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Sample records for 241-z-361 vapor sampling

  1. Tank 241-Z-361 vapor sampling and analysis plan

    SciTech Connect

    BANNING, D.L.

    1999-02-23

    Tank 241-Z-361 is identified in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (commonly referred to as the Tri-Party Agreement), Appendix C, (Ecology et al. 1994) as a unit to be remediated under the authority of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). As such, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency will serve as the lead regulatory agency for remediation of this tank under the CERCLA process. At the time this unit was identified as a CERCLA site under the Tri-Party Agreement, it was placed within the 200-ZP-2 Operable Unit. In 1997, The Tri-parties redefined 200 Area Operable Units into waste groupings (Waste Site Grouping for 200 Areas Soils Investigations [DOE-RL 1992 and 1997]). A waste group contains waste sites that share similarities in geological conditions, function, and types of waste received. Tank 241-Z-361 is identified within the CERCLA Plutonium/Organic-rich Process Condensate/Process Waste Group (DOE-RL 1992). The Plutonium/Organic-rich Process Condensate/Process Waste Group has been prioritized for remediation beginning in the year 2004. Results of Tank 216-Z-361 sampling and analysis described in this Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) and in the SAP for sludge sampling (to be developed) will determine whether expedited response actions are required before 2004 because of the hazards associated with tank contents. Should data conclude that remediation of this tank should occur earlier than is planned for the other sites in the waste group, it is likely that removal alternatives will be analyzed in a separate Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis (EE/CA). Removal actions would proceed after the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) signs an Action Memorandum describing the selected removal alternative for Tank 216-Z-361. If the data conclude that there is no immediate threat to human health and the environment from this tank, remedial actions for the tank will be defined in a

  2. Tank Vapor Sampling and Analysis Data Package for Tank 241-Z-361 Sampled 09/22/1999 and 09/271999 During Sludge Core Removal

    SciTech Connect

    VISWANATH, R.S.

    1999-12-29

    This data package presents sampling data and analytical results from the September 22 and 27, 1999, headspace vapor sampling of Hanford Site Tank 241-2-361 during sludge core removal. The Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation (LMHC) sampling team collected the samples and Waste Management Laboratory (WML) analyzed the samples in accordance with the requirements specified in the 241-2361 Sludge Characterization Sampling and Analysis Plan, (SAP), HNF-4371, Rev. 1, (Babcock and Wilcox Hanford Corporation, 1999). Six SUMMA{trademark} canister samples were collected on each day (1 ambient field blank and 5 tank vapor samples collected when each core segment was removed). The samples were radiologically released on September 28 and October 4, 1999, and received at the laboratory on September 29 and October 6, 1999. Target analytes were not detected at concentrations greater than their notification limits as specified in the SAP. Analytical results for the target analytes and tentatively identified compounds (TICs) are presented in Section 2.2.2 starting on page 2B-7. Three compounds identified for analysis in the SAP were analyzed as TICs. The discussion of this modification is presented in Section 2.2.1.2.

  3. 241-Z-361 Sludge Characterization Sampling and Analysis Plan

    SciTech Connect

    BANNING, D.L.

    1999-07-29

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies the type, quantity, and quality of data needed to support characterization of the sludge that remains in Tank 241-2-361. The procedures described in this SAP are based on the results of the 241-2-361 Sludge Characterization Data Quality Objectives (DQO) (BWHC 1999) process for the tank. The primary objectives of this project are to evaluate the contents of Tank 241-2-361 in order to resolve safety and safeguards issues and to assess alternatives for sludge removal and disposal.

  4. 241-Z-361 Sludge Characterization Sampling and Analysis Plan

    SciTech Connect

    BANNING, D.L.

    1999-08-05

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies the type, quantity, and quality of data needed to support characterization of the sludge that remains in Tank 241-2-361. The procedures described in this SAP are based on the results of the 241-2-361 Sludge Characterization Data Quality Objectives (DQO) (BWHC 1999) process for the tank. The primary objectives of this project are to evaluate the contents of Tank 241-2-361 in order to resolve safety and safeguards issues and to assess alternatives for sludge removal and disposal.

  5. Tank 241-Z-361 process and characterization history

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, S.A.

    1998-08-06

    An Unreviewed Safety Question (Wagoner, 1997) was declared based on lack of adequate authorization basis for Tank 241-Z-361 in the 200W Area at Hanford. This document is a summary of the history of Tank 241-Z-361 through December 1997. Documents reviewed include engineering files, laboratory notebooks from characterization efforts, waste facility process procedures, supporting documents and interviews of people`s recollections of over twenty years ago. Records of transfers into the tank, past characterization efforts, and speculation were used to estimate the current condition of Tank 241-Z-361 and its contents. Information about the overall waste system as related to the settling tank was included to help in understanding the numbering system and process relationships. The Plutonium Finishing Plant was built in 1948 and began processing plutonium in mid-1949. The Incinerator (232-Z) operated from December 1961 until May 1973. The Plutonium Reclamation Facility (PRF, 236-Z) began operation in May 1964. The Waste Treatment Facility (242-Z) operated from August 1964 until August 1976. Waste from some processes went through transfer lines to 241-Z sump tanks. High salt and organic waste under normal operation were sent to Z-9 or Z-18 cribs. Water from the retention basin may have also passed through this tank. The transfer lines to 241-Z were numbered D-4 to D-6. The 241-Z sump tanks were numbered D-4 through D-8. The D-4, 5, and 8 drains went to the D-6 sump tank. When D-6 tank was full it was transferred to D-7 tank. Prior to transfer to cribs, the D-7 tank contents was sampled. If the plutonium content was analyzed to be more than 10 g per batch, the material was (generally) reprocessed. Below the discard limit, caustic was added and the material was sent to the cribs via the 241-Z-361 settling tank where solids settled out and the liquid overflowed by gravity to the cribs. Waste liquids that passed through the 241-Z-361 settling tank flowed from PFP to ground in

  6. Engineering study of the criticality issues associated with Hanford tank 241-Z-361

    SciTech Connect

    Lipke, E.J.

    1997-12-22

    Tank 241-Z-361 is associated with the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). Uncertainty about the contents of the tank have led to the declaration of an Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) and the preparation of a Justification for Continued Operation (JCO) to address flammable gas and other authorization basis issued. A Criticality Safety Team was assembled to review old data, determine its validity, and reevaluate the tank. It was concluded that the tank has a sufficient margin of safety to allow opening, sampling, and other characterizing activities. The team concluded that a criticality in Tank 241-Z-361 was extremely unlikely.

  7. Tank 241-Z-361 process and characterization history

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, S.A.

    1997-12-23

    This document is a summary of the history of Tank 241-Z-361 through December 1997. Documents reviewed include engineering files, laboratory notebooks from characterization efforts, waste facility process procedures, supporting documents and interviews of people`s recollections of 20 plus years ago. Records of transfers into the tank, past characterization efforts, and speculation will be used to estimate the current condition of Tank 241-Z-361 and its contents.

  8. Tank 241-Z-361 Sludge Retrieval and Treatment Alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    HAMPTON, B.K.

    2000-05-24

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Tank 241-Z-361 (Z-361) contains legacy sludge resulting from waste discharges from past missions at PFP. A sketch of the tank is shown in Figure 1. In this view various risers and penetrations are shown along with the sludge level depicted by the horizontal line halfway up the tank, and the ground level depicted by the horizontal line above the tank. The HEPA filter installed for breathing is also shown on one of the risers.

  9. Justification for Continued Operation for Tank 241-Z-361

    SciTech Connect

    BOGEN, D.M.

    1999-09-01

    This justification for continued operations (JCO) summarizes analyses performed to better understand and control the potential hazards associated with Tank 241-2-361. This revision to the JCO has been prepared to identify and control the hazards associated with sampling the tank using techniques developed and approved for use in the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) at Hanford.

  10. Vapor sampling and analysis plan. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Homi, C.S.

    1995-10-10

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from both SST and DST tanks

  11. Tubing For Sampling Hydrazine Vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Travis, Josh; Taffe, Patricia S.; Rose-Pehrsson, Susan L.; Wyatt, Jeffrey R.

    1993-01-01

    Report evaluates flexible tubing used for transporting such hypergolic vapors as those of hydrazines for quantitative analysis. Describes experiments in which variety of tubing materials, chosen for their known compatibility with hydrazine, flexibility, and resistance to heat.

  12. Vapor port and groundwater sampling well

    DOEpatents

    Hubbell, Joel M.; Wylie, Allan H.

    1996-01-01

    A method and apparatus has been developed for combining groundwater monitoring wells with unsaturated-zone vapor sampling ports. The apparatus allows concurrent monitoring of both the unsaturated and the saturated zone from the same well at contaminated areas. The innovative well design allows for concurrent sampling of groundwater and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the vadose (unsaturated) zone from a single well, saving considerable time and money. The sample tubes are banded to the outer well casing during installation of the well casing.

  13. Vapor port and groundwater sampling well

    DOEpatents

    Hubbell, J.M.; Wylie, A.H.

    1996-01-09

    A method and apparatus have been developed for combining groundwater monitoring wells with unsaturated-zone vapor sampling ports. The apparatus allows concurrent monitoring of both the unsaturated and the saturated zone from the same well at contaminated areas. The innovative well design allows for concurrent sampling of groundwater and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the vadose (unsaturated) zone from a single well, saving considerable time and money. The sample tubes are banded to the outer well casing during installation of the well casing. 10 figs.

  14. Vapor and gas sampling of single-shell tank 241-S-106 using the in situ vapor sampling system

    SciTech Connect

    Lockrem, L.L.

    1997-08-05

    The Vapor Issue Resolution Program tasked the Vapor Team (VT) to collect representative headspace samples from Hanford Site single-shell tank (SST) 241-S-106. This document presents In Situ vapor Sampling System (ISVS) data resulting from the June 13, 1996 sampling of SST 241-S-106. Analytical results will be presented in separate reports issued by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) which`supplied and analyzed the sample media.

  15. Data Report for Catch Tank Vapor Sampling

    SciTech Connect

    NGUYEN, D.M.

    2000-09-28

    CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. (CHG) is responsible for developing and maintaining the authorization basis for River Protection Project (RPP) facilities and operations. This responsibility includes closure of the Flammable Gas Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) for waste tank ancillary equipment such as catch tanks, double-contained receiver tanks, 244-AR and 244-CR vaults, 242-S and 242-T Evaporators, and inactive miscellaneous underground storage tanks. To support closure of the Flammable Gas USQ for catch tanks, an analysis of the flammable gas hazard was performed. This document provides a summary of flammable gas data obtained from RPP active catch tanks in FY 2000. Flammable gas level measurements for each catch tank (other than 241-AX-152) are discussed on a tank-by-tank basis in Section 3.0. Conclusions based on the data are provided in Section 4.0. This section also includes recommendations that would be useful when conducting vapor sampling for other miscellaneous tanks (e.g., inactive miscellaneous underground storage tanks).

  16. Vapor sampling of the headspace of radioactive waste storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, D.A., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-22

    This paper recants the history of vapor sampling in the headspaces of radioactive waste storage tanks at Hanford. The first two tanks to receive extensive vapor pressure sampling were Tanks 241-SY-101 and 241-C-103. At various times, a gas chromatography, on-line mass spectrometer, solid state hydrogen monitor, FTIR, and radio acoustic ammonia monitor have been installed. The head space gas sampling activities will continue for the next few years. The current goal is to sample the headspace for all the tanks. Some tank headspaces will be sampled several times to see the data vary with time. Other tanks will have continuous monitors installed to provide additional data.

  17. Mercury Source Zone Identification using Soil Vapor Sampling and Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, David B; Miller, Carrie L; Lester, Brian P; Lowe, Kenneth Alan; Southworth, George R; Bogle, Mary Anna; Liang, Liyuan; Pierce, Eric M

    2014-01-01

    Development and demonstration of reliable measurement techniqes that can detect and help quantify the nature and extent of elemental mercury (Hg(0)) in the subsurface are needed to reduce certainties in the decision making process and increase the effectiveness of remedial actions. We conducted field tests at the Y-12 National Security Complex (NSC) in Oak Ridge, TN, to determine if sampling and analysis of Hg(0) vapors in the shallow subsurface (<0.3 m depth) can be used to as an indicator of the location and extent of Hg(0) releases in the subsurface. We constructed a rigid PVC pushprobe assembly, which was driven into the ground. Soil gas samples were collected through a sealed inner tube of the assembly and analyzed immediately in the field with a Lumex and/or Jerome Hg(0) analyzer. Time-series sampling showed that Hg vapor concentrations were fairly stable over time suggesting that the vapor phase Hg(0) was not being depleted and that sampling results were not dependent on the soil gas purge volume. Hg(0) vapor data collected at over 200 pushprobe locations at 3 different release sites correlated well to areas of known Hg(0) contamination. Vertical profiling of Hg(0) vapor concentrations conducted at 2 locations provided information on the vertical distribution of Hg(0) contamination in the subsurface. We concluded from our studies that soil gas sampling and analysis can be conducted rapidly and inexpensively at a large scale to help identify areas contaminated with Hg(0).

  18. Operability test report for the in SITU vapor sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Corbett, J.E., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-31

    This report documents the successful completion of testing for the In Situ Vapor Sampling (ISVS) system. The report includes the test procedure (WHC-SD-WM-OTP-196, Rev OA), data sheets, exception resolutions, and a test report summary. This report conforms to the guidelines established in WHC-IP-1026, `Engineering Practice Guidelines,` Appendix L, `Operability Test Procedures and Reports.`

  19. An opacity-sampled treatment of water vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, David R.; Augason, Gordon C.; Johnson, Hollis R.

    1989-01-01

    Although the bands of H2O are strong in the spectra of cool stars and calculations have repeatedly demonstrated their significance as opacity sources, only approximate opacities are currently available, due both to the difficulty of accounting for the millions of lines involved and to the inadequacy of laboratory and theoretical data. To overcome these obstacles, a new treatment is presented, based upon a statistical representation of the water vapor spectrum derived from available laboratory data. This statistical spectrum of water vapor employs an exponential distribution of line strengths and random positions of lines whose overall properties are forced to reproduce the mean opacities observed in the laboratory. The resultant data set is then treated by the opacity-sampling method exactly as are all other lines, both molecular and atomic. Significant differences are found between the results of this improved treatment and the results obtained with previous treatments of water-vapor opacity.

  20. Water vapor measurement system in global atmospheric sampling program, appendix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englund, D. R.; Dudzinski, T. J.

    1982-01-01

    The water vapor measurement system used in the NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP) is described. The system used a modified version of a commercially available dew/frostpoint hygrometer with a thermoelectrically cooled mirror sensor. The modifications extended the range of the hygrometer to enable air sample measurements with frostpoint temperatures down to -80 C at altitudes of 6 to 13 km. Other modifications were made to permit automatic, unattended operation in an aircraft environment. This report described the hygrometer, its integration with the GASP system, its calibration, and operational aspects including measurement errors. The estimated uncertainty of the dew/frostpoint measurements was + or - 1.7 Celsius.

  1. Comparison of vapor sampling system (VSS) and in situ vapor sampling (ISVS) methods on Tanks C-107, BY-108, and S-102. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.; Edwards, J.A.; Evans, J.C.

    1996-08-01

    This report discusses comparison tests for two methods of collecting vapor samples from the Hanford Site high-level radioactive waste tank headspaces. The two sampling methods compared are the truck-mounted vapor sampling system (VSS) and the cart-mounted in-situ vapor sampling (ISVS). Three tanks were sampled by both the VSS and ISVS methods from the same access risers within the same 8-hour period. These tanks have diverse headspace compositions and they represent the highest known level of several key vapor analytes.

  2. GUIDELINES FOR INSTALLATION AND SAMPLING OF SUB-SLAB VAPOR PROBES TO SUPPORT ASSESSMENT OF VAPOR INTRUSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this paper is to provide guidelines for sub-slab sampling using dedicated vapor probes. Use of dedicated vapor probes allows for multiple sample events before and after corrective action and for vacuum testing to enhance the design and monitoring of a corrective m...

  3. Determination of mercury in fish samples by slurry sampling electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liaw, Ming-Jyh; Jiang, Shiuh-Jen; Li, Yi-Ching

    1997-06-01

    Ultrasonic slurry sampling electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (USS-ETV-ICP-MS) has been applied to the determination of mercury in several fish samples. The effects of instrument operating conditions and slurry preparation on the ion signals are reported. Palladium was used as modifier to delay the vaporization of mercury in this study. As the vaporization behavior of mercury in fish slurry and aqueous solution is quite different, the standard addition method was used for the determination of mercury in reference materials. The detection limit of mercury estimated from the standard addition curve was in the range 0.002-0.004 μg g -1 for different samples. This method has been applied to the determination of mercury in dogfish muscle reference material (DORM-1 and DORM-2) and dogfish liver reference material (DOLT-1). Accuracy was better than 4% and precision was better than 7% with the USS-ETV-ICP-MS method.

  4. Tank 241-SX-106 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories.

  5. Tank 241-T-107 Headspace Gas and Vapor Characterization Results for Samples Collected in January 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-26

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  6. Tank 241-TY-104 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in April 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories.

  7. Tank 241-S-111 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories.

  8. Tank 241-C-104 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-28

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  9. Tank 241-AX-102 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories.

  10. Tank 241-C-102 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in August 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories.

  11. Tank 241-U-103 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in February 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-27

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories.

  12. Tank 241-C-110 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in August 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories.

  13. Tank 241-TX-105 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-25

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  14. Tank 241-B-103 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in February 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-27

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  15. Tank 241-A-101 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories.

  16. Sample introduction into a direct current plasma by filament vaporization

    SciTech Connect

    Buckley, B.T.

    1989-01-01

    This dissertation describes sample introduction into a direct current plasma by a tungsten filament vaporizer. The filament heater was designed to resistively heat a 0.1 mm diameter tungsten wire quickly and efficiently. The heating system is under microprocessor control for precise power application to the filament. The cell volume is small, less than 4 mL, and the accessibility of the primary emission zone allowed placement of the filament less than 5 cm from the confluence point of the plasma. The first study describes some of the fundamental design considerations, as well as performance of the interface. The absolute mass detection limits for Ca, Fe, Al, and Cu are 80, 2,000, 90, and 200 fg respectively. The blackbody emission temperature of the filament was measured. The initial heating rate was 50,000{degree}C/s. Observations are reported for optimization of operating parameters, as well as how to locate the region of maximum analyte emission intensity. Finally, the application of this technique to the analysis of a biological sample, swine blood, is reported. The second study examines the sources of noise and their components. Noise is grouped into additive and multiplicative noise occurring in three frequency ranges. The largest contribution, greater than 90%, was shot to shot multiplicative variations in sample vaporization and excitation. The third study examines the effect of addition of concomitant substances to the analyte. The substances were added both as metal salts to the aqueous analyte solution and as dopant gases to the carrier gas. Measured transport efficiencies ranged from 60 to 103% for manganese under various concomitant conditions. A 1% doping of the carrier gas with hydrogen caused significant enhancement of the emission signal of three metals, Fe, Al, and Ca. Enhancement correlated with volatility of the reduced form of the element.

  17. GROUND WATER SAMPLING OF VOCS IN THE WATER/CAPILLARY FRINGE AREA FOR VAPOR INTRUSION ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vapor intrusion has recently been considered a major pathway for increased indoor air contamination from certain volatile organic contaminants (VOCs). The recent Draft EPA Subsurface Vapor Intrusion Guidance Document states that ground water samples should be obtained from the u...

  18. Vapor space sampling of ferrocyanide tanks, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    Environmental assessment (EA), to assess environmental impacts associated with tank vapor space (dome) gas sampling of 24 Hanford Site single-shell waste tanks that contain ferrocyanide-nitrate compounds to determine whether or not the tanks contain flammable or toxic gases. The proposed action would be conducted using non-sparking materials, sparkless tools, and a portable containment shelter (greenhouse) and plastic ground cover. DOE needs to take this action to help define the required controls to prevent or mitigate the potential for an accident during future, more intrusive sampling of these tanks. Based on the evaluation in the EA (which examined the environmental impacts of the proposed action and reasonable alternatives), DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required, and the Department is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  19. SAMPLING-BASED APPROACH TO INVESTIGATING VAPOR INTRUSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vapor intrusion is defined as the migration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into occupied buildings from contaminated soil or ground water. EPA recently developed guidance to facilitate assessment of vapor intrusion at sites regulated by RCRA and CERCLA. The EPA guidance e...

  20. Review of Various Air Sampling Methods for Solvent Vapors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maykoski, R. T.

    Vapors of trichloroethylene, toluene, methyl ethyl ketone, and butyl cellosolve in air were collected using Scotchpac and Tedlar bags, glass prescription bottles, and charcoal adsorption tubes. Efficiencies of collection are reported. (Author/RH)

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF A SUB-SLAB AIR SAMPLING PROTOCOL TO SUPPORT ASSESSMENT OF VAPOR INTRUSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary purpose of this research effort is to develop a methodology for sub-slab sampling to support the EPA guidance and vapor intrusion investigations after vapor intrusion has been established at a site. Methodologies for sub-slab air sampling are currently lacking in ref...

  2. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-T-110: Results from samples collected on August 31, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    McVeety, B.D.; Thomas, B.L.; Evans, J.C.

    1996-05-01

    This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-T-110 (Tank T-110) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was {open_quotes}Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan{close_quotes}, and the sample job was designated S5056. Samples were collected by WHC on August 31, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace.

  3. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-S-108: Results from samples collected on December 6, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, B.L.; Evans, J.C.; McVeety, B.D.

    1996-06-01

    This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-S-108 (Tank S-108) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was {open_quotes}Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan{close_quotes}, and the sample job was designated S5086. Samples were collected by WHC on December 6, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace.

  4. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-A-103: Results from samples collected on November 9, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.C.; Thomas, B.L.; Pool, K.H.; Olsen, K.B.

    1996-06-01

    This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-A-103 (Tank A-103) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was {open_quotes}Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan{close_quotes}, and the sample job was designated S5073. Samples were collected by WHC on November 9, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace.

  5. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank SX-102: Results from samples collected on July 19, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    McVeety, B.D.; Evans, J.C.; Clauss, T.W.; Pool, K.H.

    1996-05-01

    This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-SX-102 (Tank SX-102) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed under the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was {open_quotes}Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan{close_quotes}, and the sample job was designated S5046. Samples were collected by WHC on July 19, 1995, using the vapor sampling system (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace.

  6. Sampling and Analysis Plan for Catch Tank 241ER311 Vapor

    SciTech Connect

    NGUYEN, D.M.

    1999-11-15

    This tank sampling and analysis plan (TSAF') identifies the sample collection, laboratory analysis, quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) objectives for the characterization of catch tank 241-ER-311 vapor space. Data to be collected under this revision (Revision 2) of the TSAP will be used to evaluate the effectiveness of the portable exhauster recently installed for the tank. Vapor samples taken previous to the issuance of this revision shall be analyzed in accordance with Revision 1.

  7. Tank 241-BY-106 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-05-31

    Tank 241-BY-106 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in {open_quotes}Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.{close_quotes} Tank 241-BY-106 was vapor sampled in accordance with {open_quotes}Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.{close_quotes}

  8. Tank 241-BY-105 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-05-31

    Tank 241-BY-105 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in {open_quotes}Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.{close_quotes} Tank 241-BY-105 was vapor sampled in accordance with {open_quotes}Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.{close_quotes}

  9. Techniques for avoiding discrimination errors in the dynamic sampling of condensable vapors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lincoln, K. A.

    1983-01-01

    In the mass spectrometric sampling of dynamic systems, measurements of the relative concentrations of condensable and noncondensable vapors can be significantly distorted if some subtle, but important, instrumental factors are overlooked. Even with in situ measurements, the condensables are readily lost to the container walls, and the noncondensables can persist within the vacuum chamber and yield a disproportionately high output signal. Where single pulses of vapor are sampled this source of error is avoided by gating either the mass spectrometer ""on'' or the data acquisition instrumentation ""on'' only during the very brief time-window when the initial vapor cloud emanating directly from the vapor source passes through the ionizer. Instrumentation for these techniques is detailed and its effectiveness is demonstrated by comparing gated and nongated spectra obtained from the pulsed-laser vaporization of several materials.

  10. Tank 241-C-109 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-05-31

    This report presents the details of the Hanford waste tank characterization study for tank C-109. The drivers and objectives of the waste tank headspace vapor sampling and analysis were in accordance with procedures that were presented in other reports.

  11. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-BY-108: Results from samples collected January 23, 1996. Tank Vapor Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.; Thomas, B.L.; Olsen, K.B.

    1996-07-01

    This report describes the results of vapor samples obtained to compare vapor sampling of the tank headspace using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS) and In Situ Vapor Sampling System (ISVS) with and without particulate prefiltration. Samples were collected from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BY-108 (Tank BY-108) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was contracted by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for water, ammonia, permanent gases, total nonmethane hydrocarbons (TNMHCs, also known as TO-12), and organic analytes in samples collected in SUMMA{trademark} canisters and on triple sorbent traps (TSTs) from the tank headspace. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sampling and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was {open_quotes}Sampling and Analysis Plan for Tank Vapor Sampling Comparison Test{close_quotes}, and the sample jobs were designated S6004, S6005, and S6006. Samples were collected by WHC on January 23, 1996, using the VSS, a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe; and the ISVS with and without particulate prefiltration.

  12. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-S-102: Results from samples collected on January 26, 1996. Tank Vapor Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.C.; Thomas, B.L.; Pool, K.H.

    1996-07-01

    This report describes the results of vapor samples obtained to compare vapor sampling of the tank headspace using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS) and In Situ Vapor Sampling System (ISVS) with and without particulate prefiltration. Samples were collected from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-S-102 (Tank S-102) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was contracted by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for water, ammonia, permanent gases, total nonmethane hydrocarbons (TNMHCs, also known as TO-12), and organic analytes in samples collected in SUMMA{trademark} canisters and on triple sorbent traps (TSTs) from the tank headspace. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sampling and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was {open_quotes}Sampling and Analysis Plan for Tank Vapor Sampling Comparison Test{close_quote}, and the sample jobs were designated S6007, S6008, and S6009. Samples were collected by WHC on January 26, 1996, using the VSS, a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe; and the ISVS with and without particulate prefiltration.

  13. Tank 241-BY-106 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in May 1994 and July 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories.

  14. Tank 241-C-105 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in February 1994. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories.

  15. Tank 241-C-111 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in August 1993 and September 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories.

  16. Tank 241-C-109 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in August 1994. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories.

  17. Tank 241-BY-104 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in April 1994 and June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories.

  18. Tank 241-TX-118 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in September 1994 and December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-27

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  19. Tank 241-C-110 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-05-31

    This report presents the details of the Hanford waste tank characterization study for tank 241-C-110. The drivers and objectives of the headspace vapor sampling and analysis were in accordance with procedure that were presented in other reports. The vapor and headspace gas samples were collected and analyzed to determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank.

  20. Tank 241-C-109 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-05-10

    This report presents the details of the Hanford waste tank characterization study for tank 241-C-109. The drivers and objectives of the headspace vapor sampling and analysis were in accordance with procedures that were presented in other reports. The vapor and headspace gas samples were collected and analyzed to determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank.

  1. Tank 241-SX-106 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-05-31

    This report presents the details of the Hanford waste tank characterization study for tank 241-SX-106. The drivers and objectives of the headspace vapor sampling and analysis were in accordance with procedure that were presented in other reports. The vapor and headspace gas samples were collected and analyzed to determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank.

  2. Tank 241-C-107 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-05-31

    This report presents the details of the Hanford waste tank characterization study for tank 241-C-107. The drivers and objectives of the headspace vapor sampling and analysis were in accordance with procedures that were presented in other reports. The vapor and headspace gas samples were collected and analyzed to determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank.

  3. Tank 241-C-102 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-05-31

    This report presents the details of the Hanford waste tank characterization study for tank 241-C-102. The drivers and objectives of the headspace vapor sampling and analysis were in accordance with procedures that were presented in other reports. The vapor and headspace gas samples were collected and analyzed to determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank.

  4. EVALUATION OF VAPOR EQUILIBRATION AND IMPACT OF PURGE VOLUME ON SOIL-GAS SAMPLING RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sequential sampling was utilized at the Raymark Superfund site to evaluate attainment of vapor equilibration and the impact of purge volume on soil-gas sample results. A simple mass-balance equation indicates that removal of three to five internal volumes of a sample system shou...

  5. Sampling Impacts on the NVAP-M Global Water Vapor Climate Data Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vonder Haar, T. H.; Forsythe, J. M.; Cronk, H. Q.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric water vapor is a fundamental ingredient both for regulating climate as a greenhouse gas and as a necessary precursor for high impact weather events such as heavy precipitation. Water vapor concentration varies geographically because of its close linkage with surface temperature and as a component of synoptic and mesoscale weather systems. Satellite observations provide the only means to quantify the global occurrence and variability of water vapor. In common with other long-term climate data records such as clouds and precipitation, intercalibrating and blending diverse measurements of water vapor to create a consistent record through time is a challenge. The NASA Making Earth Science Data Records for Research Environments (MEaSUREs) program supported the development of the NASA Water Vapor Project (NVAP-M) dataset. The dataset was released to the science community in 2013 via the NASA Langley Atmospheric Science Data Center. The dataset is a global (land and ocean) water vapor dataset created by merging multiple satellite infrared and microwave sources of atmospheric water vapor along with surface data to form global gridded fields of total and layered precipitable water vapor. NVAP-M spans 22 years (1988-2009) of data. The challenges in creating this multisensor, multidecadal satellite-driven climate data record are illustrative of challenges for all satellite climate data records. While advances in sensor intercalibration and retrieval algorithms have improved the quality of the global water vapor climate data record, uncertainties arise due to sampling biases of the input sensors. These biases are particularly evident on a regional scale, in cloudy regions or over desert surfaces. The changing mixture of sensors with varying sensitivity to clear/cloudy, land/ocean and even day/night conditions can lead to different results on trends and variability of water vapor. We explore this variability via the NVAP-M data set. Connections and collaborations

  6. Tank vapor characterization project. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford waste tank 241-BY-108: Second comparison study results from samples collected on 3/28/96

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, B.L.; Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BY-108 (Tank BY-108) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report is the second in a series comparing vapor sampling of the tank headspace using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS) and In Situ Vapor Sampling (ISVS) system without high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) prefiltration. The results include air concentrations of water (H{sub 2}O) and ammonia (NH{sub 3}), permanent gases, total non-methane organic compounds (TO-12), and individual organic analytes collected in SUMMA{trademark} canisters and on triple sorbent traps (TSTs). Samples were collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volume measurements provided by WHC.

  7. Tank vapor characterization project: Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-S-102: Second comparison study results from samples collected on 04/04/96

    SciTech Connect

    Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.; Thomas, B.J.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-S-102 (Tank S-102) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report is the second in a series comparing vapor sampling of the tank headspace using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS) and In Situ Vapor Sampling (ISVS) system without high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) prefiltration. The results include air concentrations of water (H{sub 2}O) and ammonia (NH{sub 3}), permanent gases, total non-methane organic compounds (TO-12), and individual organic analytes collected in SUMMA{trademark} canisters and on triple sorbent traps (TSTs). Samples were collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volume measurements provided by WHC.

  8. Tank vapor characterization project - headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-C-107: Second comparison study results from samples collected on 3/26/96

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Thomas, B.L.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-C-107 (Tank C-107) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report is the second in a series comparing vapor sampling of the tank headspace using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS) and In Situ Vapor Sampling (ISVS) system without high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) prefiltration. The results include air concentrations of water (H{sub 2}O) and ammonia (NH{sub 3}), permanent gases, total non-methane organic compounds (TO-12), and individual organic analytes collected in SUMMA{trademark} canisters and on triple sorbent traps (TSTs). Samples were collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volume measurements provided by WHC.

  9. Tank Vapor Characterization Project -- Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford waste Tank 241-C-107: Results from samples collected on 01/17/96

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, B.L.; Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Olsen, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Silvers, K.L.

    1996-07-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-C-107 (Tank C-107) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to compare vapor sampling of the tank headspace using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS) and In Situ Vapor Sampling (ISVS) system with and without high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) prefiltration. The results include air concentrations of water (H{sub 2}O) and ammonia (NH{sub 3}), permanent gases, total non-methane hydrocarbons (TO-12), and individual organic analytes collected in SUMMA{trademark} canisters and on triple sorbent traps (TSTs). Samples were collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volume measurements provided by WHC.

  10. Evidence That Certain Waste Tank Headspace Vapor Samples Were Contaminated by Semivolatile Polymer Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, James L.

    2006-02-09

    Vapor samples collected from the headspaces of the Hanford Site high-level radioactive waste tanks in 1994 and 1995 using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS) were reported to contain trace levels of phthalates, antioxidants, and certain other industrial chemicals that did not have a logical origin in the waste. This report examines the evidence these chemicals were sampling artifacts (contamination) and identifies the chemicals reported as headspace constituents that may instead have been contaminants. Specific recommendations are given regarding the marking of certain chemicals as suspect on the basis they were sampling manifold contaminants.

  11. Apparatus and process for collection of gas and vapor samples

    DOEpatents

    Jackson, Dennis G.; Peterson, Kurt D.; Riha, Brian D.

    2008-04-01

    A gas sampling apparatus and process is provided in which a standard crimping tool is modified by an attached collar. The collar permits operation of the crimping tool while also facilitating the introduction of a supply of gas to be introduced into a storage vial. The introduced gas supply is used to purge ambient air from a collection chamber and an interior of the sample vial. Upon completion of the purging operation, the vial is sealed using the crimping tool.

  12. VAPOR PRESSURE ISOTOPE EFFECTS IN THE MEASUREMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL TRITIUM SAMPLES.

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhne, W.

    2012-12-03

    Standard procedures for the measurement of tritium in water samples often require distillation of an appropriate sample aliquot. This distillation process may result in a fractionation of tritiated water and regular light water due to the vapor pressure isotope effect, introducing either a bias or an additional contribution to the total tritium measurement uncertainty. The magnitude of the vapor pressure isotope effect is characterized as functions of the amount of water distilled from the sample aliquot and the heat settings for the distillation process. The tritium concentration in the distillate is higher than the tritium concentration in the sample early in the distillation process, it then sharply decreases due to the vapor pressure isotope effect and becomes lower than the tritium concentration in the sample, until the high tritium concentration retained in the boiling flask is evaporated at the end of the process. At that time, the tritium concentration in the distillate again overestimates the sample tritium concentration. The vapor pressure isotope effect is more pronounced the slower the evaporation and distillation process is conducted; a lower heat setting during the evaporation of the sample results in a larger bias in the tritium measurement. The experimental setup used and the fact that the current study allowed for an investigation of the relative change in vapor pressure isotope effect in the course of the distillation process distinguish it from and extend previously published measurements. The separation factor as a quantitative measure of the vapor pressure isotope effect is found to assume values of 1.034 {+-} 0.033, 1.052 {+-} 0.025, and 1.066 {+-} 0.037, depending on the vigor of the boiling process during distillation of the sample. A lower heat setting in the experimental setup, and therefore a less vigorous boiling process, results in a larger value for the separation factor. For a tritium measurement in water samples, this implies that

  13. Double Shell Tank (DST) Ventilation System Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan

    SciTech Connect

    SASAKI, L.M.

    2000-06-08

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for vapor samples from the primary ventilation systems of the AN, AP, AW, and AY/AZ tank farms. Sampling will be performed in accordance with Data Quality Objectives for Regulatory Requirements for Hazardous and Radioactive Air Emissions Sampling and Analysis (Air DQO) (Mulkey 1999). The sampling will verify if current air emission estimates used in the permit application are correct and provide information for future air permit applications. Vapor samples will be obtained from tank farm ventilation systems, downstream from the tanks and upstream of any filtration. Samples taken in support of the DQO will consist of SUMMA{trademark} canisters, triple sorbent traps (TSTs), sorbent tube trains (STTs), polyurethane foam (PUF) samples. Particulate filter samples and tritium traps will be taken for radiation screening to allow the release of the samples for analysis. The following sections provide the general methodology and procedures to be used in the preparation, retrieval, transport, analysis, and reporting of results from the vapor samples.

  14. VAPOR SAMPLING DEVICE FOR INTERFACE WITH MICROTOX ASSAY FOR SCREENING TOXIC INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A time-integrated sampling system interfaced with a toxicity-based assay is reported for monitoring volatile toxic industrial chemicals (TICs). Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as the fill solvent accumulated each of 17 TICs from the vapor...

  15. Tank vapor sampling and analysis data package for tank 241-C-106 waste retrieval sluicing system process test phase III

    SciTech Connect

    LOCKREM, L.L.

    1999-08-13

    This data package presents sampling data and analytical results from the March 28, 1999, vapor sampling of Hanford Site single-shell tank 241-C-106 during active sluicing. Samples were obtained from the 296-C-006 ventilation system stack and ambient air at several locations. Characterization Project Operations (CPO) was responsible for the collection of all SUMMATM canister samples. The Special Analytical Support (SAS) vapor team was responsible for the collection of all triple sorbent trap (TST), sorbent tube train (STT), polyurethane foam (PUF), and particulate filter samples collected at the 296-C-006 stack. The SAS vapor team used the non-electrical vapor sampling (NEVS) system to collect samples of the air, gases, and vapors from the 296-C-006 stack. The SAS vapor team collected and analyzed these samples for Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation (LMHC) and Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) in accordance with the sampling and analytical requirements specified in the Waste Retrieval Sluicing System Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) for Evaluation of Organic Emissions, Process Test Phase III, HNF-4212, Rev. 0-A, (LMHC, 1999). All samples were stored in a secured Radioactive Materials Area (RMA) until the samples were radiologically released and received by SAS for analysis. The Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility (WSCF) performed the radiological analyses. The samples were received on April 5, 1999.

  16. The contribution of nitro- and methylnitronaphthalenes to the vapor-phase mutagenicity of ambient air samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Pamela; Harger, William P.; Arey, Janet

    1- and 2-Nitronaphthalene (NN) and the 14 methylnitronaphthalene (MNN) isomers were identified and quantified in ambient vapor-phase samples collected in Redlands, CA during moderate photochemical air pollution. The mutagenic activities of NN and MNN standards were determined using a microsuspension-preincubation modification of the Ames Salmonella bacterial reversion assay in strain TA98 without microsomal activation. The calculated contributions of the NNs and MNNs to the total vapor-phase ambient mutagenic activity were ˜ 18 and ˜ 32% for daytime and nighttime composite samples, respectively. Enhanced mutagenic activity in the nighttime sample was attributed to NN and MNN formation from nighttime N03 radical-initiated reactions of naphthalene and the methylnaphthalenes.

  17. Synergy or dichotomy: vapor and particle sampling in the detection of contraband

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, William R.; Stott, William R.; Sleeman, Richard; Akery, Alan K.

    1994-03-01

    Chemical detection techniques for explosive and illicit drug identification were originally directed towards the detection of vapors, with research groups aiming toward the specific target of creating a mechanical dog. With the advent of the mass spectrometry based contraband detection systems, exemplified by the CONDORTM which relies on both the detection of vapors and particles, research groups and instrument manufacturers changed direction and began to develop techniques mainly oriented toward the detection of trace particles. The major advantage to the use of trace particulate residues in the detection of hazardous material is that the actual substance can be identified in nearly all cases. On the other hand, as is discussed in detail in later sections of this document, sampling of complex items can be difficult. Both vapor and particulate sampling can be invaluable in the detection of hazardous materials. In many instances the techniques offer complementary information, and results obtained via one route may lead to the use of the alternative method (for example, the vapor detection of taggants as a screening technique followed by particulate analysis for the actual target). The concepts discussed in the remainder of this paper focus on the use of tandem mass spectrometry as an analytical device in the detection of contraband materials.

  18. Tank 241-BY-105 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-05-10

    Tank BY-105 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. Tank BY-105 is on the Ferrocyanide Watch List. Samples were collected from Tank BY-105 using the vapor sampling system (VSS) on July 7, 1994 by WHC Sampling and Mobile Laboratories. The tank headspace temperature was determined to be 26 C. Air from the Tank BY-105 headspace was withdrawn via a heated sampling probe mounted in riser 10A, and transferred via heated tubing to the VSS sampling manifold. All heated zones of the VSS were maintained at approximately 65 C. Sampling media were prepared and analyzed by WHC, Oak Ridge National Laboratories, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, and Oregon Graduate Institute of Science and Technology through a contract with Sandia National Laboratories. The 46 tank air samples and 2 ambient air control samples collected are listed in Table X-1 by analytical laboratory. Table X-1 also lists the 10 trip blanks provided by the laboratories.

  19. Tank 241-BY-106 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-05-10

    Tank BY-106 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. Tank BY-106 is on the Ferrocyanide Watch List. Samples were collected from Tank BY-106 using the vapor sampling system (VSS) on July 8, 1994 by WHC Sampling and Mobile Laboratories. The tank headspace temperature was determined to be 27 C. Air from the Tank BY-106 headspace was withdrawn via a heated sampling probe mounted in riser 10B, and transferred via heated tubing to the VSS sampling manifold. All heated zones of the VSS were maintained at approximately 65 C. Sampling media were prepared and analyzed by WHC, Oak Ridge National Laboratories, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, and Oregon Graduate Institute of Science and Technology through a contract with Sandia National Laboratories. The 46 tank air samples and 2 ambient air control samples collected are listed in Table X-1 by analytical laboratory. Table X-1 also lists the 10 trip blanks provided by the laboratories.

  20. Determination of cadmium in water samples by fast pyrolysis-chemical vapor generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jingya; Fang, Jinliang; Duan, Xuchuan

    2016-08-01

    A pyrolysis-vapor generation procedure to determine cadmium by atomic fluorescence spectrometry has been established. Under fast pyrolysis, cadmium ion can be reduced to volatile cadmium species by sodium formate. The presence of thiourea enhanced the efficiency of cadmium vapor generation and eliminated the interference of copper. The possible mechanism of vapor generation of cadmium was discussed. The optimization of the parameters for pyrolysis-chemical vapor generation, including pyrolysis temperature, amount of sodium formate, concentration of hydrochloric acid, and carrier argon flow rate were carried out. Under the optimized conditions, the absolute and concentration detection limits were 0.38 ng and 2.2 ng ml- 1, respectively, assuming that 0.17 ml of sample was injected. The generation efficiency of was 28-37%. The method was successfully applied to determine trace amounts of cadmium in two certified reference materials of Environmental Water (GSB07-1185-2000 and GSBZ 50009-88). The results were in good agreement with the certified reference values.

  1. Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford waste tank 241-S-101: Results from samples collected on 06/06/96

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, B.L.; Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Olsen, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Silvers, K.L.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-S-101. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and sample volumes provided by WHC. A summary of the inorganic analytes, permanent gases, and total non-methane organic compounds is listed.

  2. Assessment of the SAGE sampling strategy in the derivation of tropospheric water vapor distribution in a general circulation model

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, M.H.

    1995-06-01

    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II has provided unprecedented information of water vapor distribution in the upper troposphere. For the purpose of comparison with output from climate models, the present study assesses the impact of the SAGE II sampling strategy on the tropospheric water vapor climatology in a general circulation model. Since water vapor is sampled only in {open_quotes}non-cloudy{close_quotes} regions in the SAGE strategy, the sampled water vapor concentration is smaller than the real climatology. This difference is associated with two factors. One is the water-vapor sampling frequency, the other is the humidity variability inside and outside the clouds. It is shown that maximum difference is at around 300 to 500 mb where it reaches up to 40% in the zonal mean humidity. 10 refs., 5 figs.

  3. Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank U-204, Results from samples collected on August 8, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Clauss, T.W.; Evans, J.C.; McVeety, B.D.; Pool, K.H.; Thomas, B.L.; Olsen, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Ligotke, M.W.

    1995-11-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-U-204 (Tank U-204) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank-farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volumes provided by WHC. A summary of the results is listed. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the text.

  4. Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Tank 241-S-107: Results from samples collected on 06/18/96

    SciTech Connect

    Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.; Thomas, B.L.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-S-107 (Tank S-107) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest National. Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, on sample volumes provided by WHC. A summary of the inorganic analytes, permanent gases, and total non-methane organic compounds is listed in Table S.1. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the appendices.

  5. Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-S-109: Results from samples collected on 06/04/96

    SciTech Connect

    Pool, K.H.; Thomas, B.L.; Evans, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-S-109 (Tank S-109) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, on sample volumes provided by WHC. A summary of the inorganic analytes, permanent gases, and total non-methane organic compounds is listed in Table S.1. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the appendices.

  6. Tank 241-C-107 fifth temporal study: Headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on February 7, 1997. Tank vapor characterization project

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.

    1997-08-01

    This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-C-107 (Tank C-107) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by SGN Eurisys Services Corporation (SESC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by SESC. No analytes were determined to be above the immediate notification limits specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Hydrogen was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank C-107 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 3.233% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <3.342% of the LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

  7. Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Tank 241-BX-111 headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on August 27, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.; Thomas, B.L.; Sklarew, D.S. Edwards, J.A.

    1997-08-01

    This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BX-111 (Tank BX-111) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by WHC. No analytes were determined to be above the immediate notification limits specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Ammonia was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank BX-111 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 0.042 of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <0.157% of the LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

  8. Tank 241-BX-104 third temporal study: Headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on February 6, 1997. Tank vapor characterization project

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Hayes, J.C.

    1997-09-01

    This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BX-104 (Tank BX-104) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by SGN Eurisys Service Corporation (SESC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by SESC. Ammonia was determined to be above the immediate notification limit specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Hydrogen was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank BX-104 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 0.178 % of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <0.458% of the LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

  9. Tank vapor characterization project: Tank 241-BX-104 fifth temporal study: Headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on June 10, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.; Olsen, K.B.

    1997-07-01

    This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BX-104 (Tank BX-104) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by SGN Eurisys Service Corporation (SESC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by SESC. Ammonia was determined to be above the immediate notification limit specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Hydrogen was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank BX-104 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 0.270% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <0.675% of the LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

  10. Tank 241-BY-108 fifth temporal study: Headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on January 30, 1997. Tank vapor characterization project

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Olsen, K.B.

    1997-09-01

    This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from tile headspace of waste storage tank 241-B-108 (Tank BY - 108) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by SGN Eurisys Services Corporation (SESC) and analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by SESC. Ammonia was determined to be above the immediate notification limit of 150 ppm specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Hydrogen was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank BY-108 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 0.888% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <1.979% of tile LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

  11. Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Tank 241-S-102 fourth temporal study: Headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on December 19, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.; Olsen, K.B.; Hayes, J.C.

    1997-08-01

    This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-S-102 (Tank S-102) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by SGN Eurisys Service Corporation (SESC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by SESC. Ammonia was determined to be above the immediate notification limit of 150 ppm as specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Hydrogen was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank S-102 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 2.410% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <2.973% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <2.973% of the LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

  12. Tank vapor characterization project: Tank 241-BY-101 headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on August 29, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Thomas, B.L.; Olsen, K.B.

    1997-08-01

    This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BY-101 (Tank BY-101) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by WHC. No analytes were determined to be above the immediate notification limits specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Total non-methane organic compounds (TNMOCs) were the principal flammable constituent of the Tank By-101 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 0.136% of the LFL. Averaged measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

  13. Tank 241-BX-104 fourth temporal study: Headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on April 7, 1997. Tank vapor characterization project

    SciTech Connect

    Mitroshkov, A.V.; Hayes, J.C.; Evans, J.C.

    1997-09-01

    This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BX-04 (Tank BX-104) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by SGN Eurisys Service Corporation (SESC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by SESC. Ammonia was determined to be above the immediate notification limit specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Hydrogen was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank BX-104 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 0.208% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <0.536% of the LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

  14. Vapor space characterization of waste Tank 241-C-108: Results from samples collected through the vapor sampling system on 8/5/94

    SciTech Connect

    Lucke, R.B.; Ligotke, M.W.; Pool, K.H.; Clauss, T.W.; Sharma, A.K.; McVeety, B.D.; McCulloch, M.; Fruchter, J.S.; Goheen, S.C.

    1995-10-01

    This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-C-108 (referred to as Tank C-108). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH{sub 3}), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), nitric oxide (NO), and water vapor (H{sub 2}O). Sampling for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}) was not requested. Organic compounds were also quantitatively determined. Two organic tentatively identified compounds (TICs) were observed above the detection limit of (ca.) 10 ppbv, but standards for most of these were not available at the time of analysis, and the reported concentrations are semiquantitative estimates. In addition, the authors looked for the 41 standard TO-14 analytes. Of these, only a few were observed above the 2-ppbv detection limit. The five organic analytes with the highest estimated concentrations are listed in Table 1. The five analytes account for approximately 85% of the total organic components in Tank C-108.

  15. Direct determination of bromine in plastics by electrothermal vaporization/inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using a tungsten boat furnace vaporizer and an exchangeable sample cuvette system.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Yasuaki; Komori, Hiromi; Kataoka, Hiroko; Tsukahara, Satoshi; Fujiwara, Terufumi

    2010-05-15

    A tungsten boat furnace vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (TBF/ICP-MS) method has been applied to the direct determination of bromine in plastic samples. In the pretreatment, the plastic sample is spread over a small sample cuvette made of tungsten by treating it with a strongly basic organic solution, e.g., octanol or diisobutyl ketone in the presence of potassium hydroxide. The cuvette is placed on a tungsten boat furnace, with which the electrothermal vaporizer is equipped. At the vaporization step, a widely spread thin layer of the sample facilitates its efficient evaporation and introduction into an ICP mass spectrometer. The most remarkable feature is that all the bromine species in plastic samples are decomposed to form a thermally stable inorganic salt during the pretreatment procedure. Therefore, the bromine content in plastic samples can be measured by a calibration curve method constructed with an aqueous standard solution of potassium bromate(V). The detection limit (3sigma) was estimated to be 0.77 pg of bromine, which corresponds to a concentration of 0.31 ng g(-1) of bromine in plastic samples when a sample amount taken of 2.5 mg is studied. The relative standard deviation was calculated to be 2.2%. Analytical results of some plastic samples, which contained both inorganic bromide salts and also organic bromine species, are given. PMID:20391597

  16. Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Tank 241-BX-102 headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on July 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.; Thomas, B.L.; Olsen, K.B. Edwards, J.A.

    1997-08-01

    This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BX-102 (Tank BX-102) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured volumes provided by WHC. No analytes were determined to be above the immediate notification limits specified by the sampling and and analysis plan. Ammonia and TNMOCs were the principal flammable constituents of the Tank BX-102 headspace, each determined to be present at approximately 0.002% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <0.107% of the LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

  17. Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Tank 241-BY-108 temporal study headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on September 10, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Thomas, B.L.; Sklarew, D.S.

    1997-08-01

    This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BY-108 (Tank BY-108) at the Hanford Company (WHC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by WHC. Ammonia was determined to be above the immediate notification limit of 150 ppm specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Hydrogen was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank BY-108 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 1.463% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <2.940% of the LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

  18. Atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionizataion and triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry for explosives vapor detection

    SciTech Connect

    McLuckey, S.A.; Goeringer, D.E.; Asano, K.G.; Hart, K.J.; Glish, G.L.; Grant, B.C.; Chambers, D.M.

    1993-08-01

    The detection and identification of trace vapors of hidden high explosives is an excellent example of a targeted analysis problem. It is desirable to push to ever lower levels the quantity or concentration of explosives material that provides an analytical signal, while at the same time discriminating against all other uninteresting material. The detection system must therefore combine high sensitivity with high specificity. This report describes the philosophy behind the use of atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization, which is a sensitive, rugged, and convenient means for forming anions from explosives molecules, with tandem mass spectrometry, which provides unparalleled specificity in the identification of explosives-related ions. Forms of tandem mass spectrometry are compared and contrasted to provide a summary of the characteristics to be expected from an explosives detector employing mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. The instrument developed for the FAA, an atmospheric sampling glow discharge/triple quadrupole mass spectrometer, is described in detail with particular emphasis on the ion source/spectrometer interface and on the capabilities of the spectrometer. Performance characteristics of the system are also described as they pertain to explosives of interest including a description of an automated procedure for the detection and identification of specific explosives. A comparison of various tandem mass spectrometers mated with atmospheric sampling glow discharge is then described and preliminary studies with a vapor preconcentration system provided by the FAA will be described.

  19. Tank 241-BY-105 Headspace Gas and Vapor Characterization Results for Samples Collected in May 1994 and July 1994. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  20. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-U-112: Results from samples collected on 7/09/96

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Thomas, B.L.; Olsen, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Silvers, K.L.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-U-112 at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company.

  1. Tank 241-B-103 headspace gas and vapor characterization: Results for homogeneity samples collected on October 16, 1996. Tank vapor characterization project

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, K.B.; Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.

    1997-06-01

    This report presents the results of analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-B-103 (Tank B-103) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Samples were collected to determine the homogeneity of selected inorganic and organic headspace constituents. Two risers (Riser 2 and Riser 7) were sampled at three different elevations (Bottom, Middle, and Top) within the tank. Tank headspace samples were collected by SGN Eurisys Service Corporation (SESC) and were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL.

  2. ANALYSIS OF VAPORS FROM METHYLENE CHLORIDE EXTRACTS OF NUCLEAR GRADE HEPA FILTER FIBERGLASS SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    FRYE JM; ANASTOS HL; GUTIERREZ FC

    2012-06-07

    While several organic compounds were detected in the vapor samples used in the reenactment of the preparation of mounts from the extracts of nuclear grade high-efficiency particulate air filter fiberglass samples, the most significant species present in the samples were methylene chloride, phenol, phenol-d6, and 2-fluorophenol. These species were all known to be present in the extracts, but were expected to have evaporated during the preparation of the mounts, as the mounts appeared to be dry before any vapor was collected. These species were present at the following percentages of their respective occupational exposure limits: methylene chloride, 2%; phenol, 0.4%; and phenol-d6, 0.6%. However, there is no established limit for 2-fluorophenol. Several other compounds were detected at low levels for which, as in the case of 2-fluorophenol, there are no established permissible exposure limits. These compounds include 2-chlorophenol; N-nitroso-1-propanamine; 2-fluoro-1,1{prime}-biphenyl; 1,2-dihydroacenaphthylene; 2,5-cyclohexadiene-1,4-dione,2,6-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl); trimethyl oxirane; n-propylpropanamine; 2-(Propylamino)ethanol; 4-methoxy-1-butene; 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one; and 3,4-dimethylpyridine. Some of these were among those added as surrogates or spike standards as part ofthe Advanced Technologies and Laboratories International, Inc. preparation ofthe extract of the HEPA filter media and are indicated as such in the data tables in Section 2, Results; other compounds found were not previously known to be present. The main inorganic species detected (sulfate, sodium, and sulfur) are also consistent with species added in the preparation of the methylene chloride extract of the high-efficiency particulate air sample.

  3. Tank vapor characterization project. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford waste Tank SX-101: Results from samples collected on 07/21/95

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.C.; Clauss, T.W.; McVeety, B.D.; Pool, K.H.; Olsen, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Silvers, K.L.

    1996-05-01

    Results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank-farm operations. They include air concentrations of inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples. The vapor concentrations are based either on whole-volume samples or on sorbent traps exposed to sample flow. No immediate notifications were needed because analytical results indicated no specific analytes exceeded notification levels. Summary of results: NH3, 3.8 ppmv; NO2, 0.10 ppmv; NO, 0.13 ppm; H2O, 11.8 mg/L; CO2, 338 ppmv; CO, <25 ppmv; CH4, <25 ppmv; H2, <25 ppmv; N20, <25 ppmv; hydrocarbons, 0.98 mg/m{sup 3}; methanol, 0.060 ppmv; acetone, 0.033 ppmv; trichlorofluoromethane, 0.023 ppmv; and acetone, 0.034 ppmv.

  4. Waste tank vapor project: Vapor space characterization of waste tank 241-BY-104: Results from samples collected on June 24, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Clauss, T.W.; Ligotke, M.W.; McVeety, B.D.; Pool, K.H.; Lucke, R.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Goheen, S.C.

    1994-11-01

    This report describes results of the analyses of tank-headspace samples taken from Hanford waste Tank 241-BY-104 (referred to as Tank BY-104) on June 24, 1994. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze inorganic and organic samples collected from the tank headspace. The sample job was designated S4019 and was performed by WHC on June 24, 1994 using the vapor sampling system (VSS). The results of the analyses are expected to be used in the determination of safety and toxicological issues related to the tank-headspace gas as described in the WHC report entitled Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Vapor Issue Resolution, WHC-SD-WM-DQO-002, Rev. 0. Sampling devices, including 16 sorbent trains (for inorganic analyses), and 5 SUMMA{trademark} canisters (for organic analyses), were supplied to the WHC sampling staff on June 20, 1994. Samples were taken (by WHC) on June 24. The samples were returned from the field on June 27. The inorganic samples delivered to PNL on chain-of-custody (COC) 006893 included 16 sorbent trains as described in Tables 2.2, 2.3, and 2.4. Additional inorganic blank spikes were obtained from related sample jobs. SUMMA{trademark} samples delivered to PNL on COC 006896 included one ambient air sample, one ambient-air sample through the sampling system, and three tank-headspace SUMMA{trademark} canister samples. The samples were inspected upon delivery to the 326/23B laboratory and logged into PNL laboratory record book 55408. Custody of the sorbent trains was transferred to PNL personnel performing the inorganic analysis and stored at refrigerated ({le}10{degrees}C) temperature until the time of analysis. Access to the 326/23B laboratory is limited to PNL personnel working on the waste-tank safety program.

  5. Effects of cesium ions and cesium vapor on selected ATS-F samples. [thermal control coating degradation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kemp, R. F.; Beynon, J. C.; Hall, D. F.; Luedke, E. E.

    1973-01-01

    Thermal control coating samples were subjected to cesium ion beam and vapor exposures. Degradation of solar absorptance and infrared emittance were measured. Solar cells and samples selected from surfaces on the ATS-F spacecraft likely to experience ion or vapor impingement were bombarded by 10-volt cesium ions. Other samples were subjected to high levels of cesium vapor. Aluminum and white paint were backsputtered by 550-volt cesium ions onto selected samples. For direct bombardment, the threshold for ion-induced property changes was above five-thousand trillion ions/sq cm. With material sputtered from a 450-sq cm target onto samples 36 cm distant, the threshold for noticeable effects was above 5 times 10 to the 17-th power ions/sq cm.

  6. EFFECTS OF THE VARIATION OF SELECT SAMPLING PARAMETERS ON SOIL VAPOR CONCENTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Currently soil vapor surveys are commonly used as a screening technique to delineate subsurface volatile organic compound (VOC) contaminant plumes and to provide information for vapor intrusion and contaminated site evaluations. To improve our understanding of the fate and transp...

  7. Slurry sampling electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for steelmaking flue dust analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coedo, A. G.; Dorado, T.; Padilla, I.; Maibusch, R.; Kuss, H.-M.

    2000-02-01

    A commercial atomic absorption graphite furnace (AAGF), with a self-made adapter and valve system, was used as a slurry sampling cell for electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ETV-ICP-MS). The system was applied to the determination of As, Sn, Sb, Se, Te, Bi, Cd, V, Ti and Mo in steelmaking flue dusts. Experimental conditions with respect to ETV and ICP-MS operating parameters were optimized. Compared to aqueous solutions, slurry samples were found to present better analyte transport. Microgram amounts of Rh were used to reduce the difference in analyte response in sensitivity for aqueous solutions of the tested analytes. No such increasing effect was observed for slurry samples and aqueous standards. An added quantity of Rh acting as modifier/carrier resulted in an increase for the same analytes in matrix-slurry solutions, even the addition of an extra Rh quantity has resulted in a decrease in the signals. The effect of Triton X-100 (used as a dispersant agent) on analyte intensity and precision was also studied. External calibration from aqueous standards spiked with 100 μg ml -1 Rh was performed to quantified 0.010 g/100 ml slurry samples. Results are presented for a certified reference electrical arc furnace flue dust (EAF): CRM-876-1 (Bureau of Analysis Samples Ltd., Cleveland, UK), a reference sample of coke ashes X-3705 (from AG der Dillinger Hüttenwerke, Germany), and a representative sample of EAF flue dust from a Spanish steelmaking company (CENIM-1). For the two reference materials an acceptable agreement with certificate values was achieved, and the results for the CENIM sample matched with those obtained from conventional nebulization solution.

  8. Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-S-103: Results from samples collected on 06/12/96

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Thomas, B.L.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-S-103 (Tank S-103) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volumes provided by WHC. A summary of the inorganic analytes, permanent gases, and total non-methane organic compounds is listed in Table S.1. The three highest concentration analytes detected in SUMMA{trademark} canister and triple sorbent trap samples are also listed in Table S.1. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the appendices.

  9. Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-C-204: Results from samples collected on 07/02/96

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, B.L.; Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-C-204 (Tank C-204) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volumes provided by WHC. A summary of the inorganic analytes, permanent gases, and total non-methane organic compounds is listed in Table S.1. The three highest concentration analytes detected in SUMMA{trademark} canister and triple sorbent trap samples are also listed in Table S.1. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the appendices.

  10. Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Tank 241-B-105: Results from samples collected on 07/30/96

    SciTech Connect

    Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.; Thomas, B.L.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-B-105 (Tank B-105) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volumes provided by WHC. A summary of the inorganic analytes, permanent gases, and total non-methane organic compounds is listed in Table S.1. The three highest concentration analytes detected in SUMMA{trademark} canister and triple sorbent trap samples are also listed in Table S.1. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the appendices.

  11. Electrothermal Vaporization Sample Introduction for Spaceflight Water Quality Monitoring via Gas Chromatography-Differential Mobility Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wallace, William T; Gazda, Daniel B; Limero, Thomas F; Minton, John M; Macatangay, Ariel V; Dwivedi, Prabha; Fernández, Facundo M

    2015-06-16

    In the history of manned spaceflight, environmental monitoring has relied heavily on archival sampling. However, with the construction of the International Space Station (ISS) and the subsequent extension in mission duration up to one year, an enhanced, real-time method for environmental monitoring is necessary. The station air is currently monitored for trace volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using gas chromatography-differential mobility spectrometry (GC-DMS) via the Air Quality Monitor (AQM), while water is analyzed to measure total organic carbon and biocide concentrations using the Total Organic Carbon Analyzer (TOCA) and the Colorimetric Water Quality Monitoring Kit (CWQMK), respectively. As mission scenarios extend beyond low Earth orbit, a convergence in analytical instrumentation to analyze both air and water samples is highly desirable. Since the AQM currently provides quantitative, compound-specific information for air samples and many of the targets in air are also common to water, this platform is a logical starting point for developing a multimatrix monitor. Here, we report on the interfacing of an electrothermal vaporization (ETV) sample introduction unit with a ground-based AQM for monitoring target analytes in water. The results show that each of the compounds tested from water have similar GC-DMS parameters as the compounds tested in air. Moreover, the ETV enabled AQM detection of dimethlsilanediol (DMSD), a compound whose analysis had proven challenging using other sample introduction methods. Analysis of authentic ISS water samples using the ETV-AQM showed that DMSD could be successfully quantified, while the concentrations obtained for the other compounds also agreed well with laboratory results. PMID:25971650

  12. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford waste Tank 241-C-201: Results from samples collected on 06/19/96

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, B.L.; Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Olsen, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Silvers, K.L.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-C-201 (Tank C-201) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, on sample volumes provided by WHC. A summary, of the inorganic analytes, permanent gases, and total non-methane organic compounds is listed in a table. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the appendices.

  13. Tank vapor characterization project - Tank 241-U-112 headspace gas and vapor characterization: Results for homogeneity samples collected on December 6, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Sklarew, D.S.; Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.; Hayes, J.C.

    1997-09-01

    This report presents the results of analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-U-112 (Tank U-112) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Samples were collected to determine the homogeneity of selected inorganic and organic headspace constitutents. Two risers (Riser 3 and Riser 6) were sampled at three different elevations (Bottom, Middle, and Top) within the tank. Tank headspace samples were collected by SGN Eurisys Service Corporation (SESC) and were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Ammonia was determined to be above the immediate notification limit specified by the sampling and analysis plan.

  14. Sample transport efficiency with electrothermal vaporization and electrostatic deposition technique in multielement solid sample analysis of plant and cereal materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhardt, Jens; Buchkamp, Thomas; Hermann, Gerd; Lasnitschka, Georg

    2000-05-01

    A graphite furnace of the boat-in-tube type as electrothermal vaporizer (ETV) and an electrostatic precipitator were used for determining analyte transport efficiencies and dependencies on plant and cereal matrices, and on carrier elements. All analytical measurements were carried out with coherent forward scattering (CFS) using simultaneous multielement determinations. Transport efficiencies of up to 19% for Cu, 21% for Fe and Mn, and 36% for Pb from the ETV boat to the L'vov platform were obtained for the standard reference materials BCR CRM 281 rye grass, BCR CRM 189 wholemeal flour and NIST SRM 1567 wheat flour and multielement standard solutions containing approximately the same element ratios as certified for the solid samples. The analytical accuracy of the procedure including the ETV process and the electrostatic deposition was tested with Cu, Fe and Pb in BCR CRM 281, Cu, Fe and Mn in BCR CRM 189, and Fe and Mn in NIST SRM 1567 by weighing the solid sample onto the ETV-boat and calibrating against multielement standard solutions dosed into the ETV-boat as well. The analyte addition technique was tested with Cu, Fe and Mn in wholemeal flour. The deviations of the results were below 10% and the relative standard deviations (R.S.D.) values were typically 3-10%. The influence of added potassium and palladium nitrates as physical carriers on the transport efficiencies of Ag, Al, Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn standard solutions was investigated with simultaneous multielement determination. Using K and Pd as carriers increased transport efficiencies by factors up to 1.74 in comparison to measurements without an added carrier.

  15. Vapor space sampling of ferrocyanide tanks, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    Environmental assessment (EA), to assess environmental impacts associated with tank vapor space (dome) gas sampling of 24 Hanford Site single-shell waste tanks that contain ferrocyanide-nitrate compounds to determine whether or not the tanks contain flammable or toxic gases. The proposed action would be conducted using non-sparking materials, sparkless tools, and a portable containment shelter (greenhouse) and plastic ground cover. DOE needs to take this action to help define the required controls to prevent or mitigate the potential for an accident during future, more intrusive sampling of these tanks. Based on the evaluation in the EA (which examined the environmental impacts of the proposed action and reasonable alternatives), DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required, and the Department is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  16. Direct solid sampling system for electrothermal vaporization and its application to the determination of chlorine in nanopowder samples by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Kenichi; Hashimoto, Bunji; Uchihara, Hiroshi; Okamoto, Yasuaki; Ishizaka, Syoji; Fujiwara, Terufumi

    2015-06-01

    An electrothermal vaporization (ETV) system using a tungsten boat furnace (TBF) sample cuvette was designed for the direct determination of chlorine in metallic nanopowders and fine powder samples with detection by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). A portion of a powder or particle sample was placed into a small tungsten sample cuvette and weighed accurately. A modifier solution of aqueous or alcoholic potassium hydroxide was added to it. Then, the cuvette was positioned on the TBF incorporated into the ETV apparatus. The analyte was vaporized and introduced into the ICP optical emission spectrometer with a carrier gas stream of argon and hydrogen. The metal samples were analyzed by using an external calibration curve prepared from aqueous standard solutions. Few chemical species including analyte and some chlorine-free species were introduced into the ICP, because the analyte has been separated from the matrix before introduction. Under such dry plasma conditions, the energy of plasma discharge was focused on the excitation of chlorine atoms, and as a result, lower detection limits were achieved. A detection limit of 170 ng g(-1) of chlorine in solid metal samples was established when 60 mg sample was used. The relative standard deviation for 16 replicate measurements obtained with 100 ng chlorine was 8.7%. Approximately 30 batches could be vaporized per hour. The analytical results for various nanopowders (iron (III) oxide, copper, silver, and gold) and metallic fine powder samples (silver and gold) are described. PMID:25863402

  17. ASSESSMENT OF VAPOR INTRUSION IN HOMES NEAR THE RAYMARK SUPERFUND SITE USING BASEMENT AND SUB-SLAB AIR SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes the results of an investigation conducted to assist EPA’s New England Regional Office in evaluating vapor intrusion at 15 homes and one commercial building near the Raymark Superfund Site in Stratford, Connecticut. Methods were developed to sample sub-slab ...

  18. Estimating Sampling Biases and Measurement Uncertainties of AIRS-AMSU-A Temperature and Water Vapor Observations Using MERRA Reanalysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hearty, Thomas J.; Savtchenko, Andrey K.; Tian, Baijun; Fetzer, Eric; Yung, Yuk L.; Theobald, Michael; Vollmer, Bruce; Fishbein, Evan; Won, Young-In

    2014-01-01

    We use MERRA (Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research Applications) temperature and water vapor data to estimate the sampling biases of climatologies derived from the AIRS/AMSU-A (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A) suite of instruments. We separate the total sampling bias into temporal and instrumental components. The temporal component is caused by the AIRS/AMSU-A orbit and swath that are not able to sample all of time and space. The instrumental component is caused by scenes that prevent successful retrievals. The temporal sampling biases are generally smaller than the instrumental sampling biases except in regions with large diurnal variations, such as the boundary layer, where the temporal sampling biases of temperature can be +/- 2 K and water vapor can be 10% wet. The instrumental sampling biases are the main contributor to the total sampling biases and are mainly caused by clouds. They are up to 2 K cold and greater than 30% dry over mid-latitude storm tracks and tropical deep convective cloudy regions and up to 20% wet over stratus regions. However, other factors such as surface emissivity and temperature can also influence the instrumental sampling bias over deserts where the biases can be up to 1 K cold and 10% wet. Some instrumental sampling biases can vary seasonally and/or diurnally. We also estimate the combined measurement uncertainties of temperature and water vapor from AIRS/AMSU-A and MERRA by comparing similarly sampled climatologies from both data sets. The measurement differences are often larger than the sampling biases and have longitudinal variations.

  19. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford waste tank 241-B-107: Results from samples collected on 7/23/96

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Thomas, B.L.; Olsen, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Silvers, K.L.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-B-107 (Tank B-107) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwestern National Laboratory (PNNL). A summary of the inorganic analytes, permanent gases, and total non-methane organic compounds is listed in a table. The three highest concentration analytes detected in SUMMA{trademark} canister and triple sorbent trap samples are also listed in the same table. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the appendices.

  20. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford waste tank 241-S-106: Results from samples collected on 06/13/96

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Thomas, B.L.; Olsen, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Silvers, K.L.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-S-106 (Tank S-106) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). A summary of the inorganic analytes, permanent gases, and total non-methane organic compounds is listed in a table. The three highest concentration analytes detected in SUMMA{trademark} canister and triple sorbent trap samples are also listed in the same table. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the appendices.

  1. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford waste tank 241-U-109: Results from samples collected on 8/10/95

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.C.; Thomas, B.L.; Pool, K.H.; Olsen, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Silvers, K.L.

    1996-05-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-U-109 (Tank U-109) At the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank farm operations. This tank is on the Hydrogen Waste List. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volumes provided by WHC. A summary of the inorganic analytes, permanent gases and total non-methane hydrocarbons is listed in a table. The three highest concentration analytes detected in SUMMA{trademark} canister and triple sorbent trap samples is also listed in the table. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the text.

  2. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford waste Tank 241-BX-110: Results from samples collected on 04/30/96

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Thomas, B.L.; Olsen, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Silvers, K.L.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-BX-110 (Tank BX-110) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volumes provided by WHC. A summary of the inorganic analytes, permanent gases, and total non-methane organic compounds is listed in a table. The three highest concentration analytes detected in SUMMA{trademark} canister and triple sorbent trap samples are also listed in the table. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the appendices.

  3. Explosive detection using high-volume vapor sampling and analysis by trained canines and ultra-trace detection equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Mark; Sikes, John; Prather, Mark

    2004-09-01

    The dog's nose is an effective, highly-mobile sampling system, while the canine olfactory organs are an extremely sensitive detector. Having been trained to detect a wide variety of substances with exceptional results, canines are widely regarded as the 'gold standard' in chemical vapor detection. Historically, attempts to mimic the ability of dogs to detect vapors of explosives using electronic 'dogs noses' has proven difficult. However, recent advances in technology have resulted in development of detection (i.e., sampling and sensor) systems with performance that is rapidly approaching that of trained canines. The Nomadics Fido was the first sensor to demonstrate under field conditions the detection of landmines with performance approaching that of canines. More recently, comparative testing of Fido against canines has revealed that electronic vapor detection, when coupled with effective sampling methods, can produce results comparable to that of highly-trained canines. The results of these comparative tests will be presented, as will recent test results in which explosives hidden in cargo were detected using Fido with a high-volume sampling technique. Finally, the use of canines along with electronic sensors will be discussed as a means of improving the performance and expanding the capabilities of both methods.

  4. Tank 241-AZ-101 and Tank 241-AZ-102 Airlift Circulator Operation Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan

    SciTech Connect

    TEMPLETON, A.M.

    1999-12-07

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for vapor samples obtained during the operation of the tank 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 airlift circulators (ALCs) and during the initial operation (''bump'') of the tank 241-AZ-101 mixer pumps. The purpose of the ALC operation is to support portions of the operational test procedure (OTP) for Project W-030 (OTP-W030-001) and to perform functional test in support of Project W-151. Project W-030 is the 241-A-702 ventilation upgrade project (241-142-702) and Project W-151 is the 241-AZ-101 Mixer Pump Test. The functional tests will check the operability of the tank 241-AZ-101 ALCs. Process Memo's No. 2E98-082 and No. 2E99-001 (LMHC 1999a, LMHC 1999b) direct the operation of the ALCs and the Industrial Hygiene monitoring respectively. A series of tests will be conducted in which the ALCs in tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 will be operated at different air flow rates. Vapor samples will be obtained to determine constituents that may be present in the tank headspace during ALC operation at tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 as the waste is disturbed. During the testing, vapor samples will be obtained from the headspace of tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 via the unused port on the standard hydrogen monitoring system (SHMS). In addition the last two vapor samples will be collected from the headspace of tank 241-AZ-101 during the operation of the mixer pumps. Each mixer pump will be operated for approximately 5 minutes. Results will be used to provide the waste feed delivery program with environmental air permitting data for tank waste disturbing activities. Because of radiological concerns, the samples will be filtered for particulates. It is recognized that this may remove some organic compounds. The following sections provide the general methodology and procedures to be used in the preparation, retrieval

  5. Speciation of inorganic and organometallic compounds in solid biological samples by thermal vaporization and plasma emission spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Hanamura, S.; Smith, B.W.; Winefordner, J.D.

    1983-11-01

    By means of thermal vaporization, inorganic, organic, and metallorganic species are separated and elemental emission in a microwave plasma is detected as a function of vaporization temperature. Solid samples of 250 mg or more are used to avoid problems with sample heterogeneity. The precision of characteristic appearance temperatures is +/-2/sup 0/C. The single electrode atmosphere pressure microwave plasma system is extremely tolerant to the introduction of water, organic solvents, and air. The measurement system contained a repetition wavelength scan device to allow background correction. The plasma temperature was 5500 K. The system was used to measure C, H, N, O, and Hg in orchard leaves and in tuna fish. 9 figures, 5 tables.

  6. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford waste tank 241-B-202: Results from samples collected on 7/18/96

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, B.L.; Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Olsen, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Silvers, K.L.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-B-202 (Tank B-202) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). A summary of the inorganic analytes, permanent gases, and total non-methane organic compounds is listed in a table. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the appendices.

  7. Direct determination of trace rare earth elements in ancient porcelain samples with slurry sampling electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Guoqiang; Jiang, Zucheng; He, Man; Hu, Bin

    2005-10-01

    A method for the direct determination of trace rare earth elements in ancient porcelain samples by slurry sampling fluorinating electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was developed with the use of polytetrafluoroethylene as fluorinating reagent. It was found that Si, as a main matrix element in ancient porcelain sample, could be mostly removed at the ashing temperature of 1200 °C without considerable losses of the analytes. However, the chemical composition of ancient porcelain sample is very complicated, which makes the influences resulting from other matrix elements not be ignored. Therefore, the matrix effect of ancient porcelain sample was also investigated, and it was found that the matrix effect is obvious when the matrix concentration was larger than 0.8 g l - 1 . The study results of particle size effect indicated that when the sample particle size was less than 0.057 mm, the particle size effect is negligible. Under the optimized operation conditions, the detection limits for rare earth elements by fluorinating electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry were 0.7 ng g - 1 (Eu)-33.3 ng g - 1 (Nd) with the precisions of 4.1% (Yb)-10% (La) ( c = 1 μg l - 1 , n = 9). The proposed method was used to directly determine the trace rare earth elements in ancient porcelain samples produced in different dynasty (Sui, Ming and Qing), and the analytical results are satisfactory.

  8. Apparatus and method for maintaining multi-component sample gas constituents in vapor phase during sample extraction and cooling

    DOEpatents

    Felix, Larry Gordon; Farthing, William Earl; Irvin, James Hodges; Snyder, Todd Robert

    2010-05-11

    A dilution apparatus for diluting a gas sample. The apparatus includes a sample gas conduit having a sample gas inlet end and a diluted sample gas outlet end, and a sample gas flow restricting orifice disposed proximate the sample gas inlet end connected with the sample gas conduit and providing fluid communication between the exterior and the interior of the sample gas conduit. A diluted sample gas conduit is provided within the sample gas conduit having a mixing end with a mixing space inlet opening disposed proximate the sample gas inlet end, thereby forming an annular space between the sample gas conduit and the diluted sample gas conduit. The mixing end of the diluted sample gas conduit is disposed at a distance from the sample gas flow restricting orifice. A dilution gas source connected with the sample gas inlet end of the sample gas conduit is provided for introducing a dilution gas into the annular space, and a filter is provided for filtering the sample gas. The apparatus is particularly suited for diluting heated sample gases containing one or more condensable components.

  9. Tank 241-C-103 vapor and gas sampling Data Quality Objectives

    SciTech Connect

    Osborne, J.W.; Huckaby, J.L.; Rudolph, T.P.; Hewitt, E.R.; Mahulum, D.D.; Young, J.Y.; Anderson, C.M.

    1994-02-28

    Two problems are addressed in this report: Potential flammability of gases, vapors, and an aerosol in tank 241-C-103 (hereafter identified as C-103) and potential worker health and safety hazards associated with the toxicity of constituents in C-103. Previous work indicated the potential presence of a fog in the tank, and the fuel content of the tank gases, vapors, and aerosol may be too high to permit work in the tank. Ten reports of adverse health effects associated with vapor exposures near C-103 or in C-Farm have been made by workers. Reported symptoms include headaches, burning sensations in nose and throat, nausea, and impaired pulmonary function. Data are needed to identify and quantify constituents of the C-103 headspace to address potential vapor toxicity. When the compounds of toxicological interest in the tank headspace are identified, industry hygienists can assess ``worst-case`` worker exposure levels and focus their industrial hygiene monitoring strategy on these target compounds. Final recommendations on the required level of personal protective equipment will be based on the worker breathing zone levels of these chemicals.

  10. Tank 241-AZ-101 and tank 241-AZ-102, airlift circulator operation vapor sampling and analysis plan

    SciTech Connect

    TEMPLETON, A.M.

    1999-06-02

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for vapor samples obtained during the operation of the tank 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 airlift circulators (ALCs). The purpose of the ALC operation is to support portions of the operational test procedure (OTP) for Project W-030 (OTP-W030-001) and to perform functional test in support of Project W-151. Project W-030 is the 241-A-702 ventilation upgrade project (241-AZ-702) and Project W-151 is the 241-AZ-101 Mixer Pump Test. The functional tests will check the operability of the tank 241-AZ-101 ALCs. Process Memo's No.2E98-082 and No.2E99-001 (LMHC 1999a, LMHC 1999b) direct the operation of the ALCs and the Industrial Hygiene monitoring respectively. A series of tests will be conducted in which the ALCs in tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 will be operated at different air flow rates. Vapor samples will be obtained to determine constituents that may be present in the tank headspace during ALC operation at tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 as the waste is disturbed. During the testing, vapor samples will be obtained from the headspace of tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 via the unused port on the standard hydrogen monitoring system (SHMS). Results will be used to provide the waste feed delivery program with environmental air permitting data for tank waste disturbing activities. Because of radiological concerns, the samples will be filtered for particulates. It is recognized that this may remove some organic compounds.

  11. Vapor Space Characterization of Waste Tank 241-C-111: Results from Samples Collected with the Vapor Sampling System on 9/13/94

    SciTech Connect

    Lucke, R. B.; Ligotke, M. W.; McVeety, B. D.; McCulloch, M.; Goheen, S. C.; Clauss, T. W.; Pool, K. H.; Young, J. S.; Fruchter, J. S.

    1995-05-01

    This report describes inorganic and orgajc analyses results from samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-C-111 (referred to as Tank C-111). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH{sub 3}), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), nitric oxide (NO), and water (H{sub 2}O). Sampling for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}) was not requested. Organic compounds were quantitatively determined. Six organic tentatively identified compounds (TICs) were observed above the detection limit of (ca.) 10 ppbv, but standards for most of these were not available at the time of analysis, and the reported concentrations are semiquantitative estimates. In addition, we looked for the 40 standard TO-14 analytes. None were observed above the 2-ppbv calibrated instrument detection limit.

  12. Vapor space characterization of waste Tank 241-BY-111: Results from samples collected on November 15, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Lucke, R.B.; Ligotke, M.W.; McVeety, B.D.

    1995-06-01

    This report describes results of the analyses of tank-headspace samples taken from the Hanford waste Tank 241-BY-111 (referred to as Tank By-111). Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and to analyze inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The target analytes for TO- 14 compounds were extended to include 14 analytes identified by the Toxicological Review Panel for Tank C-103 and reported by Mahlum et al. (1994). Program management included these analytes for future tank analyses as identified in the fiscal year work plan. This plan is attached to a letter dated 9/30/94 and addressed to Mr. T.J. Kelly of WHC. The plan also requires PNL to analyze for the permanent gases as shown in Table 3.7. The sample job was designated S4083, and samples wee collected by WHC on November 16, 1994, using the vapor sampling system (VSS). The results of the analyses are expected to be used to estimate the potential toxicity of tank-headspace gas as described in Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Vapor Issue Resolution, WHC-SD-WM-DQO-002, Rev. 0.

  13. Development and characterization of induction heating electrothermal vaporization (IH-ETV) sample introduction for inductively coupled plasma spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybak, Michael E.; Salin, Eric D.

    2001-03-01

    A general study of performance attributes was conducted for a prototypical electrothermal vaporization (ETV) sample introduction system, in which induction heating (IH) was used to facilitate the drying, pyrolysis, and vaporization of samples from long, undercut graphite cup probes in a radio-frequency (RF) induction field. In the first part of this study, experiments were carried out to determine the heating characteristics and temperature control aspects of an IH-ETV arrangement. Using a remote-sensing infrared thermocouple, it was determined that a 3/8-inch (9.53-mm) outer diameter graphite cup sample probe could be heated to a maximum temperature of 1860°C in the induction field of the IH-ETV under full forward power (1.5 kW). The IH-ETV device was found to have a rapid heating response (1/ e time-constant of 2.0±0.2 s) that was independent of the initial/final temperatures chosen. Linear temperature control was possible by regulating either the DC voltage applied to the plate or the current flowing to the grid of the RF generator oscillator tube. The second part of this work consisted of studies to establish benchmarks, such as limits of detection (LOD) with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and transport efficiency for analyte vaporization under several x-Ar mixed gas atmospheres [where x=15% N 2, 10% O 2, HCl (sparged), or 15% SF 6 (v/v)]. In general, reproducible transient signals with evolution times of 5-15 s were seen for the vaporization of most elements studied, with peak area intensity and reproducibility generally being the best with SF 6-Ar. A 10-fold increase in transport efficiency was seen for refractory carbide-forming analytes (Cr, V) when vaporization was conducted in a halogenous ( x=HCl, SF 6) versus non-halogenous ( x=N 2, O 2) environment, with a two-fold improvement being observed for most other non-refractory elements (Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn). The transport of arsenic proved to be a special case

  14. Determination of thallium in cadmium and lead by graphite-furnace atomic-absorption spectrometry with sample vaporization from a platform.

    PubMed

    Fazakas, J; Marinescu, D M

    1983-11-01

    When the sample is vaporized from the wall of a graphite furnace it is not possible to determine thallium in cadmium and lead by AAS without matrix matching of the standards. In the case of a lead matrix and vaporization from the wall, the thallium signal is barely distinguishable from the base-line. When the sample is vaporized from a platform, and the peak area is used for measurement, pure aqueous standards may be used for instrument calibration. The peak heights and areas of the thallium signals are considerably enhanced by vaporization from a platform (peak height 1.7-fold and peak area 2.6-fold in pure aqueous solutions as compared to vaporization from the wall). The enhancement factors are larger in presence of the cadmium or lead matrix since here the reduced interference also makes a contribution. PMID:18963481

  15. Detection of cocaine in cargo containers by high-volume vapor sampling: field test at Port of Miami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neudorfl, Pavel; Hupe, Michael; Pilon, Pierre; Lawrence, Andre H.; Drolet, Gerry; Su, Chih-Wu; Rigdon, Stephen W.; Kunz, Terry D.; Ulwick, Syd; Hoglund, David E.; Wingo, Jeff J.; Demirgian, Jack C.; Shier, Patrick

    1997-02-01

    The use of marine containers is a well known smuggling method for large shipments of drugs. Such containers present an ideal method of smuggling as the examination method is time consuming, difficult and expensive for the importing community. At present, various methods are being studied for screening containers which would allow to rapidly distinguish between innocent and suspicious cargo. Air sampling is one such method. Air is withdrawn for the inside of containers and analyzed for telltale vapors uniquely associated with the drug. The attractive feature of the technique is that the containers could be sampled without destuffing and opening, since air could be conveniently withdrawn via ventilation ducts. In the present paper, the development of air sampling methodology for the detection of cocaine hydrochloride will be discussed, and the results from a recent field test will be presented. The results indicated that vapors of cocaine and its decomposition product, ecgonidine methyl ester, could serve as sensitive indicators of the presence of the drug in the containers.

  16. MACRO- MICRO-PURGE SOIL GAS SAMPLING METHODS FOR THE COLLECTION OF CONTAMINANT VAPORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Purging influence on soil gas concentrations for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), as affected by sampling tube inner diameter and sampling depth (i.e., dead-space purge volume), was evaluated at different field sites. A macro-purge sampling system consisted of a standard hollo...

  17. Vapor-phase and particulate-associated pesticides and PCB concentrations in eastern North Dakota air samples

    SciTech Connect

    Hawthorne, S.B.; Miller, D.J.; Louie, P.K.K.

    1996-05-01

    Vapor-phase and suspended particulate (<50 {mu}m) samples were collected on polyurethane foam (PUF) and quartz fiber filters in rural North Dakota to determine the air concentrations of pesticides in an area where agriculture is a primary source of semivolatile pollutants. Samples were collected at two sites from 1992 to 1994 that were at least 0.4 km from the nearest farmed fields and known application of pesticides, and analyzed for 22 different organochlorine, triazine, and acid herbicide pesticides. Fourteen pesticides were found above the detection limits (typically <1 pg/m{sup 3}). Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were much lower (<50 pg/m{sup 3} in all cases) than many of the pesticides. These results demonstrate that pesticides are among the most prevalent chlorinated semivolatile pollutants present in rural North Dakota, that significant transport of pesticides occurs both in the vapor-phase and on suspended particulate matter, and that blown soil may be a significant mechanism for introducing pesticides into surface and ground waters. 32 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Headspace-programmed temperature vaporizer-mass spectrometry and pattern recognition techniques for the analysis of volatiles in saliva samples.

    PubMed

    Pérez Antón, Ana; Del Nogal Sánchez, Miguel; Crisolino Pozas, Ángel Pedro; Pérez Pavón, José Luis; Moreno Cordero, Bernardo

    2016-11-01

    A rapid method for the analysis of volatiles in saliva samples is proposed. The method is based on direct coupling of three components: a headspace sampler (HS), a programmable temperature vaporizer (PTV) and a quadrupole mass spectrometer (qMS). Several applications in the biomedical field have been proposed with electronic noses based on different sensors. However, few contributions have been developed using a mass spectrometry-based electronic nose in this field up to date. Samples of 23 patients with some type of cancer and 32 healthy volunteers were analyzed with HS-PTV-MS and the profile signals obtained were subjected to pattern recognition techniques with the aim of studying the possibilities of the methodology to differentiate patients with cancer from healthy controls. An initial inspection of the contained information in the data by means of principal components analysis (PCA) revealed a complex situation were an overlapped distribution of samples in the score plot was visualized instead of two groups of separated samples. Models using K-nearest neighbors (KNN) and Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy (SIMCA) showed poor discrimination, specially using SIMCA where a small distance between classes was obtained and no satisfactory results in the classification of the external validation samples were achieved. Good results were obtained when Mahalanobis discriminant analysis (DA) and support vector machines (SVM) were used obtaining 2 (false positives) and 0 samples misclassified in the external validation set, respectively. No false negatives were found using these techniques. PMID:27591583

  19. Vapor space characterization of waste tank 241-C-109: Results from samples collected on 8/10/94

    SciTech Connect

    Pool, K.H.; Clauss, T.W.; Ligotke, M.W.

    1995-06-01

    This report describes results of the analyses of tank-headspace samples taken from the Hanford waste Tank 241-C-109 (referred to as Tank C-109). Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and to analyze inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The sample job was designated S4053, and samples were collected by WHC on August 10, 1994, using the vapor sampling system (VSS). Sampling devices, including six sorbent trains (for inorganic analyses) and five SUMMA{sup {trademark}} canisters (for organic analyses) were supplied to the WHC sampling staff on August 8. Samples were taken (by WHC) from the tank headspace on August 10 and were returned to PNL from the field on August 12. The samples were inspected upon delivery to the 326/23B laboratory and logged into PNL record book 55408 before implementation of PNL Technical Procedure PNL-TVP-07. Custody of the sorbent traps was transferred to PNL personnel performing the inorganic analysis and stored at refrigerated ({<=}10{degrees}C) temperature until the time of analysis. The canister was stored in the 326/23B laboratory at ambient (25{degrees}C) temperature until time of analysis. Access to the 326/23B laboratory is limited to PNL personnel working on the waste-tank safety program. Analyses described in this report were performed at PNL in the 300 area of the Hanford Reservation. Analytical methods that were used are described in the text. In summary, sorbent traps for inorganic analyses containing sample materials were either weighed (for water analysis) or desorbed with the appropriate aqueous solutions (for ammonia (NH{sub 3}) or nitrite (NO{sub 2}) analyses). The aqueous extracts were analyzed either by selective electrode or by ion chromatography (IC). Organic analyses were performed using cryogenic preconcentration followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS).

  20. Vapor space characterization of waste tank 241-BY-107: Results from samples collected on 10/26/94

    SciTech Connect

    Clauss, T.W.; Ligotke, M.W.; Pool, K.H.

    1995-10-01

    This report describes results of the analyses of tank-headspace samples taken from the Hanford waste Tank 241-BY-107 (referred to as Tank BY-107). Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and to analyze inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The organic analytes for TO-14 compounds were extended to include 15 analytes identified by the Toxicological Review Panel for Tank C-103 and reported in Toxicological Evaluation of Analytes from Tank 241-C-103 PAE-10189. While these analytes are only of toxicological concern for Tank C-103, program management included these analytes for future tank analyses as identified in the fiscal year work plan. This plan is attached to a letter dated 9/30/94 and addressed to Mr. T. J. Kelly of WHC. The plan also requires PNL to analyze for the permanent gases as shown in Table 3.5. The sample job was designated S4077, and samples were collected by WHC on October 26, 1994, using the vapor sampling system (VSS). Sampling devices, including six sorbent trains (for inorganic analyses), and six SUMMA{trademark} canisters (for organic analyses) were supplied to the WHC sampling staff on October 24. Samples were taken (by WHC) from the tank headspace on October 26 and were returned to PNL from the field on November 8. Inorganic (sorbent trap) samples were delivered to PNL on chain of custody (COC) 008071. The SUMMA{trademark} canisters were delivered on COC 008070. Three SUMMA{trademark} canister samples were stored at the PNL 326/23B laboratory pending further instruction from WHC to send them to the Oregon Graduate Institute (OGI) for analysis.

  1. Partitioning evapotranspiration via continuous sampling of water vapor isotopes over common row crops and candidate biofuel crops.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, J. N.; Black, C. K.; Bernacchi, C.

    2014-12-01

    Global demand for renewable energy is accelerating land conversion from common row crops such as maize and soybean to cellulosic biofuel crops such as miscanthus and switchgrass. This land conversion is expected to alter ecohydrology via changes in evapotranspiration (ET). However, the direction in which evapotranspiration will shift, either partitioning more moisture through soil evaporation (E) or through plant transpiration (T) is uncertain. To investigate how land conversion from maize to miscanthus affects ET partitioning we measured the isotopic composition of water vapor via continuous air sampling. We obtained continuous diurnal measurements of δ2H and δ18O for miscanthus and maize on multiple days over the course of the growing season. Water vapor isotopes drawn from two heights were measured at 2 Hz using a cavity ringdown spectrometer and partitioned into components of E and T using a simple mixing equation. A second approach to partitioning was accomplished by subtracting transpiration measurements, obtained through sap flow sensors, from total ET, measured via eddy covariance. Preliminary results reveal that both methods compare favorably and that transpiration dominates variations in ET in miscanthus fields more so than in fields of maize.

  2. Vapor space characterization of waste Tank 241-BY-108: Results from samples collected on 10/27/94

    SciTech Connect

    McVeety, B.D.; Clauss, T.W.; Ligotke, M.W.

    1995-10-01

    This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-BY-108 (referred to as Tank BY-108). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH{sub 3}), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), nitric oxide (NO), and water vapor (H{sub 2}O). Trends in NH{sub 3} and H{sub 2}O samples indicated a possible sampling problem. Sampling for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}) was not requested. In addition, the authors looked for the 40 TO-14 compounds plus an additional 15 analytes. Of these, 17 were observed above the 5-ppbv reporting cutoff. Also, eighty-one organic tentatively identified compounds (TICs) were observed above the reporting cutoff (ca.) 10 ppbv, and are reported with concentrations that are semiquantitative estimates based on internal standard response factors. The nine organic analytes with the highest estimated concentrations are listed in Summary Table 1 and account for approximately 48% of the total organic components in the headspace of Tank BY-108. Three permanent gases, hydrogen (H{sub 2}), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) were also detected. Tank BY-108 is on the Ferrocyanide Watch List.

  3. Vapor space characterization of waste tank 241-C-101: Results from samples collected on 9/1/94

    SciTech Connect

    Lucke, R.B.; Clauss, T.W.; Ligotke, M.W.

    1995-11-01

    This report describes results of the analyses of tank-headspace samples taken from the Hanford waste Tank 241-C-101 (referred to as Tank C-101) and the ambient air collected - 30 ft upwind near the tank and through the VSS near the tank. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and to analyze inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The sample job was designated S4056, and samples were collected by WHC on September 1, 1994, using the vapor sampling system (VSS). The samples were inspected upon delivery to the 326/23B laboratory and logged into PNL record book 55408 before implementation of PNL Technical Procedure PNL-TVP-07. Custody of the sorbent traps was transferred to PNL personnel performing the inorganic analysis and stored at refrigerated ({le} 10{degrees}C) temperature until the time of analysis. The canisters were stored in the 326/23B laboratory at ambient (25{degrees}C) temperature until the time of the analysis. Access to the 326/23B laboratory is limited to PNL personnel working on the waste-tank safety program. Analyses described in this report were performed at PNL in the 300 area of the Hanford Reservation. Analytical methods that were used are described in the text. In summary, sorbent traps for inorganic analyses containing sample materials were either weighed (for water analysis) or desorbed with the appropriate aqueous solutions (for NH{sub 3}, NO{sub 2}, and NO analyses). The aqueous extracts were analyzed either by selective electrode or by ion chromatography (IC). Organic analyses were performed using cryogenic preconcentration followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS).

  4. Vapor space characterization of waste tank 241-BY-105: Results from samples collected on 7/7/94

    SciTech Connect

    Pool, K.H.; Ligotke, M.W.; Clauss, T.W.; Lucke, R.B.; McVeety, B.D.; McCulloch, M.; Fruchter, J.S.; Goheen, S.C.

    1995-05-01

    This report describes organic and inorganic results from vapors of the Hanford single-shell waste storage Tank 241-BY-105 (referred to as Tank BY-105). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH{sub 3}), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), nitric oxide (NO), and water (H{sub 2}O). Sampling for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}) was not requested. Several organic analytes were quantitatively determined, but quantities of non-TO-14 analytes were only estimated. Approximately 40 tentatively identified organic analytes were observed above the detection limit of (ca.) 10 ppb, but standards for most of these were not available at the time of analysis, and their quantitative determination is beyond the scope of this study. The SUMMA{trademark} Canisters were also analyzed for components listed in U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) compendium Method TO-14. Of these only a few were observed above the 2-ppb detection limits. These are summarized in Table 3.1. Estimated quantitations also determined were of tentatively identified compounds (TICs). A summary of these results shows quantities of all TICs above the concentration of ca. 10 ppb. This consists of more than 40 organic analytes. The 6 organic analytes with the highest estimated concentrations are shown in Table 1. These 6 analytes account for approximately 45% of the total organic components in Tank BY-105. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Unlike tanks previously studied, normal paraffin hydrocarbons (NPHs) did not contribute significantly to the total organic concentration of the vapor headspace of Tank BY-105. The total concentration of TICs detected in the tank headspace samples was also much lower than that seen in other reported tanks averaging 6.5 Mg/m{sup 3} for all three canisters collected.

  5. High explosives vapor detection by atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization/tandem mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    McLuckey, S.A.; Goeringer, D.E.; Asano, K.G.

    1996-02-01

    The combination of atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization with tandem mass spectrometry for the detection of traces of high explosives is described. Particular emphasis is placed on use of the quadrupole ion trap as the type of tandem mass spectrometer. Atmospheric sampling glow discharge provides a simple, rugged, and efficient means for anion formation while the quadrupole ion trap provides for efficient tandem mass spectrometry. Mass selective ion accumulation and non-specific ion activation methods can be used to overcome deleterious effects arising from ion/ion interactions. Such interactions constitute the major potential technical barrier to the use of the ion trap for real-time monitoring of targeted compounds in uncontrolled and highly variable matrices. Tailored waveforms can be used to effect both mass selective ion accumulation and ion activation. Concatenated tailored waveforms allow for both functions in a single experiment thereby providing the capability for monitoring several targeted species simultaneously. The combination of atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization with a state-of-the-art analytical quadrupole ion trap is a highly sensitive and specific detector for traces of high explosives. The combination is also small and inexpensive relative to virtually any other form of tandem mass spectrometry. The science and technology underlying the glow discharge/ion trap combination is sufficiently mature to form the basis for an engineering effort to make the detector portable. 85 refs.

  6. Simple, Efficient, and Rapid Methods to Determine the Potential for Vapor Intrusion into the Home: Temporal Trends, Vapor Intrusion Forecasting, Sampling Strategies, and Contaminant Migration Routes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current practice for evaluating the vapor intrusion pathway involves a multiple line of evidence approach based on direct measurements of volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in groundwater, external soil gas, subslab soil gas, and/or indoor air. No single line of evide...

  7. Vapor space characterization of waste Tank 241-SX-103: Results from samples collected on 3/23/95

    SciTech Connect

    Ligotke, M.W.; Clauss, T.W.; Pool, K.H.; McVeety, B.D.; Klinger, G.S.; Olsen, K.B.; Bredt, O.P.; Fruchter, J.S.; Goheen, S.C.

    1995-11-01

    This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage tank 241-SX-103 (referred to as Tank SX-103). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH{sub 3}), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), nitric oxide (NO), and water vapor (H{sub 2}O). Sampling for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}) was not requested. In addition, quantitative results were obtained for the 39 TO-14 compounds plus an additional 14 analytes. Of these, two were observed above the 5-ppbv reporting cutoff. Two tentatively identified compounds (TICs) were observed above the reporting cutoff of (ca.) 10 ppbv and are reported with concentrations that are semiquantitative estimates based on internal-standard response factors. The four organic analytes identified are listed in Table 1 and account for approximately 100% of the total organic components in Tank SX-103. Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) was the only permanent gas detected in the tank-headspace samples. Tank SX-103 is on the Hydrogen Watch List.

  8. Determination of filbertone in spiked olive oil samples using headspace-programmed temperature vaporization-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Pérez Pavón, José Luis; del Nogal Sánchez, Miguel; Fernández Laespada, María Esther; Moreno Cordero, Bernardo

    2009-07-01

    A sensitive method for the fast analysis of filbertone in spiked olive oil samples is presented. The applicability of a headspace (HS) autosampler in combination with a gas chromatograph (GC) equipped with a programmable temperature vaporizer (PTV) and a mass spectrometric (MS) detector is explored. A modular accelerated column heater (MACH) was used to control the temperature of the capillary gas chromatography column. This module can be heated and cooled very rapidly, shortening total analysis cycle times to a considerable extent. The proposed method does not require any previous analyte extraction, filtration and preconcentration step, as in most methods described to date. Sample preparation is reduced to placing the olive oil sample in the vial. This reduces the analysis time and the experimental errors associated with this step of the analytical process. By using headspace generation, the volatiles of the sample are analysed without interference by the non-volatile matrix, and by using injection in solvent-vent mode at the PTV inlet, most of the compounds that are more volatile than filbertone are purged and the matrix effect is minimised. Use of a liner packed with Tenax-TA allowed the compound of interest to be retained during the venting process. The limits of detection and quantification were as low as 0.27 and 0.83 microg/L, respectively, and precision (measured as the relative standard deviation) was 5.7%. The method was applied to the determination of filbertone in spiked olive oil samples and the results revealed the good accuracy obtained with the method. PMID:19396589

  9. Tank vapor characterization project. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford waste tank 241-T-104: Results from samples collected on 02/07/96

    SciTech Connect

    Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.; Thomas, B.L.; Olsen, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Silvers, K.L.

    1996-06-01

    This report describes the analytical results, which were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds; the analyses were performed by PNNL`s Vapor Analytical Laboratory. Results are summarized as: NH{sub 3} 105{+-}3 ppmv, NO{sub 2} 0.3{+-}0.1 ppmv, NO 0.3{+-}0.2 ppmv, H{sub 2}O 12.0{+-}0.5 mg/L, CO{sub 2} 241 ppmv, CO undetected, CH{sub 4} undetected, H{sub 2} detected, N{sub 2}O detected, and hydrocarbons 1.93 mg/m{sub 3}.

  10. Influence of sample matrix components on the selection of calibration strategies in electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, R. W.; Miller-Ihli, N. J.

    1996-11-01

    Quantification of both digested and slurry samples were studied using ultrasonic slurry electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (USS-ETV-ICP-MS). The results of external calibration using aqueous standards, method of additions, and In as an internal standard were compared. The elements studied include: Mn, Ni and Cu and the materials analyzed include: NIST SRM 1548 total diet and SRM 1549 milk powder. Palladium was used as a physical carrier and oxygen ashing was used to remove the organic part of the slurry matrix. Different degrees of matrix suppression effects were observed when different skimmer cones were employed. Aging of the skimmer cone and consequent loss of its original circular symmetry and decrease in orifice size resulted in differences in sampling of the ion beam and changes in the degree of matrix effects were observed as the skimmer cone was rotated. The presence of matrix suppression effects is evidenced by strong suppressions in the Ar 2, C and analyte signals. When matrix suppression effects were present, the method of external calibration provided low recoveries (average accuracy 73 ± 12%), therefore it was necessary to use the method of additions to compensate for these problems, providing an average accuracy of 108 ± 13%. When matrix effects were absent, the external calibration method resulted in an average accuracy of 101 ± 16%.

  11. Vapor space characterization of waste Tank 241-C-107: Results from samples collected on 9/29/94

    SciTech Connect

    Pool, K.H.; Clauss, T.W.; Ligotke, M.W.

    1995-11-01

    This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-C-107 (referred to as Tank C-107). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH{sub 3}), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), nitric oxide (NO), and water vapor (H{sub 2}O). Sampling for sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}) was not requested. Organic compounds were also quantitatively determined. Twenty organic tentatively identified compounds (TICs) were observed above the detection limit of (ca.) 10 ppbv, but standards for most of these were not available at the time of analysis, and the reported concentrations are semiquantitative estimates. In addition, the authors looked for the 55 TO-14 extended analytes. Of these, 3 were observed above the 5-ppbv detection limit. The 10 organic analytes with the highest estimated concentrations are listed in Summary Table 1 and account for approximately 96% of the total organic components in Tank C-107. Two permanent gases, carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide, were also detected.

  12. Vapor space characterization of waste Tank 241-U-103: Results from samples collected on 2/15/95

    SciTech Connect

    Ligotke, M.W.; Pool, K.H.; Clauss, T.W.; McVeety, B.D.; Klinger, G.S.; Olsen, K.B.; Bredt, O.P.; Fruchter, J.S.; Goheen, S.C.

    1995-11-01

    This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-U-103 (referred to as Tank U-103). The results described her were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH{sub 3}), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), nitric oxide (NO), and water vapor (H{sub 2}O). Sampling for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}) was not requested. In addition, quantitative results were obtained for the 39 TO-14 compounds plus an additional 14 analytes. Of these, 11 were observed above the 5-ppbv reporting cutoff. Eleven tentatively identified compounds (TICs) were observed above the reporting cutoff of (ca.) 10 ppbv and are reported with concentrations that are semiquantitative estimates based on internal-standard response factors. The 10 organic analytes with the highest estimated concentrations are listed in Table 1 and account for approximately 90% of the total organic components in Tank U-103. Two permanent gases, hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), were also detected. Tank U-103 is on the Hydrogen Watch List.

  13. Vapor space characterization of waste Tank 241-C-111 (in situ): Results from samples collected on 6/20/94

    SciTech Connect

    Ligotke, M.W.; Pool, K.H.; Lucke, R.B.; McVeety, B.D.; Clauss, T.W.; McCulloch, M.; Young, J.S.; Fruchter, J.S.; Goheen, S.C.

    1995-10-01

    This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from in situ samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-C-111 (referred to as Tank C-111). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Summary Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH{sub 3}), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), nitric oxide (NO), hydrogen cyanide (HCN), and water vapor (H{sub 2}O). Sampling for sulfur oxides was not requested. Organic compounds were quantitatively determined. Five organic tentatively identified compounds (TICs) were observed above the detection limit of (ca.) 10 ppbv, but standards for most of these were not available at the time of analysis, and the reported concentrations are semiquantitative estimates. In addition, the authors looked for the 40 standard TO-14 analytes and observed 39. None of these compounds were above the 2-ppbv calibrated instrumental detection limit. However, it is believed that the detection of dichlorodifluoromethane and methyl benzene are real at these low concentrations. The five organic analytes with the highest estimated concentrations are listed in Summary Table 1. The five analytes account for approximately 100% of the total organic components in Tank C-111.

  14. Vapor space characterization of waste Tank 241-TY-101: Results from samples collected on 4/6/95

    SciTech Connect

    Klinger, G.S.; Clauss, T.W.; Ligotke, M.W.; Pool, K.H.; McVeety, B.D.; Olsen, K.B.; Bredt, O.P.; Fruchter, J.S.; Goheen, S.C.

    1995-11-01

    This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-TY-101 (referred to as Tank TY-101). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH{sub 3}), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), nitric oxide (NO), and water vapor (H{sub 2}O). Sampling for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}) was not requested. In addition, quantitative results were obtained for the 39 TO-14 compounds plus an additional 14 analytes. Off these, 5 were observed above the 5-ppbv reporting cutoff. One tentatively identified compound (TIC) was observed above the reporting cutoff of (ca.) 10 ppbv and are reported with concentrations that are semiquantitative estimates based on internal-standard response factors. The six organic analyses identified are listed in Table 1 and account for approximately 100% of the total organic components in Tank TY-101. Two permanent gases, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), were also detected. Tank TY-101 is on the Ferrocyanide Watch List.

  15. Vapor space characterization of waste Tank 241-BY-107: Results from in situ sample collected on 3/25/94

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, A.K.; Lucke, R.B.; Clauss, T.W.; McVeety, B.D.; Fruchter, J.S.; Goheen, S.C.

    1995-06-01

    This report describes organic results from vapors of the Hanford single-shell waste storage Tank 241-BY-107 (referred to as Tank BY-107). Samples for selected inorganic compounds were obtained but not anlayzed (Section 2.0). Quantitative results were obtained for several organic analytes, but quantities of analytes not listed in US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) compendium Method TO-14 were estimated. Approximately 80 tentatively identified organic analytes were observed above the detection limit of (ca.) 10 ppbv, but standards for most of these were not available at the time of analysis, and their quantitative determination is beyond the scope of this study. The SUMMATM canister samples were also analyzed for the 41 organic compounds listed in EPA compendium Method TO-14. Of these, only a few were observed above the 2-ppbv detection limits. These are summarized in Table 3.1. Estimated quantities were determined of tentatively identified compounds (TICs). A summary of these results shows quantities of all TICs above the concentration of ca. 10 ppbv. This consists of more than 80 organic analytes. The 12 organic analytes with the highest estimated concentrations are shown.

  16. Vapor space characterization of waste Tank 241-B-103: Results from samples collected on 2/8/95

    SciTech Connect

    Ligotke, M.W.; Pool, K.H.; Lucke, R.B.

    1995-10-01

    This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-B-103 (referred to as Tank B-103). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH{sub 3}), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), nitric oxide (NO), and water vapor (H{sub 2}O). Sampling for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}) was not requested. In addition, quantitative results were obtained for the 39 TO-14 compounds plus an additional 14 analytes. Of these, five were observed above the 5-ppbv reporting cutoff. Twenty-six organic tentatively identified compounds (TICs) were observed above the reporting cutoff of (ca.) 10 ppbv, and are reported with concentrations that are semiquantitative estimates based on internal standard response factors. Twenty-three TICs were measured in two or more SUMMA{trademark} canisters. The 10 organic analytes with the highest estimated concentrations are listed in Table 1 and account for approximately 66% of the total organic components in Tank BB-103. Two permanent gases, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), were also detected. Tank B-103 is on the Organic Watch List.

  17. Development, evaluation and comparison of two independent sampling and analytical methods for ortho-phthalaldehyde vapors and condensation aerosols in air† ‡

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Two independent sampling and analytical methods for ortho-phthalaldehyde (OPA) in air have been developed, evaluated and compared (1) a reagent-coated solid sorbent HPLC-UV method and (2) an impinger-fluorescence method. In the first method, air sampling is conducted at 1.0 L min−1 with a sampler containing 350 mg of silica gel coated with 1 mg of acidified 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH). After sampling, excess DNPH in ethyl acetate is added to the sampler prior to storage for 68 hours. The OPA-DNPH derivative is eluted with 4.0 mL of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for measurement by HPLC with a UV detector set at 3S5 nm. The estimated detection limit is 0.016 µg per sample or 0.067 µg m−3 (0.012 ppb) for a 240 L air sample. Recoveries of vapor spikes at levels of 1.2 to 6.2 µg were 96 to 101%. Recoveries of spikes as mixtures of vapor and condensation aerosols were 97 to 100%. In the second method, air sampling is conducted at 1.0 L mm−1 with a midget impinger containing 10 mL of DMSO solution containing N-acetyl-l-cysteine and ethylenediamine. The fluorescence reading is taken 80 min after the completion of air sampling. Since the time of taking the fluorescence reading is critical, the reading is taken with a portable fluorometer. The estimated detection limit is 0.024 µg per sample or 0.1 µg m−3 (0.018 ppb) for a 240 L air sample. Recoveries of OPA vapor spikes at levels of 1.4 to 5.0 µg per sample were 97 to 105%. Recoveries of spikes as mixtures of vapors and condensation aerosols were 95 to 99%. The collection efficiency for a mixture of vapor and condensation aerosol was 99.4%. The two methods were compared side-by-side in a generation system constructed for producing controlled atmospheres of OPA vapor in air. Average air concentrations of OPA vapor found by both methods agreed within ±10%. PMID:26346658

  18. Vapor space characterization of Waste Tank 241-C-103: Inorganic results from sample Job 7B (May 12-25, 1994)

    SciTech Connect

    Ligotke, M.W.; Pool, K.H.; Lerner, B.D.

    1994-10-01

    This report is to provide analytical results for use in safety and toxicological evaluations of the vapor space of Hanford single-shell waste storage tanks C-103. Samples were analysed to determine concentrations of ammonia, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur oxides, and hydrogen cyanide. In addition to the samples, controls were analyzed that included blanks, spiked blanks, and spiked samples. These controls provided information about the suitability of sampling and analytical methods. Also included are the following: information describing the methods and sampling procedures used; results of sample analyses; and Conclusions and recommendations.

  19. Transport of explosives II: use of headspace-SPME/GC μ-ECD and TEEM GC/MS for detection of TNT vapors from sand buried samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baez, Bibiana; Correa, Sandra N.; Hernandez-Rivera, Samuel P.

    2005-06-01

    The detection of hidden explosives using vapors emanating from explosives has been considered an area in explosives technology that requires high sensitivity and selectivity. In this work is reported the results of two methods for vapor explosive detection, GC-μECD and GC/MS coupled to a Tunable Electron Energy Monochromator (TEEM-GC/MS). Both used Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) in Headspace (HS) mode to collect vapors above the samples. Optimum parameters for SPME were determined with the purpose of obtaining a high-quality extraction. The parameters were: type of SPME fiber, exposure time and desorption time at the injection port of the GC. Headspace SPME procedure was carried out in samples with crystals of TNT buried in soil. These samples were analyzed under important environmental conditions such as temperature and water content. Analyses at contact times after the TNT-soil mix preparation were carried out during 1 month. A comparison of results from both techniques was performed. Vapors of TNT and 2,4-DNT were found predominantly in the samples. HS-SPME coupled with GC-μ ECD and TEEM GC/MS exhibited excellent selectivity and sensitivity.

  20. COMPARISON OF GEOPROBE PRT AND AMS GVP SOIL-GAS SAMPLING SYSTEMS WITH DEDICATED VAPOR PROBES IN SANDY SOILS AT THE RAYMARK SUPERFUND SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was conducted near the Raymark Superfund Site in Stratford, Connecticut to compare results of soil-gas sampling using dedicated vapor probes, a truck-mounted direct-push technique - the Geoprobe Post-Run-Tubing (PRT) system, and a hand-held rotary hammer technique - the A...

  1. Occupational dimethylformamide exposure. 1. Diffusive sampling of dimethylformamide vapor for determination of time-weighted average concentration in air.

    PubMed

    Yasugi, T; Kawai, T; Mizunuma, K; Horiguchi, S; Iguchi, H; Ikeda, M

    1992-01-01

    A diffusive sampling method with water as absorbent was examined in comparison with 3 conventional methods of diffusive sampling with carbon cloth as absorbent, pumping through National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) charcoal tubes, and pumping through NIOSH silica gel tubes to measure time-weighted average concentration of dimethylformamide (DMF). DMF vapors of constant concentrations at 3-110 ppm were generated by bubbling air at constant velocities through liquid DMF followed by dilution with fresh air. Both types of diffusive samplers could either absorb or adsorb DMF in proportion to time (0.25-8 h) and concentration (3-58 ppm), except that the DMF adsorbed was below the measurable amount when carbon cloth samplers were exposed at 3 ppm for less than 1 h. When both diffusive samplers were loaded with DMF and kept in fresh air, the DMF in water samplers stayed unchanged for at least for 12 h. The DMF in carbon cloth samplers showed a decay with a half-time of 14.3 h. When the carbon cloth was taken out immediately after termination of DMF exposure, wrapped in aluminum foil, and kept refrigerated, however, there was no measurable decrease in DMF for at least 3 weeks. When the air was drawn at 0.2 l/min, a breakthrough of the silica gel tube took place at about 4,000 ppm.min (as the lower 95% confidence limit), whereas charcoal tubes could tolerate even heavier exposures, suggesting that both tubes are fit to measure the 8-h time-weighted average of DMF at 10 ppm. PMID:1577523

  2. Determination of copper in airborne particulate matter using slurry sampling and chemical vapor generation atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Silva, Laiana O B; Leao, Danilo J; dos Santos, Debora C; Matos, Geraldo D; de Andrade, Jailson B; Ferreira, Sergio L C

    2014-09-01

    The present paper describes the development of a method for the determination of copper in airborne particulate matter using slurry sampling and chemical vapor generation atomic absorption spectrometry (CVG AAS). Chemometric tools were employed to characterize the influence of several factors on the generation of volatile copper species. First, a two-level full factorial design was performed that included the following chemical variables: hydrochloric acid concentration, tetrahydroborate concentration, sulfanilamide concentration and tetrahydroborate volume, using absorbance as the response. Under the established experimental conditions, the hydrochloric acid concentration had the greatest influence on the generation of volatile copper species. Subsequently, a Box-Behnken design was performed to determine the optimum conditions for these parameters. A second chemometric study employing a two-level full factorial design was performed to evaluate the following physical factors: tetrahydroborate flow rate, flame composition, alcohol volume and sample volume. The results of this study demonstrated that the tetrahydroborate flow rate was critical for the process. The chemometric experiments determined the following experimental conditions for the method: hydrochloric acid concentration, 0.208 M; tetrahydroborate concentration, 4.59%; sulfanilamide concentration, 0.79%; tetrahydroborate volume, 2.50 mL; tetrahydroborate flow rate, 6.50 mL min(-1); alcohol volume, 200 µL; and sample volume, 7.0 mL. Thus, this method, using a slurry volume of 500 µL and a final dilution of 7 mL, allowed for the determination of copper with limits of detection and quantification of 0.30 and 0.99 µg L(-1), respectively. Precisions, expressed as RSD%, of 4.6 and 2.8% were obtained using copper solutions at concentrations of 5.0 and 50.0 µg L(-1), respectively. The accuracy was evaluated by the analysis of a certified reference material of urban particulate matter. The copper concentration

  3. Single drop solution electrode glow discharge for plasma assisted-chemical vapor generation: sensitive detection of zinc and cadmium in limited amounts of samples.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-ang; Tan, Qing; Hou, Xiandeng; Xu, Kailai; Zheng, Chengbin

    2014-12-16

    A simple and sensitive approach is proposed and evaluated for determination of ultratrace Zn and Cd in limited amounts of samples or tens of cells based on a novel single drop (5-20 μL) solution electrode glow discharge assisted-chemical vapor generation technique. Volatile species of Zn and Cd were immediately generated and separated from the liquid phase for transporting to atomic fluorescence or atomic mass spectrometric detectors for their determination only using hydrogen when the glow discharge was ignited between the surface of a liquid drop and the tip of a tungsten electrode. Limits of detection are better than 0.01 μg L(-1) (0.2 pg) for Cd and 0.1 μg L(-1) (2 pg) for Zn, respectively, and comparable or better than the previously reported results due to only a 20 μL sampling volume required, which makes the proposed technique convenient for the determination of Zn and Cd in limited amounts of samples or even only tens of cells. The proposed method not only retains the advantages of conventional chemical vapor generation but also provides several unique advantages, including better sensitivity, lower sample and power consumption, higher chemical vapor generation efficiencies and simpler setup, as well as greener analytical chemistry. The utility of this technique was demonstrated by the determination of ultratrace Cd and Zn in several single human hair samples, Certified Reference Materials GBW07601a (human hair powder) and paramecium cells. PMID:25409265

  4. Direct determination of cadmium in foods by solid sampling electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using a tungsten coil trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ying; Mao, Xuefei; Liu, Jixin; Wang, Min; Qian, Yongzhong; Gao, Chengling; Qi, Yuehan

    2016-04-01

    In this work, a solid sampling device consisting of a tungsten coil trap, porous carbon vaporizer and on-line ashing furnace of a Ni-Cr coil was interfaced with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). A modified double gas circuit system was employed that was composed of carrier and supplemental gas lines controlled by separate gas mass flow controllers. For Cd determination in food samples using the assembled solid sampling ICP-MS, the optimal ashing and vaporization conditions, flow rate of the argon-hydrogen (Ar/H2) (v:v = 24:1) carrier gas and supplemental gas, and minimum sampling mass were investigated. Under the optimized conditions, the limit of quantification was 0.5 pg and the relative standard deviation was within a 10.0% error range (n = 10). Furthermore, the mean spiked recoveries for various food samples were 99.4%-105.9% (n = 6). The Cd concentrations measured by the proposed method were all within the certified values of the reference materials or were not significantly different (P > 0.05) from those of the microwave digestion ICP-MS method, demonstrating the good accuracy and precision of the solid sampling ICP-MS method for Cd determination in food samples.

  5. SEAMIST{trademark} in-situ instrumentation and vapor sampling system applications in the Sandia Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration program: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, C.; Lowry, W.; Cremer, D.; Dunn, S.D.

    1995-09-01

    The Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration was tasked with demonstrating innovative technologies for the cleanup of chemical and mixed waste landfills that are representive of sites occurring throughout the DOE complex and the nation. The SEAMIST{trademark} inverting membrane deployment system has been used successfully at the Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID) for multipoint vapor sampling, pressure measurement, permeability measurement, sensor integration demonstrations, and borehole lining. Several instruments were deployed inside the SEAMIST{trademark}-lined boreholes to detect metals, radionuclides, moisture, and geologic variations. The liner protected the instruments from contamination, maintained support of the uncased borehole wall, and sealed the total borehole from air circulation. Recent activities included the installation of three multipoint vapor sampling systems and sensor integration systems in 100-foot-deep vertical boreholes. A long term pressure monitoring program has recorded barometric pressure effects at depth with relatively high spatial resolution. The SEAMIST{trademark} system has been integrated with a variety of hydrologic and chemical sensors for in-situ measurements, demonstrating its versatility as an instrument deployment system that allows easy emplacement and removal. Standard SEAMIST{trademark} vapor sampling systems were also integrated with state-of-the-art volatile organic compound analysis technologies. The results and status of these demonstration tests are presented.

  6. Vapor space characterization of waste Tank 241-BY-108: Results from in situ sample collected on March 24, 1994. Waste Tank Vapor Project

    SciTech Connect

    McVeety, B.D.; Lucke, R.B.; Clauss, T.W.; Fruchter, J.S.; Goheen, S.C.

    1995-06-01

    This document presents the details of the organic analysis that was performed on samples from the headspace of Hanford waste tank 241-BY-108. The results described were obtained to support the safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for the organic analytes is included, as well as, a detailed description of the results which appears in the text.

  7. METHOD AND LOCATION OF GROUND WATER SAMPLING: IMPACT ON ATTENUATION FACTORS FOR ASSESSING IMPACT ON VAPOR INTRUSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Draft EPA Subsurface Vapor Intrusion Guidance Document was established to "address the incremental increases in exposures and risks from subsurface contaminants that my be intruding into indoor air". The document utilizes attenuation factors based on indoor air/soil gas or i...

  8. Vapor space characterization of waste tank 241-TX-105: Results from samples collected on December 20, 1994. Waste Tank Vapor Project

    SciTech Connect

    Klinger, G.S.; Ligotke, M.W.; Lucke, R.B.

    1995-06-01

    This document presents the details of the inorganic and organic analysis that was performed on samples from the headspace of Hanford waste tank 241-TX-105. The results described were obtained to support the safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for the inorganic and organic analytes is included, as well as, a detailed description of the results which appears in the text.

  9. Vapor space characterization of waste tank 241-TY-101 (in situ): Results from samples collected on August 5, 1994. Waste Tank Vapor Program

    SciTech Connect

    Pool, K.H.; Ligotke, M.W.; McVeety, B.D.; McCulloch, M.; Goheen, S.C.; Clauss, T.W.; Lucke, R.B.; Young, J.S.; Fruchter, J.S.

    1995-07-01

    This document presents the details of the inorganic and organic analysis that was performed on samples from the headspace of Hanford waste tank 241-TY-101. The results described were obtained to support the safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for the inorganic and organic analytes is included, as well as, a detailed description of the results which appears in the text.

  10. Vapor space characterization of waste tank 241-U-111: Results from samples collected on February 28, 1995. Waste Tank Vapor Program

    SciTech Connect

    Clauss, T.W.; Pool, K.H.; McVeety, B.D.; Bredt, O.P.; Goheen, S.C.; Ligotke, M.W.; Lucke, R.B.; Klinger, G.S.; Fruchter, J.S.

    1995-07-01

    This document presents the details of the inorganic and organic analysis that was performed on samples from the headspace of Hanford waste tank 241-U-111. The results described were obtained to support the safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for the inorganic and organic analytes is included, as well as, a detailed description of the results which appears in the text.

  11. Vapor space characterization of waste Tank 241-U-106: Results from samples collected on March 7, 1995. Waste Tank Vapor Program

    SciTech Connect

    Klinger, G.S.; Lucke, R.B.; McVeety, B.D.

    1995-07-01

    This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-U-106 (referred to as Tank U-106). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH{sub 3}), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), nitric oxide (NO), and water (H{sub 2}O) Sampling for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}) was not requested. The NH{sub 3} concentration was 16% greater than that determined from an ISS sample obtained in August 1994; the H{sub 2}O concentration was about 10% less. In addition, quantitative results were obtained for the 39 TO-14 compounds plus an additional 14 analytes. Of these, 5 were observed in two or more canisters above the 5-ppbv reporting cutoff. Eleven organic tentatively identified compounds (TICS) were observed in two or more canisters above the reporting cutoff of (ca.) 10 ppbv and are reported with concentrations that are semiquantitative estimates based on internal-standard response factors. The 10 organic analytes with the highest estimated concentrations account for approximately 90% of the total organic components in Tank U-106. Three permanent gases, nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and carbon dioxide (COD were also detected.

  12. Waste Tank Vapor Program: Vapor space characterization of Waste Tank 241-T-107. Results from samples collected on January 18, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Pool, K.H.; Lucke, R.B.; McVeety, B.D.

    1995-06-01

    This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-T-107 (referred to as Tank T-107). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH{sub 3}), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), nitric oxide (NO), and water (H{sub 2}O). Sampling for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}) was not requested. In addition, quantitative results were obtained for the 39 TO-14 compounds plus an additional 14 analytes. Of these, I was observed above the 5-ppbv reporting cutoff. Six organic tentatively identified compounds (TICs) were observed above the reporting cutoff of (ca.) 10 ppbv and are reported with concentrations that are semiquantitative estimates based on internal-standard response factors. The estimated concentration of all 7 organic analytes observed in the tank headspace are listed in Table I and account for approximately 100% of the total organic components in Tank T-107. Two permanent gases, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), were also detected in the tank-headspace samples.

  13. Slurry sampling flow injection chemical vapor generation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the determination of As, Cd, and Hg in cereals.

    PubMed

    Chen, Feng-Yi; Jiang, Shiuh-Jen

    2009-08-12

    A slurry sampling inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) method has been developed for the determination of As, Cd, and Hg in cereals using flow injection chemical vapor generation (VG) as the sample introduction system. A slurry containing 6% m/v flour, 0.7% m/v thiourea, 0.4 microg mL(-1) Co(II), and 2.5% v/v HCl was injected into a VG-ICP-MS system for the determination of As, Cd, and Hg without dissolution and mineralization. Because the sensitivities of the elements studied in the slurry and that of aqueous solution were quite different, a standard addition method and an isotope dilution method were used for the determination of As, Cd, and Hg in selected cereal samples. The influences of vapor generation conditions and slurry preparation on the ion signals were reported. The effectiveness of the vapor generation sample introduction technique in alleviating various spectral interferences in ICP-MS analysis has been demonstrated. This method has been applied for the determination of As, Cd, and Hg in NIST SRM 1567a Wheat Flour reference material, NIST SRM 1568a Rice Flour reference material, and cereal samples obtained from local market. The As, Cd, and Hg analysis results of the reference materials agreed with the certified values. The method detection limits estimated from standard addition curves were about 0.10, 0.16, and 0.07 ng g(-1) for As, Cd, and Hg, respectively, in the original cereal samples. PMID:19606866

  14. Vapor spill monitoring method

    DOEpatents

    Bianchini, Gregory M.; McRae, Thomas G.

    1985-01-01

    Method for continuous sampling of liquified natural gas effluent from a spill pipe, vaporizing the cold liquified natural gas, and feeding the vaporized gas into an infrared detector to measure the gas composition. The apparatus utilizes a probe having an inner channel for receiving samples of liquified natural gas and a surrounding water jacket through which warm water is flowed to flash vaporize the liquified natural gas.

  15. Sensitive determination of bromine and iodine in aqueous and biological samples by electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using tetramethylammonium hydroxide as a chemical modifier.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Hiroko; Tanaka, Sachiko; Konishi, Chie; Okamoto, Yasuaki; Fujiwara, Terufumi; Ito, Kazuaki

    2008-06-01

    A procedure for the simultaneous determination of bromine and iodine by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) mass spectrometry was investigated. In order to prevent the decrease in the ionization efficiencies of bromine and iodine atoms caused by the introduction of water mist, electrothermal vaporization was used for sample introduction into the ICP mass spectrometer. To prevent loss of analytes during the drying process, a small amount of tetramethylammonium hydroxide solution was placed as a chemical modifier into the tungsten boat furnace. After evaporation of the solvent, the analytes instantly vaporized and were then introduced into the ICP ion source to detect the (79)Br(+), (81)Br(+), and (127)I(+) ions. By using this system, detection limits of 0.77 pg and 0.086 pg were achieved for bromine and iodine, respectively. These values correspond to 8.1 pg mL(-1) and 0.91 pg mL(-1) of the aqueous bromide and iodide ion concentrations, respectively, for a sampling volume of 95 microL. The relative standard deviations for eight replicate measurements were 2.2% and 2.8% for 20 pg of bromine and 2 pg of iodine, respectively. Approximately 25 batches were vaporizable per hour. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of various certified reference materials and practical situations as biological and aqueous samples. There is further potential for the simultaneous determination of fluorine and chlorine. PMID:18496883

  16. Simultaneous determination of bromine and chlorine in coal using electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and direct solid sample analysis.

    PubMed

    de Gois, Jefferson S; Pereira, Éderson R; Welz, Bernhard; Borges, Daniel L G

    2014-12-10

    A new method for the direct analysis of coal using electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and direct solid sample analysis was developed, aiming at the determination of Br and Cl. The procedure does not require any significant sample pretreatment and allows simultaneous determination of both elements to be carried out, requiring small mass aliquots of sample (about 0.5 mg). All operating parameters, including carrier gas flow-rate and RF power, were optimized for maximum sensitivity. The use of modifiers/aerosol carriers (Pd, Pd+Al and Pd+Ca) was evaluated, and the mixture of Pd and Ca was chosen, allowing pyrolysis and vaporization temperatures of 700°C and 1900°C, respectively. Chlorine was accurately determined using calibration against solid standards, whereas Br could also be determined using calibration against aqueous standard solutions. The limits of quantification were 0.03 μg g(-1) for Br and 7 μg g(-1) for Cl, and no spectral interferences were observed. PMID:25441883

  17. Vapor pressure measured with inflatable plastic bag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Deflated plastic bag in a vacuum chamber measures initial low vapor pressures of materials. The bag captures the test sample vapors and visual observation of the vapor-inflated bag under increasing external pressures yields pertinent data.

  18. Determination of Se in biological samples by axial view inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry after digestion with aqua regia and on-line chemical vapor generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos, Éder José; Herrmann, Amanda Beatriz; de Caires, Suzete Kulik; Frescura, Vera Lúcia Azzolin; Curtius, Adilson José

    2009-06-01

    A simple and fast method for the determination of Se in biological samples, including food, by axial view inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry using on-line chemical vapor generation (CVG-ICP OES) is proposed. The concentrations of HCl and NaBH 4, used in the chemical vapor generation were optimized by factorial analysis. Six certified materials (non-fat milk powder, lobster hepatopancreas, human hair, whole egg powder, oyster tissue, and lyophilised pig kidney) were treated with 10 mL of aqua regia in a microwave system under reflux for 15 min followed by additional 15 min in an ultrasonic bath. The solutions were transferred to a 100 mL volumetric flask and the final volume was made up with water. The Se was determined directly in these solutions by CVG-ICP OES, using the analytical line at 196.026 nm. Calibration against aqueous standards in 10% v/v aqua regia in the concentration range of 0.5-10.0 µg L - 1 Se(IV) was used for the analysis. The quantification limit, considering a 0.5 g sample weight in a final volume of 100 mL - 1 was 0.10 µg g - 1. The obtained concentration values were in agreement with the total certified concentrations, according to the t-test for a 95% confidence level.

  19. [Determination of total mercury in water samples, sediments and solids in suspension in aquatic systems by cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometry].

    PubMed

    Vieira, J L; Passarelli, M M

    1996-06-01

    The use of metallic mercury in the extraction and concentration of gold causes the discarding of tons of this metal in the environment, leading to a considerable increase in the natural levels of the same and the contamination of the surrounding areas. Thus it is extremely important to monitor the presence of this metal in various sectors of the environment with a view aiming to preventing human exposure to excessive concentrations which can result in serious episodes of mercury poisoning. It is also important to estimate the possibility of river sediments becoming potential sources of contamination of human beings. The determination of total mercury was undertaken by using cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. River waters, as well as sediments and suspended solids were used as samples for the standardization of the analytical procedure. Later on, this method was tested on samples originating in gold mining areas for the purpose of assessing its validity. PMID:9110471

  20. Scientific objectives of the primitive body sample return missions: An approach from the light-induced effect on water vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimizu, Mikio

    1994-01-01

    Water is undoubtedly one of the most crucial components of the solar nebula for determining planetary composition: planets were formed from the accretion of the dust particles in the nebula, and the redox state of Fe in the particles can be determined by the reaction of Fe with water vapor diffused into the interior of the particle in the early stage of solar system formation. It has been discussed from various observations that the cores of Mercury, Venus, and the Earth might be metallic Fe, although the core of the Earth may be somewhat oxidized by the high pressure and temperature reaction of liquid Fe with perovskite at the boundary of the mantle and the core, whereas the core of Mars may be highly oxidized, as suggested by its low density. Isotopic anomalies of various elements have frequently been observed in the solar system (in planetary atmospheres and in meteorites) and some of them can be attributed to the injection of exotic particles formed in other stars into the solar nebula. Hydrogen and D anomalies in planetary atmospheres were frequently believed to correlate with the differential escape of H and D from the exospheres of Venus and Mars, although no one knows the primordial D/H ratios before thermal escape. This paper explains the decrease of the observed D/H ratios with distance from the sun by considering the light-induced drift effect to displace H2(16)O alone to the outside in the solar nebula.

  1. Automatic flow-batch system for cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy determination of mercury in honey from Argentina using online sample treatment.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Marina A; Grünhut, Marcos; Pistonesi, Marcelo F; Di Nezio, María S; Centurión, María E

    2012-05-16

    An automatic flow-batch system that includes two borosilicate glass chambers to perform sample digestion and cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy determination of mercury in honey samples was designed. The sample digestion was performed by using a low-cost halogen lamp to obtain the optimum temperature. Optimization of the digestion procedure was done using a Box-Behnken experimental design. A linear response was observed from 2.30 to 11.20 μg Hg L(-1). The relative standard deviation was 3.20% (n = 11, 6.81 μg Hg L(-1)), the sample throughput was 4 sample h(-1), and the detection limit was 0.68 μg Hg L(-1). The obtained results with the flow-batch method are in good agreement with those obtained with the reference method. The flow-batch system is simple, allows the use of both chambers simultaneously, is seen as a promising methodology for achieving green chemistry goals, and is a good proposal to improving the quality control of honey. PMID:22540901

  2. Methylmercury in water samples at the pg/L level by online preconcentration liquid chromatography cold vapor-atomic fluorescence spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brombach, Christoph-Cornelius; Chen, Bin; Corns, Warren T.; Feldmann, Jörg; Krupp, Eva M.

    2015-03-01

    Ultra-traces of methylmercury at the sub-ppt level can be magnified in the foodweb and is of concern. In environmental monitoring a routine robust analytical method is needed to determine methylmercury in water. The development of an analytical method for ultra-trace speciation analysis of methylmercury (MeHg) in water samples is described. The approach is based on HPLC-CV-AFS with on-line preconcentration of water samples up to 200 mL, resulting in a detection limit of 40 pg/L (ppq) for MeHg, expressed as Hg. The unit consists of an optimized preconcentration column filled with a sulfur-based sorption material, on which mercury species are preconcentrated and subsequently eluted, separated and detected via HPLC-CV-AFS (high performance liquid chromatography-cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry). During the method development a type of adsorbate material, the pH dependence, the sample load rate and the carry-over were investigated using breakthrough experiments. The method shows broad pH stability in the range of pH 0 to 7, without the need for buffer addition and shows limited matrix effects so that MeHg is quantitatively recovered from sewage, river and seawater directly in the acidified samples without sample preparation.

  3. Time-multiplexed open-path TDLAS spectrometer for dynamic, sampling-free, interstitial H2 18O and H2 16O vapor detection in ice clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühnreich, B.; Wagner, S.; Habig, J. C.; Möhler, O.; Saathoff, H.; Ebert, V.

    2015-04-01

    An advanced in situ diode laser hygrometer for simultaneous, sampling-free detection of interstitial H2 16O and H2 18O vapor was developed and tested in the aerosol interaction and dynamics in atmosphere (AIDA) cloud chamber during dynamic cloud formation processes. The spectrometer to measure isotope-resolved water vapor concentrations comprises two rapidly time-multiplexed DFB lasers near 1.4 and 2.7 µm and an open-path White cell with 227-m absorption path length and 4-m mirror separation. A dynamic water concentration range from 2.6 ppb to 87 ppm for H2 16O and 87 ppt to 3.6 ppm for H2 18O could be achieved and was used to enable a fast and direct detection of dynamic isotope ratio changes during ice cloud formation in the AIDA chamber at temperatures between 190 and 230 K. Relative changes in the H2 18O/H2 16O isotope ratio of 1 % could be detected and resolved with a signal-to-noise ratio of 7. This converts to an isotope ratio resolution limit of 0.15 % at 1-s time resolution.

  4. Vapor space characterization of waste tank 241-BY-105 (in situ): Results from samples collected on May 9, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    McVeety, B.D.; Pool, K.H.; Ligotke, M.W.; Clauss, T.W.; Lucke, R.B.; Sharma, A.K.; McCulloch, M.; Fruchter, J.S.; Goheen, S.C.

    1995-05-01

    This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from in situ samples obtained from the tank headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-BY-105 (referred to as Tank BY-105). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds NH{sub 3}, NO{sub 2}, NO, HCN, and H{sub 2}O. Sampling for sulfur oxides was not requested. Results of the inorganic samples were affected by sampling errors that led to an undefined uncertainty in sample volume. Consequently, tank-headspace concentrations are estimated only. Thirty-nine tentatively identified organic analytes were observed above the detection limit of (ca.) 10 ppbv, but standards for most of these were not available at the time of analysis, and their quantitation is beyond the scope of this study. In addition, we looked for the 41 standard TO-14 analytes. Of these, only a few were observed above the 2-ppbv detection limit. The 16 organic analytes with the highest estimated concentrations are listed. These 16 analytes account for approximately 68% of the total or organic components in Tank BY-105.

  5. Imaging of elements in leaves of tobacco by solid sampling-electrothermal vaporization-inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masson, Pierre

    2014-12-01

    Plants take up and store elements according to the environment in which they are growing. Because plants are at the base of the food chain, the determination of essential elements or toxic elements in plant materials is of importance. However, it is assumed that the element content determined on selected tissues may provide more specific information than that derived from the whole plant analysis. In this work, we assessed the feasibility of solid sampling-electrothermal vaporization-inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry analyses for quantitative imaging of Cd and Mg in plant leaves. Leaves of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) were selected to be used as samples. To produce a two dimensional image, sections cut from leaf samples were analyzed. Cellulose doped with multi-element solution standards was used as calibration samples. Two certified reference materials (NIST SRM 1547 Peach Leaves and NIST SRM 1573a Tomato leaves) were used to verify the accuracy of measurements with good agreement between the measured concentrations and the certified values. Quantitative imaging revealed the inhomogeneous distribution of the selected elements. Excess of Cd and Mg tended to be focused on peripheral regions and the tip of the leaf.

  6. Ultrasonic slurry sampling electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the determination of Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn and Se in cereals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shih-Yi; Jiang, Shiuh-Jen; Sahayam, A. C.

    2014-11-01

    Ultrasonic slurry sampling electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (USS-ETV-ICP-MS) has been applied to determine Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn and Se in several cereal samples. Thioacetamide was used as the modifier to enhance the ion signals. The background ions at the masses of interest were reduced in intensity significantly by using 1.0 mL min- 1 methane (CH4) as reaction cell gas in the dynamic reaction cell (DRC). Since the sensitivities of Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn and Se in different matrices were quite different, standard addition and isotope dilution methods were used for the determination of Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn and Se in these cereal samples. The method detection limits estimated from standard addition curves were about 1, 10, 4, 12 and 2 ng g- 1 for Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn and Se, respectively, in original cereal samples. This procedure has been applied to the determination of Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn and Se whose concentrations are in μg g- 1 (except Cr and Se) in standard reference materials (SRM) of National institute of standards and technology (NIST), NIST SRM 1568a Rice Flour and NIST SRM 1567a Wheat Flour and two cereal samples purchased from a local market. The analysis results of reference materials agreed with certified values at 95% confidence level according to Student's T-test. The results for the real world cereal samples were also found to be in good agreement with the pneumatic nebulization DRC ICP-MS results of the sample solutions.

  7. Vapor space characterization of waste tank 241-C-105: Results from samples collected on 2/16/94

    SciTech Connect

    Clauss, T.W.; Lucke, R.B.; McVeety, B.D.

    1995-06-01

    This report describes results of the analyses of tank-headspace samples taken from the Hanford waste Tank 241-C-105 (referred to as Tank C-105). Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and to analyze inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace. For organic analyses, six SUMMA{trademark} canisters were delivered to WHC on COC 0061 11 on 2/14/94. At the request of WHC, an additional six SUMMA{trademark} canisters were supplied on COC 005127 on 2/16/94. Samples were collected by WHC from the headspace of Tank C-105 through the VSS on 2/16/94, but only three SUMMA{sup {trademark}} canisters were returned to PNL using COC 0061 11 on 2/18/94. The canisters were stored in the 326/23B laboratory at ambient (25{degrees}C) temperature until the time of the analysis. Analyses described in this report were performed at PNL in the 300 area of the Hanford Reservation. Analytical methods that were used are described in the text. In summary, sorbent traps for inorganic analyses containing sample materials were either weighed (for water analysis) or desorbed with the appropriate aqueous solutions. The aqueous extracts were analyzed either by selective electrode or by ion chromatography (IC). Organic analyses were performed using cryogenic preconcentration followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS).

  8. COMPARISON OF PORTABLE GAS CHROMATOGRAPHS AND PASSIVATED CANISTERS FOR FIELD SAMPLING AIRBORNE TOXIC ORGANIC VAPORS IN USA AND USSR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Collection of samples in passivated canisters is widely used for analysis of trace volatile organic compounds in air because a preconcentration step is usually required prior to analysis. ample integrity can be compromised by deterioration or artifact formation during storage and...

  9. Vapor space characterization of waste Tank 241-BY-103: Results from samples collected on 11/1/94

    SciTech Connect

    McVeety, B.D.; Klinger, G.S.; Clauss, T.W.

    1995-10-01

    This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-BY-103 (referred to as Tank BY-103). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH{sub 3}), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), nitric oxide (NO), and water (H{sub 2}O). Trends in NH{sub 3} and H{sub 2}O samples indicated a possible minor sampling problem. Sampling for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}) was not requested. In addition, quantitative results were obtained for target organic analytes, 39 TO-14 compounds, plus an additional 14 analytes. Of these, four were observed above the 5-ppbv reporting cutoff. Fourteen organic tentatively identified compounds (TICs) were observed above the reporting cutoff of (ca.) 10 ppbv, and are reported with concentrations that are semiquantitative estimates based on internal-standard response factors. The 10 organic analytes with the highest estimated concentrations are listed in Table 1 and account for approximately 88% of the total organic components in Tank BY-103. Two permanent gases, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), were also detected in the tank headspace. Carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) were detected in the ambient air sample. Tank BY-103 is on the Ferrocyanide Watch List.

  10. Vapor space characterization of waste tank 241-BY-103 (in situ): Results from samples collected on May 5, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Ligotke, M.W.; Sharma, A.K.; McVeety, B.D.; Fruchter, J.S.; Pool, K.H.; Lucke, R.B.; McCulloch, M.; Goheen, S.C.

    1995-06-01

    This document presents the details of the inorganic and organic analysis that was performed on samples from the headspace of Hanford waste tank 241-BY-103. The results described were obtained to support the safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for the inorganic and organic analytes is included, as well as, a detailed description of the results which appears in the text.

  11. Vapor space characterization of waste tank 241-TY-103 (in situ): Results from samples collected on August 5, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Pool, K.H.; McVeety, B.D.; Clauss, T.W.

    1995-06-01

    This document presents the details of the inorganic and organic analysis that was performed on samples from the headspace of Hanford waste tank 241-TY-103. The results described were obtained to support the safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for the inorganic and organic analytes is included, as well as, a detailed description of the results which appears in the text.

  12. Vapor space characterization of waste Tank 241-TX-118 (in situ): Results from samples collected on 9/7/94

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, B.L.; Clauss, T.W.; Ligotke, M.W.; Pool, K.H.; McVeety, B.D.; Olsen, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Goheen, S.C.

    1995-10-01

    This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from in situ samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-TX-118 (referred to as Tank TX-118). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH{sub 3}), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), nitric oxide (NO), hydrogen cyanide (CHN), and water (H{sub 2}O). Sampling for sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}) was not requested. In addition, quantitative results were obtained for the 39 TO-14 compounds plus an additional 13 analytes. Hexane, normally included in the additional analytes, was removed because a calibration standard was not available during analysis of Tank TX-118 SUMMA{trademark} canisters. Of these, 12 were observed above the 5-ppbv reporting cutoff. Fourteen tentatively identified compounds (TICs) were observed above the reporting cutoff of (ca.) 10 ppbv and are reported with concentrations that are semiquantitative estimates based on internal-standard response factors. The 10 organic analytes with the highest estimated concentrations are listed in Table 1 and account for approximately 86% of the total organic components in Tank TX-118. Permanent gas analysis was not conducted on the tank-headspace samples. Tank TX-118 is on both the Ferrocyanide and Organic Watch List.

  13. Vapor space characterization of Waste Tank 241-U-107: Results from samples collected on 2/17/95

    SciTech Connect

    McVeety, B.D.; Clauss, T.W.; Ligotke, M.W.

    1995-10-01

    This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-U-107 (referred to as Tank U-107). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH{sub 3}), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), nitric oxide (NO), and water (H{sub 2}O). Sampling for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}) was not requested. In addition, quantitative results were obtained for the 39 TO-14 compounds plus an additional 14 analytes. Of these, 10 were observed above the 5-ppbv reporting cutoff. Sixteen organic tentatively identified compounds (TICs) were observed above the reporting cutoff of (ca.) 10 ppbv, and are reported with concentrations that are semiquantitative estimates based on internal-standard response factors. The 10 organic analytes with the highest estimated concentrations are listed in Table 1 and account for approximately 88% of the total organic components in Tank U-107. Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) was the only permanent gas detected in the tank-headspace samples. Tank U-107 is on the Organic and the Hydrogen Watch Lists.

  14. Vapor space characterization of Waste Tank 241-U-105: Results from samples collected on 2/24/95

    SciTech Connect

    Pool, K.H.; Clauss, T.W.; Ligotke, M.W.

    1995-10-01

    This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-U-105 (referred to as Tank U-105). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH{sub 3}), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), nitric oxide (NO), and water (H{sub 2}O). Sampling for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}) was not requested. In addition, quantitative results were obtained for the 39 TO-14 compounds plus an additional 14 analytes. Of these, six were observed above the 5-ppbv reporting cutoff. Three tentatively identified compounds (TICs) were observed above the reporting cutoff of (ca.) 10 ppbv and are reported with concentrations that are semiquantitative estimates based on internal-standard response factors. All nine of the organic analytes identified are listed in Table 1 and account for 100% of the total organic components in Tank U-105. Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) was the only permanent gas detected in the tank-headspace sample. Tank U-105 is on the Hydrogen Watch List.

  15. Vapor space characterization of Waste Tank 241-TY-104: Results from samples collected on 4/27/95

    SciTech Connect

    Klinger, G.S.; Olsen, K.B.; Clauss, T.W.

    1995-10-01

    This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-TY-104 (referred to as Tank TY-104). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH{sub 3}), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), nitric oxide (NO), and water (H{sub 2}O). Sampling for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}) was not requested. In addition, quantitative results were obtained for the 39 TO-14 compounds plus an additional 14 analytes. Of these, 8 were observed above the 5-ppbv reporting cutoff. Five tentatively identified compounds (TICs) were observed above the reporting cutoff of (ca.) 10 ppbv and are reported with concentrations that are semiquantitative estimates based on internal-standard response factors. The 10 organic analytes with the highest estimated concentrations are listed in Table 1 and account for approximately 94% of the total organic components in Tank TY-104. Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) was the only permanent gas detected in the tank-headspace samples. Tank TY-104 is on the Ferrocyanide Watch List.

  16. Vapor space characterization of Waste Tank 241-U-106 (in situ): Results from samples collected on 8/25/94

    SciTech Connect

    Ligotke, M.W.; Lucke, R.B.; Pool, K.H.

    1995-10-01

    This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from in situ samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-U-106 (referred to as Tank U-106). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH{sub 3}), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), nitric oxide (NO), and water (H{sub 2}O). Sampling for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}) was not performed. In addition, the authors looked for the 39 TO-14 compounds plus an additional 14 target analytes. Of these, six were observed above the 5-ppbv reporting cutoff. Ten organic tentatively identified compounds (TICs) were observed above the reporting cutoff of (ca.) 10 ppbv in two or more of the three samples collected and are reported with concentrations that are semiquantitative estimates based on internal standard response factors. The 10 organic analytes with the highest estimated concentrations are listed in Table 1 and account for approximately 89% of the total organic components in Tank U-106. Methyl isocyanate, a compound of possible concern in Tank U-106, was not detected. Tank U-106 is on the Organic Watch List.

  17. Near real time vapor detection and enhancement using aerosol adsorption

    DOEpatents

    Novick, Vincent J.; Johnson, Stanley A.

    1999-01-01

    A vapor sample detection method where the vapor sample contains vapor and ambient air and surrounding natural background particles. The vapor sample detection method includes the steps of generating a supply of aerosol that have a particular effective median particle size, mixing the aerosol with the vapor sample forming aerosol and adsorbed vapor suspended in an air stream, impacting the suspended aerosol and adsorbed vapor upon a reflecting element, alternatively directing infrared light to the impacted aerosol and adsorbed vapor, detecting and analyzing the alternatively directed infrared light in essentially real time using a spectrometer and a microcomputer and identifying the vapor sample.

  18. Near real time vapor detection and enhancement using aerosol adsorption

    DOEpatents

    Novick, V.J.; Johnson, S.A.

    1999-08-03

    A vapor sample detection method is described where the vapor sample contains vapor and ambient air and surrounding natural background particles. The vapor sample detection method includes the steps of generating a supply of aerosol that have a particular effective median particle size, mixing the aerosol with the vapor sample forming aerosol and adsorbed vapor suspended in an air stream, impacting the suspended aerosol and adsorbed vapor upon a reflecting element, alternatively directing infrared light to the impacted aerosol and adsorbed vapor, detecting and analyzing the alternatively directed infrared light in essentially real time using a spectrometer and a microcomputer and identifying the vapor sample. 13 figs.

  19. Vapor space characterization of waste Tank 241-SX-106: Results from samples collected on 3/24/95

    SciTech Connect

    Klinger, G.S.; Clauss, T.W.; Litgotke, M.W.

    1995-11-01

    This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-SX-106 (referred to as Tank SX-106). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH{sub 3}), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), nitric oxide (NO), and water (H{sub 2}O). Sampling for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}) was not requested. In addition, quantitative results were obtained for the 39 TO-14 compounds plus an additional 14 analytes. Of these, 4 were observed above the 5-ppbv reporting cutoff. Three tentatively identified compounds (TICs) were observed above the reporting cutoff of (ca.) 10 ppbv and are reported with concentrations that are semiquantitative estimates based on internal-standard response factors. The 7 organic analytes identified are listed in Table 1 and account for approximately 100% of the total organic components in Tank SX-106. Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) was the only permanent gas detected. Tank SX-106 is on the Ferrocyanide Watch List.

  20. Vapor space characterization of waste tank 241-S-102: Results from samples collected on 3/14/95

    SciTech Connect

    Pool, K.H.; McVeety, B.D.; Clauss, T.W.

    1995-10-01

    This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-S-102 (referred to as Tank S-102). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH{sub 3}), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), nitric oxide (NO), and water (H{sub 2}O). Sampling for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}) was not requested. In addition, quantitative results were obtained for the 39 TO-14 compounds plus an additional 14 analytes. Of these, 11 were observed above the 5-ppbv reporting cutoff. Eleven tentatively identified compounds (TICs) were observed above the reporting cutoff of (ca.) 10 ppbv and are reported with concentrations that are semiquantitative estimates based on internal-standard response factors. The 10 organic analytes with the highest estimated concentrations are listed in Table 1 and account for approximately 95% of the total organic components in Tank S-102. Two permanent gases, hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), were also detected.

  1. Vapor space characterization of waste tank 241-TX-118: Results from samples collected on 12/16/94

    SciTech Connect

    Lucke, R.B.; Ligotke, M.W.; McVeety, B.D.

    1995-10-01

    This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-TX-118 (referred to as Tank TX-118). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH{sub 3}), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), nitric oxide (NO), and water (H{sub 2}O). Sampling for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}) was not requested. In addition, quantitative results were obtained for the 39 TO-14 compounds plus an additional 14 analytes. Of these, 3 were observed above the 5-ppbv reporting cutoff. Twenty three organic tentatively identified compounds (TICs) were observed above the reporting cutoff of (ca.) 10 ppbv, and are reported with concentrations that are semiquantitative estimates based on internal-standard response factors. The 10 organic analytes with the highest estimated concentrations are listed in Table 1 and account for approximately 84% of the total organic components in Tank TX-118. Two permanent gases, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), were also detected.

  2. Vapor space characterization of Waste Tank 241-S-111: Results from samples collected on 3/21/95

    SciTech Connect

    Klinger, G.S.; Clauss, T.W.; Ligotke, M.W.

    1995-10-01

    This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-S-111 (referred to as Tank S-111). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH{sub 3}), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), nitric oxide (NO), and water (H{sub 2}O). Sampling for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}) was not requested. In addition, quantitative results were obtained for the 39 TO-14 compounds plus an additional 14 analytes. Of these, seven were observed above the 5-ppbv reporting cutoff. Five tentatively identified compounds (TICs) were observed above the reporting cutoff of (ca.) 10 ppbv and are reported with concentrations that are semiquantitative estimates based on internal-standard response factors. The 10 organic analytes with the highest estimated concentrations are listed in Table 1 and account for approximately 98% of the total organic components in Tank S-111. Two permanent gases, hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), were also detected. Tank S-111 is on the Hydrogen Watch List.

  3. Vapor space characterization of waste tank 241-C-112: Results from samples collected on 8/11/94

    SciTech Connect

    Ligotke, M.W.; McVeety, B.D.; Pool, K.H.

    1995-10-01

    This report describes organic analyses results from samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-C-112 (referred to as Tank C-112). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH{sub 3}), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), nitric oxide (NO), and water (H{sub 2}O). Sampling for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}) was not requested. Organic compounds were also quantitatively determined. Five organic tentatively identified compounds (TICs) were observed above the detection limit of (ca.) 10 ppbv, but standards for most of these were not available at the time of analysis, and the reported concentrations are semiquantitative estimates. In addition, we looked for the 40 standard TO-14 analytes. None were observed above the 2-ppbv detection limit. The five organic analytes with the highest concentration are listed in Table 1 and account for 100% of the total organic components in Tank C-112.

  4. Vapor space characterization of waste tank 241-BX-104: Results from samples collected on 12/30/94

    SciTech Connect

    Pool, K.H.; Ligotke, M.W.; McVeety, B.D.

    1995-10-01

    This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-BX-104 (referred to as Tank BX-104). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained. for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH{sub 3}), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), nitric oxide (NO), and water (H{sub 2}O). Sampling for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and sulfur oxides (SOx) was not requested. In addition, quantitative results were obtained for the 39 TO-14 compounds plus an additional 14 analytes. Of these, 13 were observed above the 5-ppbv reporting cutoff. Sixty-six organic tentatively identified compounds (TICs) were observed above the reporting cutoff of (ca.) 10 ppbv and are reported with concentrations that are semiquantitative estimates based on internal-standard response factors. The 10 organic analytes, with the highest estimated concentrations are listed in Table 1 and account for approximately 70% of the total organic components in Tank BX-104. Two permanent gases, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), were also detected.

  5. Vapor space characterization of waste tank 241-BY-110: Results for samples collected on 11/11/94

    SciTech Connect

    Clauss, T.W.; Ligotke, M.W.; Pool, K.H.

    1995-06-01

    This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-BY-110 (referred to as Tank BY-110). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH{sub 3}), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}, nitric oxide (NO), and water (H{sub 2}O). Sampling for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}) was not requested. In addition, we looked for the 40 TO-14 compounds plus an additional 15 analytes. Of these, 10 were observed above the 5-ppbv reporting cutoff. Forty-six organic tentatively identified compounds (TICS) were observed above the reporting cutoff of (ca.) 10 ppbv, and are reported with concentrations that are semiquantative estimates based on internal standard response factors. The 10 organic analytes with the highest estimated concentrations are listed and account for approximately 78% of the total organic components in Tank BY-110. Two permanent gases, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), were also detected.

  6. Vapor space characterization of waste tank 241-TY-103: Results from samples collected on 4/11/95

    SciTech Connect

    Ligotke, M.W.; Clauss, T.W.; Pool, K.H.

    1995-10-01

    This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-TY-103 (referred to as Tank TY-103). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH{sub 3}), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), nitric oxide (NO), and water (H{sub 2}O). Sampling for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}) was not requested. In addition, quantitative results were obtained for the 39 TO-14 compounds plus an additional 14 analytes. Of these, 16 were observed above the 5-ppbv reporting cutoff. Sixteen tentatively identified compounds (TICs) were observed above the reporting cutoff of (ca.) 10 ppbv and are reported with concentrations that are semiquantitative estimates based on internal-standard response factors. The 10 organic analytes with the highest estimated concentrations are listed in Table 1 and account for approximately 95% of the total organic components in Tank TY-103. Two permanent gases, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), were also detected.

  7. Vapor space characterization of waste tank 241-BY-109 (in situ): Results from samples collected on 9/22/94

    SciTech Connect

    Pool, K.H.; Clauss, T.W.; Ligotke, M.W.

    1995-06-01

    This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from in situ samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-BY-109 (referred to as Tank BY-109). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Summary Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH{sub 3}), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), nitric oxide (NO), and water (H{sub 2}O). Sampling for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}) was not requested. Organic compounds were also quantitatively determined. Twenty-three organic tentatively identified compounds (TICs) were observed above the detection limit of (ca.) 10 ppbv, but standards for most of these were not available at the time of analysis, and the reported concentrations are semiquantitative estimates. In addition, we looked for the 40 standard TO-14 analytes. We observed 38. Of these, only a few were observed above the 2-ppbv calibrated instrument detection limit. The ten organic analytes with the highest estimated concentrations are listed in Summary Table 1. The ten analytes account for approximately 84% of the total organic components in Tank BY-109.

  8. Vapor space characterization of waste Tank 241-BY-104 (in situ): Results from samples collected on 4/22/94

    SciTech Connect

    Pool, K.H.; Ligotke, M.W.; Clauss, T.W.; Lucke, R.B.; McVeety, B.D.; Sharma, A.K.; McCulloch, M.; Fruchter, J.S.; Goheen, S.C.

    1995-10-01

    This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from in situ samples obtained from the space of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-BY-104 (referred to as Tank BY-104). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds NH{sub 3}, NO{sub 2}, NO, HCN, and H{sub 2}O. Sampling for sulfur oxides was not requested. Several organic compounds were also quantitatively determined. Eighty-nine tentatively identified organic analytes were observed above the detection limit of (ca.) 10 ppbv, but standards for most of these were not available at the time of analysis, and the reported concentrations are semi-quantitative estimates. In addition, the 41 standard TO 14 analytes were sought. Of these, only a few were observed above the 2-ppbv detection limit. The 10 organic analytes with the highest estimated concentrations are listed in Table 1. These 10 analytes account for approximately 48% of the total organic components in the headspace of Tank BY-104. Detailed results appear in the text. Tank BY-104 is on the Ferrocyanide Watch List.

  9. Vapor space characterization of Waste Tank 241-TY-104 (in situ): Results from samples collected on 8/5/94

    SciTech Connect

    Ligotke, M.W.; Pool, K.H.; Lucke, R.B.

    1995-10-01

    This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from in situ samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-TY-104 (referred to as Tank TY-104). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH{sub 3}), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), nitric oxide (NO), and water (H{sub 2}O). Sampling for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}) was not performed. In addition, the authors looked for the 39 TO-14 compounds plus an additional 14 analytes. Of these, eight were observed above the 5-ppbv reporting cutoff. Twenty-four organic tentatively identified compounds (TICs) were observed above the reporting cutoff of (ca.) 10 ppbv and are reported with concentrations that are semiquantitative estimates based on internal standard response factors. The 10 organic analytes with the highest estimated concentrations are listed in Table 1 and account for approximately 86% of the total organic components in Tank TY-104. Tank TY-104 is on the Ferrocyanide Watch List.

  10. Simultaneous speciation of inorganic arsenic, selenium and tellurium in environmental water samples by dispersive liquid liquid microextraction combined with electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; He, Man; Chen, Beibei; Hu, Bin

    2015-09-01

    A new method based on dispersive liquid liquid microextraction (DLLME) combined with electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ETV-ICP-MS) was developed for the simultaneous speciation of inorganic arsenic (As), selenium (Se) and tellurium (Te) with sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC) as both chelating reagent and chemical modifier. As(III), Se(IV) and Te(IV) were transformed into DDTC-chelates at pH 7 and extracted into the fine droplets formed by injecting the binary solution of bromobenzene (extraction solvent) and methanol (dispersive solvent) into the sample solution. After phase separation by centrifugation, As(III), Se(IV) and Te(IV) preconcentrated in the organic phase were determined by ETV-ICP-MS. Total inorganic As, Se and Te were obtained by reducing As(V), Se(VI) and Te(VI) to As(III), Se(IV) and Te(IV) with L-cysteine, which were then subjected to the same DLLME-ETV-ICP-MS process. The concentration of As(V), Se(VI), Te(VI) were calculated by subtracting the concentration of As(III), Se(IV) and Te(IV) from the total inorganic As, Se and Te, respectively. The main factors affecting the microextraction efficiency and the vaporization behavior of target species were investigated in detail. Under the optimal conditions, the limits of detection were 2.5, 8.6 and 0.56 ng L(-1) for As(III), Se(IV) and Te(IV), respectively, with the relative standard deviations (n=7) of 8.5-9.7%. The developed method was applied to the speciation of inorganic As, Se and Te in Certified Reference Materials of GSBZ50004-88, GBW(E)080395 and GBW(E)080548 environmental waters, and the determined values are in good agreement with the certified values. The method was also successfully applied to the simultaneous speciation of inorganic As, Se and Te in different environmental water samples with the recoveries in the range of 86.3-107% for the spiked samples. PMID:26003714

  11. Vapor space characterization of waste Tank 241-C-109 (in situ): Results from samples collected on 6/23/94

    SciTech Connect

    Clauss, T.W.; Ligotke, M.W.; Pool, K.H.; Lucke, R.B.; McVeety, B.D.; Sharma, A.K.; McCulloch, M.; Fruchter, J.S.; Goheen, S.C.

    1995-10-01

    This report describes organic analyses results from in situ samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-C-109 (referred to as Tank C-109). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. Organic compounds were quantitatively determined. Thirteen organic tentatively identified compounds (TICs) were observed above the detection limit of (ca.) 10 ppbv, but standards for most of these were not available at the time of analysis, and the reported concentrations are semiquantitative estimates. In addition, the authors looked for the 40 standard TO-14 analytes. Of these, only one was observed above the 2-ppbv calibrated instrumental detection limit. However, it is believed, even though the values for dichlorodifluoromethane and trichlorofluoromethane are below the instrumental detection limit, they are accurate at these low concentrations. The six analytes account for approximately 100% of the total organic components in Tank C-109. These six organic analytes with the highest estimated concentrations are listed in Summary Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text.

  12. Application of direct solid sample analysis for the determination of chlorine in biological materials using electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Gois, Jefferson Santos; Pereira, Éderson R.; Welz, Bernhard; Borges, Daniel L. G.

    2015-03-01

    This work describes a methodology developed to carry out Cl determination in biological materials using electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and direct solid sample analysis. The solid samples were directly weighed into graphite 'cups' and inserted into the graphite furnace. The RF power and the carrier gas flow rate were optimized at 1300 W and 0.7 L min- 1, respectively. Calibration could be carried out using aqueous standard solutions with pre-dried modifiers (Pd + Nd or Pd + Ca) or using solid certified reference materials with the same pre-dried modifiers or without the use of modifiers. The limit of quantification was determined as 5 μg g- 1 under optimized conditions and the Cl concentration was determined in five certified reference materials with certified concentrations for Cl, in addition to three certified reference materials, for which certified values for Cl were unavailable; in the latter case, the results were compared with those obtained using high-resolution continuum source molecular absorption spectrometry. Good agreement at a 95% statistical confidence level was achieved between determined and certified or reference values.

  13. Sorption of N2 and EGME vapors on some soils, clays, and mineral oxides and determination of sample surface areas by use of sorption data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chiou, C.T.; Rutherford, D.W.; Manes, M.

    1993-01-01

    Vapor sorption isotherms of ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (EGME) at room temperature and isotherms of N2 gas at liquid nitrogen temperature were determined for various soils and minerals. The N2 monolayer capacities [Qm (N2)] were calculated from the BET equation and used to determine the surface areas. To examine whether EGME is an appropriate adsorbate for determination of surface areas, the apparent EGME monolayer capacities [Qm (EGME)ap] were also obtained by use of the BET equation. For sand, aluminum oxide, kaolinite, hematite, and synthetic hydrous iron oxide, which are relatively free of organic impurity and expanding/solvating minerals, the Qm (EGME)ap values are in good conformity with the corresponding Qm (N2) values and would give surface areas consistent with BET (N2) values. For other samples (Woodburn soil, a natural hydrous iron oxide, illite, and montmorillonite), the Qm (EGME)ap values overestimate the Qm (N2) values from a moderate to a large extent, depending on the sample. A high-organic-content peat shows a very small BET (N2) surface area; the EGME/ peat isotherm is linear and does not yield a calculation of the surface area. Large discrepancies between results of the two methods for some samples are attributed to the high solubility of polar EGME in soil organic matter and/ or to the cation solvation of EGME with solvating clays. The agreement for other samples is illustrative of the consistency of the BET method when different adsorbates are used, so long as they do not exhibit bulk penetration and/or cation solvation. ?? 1993 American Chemical Society.

  14. Slurry sampling flow injection chemical vapor generation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the determination of trace Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi in cosmetic lotions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Ni; Jiang, Shiuh-Jen; Chen, Yen-Ling; Sahayam, A C

    2015-02-20

    A slurry sampling inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) method has been developed for the determination of Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi in cosmetic lotions using flow injection (FI) vapor generation (VG) as the sample introduction system. A slurry containing 2% m/v lotion, 2% m/v thiourea, 0.05% m/v L-cysteine, 0.5 μg mL(-1) Co(II), 0.1% m/v Triton X-100 and 1.2% v/v HCl was injected into a VG-ICP-MS system for the determination of Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi without dissolution and mineralization. Because the sensitivities of the analytes in the slurry and that of aqueous solution were quite different, an isotope dilution method and a standard addition method were used for the determination. This method has been validated by the determination of Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi in GBW09305 Cosmetic (Cream) reference material. The method was also applied for the determination of Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi in three cosmetic lotion samples obtained locally. The analysis results of the reference material agreed with the certified value and/or ETV-ICP-MS results. The detection limit estimated from the standard addition curve was 0.025, 0.1, 0.2, 0.1, 0.15, and 0.03 ng g(-1) for Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi, respectively, in original cosmetic lotion sample. PMID:25682241

  15. Phase transfer hollow fiber liquid phase microextraction combined with electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the determination of trace heavy metals in environmental and biological samples.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xueqin; He, Man; Chen, Beibei; Hu, Bin

    2012-11-15

    A new method of phase transfer hollow fiber liquid phase microextraction (PT-HF-LPME) combined with electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ETV-ICP-MS) has been developed for the determination of trace Co, Pd, Cd and Bi in environmental and biological samples. In PT-HF-LPME, an intermediate solvent (1-butanol) was added into the sample solution to ensure the maximum contact area between the target metal ions and the chelating reagent (8-hydroxyquinoline, 8-HQ), which accelerated the formation of 8-HQ-metal complexes and their subsequent extraction by extraction solvent (toluene). The experimental parameters affecting the extraction efficiency of PT-HF-LPME for the target metals were studied by simplex optimization and orthogonal array design (OAD) experiments. Under the optimized conditions, the enrichment factors for Co, Pd, Cd and Bi were 110, 393, 121 and 111-fold, respectively, the limits of detection (LODs, 3σ) ranged from 3.7 to 8.3 ng L(-1). The relative standard deviations (RSDs, c=0.5 ng mL(-1), n=7) were 8.7, 6.2, 12.4 and 12.9% for Co, Pd, Cd and Bi, respectively. To validate the accuracy of the proposed method, two Certified Reference Materials of GSBZ50009-88 Environment Water and GBW09103 Human Urine were analyzed, and the results obtained for Cd were in good agreement with the certified values. Finally, the developed method was successfully applied to the analysis of Co, Pd, Cd and Bi in lake water and human urine samples. PMID:23158357

  16. Vapor concentration monitor

    DOEpatents

    Bayly, John G.; Booth, Ronald J.

    1977-01-01

    An apparatus for monitoring the concentration of a vapor, such as heavy water, having at least one narrow bandwidth in its absorption spectrum, in a sample gas such as air. The air is drawn into a chamber in which the vapor content is measured by means of its radiation absorption spectrum. High sensitivity is obtained by modulating the wavelength at a relatively high frequency without changing its optical path, while high stability against zero drift is obtained by the low frequency interchange of the sample gas to be monitored and of a reference sample. The variable HDO background due to natural humidity is automatically corrected.

  17. Direct determination of arsenic in soil samples by fast pyrolysis-chemical vapor generation using sodium formate as a reductant followed by nondispersive atomic fluorescence spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Xuchuan; Zhang, Jingya; Bu, Fanlong

    2015-09-01

    This new study shows for the first time that sodium formate can react with trace arsenic to form volatile species via fast pyrolysis - chemical vapor generation. We found that the presence of thiourea greatly enhanced the generation efficiency and eliminated the interference of copper. We studied the reaction temperature, the volume of sodium formate, the reaction acidity, and the carried argon rate using nondispersive atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Under optimal conditions of T = 500 °C, the volumes of 30% sodium formate and 10% thiourea were 0.2 ml and 0.05 ml, respectively. The carrier argon rate was 300 ml min- 1 and the detection limit and precision of arsenic were 0.39 ng and 3.25%, respectively. The amount of arsenic in soil can be directly determined by adding trace amount of hydrochloric acid as a decomposition reagent without any sample pretreatment. The method was successfully applied to determine trace amount of arsenic in two soil-certified reference materials (GBW07453 and GBW07450), and the results were found to be in agreement with certified reference values.

  18. Determination of As, Hg and Pb in herbs using slurry sampling flow injection chemical vapor generation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tai, Chia-Yi; Jiang, Shiuh-Jen; Sahayam, A C

    2016-02-01

    Analysis of herbs for As, Hg and Pb has been carried out using slurry sampling inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) with flow injection vapor generation. Slurry containing 0.5% m/v herbal powder, 0.1% m/v citric acid and 2% v/v HCl was injected into the VG-ICP-MS system for the determination of As, Hg and Pb that obviate dissolution and mineralization. Standard addition and isotope dilution methods were used for quantifications in selected herbal powders. This method has been validated by the determination of As, Hg and Pb in NIST standard reference materials SRM 1547 Peach Leaves and SRM 1573a Tomato Leaves. The As, Hg and Pb analysis results of the reference materials agreed with the certified values. The precision obtained by the reported procedure was better than 7% for all determinations. The detection limit estimated from standard addition curve was 0.008, 0.003, and 0.007 ng mL(-1) for As, Hg and Pb, respectively. PMID:26304347

  19. Vapor space characterization of waste Tank 241-C-104: Results from samples collected on 2/17/94 and 3/3/94

    SciTech Connect

    Lucke, R.B.; McVeety, B.D.; Clauss, T.W.; Pool, K.H.; Young, J.S.; McCulloch, M.; Ligotke, M.W.; Fruchter, J.S.; Goheen, S.C.

    1995-10-01

    This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-C-104 (referred to as Tank C-104). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Summary Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH{sub 3}), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), nitric oxide (NO), sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}), and water vapor (H{sub 2}O). Organic compounds were also quantitatively determined. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) versatile sampler (OVS) tubes were analyzed for tributyl phosphate. Twenty-four organic tentatively identified compounds (TICs) were observed above the detection limit of (ca.) 10 ppbv, but standards for most of these were not available at the time of analysis, and the reported concentrations are semiquantitative estimates. In addition, the authors looked for the 40 standard TO-14 analytes. Of these, two were observed above the 2-ppbv calibrated instrument detection limit. The 10 organic analytes with the highest estimated concentrations are listed in Summary Table 1. These 10 analytes account for approximately 88% of the total organic components in Tank C 104. Tank C-104 is not on any of the Watch Lists.

  20. High-speed tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy for sampling-free in-cylinder water vapor concentration measurements in an optical IC engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witzel, O.; Klein, A.; Wagner, S.; Meffert, C.; Schulz, C.; Ebert, V.

    2012-11-01

    A novel, fiber-optic in situ laser hygrometer was developed to measure water vapor with microsecond time resolution directly inside an internal combustion (IC) engine. The instrument is intended for sampling-free quantification of recirculated exhaust gas in combustion engines. Direct tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy was employed to allow absolute and self-calibrating H2O measurements. The compact and user-friendly instrument combines a fiber-coupled, 1.37 μm distributed feedback diode laser with kHz-fast, continuous wavelength scanning. Only small, typically 10 mm, optical access ports in the engine are needed. The new in situ hygrometer was tested via measurements in a motored optical research engine operated on ambient air, without any artificial humidification. Scanning the laser at 4 kHz resulted in a time resolution of 250 μs (i.e., 3° crank angle at 2,000 rpm), while the DC-coupled detector signals are digitized with a 4MSamples/s 16-bit data acquisition system. Absolute water vapor concentrations around 1 vol.% could be measured and quantified during the full compression stroke, i.e., over a pressure/temperature range of 0.07-0.52 MPa/300-500 K. Without any scan averaging or bandwidth filtering we could demonstrate signal-to-noise ratios between 51 (at p = 0.1 MPa) and 33 (at p = 0.4 MPa), which corresponds to H2O detection limits between 0.02 and 0.035 vol.% or length and bandwidth normalized detectivities of 285 and 477 ppb m Hz-½, respectively. Comparison of the dynamic H2O behavior during the compression stroke across several engine cycles and different operating conditions showed good reproducibility and absolute accuracy of the results, consistent with the boundary conditions, i.e., motored air operation. This new sensor therefore opens up new possibilities for engine cycle-resolved, calibration-free in situ AGR quantification and optimization in engine applications.

  1. Polymer-supported ionic liquid solid phase extraction for trace inorganic and organic mercury determination in water samples by flow injection-cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Escudero, Leticia B; Olsina, Roberto A; Wuilloud, Rodolfo G

    2013-11-15

    A simple and green technique named polymer-supported ionic liquid solid phase extraction (PSIL-SPE) was developed for mercury (Hg) species determination. Inorganic Hg (InHg) species was complexed with chloride ions followed by its introduction into a flow injection on-line system to quantitatively retain the anionic chlorocomplex (HgCl4(2-)) in a column packed with CYPHOS(®) IL 101-impregnated resin. The trapped InHg was then reduced with stannous chloride (SnCl2) and eluted with the same flow of reducing agent followed by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS) detection. Organic mercury species (OrgHg) did not interact with the impregnated resin and were not retained into the column. Total concentration of OrgHg was evaluated by difference between total Hg and InHg concentration. A 95% extraction efficiency was achieved for InHg when the procedure was developed under optimal experimental conditions. The limit of detection obtained for preconcentration of 40 mL of sample was 2.4 ng L(-1) InHg. The relative standard deviation (RSD) was 2.7% (at 1 µg L(-1) InHg and n=10) calculated from the peak height of absorbance signals (Gaussian-shape and reproducible peaks). This work reports the first polymer-supported IL solid phase extraction approach implemented in a flow injection on-line system for determination of Hg species in mineral, tap and river water samples. PMID:24148384

  2. Vaporizer performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C. H.; Perez-Ortiz, B. M.; Whitelaw, J. H.

    This paper examines the nature of the flow leaving a vaporizer, its dependence on the flowrates of air and kerosene fuel, the inlet air temperature, and the possible consequences for the performance of a combustor fueled by the vaporizer. A phase Doppler velocimeter was used to examine the distribution of droplet diameters, velocities of the droplets, and the liquid-fuel flux at the exit. Measurements are also reported which show the nature of the two-phase flow away from the vaporizer exits and in important regions within a combustor corresponding to a one-sixth annular sector of a reverse-flow arrangement. The distribution of droplets within the combustor was observed and photographs of the combusting flow are presented.

  3. Vapor fragrancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sang, Q. Tran; Bryant, Timothy D.

    1987-05-01

    This invention relates to a vapor fragrancer for continuously, uniformly, and economically odorizing or deodorizing an environment. Homes, offices, automobiles, and space stations require either odorizing or deodorizing of the atmosphere to create pleasant conditions for work or leisure. A vapor fragrancer is provided to accomplish these goals. A supplier continuously supplies a predetermined amount of desired liquid fragrance from a container to a retaining material, which is positioned in the circulation path of the atmosphere. The supplier is either a low powered pump or a gravity dispenser. The atmosphere flowing in a circulation path passes over the retaining material containing the liquid fragrance and lifts a fragrant vapor from the retaining material. The atmosphere is thereby continuously and uniformly fragranced.

  4. Method and apparatus for vapor detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerner, Melvin (Inventor); Hood, Lyal V. (Inventor); Rommel, Marjorie A. (Inventor); Pettitt, Bruce C. (Inventor); Erikson, Charles M. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The method disclosed herein may be practiced by passing the vapors to be sampled along a path with halogen vapor, preferably chlorine vapor, heating the mixed vapors to halogenate those of the sampled vapors subject to halogenation, removing unreacted halogen vapor, and then sensing the vapors for organic halogenated compounds. The apparatus disclosed herein comprises means for flowing the vapors, both sample and halogen vapors, into a common path, means for heating the mixed vapors to effect the halogenation reaction, means for removing unreacted halogen vapor, and a sensing device for sensing halogenated compounds. By such a method and means, the vapors of low molecular weight hydrocarbons, ketones and alcohols, when present, such as methane, ethane, acetone, ethanol, and the like are converted, at least in part, to halogenated compounds, then the excess halogen removed or trapped, and the resultant vapors of the halogenated compounds sensed or detected. The system is highly sensitive. For example, acetone in a concentration of 30 parts per billion (volume) is readily detected.

  5. Fuel Vaporization Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosque, M. A.

    1983-01-01

    A study of the effects of fuel-air preparation characteristics on combustor performance and emissions at temperature and pressure ranges representative of actual gas turbine combustors is discussed. The effect of flameholding devices on the vaporization process and NOx formation is discussed. Flameholder blockage and geometry are some of the elements that affect the recirculation zone characteristics and subsequently alter combustion stability, emissions and performance. A water cooled combustor is used as the test rig. Preheated air and Jet A fuel are mixed at the entrance of the apparatus. A vaporization probe is used to determine percentage of vaporization and a gas sample probe to determine concentration of emissions in the exhaust gases. The experimental design is presented and experimental expected results are discussed.

  6. An assessment of the liquid-gas partitioning behavior of major wastewater odorants using two comparative experimental approaches: liquid sample-based vaporization vs. impinger-based dynamic headspace extraction into sorbent tubes.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Mohammad Asif; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Szulejko, Jan E; Cho, Jinwoo

    2014-01-01

    The gas-liquid partitioning behavior of major odorants (acetic acid, propionic acid, isobutyric acid, n-butyric acid, i-valeric acid, n-valeric acid, hexanoic acid, phenol, p-cresol, indole, skatole, and toluene (as a reference)) commonly found in microbially digested wastewaters was investigated by two experimental approaches. Firstly, a simple vaporization method was applied to measure the target odorants dissolved in liquid samples with the aid of sorbent tube/thermal desorption/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. As an alternative method, an impinger-based dynamic headspace sampling method was also explored to measure the partitioning of target odorants between the gas and liquid phases with the same detection system. The relative extraction efficiency (in percent) of the odorants by dynamic headspace sampling was estimated against the calibration results derived by the vaporization method. Finally, the concentrations of the major odorants in real digested wastewater samples were also analyzed using both analytical approaches. Through a parallel application of the two experimental methods, we intended to develop an experimental approach to be able to assess the liquid-to-gas phase partitioning behavior of major odorants in a complex wastewater system. The relative sensitivity of the two methods expressed in terms of response factor ratios (RFvap/RFimp) of liquid standard calibration between vaporization and impinger-based calibrations varied widely from 981 (skatole) to 6,022 (acetic acid). Comparison of this relative sensitivity thus highlights the rather low extraction efficiency of the highly soluble and more acidic odorants from wastewater samples in dynamic headspace sampling. PMID:24271272

  7. Vapor Pressure Measurements in a Closed System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iannone, Mark

    2006-01-01

    An alternative method that uses a simple apparatus to measure vapor pressure versus temperature in a closed system, in which the total pressure is the vapor pressure of the liquid sample, is described. The use of this apparatus gives students a more direct picture of vapor pressure than the isoteniscope method and results have generally been quite…

  8. Vapor generation methods for explosives detection research

    SciTech Connect

    Grate, Jay W.; Ewing, Robert G.; Atkinson, David A.

    2012-12-01

    The generation of calibrated vapor samples of explosives compounds remains a challenge due to the low vapor pressures of the explosives, adsorption of explosives on container and tubing walls, and the requirement to manage (typically) multiple temperature zones as the vapor is generated, diluted, and delivered. Methods that have been described to generate vapors can be classified as continuous or pulsed flow vapor generators. Vapor sources for continuous flow generators are typically explosives compounds supported on a solid support, or compounds contained in a permeation or diffusion device. Sources are held at elevated isothermal temperatures. Similar sources can be used for pulsed vapor generators; however, pulsed systems may also use injection of solutions onto heated surfaces with generation of both solvent and explosives vapors, transient peaks from a gas chromatograph, or vapors generated by s programmed thermal desorption. This article reviews vapor generator approaches with emphasis on the method of generating the vapors and on practical aspects of vapor dilution and handling. In addition, a gas chromatographic system with two ovens that is configurable with up to four heating ropes is proposed that could serve as a single integrated platform for explosives vapor generation and device testing. Issues related to standards, calibration, and safety are also discussed.

  9. Method and apparatus for transport, introduction, atomization and excitation of emission spectrum for quantitative analysis of high temperature gas sample streams containing vapor and particulates without degradation of sample stream temperature

    DOEpatents

    Eckels, David E.; Hass, William J.

    1989-05-30

    A sample transport, sample introduction, and flame excitation system for spectrometric analysis of high temperature gas streams which eliminates degradation of the sample stream by condensation losses.

  10. Hydrazine-Vapor Samplers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Rebecca; Mcbrearty, Charles; Curran, Dan; Leavitt, Nilgun

    1994-01-01

    Active sampling unit capable of detecting hydrazine and monomethyl hydrazine vapors at levels as low as 10 ppb in air developed. Includes detachable badge holder and pump which draws air through badge holder at selectable rate of 1 or 2 L/min. Coated strip in each badge designed to align with air passage in badge holder. Two types of badge holders constructed: one has open-face design for general monitoring of air in open spaces, while other has closed-face design with viewing window and intended for sampling through small openings to detect leaks.

  11. Application of hydrocyanic acid vapor generation via focused microwave radiation to the preparation of industrial effluent samples prior to free and total cyanide determinations by spectrophotometric flow injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Quaresma, Maria Cristina Baptista; de Carvalho, Maria de Fátima Batista; Meirelles, Francis Assis; Santiago, Vânia Maria Junqueira; Santelli, Ricardo Erthal

    2007-02-01

    A sample preparation procedure for the quantitative determination of free and total cyanides in industrial effluents has been developed that involves hydrocyanic acid vapor generation via focused microwave radiation. Hydrocyanic acid vapor was generated from free cyanides using only 5 min of irradiation time (90 W power) and a purge time of 5 min. The HCN generated was absorbed into an accepting NaOH solution using very simple glassware apparatus that was appropriate for the microwave oven cavity. After that, the cyanide concentration was determined within 90 s using a well-known spectrophotometric flow injection analysis system. Total cyanide analysis required 15 min irradiation time (90 W power), as well as chemical conditions such as the presence of EDTA-acetate buffer solution or ascorbic acid, depending on the effluent to be analyzed (petroleum refinery or electroplating effluents, respectively). The detection limit was 0.018 mg CN l(-1) (quantification limit of 0.05 mg CN l(-1)), and the measured RSD was better than 8% for ten independent analyses of effluent samples (1.4 mg l(-1) cyanide). The accuracy of the procedure was assessed via analyte spiking (with free and complex cyanides) and by performing an independent sample analysis based on the standard methodology recommended by the APHA for comparison. The sample preparation procedure takes only 10 min for free and 20 min for total cyanide, making this procedure much faster than traditional methodologies (conventional heating and distillation), which are time-consuming (they require at least 1 h). Samples from oil (sour and stripping tower bottom waters) and electroplating effluents were analyzed successfully. PMID:17143595

  12. Chemical vapor deposition growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruth, R. P.; Manasevit, H. M.; Kenty, J. L.; Moudy, L. A.; Simpson, W. I.; Yang, J. J.

    1976-01-01

    A chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reactor system with a vertical deposition chamber was used for the growth of Si films on glass, glass-ceramic, and polycrystalline ceramic substrates. Silicon vapor was produced by pyrolysis of SiH4 in a H2 or He carrier gas. Preliminary deposition experiments with two of the available glasses were not encouraging. Moderately encouraging results, however, were obtained with fired polycrystalline alumina substrates, which were used for Si deposition at temperatures above 1,000 C. The surfaces of both the substrates and the films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, reflection electron diffraction, scanning electron microscopy optical microscopy, and surface profilometric techniques. Several experiments were conducted to establish baseline performance data for the reactor system, including temperature distributions on the sample pedestal, effects of carrier gas flow rate on temperature and film thickness, and Si film growth rate as a function of temperature.

  13. Method and apparatus for transport, introduction, atomization and excitation of emission spectrum for quantitative analysis of high temperature gas sample streams containing vapor and particulates without degradation of sample stream temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Eckels, D.E.; Hass, W.J.

    1989-05-30

    A sample transport, sample introduction, and flame excitation system is described for spectrometric analysis of high temperature gas streams which eliminates degradation of the sample stream by condensation losses. 4 figs.

  14. Solid Phase Extraction of Inorganic Mercury Using 5-Phenylazo-8-hydroxyquinoline and Determination by Cold Vapor Atomic Fluorescence Spectroscopy in Natural Water Samples

    PubMed Central

    Daye, Mirna; Halwani, Jalal; Hamzeh, Mariam

    2013-01-01

    8-Hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ) was chosen as a powerful ligand for Hg solid phase extraction. Among several chelating resins based on 8-HQ, 5-phenylazo-8-hydroxyquinoline (5Ph8HQ) is used for mercury extraction in which the adsorption dynamics were fully studied. It has been shown that Hg(II) is totally absorbed by 5Ph8HQ within the first 30 minutes of contact time with t1/2 5 minutes, following Langmuir adsorption model. At pH 4, the affinity of mercury is unchallenged by other metals except, for Cu(II), which have shown higher Kd value. With these latter characteristics, 5Ph8HQ was examined for the preconcentration of trace levels of Hg(II). The developed method showed quantitative recoveries of Hg(II) with LOD = 0.21 pg mL−1 and RSD = 3–6% using cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectroscopy (CV-AFS) with a preconcentration factor greater than 250. PMID:24459417

  15. Portable vapor diffusion coefficient meter

    DOEpatents

    Ho, Clifford K.

    2007-06-12

    An apparatus for measuring the effective vapor diffusion coefficient of a test vapor diffusing through a sample of porous media contained within a test chamber. A chemical sensor measures the time-varying concentration of vapor that has diffused a known distance through the porous media. A data processor contained within the apparatus compares the measured sensor data with analytical predictions of the response curve based on the transient diffusion equation using Fick's Law, iterating on the choice of an effective vapor diffusion coefficient until the difference between the predicted and measured curves is minimized. Optionally, a purge fluid can forced through the porous media, permitting the apparatus to also measure a gas-phase permeability. The apparatus can be made lightweight, self-powered, and portable for use in the field.

  16. Sequential photocatalyst-assisted digestion and vapor generation device coupled with anion exchange chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for speciation analysis of selenium species in biological samples.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Yun-ni; Lin, Cheng-hsing; Hsu, I-hsiang; Sun, Yuh-chang

    2014-01-01

    We have developed an on-line sequential photocatalyst-assisted digestion and vaporization device (SPADVD), which operates through the nano-TiO2-catalyzed photo-oxidation and reduction of selenium (Se) species, for coupling between anion exchange chromatography (LC) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) systems to provide a simple and sensitive hyphenated method for the speciation analysis of Se species without the need for conventional chemical digestion and vaporization techniques. Because our proposed on-line SPADVD allows both organic and inorganic Se species in the column effluent to be converted on-line into volatile Se products, which are then measured directly through ICP-MS, the complexity of the procedure and the probability of contamination arising from the use of additional chemicals are both low. Under the optimized conditions for SPADVD - using 1g of nano-TiO2 per liter, at pH 3, and illuminating for 80 s - we found that Se(IV), Se(VI), and selenomethionine (SeMet) were all converted quantitatively into volatile Se products. In addition, because the digestion and vaporization efficiencies of all the tested selenicals were improved when using our proposed on-line LC/SPADVD/ICP-MS system, the detection limits for Se(IV), Se(VI), and SeMet were all in the nanogram-per-liter range (based on 3σ). A series of validation experiments - analysis of neat and spiked extracted samples - indicated that our proposed methods could be applied satisfactorily to the speciation analysis of organic and inorganic Se species in the extracts of Se-enriched supplements. PMID:24331052

  17. Identification of chemical warfare agents from vapor samples using a field-portable capillary gas chromatography/membrane-interfaced electron ionization quadrupole mass spectrometry instrument with Tri-Bed concentrator.

    PubMed

    Nagashima, Hisayuki; Kondo, Tomohide; Nagoya, Tomoki; Ikeda, Toru; Kurimata, Naoko; Unoke, Shohei; Seto, Yasuo

    2015-08-01

    A field-portable gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (Hapsite ER system) was evaluated for the detection of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) in the vapor phase. The system consisted of Tri-Bed concentrator gas sampler (trapping time: 3s(-1)min), a nonpolar low thermal-mass capillary gas chromatography column capable of raising temperatures up to 200°C, a hydrophobic membrane-interfaced electron ionization quadrupole mass spectrometer evacuated by a non-evaporative getter pump for data acquisition, and a personal computer for data analysis. Sample vapors containing as little as 22μg sarin (GB), 100μg soman (GD), 210μg tabun (GA), 55μg cyclohexylsarin (GF), 4.8μg sulfur mustard, 390μg nitrogen mustard 1, 140μg of nitrogen mustard 2, 130μg nitrogen mustard 3, 120μg of 2-chloroacetophenone and 990μg of chloropicrin per cubic meter could be confirmed after Tri-Bed micro-concentration (for 1min) and automated AMDIS search within 12min. Using manual deconvolution by background subtraction of neighboring regions on the extracted ion chromatograms, the above-mentioned CWAs could be confirmed at lower concentration levels. The memory effects were also examined and we found that blister agents showed significantly more carry-over than nerve agents. Gasoline vapor was found to interfere with the detection of GB and GD, raising the concentration limits for confirmation in the presence of gasoline by both AMDIS search and manual deconvolution; however, GA and GF were not subject to interference by gasoline. Lewisite 1, and o-chlorobenzylidene malononitrile could also be confirmed by gas chromatography, but it was hard to quantify them. Vapors of phosgene, chlorine, and cyanogen chloride could be confirmed by direct mass spectrometric detection at concentration levels higher than 2, 140, and 10mg/m(3) respectively, by bypassing the micro-concentration trap and gas chromatographic separation. PMID:26118803

  18. Method and Apparatus for Concentrating Vapors for Analysis

    DOEpatents

    Grate, Jay W.; Baldwin, David L.; Anheier, Jr., Norman C.

    2008-10-07

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for pre-concentrating gaseous vapors for analysis. The invention finds application in conjunction with, e.g., analytical instruments where low detection limits for gaseous vapors are desirable. Vapors sorbed and concentrated within the bed of the apparatus can be thermally desorbed achieving at least partial separation of vapor mixtures. The apparatus is suitable, e.g., for preconcentration and sample injection, and provides greater resolution of peaks for vapors within vapor mixtures, yielding detection levels that are 10-10,000 times better than for direct sampling and analysis systems. Features are particularly useful for continuous unattended monitoring applications.

  19. Calibrated vapor generator source

    DOEpatents

    Davies, J.P.; Larson, R.A.; Goodrich, L.D.; Hall, H.J.; Stoddard, B.D.; Davis, S.G.; Kaser, T.G.; Conrad, F.J.

    1995-09-26

    A portable vapor generator is disclosed that can provide a controlled source of chemical vapors, such as, narcotic or explosive vapors. This source can be used to test and calibrate various types of vapor detection systems by providing a known amount of vapors to the system. The vapor generator is calibrated using a reference ion mobility spectrometer. A method of providing this vapor is described, as follows: explosive or narcotic is deposited on quartz wool, placed in a chamber that can be heated or cooled (depending on the vapor pressure of the material) to control the concentration of vapors in the reservoir. A controlled flow of air is pulsed over the quartz wool releasing a preset quantity of vapors at the outlet. 10 figs.

  20. Calibrated vapor generator source

    DOEpatents

    Davies, John P.; Larson, Ronald A.; Goodrich, Lorenzo D.; Hall, Harold J.; Stoddard, Billy D.; Davis, Sean G.; Kaser, Timothy G.; Conrad, Frank J.

    1995-01-01

    A portable vapor generator is disclosed that can provide a controlled source of chemical vapors, such as, narcotic or explosive vapors. This source can be used to test and calibrate various types of vapor detection systems by providing a known amount of vapors to the system. The vapor generator is calibrated using a reference ion mobility spectrometer. A method of providing this vapor is described, as follows: explosive or narcotic is deposited on quartz wool, placed in a chamber that can be heated or cooled (depending on the vapor pressure of the material) to control the concentration of vapors in the reservoir. A controlled flow of air is pulsed over the quartz wool releasing a preset quantity of vapors at the outlet.

  1. Quantitative organic vapor-particle sampler

    DOEpatents

    Gundel, Lara; Daisey, Joan M.; Stevens, Robert K.

    1998-01-01

    A quantitative organic vapor-particle sampler for sampling semi-volatile organic gases and particulate components. A semi-volatile organic reversible gas sorbent macroreticular resin agglomerates of randomly packed microspheres with the continuous porous structure of particles ranging in size between 0.05-10 .mu.m for use in an integrated diffusion vapor-particle sampler.

  2. Assessment of the Halogen Content of Brazilian Inhalable Particulate Matter (PM10) Using High Resolution Molecular Absorption Spectrometry and Electrothermal Vaporization Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry, with Direct Solid Sample Analysis.

    PubMed

    de Gois, Jefferson S; Almeida, Tarcisio S; Alves, Jeferson C; Araujo, Rennan G O; Borges, Daniel L G

    2016-03-15

    Halogens in the atmosphere play an important role in climate change and also represent a potential health hazard. However, quantification of halogens is not a trivial task, and methods that require minimum sample preparation are interesting alternatives. Hence, the aim of this work was to evaluate the feasibility of direct solid sample analysis using high-resolution continuum source molecular absorption spectrometry (HR-CS MAS) for F determination and electrothermal vaporization-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ETV-ICP-MS) for simultaneous Cl, Br, and I determination in airborne inhalable particulate matter (PM10) collected in the metropolitan area of Aracaju, Sergipe, Brazil. Analysis using HR-CS MAS was accomplished by monitoring the CaF molecule, which was generated at high temperatures in the graphite furnace after the addition of Ca. Analysis using ETV-ICP-MS was carried out using Ca as chemical modifier/aerosol carrier in order to avoid losses of Cl, Br, and I during the pyrolysis step, with concomitant use of Pd as a permanent modifier. The direct analysis approach resulted in LODs that were proven adequate for halogen determination in PM10, using either standard addition calibration or calibration against a certified reference material. The method allowed the quantification of the halogens in 14 PM10 samples collected in a northeastern coastal city in Brazil. The results demonstrated variations of halogen content according to meteorological conditions, particularly related to rainfall, humidity, and sunlight irradiation. PMID:26192198

  3. Vapor space characterization of waste Tank 241-BY-106 (in situ): Results from samples collected on 5/4/94 and 5/5/94

    SciTech Connect

    Clauss, T.W.; Ligotke, M.W.; Pool, K.H.; Lucke, R.B.; McVeety, B.D.; Sharma, A.K.; McCulloch, M.; Fruchter, J.S.; Goheen, S.C.

    1995-04-01

    This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from in situ samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-BY-106 (referred to as Tank BY-106). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds NH{sub 3}, NO{sub 2}, NO, HCN, and H{sub 2}O. Sampling for sulfur oxides was not requested. Organic compounds were also quantitatively determined. Twenty-three organic tentatively identified compounds (TICS) were observed above the detection limit of (ca.) 10 ppbv, but standards for most of these were not available at the time of analysis, and the reported concentrations are semiquantitative estimates. In addition, the authors looked for the 41 standard TO-14 analytes. Of these, only a few were observed above the 2-ppbv detection limit. The 10 organic analytes with the highest estimated concentrations are listed in Table 1. The 10 analytes account for approximately 64% of the total organic components in Tank BY-106. Tank BY-106 is on the Ferrocyanide Watch List.

  4. Synthesis and application of ion-imprinted polymer nanoparticles for the extraction and preconcentration of mercury in water and food samples employing cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Roushani, Mahmoud; Abbasi, Shahryar; Khani, Hossein

    2015-09-01

    We describe a nanosized Hg(II)-imprinted polymer that was prepared from methacrylic acid as functional monomer, ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate as cross-linker, 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as radical initiator, 2, 2'-di pyrydyl amine as a specific ligand, and Hg (II) as the template ions by precipitation polymerization method in methanol as the progeny solvent. Batch adsorption experiments were carried out as a function of pH, Hg (II) imprinted polymer amount, adsorption and desorption time, volume, and concentration of eluent. The synthesized polymer particles were characterized physically and morphologically by using infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopic techniques. The maximum adsorption capacity of the ion-imprinted and non-imprinted sorbent was 27.96 and 7.89 mg g(-1), respectively. Under optimal conditions, the detection limit for mercury was 0.01 μg L(-1) and the relative standard deviation was 3.2 % (n = 6) at the 1.00 μg L(-1). The procedure was applied to determination of mercury in fish and water samples with satisfactory results. PMID:26318321

  5. Colorometric detection of ethylene glycol vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helm, C.; Mosier, B.; Verostko, C. E.

    1970-01-01

    Very low concentrations of ethylene glycol in air or other gases are detected by passing a sample through a glass tube with three partitioned compartments containing reagents which successively convert the ethylene glycol vapor into a colored compound.

  6. Vapor spill pipe monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchini, G. M.; McRae, T. G.

    1983-06-01

    The invention is a method and apparatus for continually monitoring the composition of liquefied natural gas flowing from a spill pipe during a spill test by continually removing a sample of the LNG by means of a probe, gasifying the LNG in the probe, and sending the vaporized LNG to a remote IR gas detector for analysis. The probe comprises three spaced concentric tubes surrounded by a water jacket which communicates with a flow channel defined between the inner and middle, and middle and outer tubes. The inner tube is connected to a pump for providing suction, and the probe is positioned in the LNG flow below the spill pipe with the tip oriented partly downward so that LNG is continuously drawn into the inner tube through a small orifice. The probe is made of a high thermal conductivity metal. Hot water is flowed through the water jacket and through the flow channel between the three tubes to provide the necessary heat transfer to flash vaporize the LNG passing through the inner channel of the probe. The gasified LNG is transported through a connected hose or tubing extending from the probe to a remote IR sensor which measures the gas composition.

  7. Biofiltration of methanol vapor

    SciTech Connect

    Shareefdeen, Z.; Baltzis, B.C. ); Oh, Youngsook; Bartha, R. )

    1993-03-05

    Biofiltration of solvent and fuel vapors may offer a cost-effective way to comply with increasingly strict air emission standards. An important step in the development of this technology is to derive and validate mathematical models of the biofiltration process for predictive and scaleup calculations. For the study of methanol vapor biofiltration, an 8-membered bacterial consortium was obtained from methanol-exposed soil. The bacteria were immobilized on solid support and packed into a 5-cm diameter, 60-cm-high column provided with appropriate flowmeters and sampling ports. The solid support was prepared by mixing two volumes of peat with three volumes of perlite particles. Two series of experiments were performed. In the first, the inlet methanol concentration was kept constant while the superficial air velocity was varied from run to run. In the second series, the air flow rate (velocity) was kept constant while the inlet methanol concentration was varied. The unit proved effective in removing methanol at rates up to 112.8 g h[sup [minus]1] m[sup [minus]3] packing. A mathematical model has been derived and validated. The model described and predicted experimental results closely. Both experimental data and model predictions suggest that the methanol biofiltration process was limited by oxygen diffusion and methanol degradation kinetics.

  8. Vapor spill pipe monitor

    DOEpatents

    Bianchini, G.M.; McRae, T.G.

    1983-06-23

    The invention is a method and apparatus for continually monitoring the composition of liquefied natural gas flowing from a spill pipe during a spill test by continually removing a sample of the LNG by means of a probe, gasifying the LNG in the probe, and sending the vaporized LNG to a remote ir gas detector for analysis. The probe comprises three spaced concentric tubes surrounded by a water jacket which communicates with a flow channel defined between the inner and middle, and middle and outer tubes. The inner tube is connected to a pump for providing suction, and the probe is positioned in the LNG flow below the spill pipe with the tip oriented partly downward so that LNG is continuously drawn into the inner tube through a small orifice. The probe is made of a high thermal conductivity metal. Hot water is flowed through the water jacket and through the flow channel between the three tubes to provide the necessary heat transfer to flash vaporize the LNG passing through the inner channel of the probe. The gasified LNG is transported through a connected hose or tubing extending from the probe to a remote ir sensor which measures the gas composition.

  9. Chemical vapor deposition growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruth, R. P.; Manasevit, H. M.; Kenty, J. L.; Moudy, L. A.; Simpson, W. I.; Yang, J. J.

    1976-01-01

    The chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method for the growth of Si sheet on inexpensive substrate materials is investigated. The objective is to develop CVD techniques for producing large areas of Si sheet on inexpensive substrate materials, with sheet properties suitable for fabricating solar cells meeting the technical goals of the Low Cost Silicon Solar Array Project. Specific areas covered include: (1) modification and test of existing CVD reactor system; (2) identification and/or development of suitable inexpensive substrate materials; (3) experimental investigation of CVD process parameters using various candidate substrate materials; (4) preparation of Si sheet samples for various special studies, including solar cell fabrication; (5) evaluation of the properties of the Si sheet material produced by the CVD process; and (6) fabrication and evaluation of experimental solar cell structures, using standard and near-standard processing techniques.

  10. Vapor phase pyrolysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steurer, Wolfgang

    1992-01-01

    The vapor phase pyrolysis process is designed exclusively for the lunar production of oxygen. In this concept, granulated raw material (soil) that consists almost entirely of metal oxides is vaporized and the vapor is raised to a temperature where it dissociates into suboxides and free oxygen. Rapid cooling of the dissociated vapor to a discrete temperature causes condensation of the suboxides, while the oxygen remains essentially intact and can be collected downstream. The gas flow path and flow rate are maintained at an optimum level by control of the pressure differential between the vaporization region and the oxygen collection system with the aid of the environmental vacuum.