 percentage points at two months and 59 percentage points at four months. Prelacteal feeding was given to 57% of the children. High education and formal marriage were protective factors against prelacteal feeding (adjusted OR 0.5, 0.2 – 1.0 and 0.5, 0.3 – 0.8, respectively). Conclusion Even if breastfeeding is practiced at a very high rate, the use of prelacteal feeding and early introduction of other food items is the norm. The 24-hour recall gives a higher estimate of exclusive breastfeeding and predominant breastfeeding than the recall since birth. The 24-hour recall also detected improper infant feeding practices especially in the second half year of life. The dietary recall since birth might be a feasible alternative to monitor infant feeding practices in resource-poor settings. Our study reemphasizes the need for improving infant feeding practices in Eastern Uganda. PMID:17331251

Engebretsen, Ingunn Marie S; Wamani, Henry; Karamagi, Charles; Semiyaga, Nulu; Tumwine, James; Tylleskär, Thorkild

2007-01-01

11

Identifying nutrients that are under-reported by an automated 24-hour dietary recall method in overweight and obese women after weight loss  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Underreporting of energy intake by 15-50% is a common problem in dietary assessment. Evidence suggests overweight/obese respondents are more likely to under-report than normal weight. This study compared Automated Self-Administered 24-hour recall (ASA24)-reported dietary intake to true intake in ove...

12

VALIDATION OF THREE FOOD FREQUENCY QUESTIONNAIRES AND 24-HOUR RECALLS WITH SERUM CAROTENOID LEVELS IN A SAMPLE OF AFRICAN-AMERICAN ADULTS.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The validity of self-reported fruit and vegetable intake in minority populations has not been adequately established. In this study, the authors examined the association of three food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) and 24-hour dietary recalls with serum carotenoid levels. Approximately 1,000 Africa...

13

Validation of the automated self-administered 24-hour dietary recall for children (ASA24-Kids) among 9- to 11-year-old youth  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Our purpose was to validate ASA24-Kids-2012, a self-administered web-based 24-hour dietary recall (24hDR) among 9- to 11-year-old children. Sixty-nine children in two sites participated in the study. In one site, trained staff observed and recorded types and portions of foods and drinks consumed by ...

14

Under-reporting of Energy Intake from 24-hour Dietary Recalls in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

Objectives Chronic degenerative diseases are closely related to daily eating habits, nutritional status, and, in particular, energy intake. In clarifying these relationships it is very important for dietary surveys to report accurate information about energy intake. This study attempted to identify the prevalence of the under-reporting of energy intake and its related characteristics based on the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted in the years 2007–2009. Methods The present study analyzed dietary intake data from 15,133 adults aged ?19 years using 24-hour dietary recalls. Basal metabolic rates were calculated from the age- and gender-specific equations of Schofield and under-reporting was defined as an energy intake <0.9, represented by the ratio of energy intake to estimated basal metabolic rate. Results Under-reporters (URs) accounted for 14.4% of men and 23.0% of women and the under-reporting rate was higher in the age group 30–49 years for both men and women. The results from an analysis of the age-specific socioeconomic characteristics of participants classified as URs showed that under-reporting was high in women living alone and in women with only elementary school education or no education. The results from an analysis of the health-specific characteristics of URs showed that a large proportion of URs had poor self-rated health or were obese, or both, compared with non-URs. The proportion of participants who consumed less than the estimated average requirements for nutrients was significantly higher in URs compared with non-URs. Conclusion The under-reporting of energy intake was associated with age, gender, education level, income level, household status (single-person or multi-person), self-rated health, physical activity, and obesity. PMID:24955317

Kye, Seunghee; Kwon, Sung-Ok; Lee, Soon-Young; Lee, Jiyoon; Kim, Bok Hee; Suh, Hee-Jae; Moon, Hyun-Kyung

2014-01-01

15

Blood pressure among greenlanders. Influence of diet and lifestyle on 24 hour blood pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Greenlanders have a lower cardiovascular mortality and morbidity than Danes, possibly due to a lower blood pressure. However, 24-hour blood pressure has never been measured in Greenlanders. Purpose: to compare 24-hour blood pressure between Greenlanders and Danes, and to analyse the influence of Arctic food and life style on blood pressure.Methods:186 healthy subjects were recruited for the study. 145 Greenlandic

Erling B. Pedersen; Michael B. Pedersen; Marit E. Jorgensen

2003-01-01

16

24-Hour Glucose Profiles on Diets Varying in Protein Content and Glycemic Index  

PubMed Central

Evidence is increasing that the postprandial state is an important factor contributing to the risk of chronic diseases. Not only mean glycemia, but also glycemic variability has been implicated in this effect. In this exploratory study, we measured 24-h glucose profiles in 25 overweight participants in a long-term diet intervention study (DIOGENES study on Diet, Obesity and Genes), which had been randomized to four different diet groups consuming diets varying in protein content and glycemic index. In addition, we compared 24-h glucose profiles in a more controlled fashion, where nine other subjects followed in random order the same four diets differing in carbohydrate content by 10 energy% and glycemic index by 20 units during three days. Meals were provided in the lab and had to be eaten at fixed times during the day. No differences in mean glucose concentration or glucose variability (SD) were found between diet groups in the DIOGENES study. In the more controlled lab study, mean 24-h glucose concentrations were also not different. Glucose variability (SD and CONGA1), however, was lower on the diet combining a lower carbohydrate content and GI compared to the diet combining a higher carbohydrate content and GI. These data suggest that diets with moderate differences in carbohydrate content and GI do not affect mean 24-h or daytime glucose concentrations, but may result in differences in the variability of the glucose level in healthy normal weight and overweight individuals. PMID:25093276

van Baak, Marleen A.

2014-01-01

17

Results of analysis of the 1994 Dutch duplicate 24-hour diet samples: fatty acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

In spring and fall 1994, 123 respondents participated in a duplicate 24-h diet study. Each respondent collected one duplicate of the food and drinks, including drinking water he\\/she consumed in a continuous 24-h period. Lyophilised subsamples were analysed for fatty acid content by means of an in-house developed and validated gas chromatographic method with flame ionisation detection. From these data

R. C Schothorst; A. A Jekel

2000-01-01

18

DASH for Health: Validation of Web-based 24-Hour Recall Questionnaire Designed for a Lifestyle Modification Program  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The DASH eating plan is nationally recognized and recommended by the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, among others, as a healthful way to reduce hypertension and hypercholesterolemia, and as being an overall healthy diet for all Americans. We created a web-based nutrition and physical activity...

19

Comparison of a web-based versus traditional diet recall among children  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Self-administered instruments offer a low-cost diet assessment method for use in adult and pediatric populations. This study tested whether 8- to 13-year-old children could complete an early version of the Automated Self Administered 24 (ASA24) hour dietary recall and how this compared to an intervi...

20

Computerized portion size estimation compared to multiple 24-hour dietary recalls for measurement of fat, fruit, and vegetable intake in overweight adults  

PubMed Central

Validated self-report methods of dietary assessment exist, and might be improved both in terms of accuracy and cost-efficiency with computer technology. The objectives of this preliminary study were to develop an initial version of an interactive CD-ROM program to estimate fruit, vegetable, and fat intake, and to compare it to multiple 24-hour dietary recalls (24HR; averaged over 3 days). In 2009, overweight male and female adults (N = 205) from Lane County, OR completed computerized and paper versions of fruit, vegetable, and fat screening instruments, and multiple 24HR. Summary scores from the ten-item NCI Fruit and Vegetable Scan (FVS) and the 18-item Block Fat Screener (BFS) were compared to multiple 24HR-derived fruit/vegetable and fat intake estimates (criterion measures). Measurement models were used to derive deattenuated correlations with multiple 24HR of paper and CD-ROM administrations of FVS fruit intake, FVS vegetable intake, FVS fruit and vegetable intake, and BFS fat intake. The computerized assessment and paper surveys were related to multiple 24HR-derived fruit/vegetable and fat intake. Deattenuated correlation coefficients ranged from 0.50 to 0.73 (all P ?0.0001). The CD-ROM-derived estimate of fruit intake was more closely associated with the 24HR (r=0.73) than the paper-derived estimate (r=0.54; P<.05), but the other comparisons did not differ significantly. Findings from this preliminary study with overweight adults indicate the need for further enhancements to the CD-ROM assessment and more extensive validation studies. PMID:21963026

Toobert, Deborah J.; Strycker, Lisa A.; Hampson, Sarah E.; Westling, Erika; Christiansen, Steven M.; Hurley, Thomas G.; Hébert, James R.

2011-01-01

21

Development and Pilot Testing of 24-Hour Multiple-Pass Recall to Assess Dietary Intake of Toddlers of Somali- and Iraqi-Born Mothers Living in Norway  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to develop, test, and evaluate a 24-h recall procedure to assess the dietary intake of toddlers of Somali- and Iraqi-born mothers living in Norway. A protocol for a 24-h multiple-pass recall procedure, registration forms, and visual tools (a picture library for food identification and portion size estimation) was developed and tested in 12 mothers from Somalia and Iraq with children aged 10–21 months. Five female field workers were recruited and trained to conduct the interviews. Evaluation data for the 24-h recall procedure were collected from both the mothers and the field workers. Nutrient intake was calculated using a Norwegian dietary calculation system. Each child’s estimated energy intake was compared with its estimated energy requirement. Both the mothers and the field workers found the method feasible and the visual tools useful. The estimated energy intake corresponded well with the estimated energy requirement for most of the children (within mean ± 2 SD, except for three). The pilot study identified the need for additional foods in the picture library and some crucial aspects in training and supervising the field workers to reduce sources of error in the data collection. PMID:24949548

Grewal, Navnit Kaur; Mosdøl, Annhild; Aunan, Marte Bergsund; Monsen, Carina; Torheim, Liv Elin

2014-01-01

22

Development and pilot testing of 24-hour multiple-pass recall to assess dietary intake of toddlers of Somali- and Iraqi-born mothers living in Norway.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to develop, test, and evaluate a 24-h recall procedure to assess the dietary intake of toddlers of Somali- and Iraqi-born mothers living in Norway. A protocol for a 24-h multiple-pass recall procedure, registration forms, and visual tools (a picture library for food identification and portion size estimation) was developed and tested in 12 mothers from Somalia and Iraq with children aged 10-21 months. Five female field workers were recruited and trained to conduct the interviews. Evaluation data for the 24-h recall procedure were collected from both the mothers and the field workers. Nutrient intake was calculated using a Norwegian dietary calculation system. Each child's estimated energy intake was compared with its estimated energy requirement. Both the mothers and the field workers found the method feasible and the visual tools useful. The estimated energy intake corresponded well with the estimated energy requirement for most of the children (within mean ± 2 SD, except for three). The pilot study identified the need for additional foods in the picture library and some crucial aspects in training and supervising the field workers to reduce sources of error in the data collection. PMID:24949548

Grewal, Navnit Kaur; Mosdøl, Annhild; Aunan, Marte Bergsund; Monsen, Carina; Torheim, Liv Elin

2014-06-01

23

Memory loss resulting from fornix and septal damage: impaired supra-span recall but preserved recognition over a 24-hour delay.  

PubMed

Despite increasing evidence that the fornix is important for memory, uncertainty remains about the exact nature of subsequent impairments arising from damage to this tract. This uncertainty is often created by pathology in additional brain structures. The present study involved a young man, DN, who had almost complete bilateral loss of the rostral columns of the fornix and much of the surrounding septum in the left hemisphere following the surgical removal of a cavernous angioma. Quantitative MRI analyses of structure size, normalized to intracranial volume, showed no difference in any of the additional brain regions measured, apart from those areas removed to expose the tumor. DN showed a marked, stable anterograde memory impairment that was still present 4 years postsurgery. In contrast, DN performed within normal levels on most tests of recognition memory. This sparing was most striking when given a 24-hr delay between study and test of the Warrington Recognition Memory Test. This recall/recognition dissociation provides further evidence for neuroanatomical divisions within recognition memory processes. PMID:18763885

Vann, Seralynne D; Denby, Christine; Love, Seth; Montaldi, Daniela; Renowden, Shelley; Coakham, Hugh B

2008-09-01

24

Comparison of a web-based versus traditional diet recall among children  

PubMed Central

Self-administered instruments offer a low-cost diet assessment method for use in adult and pediatric populations. This study tested whether eight to 13 year old children could complete an early version of the Automated Self Administered 24 (ASA24) hour dietary recall and how this compared to an interviewer-administered 24-hour dietary recall (24 HDR). One-hundred and twenty eight to13 year old children were recruited in Houston from June through August 2009, and randomly assigned to complete either the ASA24 or an interviewer-administered 24 HDR, followed by the other recall mode covering the same time interval. Multivariate analysis of variance, testing for differences by age, gender and ethnic/racial group, were applied to percentages of food matches, intrusions, and omissions between reports on the ASA24 and the interviewer-administered 24 HDR. For the ASA24, qualitative findings were reported regarding ease of use. Overall matches between interviewer-administered and ASA24 self-administered 24 HDR was 47.8 percent. Matches were significantly lower among younger (eight to nine year old), compared to older (10 to 13 year old) children. Omissions on ASA24 (18.9 percent overall) were most common among eight year olds and intermediate among nine year olds. Eight and nine year olds had substantial difficulties and often required aid in completing ASA24. Findings from this study suggest that a simpler version of a web-based diet recall program would be easier for children to use. PMID:22717216

Baranowski, Tom; Islam, Noemi; Baranowski, Janice; Martin, Shelby; Beltran, Alicia; Dadabhoy, Hafza; Adame, Su-heyla; Watson, Kathleen B.; Thompson, Debbe; Cullen, Karen W.; Subar, Amy F.

2012-01-01

25

24-hour urine copper test  

MedlinePLUS

A 24-hour urine sample is needed. On day 1, urinate into the toilet when you get up in the morning. Afterwards, collect all urine in a special container for the next 24 hours. On day 2, urinate into the container when you get up in the morning. Cap ...

26

Recalls  

MedlinePLUS

... 3 4 5 ... Next Search Recalls And News Alerts From To Find Recalls By: Company Country Where ... Stay Connected Follow us on Twitter Get Email Alerts Get the Recall Widget Find More Government Recalls ...

27

24-Hour Academic Libraries: Adjusting to Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore the adaptive measures that academic libraries perform when implementing and operating a 24-hour schedule. Five in-depth interviews were conducted with current managerial-level librarians at 24-hour academic libraries. The exploratory interviews revealed similar measures for security, budgeting, employee…

Bowman, Adam C.

2013-01-01

28

The 24-Hour Mathematical Modeling Challenge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Across the mathematics curriculum there is a renewed emphasis on applications of mathematics and on mathematical modeling. Providing students with modeling experiences beyond the ordinary classroom setting remains a challenge, however. In this article, we describe the 24-hour Mathematical Modeling Challenge, an extracurricular event that exposes…

Galluzzo, Benjamin J.; Wendt, Theodore J.

2015-01-01

29

Multiethnic/Minority Cohort Study of Diet and Cancer  

Cancer.gov

At entry to the cohort study, each participant completed a 26-page mail questionnaire that included an extensive quantitative diet history, as well as other demographic, medical, and lifestyle information. Multiple 24-hour diet recalls were collected on more than 2,000 of the participants in a calibration study designed to permit correction of nutrient intake estimates for measurement error.

30

Validity of telephoned diet recalls and records for assessment of individual food intake.  

PubMed

Six methods of assessing individual food intake reported by telephone were compared for accuracy. A sample of 107 students eating in a dormitory dining hall was used. Two 7-day and four 3-day diet records were reported by telephone to either an interviewer or an answering device; and fourteen 6-h recalls and seven 24-h recalls were obtained by an interviewer over the telephone. To examine validity, the investigators observed respondents' intake for 28 days. Food item agreement scores comparing observed and reported data were calculated. Seven-day records were most accurate (87% food item agreement); 3-day records and 6-h recalls were equivalent (75%); and 24-h recalls were least accurate (69%). There were no significant difference in accuracy of reporting records to an interviewer versus a recording device, but respondents preferred the interviewer. Results of telephoned reporting compare favorably with personal interview techniques used by other investigators, indicating that telephoned methods should be further explored in community settings. PMID:7148742

Krantzler, N J; Mullen, B J; Schutz, H G; Grivetti, L E; Holden, C A; Meiselman, H L

1982-12-01

31

HEART RATE VARIABILITY AND 24-HOUR MINIMUM HEART RATE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Heart rate variability (HRV) indices based on 24-hour electrocardiograph recordings have been used in clinical research studies to assess the aggregate activity of the autonomic nervous system. While 24-hour HRV is generally considered non-invasive, use in research protocols typically involves cons...

32

The Earth and Sky in a 24 Hour Day  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an indoor and outdoor activity where students understand the distance the earth is from the sun. The students understand that the earth rotates on it's axis once in a 24 hour period thus providing us with day and night.

33

Pineal Gland: 24Hour Rhythm in Norepinephrine Turnover  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a 24-hour rhythm in the turnover of norepinephrine in sympathetic nerves innervating the pineal gland. This rhythm persists in blinded animals but is suppressed in normal rats by light. The rhythm in norepinephrine turnover generates the rhythms in pineal indoleamines and N-acetyltransferase.

Michael Brownstein; Julius Axelrod

1974-01-01

34

29 CFR 785.21 - Less than 24-hour duty.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...for less than 24 hours is working even though he is permitted to sleep or engage in other personal activities when not busy. A...for specified hours is working even though she is permitted to sleep when not busy answering calls. It makes no difference...

2011-07-01

35

29 CFR 785.21 - Less than 24-hour duty.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...for less than 24 hours is working even though he is permitted to sleep or engage in other personal activities when not busy. A...for specified hours is working even though she is permitted to sleep when not busy answering calls. It makes no difference...

2013-07-01

36

29 CFR 785.21 - Less than 24-hour duty.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...for less than 24 hours is working even though he is permitted to sleep or engage in other personal activities when not busy. A...for specified hours is working even though she is permitted to sleep when not busy answering calls. It makes no difference...

2010-07-01

37

29 CFR 785.21 - Less than 24-hour duty.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...for less than 24 hours is working even though he is permitted to sleep or engage in other personal activities when not busy. A...for specified hours is working even though she is permitted to sleep when not busy answering calls. It makes no difference...

2014-07-01

38

29 CFR 785.21 - Less than 24-hour duty.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...for less than 24 hours is working even though he is permitted to sleep or engage in other personal activities when not busy. A...for specified hours is working even though she is permitted to sleep when not busy answering calls. It makes no difference...

2012-07-01

39

Ambulatory 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

If 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring is to be a useful diagnostic tool, it must reliably discriminate gastroesophageal reflux patients despite daily variations in distal esophageal acid exposure. To address this issue, we studied 53 subjects (14 healthy normals, 14 esophagitis patients, and 25 patients with atypical symptoms) with two ambulatory pH tests performed within 10 days of each other. Intrasubject

G. J. Wiener; T. M. Morgan; J. B. Copper; D. O. Castell; J. W. Sinclair; J. E. Richter

1988-01-01

40

Oxygen saturation during the first 24 hours of life  

PubMed Central

AIM—To determine normative data for arterial oxygen saturation, measured by pulse oximetry (SpO2), in healthy full term infants throughout their first 24 hours of life.?METHODS—Long term recordings of SpO2, pulse waveform, and breathing movements were made on 90 infants. Recordings were analysed for baseline SpO2, episodes of desaturation (SpO2 ? 80%), apnoeic pauses of ? four seconds, and periodic apnoea (? three apnoeic pauses, each separated by ? 19breaths).?RESULTS—Median baseline SpO2 was 98.3% (range 88.7-100). Longitudinal analysis at four hour intervals showed that SpO2 remained stable until 20-24 hours of age, when it became significantly lower (p < 0.03). Episodic desaturations were identified in 23 recordings. Nine prolonged desaturations (SpO2 ? 80% for ? 20 seconds) were identified in six recordings. Four desaturations fell to ? 60%. Periodic apnoea was identified in 60% of recordings.?CONCLUSION—The range of SpO2 during the first 24 hours of life is similar to that found previously during the first month of life. The clinical significance of the prolonged episodes of desaturation observed justifies further investigation.? PMID:10873169

O'Brien, L; Stebbens, V; Poets, C; Heycock, E; Southall, D

2000-01-01

41

The impact of dairy and sweetened beverage consumption on diet quality, nutrient intake, and weight of a multi-ethnic population of Head Start mothers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To assess the impact of milk and sweetened beverage (SwB) intake on diet and weight in Head Start mothers, three 24-hour dietary recalls were collected on 609 Black (43%), Hispanic (33%), or White (24%) women in AL and TX. Women were divided into four beverage consumption groups: low milk/high SwB, ...

42

Is 24-hour Intraocular Pressure Monitoring Necessary in Glaucoma?  

PubMed Central

Although intraocular pressure (IOP) is the only treatable risk factor for glaucoma, its 24-hour behavior is poorly understood. Conflicting information is available in the literature with regard to the importance and predictive value of IOP peaks and fluctuations on the risk of glaucoma development and progression. This may be secondary to lack of prospective studies designed to address this issue. This article critically reviews the current evidence for the importance of 24-h IOP measurements in glaucoma and discusses shortcomings of current methods to assess 24-h IOP data, drawing attention to new developments in this field. PMID:23697618

Mansouri, Kaweh; Weinreb, Robert N.; Medeiros, Felipe A.

2013-01-01

43

Dietary patterns are similar in multiple 24-hour recalls and a dietary screening tool  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Dietary patterns (DP) have been associated with nutritional and health status of older adults but are usually derived by comprehensive dietary assessment methods. We designed a dietary screening tool (DST) to assess DP using a population-specific data-based approach from a cohort of the Geisinger R...

44

24-Hour metabolic rate in insomniacs and matched normal sleepers.  

PubMed

Groups of 10 objectively defined insomniacs and age-, sex- and weight-matched normal sleepers were evaluated on sleep, performance, mood, personality and metabolic measures over a 36-hour sleep laboratory stay. Insomniacs were defined to have increased wake time during the night but also had decreased stage 2 and rapid eye movement sleep. As expected insomniacs reported increased confusion, tension and depression and decreased vigor on the profile of mood states mood scale throughout the evaluation period as compared to the normals. Insomniacs also had decreased memory ability on the short-term memory test and the MAST. These performance and mood differences were not secondary to sleepiness because the insomniacs also had significantly increased multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) values throughout the evaluation period. In conjunction with the consistent mood, performance and MSLT differences during the day and the sleep differences at night, whole body VO2, measured at intervals across the day and throughout one night of sleep, was consistently elevated at all measurement points in the insomniacs as compared to the normals. The nocturnal increase in metabolic rate remained even after metabolic values from periods during the night containing wake time or arousals were eliminated from the data set. It was concluded that patients who report chronic insomnia may suffer from a more general disorder of hyperarousal (as measured here by a 24-hour increase in metabolic rate) that may be responsible for both the daytime symptoms and the nocturnal poor sleep. Future studies need to explore 24-hour insomnia treatment strategies that decrease hyperarousal. PMID:8552929

Bonnet, M H; Arand, D L

1995-09-01

45

Food Sources of Added Sweeteners in the Diets of Americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To identify food sources of added sweeteners in the US diet.Design A descriptive study using data from the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) 1994-1996 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals. Each subject provided one 24-hour dietary recall. Intake of added sweeteners was calculated using the USDA Food Guide Pyramid servings database.Subjects\\/setting A national sample of noninstitutionalized persons aged

JOANNE F GUTHRIE; JOAN F MORTON

2000-01-01

46

Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Augments Perceptual Sensitivity and 24-Hour Retention in a  

E-print Network

Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Augments Perceptual Sensitivity and 24-Hour Retention Abstract We have previously shown that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) improved performance) Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Augments Perceptual Sensitivity and 24-Hour Retention in a Complex

Parasuraman, Raja

47

Managing sleep and wakefulness in a 24-hour world  

PubMed Central

This article contributes to literature on the sociology of sleep by exploring the sleeping practices and subjective sleep experiences of two social groups: shift workers and students. It draws on data, collected in the UK from 25 semi-structured interviews, to discuss the complex ways in which working patterns and social activities impact upon experiences and expectations of sleep in our wired awake world. The data show that, typically, sleep is valued and considered to be important for health, general wellbeing, appearance and physical and cognitive functioning. However, sleep time is often cut back on in favour of work demands and social activities. While shift workers described their efforts to fit in an adequate amount of sleep per 24-hour period, for students, the adoption of a flexible sleep routine was thought to be favourable for maintaining a work–social life balance. Collectively, respondents reported using a wide range of strategies, techniques, technologies and practices to encourage, overcome or delay sleep(iness) and boost, promote or enhance wakefulness/alertness at socially desirable times. The analysis demonstrates how social context impacts not only on how we come to think about sleep and understand it, but also how we manage or self-regulate our sleeping patterns. PMID:23957268

Coveney, Catherine M

2014-01-01

48

Nutrition habits in 24-hour mountain bike racers.  

PubMed

We investigated seventy-four ultra-mountain bikers (MTBers) competing in the solo category in the first descriptive field study to detail nutrition habits and the most common food before during and after the 24 hour race using questionnaires. During the race, bananas (86.5%), energy bars (50.0%), apples (43.2%) and cheese (43.2%) were the most commonly consumed food, followed by bread (44.6%), rice (33.8%) and bananas (33.8%) after the race. Average fluid intake was 0.5?±?0.2 l/h. The main beverage was isotonic sports drink (82.4%) during and pure water (66.2%) after the race. The most preferred four supplements in the four weeks before, the day before, during and after the race were vitamin C (35.1%), magnesium (44.6%), magnesium (43.2%) and branched-chain amino acids (24.3%), respectively. Total frequency of food intake (30.6?±?10.5 times/24 hrs) was associated with fluid intake (r?=?0.43, P?=?0.04) and both were highest at the beginning of the race and lower during the night hours and the last race segment in a subgroup of twenty-three ultra-MTBers. Supplement intake frequency (6.8?±?8.4 times/24 hrs) was highest during the night hours and lower at the beginning and end of the race. Elevated food and fluid intake among participants tracked across all race segments (P?

Chlíbková, Daniela; Knechtle, Beat; Rosemann, Thomas; Tomášková, Ivana; Chadim, Vlastimil; Shortall, Marcus

2014-01-01

49

24Hour Rhythm of Hypothalamic Melatonin Immunofluorescence Correlates with Serum and Retinal Melatonin Rhythms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 24-hour rhythm of retinal and hypothalamic melatonin immunofluorescence was determined in male albino rats and compared to the 24-hour rhythm of serum melatonin determined by radioimmunoassay. Under a 12-hour (0:00–12:00):12-hour dark cycle, the 24-hour rhythm of melatonin immunocytochemical fluorescence in the retina was bio-modal (crests at 1:00 and 10:00–13:00). In serum, melatonin has a single crest late in the

Lee J. Grota; Wm. R. Holloway; Gregory M. Brown

1982-01-01

50

TESTING FORM Please deliver exams with envelope & testing form at least 24 hours in advance to  

E-print Network

TESTING FORM Please deliver exams with envelope & testing form at least 24 hours in advance to Name (print): __________________________________________________________________ Course: _________________________________ Class Time: __________ - __________ _________ Test Date: _______________________________ Time allotted

Selmic, Sandra

51

Diet Screener in CHIS 2005: Uses of Screener Estimates in CHIS  

Cancer.gov

Dietary intake estimates from the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) Diet Screener are rough estimates of usual intake of fruits and vegetables and added sugar. They are not as accurate as more detailed methods (e.g. 24-hour recalls). However, validation research suggests that the estimates may be useful to characterize a population's median intakes, to discriminate among individuals or populations with regard to higher vs.

52

Recruiting Strategy and 24-Hour Biomonitoring of Paraquat in Agricultural Workers  

PubMed Central

The objectives of this study were to recruit agricultural workers in Costa Rica to participate in a 24-hour urine collection for paraquat exposure assessment and to compare the 24-hour sampling to end-of-shift sampling. The authors recruited 187 handlers and 54 nonhandlers from coffee, banana, and palm oil plantations. The completeness of 24-hour urine samples collected (a total of 393 samples) was confirmed by questionnaire and urinary creatinine level. For a subset of 12 samples, the absorbed paraquat level was determined in 24-hours and end-of-shift spot urine samples. The participation rate for handlers was ~90%. The completeness of 24-hour urine collections was verified as the overall average of creatinine levels from 393 urines (1.11 ± 0.50 g/L). A total of 92.4% to 96.7% of urine samples were considered within the acceptable range of urinary creatinine, whereas 94.7% of the samples were described as “complete” from the questionnaire. Measured creatinine correlated well to predicted values (r = .327, p = .0024, 95% CI .12–.51). Detected paraquat levels in spot urine samples had a sensitivity of 96.9% at the high specificity of 100% compared to 24-hour urine samples as the gold standard. There was a significant (p < .0001) correlation between spot and 24-hour urine paraquat levels (r = .7825, 95% CI .61–.88). The recruiting strategy was successful in getting 24-hour urine samples from a farm worker population. Comparison between the paraquat levels in spot and 24-hour urine samples demonstrated that for this compound, end-of-shift spot urine samples would be an appropriate substitute for 24-hour collections. PMID:19064412

Park, Eun-Kee; Tagles, Hector Duarte; Gee, Shirley J.; Hammock, Bruce D.; Lee, Kiyoung; Schenker, Marc B.

2010-01-01

53

Method for generating an artificial RR tachogram of a typical healthy human over 24-hours  

Microsoft Academic Search

An algorithm that generates realistic synthetic 24-hour RR-tachograms by including both cardiovascular interactions and transitions between physiological states is presented. Fluctuations in the beat to beat RR-intervals of a normal healthy human over 24 hours are known to exhibit variability on a number of different time scales. Short range variability due to Mayer waves and RSA are incorporated using a

P. E. McSharry; G. Clifford; L. Tarassenko; L. A. Smith

2002-01-01

54

Immediacy, Convenience or Engagement? An analysis of 24-hour news channels in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article is based on the first systematic analysis of the output of 24-hour news channels in the UK. From a viewer's point of view, we argue, a 24-hour news channel can fulfil three main purposes: allowing someone to watch an up-to-date news bulletin whenever they wish; enabling a viewer to watch major live news events as they happen; or

Justin Lewis; Stephen Cushion; James Thomas

2005-01-01

55

The Workday Comic: Adapting the 24Hour Comic to an Academic Setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renowned comics theorist Scott McCloud's 24-Hour Comics project has challenged both professional creators and interested amateurs alike to create a 24-page sequential art story, scripted, drawn, lettered, and inked all within 24 continuous hours. Beginning with A Day's Work (McCloud, 1990) and A Life in Black and White (Bissette, 1990), the challenge grew and transformed, inspiring 24-Hour Plays, Animation, and

Nicholas A. Langley

2007-01-01

56

DOHaD research with populations in transition: a case study of prenatal diet remote recall with Yup'ik Alaskan women.  

PubMed

Maternal prenatal diet can exert a powerful influence on the health of children when they reach adulthood - an orienting phenomenon in the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease research paradigm. Similar to other subsistence-based communities experiencing a rapid nutrition transition, obesity is increasing among Yup'ik Alaskans. Diabetes prevalence, however, remains relatively low and may reflect developmental nutritional processes that have yet to be thoroughly considered. Here we investigate recall of Yup'ik women's diets during a past pregnancy using a mixed-methods approach as a critical first step in exploring such alternative developmental hypotheses. For certain populations, retrospective dietary reports might be the only source of information on factors relevant to understanding developmental pathways to health and disease. Our analysis identified community-specific factors that will likely improve the accuracy of future retrospective dietary analyses investigating the role of prenatal nutrition in the developmental origins of metabolic disease, especially among Alaska Natives. PMID:25627659

Giordano, C; Benyshek, D C

2015-04-01

57

Sources of variance in 24-hour dietary recall data: implications for nutrition study design and interpretation?3  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Heart Lung Blood Institute Nutrition Data System was examined with regard to sources of variance. A Graeco-Latin square design involving 30 male and 30 female subjects, each interviewed six times, three trained interviewers and three interview days was used. Through factorial analysis of variance it was demonstrated that there was no difference between interviewers and no training effect

G. H. Beaton; J. Milner; P. Corey; V. McGuire; M. Cousins; E. Stewart; M. de Ramos; D. Hewitt; P. V. Grambsch; N. Kassim

2010-01-01

58

Mood-Dependent Cognitive Change in a Man with Bipolar Disorder Who Cycles Every 24 Hours  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A case study of a bipolar patient whose mood changes every 24 hours is described to illustrate the changes in cognitive processing and content during different phases of bipolar disorder. The participant completed a battery of questionnaires and tasks on 4 separate occasions: twice when depressed and twice when manic. Depression tended to be…

Lam, Dominic; Mansell, Warren

2008-01-01

59

Fertility factors in lactating rabbits mated 24 hours and 25 days after parturition  

E-print Network

Fertility factors in lactating rabbits mated 24 hours and 25 days after parturition Suzanne TORRÈS 78350 Jouy-en-Josas, France Summary. Fertility is compared in lactating rabbits mated 12-18 hours rate and a larger number of oocytes remaining unfertilized. 11.1 oocytes are shed in the early mated

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

60

Leg skinfold thicknesses and race performance in male 24-hour ultra-marathoners.  

PubMed

The association of skinfold thicknesses with race performance has been investigated in runners competing over distances of ?50 km. This study investigated a potential relation between skinfold thicknesses and race performance in male ultra-marathoners completing >50 km in 24 hours. Variables of anthropometry, training, and previous performance were related to race performance in 63 male ultra-marathoners aged 46.9 (standard deviation [SD] 10.3) years, standing 1.78 (SD 0.07) m in height, and weighing 73.3 (SD 7.6) kg. The runners clocked 146.1 (SD 43.1) km during the 24 hours. In the bivariate analysis, several variables were associated with race performance: body mass (r = -0.25); skinfold thickness at axilla (r = -0.37), subscapula (r = -0.28), abdomen (r = -0.31), and suprailiaca (r = -0.30); the sum of skinfold thicknesses (r = -0.32); percentage body fat (r = -0.32); weekly kilometers run (r = 0.31); personal best time in a marathon (r = -0.58); personal best time in a 100-km ultra-run (r = -0.31); and personal best performance in a 24-hour run (r = 0.46). In the multivariate analysis, no anthropometric or training variable was related to race performance. In conclusion, in contrast to runners up to distances of 50 km, skinfold thicknesses of the lower limbs were not related to race performance in 24-hour ultra-marathoners. PMID:21566757

Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas

2011-04-01

61

Non-Competitive Entry Programs: Completed applications are processed in 24 hours!  

E-print Network

Non-Competitive Entry Programs: Completed applications are processed in 24 hours! Bachelor's Degree. February 1 67% Nursing Successful completion of high school graduation requirements and English 12 U www.unbc.ca/education for specific information. March 15 C+ Average Social Work Applicants must meet

Northern British Columbia, University of

62

Outdoor Noise Measurements One device will be setup outside to record sounds 24 hours a  

E-print Network

Outdoor Noise Measurements One device will be setup outside to record sounds 24 hours a day the study and nighttime sound recordings will be made during the sleep period. The equipment consists of 1 will be placed near the sleeping position. For the nighttime sound recordings, participants will need to start

Pennsylvania, University of

63

Source: 24 Hours Edmonton | KEVIN MAIMANN | 29 Jun 2012 ANCIENT FOSSIL DISCOVERED  

E-print Network

Source: 24 Hours Edmonton | KEVIN MAIMANN | 29 Jun 2012 ANCIENT FOSSIL DISCOVERED University. Geologists Ernesto Pecoits and Natalie Aubet found fossilized tracks in Uruguay they believe was left behind-microbiologist at the university, co-authored the study published Thursday in the journal Science. He said the fossils have been

Machel, Hans

64

24Hour Rhythms in Uterine and Umbilical Blood Flows of Conscious Pregnant Sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility that 24-hour rhythms exist in uterine blood flow (UtBF) and umbilical blood flow (UmBF) was investigated in 5 days postoperative chronically instrumented near-term pregnant sheep acclimated to a controlled environment. UtBF, UmBF and pressure measurements were made at 15-min intervals over 24 h beginning at 0800 h. Each data series was examined for the presence of significant rhythms

Adrian M. Walker; Gary K. Oakes; Margaret K. McLaughlin; Richard A. Ehrenkranz; David W. Alling; Ronald A. Chez

1977-01-01

65

Circadian Polymorphisms in Night Owls, in Bipolars, and in Non-24-Hour Sleep Cycles  

PubMed Central

People called night owls habitually have late bedtimes and late times of arising, sometimes suffering a heritable circadian disturbance called delayed sleep phase syndrome (DSPS). Those with DSPS, those with more severe progressively-late non-24-hour sleep-wake cycles, and those with bipolar disorder may share genetic tendencies for slowed or delayed circadian cycles. We searched for polymorphisms associated with DSPS in a case-control study of DSPS research participants and a separate study of Sleep Center patients undergoing polysomnography. In 45 participants, we resequenced portions of 15 circadian genes to identify unknown polymorphisms that might be associated with DSPS, non-24-hour rhythms, or bipolar comorbidities. We then genotyped single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in both larger samples, using Illumina Golden Gate assays. Associations of SNPs with the DSPS phenotype and with the morningness-eveningness parametric phenotype were computed for both samples, then combined for meta-analyses. Delayed sleep and "eveningness" were inversely associated with loci in circadian genes NFIL3 (rs2482705) and RORC (rs3828057). A group of haplotypes overlapping BHLHE40 was associated with non-24-hour sleep-wake cycles, and less robustly, with delayed sleep and bipolar disorder (e.g., rs34883305, rs34870629, rs74439275, and rs3750275 were associated with n=37, p=4.58E-09, Bonferroni p=2.95E-06). Bright light and melatonin can palliate circadian disorders, and genetics may clarify the underlying circadian photoperiodic mechanisms. After further replication and identification of the causal polymorphisms, these findings may point to future treatments for DSPS, non-24-hour rhythms, and possibly bipolar disorder or depression. PMID:25395965

Klimecki, Walter T.; Nievergelt, Caroline M.; Rex, Katharine M.; Murray, Sarah S.; Shekhtman, Tatyana; Tranah, Gregory J.; Loving, Richard T.; Lee, Heon-Jeong; Rhee, Min Kyu; Shadan, Farhad F.; Poceta, J. Steven; Jamil, Shazia M.; Kline, Lawrence E.; Kelsoe, John R.

2014-01-01

66

Tetra-probe 24-hour pH monitoring for laryngopharyngeal reflux disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: There is no clear consensus on the findings or clinical manifestation of laryngopharyngeal reflux disease (LPRD). Furthermore, there are no ideal diagnostic procedures for evaluating LPRD, and the diagnostic outcome criteria are ambiguous. Double-probe 24-hour pH monitoring remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of LPRD, whereas there is no consensus with respect to the number of pH sensors,

Kiminori Sato; Tadashi Nakashima

2004-01-01

67

Impedance and Electrically Evoked Compound Action Potential (ECAP) Drop within 24 Hours after Cochlear Implantation  

PubMed Central

Previous animal study revealed that post-implantation electrical detection levels significantly declined within days. The impact of cochlear implant (CI) insertion on human auditory pathway in terms of impedance and electrically evoked compound action potential (ECAP) variation within hours after surgery remains unclear, since at this time frequency mapping can only commence weeks after implantation due to factors associated with wound conditions. The study presented our experiences with regards to initial switch-on within 24 hours, and thus the findings about the milieus inside cochlea within the first few hours after cochlear implantation in terms of impedance/ECAP fluctuations. The charts of fifty-four subjects with profound hearing impairment were studied. A minimal invasive approach was used for cochlear implantation, characterized by a small skin incision (?2.5 cm) and soft techniques for cochleostomy. Impedance/ECAP was measured intro-operatively and within 24 hours post-operatively. Initial mapping within 24 hours post-operatively was performed in all patients without major complications. Impedance/ECAP became significantly lower measured within 24 hours post-operatively as compared with intra-operatively (p<0.001). There were no differences between pre-operative and post-operative threshold for air-conduction hearing. A significant drop of impedance/ECAP in one day after cochlear implantation was revealed for the first time in human beings. Mechanisms could be related to the restoration of neuronal sensitivity to the electrical stimulation, and/or the interaction between the matrix enveloping the electrodes and the electrical stimulation of the initial switch-on. Less wound pain/swelling and soft techniques both contributed to the success of immediate initial mapping, which implied a stable micro-environment inside the cochlea despite electrodes insertion. Our research invites further studies to correlate initial impedance/ECAP changes with long-term hearing/speech performance. PMID:23991008

Chen, Joshua Kuang-Chao; Chuang, Ann Yi-Chiun; Sprinzl, Georg Mathias; Tung, Tao-Hsin; Li, Lieber Po-Hung

2013-01-01

68

Mechanical properties of the aortic arterial wall during 24 hours: a preliminary study in conscious sheep  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous experiences in animals showed a different behavior between the variability of pressure, arterial diameter and elasticity when they were registered for a couple of hours. To better understand arterial mechanics variability, we propose to measure simultaneously aortic pressure and diameter during 24 hours in a sheep. For that purpose, we developed a portable prototype device. It allows continuously recording physiological signals throughout the day and storing them in a solid state memory for later analysis. Pulse wave velocity and Peterson modulus were assessed beat-to-beat as arterial stiffness indexes. We identified 53,762 heart beats during 24 hours that were separated into 2 groups: below or above median mean pressure (71 mmHg). Mean diameter, pulse wave velocity and Peterson modulus increased for higher pressure values (p<0.05) whereas heart rate slowed down (p<0.05). Pressure-diameter loops were successfully recreated all along the experience. This new methodology sets the basis for further experiences involving the estimation of 24 hours arterial mechanics variability.

Graf, S.; Craiem, D.; Valero, M.; Alfonso, M.; Barra, J. G.; Armentano, R. L.

2011-12-01

69

Immediate and 24-hour evaluation of the interfacial strengths of fiber posts.  

PubMed

This study examined the contribution of testing time on the interfacial strengths of fiber posts to radicular dentin. Twenty-five fiber posts were luted to root segments with resin cements and a zinc phosphate cement. Immediately upon setting of the materials, the roots were sectioned into slices and randomly divided into two subgroups, depending on testing time (immediate vs. 24-hours), for push-out test. The results showed an improvement on the interfacial strength after 24 hours of storage. When data were pooled for each cement, the interfacial strengths (MPa) were: Optibond Solo Plus/Nexus: 10.3+/-3.8a; zinc phosphate cement: 10.1+/-2.7a; Multilink: 9.6+/-3.8ab; RelyX Unicem: 7.1+/-4.9bc; AllBond 2/Duolink: 6.7+/-3.5c (groups with same superscript letter were not statistically significant). It is concluded that bond strength can increase during the first 24 hours and that the interfacial strength is predominantly contributed by frictional retention. PMID:17174676

Sadek, Fernanda Tranchesi; Goracci, Cecilia; Monticelli, Francesca; Grandini, Simone; Cury, Alvaro Hafiz; Tay, Franklin; Ferrari, Marco

2006-12-01

70

Spot Protein/Creatinine Ratio in Preeclampsia as an Alternative for 24-Hour Urine Protein  

PubMed Central

Background: Proteinuria is a major component of preeclampsia. Urine protein measurement after 24-hour urine collection is the traditional standard method for the detection of proteinuria. It is time-consuming. As an alternative, random spot sampling for a urine protein to creatinine (P/C) ratio has been investigated. Aims: The aim of the study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of the protein to creatinine ratio (P/C) compared with 24-hour urine collection for the detection of remarkable proteinuria and to evaluate the P/C ratio for different proteinuria ranges in patients with preeclampsia. Study Design: Case-control study. Methods: Two hundred and eleven pregnant women who met the criteria of preeclampsia comprised the study group and fifty three pregnant women were taken as the control group. Spot urine specimens for measuring P/C ratio were obtained taken immediately before 24-hour urine collection. The correlation between the P/C ratio in the spot urine samples and urinary protein excretion in the 24-hour collections was examined using the Spearman correlation test. Results: It was found a good positive correlation between the P/C ratio and 24-hour protein excretion, with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.758. The best cut-off which gave the maximum area under the curve was 0.45 for 300 mg, 0.9 for 1000 mg, 1.16 for 2000 mg, 1.49 for 3000 mg, 2.28 for 4000 mg and 2.63 for 5000 mg per 24h. A P/C ratio above 0.9 strongly predicts significant proteinuria for more than 1 gram (AUC 0.97, 95% CI: 0.94–0.99 and sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of 91%, 95.4%, 95.2%, and 91.2%, respectively). Conclusion: The P/C ratio can be used as a screening test as a good predictor for remarkable proteinuria. The P/C ratio seems to be highly predictive for diagnosis to detect proteinuria over one gram and it could be used as a rapid alternative test in preeclamptic patients not to delay implementation treatment.

Demirci, Oya; Kumru, P?nar; Ar?nkan, Arzu; Ard?ç, Cem; Ar?soy, Resul; Tozk?r, Elif; Tando?an, Bülent; Ayvac?, Habibe; Tu?rul, Ahmet S.

2015-01-01

71

DIEL VARIATIONS IN THE FEEDING HABITS OF PACIFIC SALMON CAUGHT IN GILL NETS DURING A 24-HOUR PERIOD  

E-print Network

DIEL VARIATIONS IN THE FEEDING HABITS OF PACIFIC SALMON CAUGHT IN GILL NETS DURING A 24-HOUR PERIOD salmon caught in surface gill nets set for 2 hours each over a 24-hour period at a station in the Gulfof and catches in the near-surface portion of the gill nets were highest between sunset and sunrise, suggesting

72

40 CFR 52.1990 - Interstate Transport for the 2006 24-hour PM2.5 NAAQS.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Interstate Transport for the 2006 24-hour PM2.5 NAAQS. 52.1990 Section 52.1990 Protection of...52.1990 Interstate Transport for the 2006 24-hour PM2.5 NAAQS. (a) EPA approves the portion of...

2014-07-01

73

40 CFR 52.1990 - Interstate Transport for the 2006 24-hour PM2.5 NAAQS.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Interstate Transport for the 2006 24-hour PM2.5 NAAQS. 52.1990 Section 52.1990 Protection of...52.1990 Interstate Transport for the 2006 24-hour PM2.5 NAAQS. (a) EPA approves the portion of...

2013-07-01

74

40 CFR 52.1990 - Interstate Transport for the 2006 24-hour PM2.5 NAAQS.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Interstate Transport for the 2006 24-hour PM2.5 NAAQS. 52.1990 Section 52.1990 Protection of...52.1990 Interstate Transport for the 2006 24-hour PM2.5 NAAQS. (a) EPA approves the portion of...

2012-07-01

75

77 FR 65310 - Additional Air Quality Designations for the 2006 24-Hour Fine Particle National Ambient Air...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...initial 2006 24-hour fine particle (PM 2.5 ) national...evaluate further high fine particle concentrations during...S. EPA Air Quality System Preliminary Design Value...standards based on the most recent (2006-2008...the 2006 24-hour Fine Particle (PM 2.5 )...

2012-10-26

76

Conflicts of Liveability in the 24-hour City: Learning from 48 Hours in the Life of London's Soho  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 24-hour city has been put forward as the urbane solution to many of the problems of the central city. As a development from the 24-hour city concept, the expansion of the night-time economy has become a contentious issue in neighbourhoods with established or expanding residential populations. This pilot research project focused on a small area in Soho, London, to

Marion Roberts; Chris Turner

2005-01-01

77

24-Hour Measurement of Gastric pH in Rural South Africa  

PubMed Central

Background. Previous studies have established norms of 24-hour gastric pH profiles for western countries. This study was designed to establish the pattern for a rural African population with a high incidence of oesophageal cancer. Methods. After lower oesophageal manometry a probe was placed 10?cm distal to the lower oesophageal sphincter. We carried out 24-hour ambulatory monitoring of gastric pH on 59 healthy subjects. This was satisfactorily completed on 26 female and 18 male (age 21–64, median 35) subjects in the Transkei region of South Africa. Results. The mean 24 hour gastric pH was 2.84 and the mean night-time pH was 3.7. 40 volunteers recorded a night-time pH reaching over 4. 33 volunteers recorded a night-time pH over 7. Night-time alkalinisation was present for 136.4 minutes (25th centile 22.8, 75th centile 208.1) at pH4 or over, and 79.3 (2.5, 122.7) minutes at pH7 or over. Episodes of rapid alkaline rise were 17 (10, 47). 21.1% of these occurred while supine. 35 of 36 tested subjects were positive for H. pylori IgG. Conclusion. Gastric alkalinisation is common in Transkei, at a higher pH than that reported in other studies, and is sustained longer. Nighttime alkalinisation is frequent. This suggests a high level of duodenogastric reflux.

Sammon, Alastair M.; Ndebia, Eugene J.; Umapathy, Ekambaram; Iputo, Jehu E.

2015-01-01

78

Overfeeding Over 24 Hours Does Not Activate Brown Adipose Tissue in Humans  

PubMed Central

Context: Human brown adipose tissue (BAT) is activated with cold exposure, but it is unknown whether overfeeding activates BAT. Objective: We determined BAT activation with cold, fasting, and overfeeding and the relationship of BAT activation with future weight change. Design, Setting, Participants, and Interventions: Sixteen healthy adults were evaluated during energy balance, fasting, and 24 hours of 200% overfeeding. All subjects had a fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (PET) scan after exposure to 16°C to determine cold-induced BAT activity (CIBA). The first six subjects had a second PET scan after 36 hours of fasting to establish the lack of BAT activation at 22°C. The other subjects' second PET scan occurred after 24 hours of overfeeding at 22°C but only if they demonstrated CIBA. Twelve subjects returned at 6 months for reassessment of body composition. Main Outcome Measures: BAT was defined in cool scans as voxels with a standardized uptake value (SUV) of 2.0 or greater and Hounsfield units between ?250 and ?10. Body composition was assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Results: Although 75% of the subjects demonstrated visible CIBA, none had visual BAT activity after overfeeding. CIBA was greater than that observed in the same defined BAT voxels after fasting (n = 6; 2.9 ± 0.5 vs 1.2 ± 0.2; ? = ?1.7; 95% confidence interval ?2.4, ?1.0 SUV; P < .01). In the second cohort, CIBA was also higher than observed BAT voxel activity after 24 hours overfeeding (n = 8; 3.5 ± 0.7 vs 0.9 ± 0.2; ? = ?2.6; 95% confidence interval ?3.2, ?1.9 SUV; P < .01). Baseline CIBA negatively correlated with changes in fat mass after 6 months (r = ?0.72, P = .009). Conclusions: BAT may be important in weight regulation unrelated to the response to overeating. PMID:24081739

Piaggi, Paolo; Thiyyagura, Pradeep; Reiman, Eric M.; Chen, Kewei; Lutrin, Calvin; Krakoff, Jonathan; Thearle, Marie S.

2013-01-01

79

Effect of exogenous ANP on initial renal function following 24-hour cold preservation.  

PubMed

The impact of synthetic atrial natriuretic peptide (sANP) on renal function following cold ischemic injury was studied in a canine autotransplant model. Following a prenephrectomy inulin clearance determination (CIn), the left kidney was excised, flushed with Eurocollins solution, and cold-stored for 24 hours. Immediately following reperfusion and a 10 minute equilibration period, baseline CIn was measured over a 20-minute time interval (Collection Period I). Experimental animals (N = 11) then received 1 mcg/kg sANP by intravenous bolus followed by a continuous infusion at 0.3 mcg/kg/min for 30 minutes. CIn was measured throughout the infusion (Collection Period II). Normal saline was substituted for sANP in control animals (N = 11). CIn was also measured 24 hours following reimplantation in seven control and seven sANP-treated animals. Autograft inulin clearance increased from 0.32 +/- 0.11 ml/min during Period I to 2.5 +/- 0.6 ml/min during sANP infusion (P less than 0.01). This increase in CIn associated with ANP infusion was accompanied by increases in urine flow rate (V) (0.15 +/- 0.05 ml/min to 0.98 +/- 0.21 ml/min, P less than 0.01) and renal blood flow (RBF) measured by electromagnetic flow probe (85 +/- 17 ml/min to 171 +/- 13 ml/min, P less than 0.05). No significant changes in CIn, V, or RBF occurred in control animals between periods I and II. Although systemic blood pressure declined during sANP infusion, it did not decrease to an extent that compromised peripheral perfusion. CIn determined 24 hours after autograft reimplantation in the ANP-treated animals approximated or exceeded values determined during ANP infusion (Period II).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2530383

Lewis, R; Janney, R; Osgood, R; McAndrew, J; Verani, R; Fried, T

1989-10-01

80

Tasimelteon for the treatment of non-24-hour sleep-wake disorder.  

PubMed

Tasimelteon (Hetlioz®), a melatonin receptor agonist, is the first, and, at the time of the publication, the only drug to be approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of non-24-hour sleep-wake disorder (non-24). This circadian rhythm disorder occurs most commonly in blind individuals without light perception, and it results from their inability to entrain to the 24-hour photoperiod, although the indication does not specify a particular patient population. Non-24 is characterized by a persistent cycle of nighttime insomnia and daytime sleepiness, alternating with asymptomatic periods depending on an individual's degree of circadian rhythm synchronization with the photoperiod at any particular time. Phase II clinical trials in healthy individuals confirmed the circadian phase-shifting potential of tasimelteon. Phase III trials in totally blind subjects diagnosed with non-24 demonstrated the efficacy of tasimelteon in reducing both nighttime wakefulness and daytime napping. Physiologic monitoring revealed that tasimelteon resulted in a higher proportion of individuals becoming entrained to the 24-hour cycle compared with placebo. Safety assessments indicated that tasimelteon is well tolerated, with the most common adverse events being headache, alanine aminotransferase elevation, nightmares or unusual dreams, and upper respiratory or urinary tract infections. Tasimelteon is available as a capsule in a single 20-mg dose and it must be obtained through Vanda Pharmaceutical's HetliozSolutions program with dispensing through a specialty pharmacy. Safety studies in blind individuals diagnosed with non-24 are ongoing and a future clinical trial with Smith-Magenis syndrome patients is planned. PMID:25685859

Neubauer, D N

2015-01-01

81

Nutritional behavior of cyclists during a 24-hour team relay race: a field study report  

PubMed Central

Background Information about behavior of energy intake in ultra-endurance cyclists during a 24-hour team relay race is scarce. The nutritional strategy during such an event is an important factor which athletes should plan carefully before the race. The purpose of this study was to examine and compare the nutritional intake of ultra-endurance cyclists during a 24-hour team relay race with the current nutritional guidelines for endurance events. Additionally, we analyzed the relationship among the nutritional and performance variables. Methods Using a observational design, nutritional intake of eight males (mean ± SD: 36.7 ± 4.7 years; 71.6 ± 4.9 kg; 174.6 ± 7.3 cm; BMI 23.5 ± 0.5 kg/m2) participating in a 24-hour team relay cycling race was assessed. All food and fluid intake by athletes were weighed and recorded. Additionally, distance and speed performed by each rider were also recorded. Furthermore, before to the race, all subjects carried out an incremental exercise test to determine two heart rate-VO2 regression equations which were used to estimate the energy expenditure. Results The mean ingestion of macronutrients during the event was 943 ± 245 g (13.1 ± 4.0 g/kg) of carbohydrates, 174 ± 146 g (2.4 ± 1.9 g/kg) of proteins and 107 ± 56 g (1.5 ± 0.7 g/kg) of lipids, respectively. This amount of nutrients reported an average nutrient intake of 22.8 ± 8.9 MJ which were significantly lower compared with energy expenditure 42.9 ± 6.8 MJ (P = 0.012). Average fluid consumption corresponded to 10497 ± 2654 mL. Mean caffeine ingestion was 142 ± 76 mg. Additionally, there was no relationship between the main nutritional variables (i.e. energy intake, carbohydrates, proteins, fluids and caffeine ingestion) and the main performance variables (i.e. distance and speed). Conclusions A 24-hour hours cycling competition in a team relay format elicited high energy demands which were not compensated by energy intake of the athletes despite that dietary consumption of macronutrients did not differ to the nutritional guidelines for longer events. PMID:22309475

2012-01-01

82

Association between Sleep Duration and 24-Hour Urine Free Cortisol in the MrOS Sleep Study  

PubMed Central

Context Short sleep duration is associated with adverse health outcomes, but the mechanisms involved are unknown. It has been postulated that short sleep duration may elevate cortisol levels, but studies have had conflicting results. It is unclear whether these differing findings may be due to methodological issues, such as assessment of sleep duration. Specifically, objective versus subjective methods of measuring habitual sleep duration may account for the conflicting results found in epidemiological studies. Objective Our goal was to determine whether habitual sleep duration, measured objectively (by actigraphy) and subjectively (by self-report), was associated with 24-hour urine free cortisol (UFC), a measure of integrated cortisol secretion. Our secondary goal was to determine whether slow wave sleep (SWS, determined by polysomnography) was associated with 24-hour UFC. Design/Setting Cross sectional study of community dwelling older men. Patients/Participants 325 men (mean age?=?76.6 years, SD?=?5.5) from the Portland site of the MrOS Sleep Study, who underwent 24-hour urine collection, polysomnography, actigraphy and sleep questionnaire. Primary Outcome 24-hour UFC. Results In this study of community dwelling older men, self-reported sleep duration was inversely related to 24-hour UFC levels. Participants reporting <5 hours of habitual sleep had an adjusted mean 24-hour UFC of 29.8 ug, compared to 28.0 ug in participants reporting >5 to <8 hours of sleep 25.5 ug in those reporting >8 hours of habitual sleep. However, sleep duration determined by actigraphy was not associated with 24-hour UFC in either univariable or multivariable regression models. SWS was not associated with 24-hour UFC. Conclusion Objectively measured (i.e., actigraphic) sleep duration is not associated with 24-hour UFC in these community dwelling older men. This finding, together with prior studies, suggests that elevated levels of integrated cortisol secretion is not the mechanisms by which short sleep duration leads to adverse health outcomes. PMID:24228086

Rao, Madhu N.; Blackwell, Terri; Redline, Susan; Punjabi, Naresh M.; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Neylan, Thomas C.; Stone, Katie L.

2013-01-01

83

24-Hour Rhythms of DNA Methylation and Their Relation with Rhythms of RNA Expression in the Human Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex  

PubMed Central

Circadian rhythms modulate the biology of many human tissues, including brain tissues, and are driven by a near 24-hour transcriptional feedback loop. These rhythms are paralleled by 24-hour rhythms of large portions of the transcriptome. The role of dynamic DNA methylation in influencing these rhythms is uncertain. While recent work in Neurospora suggests that dynamic site-specific circadian rhythms of DNA methylation may play a role in modulating the fungal molecular clock, such rhythms and their relationship to RNA expression have not, to our knowledge, been elucidated in mammalian tissues, including human brain tissues. We hypothesized that 24-hour rhythms of DNA methylation exist in the human brain, and play a role in driving 24-hour rhythms of RNA expression. We analyzed DNA methylation levels in post-mortem human dorsolateral prefrontal cortex samples from 738 subjects. We assessed for 24-hour rhythmicity of 420,132 DNA methylation sites throughout the genome by considering methylation levels as a function of clock time of death and parameterizing these data using cosine functions. We determined global statistical significance by permutation. We then related rhythms of DNA methylation with rhythms of RNA expression determined by RNA sequencing. We found evidence of significant 24-hour rhythmicity of DNA methylation. Regions near transcription start sites were enriched for high-amplitude rhythmic DNA methylation sites, which were in turn time locked to 24-hour rhythms of RNA expression of nearby genes, with the nadir of methylation preceding peak transcript expression by 1–3 hours. Weak ante-mortem rest-activity rhythms were associated with lower amplitude DNA methylation rhythms as were older age and the presence of Alzheimer's disease. These findings support the hypothesis that 24-hour rhythms of DNA methylation, particularly near transcription start sites, may play a role in driving 24-hour rhythms of gene expression in the human dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and may be affected by age and Alzheimer's disease. PMID:25375876

Lim, Andrew S. P.; Srivastava, Gyan P.; Yu, Lei; Chibnik, Lori B.; Xu, Jishu; Buchman, Aron S.; Schneider, Julie A.; Myers, Amanda J.; Bennett, David A.; De Jager, Philip L.

2014-01-01

84

Relationship of sodium and magnesium intakes to hypertension proven by 24-hour urianalysis in a South Indian population.  

PubMed

The Healthy Eating Asians Remain Together (HEART) study was carried out to investigate the relationship between 24-hour urine nutritional biomarkers and cardiometabolic risks in India. A total of 168 participants underwent health examination to assess body mass index, blood pressure, and 24-hour urine samples. The participants were divided into normotensive and hypertensive. The average blood pressure, weight, and body mass index were significantly high in patients considered to be hypertensive, and 24-hour urine biomarkers showed significant differences in sodium and magnesium/creatinine ratios in patients aged 40 and older. High sodium intake and reduction in magnesium consumption are associated with increased blood pressure in patients from India. PMID:24934395

Chidambaram, Natesan; Sethupathy, Subramaniyam; Saravanan, Nadanam; Mori, Mari; Yamori, Yukio; Garg, Arun Kumar; Chockalingam, Arun

2014-08-01

85

Validity of dietary recall over 20 years among California Seventh-day Adventists.  

PubMed

Past dietary habits are etiologically important to incident disease. Yet the validity of such measurements from the previous 10-20 years is poorly understood. In this study, the authors correlated food frequency results that were obtained in 1994-1995 but pertained to recalled diet in 1974 with the weighted mean of five random 24-hour dietary recalls obtained by telephone in 1974. The subjects studied were 72 Seventh-day Adventists who lived within 30 miles of Loma Linda, California; had participated in a 1974 validation study; were still alive; and were willing to participate again in 1994. A method was developed to allow correction for random error in the reference data when these data had differentially weighted components. The results showed partially corrected correlation coefficients of greater than 0.30 for coffee, whole milk, eggs, chips, beef, fish, chicken, fruit, and legumes. Higher correlations on average were obtained when the food frequencies were scored simply 1-9, reflecting the nine frequency categories. The 95% confidence intervals for 15 of the 28 correlations excluded zero. Incorporation of portion size information was unhelpful. The authors concluded that in this population, data recalled from 20 years ago should be treated with caution but, for a number of important foods, that the degree of validity achieved approached that obtained when assessing current dietary habits. PMID:9786237

Fraser, G E; Lindsted, K D; Knutsen, S F; Beeson, W L; Bennett, H; Shavlik, D J

1998-10-15

86

The 24-hour pulse wave velocity, aortic augmentation index, and central blood pressure in normotensive volunteers  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to examine the pulse wave velocity, aortic augmentation index corrected for heart rate 75 (AIx@75), and central systolic and diastolic blood pressure during 24-hour monitoring in normotensive volunteers. Overall, 467 subjects (206 men and 261 women) were recruited in this study. Participants were excluded from the study if they were less than 19 years of age, had blood test abnormalities, had a body mass index greater than 2 7.5 kg/m2, had impaired glucose tolerance, or had hypotension or hypertension. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) with the BPLab® device was performed in each subject. ABPM waveforms were analyzed using the special automatic Vasotens® algorithm, which allows the calculation of pulse wave velocity, AIx@75, central systolic and diastolic blood pressure for “24-hour”, “awake”, and “asleep” periods. Circadian rhythms and sex differences in these indexes were identified. Pending further validation in prospective outcome-based studies, our data may be used as preliminary diagnostic values for the BPLab ABPM additional index in adult subjects. PMID:24812515

Kuznetsova, Tatyana Y; Korneva, Viktoria A; Bryantseva, Evgeniya N; Barkan, Vitaliy S; Orlov, Artemy V; Posokhov, Igor N; Rogoza, Anatoly N

2014-01-01

87

The 24-hour pulse wave velocity, aortic augmentation index, and central blood pressure in normotensive volunteers.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the pulse wave velocity, aortic augmentation index corrected for heart rate 75 (AIx@75), and central systolic and diastolic blood pressure during 24-hour monitoring in normotensive volunteers. Overall, 467 subjects (206 men and 261 women) were recruited in this study. Participants were excluded from the study if they were less than 19 years of age, had blood test abnormalities, had a body mass index greater than 2 7.5 kg/m(2), had impaired glucose tolerance, or had hypotension or hypertension. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) with the BPLab(®) device was performed in each subject. ABPM waveforms were analyzed using the special automatic Vasotens(®) algorithm, which allows the calculation of pulse wave velocity, AIx@75, central systolic and diastolic blood pressure for "24-hour", "awake", and "asleep" periods. Circadian rhythms and sex differences in these indexes were identified. Pending further validation in prospective outcome-based studies, our data may be used as preliminary diagnostic values for the BPLab ABPM additional index in adult subjects. PMID:24812515

Kuznetsova, Tatyana Y; Korneva, Viktoria A; Bryantseva, Evgeniya N; Barkan, Vitaliy S; Orlov, Artemy V; Posokhov, Igor N; Rogoza, Anatoly N

2014-01-01

88

A Compute Perspective: Delivering Decision Support Products in 24 Hours from the Airborne Snow Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The JPL Airborne Snow Observatory (ASO) must process 100s of GB of raw data to 100s of Terabytes of derived data in 24 hour Near Real Time (NRT) latency in a geographically distributed mobile compute and data-intensive processing setting. ASO provides meaningful information to water resource managers in the Western US letting them know how much water to maintain; or release, and what the prospectus of the current snow season is in the Sierra Nevadas. Providing decision support products processed from airborne data in a 24 hour timeframe is an emergent field and required the team to develop a novel solution as this process is typically done over months. We've constructed a system that combines Apache OODT; with Apache Tika; with the Interactive Data Analysis (IDL)/ENVI programming environment to rapidly and unobtrusively generate, distribute and archive ASO data as soon as the plane lands near Mammoth Lakes, CA. Our system is flexible, underwent several redeployments and reconfigurations, and delivered this critical information to stakeholders during the recent "Snow On" campaign March 2013 - June 2013. This talk will take you through a day in the life of the compute team from data acquisition, delivery, processing, and dissemination. Within this context, we will discuss the architecture of ASO; the open source software we used; the data we stored; and how it was delivered to its users. Moreover we will discuss the logistics, system engineering, and staffing that went into the developing, deployment, and operation of the mobile compute system.

Ramirez, P.; Mattmann, C. A.; Painter, T. H.; Seidel, F. C.; Trangsrud, A.; Hart, A. F.; Goodale, C. E.; Boardman, J. W.; Heneghan, C.; Verma, R.; Khudikyan, S.; Boustani, M.; Zimdars, P. A.; Horn, J.; Neely, S.

2013-12-01

89

24-hour electrocardiographic study of heart rate and rhythm patterns in population of healthy children.  

PubMed

Twenty-four hour electrocardiographic recordings were made on 104 randomly selected, healthy 7 to 11-year-old children. Ninety-two were technically adequate and suitable for analysis. The mean highest heart rate measured by direct electrocardiographic analysis over nine beats was 164 +/- 17. The mean lowest heart rates were 49 +/- 6 over three beats', and 56 +/- 6 over nine beats' duration. The maximum duration of heart rates less than 55/minute was 40 minutes. At their lowest heart rates 41 children (45 per cent) had junctional escape rhythms, the maximum duration of which was 25 minutes. Nine children showed PR intervals greater than or equal to 0.20 s and included three with Mobitz type I second degree atrioventricular block. Nineteen (21%) had isolated supraventricular or ventricular premature beats (less than 1/hour). Sixty subjects (65%) had sinus pauses that could not be distinguished on the surface electrocardiogram from those previously described as sinuatrial exit block or sinus arrest. The maximum duration of sinus pause measured over 24 hours on each child was 1.36 +/- 0.23 seconds. Thus apparently healthy children show variations in heart rate and rhythm over 24 hours hitherto considered to be abnormal. PMID:7470341

Southall, D P; Johnston, F; Shinebourne, E A; Johnston, P G

1981-03-01

90

Generating 24-Hour ECG, BP and Respiratory Signals with Realistic Linear and Nonlinear Clinical Characteristics Using a Nonlinear Model  

E-print Network

are shown to result. Together with seeded RR interval dynamics, the morphology of the signals can be fully artificial 24-hour RR intervals [3] and ECG, blood pressure (BP) and respiration waveforms [2, 1

McSharry, Patrick E.

91

The 24-hour report as an effective monitoring and communication tool in infection prevention and control in nursing homes.  

PubMed

Twenty-four-hour reports are filled out by nurses daily to monitor nursing home residents and document any changes in resident status. Semistructured interviews conducted with ICPs from 12 southeast Michigan nursing homes showed that although 24-hour reports were used, they were not standardized for infection prevention activities. Our results indicate 24-hour reports can be an effective communication tool and potentially aid in early recognition of infections and outbreaks. PMID:25278405

Fisch, Jay; McNamara, Sara E; Lansing, Bonnie J; Mody, Lona

2014-10-01

92

Identification of Significantly Regulated Genes in the Estrogen Induced Gallus gallus Liver Over a 24-Hour Time Course  

E-print Network

in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2011 Major Subject: Nutrition IDENTIFICATION OF SIGNIFICANTLY REGULATED GENES IN THE ESTROGEN INDUCED GALLUS GALLUS LIVER OVER A 24- HOUR TIME... IDENTIFICATION OF SIGNIFICANTLY REGULATED GENES IN THE ESTROGEN INDUCED GALLUS GALLUS LIVER OVER A 24- HOUR TIME COURSE A Thesis by ERICA RENEE TROJACEK Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University...

Trojacek, Erica

2012-02-14

93

Study on Operation Optimization of Pumping Station's 24 Hours Operation under Influences of Tides and Peak-Valley Electricity Prices  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to different processes of tides and peak-valley electricity prices, this paper determines the optimal start up time in pumping station's 24 hours operation between the rating state and adjusting blade angle state respectively based on the optimization objective function and optimization model for single-unit pump's 24 hours operation taking JiangDu No.4 Pumping Station for example. In the meantime, this

Gong Yi; Cheng Jilin; Zhang Lihua; Zhang Rentian

2010-01-01

94

After 24-hour scrub, another tower rollback for the Boeing Delta II rocket carrying Stardust  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As tower rollback begins, the Boeing Delta II rocket carrying the Stardust spacecraft waits on Launch Pad 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, for the second launch attempt at 4:04 p.m. EST. The original launch was scrubbed on Feb. 6 for 24 hours. Stardust is destined for a close encounter with the comet Wild 2 in January 2004. Using a silicon-based substance called aerogel, Stardust will capture comet particles flying off the nucleus of the comet. The spacecraft also will bring back samples of interstellar dust. These materials consist of ancient pre-solar interstellar grains and other remnants left over from the formation of the solar system. Scientists expect their analysis to provide important insights into the evolution of the sun and planets and possibly into the origin of life itself. The collected samples will return to Earth in a sample return capsule to be jettisoned as Stardust swings by Earth in January 2006.

1999-01-01

95

Low correlation between visit-to-visit variability and 24-hour variability of blood pressure  

PubMed Central

Visit-to-visit variability (VVV) of clinic systolic blood pressure (SBP) has been associated with cardiovascular disease risk. Given the need for obtaining blood pressure (BP) at multiple visits to calculate VVV, substituting BP variability from ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) may be a practical alternative. We assessed the correlation between VVV of BP and BP variability from ABPM using data from 146 untreated, mostly normotensive participants (mean age 47.9 years) in a substudy of the ongoing Masked Hypertension Study. VVV of SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was estimated by the standard deviation (SDvvv) and average real variability (ARVvvv) from 6 study visits over a median of 216 days. ABPM data were used to calculate the day-night SD (SDdn) and the ARV of SBP and DBP over 24 hours (ARV24). For SBP, the mean SDvvv and SDdn were 6.3 (SD=2.5) and 8.8 (SD=1.8) mmHg, respectively, and mean ARVvvv and ARV24 were 7.2 (SD=3.2) and 8.4 (SD=2.1) mmHg, respectively. The Spearman correlation coefficient between SDvvv and SDdn of SBP was rs=0.25 and between ARVvvv and ARV24 was rs=0.17. Participants in the highest quartile of SDdn of SBP were 1.66 (95% CI: 0.93 – 2.75) times more likely to be in the highest quartile of SDvvv of SBP. The observed-to-expected ratio between the highest quartiles of ARVvvv and ARV24 of SBP was 0.89 (95% CI: 0.41 – 1.69). The correlations for SDvvv and SDdn and ARVvvv and ARV24 of DBP were minimal. These data suggest VVV and 24-hour variability are weakly correlated and not interchangeable. PMID:23784506

Muntner, Paul; Shimbo, Daichi; Diaz, Keith M.; Newman, Jonathan; Sloan, Richard P.; Schwartz, Joseph E.

2013-01-01

96

Personal best marathon time and longest training run, not anthropometry, predict performance in recreational 24-hour ultrarunners.  

PubMed

In recent studies, a relationship between both low body fat and low thicknesses of selected skinfolds has been demonstrated for running performance of distances from 100 m to the marathon but not in ultramarathon. We investigated the association of anthropometric and training characteristics with race performance in 63 male recreational ultrarunners in a 24-hour run using bi and multivariate analysis. The athletes achieved an average distance of 146.1 (43.1) km. In the bivariate analysis, body mass (r = -0.25), the sum of 9 skinfolds (r = -0.32), the sum of upper body skinfolds (r = -0.34), body fat percentage (r = -0.32), weekly kilometers ran (r = 0.31), longest training session before the 24-hour run (r = 0.56), and personal best marathon time (r = -0.58) were related to race performance. Stepwise multiple regression showed that both the longest training session before the 24-hour run (p = 0.0013) and the personal best marathon time (p = 0.0015) had the best correlation with race performance. Performance in these 24-hour runners may be predicted (r2 = 0.46) by the following equation: Performance in a 24-hour run, km) = 234.7 + 0.481 (longest training session before the 24-hour run, km) - 0.594 (personal best marathon time, minutes). For practical applications, training variables such as volume and intensity were associated with performance but not anthropometric variables. To achieve maximum kilometers in a 24-hour run, recreational ultrarunners should have a personal best marathon time of ?3 hours 20 minutes and complete a long training run of ?60 km before the race, whereas anthropometric characteristics such as low body fat or low skinfold thicknesses showed no association with performance. PMID:21642857

Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

2011-08-01

97

Comparison of 24-hour cardiovascular and autonomic function in paraplegia, tetraplegia, and control groups: Implications for cardiovascular risk  

PubMed Central

Background Fluctuations in 24-hour cardiovascular hemodynamics, specifically heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP), are thought to reflect autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity. Persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) represent a model of ANS dysfunction, which may affect 24-hour hemodynamics and predispose these individuals to increased cardiovascular disease risk. Objective To determine 24-hour cardiovascular and ANS function among individuals with tetraplegia (n = 20; TETRA: C4–C8), high paraplegia (n = 10; HP: T2–T5), low paraplegia (n = 9; LP: T7–T12), and non-SCI controls (n = 10). Twenty-four-hour ANS function was assessed by time domain parameters of heart rate variability (HRV); the standard deviation of the 5-minute average R–R intervals (SDANN; milliseconds/ms), and the root-mean square of the standard deviation of the R–R intervals (rMSSD; ms). Subjects wore 24-hour ambulatory monitors to record HR, HRV, and BP. Mixed analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed significantly lower 24-hour BP in the tetraplegic group; however, BP did not differ between the HP, LP, and control groups. Mixed ANOVA suggested significantly elevated 24-hour HR in the HP and LP groups compared to the TETRA and control groups (P < 0.05); daytime HR was higher in both paraplegic groups compared to the TETRA and control groups (P < 0.01) and nighttime HR was significantly elevated in the LP group compared to the TETRA and control groups (P < 0.01). Twenty-four-hour SDANN was significantly increased in the HP group compared to the LP and TETRA groups (P < 0.05) and rMSSD was significantly lower in the LP compared to the other three groups (P < 0.05). Elevated 24-hour HR in persons with paraplegia, in concert with altered HRV dynamics, may impart significant adverse cardiovascular consequences, which are currently unappreciated. PMID:21903013

Rosado-Rivera, Dwindally; Radulovic, M.; Handrakis, John P.; Cirnigliaro, Christopher M.; Jensen, A. Marley; Kirshblum, Steve; Bauman, William A.; Wecht, Jill Maria

2011-01-01

98

A 24-HOUR AMBULATORY ECG MONITORING IN ASSESSMENT OF QT INTERVAL DURATION AND DISPERSION IN ROWERS WITH PHYSIOLOGICAL MYOCARDIAL HYPERTROPHY  

PubMed Central

Myocardial hypertrophy (MH) due to cardiac pathology is characterized by an increase in QT interval duration and dispersion, while the findings for exercise-induced myocardial hypertrophy are contradictory. The majority of published research findings have not explored this relationship, but there have only been a few conducted studies using 24-hour ECG monitoring. The aim of the study was to determine the QT interval duration and dispersion in short-term and 24-hour ECG in endurance athletes with myocardial hypertrophy and without it. Methods: A total of 26 well-trained rowers underwent a resting 12-lead ECG, 24-hour ECG monitoring and echocardiography. Results: Athletes with MH (n = 7) at rest did not show any increase in QTc interval duration and dispersion, or mean and maximal QTc duration in Holter monitoring compared to athletes without MH (n = 19). Left ventricular mass was not significantly correlated with any QTc characteristics. Furthermore, athletes with MH had significantly longer mean QT (P = 0.01) and maximal QT (P = 0.018) intervals in Holter monitoring and higher 24-hour heart rate variability indexes due to stronger vagal effects. Conclusions: The present study demonstrated that athlete's heart syndrome with myocardial hypertrophy as a benign phenomenon does not lead to an increase in QT interval duration, or increases in maximal and mean duration in a 24-hour ECG. An increase in QT interval duration in athletes may have an autonomic nature. PMID:24744494

Kim, Z.F.; Bilalova, R.R.; Tsibulkin, N.A.; Almetova, R.R.; Mudarisova, R.R.; Ahmetov, I.I.

2013-01-01

99

T-wave alternans search over 24 hour holter ECG recordings based on singular value decomposition.  

PubMed

This paper proposes an efficient method to search for T-wave alternans (TWA) over 24 hour Holter ECG recordings. After appropriate pre-processing to remove baseline drift and artifact, data are segmented to 2 minute successive time intervals. For each beat in the segment, singular value decomposition is applied to derive orthogonal characteristic signals. Then two prominent orthogonal signals are used for the TWA search. A pair of alternans indices is defined for each beat as the orthogonal waveform distance between the target beat and the adjacent two beats. When alternans presents, the first index will be larger than the second index. The periodogram of the sequence of alternans indices in each segment yields a useful alternans measure named Alternans Ratio (AR). To show the effectiveness of the measure, the method is applied to 25 control and 24 data from patients with various cardio vascular disorders. AR distribution showed prominent differences among subject groups. It has been demonstrated that the measure AR is not only useful to detect the presence of TWA but the AR distribution can be used for the stratification of the TWA risk. PMID:24110128

Nishibe, Toshihiro; Yamashiro, Koichiro; Yana, Kazuo; Ono, Takuya

2013-01-01

100

Accuracy of commercial 24-hour electrocardiogram analyzers for quantitation of total and repetitive ventricular arrhythmias.  

PubMed

The accuracy of 2 commercial 24-hour electrocardiogram analyzers was tested for quantitation of ventricular premature complexes (VPCs). Scanner 1 was the Cardiodata Systems Mark III and scanner 2 was the Avionics Trendsetter DCG VII. Twenty-four-hour electrocardiographic recordings from 19 consecutive ambulatory patients with frequent VPCs were analyzed by each device. Results were compared with those from hand counts of complete printouts of each of the 19 recordings. For total VPCs, scanner 1 had an average error of 13% (range 0 to 58%) and scanner 2 had an average error of 24% (range (1 to 80%). Scanner 1 had an error of more than 10% for 9 of the 19 recordings and scanner 2 more than 10% for 11 of the 19 recordings. For paired VPCs, scanner 1 had a mean error of 23% (range 4 to 77%), and scanner 2 of 56% (range 34 to 79%). For nonsustained ventricular tachycardia, scanner 1 had an average error of 20% (range 8 to 41%) and scanner 2 had an error of 56% (range 34 to 78%). Thus, when recordings from consecutive ambulatory patients with frequent VPCs were analyzed, neither device was consistently accurate for quantitation of total VPCs. Both analyzers had an unacceptable error for quantitation of repetitive VPCs. All currently available devices may have comparably large errors. This possibility is confirmed by recalculation of the reported data from a third scanner. PMID:2446488

Salerno, D M; Granrud, G; Hodges, M

1987-12-01

101

[Ambulatory 24-hour blood pressure monitoring in patients with resistant hypertension].  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to assess the usefulness of 24-hour blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) monitoring in patients with "resistant" hypertension. 30 patients (44.1 +/- 9.9 years) with diastolic BP 100 mm Hg or more in spite of treatment with three or more antihypertensive drugs were studied. Ambulatory recording of BP and HR was performed by means of Del Mar Avionics monitoring system 9000. Mean recording time was 21.5 hours and mean number of measurements during one recording--56.7. Mean ambulatory systolic and diastolic BP values were significantly lower than mean value of three casual measurements (146.0 +/- 24.6 vs 171.5 +/- 21.2 mm Hg for systolic and 97.2 +/- 11.3 vs 110.4 +/- 7.5 mm Hg for diastolic BP p less than 0.01) In 14 (46.6%) systolic BP and in 10 patients (33.3%) diastolic BP were normal. The patients with normal and abnormal ambulatory BP recordings did not differ in regard to age and mean clinic BP levels. However, patients with abnormal ambulatory BP recordings were more often overweight and showed a greater frequency of left ventricular hypertrophy and family history of hypertension and its complications. The results of the study show that ambulatory BP monitoring may be of value in assessing the response to antihypertensive treatment in patients with so called resistant hypertension as judged on the basis of clinic pressure. PMID:2074634

Sznajderman, M; Pop?awska, W; Cybulska, I; Niegowska, J; Makowiecka-Cie?la, M; Baranowski, R

1990-01-01

102

Importance of all movement behaviors in a 24 hour period for overall health.  

PubMed

Physical inactivity and childhood obesity are well-recognized public health concerns that are associated with a range of adverse health outcomes. Historically, the benefits of physical activity (e.g., moderate-to-vigorous physical activity-MVPA) to overall health have dominated discussions and emerging evidence indicates that a broader, more integrated approach is needed to better understand and address current public health crises. Existing guidelines for children and youth around the world only focus on MVPA, and recently sedentary behavior, despite an accumulating body of evidence showing that light-intensity physical activity (LPA) such as walking can provide important health benefits. Furthermore, there is accumulating support for the importance of adequate sleep and that these behaviors moderate the health impact of each other. Ignoring the other components of the movement continuum (i.e., sleep, sedentary time, LPA) while focusing efforts exclusively on MVPA (accounting for <5% of the time in a 24 h period) limits the potential to optimize the health benefits of movement behaviors. In order to address this limitation, experts in Canada are currently developing the world's first Integrated 24 Hour Movement Behaviour Guidelines for Children and Youth to help advance an integrated healthy active living agenda that has the potential to significantly improve the overall health and well-being of children and youth. PMID:25485978

Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Carson, Valerie; Gray, Casey E; Tremblay, Mark S

2014-12-01

103

The impact of weight loss on the 24-hour profile of circulating peptide YY and its association with 24-hour ghrelin in normal weight premenopausal women  

PubMed Central

Peptide YY (PYY) and ghrelin exhibit a reciprocal association and antagonistic physiological effects in the peripheral circulation. Research has yet to clarify the effect of weight loss on the 24h profile of PYY or its association to 24h ghrelin. We sought to determine if diet- and exercise-induced weight loss affects the 24h profile of PYY and its association with 24h ghrelin in normal weight, premenopausal women. Participants (n=13) were assessed at baseline (BL) and after a 3-month diet and exercise intervention (Post). Blood samples obtained q10 min for 24h were assayed for total PYY and total ghrelin q60 min from 0800–1000h and 2000–0800h and q20 min from 1000–2000h. The ghrelin/PYY ratio was used as an index of hormonal exposure. Statistical analyses included paired t-tests and linear mixed effects modeling. Body weight (?1.85±0.67kg; p=0.02), and body fat (?2.53±0.83%; p=0.01) decreased from BL to post. Ghrelin AUC (5252±2177pg/ml/24hr; p=0.03), 24h mean (216±90pg/ml; p=0.03) and peak (300±134pg/ml; p=0.047) increased from BL to post. No change occurred in PYY AUC (88.2±163.7pg/ml; p=0.60), 24h mean (4.8±6.9pg/ml; p=0.50) or peak (3.6±6.4pg/ml; p=0.58). The 24h association between PYY and ghrelin at baseline (p=0.04) was weakened at post (p=0.14); however, the ghrelin/PYY lunch ratio increased (p=0.01) indicating the potential for ghrelin predominance over PYY in the circulation. PYY and ghrelin are reciprocally associated during a period of weight stability, but not following weight loss. An “uncoupling” may have occurred, particularly at lunch, due to factors that modulate ghrelin in response to weight loss. PMID:24012997

Hill, Brenna R.; De Souza, Mary Jane; Wagstaff, David A.; Williams, Nancy I.

2013-01-01

104

Resistance training decreases 24-hour blood pressure in women with metabolic syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to verify the effects of eight weeks of resistance training (RT) on 24 hour blood pressure (BP) in patients with and without metabolic syndrome (MetS). Methods Seventeen women volunteered to participate in this study, 9 with MetS (37.0?±?8.7 yrs; body mass 77.3?±?9.7 kg; body mass index 30.3?±?4.2 kg?·?m-2) and 8 without MetS (35.1?±?7.2 yrs; body mass 61.3?±?8.1 kg; body mass index 24.2?±?2.5 kg?·?m-2). Individuals were subjected to eight weeks (3 times/week) of whole body RT comprised of one exercise for each main muscle group with three sets of 8–12 repetitions of each subject’s maximal load . A rest interval of one minute was allowed between sets and exercises. Twenty-four hour BP was measured by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Results Mean and diastolic night-time BP decreased (?3.9 mmHg, p?=?0.04; -5.5 mmHg, p?=?0.03, respectively) after eight weeks of training in MetS patients. This decrease was observed at 11:00 pm, 02:00 am (only diastolic), 07:00 am, and 6:00 pm. There was no training effect on BP in women without MetS. Conclusions Considering the elevation of BP as a contributor to the pathogenesis of MetS, and also to the increase of cardiovascular risk, this study supports RT as a non-pharmacological therapy in the management of BP control for MetS. PMID:23711286

2013-01-01

105

Office and 24-hour heart rate and target organ damage in hypertensive patients  

PubMed Central

Background We investigated the association between heart rate and its variability with the parameters that assess vascular, renal and cardiac target organ damage. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed including a consecutive sample of 360 hypertensive patients without heart rate lowering drugs (aged 56 ± 11 years, 64.2% male). Heart rate (HR) and its standard deviation (HRV) in clinical and 24-hour ambulatory monitoring were evaluated. Renal damage was assessed by glomerular filtration rate and albumin/creatinine ratio; vascular damage by carotid intima-media thickness and ankle/brachial index; and cardiac damage by the Cornell voltage-duration product and left ventricular mass index. Results There was a positive correlation between ambulatory, but not clinical, heart rate and its standard deviation with glomerular filtration rate, and a negative correlation with carotid intima-media thickness, and night/day ratio of systolic and diastolic blood pressure. There was no correlation with albumin/creatinine ratio, ankle/brachial index, Cornell voltage-duration product or left ventricular mass index. In the multiple linear regression analysis, after adjusting for age, the association of glomerular filtration rate and intima-media thickness with ambulatory heart rate and its standard deviation was lost. According to the logistic regression analysis, the predictors of any target organ damage were age (OR = 1.034 and 1.033) and night/day systolic blood pressure ratio (OR = 1.425 and 1.512). Neither 24 HR nor 24 HRV reached statistical significance. Conclusions High ambulatory heart rate and its variability, but not clinical HR, are associated with decreased carotid intima-media thickness and a higher glomerular filtration rate, although this is lost after adjusting for age. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01325064 PMID:22439900

2012-01-01

106

Traumatic Brain Injury Has Not Prominent Effects on Cardiopulmonary Indices of Rat after 24 Hours: Hemodynamic, Histopathology, and Biochemical Evidence  

PubMed Central

Background: Accidents are the second reason for mortality and morbidity in Iran. Among them, brain injuries are the most important damage. Clarification of the effects of brain injuries on different body systems will help physicians to prioritize their treatment strategies. In this study, the effect of pure brain trauma on the cardiovascular system and lungs 24 hours post trauma was assessed. Methods: Male Wistar rats (n = 32) were divided into sham control and traumatic brain injury (TBI) groups. In TBI animals, under deep anesthesia, a blow to the head was induced by the fall of a 450 g weight from 2 m height. Twenty four hours later, heart electrocardiogram and functional indices, cardiac troponin I, IL-6, TNF-, IL-I? in tissue and serum, and the histopathology of heart and lung were assessed. Results: The results showed that none of the functional, biochemical, inflammatory, and histopathology indices was statistically different between the two groups at 24 hours post TBI. Indices of impulse conduction velocity in atrium (P wave duration and P-R interval) were significantly longer in the TBI group. Conclusion: Overall, no important functional and histopathologic disturbances were found in heart and lung of TBI group after 24 hours. If the data is reproduced in human studies, the medical team could allocate their priority to treatment of brain disorders of the victim in the first 24 hours of pure TBI and postpone extensive assessment of heart and lung health indices to later time, thus reducing patient and health system expenditures. PMID:25326021

Najafipour, Hamid; Siahposht Khachaki, Ali; Khaksari, Mohammad; Shahouzehi, Beydolah; Joukar, Siyavash; Poursalehi, Hamid Reza

2014-01-01

107

Relationship of 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate with markers of hepatic function in cirrhotic patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There is evidence that in cirrhotic patients, certain hemodynamic parameters, such as blood pressure and heart rate, are related to the severity of liver disease. This study investigated whether non-invasive 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate are more closely associated with markers of liver disease severity than conventional office measurements. METHODS: Ambulatory patients with cirrhosis underwent office blood

Dimitris G Tzamouranis; Alexandra Alexopoulou; Spyros P Dourakis; George S Stergiou

2010-01-01

108

76 FR 6056 - Additional Air Quality Designations for the 2006 24-Hour Fine Particle National Ambient Air...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Act AQS Air Quality System CAA Clean Air Act...for their high fine particle concentrations...standards based on the most recent (2006-2008...2006 24-hour Fine Particle (PM 2.5 ...EPA's Air Quality System (AQS) database...inclusion of the most recent air...

2011-02-03

109

Raman Spectroscopic Assessment of Degree of Conversion of Bulk-Fill Resin Composites - Changes at 24 Hours Post Cure.  

PubMed

SUMMARY Objective : The aim of this study was to determine degree of conversion (DC) of solid and flowable bulk-fill composites immediately and after 24 hours and investigate the variations of DC at surface and depths up to 4 mm. Materials and Methods : Eight bulk-fill composites (Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill [shades IVA and IVB], Quixfil, X-tra fil, Venus Bulk Fill, X-tra Base, SDR, Filtek Bulk Fill) were investigated, and two conventional composites (GrandioSO, X-Flow) were used as controls. The samples (n = 5) were cured for 20 seconds with irradiance of 1090 mW/cm(2). Raman spectroscopic measurements were made immediately after curing on sample surfaces and after 24 hours of dark storage at surface and at incremental depths up to 4 mm. Mean DC values were compared using repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) and t-test for dependent samples. Results : Surface DC values immediately after curing ranged from 59.1%-71.8%, while the 24-hour postcure values ranged from 71.3%-86.1%. A significant increase of DC was observed 24 hours post cure for all bulk-fill composites, which amounted from 11.3% to 16.9%. Decrease of DC through depths up to 4 mm varied widely among bulk-fill composites and ranged from 2.9% to 19.7%. Conclusions : All bulk-fill composites presented a considerable 24-hour postcure DC increase and clinically acceptable DC at depths up to 4 mm. Conventional control composites were sufficiently cured only up to 2 mm, despite significant postcure polymerization. PMID:25275961

Par, M; Gamulin, O; Marovic, D; Klaric, E; Tarle, Z

2014-10-01

110

Microleakage of Two Self-Adhesive Cements in the Enamel and Dentin After 24 Hours and Two Months  

PubMed Central

Objective: Microleakage is a main cause of restorative treatment failure. In this study, we compared occlusal and cervical microleakage of two self-adhesive cements after 24 hours and two months. Materials and Methods: In this in-vitro experimental study, class II inlay cavities were prepared on 60 sound human third molars. Composite inlays were fabricated with Z100 composite resin. The teeth were randomly assigned to six groups. RelyX-Arc (control), RelyX-Unicem and Maxcem were used for the first three groups and specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 hours. The same cements were used for the remaining three groups, but the specimens were stored for 2 months. The teeth were subjected to 500 thermal cycles (5°C and 55°C) and immersed in 0.5% basic fuchsin for 24 hours and then sectioned mesiodistally and dye penetration was evaluated in a class II cavity with occlusal and cervical margins using X20 magnification stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed using Kruskal Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results: After 24 hours, cements had significant differences only in cervical margin microleakage (P=0.0001) and microleakage of RelyX-Unicem and Maxcem was significantly more than that of RelyX-Arc (both P=0.0001). Cervical microleakage in RelyX-Unicem and Maxcem was greater than occlusal (P=0.0001 and P=0.001, respectively). Microleakage was not significantly different between the occlusal and cervical margins after 2 months. Conclusion: Cervical microleakage was greater than occlusal in RelyX-Unicem and Maxcem after 24h. The greatest microleakage was reported for the cervical margin of RelyX-Unicem after 24 hours. PMID:25584053

Jaberi Ansari, Zahra; Kalantar Motamedi, Mojdeh

2014-01-01

111

Steady-state pharmacokinetic properties of a 24-hour prolonged-release formulation of ropinirole: Results of two randomized studies in patients with Parkinson's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Ropinirole 24-hour prolonged release is a new once-daily formulation of ropinirole that provides continuous delivery of ropinirole over 24 hours.Objective: The studies described here were conducted to characterize the steady-state pharmacokinetics of ropinirole 24-hour prolonged release in patients with Parkinson's disease.Methods: Study 164 was a 2-part study; Part A employed a crossover design to assess the relative bioavailability of

Debra J. Tompson; Deborah Vearer

2007-01-01

112

Randomization to plant-based dietary approaches leads to larger short-term improvements in Dietary Inflammatory Index scores and macronutrient intake compared with diets that contain meat.  

PubMed

Studies have examined nutrient differences among people following different plant-based diets. However, all of these studies have been observational. The aim of the present study was to examine differences in nutrient intake and Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) scores among overweight and obese (body mass index 25.0-49.9 kg/m(2)) adults randomized to receive dietary instruction on a vegan (n = 12), vegetarian (n = 13), pescovegetarian (n = 13), semivegetarian (n = 13), or omnivorous (n = 12) diet during a 6-month randomized controlled trial. Nutrient intake, nutrient adequacy, and DII score were assessed via two 24-hour dietary recalls (Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Recall) at baseline and at 2 and 6 months. Differences in nutrient intake and the DII were examined using general linear models with follow-up tests at each time point. We hypothesized that individuals randomized to the vegan diet would have lower DII scores and greater improvements in fiber, carbohydrate, fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol at both 2 and 6 months as compared with the other 4 diets. Participants randomized to the vegan diet had significantly greater changes in most macronutrients at both time points, including fat and saturated fat, as well as cholesterol and, at 2 months, fiber, as compared with most of the other diet groups (Ps < .05). Vegan, vegetarian, and pescovegetarian participants all saw significant improvements in the DII score as compared with semivegetarian participants at 2 months (Ps < .05) with no differences at 6 months. Given the greater impact on macronutrients and the DII during the short term, finding ways to provide support for adoption and maintenance of plant-based dietary approaches, such as vegan and vegetarian diets, should be given consideration. PMID:25532675

Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Wirth, Michael D; Shivappa, Nitin; Wingard, Ellen E; Fayad, Raja; Wilcox, Sara; Frongillo, Edward A; Hébert, James R

2015-02-01

113

Changes in foot volume, body composition, and hydration status in male and female 24-hour ultra-mountain bikers  

PubMed Central

Background The effects of running and cycling on changes in hydration status and body composition during a 24-hour race have been described previously, but data for 24-hour ultra-mountain bikers are missing. The present study investigated changes in foot volume, body composition, and hydration status in male and female 24-hour ultra-mountain bikers. Methods We compared in 49 (37 men and 12 women) 24-hour ultra-mountain bikers (ultra-MTBers) changes (?) in body mass (BM). Fat mass (FM), percent body fat (%BF) and skeletal muscle mass (SM) were estimated using anthropometric methods. Changes in total body water (TBW), extracellular fluid (ECF) and intracellular fluid (ICF) were determined using bioelectrical impedance and changes in foot volume using plethysmography. Haematocrit, plasma [Na+], plasma urea, plasma osmolality, urine urea, urine specific gravity and urine osmolality were measured in a subgroup of 25 ultra-MTBers (16 men and 9 women). Results In male 24-hour ultra-MTBers, BM (P??0.05). A significant correlation was found between post-race BM and post-race FM (r?=?0.63, P??0.05). Absolute ranking in the race was related to ?%BM (P??0.05). Conclusions Male and female 24-hour ultra-MTBers experienced a significant loss in BM and FM, whereas SM remained stable. Body weight changes and increases in plasma urea do not reflect a change in body hydration status. No oedema of the lower limbs occurred. PMID:24661412

2014-01-01

114

Changes in platelet morphology and function during 24 hours of storage.  

PubMed

For in vitro studies assessing the interaction of platelets with implant materials, common and standardized protocols for the preparation of platelet rich plasma (PRP) are lacking, which may lead to non-matching results due to the diversity of applied protocols. Particularly, the aging of platelets during prolonged preparation and storage times is discussed to lead to an underestimation of the material thrombogenicity. Here, we study the influence of whole blood- and PRP-storage times on changes in platelet morphology and function. Blood from apparently healthy subjects was collected according to a standardized protocol and examined immediately after blood collection, four hours and twenty four hours later. The capability of platelets to adhere and form stable aggregates (PFA100, closure time) was examined in sodium citrate anticoagulated whole blood (WB) using the agonists equine type I collagen and epinephrine bitartrate (collagen/epinephrine) as well as equine type I collagen and adenosine-5'-diphosphate (collagen/ADP). Circulating platelets were quantified at each time point. Morphology of platelets and platelet aggregates were visualized microscopically and measured using an electric field multi-channel counting system (CASY). The percentage of activated platelets was assessed by means of P-selectin (CD62P) expression of circulating platelets. Furthermore, platelet factor 4 (PF4) release was measured in platelet poor plasma (PPP) at each time point. Whole blood PFA100 closure times increased after stimulation with collagen/ADP and collagen/epinephrine. Twenty four hours after blood collection, both parameters were prolonged pathologically above the upper limit of the reference range. Numbers of circulating platelets, measured in PRP, decreased after four hours, but no longer after twenty four hours. Mean platelet volumes (MPV) and platelet large cell ratios (P-LCR, 12 fL - 40 fL) decreased over time. Immediately after blood collection, no debris or platelet aggregates could be visualized microscopically. After four hours, first debris and very small aggregates occurred. After 24 hours, platelet aggregates and also debris progressively increased. In accordance to this, the CASY system revealed an increase of platelet aggregates (up to 90 ?m diameter) with increasing storage time. The percentage of CD62P positive platelets and PF4 increased significantly with storage time in resting PRP. When soluble ADP was added to stored PRP samples, the number of activatable platelets decreased significantly over storage time. The present study reveals the importance of a consequent standardization in the preparation of WB and PRP. Platelet morphology and function, particularly platelet reactivity to adherent or soluble agonists in their surrounding milieu, changed rapidly outside the vascular system. This knowledge is of crucial interest, particularly in the field of biomaterial development for cardiovascular applications, and may help to define common standards in the in vitro hemocompatibility testing of biomaterials. PMID:25227196

Braune, S; Walter, M; Schulze, F; Lendlein, A; Jung, F

2014-01-01

115

Research on 80c196 single chip microcomputer based real-time 24-hour dynamic ECG monitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces the portable ECG monitor with the 24-hour double-channel solid recording and read-time analysing system we have developed. The monitor is based on 80c196 single chip microcomputer and matched with large scale interface chips PSD403 for single chip microcomputers. An examination has been performed by MIT\\/BIH ECG database as simulated electrocardial waves, and the result shows the fitness

Jiarui Lin; Zhang Ye Yang; Linghua Li; Lan Lin

1998-01-01

116

Changes in left ventricular mitochondria in intact rabbits during the 24 hour period (data of scanning electron microscopy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were carried out on 20 male chinchilla rabbits weighing 2.5-3.5 kg. The experiments were carried out during the 24 hours of March 21, 1984, when the heliogeomagnetic situation was quiet, for this is known [5] to have a significant effect on cardiac function. At midnight, 6 a.m., noon, and 6 p.m., in acute experiments under hexobarbital anesthesia, the peak

V. A. Frolov; V. P. Pukhlyanko; T. A. Kazanskaya

1985-01-01

117

Study on Operation Optimization of Pumping Station's 24 Hours Operation under Influences of Tides and Peak-Valley Electricity Prices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to different processes of tides and peak-valley electricity prices, this paper determines the optimal start up time in pumping station's 24 hours operation between the rating state and adjusting blade angle state respectively based on the optimization objective function and optimization model for single-unit pump's 24 hours operation taking JiangDu No.4 Pumping Station for example. In the meantime, this paper proposes the following regularities between optimal start up time of pumping station and the process of tides and peak-valley electricity prices each day within a month: (1) In the rating and adjusting blade angle state, the optimal start up time in pumping station's 24 hours operation which depends on the tide generation at the same day varies with the process of tides. There are mainly two kinds of optimal start up time which include the time at tide generation and 12 hours after it. (2) In the rating state, the optimal start up time on each day in a month exhibits a rule of symmetry from 29 to 28 of next month in the lunar calendar. The time of tide generation usually exists in the period of peak electricity price or the valley one. The higher electricity price corresponds to the higher minimum cost of water pumping at unit, which means that the minimum cost of water pumping at unit depends on the peak-valley electricity price at the time of tide generation on the same day. (3) In the adjusting blade angle state, the minimum cost of water pumping at unit in pumping station's 24 hour operation depends on the process of peak-valley electricity prices. And in the adjusting blade angle state, 4.85%˜5.37% of the minimum cost of water pumping at unit will be saved than that of in the rating state.

Yi, Gong; Jilin, Cheng; Lihua, Zhang; Rentian, Zhang

2010-06-01

118

Assessment of 24-hours Aldosterone Administration on Protein Abundances in Fluorescence-Sorted Mouse Distal Renal Tubules by Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Aldosterone exerts multiple long-term effects in the distal renal tubules. The aim of this study was to establish a method for identifying proteins in these tubules that change in abundance by only 24-hours aldosterone administration. Methods Mice endogenously expressing green fluorescent protein (eGFP) in the connecting tubule and cortical collecting ducts were treated with a subcutaneous injection of 2.0 mg/kg aldosterone or vehicle (n=5), and sacrificed 24 hours later. Suspensions of single cells were obtained enzymatically, and eGFP positive cells were isolated by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS). Samples of 100 ?g proteins were digested with trypsin and labeled with 8-plex iTRAQ reagents and processed for liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Results FACS yielded 1.4 million cells per mouse. The LC-MS/MS spectra were matched to peptides by the SEQUEST search algorithm, which identified 3002 peptides corresponding to 506 unique proteins of which 20 significantly changed abundance 24-hours after aldosterone injection. Conclusion We find the method suitable and useful for studying hormonal effects on protein abundance in distal tubular segments. PMID:23428628

Jensen, Thomas B; Pisitkun, Trairak; Hoffert, Jason D; Jensen, Uffe B; Fenton, Robert A; Praetorius, Helle A; Knepper, Mark A; Praetorius, Jeppe

2013-01-01

119

Association of target organ damage with 24-hour systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels and hypertension subtypes in untreated Chinese.  

PubMed

The association of target organ damage with 24-hour systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels and ambulatory hypertension subtypes has not yet been examined in untreated Chinese patients. We measured left ventricular mass index by echocardiography (n=619), the urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (n=1047), and aortic pulse wave velocity by tonometry (n=1013) in 1047 untreated subjects (mean age, 50.6 years; 48.9% women). Normotension was a 24-hour systolic/diastolic blood pressure <130/<80 mm?Hg. Hypertension subtypes were isolated diastolic hypertension and mixed systolic plus diastolic hypertension. We assessed associations of interest by multivariable-adjusted linear models. Using normotension as reference, mixed hypertension was associated with higher (P?0.003) left ventricular mass index (+4.31 g/m(2)), urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (+1.63 mg/mmol), and pulse wave velocity (+0.76 m/s); and isolated diastolic hypertension was associated with similar left ventricular mass index and pulse wave velocity (P?0.39), but higher urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (+1.24 mg/mmol; P=0.002). In younger participants (<55 years), the mutually independent effect sizes associated with 1 SD increases in 24-hour systolic/diastolic blood pressure were +3.31/-0.36 g/m(2) (P=0.009/0.79) for left ventricular mass index, +1.15/+1.14 mg/mmol (P=0.02/0.04) for the urinary albumin:creatinine ratio, and +0.54/-0.05 m/s (P<0.001/0.54) for pulse wave velocity. In older participants, these estimates were +3.58/+0.30 g/m(2) (P=0.045/0.88), +1.23/+1.05 mg/mmol (P=0.002/0.54), and +0.76/-0.49 m/s (P<0.001/<0.001), respectively. In conclusion, 24-hour systolic blood pressure and mixed hypertension are major determinants of target organ damage irrespective of age and target organ, whereas 24-hour diastolic blood pressure and isolated diastolic hypertension only relate to the urinary albumin:creatinine ratio below middle age. PMID:24246384

Wei, Fang-Fei; Li, Yan; Zhang, Lu; Xu, Ting-Yan; Ding, Feng-Hua; Staessen, Jan A; Wang, Ji-Guang

2014-02-01

120

Diet-Beverage Consumption and Caloric Intake Among US Adults, Overall and by Body Weight  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We examined national patterns in adult diet-beverage consumption and caloric intake by body-weight status. Methods. We analyzed 24-hour dietary recall with National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2010 data (adults aged ??20 years; n?=?23?965). Results. Overall, 11% of healthy-weight, 19% of overweight, and 22% of obese adults drink diet beverages. Total caloric intake was higher among adults consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) compared with diet beverages (2351 kcal/day vs 2203 kcal/day; P?=?.005). However, the difference was only significant for healthy-weight adults (2302 kcal/day vs 2095 kcal/day; P?diet beverages compared with SSBs (overweight: 1965 kcal/day vs 1874 kcal/day; P?=?.03; obese: 2058 kcal/day vs 1897 kcal/day; P?diet-beverage consumption was 88 kilocalories for overweight and 194 kilocalories for obese adults. Conclusions. Overweight and obese adults drink more diet beverages than healthy-weight adults and consume significantly more solid-food calories and a comparable total calories than overweight and obese adults who drink SSBs. Heavier US adults who drink diet beverages will need to reduce solid-food calorie consumption to lose weight. PMID:24432876

Bleich, Sara N.; Wolfson, Julia A.; Vine, Seanna; Wang, Y. Claire

2014-01-01

121

49 CFR 375.607 - What must I do if I am able to tender a shipment for final delivery more than 24 hours before a...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What must I do if I am able to tender a shipment for final delivery more than 24 hours before a specified...of Shipments § 375.607 What must I do if I am able to tender a shipment for final delivery more than 24 hours before a...

2010-10-01

122

NHEXAS PHASE I ARIZONA STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR CODING: 24-HOUR FOOD DIARY (HAND ENTRY) (UA-D-39.0)  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this SOP is to define the coding strategy for the 24-Hour Food Diary. This diary was developed for use during the Arizona NHEXAS project and the "Border" study. Keywords: data; coding; 24-hour food diary. The National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS) i...

123

NHEXAS PHASE I ARIZONA STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR CLEANING: 24 HOUR FOOD DIARY (HAND ENTRY) (UA-D-40.0)  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of the SOP is to define the particular steps involved in cleaning the electronic data generated from data entry of the 24 Hour Food Diary. The procedure was developed to use during the Arizona NHEXAS project and the "Border" study. Keywords: data; cleaning; 24 hour ...

124

Assessment of the accuracy of portion size reports using computer-based food photographs aids in the development of an automated self-administered 24-hour recall  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of the study is to assess the accuracy of portion-size estimates and participant preferences using various presentations of digital images. Two observational feeding studies were conducted. In both, each participant selected and consumed foods for breakfast and lunch, buffet style, se...

125

Blood pressure differences associated with Optimal Macronutrient Intake Trial for Heart Health (OMNIHEART)-like diet compared with a typical American Diet.  

PubMed

The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension-Sodium (DASH-Sodium) trial demonstrated beneficial effects on blood pressure (BP) of the DASH diet with lower sodium intake when compared with typical American diet. The subsequent Optimal Macronutrient Intake Trial for Heart Health (OMNIHEART) trial reported additional BP benefits from replacing carbohydrate in the DASH diet with either protein or monounsaturated fats. The primary aim of this study is to assess possible BP benefits of an OMNIHEART-like diet in free-living Americans using cross-sectional US population data of the International Study of Macronutrients, Micronutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP) study. The INTERMAP data include four 24-hour dietary recalls, 2 timed 24-hour urine collections, 8 BP readings for 2195 individuals aged 40 to 59 years from 8 US INTERMAP population samples. Analyses are conducted using 2 approaches: (1) regression of BP on a linear OMNIHEART nutrient score calculated for each individual and (2) a Bayesian approach comparing estimated BP levels of an OMNIHEART-like nutrient profile with a typical American nutrient profile. After adjustment for potential confounders, an OMNIHEART score higher by 1 point was associated with systolic/diastolic BP differences of -1.0/-0.5 mm Hg (both P<0.001). Mean systolic/diastolic BPs were 111.3/68.4 and 115.2/70.6 mm Hg for Bayesian OMNIHEART and Control profiles, respectively, after controlling for possible confounders, with BP differences of -3.9/-2.2 mm Hg, P(difference?0)=0.98/0.96. Findings were comparable for men and women, for nonhypertensive participants, and with adjustment for antihypertensive treatment. Our findings from data on US population samples indicate broad generalizability of OMNIHEART results beyond the trial setting and support recommendations for an OMNIHEART-style diet for prevention/control of population-wide adverse BP levels. PMID:25201893

Molitor, John; Brown, Ian J; Chan, Queenie; Papathomas, Michail; Liverani, Silvia; Molitor, NuooTing; Richardson, Sylvia; Van Horn, Linda; Daviglus, Martha L; Dyer, Alan; Stamler, Jeremiah; Elliott, Paul

2014-12-01

126

Measurement of symptom withdrawal severity in a 24-hour period after the anesthesia-assisted rapid opiate detoxification procedure.  

PubMed

This study examined the Anesthesia-Assisted Rapid Detoxification (AAROD) procedure and the measurement of withdrawal symptom severity within a 24-hour period. The Clinical Opiate Withdrawal Scale (COWS) was utilized at various time intervals, post detoxification. This study demonstrated that all of the patients who underwent the AAROD procedure had withdrawal symptoms post detoxification in the mild range of severity, unlike like traditional detoxification procedures. Further studies are needed to measure withdrawal symptoms longer than one-day post detoxification and to compare the differences between various detoxification protocols. PMID:15912719

Teplin, David; Raz, Barak; Daiter, Jeff; Varenbut, Michael; Zachos, Constantine T; Whang, Paul; Herman, Stan; Chaudry, Saj; Yung, Manuel

2005-01-01

127

The Effect of Lateral Decubitus Position on Nocturnal Intraocular Pressure over a Habitual 24-Hour Period in Healthy Adults  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate the effect of lateral decubitus position (LDP) on nocturnal intraocular pressure (IOP) and the effect of LDP on 24-hour habitual IOP pattern in healthy subjects. Methods Intraocular pressure was measured every 2-hours using an Accupen Applanation Tonometer (Accutome, USA). During the diurnal period (7:30 am, 9:30 am, 11:30 am, 1:30 pm, 3:30 pm, 5:30 pm, 7:30 pm, and 9:30 pm), IOP was measured in the sitting position under bright light (500–1000 lux) after the subjects had been seated for 5 min. The nocturnal IOP was measured in the supine position, right LDP, and left LDP, with randomized sequences, under dim light (<10 lux) at 11:30 pm, 1:30 am, 3:30 am, and 5:30 am. The subjects were awakened and maintained each position for 5 min before the measurement. The 24-hour habitual IOP patterns were obtained according to the nocturnal position (supine, right LDP and left LDP) for either eye. P<0.05 was considered to be significant. Results Nineteen healthy subjects were included with a mean age of 51.3±5.8 years. During the nocturnal period, a significant IOP difference was found between the dependent eye (the eye on the lower side) of LDP and the supine position, but not for all the nocturnal time points. Over a 24-hour period, the effect of LDP on habitual IOP pattern was not statistically significant, although the mean nocturnal IOP and the diurnal-nocturnal IOP change for the right and the left eye in the LDP pattern was slightly higher than that in the sitting-supine pattern. Conclusion Significant nocturnal IOP differences existed between the dependent eye and the supine, but did not occur consistently for all time points. Over a 24-hour period, the effect of LDP on habitual IOP pattern was not statistically significant in healthy subjects. PMID:25423190

Hao, Jie; Zhen, Yi; Wang, Hao; Yang, Diya; Wang, Ningli

2014-01-01

128

Iron and zinc content of selected foods in the diet of schoolchildren in Kumi district, east of Uganda: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Iron and zinc are essential micronutrients for humans and deficiency of the two elements is widespread in the world with the highest prevalence in less developed countries. There are few data on dietary intake of iron and zinc in Uganda, and no food composition table is available. There is hardly any widely published literature that clearly documents the quality of Ugandan children's diet. Thus information of both food intake and the concentration of these trace elements in local food ingredients are needed in order to assess daily intake. Methods The present study focused on the iron and zinc content in selected foods and intake of the micronutrients iron and zinc among schoolchildren in Kumi District, Uganda. Over a period of 4 weeks single 24-hour dietary recall interviews were carried out on a convenience sample of 178 schoolchildren (9-15 years old). Data from the dietary recalls was used when selecting foods for chemical analysis. Results Results from this study showed that the iron concentrations varied, and were high in some cereals and vegetables. The zinc concentrations in foods generally corresponded with results from other African countries (Mali and Kenya). Data from the 24-hour dietary recall showed that the daily Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI) was met for iron but not for zinc. Conclusions The schoolchildren of Kumi district had a predominantly vegetable based diet. Foods of animal origin were consumed occasionally. The iron content in the selected foods was high and variable, and higher than in similar ingredients from Kenya and Mali, while the zinc concentrations were generally in accordance with reported values. The total daily zinc (mg) intake does not meet the daily RNI. The iron intake is adequate according to RNI, but due to iron contamination and reduced bioavailability, RNI may not be met in a vegetable based diet. More studies are needed to investigate possible sources of contamination. PMID:21827701

2011-01-01

129

Enhanced carotid-cardiac baroreflex response and elimination of orthostatic hypotension 24 hours after acute exercise in paraplegics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To test the hypothesis that an acute bout of maximal exercise can ameliorate orthostatic hypotension consequent to prolonged wheelchair confinement, we evaluated heart rate (HR), systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure responses during 15 minutes of 70 degrees head-up tilt (HUT) in 10 paraplegic subjects 24 hours after arm crank exercise designed to elicit maximal effort, and during a control (no exercise) conditions. Additionally, the carotid baroreceptor stimulus-cardiac response relationship was determined by measurement of R-R interval during external application of graded pressures to the carotid sinuses. One week separated the treatment conditions. The maximum slope of the carotid-cardiac baroreflex response was increased (p = 0.049) by exercise (6.2 +/- 1.7 msec/mmHg) compared to control (3.3 +/- 0.6). During control HUT, HR increased from 61 +/- 1 to 90 +/- 7 bpm (p = 0.001) while SBP decreased from 118 +/- 5 to 106 +/- 9 mmHg (p = 0.025). During HUT 24 hours after exercise, HR increased from 60 +/- 2 to 90 +/- 4 bpm (p = 0.001), but the reduction in SBP was essentially eliminated (116 +/- 5 to 113 +/- 5 mmHg).

Engelke, K. A.; Shea, J. D.; Doerr, D. F.; Convertino, V. A.

1992-01-01

130

QTc interval prolongation in HIV-infected patients: a case–control study by 24-hour Holter ECG recording  

PubMed Central

Background Aim of the study was to assess QTc interval by a 24-hour ECG recording in a group of HIV-infected individuals with a basal prolonged QTc. The risk factors associated with QTc prolongation and the indices of cardiovascular autonomic control were also evaluated. Methods A case–control study was performed using as cases 32 HIV-infected patients with prolonged (>440 msec) QTc interval as assessed by Holter ECG, and as controls 64 HIV-infected subjects with normal QTc interval. Autonomic function was evaluated by heart rate variability analysis during 24-hour recording. Results Duration of HIV disease was significantly longer among cases than among controls (p=0.04). Waist/hip ratio was also higher among cases than among controls (p=0.05). Frequency domain analysis showed the absence of physiologic decrease of low frequency (LF) in the night period in both cases and controls. The LF night in cases showed a statistically significant reduction when compared with controls (p=0.007). Conclusions In our study group, QTc interval prolongation was associated with a longer duration of HIV infection and with a greater waist/hip ratio. HIV patients with QTc interval prolongation and with a longer duration of HIV infection were more likely to have an impairment of parasympathetic and sympathetic cardiac component. PMID:23259665

2012-01-01

131

Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Augments Perceptual Sensitivity and 24-Hour Retention in a Complex Threat Detection Task  

PubMed Central

We have previously shown that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) improved performance of a complex visual perceptual learning task (Clark et al. 2012). However, it is not known whether tDCS can enhance perceptual sensitivity independently of non-specific, arousal-linked changes in response bias, nor whether any such sensitivity benefit can be retained over time. We examined the influence of stimulation of the right inferior frontal cortex using tDCS on perceptual learning and retention in 37 healthy participants, using signal detection theory to distinguish effects on perceptual sensitivity (d?) from response bias (ß). Anodal stimulation with 2 mA increased d?, compared to a 0.1 mA sham stimulation control, with no effect on ß. On completion of training, participants in the active stimulation group had more than double the perceptual sensitivity of the control group. Furthermore, the performance enhancement was maintained for 24 hours. The results show that tDCS augments both skill acquisition and retention in a complex detection task and that the benefits are rooted in an improvement in sensitivity (d?), rather than changes in response bias (ß). Stimulation-driven acceleration of learning and its retention over 24 hours may result from increased activation of prefrontal cortical regions that provide top-down attentional control signals to object recognition areas. PMID:22511978

Falcone, Brian; Coffman, Brian A.; Clark, Vincent P.; Parasuraman, Raja

2012-01-01

132

Are energy dense diets also nutrient dense?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Some beverages are nutrient dense, but they are often excluded from nutrient density calculations. The purpose of this study was to assess whether the energy-nutrient association changed when beverages were included in these calculations. Applying a cross-sectional design, a 24-hour dietary recall ...

133

Effect of an L- and T-Type Calcium Channel Blocker on 24-Hour Systolic Blood Pressure and Heart Rate in Hypertensive Patients  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an L- and T-type calcium channel blocker (CCB) on 24-hour systolic blood pressure (24-hour SBP) and heart rate (24-hour HR) profiles in essential hypertensive patients. Subjects and Methods Thirty-seven consecutive patients were enrolled in this study. The 24-hour SBP and HR were recorded before and after treatment with efonidipine (L- and T-type CCB, 40 mg), after waking. Changes in 24-hour SBP and HR and the diurnal to nocturnal SBP ratio were measured. The best-fit curves of changes in SBP and HR were depicted using a periodic function. Results The mean 24-hour SBP and HR decreased significantly after treatment. The diurnal to nocturnal SBP ratio in dipper-type hypertension cases decreased from 16.7±6.1% to 8.3±9.8% (p<0.05), whereas in non-dipper hypertension cases, it increased from 2.3±2.9% to 7.7±5.1% (p<0.01). The antihypertensive effect was minimal at 5.0 hours after drug administration and it slowly recovered at a constant rate (2.1 mm Hg/h) over 12 hours in dipper cases. The median 24-hour changes in HR in the dipper and non-dipper cases were -2.3/min and -5.4/min, respectively. A continuous reduction in the change in HR was seen from 3.5 to 23 hours after drug administration. Conclusion The antihypertensive action of efonidipine was characterized by a slow recovery of the SBP decrease at a constant rate (2.1 mm Hg/h) and a non-administration time dependent reduction in 24-hour HR. PMID:22563335

Tsutsumi, Takeshi; Ebado, Mio; Takeyama, Youichi

2012-01-01

134

Short report: plasma aluminium concentration and 24-hour urinary aluminium excretion before, during and after treatment with sucralfate.  

PubMed

Ten dyspeptic patients were treated with 1 g sucralfate q.d.s. for six weeks. The plasma aluminium concentration and 24-h urinary aluminium excretion were measured at 3-weekly intervals before, during and after treatment with sucralfate. Compared with before treatment, there were significant rises in the median plasma aluminium concentration at 3 and 6 weeks during treatment with sucralfate (6 micrograms/L to 13 and 12 micrograms/L). The median 24-h urinary aluminium excretion rose significantly from a pretreatment level of 20 micrograms to 71 and 78 micrograms after 3 and 6 weeks of treatment; the significant increase of urinary aluminium excretion persisted for three weeks after cessation of treatment (52 micrograms/24 hours), but thereafter urinary excretion was not significantly different from pretreatment. The results are consistent with significant absorption and tissue accumulation of aluminium during standard treatment with sucralfate in individuals with normal renal function. PMID:1793786

Mistry, P; Varghese, Z; Pounder, R E

1991-10-01

135

Biomechanical evaluation of three fixation modalities for preperitoneal inguinal hernia repair: a 24-hour postoperative study in pigs  

PubMed Central

Purpose Tacks and sutures ensure a strong fixation of meshes, but they can be associated with pain and discomfort. Less invasive methods are now available. Three fixation modalities were compared: the ProGrip™ laparoscopic self-fixating mesh; the fibrin glue Tisseel™ with Bard™ Soft Mesh; and the SorbaFix™ absorbable fixation system with Bard™ Soft Mesh. Materials and methods Meshes (6 cm ×6 cm) were implanted in the preperitoneal space of swine. Samples were explanted 24 hours after surgery. Centered defects were created, and samples (either ten or eleven per fixation type) were loaded in a pressure chamber. For each sample, the pressure, the mesh displacement through the defect, and the measurements of the contact area were recorded. Results At all pressures tested, the ProGrip™ laparoscopic self-fixating mesh both exhibited a significantly lower displacement through the defect and retained a significantly higher percentage of its initial contact area than either the Bard™ Soft Mesh with Tisseel™ system or the Bard™ Soft Mesh with SorbaFix™ absorbable fixation system. Dislocations occurred with the Bard™ Soft Mesh with Tisseel™ system and with the Bard™ Soft Mesh with SorbaFix™ absorbable fixation system at physiological pressure (,225 mmHg). No dislocation was recorded for the ProGrip™ laparoscopic self-fixating mesh. Conclusion At 24 hours after implantation, the mechanical fixation of the ProGrip™ laparoscopic self-fixating mesh was found to be significantly better than the fixation of the Tisseel™ system or the SorbaFix™ absorbable fixation system. PMID:25525396

Guérin, Gaëtan; Bourges, Xavier; Turquier, Frédéric

2014-01-01

136

Toward a New Paradigm in Graduate Medical Education in the United States: Elimination of the 24-Hour Call  

PubMed Central

Background Sleep deprivation negatively affects resident performance, education, and safety. Concerns over these effects have prompted efforts to reduce resident hours. This article describes the design and implementation of a scheduling system with no continuous 24-hour calls. Aims included meeting Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education work hour requirements without increasing resident complement, maximizing continuity of learning and patient care, maintaining patient care quality, and acceptance by residents, faculty, and administration. Methods Various coverage options were formulated and discussed. The final schedule was the product of consensus. After re-engineering the master rotation schedule, service-specific conversion of on-call schedules was initiated in July 2003 and completed in July 2004. Annual in-training and certifying examination performance, length of stay, patient mortalities, resident motor vehicle accidents/near misses, and resident satisfaction with the new scheduling system were tracked. Results Continuous 24-hour call has been eliminated from the program since July 2004, with the longest assigned shift being 14 hours. Residents have at least 1 free weekend per month, a 10-hour break between consecutive assigned duty hours, and a mandatory 4-hour “nap” break if assigned a night shift immediately following a day shift. Program-wide, duty hours average 66 hours per week for first-year residents, 63 hours per week for second-year residents, and 60 hours per week for third-year residents. Self-reported motor vehicle accidents and/or near misses of accidents significantly decreased (P < .001) and resident satisfaction increased (P ?=? .42). The change was accomplished at no additional cost to the institution and with no adverse patient care or educational outcomes. Conclusions Pediatric residency training with restriction to 14 consecutive duty hours is effective and well accepted by stakeholders. Five years later, the re-engineered schedule has become the new “normal” for our program. PMID:21975977

Mautone, Susan G.

2009-01-01

137

Use of a food frequency questionnaire to assess diets of Jamaican adults: validation and correlation with biomarkers  

PubMed Central

Background Assessment of habitual diet is important in investigations of diet-disease relationships. Many epidemiological studies use the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to evaluate dietary intakes but few studies validate the instrument against biological markers. The aim of this study was to assess the validity and reproducibility of a previously validated 70-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) that was expanded to 120-items to assess diet - cancer relations. Methods Relative validity of the FFQ was assessed against twelve 24-hour recalls administered over 12 months in 70 subjects. The FFQ was repeated after one year (FFQ2) to assess reproducibility. The validity of the FFQ was evaluated by comparing nutrient and food group intakes from 24-hour recalls with the first and second FFQ. In addition, FFQ validity for cholesterol and folate were determined through correlation with biomarkers (serum cholesterol, serum folate and whole blood folate) in 159 control subjects participating in a case-control prostate cancer study. Results Compared to recalls the FFQ tended to overestimate energy and carbohydrate intakes but gave no differences in intake for protein and fat. Quartile agreement for energy-adjusted nutrient intakes between FFQ2 and recalls ranged from 31.8% - 77.3% for the lowest quartile and 20.8% - 81.0% in the highest quartile. Gross misclassification of nutrients was low with the exceptions of protein, vitamin E and retinol and weighted kappa values ranged from 0.33 to 0.64 for other nutrients. Validity correlations for energy-adjusted nutrients (excluding retinol) were moderate to high (0.38- 0.86). Correlation coefficients between multiple recalls and FFQ1 ranged from 0.27 (fruits) to 0.55 (red meat); the second FFQ gave somewhat higher coefficients (0.30 to 0.61). Reproducibility correlations for the nutrients ranged from 0.50 to 0.84. Calibration of the FFQ with biochemical markers showed modest correlations with serum cholesterol (0.24), serum folate (0.25) and whole blood folate (0.33) adjusted for age, energy, body mass index and smoking. Conclusions The expanded FFQ had good relative validity for estimating food group and nutrient intakes (except retinol and vitamin E) and was a reliable measure of habitual intake. Associations with biomarkers were comparable to other studies. PMID:21477338

2011-01-01

138

24-hour urine protein  

MedlinePLUS

... BL. Laboratory assessment of kidney disease: glomerular filtration rate, urinalysis, and proteinuria. In: Teal MW, Chertow GM, Marsden PA, Skorecki K, Yu ASL, Brenner BM, eds. Brenner & Rector's The Kidney . 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

139

Urine 24-hour volume  

MedlinePLUS

... BL. Laboratory assessment of kidney disease: glomerular filtration rate, urinalysis, and proteinuria. In: Teal MW, Chertow GM, Marsden PA, Skorecki K, Yu ASL, Brenner BM, eds. Brenner & Rector's The Kidney . 9th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: ...

140

The prevalence of exercise-associated hyponatremia in 24-hour ultra-mountain bikers, 24-hour ultra-runners and multi-stage ultra-mountain bikers in the Czech Republic  

PubMed Central

Background To assess the prevalence of exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) in two 24-hour mountain bike (MTB) (R1,R2), one 24-hour running (R3) and one multi-stage MTB (R4) races held in the Czech Republic in a cluster of four cross-sectional studies. Methods In 27 ultra-mountain bikers (ultra-MTBers), 12 ultra-runners, and 14 multi-stage MTBers, fluid intake, changes (?) in body mass, hematocrit, plasma volume, plasma [Na+], plasma [K+], plasma osmolality, urine [Na+], urine [K+], urine specific gravity, urine osmolality, K+/Na+ ratio in urine, transtubular potassium gradient and glomerular filtration rate were measured and calculated. The use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and symptoms of EAH were recorded using post-race questionnaires. Results Of the 53 finishers, three (5.7%) developed post-race EAH, thereof one (3.7%) ultra-MTBer, one (8.3%) ultra-runner and one (7.1%) multi-stage MTBer. Plasma [Na+] decreased significantly (p < 0.001) only in R4. Urine osmolality (R1, R3, R4 p < 0.001; R2 p < 0.05) and glomerular filtration rate (p < 0.001) increased, and body mass decreased in all races (p < 0.05). ? body mass was inversely related to the number of kilometers achieved (p < 0.001) in R2 where better ultra-MTBers tended to lose more weight. ? body mass (p < 0.001) and %? body mass (p = 0.05) were positively related to lower post-race plasma [Na+] in R3 that was associated with increased loss in body mass. Fluid intake was positively related to race performance in R1 and R2 (R1: p = 0.04; R2: p = 0.01) where ultra-MTBers in R1 and R2 who drank more finished ahead of those who drank less. Post-race plasma [Na+] was negatively associated with race performance in ultra-MTBers in R2 (p < 0.05), similarly ultra-runners in R3 (p < 0.05) where finishers with more kilometres had lower post-race plasma [Na+]. Conclusions The prevalence of EAH in the Czech Republic was no higher compared to existing reports on ultra-endurance athletes in other countries. Lower plasma [Na+] and development of EAH may be attributed to overdrinking, a pituitary secretion of vasopressin, an impaired mobilization of osmotically inactive sodium stores, and/or an inappropriate inactivation of osmotically active sodium. PMID:24512517

2014-01-01

141

Cross-Sectional Study of 24-Hour Urinary Electrolyte Excretion and Associated Health Outcomes in a Convenience Sample of Australian Primary Schoolchildren: The Salt and Other Nutrients in Children (SONIC) Study Protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Dietary sodium and potassium are involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Data exploring the cardiovascular outcomes associated with these electrolytes within Australian children is sparse. Furthermore, an objective measure of sodium and potassium intake within this group is lacking. Objective The primary aim of the Salt and Other Nutrient Intakes in Children (“SONIC”) study was to measure sodium and potassium intakes in a sample of primary schoolchildren located in Victoria, Australia, using 24-hour urine collections. Secondary aims were to identify the dietary sources of sodium and potassium, examine the association between these electrolytes and cardiovascular risk factors, and assess children’s taste preferences and saltiness perception of manufactured foods. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in a convenience sample of schoolchildren attending primary schools in Victoria, Australia. Participants completed one 24-hour urine collection, which was analyzed for sodium, potassium, and creatinine. Completeness of collections was assessed using collection time, total volume, and urinary creatinine. One 24-hour dietary recall was completed to assess dietary intake. Other data collected included blood pressure, body weight, height, waist and hip circumference. Children were also presented with high and low sodium variants of food products and asked to discriminate salt level and choose their preferred variant. Parents provided demographic information and information on use of discretionary salt. Descriptive statistics will be used to describe sodium and potassium intakes. Linear and logistic regression models with clustered robust standard errors will be used to assess the association between electrolyte intake and health outcomes (blood pressure and body mass index/BMI z-score and waist circumference) and to assess differences in taste preference and discrimination between high and low sodium foods, and correlations between preference, sodium intake, and covariates. Results A total of 780 children across 43 schools participated. The results from this study are expected at the end of 2015. Conclusions This study will provide the first objective measure of sodium and potassium intake in Australian schoolchildren and improve our understanding of the relationship of these electrolytes to cardiovascular risk factors. Furthermore, this study will provide insight into child taste preferences and explore related factors. Given the cardiovascular implications of consuming too much sodium and too little potassium, monitoring of these nutrients during childhood is an important public health initiative. PMID:25592666

Baxter, Janet R; Campbell, Karen J; Riddell, Lynn J; Rigo, Manuela; Liem, Djin Gie; Keast, Russell S; He, Feng J; Nowson, Caryl A

2015-01-01

142

Observational study to characterise 24-hour COPD symptoms and their relationship with patient-reported outcomes: results from the ASSESS study.  

PubMed

BackgroundFew studies have investigated the 24-hour symptom profile in patients with COPD or how symptoms during the 24-hour day are inter-related. This observational study assessed the prevalence, severity and relationship between night-time, early morning and daytime COPD symptoms and explored the relationship between 24-hour symptoms and other patient-reported outcomes.MethodsThe study enrolled patients with stable COPD in clinical practice. Baseline night-time, early morning and daytime symptoms (symptom questionnaire), severity of airflow obstruction (FEV1), dyspnoea (modified Medical Research Council Dyspnoea Scale), health status (COPD Assessment Test), anxiety and depression levels (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), sleep quality (COPD and Asthma Sleep Impact Scale) and physical activity level (sedentary, moderately active or active) were recorded.ResultsThe full analysis set included 727 patients: 65.8% male, mean¿±¿standard deviation age 67.2¿±¿8.8 years, % predicted FEV1 52.8¿±¿20.5%.In each part of the 24-hour day, >60% of patients reported experiencing ¿1 symptom in the week before baseline. Symptoms were more common in the early morning and daytime versus night-time (81.4%, 82.7% and 63.0%, respectively). Symptom severity was comparable for each period assessed. Overall, in the week before baseline, 56.7% of patients had symptoms throughout the whole 24-hour day (3 parts of the day); 79.9% had symptoms in ¿2 parts of the 24-hour day. Symptoms during each part of the day were inter-related, irrespective of disease severity (all p¿<¿0.001).Early morning and daytime symptoms were associated with the severity of airflow obstruction (p¿<¿0.05 for both). Night-time, early morning and daytime symptoms were all associated with worse dyspnoea, health status and sleep quality, and higher anxiety and depression levels (all p¿<¿0.001 versus patients without symptoms in each corresponding period). In each part of the 24-hour day, there was also an association between symptoms and a patient¿s physical activity level (p¿<¿0.05 for each period).ConclusionsMore than half of patients experienced COPD symptoms throughout the whole 24-hour day. There was a significant relationship between night-time, early morning and daytime symptoms. In each period, symptoms were associated with worse patient-reported outcomes, suggesting that improving 24-hour symptoms should be an important consideration in the management of COPD. PMID:25331383

Miravitlles, Marc; Worth, Heinrich; Soler Cataluña, Juan; Price, David; de Benedetto, Fernando; Roche, Nicolas; Godtfredsen, Nina; van der Molen, Thys; Löfdahl, Claes-Göran; Padullés, Laura; Ribera, Anna

2014-10-21

143

Adherence to Mediterranean diet in a Spanish university population.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to characterize food habits of Spanish University students and to assess the quality of their diet and some possible determinant factors according to Mediterranean food pattern among other indices. Two hundred eighty-four enrolled students during the academic year 2012-2013 participated in this survey. For each individual a questionnaire involving anthropometric measurements, types of housing, smoking habits and levels of physical activity were self-reported. Food consumption was gathered by two nonconsecutive 24 hour recalls including one weekend day. BMI within the normal range was showed by 72.5% of students and 75% of the sample reflected a sedentary lifestyle or low physical activity. The percentage of total energy from each macronutrient was approximately 17% proteins, 40% carbohydrates and 40% lipids. The ratio of polyunsaturated to monounsaturated fat only reached 0.32. Cholesterol consumption in men exceeded the intake in women by 70 mg/day but nutritional objectives were exceeded in both genders. The main source of protein had an animal origin from meat (38.1%), followed by cereals (19.4%) and dairy products (15.6%). The assessment of diet quality conducted by Healthy Eating Index (HEI) and Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) revealed a low-intermediate score in both (51.2 ± 12.8 and 4.0 ± 1.5, respectively). The main deviations from Mediterranean pattern were a low intake of vegetables and fruit and a high consumption of meat and dairy products. According to HEI classification, 96.1% of subjects scored "poor" or "needs improvement" about the quality of their diet and only 5.3% of students achieved a high adherence to Mediterranean diet. It is necessary to foster changes toward a healthier diet pattern according to cultural context in this population for preventing cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance. PMID:24681406

García-Meseguer, María José; Burriel, Faustino Cervera; García, Cruz Vico; Serrano-Urrea, Ramón

2014-07-01

144

Continuous 24-hour Intraocular Pressure Monitoring With a Contact Lens Sensor: Safety, Tolerability, and Reproducibility in Glaucoma Patients  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine the safety, tolerability, and reproducibility of intraocular pressure (IOP) patterns during repeated continuous 24-hour IOP monitoring with a telemetric contact-lens sensor (CLS). Design Prospective clinical trial. Participants Forty patients with suspect (n=21) or established glaucoma (n=19). Methods Patients participated in two 24-hour IOP monitoring sessions (S1 and S2) at a 1-week interval using the SENSIMED Triggerfish CLS (Sensimed AG, Switzerland). Patients pursued daily activities and sleep behavior was not controlled. The recordings were analyzed for differences between daytime and nighttime data and for reproducibility of signal patterns between the 2 sessions. Pearson correlations were obtained by pairing intervals across sessions. Main Outcome Measures Adverse events (AE), tolerability using the visual analogue score (VAS), and reproducibility of IOP patterns. Results Mean age was 55.5 ± 15.7 years and 60.0% were male. Main AEs were blurred vision (82.5%), conjunctival hyperemia (80.0%), and superficial punctate keratitis (15.0%). Patients reported a mean VAS of 27.2 ± 18.5 (S1) and 23.8 ± 18.7 (S2) (P = 0.216). Positive linear slopes of the sensor signal from the wake to the sleep period were detected for the ‘no glaucoma medication’ group (slope: 0.14 ± 0.15, p < 0.01, S1; slope: 0.12 ± 0.17, p = 0.03, S2) and for the ‘glaucoma medication’ group (slope: 0.03 ± 0.24, p = 0.52, S1; slope: 0.11 ± 0.16, p = 0.02, S2). Overall correlation between the two sessions was 0.59 (0.51 ‘no glaucoma medication’; 0.63 ‘glaucoma medication’) (P = 0.117). Conclusions Repeated use of the CLS demonstrated good safety and tolerability. The recorded IOP patterns showed fair reproducibility, suggesting that data from 24-h continuous IOP monitoring may be useful in the management of glaucoma patients. PMID:22892888

Mansouri, Kaweh; Medeiros, Felipe A.; Tafreshi, Ali; Weinreb, Robert N.

2013-01-01

145

Recollective and Nonrecollective Recall  

PubMed Central

The study of recollective and nonrecollective retrieval has become controversial, owing to several critiques of traditional recognition-based measurement (e.g., remember/know, ROC, process dissociation). We present a new methodology in which subjects merely study and recall lists, using any standard paradigm (associative, cued, free, or serial recall), the data are analyzed with a Markov model whose parameters measure recollective and nonrecollective retrieval, and the model’s fit is compared to that of one-process models. The power of this approach is illustrated in some experiments that dealt with two classic questions: (a) What are the process-level differences between associative and free recall, and (b) why does taxonomic organization improve free recall but impair associative recall? Fit results showed that a dual-retrieval model is both necessary and sufficient to account for associative and free recall data, in contrast to the sufficient-but-not-necessary pattern that prevails in the recognition literature. Key substantive findings were that associative recall is more reliant on recollective retrieval and less reliant on nonrecollective retrieval than free recall, that taxonomic organization impairs recollective retrieval in both paradigms, and that taxonomic organization enhances the reconstruction component of nonrecollective retrieval in free recall. PMID:22279248

Brainerd, C. J.; Reyna, V. F.

2010-01-01

146

A 24-Hour Global Campaign To Assess Precision Timing of the Millisecond Pulsar J1713+0747  

E-print Network

The radio millisecond pulsar J1713+0747 is regarded as one of the highest-precision clocks in the sky, and is regularly timed for the purpose of detecting gravitational waves. The International Pulsar Timing Array collaboration undertook a 24-hour global observation of PSR J1713+0747 in an effort to better quantify sources of timing noise in this pulsar, particularly on intermediate (1 - 24 hr) timescales. We observed the pulsar continuously over 24 hr with the Arecibo, Effelsberg, GMRT, Green Bank, LOFAR, Lovell, Nancay, Parkes, and WSRT radio telescopes. The combined pulse times-of-arrival presented here provide an estimate of what sources of timing noise, excluding DM variations, would be present as compared to an idealized root-N improvement in timing precision, where N is the number of pulses analyzed. In the case of this particular pulsar, we find that intrinsic pulse phase jitter dominates arrival time precision when the S/N of single pulses exceeds unity, as measured using the eight telescopes that ob...

Dolch, T; Cordes, J M; Chatterjee, S; Bassa, C; Bhattacharyya, B; Champion, D J; Cognard, I; Crowter, K; Demorest, P B; Hessels, J W T; Janssen, G H; Jenet, F A; Jones, G; Jordan, C; Karuppusamy, R; Keith, M; Kondratiev, V I; Kramer, M; Lazarus, P; Lazio, T J W; Lee, K J; McLaughlin, M A; Roy, J; Shannon, R M; Stairs, I H; Stovall, K; Verbiest, J P W; Madison, D R; Palliyaguru, N; Perrodin, D; Ransom, S M; Stappers, B W; Zhu, W W; Dai, S; Desvignes, G; Guillemot, L; Liu, K; Lyne, A G; Perera, B B P; Petroff, E; Rankin, J M; Smits, R

2014-01-01

147

Transient filament occlusion of the middle cerebral artery in rats: does the reperfusion method matter 24 hours after perfusion?  

PubMed Central

Background There are two widely used transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) methods, which differ in the use of unilateral or bilateral carotid artery reperfusion (UNICAR and BICAR). Of the two methods, UNICAR is easier to perform. This study was designed to comprehensively compare the two reperfusion methods to determine if there are any differences in outcomes. Results The UNICAR and BICAR groups each included 9 rats. At baseline, the average pO2 was 20.54?±?9.35 and 26.43?±?7.39, for the UNICAR and BICAR groups, respectively (P?=?0.519). Changes in pO2, as well as other physiological parameters measured within the ischemic lesion, were similar between the UNICAR and BICAR groups during 90 min of MCAO and the first 30 min of reperfusion (all P?>?0.05). Furthermore, both the Bederson score and Garcia score, which are used for neurological assessment, were also similar (both P?>?0.05). There were also no significant differences in T2WI lesion volume, DWI lesion volume, PWI lesion volume, or TTC staining infarct volume between the two groups (all P?>?0.05). Conclusion UNICAR and BICAR have similar capability for inducing acute brain ischemic injury and can be considered interchangeable up to 24 hours after reperfusion. PMID:23272656

2012-01-01

148

Making sense of agrobiodiversity, diet, and intensification of smallholder family farming in the Highland Andes of Ecuador.  

PubMed

Methods are needed for helping researchers and farmers to interactively describe and analyze local practices in search of opportunities for improving health, environment, and economy. The authors worked with smallholder family farmers in five Andean villages in Ecuador to apply participatory four-cell analysis (PFCA) in characterizing agrobiodiversity. Margelef and Shannon indices examined ecological richness and evenness, and a simplified 24-hour dietary recall characterized food consumption. Cross-analysis tested interactions among agrobiodiversity, farm size, and diet. Overall trends appeared to work against sustainable intensification, with notable heterogeneity and positive deviance found in the practices of relatively smaller enterprises, representing a potential resource for sustainable intensification. The suite of methods was determined useful for initiating researcher-farmer explorations of promising innovation pathways. PMID:24083517

Oyarzun, Pedro J; Borja, Ross Mary; Sherwood, Stephen; Parra, Vicente

2013-01-01

149

Recalls.gov  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While many of us often hear about various product recalls, it can be difficult at times to find a one-stop online service center to see if any particular type of product has been recalled recently. The launch of this helpful website, provided by the federal government, should help alleviate the problem. Six federal agencies (such as the FDA, USDA, and several others) have joined together to bring pertinent recall information to the American public. The site is quite user-friendly, as visitors can click on one of six tabs (such as Consumer Products, Boats, or Food) to find out current information on current and recent recalls from across the United States. One particularly helpful feature includes the ability to sign to receive electronic newsletters and updates from the appropriate agencies when various products are deemed unsafe or when a recall is issued. Appropriately enough, the materials on the site are also available in Spanish.

150

Diet Quality and History of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Among Childbearing Women, United States, 2007–2010  

PubMed Central

Introduction Women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have elevated risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Diet quality plays an important role in the prevention of type 2 diabetes. We compared diet quality among childbearing women with a history of GDM with the diet quality of childbearing women without a history of GDM. Methods We used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 2007 through 2010. We included women without diabetes aged 20 to 44 years whose most recent live infant was born within the previous 10 years and who completed two 24-hour dietary recalls. The Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2010 estimated overall and component diet quality. Multivariable linear regression models estimated the association between a history of GDM and current diet quality, adjusting for age, education, smoking status, and health risk for diabetes. Results A history of GDM was reported by 7.7% of women. Compared with women without a history of GDM, women with a history of GDM had, on average, 3.4 points lower overall diet quality (95% confidence interval [CI], ?6.6 to ?0.2) and 0.9 points lower score for consumption of green vegetables and beans (95% CI, ?1.4 to ?0.4). Other dietary component scores did not differ by history of GDM. Conclusion In the United States, women with a history of GDM have lower diet quality compared with women who bore a child and do not have a history of GDM. Improving diet quality may be a strategy for preventing type 2 diabetes among childbearing women. PMID:25719215

Simas, Tiffany A. Moore; Person, Sharina D.; Goldberg, Robert J.; Waring, Molly E.

2015-01-01

151

Evaluation of a bone's in vivo 24-hour loading history for physical exercise compared with background loading.  

PubMed

The present study sought to answer two research questions. First, how distinctive, as a potential osteogenic stimulus, are short-duration bouts of treadmill exercise relative to sedentary background activity? Second, how well does daily effective strain stimulus relate the loading history for one such exercise program, in comparison with other experimental loading programs, to bone formation? In vivo cortical strains were measured in the tibiotarsus of White Leghorn chickens at a late stage of skeletal growth (14-34 weeks old) under the conditions of a previous investigation of bone formation in response to an exercise program (15 min/day, treadmill gait at 60% maximum speed while carrying 20% body mass) that included sedentary background activity. These strain data were compiled into 24-hour loading histories of peak cyclic strain, demonstrating that strains were statistically different for exercise and background activities (p < 0.0001), with both the magnitude and number of cyclic strain events being greater during exercise (generally greater than 500 microstrain, 2,500 cycles/day) than during background activity (generally less than 500 microstrain, mean: 775 cycles/day). Strains during exercise accounted for more than 97% of the daily effective strain stimulus for bone adaptation, despite the fact that exercise comprised only 1% of the daily period (15 min/day). The levels of the daily effective strain stimulus were similar to those calculated for strains engendered by artificial loading of functionally isolated avian ulnae, which either maintained bone mass or resulted in a 15% increase of cortical cross-sectional area in both sets of studies. These results indicate that short-duration bouts of treadmill exercise and sedentary background activity can represent distinct osteogenic stimuli for adaptive bone modeling. They also provide experimental support for the use of a daily effective strain stimulus to quantify skeletal loading histories for differing programs of physical exercise, although the relative importance of other mechanical and nonmechanical factors requires further investigation. PMID:9565070

Konieczynski, D D; Truty, M J; Biewener, A A

1998-01-01

152

MT2-like melatonin receptor modulates amplitude receptor potential in visual cells of crayfish during a 24-hour cycle.  

PubMed

Retinular photoreceptors are structures involved in the expression and synchronization of the circadian rhythm of sensitivity to light in crayfish. To determine whether melatonin possesses a differential effect upon the receptor potential (RP) amplitude of retinular photoreceptors circadian time (CT)-dependent, we conducted experiments by means of applying melatonin every 2h during a 24-hour cycle. Melatonin with 100 nM increased RP amplitude during subjective day to a greater degree than during subjective night. To determine whether MT(2) melatonin receptors regulate the melatonin-produced effect, we carried out two experiments, circadian times (CTs) 6 and 18, which included the following: (1) application of the MT(2) receptor selective agonist 8-M-PDOT and antagonist DH97, and (2) the specific binding of [(125)I]-melatonin in eyestalk membranes. The amount of 10 nM of 8-M-PDOT increased RP amplitude in a similar manner to melatonin, and 1 nM DH97 abolished the increase produced by melatonin and 8-M-PDOT. Binding of [(125)I]-melatonin was saturable and specific. Scatchard analysis revealed an affinity constant (K(d)) of 1.1 nM and a total number of binding sites (B(max)) of 6 fmol/mg protein at CT 6, and a K(d) of 1.46 nM and B(max) of 7 fmol/mg protein at CT 18. Our results indicate that melatonin increased RP amplitude of crayfish retinular photoreceptors through MT(2)-like melatonin receptors. These data support the idea that melatonin is a signal of darkness for the circadian system in crayfish retinular cells. PMID:19666131

Mendoza-Vargas, Leonor; Solís-Chagoyán, Héctor; Benítez-King, Gloria; Fuentes-Pardo, Beatriz

2009-12-01

153

Video Game Play, Child Diet, and Physical Activity Behavior Change  

PubMed Central

Background Video games designed to promote behavior change are a promising venue to enable children to learn healthier behaviors. Purpose Evaluate outcome from playing “Escape from Diab” (Diab) and “Nanoswarm: Invasion from Inner Space” (Nano) video games on children’s diet, physical activity and adiposity. Design Two-group RCT; assessments occurred at baseline (B), immediately after Diab (P1), immediately after Nano (P2) and 2 months later (P3). Data were collected in 2008–2009, and analyses conducted in 2009–2010. Setting/Participants 133 children aged 10–12 years, initially between 50 percentile and 95 percentile BMI. Intervention Treatment group played Diab and Nano in sequence. Control Group played diet and physical activity knowledge-based games on popular websites. Main Outcome measures Servings of fruit, vegetable and water; minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity. At each point of assessment: 3 nonconsecutive days of 24-hour dietary recalls, 5 consecutive days of physical activity using accelerometers, and assessment of height, weight, waist circumference and triceps skinfold. Results A repeated measures ANCOVA was conducted (analyzed in 2009–2010). Children playing these video games increased fruit and vegetable consumption by about .67 servings per day (p<0.018), but not water, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, or body composition. Conclusions Playing Diab and Nano resulted in an increase in fruit and vegetable intake. Research is needed on the optimal design of video game components to maximize change. PMID:21146765

Baranowski, Tom; Baranowski, Janice; Thompson, Debbe; Buday, Richard; Jago, Russ; Griffith, Melissa Juliano; Islam, Noemi; Nguyen, Nga; Watson, Kathleen B.

2010-01-01

154

TRAVEL ACCIDENT INSURANCE PLAN 01-01-2012 The Travel Accident Insurance Plan provides 24-hour Accident coverage while on Authorized  

E-print Network

1 TRAVEL ACCIDENT INSURANCE PLAN 01-01-2012 The Travel Accident Insurance Plan provides 24-hour. Please note that the Employer reserves the right to amend or terminate this Travel Accident Insurance Plan at any time and for any reason. WHO IS ELIGIBLE FOR THE TRAVEL ACCIDENT INSURANCE PLAN? Active

Johnson, Peter D.

155

Evaluation of 24-Hour Arterial Stiffness Indices and Central Hemodynamics in Healthy Normotensive Subjects versus Treated or Untreated Hypertensive Patients: A Feasibility Study  

PubMed Central

Objective. Central blood pressure (BP) and vascular indices estimated noninvasively over the 24 hours were compared between normotensive volunteers and hypertensive patients by a pulse wave analysis of ambulatory blood pressure recordings. Methods. Digitalized waveforms obtained during each brachial oscillometric BP measurement were stored in the device memory and analyzed by the validated Vasotens technology. Averages for the 24 hours and for the awake and asleep subperiods were computed. Results. 142 normotensives and 661 hypertensives were evaluated. 24-hour central BP, pulse wave velocity (PWV), and augmentation index (AI) were significantly higher in the hypertensive group than in the normotensive group (119.3 versus 105.6?mmHg for systolic BP, 75.6 versus 72.3?mmHg for diastolic BP, 10.3 versus 10.0?m/sec for aortic PWV, ?9.7 versus ?40.7% for peripheral AI, and 24.7 versus 11.0% for aortic AI), whereas reflected wave transit time (RWTT) was significantly lower in hypertensive patients (126.6 versus 139.0?ms). After adjusting for confounding factors a statistically significant between-group difference was still observed for central BP, RWTT, and peripheral AI. All estimates displayed a typical circadian rhythm. Conclusions. Noninvasive assessment of 24-hour arterial stiffness and central hemodynamics in daily life dynamic conditions may help in assessing the arterial function impairment in hypertensive patients. PMID:25692032

Omboni, Stefano; Posokhov, Igor N.; Rogoza, Anatoly N.

2015-01-01

156

A pressurized liquid concept for solar-thermal energy storage for the 24-hour continuous operation of an energy conversion system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation is conducted regarding the feasibility to employ the pressurized liquid concept for solar thermal energy storage applications in connection with a solar energy conversion system for continuous 24-hour operation. It is found feasible to design an energy storage system which will supply continuously a constant thermal power load within cyclic maximum and minimum temperature limits that would be

M. E. Talaat

1976-01-01

157

Comparison of 24-hour intraocular pressure reduction with two dosing regimens of latanoprost and timolol maleate in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: To compare the 24-hour diurnal ocular hypotensive efficacy of two dosing regimens of latanoprost, once daily (8 am or 10 pm), vs timolol maleate, twice daily.METHODS: We measured six diurnal intraocular pressure curves (6 am, 10 am, 2 pm, 6 pm, 10 pm, and 2 am) in one randomly selected eye of 34 Greek patients newly diagnosed with primary

Anastasios G. P Konstas; Athanasios C Maltezos; Sofia Gandi; Alison C Hudgins; William C Stewart

1999-01-01

158

24-HOUR DIFFUSIVE SAMPLING OF 1,3-BUTADIENE IN AIR ONTO CARBONPAK X SOLID ADSORBENT WITH THEMAL DESORPTION/GC/MS ANALYSIS - FEASIBILITY STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Diffusive sampling of 1,3-butadiene for 24 hours onto the graphitic adsorbent Carbopack X contained in a stainless steel tube badge (6.3 mm OD, 5 mm ID, and 90 mm in length) with analysis by thermal desorption/GC/MS has been evaluated in controlled tests. A test matrix of 42 tr...

159

Bath water contamination with legionella and nontuberculous mycobacteria in 24-hour home baths, hot springs, and public bathhouses of Nagano Prefecture, Japan.  

PubMed

Bath water samples were collected from 116 hot springs, 197 public bathhouses, and 38 24-hour home baths in Nagano Prefecture, Japan, during the period of April 2009 to November 2011, for determining the presence and extent of contamination with Legionella and nontuberculous mycobacteria. Cultures positive for Legionella were observed in 123 of the 3,314 bath water samples examined. The distribution and abundance of Legionella and/or combined contamination with Legionella and nontuberculous mycobacteria were investigated to clarify the contamination levels. The abundance of Legionella was demonstrated to correlate considerably with the levels of combined contamination with Legionella and nontuberculous mycobacteria. Legionella spp. were obtained from 61% of the water samples from 24-hour home baths, but only from 3% of the samples from public bathhouses and hot springs. This is despite the fact that a few outbreaks of Legionnaires' disease in Nagano Prefecture as well as other regions of Japan have been traced to bath water contamination. The comparatively higher rate of contamination of the 24-hour home baths is a matter of concern. It is therefore advisable to routinely implement good maintenance of the water basins, particularly of the 24-hour home baths. PMID:25056073

Kobayashi, Michiko; Oana, Kozue; Kawakami, Yoshiyuki

2014-01-01

160

The effect of low level radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation on the excretion rates of stress hormones in operators during 24-hour shifts.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of long term exposure to low level radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic (EM) radiation on the excretion rates of stress hormones in satellite station operators during 24-hour shifts. Twelve male operators at a satellite station for TV communications and space research were studied during 24-hour shifts. Dosimetric evaluation of the exposure was carried out and showed low level exposure with specific absorption of 0.1127 J.kg-1. A control group of 12 unexposed male operators with similar job task and the same shift system were studied, too. The 11-oxycorticosteroids (11-OCS), adrenaline and noradrenaline were followed by spectrofluorimetric methods on 3-hour intervals during the 24-hour shifts. The data were analyzed by tests for interindividual analysis, Cosinor analysis and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Significant increase in the 24-hour excretion of 11-OCS and disorders in its circadian rhythm, manifested by increase in the mesor, decrease in the amplitude and shift in the acrophase were found in the exposed operators. The changes in the excretion rates of the catecholamines were significant and showed greater variability of both variables. The long term effect of the exposure to low-level RF EM radiation evoked pronounced stress reaction with changes in the circadian rhythm of 11-OCS and increased variability of catecholamines secretion. The possible health hazards associated with observed alteration in the stress system need to be clarified by identification of their significance and prognostic relevance. PMID:12096679

Vangelova, K; Israel, M; Mihaylov, S

2002-06-01

161

Regional precipitation-frequency analysis and spatial mapping for 24-hour and 2-hour durations for Washington State  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study is an update of the information contained in the precipitation-frequency atlas published by the US National Weather Service in 1973. Data collection for the NWS study ended in 1966 while this study uses the current data base which more than doubles the record length used in the NWS study. Washington State has highly variable topography and climate; in particular Mean Annual Precipitation (MAP) varies from over 260 inches a year to less than 7 inches. Steep high mountain ranges provide very wet slopes as well as pronounced rain shadows with large climate changes occurring in relatively short distances. In addition there are four distinct sources for the atmospheric moisture needed for precipitation which gives rise to complex seasonal and spatial interactions. The PRISM mapping system used in this study has greatly improved the spatial mapping of precipitation and increased the reliability of estimates of precipitation in the broad areas between precipitation measurement stations. Further, the development and use of regional L-Moments has greatly improved the reliability of precipitation magnitude-frequency estimates, particularly for the rarer and more extreme storms. Washington State could be specified adequately by 12 regions for the purposes of estimating the 2-hour and 24 hour precipitation frequencies. Within each region algorithms were developed for L-CV and L-Skewness expressed as functions of the MAP. The GEV distribution was acceptable statistically for all regions up to the 1 in 500 recurrence interval, beyond which the four-parameter Kappa distribution is recommended. The estimated changes in precipitation magnitudes for a given frequency as regional boundaries were crossed were found to be small, and well within the expected differences likely from sampling errors. An interesting transition zone was observed at the eastern edge of the Cascade foothills, associated with the maxima having a seasonal change from autumn winter synoptic scale general storms in the west to spring summer maxima in the east that were produced by a mix of storm types. (Comment: storms were a mix of general storms and more-isolated convective storms).

Wallis, J. R.; Schaefer, M. G.; Barker, B. L.; Taylor, G. H.

2007-01-01

162

Risk Factor Monitoring and Methods Branch | ASA24 Enables Web-based Collection of 24-hour Dietary Data  

Cancer.gov

Following the findings from the OPEN study, RFMMB (led by Dr. Amy Subar) recognized the need for a better instrument to replace FFQs in nutritional epidemiology research. If a more effective instrument could be made affordable and feasible, it had the potential to enable better assessment of the associations between diet and health.

163

Recent Medical Device Recalls  

MedlinePLUS

... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Medical Devices Print this page Share this page E-mail this page Home Medical Devices Medical Device Safety Medical Device Recalls List of ...

164

Mediterranean-style diet reduces metabolic syndrome components in obese children and adolescents with obesity  

PubMed Central

Background The beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet have been amply proven in adults with cardiovascular risk factors. The effects of this diet have not been extensively assessed in pediatric populations with obesity, insulin resistance (IR) and metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of the Mediterranean style diet (MSD) to decrease cardiovascular risk factors in children and adolescents with obesity. Methods Participants were randomly assigned to a MSD rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, fiber, flavonoids and antioxidants (60% of energy from carbohydrate, 25% from fat, and 15% from protein, (n?=?24); or a standard diet (55% of carbohydrate, 30% from fat and 15% from protein, (n?=?25), the caloric ingest was individualized. At baseline and 16-week of intervention, the glucose, triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), HDL-C, LDL-C were measured as well as the body composition and anthropometric data. The diet compliance was determined by the 24-hour recalls. Paired Student’s t and Macnemar’s test were used to compare effects in biochemical, body composition, anthropometric, and dietary variables. Results The MSD group had a significantly decrease in BMI, lean mass, fat mass, glucose, TC, TG, HDL-C and LDL-C. (p?diet compliance increased consumption of omega 9 fatty acids, zinc, vitamin E, selenium, and decreased consumption of saturated fatty acids (p?diet group decrease in glucose levels and frequency of glucose >100 mg/dL (p?

2014-01-01

165

Breadfruit, banana, beef, and beer: Modernization of the Samoan diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Samoans traditionally based their diet on breadfruit, banana, taro, yam and coconut, supplemented with fish and shellfish from coral reefs. Ocean fish, pigs and fowl were foods reserved for festive occasions. After 150 years of exposure to missionaries, traders and military personnel, the Samoan diet has been substantially altered. This paper provides a preliminary description of these changes.A 24?hour

James R. Bindon

1982-01-01

166

Twenty-four-hour recall, knowledge-attitude-practice questionnaires, and direct observations of sanitary practices: a comparative study  

PubMed Central

Although responses to 24-hour recall and knowledge—attitude—practice questionnaires are commonly used in water—sanitation studies as surrogates for direct observation of behaviour, the validity of this approach is questionable. We therefore compared questionnaire data with those obtained by direct observation of practices related to water storage, handwashing, and defecation among 247 families in urban Dhaka, Bangladesh. Analysis of the results indicates that accord between the replies to the questionnaires and the data collected by direct observation was poor and that the responses to the two questionnaires were often contradictory. Significant disagreements between the results of questionnaires and observations arose usually because desirable practices were over-reported by the respondents. The results of the study suggest that in urban Bangladesh 24-hour recall and knowledge—attitude—practice questionnaires should not be used as proxies for direct observation of hygiene practices. PMID:3496987

Stanton, B. F.; Clemens, J. D.; Aziz, K. M. A.; Rahman, M.

1987-01-01

167

The impact of compliance with 6-hour and 24-hour sepsis bundles on hospital mortality in patients with severe sepsis: a prospective observational study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Compliance with the ventilator care bundle affects the rate of ventilator-associated pneumonia. It was not known, however,\\u000a whether compliance with sepsis care bundles has an impact on outcome. The aims of the present study were to determine the\\u000a rate of compliance with 6-hour and 24-hour sepsis bundles and to determine the impact of the compliance on hospital mortality\\u000a in patients

Fang Gao; Teresa Melody; Darren F Daniels; Simon Giles; Samantha Fox

2005-01-01

168

Daily spinal mechanical loading as a risk factor for acute non-specific low back pain: a case–control study using the 24Hour Schedule  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case–control study was conducted to assess the daily loading of the spine as a risk factor for acute non-specific low back\\u000a pain (acute LBP). Acute LBP is a benign, self-limiting disease, with a recovery rate of 80–90% within 6 weeks irrespective\\u000a of the treatment type. Unfortunately, recurrence rates are high. Therefore, prevention of acute LBP could be beneficial. The\\u000a 24-Hour

Eric W. P. Bakker; Arianne P. Verhagen; Cees Lucas; Hans J. C. M. F. Koning; Rob J. de Haan; Bart W. Koes

2007-01-01

169

The Abilities and Differential Difficulties of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Children with Specific Language Impairment to Use Semantic and Social Contexts to Infer and Recall Novel Words  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies assessed the ability of 12 pre-school children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD; N = 7) or Specific Language Impairment (SLI; N = 5) to use semantic context and eye gaze to infer the meanings of novel nouns, and to recall those meanings after a 24-hour delay. In Experiment 1, the children heard statements containing a familiar,…

Goldman, Melody R.

2010-01-01

170

Egg Contribution Towards the Diet of Pregnant Latinas  

PubMed Central

Proper nutrition during gestation is important to prevent adverse pregnancy outcomes. Eggs contain many important nutrients necessary for fetal development and human survival. Three focus groups were conducted with Latina women living in Connecticut to identify cultural beliefs toward egg consumption during pregnancy, traditional egg dishes, and methods of preparation. A cross-sectional study was then carried out with a sample of predominately Puerto Rican pregnant Latinas (N = 241) to identify the frequency of consumption of eggs and egg-containing dishes as well as methods of preparation using a tailored food frequency questionnaire modified for this population. Paired sample t-tests were used to examine if there were differences in weekly mean egg intake patterns between the year prior to the pregnancy and during pregnancy based on a Food Frequency Questionnaire. Women were categorized into eggs consumers and non-consumers if they consumed or did not consume eggs during the previous day based on 24-hour recall data. Independent-sample t-test and chi-square cross-tabulation analyses were conducted to examine the association between egg consumption and nutrient intake categories. Results showed that eggs and egg-containing traditional dishes are consumed by Latinas before and during pregnancy. Egg consumers had higher intakes of protein, fat, vitamin K, vitamin E, selenium, beta carotene, lutein and zeaxanthin, cholesterol, total polyunsaturated fatty acids, and docosahexaenoic acid. Eggs contribute significantly to the diet of pregnant Latinas. PMID:21883065

Bermúdez-Millán, Ángela; Hromi-Fiedler, Amber; Damio, Grace; Segura-Pérez, Sofia; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael

2011-01-01

171

Presleep mood and dream recall  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studied evening mood rating sheets and dream diaries for 5 days during a 2-wk period, obtained from 67 college women. Dream recall at home was more likely to occur on mornings preceded by presleep mood ratings that were relatively negative; this was particularly true for infrequent dream recallers. Results fail to support repression hypotheses of dream recall that derive from

David B. Cohen

1974-01-01

172

Physical Environment, Diet Quality, and Body Weight in a Group of 12-year-old Children from Four Public Schools in Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

Objective Physical environment influences diet and has been proposed as a determinant of childhood obesity. This cross-sectional study explored physical environment and its associations with diet quality and weight status in a sample of 114 12-year-old children from 4 public schools in the metropolitan area of San Juan, PR. Methods Physical environment was assessed by asking questions regarding the availability and accessibility of healthy and unhealthy foods and food outlets as well as of recreational and sports facilities and equipment. Food intake was determined using a 24-hour diet-recall questionnaire, with the gathered data being used to assess diet quality and calculate the Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2010. The HEI includes 12 components that are used to determine the compliance of a given diet with federal guidelines. HEI-2010 total score ranges from 0 to100 and is divided into the following classifications: poor (?50), needs improvement (51–80), and good (>80). Body mass index was computed using measured weight and height and categorized according to the CDC Growth Charts. Results Thirty-six percent of the participating children were overweight or obese. Nearly 57% had poor diet quality. The lowest HEI-2010 component scores were found for total fruits, whole fruits, total vegetables, whole grains, seafood and plant proteins, and fatty acids. However, diet quality was not associated with weight status or physical environment factors. Compared to the other children in the study, overweight or obese children reported having a significantly (p<0.05) lower availability of unhealthy foods and the highest access to recreational and sports facilities at home but also lower utilization of recreational and sports facilities at school and reduced participation in the school breakfast program. Conclusion This study showed that some home- and school-environment factors influenced body weight in the children in this sample. However, these same factors did not appear to affect diet quality. PMID:24665604

Torres, Roxana; Serrano, Mónica; Pérez, Cynthia M.; Palacios, Cristina

2014-01-01

173

Blood pressure in Hispanic women: the role of diet, acculturation, and physical activity.  

PubMed

The role of diet, acculturation, and physical activity on systolic and diastolic blood pressure was examined among 1,420 Mexican American, 388 Cuban American, and 542 Puerto Rican women who responded to the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey collected in 1982-4. Dietary intake measures included sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, fiber, ethanol, and total kilocalories as estimated from 24-hour recall data. Serum sodium/potassium ratio was included as a measure of metabolic function. Acculturation was measured using language preference, speaking, reading and writing. Physical activity included recreational and non-recreational activities. Other correlates included age, education, and body composition. Final models indicated that age and body composition were significantly associated with blood pressure across all three Hispanic subgroups. Among Mexican-American women, acculturation had an impact on both systolic and diastolic blood pressure that was independent of diet, body composition, and physical activity. Furthermore, the dietary intake of specific nutrients such as sodium and potassium did not appear to be as important as the way the individual metabolized those nutrients, as indicated by the serum sodium/potassium ratio. The strong association of body mass index with both systolic and diastolic blood pressure among all three ethnic groups reinforces the need to maintain an appropriate body weight. PMID:9386950

Goslar, P W; Macera, C A; Castellanos, L G; Hussey, J R; Sy, F S; Sharpe, P A

1997-01-01

174

Relating cardiovascular risk to out-of-office blood pressure and the importance of controlling blood pressure 24 hours a day.  

PubMed

Blood pressure exhibits a natural circadian rhythm characterized by a decrease during sleep, then a steep increase in the early morning period followed by higher values throughout the active waking period. Because an excessive early morning surge in blood pressure is associated with an elevated risk for cardiovascular events, it represents a potential therapeutic target in patients with hypertension, especially those already at high risk for such events. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) is an out-of-office technique that allows assessment of blood pressure control during a 24-hour period, including the morning surge. It is known that 24-hour control based on ABPM is a better predictor of hypertensive target-organ involvement and cardiovascular events than conventional in-office blood pressure measurement. ABPM also reveals that many antihypertensive drugs do not adequately control early morning blood pressure, particularly when given once daily in the morning. There are several effective ways to improve morning blood pressure control. These include using agents with a long pharmacologic half-life; prescribing drug formulations specifically designed to target the morning blood pressure surge when given at bedtime; or increasing dosages to twice daily that of conventional shorter-acting agents. PMID:18638615

White, William B

2008-08-01

175

Prognostic factors for death and survival with or without complications in cardiac arrest patients receiving CPR within 24 hours of anesthesia for emergency surgery  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine prognostic factors for death and survival with or without complications in cardiac arrest patients who received cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) within 24 hours of receiving anesthesia for emergency surgery. Patients and methods A retrospective cohort study approved by the Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai University Hospital Ethical Committee. Data used were taken from records of 751 cardiac arrest patients who received their first CPR within 24 hours of anesthesia for emergency surgery between January 1, 2003 and October 31, 2011. The reviewed data included patient characteristics, surgical procedures, American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA) physical status classification, anesthesia information, the timing of cardiac arrest, CPR details, and outcomes at 24 hours after CPR. Univariate and polytomous logistic regression analyses were used to determine prognostic factors associated with the outcome variable. P-values of less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results The outcomes at 24 hours were death (638/751, 85.0%), survival with complications (73/751, 9.7%), and survival without complications (40/751, 5.3%). The prognostic factors associated with death were: age between 13–34 years (OR =3.08, 95% CI =1.03–9.19); ASA physical status three and higher (OR =6.60, 95% CI =2.17–20.13); precardiopulmonary comorbidity (OR =3.28, 95% CI =1.09–9.90); the condition of patients who were on mechanical ventilation prior to receiving anesthesia (OR =4.11, 95% CI =1.17–14.38); surgery in the upper abdominal site (OR =14.64, 95% CI =2.83–75.82); shock prior to cardiac arrest (OR =6.24, 95% CI =2.53–15.36); nonshockable electrocardiography (EKG) rhythm (OR =5.67, 95% CI =1.93–16.62); cardiac arrest occurring in postoperative period (OR =7.35, 95% CI =2.89–18.74); and duration of CPR more than 30 minutes (OR =4.32, 95% CI =1.39–13.45). The prognostic factors associated with survival with complications were being greater than or equal to 65 years of age (OR =4.30, 95% CI =1.13–16.42), upper abdominal site of surgery (OR =10.86, 95% CI =1.99–59.13), shock prior to cardiac arrest (OR =3.62, 95% CI =1.30–10.12), arrhythmia prior to cardiac arrest (OR =4.61, 95% CI =1.01–21.13), and cardiac arrest occurring in the postoperative period (OR =3.63, 95% CI =1.31–10.02). Conclusion The mortality and morbidity in patients who received anesthesia for emergency surgery within 24 hours of their first CPR were high, and were associated with identifiable patient comorbidity, age, shock, anatomic site of operation, the timing of cardiac arrest, EKG rhythm, and the duration of CPR. EKG monitoring helps to identify cardiac arrest quickly and diagnose the EKG rhythm as a shockable or nonshockable rhythm, with CPR being performed as per the American Heart Association (AHA) CPR Guidelines 2010. The use of the fast track system in combination with an interdisciplinary team for surgery, CPR, and postoperative care helps to rescue patients in a short time. PMID:25378961

Siriphuwanun, Visith; Punjasawadwong, Yodying; Lapisatepun, Worawut; Charuluxananan, Somrat; Uerpairojkit, Ketchada

2014-01-01

176

Development of a diet quality index with special reference to micronutrient adequacy for adolescent girls consuming a lacto-vegetarian diet.  

PubMed

Recent dietary guidelines emphasize micronutrient sufficiency by giving importance to consumption of whole grains and a variety of fruits and vegetables. The objective of this study was to identify a measure of micronutrient quality of diets in adolescent girls consuming a lacto-vegetarian diet. Data were collected on the nutritional status of 630 schoolgirls (ages 10 to 16 years) from Pune city, India, in a cross-sectional survey during 2006-2007. Dietary intakes were assessed by 24-hour recall on 3 nonconsecutive days. Nutrient intakes were calculated from the Indian nutritive value databases. Micronutrient adequacy was expressed as a ratio of observed intake to reference intake. An Adolescent Micronutrient Quality Index (AMQI) was formulated using the Indian and the recent US dietary guidelines. Fasting blood samples were analyzed for plasma levels of vitamin C, beta carotene, and zinc. The average energy intake of the majority of the girls was below the Indian recommended dietary intakes, whereas micronutrient intakes were 50% to 70% lower than recommended dietary intakes. The mean AMQI score was 41.5+/-9.4. The age of subjects as well as mother's education and occupation were significantly associated with the AMQI. The AMQI was correlated with nutrient intakes and the ratio of observed intake to reference intake (P<0.01) after controlling for energy intake and sociodemographic factors. Higher AMQI scores were associated with higher concentrations of plasma vitamin C (r=0.26), beta carotene (r=0.34), and zinc (r=0.12). The AMQI is a useful measure of the dietary adequacy and micronutrient quality of the diets of adolescent girls consuming lacto-vegetarian diets. PMID:20497784

Chiplonkar, Shashi A; Tupe, Rama

2010-06-01

177

The Sporicidin recall.  

PubMed

Sporicidin products have been recalled by a joint action of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Federal Trade Commission (FTC). HHMM emphasizes that other glutaraldehyde-based cold sterilant products are still acceptable for use. An FDA spokesperson could not offer a reason why Sporicidin products failed the Association of Official Analytical Chemists test protocol for sterilants (see HHMM July 1990; 3[10]:1). The official press release issued by FDA is reprinted below in its entirety. PMID:10116667

1992-01-01

178

Evaluation and Comparison of Food Records, Recalls, and Frequencies for Energy and Protein Assessment by Using Recovery Biomarkers  

PubMed Central

The food frequency questionnaire approach to dietary assessment is ubiquitous in nutritional epidemiology research. Food records and recalls provide approaches that may also be adaptable for use in large epidemiologic cohorts, if warranted by better measurement properties. The authors collected (2007–2009) a 4-day food record, three 24-hour dietary recalls, and a food frequency questionnaire from 450 postmenopausal women in the Women’s Health Initiative prospective cohort study (enrollment, 1994–1998), along with biomarkers of energy and protein consumption. Through comparison with biomarkers, the food record is shown to provide a stronger estimate of energy and protein than does the food frequency questionnaire, with 24-hour recalls mostly intermediate. Differences were smaller and nonsignificant for protein density. Food frequencies, records, and recalls were, respectively, able to “explain” 3.8%, 7.8%, and 2.8% of biomarker variation for energy; 8.4%, 22.6%, and 16.2% of biomarker variation for protein; and 6.5%, 11.0%, and 7.0% of biomarker variation for protein density. However, calibration equations that include body mass index, age, and ethnicity substantially improve these numbers to 41.7%, 44.7%, and 42.1% for energy; 20.3%, 32.7%, and 28.4% for protein; and 8.7%, 14.4%, and 10.4% for protein density. Calibration equations using any of the assessment procedures may yield suitable consumption estimates for epidemiologic study purposes. PMID:21765003

Prentice, Ross L.; Mossavar-Rahmani, Yasmin; Huang, Ying; Van Horn, Linda; Beresford, Shirley A. A.; Caan, Bette; Tinker, Lesley; Schoeller, Dale; Bingham, Sheila; Eaton, Charles B.; Thomson, Cynthia; Johnson, Karen C.; Ockene, Judy; Sarto, Gloria; Heiss, Gerardo; Neuhouser, Marian L.

2011-01-01

179

Writing superiority in cued recall.  

PubMed

In list learning paradigms with free recall, written recall has been found to be less susceptible to intrusions of related concepts than spoken recall when the list items had been visually presented. This effect has been ascribed to the use of stored orthographic representations from the study phase during written recall (Kellogg, 2001). In other memory retrieval paradigms, by contrast, either better recall for modality-congruent items or an input-independent writing superiority effect have been found (Grabowski, 2005). In a series of four experiments using a paired associate learning paradigm we tested (a) whether output modality effects on verbal recall can be replicated in a paradigm that does not involve the rejection of semantically related intrusion words, (b) whether a possible superior performance for written recall was due to a slower response onset for writing as compared to speaking in immediate recall, and (c) whether the performance in paired associate word recall was correlated with performance in an additional episodic memory recall task. We observed better written recall in the first half of the recall phase, irrespective of the modality in which the material was presented upon encoding. An explanation for this effect based on longer response latencies for writing and hence more time for memory retrieval could be ruled out by showing that the effect persisted in delayed response versions of the task. Although there was some evidence that stored additional episodic information may contribute to the successful retrieval of associate words, this evidence was only found in the immediate response experiments and hence is most likely independent from the observed output modality effect. In sum, our results from a paired associate learning paradigm suggest that superior performance for written vs. spoken recall cannot be (solely) explained in terms of additional access to stored orthographic representations from the encoding phase. Our findings rather suggest a general writing-superiority effect at the time of memory retrieval. PMID:24151483

Fueller, Carina; Loescher, Jens; Indefrey, Peter

2013-01-01

180

Writing superiority in cued recall  

PubMed Central

In list learning paradigms with free recall, written recall has been found to be less susceptible to intrusions of related concepts than spoken recall when the list items had been visually presented. This effect has been ascribed to the use of stored orthographic representations from the study phase during written recall (Kellogg, 2001). In other memory retrieval paradigms, by contrast, either better recall for modality-congruent items or an input-independent writing superiority effect have been found (Grabowski, 2005). In a series of four experiments using a paired associate learning paradigm we tested (a) whether output modality effects on verbal recall can be replicated in a paradigm that does not involve the rejection of semantically related intrusion words, (b) whether a possible superior performance for written recall was due to a slower response onset for writing as compared to speaking in immediate recall, and (c) whether the performance in paired associate word recall was correlated with performance in an additional episodic memory recall task. We observed better written recall in the first half of the recall phase, irrespective of the modality in which the material was presented upon encoding. An explanation for this effect based on longer response latencies for writing and hence more time for memory retrieval could be ruled out by showing that the effect persisted in delayed response versions of the task. Although there was some evidence that stored additional episodic information may contribute to the successful retrieval of associate words, this evidence was only found in the immediate response experiments and hence is most likely independent from the observed output modality effect. In sum, our results from a paired associate learning paradigm suggest that superior performance for written vs. spoken recall cannot be (solely) explained in terms of additional access to stored orthographic representations from the encoding phase. Our findings rather suggest a general writing-superiority effect at the time of memory retrieval. PMID:24151483

Fueller, Carina; Loescher, Jens; Indefrey, Peter

2013-01-01

181

Sleep deprivation impairs recall of social transmission of food preference in rats  

PubMed Central

Evidence indicates that sleep plays an important role in learning and memory, and disruption of sleep especially seems to interfere with hippocampal memory processes. Social transmission of food preference (STFP), a natural test of paired associative learning, has been shown to be dependent on the hippocampus. While social transmission of food preference is not a novel task, it has not been used to examine the role of sleep in memory consolidation. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: cage control; sleep-deprived; and device control. Demonstrator rats were given powdered food mixed with a target spice. Test rats then interacted with demonstrator rats before being given a two choice test of powered food with the target spice or a novel spice. Sleep-deprived rats were then placed in an automated device that prevented sleep for 24 hours. After sleep deprivation, animals were given a preference test again to determine memory for the target spice at both 24 hours and 72 hours. Polysomnography was used to validate the method of sleep deprivation. During immediate preference testing, rats demonstrated a clear preference for the food containing the target spice. Rats that experienced 24 hours of sleep deprivation following the initial testing indicated a significant reduction in the recall of the target spice at 24 and 72 hours. The cage control and device animals maintained their preference for food containing the target spice. Therefore, the loss of sleep interfered with memory consolidation for food preference learned via social transmission. PMID:25395874

Wooden, Jessica I; Pido, Jennifer; Mathews, Hunter; Kieltyka, Ryan; Montemayor, Bertha A; Ward, Christopher P

2014-01-01

182

Mobilization after thrombolysis (rtPA) within 24 hours of acute stroke: what factors influence inclusion of patients in A Very Early Rehabilitation Trial (AVERT)?  

PubMed Central

Background A key treatment for acute ischaemic stroke is thrombolysis (rtPA). However, treatment is not devoid of side effects and patients are carefully selected. AVERT (A Very Early Rehabilitation Trial), a large, ongoing international phase III trial, tests whether starting out of bed activity within 24 hours of stroke onset improves outcome. Patients treated with rtPA can be recruited if the physician allows (447 included to date). This study aimed to identify factors that might influence the inclusion of rtPA treated patients in AVERT. Methods Data from all patients thrombolysed at Austin Health, Australia, between September 2007 and December 2011 were retrospectively extracted from medical records. Factors of interest included: demographic and stroke characteristics, 24 hour clinical response to rtPA treatment, cerebral imaging and process factors (day and time of admission). Results 211 patients received rtPA at Austin Health and 50 (24%) were recruited to AVERT (AVERT). Of the 161 patients not recruited, 105 (65%) were eligible, and could potentially have been included (pot-AVERT). There were no significant differences in demographics, Oxfordshire classification or stroke severity (NIHSS) on admission between groups. Size and localization of stroke on imaging and symptomatic intracerebral heamorrhage rate did not differ. Patients included in AVERT showed less change in NIHSS 24 hours post rtPA (median change = 1, IQR (?1,4)) than those in the pot-AVERT group (median change = 3, IQR (0,6)) by the median difference of 2 points (95%CI:0.3; p = 0.03). A higher proportion of rtPA treated AVERT patients were admitted on weekdays (p = 0.04). Conclusion Excluding a possible clinical instability, no significant clinical differences were identified between thrombolysed patients included in AVERT and those who were not. Over 500 AVERT patients will be treated with rtPA at trial end. These results suggest we may be able to generalize findings to other rtPA treated patients beyond the trial population. PMID:25159047

2014-01-01

183

Social Environment Factors, Diet Quality, and Body Weight in 12-Year-Old Children from Four Public Schools in Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

Objective To explore the association of social-environment (SE) factors and diet quality (DQ) with weight status in a group of children in Puerto Rico (PR). Methods A cross-sectional study in a sample of 114 12-year-old children enrolled in 4 public schools in the San Juan Metropolitan area in Puerto Rico (PR) during the 2012–2013 school year. These children completed a self-administered questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics and SE, with information on family meal patterns; parental feeding styles; parental, peer, and school support for healthy eating; physical activity (PA); and frequency of PA and sedentary times. The participants also completed at 24-hour dietary recall interview to determine DQ. This was assessed with the Healthy Eating Index (HIE)-2010, an instrument that evaluates compliance with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated and categorized as healthy weight, overweight, or obese. Results 36% of participants were overweight/obese. In terms of DQ, 55% had “poor” DQ, 45% had diets that “need improvement”, and none had “good” DQ. Children of healthy weight (75.0%) reported more frequent family meals than did overweight/obese children (57.5%; p = 0.05). No other significant associations were found between SE factors and DQ or body weight status. Conclusion Most of the participants were of healthy weight but had poor quality diets. Having a healthy weight was positively associated with frequent family meals. PMID:24964643

Serrano, Mónica; Torres, Roxana; Pérez, Cynthia M.; Palacios, Cristina

2014-01-01

184

Assessing Dietary Quality of Older Chinese People Using the Chinese Diet Balance Index (DBI)  

PubMed Central

Background/Objectives Few studies have applied the Chinese Diet Balance Index (DBI) in evaluating dietary quality for Chinese people. The present cross-sectional study assessed dietary quality based on DBI for older people, and the associated factors, in four socioeconomically distinct regions in China. Methods The China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) involves 2745 older Chinese people, aged 60 or over, from four regions (Northeast, East Coast, Central and West) in 2009. Dietary data were obtained by interviews using 24 hour-recall over three consecutive days. Four indicators: Total Score (TS), Lower Bound Score (LBS), Higher Bound Score (HBS) and Diet Quality Distance (DQD) from DBI were calculated for assessing dietary quality in different aspects. Results 68.9% of older people had different levels of excessive cereals intake. More than 50% of older people had moderate or severe surplus of oil (64.9%) and salt (58.6%). Intake of vegetables and fruit, milk and soybeans, water, and dietary variety were insufficient, especially for milk and soybeans. 80.8% of people had moderate or severe unbalanced diet consumption. The largest differences of DQD scores have been found for people with different education levels and urbanicity levels. People with higher education levels have lower DQD scores (p<0.001), and people living in medium and low urbanicity areas had 2.8 and 8.9 higher DQD scores than their high urbanicity counterparts (p<0.001). Also, significant differences of DQD scores have been found according to gender, marital status, work status and regions (p<0.001). Conclusion DBI can reveal problems of dietary quality for older Chinese people. Rectifying unbalanced diet intake may lead to prevention of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Dieticians and health care professionals need to increase dissemination and uptake of nutrition education, with interventions targeted at regions of lower socioeconomic status. PMID:25811834

Xu, Xiaoyue; Hall, John; Byles, Julie; Shi, Zumin

2015-01-01

185

Food insecurity is inversely associated with diet quality of lower-income adults.  

PubMed

Food insecurity acts as a chronic stressor independent of poverty. Food-insecure adults may consume more highly palatable foods as a coping mechanism, leading to poorer diet quality and increased risks of chronic disease over time. Using data from the 1999-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, this study aimed to examine the cross-sectional differences in dietary intake and diet quality by household food security among 8,129 lower-income adults (?300% of the federal poverty level). Food insecurity was assessed using the 18-item US Household Food Security Survey Module. Dietary intake was assessed from 24-hour recalls and diet quality was measured using the Healthy Eating Index-2005 and the Alternate Healthy Eating Index-2010. Relative mean differences in dietary outcomes by household food security were estimated using linear regression models, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics. Lower-income food-insecure adults reported higher consumption of some highly palatable foods, including high-fat dairy products (P trend<0.0001) and salty snacks (P trend=0.01) compared with lower-income food-secure adults. Food insecurity was also associated with more sugar-sweetened beverages (P trend=0.003); more red/processed meat (P trend=0.005); more nuts, seeds, and legumes (P trend=0.0006); fewer vegetables (P trend<0.0001); and fewer sweets and bakery desserts (P trend=0.0002). No differences were observed for intakes of total energy and macronutrients. Food insecurity was significantly associated with lower Healthy Eating Index-2005 (P trend<0.0001) and Alternate Healthy Eating Index-2010 scores (P trend<0.0001). Despite no macronutrient differences, food insecurity was associated with characteristics of poor diet quality known to increase chronic disease risk. PMID:25091796

Leung, Cindy W; Epel, Elissa S; Ritchie, Lorrene D; Crawford, Patricia B; Laraia, Barbara A

2014-12-01

186

Correlation of Occupational Stress Index with 24-hour Urine Cortisol and Serum DHEA Sulfate among City Bus Drivers: A Cross-sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives The questionnaire of occupational stress index (OSI) has been popular in the workplace, and it has been tailored for bus drivers in Taiwan. Nevertheless, its outcomes for participants are based on self-evaluations, thus validation by their physiological stress biomarker is warranted and this is the main goal of this study. Methods A cross-sectional study of sixty-three city bus drivers and fifty-four supporting staffs for comparison was conducted. Questionnaire surveys, 24-hour urine cortisol testing, and blood draws for dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S) testing were performed. The measured concentrations of these biological measures were logarithmically transformed before the statistical analysis where various scores of stressor factors, moderators, and stress effects of each OSI domain were analyzed by applying multiple linear regression models. Results For drivers, the elevated 24-hour urine cortisol level was associated with a worker's relationship with their supervisor and any life change events in the most recent 3 months. The DHEA-S level was higher in drivers of younger age as well as drivers with more concerns relating to their salary and bonuses. Non-drivers showed no association between any stressor or satisfaction and urine cortisol and blood DHEA-S levels. Conclusion Measurements of biomarkers may offer additional stress evaluations with OSI questionnaires for bus drivers. Increased DHEA-S and cortisol levels may result from stressors like income security. Prevention efforts towards occupational stress and life events and health promotional efforts for aged driver were important anti-stress remedies. PMID:22953199

Lin, Mia Chihya; Lu, Luo; Tai, John Jen

2011-01-01

187

Demand and characteristics of a psychiatric 24-hour emergency service performed by mandatory rotation of licensed psychiatrists in Swiss primary care  

PubMed Central

Background To investigate characteristics of and satisfaction with psychiatric 24-hour emergency primary care performed by mandatory rotation of licensed psychiatrists as a viable baseline for possible reorganizational measures. Methods This was a questionnaire-based cross-sectional study (November 2010–April 2011). The number of patient–psychiatrist encounters, modes of contact, and patient and psychiatrist characteristics were assessed. Diagnoses were coded with ICD-10 (International Classification of Diseases, version 10). Results From 167 duty episodes, 74 (44%) were recorded. Of the psychiatrists (n=44), 52% were female, and mean age (standard deviation) was 49.9 (5.2) years. The median number of encounters per episode was 4 (interquartile range 0–8), mainly in the evenings. Demand for “face-to-face” (direct) patient visits was significantly more common (64.0%) than practice (1.3%) or telephone consultations (34.7%). In 83.8%, psychiatrists judged the encounter as adequate at the patient’s location. A total of 43 different diagnoses were recorded: mainly schizophrenic disorders (23.9%), suicidal behavior (15.2%), and acute stress reactions (10.3%). Psychiatrists felt burdened by services (62.5%): in 39.2%, they felt threatened; and in 6.8%, violence occurred. In 32.4%, bills were not paid for. If services were optional, 45.2% would participate. Conclusion Our findings indicate justified demand for direct mobile patient visits, suggesting that emergency care should be multifaceted, and sole provision of psychiatric care at stationed emergency facilities may not always be appropriate. Reorganization of 24-hour emergency services should carefully evaluate patient and provider’s needs before changing established structures. PMID:24707172

Chmiel, Corinne; Rosemann, Thomas; Senn, Oliver

2014-01-01

188

Validation of the BPLab® 24-hour blood pressure monitoring system in a pediatric population according to the 1993 British Hypertension Society protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Automatic 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring (ABPM) is a basic procedure performed in adults with arterial hypertension, but ABPM monitors have become widely used in pediatric practice only recently. The main problem is the lack of common normative data sets for ABPM in children and the small number of appropriate monitors that can be used for analysis of the 24-hour BP profile in this age group. The aim of this study was to validate the BPLab® ABPM monitor according to the 1993 British Hypertension Society (BHS-93) protocol, as well as to work out solutions regarding the feasibility of this device in pediatric practice. Methods Our study included 30 children of both sexes and aged 5–15 years, ie, “older” children according to the BHS-93 protocol. Before starting the study, we obtained ethical approval from the regional scientific ethics committee. All participants and their parents signed their written consent for participation in the study. The data were simultaneously obtained by three experts, who had completed a noninvasive BP measurement training course. BP values were measured using the Korotkoff auscultatory method (Phase I for systolic BP and Phase V for diastolic BP). Discrepancies in the systolic and diastolic BP measurements (n=180; 90 for each expert) were analyzed according to the criteria specified in the BHS-93 protocol. Results The device was graded “A” for both systolic BP and diastolic BP according to the criteria of the BHS-93 protocol. Conclusion The BPLab ABPM device may be recommended for extensive pediatric use. PMID:25674018

Ledyaev, Mikhail Y; Stepanova, Olga V; Ledyaeva, Anastasia M

2015-01-01

189

A Systematic Review of the Relationship between Acculturation and Diet among Latinos in the United States: Implications for Future Research  

PubMed Central

Dietary intake is an important determinant of obesity and numerous chronic health conditions. A healthful diet is an essential component of chronic disease self-management. Researchers have indicated that the healthfulness of the Latino diet deteriorates during the acculturation process. However, given the many operationalizations of acculturation, conclusive evidence regarding this relationship is still lacking. This comprehensive and systematic literature review examines the relationship between acculturation and diet by examining national, quantitative, and qualitative studies involving Latinos living in the United States. Studies of diet included those that examined dietary intake using one of several validated measures (eg, food frequency questionnaire, 24-hour dietary recall, or dietary screener) and/or dietary behaviors (eg, away-from-home-eating and fat avoidance). Articles were identified through two independent searches yielding a final sample of 34 articles. Articles were abstracted by two independent reviewers and inter-rater reliability was assessed. Analyses examined the extent to which various measures of acculturation (ie, acculturation score, years in the United States, birthplace, generational status, and language use) were associated with macronutrient intake, micronutrient intake, and dietary behaviors. Several relationships were consistent irrespective of how acculturation was measured: no relationship with intake of dietary fat and percent energy from fat; the less vs more acculturated consumed more fruit, rice, beans, and less sugar and sugar-sweetened beverages. Additional observed relationships depended on the measure of acculturation used in the study. These findings suggest a differential influence of acculturation on diet, requiring greater specificity in our dietary interventions by acculturation status. PMID:18656573

AYALA, GUADALUPE X.; BAQUERO, BARBARA; KLINGER, SYLVIA

2013-01-01

190

A systematic review of the relationship between acculturation and diet among Latinos in the United States: implications for future research.  

PubMed

Dietary intake is an important determinant of obesity and numerous chronic health conditions. A healthful diet is an essential component of chronic disease self-management. Researchers have indicated that the healthfulness of the Latino diet deteriorates during the acculturation process. However, given the many operationalizations of acculturation, conclusive evidence regarding this relationship is still lacking. This comprehensive and systematic literature review examines the relationship between acculturation and diet by examining national, quantitative, and qualitative studies involving Latinos living in the United States. Studies of diet included those that examined dietary intake using one of several validated measures (eg, food frequency questionnaire, 24-hour dietary recall, or dietary screener) and/or dietary behaviors (eg, away-from-home-eating and fat avoidance). Articles were identified through two independent searches yielding a final sample of 34 articles. Articles were abstracted by two independent reviewers and inter-rater reliability was assessed. Analyses examined the extent to which various measures of acculturation (ie, acculturation score, years in the United States, birthplace, generational status, and language use) were associated with macronutrient intake, micronutrient intake, and dietary behaviors. Several relationships were consistent irrespective of how acculturation was measured: no relationship with intake of dietary fat and percent energy from fat; the less vs more acculturated consumed more fruit, rice, beans, and less sugar and sugar-sweetened beverages. Additional observed relationships depended on the measure of acculturation used in the study. These findings suggest a differential influence of acculturation on diet, requiring greater specificity in our dietary interventions by acculturation status. PMID:18656573

Ayala, Guadalupe X; Baquero, Barbara; Klinger, Sylvia

2008-08-01

191

Home-Schooled Children are thinner, leaner, and report better diets relative to traditionally-schooled children  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine and compare the relationships among diet, physical activity, and adiposity between home-schooled children (HSC) and traditionally-schooled children (TSC). Design and Methods Subjects were HSC (n=47) and TSC (n=48) aged 7 to 12 years old. Dietary intakes were determined via two 24-hour recalls and physical activity was assessed with 7 days of accelerometry. Fat mass (FM), trunk fat, and percent body fat (%BF) were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Results Relative to HSC, TSC demonstrated significantly higher BMI percentiles, FM, trunk fat, and %BF; consumed 120 total kilocalories more per day; and reported increased intakes of trans fats, total sugar, added sugars, calcium, and lower intakes of fiber, fruits, and vegetables (p<0.05). At lunch, TSC consumed significantly more calories, sugar, sodium, potassium, and calcium compared to HSC (p<0.05). Physical activity did not differ between groups. Traditional schooling was associated with increased consumption of trans fat, sugar, calcium (p<.05); lower intakes of fiber, and fruits and vegetables (p<.05); and higher FM, %BF, and trunk fat (p<0.01), after adjustment for covariates. Conclusions These data suggest HSC may consume diets that differ in energy and nutrient density relative to TSC, potentially contributing to differences in weight and adiposity. PMID:24039204

Cardel, Michelle; Willig, Amanda L.; Dulin-Keita, Akilah; Casazza, Krista; Cherrington, Andrea; Gunnarsdottir, Thrudur; Johnson, Susan L.; Peters, John C.; Hill, James O.; Allison, David B.; Fernández, José R.

2013-01-01

192

Mitchell Entrance Open 24 Hours  

E-print Network

Comer Children's Hospital Future Parking Garage A P T Physical Therapy Level 1 Levels 1, 7Level 1 EW Accessible Entrance Entrance Valet Parking Elevator Pay on Foot Pharmacy Taxi Stand Stairs Bike Rack Under appointments at DCAM may use the main building entrance. · Comer Children's Hospital patients will be directed

Scherer, Norbert F.

193

Auditory Imagery and Free Recall  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on mental imagery has demonstrated the importance of visual imagery to recall performance. Little attention, however, has been paid to the mnemonic value of auditory imagery. The present experiments addressed the influence of auditory and visual imagery on free recall. Characteristic sounds, pictures, or printed verbal labels of 40 common items were presented sequentially to adult subjects, who were

Matthew J. Sharps; Jana L. Price

1992-01-01

194

Between-group differences in nutrition- and health- related psychosocial factors among US adults and their associations with diet, exercise, and weight status  

PubMed Central

Background Large disparities exist across ethnic and socioeconomic status (SES) groups regarding obesity and other chronic diseases. Eliminating health disparities is a national priority in the US. Objective To test between-group differences in nutrition- and health-related psychosocial factors (NHRPF) and their associations with US adults’ diet, exercise, and weight status. Design and participants/setting Nationally representative data from the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals and the Diet and Health Knowledge Survey in 1994-96 from 4,356 US adults aged 20-65 years were used. Diet was assessed using 24-hour recalls; NHRPF, by 25 questions; weight status, by self-reported weight and height. Index scores were created to measure NHRPF. Diet quality was assessed using the US Department of Agriculture 2005 Healthy Eating Index (HEI). Statistical analyses Multivariate linear and logistic regression models were conducted to examine the associations. Results Some ethnic differences in NHRPF existed but were small. There were statistically significant (P<0.05) and large ethnic differences in diet (blacks had the worst average HEI; whites, the best, at 47.6 vs. 52.3, respectively). Groups with higher SES had better NHRPF (had better nutrition knowledge and beliefs, made better food choices, and had better awareness of nutrition-related health risks) and HEI. Subjects with high school education had higher NHRPF score (37.2 vs. 35.7) and HEI (54.5 vs. 49.5) than those with less than a high school education. Conclusions Ethnic differences among American adults’ NHRPF were small, but SES differences were greater. More efforts are needed to study the influences of the complex interactions between individual and social environmental factors that affect Americans’ diet and weight status and to explain related ethnic disparities. PMID:22709700

Wang, Youfa; Chen, Xiaoli

2012-01-01

195

Metabolic Engineering of Light and Dark Biochemical Pathways in Wild-Type and Mutant Strains of Synechocystis PCC 6803 for Maximal, 24-Hour Production of Hydrogen Gas  

SciTech Connect

This project used the cyanobacterial species Synechocystis PCC 6803 to pursue two lines of inquiry, with each line addressing one of the two main factors affecting hydrogen (H2) production in Synechocystis PCC 6803: NADPH availability and O2 sensitivity. H2 production in Synechocystis PCC 6803 requires a very high NADPH:NADP+ ratio, that is, the NADP pool must be highly reduced, which can be problematic because several metabolic pathways potentially can act to raise or lower NADPH levels. Also, though the [NiFe]-hydrogenase in PCC 6803 is constitutively expressed, it is reversibly inactivated at very low O2 concentrations. Largely because of this O2 sensitivity and the requirement for high NADPH levels, a major portion of overall H2 production occurs under anoxic conditions in the dark, supported by breakdown of glycogen or other organic substrates accumulated during photosynthesis. Also, other factors, such as N or S limitation, pH changes, presence of other substances, or deletion of particular respiratory components, can affect light or dark H2 production. Therefore, in the first line of inquiry, under a number of culture conditions with wild type (WT) Synechocystis PCC 6803 cells and a mutant with impaired type I NADPH-dehydrogenase (NDH-1) function, we used H2 production profiling and metabolic flux analysis, with and without specific inhibitors, to examine systematically the pathways involved in light and dark H2 production. Results from this work provided rational bases for metabolic engineering to maximize photobiological H2 production on a 24-hour basis. In the second line of inquiry, we used site-directed mutagenesis to create mutants with hydrogenase enzymes exhibiting greater O2 tolerance. The research addressed the following four tasks: 1. Evaluate the effects of various culture conditions (N, S, or P limitation; light/dark; pH; exogenous organic carbon) on H2 production profiles of WT cells and an NDH-1 mutant; 2. Conduct metabolic flux analyses for enhanced H2 production profiles using selected culture conditions and inhibitors of specific pathways in WT cells and an NDH-1 mutant; 3. Create Synechocystis PCC 6803 mutant strains with modified hydrogenases exhibiting increased O2 tolerance and greater H2 production; and 4. Integrate enhanced hydrogenase mutants and culture and metabolic factor studies to maximize 24-hour H2 production.

Ely, Roger L.; Chaplen, Frank W.R.

2014-03-11

196

21 CFR 7.49 - Recall communications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Recall communications. 7.49 Section 7...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENFORCEMENT...Responsibilities § 7.49 Recall communications. (a) General. ...and extent of a recall communication should be...

2010-04-01

197

Recalls, Market Withdrawals and Safety Alerts  

MedlinePLUS

... Market Withdrawals, & Safety Alerts Recalls, Market Withdrawals, & Safety Alerts The list below provides information gathered from press ... than 60 days, see the Recall and Safety Alerts Archive. Sign up to receive Recalls, Market Withdrawals ...

198

Predictive value of premature ventricular contractions on the resting electrocardiogram for ventricular arrhythmias on 24 hour monitoring in asymptomatic young adults.  

PubMed

Between the years 1981-1984, 89 air-personnel, ages 18-45 years, underwent 24-hour ambulatory ECG monitoring at the Israel Air Force Aeromedical Center due to an incidental finding of one or more premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) on the resting supine 12-lead ECG. Complex ectopic arrhythmias (bigemini, trigemini, couplets, ventricular tachycardia, R on T phenomenon, or multifocal patterns) were observed during monitoring in 1.4% of 138 control subjects without PVCs, in 22% of those with 1 to 3 PVC X min-1 and in 68% of those with 4 or more PVC X min-1 on the resting ECG. Altogether 39(44%) of the 89 subjects with PVCs on the resting ECG had complex ectopic rhythms on monitoring. Of the 43 subjects with available follow-up data, 3 (7%) reported bouts of dizziness and light headedness which coincided with complex ectopic rhythms. In one of these three subjects, the bouts of dizziness coincided with runs of ventricular tachycardia during exercise testing. PMID:2434071

Barzilay, J; Froom, P; Ribak, J; Gross, M; Benbassat, J

1987-01-01

199

Computer simulation of the effect of dDAVP with saline loading on fluid balance after 24-hour head-down tilt  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fluid loading (FL) before Shuttle reentry is a countermeasure currently in use by NASA to improve the orthostatic tolerance of astronauts during reentry and postflight. The fluid load consists of water and salt tablets equivalent to 32 oz (946 ml) of isotonic saline. However, the effectiveness of this countermeasure has been observed to decrease with the duration of spaceflight. The countermeasure's effectiveness may be improved by enhancing fluid retention using analogs of vasopressin such as lypressin (LVP) and desmopressin (dDAVP). In a computer simulation study reported previously, we attempted to assess the improvement in fluid retention obtained by the use of LVP administered before FL. The present study is concerned with the use of dDAVP. In a recent 24-hour, 6 degree head-down tilt (HDT) study involving seven men, dDAVP was found to improve orthostatic tolerance as assessed by both lower body negative pressure (LBNP) and stand tests. The treatment restored Luft's cumulative stress index (cumulative product of magnitude and duration of LBNP) to nearly pre-bedrest level. The heart rate was lower and stroke volume was marginally higher at the same LBNP levels with administration of dDAVP compared to placebo. Lower heart rates were also observed with dDAVP during stand test, despite the lower level of cardiovascular stress. These improvements were seen with only a small but significant increase in plasma volume of approximately 3 percent. This paper presents a computer simulation analysis of some of the results of this HDT study.

Srinivasan, R. S.; Simanonok, K. E.; Charles, J. B.

1994-01-01

200

Intersalt: an international study of electrolyte excretion and blood pressure. Results for 24 hour urinary sodium and potassium excretion. Intersalt Cooperative Research Group.  

PubMed Central

The relations between 24 hour urinary electrolyte excretion and blood pressure were studied in 10,079 men and women aged 20-59 sampled from 52 centres around the world based on a highly standardised protocol with central training of observers, a central laboratory, and extensive quality control. Relations between electrolyte excretion and blood pressure were studied in individual subjects within each centre and the results of these regression analyses pooled for all 52 centres. Relations between population median electrolyte values and population blood pressure values were also analysed across the 52 centres. Sodium excretion ranged from 0.2 mmol/24 h (Yanomamo Indians, Brazil) to 242 mmol/24 h (north China). In individual subjects (within centres) it was significantly related to blood pressure. Four centres found very low sodium excretion, low blood pressure, and little or no upward slope of blood pressure with age. Across the other 48 centres sodium was significantly related to the slope of blood pressure with age but not to median blood pressure or prevalence of high blood pressure. Potassium excretion was negatively correlated with blood pressure in individual subjects after adjustment for confounding variables. Across centres there was no consistent association. The relation of sodium to potassium ratio to blood pressure followed a pattern similar to that of sodium. Body mass index and heavy alcohol intake had strong, significant independent relations with blood pressure in individual subjects. PMID:3416162

1988-01-01

201

Association of fathers' feeding practices and feeding style on preschool age children's diet quality, eating behavior and body mass index.  

PubMed

The associations of parental feeding practices and feeding style with childhood obesity have gained more attention in the literature recently; however, fathers are rarely included within these studies. The aim of this research was to determine the relationship of paternal feeding practices on child diet quality, weight status, and eating behavior, and the moderating effect of paternal feeding style on these relationships in preschool age children. This study included a one-time, one-on-one interview with biological fathers of preschoolers (n?=?150) to assess feeding practices (Child Feeding Questionnaire), feeding style (Caregiver Feeding Style Questionnaire), child eating behaviors (Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire), and diet quality (24 hour recall, Healthy Eating Index). Height and weight for each father and child were also measured and Body Mass Index (BMI) or BMI z-score calculated. Linear regression was used to test the relationship between paternal feeding practices, style and child diet quality and/or body weight. Overall, the findings revealed that a father's feeding practices and feeding style are not associated with children's diet quality or weight status. However, child eating behaviors are associated with child BMI z-score and these relationships are moderated by paternal feeding practices. For example, child satiety responsiveness is inversely (??=?-.421, p?=?0.031) associated with child BMI z-score only if paternal restriction scores are high. This relationship is not significant when paternal restriction scores are low (??=?-.200, p?=?0.448). These results suggest that some child appetitive traits may be related to child weight status when exposed to certain paternal feeding practices. Future studies should consider the inclusion of fathers as their feeding practices and feeding style may be related to a child's eating behavior. PMID:25700629

Vollmer, Rachel L; Adamsons, Kari; Foster, Jaime S; Mobley, Amy R

2015-06-01

202

High recall document content extraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report methodologies for computing high-recall masks for document image content extraction, that is, the location and segmentation of regions containing handwriting, machine-printed text, photographs, blank space, etc. The resulting segmentation is pixel-accurate, which accommodates arbitrary zone shapes (not merely rectangles). We describe experiments showing that iterated classifiers can increase recall of all content types, with little loss of precision. We also introduce two methodological enhancements: (1) a multi-stage voting rule; and (2) a scoring policy that views blank pixels as a "don't care" class with other content classes. These enhancements improve both recall and precision, achieving at least 89% recall and at least 87% precision among three content types: machine-print, handwriting, and photo.

An, Chang; Baird, Henry S.

2011-01-01

203

Mediators of improved child diet quality following a health promotion intervention: the Melbourne InFANT Program.  

PubMed

BackgroundYoung children¿s diets are currently suboptimal. Given that mothers have a critical influence on children¿ diets, they are typically a target of interventions to improve early childhood nutrition. Understanding the maternal factors which mediate an intervention¿s effect on young children¿s diets is important, but has not been well investigated. This research aimed to test whether maternal feeding knowledge, maternal feeding practices, maternal self-efficacy, and maternal dietary intakes acted as mediators of the effect of an intervention to improve child diet quality.MethodsThe Melbourne Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial (InFANT) Program was a cluster-randomized controlled trial, conducted from 2008¿2010. This novel, low-dose, health promotion intervention was delivered quarterly over 15 months and involved educational activities, promotion of peer discussion, a DVD and written materials. Post-intervention, when children were approximately 18 months of age, child diets were assessed using multiple 24-hour recalls and a purpose-developed index of diet quality, the Obesity Protective Dietary Index. Maternal mediators were assessed using a combination of previously validated and purpose-deigned tools. Mediation analysis was conducted using the test of joint significance and difference of coefficients methods.ResultsAcross 62 parents¿ groups in Melbourne, Australia, 542 parents were recruited. Post- intervention, higher maternal feeding knowledge and lower use of foods as rewards was found to mediate the direct intervention effect on child diet quality. While other aspects of maternal feeding practices, self-efficacy and dietary intakes did not act as mediators, they were associated with child diet quality.ConclusionsMediation analysis of this novel health promotion intervention showed the importance of maternal feeding knowledge and use of foods as rewards in impacting child diet quality. The other maternal factors assessed were appropriate targets but further research on how to impact these in an intervention is important. This evidence of intervention efficacy and mediation provides important insights for planning future interventions.Trial registrationCurrent Controlled Trials ISRCTN81847050, registered 23 November 2007. PMID:25366542

Spence, Alison C; Campbell, Karen J; Crawford, David A; McNaughton, Sarah A; Hesketh, Kylie D

2014-11-01

204

Snacking patterns, diet quality, and cardiovascular risk factors in adults  

PubMed Central

Background The relationship of snacking patterns on nutrient intake and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in adults is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of snacking patterns with nutrient intake, diet quality, and a selection of CVRF in adults participating in the 2001-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Methods 24-hour dietary recalls were used to determine intake and cluster analysis was used to identify the snacking patterns. Height and weight were obtained and the health indices that were evaluated included diastolic and systolic blood pressure, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, triacylglycerides, blood glucose, and insulin. Results The sample was participants (n = 18,988) 19+ years (50% males; 11% African-Americans; 72% white, 12% Hispanic-Americans, and 5% other). Cluster analyses generated 12 distinct snacking patterns, explaining 61% of the variance in snacking. Comparisons of snacking patterns were made to the no snack pattern. It was found that miscellaneous snacks constituted the most common snacking pattern (17%) followed by cakes/cookies/pastries (12%) and sweets (9%). Most snacking patterns were associated with higher energy intakes. Snacking patterns cakes/cookies/pastries, vegetables/legumes, crackers/salty snacks, other grains and whole fruit were associated with lower intakes of saturated fatty acids. Added sugars intakes were higher in the cakes/cookies/pastries, sweets, milk desserts, and soft drinks patterns. Five snack patterns (cakes/cookies/pastries, sweets, vegetable/legumes, milk desserts, soft drinks) were associated with lower sodium intakes. Several snack patterns were associated with higher intakes of potassium, calcium, fiber, vitamin A, and magnesium. Five snacking patterns (miscellaneous snacks; vegetables/legumes; crackers/salty snacks; other grains; and whole fruit) were associated with better diet quality scores. Alcohol was associated with a lower body mass index and milk desserts were associated with a lower waist circumference. No snack patterns were associated with other CVRF studied. Conclusions Overall, several snacking patterns were associated with better diet quality than those consuming no snacks. Yet, the majority of the snacking patterns were not associated with CVRF. Education is needed to improve snacking patterns in terms of nutrients to limit in the diet along with more nutrient-dense foods to be included in snacks. PMID:24754905

2014-01-01

205

"2001: A Space Odyssey" Revisited--The Feasibility of 24 Hour Commuter Flights to the Moon Using NTR Propulsion with LUNOX Afterburners  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The prospects for "24 hour" commuter flights to the Moon, similar to that portrayed in 2001: A Space Odyssey but on a more Spartan scale, are examined using two near term, "high leverage" technologies--liquid oxygen (LOX)-augmented nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) propulsion and "lunar-derived" oxygen (LUNOX) production. Ironrich volcanic glass, or "orange soil," discovered during the Apollo 17 mission to Taurus-Littrow, has produced a 4% oxygen yield in recent NASA experiments using hydrogen reduction. LUNOX development and utilization would eliminate the need to transport oxygen supplies from Earth and is expected to dramatically reduce the size, cost and complexity of space transportation systems. The LOX-augmented NTR concept (LANTR) exploits the high performance capability of the conventional liquid hydrogen (LH2)-cooled NTR and the mission leverage provided by LUNOX in a unique way, LANTR utilizes the large divergent section of its nozzle as an "afterburner" into which oxygen is injected and supersonically combusted with nuclear preheated hydrogen emerging front the engine's choked sonic throat--essentially "scramjet propulsion in reverse." By varying the oxygen-to-hydrogen mixture ratio, the LANTR engine can operate over a wide range of thrust and specific impulse (Isp) values while the reactor core power level remains relatively constant. The thrust augmentation feature of LANTR means that "big engine" performance can be obtained using smaller, more affordable, easier to test NTR engines. The use of high-density LOX in place of low-density LH2 also reduces hydrogen mass and tank volume resulting in smaller space vehicles. An implementation strategy and evolutionary lunar mission architecture is outlined which requires only Shuttle C or "in-line" Shuttle-derived launch vehicles, and utilizes conventional NTR-powered lunar transfer vehicles (LTVs), operating in an "expendable mode" initially, to maximize delivered surface payload on each mission. The increased payload is dedicated to installing "modular" LUNOX production units with the intent of supplying LUNOX to lunar landing vehicles (LLVS) and then LTVs at the earliest possible opportunity. Once LUNOX becomes available in low lunar orbit (LLO), monopropellant NTRs would be outfitted with an oxygen propellant module, feed system and afterburner nozzle for "bipropellant" operation. Transition to a "reusable" mission architecture now occurs with smaller, LANTR-powered LTVs delivering approximately 400% more payload on each piloted round trip mission than earlier expendable "all LH2" NTR systems. As initial lunar outposts grow to eventual lunar settlements and LUNOX production capacity increases, the LANTR concept can enable a rapid "commuter" shuttle capable of 24 hour "one way" trips to and from the Moon, A vast deposit of"iron-rich" volcanic glass beads identified at just one candidate site--located at the southeastern edge of Mare Serenitatis--could supply, sufficient LUNOX to support daily commuter flights to the Moon for the next 9000 years!

Borowski, Stanley K.; Dudzinski, Leonard A.

1998-01-01

206

"2001: A Space Odyssey" Revisited: The Feasibility of 24 Hour Commuter Flights to the Moon Using NTR Propulsion with LUNOX Afterburners. Revised  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The prospects for "24 hour" commuter flights to the Moon. similar to that portrayed in 2001: A Space Odyssey but on a more Spartan scale. are examined using two near term. "high leverage" technologies-liquid oxygen (LOX)-augmented nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) propulsion and "lunar-derived" oxygen (LUNOX) production. Iron-rich volcanic glass. or "orange soil," discovered during the Apollo 17 mission to Taurus-Littrow. has produced a 4% oxygen yield in recent NASA experiments using hydrogen reduction. LUNOX development and utilization would eliminate the need to transport oxygen supplies from Earth and is expected to dramatically reduce the size, cost and complexity of space transportation systems. The LOX-augmented NTR concept (LANTR) exploits the high performance capability of the conventional liquid hydrogen (LH2)-cooled NTR and the mission leverage provided by LUNOX in a unique way. LANTR utilizes the large divergent section of its nozzle as an "afterburner" into which oxygen is injected and supersonically combusted with nuclear preheated hydrogen emerging from the engine's choked sonic throat-essentially "scramjet propulsion in reverse." By varying the oxygen-to-hydrogen mixture ratio, the LANTR engine can operate over a wide range of thrust and specific impulse (Isp) values while the reactor core power level remains relatively constant. The thrust augmentation feature of LANTR means that "big engine" performance can be obtained using smaller. more affordable. easier to test NTR engines. The use of high-density LOX in place of low-density LH2 also reduces hydrogen mass and tank volume resulting in smaller space vehicles. An implementation strategy and evolutionary lunar mission architecture is outlined which requires only Shuttle C or "in-line" Shuttle-derived launch vehicles, and utilizes conventional NTR-powered lunar transfer vehicles (LTVs), operating in an "expendable mode" initially, to maximize delivered surface payload on each mission. The increased payload is dedicated to installing "modular" LUNOX production units with the intent of supplying LUNOX to lunar landing vehicles (LLVs) and then LTVs at the earliest possible opportunity. Once LUNOX becomes available in low lunar orbit (LLO), monopropellant NTRs would be outfitted with an oxygen propellant module, feed system and afterburner nozzle for "bipropellant" operation. Transition to a "reusable" mission architecture now occurs with smaller, LANTR-powered LTVs delivering approximately 400% more payload on each piloted round trip mission than earlier expendable "all LH2" NTR systems. As initial lunar outposts grow to eventual lunar settlements and LUNOX production capacity increases, the LANTR concept can enable a rapid "commuter" shuttle capable of 24 hour "one way" trips to and from the Moon. A vast deposit of "iron-rich" volcanic glass beads identified at just one candidate site - located at the southeastern edge of Mare Serenitatis - could supply sufficient LUNOX to support daily commuter flights to the Moon for the next 9000 years'.

Borowski, Stanley K.; Dudzinski, Leonard A.

2001-01-01

207

2001: A Space Odyssey Revisited: The Feasibility of 24 Hour Commuter Flights to the Moon Using NTR Propulsion with LUNOX Afterburners. Revised  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The prospects for 24 hour commuter flights to the Moon, similar to that portrayed in 2001: A Space Odyssey but on a more Spartan scale, are examined using two near term, high leverage technologies: liquid oxygen (LOX)-augmented nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) propulsion and lunar-derived oxygen (LUNOX) production. Iron-rich volcanic glass, or orange soil, discovered during the Apollo 17 mission to Taurus-Littrow, has produced a 4 percent oxygen yield in recent NASA experiments using hydrogen reduction. LUNOX development and utilization would eliminate the need to transport oxygen supplies from Earth and is expected to dramatically reduce the size, cost and complexity of space transportation systems. The LOX-augmented NTR concept (LANTR) exploits the high performance capability of the conventional liquid hydrogen (LH2)-cooled NTR and the mission leverage provided by LUNOX in a unique way. LANTR utilizes the large divergent section of its nozzle as an afterburner into which oxygen is injected and supersonically combusted with nuclear preheated hydrogen emerging from the engine's choked sonic throat, essentially scramjet propulsion in reverse. By varying the oxygen-to-hydrogen mixture ratio, the LANTR engine can operate over a wide range of thrust and specific impulse (Isp) values while the reactor core power level remains relatively constant. The thrust augmentation feature of LANTR means that big engine performance can be obtained using smaller, more affordable, easier to test NTR engines. The use of high-density LOX in place of low density LH2 also reduces hydrogen mass and tank volume resulting in smaller space vehicles. An implementation strategy and evolutionary lunar mission architecture is outlined which requires only Shuttle C or in-line Shuttle-derived launch vehicles, and utilizes conventional NTR-powered lunar transfer vehicles (LTVs), operating in an expendable mode initially, to maximize delivered surface payload on each mission. The increased payload is dedicated to installing modular LUNOX production units with the intent of supplying LUNOX to lunar landing vehicles (LLVs) and then LTVs at the earliest possible opportunity. Once LUNOX becomes available in low lunar orbit (LLO), monopropellant NTRs would be outfitted with an oxygen propellant module, feed system and afterburner nozzle for bipropellant operation. Transition to a reusable mission architecture now occurs with smaller, LANTR-powered LTVs delivering 400% more payload on each piloted round trip mission than earlier expendable all LH2 NTR systems. As initial lunar outposts grow to eventual lunar settlements and LUNOX production capacity increases, the LANTR concept can enable a rapid commuter shuttle capable of 24 hour one way trips to and from the Moon. A vast deposit of iron-rich volcanic glass beads identified at just one candidate site located at the southeastern edge of Mare Serenitatis could supply sufficient LUNOX to support daily commuter flights to the Moon for the next 9000 years!

Borowski, Stanley; Dudzinski, Leonard A.

2003-01-01

208

Association between ambulatory 24-hour blood pressure levels and brain volume reduction: a cross-sectional elderly population-based study.  

PubMed

Previous literature has shown mixed results regarding the association between blood pressure levels and brain volume reduction. The objectives of this study were to determine whether high blood pressure levels were associated with focal brain volume reduction and whether high blood pressure-related focal brain volume reduction was associated with a decline in executive function performance. On the basis of a cross-sectional design, 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure measurements, as well as brain morphology from 3-dimensional magnetic resonance images, were assessed among 183 participants (mean, 65 ± 0.6 years; 62.4% women). Average levels of systolic and diastolic blood pressures, as well as dip, pulse pressure, and mean arterial blood pressure, were used as outcomes. Cortical gray and white matter volumes were determined by automatic calculation using Statistical Parametric Mapping segmentation. Folstein's Mini-Mental State Examination, digit span, part B of Trail Making, and Stroop tests were used to assess executive function performance. Sex, use of antihypertensive drugs, duration of hypertension, leukoaraiosis, body mass index, education level, and total brain matter volume were used as potential confounders. A significant blood pressure-related decrease in gray matter volume of the left supplementary motor areas (Brodmann area 6) and of the left superior and middle frontal gyrus (Brodmann area 8) was shown. No significant decrease was found with white matter volume. Blood pressure-related decreases in gray matter volume were significantly associated with a decline in executive function performance. The association of high blood pressure with brain volume reduction may in part explain blood pressure-related cognitive decline leading to dementia. PMID:23045461

Celle, Sébastien; Annweiler, Cédric; Pichot, Vincent; Bartha, Robert; Barthélémy, Jean-Claude; Roche, Frédéric; Beauchet, Olivier

2012-11-01

209

Establishing normal plasma and 24-hour urinary biochemistry ranges in C3H, BALB/c and C57BL/6J mice following acclimatization in metabolic cages.  

PubMed

Physiological studies of mice are facilitated by normal plasma and 24-hour urinary reference ranges, but variability of these parameters may increase due to stress that is induced by housing in metabolic cages. We assessed daily weight, food and water intake, urine volume and final day measurements of the following: plasma sodium, potassium, chloride, urea, creatinine, calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, albumin, cholesterol and glucose; and urinary sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphate, glucose and protein in 24- to 30-week-old C3H/HeH, BALB/cAnNCrl and C57BL/6J mice. Between 15 and 20 mice of each sex from all three strains were individually housed in metabolic cages with ad libitum feeding for up to seven days. Acclimatization was evaluated using general linear modelling for repeated measures and comparison of biochemical data was by unpaired t-test and analysis of variance (SPSS version 12.0.1). Following an initial 5-10% fall in body weight, daily dietary intake, urinary output and weight in all three strains reached stable values after 3-4 days of confinement. Significant differences in plasma glucose, cholesterol, urea, chloride, calcium and albumin, and urinary glucose, sodium, phosphate, calcium and protein were observed between strains and genders. Thus, these results provide normal reference values for plasma and urinary biochemistry in three strains housed in metabolic cages and demonstrate that 3-4 days are required to reach equilibrium in metabolic cage studies. These variations due to strain and gender have significant implications for selecting the appropriate strain upon which to breed genetically-altered models of metabolic and renal disease. PMID:20457824

Stechman, Michael J; Ahmad, Bushra N; Loh, Nellie Y; Reed, Anita A C; Stewart, Michelle; Wells, Sara; Hough, Tertius; Bentley, Liz; Cox, Roger D; Brown, Steve D M; Thakker, Rajesh V

2010-07-01

210

Serial Position Curves in Free Recall  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The scenario for free recall set out in Laming (2009) is developed to provide models for the serial position curves from 5 selected sets of data, for final free recall, and for multitrial free recall. The 5 sets of data reflect the effects of rate of presentation, length of list, delay of recall, and suppression of rehearsal. Each model…

Laming, Donald

2010-01-01

211

Is scanning in probed order recall articulatory?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider how theories of serial recall might apply to other short-term memory tasks involving recall of order. In particular, we consider the possibility that when participants are cued to recall an item at an arbitrary position in a sequence, they covertly serially recall the list up to the cued position. One question is whether such “scanning” is articulatory in

Simon Farrell; Anna Lelièvre

2009-01-01

212

Avocado consumption is associated with better diet quality and nutrient intake, and lower metabolic syndrome risk in US adults: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001–2008  

PubMed Central

Background Avocados contain monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) dietary fiber, essential nutrients and phytochemicals. However, no epidemiologic data exist on their effects on diet quality, weight management and other metabolic disease risk factors. The objective of this research was to investigate the relationships between avocado consumption and overall diet quality, energy and nutrient intakes, physiological indicators of health, and risk of metabolic syndrome. Methods Avocado consumption and nutrition data were based on 24-hour dietary recalls collected by trained NHANES interviewers using the USDA Automated Multiple Pass Method (AMPM). Physiological data were collected from physical examinations conducted in NHANES Mobile Examination Centers. Diet quality was calculated using the USDA’s Healthy Eating Index-2005. Subjects included 17,567 US adults ???19 years of age (49% female), including 347 avocado consumers (50% female), examined in NHANES 2001–2008. Least square means, standard errors, and ANOVA were determined using appropriate sample weights, with adjustments for age, gender, ethnicity, and other covariates depending on dependent variable of interest. Results Avocado consumers had significantly higher intakes of vegetables (p?diet quality, total fat, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats, dietary fiber, vitamins E, K, magnesium, and potassium (p?diet quality, nutrient intake, and reduced risk of metabolic syndrome. Dietitians should be aware of the beneficial associations between avocado intake, diet and health when making dietary recommendations. PMID:23282226

2013-01-01

213

Acute Effects of a Single Dose of Phosphodiesterase Type 5 Inhibitor (Sildenafil) on Systemic Arterial Blood Pressure During Exercise and 24Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in Heart Transplant Recipients  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundArterial systemic hypertension (SH) can be associated with a decrease in endothelium-dependent nitric oxide (NO). Sildenafil increases cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), a mediator of NO. However, little is known about the effects of PDE5 inhibition on 24-hour ambulatory pressure (ABP) and exercise blood pressure, noreprinephrine (Nor), and exercise capacity, especially after orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT).

G. V. Guimaraes; V. M. d’Avila; P. Pires; F. Bacal; N. Stolf; E. Bocchi

2007-01-01

214

Development of a Korean Diet Score (KDS) and its application assessing adherence to Korean healthy diet based on the Korean Food Guide Wheels  

PubMed Central

The most critical point in the assessment of adherence to dietary guidelines is the development of a practical definition for adherence, such as a dietary pattern score. The purpose of this study was to develop the Korean Diet Score (KDS) based on the Korean Food Balance Wheel and to examine the association of KDS with various lifestyle characteristics and biochemical factors. The dietary data of 5,320 subjects from the 4th Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey were used for the final analysis. The food guide was composed of six food group categories; 'grain dishes', 'fish and meat dishes', 'vegetable dishes', 'fruits', 'milk' and 'oils and sugars'. Based on the recommended serving numbers for each group, the scores measuring adherence to this food guide were calculated from the dietary information from the 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire, and then its correlation with various characteristics was assessed. KDS was significantly associated with several clinical, lifestyle and socioeconomic factors as well as diagnosed disease history. The higher quintile group of KDS showed a significantly lower level in fasting blood glucose, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, current smoking and drinking as well as higher leisure time activity, house income and education. Furthermore, the KDS quintile group of women was inversely associated with hypertension, osteoporosis and diabetes. A higher KDS quintile was characterized with a higher intake of several critical nutrients, such as Ca, Fe and vitamins as well as a desirable nutrition balance such as the ratio of macronutrients. Our results demonstrate that KDS is a beneficial tool in assessing the adherence to a healthy diet based on the Korean dietary guidelines. We suggest that KDS could be a useful indicator for evaluating the dietary balance of the Korean population. PMID:23424060

Lee, Myoungsook; Chae, Soo Wan; Cha, Youn-Soo; Cho, Mi Sook; Oh, Hea Young

2013-01-01

215

Development of a Korean Diet Score (KDS) and its application assessing adherence to Korean healthy diet based on the Korean Food Guide Wheels.  

PubMed

The most critical point in the assessment of adherence to dietary guidelines is the development of a practical definition for adherence, such as a dietary pattern score. The purpose of this study was to develop the Korean Diet Score (KDS) based on the Korean Food Balance Wheel and to examine the association of KDS with various lifestyle characteristics and biochemical factors. The dietary data of 5,320 subjects from the 4th Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey were used for the final analysis. The food guide was composed of six food group categories; 'grain dishes', 'fish and meat dishes', 'vegetable dishes', 'fruits', 'milk' and 'oils and sugars'. Based on the recommended serving numbers for each group, the scores measuring adherence to this food guide were calculated from the dietary information from the 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire, and then its correlation with various characteristics was assessed. KDS was significantly associated with several clinical, lifestyle and socioeconomic factors as well as diagnosed disease history. The higher quintile group of KDS showed a significantly lower level in fasting blood glucose, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, current smoking and drinking as well as higher leisure time activity, house income and education. Furthermore, the KDS quintile group of women was inversely associated with hypertension, osteoporosis and diabetes. A higher KDS quintile was characterized with a higher intake of several critical nutrients, such as Ca, Fe and vitamins as well as a desirable nutrition balance such as the ratio of macronutrients. Our results demonstrate that KDS is a beneficial tool in assessing the adherence to a healthy diet based on the Korean dietary guidelines. We suggest that KDS could be a useful indicator for evaluating the dietary balance of the Korean population. PMID:23424060

Lee, Myoungsook; Chae, Soo Wan; Cha, Youn-Soo; Cho, Mi Sook; Oh, Hea Young; Kim, Mi Kyung

2013-02-01

216

Chronic enteral leucine supplementation of a low protein diet increases skeletal muscle protein synthesis in neonatal pigs by stimulating mTOR-dependent translation initiation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Leucine appears to be the key amino acid that positively regulates mTOR signalling. We hypothesized that prolonged feeding (24 hours) of a Leu supplemented low protein (LP) diet in neonatal pigs will increase protein synthesis in skeletal muscle to a rate similar to that of a high protein diet (HP)....

217

Effect of road transport for up to 24 hours followed by twenty-four hour recovery on live weight and physiological responses of bulls  

PubMed Central

Background The transport of livestock can have major implications for their welfare, and there is strong public interest and scientific endeavour aimed at ensuring that the welfare of transported animals is optimal. The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of transport on live weight, physiological and haematological responses of bulls after road transport of 0, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 hours (h). Seventy-two Charolais bulls (mean weight (s.d.) 367 (35) kg), naïve to transport, were randomly assigned to one of six journey (J) times of 0 h, 6 h, 9 h, 12 h, 18 h and 24 h transport (n = 12 animals/treatment) at a stocking density of 1.02 m2/bull. Blood samples were collected by jugular venipuncture before transport (-0.25 h), immediately after (0 h) and at 1 h, 2 h, 4 h, 6 h, 8 h, 12 h and 24 h relative to time 0 h. The bulls were weighed before transport (- 24 h and - 0.25 h), immediately after (0 h), and at 4 h, 12 h and 24 h relative to time 0 h. Control animals were blood sampled before assignment (-0.25 h) to novel pens, after (24 h), and at 1 h, 2 h, 4 h, 6 h, 8 h, 12 h and 24 h relative to the 24 h sampling time point. Results Bulls travelling for 6 h (280 km), 9 h (435 km), 12 h (582 km), 18 h (902 km) and 24 h (1192 km) lost 4.7, 4.5, 5.7 (P < 0.05), 6.6 (P < 0.05) and 7.5 (P < 0.05) percentage (%) live weight compared with baseline. Live weight re-gained to pre-transport levels during the 24 h recovery period. Lymphocyte percentages were lower (P < 0.05) and neutrophil percentages were greater (P < 0.05) in all animals. Blood protein, glucose and NEFA concentrations and creatine kinase activity were greater (P < 0.05) in the bulls following transport and returned to baseline within 24 h. Conclusions Under the conditions of the present study, transport of bulls on journeys by road, ranging from 6 h (280 km) to 24 h (1192 km) duration, affected live weight, haematological and physiological measurements of metabolism and inflammation. Our findings showed that live weight and some physiological and haematological responses of bulls returned to pre-transport levels within 24 h with animals having had access to feed and water. PMID:20646269

2010-01-01

218

Sex and age-related differences in performance in a 24-hour ultra-cycling draft-legal event – a cross-sectional data analysis  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to examine the sex and age-related differences in performance in a draft-legal ultra-cycling event. Methods Age-related changes in performance across years were investigated in the 24-hour draft-legal cycling event held in Schötz, Switzerland, between 2000 and 2011 using multi-level regression analyses including age, repeated participation and environmental temperatures as co-variables. Results For all finishers, the age of peak cycling performance decreased significantly (? = ?0.273, p = 0.036) from 38 ± 10 to 35 ± 6 years in females but remained unchanged (? = ?0.035, p = 0.906) at 41.0 ± 10.3 years in males. For the annual fastest females and males, the age of peak cycling performance remained unchanged at 37.3 ± 8.5 and 38.3 ± 5.4 years, respectively. For all female and male finishers, males improved significantly (? = 7.010, p = 0.006) the cycling distance from 497.8 ± 219.6 km to 546.7 ± 205.0 km whereas females (? = ?0.085, p = 0.987) showed an unchanged performance of 593.7 ± 132.3 km. The mean cycling distance achieved by the male winners of 960.5 ± 51.9 km was significantly (p < 0.001) greater than the distance covered by the female winners with 769.7 ± 65.7 km but was not different between the sexes (p > 0.05). The sex difference in performance for the annual winners of 19.7 ± 7.8% remained unchanged across years (p > 0.05). The achieved cycling distance decreased in a curvilinear manner with advancing age. There was a significant age effect (F = 28.4, p < 0.0001) for cycling performance where the fastest cyclists were in age group 35–39 years. Conclusion In this 24-h cycling draft-legal event, performance in females remained unchanged while their age of peak cycling performance decreased and performance in males improved while their age of peak cycling performance remained unchanged. The annual fastest females and males were 37.3 ± 8.5 and 38.3 ± 5.4 years old, respectively. The sex difference for the fastest finishers was ~20%. It seems that women were not able to profit from drafting to improve their ultra-cycling performance. PMID:24883191

2014-01-01

219

Improved Cerebral Perfusion Pressures and 24-Hour Neurological Survival in a Porcine Model of Cardiac Arrest with Active Compression Decompression Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Augmentation of Negative Intrathoracic Pressure  

PubMed Central

Objective Generation of negative intrathoracic pressure during the decompression phase of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) enhances the refilling of the heart. We tested the hypothesis that when compared with closed chest manual chest compressions (CC) at 80 CC per minute (CPR at 80CC/min), treatment with active compression decompression (ACD) CPR at 80 CC/min combined with augmentation of negative intrathoracic pressure would lower intracranial pressure (ICP) and increase cerebral perfusion thereby improving neurologically intact survival rates following prolonged untreated cardiac arrest. Design Prospective, randomized animal study. Setting: Animal laboratory facilities. Subjects A total of 26 female farm pigs in two different protocols (n=17 and n=9). Interventions, Measurements and Main Results 17 pigs were subjected to 8.5 minutes of untreated ventricular fibrillation and prospectively randomized to CPR at 80 CC/min or ACD CPR at 80 CC/min plus an impedance threshold device (ITD). Coronary perfusion pressures (29.5 ± 2.7 versus 22.4 ± 1.6 mmHg, p=0.03), carotid blood flow (44.0 ± 12.2 versus 30.9 ± 10.4, p=0.03), and 24-hour neurological survival (88% versus 22%, p=0.015) were higher with ACD CPR + ITD. Cerebral perfusion pressures, measured in 9 additional pigs, were improved with ACD CPR + ITD (21.9 ± 1.2 versus 8.9 ± 0.8 mmHg, p<0.0001). With ACD CPR + ITD, mean diastolic ICP during decompression was lower (12.2 ± 0.2 versus 16.6 ± 1.2 mmHg, p=0.02) and the downward slope of the decompression phase ICP curve was steeper (-60.3 ± 12.9 versus -46.7 ± 11.1 mmHg/sec, p<0.001). Conclusions ACD CPR + ITD increased cerebral perfusion pressures and lowered diastolic ICP and ICP rate during the decompression phase. These mechanisms may underlie the observed increase in cerebral perfusion pressure, carotid blood flow and survival rates with favorable neurologic outcomes in this pig model of cardiac arrest. PMID:22487997

Metzger, Anja K; Herman, Margot; McKnite, Scott; Tang, Wanchun; Yannopoulos, Demetris

2013-01-01

220

Diet, tillage and soil moisture effects on odorous emissions following land application of beef manure  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Beef manure from animals fed diets containing different amounts of wet distillers grain with solubles (WDGS) was applied to soil as a fertilizer to plot located across the slope. The applied manure and soil were either tilled or not tilled. The odor emissions were measured for 24 hours. Then a sing...

221

Diet Screener in the 2005 CHIS: Definition of Acceptable Dietary Data Values  

Cancer.gov

Data collected on the 2005 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) Screener are coded by frequency and time unit -- times per day, week, or month. We used USDA's 1994-96 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes of Individuals (CSFII) data on reported intakes over two days of 24-hour recall to make judgments about reasonable frequencies of consumption that were reported on a per day basis. This helped us assess values from the CHIS Screener, some of which are highly unlikely.

222

Associations of food group and nutrient intake, diet quality, and meal sizes between adults and children in the same household: a cross-sectional analysis of U.S. households  

PubMed Central

Background One might assume that individuals living in the same household have similar dietary intakes of food groups and nutrients. However, the manner in which an adult's dietary intake affects children's food consumption, diet quality (defined as meeting intake recommendations), and meal sizes is understudied to date. The objective of this study was to estimate these relationships between minor children and the female or male head of household. Methods Dietary intakes of one randomly selected child of each age group (2-5, 6-11, or 12-18 years old (n = 2,380)) and that of the female/male head of household ((HH), proxy for mother and father) using multiple 24-hour recalls from the Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Individuals (CSFII) 1994-1996 was coded to reflect food group and nutrient density (servings/grams per 1,000 kcal). Linear or logistic regression models were used to determine the association between intakes, whether individuals' diets trended toward meeting her/his intake recommendations, and whether individuals were in the highest quintile for food group densities at four distinct eating occasions (breakfast, brunch/lunch, supper/dinner, or other) in each subject group. Stata's survey commands were used to fit linear or logistic regression models and obtain adjusted regression coefficients or odds ratios. Results Associations between food group/nutrient densities were significant but weak to moderate. Adults with diets that trended toward meeting their intake recommendations doubled the odds for children to have diets that trended toward meeting the recommendations; for many meals, adults consuming in the highest quintile for food group density predicted that children's intakes were also in the highest quintile. Conclusions Female and male adults living in the same household significantly affect children's food group and nutrient intakes, diet quality, and meal sizes. There is an urgent need for in-depth analysis to elucidate the underlying mechanisms, especially for studies involving both the female and male HH. PMID:22123043

2011-01-01

223

Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet, Cognitive Decline and Risk of Dementia Catherine Fart, PhD, Ccilia Samieri, MPH, Virginie Rondeau, PhD, Hlne Amieva, PhD,  

E-print Network

by high consumption of plant foods (vegetables, fruits, legumes and cereals), high intake of olive oil to the MeDi (scored as 0 to 9 ) was computed from a food frequency questionnaire and 24 hour recall. Main as the principal source of mono-unsaturated fat but low intake of saturated fat, moderate intake of fish, low

Boyer, Edmond

224

The association of pre-sweetened or non-presweetened ready to eat cereal or other breakfast with nutrient intake, diet quality, and body weight of children aged 1 to 8 years: NHANES 1999-2002  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ready-to-eat-cereal (RTEC) has been associated with improved nutrient intake and weight status; presweetened ready-to-eat cereal (PSRTEC) has not been evaluated separately. Nutrient intakes, mean adequacy ratios (MAR) (average percentage of the Estimated Average Requirement from 24-hour recalls of 1...

225

Effectiveness and tolerability of once-daily nimesulide versus ibuprofen in pain management after surgical extraction of an impacted third molar: A 24-hour, double-blind, randomized, double-dummy, parallel-group study  

PubMed Central

Background: Nimesulide is a nonsteroidal, anti-inflammatory drug that hasbeen used for a wide range of acute and chronic pain. A once-daily formulation of nimesulide is now commercially available, but its effectiveness in pain management after dental surgery has not been assessed. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the analgesic effectiveness and tolerability of oral treatment with once-daily nimesulide versus ibuprofen q6h over 24 hours in patients with postoperative pain associated with surgical extraction of an impacted third molar. Methods: This 24-hour, double-blind, randomized, double-dummy, parallel-groupstudy was conducted at a private practice in Caracas, Venezuela. Patients aged between 12 and 60 years with moderate to severe pain after extraction of an impacted third molar were enrolled. Patients were randomized to receive a single dose of nimesulide (300-mg tablet) or ibuprofen (400-mg tablets) q6h for 24 hours. For double-dummy design, patients in the nimesulide group also received ibuprofen placebo tablets, to be taken q6h for 24 hours, and patients in the ibuprofen group received a nimesulide placebo tablet. The primary end points were pain intensity (PI) and pain relief scores over 24 hours. Secondary end points included total pain relief, PI difference (PID), sum of PID (SPID), time to first measurable change in PI (ie, PID ? 10 mm), and use of rescue medication (acetaminophen). Patients also rated the treatment's effectiveness as very poor to very good on questioning by the study investigator. Spontaneously reported adverse effects (AEs) were recorded. Results: Eighty-six patients were enrolled (56 females, 30 males), with 43 patientsper treatment group (mean age: nimesulide group, 25.2 years; ibuprofen group, 24.2 years). The baseline characteristics were statistically similar between the 2 groups. Compared with baseline, mean PI scores were significantly lower in both treatment groups at all time points throughout the study (P < 0.001). Mean PI scores were significantly lower in the nimesulide group compared with the ibuprofen group at 15 and 45 minutes and 1 hour after study drug administration (P ? 0.049). Time to first measurable change in PI was within the first 15 minutes in 22 patients (52%) in the nimesulide group and in 14 patients (33%) in the ibuprofen group (P = 0.03). Analgesia lasted 24 hours with nimesulide and ibuprofen (PI scores at 24 hours, 9.4 and 3.6, respectively). The mean PR score was significantly lower in the nimesulide group compared with the ibuprofen group at 1 hour after study drug administration (P = 0.049). Compared with baseline, PID and SPID were significantly higher in both treatment groups throughout the study (P < 0.001). Significantly more patients in the nimesulide group than in the ibuprofen group reported that treatment provided effective pain relief (82% vs 73%; P = 0.013). No AEs were reported in either treatment group throughout the study. Use of rescue medication was statistically similar between the nimesulide and ibuprofen groups (38% and 31%, respectively). Conclusions: In this study of patients with moderate to severe pain afterextraction of impacted third molars, nimesulide and ibuprofen provided effective 24-hour relief. However, the results suggest that the analgesic effect of nimesulide had a faster onset (<15 minutes) and was stronger (based on patient opinion) than that of ibuprofen. Both study drugs were well tolerated. PMID:24672121

Bocanegra, Mildred; Seijas, Alberto; González Yibirín, María

2005-01-01

226

Diet Quality Varies by Race/Ethnicity of Head Start Mothers  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the key role that women from limited income families play as family food providers and their high risk for diet-related chronic diseases, there is a paucity of data about their diet quality and how it might vary by race/ethnicity. Objective To compare nutrient and food intakes of multi-ethnic mothers with children in Head Start from Texas and Alabama. Design Cross-sectional, secondary data analysis. Methods The sample was 603 mothers, 33% Hispanic American from Texas; 19% African American from Texas; 24% African American from Alabama; and 24% white from Alabama who were interviewed from fall 2004 to spring 2005. Diet quality was evaluated by averaging 24-hour dietary recalls from 3 nonconsecutive days and calculating the percent meeting the Estimated Average Requirement, the Dietary Guidelines for fat and added sugar, and the mean adequacy ratio for eight nutrients. For multiple comparisons, the least square means statement was used for general linear model procedures, adjusted for age, body mass index, and energy intake. Results The average mean adequacy ratio scores for diet quality were low overall, but 44% of Hispanic Americans had mean adequacy ratio scores <85, whereas 96% to 97% of other groups did. Most mothers exceeded 35% of energy from fat, with Hispanic Americans having the lowest percentage. Overall, 15% of mothers exceeded 25% of energy from added sugars, with Hispanic Americans having 5% with excess intakes. Energy intakes were highest for Hispanic Americans (2,017 kcal) and lowest for African Americans (1,340 kcal). The Hispanic Americans surveyed averaged 4.6 c fruit and vegetables per day compared to 3.2, 2.3, and 2.9 c/day among African Americans from Texas, African Americans from Alabama, and whites from Alabama, respectively. Conclusions Despite limited food resources, Hispanic-American mothers consumed adequate amounts of fruit and vegetables. There was considerable variation in diet quality among race/ethnic groups on a low income budget. PMID:18375222

HOERR, SHARON L.; TSUEI, EUGENIA; LIU, YAN; FRANKLIN, FRANK A.; NICKLAS, THERESA A.

2009-01-01

227

The Use of Hypnosis to Enhance Recall  

Microsoft Academic Search

The forensic use of hypnosis is increasing. A hypermnesic procedure was used in an experiment that calls this practice into question. Subjects tried for a week to recall 60 previously presented pictures. They were then either hypnotized or not and encouraged to recall even more pictures. Most of the newly recalled material was incorrect, especially for highly hypnotizable subjects in

Jane Dywan; Kenneth Bowers

1983-01-01

228

An Improved Algorithm for Predicting Free Recalls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Laming [Laming, D. (2006). "Predicting free recalls." "Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition," 32, 1146-1163] has shown that, in a free-recall experiment in which the participants rehearsed out loud, entire sequences of recalls could be predicted, to a useful degree of precision, from the prior sequences of stimuli…

Laming, Donald

2008-01-01

229

Radiation recall reaction causing cardiotoxicity.  

PubMed

Radiation recall phenomenon is a tissue reaction that develops within a previously irradiated area, precipitated by the subsequent administration of certain chemotherapeutic agents. It commonly affects the skin, but can also involve internal organs with functional consequences. To our best knowledge, this phenomenon has never been reported as a complication on the heart and should be consider as a potential cause of cardiotoxicity. PMID:24755097

Masri, Sofia Carolina; Misselt, Andrew James; Dudek, Arkadiusz; Konety, Suma H

2014-01-01

230

[Dream recall and sleep disorders].  

PubMed

The present study investigated the relationship between dream recall and sleep disorders. The sample comprised 762 patients who were diagnosed in the sleep laboratory. In the course of the examination they completed the sleep questionnaire SF-B (Görtelmeyer 1986). The results showed a heightened dream recall frequency (DRF) in insomniacs and patients with myoclonia. This result as well as the findings in the control group supports the arousal-retrieval model of dream recall (Koulack u. Goodenough 1976) which emphasizes the importance of nocturnal awakenings. However, this model seems only to be valid for males. In females, DRF is mainly influenced by emotional stress which is best explained by the salience hypothesis of Cohen and MacNeilage (1974). They pointed out that intensive dream emotions lead to high recallability of dream experience. The data gives evidence to the hypothesis of Ermann et al. (1993, 1994) which states that reduced DRF in terms of unsuccessful dream work is accompanied by frequent nocturnal awakenings. DRF of patients with sleep apnea syndrome did not differ from DRF in healthy controls. In addition, sleep apnea parameters did not correlate substantially with DRF. The finding that insomniacs reported more negatively toned dreams in comparison to persons who were examined for sleep apnea but did not showed a pathological apnea index. This may be an hint to increased emotional stress in this patient group. To summarize, the results are promising in clarifying the relationship between sleep disorders and dream life. The next step is to investigate dream reports of these patients by means of content analysis. PMID:9206791

Schredl, M; Bozzer, A; Morlock, M

1997-01-01

231

Diet and Carbohydrate Food Knowledge of Multi-Ethnic Women: A Comparative Analysis of Pregnant Women with and without Gestational Diabetes Mellitus  

PubMed Central

Background Diet therapy is the cornerstone for the management of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Carbohydrate is the primary nutrient affecting postprandial blood glucose levels. Hence, knowledge of food containing carbohydrates can assist women with GDM optimize glycemic control. Despite that, there is a paucity of research on carbohydrate-related knowledge of women with GDM. The United Arab Emirates (UAE) has one of the highest prevalence of diabetes (19.2%) in the world. This study compared diet and knowledge of carbohydrate-containing foods among pregnant women with and without GDM in the UAE. Methods The sample consisted of multi-ethnic women with GDM (n?=?94) and a control group of healthy pregnant women (n?=?90) attending prenatal clinics in three hospitals in Al Ain, UAE. Data were collected using a questionnaire and a 24-hour recall. Knowledge of food sources of carbohydrate, dietary patterns, and nutrient intakes of the two groups were compared. Results There were no significant differences in the mean knowledge score of food sources of carbohydrate between women with GDM and that of pregnant women without GDM. Similarly, there were no significant differences in energy and nutrient intakes between the two groups with the exception of percent energy from protein. Women with GDM reported significantly lower intake of fruits and fruit juices (P?=?0.012) and higher consumption of milk and yogurt (P?=?0.004) compared to that of women without GDM. Twenty-two percent of women with GDM indicated they never visited a dietitian for counseling while 65% reported they visited a dietitian only once or twice during the pregnancy. Predictors of carbohydrate knowledge score were perceived knowledge of diet and GDM and parity among women with GDM and parity and educational level among those without GDM. Conclusion The results of the study highlight the urgent need to provide nutrition education for women with GDM in the UAE. PMID:24069200

Ali, Habiba I.; Jarrar, Amjad H.; El Sadig, Mohamed; B. Yeatts, Karin

2013-01-01

232

Nutritional contribution of lean beef in diets of adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2004  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The learning outcome was to understand the important contribution of lean beef to total nutrient intake in diets of American adults and to determine dietary intake differences between lean beef consumers and non-consumers. The National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey, 1999-2004, 24-hour di...

233

Impact of Dairy and Sweetened Beverage Consumption on Diet and Weight of a Multiethnic Population of Head Start Mothers  

PubMed Central

Mothers with children in Head Start play a critical role in providing healthful diets and modeling good dietary behaviors to their children, but there is little information available on their diet, especially on beverage consumption. The objective of this study was to assess the association of milk and sweetened beverage consumption with nutrient intake, dietary adequacy, and weight of a multiethnic population of Head Start mothers. Using a cross-sectional, secondary analysis, African-American (43%), Hispanic (33%), and white (24%) women (n=609) were divided into four beverage consumption groups: high milk/low sweetened beverage, high milk/high sweetened beverage, low milk/low sweetened beverage, and low milk/high sweetened beverage. Nutrient intake was determined by averaging 24-hour dietary recalls from 3 nonconsecutive days. Dietary adequacy was determined with the Mean Adequacy Ratio. Mean body mass index for the four beverage consumption groups was compared; there were no differences among the groups (overall mean±standard error=30.8±0.3). Women in the high milk/low sweetened beverage group had higher mean intakes of vitamins A, D, and B-6; riboflavin; thiamin; folate; phosphorus; calcium; iron; magnesium; and potassium (P<0.0125 for all) when compared with the other beverage consumption groups. Mean Adequacy Ratio was highest in the high milk/low sweetened beverage (71.8±0.8) and lowest in the low milk/high sweetened beverage (58.4±0.8) consumption groups (P<0.0125). Women in the high milk/low sweetened beverage group consumed more nutrient-dense foods. Overall consumption of milk was low. Consumption of high milk/low sweetened beverage was associated with improved nutrient intake, including the shortfall nutrients, ie, calcium, potassium, magnesium, and vitamin A. PMID:19394474

O’NEIL, CAROL E.; NICKLAS, THERESA A.; LIU, YAN; FRANKLIN, FRANK A.

2009-01-01

234

Enhancing children's event recall after long delays  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The effects of context reinstatement as means of enhancing 5- and 6-year-old children's event memory in repeated interviews after a 6-month delay were examined. Children were interviewed immediately after the event (baseline interview) and twice at a 6-month delay, with 24 hours between interviews. The first 6-month interview was conducted in a perfect-context reinstatement (n ¼ 15), imperfect-context reinstatement

David La Rooy; Margaret-Ellen Pipe; Janice E. Murray

2007-01-01

235

Recall Latencies, Confidence, and Output Positions of True and False Memories: Implications for Recall and Metamemory Theories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recall latency, recall accuracy rate, and recall confidence were examined in free recall as a function of recall output serial position using a modified Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm to test a strength-based theory against the dual-retrieval process theory of recall output sequence. The strength theory predicts the item output sequence to be…

Jou, Jerwen

2008-01-01

236

Effect of acute and chronic administration of the GABAB agonist baclofen on 24 hour pH metry and symptoms in control subjects and in patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease  

PubMed Central

Background and aims: The ?-aminobutyric acid (GABAB) agonist baclofen has been shown to reduce reflux episodes during the first three postprandial hours in patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) and in normal controls. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of acute (one day) and chronic (four weeks) administration of baclofen on 24 hour pH metry and symptoms in GORD patients and normal controls. Patients and methods: Acute study: 28 patients with GORD with none or mild oesophagitis at endoscopy and 15 controls underwent oesophageal and gastric 48 hour pH metry in which baclofen or placebo was given for 24 hours in a double blinded manner. Chronic study: 16 GORD patients received baclofen (10 mg four times daily) or placebo for four weeks. Twenty four hour oesophageal pH metry and reflux symptom scores were evaluated before and at the end of treatment. Results: Acute study: the number of reflux episodes and per cent time with pH <4 was significantly lower after baclofen in GORD patients and controls (p<0.003; p<0.0007). Gastric pH increased significantly in GORD patients and controls (p<0.001; p<0.05). Chronic study: four weeks after initial administration of baclofen, the number of reflux episodes and percentage of time with pH <4 significantly decreased in all GORD patients (p<0.003; p<0.02). Symptom scores significantly improved after treatment with baclofen (p<0.0007). Conclusions: The GABAB agonist baclofen reduces 24 hour gastro-oesophageal reflux and increases gastric pH in GORD patients and controls. When given for one month to GORD patients, baclofen reduces oesophageal acid refluxes and significantly improves symptoms. Baclofen may be useful in the therapy of GORD. PMID:12631652

Ciccaglione, A F; Marzio, L

2003-01-01

237

Examining the Relationship between Free Recall and Immediate Serial Recall: The Effect of Concurrent Task Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 3 experiments, participants saw lists of 16 words for free recall with or without a 6-digit immediate serial recall (ISR) task after each word. Free recall was performed under standard visual silent and spoken-aloud conditions (Experiment 1), overt rehearsal conditions (Experiment 2), and fixed rehearsal conditions (Experiment 3). The authors…

Bhatarah, Parveen; Ward, Geoff; Tan, Lydia

2006-01-01

238

Strategies of containment in recall notices  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand how strategies of containment operate in recall notices, a writer or reader must first consider two goals that these notices attempt to accomplish. The first of these goals is obvious: a well-constructed recall notice entices a consumer into returning a defective product to the manufacturer, allowing the manufacturer to repair or replace the product. The second goal, while

P. J. Beauvais; Terry Eagleton; Fredric Jameson

1998-01-01

239

Directed Forgetting of Recently Recalled Autobiographical Memories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 6 experiments, the authors investigated list-method directed forgetting of recently recalled autobiographical memories. Reliable directed forgetting effects were observed across all experiments. In 4 experiments, the authors examined the impact of memory valence on directed forgetting. The forget instruction impaired recall of negative,…

Barnier, Amanda J.; Conway, Martin A.; Mayoh, Lyndel; Speyer, Joanne; Avizmil, Orit; Harris, Celia B.

2007-01-01

240

Recall and recognition free learning in schizophrenics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Administered recall and recognition learning tasks to 30 schizophrenic and 30 nonschizophrenic psychiatric inpatients. The schizophrenics were inferior to the nonschizophrenics in the number of correct items reproduced on the recall tests, but the 2 groups did not differ significantly in the number of correct items identified on the recognition tests. The schizophrenics made more intrusion errors on both the

Gilead Nachmani; Bertram D. Cohen

1969-01-01

241

Dream recall and the full moon.  

PubMed

There is ongoing debate on whether the full moon is associated with sleep and dreaming. The analysis of diaries kept by the participants (N = 196) over 28 to 111 nights showed no association of a full moon and dream recall. Psychological factors might explain why some persons associate a full moon with increased dream recall. PMID:16671592

Schredl, Michael; Fulda, Stephany; Reinhard, Iris

2006-02-01

242

21 CFR 7.55 - Termination of a recall.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Termination of a recall. 7.55 Section 7.55 Food and Drugs FOOD...and Industry Responsibilities § 7.55 Termination of a recall. (a) A recall...office to the recalling firm. (b) A recalling firm may request...

2010-04-01

243

21 CFR 7.55 - Termination of a recall.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Termination of a recall. 7.55 Section 7.55 Food and Drugs FOOD...and Industry Responsibilities § 7.55 Termination of a recall. (a) A recall...office to the recalling firm. (b) A recalling firm may request...

2011-04-01

244

Drug recall: An incubus for pharmaceutical companies and most serious drug recall of history  

PubMed Central

There has been an increasing trend in the number of prescribed and over-the-counter drug recall over the last few years. The recall is usually due to company's discovery, customer's complaint or Food and Drug Administration (FDA) observation. The process of recall involves a planned specific course of action, which addresses the depth of recall, need for public warning, and the extent of effectiveness checks for the recall. The FDA review and/or recommend changes to the firm's recall strategy, as appropriate. The critical recall information list includes the identity of the product; summary of the failure; amount of product produced in the distribution chain and direct account. Product recalls clashes thousands of companies every year affecting: sales, testing customer relationships and disrupting supply chains. Drug recall is incubus for pharmaceutical companies. It effects the reputation of the company. The reason for the recall can be divided into two categories: manufacturing affined and safety/efficacy affined. It is essential to follow all the guidelines related to drug development and manufacturing procedure so as to minimize drug recall. PMID:25599028

Nagaich, Upendra; Sadhna, Divya

2015-01-01

245

Improved diet quality, nutrient intake, and health associated with out-of-hand tree nut consumption in U.S. adults: NHANES 1999–2004  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

HANES (1999–2004), data were used to examine the association of out-of-hand tree nut consumption (almonds, Brazil nuts, cashews, filberts, macadamias, pecans, pine nuts, pistachios, and walnuts) with diet quality, nutrient intakes, and health risks in adults 19+ yrs (n equals 13,292). Using 24 hour ...

246

U.S.-MEXICO BORDER PROGRAM ARIZONA BORDER STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR REIMBURSEMENT FOR FIELD COLLECTION OF DIET SAMPLES (UA-F-23.1)  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this SOP is to provide a uniform procedure for the financial reimbursement of primary respondents for the collection of diet samples. Respondents were reimbursed for replicate food and beverage samples by type and amount collected over a 24-hour sampling period. ...

247

A Cross-Sectional Study on the Diet and Nutritional Status of Adolescent Girls in Zambézia Province, Mozambique (the ZANE Study): Design, Methods, and Population Characteristics  

PubMed Central

Background There is very little published work on dietary intake and nutritional status of Mozambicans. We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study on the diet and nutritional status of adolescent girls in different types of communities in Zambézia Province, Central Mozambique, in two distinct seasons. Objective The purpose of this paper is to present the design, methods, and study population characteristics of the Estudo do Estado Nutricional e da Dieta em Raparigas Adolescentes na Zambézia (the ZANE Study). Methods Data was collected in January-February 2010 ("hunger season") and in May-June 2010 ("harvest season"). A total of 551 girls in the age group 14-19 years old were recruited from one urban area and two districts (district towns and rural villages). The study protocol included a background interview, a 24-hour dietary recall interview, a food frequency questionnaire, anthropometric measurements, bioimpedance, hemoglobin measurement, and venous blood, urine, buccal cell, and fecal sampling. Results Adolescent motherhood was common in all study regions. Stunting prevalence for the total study population as a weighted percentage was 17.8% (95/549; 95% CI 14.3-22.0) with no regional differences. Overweight was found mainly in the urban area where the prevalence was 12.6% (20/159; 95% CI 7.5-17.6), thinness was rare. There were regional differences in the prevalence of malaria parasitemia and intestinal helminth infestation, but not human immunodeficiency virus. Conclusions The fully analyzed data from the ZANE Study will yield results useful for setting priorities in nutrition policy and further research on the diet and nutritional status in Mozambique and other countries with similar nutritional problems. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01944891; http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01944891 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6L9OUrsq8). PMID:24598035

Freese, Riitta; Fidalgo, Lourdes; Selvester, Kerry; Ismael, Carina; Mutanen, Marja

2014-01-01

248

Category clustering calculator for free recall  

PubMed Central

The free recall measure is one of the most popular measures in memory research. Using this measure, researchers can assess not only the amount of recall but also the strategy participants used to recall the material. Category clustering is a strategy participants often use when the input list is categorized. Unfortunately, computing category clustering measures is laborious. The present paper introduces a calculator that computes these measures for each participant using a platform that is accessible to most researchers in an attempt to make these measures more user-friendly. PMID:23717345

Senkova, Olesya; Otani, Hajime

2012-01-01

249

Using a height-weight classification for analysis of food energy and main nutrient contents in 24-hours menus of 17-23-year-old Estonian female students.  

PubMed

The study is focused on creating an anthropometric model that would enable to associate the body build peculiarities with nutritional variables. Thirty-six body measurements and 12 skinfolds were measured on 131 17-23-year-old female students of the University of Tartu, and 12 body composition characteristics were calculated. The subjects had to submit descriptions of their 24-hour menus. Nutrient intake was determined using the Micro-Nutrica software and the food composition database; the energy (in kcal) and main nutrients (proteins, fats and carbohydrates) content in the subjects' 24-hour menus were calculated. All body measurements were compared with nutritional variables, and 29 anthropometric variables were found that showed statistically significant correlations with at least one nutrient characteristic. The amount of food consumed correlated positively with body density and negatively with weight, circumferences, skinfolds and all indicators of body fat content (r reached 0.32). To associate body size, shape and composition with the amount of food consumed, a 5 SD height and weight classification was used, which consisted of three classes of concordance between height and weight (small, medium, large) and two classes of disconcordance - pyknomorphs and leptomorphs. All the 29 body measurements and nutrient variables were distributed systematically between the different classes. The pyknomorphous class with its greater body fat content and smaller density contrasted clearly with the class of leptomorphs. Food consumption in total as well as per 1 kg of body weight was smaller in pykniks than in leptosomes. Protein consumption did not reveal statistically significant differences. In small, medium and large classes, consumption of energy, fats and carbohydrates could not be proved about protein consumption. One should not overestimate the significance of BMI in nutritional studies. BMI characterises only obesity and cannot replace the characterisation of different body types. In our study, BMI of the small and the leptosomic class was almost equal, although these body types differ greatly from each other. PMID:17444191

Peterson, Jana; Kaarma, Helje; Koskel, Säde

2007-03-01

250

Efficient waveform recall in absorbing media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. We have shown that efficient recall of temporally structured optical pulses in absorbing media can be obtained via the photon echo process if the absorption length and pulse area of brief pulses are appropriately chosen

C. S. Cornish; M. Azadeh; W. R. Babbitt; L. Tsang

1998-01-01

251

Directed forgetting of recently recalled autobiographical memories.  

PubMed

In 6 experiments, the authors investigated list-method directed forgetting of recently recalled autobiographical memories. Reliable directed forgetting effects were observed across all experiments. In 4 experiments, the authors examined the impact of memory valence on directed forgetting. The forget instruction impaired recall of negative, positive, and neutral memories equally, although overall, participants recalled fewer unemotional memories than emotional memories. The preexisting organization of memories enhanced the directed forgetting effect, and a release from forgetting occurred only when the forgotten memories were directly cued. The authors discuss the roles of emotion, retrieval dynamics, and organization in these effects and suggest that the directed forgetting of recently recalled autobiographical memories may reflect the inhibition of recently formed memories of remembering, that is, episodic inhibition. The authors consider the implications of these findings for the control of autobiographical remembering in everyday life. PMID:17500653

Barnier, Amanda J; Conway, Martin A; Mayoh, Lyndel; Speyer, Joanne; Avizmil, Orit; Harris, Celia B

2007-05-01

252

Public Toilets in the 24 Hour City  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the validity of including public toilets as an essential element in achieving urban renewal, effective town planning, economic regeneration and sustainable cities. An over-emphasis upon high-level cultural and other aspatial (social) priorities, plus a vast array of regenerative bodies and agencies, has taken resources from the provision of mundane, yet essential, physical facilities, such as public toilets.

Clara Greed

253

24-hour urinary aldosterone excretion test  

MedlinePLUS

Gruber HA, Farag AF. Evaluation of endocrine function. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry’s Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods . 22nd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 24.

254

Reliability and Validity of the Multimedia Activity Recall in Children and Adults (MARCA) in People with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the reliability and validity of the Multimedia Activity Recall for Children and Adults (MARCA) in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Design People with COPD and their carers completed the Multimedia Activity Recall for Children and Adults (MARCA) for four, 24-hour periods (including test-retest of 2 days) while wearing a triaxial accelerometer (Actigraph GT3X+®), a multi-sensor armband (Sensewear Pro3®) and a pedometer (New Lifestyles 1000®). Setting Self reported activity recalls (MARCA) and objective activity monitoring (Accelerometry) were recorded under free-living conditions. Participants 24 couples were included in the analysis (COPD; age 74.4±7.9 yrs, FEV1 54±13% Carer; age 69.6±10.9 yrs, FEV1 99±24%). Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measure(s) Test-retest reliability was compared for MARCA activity domains and different energy expenditure zones. Validity was assessed between MARCA-derived physical activity level (in metabolic equivalent of task (MET) per minute), duration of moderate to vigorous physical activity (min) and related data from the objective measurement devices. Analysis included intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC), Bland-Altman analyses, paired t-tests (p) and Spearman's rank correlation coefficients (rs). Results Reliability between occasions of recall for all activity domains was uniformly high, with test-retest correlations consistently >0.9. Validity correlations were moderate to strong (rs?=?0.43–0.80) across all comparisons. The MARCA yields comparable PAL estimates and slightly higher moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) estimates. Conclusion In older adults with chronic illness, the MARCA is a valid and reliable tool for capturing not only the time and energy expenditure associated with physical and sedentary activities but also information on the types of activities. PMID:24312284

Hunt, Toby; Williams, Marie T.; Olds, Tim S.

2013-01-01

255

Zinc in diet  

MedlinePLUS

... reduce your risk of becoming sick with the common cold. Starting to take zinc supplements within 24 hours ... 2000. Singh M, Das RR. Zinc for the common cold. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011 Feb 16;2: ...

256

Product Recalls, Imperfect Information, and Spillover Effects: Lessons from the Consumer Response to the 2007 Toy Recalls  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2007, the Consumer Product Safety Commission issued 212 recalls of toys and other children's products, a sizable increase from previous years. We investigate changes in toy sales following these recalls. We find that for manufacturers that had recalls, unit sales of the types of toys involved in the recall fell relative to their sales of toys in other categories.

Seth Freedman; Melissa Kearney; Mara Lederman

2012-01-01

257

The Development of Conceptual and Rote Recall Skills Among School Age Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One hundred eighty children from Grades K, 5, and 9 performed a recall task within one of four instructional conditions: serial recall; standard free recall; labeling free recall; labeling cued recall. (Editor)

Lange, Garrett

1973-01-01

258

The food similarity index: a new measure of dietary acculturation based on dietary recall data.  

PubMed

This study introduces a flexible indicator of dietary acculturation that measures immigrants' eating behavior relative to U.S.-born persons. Using 24-hour dietary recall data from the continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey pooled across multiple years from 1999/00 through 2009/10, we developed and tested the validity of the "Food Similarity Index" (FSI), which indicates the similarity of the foods consumed by individuals to the foods most commonly consumed by same-aged U.S-born persons of all racial/ethnic groups. We demonstrate its utility here for children and adults of four racial-ethnic groups. FSI was positively associated with the consumption of common American foods and negatively associated with eating Hispanic and Asian foods. In addition, FSI was associated with generational status among all racial/ethnic groups and duration of U.S. residence among Hispanics. FSI was also negatively associated with the Healthy Eating Index 2010. The FSI enables researchers to compare immigrants' dietary patterns over generations and across groups. It can be used to study how dietary acculturation shapes health risk factors and diseases. PMID:25245371

Van Hook, Jennifer; Quiros, Susana; Frisco, Michelle L

2015-04-01

259

Vegetarian Diet  

MedlinePLUS

A vegetarian diet focuses on plants for food. These include fruits, vegetables, dried beans and peas, grains, seeds and nuts. There is no single type of vegetarian diet. Instead, vegetarian eating patterns usually fall into the ...

260

Developing a complex intervention for diet and activity behaviour change in obese pregnant women (the UPBEAT trial); assessment of behavioural change and process evaluation in a pilot randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Complex interventions in obese pregnant women should be theoretically based, feasible and shown to demonstrate anticipated behavioural change prior to inception of large randomised controlled trials (RCTs). The aim was to determine if a) a complex intervention in obese pregnant women leads to anticipated changes in diet and physical activity behaviours, and b) to refine the intervention protocol through process evaluation of intervention fidelity. Methods We undertook a pilot RCT of a complex intervention in obese pregnant women, comparing routine antenatal care with an intervention to reduce dietary glycaemic load and saturated fat intake, and increase physical activity. Subjects included 183 obese pregnant women (mean BMI 36.3 kg/m2). Diet was assessed by repeated triple pass 24-hour dietary recall and physical activity by accelerometry and questionnaire, at 16+0 to 18+6 and at 27+0 to 28+6 weeks’ gestation in women in control and intervention arms. Attitudes to behaviour change and quality of life were assessed and a process evaluation undertaken. The full RCT protocol was undertaken to assess feasibility. Results Compared to women in the control arm, women in the intervention arm had a significant reduction in dietary glycaemic load (33 points, 95% CI ?47 to ?20), (p < 0.001) and saturated fat intake (?1.6% energy, 95% CI ?2.8 to ?0. 3) at 28 weeks’ gestation. Objectively measured physical activity did not change. Physical discomfort and sustained barriers to physical activity were common at 28 weeks’ gestation. Process evaluation identified barriers to recruitment, group attendance and compliance, leading to modification of intervention delivery. Conclusions This pilot trial of a complex intervention in obese pregnant women suggests greater potential for change in dietary intake than for change in physical activity, and through process evaluation illustrates the considerable advantage of performing an exploratory trial of a complex intervention in obese pregnant women before undertaking a large RCT. Trial registration Trial Registration Number: ISRCTN89971375 PMID:23855708

2013-01-01

261

Fading Memories: Retrospective Recall Inaccuracies in ADHD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This longitudinal study examines the recall accuracy of childhood ADHD symptoms in late adolescence and early adulthood by youth and their parents, compared with reports obtained during childhood. Method: Participants (N = 94) are initially evaluated when they are aged between 7 and 11 and reassessed when they are aged between 16 and 22…

Miller, Carlin J.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

2010-01-01

262

Improving Text Recall with Multiple Summaries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background. QuikScan (QS) is an innovative design that aims to improve accessibility, comprehensibility, and subsequent recall of expository text by means of frequent within-document summaries that are formatted as numbered list items. The numbers in the QS summaries correspond to numbers placed in the body of the document where the summarized…

van der Meij, Hans; van der Meij, Jan

2012-01-01

263

Task Context and Organization in Free Recall  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prior work on organization in free recall has focused on the ways in which semantic and temporal information determine the order in which material is retrieved from memory. Tulving's theory of ecphory suggests that these organizational effects arise from the interaction of a retrieval cue with the contents of memory. Using the…

Polyn, Sean M.; Norman, Kenneth A.; Kahana, Michael J.

2009-01-01

264

Efficient waveform recall in absorbing media  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have found that highly efficient waveform recall is possible in coherent transient systems in which the storage is optically thick. Coherent transients may be used in a variety of information storage and processing applications with advantages over traditional electronic methods. However, it is believed that a serious problem in application of photon echoes in practical systems is the relatively

Carrie S. Cornish; Mohammad Azadeh; W. Randall Babbitt; Leung Tsang

1998-01-01

265

21 CFR 7.42 - Recall strategy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...developed by the agency for a Food and Drug Administration-requested...essential products. (2) The Food and Drug Administration...the level in the distribution chain to which the recall is to extend...product appear inadequate. The Food and Drug Administration...

2013-04-01

266

21 CFR 7.42 - Recall strategy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...developed by the agency for a Food and Drug Administration-requested...essential products. (2) The Food and Drug Administration...the level in the distribution chain to which the recall is to extend...product appear inadequate. The Food and Drug Administration...

2014-04-01

267

21 CFR 7.42 - Recall strategy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...developed by the agency for a Food and Drug Administration-requested...essential products. (2) The Food and Drug Administration...the level in the distribution chain to which the recall is to extend...product appear inadequate. The Food and Drug Administration...

2012-04-01

268

21 CFR 7.42 - Recall strategy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...developed by the agency for a Food and Drug Administration-requested...essential products. (2) The Food and Drug Administration...the level in the distribution chain to which the recall is to extend...product appear inadequate. The Food and Drug Administration...

2010-04-01

269

21 CFR 7.42 - Recall strategy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...developed by the agency for a Food and Drug Administration-requested...essential products. (2) The Food and Drug Administration...the level in the distribution chain to which the recall is to extend...product appear inadequate. The Food and Drug Administration...

2011-04-01

270

Production deficiency in young children's clustered recall  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children in kindergarten and Grades 1, 3, and 5 (N = 160) were isolated for 2-min study periods, during which they were free to manipulate pictures of categorized objects (animals, furniture, etc.) which were later to be recalled. The 3 younger groups showed a production deficiency but no mediation deficiency in this task situation: (1) except when assisted to do

Barbara E. Moely; Frances A. Olson; Terry G. Halwes; John H. Flavell

1969-01-01

271

Precision and Recall in Title Keyword Searches.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines precision and recall for title and keyword searches performed in the "FirstSearch" WorldCat database when keywords are used with and without adjacency of terms specified. A random sample of 68 titles in economics were searched in the OCLC (Online Computer Library Center) Online Union Catalog in order to obtain their Library of…

McJunkin, Monica Cahill

272

Effects of Verapamil SR and Atenolol on 24-Hour Blood Pressure and Heart Rate in Hypertension Patients with Coronary Artery Disease: An International Verapamil SR-Trandolapril Ambulatory Monitoring Substudy  

PubMed Central

Elevated nighttime blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR), increased BP and HR variability, and altered diurnal variations of BP and HR (nighttime dipping and morning surge) in patients with systemic hypertension are each associated with increased adverse cardiovascular events. However, there are no reports on the effect of hypertension treatment on these important hemodynamic parameters in the growing population of hypertensive patients with atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (CAD). This was a pre-specified subgroup analysis of the INternational VErapamil SR-Trandolapril STudy (INVEST), which involved 22,576 clinically stable patients aged ?50 years with hypertension and CAD randomized to either verapamil SR- or atenolol-based hypertension treatment strategies. The subgroup consisted of 117 patients undergoing 24-hour ambulatory monitoring at baseline and after 1 year of treatment. Hourly systolic and diastolic BP (SBP and DBP) decreased after 1 year for both verapamil SR- and atenolol-based treatment strategies compared with baseline (P<0.0001). Atenolol also decreased hourly HR (P<0.0001). Both treatment strategies decreased SBP variability (weighted standard deviation: P = 0.012 and 0.021, respectively). Compared with verapamil SR, atenolol also increased the prevalence of BP and HR nighttime dipping among prior non-dippers (BP: OR = 3.37; 95% CI: 1.26 – 8.97; P = 0.015; HR: OR = 4.06; 95% CI: 1.35-12.17; P = 0.012) and blunted HR morning surge (+2.8 vs. +4.5 beats/min/hr; P = 0.019). Both verapamil SR- and especially atenolol-based strategies resulted in favorable changes in ambulatory monitoring parameters that have been previously associated with increased adverse cardiovascular events. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov; NCT00133692 PMID:25835002

Denardo, Scott J.; Gong, Yan; Cooper-DeHoff, Rhonda M.; Farsang, Csaba; Keltai, Matyas; Szirmai, László; Messerli, Franz H.; Bavry, Anthony A.; Handberg, Eileen M.; Mancia, Giuseppe; Pepine, Carl J.

2015-01-01

273

Associative relatedness enhances recall and produces false memories in immediate serial recall.  

PubMed

The influence of permanent lexical network in immediate serial recall is well established. The corresponding influence of permanent semantic networks is less clear, although such networks are known to both facilitate memory in long-term memory tasks and to produce false memories in those same tasks. The current experiment involves the study of Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) lists for immediate serial recall. The trials in the experiment involved presenting the six strongest items from the DRM lists either in intact associatively related lists or where those items had been randomly mixed to produce unrelated lists. The results of the experiment indicated that the associatively related lists were better recalled in order than unrelated lists and the nonpresented critical lure was falsely recalled relatively frequently. The results of the experiment confirm the importance of associative semantic networks in short-term memory. PMID:21186910

Tehan, Gerald

2010-12-01

274

Healthy Diet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project will explain the importance of a balanced diet as well as learn nutrition facts to help them apply a healthy diet in their everyday lives Eating good foods is very important to living a healthy life. Click on 'food groups' pyramid below and learn about what types of food should be in your daily diet. Food groups 1. What makes a certain food healthy? 2. Do you eat the foods from the pyramid on a regular ...

Mrs. Parker

2009-09-28

275

The number of 24 h dietary recalls using the U.S. Department of Agriculture's automated multiple-pass method required to estimate nutrient intake in overweight and obese adults  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The USDA’s Automated Multiple Pass Method (AMPM) is a five-step, multiple-pass, interviewer-administered, computerized, 24-h dietary recall. The objective of the study was to quantify sources of variation such as day of the week, season, sequence of the diet interviews (training effect), diet interv...

276

Case mix, outcome and activity for patients with severe acute kidney injury during the first 24 hours after admission to an adult, general critical care unit: application of predictive models from a secondary analysis of the ICNARC Case Mix Programme Database  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: This study pools data from the UK Intensive Care National Audit and Research Center (ICNARC) Case Mix Programme (CMP) to evaluate the case mix, outcome and activity for 17,326 patients with severe acute kidney injury (AKI) occurring during the first 24 hours of admission to intensive care units (ICU). METHODS: Severe AKI admissions (defined as serum creatinine ?300 ?mol\\/l

Nitin V Kolhe; Paul E Stevens; Alex V Crowe; Graham W Lipkin; David A Harrison

2008-01-01

277

Further Evidence About the Role of Clustering in Free Recall  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The extent to which subjects showing relatively high amounts of categorical clustering recalled more words than subjects showing relatively low amounts of clustering was investigated in three free-recall experiments with categorized lists. (Editor)

Puff, C. Richard; And Others

1977-01-01

278

40 CFR 94.404 - Voluntary emissions recall reporting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Voluntary emissions recall reporting. 94.404 Section 94...AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE... Emission-related Defect Reporting Requirements, Voluntary Emission...Voluntary emissions recall reporting. (a) When any...

2010-07-01

279

40 CFR 92.404 - Voluntary emissions recall reporting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Voluntary emissions recall reporting. 92.404 Section 92...AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES... Emission-Related Defect Reporting Requirements, Voluntary Emission...Voluntary emissions recall reporting. (a) When...

2010-07-01

280

Vertical Proximity Effects in the California Recall Election  

E-print Network

The 2003 California recall election provides a unique opportunity to assess the impact of variations in ballot design and voting methods on the voting accuracy of citizens. Analysis of the results of the California Recall ...

Sled, Sarah M.

2003-10-27

281

Effects of a High-Protein Diet on Regulation of Phosphorus Homeostasis  

PubMed Central

Context: High-protein diets, which are popular for weight loss, contain large quantities of phosphorus. Phosphorus excess and consequent changes in phosphorus regulatory hormones are implicated in vascular calcification and cardiovascular disease. Objective: We tested the hypothesis that a moderate increase in dietary phosphorus during a high-protein diet leads to changes in phosphorus-responsive hormones. Design, Participants, and Setting: We conducted a post hoc analysis of a sequential dietary modification trial in 19 healthy volunteers in the general community. Intervention: Participants received 2 weeks of a weight-maintaining, low-protein (15%) diet, followed by 2 weeks of an isocaloric, high-protein (30%) diet, followed by 12 weeks of an ad libitum high-protein (30%) diet. Main Outcome Measures: Using previously collected samples, plasma concentrations of fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23), PTH, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D were measured at 8 time points to assess 24-hour variability and in 24-hour pooled samples to delineate changes at the end of each diet period. Results: Mean dietary phosphorus intake during each study period was 1556, 2071, and 1622 mg/d, respectively. Plasma concentrations of FGF-23 and vitamin D metabolites varied in a diurnal pattern; plasma PTH concentrations varied in a bimodal pattern. After changing from a low- to high-protein isocaloric diet, plasma FGF-23 concentrations decreased slightly (mean ?4.48 pg/mL, 95% confidence interval 1.88–7.07). There were no other statistically significant changes in phosphorus regulatory hormones in response to diet modifications. Conclusions: Among healthy people, an approximate 33% increase in dietary phosphorus after institution of a high-protein diet does not cause large changes in measured concentrations of phosphorus regulatory hormones. PMID:23393178

Hoofnagle, Andrew N.; Kratz, Mario; Weigle, David S.; Callahan, Holly S.; Purnell, Jonathan Q.; Horgan, Angela M.; de Boer, Ian H.; Kestenbaum, Bryan R.

2013-01-01

282

The Effects of Music Congruency and Lyrics on Advertisement Recall  

Microsoft Academic Search

Music has been widely used in advertising because it is believed to improve recall of the advertised product. In this study we examine the effects of vocal music versus instrumental music on advertisement recall. We hypothesized that the instrumental version of a song will lead to better recall than would the vocal version. The instrumental version should prompt the participants

Michelle Heaton; Kelly Paris

283

Current research in the frequency of dream recall  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reviews the correlational and experimental research of the last 15 yr. on factors associated with the frequency of dream recall. The domain of dream recall is established as a broadly defined range of perceptual, conceptual, and affective experiences reported by Ss in studies using questionnaire, diary, and sleep-interruption methods. Frequency of dream recall is affected by physiological, methodological, and psychological

David B. Cohen

1970-01-01

284

The Effects of Presentation Order in Multitrial Free Recall.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The experiment tested the effects of presentation word orders in a multitrial free-recall task. Three types of presentation were used: (1) randomized; (2) constant order; and (3) maintained order (maintenance of subjects order of recall on the subsequent presentation). In addition, the effects of number of recalls per presentation (1 or 3) were…

Maitland, Anthony J.

285

Recall versus recognition: a methodological note.  

PubMed

Some current investigators have made direct comparisons of recognition performance with cued recall. In other instances, indirect comparisons of recognition and recall have been made by observing the difference in recognition performance with different types of target material, for example, high- and low-frequency words; this difference has been then compared with the difference obtained when recall is used to measure retention of the same type of target materials. Finally, some experimenters have examined how recognition performance is related to the type of target material that is used, for example, words, pictures, and so on. The results obtained from all of these studies have been used to make inferences about the nature of the memorial process. We have attempted to call attention to the generally accepted but neglected finding that performance on any recognition test can be manipulated by changing the characteristics of the distractors, thus casting doubt on the generality of the experimental findings as well as their theoretical implications. PMID:6222150

Hall, J F

1983-04-01

286

Assessment of Dietary Intake and Food-related Behaviors of Gatekeepers in Homeless Families in Hawaii  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed diet quality and documented food-related behaviors of gatekeepers in homeless families with children in Hawaii. The dietary intake of gatekeepers residing in shelters (n = 44) was compared to that of gatekeepers living at beach parks (n = 13).The gatekeeper completed a 24-hour diet recall and answered questions about demographics and food-related behaviors. Diets were low in fiber,

Joda Derrickson; Dlan A. Gans

1996-01-01

287

Product Recalls, Imperfect Information, and Spillover Effects: Lessons from the Consumer Response to the 2007 Toy Recalls  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2007, the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) issued 276 recalls of toys and other children's products, a sizeable increase from previous years. The overwhelming majority of the 2007 toy recalls were due to high levels of lead content and almost all of these toys were manufactured in China. This period of recalls was characterized by substantial media attention to

Seth M. Freedman; Melissa Schettini Kearney; Mara Lederman

2009-01-01

288

Effects of Training in Dream Recall and Dream Interpretation Skills on Dream Recall, Attitudes, and Dream Interpretation Outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-two volunteer clients with below-average dream recall and attitudes toward dreams participated in training sessions focusing on either improving dream recall and attitudes toward dreams, building dream interpretation skills, or educating about counseling. After training, individual dream interpretation sessions were conducted. No significant differences were found among the 3 conditions in regard to dream recall, attitudes toward dreams, or client-

Aaron B. Rochlen; Daniela P. Ligiero; Clara E. Hill; Kristin J. Heaton

1999-01-01

289

Major food sources of calories, added sugars, and saturated fat and their contribution to essential nutrient intakes in the U.S. diet: data from the national health and nutrition examination survey (2003–2006)  

PubMed Central

Background The risk of chronic disease cannot be predicted simply by the content of a single nutrient in a food or food group in the diet. The contribution of food sources of calories, added sugars and saturated fat (SFA) to intakes of dietary fiber and micronutrients of public health importance is also relevant to understanding the overall dietary impact of these foods. Objective Identify the top food sources of calories, added sugars and SFA in the U.S. diet and quantify their contribution to fiber and micronutrient intakes. Methods Single 24-hour dietary recalls (Day 1) collected from participants ?2 years (n?=?16,822) of the What We Eat in America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (WWEIA/NHANES 2003–2006) were analyzed. All analyses included sample weights to account for the survey design. Calorie and nutrient intakes from foods included contributions from disaggregated food mixtures and tabulated by rank order. Results No one food category contributes more than 7.2% of calories to the overall U.S. diet, but half of the top 10 contribute 10% or more of total dietary fiber and micronutrients. Three of the top 10 sources of calories and SFA (beef, milk and cheese) contribute 46.3% of the calcium, 49.5% of the vitamin D, 42.3% of the vitamin B12 as well as other essential nutrients to the American diet. On the other hand, foods categorized as desserts, snacks, or beverages, contribute 13.6% of total calories, 83% of added sugar intake, and provide little or no nutritional value. Including food components of disaggregated recipes more accurately estimated the contribution of foods like beef, milk or cheese to overall nutrient intake compared to “as consumed” food categorizations. Conclusions Some food sources of calories, added sugars and SFA make major contributions to American dietary fiber and micronutrient intakes. Dietary modifications targeting reductions in calories, added sugar, or SFA need to take these key micronutrient sources into account so as not to have the unintended consequence of lowering overall dietary quality. PMID:23927718

2013-01-01

290

Assessment of cardiovascular and noncardiovascular medical device recalls.  

PubMed

Medical device recalls have called attention to the device approval process in the United States. The premarket approval (PMA) process requires clinical trials to evaluate safety and effectiveness, whereas the expedited 510(k) process does not. The 510(k) process has been considered a source of increased recalls. This study aimed to assess the relative safety of medical device approval pathways based on the numbers of approvals and recalls. Data on recalls in the United States from January 2005 to December 2012 were collected from the Food and Drug Administration Web site. Over 8 years, 30,002 devices were approved, 5,728 by PMA (19%) and 24,274 (81%) by 510(k). There were 249 recalls due to serious risks, 0.45% of PMA approvals, and 0.92% of 510(k)-cleared devices, p <0.001. Over 1/2 of the recalls were during the first 2 years on the market. Percentage of recalled PMA devices was unchanged over the 8 years, whereas 510(k) recalls increased in 2010 to 2012 (from 0.65% to 1.39%, p <0.001). Cardiovascular devices represent the largest class of recalls (27%). The proportions of recalled PMA and 510(k) cardiovascular devices were the same as for all medical devices until 2011, but 510(k) recalls dramatically decreased in 2012 to the lowest recall rate seen (0.73%). In conclusion, recall rates were the same for 510(k)- and PMA-approved devices in 2005 to 2009 and increased for 510(k) devices subsequently. Modifying the 510(k) process with more rigorous performance testing, a conditional 2-year approval and a mandatory registry may be an approach to reduce recalls. PMID:24837271

Somberg, John C; McEwen, Pauline; Molnar, Janos

2014-06-01

291

Validation of dietary intakes of protein and energy against 24 hour urinary N and DLW energy expenditure in middle-aged women, retired men and post-obese subjects: comparisons with validation against presumed energy requirements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To compare validation of reported dietary intakes from weighed records against urinary nitrogen excretion and energy expenditure measured by DLW, and to examine the utility of the Goldberg cut-off for EI:BMR in the identification of under-reporters. Design: Energy (EI) and nitrogen (protein) intake (NI) were measured by 16 d of weighed diet records collected over 1 y. They were

AE Black; SA Bingham; G Johansson; WA Coward

1997-01-01

292

Gender differences in social desirability and social approval bias in dietary self-report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social desirability (the tendency to respond in such a way as to avoid criticism) and social approval (the tendency to seek praise) are two prominent response set biases evident in answers on structured questionnaires. These biases were tested by comparing nutrient intakes as estimated from a single 24-hour diet recall interview (24 HR) and a 7-day dietary recall (7DDR). Data

James R. Hebert; Yunsheng Ma; Lynn Clemow; Ira S. Ockene; Gordon Saperia; Edward J. Stanek III; Philip A. Merriam; Judith K. Ockene

1998-01-01

293

Awareness and recall during general anesthesia.  

PubMed

Anesthesia awareness is defined as both consciousness and recall of surgical events. New research has been conducted out to test this phenomenon. However, testing methods have not proven reliable, including those using devices based on electroencephalographic techniques to detect and prevent intraoperative awareness. The limitations of a standard intraoperative brain monitor reflect our insufficient understanding of consciousness. Moreover, patients who experience an intraoperative awareness can develop serious post-traumatic stress disorders that should not be overlooked. In this review, we introduce the incidence of intraoperative awareness during general anesthesia and discuss the mechanisms of consciousness, as well as risk factors, various monitoring methods, outcome and prevention of intraoperative awareness. PMID:24910724

Chung, Hyun Sik

2014-05-01

294

Memory as a hologram: An analysis of learning and recall.  

PubMed

We present a holographic theory of human memory. According to the theory, a subject's vocabulary resides in a dynamic distributed representation-a hologram. Studying or recalling a word alters both the existing representation of that word in the hologram and all words associated with it. Recall is always prompted by a recall cue (either a start instruction or the word just recalled). Order of report is a joint function of the item and associative information residing in the hologram at the time the report is made. We apply the model to archival data involving simple free recall, learning in multitrial free recall, simple serial recall, and learning in multitrial serial recall. The model captures accuracy and order of report in both free and serial recall. It also captures learning and subjective organisation in multitrial free recall. We offer the model as an alternative to the short- and long-term account of memory postulated in the modal model. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25730645

Franklin, Donald R J; Mewhort, D J K

2015-03-01

295

Facilitation of Young Children's Recall Through the Use of Non-Meaningful Recall Cues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to investigate recall in preschool children, specifically the cuing technique and possible storage-retrieval differences. Forty-eight 4-years-old were divided into two groups. In the blocked presentation condition, items were presented in category sets of three items, with all items from a single category on cards of one…

Moely, Barbara E.

296

Undivided attention improves postoperative anesthesia handover recall  

PubMed Central

Background For years, undivided attention during the presurgical “timeout” has been utilized as a precaution to ensure patient safety. The information relayed during the timeout is presented in a confirmatory nature rather than a delegation of new information. However, it is a standard of practice in which all members of the operating theater provide their full and undivided attention. Standards of patient care should be contiguous throughout the preoperative, perioperative, and postoperative stages of surgery. In this manner, it is expected that the same undivided attention afforded during the timeout should be maintained when transferring the patient to the postanesthesia care unit. Methods In this study, information was collected regarding handover of information during the transfer status postsurgical procedures. Data were collected via observing interactions between the anesthesiologist and the nurse during verbal patient transfers. Results This study demonstrated that the presence of undivided attention during the handover of a surgical patient in the postanesthesia care unit has a direct correlation with improved recall of the information discussed during handover. Conclusion Focus is on the quantity of information that can be recalled by the transferring nurse, and whether or not undivided attention affects the outcome. Analysis focuses on suggestions to better improve patient safety and recovery when being transferred in an anesthetic setting. The practice of patient handover should be standardized to better improve the safety and quality of medical care. PMID:25031549

Arenas, Alejandro; Tabaac, Burton J; Fastovets, Galina; Patil, Vinod

2014-01-01

297

Previous Weight Loss Experiences of Bariatric Surgery Candidates: How Much Have Patients Dieted prior to Surgery?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To describe the dieting histories of bariatric surgery candidates.Research Methods and Procedures: One hundred seventy-seven individuals with extreme obesity who sought bariatric surgery completed the Weight and Lifestyle Inventory, a self-report instrument that assesses several variables, including weight and dieting history. Patients’ dieting histories were further explored with an aided recall during a preoperative behavioral\\/psychological evaluation performed by a

Lauren M. Gibbons; David B. Sarwer; Canice E. Crerand; Anthony N. Fabricatore; Robert H. Kuehnel; Patti E. Lipschutz; Steven E. Raper; Noel N. Williams; Thomas A. Wadden

2006-01-01

298

Metabolic differences in response to a high-fat vs. a high-carbohydrate diet.  

PubMed

Energy expenditure was measured in a group of 7 subjects who received two isocaloric isonitrogenous diets for a period of 9-21 days with a 4-10-day break between diets. Diet 1 was a high-fat diet ( 83.5 +/- 3.6% of total energy). Diet 2 was a high carbohydrate diet ( 83.1 +/- 3.7% of total energy). Resting and postprandial resting metabolic rate were measured by open circuit indirect calorimetry 2-4 times during each metabolic period. Total energy expenditure (TEE) was measured by the doubly labeled water method over an 8-13-day period. The respiratory quotient was measured 2-4 hours after a meal during each metabolic period for the calculation of total energy expenditure by the doubly labeled water method. Levels of total T3 (TT3), T3 uptake, free thyroid index and T4 were measured at the end of each metabolic period. No significant changes in resting metabolic rate (RMR) were apparent on the two diets (1567 +/- 426 kcal/d high-fat diet and 1503 +/- 412 kcal/d high-carbohydrate diet n=7, p<0.15). Total energy expenditure measured in 5 subjects was significantly higher during the high-carbohydrate phase of the diet (2443 +/- 422 vs. 2078 +/- 482 kcal/d p<0.05). Activity estimated from TEE/RMR was greater on the high-carbohydrate diet but only approached statistical significance (p<0.06). Total T3 was significantly lower and free thyroid index and T3 uptake were significantly higher at the end of the high fat diet in comparison to the high-carbohydrate diet. These data suggest that individual tolerance to a high-fat diet varies considerably and may significantly lower TEE by changing levels of physical activity. The explanation for changes in thyroid hor. mone levels independent of changes in metabolic rate remains unclear. PMID:16358395

Bandini, L G; Schoeller, D A; Dietz, W H

1994-07-01

299

Product recall: a Croatian experience (2000–2010)  

PubMed Central

Background Timely and efficient recall of products known or suspected to be non-conforming is an important measure in the prevention of adverse events and in patients' safety. Product recall in the transfusion service is regulated by professional standards and legal acts, but publications presenting results related to the implementation of these procedures are quite rare. Materials and methods Data from the Croatian Institute of Transfusion Medicine (CITM) on the procedures of product recall during an 11-year period (2000–2010) were retrospectively analyzed. Reasons for product recall, their frequency, level of severity and efficiency of the procedures are presented and discussed. Results During the study period, there were 245 procedures of product recall, for an average of 22 (18–29) procedures/year, all of low extent (1–25 products). Recall was required for 1/3,571 blood products issued, while the frequency of laboratory test report recalls was 1/5,447 patients. The leading reasons for product recall were suspected bacterial contamination of blood products (30.2%) and suspected or demonstrated non-conformity of laboratory test reports (28.6%). In total, 99 (40.4%) product recalls were categorized as class I, 30 (12.2%) as class II and 116 (47.3%) as class III. Discussion According to the available literature data, the product recall procedures were performed quite infrequently by the CITM and were of low extent. There was a remarkable decreasing trend in the rate of product recall due to non-conformities or errors made at the CITM, along with a constant or increasing rate of recalls because of biological variability of blood products. PMID:23114522

Vuk, Tomislav; Bariši?, Marijan; Ljubi?i?, Julijana; He?imovi?, Ana; Jurakovi?-Lon?ar, Nina; Šarlija, Dorotea; Juki?, Irena

2013-01-01

300

Chunk Limits and Length Limits in Immediate Recall: A Reconciliation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Whereas some research on immediate recall of verbal lists has suggested that it is limited by the number of chunks that can be recalled (e.g., N. Cowan, Z. Chen, & J. N. Rouder, 2004; E. Tulving & J. E. Patkau, 1962), other research has suggested that it is limited by the length of the material to be recalled (e.g., A. D. Baddeley, N. Thomson, &…

Chen, Zhijian; Cowan, Nelson

2005-01-01

301

Effects of long-term cycling between palatable cafeteria diet and regular chow on intake, eating patterns, and response to saccharin and sucrose.  

PubMed

When exposed to a diet containing foods that are rich in fat and sugar, rats eat to excess and gain weight. We examined the effects of alternating this diet with laboratory chow on intake of each type of diet, the eating elicited by a palatable food (biscuits), and the drinking elicited by sweet solutions that did (sucrose) or did not (saccharin) contain calories. Each week for 13 weeks, cycled rats were provided with the cafeteria diet for three successive days/nights and the chow diet for the remaining four days/nights, whereas other rats received continuous access to either the cafeteria or the chow diets. On each of the 13 weeks, cycled rats ate more across the first 24 hour exposure to the cafeteria diet than rats continuously fed this diet. In contrast, cycled rats ate less across the first 24 hour exposure to the chow diet than rats continuously fed this diet and ate less when presented a novel palatable biscuit than chow-fed rats. The three groups exhibited similar licks per cluster to saccharin, but cafeteria-fed and cycled rats showed fewer clusters than chow-fed rats. In contrast, chow-fed rats and cycled rats exhibited more licks per cluster to sucrose than cafeteria-fed rats, but all three groups had a similar number of clusters. The results were discussed in relation to the effects of diet cycling on eating patterns, body weight, and 'wanting' and 'liking'. These findings with rats may have important implications for yo-yo dieting in people. PMID:25446218

Martire, Sarah I; Westbrook, R Fred; Morris, Margaret J

2015-02-01

302

A randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effect of incorporating peanuts into an American Diabetes Association meal plan on the nutrient profile of the total diet and cardiometabolic parameters of adults with type 2 diabetes  

PubMed Central

Background According to the American Diabetes Association (ADA), the nutritional goals for patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) are to achieve an optimal nutrient intake to achieve normoglycemia and a cardioprotective lipid profile. Peanuts are nutrient dense foods that contain high levels of monounsaturated fat (MUFA) and are a natural source of arginine, fiber, phytosterols, resveritrol, niacin, folate, vitamin E and magnesium, which have the potential for improving blood lipids and glycemic control. This study sought to evaluate the effect of a peanut enriched ADA meal plan on the nutrient profile of the total diet and cardiometabolic parameters in adults with T2D. Methods This was a randomized, prospective 24-week parallel-group clinical trial with 60 adults with T2D [age range 34–84 years; body mass index (BMI) range 17.2-48.7 kg/m2]. Subjects consumed an ADA meal plan containing ~20% of energy from peanuts (peanut group) or a peanut-free ADA meal plan (control group). Weight, BMI, waist circumference (WC) and nutrient intake from 24-hour recalls were measured every 4 weeks and fasting blood glucose (FBG), HbA1c and blood lipids were measured every 12 weeks. A mixed-model repeated-measures analysis of covariance was performed to assess the significance of changes in the cardiometabolic parameters. Results A higher polyunsaturated fat (PUFA) to saturated fat diet ratio and higher intake of MUFA, PUFA, ?-tocopherol, niacin and magnesium was observed in the peanut group as compared to the control group (P?diet and is compatible with weight management and improvement in specific blood lipids. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00937222 PMID:24450471

2014-01-01

303

Diets that Work  

MedlinePLUS

... Brussel Sprouts Green Salad Tangerines A Vegetarian or Vegan Diet A vegetarian diet generally excludes animal products. But ... vegetarians might include fish but no meat. A vegan diet is a diet that excludes all animal products. ...

304

Diet and Pain  

MedlinePLUS

... Dietician View full profile Rheumatoid Arthritis: Lifestyle Management Diet and Pain Many people who suffer from chronic ... and risks associated with diet restrictions. Vegan/Vegetarian Diets Vegan/Vegetarian diets are composed predominantly of plant ...

305

IBS Diet  

MedlinePLUS

... Eating and IBS Symptoms Video with Peter Whorwell, MD There are a variety of factors that affect IBS, and diet is just one of these. If other factors, such as stressors or hormonal changes, are more active on a particular day, then dietary triggers are more likely to push your symptoms "over ...

306

Hominid Diet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Between one and two million years ago, several different groups of ape-men roamed the plains of Africa. The only clues we have as to how they lived and evolved come from fossils they left behind. This Science Update tells us what some of those fossils reveal about the unusual diet of early hominids.

Science Update

2001-09-30

307

Dino Diets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online interactive, learners match different dinosaurs to their food (plants or animals). Learners look for clues in the bodies, necks, teeth, and heads of the dinosaurs to make inferences about their diets. After making their selections, learners can read through short blurbs about each dinosaur, including information discovered by archaeologists and paleontologists.

National Park Service

2013-05-15

308

Rethinking Familiarity: Remember/Know Judgments in Free Recall  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although frequently used with recognition, a few studies have used the Remember/Know procedure with free recall. In each case, participants gave Know judgments to a significant number of recalled items (items that were presumably not remembered on the basis of familiarity). What do these Know judgments mean? We investigated this issue using a…

Mickes, Laura; Seale-Carlisle, Travis M.; Wixted, John T.

2013-01-01

309

Temporal Associations and Prior-List Intrusions in Free Recall  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When asked to recall the words from a just-presented target list, subjects occasionally recall words that were not on the list. These intrusions either appeared on earlier lists (prior-list intrusions, or PLIs) or had not appeared over the course of the experiment (extra-list intrusions). The authors examined the factors that elicit PLIs in free…

Zaromb, Franklin M.; Howard, Marc W.; Dolan, Emily D.; Sirotin, Yevgeniy B.; Tully, Michele; Wingfield, Arthur; Kahana, Michael J.

2006-01-01

310

22 CFR 19.10-6 - Benefits for recall service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SYSTEM § 19.10-6 Benefits for recall service...of annuity to the full salary of the class in which...be entitled to elect benefits under paragraph (a...service credit and average salary earned during the recall...retirement, or elect benefits under paragraph...

2010-04-01

311

40 CFR 51.370 - Compliance with recall notices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...4) The number of recalled vehicles still in non-compliance...5) The number of recalled vehicles that are otherwise not in compliance...procedures used to incorporate the vehicle lists provided in paragraph...are properly documented and tracked, and the method...

2010-07-01

312

The fSAM Model of False Recall  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors report a new theory of false memory building upon existing associative memory models and implemented in fSAM, the first fully specified quantitative model of false recall. Participants frequently intrude unstudied critical words while recalling lists comprising their strongest semantic associates but infrequently produce other…

Kimball, Daniel R.; Smith, Troy A.; Kahana, Michael J.

2007-01-01

313

Personality and Dream Recall Frequency: Further Negative Findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of previous findings of dream recall frequency being associated with thin boundariness and sensitivity we assessed the association between DRF and variables that appear related to these two measures. Data from 93 participants (47 males, 46 females, mean age 21.3 yrs., SD = 3.5) show that dream recall frequency (DRF) correlates marginally with neuroticism (r = .20)

Mark Blagrove; Lucy Akehurst

2000-01-01

314

Mixed-List Phonological Similarity Effects in Delayed Serial Recall  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent experiments have shown that placing dissimilar items on lists of phonologically similar items enhances accuracy of ordered recall of the dissimilar items [Farrell, S., & Lewandowsky, S. (2003). Dissimilar items benefit from phonological similarity in serial recall. "Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition," 29,…

Farrell, Simon

2006-01-01

315

Dual-Retrieval Processes in Free and Associative Recall  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent dual-retrieval accounts of free recall postulate that a memory target can be recalled either by directly accessing its verbatim trace or by reconstructing it from semantic or other relational information. We introduce a simple paradigm, derived from the classic Estes RTT procedure, that separates direct access from reconstruction and that separates reconstruction from a metacognitive judgment process that authorizes

C. J. Brainerd; Ron Wright; V. F. Reyna; D. G. Payne

2002-01-01

316

Using Recall to Reduce False Recognition: Diagnostic and Disqualifying Monitoring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Whether recall of studied words (e.g., parsley, rosemary, thyme) could reduce false recognition of related lures (e.g., basil) was investigated. Subjects studied words from several categories for a final recognition memory test. Half of the subjects were given standard test instructions, and half were instructed to use recall to reduce false…

Gallo, David A.

2004-01-01

317

Grasping the Meaning of Metaphor: Story Recall and Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Metaphors were embedded at Reaction or Outcome positions in a story grammar structural form. Recall of metaphors and literal statements with comparable meanings was equal among seven-, nine-, and 11-year-olds. Recall was better if statements were in the Outcome position, but metaphors were comprehended equally well in both positions and had no…

Waggoner, John E.; And Others

1985-01-01

318

A case of radiation recall mucositis associated with docetaxel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Radiation recall reactions, in particu- lar dermatitis, are well documented in the literature. However, radiation recall mucositis is a rare clinical phenomenon. Methods. We report a case of a 45-year-old man diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma of the base of tongue. He was treated with surgery followed by chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Several months after completing treatment, he had

Laura R. Culp; Anna M. Pou; Dennie V. Jones; John Bayouth; Giuseppe Sanguineti

2004-01-01

319

Effects of Textual Dimensions on Discourse Recall by EMR Individuals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effects of making ratings of idea importance, saliency, or textual imagery on story recall was investigated with 180 students (second and sixth grade normal students and mildly mentally retarded adolescents). Ss in eighteen groups attempted to recall a story presented auditorially and in print either before rating on a textual variable…

Luftig, Richard L.; Greeson, Larry E.

320

Food Recall Attitudes and Behaviors of School Nutrition Directors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore school nutrition directors' attitudes and behaviors about food recalls. Specific objectives included: 1) Determine current food recall attitudes and the relationship between demographics and these attitudes; 2) Determine current practices of school nutrition directors related to…

Grisamore, Amber; Roberts, Kevin R.

2014-01-01

321

Videotape in Instructional Improvement: Using Interpersonal Process Recall.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Covers the conditions that influence interpersonal process recall (IPR), how it can be used for instructional improvement, the types of recall which can be used with the IPR approach, and some long range outcomes and implications of IPR. Sources for an IPR manual and workshop information are given. (MER)

Caskey, Owen L.; Trang, Myron

1980-01-01

322

Age effects on spectral electroencephalogram activity prior to dream recall.  

PubMed

Ageing is associated with marked changes in sleep timing, structure and electroencephalographic (EEG) activity. Older people exhibit less slow-wave and spindle activity during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, together with attenuated levels of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep as compared to young individuals. However, the extent to which these age-related changes in sleep impact on dream processing remains largely unknown. Here we investigated NREM and REM sleep EEG activity prior to dream recall and no recall in 17 young (20-31 years) and 15 older volunteers (57-74 years) during a 40 h multiple nap protocol. Dream recall was assessed immediately after each nap. During NREM sleep prior to dream recall, older participants displayed higher frontal EEG delta activity (1-3 Hz) and higher centro-parietal sigma activity (12-15 Hz) than the young volunteers. Conversely, before no recall, older participants had less frontal-central delta activity and less sigma activity in frontal, central and parietal derivations than the young participants. REM sleep was associated to age-related changes, such that older participants had less frontal-central alpha (10-12 Hz) and beta (16-19 Hz) activity, irrespective of dream recall and no recall. Our data indicate that age-related differences in dream recall seem to be directly coupled to specific frequency and topography EEG patterns, particularly during NREM sleep. Thus, the spectral correlates of dreaming can help to understand the cortical pathways of dreaming. PMID:21851439

Chellappa, Sarah L; Münch, Mirjam; Knoblauch, Vera; Cajochen, Christian

2012-06-01

323

Essays on Product Recalls, New Product Preannouncements, and Shareholder Value  

E-print Network

-recall response diligently, and initiate recalls to mitigate the negative impact of the product-harm crises. In the second essay, I focus on the determinants of the effect of new product preannouncements on short-term shareholder value changes in an environment...

Yun, Wonjoo

2014-08-08

324

A Parallel Distributed Processing Model of Story Comprehension and Recall.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces a multistate probabilistic causal chain notation for describing the knowledge structures implicitly represented by the subjective conditional probability distribution. Proposes a psychological process model of how story comprehension and recall processes operate using causal chain representations. Compares the model's story-recall

Golden, Richard M.; Rumelhart, David E.

1993-01-01

325

Fad diets in diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weight reduction is notoriously difficult to achieve and may be more difficult to attain in people with diabetes on insulin therapy and insulin secretagogues. People with diabetes may turn to fad diet books to help them lose weight. The most popular diet books are The Atkins Diet, The South Beach Diet, The pH Diet, The Blood Group Diets and The

Eleanor J Baldwin

2004-01-01

326

Context Retrieval and Context Change in Free Recall: Recalling from Long-Term Memory Drives List Isolation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three experiments used the "list-before-the-last" free recall paradigm (Shiffrin, 1970) to investigate retrieval for context and the manner in which context changes. This paradigm manipulates target and intervening list lengths to measure the interference from each list, providing a measure of list isolation. Correct target list recall was only…

Jang, Yoonhee; Huber, David E.

2008-01-01

327

Effects of Training in Dream Recall and Dream Interpretation Skills on Dream Recall, Attitudes, and Dream Interpretation Outcome.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Volunteer clients (N=44) with below-average dream recall and attitudes toward dreams participated in training sessions focusing on either improving dream recall and attitudes toward dreams, building dream-interpretation skills, or educating about counseling. No significant differences were found within the three groups. Results suggest that…

Rochlen, Aaron B.; Ligiero, Daniela P.; Hill, Clara E.; Heaton, Kristin J.

1999-01-01

328

Sleep can reduce the testing effect -it enhances recall of restudied items but can leave recall of retrieved items  

E-print Network

Sleep can reduce the testing effect - it enhances recall of restudied items but can leave recall intervals include both wake and sleep delay, which can influence memory contents differently. In fact, sleep. We investigated in a series of 5 experiments whether sleep influences the testing effect. After

Schubart, Christoph

329

Coca-Cola Products Recalled in Europe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week's In the News reports on Coca-Cola product contamination in Belgium. The biggest product recall in Coca-Cola's 113-year history occurred on June 8, 1999 when 40 school children were hospitalized for poison symptoms in Lochristi, Belgium. Coca-Cola brands such as Fanta, Sprite, Nestea, Kinley tonic, Lift, and juice drinks sold under the Minute Maid name were pulled from store shelves in five European nations following the incident, costing the soft-drink giant an estimated $60 million. The company publicly apologized on June 24, but European officials expressed outrage over CEO M. Douglas Ivester's slow response, company allegations of "psychosomatic reactions" among Belgians, poorly constructed press conferences, and other public relations lapses. Coca-Cola Co. attributes the contamination to manufacturing mistakes made in Dunkirk, France where shipping pallets became tainted by the toxic chemical phenol, a corrosive substance frequently used as an antiseptic and disinfectant. These eight resources provide news analysis and company information regarding this important consumer issue.

Waters, Megan.

330

Graphic Warning Labels in Cigarette Advertisements: Recall and Viewing Patterns  

PubMed Central

Background The Family Smoking Prevention and Control Act gave the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) legal authority to mandate graphic warning labels on cigarette advertising and packaging. The FDA requires that these graphic warning labels be embedded into cigarette advertising and packaging by September 2012. Purpose The aim of this study was to examine differences in recall and viewing patterns of text-only versus graphic cigarette warning labels; and, the association between viewing patterns and recall. Methods Participants (current daily smokers; N=200) were randomized to view a cigarette advertisement with either text-only or graphic warning labels. Viewing patterns were measured using eye-tracking, and recall was later assessed. Sessions were conducted between November 2008 and November 2009. Data analysis was conducted between March 2011 and July 2011. Results There was a significant difference in percentage correct recall of the warning label between those in the text-only versus graphic warning label condition, 50% versus 83% (?2 =23.74, p=0.0001). Time to first view of the graphic warning label text, and dwell time duration (i.e., time spent looking) on the graphic image were significantly associated with correct recall. Warning labels that drew attention more quickly and resulted in longer dwell times were associated with better recall. Conclusions Graphic warning labels improve smokers’ recall of warning and health risks; they do so by drawing and holding attention. PMID:22704744

Strasser, Andrew A.; Tang, Kathy Z.; Romer, Daniel; Jepson, Chris; Cappella, Joseph N.

2012-01-01

331

Rehearsal development as development of iterative recall processes  

PubMed Central

Although much is known about the critical importance of active verbal rehearsal for successful recall, knowledge about the mechanisms of rehearsal and their respective development in children is very limited. To be able to rehearse several items together, these items have to be available, or, if presented and rehearsed previously, retrieved from memory. Therefore, joint rehearsal of several items may itself be considered recall. Accordingly, by analyzing free recall, one cannot only gain insight into how recall and rehearsal unfold, but also into how principles that govern children’s recall govern children’s rehearsal. Over a period of three and a half years (beginning at grade 3) 54 children were longitudinally assessed seven times on several overt rehearsal free recall trials. A first set of analyses on recall revealed significant age-related increases in the primacy effect and an age-invariant recency effect. In the middle portion of the list, wave-shaped recall characteristics emerged and increased with age, indicating grouping of the list into subsequences. In a second set of analyses, overt rehearsal behavior was decomposed into distinct rehearsal sets. Analyses of these sets revealed that the distribution of rehearsals within each set resembled the serial position curves with one- or two-item primacy and recency effects and wave-shaped rehearsal patterns in between. In addition, rehearsal behavior throughout the list was characterized by a decreasing tendency to begin rehearsal sets with the first list item. This result parallels the phenomenon of beginning recall with the first item on short lists and with the last item on longer lists.

Lehmann, Martin

2015-01-01

332

Conscious recall of different aspects of skill memory.  

PubMed

Different mechanisms are involved in the formation of memories necessary for daily living. For example, different memory representations are formed for the practiced transitions between key-presses (i.e., pressing key "2" after "3" in "4-3-2-1") and for the ordinal position of each key-press (i.e., pressing key "2" in the third ordinal position in "4-3-2-1") in a motor sequence. Whether the resulting transition-based and ordinal-based memories (Song and Cohen, 2014) can be consciously recalled is unknown. Here, we studied subjects who over a week of training and testing formed transition and ordinal-based memory representations of skill for a 12-item sequence of key-presses. Afterwards, subjects were first asked to recall and type the trained sequence and then to perform random key-presses avoiding the trained sequence. The difference in the ability to purposefully recall and avoid a trained sequence represents conscious recall (Destrebecqz and Cleeremans, 2001). We report that (a) the difference in the ability to purposefully recall and to avoid the trained sequence correlated with ordinal-based but not with transition-based memory; (b) subjects with no ability to recall or avoid the trained sequence formed transition-based but not ordinal-based memories; and (c) subjects with full ability to recall and avoid the trained sequence formed both transition-based and ordinal-based memories. We conclude that ordinal-based memory can be voluntarily recalled when transition-based memory cannot, documenting a differential capacity to recall memories forming a motor skill. Understanding that different memories form a motor skill, with different neural substrates (Cohen and Squire, 1980), may help develop novel training strategies in neurorehabilitation of patients with brain lesions. PMID:25071489

Song, Sunbin; Cohen, Leonardo G

2014-01-01

333

Ankylosing Spondylitis: Diet and Nutrition  

MedlinePLUS

Diet & Nutrition: Quick Links Overview of Diet & Spondylitis >>> Medication & Diet >>> Dietary Supplements >>> Changing Your Diet >>> The London AS / Low Starch Diet >>> Back To The About Spondylitis Main Page >>> DIET & ...

334

Electrolyte Intake and Nonpharmacologic Blood Pressure Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: To characterize relationships between sodium and potassium intakes and blood pressure control.METHODS: We analyzed repeated 24-hour diet recalls and 24-hour urine assays from 873 elderly participants with established hypertension in a 3-year clinical trial of lifestyle interventions. Pooled estimates of electrolyte intakes were developed using hierarchical measurement error models and related to nonpharmacologic blood pressure control.RESULTS: Relative decreases in

Mark A Espeland; Shiriki Kumanyika; Carla Yunis; Beiyao Zheng; W. Mark Brown; Sharon Jackson; Alan C Wilson; Judy Bahnson

2002-01-01

335

Examining the relationship between free recall and immediate serial recall: the effects of list length and output order.  

PubMed

In 4 experiments, participants were presented with lists of between 1 and 15 words for tests of immediate memory. For all tasks, participants tended to initiate recall with the first word on the list for short lists. As the list length was increased, so there was a decreased tendency to start with the first list item; and, when free to do so, participants showed an increased tendency to start with one of the last 4 list items. In all tasks, the start position strongly influenced the shape of the resultant serial position curves: When recall started at Serial Position 1, elevated recall of early list items was observed; when recall started toward the end of the list, there were extended recency effects. These results occurred under immediate free recall (IFR) and different variants of immediate serial recall (ISR) and reconstruction of order (RoO) tasks. We argue that these findings have implications for the relationship between IFR and ISR and between rehearsal and recall. PMID:20804293

Ward, Geoff; Tan, Lydia; Grenfell-Essam, Rachel

2010-09-01

336

Preliminary assessment of nutrients in daily diets of a sample of Belcher Island Inuit adults.  

PubMed

In order to describe daily food patterns and nutrient intakes of adults in the Inuit community of Sanikiluaq, 48 adults (young and older men and women, 12 per group, randomly selected from all individuals within their age and sex group) provided two 24-hour recalls of food consumption, once each in two seasons (February/March, October/November). The most frequent Inuit foods were reindeer, seal, and arctic char, while the most frequent market foods were tea, sugar, and bannock. On average 799 grams of Inuit food were consumed per day, providing 47% of daily energy and 65-92% of daily protein, iron, zinc, phosphorus, thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin. Inuit foods are primary sources of many nutrients for the Belcher Island Inuit. PMID:10093274

Wein, E E; Freeman, M M; Makus, J C

1998-01-01

337

Diet Light  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this quick activity, learners observe how the added sugar in a can of soda affects its density and thus, its ability to float in water. Learners explore this phenomenon by testing if two cans of soda (one regular, one diet or "sugar-free") float in a fish-tank filled with water. Use this activity to introduce learners to the concepts of density and water displacement. This resource also explains how atmospheric density plays a role in meteorology and includes thunderstorm safety tips.

National Weather Service

2012-06-26

338

Jim Lovell Recalls Apollo 8 Launch Day - Duration: 71 seconds.  

NASA Video Gallery

Astronaut Jim Lovell, veteran of two Gemini flights as well as the legendary missions of Apollo 8 and Apollo 13, recalls his thoughts on launch day of Apollo 8 in 1968, when humans first left the E...

339

21 CFR 7.50 - Public notification of recall.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of recalls of certain drugs and devices where the agency determines that public notification may cause unnecessary and harmful anxiety in patients and that initial consultation between patients and their physicians is essential. The report will not include...

2010-04-01

340

16 CFR 1115.27 - Recall notice content requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... (b) Date. A recall notice must include its date of release, issuance, posting, or publication. (c) Description...The description must include: (1) The product defect, fault, failure, flaw, and/or problem giving rise to the...

2011-01-01

341

Organizational Strategy and Retroactive Inhibition in Free Recall  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The results of these experiments supported the contention that the use of different organizational strategies on two word lists reduced the amount of retroactive inhibition in free recall. (Author/RK)

Andre, Thomas; And Others

1974-01-01

342

Temporal isolation effects in recognition and serial recall.  

PubMed

Recent temporal distinctiveness models of memory predict that temporally isolated items will be recalled better than temporally crowded items. The effect has been found in some tasks (free recall, memory for serial order when report order is unconstrained, running memory span) but not in others (forward serial recall). Such results suggest that the attentional weighting given to a temporal dimension in memory may vary with task demands. Here, we find robust temporal isolation effects in recognition memory (Experiment 1) and a smaller isolation effect in forward serial recall when an open pool of items is used (Experiment 2). Analysis of 26 temporal isolation effects suggests that the phenomenon occurs in a range of tasks but is larger when it is useful to attend to a temporal dimension in memory. The overall pattern of results is taken to favor memory models that rely on multiple weighted dimensions in memory, one of which is temporal. PMID:20921098

Morin, Caroline; Brown, Gordon D A; Lewandowsky, Stephan

2010-10-01

343

40 CFR 94.404 - Voluntary emissions recall reporting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Emission-related Defect Reporting Requirements, Voluntary Emission Recall Program § 94.404...

2011-07-01

344

Part-list cuing in speeded recognition and free recall  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary question was whether part-list cuing decrements would occur in a speededyes\\/no recognition task and free recall. After studying category exemplars, participants were tested either after re-presentation\\u000a of a subset of the exemplars (cues) or without re-presentation. Free recall of all study items followed the recognition task\\u000a in each trial. Across two experiments, results demonstrated partlist cuing impairment in

Karl M. Oswald; Matt Serra; Anand Krishna

2006-01-01

345

Recovery sleep after sleep deprivation almost completely abolishes dream recall.  

PubMed

The study investigated the effect of one night of sleep deprivation on dream recall at morning awakening after recovery sleep. Forty healthy subjects were studied after adaptation (A) and baseline nights (B), and a recovery (R) night following 40 h of prolonged wakefulness. Parallel to the well-known recovery sleep changes (slow-wave sleep--SWS--rebound, decreased number of awakenings and of REM sleep amount), an almost complete abolition of dream recall was found, with an around 75% decrease with respect to the adaptation and baseline nights. The number of dreams recalled by those subjects with successful recall (REC) did not significantly differ between nights. Moreover, gender and sleep stage at awakening did not affect either the proportion of REC subjects or the number of dreams recalled by REC subjects during each night. Finally, the drastic impairment of dream recall after R night was associated to a larger increase of SWS and a shorter REM sleep duration. We suggest that dream recall could have been impaired during R night because: (i) the lower number of spontaneous awakenings over the night reduced the contents available in memory as possible cues for the retrieval of dream experiences at morning; (ii) mental experiences, having been elaborated during SWS more than in the other nights, were less dreamlike (i.e., perceptually vivid and bizarre) and, thus less accessible at morning recall than those elaborated during the nights with a higher proportion of REM sleep; (iii) dream contents, as a peculiar type of episodic information, were less consolidated because of the lower effectiveness of declarative memory during recovery sleep. PMID:19788898

De Gennaro, Luigi; Marzano, Cristina; Moroni, Fabio; Curcio, Giuseppe; Ferrara, Michele; Cipolli, Carlo

2010-01-20

346

Adult age differences in free classification and free recall  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presented a verbal free classification and free recall task to 20 20-29, 40-49, and 60-69 yr. old white females. 1\\/2 the Ss categorized words into 2-7 categories prior to free recall, while the other Ss inspected the words but were prevented from physically sorting them. There were no significant age differences in free classification performance under the sorting condition. Analysis

David F. Hultsch

1971-01-01

347

Response to past depression treatments is not accurately recalled  

PubMed Central

Objective Assessing response to prior depression treatments is common in research and clinical practice, but few data are available regarding accuracy of recall. Data from a population-based survey were linked to electronic medical records to examine agreement between recalled treatment response and depression severity scores in medical records. Methods Electronic medical records from a large health system identified 1878 patients with two or more episodes for clinician-diagnosed depression between 2005 and 2009. 578 of those completed a survey including structured recall of response to each prior treatment – both global improvement during treatment and improvement specifically attributed to treatment. For 269 of these survey participants, at least one treatment episode could be unambiguously linked to both pre- and post-treatment PHQ9 depression scores in electronic medical records. Analyses examined agreement between patients recall of treatment response and improvement in PHQ9 scores from medical records. Results Agreement with medical records was poor both for recall of overall improvement following treatment (kappa = 0.10, 95% CI 0.00–0.19) and for recall of improvement attributed to treatment (kappa=0.12, 95% CI 0.00–0.25). Agreement remained poor when the sample was limited to medication treatment episodes, episodes lasting 3 months or more, or episodes for which the participant was “very sure” of her/his ability to recall. Agreement reached a fair level only for episodes in the six months prior to the survey (kappa = 0.23 for overall improvement, kappa = 0.36 for improvement attributed to treatment). Conclusions Patients’ recall of response to past depression treatments agrees poorly with data from medical records. Interview assessment of prior treatment response may not be a useful tool for research or clinical practice. PMID:23290322

Simon, Gregory E.; Rutter, Carolyn M.; Stewart, Christine; Pabiniak, Chester; Wehnes, Linda

2013-01-01

348

Worldwide food recall patterns over an eleven month period: A country perspective  

PubMed Central

Background Following the World Health Organization Forum in November 2007, the Beijing Declaration recognized the importance of food safety along with the rights of all individuals to a safe and adequate diet. The aim of this study is to retrospectively analyze the patterns in food alert and recall by countries to identify the principal hazard generators and gatekeepers of food safety in the eleven months leading up to the Declaration. Methods The food recall data set was collected by the Laboratory of the Government Chemist (LGC, UK) over the period from January to November 2007. Statistics were computed with the focus reporting patterns by the 117 countries. The complexity of the recorded interrelations was depicted as a network constructed from structural properties contained in the data. The analysed network properties included degrees, weighted degrees, modularity and k-core decomposition. Network analyses of the reports, based on 'country making report' (detector) and 'country reported on' (transgressor), revealed that the network is organized around a dominant core. Results Ten countries were reported for sixty per cent of all faulty products marketed, with the top 5 countries having received between 100 to 281 reports. Further analysis of the dominant core revealed that out of the top five transgressors three made no reports (in the order China > Turkey > Iran). The top ten detectors account for three quarters of reports with three > 300 (Italy: 406, Germany: 340, United Kingdom: 322). Conclusion Of the 117 countries studied, the vast majority of food reports are made by 10 countries, with EU countries predominating. The majority of the faulty foodstuffs originate in ten countries with four major producers making no reports. This pattern is very distant from that proposed by the Beijing Declaration which urges all countries to take responsibility for the provision of safe and adequate diets for their nationals. PMID:18783627

Nepusz, Tamás; Petróczi, Andrea; Naughton, Declan P

2008-01-01

349

Caffeine in the diet  

MedlinePLUS

Diet - caffeine ... for caffeine. It can be avoided in the diet. Caffeine stimulates, or excites, the brain and nervous ... medications such as pain relievers , over-the-counter diet pills, and cold medicines. Caffeine has no flavor. ...

350

A comparative analysis of double-crested cormorant diets from stomachs and pellets from two Lake Ontario colonies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) diets were compared with evidence from the stomachs of shot birds and from regurgitated pellets at High Bluff Island and Little Galloo Island, Lake Ontario. The highest similarity in diets determined by stomach and pellet analyses occurred when both samples were collected on the same day. Diet overlap dropped substantially between the two methods when collection periods were seven to ten days apart, which suggested differences in prey availability between the two periods. Since the average number of fish recovered in pellets was significantly higher than that in stomachs, use of pellets to determine fish consumption of double-crested cormorants may be more valid than stomach analysis because pellet content represent an integrated sampling of food consumed over approximately 24 hours.

Johnson, James H.; Ross, Robert M.; McCullough, Russell D.; Mathers, Alastair

2010-01-01

351

Moringa oleifera Supplemented Diets Prevented Nickel-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Wistar Rats  

PubMed Central

Background. The Moringa oleifera plant has been implicated for several therapeutic potentials. Objective. To evaluate whether addition of M. oleifera to diet has protective effect against nickel-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Methodology. Male Wistar rats were assigned into six groups of five. The rats were given oral exposure to 20?mg/kg nickel sulphate (NiSO4) in normal saline and sustained on either normal diet or diets supplemented with Moringa oleifera at different concentrations for 21 days. 24 hours after cessation of treatments, all animals were sacrificed under slight anesthesia. The blood and kidney samples were collected for biochemical and histopathology analyses, respectively. Results. NiSO4 exposure reduced the kidney-to-body weight ratio in rats and caused significant elevation in the levels of plasma creatinine, urea, and potassium. Also, the plasma level of sodium was decreased by NiSO4 exposure. However, addition of M. oleifera to diets averted the nickel-induced alteration to the level of creatinine and urea. The histopathology revealed damaged renal tubules and glomerular walls caused by NiSO4 exposure. In contrast, the damages were ameliorated by the M. oleifera supplemented diets. Conclusion. The addition of M. oleifera to diet afforded significant protection against nickel-induced nephrotoxicity. PMID:25295181

Adeyemi, O. S.; Elebiyo, T. C.

2014-01-01

352

Moringa oleifera Supplemented Diets Prevented Nickel-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Wistar Rats.  

PubMed

Background. The Moringa oleifera plant has been implicated for several therapeutic potentials. Objective. To evaluate whether addition of M. oleifera to diet has protective effect against nickel-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Methodology. Male Wistar rats were assigned into six groups of five. The rats were given oral exposure to 20?mg/kg nickel sulphate (NiSO4) in normal saline and sustained on either normal diet or diets supplemented with Moringa oleifera at different concentrations for 21 days. 24 hours after cessation of treatments, all animals were sacrificed under slight anesthesia. The blood and kidney samples were collected for biochemical and histopathology analyses, respectively. Results. NiSO4 exposure reduced the kidney-to-body weight ratio in rats and caused significant elevation in the levels of plasma creatinine, urea, and potassium. Also, the plasma level of sodium was decreased by NiSO4 exposure. However, addition of M. oleifera to diets averted the nickel-induced alteration to the level of creatinine and urea. The histopathology revealed damaged renal tubules and glomerular walls caused by NiSO4 exposure. In contrast, the damages were ameliorated by the M. oleifera supplemented diets. Conclusion. The addition of M. oleifera to diet afforded significant protection against nickel-induced nephrotoxicity. PMID:25295181

Adeyemi, O S; Elebiyo, T C

2014-01-01

353

Intrusions in story recall: when over-learned information interferes with episodic memory recall. Evidence from Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) suffer from distortions of memory. Among such distortions, intrusions in memory tests are frequently observed. In this study we describe the performance of a group of mild AD patients and a group of normal controls on the recall of three different types of stories: a previously unknown story, a well-known fairy-tale (Cinderella), and a modified well-known fairy-tale (Little Red Riding Hood is not eaten by the wolf). The aim of our study was to test the hypothesis that in patients who tend to produce intrusions, over-learned information interferes with episodic recall, i.e., the retrieval of specific, unique past episodes. AD patients produced significantly more intrusions in the recall of the modified fairy-tale compared to the recall of the two other stories. Intrusions in the recall of the modified fairy-tale always consisted of elements of the original version of the story. We suggest that in AD patients intrusions may be traced back to the interference of strongly represented, over-learned information in episodic memory recall. PMID:18387559

De Anna, Francesca; Attali, Eve; Freynet, Laurence; Foubert, Lucie; Laurent, Aurore; Dubois, Bruno; Dalla Barba, Gianfranco

2008-03-01

354

Effects of language dominance on item and order memory in free recall, serial recall and order reconstruction.  

PubMed

Spanish-English bilinguals (N = 144) performed free recall, serial recall and order reconstruction tasks in both English and Spanish. Long-term memory for both item and order information was worse in the less fluent language (L2) than in the more fluent language (L1). Item scores exhibited a stronger disadvantage for the L2 in serial recall than in free recall. Relative order scores were lower in the L2 for all three tasks, but adjusted scores for free and serial recall were equivalent across languages. Performance of English-speaking monolinguals (N = 72) was comparable to bilingual performance in the L1, except that monolinguals had higher adjusted order scores in free recall. Bilingual performance patterns in the L2 were consistent with the established effects of concurrent task performance on these memory tests, suggesting that the cognitive resources required for processing words in the L2 encroach on resources needed to commit item and order information to memory. These findings are also consistent with a model in which item memory is connected to the language system, order information is processed by separate mechanisms and attention can be allocated differentially to these two systems. PMID:24303779

Francis, Wendy S; Baca, Yuzeth

2014-01-01

355

Inter- and intra-individual variation in immediate free recall: an examination of serial position functions and recall initiation strategies.  

PubMed

Serial position functions in immediate free recall have been historically noted for their bowed shape, where items presented at the beginning (primacy) and end (recency) of a list are better remembered than those presented in the middle. While extensive work has examined these effects, researchers typically ignore the systematic differences among individuals that likely contribute, but are lost when using an aggregate function. In the current study, inter- and intra-individual differences in serial position functions and differences in recall strategies were examined. Participants performed a free recall task on multiple lists. Three groups of participants were derived based on the relative profiles in their serial position functions. These groups differed in the extent that they output mainly primacy items, recency items, or both primacy and recency items. Performance on immediate free recall and on cognitive ability tasks was compared between these three groups. Systematic inter- and intra-individual variation in recall strategies led to differential profiles of performance in immediate free recall, which was also related to the additional cognitive ability measures. Performance on a task can be due to the utilisation of a variety of control processes that emphasise various components of that task over other components. PMID:21240749

Unsworth, Nash; Brewer, Gene A; Spillers, Gregory J

2011-01-01

356

Rats Eat a Cafeteria-Style Diet to Excess but Eat Smaller Amounts and Less Frequently when Tested with Chow  

PubMed Central

Background Obesity is associated with excessive consumption of palatable, energy dense foods. The present study used an animal model to examine feeding patterns during exposure to and withdrawal from these foods. Methods Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to standard lab chow only (Chow rats) or a range of cafeteria-style foods eaten by people (Caf rats). After 1, 4, 7 and 10 weeks of diet in their home cage, rats were subjected to 24-hour test sessions in a Comprehensive Lab Animal Monitoring System (CLAMS). In the first two test sessions, Chow rats were exposed to standard lab chow only while Caf rats were exposed to a biscuit and high-fat chow diet. In the final two test sessions, half the rats in each group were switched to the opposing diet. In each session we recorded numbers of bouts, energy consumed per bout, and intervals between bouts across the entire 24 hours. Results Relative to Chow rats, Caf rats initiated fewer bouts but consumed more energy per bout; however, their motivation to feed in the CLAMS declined over time, which was attributed to reduced variety of foods relative to their home cage diet. This decline in motivation was especially pronounced among Caf rats switched from the palatable CLAMS diet to standard lab chow only: the reduced energy intake in this group was due to a modest decline in bout frequency and a dramatic decline in bout size. Conclusions Exposure to a cafeteria-diet, rich in variety, altered feeding patterns, reduced rats' motivation to consume palatable foods in the absence of variety, and further diminished motivation to feed when palatable foods were withdrawn and replaced with chow. Hence, variety is a key factor in driving excessive consumption of energy dense foods, and therefore, excessive weight gain. PMID:24751610

Martire, Sarah I.; Westbrook, R. Frederick; Morris, Margaret J.

2014-01-01

357

Diet and nutritional status among children 24–59 months by seasons in a mountainous area of Northern Vietnam in 2012  

PubMed Central

Background Seasonal variation affects food availability. However, it is not clear if it affects dietary intake and nutritional status of children in Vietnam. Objectives This paper aims at examining the seasonal variation in nutrition status and dietary intake of children aged 24–59 months. Design A repeated cross-sectional study design was used to collect data of changes in nutritional status and diets of children from 24 to 59 months through four seasons in Chiem Hoa district, Tuyen Quang province, a predominately rural mountainous province of northern Vietnam. The quantitative component includes anthropometric measurements, 24 hours dietary recall and socio-economic characteristics. The qualitative component was conducted through focus group discussions (FGDs) with mothers of the children surveyed in the quantitative component. The purpose of FGDs was to explore the food habits of children during the different seasons and the behaviours of their mothers in relation to the food that they provide during these seasons. Results The prevalence of underweight among children aged 24–59 months is estimated at around 20–25%; it peaked in summer (24.9%) and reached a low in winter (21.3%). The prevalence of stunting was highest in summer (29.8%) and lowest in winter (22.2%). The prevalence of wasting in children was higher in spring and autumn (14.3%) and lower in summer (9.3%). Energy intake of children was highest in the autumn (1259.3 kcal) and lowest in the summer (996.9 kcal). Most of the energy and the nutrient intakes during the four seasons did not meet the Vietnamese National Institute of Nutrition recommendation. Conclusions Our study describes some seasonal variation in nutrition status and energy intake among children in a mountainous area northern Vietnam. Our study indicated that the prevalence of stunting and underweight was higher in summer and autumn, while the prevalence of wasting was higher in spring and autumn. Energy intake did not always meet national recommendations, especially in summer. PMID:25511885

Huong, Le Thi; Xuan, Le Thi Thanh; Phuong, Le Hong; Huyen, Doan Thi Thu; Rocklöv, Joacim

2014-01-01

358

Recall initiation strategies must be controlled in training studies that use immediate free recall tasks to measure the components of working memory capacity across time.  

PubMed

There has been great interest in using working memory (WM) training regimens as an alternative treatment for ADHD, but it has recently been concluded that existing training regimens may not be optimally designed because they target the primary memory component but not the secondary component of WM capacity. This conclusion requires the ability to accurately measure changes in primary and secondary memory abilities over time. The immediate free recall task has been used in previous studies to measure these changes; however, one concern with these tasks is that the recall order required on training exercises may influence the recall strategy used during free recall, which may in turn influence the relative number of items recalled from primary and secondary memory. To address this issue, previous training studies have explicitly controlled recall strategy before and after training. However, the necessity of controlling for recall strategies has not been explicitly tested. The present study investigated the effects of forward-serial-order training on free recall performance under conditions in which recall strategy was not controlled using a sample of adolescents with ADHD. Unlike when recall order was controlled, the main findings showed selective improvement of the secondary memory component (as opposed to the primary memory component) when recall order was uncontrolled. This finding advances our understanding of WM training by highlighting the importance of controlling for recall strategies when free recall tasks are used to measure changes in the primary and secondary components of WM across time. PMID:23930700

Gibson, Bradley S; Gondoli, Dawn M; Johnson, Ann C; Robison, Matthew K

2014-01-01

359

Age-dependent brain activation during forward and backward digit recall revealed by fMRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, brain activation associated with forward and backward digit recall was examined in healthy old and young adults using functional MRI. A number of areas were activated during the recall. In young adults, greater activation was found in the left prefrontal cortex (BA9) and the left occipital visual cortex during backward digit recall than forward digit recall. In

Xiwen Sun; Xiaochu Zhang; Xiangchuan Chen; Peng Zhang; Min Bao; Daren Zhang; Jing Chen; Sheng He; Xiaoping Hu

2005-01-01

360

Serial Recall, Word Frequency, and Mixed Lists: The Influence of Item Arrangement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies of the effect of word frequency in the serial recall task show that lists of high-frequency words are better recalled than lists of low-frequency words; however, when high- and low-frequency words are alternated within a list, there is no difference in the level of recall for the two types of words, and recall is intermediate between lists…

Miller, Leonie M.; Roodenrys, Steven

2012-01-01

361

The effect of forced recall on illusory recollection in younger and older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experiments reported in this article examine a situation that often occurs when one repeatedly recalls the same events. If a person witnesses a series of events and then recalls them with encouragement to guess and to produce as many responses as possible, what effect does this have on later recall? Might people recall at a later time items that

MICHELLE L. MEADE

2006-01-01

362

Subjective Organisation in the Free Recall Learning of Adults with Asperger's Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Single trial methods reveal unimpaired free recall of unrelated words in Asperger's syndrome (AS). When repeated trials are used (free recall learning), typical individuals show improved recall over trials, subjective organization of material (SO) and a correlation between free recall and SO. We tested oral (Experiment 1) and written (Experiment…

Bowler, Dermot M.; Gaigg, Sebastian B.; Gardiner, John M.

2008-01-01

363

The Role of Covert Retrieval in Working Memory Span Tasks: Evidence from Delayed Recall Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study examined delayed recall of items that had been processed during simple and complex span tasks. Three experiments were reported showing that despite more items being recalled initially from a simple span task (i.e., word span) than a complex span task (i.e., operation span), on a delayed recall test more items were recalled that…

McCabe, David P.

2008-01-01

364

Using Standards to Improve Middle School Students’ Accuracy at Evaluating the Quality of Their Recall  

Microsoft Academic Search

When recalling key term definitions from class materials, students may recall entirely incorrect definitions, yet will often claim that these commission errors are entirely correct; that is, they are overconfident in the quality of their recall responses. We investigated whether this overconfidence could be reduced by providing various standards to middle school students as they evaluated their recall responses. Students

Amanda R. Lipko; John Dunlosky; Marissa K. Hartwig; Katherine A. Rawson; Karen Swan; Dale Cook

2009-01-01

365

Resting brain activity varies with dream recall frequency between subjects.  

PubMed

Dreaming is still poorly understood. Notably, its cerebral underpinning remains unclear. Neuropsychological studies have shown that lesions in the temporoparietal junction (TPJ) and/or the white matter of the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) lead to the global cessation of dream reports, suggesting that these regions of the default mode network have key roles in the dreaming process (forebrain 'dream-on' hypothesis). To test this hypothesis, we measured regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using [(15)O]H2O positron emission tomography in healthy subjects with high and low dream recall frequencies (DRFs) during wakefulness (rest) and sleep (rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, N2, and N3). Compared with Low recallers (0.5 ± 0.3 dream recall per week in average), High recallers (5.2 ± 1.4) showed higher rCBF in the TPJ during REM sleep, N3, and wakefulness, and in the MPFC during REM sleep and wakefulness. We demonstrate that the resting states of High recallers and Low recallers differ during sleep and wakefulness. It coheres with previous ERP results and confirms that a high/low DRF is associated with a specific functional organization of the brain. These results support the forebrain 'dream-on' hypothesis and suggest that TPJ and MPFC are not only involved in dream recall during wakefulness but also have a role in dreaming during sleep (production and/or encoding). Increased activity in the TPJ and MPFC might promote the mental imagery and/or memory encoding of dreams. Notably, increased activity in TPJ might facilitate attention orienting toward external stimuli and promote intrasleep wakefulness, facilitating the encoding of the dreams in memory. PMID:24549103

Eichenlaub, Jean-Baptiste; Nicolas, Alain; Daltrozzo, Jérôme; Redouté, Jérôme; Costes, Nicolas; Ruby, Perrine

2014-06-01

366

Diet Quality of Multiethnic Mothers with Limited Incomes in the Southern United States  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study compared nutrient intakes of a multiethnic sample of mothers with children in Head Start in 2 southern states in the U.S.: 24% white (W), 43% African American (AA) and 33% Hispanic (HSP). Interviewers elicited 3 nonconsecutive days of dietary recalls. Diet quality was evaluated using th...

367

Dreams recall and auditory evoked potentials during propofol anaesthesia.  

PubMed

It is unclear whether shorter wave latencies of middle-latency-auditory-evoked-potentials may be associated to cognitive function other than nondeclarative memory. We investigated the presence of declarative, nondeclarative and dreaming memory in propofol-anaesthetized patients and any relationship to intraoperatively registered middle-latency-auditory-evoked-potentials. An audiotape containing one of two stories was presented to patients during anaesthesia. Patients were interviewed on dream recall immediately upon emergence from anaesthesia. Declarative and nondeclarative memories for intraoperative listening were assessed 24 h after awakening without pointing out positive findings. Six patients who reported dream recall showed an intraoperative Pa latency less than that of patients who were unable to remember any dreams (P<0.001). A high responsiveness degree of primary cortex was associated to dream recall formation during anaesthesia. PMID:17471074

Aceto, Paola; Congedo, Elisabetta; Lai, Carlo; Valente, Alessio; Gualtieri, Elisabetta; De Cosmo, Germano

2007-05-28

368

Temporal-contextual processing in working memory: evidence from delayed cued recall and delayed free recall tests.  

PubMed

Three experiments are reported that addressed the nature of processing in working memory by investigating patterns of delayed cued recall and free recall of items initially studied during complex and simple span tasks. In Experiment 1, items initially studied during a complex span task (i.e., operation span) were more likely to be recalled after a delay in response to temporal-contextual cues, relative to items from subspan and supraspan list lengths in a simple span task (i.e., word span). In Experiment 2, items initially studied during operation span were more likely to be recalled from neighboring serial positions during delayed free recall than were items studied during word span trials. Experiment 3 demonstrated that the number of attentional refreshing opportunities strongly predicts episodic memory performance, regardless of whether the information is presented in a spaced or massed format in a modified operation span task. The results indicate that the content-context bindings created during complex span trials reflect attentional refreshing opportunities that are used to maintain items in working memory. PMID:21948350

Loaiza, Vanessa M; McCabe, David P

2012-02-01

369

Comparative Effects of Low-Carbohydrate High-Protein Versus Low-Fat Diets on the Kidney  

PubMed Central

Summary Background and objectives Concerns exist about deleterious renal effects of low-carbohydrate high-protein weight loss diets. This issue was addressed in a secondary analysis of a parallel randomized, controlled long-term trial. Design, setting, participants, and measurements Between 2003 and 2007, 307 obese adults without serious medical illnesses at three United States academic centers were randomly assigned to a low-carbohydrate high-protein or a low-fat weight-loss diet for 24 months. Main outcomes included renal filtration (GFR) indices (serum creatinine, cystatin C, creatinine clearance); 24-hour urinary volume; albumin; calcium excretion; and serum solutes at 3, 12, and 24 months. Results Compared with the low-fat diet, low-carbohydrate high-protein consumption was associated with minor reductions in serum creatinine (relative difference, ?4.2%) and cystatin C (?8.4%) at 3 months and relative increases in creatinine clearance at 3 (15.8 ml/min) and 12 (20.8 ml/min) months; serum urea at 3 (14.4%), 12 (9.0%), and 24 (8.2%) months; and 24-hour urinary volume at 12 (438 ml) and 24 (268 ml) months. Urinary calcium excretion increased at 3 (36.1%) and 12 (35.7%) months without changes in bone density or clinical presentations of new kidney stones. Conclusions In healthy obese individuals, a low-carbohydrate high-protein weight-loss diet over 2 years was not associated with noticeably harmful effects on GFR, albuminuria, or fluid and electrolyte balance compared with a low-fat diet. Further follow-up is needed to determine even longer-term effects on kidney function. PMID:22653255

Ogden, Lorraine G.; Foster, Gary D.; Klein, Samuel; Stein, Richard; Miller, Bernard; Hill, James O.; Brill, Carrie; Bailer, Brooke; Rosenbaum, Diane R.; Wyatt, Holly R.

2012-01-01

370

Weight loss strategies, stress, and cognitive function: supervised versus unsupervised dieting.  

PubMed

The early stages of dieting to lose weight have been associated with neuro-psychological impairments. Previous work has not elucidated whether these impairments are a function solely of unsupported or supported dieting. Raised cortico-steroid levels have been implicated as a possible causal mechanism. Healthy, overweight, pre-menopausal women were randomised to one of three conditions in which they dieted either as part of a commercially available weight loss group, dieted without any group support or acted as non-dieting controls for 8 weeks. Testing occurred at baseline and at 1, 4 and 8 weeks post baseline. During each session, participants completed measures of simple reaction time, motor speed, vigilance, immediate verbal recall, visuo-spatial processing and (at Week 1 only) executive function. Cortisol levels were gathered at the beginning and 30 min into each test session, via saliva samples. Also, food intake was self-recorded prior to each session and fasting body weight and percentage body fat were measured at each session. Participants in the unsupported diet condition displayed poorer vigilance performance (p = 0.001) and impaired executive planning function (p = 0.013) (along with a marginally significant trend for poorer visual recall (p = 0.089)) after 1 week of dieting. No such impairments were observed in the other two groups. In addition, the unsupported dieters experienced a significant rise in salivary cortisol levels after 1 week of dieting (p < 0.001). Both dieting groups lost roughly the same amount of body mass (p = 0.011) over the course of the 8 weeks of dieting, although only the unsupported dieters experienced a significant drop in percentage body fat over the course of dieting (p = 0.016). The precise causal nature of the relationship between stress, cortisol, unsupported dieting and cognitive function is, however, uncertain and should be the focus of further research. PMID:15970392

Green, Michael W; Elliman, Nicola A; Kretsch, Mary J

2005-10-01

371

Blurring of emotional and non-emotional memories by taxing working memory during recall.  

PubMed

Memories that are recalled while working memory (WM) is taxed, e.g., by making eye movements (EM), become blurred during the recall + EM and later recall, without EM. This may help to explain the effects of Eye Movement and Desensitisation and Reprocessing (EMDR) in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in which patients make EM during trauma recall. Earlier experimental studies on recall + EM have focused on emotional memories. WM theory suggests that recall + EM is superior to recall only but is silent about effects of memory emotionality. Based on the emotion and memory literature, we examined whether recall + EM has superior effects in blurring emotional memories relative to neutral memories. Healthy volunteers recalled negative or neutral memories, matched for vividness, while visually tracking a dot that moved horizontally ("recall + EM") or remained stationary ("recall only"). Compared to a pre-test, a post-test (without concentrating on the dot) replicated earlier findings: negative memories are rated as less vivid after "recall + EM" but not after "recall only". This was not found for neutral memories. Emotional memories are more taxing than neutral memories, which may explain the findings. Alternatively, transient arousal induced by recall of aversive memories may promote reconsolidation of the blurred memory image that is provoked by EM. PMID:24199660

van den Hout, Marcel A; Eidhof, Marloes B; Verboom, Jesse; Littel, Marianne; Engelhard, Iris M

2014-01-01

372

On EMDR: eye movements during retrieval reduce subjective vividness and objective memory accessibility during future recall.  

PubMed

In eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR), a treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), patients make eye movements (EM) during trauma recall. Earlier experimental studies found that EM during recall reduces memory vividness during future recalls, and this was taken as laboratory support for the underlying mechanism of EMDR. However, reduced vividness was assessed with self-reports that may be affected by demand characteristics. We tested whether recall+EM also reduces memory vividness on a behavioural reaction time (RT) task. Undergraduates (N=32) encoded two pictures, recalled them, and rated their vividness. In the EM group, one of the pictures was recalled again while making EM. In the no-EM group one of the pictures was recalled without EM. Then fragments from both the recalled and non-recalled pictures, and new fragments were presented and participants rated whether these were (or were not) seen before. Both pictures were rated again for vividness. In the EM group, self-rated vividness of the recalled+EM picture decreased, relative to the non-recalled picture. In the no-EM group there was no difference between the recalled versus non-recalled picture. The RT task showed the same pattern. Reduction of memory vividness due to recall+EM is also evident from non-self-report data. PMID:22765837

van den Hout, Marcel A; Bartelski, Nicola; Engelhard, Iris M

2013-01-01

373

24-Hour Help Line 612-626-9111  

E-print Network

assis- tance Follow­up as necessary Police Advocacy We can accompany/ sup- port you if you file a police to and from ER available by UMPD Note: In Minnesota, all evidentiary exam costs are covered by the county/ provide transportation to and from court Coordinate safe housing and provide moving service with police

Blanchette, Robert A.

374

Attenuated sympathetic nerve responses after 24 hours of bed rest  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bed rest reduces orthostatic tolerance. Despite decades of study, the cause of this phenomenon remains unclear. In this report we examined hemodynamic and sympathetic nerve responses to graded lower body negative pressure (LBNP) before and after 24 h of bed rest. LBNP allows for baroreceptor disengagement in a graded fashion. We measured heart rate (HR), cardiac output (HR x stroke volume obtained by echo Doppler), and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) during a progressive and graded LBNP paradigm. Negative pressure was increased by 10 mmHg every 3 min until presyncope or completion of -60 mmHg. After bed rest, LBNP tolerance was reduced in 11 of 13 subjects (P <.023), HR was greater (P <.002), cardiac output was unchanged, and the ability to augment MSNA at high levels of LBNP was reduced (rate of rise for 30- to 60-mmHg LBNP before bed rest 0.073 bursts x min(-1) x mmHg(-1); after bed rest 0.035 bursts x min(-1) x mmHg(-1); P < 0.016). These findings suggest that 24 h of bed rest reduces sympathetic nerve responses to LBNP.

Khan, Mazhar H.; Kunselman, Allen R.; Leuenberger, Urs A.; Davidson, William R Jr; Ray, Chester A.; Gray, Kristen S.; Hogeman, Cynthia S.; Sinoway, Lawrence I.

2002-01-01

375

Rethinking the Youth Weight Debate: The 24 Hour Day  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Approaches to weight management have traditionally focussed on caloric intake versus caloric expenditure. Despite a range of interventions based on these approaches, the proportion of overweight children and adolescents continues to rise. There are increasing indications that other factors, such as sleep duration, may be at play. This commentary…

Dodd, Graham; Biggs, Sarah; Agley, Daniel; Dollman, James; Lushington, Kurt

2008-01-01

376

A 24-hour remote surveillance system for terrestrial wildlife studies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The configuration, components, specifications and costs of a state-of-the-art closed-circuit television system with wide application for wildlife research and management are described. The principal system components consist of color CCTV camera with zoom lens, pan/tilt system, infrared illuminator, heavy duty tripod, coaxial cable, coaxitron system, half-duplex equalizing video/control amplifier, timelapse video cassette recorder, color video monitor, VHS video cassettes, portable generator, fuel tank and power cable. This system was developed and used in a study of Mississippi sandhiIl Crane (Grus canadensis pratensis) behaviors during incubation, hatching and fledging. The main advantages of the system are minimal downtime where a complete record of every event, its time of occurrence and duration, are permanently recorded and can be replayed as many times as necessary thereafter to retrieve the data. The system is particularly applicable for studies of behavior and predation, for counting individuals, or recording difficult to observe activities. The system can be run continuously for several weeks by two people, reducing personnel costs. This paper is intended to provide biologists who have litte knowledge of electronics with a system that might be useful to their specific needs. The disadvantages of this system are the initial costs (about $9800 basic, 1990-1991 U.S. dollars) and the time required to playback video cassette tapes for data retrieval, but the playback can be sped up when litte or no activity of interest is taking place. In our study, the positive aspects of the system far outweighed the negative.

Sykes, P.W., Jr.; Ryman, W.E.; Kepler, C.B.; Hardy, J.W.

1995-01-01

377

Designing a patient-care 24-hour flow sheet.  

PubMed

Flow sheets provide a clear understanding of the patient in a timely manner, but designing the new charting format can be complex. This guide defines a patient-care document's purpose, flow sheet strengths, and the evaluation format. PMID:10640040

Chelewski, P K

1999-01-01

378

Designing a patient-care 24-hour flowsheet.  

PubMed

Flowsheets provide a clear understanding of the patient in a timely manner, but designing the new charting format can be complex. A guide defines a patient-care document's purpose, flowsheet strengths and the evaluation format. PMID:9697494

Chelewski, P K

1998-04-01

379

Collection of a 24-Hour Urine Specimen (Beyond the Basics)  

MedlinePLUS

... the day and night in an empty collection bottle. Store the bottle at room temperature or in the refrigerator. ? If ... to remove the feces from the urine collection bottle. ? Finish by collecting the first urine passed the ...

380

Maternal Deprivation Exacerbates the Response to a High Fat Diet in a Sexually Dimorphic Manner  

PubMed Central

Maternal deprivation (MD) during neonatal life has diverse long-term effects, including affectation of metabolism. Indeed, MD for 24 hours during the neonatal period reduces body weight throughout life when the animals are maintained on a normal diet. However, little information is available regarding how this early stress affects the response to increased metabolic challenges during postnatal life. We hypothesized that MD modifies the response to a high fat diet (HFD) and that this response differs between males and females. To address this question, both male and female Wistar rats were maternally deprived for 24 hours starting on the morning of postnatal day (PND) 9. Upon weaning on PND22 half of each group received a control diet (CD) and the other half HFD. MD rats of both sexes had significantly reduced accumulated food intake and weight gain compared to controls when raised on the CD. In contrast, when maintained on a HFD energy intake and weight gain did not differ between control and MD rats of either sex. However, high fat intake induced hyperleptinemia in MD rats as early as PND35, but not until PND85 in control males and control females did not become hyperleptinemic on the HFD even at PND102. High fat intake stimulated hypothalamic inflammatory markers in both male and female rats that had been exposed to MD, but not in controls. Reduced insulin sensitivity was observed only in MD males on the HFD. These results indicate that MD modifies the metabolic response to HFD intake, with this response being different between males and females. Thus, the development of obesity and secondary complications in response to high fat intake depends on numerous factors. PMID:23145019

Mela, Virginia; Llorente-Berzal, Álvaro; Díaz, Francisca; Argente, Jesús; Viveros, María-Paz; Chowen, Julie A.

2012-01-01

381

The Impact of Interactive Storybook on Elementary School Students' Recall  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effectiveness of animated interactive storybook on elementary school students' recall. This experiment utilized 77 fourth grade students in three groups. Each student was randomly assigned with one of the three conditions: (1) computer presentation of interactive storybooks with animation; (2) computer presentation of…

Seyit, Ertem Ihsan

2011-01-01

382

Associative Information in Memory: Evidence from Cued Recall  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The representation of item and associative information in episodic memory was investigated using cued recall and single item recognition. In the first four experiments, participants studied two lists constructed such that some items presented in a pair during List 1 were rearranged to create new pairs in List 2 and were accompanied by pairs…

Aue, William R.; Criss, Amy H.; Fischetti, Nicholas W.

2012-01-01

383

Musculoskeletal allograft risks and recalls in the United States.  

PubMed

There have been several improvements to the US tissue banking industry over the past decade. Tissue banks had limited active government regulation until 1993, at which time the US Food and Drug Administration began regulatory oversight because of reports of disease transmission from allograft tissues. Reports in recent years of disease transmission associated with the use of allografts have further raised concerns about the safety of such implants. A retrospective review of allograft recall data was performed to analyze allograft recall by tissue type, reason, and year during the period from January 1994 to June 30, 2007. During the study period, more than 96.5% of all allograft tissues recalled were musculoskeletal. The reasons underlying recent musculoskeletal tissue recalls include insufficient or improper donor evaluation, contamination, recipient infection, and positive serologic tests. Infectious disease transmission following allograft implantation may occur if potential donors are not adequately evaluated or screened serologically during the prerecovery phase and if the implant is not sterilized before implantation. PMID:18832599

Mroz, Thomas E; Joyce, Michael J; Steinmetz, Michael P; Lieberman, Isador H; Wang, Jeffrey C

2008-10-01

384

Readability as a Factor in Magazine Ad Copy Recall.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the relationship between advertising copy readability and advertising effectiveness. Finds that recall is improved when the copy style is either fairly easy or fairly hard to read. Suggests the value of considering copy readability as a potential contributor, though a minor one, to the success of magazine advertising. (RS)

Wesson, David A.

1989-01-01

385

The Disfluent Discourse: Effects of Filled Pauses on Recall  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated the mechanisms by which fillers, such as "uh" and "um", affect memory for discourse. Participants listened to and attempted to recall recorded passages adapted from "Alice's Adventures in Wonderland". The type and location of interruptions were manipulated through digital splicing. In Experiment 1, we tested a processing time…

Fraundorf, Scott H.; Watson, Duane G.

2011-01-01

386

Collaborative recall in face-to-face and electronic groups.  

PubMed

When people remember shared experiences, the amount they recall as a collaborating group is less than the amount obtained by pooling their individual memories. We tested the hypothesis that reduced group productivity can be attributed, at least in part, to content filtering, where information is omitted from group products either because individuals fail to retrieve it or choose to withhold it (self-filtering), or because groups reject or fail to incorporate it (group-filtering). Three-person groups viewed a movie clip together and recalled it, first individually, then in face-to-face or electronic groups, and finally individually again. Although both kinds of groups recalled equal amounts, group-filtering occurred more often face-to-face, while self-filtering occurred more often electronically. This suggests that reduced group productivity is due not only to intrapersonal factors stemming from cognitive interference, but also to interpersonal costs of coordinating the group product. Finally, face-to-face group interaction facilitated subsequent individual recall. PMID:18324550

Ekeocha, Justina Ohaeri; Brennan, Susan E

2008-04-01

387

The Effect of Concurrent Semantic Categorization on Delayed Serial Recall  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The influence of semantic processing on the serial ordering of items in short-term memory was explored using a novel dual-task paradigm. Participants engaged in 2 picture-judgment tasks while simultaneously performing delayed serial recall. List material varied in the presence of phonological overlap (Experiments 1 and 2) and in semantic content…

Acheson, Daniel J.; MacDonald, Maryellen C.; Postle, Bradley R.

2011-01-01

388

Recovery sleep after sleep deprivation almost completely abolishes dream recall  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study investigated the effect of one night of sleep deprivation on dream recall at morning awakening after recovery sleep. Forty healthy subjects were studied after adaptation (A) and baseline nights (B), and a recovery (R) night following 40h of prolonged wakefulness. Parallel to the well-known recovery sleep changes (slow-wave sleep – SWS – rebound, decreased number of awakenings and

Luigi De Gennaro; Cristina Marzano; Fabio Moroni; Giuseppe Curcio; Michele Ferrara; Carlo Cipolli

2010-01-01

389

Phonological Similarity in Serial Recall: Constraints on Theories of Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In short-term serial recall, similar-sounding items are remembered more poorly than items that do not sound alike. When lists mix similar and dissimilar items, performance on the dissimilar items is of considerable theoretical interest. Farrell and Lewandowsky [Farrell, S., & Lewandowsky, S. (2003). Dissimilar items benefit from phonological…

Lewandowsky, Stephan; Farrell, Simon

2008-01-01

390

Young Children's Reasoning and Recall in an Object Manipulation Task.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study investigated developments in reasoning and memory as reflected by the discovery strategies of children taking part in a manipulative categorization and recall task. A total of 40 children (8 each of 18, 24, 30, 36, and 42 months of age) participated. Stimulus materials consisting of blocks, toy plates, discs, and plastic trees were…

Junn, Ellen; Sugarman, Susan

391

Training the Mind's Eye: "Brain Movies" Support Comprehension and Recall  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explicit instruction on the skill of creating mental imagery from text supports reading comprehension and recall. This article shares a strategy for teaching students how to process what they read by comparing mental imagery to "brain movies." It emphasizes choosing appropriate fiction and nonfiction texts to encourage readers to build the skill…

Wilson, Donna

2012-01-01

392

Shared Encoding and the Costs and Benefits of Collaborative Recall  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We often remember in the company of others. In particular, we routinely collaborate with friends, family, or colleagues to remember shared experiences. But surprisingly, in the experimental collaborative recall paradigm, collaborative groups remember less than their potential, an effect termed "collaborative inhibition". Rajaram and…

Harris, Celia B.; Barnier, Amanda J.; Sutton, John

2013-01-01

393

Context Effects on Recall and Recognition of Magazine Advertisements  

Microsoft Academic Search

This experiment tested the hypothesis that depth of involvement in a magazine article is inversely related to subsequent recall and recognition of accompanying advertisements. Subjects read magazine articles interspersed with unfamiliar advertisements for common product types. Results showed that the more deeply the subjects were involved in the articles the less they remembered about the accompanying advertisements. Articles about recipes

Claire E. Norris; Andrew M. Colman

394

TESTING FOR MOOD CONGRUENT RECALL WITH ENVIRONMENTALLY INDUCED MOOD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three experiments examined the effects of natural and urban environments on mood and the subsequent recall of emotionally valenced materials. In experiment 1, subjects read words denoting positive and negative emotions and rated how well the words applied to them in general. Photographic simulations of natural and urban\\/industrial environments were then used to induce either positive or negative moods prior

TERRY HARTIG; LARS NYBERG; LARS-GÖRAN NILSSON; TOMMY GÄRLING

1999-01-01

395

Eidetic Imagery and Recall Accuracy in Preschool Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eidetic imagery was found in 20% of 50 preschool children by the use of a modified version of the Haber method. Ss with eidetic imagery showed significantly more accurate recall of the stimulus pictures thereby supporting the importance of eidetic imagery as an early mnemonic system.

Patricia Ann Paine

1980-01-01

396

Articulation of Phonologically Similar Items Disrupts Free Recall of Nonwords  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study sought to clarify whether phonological similarity of encoded information impairs free recall performance (the phonological similarity effect: PSE) for nonwords. Five experiments examined the influence of the encoding process on the PSE in a step-by-step fashion, by using lists that consisted of phonologically similar (decoy)…

Nishiyama, Ryoji; Ukita, Jun

2013-01-01

397

Induced Recall of Jane Austen's Novels: Films, Television, Videos.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes that the popularity of Jane Austen adaptations in theaters, television, and videos increases the probability that patients and therapists may recall these movies in treatment. Underscores excerpts from a comparison of an Austen novel with the psychoanalytic process and highlights available film adaptations in video format. (SC)

Diaz de Chumaceiro, Cora L.

2000-01-01

398

The Endurance of Children's Working Memory: A Recall Time Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We analyze the timing of recall as a source of information about children's performance in complex working memory tasks. A group of 8-year-olds performed a traditional operation span task in which sequence length increased across trials and an operation period task in which processing requirements were extended across trials of constant sequence…

Towse, John N.; Hitch, Graham J.; Hamilton, Z.; Pirrie, Sarah

2008-01-01

399

Forgetting in Immediate Serial Recall: Decay, Temporal Distinctiveness, or Interference?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three hypotheses of forgetting from immediate memory were tested: time-based decay, decreasing temporal distinctiveness, and interference. The hypotheses were represented by 3 models of serial recall: the primacy model, the SIMPLE (scale-independent memory, perception, and learning) model, and the SOB (serial order in a box) model, respectively.…

Oberauer, Klaus; Lewandowsky, Stephan

2008-01-01

400

The neural dynamics of task context in free recall.  

PubMed

Multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) is a powerful tool for relating theories of cognitive function to the neural dynamics observed while people engage in cognitive tasks. Here, we use the Context Maintenance and Retrieval model of free recall (CMR; Polyn et al., 2009a) to interpret variability in the strength of task-specific patterns of distributed neural activity as participants study and recall lists of words. The CMR model describes how temporal and source-related (here, encoding task) information combine in a contextual representation that is responsible for guiding memory search. Each studied word in the free-recall paradigm is associated with one of two encoding tasks (size and animacy) that have distinct neural representations during encoding. We find evidence for the context retrieval hypothesis central to the CMR model: Task-specific patterns of neural activity are reactivated during memory search, as the participant recalls an item previously associated with a particular task. Furthermore, we find that the fidelity of these task representations during study is related to task-shifting, the serial position of the studied item, and variability in the magnitude of the recency effect across participants. The CMR model suggests that these effects may be related to a central parameter of the model that controls the rate that an internal contextual representation integrates information from the surrounding environment. PMID:21907726

Polyn, Sean M; Kragel, James E; Morton, Neal W; McCluey, Joshua D; Cohen, Zachary D

2012-03-01

401

Auditory Word Serial Recall Benefits from Orthographic Dissimilarity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The influence of orthographic knowledge has been consistently observed in speech recognition and metaphonological tasks. The present study provides data suggesting that such influence also pervades other cognitive domains related to language abilities, such as verbal working memory. Using serial recall of auditory seven-word lists, we observed…

Pattamadilok, Chotiga; Lafontaine, Helene; Morais, Jose; Kolinsky, Regine

2010-01-01

402

Recall and Recognition in Industrial Technology Education Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study determined whether sensate and intuitive learners differed in their capacity to recall and recognize images given two different times of exposure. The 158 subjects--elementary school technology teachers in Southern California--put themselves into 2 groups of 80 and 78 by registering for a first or second session of the Elementary Summer…

Schultz, Andrew E.

403

Dyslexia: The Effects of Visual Memory and Serial Recall.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on the role of visual memory and serial recall in dyslexia is reviewed. Findings touch on feature theory, which proposes that information is held in the form of "features," and that students for example learn to discriminate letters by marking certain identifiable aspects. Other studies are described which focus on speed of processing…

McIntyre, Thomas C.

404

Recall in Older Cancer Patients: Measuring Memory for Medical Information  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Remembering medical treatment information may be particularly taxing for older cancer patients, but to our knowledge this ability has never been assessed in this specific age group only. Our purpose in this study was to investigate older cancer patients' recall of information after patient education preceding chemotherapy. Design and…

Jansen, Jesse; van Weert, Julia; van der Meulen, Nienke; van Dulmen, Sandra; Heeren, Thea; Bensing, Jozien

2008-01-01

405

Exploring the Retrieval Dynamics of Delayed and Final Free Recall: Further Evidence for Temporal-Contextual Search  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Retrieval dynamics in free recall were explored based on a two-stage search model that relies on temporal-contextual cues. Participants were tested on both delayed and final free recall and correct recalls, errors, and latency measures were examined. In delayed free recall, participants began recall with the first word presented and tended to…

Unsworth, Nash

2008-01-01

406

Usability Test of an Interactive Dietary Recording  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dietary intake methods are used to collect one's diet habit which is essential in nutrition assessment. Food diary, food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and 24-hour recalls are the most common dietary intake methods. However, they are not welcomed by most clients. Digital handheld devices are now readily available, and the cost of digital…

Chung, Louisa Ming Yan; Chung, Joanne Wai Yee; Wong, Thomas Kwok Shing

2009-01-01

407

Dietary Diversity as a Correlate of Undernutrition among School-Age Children in Southwestern Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose/Objectives: This study was conducted to determine the association between undernutrition and dietary diversity among school-age children in southwestern Nigeria. Methods: A total of 600 school children were randomly selected from six private and six public schools in the region. A standardized FAO-published 24-hour diet recall

Olumakaiye, M. F.

2013-01-01

408

COMPARATIVE STRATEGIES FOR USING CLUSTER ANALYSIS TO ASSESS DIETARY PATTERNS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this study was to characterize dietary patterns using two different cluster analysis strategies. In this cross-sectional study, diet information was assessed by five 24-hour recalls collected over 10 months. All foods were classified into 24 food subgroups. Demographic, health, and ...

409

Racial/Ethnic Differences in Dietary Intake among WIC Families Prior to Food Package Revisions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To compare the diets of African American and Hispanic families in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) prior to the 2009 food package revisions. Methods: Mother-child dyads were recruited from 12 WIC sites in Chicago, IL. Individuals with 1 valid 24-hour recall were included in the analyses…

Kong, Angela; Odoms-Young, Angela M.; Schiffer, Linda A.; Berbaum, Michael L.; Porter, Summer J.; Blumstein, Lara; Fitzgibbon, Marian L.

2013-01-01

410

Relative Reliability and Validity of the Block Kids Questionnaire among Youth Aged 10 to 17 Years  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This cross-sectional study tested the reliability and validity of the Block Kids Questionnaire to assess diet during the past 7 days. Within a 7-day period, 10- to 17-year-old children and adolescents completed two 24-hour dietary recalls by telephone, followed by the Block Kids Questionnaire at the...

411

Potassium in diet  

MedlinePLUS

Diet - potassium ... The doctor or nurse will recommend a special diet. ... The Food and Nutrition Center of the Institute of Medicine recommends these dietary intakes for potassium, based on age: Infants 0 - 6 months: ...

412

Diet and Nutrition  

MedlinePLUS

... Diet and Nutrition Food . . . . Adherence to a low copper diet is most important during the initial phase ... recommendation is to avoid the foods highest in copper content: organ meats, shellfish, chocolate, nuts, and mushrooms. ...

413

Diet and Exercise  

MedlinePLUS

... Labor & Delivery Breastfeeding Risks Cancer Types Risk Factors Prevention & Early Detection Diet And Exercise Transplant recipients need to be aware of the important role of a healthy diet and exercise plan in healing. Prior to your discharge from the hospital, ...

414

Heart disease and diet  

MedlinePLUS

Diet - heart disease ... diet and lifestyle can reduce your risk of: Heart disease, heart attacks, and stroke Conditions that lead to heart disease, including high cholesterol , high blood pressure, and obesity ...

415

Interstitial Cystitis (IC) Diet  

MedlinePLUS

Interstitial Cystitis (IC) Diet There is a lot of information on the web promoting various diets for interstitial cystitis (IC). Both ... pelvic pain . However, research into the link between IC and food is very limited. At this time, ...

416

Recall of Fear Extinction in Humans Activates the Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex and Hippocampus  

E-print Network

: anxiety disorders, fear conditioning, fMRI, learning and memory, PTSD, skin conductance response E xtinction deficits might play a role in anxiety disorders, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD (Lebron et al. 2004; Quirk et al. 2000). Hippocampal inactivation 24 hours after extinction prevents

Quirk, Gregory J.

417

Diet and eating after esophagectomy  

MedlinePLUS

Esophagectomy - diet; Post-esophagectomy diet ... weight. You will also be on a special diet when you first get home. ... will teach you how to prepare the liquid diet for the feeding tube and how much to ...

418

Diets for Constipation  

PubMed Central

Chronic constipation is a very common disease in children. Successful treatment of constipation can be achieved not only with medication but also with lifestyle changes, including a proper diet. Diets including fruits, fluids, and probiotics are good for constipation. Some dietary components are helpful for constipation, and some are harmful. In this study, we present diets related to constipation from the literature, and propose some perspectives regarding diets related to constipation. PMID:25587519

2014-01-01

419

40 CFR 204.59 - Recall of non-complying compressors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Recall of non-complying compressors. 204.59 Section 204.59 Protection...CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT Portable Air Compressors § 204.59 Recall of non-complying compressors. (a) Pursuant to section...

2014-07-01

420

40 CFR 204.59 - Recall of non-complying compressors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2011-07-01 true Recall of non-complying compressors. 204.59 Section 204.59 Protection...CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT Portable Air Compressors § 204.59 Recall of non-complying compressors. (a) Pursuant to section...

2012-07-01

421

40 CFR 204.59 - Recall of non-complying compressors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Recall of non-complying compressors. 204.59 Section 204.59 Protection...CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT Portable Air Compressors § 204.59 Recall of non-complying compressors. (a) Pursuant to section...

2011-07-01

422

40 CFR 204.59 - Recall of non-complying compressors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Recall of non-complying compressors. 204.59 Section 204.59 Protection...CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT Portable Air Compressors § 204.59 Recall of non-complying compressors. (a) Pursuant to section...

2013-07-01

423

40 CFR 204.59 - Recall of non-complying compressors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Recall of non-complying compressors. 204.59 Section 204.59 Protection...CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT Portable Air Compressors § 204.59 Recall of non-complying compressors. (a) Pursuant to section...

2010-07-01

424

21 CFR 107.250 - Termination of an infant formula recall.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 false Termination of an infant formula recall. 107.250 Section 107.250 Food and...CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.250 Termination of an infant...

2012-04-01

425

21 CFR 107.250 - Termination of an infant formula recall.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-04-01 false Termination of an infant formula recall. 107.250 Section 107.250 Food and...CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.250 Termination of an infant...

2014-04-01

426

21 CFR 107.250 - Termination of an infant formula recall.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Termination of an infant formula recall. 107.250 Section 107.250 Food and...CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.250 Termination of an infant...

2010-04-01

427

21 CFR 107.220 - Scope and effect of infant formula recalls.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 false Scope and effect of infant formula recalls. 107.220 Section 107.220 Food and...CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.220 Scope and effect of...

2014-04-01

428

21 CFR 107.220 - Scope and effect of infant formula recalls.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Scope and effect of infant formula recalls. 107.220 Section 107.220 Food and...CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.220 Scope and effect of...

2011-04-01

429

21 CFR 107.220 - Scope and effect of infant formula recalls.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Scope and effect of infant formula recalls. 107.220 Section 107.220 Food and...CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.220 Scope and effect of...

2010-04-01

430

21 CFR 107.250 - Termination of an infant formula recall.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 false Termination of an infant formula recall. 107.250 Section 107.250 Food and...CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.250 Termination of an infant...

2011-04-01

431

21 CFR 107.250 - Termination of an infant formula recall.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Termination of an infant formula recall. 107.250 Section 107.250 Food and...CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.250 Termination of an infant...

2013-04-01

432

21 CFR 107.220 - Scope and effect of infant formula recalls.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Scope and effect of infant formula recalls. 107.220 Section 107.220 Food and...CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.220 Scope and effect of...

2012-04-01

433

21 CFR 107.220 - Scope and effect of infant formula recalls.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Scope and effect of infant formula recalls. 107.220 Section 107.220 Food and...CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.220 Scope and effect of...

2013-04-01

434

Impaired use of organizational strategies in free recall following frontal lobe damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Free recall, use of organizational strategies, and interference effects were assessed in patients with frontal lobe lesions and control subjects. In three experiments, patients with frontal lobe lesions exhibited impaired free recall and reduced use of organizational strategies in tests of memory. Reduced use of strategies was observed on tests of recall of unrelated items, as measured by subjective organization,

Felicia B. Gershberg; Arthur P. Shimamura

1995-01-01

435

Dream Recall Frequency and Dream Detail as Mediated by Personality, Behavior, and Attitude  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many studies investigated how personality, behavior, and attitude mediate dream recall, but few distinguish between measures of dream recall frequency: the number of dreams experienced in a specified time frame and dream detail: individual ratings of vividness or detailed content of dreams. This study compared undergraduates' (n = 173) self-reported dream recall frequency, and dream detail, with behaviors, attitude toward

Sommer Wolcott; Chehalis M. Strapp

2002-01-01

436

The recall of dreams: Its relation to repression and cognitive control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated the relationship between the recall of dreams and the cognitive controls continuum of leveling-sharpening  The results confirmed the hypothesis that subjects who recall many dreams, i.e., who do not rely primarily upon repression, would show the sharpening tendency  a relationship between low dream recall and the leveling tendency, was not supported  [suggesting] that the psychoanalytic concept

F. M. Lachman; B. Lapkin; N. S. Handelman

1962-01-01

437

Dissociating Conditional Recency in Immediate and Delayed Free Recall: A Challenge for Unitary Models of Recency  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Temporal distinctiveness models of recency in free recall predict that increasing the delay between the end of sequence and attempting recall of items from that sequence will reduce recency. An empirical dissociation is reported here that violates this prediction when the delay is introduced by the act of recall itself. Analysis of data from a…

Farrell, Simon

2010-01-01

438

Neuropsychological Functioning and Recall of Research Consent Information Among Drug Court Clients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence suggests that research participants often fail to recall much of the information provided during the informed consent process. This study was conducted to determine the proportion of consent information recalled by drug court participants following a structured informed consent procedure and the neuropsychological factors that were related to recall. Eighty-five participants completed a standard informed consent procedure to participate

David S. Festinger; Kattiya Ratanadilok; Douglas B. Marlowe; Karen L. Dugosh; Nicholas S. Patapis; David S. DeMatteo

2007-01-01

439

Optimizing Design Efficiency of Free Recall Events for fMRI  

E-print Network

Optimizing Design Efficiency of Free Recall Events for fMRI Ilke Ã?ztekin, Nicole M. Long, and David to rigorously assess the feasibility of testing individual free recall events with fMRI. Weused both theoretically and empirically derived free recall latency distri- butions to generate simulated fMRI data sets

Badre, David

440

Phonological effects in forward and backward serial recall: Qualitative and quantitative differences.  

PubMed

Forward serial recall is affected by a diverse range of phonological factors that are readily replicated and relatively well understood. In contrast with backward recall, these phonological effects are not consistently replicable in that some studies show that the effects are present and some show the effects are absent or severely attenuated. Moreover at the theoretical level there is no consensus about how participants perform backward recall. The current research was aimed at understanding the differences between forward and backward recall by using meta-analytic techniques on 16 previously published experiments that examined the effects of benchmark phonological factors on both forward and backward recall. In each of the studies, recall was decomposed into 2 components, the first 2 items output and the remaining later responses. A consistent pattern emerged in the data. Each effect was present in both the early and late output positions in forward recall. The effects were present in the late output positions in backward recall, but the effects were weaker than in forward recall. The phonological variables had little impact on early output in backward recall (with the exceptions of articulatory suppression). The presence of qualitative differences between forward and backward recall and quantitative differences between studies have implications for the theoretical understanding of direction of recall in immediate memory tasks. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25437297

Ritchie, Gabrielle; Tolan, Georgina Anne; Tehan, Gerald; Goh, Hong Eng; Guérard, Katherine; Saint-Aubin, Jean

2015-03-01

441

Effects of Verbal Labeling on Visual Recall with Reading Disabled Subgroups.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effects of learning names for random nonsense shapes prior to a probe-type serial-recall task were investigated in disabled readers. No differences among reading groups on recall strength of primary recall were found, suggesting similar verbal skills. (Author)

Hatt, Clifford V.; And Others

1982-01-01

442

Lifestyle and diet.  

PubMed

Currently, there is widespread interest in many different diets. The best-known diets include the New Atkins diet in the USA, the Dukan diet in France, and in South Africa the Noakes diet. Two different approaches have emerged, one focusing on a life-long healthy lifestyle and the other emphasising weight loss. These are in fact complementary aims, as will be reviewed and reconciled. Furthermore, besides the dietary approach, there is a valid case for added drug therapy for selected lipid disorders with the use statins. In addition, new drugs are emerging that in the future might eventually considerably reduce the negative health impact of coronary artery disease. PMID:25629717

Opie, Lionel H

2014-01-01

443

Diet composition and feeding periodicity of wild and hatchery subyearling Chinook salmon in Lake Ontario  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Diel feeding periodicity, daily ration, and diet composition of wild and hatchery subyearling Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha were examined in Lake Ontario and the Salmon River, New York. The diet of wild riverine salmon was composed mainly of aquatic invertebrates (63.4%), mostly ephemeropterans (25.8%), chiromomids (15.8%), and trichopterans (8.3%). The diet of riverine Chinook was more closely associated with the composition of drift samples rather than bottom samples, suggesting mid-water feeding. In Lake Ontario terrestrial invertebrates were more important in the diet of hatchery Chinook (49.0%) than wild salmon (30.5%) and diet overlap between hatchery and wild salmon was low (0.46%). The diet of both hatchery and wild Chinook salmon was more closely associated with the composition of mid-water invertebrate samples rather than benthic core samples, indicating mid-water and surface feeding. Hatchery Chinook salmon consumed significantly less food (P < 0.05) than wild Chinook salmon in the lake and in the river, and wild salmon from Lake Ontario consumed more food than wild salmon in the Salmon River. Peak feeding of wild Chinook salmon occurred between 1200-1600 hours in Lake Ontario and between 1600-2000 hours in the Salmon River; there was no discernable feeding peak for the hatchery Chinook in Lake Ontario. Hatchery Chinook salmon also had the least diverse diet over the 24-hour sample period. These results suggest that at 7 days post-stocking hatchery Chinook salmon had not yet fully adapted to their new environment.

Johnson, J.H.

2008-01-01

444

Bottled memories: on how alcohol affects eyewitness recall.  

PubMed

This study investigated how different doses of alcohol affected eyewitness recall. Participants (N = 126) were randomly assigned to three groups with different blood alcohol concentration (BAC), either a control group (mean BAC 0.00%, N = 42), a lower alcohol dose group (mean BAC 0.04%, N = 40), or a higher alcohol dose group (mean BAC 0.06%, N = 44). After consumption, participants witnessed a movie of a mock crime and were interviewed one week later. The main results showed that witnesses with the higher intoxication level recalled fewer details compared to witnesses with the lower intoxication level. The amount of alcohol consumed did not have an impact on the accuracy rate. No sex differences were found. The results are discussed in the light of past research. We conclude that more studies are needed before recommendations can be made to an applied setting. PMID:23384077

Hagsand, Angelica; Hjelmsäter, Emma Roos Af; Granhag, Pär Anders; Fahlke, Claudia; Söderpalm-Gordh, Anna

2013-06-01

445

A constrained rasch model of trace redintegration in serial recall.  

PubMed

The notion that verbal short-term memory tasks, such as serial recall, make use of information in long-term as well as in short-term memory is instantiated in many models of these tasks. Such models incorporate a process in which degraded traces retrieved from a short-term store are reconstructed, or redintegrated (Schweickert, 1993), through the use of information in long-term memory. This article presents a conceptual and mathematical model of this process based on a class of item-response theory models. It is demonstrated that this model provides a better fit to three sets of data than does the multinomial processing tree model of redintegration (Schweickert, 1993) and that a number of conceptual accounts of serial recall can be related to the parameters of the model. PMID:18491497

Roodenrys, Steven; Miller, Leonie M

2008-04-01

446

Examining the relationship between immediate serial recall and immediate free recall: common effects of phonological loop variables but only limited evidence for the phonological loop.  

PubMed

We examined the contribution of the phonological loop to immediate free recall (IFR) and immediate serial recall (ISR) of lists of between one and 15 words. Following Baddeley (1986, 2000, 2007, 2012), we assumed that visual words could be recoded into the phonological store when presented silently but that recoding would be prevented by concurrent articulation (CA; Experiment 1). We further assumed that the use of the phonological loop would be evidenced by greater serial recall for lists of phonologically dissimilar words relative to lists of phonologically similar words (Experiments 2A and 2B). We found that in both tasks, (a) CA reduced recall; (b) participants recalled short lists from the start of the list, leading to enhanced forward-ordered recall; (c) participants were increasingly likely to recall longer lists from the end of the list, leading to extended recency effects; (d) there were significant phonological similarity effects in ISR and IFR when both were analyzed using serial recall scoring; (e) these were reduced by free recall scoring and eliminated by CA; and (f) CA but not phonological similarity affected the tendency to initiate recall with the first list item. We conclude that similar mechanisms underpin ISR and IFR. Critically, the phonological loop is not strictly necessary for the forward-ordered recall of short lists on both tasks but may augment recall by increasing the accessibility of the list items (relative to CA), and in so doing, the order of later items is preserved better in phonologically dissimilar than in phonologically similar lists. PMID:24564540

Spurgeon, Jessica; Ward, Geoff; Matthews, William J

2014-07-01

447

REM-dreams recall in patients with narcolepsy-cataplexy  

Microsoft Academic Search

An abundant recall of dreams has been observed in clinical studies on patients with narcolepsy-cataplexy (NC), a neurological disorder characterized by an altered sleep architecture. Laboratory studies have shown that dream experiences developed during 1st-rapid eye movement (REM) sleep by NC patients are longer and more complex than those of healthy subjects. To establish whether these features indicate an earlier

Michela Mazzetti; Claudia Bellucci; Katia Mattarozzi; Giuseppe Plazzi; Giovanni Tuozzi; Carlo Cipolli

2010-01-01

448

Scalable knowledge harvesting with high precision and high recall  

Microsoft Academic Search

Harvesting relational facts from Web sources has received great attention for automatically constructing large knowledge bases. Stateof-the-art approaches combine pattern-based gathering of fact candidates with constraint-based reasoning. However, they still face major challenges regarding the trade-offs between precision, recall, and scalability. Techniques that scale well are susceptible to noisy patterns that degrade precision, while techniques that employ deep reasoning for

Ndapandula Nakashole; Martin Theobald; Gerhard Weikum

2011-01-01

449

Optimising Success: Product Placement Quality and its Effects on Recall  

Microsoft Academic Search

The practice of paying for branded products to be displayed in entertainment programs is now an accepted part of communication planning. This paper argues that understanding the effect of product placement quality (that is, total exposures, total length of exposures, prominence, mode of delivery and use-by-star) on recall is necessary for effective product placement planning. A multi-stage study, culminating in

Jane Scott; Margaret Craig-Lees

450

Recalling white point of smartphone under varying illuminants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study is to achieve color consistency in smartphone displays under varying illuminants focusing on the correlated color temperature of the white point. In the two experiments, asymmetric color matching sessions were conducted, in which subjects were asked to recall a target white point among differently nuanced white colors. In Experiment I (N=58), 6 target white points varying from 5,900 K to 11,300 K, and 15 nuanced white colors varying from 2,700 K to 19,200 K were produced. The recalling test was carried out under 11 illuminants varying between 2,500 K and 19,300 K. Both display white colors and illuminants were divided into intervals of approximately 1,000 K. The study observed a shift in the recall of the target white point. The direction of the shift had a tendency toward higher color temperature. However, when the target white points were between 5,900 K and 8,000 K, the effect of the illuminants on color recall was marginal. In order to confirm the