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Sample records for 25-dihydroxyvitamin d3-induced osteoclastogenesis

  1. Hyperosmotic Stimulus Down-regulates 1α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-induced Osteoclastogenesis by Suppressing the RANKL Expression in a Co-culture System

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yu Shun; Jeong, Hyun Joo; Lee, Sang-Do; Kong, Seok Heui; Ohk, Seung-Ho; Yoo, Yun-Jung; Seo, Jeong-Taeg; Shin, Dong Min; Sohn, Byung-Wha

    2010-01-01

    The hyperosmotic stimulus is regarded as a mechanical factor for bone remodeling. However, whether the hyperosmotic stimulus affects 1α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1α,25(OH)2D3)-induced osteoclastogenesis is not clear. In the present study, the effect of the hyperosmotic stimulus on 1α,25(OH)2D3-induced osteoclastogenesis was investigated in an osteoblast-preosteoclast co-culture system. Serial doses of sucrose were applied as a mechanical force. These hyperosmotic stimuli significantly evoked a reduced number of 1α,25(OH)2D3-induced tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive multinucleated cells and 1α,25(OH)2D3-induced bone-resorbing pit area in a co-culture system. In osteoblastic cells, receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) and Runx2 expressions were down-regulated in response to 1α,25(OH)2D3. Knockdown of Runx2 inhibited 1α,25(OH)2D3-induced RANKL expression in osteoblastic cells. Finally, the hyperosmotic stimulus induced the overexpression of TonEBP in osteoblastic cells. These results suggest that hyperosmolarity leads to the down-regulation of 1α,25(OH)2D3-induced osteoclastogenesis, suppressing Runx2 and RANKL expression due to the TonEBP overexpression in osteoblastic cells. PMID:20631890

  2. Downregulation of Runx2 by 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 Induces the Transdifferentiation of Osteoblasts to Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung Ha; Seong, Semun; Kim, Kabsun; Kim, Inyoung; Jeong, Byung-Chul; Kim, Nacksung

    2016-01-01

    1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) indirectly stimulates bone formation, but little is known about its direct effect on bone formation. In this study, we observed that 1,25(OH)2D3 enhances adipocyte differentiation, but inhibits osteoblast differentiation during osteogenesis. The positive role of 1,25(OH)2D3 in adipocyte differentiation was confirmed when murine osteoblasts were cultured in adipogenic medium. Additionally, 1,25(OH)2D3 enhanced the expression of adipocyte marker genes, but inhibited the expression of osteoblast marker genes in osteoblasts. The inhibition of osteoblast differentiation and promotion of adipocyte differentiation mediated by 1,25(OH)2D3 were compensated by Runx2 overexpression. Our results suggest that 1,25(OH)2D3 induces the transdifferentiation of osteoblasts to adipocytes via Runx2 downregulation in osteoblasts. PMID:27213351

  3. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin-D3 Induces Avian β-Defensin Gene Expression in Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guolong; Ouyang, Linghua; Robinson, Kelsy; Tang, Yanqiang; Zhu, Qing; Li, Diyan; Hu, Yaodong; Liu, Yiping

    2016-01-01

    Host defense peptides (HDPs) play a critical role in innate immunity. Specific modulation of endogenous HDP synthesis by dietary compounds has been regarded as a novel approach to boost immunity and disease resistance in animal production. 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 (1,25D3) is well known as a powerful HDP inducer in humans, but limited information about the effect of 1,25D3 on HDPs in poultry is available. Here, we sought to examine whether 1,25D3 could stimulate avian β-defensin (AvBD) expression in chickens. We used chicken embryo intestinal epithelial cells (CEIEPCs) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to study the effect of 1,25D3 on the expression of AvBDs. We observed that 1,25D3 is able to up-regulate the expression of several AvBDs in CEIEPCs and PBMCs, whereas it increased the amounts of AvBD4 mRNA in CEIEPCs only in the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). On the other hand, LPS treatment not only inhibited the expression of CYP24A1 but also altered the expression pattern of VDR in CEIEPCs. Furthermore, AvBDs were not directly regulated by 1,25D3, as cycloheximide completely blocked 1,25D3-induced expression of AvBDs. Our observations suggest that 1,25D3 is capable of inducing AvBD gene expression and is a potential antibiotic alternative through augmentation of host innate immunity as well as disease control in chickens. PMID:27135828

  4. RUNX2 Mutation Impairs 1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 mediated Osteoclastogenesis in Dental Follicle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, X. Z.; Sun, X. Y.; Zhang, C. Y.; Yang, X.; Yan, W. J.; Ge, L. H.; Zheng, S. G.

    2016-01-01

    Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD), a skeletal disorder characterized by delayed permanent tooth eruption and other dental abnormalities, is caused by heterozygous RUNX2 mutations. As an osteoblast-specific transcription factor, RUNX2 plays a role in bone remodeling, tooth formation and tooth eruption. To investigate the crosstalk between RUNX2 and 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1α,25-(OH)2D3) in human dental follicle cells (hDFCs) during osteoclast formation, we established a co-culture system of hDFCs from CCD patient and healthy donors with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Expression of the osteoclast-associated genes and the number of TRAP+ cells were reduced in CCD hDFCs, indicating its suppressed osteoclast-inductive ability, which was reflected by the downregulated RANKL/OPG ratio. In addition, 1α,25-(OH)2D3-stimulation elevated the expression of osteoclast-related genes, as well as RANKL mRNA levels and RANKL/OPG ratios in control hDFCs. Conversely, RUNX2 mutation abolished this 1α,25-(OH)2D3-induced RANKL gene activation and osteoclast formation in CCD hDFCs. Therefore, RUNX2 haploinsufficiency impairs dental follicle-induced osteoclast formation capacity through RANKL/OPG signaling, which may be partially responsible for delayed permanent tooth eruption in CCD patients. Furthermore, this abnormality was not rescued by 1α,25-(OH)2D3 application because 1α,25-(OH)2D3-induced RANKL activation in hDFCs is mediated principally via the RUNX2-dependent pathway. PMID:27068678

  5. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 Induces LL-37 and HBD-2 Production in Keratinocytes from Diabetic Foot Ulcers Promoting Wound Healing: An In Vitro Model

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Curiel, Irma; Trujillo, Valentin; Montoya-Rosales, Alejandra; Rincon, Kublai; Rivas-Calderon, Bruno; deHaro-Acosta, Jeny; Marin-Luevano, Paulina; Lozano-Lopez, Daniel; Enciso-Moreno, Jose A.; Rivas-Santiago, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic foot ulcers (DFU) are one of the most common diabetes-related cause of hospitalization and often lead to severe infections and poor healing. It has been recently reported that patients with DFU have lower levels of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) at the lesion area, which contributes with the impairment of wound healing. The aim of this study was to determine whether 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25 (OH)2 D3) and L-isoleucine induced HBD-2 and LL-37 in primary cultures from DFU. We developed primary cell cultures from skin biopsies from 15 patients with DFU and 15 from healthy donors. Cultures were treated with 1,25 (OH)2D3 or L-isoleucine for 18 h. Keratinocytes phenotype was identified by western blot and flow cytometry. Real time qPCR for DEFB4, CAMP and VDR gene expression was performed as well as an ELISA to measure HBD-2 and LL-37 in supernatant. Antimicrobial activity, in vitro, wound healing and proliferation assays were performed with conditioned supernatant. The results show that primary culture from DFU treated with 1,25(OH)2D3, increased DEFB4 and CAMP gene expression and increased the production of HBD-2 and LL-37 in the culture supernatant. These supernatants had antimicrobial activity over E. coli and induced remarkable keratinocyte migration. In conclusion the 1,25(OH)2D3 restored the production of AMPs in primary cell from DFU which were capable to improve the in vitro wound healing assays, suggesting their potential therapeutic use on the treatment of DFU. PMID:25337708

  6. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 induces monocytic differentiation of human myeloid leukemia cells by regulating C/EBPβ expression through MEF2C.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ruifang; Wang, Xuening; Studzinski, George P

    2015-04-01

    Myogenic enhancer factor2 (Mef2) consists of a family of transcription factors involved in morphogenesis of skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscle cells. Among the four isoforms (Mef2A, 2B, 2C, and 2D), Mef2C was also found to play important roles in hematopoiesis. At myeloid progenitor level, Mef2C expression favors monocytic differentiation. Previous studies from our laboratory demonstrated that ERK5 was activated in 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D)-induced monocytic differentiation in AML cells and ERK5 activation was accompanied by increased Mef2C phosphorylation. We therefore examined the role of Mef2C in 1,25D-induced monocytic differentiation in AML cell lines (HL60, U937 and THP1) and found that knockdown of Mef2C with small interfering RNA (siRNA) significantly decreases the expression of the monocytic marker, CD14, without affecting the expression of the general myeloid marker, CD11b. CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) β, which can bind to CD14 promoter and increase its transcription, has been shown to be the downstream effector of 1,25D-induced monocytic differentiation in AML cells. When Mef2C was knocked down, expression of C/EBPβ was reduced at both mRNA and protein levels. The protein expression levels of cell cycle regulators, p27(Kip1) and cyclin D1, were not affected by Mef2C knockdown, nor the monopoiesis related transcription factor, ATF2 (activating transcription factor 2). Thus, we conclude that 1,25D-induced monocytic differentiation, and CD14 expression in particular, are mediated through activation of ERK5-Mef2C-C/EBPβ signaling pathway, and that Mef2C does not seem to modulate cell cycle progression. PMID:25448741

  7. The human cytomegalovirus lytic cycle is induced by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in peripheral blood monocytes and in the THP-1 monocytic cell line.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shu-En; Miller, William E

    2015-09-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) resides in a latent form in hematopoietic progenitors and undifferentiated cells within the myeloid lineage. Maturation and differentiation along the myeloid lineage triggers lytic replication. Here, we used peripheral blood monocytes and the monocytic cell line THP-1 to investigate the effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on HCMV replication. Interestingly, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 induces lytic replication marked by upregulation of HCMV gene expression and production of infectious virus. Moreover, we demonstrate that the effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 correlate with maturation/differentiation of the monocytes and not by directly stimulating the MIEP. These results are somewhat surprising as 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 typically boosts immunity to bacteria and viruses rather than driving the infectious life cycle as it does for HCMV. Defining the signaling pathways kindled by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 will lead to a better understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms that determine the fate of HCMV once it infects cells in the myeloid lineage. PMID:25965798

  8. [Abnormal synthesis of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and hypercalcemia in children with tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Saggese, G; Bertelloni, S; Baroncelli, G I; Fusaro, C; Gualtieri, M

    1989-01-01

    Three children with tuberculosis and hypercalcemia are reported. Before antitubercular treatment 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D serum levels and urinary calcium excretion were elevated for age in all patients; vitamin D and 25-hydroxyvitamin D were in normal range whereas serum intact parathyroid hormone concentrations were suppressed. Low calcium diet and antitubercular treatment caused a normalization of serum calcium levels and urinary calcium excretion; 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations returned in normal range after three months of antituberculosis therapy. When 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D was normal, a reintroduction of a diet with normal calcium content did not determine new hypercalcemic episodes. These data suggest that an abnormal 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D production sustains the hypercalcemia of children with tuberculosis. An ectopic and unregulated synthesis of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D by macrophages of granulomatous tissue is proposed. PMID:2631059

  9. Retinoic acid and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 stimulate osteoclast formation by different mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Scheven, B.A.; Hamilton, N.J. )

    1990-01-01

    The effects of retinoic acid (RA) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-(OH)2D3) on osteoclast formation were examined in intact fetal long bones of different ages/developmental stages maintained in organ culture using a chemically defined medium with or without the presence of serum. Besides stimulating bone resorption, RA and 1,25-(OH)2D3 increased the number of osteoclasts in 19-day-old fetal rat tibiae. Likewise, these bone-resorbing agents induced and stimulated osteoclast formation in 19- and 18-day-old metatarsal bones which were osteoclast-free at the beginning of the culture. The response to 1,25-(OH)2D3 was greatly enhanced by 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) irrespective of the developmental stage of the long bone. The response to RA was not. Light microscopic autoradiography after labeling of the cultures with tritiated thymidine showed that both RA and 1,25-(OH)2D3 induced osteoclast differentiation from proliferating and postmitotic precursors. However, neither agent was able to stimulate proliferation of osteoclast progenitor cells in the older bones (19 days). Studies on the formation of osteoclast-like (tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase positive) cells in bone marrow cultures indicated that FBS was a potent inducer of osteoclast-like cell formation. In the presence of FBS, 1,25-(OH)2D3 significantly stimulated this response, but RA did not. The results demonstrate that although both RA and 1,25-(OH)2D3 stimulate osteoclast formation from proliferating and postmitotic precursors in long bones in vitro, they do so by different mechanisms.

  10. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and PTHrP mediated malignant hypercalcemia in a seminoma

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Seminomas have been rarely associated with malignant hypercalcemia. The responsible mechanism of hypercalcemia in this setting has been described to be secondary to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D secretion. The relationship with PTHrP has not been determined or studied. The aim of this study is to describe and discuss the case and the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in a malignant hypercalcemia mediated by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and PTHrP cosecretion in a patient with seminoma. Case presentation A 35-year-old man was consulted for assessment and management of severe hypercalcemia related to an abdominal mass. Nausea, polyuria, polydipsia, lethargy and confusion led him to the emergency department. An abdominal and pelvic enhanced CT confirmed a calcified pelvic mass, along with multiple retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy. Chest x-ray revealed “cannon ball” pulmonary metastases. The histopathology result was consistent with a seminoma. Serum calcium was 14.7 mg/dl, PTH was undetectable, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D was within normal values and PTHrP and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin were elevated (35.0 pg/ml, and 212 pg/ml, respectively). After the first cycle of chemotherapy with bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin, normocalcemia was restored. Both PTHrP and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, dropped dramatically to 9.0 pg/ml and 8.0 pg/ml, respectively. Conclusion The association of seminoma and malignant hypercalcemia is extremely rare. We describe a case of a patient with a seminoma and malignant hypercalcemia related to paraneoplastic cosecretion of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and PTHrP. After successful chemotherapy, calcium, PTHrP and 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D returned to normal values. PMID:24721620

  11. Conformational analysis of vitamin D 3 derivatives by molecular mechanics . Part II. 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 and analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosquera, Ricardo A.; Rios, Miguel A.; Tovar, Clara A.; Maestro, Miguel

    1989-10-01

    The conformational analysis of vitamin D 3 derivatives, including the biologically active form 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 (III) and several synthetic analogues: b-deoxy-1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 (IV), 3-deoxy-3α-methyl-1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 (V), 3-deoxy-3β-methyl-1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 (VI), and 3-deoxy-3,3-dimethyl-1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 (VII), has been carried out employing Allinger's molecular mechanics method. The results obtained for conformational equilibrium populations are found to be in good agreement with those provided by NMR studies. Comparison of the active form of vitamin D 3 (1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3) with the other species reveals no important geometrical differences.

  12. Diminished internalization and action of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in dermal fibroblasts cultured from New World primates

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, J.S.; Gacad, M.A.; Baker, A.J.; Kheun, G.; Rude, R.K.

    1985-06-01

    We investigated the occurrence of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-(OH)2D3)-resistant osteomalacia in the New World primate colony of Saguinus imperator at the Los Angeles Zoo. The mean serum concentration of 1,25-(OH)2D3 was elevated 5-fold in the New World primates compared to that in their Old World counterparts. The specific internalization of 0.6 nM (/sup 3/H)1,25-(OH)2D3 by cultured dermal fibroblasts from New World primates was reduced 75% compared to that by cells from Old World primates or man. The decrease in hormone uptake resulted from a decrease in the number of high affinity intracellular binding sites for 1,25-(OH)2D3 and apparently caused a 90-95% reduction in 1,25-(OH)2D3-induced 25-hydroxyvitamin-D3-24-hydroxylase activity. There was no alteration in the capacity or avidity of New World primate serum for 1,25-(OH)2D3 compared to that of serum from Old World primates. These data suggest that the occurrence of vitamin D-resistant osteomalacia in New World primates is the result of decreased high affinity, receptor-mediated uptake of 1,25-(OH)2D3 by the target cell.

  13. Use of 24-F-1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 to prevent parturient paresis in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Goff, J P; Horst, R L; Beitz, D C; Littledike, E T

    1988-05-01

    Forty-one aged Jersey cows were fed a high Ca diet prior to parturition to predispose them to parturient paresis. Twenty-one of the cows were treated with 24-F-1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, a synthetic analogue of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, 7 d before the expected parturition. Treated cows received either 100 micrograms (n = 7) or 150 micrograms (n = 14) of 24-F-1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, intramuscularly at 7-d intervals until the cow calved. Incidence of parturient paresis among untreated animals was 85% (17/20). Injections of 100 micrograms of 24-F-1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 reduced the incidence of parturient paresis to 43% (3/7), whereas 150 micrograms injections of 24-F-1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 reduced the incidence of parturient paresis to 29% (4/14). Plasma concentrations of hydroxyproline were not elevated prior to parturition in 24-F-1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-treated cows, indicating that treatment did not stimulate bone resorption and that the ability of 24-F-1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 to prevent parturient paresis likely resides in its ability to stimulate intestinal Ca absorption prior to parturition. Further, cows treated with 24-F-1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 that developed parturient paresis had lower than normal plasma concentrations of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, indicating that 24-F-1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 treatment impairs the metabolism of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in response to hypocalcemia. These data suggest that injection of 24-F-1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, delivered at 7-d intervals prior to parturition, can effectively reduce incidence of parturient paresis in dairy cows. PMID:3397418

  14. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ target cells in immature pancreatic islets

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, S.A.; Stumpf, W.E.; Sar, M.; DeLuca, H.F.

    1987-07-01

    Target cells of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ were identified by autoradiography in islets from rats of different ages. Nuclei of pancreatic islet cells selectively concentrated 1,25-(/sup 3/H)dihydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ but not 25-(/sup 3/H)hydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ or 24,25-(/sup 3/H)dihydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/. Developmental studies of pancreatic islets indicated that target cells, as revealed by significant nuclear concentration of 1,25-(/sup 3/H)dihydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/, are present in islet cells of fetal rats. The percentage of islet cells that concentrated 1,25-(/sup 3/H)dihydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ increased from 10 to 15% in the fetus to 60% at 1 day of age. Immunocytochemical staining indicated that insulin-containing cells but not glucagon or somatostatin cells concentrated 1,25-(/sup 3/H)dihydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/. Peak uptake of 1,25(/sup 3/H) dihydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ was calculated to be 400 pmol/mg DNA, with no significant difference in nuclear accumulation between islets cells from neonatal and adult rats or between islets in vivo and isolated islets in vitro. The results of these studies indicate that (1) 1,25-(/sup 3/H)dihydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ target cells are present in islets before pancreatic ..beta..-cells are morphologically or functionally mature; (2) islet ..beta..-cells concentrate 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/, but not 25-hydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ or 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/. The authors conclude that only the 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ metabolite of vitamin D is accumulated by nuclei of developing and mature ..beta..-cells and suggest that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ plays a role in the maturation of islet ..beta..-cells.

  15. 1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3–Induced Myeloid Cell Differentiation Is Regulated by a Vitamin D Receptor–Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Signaling Complex

    PubMed Central

    Hmama, Zakaria; Nandan, Devki; Sly, Laura; Knutson, Keith L.; Herrera-Velit, Patricia; Reiner, Neil E.

    1999-01-01

    1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (D3) promotes the maturation of myeloid cells and surface expressions of CD14 and CD11b, markers of cell differentiation in response to D3. To examine how these responses are regulated, THP-1 cells were grown in serum-free medium and incubated with D3. This was associated with rapid and transient increases in phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) activity. Furthermore, induction of CD14 expression in response to D3 was abrogated by (a) the PI 3-kinase inhibitors LY294002 and wortmannin; (b) antisense oligonucleotides to mRNA for the p110 catalytic subunit of PI 3-kinase; and (c) a dominant negative mutant of PI 3-kinase. In THP-1 cells, induction of CD11b expression by D3 was also abrogated by LY294002 and wortmannin. Similarly, LY294002 and wortmannin inhibited D3-induced expression of both CD14 and CD11b in peripheral blood monocytes. In contrast to CD14 and CD11b, hormone-induced expression of the Cdk inhibitor p21 in THP-1 cells was unaffected by either wortmannin or LY294002. These findings suggest that PI 3-kinase selectively regulates D3-induced monocyte differentiation, independent of any effects on p21. PMID:10587349

  16. Calcinogenic factor in Solanum malacoxylon: evidence that it is 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-glycoside.

    PubMed

    Wasserman, R H; Henion, J D; Haussler, M R; McCain, T A

    1976-11-19

    After glycosidic cleavage of the water-soluble vitamin D-like principle of the calcinogenic plant Solanum malacoxylon, the active lipophilic portion was purified by column chromatography and analyzed by combined gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. It was identified as 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, the active form of vitamin D. Thus this active metabolite of vitamin D exists in the plant world, and its presence probably accounts for pathologic calcification in grazing animals ingesting Solanum malacoxylon. PMID:982048

  17. Reduced serum levels of 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D during long-term total parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Klein, G L; Horst, R L; Norman, A W; Ament, M E; Slatopolsky, E; Coburn, J W

    1981-05-01

    Painful bone disease, characterized by patchy osteomalacia and inactive bone, can develop in patients treated with total parenteral nutrition for more than 3 months. Serum levels of 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1 alpha, 25(OH)2D), 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and 25-hydroxyvitamin D were measured in seven adults and five children treated with parenteral nutrition for 9 to 60 months. Serum levels of 1 alpha, 25(OH)2D were markedly reduced, while levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D were normal. Serum calcium and phosphorus levels were normal or slightly increased, and immunoreactive parathyroid hormone levels were normal or low. Renal function was normal or minimally reduced. Skeletal symptoms disappeared and serum 1 alpha, 25(OH)2D levels rose to normal in one patient when nutrient infusions were discontinued for 6 weeks. Removal of calcium from the nutrient solution for 2 to 4 days was associated with no change in serum 1 alpha, 25(OH)2D in two patients. The cause of the reduction in serum levels of 1 alpha, 25(OH)2D and its role in the pathogenesis of bone disease in these patients remain uncertain. PMID:6786151

  18. Photoaffinity labeling of the 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D-3 receptor.

    PubMed

    Brown, T A; DeLuca, H F

    1991-03-01

    Underivatized 1,25-dihydroxy[26,27-3H]vitamin D-3 was successfully used to photoaffinity label the 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D-3 receptor. The covalent incorporation of tritium into the receptor protein was induced by ultraviolet irradiation of the receptor-1,25-dihydroxy[26,27-3H]vitamin D-3 complex in crude pig intestinal nuclear extract. The amount of incorporated label increased with increasing time of irradiation and was dependent on light of wavelengths 220-280 nm. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography were used to demonstrate that label was incorporated primarily into the 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D-3 receptor. In addition, the label incorporation was eliminated by competition with a 100-fold excess nonradioactive 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D-3, indicating that the label was specific for the steroid binding site. Since 1,25-(OH)2[26,27-3H]vitamin D-3 is readily available and requires no special precautions for its preparation and handling, it should be a useful photoaffinity label for future studies of the receptor. PMID:1849006

  19. Specific 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ binding macromolecule in chicken bone

    SciTech Connect

    Mellon, W.S.; DeLuca, H.F.

    1980-05-10

    Cytosol prepared from homogenates of bone from vitamin D/sub 3/-deficient chicks contains a 3.7 S macromolecule having high affinity and low capacity for 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/. Employing 1,25-dihydroxy-(26,27-/sup 3/H)vitamin D/sub 3/ (160 Ci/mmol) an apparent K/sub d/ has been calcuated to be 7.6 x 10/sup -11/ M while the association and dissociation rate constants for the binding process at 25/sup 0/C were determined to be 9.5 x 10/sup 8/ M/sup -1/min/sup -1/ and 2.3 x 10/sup -2/ min/sup -1/, respectively. A 5.5 S molecule is also present which binds 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ and 25-hydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ but appears to prefer 25-hydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ and is increased by the addition of chick serum to cytosol. The 3.7 S material is neither a serum contaminant nor a component of the 5.5 S molecular species and is likely of intracellular origin. Under low salt conditions the 3.7 S macromolecule migrates to 4.3 S and 5.5 S regions on sucrose gradients suggesting aggregation of the protein. Several vitamin D/sub 3/ metabolites are capable of specifically binding to the 3.7 S macromolecule. The relative order of potency for several analogs causing displacement of specifically bound 1,25-dihydroxy-(26,27-/sup 3/H)vitamin D/sub 3/ is: 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ > 1 ..cap alpha..-hydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ greater than or equal to 25-hydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ > 24(R),25-dihydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/. It is concluded that chick bone cytosol contains a macromolecule of high affinity and low capacity for 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ which may function as a receptor for some physiological events in bone.

  20. Novel ring A stereoisomers of 2-methyl-1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) and 2-methyl-20-epi-1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3): transactivation of target genes and modulation of differentiation in human promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cells.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, K; Kurobe, M; Ozono, K; Konno, K; Fujishima, T; Takayama, H; Okano, T

    2000-03-15

    We evaluated the biological activity of two sets of ring A stereoisomers of 2-methyl-1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (2-methyl-1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3)) and 2-methyl-20-epi-1alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (2-methyl-20-epi-1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3)) in terms of the following: transactivation of a rat 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3)-24-hydroxylase gene promoter including two vitamin D response elements (VDREs) and a human osteocalcin gene promoter including a VDRE in transfected human osteosarcoma (MG-63) cells; a vitamin D receptor (VDR)-mediated response using a VDR-GAL4 one-hybrid luciferase reporter system and a retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRalpha)-mediated response using an expressed VDR/RXRalpha-GAL4 modified two-hybrid luciferase reporter system in transfected human epitheloid carcinoma, cervix (HeLa) cells; and modulation of cell surface CD11b antigen expression in human leukemia (HL-60) cells. All the diastereomers of both analogues exhibited unique biological activity profiles depending upon the configurations of the C-1 and C-3 hydroxyl groups, the C-2 methyl group in ring A, and the C-20 methyl group in the side chain. Of the eight possible diastereomers of the 2-methyl analogues, 2alpha-methyl-1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) was the most potent and exhibited comparable or even greater biological potency than 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3). Of the eight possible diastereomers of the 2-methyl-20-epi analogues, 2alpha-methyl-20-epi-1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) was the most potent and exhibited 100- to 200-fold higher transcriptional potencies than 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) and exceptionally high cell regulatory activities. 2beta-methyl-20-epi-1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) was nearly as potent as its 2-epimer, 2alpha-methyl-20-epi-1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3), whereas its 20-epimer, 2beta-methyl-1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3), was almost completely biologically inactive. In these respects, it can be postulated that the double modification of 2-methyl substitution and 20-epimerization to 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) induces remarkable changes

  1. Conversion of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in renal slices from the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Armbrecht, H.J.; Zenser, T.V.; Davis, B.B.

    1981-07-01

    Isolated renal cortical slices were used to study the conversion of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-(OH)2D3) and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (24,25)(OH2)D3) by the rat kidney. Production of 1,25-(OH)2D3 and 24,25-(OH)2D3 was linear with time (30-90 min) and tissue weight (40-250 mg). Production of 1,25-(OH)2D3 was greatest (134 +/- 17 pg/mg tissue.h) in animals fed a low calcium, vitamin D-deficient diet. The greatest 24,25-(OH)2D3 production (106 +/- 17 pg/mg tissue.h) was seen in animals fed a high calcium, vitamin D-replete diet, 1,25-(OH)2D3 production was reduced to 23% of maximum by the addition of 1.2% calcium or 0.8% strontium to the vitamin D-deficient, low calcium diet. Production of 1,25-(OH)2D3 and 24,25-(OH)2D3 was greatly reduced in renal cortical slices that had been heated before incubation. Slices of renal medulla produced only small amounts of 1,25-(OH)2D3 compared to slices of renal cortex. These studies provide direct evidence for the production of 1,25-(OH)2D3 and 24,25-(OH)2D3 by the mammalian renal cortex. They also demonstrate that this production may be modulated by dietary calcium, strontium, and vitamin D.

  2. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 Treatment Shrinks Uterine Leiomyoma Tumors in the Eker Rat Model1

    PubMed Central

    Halder, Sunil K.; Sharan, Chakradhari; Al-Hendy, Ayman

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Uterine leiomyomas (fibroids) are the most common benign tumors in women of reproductive age. These tumors are three to four times more prevalent in African American women, who also have a 10 times higher incidence of hypovitaminosis D than white women. Recent studies have demonstrated the antitumor effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on several cancers, but its effects on uterine leiomyomas are still unknown. To determine the antitumor and therapeutic effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on uterine leiomyomas, female Eker rats (14–16 mo old) harboring uterine leiomyomas were randomized into control and experimental groups and were given vehicle versus 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (0.5 μg/kg per day) subcutaneously for 3 wk, respectively. At the end of the experiment, the rats were euthanized, and the leiomyoma tumors were analyzed. Treatment with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 significantly reduced leiomyoma tumor size in Eker rats. It also reduced leiomyoma size by suppressing cell growth and proliferation-related genes (Pcna, cyclin D1 [Ccnd1], Myc, Cdk1, Cdk2, and Cdk4), antiapoptotic genes (Bcl2 and Bcl2l1 [Bcl-x]), and estrogen and progesterone receptors. Additionally, immunohistochemistry revealed decreased expression of PCNA and MKI67 (a marker of proliferation) and increased expression of caspase 3 in 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-treated Eker rat leiomyomas. Toxicity analyses using serum samples showed similar levels of SGOT, SGPT, calcium, and total bilirubin in 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-treated and vehicle-treated control Eker rats. These results support that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 is an antitumor agent that may be a potential safe, nonsurgical therapeutic option for the treatment of uterine leiomyomas. PMID:22302692

  3. 1Alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 inhibits programmed cell death in HL-60 cells by activation of sphingosine kinase.

    PubMed

    Kleuser, B; Cuvillier, O; Spiegel, S

    1998-05-01

    Sphingolipid breakdown products [ceramide, sphingosine, and sphingosine-1-phosphate (SPP)] are emerging as a new class of bioactive molecules. In agreement with previous studies, treatment of human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells with 1-alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25-(OH)2D3] induced a transient increase of ceramide levels within 2 h, which then returned to basal levels within 8 h. In contrast, sphingosine kinase activity increased more slowly and reached maximal levels only after 20 h of exposure, leading to a concomitant increase in SPP level. Unlike treatments with cell-permeable ceramide analogues or sphingomyelinase, which induce apoptosis, 1,25-(OH)2D3 did not induce apoptosis, despite the early formation of ceramide. Moreover, prolonged treatment of HL-60 cells with 1,25-(OH)2D3 suppressed ceramide-induced apoptosis. There was a correlation between the time course and dose response of the activation of sphingosine kinase by 1,25-(OH)2D3 and the protection against apoptosis. In contrast, treatment with all-trans-retinoic acid neither stimulated sphingosine kinase activity nor protected cells from ceramide-induced apoptosis. Treatment with SPP protected HL-60 cells from ceramide-induced apoptosis, and N,N-dimethylsphingosine (DMS), a competitive inhibitor of sphingosine kinase, prevented the survival effect of 1,25-(OH)2D3. The effect of DMS was counteracted by SPP, suggesting that SPP is a critical component of the cytoprotective effect of 1,25-(OH)2D3. Chelerythrine chloride, an inhibitor of protein kinase C, markedly reduced sphingosine kinase activity and the apoptosis-sparing effect of 1,25-(OH)2D3, and conversely, the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorhol-13-acetate not only suppressed ceramide-induced apoptosis but also stimulated sphingosine kinase activity. Moreover, the protective effect of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate was blocked by DMS. Collectively, our observations indicate that the cytoprotective effect of 1,25-(OH)2D3 is

  4. Primary Human Osteoblasts in Response to 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3, 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 and 24R,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3

    PubMed Central

    van der Meijden, Karen; Lips, Paul; van Driel, Marjolein; Heijboer, Annemieke C.; Schulten, Engelbert A. J. M.; den Heijer, Martin; Bravenboer, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    The most biologically active metabolite 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) has well known direct effects on osteoblast growth and differentiation in vitro. The precursor 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) can affect osteoblast function via conversion to 1,25(OH)2D3, however, it is largely unknown whether 25(OH)D3 can affect primary osteoblast function on its own. Furthermore, 25(OH)D3 is not only converted to 1,25(OH)2D3, but also to 24R,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (24R,25(OH)2D3) which may have bioactivity as well. Therefore we used a primary human osteoblast model to examine whether 25(OH)D3 itself can affect osteoblast function using CYP27B1 silencing and to investigate whether 24R,25(OH)2D3 can affect osteoblast function. We showed that primary human osteoblasts responded to both 25(OH)D3 and 1,25(OH)2D3 by reducing their proliferation and enhancing their differentiation by the increase of alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin and osteopontin expression. Osteoblasts expressed CYP27B1 and CYP24 and synthesized 1,25(OH)2D3 and 24R,25(OH)2D3 dose-dependently. Silencing of CYP27B1 resulted in a decline of 1,25(OH)2D3 synthesis, but we observed no significant differences in mRNA levels of differentiation markers in CYP27B1-silenced cells compared to control cells after treatment with 25(OH)D3. We demonstrated that 24R,25(OH)2D3 increased mRNA levels of alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin and osteopontin. In addition, 24R,25(OH)2D3 strongly increased CYP24 mRNA. In conclusion, the vitamin D metabolites 25(OH)D3, 1,25(OH)2D3 and 24R,25(OH)2D3 can affect osteoblast differentiation directly or indirectly. We showed that primary human osteoblasts not only respond to 1,25(OH)2D3, but also to 24R,25(OH)2D3 by enhancing osteoblast differentiation. This suggests that 25(OH)D3 can affect osteoblast differentiation via conversion to the active metabolite 1,25(OH)2D3, but also via conversion to 24R,25(OH)2D3. Whether 25(OH)D3 has direct actions on osteoblast function needs further

  5. Effect of simulated weightlessness and chronic 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D administration on bone metabolism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halloran, B. P.; Bikle, D. D.; Globus, R. K.; Levens, M. J.; Wronski, T. J.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1985-01-01

    Weightlessness, as experienced during space flight, and simulated weightlessness induce osteopenia. Using the suspended rat model to simulate weightlessness, a reduction in total tibia Ca and bone formation rate at the tibiofibular junction as well as an inhibition of Ca-45 and H-3-proline uptake by bone within 5-7 days of skeletal unloading was observed. Between days 7 and 15 of unloading, uptake of Ca-45 and H-3-proline, and bone formation rate return to normal, although total bone Ca remains abnormally low. To examine the relationship between these characteristic changes in bone metabolism induced by skeletal unloading and vitamin D metabolism, the serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-D), 24, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D (24,25(OH)2D) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) at various times after skeletal unloading were measured. The effect of chronic infusion of 1,25(OH)2D3 on the bone changes associated with unloading was also determined.

  6. Biological activity profiles of 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D2, D3, D4, D7, and 24-epi-1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D2.

    PubMed

    Tsugawa, N; Nakagawa, K; Kawamoto, Y; Tachibana, Y; Hayashi, T; Ozono, K; Okano, T

    1999-04-01

    We have synthesized several 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1alpha,25(OH)2D] derivatives and evaluated their biological activity in terms of their binding affinity for the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and vitamin D-binding protein (DBP), antiproliferative or differentiation-inducing effects on human promyelocytic leukemic HL-60 cells, and transcriptional activity on a rat 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-24-hydroxylase gene promoter, including two vitamin D-responsive elements (VDREs), and human osteocalcin gene promoter, including a VDRE in transfected human osteosarcoma MG-63 cells. Furthermore, human VDR- or retinoic acid X receptor alpha (RXR alpha)-mediated luciferase activities of the derivatives were also measured by a one-hybrid system in human epitheloid carcinoma, cervix HeLa cells and African green monkey kidney CV-1 cells. Binding affinity for VDR, bone-resorbing activity, antiproliferative and cell-differentiating effects, transactivation potencies on target genes and VDR- or RXR alpha-mediated gene regulations of 1alpha,25(OH)2D2 and 1alpha,25(OH)2D4 were almost comparable to the effects of 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 while 24-epi-1alpha,25(OH)2D2 and 1alpha,25(OH)2D7 were much less active than 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 in these respects. This is the first report concerning biological assessment of 1alpha,25(OH)2D2, 1alpha,25(OH)2D3, 1alpha,25(OH)2D4, 24-epi-1alpha,25(OH)2D2 and 1alpha,25(OH)2D7 at the molecular level, especially with regards to the structural differences at the 24R- or 24S-methyl group and a double bond between carbons 22 and 23 in the side chain of 1alpha,25(OH)2D derivatives. PMID:10328556

  7. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 causes ADAM10-dependent ectodomain shedding of tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Won Seok; Kim, Hyun Woo; Lee, Joo Mi; Han, Nam Jeong; Lee, Mee Jeong; Park, Su-Kil

    2015-01-01

    1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D3) has a potential antiatherosclerotic effect through anti-inflammatory actions. We investigated how 1,25D3 regulates tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) expression in cultured human aortic smooth muscle cells. TNF-α activated Rac1/reactive oxygen species/spleen tyrosine kinase and transcriptional factors, activator protein-1, and nuclear factor κB, which led to LOX-1 expression. 1,25D3 inhibited TNF-α-induced LOX-1 expression by inhibiting Rac1 activation and thereby its downstream signals. 1,25D3 rapidly induced extracellular Ca(2+) influx. Verapamil, an inhibitor of L-type calcium channels, inhibited 1,25D3-induced Ca(2+) influx and counteracted the inhibitory effects of 1,25D3 on Rac1 activation, whereas Bay K8644 [1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-5-nitro-4-[2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-3-pyridinecarboxylic acid, methyl ester], an L-type calcium channel agonist, attenuated TNF-α-induced Rac1 activation, as 1,25D3 did. 1,25D3 induced the ectodomain shedding of TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1), which was abolished by verapamil and in Ca(2+)-free media. Like 1,25D3, Bay K8644 induced the ectodomain shedding of TNFR1. Both 1,25D3 and Bay K8644 caused the translocation of a disintegrin and metalloprotease (ADAM) 10 from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane, which was dependent on extracellular Ca(2+) influx. In contrast, depletion of ADAM10 by transfection of ADAM10-small interfering RNA prevented 1,25D3- or Bay K8644-induced ectodomain shedding of TNFR1 and abolished the suppressive effect of 1,25D3 on TNF-α-induced Rac1 activation. Taken together, these findings suggest that 1,25D3 induces extracellular Ca(2+) influx via L-type calcium channel, triggering ADAM10-mediated ectodomain shedding of TNFR1, and it thereby decreases responsiveness to TNF-α. By shedding TNFR1 from the cell surface, 1,25D3 may regulate inflammation and atherogenesis, whereas this effect could be

  8. Hypercalcemia from metastatic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor secreting 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Viola; de las Morenas, Antonio; Janicek, Milos

    2014-01-01

    Malignant hypercalcemia occurs in about 20-30% of patients with cancer, both solid tumors and hematologic malignancies. The secretion of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTH-rP) is the most common cause and has been shown to be the etiology of hypercalcemia associated with neuroendocrine tumors. Here we report the case of a patient with metastatic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor who developed hypercalcemia more than 4 years after the initial diagnosis as a result of secretion of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, a mechanism only commonly seen in lymphomas. The successful control of the patient’s disease with capecitabine and temozolomide led to the alleviation of this paraneoplastic syndrome. PMID:25083313

  9. Aspects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 binding sites in fish: an autoradiographic study.

    PubMed

    Bidman, H J; Radu, I; Stumpf, W E

    1997-01-01

    The distribution of specific binding sites for vitamin D3 in adult female and male Xiphophorus helleri is studies after injection of tritiated 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (vitamin D) by thaw-mount autoradiography. Five hours after injection of labeled vitamin D specific nuclear binding is present in brain, pituitary, skin, gills, cartilage, gut, liver, pancreas, spleen, kidney, muscle, ovary, and testis. Cytoplasmic binding exists strongest in gills, gut, and kidney while it is comparatively weak in hepatocytes. In reproductive organs cytoplasmic retention of radioactivity is also present in oocytes. Weak nuclear labeling exists in interstitial cells in ovary. Conspicuous nuclear labeling exists in active lobules of testis, while inactive lobules show occasionally a few labeled cells. The results demonstrate specific binding and retention of vitamin D in many target organs of teleost fish, suggesting an extensive and multifunctional regulatory role of this steroid hormone of sunlight. PMID:9747110

  10. 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 rapidly inhibits fibroblast-induced collagen gel contraction.

    PubMed

    Greiling, D; Thieroff-Ekerdt, R

    1996-06-01

    1alpha,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-D3) inhibits the proliferation of fibroblasts in vitro in monolayer culture. We investigated the effect of 1,25-D3 on normal murine and human fibroblasts cultured in collagen type I gels, which more closely resembles the in vivo situation in the dermis. In this culture system 1,25-D3 had no effect on fibroblast proliferation; however, the fibroblast-induced collagen gel contraction was inhibited in a time- and concentration-dependent manner in the nanomolar concentration range. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 were inactive. 1,25-D3 had no effect in fibroblasts lacking a functional vitamin D receptor. Pretreatment of fibroblasts in monolayer culture for 5 min was sufficient to trigger the inhibition of collagen gel contraction. Nifedipine increased collagen gel contraction and counteracted the effect of 1,25-D3. The inhibition of collagen gel contraction by 1,25-D3 is supposed to be mediated by the vitamin D receptor because a functional vitamin D receptor is required, and vitamin D metabolites with low affinity to the vitamin D receptor were inactive. Brief pretreatment of fibroblasts was sufficient to trigger the inhibitory effect of 1,25-D3, suggesting a nongenomic effect. A genomic mode of action could not be ruled out, however, because the inhibition was first measured after 24 h. The antagonism of the calcium channel antagonist nifedipine probably represents the sum of two opposite effects rather than supporting evidence for a nongenomic mode of action of 1,25-D3. In conclusion, 1,25-D3 has a specific and rapidly triggered inhibitory effect on fibroblast-induced collagen gel contraction. PMID:8752663

  11. Tumor-suppressive activity of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 against kidney cancer cells via up-regulation of FOXO3.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jongsung; Park, See-Hyoung

    2016-10-01

    1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 has been known to have the tumor-suppressive activity in various kinds of tumors. However, the exact effect and working mechanism of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on the tumor-suppressive activity in human kidney cancer cells remains poorly understood. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 has cytotoxicity to ACHN cells and inhibited ACHN cell proliferation compared to the vehicle control. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 increased the expression of the cleaved PARP1, active Caspase3, Bax, and Bim but decreased the expression of Bcl2 in ACHN cells. Moreover, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 down-regulated the phosphorylated Akt and Erk which might lead to apoptosis through activation of FOXO3 in ACHN cells. Transfection of siRNA against FOXO3 attenuated the pro-apoptotic BimEL expression in ACHN cells treated with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. These results suggest that FOXO3 is involved in the apoptosis induced by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. PMID:27181027

  12. NKT cells can help mediate the protective effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Waddell, Amanda; Zhao, Jun; Cantorna, Margherita T

    2015-05-01

    Active vitamin D [1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D3)] blocks the development of experimental autoimmune diseases. However, the molecular and immunobiological mechanisms underlying 1,25D3's anti-inflammatory properties are not fully understood. We employed a murine model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in order to determine the role of NKT cells in 1,25D3-mediated protection from EAE. Wild-type (WT) mice or mice lacking all NKT cells (CD1d(-/-)) or invariant NKT cells (Jα18(-/-)) were fed control or 1,25D3-supplemented diets. All mice fed with the control diet developed severe EAE. 1,25D3 treatment of WT mice protected them from developing EAE. CD1d(-/-) and Jα18(-/-) mice treated with 1,25D3 were not protected to the same extent as WT mice. Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-specific IL-17 and IFN-γ production was significantly reduced in 1,25D3 WT mice compared with WT but was not decreased in 1,25D3 CD1d(-/-) mice compared with CD1d(-/-) mice. IL-4(-/-) mice were utilized to determine how IL-4 deficiency affects susceptibility to EAE. IL-4(-/-) mice were not protected from developing EAE by α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer) or 1,25D3 treatment. Furthermore, 1,25D3 treatment of splenocytes in vitro decreased α-GalCer-induced IL-17 and increased IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10 production. 1,25D3 alters the cytokine profile of invariant NKT cells in vitro. These studies demonstrate that NKT cells are important mediators of 1,25D3-induced protection from EAE in mice and NKT cell-derived IL-4 may be an important factor in providing this protection. PMID:25574039

  13. Effect of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on the expression of mannose receptor, DC-SIGN and autophagy genes in pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Afsal, K; Selvaraj, P

    2016-07-01

    1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] is a powerful immuno-modulator, which enhances expression of antimicrobial peptides and induces autophagy in monocytes/macrophages. Since 1,25(OH)2D3 increases the phagocytic potential of monocytes/macrophages, we have explored the effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 on the expression of receptors such as mannose receptor (CD206) and DC-SIGN (CD209) as well as autophagy genes such as ATG5 and Beclin-1 (BECN1) in monocytes/macrophages of healthy controls (HCs) and pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients with and without cavitary disease. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from 40 HCs and 40 PTB patients and were cultured for 72 h with Mtb in the presence or absence of 1,25(OH)2D3 at 10(-7) M concentration. 1,25(OH)2D3 significantly upregulated the expression of mannose receptor, ATG5 and BECN1; whereas DC-SIGN expression was suppressed in Mtb infected cells of both study groups (p < 0.05). The 1,25(OH)2D3-induced expression of CD206, ATG5 and BECN1 genes was lower in PTB patients compared to HCs, whereas expression of these genes was impaired in PTB patients with cavitary disease. Moreover, the relative expression of ATG5 and BECN1 was positively correlated with monocyte/macrophage phagocytosis and cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide gene expression in HCs and PTB patients (p < 0.05). Our study results suggest that vitamin D supplementation in PTB patients without cavitary disease could enhance innate immune functions and may help to control intracellular growth of mycobacteria in macrophages. PMID:27449998

  14. Induced Differentiation of Human Myeloid Leukemia Cells into M2 Macrophages by Combined Treatment with Retinoic Acid and 1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Hiromichi; Hatta, Yoshihiro; Iriyama, Noriyoshi; Hasegawa, Yuichiro; Uchida, Hikaru; Nakagawa, Masaru; Makishima, Makoto; Takeuchi, Jin; Takei, Masami

    2014-01-01

    Retinoids and 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) induce differentiation of myeloid leukemia cells into granulocyte and macrophage lineages, respectively. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), which is effective in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia, can induce differentiation of other types of myeloid leukemia cells, and combined treatment with retinoid and 1,25(OH)2D3 effectively enhances the differentiation of leukemia cells into macrophage-like cells. Recent work has classified macrophages into M1 and M2 types. In this study, we investigated the effect of combined treatment with retinoid and 1,25(OH)2D3 on differentiation of myeloid leukemia THP-1 and HL60 cells. 9-cis Retinoic acid (9cRA) plus 1,25(OH)2D3 inhibited proliferation of THP-1 and HL60 cells and increased myeloid differentiation markers including nitroblue tetrazolium reducing activity and expression of CD14 and CD11b. ATRA and the synthetic retinoic acid receptor agonist Am80 exhibited similar effects in combination with 1,25(OH)2D3 but less effectively than 9cRA, while the retinoid X receptor agonist HX630 was not effective. 9cRA plus 1,25(OH)2D3 effectively increased expression of M2 macrophage marker genes, such as CD163, ARG1 and IL10, increased surface CD163 expression, and induced interleukin-10 secretion in myeloid leukemia cells, while 9cRA alone had weaker effects on these phenotypes and 1,25(OH)2D3 was not effective. Taken together, our results demonstrate selective induction of M2 macrophage markers in human myeloid leukemia cells by combined treatment with 9cRA and 1,25(OH)2D3. PMID:25409436

  15. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 and retinoid X receptor expression in human colorectal neoplasms.

    PubMed Central

    Kane, K F; Langman, M J; Williams, G R

    1995-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (D3) protects against colorectal carcinogenesis. Animal and in vitro studies show an antiproliferative effect of D3 in a variety of tumours including those of large bowel origin. D3 actions are mediated by D3 receptors (VDR) alone or by VDR in conjunction with retinoid X receptors (RXRs) in all D3 responsive tissues. The expression of mRNAs encoding VDR and RXRs in normal and malignant human colorectum was determined. Full length VDR (4.6 kB), RXR alpha (5.5 kB), and RXR gamma (3.5 and 7 kB) mRNAs were expressed in all tissues, but RXR beta mRNA was not expressed in any. VDR expression was reduced in 12 carcinomas relative to paired normal mucosa, and RXR alpha expression was reduced in nine. There was no correlation between VDR or RXR alpha expression and the site, grade of differentiation, or Dukes's staging of the tumour. The finding of persistent VDR and RXR coexpression in all colorectal tumours provides a rational basis for exploring a role for D3 in the treatment of colorectal malignancy. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:7883226

  16. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 enhances neural stem cell proliferation and oligodendrocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Shirazi, Hasti Atashi; Rasouli, Javad; Ciric, Bogoljub; Rostami, Abdolmohamad; Zhang, Guang-Xian

    2015-04-01

    1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) has recently been found to suppress experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS). Although its effect was attributed to an anti-inflammatory mechanism, it is not clear whether this treatment can also directly act on neural cells to promote CNS recovery. The present study investigates the effect of various concentrations of 1,25(OH)2D3 on neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation and their differentiation to oligodendrocytes, the myelinating cells. We have, for the first time, shown that NSCs constitutively express vitamin D receptor (VDR), which can be upregulated by 1,25(OH)2D3. This vitamin significantly enhanced proliferation of NSCs, and enhanced their differentiation into neurons and oligodendrocytes, but not astrocytes. NSCs treated with 1,25(OH)2D3 showed increased expression of NT-3, BDNF, GDNF and CNTF, important neurotrophic factors for neural cell survival and differentiation. Overall, we demonstrated that 1,25(OH)2D3 has a direct effect on NSC proliferation, survival, and neuron/oligodendrocyte differentiation, thus representing a novel mechanism underlying its remyelinating and neuroprotective effect in MS/EAE therapy. PMID:25681066

  17. A rapid assay for 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 24-hydroxylase

    SciTech Connect

    Burgos-Trinidad, M.; Brown, A.J.; DeLuca, H.F. )

    1990-10-01

    A rapid method for the measurement of the 24-hydroxylated metabolites of 25-hydroxy(26,27-3H)vitamin D3 and 1,25-dihydroxy(26,27-3H)vitamin D3 has been developed. This measurement has, in turn, made possible a rapid assay for the 24-hydroxylases of the vitamin D system. The assay involves the use of 26,27-3H-labeled 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 or 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 as the substrate and treatment of the enzyme reaction mixture with sodium periodate, which specifically cleaves the 24-hydroxylated products between carbons 24 and 25, releasing tritiated acetone. The acetone is measured after its separation from the labeled substrate by using a reversed-phase cartridge. The results obtained with this assay were validated by comparison with the results obtained with a well-established high-performance liquid chromatography assay. The activity of the enzyme determined by both methods was equal. This assay has been successfully used for the rapid screening of column fractions during purification of the enzyme and in the screening for monoclonal antibodies to the 24-hydroxylase.

  18. 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D₃ counteracts the effects of cigarette smoke in airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruhui; Zhao, Haijin; Dong, Hangming; Zou, Fei; Cai, Shaoxi

    2015-06-01

    Cigarette smoke extracts (CSE) alter calpain-1 expression via ERK signaling pathway in bronchial epithelial cells. 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D3) inhibits cigarette smoke-induced epithelial barrier disruption. This study was aimed to explore whether the 1,25D3 counteracted the CSE effects in a human bronchial epithelial cell line (16HBE). In particular, transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and permeability, expression and distribution of E-cadherin and β-catenin, calpain-1 expression, and ERK phosphorylation were assessed in the CSE-stimulated 16HBE cells. The CSE induced the ERK phosphorylation, improved the calpain-1 expression, increased the distribution anomalies and the cleaving of E-cadherin and β-catenin, and resulted in the TER reduction and the permeability increase. The 1,25D3 reduced these pathological changes. The 1,25D3 mediated effects were associated with a reduced ERK phosphorylation. In conclusion, the present study provides compelling evidences that the 1,25D3 may be considered a possible valid therapeutic option in controlling the cigarette smoke-induced epithelial barrier disruption. PMID:25880105

  19. Dose response to vaginal administration of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 to cows.

    PubMed

    Okura, N; Yamagishi, N; Naito, Y; Koiwa, M

    2007-07-01

    It was previously reported that intravaginal (IVAG) administration of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25(OH)(2)D(3)) might be protective against bovine hypocalcaemia. In the present study, various doses of exogenous 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) were administered IVAG to ovariectomised cows, and the subsequent changes in the biochemical parameters of the blood were measured to assess the characteristics of vaginal absorption. Five cows received 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) IVAG at a dose of 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, or 1.0microg/kg of body weight (BW) or intravenously at a dose of 1.0microg/kg BW. Dosing was at intervals of at least two weeks in a 5x5 Latin square design. Vaginally administered 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) was absorbed in a dose-dependent manner. There was no correlation between the IVAG dose of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) and subsequent changes in plasma calcium concentrations. The bioavailability of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) administered IVAG at 1.0microg/kg BW was approximately 93%. PMID:16759888

  20. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} regulates genes responsible for detoxification in intestine

    SciTech Connect

    Kutuzova, Galina D.; DeLuca, Hector F. . E-mail: deluca@biochem.wisc.edu

    2007-01-01

    1{alpha},25-Dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} (1,25-(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3}), the biologically active form of vitamin D{sub 3}, not only plays a major role in mammalian calcium and phosphorous homeostasis but also exerts pleiotropic effects on cell proliferation, differentiation and the immune system. Further, vitamin D is believed to play a significant role in the prevention of colon, prostate, and breast cancer and in reducing the risk of autoimmune diseases. To gain insight into the mechanism whereby vitamin D can have such diverse actions, we have employed microarray technology. We studied the effect of a single dose of 1,25-(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3} on gene expression in the intestine of vitamin D-deficient rats. Within 6 h, 1,25-(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3} stimulates the expression of several phase I and phase II biotransformation genes. There is also an increased expression of antioxidant genes. These results support the idea that vitamin D is a significant factor in detoxification and protection against environmental toxins.

  1. The Use of 1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D₃ as an Anticancer Agent.

    PubMed

    Marcinkowska, Ewa; Wallace, Graham R; Brown, Geoffrey

    2016-01-01

    The notion that vitamin D can influence the incidence of cancer arose from epidemiological studies. The major source of vitamin D in the organism is skin production upon exposure to ultra violet-B. The very first observation of an inverse correlation between exposure of individuals to the sun and the likelihood of cancer was reported as early as 1941. In 1980, Garland and Garland hypothesised, from findings from epidemiological studies of patients in the US with colon cancer, that vitamin D produced in response to sun exposure is protective against cancer as opposed to sunlight per se. Later studies revealed inverse correlations between sun exposure and the occurrence of prostate and breast cancers. These observations prompted laboratory investigation of whether or not vitamin D had an effect on cancer cells. Vitamin D is not active against cancer cells, but the most active metabolite 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D₃ (1,25D) has profound biological effects. Here, we review the anticancer action of 1,25D, clinical trials of 1,25D to date and the prospects of the future therapeutic use of new and low calcaemic analogues. PMID:27187375

  2. The Use of 1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 as an Anticancer Agent

    PubMed Central

    Marcinkowska, Ewa; Wallace, Graham R.; Brown, Geoffrey

    2016-01-01

    The notion that vitamin D can influence the incidence of cancer arose from epidemiological studies. The major source of vitamin D in the organism is skin production upon exposure to ultra violet-B. The very first observation of an inverse correlation between exposure of individuals to the sun and the likelihood of cancer was reported as early as 1941. In 1980, Garland and Garland hypothesised, from findings from epidemiological studies of patients in the US with colon cancer, that vitamin D produced in response to sun exposure is protective against cancer as opposed to sunlight per se. Later studies revealed inverse correlations between sun exposure and the occurrence of prostate and breast cancers. These observations prompted laboratory investigation of whether or not vitamin D had an effect on cancer cells. Vitamin D is not active against cancer cells, but the most active metabolite 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D) has profound biological effects. Here, we review the anticancer action of 1,25D, clinical trials of 1,25D to date and the prospects of the future therapeutic use of new and low calcaemic analogues. PMID:27187375

  3. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 and Development of Tuberculosis in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, S. G.; Terry, L. A.; Hope, J.; Hewinson, R. G.; Vordermeier, H. M.

    2003-01-01

    This report describes the presence and activity of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-D3) in experimental bovine tuberculosis. Animals that went on to develop tuberculous lesions exhibited a rapid transient increase in serum 1,25-D3 within the first 2 weeks following infection with Mycobacterium bovis. 1,25-D3-positive mononuclear cells were later identified in all tuberculous granulomas by immunohistochemical staining of postmortem lymph node tissue. These results suggest a role for 1,25-D3 both at the onset of infection and in the development of the granuloma in these infected animals. Using a monoclonal antibody to the vitamin D receptor (VDR) as a VDR agonist, we confirmed that activation of the vitamin D pathway profoundly depresses antigen-specific, but not mitogenic, bovine peripheral blood T-cell responses (proliferation and gamma interferon production). Investigation of the mechanism of this suppression showed that the VDR antibody modified the expression of CD80 by accessory cells, such that a significant positive correlation between T-cell proliferation and accessory cell CD80 emerged. PMID:14607878

  4. Modulation of the Bovine Innate Immune Response by Production of 1alpha,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 in Bovine Monocytes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In cattle, the kidney has been the only known site for production of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25[OH]2D3) from 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 25(OH)D3 by 1alpha-hydroxylase (1alpha-OHase). However, recent studies have shown that human monocytes express 1alpha-OHase and produce 1,25(OH)2D3 in response to to...

  5. Ascorbic acid-induced chondrocyte terminal differentiation: the role of the extracellular matrix and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D.

    PubMed

    Farquharson, C; Berry, J L; Mawer, E B; Seawright, E; Whitehead, C C

    1998-06-01

    Chondrocyte terminal differentiation is associated with cellular hypertrophy increased activity of plasma membrane alkaline phosphatase and the synthesis of collagen type X. The hypertrophic phenotype of cultured chondrocytes can be stimulated by ascorbic acid but the underlying mechanisms for this phenotypic change are unclear. As ascorbic acid is central to many hydroxylation reactions, the possibility was examined that its pro-differentiating effects are mediated by its effects on collagen and vitamin D metabolite formation. In vitro studies indicated that ascorbic acid-induced chondrocyte alkaline phosphatase activity was inhibited by the addition of both collagen and proteoglycan synthesis inhibitors. The addition of arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD)-containing peptides also resulted in lower alkaline phosphatase activity. Chicks supplemented with dietary ascorbic acid had higher concentrations of both collagen and proteoglycans within their growth plates but the chondrocyte maturation rate was unaltered. No evidence was obtained to suggest that ascorbic acid-induced collagen production was mediated by lipid peroxidation. In addition, supplementation with dietary ascorbic acid resulted in higher serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 concentrations and increased chondrocyte vitamin D receptor number. Ascorbic acid-treated chondrocytes maintained in vitro also had increased vitamin D receptor numbers but chondrocyte receptor affinity for 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 was unaltered. These results indicate that ascorbic acid promotes both chondrocyte matrix production and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 synthesis, accompanied by upregulation of the vitamin D receptor. Thus, ascorbic acid may be causing amplification of the vitamin D receptor-dependent genomic response to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, resulting in promotion of terminal differentiation. Strong evidence is provided to support the hypothesis that ascorbic acid-induced chondrocyte terminal differentiation is mediated by

  6. 1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3-3β-bromoacetate, a potential cancer therapeutic agent: synthesis and molecular mechanism of action

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Rahul; Lambert, James R.

    2011-01-01

    Synthesis of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-3β-bromoacetate (1,25(OH)2D3-3-BE), a potential anti-cancer agent is presented. We also report that mechanism of action of 1,25(OH)2D3-3-BE may involve reduction of its catabolism, as evidenced by the reduced and delayed expression of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-24-hydroxylase (CYP24) gene in cellular assays. PMID:21392983

  7. Demonstration that circulating 1 alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D is loosely regulated in normal children.

    PubMed Central

    Stern, P H; Taylor, A B; Bell, N H; Epstein, S

    1981-01-01

    The effects of vitamin D, 2.5 mg (100,000 U)/d for 4 d, on serum calcium, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) and serum 1 alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1 alpha, 25(OH)2D) were compared in 24 normal adults and 12 normal children. The daily dose of vitamin D was 1,500 U/kg body wt in children weighing less than 45 kg. Vitamin D increased mean serum calcium from 9.5 +/- 0.1 to 9.8 +/- 0.1 mg/dl (P less than 0.05), increased mean serum phosphorus from 4.6 +/- 0.1 to 5.0 +/- 0.1 mg/dl (P less than 0.01), increased mean serum 25-OHD from 25 +/- 3 to 34 +/- 4 ng/ml (P less than 0.001), and increased mean serum 1 alpha, 25(OH)2D from 34 +/- 3 to 42 +/- 4 pg/ml (P less than 0.02) in children. In contrast, vitamin D increased mean serum 25-OHD from 18 +/- 2 to 39 +/- 6 ng/ml (P less than 0.001) and did not change mean serum calcium (9.4 +/- 0.1 vs. 9.5 +/- 0.1 mg/dl), mean serum phosphorus (4.0 +/- 0.1 vs. 4.1 +/- 0.1 mg/dl), or mean serum 1 alpha, 25(OH)2D (31 +/- 2 vs. 29 +/- 3 pg/ml) in adults. Mean serum 1 alpha, 25(OH)2D was significantly higher after vitamin D in children than in adults (P less than 0.02). These results provide evidence that circulating 1 alpha, 25(OH)2D is not as tightly regulated in children as it is in adults. This difference in regulation could account in part for the higher values for serum 1 alpha, 25(OH)2D observed in children. PMID:6975284

  8. 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 stimulates human SOST gene expression and sclerostin secretion.

    PubMed

    Wijenayaka, Asiri R; Yang, Dongqing; Prideaux, Matthew; Ito, Nobuaki; Kogawa, Masakazu; Anderson, Paul H; Morris, Howard A; Solomon, Lucian B; Loots, Gabriela G; Findlay, David M; Atkins, Gerald J

    2015-09-15

    Sclerostin, the SOST gene product, is a negative regulator of bone formation and a positive regulator of bone resorption. In this study, treatment of human primary osteoblasts, including cells differentiated to an osteocyte-like stage, with 1α,25-dihydroxyvitaminD3 (1,25D) resulted in the dose-dependent increased expression of SOST mRNA. A similar effect was observed in human trabecular bone samples cultured ex vivo, and in osteocyte-like cultures of differentiated SAOS2 cells. Treatment of SAOS2 cells with 1,25D resulted in the production and secretion of sclerostin protein. In silico analysis of the human SOST gene revealed a single putative DR3-type vitamin D response element (VDRE) at position -6216 bp upstream of the transcription start site (TSS). This sequence was confirmed to have strong VDRE activity by luciferase reporter assays and electrophoretic mobility shift analysis (EMSA). Sequence substitution in the VDR/RXR half-sites abolished VDRE reporter activity and binding of nuclear proteins. A 6.3 kb fragment of the human proximal SOST promoter demonstrated responsiveness to 1,25D. The addition of the evolutionary conserved region 5 (ECR5), a known bone specific enhancer region, ahead of the 6.3 kb fragment increased basal promoter activity but did not increase 1,25D responsiveness. Site-specific mutagenesis abolished the responsiveness of the 6.3 kb promoter to 1,25D. We conclude that 1,25D is a direct regulator of human SOST gene and sclerostin protein expression, extending the pathways of control of sclerostin expression. At least some of this responsiveness is mediated by the identified classical VDRE however the nature of the transcriptional regulation by 1,25D warrants further investigation. PMID:26112182

  9. Gravity affects the responsiveness of Runx2 to 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (VD3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Feima; Dai, Zhongquan; Wu, Feng; Liu, Zhaoxia; Tan, Yingjun; Wan, Yumin; Shang, Peng; Li, Yinghui

    2013-03-01

    Bone loss resulting from spaceflight is mainly caused by decreased bone formation, and decreased osteoblast proliferation and differentiation. Transcription factor Runx2 plays an important role in osteoblast differentiation and function by responding to microenvironment changes including cytokine and mechanical factors. The effects of 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (VD3) on Runx2 in terms of mechanical competence is far less clear. This study describes how gravity affects the response of Runx2 to VD3. A MC3T3-6OSE2-Luc osteoblast model was constructed in which the activity of Runx2 was reflected by reporter luciferase activity identifed by bone-related cytokines. The results showed that luciferase activity in MC3T3-6OSE2-Luc cells transfected with Runx2 was twice that of the vacant vector. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was increased in MC3T3-6OSE2-Luc cells by different concentrations of IGF-I and BMP2. MC3T3-6OSE2-Luc cells were cultured under simulated microgravity or centrifuge with or without VD3. In simulated microgravity, luciferase activity was decreased after 48 h of clinorotation culture, but increased in the centrifuge culture. Luciferase activity was increased after VD3 treatment in normal conditions and simulated microgravity, the increase in luciferase activity in simulated microgravity was lower than that in the 1 g condition when simultaneously treated with VD3 and higher than that in the centrifuge condition. Co-immunoprecipitation showed that the interaction between the VD3 receptor (VDR) and Runx2 was decreased by simulated microgravity, but increased by centrifugation. From these results, we conclude that gravity affects the response of Runx2 to VD3 which results from an alteration in the interaction between VDR and Runx2 under different gravity conditions.

  10. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 prevents toluene diisocyanate-induced airway epithelial barrier disruption.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenjia; Dong, Hangming; Zhao, Haijin; Song, Jiafu; Tang, Haixiong; Yao, Lihong; Liu, Laiyu; Tong, Wancheng; Zou, Mengchen; Zou, Fei; Cai, Shaoxi

    2015-07-01

    The loss of airway epithelial integrity contributes significantly to asthma pathogenesis. Evidence suggests that vitamin D plays an important role in the prevention and treatment of asthma. However, its role in airway epithelial barrier function remains uncertain. We have previously demonstrated impaired epithelial junctions in a model of toluene diisocyanate (TDI)-induced asthma. In the present study, we hypothesized that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] may prevent TDI-induced epithelial barrier disruption. Male BALB/c mice were dermally sensitized and then challenged with TDI. The mice were then administered 1,25(OH)2D3 intraperitoneally prior to challenge with TDI. For in vitro experiments, 16HBE bronchial epithelial cells were cultured and stimulated with TDI-human serum albumin (HSA). The results revealed that the mice treated with 1,25(OH)2D3 displayed decreased airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), suppressed neutrophil and eosinophil infiltration into the airways, as well as an increased E-cadherin and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) expression at the cell-cell contact sites. In vitro, exposure of the cells to TDI-HSA induced a rapid decline in transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and an increase in cell permeability, followed by a decrease in occludin expression and the redistribution of E-cadherin, accompanied by a significant upregulation in the levels of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2. These effects were all partly reversed by treatment with either 1,25(OH)2D3 or an ERK1/2 inhibitor. In conclusion, the findings of our study demonstrate that 1,25(OH)2D3 prevents TDI-induced epithelial barrier disruption, and that the ERK1/2 pathway may play a role in this process. PMID:25998793

  11. Regulation of calcium signaling in dendritic cells by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3.

    PubMed

    Shumilina, Ekaterina; Xuan, Nguyen Thi; Matzner, Nicole; Bhandaru, Madhuri; Zemtsova, Irina M; Lang, Florian

    2010-06-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen-presenting cells that provide a link between innate and adaptive immunity. Ca(2+)-dependent signaling plays a central regulatory role in DC responses to diverse antigens. DCs are a primary target of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) [1,25(OH)(2)D(3)], a secosteroid hormone, that, in addition to its well-established action on Ca(2+) homeostasis, possesses immunomodulatory properties. Surprisingly, nothing is known about its effects on DC cytosolic Ca(2+) activity. The present study explored whether 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) modifies the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in DCs. Here we show that mouse DCs expressed K(+)-independent (NCX1-3) and K(+)-dependent (NCKX1, 3, 4, and 5) Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchangers. Acute application of LPS (100 ng/ml) to DCs increased [Ca(2+)](i), an effect significantly blunted by prior incubation with 1,25(OH)(2)D(3). 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) increased the membrane abundance of the NCKX1 protein, up-regulated the K(+)- and Na(+)-dependent Ca(2+) entry and enhanced the K(+)-dependent Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger currents. The NCKX blocker 3',4'-dichlorobenzamyl (DBZ) reversed the inhibitory effect of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) on the LPS-induced increase of [Ca(2+)](i). Expression of the costimulatory molecule CD86 was down-regulated by 1,25(OH)(2)D(3), an effect reversed by DBZ. In summary, 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) blunts the LPS-induced increase in [Ca(2+)](i) by stimulation of Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger-dependent Ca(2+) extrusion, an effect that contributes to 1,25(OH)(2)D(3)-mediated immunosuppression. The results disclose completely novel mechanisms in the regulation of DC maturation and function. PMID:20124438

  12. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D and Klotho: A Tale of Two Renal Hormones Coming of Age.

    PubMed

    Haussler, Mark R; Whitfield, G Kerr; Haussler, Carol A; Sabir, Marya S; Khan, Zainab; Sandoval, Ruby; Jurutka, Peter W

    2016-01-01

    1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D) is the renal metabolite of vitamin D that signals through binding to the nuclear vitamin D receptor (VDR). The ligand-receptor complex transcriptionally regulates genes encoding factors stimulating calcium and phosphate absorption plus bone remodeling, maintaining a skeleton with reduced risk of age-related osteoporotic fractures. 1,25D/VDR signaling exerts feedback control of Ca/PO4 via regulation of FGF23, klotho, and CYP24A1 to prevent age-related, ectopic calcification, fibrosis, and associated pathologies. Vitamin D also elicits xenobiotic detoxification, oxidative stress reduction, neuroprotective functions, antimicrobial defense, immunoregulation, anti-inflammatory/anticancer actions, and cardiovascular benefits. Many of the healthspan advantages conferred by 1,25D are promulgated by its induction of klotho, a renal hormone that is an anti-aging enzyme/coreceptor that protects against skin atrophy, osteopenia, hyperphosphatemia, endothelial dysfunction, cognitive defects, neurodegenerative disorders, and impaired hearing. In addition to the high-affinity 1,25D hormone, low-affinity nutritional VDR ligands including curcumin, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and anthocyanidins initiate VDR signaling, whereas the longevity principles resveratrol and SIRT1 potentiate VDR signaling. 1,25D exerts actions against neural excitotoxicity and induces serotonin mood elevation to support cognitive function and prosocial behavior. Together, 1,25D and klotho maintain the molecular signaling systems that promote growth (p21), development (Wnt), antioxidation (Nrf2/FOXO), and homeostasis (FGF23) in tissues crucial for normal physiology, while simultaneously guarding against malignancy and degeneration. Therefore, liganded-VDR modulates the expression of a "fountain of youth" array of genes, with the klotho target emerging as a major player in the facilitation of health span by delaying the chronic diseases of aging. PMID:26827953

  13. Noncalcemic actions of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Holick, M F

    1995-08-01

    Vitamin D is absolutely essential for the maintenance of a healthy skeleton. Without vitamin D, children develop rickets and adults exacerbate their osteoporosis and develop osteomalacia. Casual exposure to sunlight is the major source of vitamin D for most people. During exposure to sunlight, ultraviolet B photons photolyze cutaneous stores of 7-dehydrocholesterol to previtamin D3. Previtamin D3 undergoes a thermal isomerization to form vitamin D3. Increased skin pigmentation, changes in latitude, time of day, sunscreen use, and aging can have a marked influence on the cutaneous production of vitamin D3. Once vitamin D3 is formed in the skin or ingested in the diet, it must be hydroxylated in the liver and kidney to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3]. It is now recognized that a wide variety of tissues and cells, both related to calcium metabolism and unrelated to calcium metabolism, are target sites for 1,25(OH)2D3. 1,25(OH)2D3 stimulates intestinal calcium absorption and mobilizes stem cells to mobilize calcium stores from bone. Noncalcemic tissues that possess receptors for 1,25(OH)2D3 respond to the hormone in a variety of ways. Of great interest is that 1,25(OH)2D3 is a potent antiproliferative and prodifferentiation mediator. As a result, 1,25(OH)2D3 and its analogs have wide clinical application in such diverse clinical disorders as rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis; diabetes mellitus type I; hypertension; cardiac arrhythmias; seizure disorders; cancers of the breast, prostate, and colon; some leukemias and myeloproliferative disorders; chemotherapy-induced hair loss; and skin rejuvenation as well as skin diseases like psoriasis and ichthyosis. PMID:8579891

  14. Identification of a DNA sequence responsible for binding of the 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D sub 3 receptor and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D sub 3 enhancement of mouse secreted phosphoprotein 1 (Spp-1 or osteopontin) gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Noda, Masaki; Vogel, R.L. ); Craig, A.M. ); Prahl, J.; DeLuca, H.F. ); Denhardt, D.T. )

    1990-12-01

    Secreted phosphoprotein 1 (Spp-1; osteopontin) is one of the abundant noncollagenous proteins in bone matrix and is produced by osteoblasts. The authors examined the promoter region of the mouse Spp-1 gene and identified a sequence responsible for 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} enhancement of the Spp-1 gene expression. This 24-base-pair (bp) sequence (vitamin D response element) is located 761 bp upstream of the transcription start site and consists of two direct repeats of a unique 9-bp motif, AGGTTCACG. The vitamin D response element confers responsiveness of a heterologous promoter to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} in a position-and orientation-independent and copy-number-dependent manner. The basal level of expression of the reporter constructs containing this sequence and its response to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} were not affected by cotreatment with transforming growth factor {beta} or the tumor promoter phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate or by cotransfection with a JUN expression vector. The vitamin D response element forms DNA-protein complexes, as indicated by gel-retardation assays. The addition of a monoclonal antibody raised against the vitamin D receptor further retarded the mobility of the DNA-protein complex. Another antibody that recognized the DNA binding region of the vitamin D receptor attenuated its binding to the sequence. These results indicate that this 24-bp sequence containing two 9-bp motifs binds to the vitamin D receptor and mediates the vitamin D{sub 3} enhancement of murine Spp-1 gene expression.

  15. FGF23 gene regulation by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D: Opposing effects in adipocytes and osteocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kaneko, Ichiro; Saini, Rimpi K.; Griffin, Kristin P.; Whitfield, G. Kerr; Haussler, Mark R.; Jurutka, Peter W.

    2015-01-01

    In a closed endocrine loop, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D) induces the expression of fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) in bone, with the phosphaturic peptide in turn acting at kidney to feedback repress CYP27B1 and induce CYP24A1 to limit the levels of 1,25D. In 3T3-L1 differentiated adipocytes, 1,25D represses FGF23 and leptin expression, while not affecting leptin receptor transcription, but inducing C/EBP. Conversely, in UMR-106 osteoblast-like cells, FGF23 mRNA concentrations are upregulated by 1,25D, an effect that is blunted by lysophosphatidic acid, a cell-surface acting ligand. Progressive truncation of the mouse FGF23 proximal promoter linked in luciferase reporter constructs reveals a 1,25D-responsive region between −400 and −200 bp. A 0.6 kb fragment of the mouse FGF23 promoter, linked in a reporter construct, responds to 1,25D with a 4-fold enhancement of transcription in transfected K562 cells. Mutation of either an ETS1 site at −346 bp, or an adjacent candidate VDR/Nurr1-element, in the 0.6 kb reporter construct reduces the transcriptional activity elicited by 1,25D to a level that is not significantly different from a minimal promoter. This composite ETS1-VDR/Nurr1 cis-element may function as a switch between induction (osteocytes) and repression (adipocytes) of FGF23, depending on the cellular setting of transcription factors. Moreover, experiments demonstrate that a 1kb mouse FGF23 promoter-reporter construct, transfected into MC3T3 osteoblast-like cells, responds to high calcium challenge with a statistically significant 1.7–2.0-fold enhancement of transcription. Thus, the FGF23 proximal promoter harbors cis-elements that drive responsiveness to 1,25D and calcium, agents that induce FGF23 to curtail the pathologic consequences of their excess. PMID:26148725

  16. FGF23 inhibits extra-renal synthesis of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in human monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Bacchetta, Justine; Sea, Jessica L; Chun, Rene F; Lisse, Thomas S; Wesseling-Perry, Katherine; Gales, Barbara; Adams, John S.; Salusky, Isidro B; Hewison, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin D is a potent stimulator of monocyte innate immunity, with this effect being mediated via intracrine conversion of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D). In the kidney synthesis of 1,25(OH)2D is suppressed by fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), via transcriptional suppression of the vitamin D-activating enzyme 1α-hydroxylase (CYP27B1). We hypothesized that FGF23 also suppresses CYP27B1 in monocytes, with concomitant effects on intracrine responses to 1,25(OH)2D. Monocytes from healthy donor peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCm) and from peritoneal dialysate effluent from kidney disease patients (PDm) were assessed at baseline to confirm the presence of mRNA for FGF23 receptors (FGFRs), with Klotho and FGFR1 being more strongly expressed than FGFR2/3/4 in both cell types. Immunohistochemistry showed co-expression of Klotho and FGFR1 in PBMCm and PDm, with this effect being enhanced following treatment with FGF23 in PBMCm but not PDm. Treatment with FGF23 activated MAP kinase (MAPK) and Akt pathways in PBMCm, demonstrating functional FGFR signaling in these cells. FGF23 treatment of PBMCm and PDm decreased expression of mRNA for CYP27B1. In PBMCm this was associated with downregulation of 25OHD to 1,25(OH)2D metabolism, and concomitant suppression of intracrine induced 24-hydroxylase (CYP24A1) and antibacterial cathelicidin (LL37). FGF23 suppression of CYP27B1 was particularly pronounced in PBMCm treated with interleukin-15 to stimulate synthesis of 1,25(OH)2D. These data indicate that FGF23 can inhibit extra-renal expression of CYP27B1 and subsequent intracrine responses to 1,25(OH)2D in two different human monocyte models. Elevated expression of FGF23 may therefore play a crucial role in defining immune responses to vitamin D and this, in turn, may be a key determinant of infection in patients with CKD. PMID:22886720

  17. Gene Signatures of 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 Exposure in Normal and Transformed Mammary Cells.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Katrina M; Beaudin, Sarah G; Narvaez, Carmen J; Welsh, JoEllen

    2015-08-01

    To elucidate potential mediators of vitamin D receptor (VDR) action in breast cancer, we profiled the genomic effects of its ligand 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D) in cells derived from normal mammary tissue and breast cancer. In non-transformed hTERT-HME cells, 483 1,25D responsive entities in 42 pathways were identified, whereas in MCF7 breast cancer cells, 249 1,25D responsive entities in 31 pathways were identified. Only 21 annotated genes were commonly altered by 1,25D in both MCF7 and hTERT-HME cells. Gene set enrichment analysis highlighted eight pathways (including senescence/autophagy, TGFβ signaling, endochondral ossification, and adipogenesis) commonly altered by 1,25D in hTERT-HME and MCF7 cells. Regulation of a subset of immune (CD14, IL1RL1, MALL, CAMP, SEMA6D, TREM1, CSF1, IL33, TLR4) and metabolic (ITGB3, SLC1A1, G6PD, GLUL, HIF1A, KDR, BIRC3) genes by 1,25D was confirmed in hTERT-HME cells and similar changes were observed in another comparable non-transformed mammary cell line (HME cells). The effects of 1,25D on these genes were retained in HME cells expressing SV40 large T antigen but were selectively abrogated in HME cells expressing SV40 + RAS and in MCF7 cells. Integration of the datasets from hTERT-HME and MCF7 cells with publically available RNA-SEQ data from 1,25D treated SKBR3 breast cancer cells enabled identification of an 11-gene signature representative of 1,25D exposure in all three breast-derived cell lines. Four of these 11 genes (CYP24A1, CLMN, EFTUD1, and SERPINB1) were also identified as 1,25D responsive in human breast tumor explants, suggesting that this gene signature may prove useful as a biomarker of vitamin D exposure in breast tissue. PMID:25736056

  18. FGF23 gene regulation by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D: opposing effects in adipocytes and osteocytes.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Ichiro; Saini, Rimpi K; Griffin, Kristin P; Whitfield, G Kerr; Haussler, Mark R; Jurutka, Peter W

    2015-09-01

    In a closed endocrine loop, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D) induces the expression of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) in bone, with the phosphaturic peptide in turn acting at kidney to feedback repress CYP27B1 and induce CYP24A1 to limit the levels of 1,25D. In 3T3-L1 differentiated adipocytes, 1,25D represses FGF23 and leptin expression and induces C/EBPβ, but does not affect leptin receptor transcription. Conversely, in UMR-106 osteoblast-like cells, FGF23 mRNA concentrations are upregulated by 1,25D, an effect that is blunted by lysophosphatidic acid, a cell-surface acting ligand. Progressive truncation of the mouse FGF23 proximal promoter linked in luciferase reporter constructs reveals a 1,25D-responsive region between -400 and -200  bp. A 0.6  kb fragment of the mouse FGF23 promoter, linked in a reporter construct, responds to 1,25D with a fourfold enhancement of transcription in transfected K562 cells. Mutation of either an ETS1 site at -346  bp, or an adjacent candidate vitamin D receptor (VDR)/Nurr1-element, in the 0.6  kb reporter construct reduces the transcriptional activity elicited by 1,25D to a level that is not significantly different from a minimal promoter. This composite ETS1-VDR/Nurr1 cis-element may function as a switch between induction (osteocytes) and repression (adipocytes) of FGF23, depending on the cellular setting of transcription factors. Moreover, experiments demonstrate that a 1 kb mouse FGF23 promoter-reporter construct, transfected into MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells, responds to a high calcium challenge with a statistically significant 1.7- to 2.0-fold enhancement of transcription. Thus, the FGF23 proximal promoter harbors cis elements that drive responsiveness to 1,25D and calcium, agents that induce FGF23 to curtail the pathologic consequences of their excess. PMID:26148725

  19. Effect of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on phospholipid metabolism in cultured bovine parathyroid cells.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, T; Ritter, C; Slatopolsky, E; Morrissey, J

    1988-06-01

    There is evidence that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25-(OH)2D3] affects phospholipid metabolism of intestine, kidney, and bone. There are no such studies concerning the parathyroid gland, which is also a target tissue for 1,25-(OH)2D3. In this investigation we examined the effect of 1,25-(OH)2D3 on the incorporation of radiolabeled choline, inositol, serine, and ethanolamine into the phospholipids of cultured bovine parathyroid cells. Treatment with 10(-8) M 1,25-(OH)2D3 for 48 h caused a significant decrease in [14C]choline incorporation, although there were no differences in the incorporation of radiolabeled inositol, serine, or ethanolamine. Time-course and dose-response evaluations of the 1,25-(OH)2D3 effect revealed that the decrease in [14C]choline incorporation was seen within 12 h of incubation and occurred with as little as 10(-9) M, respectively. In contrast, neither 10(-7) M 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 nor 10(-7) M 24,25-(OH)2D3 caused significant changes in [14C]choline incorporation. When 5 X 10(-6) M cycloheximide was added to the medium, the inhibitory effect of 1,25-(OH)2D3 on [14C]choline incorporation was completely abolished. A significant decrease in phosphatidylcholine content was observed after treatment with 10(-8) M 1,25-(OH)2D3 for 96 h. 1,25-(OH)2D3 did not cause a dramatic change in the fatty acid composition of the phosphatidylcholine. The present studies demonstrate that in parathyroid cells 1,25-(OH)2D3 causes a decrease in [14C]choline incorporation, which could be due to a decrease in the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine or increased degradation. This effect is specific for 1,25-(OH)2D3 and requires new protein synthesis. PMID:3131114

  20. 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 stimulates phospholipase C-gamma in rat colonocytes: role of c-Src in PLC-gamma activation.

    PubMed Central

    Khare, S; Bolt, M J; Wali, R K; Skarosi, S F; Roy, H K; Niedziela, S; Scaglione-Sewell, B; Aquino, B; Abraham, C; Sitrin, M D; Brasitus, T A; Bissonnette, M

    1997-01-01

    Our laboratory has previously demonstrated that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25[OH]2D3) rapidly stimulated polyphosphoinositide (PI) hydrolysis, raised intracellular Ca2+, and activated two Ca2+-dependent protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms, PKC-alpha and -betaII in the rat large intestine. We also showed that the direct addition of 1,25(OH)2D3 to isolated colonic membranes failed to stimulate PI hydrolysis, but required secosteroid treatment of intact colonocytes, suggesting the involvement of a soluble factor. Furthermore, this PI hydrolysis was restricted to the basal lateral plasma membrane of these cells. In the present studies, therefore, we examined whether polyphosphoinositide-phospholipase C-gamma (PI-PLC-gamma), a predominantly cytosolic isoform of PI-PLC, was involved in the hydrolysis of colonic membrane PI by 1,25(OH)2D3. This isoform has been shown to be activated and membrane-associated by tyrosine phosphorylation. We found that 1,25(OH)2D3 caused a significant increase in the biochemical activity, particulate association, and the tyrosine phosphorylation of PLC-gamma, specifically in the basal lateral membranes. This secosteroid also induced a twofold increase in the activity of Src, a proximate activator of PLC-gamma in other cells, with peaks at 1 and 9 min in association with Src tyrosine dephosphorylation. 1,25(OH)2D3 also increased the physical association of activated c-Src with PLC-gamma. In addition, Src isolated from colonocytes treated with 1,25(OH)2D3, demonstrated an increased ability to phosphorylate exogenous PLC-gamma in vitro. Inhibition of 1,25(OH)2D3-induced Src activation by PP1, a specific Src family protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor, blocked the ability of this secosteroid to stimulate the translocation and tyrosine phosphorylation of PLC-gamma in the basolateral membrane (BLM). Src activation was lost in D deficiency, and was reversibly restored with the in vivo repletion of 1,25(OH)2D3. These studies demonstrate for the first time

  1. Retinoid X receptors stimulate and 9-cis retinoic acid inhibits 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-activated expression of the rat osteocalcin gene.

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, P N; Dowd, D R; Nakajima, S; Galligan, M A; Reeder, M C; Haussler, C A; Ozato, K; Haussler, M R

    1993-01-01

    The vitamin D receptor (VDR) binds the vitamin D-responsive element (VDRE) as a heterodimer with an unidentified receptor auxiliary factor (RAF) present in mammalian cell nuclear extracts. VDR also interacts with the retinoid X receptors (RXRs), implying that RAF may be related to the RXRs. Here we demonstrate that highly purified HeLa cell RAF contained RXR beta immunoreactivity and that both activities copurified and precisely coeluted in high-resolution hydroxylapatite chromatography. Furthermore, an RXR beta-specific antibody disrupted VDR-RAF-VDRE complexes in mobility shift assays. These data strongly indicate that HeLa RAF is highly related to or is identical to RXR beta. Consequently, the effect of the 9-cis retinoic acid ligand for RXRs was examined in 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3]-activated gene expression systems. Increasing concentrations of 9-cis retinoic acid (1 nM to 1 microM) markedly reduced 1,25(OH)2D3-dependent accumulation of osteocalcin mRNA in osteoblast-like ROS 17/2.8 cells. All-trans retinoic acid also interfered with vitamin D responsiveness, but it was consistently less potent than the 9-cis isomer. Transient transfection studies revealed that attenuation by 9-cis retinoic acid was at the transcriptional level and was mediated through interactions at the osteocalcin VDRE. Furthermore, overexpression of both RXR beta and RXR alpha augmented 1,25(OH)2D3 responsiveness in transient expression studies. Direct analysis of VDRE binding in mobility shift assays demonstrated that heteromeric interactions between VDR and RXR were enhanced by 1,25(OH)2D3 and were not affected appreciably by 9-cis retinoic acid, except that inhibition was observed at high retinoid concentrations. These data suggest a regulatory mechanism for osteocalcin gene expression that involves 1,25(OH)2D3-induced heterodimerization of VDR and unliganded RXR. 9-cis retinoic acid may attenuate 1,25(OH)2D3 responsiveness by diverting RXRs away from VDR

  2. The role of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in the inhibition of bone formation induced by skeletal unloading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halloran, B. P.; Bikle, D. D.; Wronski, T. J.; GLOBUS. R.; Levens, M. J.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1983-01-01

    Skeletal unloading results in osteopenia. To examine the involvement of vitamin D in this process, the rear limbs of growing rats were unloaded and alterations in bone calcium and bone histology were related to changes in serum calcium (Ca), inorganic phosphorus (P sub i), 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-D), 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (24,25(OH)2D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D. Acute skeletal unloading induced a transitory inhibition of Ca accumulation in unloaded bones. This was accompanied by a transitory rise in serum Ca, a 21% decrease in longitudinal bone growth (P 0.01), a 32% decrease in bone surface lined with osteoblasts (P .05), no change in bone surface lined with osteoclasts and a decrease in circulating (1,25(OH)2D. No significant changes in the serum concentrations of P sub i, 25-OH-D or 24,25(OH)2D were observed. After 2 weeks of unloading, bone Ca stabilized at approximately 70% of control and serum Ca and 1,25(OH)2D returned to control values. Maintenance of a constant serum 1,25(OH)2D concentration by chronic infusion of 1,25(OH)2D (Alza osmotic minipump) throughout the study period did not prevent the bone changes induced by acute unloading. These results suggest that acute skeletal unloading in the growing rat produces a transitory inhibition of bone formation which in turn produces a transitory hypercalcemia.

  3. 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 analogs featuring aromatic and heteroaromatic rings: design, synthesis, and preliminary biological testing.

    PubMed

    Posner, G H; Li, Z; White, M C; Vinader, V; Takeuchi, K; Guggino, S E; Dolan, P; Kensler, T W

    1995-10-27

    Aromatic compounds 2a-c, analogs of 1 alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin (calcitriol, 1), and heteroaromatic compounds 4a-c and 5a-c, analogs of 19-nor-1 alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (3), were designed to simulate the topology of their biologically potent parent compounds while avoiding previtamin D equilibrium. Convergent and facile total syntheses of the analogs (+)-2b, (+)-2c, (-)-4b, and (-)-5b were achieved via carbonyl addition of regiospecifically formed organolithium nucleophiles to the enantiomerically pure C,D-ring ketone (+)-17, characteristic of natural calcitriol (1). Likewise, hybrid analogs 20a-c were prepared to determine whether incorporation of a known potentiating side chain would lead to increased biological activity. Preliminary in vitro biological testing showed that aromatic analogs (+)-2b, (+)-2c, and 20a-c as well as heteroaromatic analogs (-)-4b and (-)-5b have very low affinities for the calf thymus vitamin D receptor but considerable antiproliferative activities in murine keratinocytes at micromolar concentration. No biological advantage was observed in this keratinocyte assay for the doubly modified hybrid analogs 20a-c over the singly modified parent (+)-2b. Analog (+)-2b, but surprisingly not the corresponding analog 20b differing from (+)-2b only in the side chain, showed considerable activity in nongenomic opening of calcium channels in rat osteosarcoma cells. PMID:7473581

  4. Redox regulation of cAMP levels by ascorbate in 1,25-dihydroxy- vitamin D3-induced differentiation of HL-60 cells.

    PubMed Central

    López-Lluch, G; Burón, M I; Alcaín, F J; Quesada, J M; Navas, P

    1998-01-01

    1alpha,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25-(OH)2D3] induces differentiation to monocyte-macrophage lineage of several leukaemic cell lines such as HL-60, U937, M1 and Mono Mac 6. Ascorbate also modulates growth and differentiation of different animal cells in culture. We have previously reported the stimulating effect of ascorbate on 1, 25-(OH)2D3-induced HL-60 cell differentiation. We show here that 1, 25-(OH)2D3 induces a transient increase in cAMP levels in these cells, and ascorbate significantly increases these cAMP levels. Ascorbate alone does not have any effect. Other cAMP-increasing agents such as isobutylmethylxanthine, forskolin and prostaglandin E2 maintain high levels of cAMP at 48 h of incubation and also enhance differentiation along the monocytic pathway induced by 1, 25-(OH)2D3, as revealed by specific differentiation markers, demonstrating the importance of cAMP in the differentiation process. It is also shown that the presence of ascorbate and its free radical (AFR) during 1,25-(OH)2D3-induced differentiation significantly decreases cytoplasmic NADH levels compared with those induced by 1,25-(OH)2D3 in HL-60 cells. The results indicate that NADH is an inhibitor of adenylate cyclase in these cells. AFR is an electron acceptor of the trans-plasma-membrane electron-transport system, and NADH is the electron donor. Through this system, ascorbate and AFR keep levels of NADH low, thereby decreasing its inhibitory effect on adenylate cyclase activity and so increasing cAMP synthesis. We also demonstrate that other ascorbate derivatives, such as ascorbate 2-phosphate and dehydroascorbate, both of which are unable to produce AFR, do not alter intracellular NADH levels during 1, 25-(OH)2D3-induced differentiation. Also, ascorbate and AFR increase specific differentiation markers (CD14 and NitroBlue Tetrazolium reduction) but neither ascorbate 2-phosphate nor dehydroascorbate show this enhancing activity. In summary, we propose that the effect of ascorbate on 1

  5. Antiproliferative Activity of Double Point Modified Analogs of 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D2 Against Human Malignant Melanoma Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Piotrowska, Anna; Wierzbicka, Justyna; Nadkarni, Sharmin; Brown, Geoffrey; Kutner, Andrzej; Żmijewski, Michał A.

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D is a lipid soluble steroid hormone with pleiotropic biological properties, including regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. As to these desirable anticancer actions, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamins D and analogs have been reported to inhibit the proliferation and to induce differentiation of a wide variety of cancer cell types, including human malignant melanoma. However, there is a need for novel and more efficacious vitamin D analogs, and how best to design such is still an open issue. A series of double point modified (DPM) analogs of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D2 (1,25(OH)2D2) induced differentiation of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) positive A375 and VDR negative SK-MEL 188b human malignant melanoma cell lines. Surprisingly, the dose of 1,25(OH)2D2 required to inhibit the proliferation of the A375 melanoma cell line by was several fold lower than that required in the case of 1,25(OH)2D3. To evaluate the impact of the modification in the side chain (additional 22-hydroxyl) and in the A-ring (5,6-trans modification), the regular side-chain of vitamin D2 or D3 was retained in the structure of our analogs. As expected, 5,6-trans modification was advantageous to enhancing the anti-proliferative activity of analogs, but not as a single point modification (SPM). Very unexpectedly, the additional 22-hydroxyl in the side-chain reduced significantly the anti-proliferative activity of both the natural and 5,6-trans series analogs. Finally, an induction of pigmentation in melanoma SK-MEL 188b cells was observed to sensitized cells to the effect of vitamin D analogs. PMID:26760999

  6. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 Promotes High Glucose-Induced M1 Macrophage Switching to M2 via the VDR-PPARγ Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoliang; Zhou, Min; Guo, Yinfeng; Song, Zhixia; Liu, Bicheng

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages, especially their activation state, are closely related to the progression of diabetic nephropathy. Classically activated macrophages (M1) are proinflammatory effectors, while alternatively activated macrophages (M2) exhibit anti-inflammatory properties. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 has renoprotective roles that extend beyond the regulation of mineral metabolism, and PPARγ, a nuclear receptor, is essential for macrophage polarization. The present study investigates the effect of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on macrophage activation state and its underlying mechanism in RAW264.7 cells. We find that, under high glucose conditions, RAW264.7 macrophages tend to switch to the M1 phenotype, expressing higher iNOS and proinflammatory cytokines, including TNFα and IL-12. While 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 significantly inhibited M1 activation, it enhanced M2 macrophage activation; namely, it upregulated the expression of MR, Arg-1, and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 but downregulated the M1 markers. However, the above effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 were abolished when the expression of VDR and PPARγ was inhibited by VDR siRNA and a PPARγ antagonist. In addition, PPARγ was also decreased upon treatment with VDR siRNA. The above results demonstrate that active vitamin D promoted M1 phenotype switching to M2 via the VDR-PPARγ pathway. PMID:25961000

  7. 1,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D AND 25-HYDROXYVITAMIN D-MEDIATED REGULATION OF TRPV6 (A PUTATIVE EPITHELIAL CALCIUM CHANNEL) MRNA EXPRESSION IN CACO-2 CELLS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    TRPV6 is a member of the vanilloid subfamily of transient receptor potential (TRP) proteins and likely functions as an epithelial calcium channel in calcium-transporting organs, such as the intestine, kidney, and placenta. TRPV6 mRNA expression is strongly regulated by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, the a...

  8. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 Enhances Innate Immune Responses of Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells that are Triggered by Toll-like Receptor Signaling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25[OH]2D3) has been found to play an important role in the bovine innate immune response. 1,25(OH)2D3 is the active vitamin D metabolite and is produced from the major circulating metabolite, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, by the enzyme 1alpha-hydroxylase (1alpha-OHase)...

  9. Prenatal diagnosis of vitamin D-dependent rickets, type II: response to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in amniotic fluid cells and fetal tissues.

    PubMed

    Weisman, Y; Jaccard, N; Legum, C; Spirer, Z; Yedwab, G; Even, L; Edelstein, S; Kaye, A M; Hochberg, Z

    1990-10-01

    Vitamin D-dependent rickets type II (VDDR-II; hereditary resistance to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3]), an autosomal recessive genetic disease that results from a failure to respond to 1,25-(OH)2D3, is characterized by severe rickets, hypocalcemia, growth retardation, and high prevalence of alopecia. We used amniotic fluid cells in the 17th week of gestation to detect VDDR-II in fetuses at risk for the defect. First, we demonstrated in cells obtained from 15 control pregnancies the presence of a specific high affinity 1,25-(OH)2D3 receptor (Kd = 0.3 x 10(-11) mol/L; maximal number of binding sites, 6.1 fmol/mg protein) and 1,25-(OH)2D3-induced 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-24-hydroxylase activity (up to 30-fold increase). Amniotic fluid cells from a woman who had already given birth to a child with VDDR-II contained receptors that bound [3H]1,25-(OH)2D3 normally and responded to 1,25-(OH)2D3 stimulation with a 10-fold increase in 24-hydroxylase activity. The fetus was, therefore, judged unaffected, and a normal baby girl was born. At the age of 16 months she did not demonstrate clinical or biochemical features of VDDR-II. Amniotic fluid cells from another mother of a child with VDDR-II were unable to bind [3H]1,25-(OH)2D3, and the hormone failed to stimulate 24-hydroxylase activity. VDDR-II in this fetus was confirmed after termination of pregnancy by the total inability of 1,25-(OH)2D3 to stimulate 24-hydroxylase activity in tissue explants and cell cultures prepared from the fetus's kidney and skin. In contrast, tissues from dead control fetuses responded to stimulation by 1,25-(OH)2D3 with a 3- to 10-fold increase in 24-hydroxylase activity. Fetal kidney and skin explants and cell cultures also synthesized a [3H]1,25-(OH)2D3-like metabolite from [3H]25-OHD3 as early as the 17th week of gestation. 1,25-(OH)2D3 (10 nM) decreased the in vitro synthesis of the [3H]1,25-(OH)2D3-like metabolite in tissues from dead control fetuses, but not from the affected fetus. Thus

  10. Increased renal catabolism of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in murine X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets.

    PubMed Central

    Tenenhouse, H S; Yip, A; Jones, G

    1988-01-01

    The hypophosphatemic (Hyp) mouse, a murine homologue of human X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets, is characterized by renal defects in brush border membrane phosphate transport and vitamin D3 metabolism. The present study was undertaken to examine whether elevated renal 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-24-hydroxylase activity in Hyp mice is associated with increased degradation of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] by side chain oxidation. Metabolites of 1,25(OH)2D3 were separated by HPLC on Zorbax SIL and identified by comparison with standards authenticated by mass spectrometry. Production of 1,24,25-trihydroxyvitamin D3, 24-oxo-1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, and 24-oxo-1,23,25-trihydroxyvitamin D3 was twofold greater in mitochondria from mutant Hyp/Y mice than from normal +/Y littermates. Enzyme activities, estimated by the sum of the three products synthesized per milligram mitochondrial protein under initial rate conditions, were used to estimate kinetic parameters. The apparent Vmax was significantly greater for mitochondria from Hyp/Y mice than from +/Y mice (0.607 +/- 0.064 vs. 0.290 +/- 0.011 pmol/mg per protein per min, mean +/- SEM, P less than 0.001), whereas the apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) was similar in both genotypes (23 +/- 2 vs. 17 +/- 5 nM). The Km for 1,25(OH)2D3 was approximately 10-fold lower than that for 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3], indicating that 1,25(OH)2D3 is perhaps the preferred substrate under physiological conditions. In both genotypes, apparent Vmax for 25(OH)D3 was fourfold greater than that for 1,25(OH)2D3, suggesting that side chain oxidation of 25(OH)D3 may operate at pharmacological concentrations of substrate. The present results demonstrate that Hyp mice exhibit increased renal catabolism of 1,25(OH)2D3 and suggest that elevated degradation of vitamin D3 hormone may contribute significantly to the clinical phenotype in this disorder. PMID:3339128

  11. 1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 Regulates Mitochondrial Oxygen Consumption and Dynamics in Human Skeletal Muscle Cells.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Zachary C; Craig, Theodore A; Folmes, Clifford D; Wang, Xuewei; Lanza, Ian R; Schaible, Niccole S; Salisbury, Jeffrey L; Nair, K Sreekumaran; Terzic, Andre; Sieck, Gary C; Kumar, Rajiv

    2016-01-15

    Muscle weakness and myopathy are observed in vitamin D deficiency and chronic renal failure, where concentrations of the active vitamin D3 metabolite, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1α,25(OH)2D3), are low. To evaluate the mechanism of action of 1α,25(OH)2D3 in skeletal muscle, we examined mitochondrial oxygen consumption, dynamics, and biogenesis and changes in expression of nuclear genes encoding mitochondrial proteins in human skeletal muscle cells following treatment with 1α,25(OH)2D3. The mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate (OCR) increased in 1α,25(OH)2D3-treated cells. Vitamin D3 metabolites lacking a 1α-hydroxyl group (vitamin D3, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, and 24R,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3) decreased or failed to increase OCR. 1α-Hydroxyvitamin D3 did not increase OCR. In 1α,25(OH)2D3-treated cells, mitochondrial volume and branching and expression of the pro-fusion protein OPA1 (optic atrophy 1) increased, whereas expression of the pro-fission proteins Fis1 (fission 1) and Drp1 (dynamin 1-like) decreased. Phosphorylated pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) (Ser-293) and PDH kinase 4 (PDK4) decreased in 1α,25(OH)2D3-treated cells. There was a trend to increased PDH activity in 1α,25(OH)2D3-treated cells (p = 0.09). 83 nuclear mRNAs encoding mitochondrial proteins were changed following 1α,25(OH)2D3 treatment; notably, PDK4 mRNA decreased, and PDP2 mRNA increased. MYC, MAPK13, and EPAS1 mRNAs, which encode proteins that regulate mitochondrial biogenesis, were increased following 1α,25(OH)2D3 treatment. Vitamin D receptor-dependent changes in the expression of 1947 mRNAs encoding proteins involved in muscle contraction, focal adhesion, integrin, JAK/STAT, MAPK, growth factor, and p53 signaling pathways were observed following 1α,25(OH)2D3 treatment. Five micro-RNAs were induced or repressed by 1α,25(OH)2D3. 1α,25(OH)2D3 regulates mitochondrial function, dynamics, and enzyme function, which are likely to influence muscle strength. PMID:26601949

  12. Effects of vitamin D3, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on parathyroid hormone secretion.

    PubMed

    Cantley, L K; Russell, J B; Lettieri, D S; Sherwood, L M

    1987-07-01

    The active vitamin D metabolite 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] causes marked suppression of both pre-proparathyroid hormone messenger RNA (pre-proPTH mRNA) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion. These effects are dose dependent and reversible when tested in an in vitro primary tissue culture cell system using normal bovine parathyroid cells. In the current studies, the precursors of 1,25(OH)2D3 and the related metabolite 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [24,25(OH)2D3], were used in the same culture system to test for possible regulatory effects. The results were compared with identically prepared cells exposed to 1,25(OH)2D3. In short-term studies (30-120 minutes), none of the vitamin D-related compounds produced any effect on PTH secretion. In long-term studies (24-48 hours, using primary tissue culture in the presence of test agents), neither vitamin D3 nor 25(OH)D3 affected PTH secretion or pre-proPTH mRNA over the concentration range 10(-11)-10(-7) M. On the other hand, 24,25(OH)2D3 produced significant suppression of both pre-proPTH mRNA (77% of control, P less than .01) and PTH secretion (75% of control, P less than .005) at 10(-7) M. By comparison, 10(-11) M 1,25(OH)2D3 produced levels of suppression (25-30%) of both pre-proPTH mRNA and PTH secretion comparable to 10(-7) M 24,25(OH)2D3, while even greater suppression (40-50%) occurred at 10(-9)-10(-7) M 1,25(OH)2D3. From these studies, we conclude that vitamin D3 and 25(OH)D3 do not have significant effects on PTH synthesis and secretion over the range of doses tested.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3040201

  13. Elevated 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease treated with prednisone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bikle, D. D.; Halloran, B.; Fong, L.; Steinbach, L.; Shellito, J.

    1993-01-01

    Glucocorticoid administration is a well established cause of osteopenia. Mechanisms underlying the deleterious effect of glucocorticoids on bone may include direct inhibition of bone formation as well as indirect effects through changes in intestinal calcium absorption, renal calcium excretion, and/or levels of the calciotropic hormones. To further examine the potential role of the calciotropic hormones we measured serum levels of PTH and 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D], as well as serum and urine levels of calcium and vertebral bone density in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease being managed with or without prednisone. Patients treated with prednisone had lower spinal bone density (53 vs. 106 mg/cm3) and higher serum calcium (2.40 vs. 2.33 mmol/l), urine calcium (6.9 vs. 2.7 mmol/24h), and 1,25(OH)2D levels (147 vs. 95 pmol/L). Compared to the patients not treated with glucocorticoids. PTH levels also tended to be higher (33 vs. 26 microliters-eq/ml), but the difference was not significant. Serum and urine calcium levels correlated positively with 1,25(OH)2D levels, but none of these measurements correlated with PTH levels. Our results suggest that prednisone treatment alters the regulation of 1,25(OH)2D production, and this may contribute to the loss of bone mineral induced by prednisone.

  14. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 is a negative endocrine regulator of the renin-angiotensin system

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan Chun; Kong, Juan; Wei, Minjie; Chen, Zhou-Feng; Liu, Shu Q.; Cao, Li-Ping

    2002-01-01

    Inappropriate activation of the renin-angiotensin system, which plays a central role in the regulation of blood pressure, electrolyte, and volume homeostasis, may represent a major risk factor for hypertension, heart attack, and stroke. Mounting evidence from clinical studies has demonstrated an inverse relationship between circulating vitamin D levels and the blood pressure and/or plasma renin activity, but the mechanism is not understood. We show here that renin expression and plasma angiotensin II production were increased severalfold in vitamin D receptor–null (VDR-null) mice, leading to hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy, and increased water intake. However, the salt- and volume-sensing mechanisms that control renin synthesis are still intact in the mutant mice. In wild-type mice, inhibition of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] synthesis also led to an increase in renin expression, whereas 1,25(OH)2D3 injection led to renin suppression. We found that vitamin D regulation of renin expression was independent of calcium metabolism and that 1,25(OH)2D3 markedly suppressed renin transcription by a VDR-mediated mechanism in cell cultures. Hence, 1,25(OH)2D3 is a novel negative endocrine regulator of the renin-angiotensin system. Its apparent critical role in electrolytes, volume, and blood pressure homeostasis suggests that vitamin D analogues could help prevent or ameliorate hypertension. PMID:12122115

  15. Parathyroid hormone suppression by intravenous 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. A role for increased sensitivity to calcium.

    PubMed Central

    Delmez, J A; Tindira, C; Grooms, P; Dusso, A; Windus, D W; Slatopolsky, E

    1989-01-01

    Numerous in vitro studies in experimental animals have demonstrated a direct suppressive effect of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) on parathyroid hormone (PTH) synthesis. We therefore sought to determine whether such an effect could be demonstrated in uremic patients undergoing maneuvers designed to avoid changes in serum calcium concentrations. In addition, the response of the parathyroid gland in patients undergoing hypercalcemic suppression (protocol I) and hypocalcemic stimulation (protocol II) before and after 2 wk of intravenous 1,25(OH)2D was evaluated. In those enlisted in protocol I, PTH values fell from 375 +/- 66 to 294 +/- 50 pg (P less than 0.01) after 1,25(OH)2D administration. During hypercalcemic suppression, the "set point" (PTH max + PTH min/2) for PTH suppression by calcium fell from 5.24 +/- 0.14 to 5.06 +/- 0.15 mg/dl (P less than 0.05) with 1,25(OH)2D. A similar decline in PTH levels after giving intravenous 1,25(OH)2D was noted in protocol II patients. During hypocalcemic stimulation, the parathyroid response was attenuated by 1,25(OH)2D. We conclude that intravenous 1,25(OH)2D directly suppresses PTH secretion in uremic patients. This suppression, in part, appears to be due to increased sensitivity of the gland to ambient calcium levels. PMID:2703535

  16. In vitro biological activities of a series of 2 beta-substituted analogues of 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3.

    PubMed

    Tsugawa, N; Nakagawa, K; Kurobe, M; Ono, Y; Kubodera, N; Ozono, K; Okano, T

    2000-01-01

    Biological activities of a series of 2beta-substituted analogues of 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1alpha,25(OH)2D3] were evaluated in vitro in terms of their binding affinity with regard to calf thymus cytosolic vitamin D receptor (VDR) and rat plasma vitamin D-binding protein (DBP). Additionally, reporter gene luciferase activities using either a rat 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-24-hydroxylase gene promoter, including two vitamin D-responsive elements (VDREs), in transfected rat osteoblast-like ROS17/2.8 cells, or a human VDR-GAL4 modified two-hybrid system in transfected human epitheloid carcinoma, cervix HeLa cells were examined. Binding affinity for VDR, transactivation potency on the target gene and VDR-mediated gene regulation of the hydroxyalkyl and hydroxyalkoxy 2beta-substituted analogues were almost comparable to those of 1alpha,25(OH)2D3, while the alkyl and alkenyl analogues were much less active than 1alpha,25(OH)2D3. This study investigated the biological evaluation of a series of 2beta-substituted analogues at the molecular level, with regard to the structural differences of alkyl, alkenyl, hydroxyalkyl, hydroxyalkoxy, alkoxy, hydroxy and chloro substituents at the 2beta-position of 1alpha,25(OH)2D3. PMID:10706413

  17. Biological activities of 2alpha-substituted analogues of 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in transcriptional regulation and human promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cell proliferation and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Eiji; Nakagawa, Kimie; Suhara, Yoshitomo; Kittaka, Atsushi; Nihei, Ken-ichi; Konno, Katsuhiro; Takayama, Hiroaki; Ozono, Keiichi; Okano, Toshio

    2006-11-01

    Biological activities of 2alpha-substituted 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 analogues were evaluated in vitro. Their binding affinity was examined with calf thymus cytosolic vitamin D receptor (VDR) and rat plasma vitamin D-binding protein (DBP). In addition, the transcriptional activity of the analogues was measured using a rat 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-24-hydroxylase gene promoter, a human osteocalcin gene promoter, and VDR-GAL4 system. This study investigated the biological activities of 2alpha-substituted analogues in comparison with 2beta-substitued analogues at the molecular level, with regard to the structural differences of alkyl, hydroxyalkyl, hydroxyalkoxy substituents at the 2-position of 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. PMID:17077522

  18. Transformation of 25- and 1 alpha-hydroxyvitamin D3 to 1 alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 by using Streptomyces sp. strains.

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, J; Mikami, A; Mizoue, K; Omura, S

    1991-01-01

    To enzymatically synthesize vitamin D derivatives, we screened about 300 Streptomyces sp. strains. Streptomyces sclerotialus FERM BP-1370 and Streptomyces roseoporus FERM BP-1574 were found to have the ability to convert 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and 1 alpha-hydroxyvitamin D3, respectively, to 1 alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. The average rates of 1 alpha hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 were 6.9 micrograms liter-1 min-1 with FERM BP-1370 and 7.0 micrograms liter-1 min-1 with FERM BP-1574. The specific cytochrome P-450 inhibitors carbon monoxide, SKF-525-A, and metyrapone inhibited the hydroxylation of 1 alpha- and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 to 1 alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 by FERM BP-1370 and FERM BP-1574. The cytochromes P-450 of these strains were detected by reduced CO difference spectra in the whole-cell suspensions. The appearance of cytochrome P-450 suggests that the cytochromes P-450 of FERM BP-1370 and FERM BP-1574 carry out the hydroxylation of 25- and 1 alpha-hydroxyvitamin D3 to 1 alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. PMID:1746944

  19. Photoactivable analogs for labeling 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 serum binding protein and for 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 intestinal receptor protein

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kutner, A.; Link, R. P.; Schnoes, H. K.; DeLuca, H. F.

    1986-01-01

    3-Azidobenzoates and 3-azidonitrobenzoates of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 as well as 3-deoxy-3-azido-25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and 3-deoxy-3-azido-1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 were prepared as photoaffinity labels for vitamin D serum binding protein and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 intestinal receptor protein. The compounds prepared were easily activated by short- or long-wavelength uv light, as monitored by uv and ir spectrometry. The efficacy of the compounds to compete with 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 or 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 for the binding site of serum binding protein and receptor, respectively, was studied to evaluate the vitamin D label with the highest affinity for the protein. The presence of an azidobenzoate or azidonitrobenzoate substituent at the C-3 position of 25-OH-D3 significantly decreased (10(4)- to 10(6)-fold) the binding activity. However, the labels containing the azido substituent attached directly to the vitamin D skeleton at the C-3 position showed a high affinity, only 20- to 150-fold lower than that of the parent compounds with their respective proteins. Therefore, 3-deoxy-3-azidovitamins present potential ligands for photolabeling of vitamin D proteins and for studying the structures of the protein active sites.

  20. Plasma 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentration of Dahl salt-sensitive rats decreases during high salt intake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thierry-Palmer, Myrtle; Tewolde, Teclemicael K.; Forte, Camille; Wang, Min; Bayorh, Mohamed A.; Emmett, Nerimiah L.; White, Jolanda; Griffin, Keri

    2002-01-01

    Dahl salt-sensitive rats, but not salt-resistant rats, develop hypertension in response to high salt intake. We have previously shown an inverse relationship between plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) concentration and blood pressure of Dahl salt-sensitive rats during high salt intake. In this study, we report on the relationship between high salt intake and plasma 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (24,25-(OH)(2)D) concentration of Dahl salt-sensitive and salt-resistant rats. Rats were fed a high salt diet (8%) and sacrificed at day 2, 7, 14, 21, and 28. Plasma 24,25-(OH)(2)D concentrations of salt-sensitive rats were reduced to 50% of that at baseline at day 2-when blood pressure and plasma 25-OHD concentration were unchanged, but 25-OHD content in the kidney was 81% of that at baseline. Plasma 24,25-(OH)(2)D concentration was reduced further to 10% of that at baseline from day 7 to 14 of high salt intake, a reduction that was prevented in rats switched to a low salt (0.3%) diet at day 7. Exogenous 24,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (24,25-(OH)(2)D(3)), administered at a level that increased plasma 24,25-(OH)(2)D concentration to five times normal, did not attenuate the salt-induced hypertension of salt-sensitive rats. Plasma 24,25-(OH)(2)D concentration of salt-resistant rats was gradually reduced to 50% of that at baseline at day 14 and returned to baseline value at day 28 of high salt intake. We conclude that the decrease in plasma 24,25-(OH)(2)D concentration in salt-sensitive rats during high salt intake is caused by decreased 25-OHD content in the kidney and also by another unidentified mechanism.

  1. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D Modulates Antibacterial and Inflammatory Response in Human Cigarette Smoke-Exposed Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Heulens, Nele; Korf, Hannelie; Mathyssen, Carolien; Everaerts, Stephanie; De Smidt, Elien; Dooms, Christophe; Yserbyt, Jonas; Gysemans, Conny; Gayan-Ramirez, Ghislaine; Mathieu, Chantal; Janssens, Wim

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is associated with increased inflammation and defective antibacterial responses in the airways. Interestingly, vitamin D has been shown to suppress inflammation and to improve antibacterial defense. However, it is currently unknown whether vitamin D may modulate inflammation and antibacterial defects in human cigarette smoke (CS)-exposed airways. To explore these unresolved issues, alveolar macrophages obtained from non-smoking and smoking subjects as well as human cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-treated THP-1 macrophages were stimulated with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) to address inflammatory and antibacterial responses. Although basal levels of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines did not differ between non-smoking and smoking subjects, 1,25(OH)2D did reduce levels of IL-6, TNF-α and MCP-1 in alveolar macrophages in response to LPS/IFN-γ, although not statistically significant for TNF-α and IL-6 in smokers. CSE did not significantly alter vitamin D metabolism (expression levels of CYP24A1 or CYP27B1) in THP-1 macrophages. Furthermore, stimulation with 1,25(OH)2D reduced mRNA expression levels and/or protein levels of IL-8, TNF-α and MCP-1 in CSE-treated THP-1 macrophages. 1,25(OH)2D did not improve defects in phagocytosis of E. coli bacteria or the oxidative burst response in CSE-treated THP-1 macrophages or alveolar macrophages from smokers. However, 1,25(OH)2D significantly enhanced mRNA expression and/or protein levels of the antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin in alveolar macrophages and THP-1 macrophages, independently of CS exposure. In conclusion, our results provide the first evidence that vitamin D could be a new strategy for attenuating airway inflammation and improving antibacterial defense in CS-exposed airways. PMID:27513734

  2. Clinical Characteristics Influence In Vitro Action of 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 in Human Marrow Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Shuanhu; Glowacki, Julie; Kim, Sung Won; Hahne, Jochen; Geng, Shuo; Mueller, Stefan M.; Shen, Longxiang; Bleiberg, Ilan; LeBoff, Meryl S.

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin D is important for bone health, with low vitamin D levels being associated with skeletal fragility and fractures. Among its other biological activities, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D), stimulates the in vitro differentiation of human marrow stromal cells (hMSCs) to osteoblasts, which can be monitored by increases in Alkaline Phosphatase enzyme activity or osteocalcin gene expression. In this study, we tested the hypotheses that age and clinical attributes of subjects influence in vitro responsiveness of hMSCs to 1,25(OH)2D3. In a cohort of subjects whose hMSCs were isolated from bone marrow discarded during hip replacement surgery for osteoarthritis, there were significant inverse correlations with age for bone mineral density, renal function, body mass index, fat mass index, and lean mass index (n=36–53). There were significant correlations with serum 25(OH)D for serum PTH, body mass index, fat mass index, and lean mass index (n=47–50). In vivo-in vitro correlation analyses indicated that there were significantly greater in vitro effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 to stimulate osteoblast differentiation in hMSCs obtained from subjects who were younger than 65 years of age, or who had serum 25(OH)D ≤20 ng/mL, elevated serum PTH, or better renal function, assessed by estimated glomerular filtration rate. The greater in vitro stimulation of osteoblast differentiation by 1,25(OH)2D3 in hMSCs from vitamin D-deficient subjects suggests that vitamin D repletion may lead to more vigorous bone formation in subjects at risk. PMID:22576852

  3. Effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on colonic calcium transport in vitamin D-deficient and normal rats.

    PubMed

    Favus, M J; Langman, C B

    1984-03-01

    To determine whether prior vitamin D intake influences the intestinal calcium absorptive action of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3], we measured in vitro the two unidirectional transepithelial fluxes of calcium across descending colon segments from rats fed either a vitamin D-deficient or normal diet and injected with either 10, 25, or 75 ng of 1,25(OH)2D3 or vehicle alone. Vitamin D deficiency abolished net calcium absorption [J net, -2 +/- 2 vs. 12 +/- 2 (SE) nmol X cm-2 X h-1, P less than 0.001], and 10 ng of 1,25(OH)2D3 raised J net to levels found in normal rats. Larger doses (25 and 75 ng) increased J net above levels in normal rats given the same dose. In normal rats only 75 ng of 1,25(OH)2D3 increased calcium J net above vehicle control values (12 +/- 2 vs. 38 +/- 4 nmol X cm-2 X h-1, P less than 0.001). Circulating 1,25(OH)2D3 measured by radioreceptor assay was well correlated with calcium transport. For each dose of 1,25(OH)2D3 higher serum 1,25(OH)2D3 levels were reached in vitamin D-deficient rats. Only the 75-ng dose increased circulating 1,25(OH)2D3 and colonic calcium transport in normal rats. Intravenous [3H]-1,25(OH)2D3 disappeared more rapidly from the circulation of normal rats, suggesting that accelerated metabolic degradative processes for 1,25(OH)2D3 may be present in normal but not in vitamin D-deficient rats and may account for the lack of a biological response to 1,25(OH)2D3 in normal animals. PMID:6546644

  4. The Role of the Vitamin D Receptor and ERp57 in Photoprotection by 1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3

    PubMed Central

    Sequeira, Vanessa B.; Rybchyn, Mark S.; Tongkao-on, Wannit; Gordon-Thomson, Clare; Malloy, Peter J.; Nemere, Ilka; Norman, Anthony W.; Reeve, Vivienne E.; Halliday, Gary M.; Feldman, David

    2012-01-01

    UV radiation (UVR) is essential for formation of vitamin D3, which can be hydroxylated locally in the skin to 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25-(OH)2D3]. Recent studies implicate 1,25-(OH)2D3 in reduction of UVR-induced DNA damage, particularly thymine dimers. There is evidence that photoprotection occurs through the steroid nongenomic pathway for 1,25-(OH)2D3 action. In the current study, we tested the involvement of the classical vitamin D receptor (VDR) and the endoplasmic reticulum stress protein 57 (ERp57), in the mechanisms of photoprotection. The protective effects of 1,25-(OH)2D3 against thymine dimers were abolished in fibroblasts from patients with hereditary vitamin D-resistant rickets that expressed no VDR protein, indicating that the VDR is essential for photoprotection. Photoprotection remained in hereditary vitamin D-resistant rickets fibroblasts expressing a VDR with a defective DNA-binding domain or a mutation in helix H1 of the classical ligand-binding domain, both defects resulting in a failure to mediate genomic responses, implicating nongenomic responses for photoprotection. Ab099, a neutralizing antibody to ERp57, and ERp57 small interfering RNA completely blocked protection against thymine dimers in normal fibroblasts. Co-IP studies showed that the VDR and ERp57 interact in nonnuclear extracts of fibroblasts. 1,25-(OH)2D3 up-regulated expression of the tumor suppressor p53 in normal fibroblasts. This up-regulation of p53, however, was observed in all mutant fibroblasts, including those with no VDR, and with Ab099; therefore, VDR and ERp57 are not essential for p53 regulation. The data implicate the VDR and ERp57 as critical components for actions of 1,25-(OH)2D3 against DNA damage, but the VDR does not require normal DNA binding or classical ligand binding to mediate photoprotection. PMID:22322599

  5. 1, 25 Dihydroxyvitamin D Regulation of Glucose Metabolism in Harvey-ras Transformed MCF10A Human Breast Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Wei; Tayyari, Fariba; Gowda, G. A. Nagana; Raftery, Daniel; McLamore, Eric S.; Shi, Jin; Porterfield, D. Marshall; Donkin, Shawn; Bequette, Brian; Teegarden, Dorothy

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the impact of 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) on glucose metabolism during early cancer progression. Untransformed and ras-oncogene transfected (ras) MCF10A human breast epithelial cells were employed to model early breast cancer progression. 1,25(OH)2D modified the response of the ras cells to glucose restriction, suggesting 1,25(OH)2D may reduce the ras cell glucose addiction noted in cancer cells. To understand the 1,25(OH)2D regulation of glucose metabolism, following four-day 1,25(OH)2D treatment, metabolite fluxes at the cell membrane were measured by a nanoprobe biosensor, [13C6]glucose flux by 13C-mass isotopomer distribution analysis of media metabolites, intracellular metabolite levels by NMR, and gene expression of related enzymes assessed. Treatment with 1,25(OH)2D reduced glycolysis as flux of glucose to 3-phosphoglycerate was reduced by 15% (P = 0.017) and 32% (P < 0.003) in MCF10A and ras cells respectively. In the ras cells, 1,25(OH)2D reduced lactate dehydrogenase activity by 15% (P < 0.05) with a concomitant 10% reduction in the flux of glucose to lactate (P = 0.006), and reduction in the level of intracellular lactate by 55% (P = 0.029). Treatment with 1,25(OH)2D reduced flux of glucose to acetyl-coA 24% (P = 0.002) and 41% (P < 0.001), and flux to oxaloacetate 34% (P = 0.003) and 33% (P = 0.027) in the MCF10A and ras cells, respectively, suggesting a reduction in tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle activity. The results suggest a novel mechanism involving the regulation of glucose metabolism by which 1,25(OH)2D may prevent breast cancer progression. PMID:23619337

  6. Patterns of Transcriptional Response to 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 and Bacterial Lipopolysaccharide in Primary Human Monocytes.

    PubMed

    Kariuki, Silvia N; Blischak, John D; Nakagome, Shigeki; Witonsky, David B; Di Rienzo, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D), plays an important immunomodulatory role, regulating transcription of genes in the innate and adaptive immune system. The present study examines patterns of transcriptome-wide response to 1,25D, and the bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in primary human monocytes, to elucidate pathways underlying the effects of 1,25D on the immune system. Monocytes obtained from healthy individuals of African-American and European-American ancestry were treated with 1,25D, LPS, or both, simultaneously. The addition of 1,25D during stimulation with LPS induced significant upregulation of genes in the antimicrobial and autophagy pathways, and downregulation of proinflammatory response genes compared to LPS treatment alone. A joint Bayesian analysis enabled clustering of genes into patterns of shared transcriptional response across treatments. The biological pathways enriched within these expression patterns highlighted several mechanisms through which 1,25D could exert its immunomodulatory role. Pathways such as mTOR signaling, EIF2 signaling, IL-8 signaling, and Tec Kinase signaling were enriched among genes with opposite transcriptional responses to 1,25D and LPS, respectively, highlighting the important roles of these pathways in mediating the immunomodulatory activity of 1,25D. Furthermore, a subset of genes with evidence of interethnic differences in transcriptional response was also identified, suggesting that in addition to the well-established interethnic variation in circulating levels of vitamin D, the intensity of transcriptional response to 1,25D and LPS also varies between ethnic groups. We propose that dysregulation of the pathways identified in this study could contribute to immune-mediated disease risk. PMID:26976439

  7. Mapping Variation in Cellular and Transcriptional Response to 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kariuki, Silvia N.; Maranville, Joseph C.; Baxter, Shaneen S.; Jeong, Choongwon; Nakagome, Shigeki; Hrusch, Cara L.; Witonsky, David B.; Sperling, Anne I.; Di Rienzo, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The active hormonal form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D) is an important modulator of the immune system, inhibiting cellular proliferation and regulating transcription of immune response genes. In order to characterize the genetic basis of variation in the immunomodulatory effects of 1,25D, we mapped quantitative traits of 1,25D response at both the cellular and the transcriptional level. We carried out a genome-wide association scan of percent inhibition of cell proliferation (Imax) induced by 1,25D treatment of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 88 healthy African-American individuals. Two genome-wide significant variants were identified: rs1893662 in a gene desert on chromosome 18 (p = 2.32 x 10−8) and rs6451692 on chromosome 5 (p = 2.55 x 10−8), which may influence the anti-proliferative activity of 1,25D by regulating the expression of nearby genes such as the chemokine gene, CCL28, and the translation initiation gene, PAIP1. We also identified 8 expression quantitative trait loci at a FDR<0.10 for transcriptional response to 1,25D treatment, which include the transcriptional regulator ets variant 3-like (ETV3L) and EH-domain containing 4 (EHD4). In addition, we identified response eQTLs in vitamin D receptor binding sites near genes differentially expressed in response to 1,25D, such as FERM Domain Containing 6 (FRMD6), which plays a critical role in regulating both cell proliferation and apoptosis. Combining information from the GWAS of Imax and the response eQTL mapping enabled identification of putative Imax-associated candidate genes such as PAIP1 and the transcriptional repressor gene ZNF649. Overall, the variants identified in this study are strong candidates for immune traits and diseases linked to vitamin D, such as multiple sclerosis. PMID:27454520

  8. Mapping Variation in Cellular and Transcriptional Response to 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells.

    PubMed

    Kariuki, Silvia N; Maranville, Joseph C; Baxter, Shaneen S; Jeong, Choongwon; Nakagome, Shigeki; Hrusch, Cara L; Witonsky, David B; Sperling, Anne I; Di Rienzo, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The active hormonal form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D) is an important modulator of the immune system, inhibiting cellular proliferation and regulating transcription of immune response genes. In order to characterize the genetic basis of variation in the immunomodulatory effects of 1,25D, we mapped quantitative traits of 1,25D response at both the cellular and the transcriptional level. We carried out a genome-wide association scan of percent inhibition of cell proliferation (Imax) induced by 1,25D treatment of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 88 healthy African-American individuals. Two genome-wide significant variants were identified: rs1893662 in a gene desert on chromosome 18 (p = 2.32 x 10-8) and rs6451692 on chromosome 5 (p = 2.55 x 10-8), which may influence the anti-proliferative activity of 1,25D by regulating the expression of nearby genes such as the chemokine gene, CCL28, and the translation initiation gene, PAIP1. We also identified 8 expression quantitative trait loci at a FDR<0.10 for transcriptional response to 1,25D treatment, which include the transcriptional regulator ets variant 3-like (ETV3L) and EH-domain containing 4 (EHD4). In addition, we identified response eQTLs in vitamin D receptor binding sites near genes differentially expressed in response to 1,25D, such as FERM Domain Containing 6 (FRMD6), which plays a critical role in regulating both cell proliferation and apoptosis. Combining information from the GWAS of Imax and the response eQTL mapping enabled identification of putative Imax-associated candidate genes such as PAIP1 and the transcriptional repressor gene ZNF649. Overall, the variants identified in this study are strong candidates for immune traits and diseases linked to vitamin D, such as multiple sclerosis. PMID:27454520

  9. Pro-inflammatory signaling by 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Wehmeier, Kent; Onstead-Haas, Luisa M; Wong, Norman C W; Mooradian, Arshag D; Haas, Michael J

    2016-08-01

    The vitamin D metabolite 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (24, 25[OH]2D3) was shown to induce nongenomic signaling pathways in resting zone chondrocytes and other cells involved in bone remodeling. Recently, our laboratory demonstrated that 24,25-[OH]2D3 but not 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, suppresses apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I) gene expression and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) secretion in hepatocytes. Since 24,25-[OH]2D3 has low affinity for the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and little is known with regard to how 24,25-[OH]2D3 modulates nongenomic signaling in hepatocytes, we investigated the capacity of 24,25-[OH]2D3 to activate various signaling pathways relevant to apo A-I synthesis in HepG2 cells. Treatment with 24,25-[OH]2D3 resulted in decreased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) expression and retinoid-X-receptor alpha (RXRα) expression. Similarly, treatment of hepatocytes with 50 nM 24,25-[OH]2D3 for 1-3 h induced PKCα activation as well as c-jun-N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) activity and extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) activity. These changes in kinase activity correlated with changes in c-jun phosphorylation, an increase in AP-1-dependent transcriptional activity, as well as repression of apo A-I promoter activity. Furthermore, treatment with 24,25-[OH]2D3 increased IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 expression by HepG2 cells. These observations suggest that 24,25-[OH]2D3 elicits several novel rapid nongenomic-mediated pro-inflammatory protein kinases targeting AP1 activity, increasing pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, potentially impacting lipid metabolism and hepatic function. PMID:27234962

  10. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 inhibition of col1a1 promoter expression in calvariae from neonatal transgenic mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bedalov, A.; Salvatori, R.; Dodig, M.; Kapural, B.; Pavlin, D.; Kream, B. E.; Clark, S. H.; Woody, C. O.; Rowe, D. W.; Lichtler, A. C.

    1998-01-01

    We studied the effect of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) on organ cultures of transgenic mouse calvariae containing segments of the Col1a1 promoter extending to -3518, -2297, -1997, -1794, -1763, and -1719 bp upstream of the transcription start site fused to the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter gene. 1,25(OH)2D3 had a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on the expression of the -3518 bp promoter construct (ColCAT3.6), with maximal inhibition of about 50% at 10 nM. This level of inhibition was consistent with the previously observed effect on the endogenous Col1a1 gene in bone cell models. All of the shorter constructs were also inhibited by 10 nM 1,25(OH)2D3, suggesting that the sequences required for 1, 25(OH)2D3 inhibition are downstream of -1719 bp. The inhibitory effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 on transgene mRNA was maintained in the presence of the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide, suggesting that the inhibitory effect on Col1a1 gene transcription does not require de novo protein synthesis. We also examined the in vivo effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment of transgenic mice on ColCAT activity, and found that 48 h treatment caused a dose-dependent inhibition of CAT activity in calvariae comparable to that observed in organ cultures. In conclusion, we demonstrated that 1,25(OH)2D3 inhibits Col1A1 promoter activity in transgenic mouse calvariae, both in vivo and in vitro. The results indicate that there is a 1, 25(OH)2D3 responsive element downstream of -1719 bp. The inhibitory effect does not require new protein synthesis.

  11. In vitro vitamin K(2) and 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) combination enhances osteoblasts anabolism of diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Poon, Christina C W; Li, Rachel W S; Seto, Sai Wang; Kong, Siu Kai; Ho, Ho Pui; Hoi, Maggie P M; Lee, Simon M Y; Ngai, Sai Ming; Chan, Shun Wan; Leung, George P H; Kwan, Yiu Wa

    2015-11-15

    In this study, we evaluated the anabolic effect and the underlying cellular mechanisms involved of vitamin K2 (10 nM) and 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) (10 nM), alone and in combination, on primary osteoblasts harvested from the iliac crests of C57BL/KsJ lean (+/+) and obese/diabetic (db/db) mice. A lower alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity plus a reduced expression of bone anabolic markers and bone formation transcription factors (osteocalcin, Runx2, Dlx5, ATF4 and OSX) were consistently detected in osteoblasts of db/db mice compared to lean mice. A significantly higher calcium deposits formation in osteoblasts was observed in lean mice when compared to db/db mice. Co-administration of vitamin K2 (10 nM) and 1,25(OH)2D3 (10 nM) caused an enhancement of calcium deposits in osteoblasts in both strains of mice. Vitamins K2 and 1,25(OH)2D3 co-administration time-dependently (7, 14 and 21 days) increased the levels of bone anabolic markers and bone formation transcription factors, with a greater magnitude of increase observed in osteoblasts of db/db mice. Combined vitamins K2 plus 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment significantly enhanced migration and the re-appearance of surface microvilli and ruffles of osteoblasts of db/db mice. Thus, our results illustrate that vitamins K2 plus D3 combination could be a novel therapeutic strategy in treating diabetes-associated osteoporosis. PMID:26452518

  12. Biological Evaluation of Double Point Modified Analogues of 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D₂ as Potential Anti-Leukemic Agents.

    PubMed

    Corcoran, Aoife; Nadkarni, Sharmin; Yasuda, Kaori; Sakaki, Toshiyuki; Brown, Geoffrey; Kutner, Andrzej; Marcinkowska, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Structurally similar double-point modified analogues of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D₂ (1,25D₂) were screened in vitro for their pro-differentiating activity against the promyeloid cell line HL60. Their affinities towards human full length vitamin D receptor (VDR) and metabolic stability against human vitamin D 24-hydroxylase (CYP24A1) were also tested. The analogues (PRI-1730, PRI-1731, PRI-1732, PRI-1733 and PRI-1734) contained 5,6-trans modification of the A-ring and of the triene system, additional hydroxyl or unsaturation at C-22 in the side chain and reversed absolute configuration (24-epi) at C-24 of 1,25D₂. As presented in this paper, introduction of selected structural modifications simultaneously in two distinct parts of the vitamin D molecule resulted in a divergent group of analogues. Analogues showed lower VDR affinity in comparison to that of the parent hormones, 1,25D₂ and 1,25D₃, and they caused effective HL60 cell differentiation only at high concentrations of 100 nM and above. Unexpectedly, introducing of a 5,6-trans modification combined with C-22 hydroxyl and 24-epi configuration switched off entirely the cell differentiation activity of the analogue (PRI-1734). However, this analogue remained a moderate substrate for CYP24A1, as it was metabolized at 22%, compared to 35% for 1,25D₂. Other analogues from this series were either less (12% for PRI-1731 and PRI-1733) or more (52% for PRI-1732) resistant to the enzymatic deactivation. Although the inactive analogue PRI-1734 failed to show VDR antagonism, when tested in HL60 cells, its structure might be a good starting point for our design of a vitamin D antagonist. PMID:26840307

  13. Biological Evaluation of Double Point Modified Analogues of 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D2 as Potential Anti-Leukemic Agents

    PubMed Central

    Corcoran, Aoife; Nadkarni, Sharmin; Yasuda, Kaori; Sakaki, Toshiyuki; Brown, Geoffrey; Kutner, Andrzej; Marcinkowska, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Structurally similar double-point modified analogues of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D2 (1,25D2) were screened in vitro for their pro-differentiating activity against the promyeloid cell line HL60. Their affinities towards human full length vitamin D receptor (VDR) and metabolic stability against human vitamin D 24-hydroxylase (CYP24A1) were also tested. The analogues (PRI-1730, PRI-1731, PRI-1732, PRI-1733 and PRI-1734) contained 5,6-trans modification of the A-ring and of the triene system, additional hydroxyl or unsaturation at C-22 in the side chain and reversed absolute configuration (24-epi) at C-24 of 1,25D2. As presented in this paper, introduction of selected structural modifications simultaneously in two distinct parts of the vitamin D molecule resulted in a divergent group of analogues. Analogues showed lower VDR affinity in comparison to that of the parent hormones, 1,25D2 and 1,25D3, and they caused effective HL60 cell differentiation only at high concentrations of 100 nM and above. Unexpectedly, introducing of a 5,6-trans modification combined with C-22 hydroxyl and 24-epi configuration switched off entirely the cell differentiation activity of the analogue (PRI-1734). However, this analogue remained a moderate substrate for CYP24A1, as it was metabolized at 22%, compared to 35% for 1,25D2. Other analogues from this series were either less (12% for PRI-1731 and PRI-1733) or more (52% for PRI-1732) resistant to the enzymatic deactivation. Although the inactive analogue PRI-1734 failed to show VDR antagonism, when tested in HL60 cells, its structure might be a good starting point for our design of a vitamin D antagonist. PMID:26840307

  14. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} impairs NF-{kappa}B activation in human naive B cells

    SciTech Connect

    Geldmeyer-Hilt, Kerstin; Heine, Guido; Hartmann, Bjoern; Baumgrass, Ria; Radbruch, Andreas; Worm, Margitta

    2011-04-22

    Highlights: {yields} In naive B cells, VDR activation by calcitriol results in reduced NF-{kappa}B p105 and p50 protein expression. {yields} Ligating the VDR with calcitriol causes reduced nuclear translocation of NF-{kappa}B p65. {yields} Reduced nuclear amount of p65 after calcitriol incubation results in reduced binding of p65 on the p105 promoter. {yields} Thus, vitamin D receptor signaling may reduce or prevent activation of B cells and unwanted immune responses, e.g. in IgE dependent diseases such as allergic asthma. -- Abstract: 1{alpha},25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} (calcitriol), the bioactive metabolite of vitamin D, modulates the activation and inhibits IgE production of anti-CD40 and IL-4 stimulated human peripheral B cells. Engagement of CD40 results in NF-{kappa}B p50 activation, which is essential for the class switch to IgE. Herein, we investigated by which mechanism calcitriol modulates NF-{kappa}B mediated activation of human naive B cells. Naive B cells were predominantly targeted by calcitriol in comparison with memory B cells as shown by pronounced induction of the VDR target gene cyp24a1. Vitamin D receptor activation resulted in a strongly reduced p105/p50 protein and mRNA expression in human naive B cells. This effect is mediated by impaired nuclear translocation of p65 and consequently reduced binding of p65 to its binding site in the p105 promoter. Our data indicate that the vitamin D receptor reduces NF-{kappa}B activation by interference with NF-{kappa}B p65 and p105. Thus, the vitamin D receptor inhibits costimulatory signal transduction in naive B cells, namely by reducing CD40 signaling.

  15. Patterns of Transcriptional Response to 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 and Bacterial Lipopolysaccharide in Primary Human Monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kariuki, Silvia N.; Blischak, John D.; Nakagome, Shigeki; Witonsky, David B.; Di Rienzo, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D), plays an important immunomodulatory role, regulating transcription of genes in the innate and adaptive immune system. The present study examines patterns of transcriptome-wide response to 1,25D, and the bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in primary human monocytes, to elucidate pathways underlying the effects of 1,25D on the immune system. Monocytes obtained from healthy individuals of African-American and European-American ancestry were treated with 1,25D, LPS, or both, simultaneously. The addition of 1,25D during stimulation with LPS induced significant upregulation of genes in the antimicrobial and autophagy pathways, and downregulation of proinflammatory response genes compared to LPS treatment alone. A joint Bayesian analysis enabled clustering of genes into patterns of shared transcriptional response across treatments. The biological pathways enriched within these expression patterns highlighted several mechanisms through which 1,25D could exert its immunomodulatory role. Pathways such as mTOR signaling, EIF2 signaling, IL-8 signaling, and Tec Kinase signaling were enriched among genes with opposite transcriptional responses to 1,25D and LPS, respectively, highlighting the important roles of these pathways in mediating the immunomodulatory activity of 1,25D. Furthermore, a subset of genes with evidence of interethnic differences in transcriptional response was also identified, suggesting that in addition to the well-established interethnic variation in circulating levels of vitamin D, the intensity of transcriptional response to 1,25D and LPS also varies between ethnic groups. We propose that dysregulation of the pathways identified in this study could contribute to immune-mediated disease risk. PMID:26976439

  16. Recurring hypocalcemia of bovine parturient paresis is associated with failure to produce 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D.

    PubMed

    Goff, J P; Reinhardt, T A; Horst, R L

    1989-07-01

    Parturient paresis (milk fever) is a hypocalcemic disorder caused by the onset of lactation in the dairy cow. In most cows a complete recovery follows a single iv calcium treatment to correct the acute hypocalcemia. However, about 20% of cows treated for parturient paresis experience recurring episodes of hypocalcemia (relapses) requiring further treatment. Analysis of plasma from 8 nonrelapsing parturient paretic and 11 relapsing parturient paretic cows revealed differences in plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25-(OH)2D] concentrations before and during the development of hypocalcemia. In nonrelapsing cows, plasma 1,25-(OH)2D increased to 4- to 5-fold as plasma calcium concentrations declined during the first stage of parturient paresis. In relapsing cows, decreases in plasma calcium concentrations during the first stage of parturient paresis were accompanied by just a 2- to 2.5-fold increase in plasma 1,25-(OH)2D. Plasma 1,25-(OH)2D eventually increased 4- to 5-fold in the relapsing cows, but this response was delayed 24-48 h compared with the response in the nonrelapsing cows. Plasma PTH concentration profiles were similar in relapsing and nonrelapsing cows, suggesting that renal 25-hydroxyvitamin D 1 alpha-hydroxylase was temporarily refractory to stimulation by PTH in the relapsing cows. In both groups of cows recovery from parturient paresis began about 12-24 h after plasma 1,25-(OH)2D concentrations had increased 4- to 5-fold. These data imply that lack of production of 1,25-(OH)2D is an important factor in predisposing the cow to relapses of parturient paresis and is critical for recovery from the hypocalcemia associated with the onset of lactation. PMID:2737159

  17. Distinctive anabolic roles of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) and parathyroid hormone in teeth and mandible versus long bones.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong; Guo, Jian; Wang, Lin; Chen, Ning; Karaplis, Andrew; Goltzman, David; Miao, Dengshun

    2009-11-01

    To assess the roles of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)(2)D) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) in hard tissue formation in oro-facial tissues, we examined the effect of either 1,25(OH)(2)D or PTH deficiency on dentin and dental alveolar bone formation and mineralization in the mandibles, and osteoblastic bone formation in long bones of 1alpha-hydroxylase knockout (1alpha(OH)ase(-/-)) mice. Compared with wild-type mice, the mineral density was decreased in the teeth and mandibles, and unmineralized dentin (predentin and biglycan immunopositive dentin) and unmineralized bone matrix in the dental alveolar bone were increased in 1alpha(OH)ase(-/-) mice. The dental volume, reparative dentin volume, and dentin sialoprotein immunopositive areas were reduced in 1alpha(OH)ase(-/-) mice. The cortical thickness, dental alveolar bone volume, and osteoblast number were all decreased significantly in the mandibles; in contrast, the osteoblast number and surface were increased in the trabecular bone of the tibiae in 1alpha(OH)ase(-/-) mice consistent with their secondary hyperparathyroidism. The expression of PTH receptor and IGF1 was reduced slightly in mandibles, but enhanced significantly in the long bones in the 1alpha(OH)ase(-/-) mice. To control for the role of secondary hyperparathyroidism, we also examined teeth and mandibles in 6-week-old PTH(-/-) mice. In these animals, dental and bone volumes in mandibles were not altered when compared with their wild-type littermates. These results suggest that 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) plays an anabolic role in both dentin and dental alveolar bone as it does in long bones, whereas PTH acts predominantly in long bones rather than mandibular bone. PMID:19713218

  18. Regulation of the human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide gene by 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in primary immune cells.

    PubMed

    Lowry, Malcolm B; Guo, Chunxiao; Borregaard, Niels; Gombart, Adrian F

    2014-09-01

    Production of the human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide gene (hCAP18/LL-37), is regulated by 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D3) and is critical in the killing of pathogens by innate immune cells. In addition, secreted LL-37 binds extracellular receptors and modulates the recruitment and activity of both innate and adaptive immune cells. Evidence suggests that during infections activated immune cells locally produce increased levels of 1,25D3 thus increasing production of hCAP18/LL-37. The relative expression levels of hCAP18/LL-37 among different immune cell types are not well characterized. The aim of this study was to determine the relative levels of hCAP18/LL-37 in human peripheral blood immune cells and determine to what extent 1,25D3 increased its expression in peripheral blood-derived cells. We show for the first time, a hierarchy of expression of hCAP18 in freshly isolated cells with low levels in lymphocytes, intermediate levels in monocytes and the highest levels found in neutrophils. In peripheral blood-derived cells, the highest levels of hCAP18 following treatment with 1,25D3 were in macrophages, while comparatively lower levels were found in GM-CSF-derived dendritic cells and osteoclasts. We also tested whether treatment with parathyroid hormone in combination with 1,25D3 would enhance hCAP18 induction as has been reported in skin cells, but we did not find enhancement in any immune cells tested. Our results indicate that hCAP18 is expressed at different levels according to cell type and lineage. Furthermore, potent induction of hCAP18 by 1,25D3 in macrophages and dendritic cells may modulate functions of both innate and adaptive immune cells at sites of infection. PMID:24565560

  19. 24R,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 Protects against Articular Cartilage Damage following Anterior Cruciate Ligament Transection in Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Boyan, Barbara D; Hyzy, Sharon L; Pan, Qingfen; Scott, Kayla M; Coutts, Richard D; Healey, Robert; Schwartz, Zvi

    2016-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) in humans is associated with low circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3]. In vitamin D replete rats, radiolabeled 24R,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [24R,25(OH)2D3] accumulates in articular cartilage following injection of [3H]-25(OH)D3. Previously, we showed that 24R,25(OH)2D3 blocks chondrocyte apoptosis via phospholipase D and p53, suggesting a role for 24R,25(OH)2D3 in maintaining cartilage health. We examined the ability of 24R,25(OH)2D3 to prevent degenerative changes in articular cartilage in an OA-like environment and the potential mechanisms involved. In vitro, rat articular chondrocytes were treated with IL-1β with and without 24R,25(OH)2D3 or 1α,25(OH)2D3. 24R,25(OH)2D3 but not 1α,25(OH)2D3 blocked the effects of IL-1β in a dose-dependent manner, and its effect was partially mediated through the TGF-β1 signaling pathway. In vivo, unilateral anterior cruciate ligament transections were performed in immunocompetent rats followed by intra-articular injections of 24R,25(OH)2D3 or vehicle (t = 0, 7, 14, 21 days). Tissues were harvested on day 28. Joints treated with vehicle had changes typical of OA whereas joints treated with 24R,25(OH)2D3 had less articular cartilage damage and levels of inflammatory mediators. These results indicate that 24R,25(OH)2D3 protects against OA, and suggest that it may be a therapeutic approach for preventing trauma-induced osteoarthritis. PMID:27575371

  20. Role of carbonic anhydrase in bone resorption induced by 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 in vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, G. E.; Kenny, A. D.

    1985-01-01

    The calvaria of 5-to-6-day-old mice treated with 1 x 10 to the -8th M of 1,25(OH)2D3 in vitro for 48 hours are examined in order to study the function of carbonic anhydrase in bone resorption. Calcium concentrations in the culture were measured to assess bone resorption. It is observed that 1,25(OH)2D3 effectively stimulates bone resorption in vitro and the resorption is dose-dependent. The effects of azetazolamide on 1,25(OH)2D3-induced bone resorption are investigated. The data reveal that 1,25(OH)2D3-induced calcium release is associated with an increase in the carbonic anhydrase activity of bone, and bone alkaline phosphatase activity is decreased and acid phosphatase activity is increased in response to 1,25(OH)2D3. A two-fold mechanism for 1,25(OH)2D3-induced bone resorption is proposed; the first mechanism is an indirect activation of osteoclasts and the second involves an interaction between hormone and osteoclast precursors.

  1. Targeted delivery of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 to colon tissue and identification of a major 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 glycoside from Solanum glaucophyllum plant leaves

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Duane R.; Koszewski, Nicholas J.; Hoy, Derrel A.; Goff, Jesse P.; Horst, Ronald L.

    2014-01-01

    Leaves of the Solanum glaucophyllum (Sg) plant, indigenous to South America, have long been known for their calcinogenic toxicity in ruminant animals. It was determined the leaves contained glycosidic derivatives of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D3) and liberation of the free hormone by rumen bacterial populations elicited a hypercalcemic response. Our interest in the leaves is predicated on the concept that the glycoside forms of 1,25D3 would target release of the active hormone in the lower gut of non-ruminant mammals. This would provide a means of delivering 1,25D3 directly to the colon, where the hormone has been shown to have beneficial effects in models of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and colon cancer. We fed mice for 10 days with variable amounts of Sg leaf. Feeding 7-333 ug leaf/day produced no changes in plasma Ca2+ and 1,25D3 concentrations, and only at > 1000 ug leaf/day did these values become significantly elevated compared to controls. Gene expression studies from colon tissue indicated a linear relationship between the amount of leaf consumed and expression of the Cyp24a1 gene. In contrast, Cyp24a1 gene expression in the duodenums and ileums of these mice was unchanged compared to controls. One of the major 1,25D3-glycosides was isolated from leaves following extraction and purification by Sep-Pak cartridges and HPLC fractionation. Ultraviolet absorbance was consistent with modification of the 1-hydroxyl group, and positive ion ESI mass spectrometry indicated a diglycoside of 1,25D3. 2-Dimensional NMR analyses were carried out and established the C1 proton of the A-ring was interacting with a C1’ sugar proton, while the C3 proton of the A-ring was linked with a second C1’ sugar proton. The structure of the isolated compound is therefore consistent with a beta-linked 1,3-diglycoside of 1,25D3. Thus, Sg leaf administered to mice at up to 333 ug/day can elicit colon-specific enhancement of Cyp24a1 gene expression without inducing hypercalcemia

  2. Effect of 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-(OH)2D3) metabolism in vitamin D-deficient rats infused with 1,25-(OH)2D3

    SciTech Connect

    Yamato, H.; Matsumoto, T.; Fukumoto, S.; Ikeda, K.; Ishizuka, S.; Ogata, E.

    1989-01-01

    Previous studies revealed that administration of 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (24,25-(OH)2D3) to calcium (Ca)-deficient rats causes a dose-dependent reduction in markedly elevated serum 1,25-(OH)2D3 level. Although the results suggested that the metabolism of 1,25-(OH)2D3 was accelerated by 24,25-(OH)2D3, those experiments could not define whether the enhanced metabolism of 1,25-(OH)2D3 played a role in the reduction in the serum 1,25-(OH)2D3 level. In the present study, in order to address this issue more specifically, serum 1,25-(OH)2D3 was maintained solely by exogenous administration through miniosmotic pumps of 1,25-(OH)2D3 into vitamin D-deficient rats. Thus, by measuring the serum 1,25-(OH)2D3 concentration, the effect of 24,25-(OH)2D3 on the MCR of 1,25-(OH)2D3 could be examined. Administration of 24,25-(OH)2D3 caused a dose-dependent enhancement in the MCR of 1,25-(OH)2D3, and 1 microgram/100 g rat.day 24,25-(OH)2D3, which elevated serum 24,25-(OH)2D3 to 8.6 +/- 1.3 ng/ml, significantly increased MCR and suppressed serum levels of 1,25-(OH)2D3. The effect of 24,25-(OH)2D3 on 1,25-(OH)2D3 metabolism developed with a rapid time course, and the recovery of iv injected (1 beta-3H)1,25-(OH)2D3 in blood was significantly reduced within 1 h. In addition, there was an increase in radioactivity in the water-soluble fraction of serum as well as in urine, suggesting that 1,25-(OH)2D3 is rapidly degraded to a water-soluble metabolite(s). Furthermore, the reduction in serum 1,25-(OH)2D3 was associated with a reduction in both serum and urinary Ca levels. Because the conversion of (3H)24,25-(OH)2D3 to (3H)1,24,25-(OH)2D3 or other metabolites was minimal in these rats, 24,25-(OH)2D3 appears to act without being converted into other metabolites. These results demonstrate that 24,25-(OH)2D3 rapidly stimulates the metabolism of 1,25-(OH)2D3 and reduces its serum level.

  3. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D to PTH(1–84) Ratios Strongly Predict Cardiovascular Death in Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Gruson, Damien; Ferracin, Benjamin; Ahn, Sylvie A.; Zierold, Claudia; Blocki, Frank; Hawkins, Douglas M.; Bonelli, Fabrizio; Rousseau, Michel F.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Vitamin D deficiency and hyperparathyroidism are common in patients with heart failure (HF). There is a growing body of evidence supporting the role of vitamin D and parathyroid hormone (PTH) in cardiac remodeling and worsening of HF. Lack of reliable automated testing of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D), the biologically active metabolite of vitamin D, has limited its contribution to the prognostic assessment of HF. Here, the association of 1,25(OH)2D and PTH(1–84) levels was evaluated for prediction of cardiovascular death in chronic HF patients. Methods We conducted a single center prospective cohort including 170 chronic HF patients (females n = 36; males n = 134; NYHA II-IV; mean age: 67 years; etiology: ischemic n = 119, dilated cardiomyopathy n = 51; mean LVEF: 23%). The primary outcome was cardiovascular death. Results Serum levels of 1,25(OH)2D decreased markedly with increased HF severity. Medians were 33.3 pg/mL for NYHA-II patients, 23.4 pg/mL for NYHA-III, and 14.0 pg/mL for NYHA-IV patients (p<0.001). Most patients had levels of 25(OH)D below 30ng/mL, and stratification by NYHA functional class did not show significant differences (p = 0.249). The 1,25(OH)2D to PTH(1–84) ratio and the (1,25(OH)2D)2 to PTH(1–84) ratio were found to be the most significantly related to HF severity. After a median follow-up of 4.1 years, 106 out of 170 patients reached the primary endpoint. Cox proportional hazard modeling revealed 1,25(OH)2D and the 1,25(OH)2D to PTH(1–84) ratios to be strongly predictive of outcomes. Conclusions 1,25(OH)2D and its ratios to PTH(1–84) strongly and independently predict cardiovascular mortality in chronic HF. PMID:26308451

  4. Induction of matrix Gla protein synthesis during prolonged 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 treatment of osteosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Fraser, J D; Price, P A

    1990-04-01

    The synthesis of matrix Gla protein (MGP) and bone Gla protein (BGP) have been shown to be mutually exclusive in all osteosarcoma cell lines investigated. In the cell lines that produce the respective proteins, synthesis is stimulated by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) within the first several hours of hormone treatment. In the present studies we have investigated the effects of longer-term treatment with 1,25(OH)2D3 in the ROS 17/2 cell line, a cell line that synthesizes BGP constitutively but does not synthesize MGP. In agreement with earlier studies, the rate of BGP synthesis increases within 8 hours of hormone treatment, is maximal by 24 hours, and remains at the maximal rate through 48 hours of 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment. The present study is the first to report that the rate of BGP secretion at times beyond 48 hours declines to that of control cultures despite the continued administration of 1,25(OH)2D3, and that MGP synthesis is induced in ROS 17/2 cells by 48 hours of 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment. At this time, MGP mRNA could be detected by northern blot analysis and MGP secretion could be demonstrated by radioimmunoassay of culture medium. Both the level of MGP message per unit total RNA and the rate of MGP secretion into culture medium increased steadily between 2 and 6 days of 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment. The MGP synthesized by the 1,25(OH)2D3-treated ROS 17/2 cells was identical to that found in bone by northern blot analysis of message and by western blot analysis of the media antigen. Half-maximal induction of MGP synthesis was obtained with 0.3 nM 1,25(OH)2D3, a 60-fold higher dosage than was required for the half maximal stimulation of BGP synthesis in these cells. Treatment of ROS 17/2 cells with 24,24-F21,25(OH)2D3 suggests that the observed difference in dose dependence is not due to an increased rate of hormone catabolism. PMID:2108798

  5. Role of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 dose in determining rat 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 production

    SciTech Connect

    Vieth, R.; McCarten, K.; Norwich, K.H. )

    1990-05-01

    To understand the relationships among (1) the dose of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) in vivo, (2) the activity of 1-hydroxylase in renal mitochondria, and (3) the production of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) in vivo, we gave rats different chronic or acute doses of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3). We followed the metabolism of intracardially administered (25-hydroxy-26,27-methyl-3H)cholecalciferol (25(OH)(3H)D3) for 24 h before killing by measuring extracts of serum by chromatography. Specific activity of 1-hydroxylase in kidney was measured at death. In rats given 0-2,000 pmol 25(OH)D3 chronically by mouth, there was a dose-dependent decline in the percent of serum radioactivity made up of 1,25-dihydroxy-(26,27-methyl-3H)cholecalciferol (1,25(OH)2(3H)D3) as well as a decline in mitochondrial 1-hydroxylase, and these correlated significantly (r = 0.83, P less than 0.001). Serum %1,25(OH)2(3H)D3 in this experiment ranged from 0.8 to 42%. A small part of this range could be accounted for by a faster metabolic clearance rate (MCR) of 1,25(OH)2D3 from rats supplemented with 25(OH)D3 (MCR, 2.12 +/- 0.10 ml/min) compared with rats restricted in vitamin D (MCR, 0.94 +/- 0.06 ml/min, P less than 0.001). The activity of 1-hydroxylase was by far the major factor determining serum %1,25(OH)2(3H)D3. When different acute doses of 25(OH)D3 were given to rats with identical specific activities of 1-hydroxylase, the resulting 1,25(OH)2D3 concentrations in serum correlated with the 25(OH)D3 dose (r = 0.99, P less than 0.001). We conclude that the behavior of 1-hydroxylase in vivo is analogous to the classic behavior in vitro of an enzyme functioning below its Michaelis constant (Km). The amount of 1-hydroxylase present in renal mitochondria determines the fraction (not simply the quantity) of 25(OH)D metabolized to 1,25(OH)2D3 in vivo.

  6. Vitamin D status among Thai school children and the association with 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone levels.

    PubMed

    Houghton, Lisa A; Gray, Andrew R; Harper, Michelle J; Winichagoon, Pattanee; Pongcharoen, Tippawan; Gowachirapant, Sueppong; Gibson, Rosalind S

    2014-01-01

    In several low latitude countries, vitamin D deficiency is emerging as a public health issue. Adequate vitamin D is essential for bone health in rapidly growing children. In the Thai population, little is known about serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] status of infants and children. Moreover, the association between 25(OH)D and the biological active form of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)]2D is not clear. The specific aims of this study were to characterize circulating serum 25(OH)D, 1,25(OH)2D and their determinants including parathyroid hormone (PTH), age, sex, height and body mass index (BMI) in 529 school-aged Thai children aged 6-14 y. Adjusted linear regression analysis was performed to examine the impact of age and BMI, and its interaction with sex, on serum 25(OH)D concentrations and 1,25(OH)2D concentrations. Serum 25(OH)D, 1,25(OH)2D and PTH concentrations (geometric mean ± geometric SD) were 72.7±1.2 nmol/L, 199.1±1.3 pmol/L and 35.0±1.5 ng/L, respectively. Only 4% (21 of 529) participants had a serum 25(OH)D level below 50 nmol/L. There was statistically significant evidence for an interaction between sex and age with regard to 25(OH)D concentrations. Specifically, 25(OH)D concentrations were 19% higher in males. Moreover, females experienced a statistically significant 4% decline in serum 25(OH)D levels for each increasing year of age (P = 0.001); no decline was seen in male participants with increasing age (P = 0.93). When BMI, age, sex, height and serum 25(OH)D were individually regressed on 1,25(OH)2D, height and sex were associated with 1,25(OH)2D with females exhibiting statistically significantly higher serum 1,25(OH)2D levels compared with males (P<0.001). Serum 1,25(OH)2D among our sample of children exhibiting fairly sufficient vitamin D status were higher than previous reports suggesting an adaptive mechanism to maximize calcium absorption. PMID:25111832

  7. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 Reduces Extracellular Matrix-Associated Protein Expression in Human Uterine Fibroid Cells1

    PubMed Central

    Halder, Sunil K.; Osteen, Kevin G.; Al-Hendy, Ayman

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Uterine fibroids (leiomyomas) are the most common benign tumors associated with excessive deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM)-associated proteins that increase fibroid tumorigenicity. Herein, we determined the expression levels of vitamin D receptor (VDR) protein in human uterine fibroids and compared these levels to those in adjacent normal myometrium. Using Western blot analysis, we found that more than 60% of uterine fibroids analyzed (25 of 40) expressed low levels of VDR. We also found that the biologically active 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25[OH]2D3), which functions via binding to its nuclear VDR, induced VDR in a concentration-dependent manner and reduced ECM-associated fibrotic and proteoglycans expression in immortalized human uterine fibroid cell line (HuLM). At 1–10 nM concentrations, 1,25(OH)2D3 significantly induced (P < 0.05) nuclear VDR, which was further stimulated by higher concentrations of 1,25(OH)2D3 in HuLM cells. 1,25(OH)2D3 at 10 nM also significantly reduced (P < 0.05) the protein expression of ECM-associated collagen type 1, fibronectin, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in HuLM cells. We also found that 1,25(OH)2D3 reduced mRNA and protein expressions of proteoglycans such as fibromodulin, biglycan, and versican in HuLM cells. Moreover, the aberrant expression of structural smooth muscle actin fibers was reduced by 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment in a concentration-dependent manner in HuLM cells. Taken together, our results suggest that human uterine fibroids express reduced levels of VDR compared to the adjacent normal myometrium and that treatment with 1,25(OH)2D3 can potentially reduce the aberrant expression of major ECM-associated proteins in HuLM cells. Thus, 1,25(OH)2D3 might be an effective, safe, nonsurgical treatment option for human uterine fibroids. PMID:24174578

  8. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 enhances the susceptibility of breast cancer cells to doxorubicin-induced oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Ravid, A; Rocker, D; Machlenkin, A; Rotem, C; Hochman, A; Kessler-Icekson, G; Liberman, U A; Koren, R

    1999-02-15

    1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), the hormonal form of vitamin D, has anticancer activity in vivo and in vitro. Doxorubicin exerts its cytotoxic effect on tumor cells mainly by two mechanisms: (a) generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS); and (b) inhibition of topoisomerase II. We studied the combined cytotoxic action of 1,25(OH)2D3 and doxorubicin on MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Pretreatement with 1,25(OH)2D3 resulted in enhanced cytotoxicity of doxorubicin. The average enhancing effect after a 72-h pretreatment with 1,25(OH)2D3 (10 nM) followed by a 24-h treatment with 1 microg/ml doxorubicin was 74+/-9% (mean +/- SE). Under these experimental conditions, 1,25(OH)2D3 on its own did not affect cell number or viability. 1,25(OH)2D3 also enhanced the cytotoxic activity of another ROS generating quinone, menadione, but did not affect cytotoxicity induced by the topoisomerase inhibitor etoposide. The antioxidant N-acetylcysteine slightly reduced the cytotoxic activity of doxorubicin but had a marked protective effect against the combined action of 1,25(OH)2D3 and doxorubicin. These results indicate that ROS are involved in the interaction between 1,25(OH)2D3 and doxorubicin. 1,25(OH)2D3 also increased doxorubicin cytotoxicity in primary cultures of rat cardiomyocytes. Treatment of MCF-7 cells with 1,25(OH)2D3 alone markedly reduced the activity, protein, and mRNA levels of the cytoplasmic antioxidant enzyme Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, which indicated that the hormone inhibits its biosynthesis. This reduction in the antioxidant capacity of the cells could account for the synergistic interaction between 1,25(OH)2D3 and doxorubicin and may also suggest increased efficacy of 1,25(OH)2D3 or its analogues in combination with other ROS-generating anticancer therapeutic modalities. PMID:10029076

  9. 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 and dexamethasone induce the cyclooxygenase 1 gene in osteoclast-supporting stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Adams, A E; Abu-Amer, Y; Chappel, J; Stueckle, S; Ross, F P; Teitelbaum, S L; Suva, L J

    1999-09-15

    Commitment of members of the monocyte/macrophage family to the bone resorptive phenotype, in vitro, requires contact, of these osteoclast precursors, with osteoblasts or related stromal cells. The osteoclast-inductive properties of these stromal cells are typically expressed, however, only in the presence of steroid hormones such as 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D3) and dexamethasone (DEX). To gain insight into the means by which steroid treated accessory cells induce osteoclast differentiation we asked, using differential RNA display (DRD), if gene expression by this stromal cell population differs from that of their untreated, non-osteoclastogenic counterpart. We identified four known genes specifically expressed by 1,25D3/DEX-treated ST2 stromal cells: 1) a family of rat organic anion transporters, 2) Na/K ATPase ss-subunit, 3) tazarotene-induced gene 2 (TIG2), and 4) prostaglandin G/H synthase I, or cyclooxygenase 1 (Cox-1). The regulation of these genes in 1,25D3/DEX-treated ST2 cells was demonstrated by Northern blot analysis of treated (osteoclast-supporting) and untreated (non-osteoclast-supporting) ST2 cells; the genes have a limited and specific tissue mRNA expression pattern. Northern blot analysis of treated and untreated ST2 cell total RNA using either a DRD-derived Cox-1 cDNA or a Cox-1 specific oligonucleotide confirmed the steroid regulation of Cox-1 mRNA. Surprisingly, there is no detectable expression by untreated or steroid exposed ST2 cells, of Cox-2, the classical regulated cyclooxygenase isoform. In contrast to 1, 25D3/DEX, serum treatment rapidly induces Cox-2 mRNA, substantiating the capacity of ST2 cells to express the gene. These data establish that steroid induction of the osteoclastogenic properties of stromal cells is attended by Cox gene expression, a phenomenon consistent with the capacity of eicosinoids to impact the resorptive process. The response of osteoclast-supporting ST2 cells to 1,25D3/DEX treatment may be one prostaglandin

  10. Gene-by-Diet Interactions Affect Serum 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D Levels in Male BXD Recombinant Inbred Mice.

    PubMed

    Fleet, James C; Replogle, Rebecca A; Reyes-Fernandez, Perla; Wang, Libo; Zhang, Min; Clinkenbeard, Erica L; White, Kenneth E

    2016-02-01

    1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25[OH]2D) regulates calcium (Ca), phosphate, and bone metabolism. Serum 1,25(OH)2D levels are reduced by low vitamin D status and high fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) levels and increased by low Ca intake and high PTH levels. Natural genetic variation controls serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels, but it is unclear how it controls serum 1,25(OH)2D or the response of serum 1,25(OH)2D levels to dietary Ca restriction (RCR). Male mice from 11 inbred lines and from 51 BXD recombinant inbred lines were fed diets with either 0.5% (basal) or 0.25% Ca from 4 to 12 weeks of age (n = 8 per line per diet). Significant variation among the lines was found in basal serum 1,25(OH)2D and in the RCR as well as basal serum 25(OH)D and FGF23 levels. 1,25(OH)2D was not correlated to 25(OH)D but was negatively correlated to FGF23 (r = -0.5). Narrow sense heritability of 1,25(OH)2D was 0.67 on the 0.5% Ca diet, 0.66 on the 0.25% Ca diet, and 0.59 for the RCR, indicating a strong genetic control of serum 1,25(OH)2D. Genetic mapping revealed many loci controlling 1,25(OH)2D (seven loci) and the RCR (three loci) as well as 25(OH)D (four loci) and FGF23 (two loci); a locus on chromosome 18 controlled both 1,25(OH)2D and FGF23. Candidate genes underlying loci include the following: Ets1 (1,25[OH]2D), Elac1 (FGF23 and 1,25[OH]2D), Tbc1d15 (RCR), Plekha8 and Lyplal1 (25[OH]D), and Trim35 (FGF23). This report is the first to reveal that serum 1,25(OH)2D levels are controlled by multiple genetic factors and that some of these genetic loci interact with the dietary environment. PMID:26587785

  11. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 promotes tolerogenic dendritic cells with functional migratory properties in NOD mice.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Gabriela B; Gysemans, Conny A; Demengeot, Jocelyne; da Cunha, João Paulo M C M; Vanherwegen, An-Sofie; Overbergh, Lut; Van Belle, Tom L; Pauwels, Femke; Verstuyf, Annemieke; Korf, Hannelie; Mathieu, Chantal

    2014-05-01

    The biologically active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3], is able to promote the generation of tolerogenic mature dendritic cells (mDCs) with an impaired ability to activate autoreactive T cells. These cells could represent a reliable tool for the promotion or restoration of Ag-specific tolerance through vaccination strategies, for example in type 1 diabetes patients. However, successful transfer of 1,25(OH)2D3-treated mDCs (1,25D3-mDCs) depends on the capacity of 1,25(OH)2D3 to imprint a similar tolerogenic profile in cells derived from diabetes-prone donors as from diabetes-resistant donors. In this study, we examined the impact of 1,25(OH)2D3 on the function and phenotype of mDCs originating from healthy (C57BL/6) and diabetes-prone (NOD) mice. We show that 1,25(OH)2D3 is able to imprint a phenotypic tolerogenic profile on DCs derived from both mouse strains. Both NOD- and C57BL/6-derived 1,25D3-mDCs decreased the proliferation and activation of autoreactive T cells in vitro, despite strain differences in the regulation of cytokine/chemokine expression. In addition, 1,25D3-mDCs from diabetes-prone mice expanded CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells and induced intracellular IL-10 production by T cells in vitro. Furthermore, 1,25D3-mDCs exhibited an intact functional migratory capacity in vivo that favors homing to the liver and pancreas of adult NOD mice. More importantly, when cotransferred with activated CD4(+) T cells into NOD.SCID recipients, 1,25D3-mDCs potently dampened the proliferation of autoreactive donor T cells in the pancreatic draining lymph nodes. Altogether, these results argue for the potential of 1,25D3-mDCs to restore Ag-specific immune tolerance and arrest autoimmune disease progression in vivo. PMID:24663679

  12. Modulation of the bovine innate immune response by production of 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) in bovine monocytes.

    PubMed

    Nelson, C D; Reinhardt, T A; Thacker, T C; Beitz, D C; Lippolis, J D

    2010-03-01

    In cattle, the kidney has been the only known site for production of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) [1,25(OH)(2)D(3)] from 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) [25(OH)D(3)] by 1alpha-hydroxylase (1alpha-OHase). Based on human studies, it was hypothesized that bovine monocytes could produce 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) upon activation and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) would regulate expression of vitamin D-responsive genes in monocytes. First, the effects of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) on bovine monocytes isolated from peripheral blood were tested. Treatment of nonstimulated monocytes with 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) increased expression of the gene for the vitamin D 24-hydroxylase (24-OHase) enzyme by 51+/-13 fold, but 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) induction of 24-OHase expression was blocked by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. In addition, 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) increased the gene expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and the chemokine RANTES (regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted) in LPS-stimulated monocytes 69+/-13 and 40+/-12 fold, respectively. Next, the ability of bovine monocytes to express 1alpha-OHase and produce 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) was tested. Activation of monocytes with LPS, tripalmitoylated lipopeptide (Pam3CSK4), or peptidoglycan caused 43+/-9, 17+/-3, and 19+/-3 fold increases in 1alpha-OHase gene expression, respectively. Addition of 25(OH)D(3) to LPS-stimulated monocytes enhanced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and RANTES and nitric oxide production in a dose-dependent manner, giving evidence that activated monocytes convert 25(OH)D(3) to 1,25(OH)(2)D(3). In conclusion, bovine monocytes produce 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) in response to toll-like receptor signaling, and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) production in monocytes increased the expression of genes involved in the innate immune system. Vitamin D status of cattle might be important for optimal innate immune function because 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) production in activated monocytes and subsequent upregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase and RANTES expression

  13. Isolation and identification of vitamin D3, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and 1,24,25-trihydroxyvitamin D3 in Solanum malacoxylon incubated with ruminal fluid.

    PubMed

    Skliar, M I; Boland, R L; Mourino, A; Tojo, G

    1992-12-01

    It has been shown that Solanum malacoxylon contains 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-glycoside. The presence of vitamin D3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 has also been suggested. In the present study vitamin D3 and three of its metabolites, including 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, were detected in plant leaf extracts preincubated with ruminal fluid (SMRF). Extraction of SMRF with non-polar organic solvents and purification of the lipid extract by TLC followed by HPLC yielded nine ultraviolet-absorbing (264 nm) peaks. Four of them comigrated on a Zorbax-Sil HPLC column with synthetic standards of vitamin D3, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and 1,24R,25-trihydroxyvitamin D3, respectively. These compounds were unequivocally identified by means of mass spectrometry. The results confirm that Solanum malacoxylon contains, in addition to 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, vitamin D3, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and possibly other as yet unidentified derivatives. As 1,24,25-trihydroxyvitamin D3 is absent in plant extracts not incubated with ruminal fluid, the data also indicate that rumen microbes may convert 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 into 1,24,25-trihydroxyvitamin D3. PMID:1335278

  14. Low serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in institutionalized old people: influence of solar exposure and vitamin D supplementation.

    PubMed

    Egsmose, C; Lund, B; McNair, P; Lund, B; Storm, T; Sørensen, O H

    1987-01-01

    The vitamin D status was investigated in 94 geriatric patients in a Danish long-stay ward. The influence of mobility and thus possibility of outdoor activity was studied as well as the influence of regular vitamin D intake. Serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) were significantly reduced in all groups compared with age-matched controls. In 50% of the patients hypocalcaemia and elevated levels of alkaline phosphatase and immunoreactive parathyroid hormone (iPTH) were found in combination with severely reduced serum 25-OHD values (less than 5 ng/ml) indicating the presence of osteomalacia. Supplementation with 400 IU vitamin D daily in the winter months resulted in significantly higher 25-OHD levels and normocalcaemia while slightly elevated levels of alkaline phosphatase and iPTH persisted. The serum concentrations of 25-OHD were highest in the subjects who were not confined to bed. In these patients the biochemical parameters reflecting osteomalacia were normal. Low serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels were found in the patients with low 25-OHD while 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels were within the normal range in all groups and correlated with 25-OHD. Daily vitamin D supplementation appears to be indicated for geriatric patients, especially when bedridden, even in countries where the nutritional vitamin D intake is high. PMID:3565167

  15. A Methylene Group on C-2 of 24,24-Difluoro-19-nor-1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 Markedly Increases Bone Calcium Mobilization in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Agnieszka; Massarelli, Ilaria; Thoden, James B.; Plum, Lori A.; DeLuca, Hector F.

    2015-01-01

    Four side chain fluorinated analogues of 1α,25-dihydroxy-19-norvitamin D have been prepared in convergent syntheses using the Wittig-Horner reaction as a key step. Structures and absolute configurations of analogues 3 and 5 were confirmed by X-ray crystallography. All analogues showed high potency in HL-60 cell differentiation and vitamin D-24-hydroxylase (24-OHase) transcription as compared to 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1). Most important is that all of the 20S-configured derivatives (4 and 6) had high bone mobilizing activity in vivo. However, in the 20R series, a 2-methylene group was required for high bone mobilizing activity. A change in positioning of the 20R molecule in the vitamin D receptor when the 2-methylene group is present may provide new insight into the molecular basis of bone calcium mobilization induced by vitamin D. PMID:26630444

  16. The Effect of Analogues of 1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D₂ on the Regrowth and Gene Expression of Human Colon Cancer Cells Refractory to 5-Fluorouracil.

    PubMed

    Neska, Jacek; Swoboda, Paweł; Przybyszewska, Małgorzata; Kotlarz, Agnieszka; Bolla, Narasimha Rao; Miłoszewska, Joanna; Grygorowicz, Monika Anna; Kutner, Andrzej; Markowicz, Sergiusz

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the capacity of hypocalcemic analogues of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D₂ (1,25D2) and 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D₃ (1,25D3) to inhibit regrowth and regulate the stemness-related gene expression in colon cancer cells undergoing renewal after exposure to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). All of the tested analogues of 1,25D2 equally potently decreased the clonogenicity and the proliferative activity of HT-29 cells which survived the exposure to 5-FU, but differently regulated gene expression of these cells during their renewal. 1,25D2 and analogues (PRI-1907 and PRI-1917), as well as 1,25D3 and analogue PRI-2191, decreased the relative expression level of several stemness-related genes, such as NANOG, OCT3/4, PROM1, SOX2, ALDHA1, CXCR4, in HT-29/5-FU cells during their renewal, in comparison to untreated HT-29/5-FU cells. The other 1,25D2 analogues (PRI-1906 and PRI-1916) were not capable of downregulating the expression of these stemness-related genes as the analogues PRI-1907 and PRI-1917 did. All of the tested vitamin D analogues upregulated CDH1, the gene encoding E-cadherin associated with epithelial phenotype. Out of the series of analogues studied, side-chain branched analogues of 1,25D2 (PRI-1907, PRI-1917) and the analogue of 1,25D3 (PRI-2191) might be used to target cancer cells with stem-like phenotypes that survive conventional chemotherapy. PMID:27314328

  17. The Effect of Analogues of 1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D2 on the Regrowth and Gene Expression of Human Colon Cancer Cells Refractory to 5-Fluorouracil

    PubMed Central

    Neska, Jacek; Swoboda, Paweł; Przybyszewska, Małgorzata; Kotlarz, Agnieszka; Bolla, Narasimha Rao; Miłoszewska, Joanna; Grygorowicz, Monika Anna; Kutner, Andrzej; Markowicz, Sergiusz

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the capacity of hypocalcemic analogues of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D2 (1,25D2) and 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D3) to inhibit regrowth and regulate the stemness-related gene expression in colon cancer cells undergoing renewal after exposure to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). All of the tested analogues of 1,25D2 equally potently decreased the clonogenicity and the proliferative activity of HT-29 cells which survived the exposure to 5-FU, but differently regulated gene expression of these cells during their renewal. 1,25D2 and analogues (PRI-1907 and PRI-1917), as well as 1,25D3 and analogue PRI-2191, decreased the relative expression level of several stemness-related genes, such as NANOG, OCT3/4, PROM1, SOX2, ALDHA1, CXCR4, in HT-29/5-FU cells during their renewal, in comparison to untreated HT-29/5-FU cells. The other 1,25D2 analogues (PRI-1906 and PRI-1916) were not capable of downregulating the expression of these stemness-related genes as the analogues PRI-1907 and PRI-1917 did. All of the tested vitamin D analogues upregulated CDH1, the gene encoding E-cadherin associated with epithelial phenotype. Out of the series of analogues studied, side-chain branched analogues of 1,25D2 (PRI-1907, PRI-1917) and the analogue of 1,25D3 (PRI-2191) might be used to target cancer cells with stem-like phenotypes that survive conventional chemotherapy. PMID:27314328

  18. Induction of a high phagocytic capability in P388D1, a macrophage-like tumor cell line, by 1 alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3.

    PubMed

    Goldman, R

    1984-01-01

    1 alpha, 25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25-(OH)2D3] was shown to induce a high phagocytic capability in the macrophage-like murine tumor cell line P388D1. Induction of phagocytic capability by 1,25-(OH)2D3 was dose-dependent in the range of 0.2 to 5.0 ng/ml, required the continuous presence of the secosteroid in culture, and was reversible. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 was an effective inducer only at about 500 ng/ml, while 24R,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 was ineffective. The induction of the high phagocytic capability was neither accompanied by increased synthesis of lysozyme nor closely associated with an inhibitory effect on cellular proliferation. P388D1 cells bound (without ingestion) nonopsonized sheep erythrocytes (sheep RBC), and the binding increased in 1,25-(OH)2D3-treated cells. Fc-receptor-mediated binding of immunoglobulin G-coated sheep RBC was not modulated in 1,25-(OH)2D3-treated cells, but the cells acquired an Fc-receptor-mediated phagocytic capability that was expressed only when preformed P388D1-sheep RBC rosettes were further exposed to immunoglobulin G. Several differentiation agents of myeloid leukemia cells (including dexamethasone) were not effective in inducing the high-phagocytic phenotype, while retinoic acid was very effective. Different myeloid or macrophage-like tumors (WEHI-265, J774.2, PU-5, and WEHI-3) were variable in their response to 1,25-(OH)2D3. PMID:6546302

  19. Longitudinal changes in maternal serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and insulin like growth factor I levels in pregnant women who developed preeclampsia: comparison with normotensive pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Halhali, Ali; Villa, Antonio R; Madrazo, Elsie; Soria, María Celina; Mercado, Erendira; Díaz, Lorenza; Avila, Euclides; Garabédian, Michèle; Larrea, Fernando

    2004-05-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the longitudinal changes of serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25-(OH)(2)D) and insulin like growth factor I (IGF-I) levels at 20.7, 27.6, and 35.5 week periods of gestation in 40 pregnant women who remained normotensive (NT) and in 10 women who developed preeclampsia (PE). As compared with the first period, significant increases (P < 0.01) in maternal serum 1,25-(OH)(2)D and IGF-I were observed in the NT group. In the PE group, a similar increase in serum 1,25-(OH)(2)D was observed. In contrast, significant (P < 0.05) lower IGF-I levels were observed in the PE group at the moment of diagnosis. In addition a high incidence of subjects with low increase in IGF-I levels (

  20. Protective effect of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on ethanol-induced intestinal barrier injury both in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shan-Wen; Ma, Yuan-Yuan; Zhu, Jing; Zuo, Shuai; Zhang, Jun-Ling; Chen, Zi-Yi; Chen, Guo-Wei; Wang, Xin; Pan, Yi-Sheng; Liu, Yu-Cun; Wang, Peng-Yuan

    2015-09-01

    Studies have suggested the role of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) in protecting intestinal barrier function from injuries induced by multiple reagents. Vitamin D deficiency was reported to be associated with poor prognosis in patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD). This study is designed to investigate the effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 on ethanol-induced intestinal barrier dysfunction and the underlying mechanisms utilizing Caco-2 cell monolayers and a mouse model with acute ethanol injury. In Caco-2 monolayers, ethanol significantly increased monolayer permeability, disrupted TJ distribution, increased phosphorylation level of MLC, and induced generation of ROS compared with controls. However, pre-treatment with 1,25(OH)2D3 greatly ameliorated the ethanol-induced barrier dysfunction, TJ disruption, phosphorylation level of MLC, and generation of ROS compared with ethanol-exposed monolayers. Mice fed with vitamin d-sufficient diet had a higher plasma level of 25(OH)D3 and were more resistant to ethanol-induced acute intestinal barrier injury compared with the vitamin d-deficient group. These results suggest that the suppression of generation of ROS and increased phosphorylation level of MLC might be one of the mechanisms underlying the protective effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 on ethanol-induced intestinal barrier injury and provide evidence for the application of vitamin D as therapeutic factors against ethanol-induced gut leakiness. PMID:26068064

  1. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 Protects against Immune-Mediated Killing of Neurons in Culture and in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Sloka, Scott; Zhornitsky, Simon; Silva, Claudia; Metz, Luanne M.; Yong, V. Wee

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have reported that low vitamin D levels are associated with an increased risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS). As MS is an inflammatory disorder with degeneration of axons and neurons, we examined whether the biologically active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D3), could protect against the T cell-mediated killing of human neurons in culture, and the axonal loss seen in mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Human neurons were exposed to activated human T lymphocytes and the loss of neurons was documented 24 hours later by counting the number of microtubule-associated protein-2 positive cells. Mice with EAE were harvested for counts of axonal profiles in the spinal cord. 1,25D3 was exposed to T cells in culture or administered to mice from peak EAE clinical severity when axonal loss was already evolving. Activated T lymphocytes killed human neurons prominently within 24 hours but toxicity was significantly attenuated when T cells were exposed to 1,25D3 prior to the co-culture. In EAE, 1,25D3 treatment initiated from peak clinical severity reduced the extent of clinical disability and mitigated the progressive loss of axons. The reduction of axonal and neuronal loss by 1,25D3 in the context of an inflammatory assault to the central nervous system is a potential contributor to the putative benefits of vitamin D in MS. PMID:26679341

  2. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D promotes negative feedback regulation of TLR signaling via targeting microRNA-155-SOCS1 in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yunzi; Liu, Weicheng; Sun, Tao; Huang, Yong; Wang, Youli; Deb, Dilip K; Yoon, Dosuk; Kong, Juan; Thadhani, Ravi; Li, Yan Chun

    2013-04-01

    The negative feedback mechanism is essential to maintain effective immunity and tissue homeostasis. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25[OH]2D3) modulates innate immune response, but the mechanism remains poorly understood. In this article, we report that vitamin D receptor signaling attenuates TLR-mediated inflammation by enhancing the negative feedback inhibition. Vitamin D receptor inactivation leads to hyperinflammatory response in mice and macrophage cultures when challenged with LPS, because of microRNA-155 (miR-155) overproduction that excessively suppresses suppressor of cytokine signaling 1, a key regulator that enhances the negative feedback loop. Deletion of miR-155 attenuates vitamin D suppression of LPS-induced inflammation, confirming that 1,25(OH)2D3 stimulates suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 by downregulating miR-155. 1,25(OH)2D3 downregulates bic transcription by inhibiting NF-κB activation, which is mediated by a κB cis-DNA element located within the first intron of the bic gene. Together, these data identify a novel regulatory mechanism for vitamin D to control innate immunity. PMID:23436936

  3. 1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 inhibits the differentiation and bone resorption by osteoclasts generated from Wistar rat bone marrow-derived macrophages

    PubMed Central

    WANG, DONG; GU, JIAN-HONG; CHEN, YANG; ZHAO, HONG-YAN; LIU, WEI; SONG, RUI-LONG; BIAN, JIAN-CHUN; LIU, XUE-ZHONG; YUAN, YAN; LIU, ZONG-PING

    2015-01-01

    The steroid hormone 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1α,25-(OH)2D3] plays an important role in maintaining a balance in calcium and bone metabolism. To study the effects of 1α,25-(OH)2D3 on osteoclast (OC) formation and bone resorption, OC differentiation was induced in bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells from Wistar rats with the addition of macrophage colony stimulating factor and receptor activator for nuclear factor-κB ligand in vitro. Cells were then treated with 1α,25-(OH)2D3 at 10−9, 10−8 or 10−7 mol/l. OCs were identified using tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining and activity was monitored in the absorption lacunae by scanning electron microscopy. Expression levels of functional proteins associated with bone absorption, namely carbonic anhydrase II, cathepsin K and matrix metalloproteinase-9 were evaluated by western blot analysis. The results showed that 1α,25-(OH)2D3 inhibited the formation and activation of OCs in a dose-dependent manner and downregulated the expression levels of bone absorption-associated proteins. PMID:26622436

  4. Decreased 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 receptor density is associated with a more severe form of parathyroid hyperplasia in chronic uremic patients.

    PubMed Central

    Fukuda, N; Tanaka, H; Tominaga, Y; Fukagawa, M; Kurokawa, K; Seino, Y

    1993-01-01

    The resistance of parathyroid cells to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) in uremic hyperparathyroidism is thought to be caused, in part, by a 1,25(OH)2D3 receptor (VDR) deficiency in the parathyroids. However, results of biochemical studies addressing VDR numbers in the parathyroids are controversial. Several studies have found VDR content to be decreased in the parathyroids of uremic patients and animals, while others have found no such decrease in the parathyroids of uremic animals. To clarify the role of VDR, we investigated VDR distribution in surgically-excised parathyroids obtained from chronic dialysis patients by immunohistochemistry. We classified the parathyroids as exhibiting nodular or diffuse hyperplasia. Our studies demonstrated a lower density of VDR in the parathyroids showing nodular hyperplasia than in those showing diffuse hyperplasia. Even in the parathyroids showing diffuse hyperplasia, nodule-forming areas were present; these areas were virtually negative for VDR staining. A significant negative correlation was found between VDR density and the weight of the parathyroids. These findings indicate that the conflicting results of biochemical studies may be caused by the heterogeneous distribution of VDR; the decreased VDR density in parathyroids may contribute to the progression of secondary hyperparathyroidism and to the proliferation of parathyroid cells that is seen in uremia. Images PMID:8397225

  5. A novel 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D-activin A pathway in human alveolar macrophages is dysfunctional in patients with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP).

    PubMed

    Barna, Barbara P; Malur, Anagha; Dalrymple, Heidi; Karnekar, Reema; Culver, Daniel A; Abraham, Susamma; Singh, Ravinder J; Brescia, Donald; Kavuru, Mani S; Thomassen, Mary Jane

    2009-01-01

    We have shown that activin A, a cytokine implicated in regulating B-cell proliferation, is severely deficient in alveolar macrophages from patients with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP), an autoimmune disorder characterized by surfactant accumulation and neutralizing autoantibodies to granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor. Mechanisms of activin regulation in alveolar macrophages are not well understood. Based on previous gene array results from PAP bronchoalveolar lavage cells suggesting deficiencies in vitamin D target genes, and on recent evidence of vitamin D receptor elements (VDREs) in the human activin A gene promoter, we investigated the effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (vitamin D(3)) on activin A expression in alveolar macrophages from healthy individuals and PAP patients. Activin A expression was stimulated by LPS in cultures of either healthy control or PAP alveolar macrophages; in contrast, vitamin D(3) increased activin A only in healthy controls but not in PAP. Compared to healthy controls, freshly obtained (uncultured) PAP alveolar macrophages displayed healthy intrinsic vitamin D receptor expression but deficient expression of vitamin D target genes, cathelicidin and thioredoxin interacting protein. PAP patients also demonstrated a relative insufficiency of circulating vitamin D. Investigation of activin A in murine alveolar macrophages confirmed a lack of functional response to vitamin D as anticipated since murine activin A does not contain VDREs. Results suggest that mechanisms of activin A deficiency in PAP alveolar macrophages may involve dysregulation of a novel species-specific vitamin D-activin A pathway. PMID:18803071

  6. Simultaneous Quantification of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 and 24,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 in Rats Shows Strong Correlations between Serum and Brain Tissue Levels.

    PubMed

    Xue, Ying; He, Xin; Li, Huan-De; Deng, Yang; Yan, Miao; Cai, Hua-Lin; Tang, Mi-Mi; Dang, Rui-Li; Jiang, Pei

    2015-01-01

    While vitamin D3 is recognized as a neuroactive steroid affecting both brain development and function, efficient analytical method in determining vitamin D3 metabolites in the brain tissue is still lacking, and the relationship of vitamin D3 status between serum and brain remains elusive. Therefore, we developed a novel analysis method by using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) to simultaneously quantify the concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (24,25(OH)2D3) in the serum and brain of rats fed with different dose of vitamin D3. We further investigated whether variations of serum vitamin D3 metabolites could affect vitamin D3 metabolite levels in the brain. Serum and brain tissue were analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS with electrospray ionization following derivatization with 4-phenyl-1,2,4-triazoline-3,5-dione (PTAD). The method is highly sensitive, specific, and accurate to quantify 25(OH)D3 and 24,25(OH)2D3 in animal brain tissue. Vitamin D3 metabolites in brain tissue were significantly lower in rats fed with a vitamin D deficiency diet than in rats fed with high vitamin D3 diet. There was also a strong correlation of vitamin D3 metabolites in serum and brain. These results indicate that vitamin D3 status in serum affects bioavailability of vitamin D3 metabolites in the brain. PMID:26713090

  7. Simultaneous Quantification of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 and 24,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 in Rats Shows Strong Correlations between Serum and Brain Tissue Levels

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Ying; He, Xin; Li, Huan-De; Deng, Yang; Yan, Miao; Cai, Hua-Lin; Tang, Mi-Mi; Dang, Rui-Li; Jiang, Pei

    2015-01-01

    While vitamin D3 is recognized as a neuroactive steroid affecting both brain development and function, efficient analytical method in determining vitamin D3 metabolites in the brain tissue is still lacking, and the relationship of vitamin D3 status between serum and brain remains elusive. Therefore, we developed a novel analysis method by using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) to simultaneously quantify the concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (24,25(OH)2D3) in the serum and brain of rats fed with different dose of vitamin D3. We further investigated whether variations of serum vitamin D3 metabolites could affect vitamin D3 metabolite levels in the brain. Serum and brain tissue were analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS with electrospray ionization following derivatization with 4-phenyl-1,2,4-triazoline-3,5-dione (PTAD). The method is highly sensitive, specific, and accurate to quantify 25(OH)D3 and 24,25(OH)2D3 in animal brain tissue. Vitamin D3 metabolites in brain tissue were significantly lower in rats fed with a vitamin D deficiency diet than in rats fed with high vitamin D3 diet. There was also a strong correlation of vitamin D3 metabolites in serum and brain. These results indicate that vitamin D3 status in serum affects bioavailability of vitamin D3 metabolites in the brain. PMID:26713090

  8. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 Protects against Immune-Mediated Killing of Neurons in Culture and in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Sloka, Scott; Zhornitsky, Simon; Silva, Claudia; Metz, Luanne M; Yong, V Wee

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have reported that low vitamin D levels are associated with an increased risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS). As MS is an inflammatory disorder with degeneration of axons and neurons, we examined whether the biologically active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D3), could protect against the T cell-mediated killing of human neurons in culture, and the axonal loss seen in mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Human neurons were exposed to activated human T lymphocytes and the loss of neurons was documented 24 hours later by counting the number of microtubule-associated protein-2 positive cells. Mice with EAE were harvested for counts of axonal profiles in the spinal cord. 1,25D3 was exposed to T cells in culture or administered to mice from peak EAE clinical severity when axonal loss was already evolving. Activated T lymphocytes killed human neurons prominently within 24 hours but toxicity was significantly attenuated when T cells were exposed to 1,25D3 prior to the co-culture. In EAE, 1,25D3 treatment initiated from peak clinical severity reduced the extent of clinical disability and mitigated the progressive loss of axons. The reduction of axonal and neuronal loss by 1,25D3 in the context of an inflammatory assault to the central nervous system is a potential contributor to the putative benefits of vitamin D in MS. PMID:26679341

  9. Circulating Endothelial Microparticles and Correlation of Serum 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D with Adiponectin, Nonesterified Fatty Acids, and Glycerol from Middle-Aged Men in China

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Zhongxiao; Yu, Lugang; Cheng, Jinbo; Zhang, Zengli; Xu, Baohui; Pang, Xing; Zhou, Hui; Lei, Ting

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study is (1) to determine the correlation between circulating 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and adiponectin, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs), and glycerol and (2) to determine the alterations in circulating endothelial microparticles (EMPs) in Chinese male subjects with increased body mass index (BMI). A total of 45 male adults were enrolled with varied BMI [i.e., lean, overweight (OW), and obese (OB), N = 15 per group]. Blood samples were collected under overnight fasting condition, and plasma was isolated for the measurement of endothelial microparticles (EMPs), total and high-molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin, 25(OH)D, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs), and glycerol. Circulating 25(OH)D levels were inversely associated with total adiponectin, NEFA, and glycerol levels. There is no difference for CD62E+ or CD31+/CD42b− EMPs among 3 groups. In Chinese male adults with varied BMI, an inverse correlation existed between 25(OH)D levels and total adiponectin, NEFA, and glycerol levels; and there is no significant difference for CD62E+ or CD31+/CD42b− EMPs among lean, overweight, and obese subjects. PMID:27314039

  10. Human keratinocyte line HaCaT metabolizes 1alpha-hydroxyvitamin D3 and vitamin D3 to 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (calcitriol).

    PubMed

    Lehmann, B; Pietzsch, J; Kämpf, A; Meurer, M

    1998-11-01

    Cultured human keratinocytes have the property to hydroxylate exogenous 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD3) at the C-1alpha position thus producing 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1alpha,25(OH)2D3). In this study we investigated whether keratinocytes can also hydroxylate vitamin D3 and one of its metabolites at the C-25 position. We could demonstrate that HaCaT keratinocytes can metabolize 1alpha-hydroxyvitamin D3 (1alpha-OHD3) and vitamin D3 to 1alpha,25(OH)2D3. Identification of the generated product as 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 was based on its elution pattern in two different high performance liquid chromatography systems, on its specific binding in a calf thymus receptor assay and on its gas chromatography-mass spectrometry characteristics. The hydroxylation of vitamin D3 to 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 was dose- and time-dependent. Bovine serum albumin added up to 1.5% (w/v) to the culture medium greatly increased the hydroxylation rates. These results show that HaCaT cells have the capacity to hydroxylate vitamin D3 at the C-1/25 positions. The generation of endogenous 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 from vitamin D3 within the skin may indicate a novel pathway which is of importance for the regulation of epidermal cell growth and differentiation. PMID:9833978

  11. 1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 reduces cerebral amyloid-β accumulation and improves cognition in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Durk, Matthew R; Han, Kyung; Chow, Edwin C Y; Ahrens, Rosemary; Henderson, Jeffrey T; Fraser, Paul E; Pang, K Sandy

    2014-05-21

    We demonstrate a role of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) in reducing cerebral soluble and insoluble amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides. Short-term treatment of two human amyloid precursor protein-expressing models, Tg2576 and TgCRND8 mice, with 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3], the endogenous active ligand of VDR, resulted in higher brain P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and lower soluble Aβ levels, effects negated with coadministration of elacridar, a P-gp inhibitor. Long-term treatment of TgCRND8 mice with 1,25(OH)2D3 during the period of plaque formation reduced soluble and insoluble plaque-associated Aβ, particularly in the hippocampus in which the VDR is abundant and P-gp induction is greatest after 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment, and this led to improved conditioned fear memory. In mice fed a vitamin D-deficient diet, lower cerebral P-gp expression was observed, but levels were restored on replenishment with VDR ligands. The composite data suggest that the VDR is an important therapeutic target in the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:24849345

  12. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 alleviates salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma progression by suppressing GPX1 expression through the NF-κB pathway.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhiquan; Liu, Yeqing; Huang, Zixian; Li, Haifeng; Gan, Xiangfeng; Shen, Zhuojian

    2016-03-01

    1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D3) is the active form of vitamin D with antineoplastic effects. The glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPX1) gene is associated with tumour progression. The present study aimed to explore the role of GPX1 in 1,25D3-mediated progression of salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma (SACC). Downregulating GPX1 expression inhibited SACC cell proliferation, chemoresistance, motility, and uPA secretion, but promoted apoptosis via the NF-κB pathway. Pre-processing 1,25D3 inhibited expression of NF-κB/GPX1/uPA, which subsequently suppressed cell motility and cisplatin-resistance in ACC-2 cells. In conclusion, 1,25D3 works as a modifier of NF-κB/GPX1/uPA expression, inhibiting cisplatin-resistance and cell invasive ability of SACC cells. The present study comprehensively elucidated the potential mechanism underlying the effects of vitamin D on chemoresistance and invasive potential in SACC. PMID:26782341

  13. Relationship between Structure and Conformational Change of the Vitamin D Receptor Ligand Binding Domain in 1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 Signaling.

    PubMed

    Wan, Lin-Yan; Zhang, Yan-Qiong; Chen, Meng-Di; Du, You-Qin; Liu, Chang-Bai; Wu, Jiang-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D Receptor (VDR) belongs to the nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily. Whereas the structure of the ligand binding domain (LBD) of VDR has been determined in great detail, the role of its amino acid residues in stabilizing the structure and ligand triggering conformational change is still under debate. There are 13 α-helices and one β-sheet in the VDR LBD and they form a three-layer sandwich structure stabilized by 10 residues. Thirty-six amino acid residues line the ligand binding pocket (LBP) and six of these residues have hydrogen-bonds linking with the ligand. In 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D₃ signaling, H3 and H12 play an important role in the course of conformational change resulting in the provision of interfaces for dimerization, coactivator (CoA), corepressor (CoR), and hTAFII 28. In this paper we provide a detailed description of the amino acid residues stabilizing the structure and taking part in conformational change of VDR LBD according to functional domains. PMID:26593892

  14. Inhibition of Lung Carcinogenesis by 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and 9-cis Retinoic Acid in the A/J Mouse Model: Evidence of Retinoid Mitigation of Vitamin D Toxicity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    9-cis-retinoic acid (9cRA) and 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D) show promise as potential chemopreventive agents. We examined 9cRA and 1,25D, alone and in combination, for their potential to inhibit carcinogen (NNK)-induced lung carcinogenesis in A/J mice. A/J mice (n=14/group) were treated wit...

  15. Expression of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase is Up-Regulated by Production of 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 in Bovine Monocytes in Response to Toll-Like Receptor Signaling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the endocrine pathway of vitamin D signaling 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] is produced from 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3] by the enzyme CYP27B1 in the kidney. Production of 1,25(OH)2D3 in the kidney functions to regulate gene expression systemically. However, recent studies have show...

  16. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 and extracellular calcium promote mineral deposition via NPP1 activity in a mature osteoblast cell line MLO-A5.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dongqing; Turner, Andrew G; Wijenayaka, Asiri R; Anderson, Paul H; Morris, Howard A; Atkins, Gerald J

    2015-09-01

    While vitamin D supplementation is common, the anabolic mechanisms that improve bone status are poorly understood. Under standard mineralising conditions including media ionised calcium of 1.1 mM, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D) enhanced differentiation and mineral deposition by the mature osteoblast/pre-osteocyte cell line, MLO-A5. This effect was markedly increased with a higher ionised calcium level (1.5 mM). Gene expression analyses revealed that 1,25D-induced mineral deposition was associated with induction of Enpp1 mRNA, coding for nucleotide pyrophosphatase phosphodiesterase 1 (NPP1) and NPP1 protein levels. Since MLO-A5 cells express abundant alkaline phosphatase that was not further modified by 1,25D treatment or exposure to increased calcium, this finding suggested that the NPP1 production of pyrophosphate (PPi) may provide alkaline phosphatase with substrate for the generation of inorganic phosphate (Pi). Consistent with this, co-treatment with Enpp1 siRNA or a NPP1 inhibitor, PPADS, abrogated 1,25D-induced mineral deposition. These data demonstrate that 1,25D stimulates osteoblast differentiation and mineral deposition, and interacts with the extracellular calcium concentration. 1,25D regulates Enpp1 expression, which presumably, in the context of adequate tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase activity, provides Pi to stimulate mineralisation. Our findings suggest a mechanism by which vitamin D with adequate dietary calcium can improve bone mineral status. PMID:26054750

  17. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 Deficiency is Involved in the Pathogenesis of Diabetic Retinopathy in the Uygur Population of China.

    PubMed

    Yi, Xianglong; Sun, Jialin; Li, Li; Wei, Qin; Qian, Yi; Chen, Xueyi; Ma, Ling

    2016-06-01

    1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2 D3 ] has recently been shown to have immunomodulatory property. This study aimed to investigate the expression and potential role of 1,25(OH)2 D3 in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in the Uygur population. Blood samples were obtained from 22 patients with proliferative DR (PDR), 29 patients with nonproliferative DR (NPDR), and 24 normal controls. ELISA was performed to estimate the serum levels of 1,25(OH)2 D3 . Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were cultured with or without 1,25(OH)2 D3 in the presence of anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 antibodies to detect the secretion of cytokines and cell proliferation. The FACS cytometric bead array system was used to analyze cytokine levels in the serum and culture supernatants. The Cell Counting Kit was used to determine the rate of cell proliferation. In this study, we found that the patients with PDR showed a decreased serum level of 1,25(OH)2 D3 and increased production of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-17A, by anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 antibodies activated PBMCs. Furthermore, 1,25(OH)2 D3 significantly inhibited the proliferation of PBMCs, as well as the secretion of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-17A. Overall, our findings suggest a potential protective effect of 1,25(OH)2 D3 in DR, whereas supplementation with 1,25(OH)2 D3 might be an effective strategy for preventing the development of DR. © 2016 IUBMB Life, 68(6):445-451, 2016. PMID:27080220

  18. Isoforms of p38MAPK gamma and delta contribute to differentiation of human AML cells induced by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Harrison, Jonathan S; Studzinski, George P.

    2010-01-01

    Inhibition of p38MAPK alpha/beta is known to enhance 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin (1,25D)-induced monocytic differentiation, but the detailed mechanism of this effect was not clear. We now show that the enhancement of differentiation becomes apparent with slow kinetics (12-24h). Interestingly, the inhibition of p38MAPK alpha/beta by their selective inhibitor SB202190 (SB) leads to an upregulated expression of p38MAPK isoforms gamma and delta in 1,25D-treated AML cells, in cell lines and in primary culture. Although the expression and activating phosphorylations of p38MAPK alpha are also increased by an exposure of the cells to SB, its kinase activity is blocked by SB, as shown by reduced levels of phosphorylated Hsp27, a downstream target of p38MAPK alpha. A positive role of p38MAPKs in 1,25D-induced differentiation is shown by the inhibition of differentiation by antisense oligonucleotides to all p38MAPK isoforms. Other principal branches of MAPK pathways showed early (6h) activation of MEK/ERK by SB, followed by activation of JNK1/2 pathway and enhanced expression and/or activation of PU.1, ATF-2 differentiation-related transcription factors. Taken together with previous reports, the results indicate that 1,25D-induced differentiation is enhanced by the activation of at least three branches of MAPK pathways (ERK1/2; p38MAPK gamma/delta; JNK1/2). This activation may result from the removal of feedback inhibition of an upstream regulator of those pathways, when p38MAPK alpha and beta are inhibited by SB. PMID:20804750

  19. No Effect of the 1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 on β-Cell Residual Function and Insulin Requirement in Adults With New-Onset Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Markus; Kaupper, Thomas; Adler, Kerstin; Foersch, Johannes; Bonifacio, Ezio; Ziegler, Anette-G.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether daily intake of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] is safe and improves β-cell function in patients with recently diagnosed type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Safety was assessed in an open study of 25 patients aged 18–39 years with recent-onset type 1 diabetes who received 0.25 μg 1,25(OH)2D3 daily for 9 months. An additional 40 patients were randomly assigned to 0.25 μg 1,25(OH)2D3 or placebo daily for 9 months and followed for a total of 18 months for safety, β-cell function, insulin requirement, and glycemic control. RESULTS Safety assessment showed values in the normal range in nearly all patients, regardless of whether they received 1,25(OH)2D3 or placebo. No differences in AUC C-peptide, peak C-peptide, and fasting C-peptide after a mixed-meal tolerance test between the treatment and placebo groups were observed at 9 and 18 months after study entry, with ∼40% loss for each parameter over the 18-month period. A1C and daily insulin requirement were similar between treatment and placebo groups throughout the study follow-up period. CONCLUSIONS Treatment with 1,25(OH)2D3 at a daily dose of 0.25 μg was safe but did not reduce loss of β-cell function. PMID:20357369

  20. Tumor suppressor microRNAs, miR-100 and -125b, are regulated by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in primary prostate cells and in patient tissue

    PubMed Central

    Giangreco, Angeline A; Vaishnav, Avani; Wagner, Dennis; Finelli, Antonio; Fleshner, Neil; Van der Kwast, Theodorus; Vieth, Reinhold; Nonn, Larisa

    2013-01-01

    MiR-100 and miR-125b are lost in many cancers and have potential function as tumor suppressors. Using both primary prostatic epithelial cultures and laser-capture-microdissected prostate epithelium from 45 patients enrolled in a vitamin D3 randomized trial, we identified miR-100 and -125b as targets of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D). In patients, miR-100 and -125b levels were significantly lower in tumor tissue than in benign prostate. Similarly, miR-100 and -125b were lower in primary PCa cells than in cells derived from benign prostate. Prostatic concentrations of 1,25D positively correlated with these miRNA levels in both PCa and benign epithelium, demonstrating that PCa patients may still benefit from vitamin D3. In cell assays, upregulation of these miRNAs by 1,25D was vitamin D receptor-dependent. Transfection of pre-miR-100 and pre-miR-125b in the presence or absence of 1,25D decreased invasiveness of cancer cell, RWPE-2. Pre-miR-100 and pre-miR-125b decreased proliferation in primary cells and cancer cells respectively. Pre-miR-125b transfection suppressed migration and clonal growth of PCa cells while knockdown of miR-125b in normal cells increased migration indicates a tumor suppressor function. 1,25D suppressed expression of previously bona fide mRNA targets of these miRNAs, E2F3 and Plk1, in a miRNA-dependent manner. Together, these findings demonstrate that vitamin D3 supplementation augments tumor suppressive miRNAs in patient prostate tissue, providing evidence that miRNAs could be key physiologic mediators of vitamin D3 activity in prevention and early treatment of PCa. PMID:23503652

  1. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 regulates the development of chronic colitis by modulating both T helper (Th)1 and Th17 activation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Wu, Hui; Liu, Lei; Li, Hui; Shih, David Q; Zhang, Xiaolan

    2015-06-01

    T helper (Th)1 and Th17 cells play a critical role in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2 D3 ) has emerged as a direct regulator of immune system function. Mice were grouped as follows: Control group (received PBS, n = 10), DSS group (received 2% DSS and PBS, n = 10), and DSS+VD group (received 2% DSS and 1,25(OH)2 D3 , n = 10). The disease activity index (DAI), colon length, and damage store of the mice were observed; the spleen length, weight, spleen index, and mononuclear cells of spleen were measured; mononuclear cells from mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) were measured, and the levels of Th 1 and Th17 cytokines in the colon mucosa and spleen were measured. Mice in the DSS group developed severe diarrhea, rectal bleeding, and marked BW loss. Histological examination revealed extensive ulceration and inflammatory cell infiltration in the colon, and the structure of the spleen was disordered, infiltrated with inflammatory cytokines in red pulp. In the DSS group, mononuclear cell numbers from MLN and spleen were increased, and enhanced proteins and mRNA levels of Th 1 and Th17 cytokines were detected. In the DSS+VD group, 1,25(OH)2 D3 ameliorated the inflammation of the colon and spleen. In addition, 1,25(OH)2 D3 down-regulated the levels of Th 1 and Th17 cytokines. 1,25(OH)2 D3 represents a novel therapeutic drug for UC, which may correlate to inhibit the activation of Th1 and Th17 cells. PMID:25907285

  2. Conformational change and enhanced stabilization of the vitamin D receptor by the 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 analog KH1060.

    PubMed Central

    van den Bemd, G C; Pols, H A; Birkenhäger, J C; van Leeuwen, J P

    1996-01-01

    The 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25-(OH)2vitamin D3] analog KH1060 exerts very potent effects on cell proliferation and cell differentiation via the vitamin D receptor (VDR). However, the activities of KH1060 are not associated with an increased affinity for the VDR. We now show that increased stabilization of the VDR-KH1060 complex could be an explanation for its high potencies. VDR half-life studies performed with cycloheximide-translational blocked rat osteoblast-like ROS 17/2.8 cells demonstrated that, in the absence of ligand, VDR levels rapidly decreased. After 2 hr, less than 10% of the initial VDR level could be measured. In the presence of 1,25-(OH)2vitamin D3, the VDR half-life was 15 hr. After 24 hr. less than 20% of the initial VDR content was detectable, whereas, at this time-point, when the cells were incubated with KH1060 80% of the VDR was still present. Differences in 1,25-(OH)2vitamin D3- and KH1060-induced conformational changes of the VDR could underlie the increased VDR stability. As assessed by limited proteolytic digestion analysis, both 1,25-(OH)2vitamin D3 and KH1060 caused a specific conformational change of the VDR. Compared with 1,25-(OH)2vitamin D3, KH1060 induced a conformational change that led to a far more dramatic protection of the VDR against proteolytic degradation. In conclusion, the altered VDR stability and the possibly underlying change in VDR conformation caused by KH1060 could be an explanation for its enhanced bioactivity. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 7 PMID:8855240

  3. Evidence for 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-independent transactivation by the vitamin D receptor: uncoupling the receptor and ligand in keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Ellison, Tara I; Eckert, Richard L; MacDonald, Paul N

    2007-04-13

    The vitamin D endocrine system plays critical although poorly understood roles in skin. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) knock-out (VDRKO) mice have defects in hair follicle cycling and keratinocyte proliferation leading to epidermal thickening, dermal cyst formation, and alopecia. Surprisingly, skin defects are not apparent in mice lacking 25-hydroxyvitamin D 1alpha-hydroxylase, the enzyme required for 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) hormone biosynthesis. These disparate phenotypes indicate that VDR effects in skin are independent of the 1,25(OH)2D3 ligand. However, cellular or molecular data supporting this hypothesis are lacking. Here, we show transcriptional activation of the vitamin D-responsive 24-hydroxylase promoter by VDR in primary keratinocytes that is independent of the 1,25(OH)2D3 ligand. This activity required functional vitamin D-responsive promoter elements as well as an intact VDR DNA binding domain and thus could not be distinguished from 1,25(OH)2D3-dependent VDR transactivation. The 1,25(OH)2D3-independent activation of VDR was also observed in keratinocytes from 1alpha-hydroxylase knock-out mice, indicating that it is not due to endogenous 1,25(OH)2D3 production. Mammalian two-hybrid studies showed strong, 1,25(OH)2D3-independent interaction between VDR and retinoid X receptors in primary keratinocytes, indicating that enhanced heterodimerization of these receptors was involved. Indeed, this 1,25(OH)2D3-independent VDR-RXR heterodimerization was sufficient to drive transactivation by VDR(L233S), an inactive ligand binding mutant of VDR that was previously shown to rescue the skin phenotype of VDR null mice. Cumulatively, these studies support the concept that transactivation by VDR in keratinocytes may be uncoupled from the 1,25(OH)2D3 ligand. PMID:17310066

  4. 1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 Inhibits C4-2 Prostate Cancer Cell Growth via a Retinoblastoma Protein (Rb)-Independent G1 Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Washington, Michele N.; Kim, Jung-Sun; Weigel, Nancy L.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND The active metabolite of vitamin D, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D) reduces the growth of several prostate cancer cell lines, most commonly by inducing a cell cycle arrest in G1. This is mediated, in part, through down-regulation of c-Myc, a positive regulator of the transcription factor, E2F. There is evidence that prostate cancer cells lacking functional retinoblastoma protein (Rb), a negative regulator of E2F activity, are poorly responsive to 1,25D treatment. Since up to 60% of prostate cancers demonstrate a loss of heterozygosity for Rb, we sought to determine whether Rb is required for the growth inhibitory effects of 1,25D. METHODS Using siRNA, Rb was reduced in C4-2 prostate cancer cells, and the response of cells to 1,25D treatment or depletion of c-myc measured by [3H]-thymidine incorporation and flow cytometry. The effects of 1,25D treatment on E2F levels and activity, and E2F target gene expression were also measured. RESULTS 1,25D treatment and c-Myc depletion both cause a G1 arrest inhibiting C4-2 cell proliferation independently of Rb. 1,25D reduces c-Myc expression and causes a decrease in E2F and E2F target genes. Bcl-2, an E2F target and positive regulator of C4-2 cell growth, also is down-regulated by 1,25D independently of Rb. CONCLUSIONS Redundant growth inhibitory pathways compensate for the loss of Rb, and tumors lacking functional Rb may be responsive to 1,25D. PMID:20632309

  5. The differential effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on Salmonella-induced interleukin-8 and human beta-defensin-2 in intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, F-C

    2016-07-01

    Salmonellosis or Salmonella, one of the most common food-borne diseases, remains a major public health problem worldwide. Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) play an essential role in the mucosal innate immunity of the host to defend against the invasion of Salmonella by interleukin (IL)-8 and human β-defensin-2 (hBD-2). Accumulated research has unravelled important roles of vitamin D in the regulation of innate immunity. Therefore, we investigated the effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D3) on Salmonella-induced innate immunity in IECs. We demonstrate that pretreatment of 1,25D3 results in suppression of Salmonella-induced IL-8 but enhancement of hBD-2, either protein secretion and mRNA expression, in IECs. Furthermore, 1,25D3 enhanced Salmonella-induced membranous recruitment of nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD2) and its mRNA expression and activation of protein kinase B (Akt), a downstream effector of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). Inhibition of the PI3K/Akt signal counteracted the suppressive effect of 1,25D3 on Salmonella-induced IL-8 expression, while knock-down of NOD2 by siRNA diminished the enhanced hBD-2 expression. These data suggest differential regulation of 1,25D3 on Salmonella-induced IL-8 and hBD-2 expression in IECs via PI3K/Akt signal and NOD2 protein expression, respectively. Active vitamin D-enhanced anti-microbial peptide in Salmonella-infected IECs protected the host against infection, while modulation of proinflammatory responses by active vitamin D prevented the host from the detrimental effects of overwhelming inflammation. Thus, active vitamin D-induced innate immunity in IECs enhances the host's protective mechanism, which may provide an alternative therapy for invasive Salmonella infection. PMID:26990648

  6. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 and its analog TX527 promote a stable regulatory T cell phenotype in T cells from type 1 diabetes patients.

    PubMed

    Van Belle, Tom L; Vanherwegen, An-Sofie; Feyaerts, Dorien; De Clercq, Pierre; Verstuyf, Annemieke; Korf, Hannelie; Gysemans, Conny; Mathieu, Chantal

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of regulatory T cells (Tregs) as central mediators of peripheral tolerance in the immune system has led to an important area of clinical investigation to target these cells for the treatment of autoimmune diseases such as type 1 diabetes. We have demonstrated earlier that in vitro treatment of T cells from healthy individuals with TX527, a low-calcemic analog of bioactive vitamin D, can promote a CD4+ CD25high CD127low regulatory profile and imprint a migratory signature specific for homing to sites of inflammation. Towards clinical application of vitamin D-induced Tregs in autologous adoptive immunotherapy for type 1 diabetes, we show here that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] and TX527 similarly imprint T cells from type 1 diabetes patients with a CD4+ CD25high CD127low regulatory profile, modulate surface expression of skin- and inflammation-homing receptors, and increase expression of CTLA-4 and OX-40. Also, 1,25(OH)2D3 and TX527 treatment inhibit the production of effector cytokines IFN-γ, IL-9, and IL-17. Importantly, 1,25(OH)2D3 and TX527 promote the induction of IL-10-producing CD4+ CD25high CD127low T cells with a stable phenotype and the functional capacity to suppress proliferation of autologous responder T cells in vitro. These findings warrant additional validation of vitamin D-induced Tregs in view of future autologous adoptive immunotherapy in type 1 diabetes. PMID:25279717

  7. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 and Its Analog TX527 Promote a Stable Regulatory T Cell Phenotype in T Cells from Type 1 Diabetes Patients

    PubMed Central

    De Clercq, Pierre; Verstuyf, Annemieke; Korf, Hannelie; Gysemans, Conny; Mathieu, Chantal

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of regulatory T cells (Tregs) as central mediators of peripheral tolerance in the immune system has led to an important area of clinical investigation to target these cells for the treatment of autoimmune diseases such as type 1 diabetes. We have demonstrated earlier that in vitro treatment of T cells from healthy individuals with TX527, a low-calcemic analog of bioactive vitamin D, can promote a CD4+CD25highCD127low regulatory profile and imprint a migratory signature specific for homing to sites of inflammation. Towards clinical application of vitamin D-induced Tregs in autologous adoptive immunotherapy for type 1 diabetes, we show here that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] and TX527 similarly imprint T cells from type 1 diabetes patients with a CD4+CD25highCD127low regulatory profile, modulate surface expression of skin- and inflammation-homing receptors, and increase expression of CTLA-4 and OX-40. Also, 1,25(OH)2D3 and TX527 treatment inhibit the production of effector cytokines IFN-γ, IL-9, and IL-17. Importantly, 1,25(OH)2D3 and TX527 promote the induction of IL-10-producing CD4+CD25highCD127low T cells with a stable phenotype and the functional capacity to suppress proliferation of autologous responder T cells in vitro. These findings warrant additional validation of vitamin D-induced Tregs in view of future autologous adoptive immunotherapy in type 1 diabetes. PMID:25279717

  8. A new insight into the role of rat cytochrome P450 24A1 in metabolism of selective analogs of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3

    PubMed Central

    Rhieu, Steve Y.; Annalora, Andrew J.; Gathungu, Rose M.; Vouros, Paul; Uskokovic, Milan R.; Schuster, Inge; Palmore, G. Tayhas R.; Reddy, G. Satyanarayana

    2012-01-01

    We examined the metabolism of two synthetic analogs of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1), namely 1α,25-dihydroxy-16-ene-23-yne-vitamin D3 (2) and 1α,25-dihydroxy-16-ene-23-yne-26,27-dimethyl-vitamin D3 (4) using rat cytochrome P450 24A1 (CYP24A1) in a reconstituted system. We noted that 2 is metabolized into a single metabolite identified as C26-hydroxy-2 while 4 is metabolized into two metabolites, identified as C26-hydroxy-4 and C26a-hydroxy-4. The structural modification of adding methyl groups to the side chain of 1 as in 4 is also featured in another analog, 1α,25-dihydroxy-22,24-diene-24,26,27-trihomo-vitamin D3 (6). In a previous study, 6 was shown to be metabolized exactly like 4, however, the enzyme responsible for its metabolism was found to be not CYP24A1. To gain a better insight into the structural determinants for substrate recognition of different analogs, we performed an in silico docking analysis using the crystal structure of rat CYP24A1 that had been solved for the substrate-free open form. Whereas analogs 2 and 4 docked similar to 1, 6 showed altered interactions for both the A-ring and side chain, despite prototypical recognition of the CD-ring. These findings hint that CYP24A1 metabolizes selectively different analogs of 1, based on their ability to generate discrete recognition cues required to close the enzyme and trigger the catalytic mechanism. PMID:21338573

  9. Development of a Sensitive LC/MS/MS Method for Vitamin D Metabolites: 1,25 Dihydroxyvitamin D2&3 Measurement Using a Novel Derivatization Agent

    PubMed Central

    Hedman, Curtis J.; Wiebe, Donald A.; Dey, Subhakar; Plath, Josh; Kemnitz, Joseph W.; Ziegler, Toni E.

    2014-01-01

    Active vitamin D metabolites 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D2 [1,25-(OH)2-D2; derived from ergocalciferol] and D3 [1,25-(OH)2-D3; derived from cholecalciferol] are found in low levels in the circulation and require a very sensitive method for measurement. Radioimmunoassay (RIA) has been the method of choice, but it lacks the specificity needed to distinguish between 1,25-(OH)2-D2 and -D3whereas liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) methods have the advantage of high specificity and sensitivity. Here, we compare a new derivative for ionizing 1,25-(OH)2-D to enhance the signal and provide the most sensitive assay for measuring vitamin D. We used the Amplifex diene method of derivatizing prior to LC/MS/MS and compared it to the standard RIA method and the 4-phenyl-1,2,4-triazole-3,5-dione (PTAD) method of derivatizing prior to LC/MS/MS. In the evaluation of 20 human serum samples, all methods correlated strongly across the upper levels of the standard 1,25-(OH)2-D2 and - D3 ranges (Amplifex and RIA, pc = 0.97; Amplifex and PTAD, pc = 0.96) but less strongly on the lower levels of the standard range (Amplifex and RIA, pc = 0.81; Amplifex and PTAD, pc = 0.65) suggesting differences in the sensitivities between the assays. The Amplifex method was determined to be more sensitive than the PTAD method, as peak areas were significantly higher for the Amplifex method and provided for a 10 fold higher signal-to-noise ratio than PTAD. Therefore, the Amplifex LC/MS/MS method is the most sensitive and specific method available for measuring 1,25-(OH)2-D2 and -D3 while using the smallest sample volume. PMID:24576767

  10. 1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 Modulates the Hair-Inductive Capacity of Dermal Papilla Cells: Therapeutic Potential for Hair Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Aoi, Noriyuki; Inoue, Keita; Chikanishi, Toshihiro; Fujiki, Ryoji; Yamamoto, Hanako; Kato, Harunosuke; Eto, Hitomi; Doi, Kentaro; Itami, Satoshi; Kato, Shigeaki

    2012-01-01

    Dermal papilla cells (DPCs) have the potential to induce differentiation of epithelial stem cells into hair, and Wnt signaling is deeply involved in the initiation process. The functional limitation of expanded adult DPCs has been a difficult challenge for cell-based hair regrowth therapy. We previously reported that 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (VD3) upregulates expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β2 and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, both features of hair-inducing human DPCs (hDPCs). In this study, we further examined the effects and signaling pathways associated with VD3 actions on DPCs. VD3 suppressed hDPC proliferation in a dose-dependent, noncytotoxic manner. Among the Wnt-related genes investigated, Wnt10b expression was significantly upregulated by VD3 in hDPCs. Wnt10b upregulation, as well as upregulation of ALPL (ALP, liver/bone/kidney) and TGF-β2, by VD3 was specific in hDPCs and not detected in human dermal fibroblasts. Screening of paracrine or endocrine factors in the skin indicated that all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) upregulated Wnt10b gene expression, although synergistic upregulation (combined atRA and VD3) was not seen. RNA interference with vitamin D receptor (VDR) revealed that VD3 upregulation of Wnt10b, ALPL, and TGF-β2 was mediated through the genomic VDR pathway. In a rat model of de novo hair regeneration by murine DPC transplantation, pretreatment with VD3 significantly enhanced hair folliculogenesis. Specifically, a greater number of outgrowing hair shafts and higher maturation of regenerated follicles were observed. Together, these data suggest that VD3 may promote functional differentiation of DPCs and be useful in preserving the hair follicle-inductive capacity of cultured DPCs for hair regeneration therapies. PMID:23197867

  11. Effects of Placental Ischemia Are Attenuated by 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D Treatment and Associated with Reduced Apoptosis and Increased Autophagy.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xiaoyu; Ma, Suling; Wang, Yaqi; Hou, Lianguo; Shi, Yun; Yao, Min; Wang, Xiaoning; Zhang, Huifeng; Jiang, Lingling

    2016-02-01

    We evaluated the effects of administration of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) during pregnancy on relieving adverse outcomes of preeclampsia and the pathologic and biochemical changes in reduction in uteroplacental perfusion (RUPP) model of rats. On day 1, 7, and 14 of pregnancy, rats in pregnant RUPP plus 1,25(OH)2D (RUPP+VD) group (n = 15) received 120 ng/100 g body weight/week of 1,25(OH)2D by subcutaneous injection, while rats in normal pregnant (n = 12) and the RUPP group (n = 14) received 1,25(OH)2D vehicle (saline solution). On day 19 of pregnancy, after measure of blood pressure and cardiac function and urine collection, rats were euthanized, and fetal and maternal serum, placenta, and heart and kidney were collected. Fetal mortality, urinary protein, glucose, and parameters for kidney function in serum were measured. We evaluated vitamin D receptor expression and pathological and ultrastructural changes in rat heart, kidney, and placenta. Levels of oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, apoptosis, and autophagy were measured in placenta. Compared to RUPP rats, 1,25(OH)2D decreased fetal mortality, mean blood pressure, 24-h urinary protein, urine microalbumin, and hyperglycemia in RUPP+VD rats. These were consistent with the improvements of structure impairment in heart, kidney, and placenta of RUPP rat by 1,25(OH)2D. In placenta of RUPP rat, the decrease in oxidative stress and ER stress by 1,25(OH)2D treatment was accompanied by autophagy activation and apoptosis attenuation. 1,25(OH)2D plays a beneficial effect on preeclampsia at the early gestation and might be used as a potential protective agent for preeclampsia. However, the RUPP model only recapitulated the hypoxic origin of preeclampsia; further randomized controlled trial is expected to be performed for validation and evaluation. PMID:26562100

  12. Measurement of Circulating 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D: Comparison of an Automated Method with a Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method

    PubMed Central

    Zittermann, Armin; Ernst, Jana B.; Becker, Tobias; Dreier, Jens; Knabbe, Cornelius; Gummert, Jan F.; Kuhn, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Background. The clinical relevance of circulating 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) is probably underappreciated, but variations in the measurement of this difficult analyte between different methods limit comparison of results. Methods. In 129 clinical samples, we compared a new automated assay with a commercially available liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) kit. Results. Median (interquartile range) 1,25(OH)2D concentrations with the automated assay and the LC-MS/MS method were 26.6 pg/mL (18.5–39.0 pg/mL) and 23.6 pg/mL (16.1–31.3 pg/mL), respectively (P = 0.001). Using the method-specific cut-offs for deficient 1,25(OH)2D levels (<20 pg/mL for the automated assay and <17 pg/mL for the LC-MS/MS method), the percentage of patients classified as 1,25(OH)2D deficient was 28.7% and 27.1%, respectively. However, concordance between the two methods for deficient levels was only 62% and the concordance correlation coefficient was poor (0.534). The regression equation resulted in an intercept of −1.99 (95% CI: −7.33–1.31) and a slope of 1.27 (95% CI: 1.04–1.52) for the automated assay. The mean bias with respect to the mean of the two methods was −3.8 (1.96 SD: −28.3–20.8) pg/mL for the LC-MS/MS method minus the automated assay. Conclusions. The two methods show only modest correlation and further standardization is required to improve reliability and comparability of 1,25(OH)2D test procedures. PMID:27127512

  13. Metabolism of vitamin D3 in human osteoblasts: evidence for autocrine and paracrine activities of 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3.

    PubMed

    Atkins, Gerald J; Anderson, Paul H; Findlay, David M; Welldon, Katie J; Vincent, Cristina; Zannettino, Andrew C W; O'Loughlin, Peter D; Morris, Howard A

    2007-06-01

    Circulating 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25D) derives from renal conversion of 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) (25D), by the 25D 1 alpha-hydroxylase (CYP27B1). Blood 25D levels, but not 1,25D levels, are the best indicator of vitamin D status and predict fracture risk in the elderly. We examined the extent to which osteoblasts can metabolize 25D. Well-characterized human primary osteoblasts and osteosarcoma (OS) cell lines were examined for the expression and regulation of genes associated with vitamin D metabolism, using real-time PCR. Primary osteoblasts and OS cell lines were found to express CYP27B1 mRNA and secreted detectable 1,25D in response to 25D. Of the OS cell lines tested, HOS expressed the most CYP27B1 mRNA and secreted the highest levels of 1,25D. All osteoblastic cells examined up-regulated expression of the catabolic regulator of 1,25D, the 25-hydroxyvitamin D-24-hydroxylase (CYP24), when incubated with either 1,25D or 25D. Exposure to physiological levels of 25D resulted in up-regulated transcription of the 1,25D responsive genes, osteocalcin (OCN), osteopontin (OPN) and RANKL. Specific knockdown of CYP27B1 in HOS cells using siRNA resulted in up to 80% reduction in both 1,25D secretion and the transcription of OCN and CYP24, strongly implying that the 25D effect in osteoblasts is preceded by conversion to 1,25D. Incubation with 25D, like 1,25D, inhibited primary osteoblast proliferation and promoted in vitro mineralization. Finally, we detected expression by osteoblasts of receptors for vitamin D binding protein (DBP), cubilin and megalin, suggesting that osteoblasts are able to internalize DBP-25D complexes in vivo. Together, our results suggest that autocrine, and perhaps paracrine, pathways of vitamin D(3) metabolism may regulate key osteoblast functions independently of circulating, kidney derived 1,25D. Our results are therefore consistent with the reported benefits of maintaining a healthy vitamin D status in the elderly to reduce the risk of

  14. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 inhibits the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in rat central nervous system during experimental allergic encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Garcion, E; Nataf, S; Berod, A; Darcy, F; Brachet, P

    1997-05-01

    The inducible form of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) generates nitric oxide of which the excessive production is associated with central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory diseases. The investigation of iNOS expression during experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) of the Lewis rat demonstrated iNOS immunoreactivity and mRNA both during inflammatory bursts (days 12 and 23 post-immunization) and during the remission phase (day 18). iNOS expression was region-specific and expanded with time along a caudo-rostral axis, thus, correlating with the development of inflammatory infiltrates. Whereas cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage continuously contributed to iNOS expression, astrocytes only expressed iNOS immunoreactivity or mRNA during the relapse (day 23). In order to investigate possible regulatory effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-D3) on iNOS expression, rats were treated with the hormone after the beginning of clinical signs (days 11, 13, 19, 21 and 23 post-immunization), and areas of the CNS were examined at day 23. 1,25-D3 exerted a drastic inhibitory effect on iNOS expression, both at the protein and the mRNA levels. However, this effect was region-specific, and was most pronounced in the cerebellum and brainstem, but non-existent in cerebral cortex. iNOS down-regulation occurred in macrophages, activated microglia and astrocytes. The inhibition of iNOS expression in some CNS structures could account for the improvement of clinical signs observed in EAE-rats treated with 1,25-D3. Since 1,25-D3 can be synthesized by activated macrophages or microglia, our results support the hypothesis that this hormone might be implicated in the control of the CNS-specific immune responses. 1,25-D3 or its analogues could, thus, be of therapeutic value in the management of iNOS-associated diseases of the CNS. PMID:9149100

  15. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 Protects against Macrophage-Induced Activation of NFκB and MAPK Signalling and Chemokine Release in Human Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Cherlyn; Wilding, John P. H.; Bing, Chen

    2013-01-01

    Increased accumulation of macrophages in adipose tissue in obesity is linked to low-grade chronic inflammation, and associated with features of metabolic syndrome. Vitamin D3 may have immunoregulatory effects and reduce adipose tissue inflammation, although the molecular mechanisms remain to be established. This study investigated the effects of vitamin D3 on macrophage-elicited inflammatory responses in cultured human adipocytes, particularly the signalling pathways involved. Macrophage-conditioned (MC) medium (25% with adipocyte maintenance media) markedly inhibited protein expression of the nuclear factor-κB (NFκB) subunit inhibitor κBα (IκBα) (71%, P<0.001) and increased NFκB p65 (1.5-fold, P = 0.026) compared with controls. Treatment with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) abolished macrophage-induced activation of NFκB signalling by increasing IκBα expression (2.7-fold, P = 0.005) and reducing NFκB p65 phosphorylation (68%; P<0.001). The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling was activated by MC medium, which was also blunted by 1,25(OH)2D3 with a downregulation of phosphorylated p38 MAPK (32%, P = 0.005) and phosphorylated Erk1/2 (49%, P = 0.001). Furthermore, MC medium (12.5% or 25%) dose-dependently upregulated secretion of key proinflammatory chemokines/cytokines (22-368-fold; all P<0.001) and this was significantly decreased by 1,25(OH)2D3: IL-8 (61% and 31%, P<0.001), MCP-1 (37%, P<0.001 and 36%, P = 0.002), RANTES (78% and 62%, P<0.001) and IL-6 (29%, P<0.001 and 34%, P = 0.019). Monocyte migration-elicited by adipocytes treated with 1,25(OH)2D3 was also reduced (up to 25%, P<0.001). In conclusion, vitamin D3 could be anti-inflammatory in adipose tissue, decreasing macrophage-induced release of chemokines and cytokines by adipocytes and the chemotaxis of monocytes. Our data suggests these effects are mediated by inhibition of the NFκB and MAPK signalling pathways. PMID:23637889

  16. Importance of apical membrane delivery of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 to vitamin D-responsive gene expression in the colon

    PubMed Central

    Koszewski, Nicholas J.; Horst, Ronald L.

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic conjugation of a glucuronide to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D3) to produce β-25-monoglucuronide-1,25D3 (βGluc-1,25D3) renders the hormone biologically inactive and resistant to mammalian digestive enzymes. However, β-glucuronidase produced by bacteria in the lower intestinal tract can cleave off the glucuronide, releasing the active hormone. In mice given a single oral dose of 1,25D3, 24-hydroxylase (Cyp24a1) gene expression was strongly enhanced in the duodenum, but not in the colon, despite circulating concentrations of 1,25D3 that peaked at ∼3.0 nmol/l. In contrast, in mice treated with an equimolar dose of βGluc-1,25D3, Cyp24a1 gene expression increased 700-fold in the colon but was significantly weaker in the duodenum compared with mice treated with 1,25D3. Similar results were observed with another vitamin D-dependent gene. When administered subcutaneously, 1,25D3 weakly stimulated colon Cyp24a1 gene expression while βGluc-1,25D3 again resulted in strong enhancement. Surgical ligation to block passage of ingesta beyond the upper intestinal tract abolished upregulation of colon Cyp24a1 gene expression by orally and subcutaneously administered βGluc-1,25D3. Feeding βGluc-1,25D3 for 5 days revealed a linear, dose-dependent increase in colon Cyp24a1 gene expression but did not significantly increase plasma 1,25D3 or calcium concentrations. This study indicates that the colon is relatively insensitive to circulating concentrations of 1,25D3 and that the strongest gene enhancement occurs when the hormone reaches the colon via the lumen of the intestinal tract. These findings have broad implications for the use of vitamin D compounds in colon disorders and set the stage for future therapeutic studies utilizing βGluc-1,25D3 in their treatment. PMID:22837344

  17. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D Alone Improves Skeletal Growth, Microarchitecture, and Strength in a Murine Model of XLH, Despite Enhanced FGF23 Expression.

    PubMed

    Liu, Eva S; Martins, Janaina S; Raimann, Adalbert; Chae, Byongsoo Timothy; Brooks, Daniel J; Jorgetti, Vanda; Bouxsein, Mary L; Demay, Marie B

    2016-05-01

    X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) is characterized by impaired renal tubular reabsorption of phosphate owing to increased circulating FGF23 levels, resulting in rickets in growing children and impaired bone mineralization. Increased FGF23 decreases renal brush border membrane sodium-dependent phosphate transporter IIa (Npt2a) causing renal phosphate wasting, impairs 1-α hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and induces the vitamin D 24-hydroxylase, leading to inappropriately low circulating levels of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D). The goal of therapy is prevention of rickets and improvement of growth in children by phosphate and 1,25D supplementation. However, this therapy is often complicated by hypercalcemia and nephrocalcinosis and does not always prevent hyperparathyroidism. To determine if 1,25D or blocking FGF23 action can improve the skeletal phenotype without phosphate supplementation, mice with XLH (Hyp) were treated with daily 1,25D repletion, FGF23 antibodies (FGF23Ab), or biweekly high-dose 1,25D from d2 to d75 without supplemental phosphate. All treatments maintained normocalcemia, increased serum phosphate, and normalized parathyroid hormone levels. They also prevented the loss of Npt2a, α-Klotho, and pERK1/2 immunoreactivity observed in the kidneys of untreated Hyp mice. Daily treatment with 1,25D decreased urine phosphate losses despite a marked increase in bone FGF23 mRNA and in circulating FGF23 levels. Daily 1,25D was more effective than other treatments in normalizing the growth plate and metaphyseal organization. In addition to being the only therapy that normalized lumbar vertebral height and body weight, daily 1,25D therapy normalized bone geometry and was more effective than FGF23Ab in improving trabecular bone structure. Daily 1,25D and FGF23Ab improved cortical microarchitecture and whole-bone biomechanical properties more so than biweekly 1,25D. Thus, monotherapy with 1,25D improves growth, skeletal microarchitecture, and bone strength

  18. Comparative effects of 1α-hydroxyvitamin D3 and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on transporters and enzymes in fxr(+/+) and fxr(-/-) mice.

    PubMed

    Chow, Edwin C Y; Durk, Matthew R; Maeng, Han-Joo; Pang, K Sandy

    2013-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2 D3 ] treatment in mice resulted in induction of intestinal and renal Cyp24a1 and Trpv6 expression, increased hepatic Cyp7a1 expression and activity, as well as higher renal Mdr1/P-gp expression. The present study compared the equimolar efficacies of 1α-hydroxyvitamin D3 [1α(OH)D3 ] (6 nmol/kg i.p. q2d × 4), a lipophilic precursor with a longer plasma half-life that is converted to 1,25(OH)2 D3 , and 1,25(OH)2 D3 on vitamin D receptor (VDR) target genes. To clarify whether changes in VDR genes was due to VDR and not secondary, farnesoid X receptor (FXR)-directed effects, namely, lower Cyp7a1 expression in rat liver due to increased bile acid absorption, wildtype [fxr(+/+)] and FXR knockout [fxr(-/-)] mice were used to distinguish between VDR and FXR effects. With the exception that hepatic Sult2a1 mRNA was increased equally well by 1α(OH)D3 and 1,25(OH)2 D3 , 1α(OH)D3 treatment led to higher increases in hepatic Cyp7a1, renal Cyp24a1, VDR, Mdr1 and Mrp4, and intestinal Cyp24a1 and Trpv6 mRNA expression in both fxr(+/+) and fxr(-/-) mice compared to 1,25(OH)2 D3 treatment. A similar induction in protein expression and microsomal activity of hepatic Cyp7a1 and renal P-gp and Mrp4 protein expression was noted for both compounds. A higher intestinal induction of Trpv6 was observed, resulting in greater hypercalcemic effect following 1α(OH)D3 treatment. The higher activity of 1α(OH)D3 was explained by its rapid conversion to 1,25(OH)2 D3 in tissue sites, furnishing higher plasma and tissue 1,25(OH)2 D3 levels compared to following 1,25(OH)2 D3 -treatment. In conclusion, 1α(OH)D3 exerts a greater effect on VDR gene induction than equimolar doses of 1,25(OH)2 D3 in mice. PMID:23897575

  19. In vitro modulation of proliferation and phenotype of resting and mitogen-stimulated bovine mononuclear leukocytes by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3.

    PubMed

    Nonnecke, B J; Franklin, S T; Reinhardt, T A; Horst, R L

    1993-09-01

    Effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] on the proliferation and phenotype of normal bovine peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes (MNL) were studied in vitro. Resting and pokeweed mitogen (PWM)-stimulated MNL cultures were supplemented with 1.0 nM of 1,25(OH)2D3 at the beginning of the culture period. Leukocytes were removed from 2-, 4-, 6-, 8-, 10-, 12-, and 14-day unsupplemented and 1.25(OH)2D3-supplemented cultures, and were counted and phenotyped using monoclonal antibodies to bovine leukocyte surface antigens. Cell numbers in resting MNL cultures decreased with time and were unaffected by 1,25(OH)2D3 supplementation. The progressive increase in cell numbers in PWM-stimulated MNL cultures was suppressed, but not abolished by 1,25(OH)2D3. Suppression was greatest in PWM-stimulated 6- to 12-day cultures. Cellular composition of resting MNL cultures was unaffected by 1,25(OH)2D3. Pokeweed mitogen-stimulated cultures supplemented with 1,25(OH)2D3 had fewer total T-cells and CD4+ T-cells at 6-14 days. In contrast, numbers of CD8+ T-cells were significantly higher in 1,25(OH)2D3-supplemented cultures at 6, 10, and 14 days. Effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 on CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell populations were manifested by a significant reduction in the CD4+:CD8+ T-cell ratios in 6- to 14-day cultures. Proliferation of IL-2 receptor+ and MHC class II antigen+ cells was also reduced in supplemented 6- to 14-day cultures, indicating events associated with PWM-induced MNL activation were suppressed by 1,25(OH)2D3. These findings indicate that 1,25(OH)2D3 modulates the proliferation and differentiation of bovine MNL in vitro. Our results also suggest that changes in plasma or tissue 1,25(OH)2D3 concentrations that occur during the peripartum period and in clinical cases of milk fever may regulate the bovine immune system in vivo. PMID:7903011

  20. Comparative regulation of gene expression by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in cells derived from normal mammary tissue and breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Beaudin, Sarah G; Robilotto, Samantha; Welsh, JoEllen

    2016-01-01

    Previous genomic profiling of immortalized, non-tumorigenic human breast epithelial cells identified a set of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D) regulated genes with potential relevance to breast cancer prevention. In this report, we characterized the effect of 1,25D on a subset of these genes in six cell lines derived from mammary tissue and breast cancers. Non-tumorigenic cell lines included hTERT-HME1, HME and MCF10A cells which are often used to model normal breast epithelial cells. Breast cancer cell lines included MCF7 cells (a model of early stage, estrogen-dependent disease), DCIS.com cells (a derivative of MCF10A cells that models in situ breast cancer) and Hs578T cells (a model of metastatic disease). All of these cell lines express the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and exhibit anti-cancer responses to 1,25D such as changes in proliferation, apoptosis, metabolism, or invasion. Our comparative data demonstrate highly variable responses to 1,25D (100nM, 24h) between the cell lines. In both hTERT-HME1 and HME cell lines, CYP24A1, SLC1A1 and ITGB3 were up-regulated whereas KDR, GLUL and BIRC3 were down-regulated in response to 1,25D. In contrast, no changes in SLC1A1, ITGB3 or GLUL expression were detected in 1,25D treated MCF10A cells although KDR and BIRC3 were down-regulated by 1,25D. The effects of 1,25D on these genes in the breast cancer cell lines were blunted, with the DCIS.com cells exhibiting the most similar responses to the immortalized hTERT-HME1 and HME cells. The differences in cellular responses were not due to general impairment in VDR function as robust CYP24A1 induction was observed in all cell lines. Thus, our data indicate that the genomic changes induced by 1,25D are highly cell-type specific even in model cell lines derived from the same tissue. The implication of these findings is that genomic responses to changes in vitamin D status in vivo are likely to be distinct from individual to individual, particularly in neoplastic tissue. PMID

  1. Comparative regulation of gene expression by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in cells derived from normal mammary tissue and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Beaudin, Sarah G; Robilotto, Samantha; Welsh, JoEllen

    2015-04-01

    Previous genomic profiling of immortalized, non-tumorigenic human breast epithelial cells identified a set of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D) regulated genes with potential relevance to breast cancer prevention. In this report, we characterized the effect of 1,25D on a subset of these genes in six cell lines derived from mammary tissue and breast cancers. Non-tumorigenic cell lines included hTERT-HME1, HME and MCF10A cells which are often used to model normal breast epithelial cells. Breast cancer cell lines included MCF7 cells (a model of early stage, estrogen-dependent disease), DCIS.com cells (a derivative of MCF10A cells that models in situ breast cancer) and Hs578T cells (a model of metastatic disease). All of these cell lines express the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and exhibit anti-cancer responses to 1,25D such as changes in proliferation, apoptosis, metabolism, or invasion. Our comparative data demonstrate highly variable responses to 1,25D (100nM, 24h) between the cell lines. In both hTERT-HME1 and HME cell lines, CYP24A1, SLC1A1 and ITGB3 were up-regulated whereas KDR, GLUL and BIRC3 were down-regulated in response to 1,25D. In contrast, no changes in SLC1A1, ITGB3 or GLUL expression were detected in 1,25D treated MCF10A cells although KDR and BIRC3 were down-regulated by 1,25D. The effects of 1,25D on these genes in the breast cancer cell lines were blunted, with the DCIS.com cells exhibiting the most similar responses to the immortalized hTERT-HME1 and HME cells. The differences in cellular responses were not due to general impairment in VDR function as robust CYP24A1 induction was observed in all cell lines. Thus, our data indicate that the genomic changes induced by 1,25D are highly cell-type specific even in model cell lines derived from the same tissue. The implication of these findings is that genomic responses to changes in vitamin D status in vivo are likely to be distinct from individual to individual, particularly in neoplastic tissue. This

  2. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D induces the glutamate transporter SLC1A1 and alters glutamate handling in non-transformed mammary cells.

    PubMed

    Beaudin, Sarah; Welsh, JoEllen

    2016-03-15

    Genomic profiling of immortalized human mammary epithelial (hTERT-HME1) cells identified several metabolic genes, including the membrane glutamate transporter, SLC1A1, as 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D) regulated. In these studies we have surveyed the effects of 1,25D on known glutamate transporters and evaluated its impact on cellular glutamate handling. We confirm that expression of SLC1A1 and all of its known transcript variants are significantly upregulated in hTERT-HME1 cells following 1,25D treatment. Expression of the full-length cognate protein, EAAT3, is correspondingly increased in 1,25D treated hTERT-HME1 cells. Under the same conditions, the expression of two other glutamate transporters--SLC1A6 (EAAT4) and SLC1A2 (EAAT2 or GLT-1)--is enhanced by 1,25D while that of SLC1A3 (EAAT1 or GLAST) and SLC7A11 (xCT) is decreased. Glutamate is not essential for growth of hTERT-HME1 cells, and supplemental glutamate (up to 0.5 mM) does not abrogate the growth inhibitory effects of 1,25D. These data suggest that extracellular glutamate is not a major contributor to cellular energy metabolism in hTERT-HME1 cells under basal conditions and that the growth inhibitory effects of 1,25D are not secondary to its effects on glutamate handling. Instead, the effects of 1,25D on glutamate transporters translated to a decrease in cellular glutamate concentration and an increase in media glutamate concentration, suggesting that one or more of these transporters functions to export glutamate in response to 1,25D exposure. The reduced cellular glutamate concentration may also reflect its incorporation into the cellular glutathione (GSH) pool, which is increased upon 1,25D treatment. In support of this concept, the expression of GCLC (which codes for the rate-limiting enzyme in GSH synthesis) and genes which generate reducing equivalents in the form of NADPH (ie, G6PD, PGD, IDH2) are elevated in 1,25D-treated cells. Taken together, these data identify 1,25D as a physiological

  3. The expression of transforming growth factor-beta by cultured chick growth plate chondrocytes: differential regulation by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3.

    PubMed

    Farquharson, C; Law, A S; Seawright, E; Burt, D W; Whitehead, C C

    1996-05-01

    1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) are both important regulators of chondrocyte growth and differentiation. We report here that 1,25(OH)2D3 differentially regulates the expression of the genes for TGF-beta 1 to -beta 3 and the secretion of the corresponding proteins in cultured chick chondrocytes. Confluent growth plate chondrocytes were serum-deprived and cultured in varying concentrations of 1,25(OH)2D3. Cells were assayed for TGF-beta mRNA and conditioned medium was assayed for TGF-beta activity and isoform composition. Active TGF-beta was only detected in 10(-8) M 1,25(OH)2D3-treated cultures (8.37 ng active TGF-beta/mg protein). There was a significant decrease in total (latent-active) TGF-beta activity in conditioned medium of 10(-12) M (23.4%; P < 0.05) and 10(-10) M (20.7%; P < 0.05) 1,25(OH)2D3-treated cultures but 10(-8) M 1,25(OH)2D3 significantly increased (30.9%; P < 0.01) TGF-beta activity. The amounts of TGF-beta 1, -beta 2 and -beta 3 isoforms produced were similar in control, 10(-10) or 10(-12) M 1,25(OH)2D3-treated cultures but the conditioned medium of 10(-8) M 1,25(OH)2D3-treated cultures contained significantly higher amounts of all three isoforms. Quantification of TGF-beta mRNA demonstrated differential control of TGF-beta gene expression with TGF-beta 1 and -beta 3 mRNA levels reduced by all concentrations of 1,25(OH)2D3 examined (10(-8), 10(-10) and 10(-12) M) whilst TGF-beta 2 mRNA concentrations were elevated. Our results indicated that 1,25(OH)2D3 regulates chick growth plate chondrocyte TGF-beta secretion and mRNA expression in a concentration-dependent and isoform-specific manner. This interaction may be important in the regulation of chondrocyte metabolism and endochondral bone growth. PMID:8708539

  4. Discovery of molecular pathways mediating 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 protection against cytokine-induced inflammation and damage of human and male mouse islets of Langerhans.

    PubMed

    Wolden-Kirk, H; Rondas, D; Bugliani, M; Korf, H; Van Lommel, L; Brusgaard, K; Christesen, H T; Schuit, F; Proost, P; Masini, M; Marchetti, P; Eizirik, D L; Overbergh, L; Mathieu, C

    2014-03-01

    Protection against insulitis and diabetes by active vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), in nonobese diabetic mice has until now mainly been attributed to its immunomodulatory effects, but also protective effects of this hormone on inflammation-induced β-cell death have been reported. The aim of this study was to clarify the molecular mechanisms by which 1,25(OH)2D3 contributes to β-cell protection against cytokine-induced β-cell dysfunction and death. Human and mouse islets were exposed to IL-1β and interferon-γ in the presence or absence of 1,25(OH)2D3. Effects on insulin secretion and β-cell survival were analyzed by glucose-stimulated insulin release and electron microscopy or Hoechst/propidium iodide staining, respectively. Gene expression profiles were assessed by Affymetrix microarrays. Nuclear factor-κB activity was tested, whereas effects on secreted chemokines/cytokines were confirmed by ELISA and migration studies. Cytokine exposure caused a significant increase in β-cell apoptosis, which was almost completely prevented by 1,25(OH)2D3. In addition, 1,25(OH)2D3 restored insulin secretion from cytokine-exposed islets. Microarray analysis of murine islets revealed that the expression of approximately 4000 genes was affected by cytokines after 6 and 24 hours (n = 4; >1.3-fold; P < .02), of which nearly 250 genes were modified by 1,25(OH)2D3. These genes belong to functional groups involved in immune response, chemotaxis, cell death, and pancreatic β-cell function/phenotype. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate a direct protective effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 against inflammation-induced β-cell dysfunction and death in human and murine islets, with, in particular, alterations in chemokine production by the islets. These effects may contribute to the beneficial effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 against the induction of autoimmune diabetes. PMID:24424042

  5. Circulating 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D Concentrations and Postoperative Infections in Cardiac Surgical Patients: The CALCITOP-Study

    PubMed Central

    Zittermann, Armin; Kuhn, Joachim; Ernst, Jana B.; Becker, Tobias; Larisch, Julia; Dreier, Jens; Knabbe, Cornelius; Börgermann, Jochen; Gummert, Jan F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Vitamin D has immunomodulatory properties and seems to reduce the risk of infections. Whether low vitamin D concentrations are independent risk factors for nosocomial postoperative infections in surgical patients remains to be studied in detail. Methods In 3,340 consecutive cardiac surgical patients, we investigated the association of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD; indicator of nutritional vitamin D status) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25[OH]2D; active vitamin D hormone) with nosocomicial infections. The primary endpoint was a composite of thoracic wound infection, sepsis, and broncho-pulmonary infection. Vitamin D status was measured on the last preoperative day. Infections were assessed until discharge. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between vitamin D metabolite concentrations and the composite endpoint. Results The primary endpoint was reached by 5.6% (n = 186). In patients who reached and did not reach the endpoint, in-hospital mortality was 13.4% and 1.5%, respectively (P<0.001). Median (IQR) 25OHD and 1,25(OH)2D concentrations were 43. 2 (29.7–61.9) nmol/l and 58.0 (38.5–77.5) pmol/l, respectively. Compared with the highest 1,25(OH)2D quintile (>81.0 pmol/l), the multivariable–adjusted odds ratio of infection was 2.57 (95%CI:1.47–4.49) for the lowest 1,25(OH)2D quintile (<31.5 pmol/l) and 1.85 (95%CI:1.05–3.25) for the second lowest quintile (31.5–49.0 pmol/l). There was no significant association between 25OHD concentrations and the primary endpoint. Conclusions Our data indicate an independent association of low 1,25(OH)2D levels with the risk of postoperative infections in cardiac surgical patients. Future studies should pay more attention on the clinical relevance of circulating 1,25(OH)2D and its regulation. PMID:27355377

  6. 26,26,26,27,27,27-Hexadeuterated-1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D-d6) As Adjuvant of Chemotherapy in Breast Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Seoane, Samuel; Bermudez, Maria A.; Sendon-Lago, Juan; Martinez-Ordoñez, Anxo; Abdul-Hadi, Soraya; Maestro, Miguel; Mouriño, Antonio; Perez-Fernandez, Roman

    2013-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D) and some of its analogues have antitumor activity. 1,25D labeled with deuterium (26,26,26,27,27,27-hexadeuterated 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, or 1,25D-d6) is commonly used as internal standard for 1,25D liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) quantification. In the present study using human breast cancer cell lines, the biological activity of 1,25D-d6 administered alone and in combination with two commonly used antineoplastic agents, 5-fluorouracil and etoposide, was evaluated. Using an MTT assay, flow cytometry, and western blots, our data demonstrated that 1,25D-d6 has effects similar to the natural hormone on cell proliferation, cell cycle, and apoptosis. Furthermore, the combination of 1,25D-d6 and etoposide enhances the antitumoral effects of both compounds. Interestingly, the antitumoral effect is higher in the more aggressive MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line. Our data indicate that 1,25D-d6 administered alone or in combination with chemotherapy could be a good experimental method for accurately quantifying active 1,25D levels in cultures or in biological fluids, on both in vitro breast cancer cell lines and in vivo animal experimental models. PMID:24378752

  7. Differential skeletal responses of hindlimb unloaded rats on a vitamin D-deficient diet to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and its analog, seocalcitol (EB1089)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanan, Ramesh; Allen, Matthew R.; Gaddy, Dana; Bloomfield, Susan A.; Smith, Carolyn L.; Weigel, Nancy L.

    2004-01-01

    Conditions of disuse in bed rest patients, as well as microgravity experienced by astronauts are accompanied by reduced mechanical loading, reduced calcium absorption, and lower serum levels of 1,25(OH)2D3 (1,25-D), the active metabolite of vitamin D, all contributing to bone loss. To determine whether 1,25-D or a less calcemic analog, Seocalcitol or EB1089 (1 alpha,25-dihydroxy-22,24-diene-24,26,27-trihomovitamin D3) can alleviate bone loss in a rat hindlimb unloading model of disuse osteopenia, mature male rats originally on a vitamin D replete diet containing 1.01% calcium were transferred to a vitamin D-deficient diet containing 0.48% calcium and then tail suspended and treated for 28 days with vehicle, 0.05 microg/kg 1,25-D, or 0.05 microg/kg EB1089. The vitamin D-deficient diet caused a substantial decrease in bone mineral density (-8%), which may be compounded by hindlimb unloading (-10%). Exogenous 1,25-D not only prevented the bone loss but also increased the bone mineral density to greater than the baseline level (+7%). EB1089 was less effective in preventing bone loss. Analysis of site and cell-specific effects of 1,25-D and EB1089 revealed that 1,25-D was more active than EB1089 in the intestine, the site of calcium absorption, and in inducing osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption whereas EB1089 was more effective in inducing osteoblast differentiation. These studies suggest that elevating circulating 1,25-D levels presumably increasing calcium absorption can counteract bone loss induced by disuse or microgravity with its associated reductions in circulating 1,25-D and decreased calcium absorption.

  8. The Effect of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Vitamin D3 Induced Monocytic Differentiation of U937 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Molaeipour, Zahra; Shamsasanjan, Karim; Movassaghpour, Ali Akbari; Akbarzadehlaleh, Parvin; Sabaghi, Fatemeh; Saleh, Mahshid

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are key components of the hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) niche. They control the process of hematopoiesis by secreting regulatory cytokines, growth factors and expression of important cell adhesion molecules for cell-tocell interactions. In this research, we have investigated the effect of bone marrow derived MSCs on monocytic differentiation of U937 cells line. Methods: U937 cells were cultured in both direct co-culture with MSCs and MSCs conditioned medium (C.M) driven. This study used 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3(VitD3) as inductor of monocytic differentiation and U937 cells treated with VitD3 morphology was examined by Wright Giemsa staining. CD14 monocytic differentiation marker was measured by flow cytometry and monocytic gene expression was assessed by real time polymerase chain reaction (RT PCR). Results: The results of flow cytometric analysis showed that CD14 expression of U937 increased. The higher effect of MSCs co-culture on CD14 expression in U937 cells was observed, compared to the conditioned medium. Among ten monocytic related genes which were screened that was observed increase in 5 genes in which CXCR4 and CSF2RA showed significant increase. Conclusion: The results obtained show that MSCs have supportive effect on the monocytic differentiation of U937 cells. However, a distinct mechanism of that remains unclear. PMID:27123414

  9. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against two haptenic derivatives of 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 conjugated with bovine serum albumin through the C-3 or C-24 position.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, N; Sato, A; Takagi, K; Shimada, K

    1997-09-01

    To develop the immunochemical methods for determining 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] in clinical samples, a variety of monoclonal anti-1,25(OH)2D3 antibodies have been generated. Two kinds of hapten-carrier conjugates, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 3-hemisuccinate (hapten 3-HS) and 1 alpha-hydroxy-25,26,27-trinorvitamin D3 24-oic acid (hapten 24-OA) conjugated with bovine serum albumin, were used for immunization. Spleen cells from SD rats or BALB/c mice, each immunized with the conjugate of hapten 3-HS or 24-OA, were fused with P3/NS1/1-Ag4-1 myeloma cells. After screening by ELISA employing beta-galactosidase-labeled haptens, seven kinds of hybridomas secreting anti-1,25(OH)2D3 antibodies were established. Binding characteristics of these antibodies (Ka 0.73-20 x 10(9) M-1) were investigated by an RIA using tritium-labeled 1,25(OH)2D3. The data suggested that the rat monoclonal antibody 3R-1 derived from the hapten 3-HS and the mouse monoclonal antibody 24M-3 from the hapten 24-OA would be available for developing practical analytical systems. PMID:9331974

  10. Interleukin-6 does not mediate the stimulation by prostaglandin E2, parathyroid hormone, or 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 of osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption in neonatal mouse parietal bones.

    PubMed

    Holt, I; Davie, M W; Braidman, I P; Marshall, M J

    1994-08-01

    The cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) was produced by neonatal mouse parietal bones during a 6- or 48-hour culture period in response to prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and bovine parathyroid hormone (PTH) 1-34 fragment but not 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3]. At the same time there was an increase in tartrate-resistant, acid phosphatase-positive osteoclasts (TRAP+OC) with all three osteotropic effectors over 6 hours, and an increase in 45Ca release over 48 hours. TRAP+OC numbers on PGE2-stimulated bones were positively correlated with IL-6 concentration. Our aim was to determine if IL-6 mediated this response. Recombinant human IL-6 (rhIL-6) was added to parietal bones in culture at concentrations within the range that PGE2 or PTH would produce during incubation. However, over 6 or 48 hours, rhIL-6 did not stimulate TRAP+OC to increase in number nor did it cause an increase in calcium release over 48 hours. Adding an antibody against mouse IL-6 to bone cultures stimulated with PTH or PGE2 neutralized the resulting IL-6 bioactivity by up to 92% but did not inhibit TRAP+OC formation. We conclude that although IL-6 is produced in response to two important stimulators of bone resorption, it does not mediate osteoclast differentiation or bone resorption in this model. PMID:7953976

  11. The number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive osteoclasts on neonatal mouse parietal bones is decreased when prostaglandin synthesis is inhibited and increased in response to prostaglandin E2, parathyroid hormone, and 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3.

    PubMed

    Marshall, M J; Holt, I; Davie, M W

    1995-03-01

    The culture of parietal bones from 4-day old mice in indomethacin (Ind) for 1 day caused a large reduction in the number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase positive osteoclasts (TRAP + OC) relative to both control bones and to freshly isolated bones. This reduction did not occur if prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was present. When 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BDU) was injected into 4-day old mice, newly formed TRAP + OC nuclei became labeled 1 day later; these bones were then cultured with Ind for 1 day. TRAP + OC and newly labeled TRAP+OC nuclei were commensurately decreased in number. This suggests an active down-regulation rather than merely the inhibition of new TRAP+OC formation. Incubation of bones with Ind and either PGE2, parathyroid hormone, or 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 for 6 hours following a 1-day preincubation in Ind, resulted in an increase in TRAP + OC compared with Ind alone. Using BDU labeling in vitro and in vivo, we show that this increase in number of TRAP+OC is not the result of cell proliferation, but rather differentiation of postmitotic precursors. PMID:7538445

  12. 26,27-Hexafluoro-1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (F6-1,25(OH)2D3) prevents osteoporosis induced by immobilization combined with ovariectomy in the rat.

    PubMed

    Okumura, H; Yamamuro, T; Higuchi, S; Harada, M; Takamura, T; Otomo, S; Aihara, H; Ikekawa, N; Kobayashi, T

    1990-05-01

    The effect of 26,27-hexafluoro-1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (F6-1,25(OH)2D3) on experimental osteoporosis in the rat induced by a combination of immobilization and ovariectomy was evaluated. F6-1,25(OH)2D3 increased the femur score and the photo-density. The administration of F6-1,25(OH)2D3 also significantly increased the dry weight, the ash weight and the ash content of the bone. Both F6-1,25(OH)2D3 and 1 alpha(OH)D3 showed a nearly dose-dependent effect and significant inhibition of the decrease of bone mass. Histomorphometry revealed a significant decrease of resorption by the administration of F6-1,25(OH)2D3. Bone formation rate in the F6-1,25(OH)2D3 treated group significantly decreased compared with the vehicle group. In conclusion, the pharmacological effective dose of F6-1,25(OH)2D3 was considered to prevent the osteoporotic decrease of bone mass by suppressing the elevated bone turnover. PMID:2350614

  13. Regulated expression of the MRP8 and MRP14 genes in human promyelocytic leukemic HL-60 cell treated with the differentiation-inducing agents mycophenolic acid and 1{alpha},25-Dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Warner-Bartnicki, A.L.; Murao, S.; Collart, F.R.; Huberman, E.

    1992-12-31

    The calcium-binding proteins MRP8 and MEP14 are present in mature monomyelocytic cells and are induced during differentiation. Previous studies have demonstrated that the proteins may mediate the growth arrest in differentiating HL-60 cells. We determined the levels of a protein complex (PC) containing MRP8 and MRP14 and investigated the mechanism by which the genes encoding these proteins are regulated in HL-60 cells treated with the differentiation-inducing agent mycophenorc acid (MPA)While the PC was barely detectable in untreated cells, MPA treatment resulted in elevated levels of the PC which were maximal at 3-4 d, and were found to directly parallel gains in the steady-state levels of MRP8 and MRP14 MRNA. Transcription studies with the use of nuclear run-on experiments revealed increased transcription initiation at the MRP8 and MRP14 promoters after MPA treatment. 1{alpha},25-Dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3}, which induces HL-60 cell differentiation by another mechanism, was also found to increase transcription initiation at the MRP8 and MRP14 promoters. Our results suggest that this initiation is the major control of maturation agent-mediated increases in MRP8 and MRPl4 gene expression, and support a role for the PC in terminal differentiation of human monomyelocytic cells.

  14. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 preserves intestinal epithelial barrier function from TNF-α induced injury via suppression of NF-kB p65 mediated MLCK-P-MLC signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shanwen; Zhu, Jing; Chen, Guowei; Zuo, Shuai; Zhang, Junling; Chen, Ziyi; Wang, Xin; Li, Junxia; Liu, Yucun; Wang, Pengyuan

    2015-05-01

    Substantial studies have demonstrated the protective effect of 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) on intestinal barrier function, but the mechanisms are not fully illustrated. In this study, the effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 on TNF-α induced barrier dysfunction was further investigated in Caco-2 cell monolayers. The barrier function of Caco-2 monolayers was evaluated by measuring trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and FITC-Dextran 40,000 Da (FD-40) trans-membrane flux. ZO-1 and Occludin were chosen as markers of the localization of tight junction (TJ) proteins for immunofluorescence. The expression of MLCK and phosphorylation level of myosin light chain (MLC) were measured by immunoblotting. The activation of NF-kB p65 was analyzed by EMSA and immunofluorescence. The results suggest that 1,25(OH)2D3 preserves intestinal epithelial barrier function from TNF-α induced injury via suppression of NF-kB p65 mediated activation of MLCK-P-MLC signaling pathway. PMID:25838204

  15. Combination of lenalidomide with vitamin D3 induces apoptosis in mantle cell lymphoma via demethylation of BIK

    PubMed Central

    Brosseau, C; Dousset, C; Touzeau, C; Maïga, S; Moreau, P; Amiot, M; Le Gouill, S; Pellat-Deceunynck, C

    2014-01-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a currently incurable B-cell malignancy. Lenalidomide (Len) has been demonstrated to be one of the most efficient new treatment options. Because Len and 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin (VD3) synergize to kill breast cancer cells, we investigated whether VD3 could increase the ability of Len to induce MCL cell death. While MCL cells were weakly sensitive to Len (1 μM), the addition of VD3 at physiological dose (100 nM) strongly increased cell death, accompanied by slowdown in cell cycle progression in MCL cell lines (n=4 out of 6) and primary samples (n=5 out of 7). The Len/VD3 treatment markedly increased the expression of the BH3-only BCL2-interacting killer (Bik) without affecting the expression of other Bcl-2 molecules. Immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that Bik was free from anti-apoptotic partners, Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, in treated cells. Moreover, silencing of BIK prevented apoptosis induced by Len/VD3, confirming the direct involvement of Bik in cell death. Bik accumulation induced by Len/VD3 was related to an increase in BIK mRNA levels, which resulted from a demethylation of BIK CpG islands. The sensitivity of MCL cells to Len/VD3 was similar to the response to 5-azacytidine, which also induced demethylation of BIK CpG islands. These preclinical data provide the rationale to investigate the role of VD3 in vivo in the response to Len. PMID:25165875

  16. CD109 Plays a Role in Osteoclastogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hongwei; Tenenbaum, Howard; Glogauer, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Osteoclasts are large multinucleated cells that arise from the fusion of cells from the monocyte/macrophage lineage. Osteoclastogenesis is mediated by macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator of nuclear factor-kB ligand (RANKL) and involves a complex multistep process that requires numerous other elements, many of which remain undefined. The primary aim of this project was to identify novel factors which regulate osteoclastogenesis. To carry out this investigation, microarray analysis was performed comparing two pre-osteoclast cell lines generated from RAW264.7 macrophages: one that has the capacity to fuse forming large multinucleated cells and one that does not fuse. It was found that CD109 was up-regulated by>17-fold in the osteoclast forming cell line when compared to the cell line that does not fuse, at day 2 of the differentiation process. Results obtained with microarray were confirmed by RT-qPCR and Western blot analyses in the two cell lines, in the parental RAW264.7 cell line, as well as primary murine monocytes from bone marrow. A significant increase of CD109 mRNA and protein expression during osteoclastogenesis occurred in all tested cell types. In order to characterize the role of CD109 in osteoclastogenesis, CD109 stable knockdown cell lines were established and fusion of osteoclast precursors into osteoclasts was assessed. It was found that CD109 knockdown cell lines were less capable of forming large multinucleated osteoclasts. It has been shown here that CD109 is expressed in monocytes undergoing RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. Moreover, when CD109 expression is suppressed in vitro, osteoclast formation decreases. This suggests that CD109 might be an important regulator of osteoclastogenesis. Further research is needed in order to characterize the role played by CD109 in regulation of osteoclast differentiation. PMID:23593435

  17. 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in combination with transforming growth factor-β increases the frequency of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells through preferential expansion and usage of interleukin-2

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, Emma S; Suwannasaen, Duangchan; Mann, Elizabeth H; Urry, Zoe; Richards, David F; Lertmemongkolchai, Ganjana; Hawrylowicz, Catherine M

    2014-01-01

    A high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency exists worldwide, which is associated with an increased incidence and severity of a range of immune-mediated diseases. This has resulted in considerable interest in the immunodulatory functions of vitamin D. The active form of vitamin D, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3], has been shown to increase the frequency of Foxp3+ CD4+ T regulatory (Treg) cells when present at high concentrations or under strong T-cell stimulation in culture. Supporting evidence exists in vivo for a positive association between serum 25(OH)D and Foxp3+ Treg cell numbers in humans. The aim of this work was to identify the cytokine milieu required in vitro to promote Foxp3+ Treg cells in cultures containing 1,25(OH)2D3 at more moderate concentrations (10−7 m). Stimulation of human CD4+ T cells with a combination of 1,25(OH)2D3 and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) greatly increased the frequency of Foxp3+ Treg cells, which is proposed to result from the preferential expansion of Foxp3+ Treg cells, as compared with the Foxp3− effector T cells, in culture. The differential effect on proliferation may result from enhanced availability and usage of interleukin-2 by the Foxp3+ Treg cells compared with Foxp3− effector T cells. In summary, modulation of the cytokine environment to one high in TGF-β in the presence of 1,25(OH)2D3 (10−7 m) significantly increased Foxp3+ Treg cell frequency. These data provide additional evidence for the important immunomodulatory properties of 1,25(OH)2D3 that exist and may help to control inflammatory diseases. PMID:24673126

  18. The effect of 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 treatment on the mRNA levels of β catenin target genes in mice with colonic inactivation of both APC alleles

    PubMed Central

    DeWitt, Marsha; Johnson, Robert L.; Snyder, Paul; Fleet, James C.

    2015-01-01

    In colon cancer, adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) inactivating gene mutations increase nuclear β-catenin levels and stimulate proliferation. In vitro, 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D), suppresses β-catenin-mediated gene transcription by inducing vitamin D receptor (VDR)-β-catenin interactions. We examined whether acute treatment with 1,25(OH)2D could suppress β-catenin-mediated gene transcription in the hyperplastic colonic lesions ofmice with colon-specific deletion of both APC gene alleles (CAC; APCΔ580/Δ580). At four weeks of age, CAC; APCΔ580/Δ580 and control mice were injected with vehicle or 1,25(OH)2D (1 μg/kg body weight) once a day for three days and then killed six hours after the last injection. mRNA levels of β-catenin target genes were elevated in the colon of CAC; APCΔ580/Δ580 mice. 1,25(OH)2D increased 25 hydroxyvitamin D-24 hydroxylase mRNA levels in the colon of CAC; APCΔ580/Δ580 and control mice indicating the treatments activated the VDR. However, 1,25(OH)2D had no effect on either β-catenin target gene mRNA levels or the proliferation index in CAC; APCΔ580/Δ580 or control mice. VDR mRNA and protein levels were lower (−65% and −90%) in the colon of CAC; APCΔ580/Δ580 mice compared to control mice, suggesting loss of colon responsiveness to vitamin D. Consistent with this, vitamin D-induced expression of Transient Receptor Potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 6 mRNA was reduced in the colon of CAC; APCΔ580/Δ580 mice. Our data show that short term exposure to 1,25(OH)2D does not suppress colonic β-catenin signaling in vivo. PMID:25597951

  19. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} induces biphasic NF-{kappa}B responses during HL-60 leukemia cells differentiation through protein induction and PI3K/Akt-dependent phosphorylation/degradation of I{kappa}B

    SciTech Connect

    Tse, A.K.-W.; Wan, C.-K.; Shen, X.-L.; Zhu, G.-Y.; Cheung, H.-Y.; Yang, M.; Fong, W.-F. . E-mail: wffong@hkbu.edu.hk

    2007-05-01

    1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} (VD{sub 3}) induces differentiation in a number of leukemia cell lines and under various conditions is able to either stimulate or inhibit nuclear factor kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) activity. Here we report a time-dependent biphasic regulation of NF-{kappa}B in VD{sub 3}-treated HL-60 leukemia cells. After VD{sub 3} treatment there was an early {approx} 4 h suppression and a late 8-72 h prolonged reactivation of NF-{kappa}B. The reactivation of NF-{kappa}B was concomitant with increased IKK activities, IKK-mediated I{kappa}B{alpha} phosphorylation, p65 phosphorylation at residues S276 and S536, p65 nuclear translocation and p65 recruitment to the NF-{kappa}B/vitamin D responsive element promoters. In parallel with NF-{kappa}B stimulation, there was an up-regulation of NF-{kappa}B controlled inflammatory and anti-apoptotic genes such as TNF{alpha}, IL-1{beta} and Bcl-xL. VD{sub 3}-triggered reactivation of NF-{kappa}B was associated with PI3K/Akt phosphorylation. PI3K/Akt antagonists suppressed VD{sub 3}-stimulated I{kappa}B{alpha} phosphorylation as well as NF-{kappa}B-controlled gene expression. The early {approx} 4 h VD{sub 3}-mediated NF-{kappa}B suppression coincided with a prolonged increase of I{kappa}B{alpha} protein which require de novo protein synthesis, lasted for as least 72 h and was insensitive to MAPK, IKK or PI3K/Akt inhibitors. Our data suggest a novel biphasic regulation of NF-{kappa}B in VD{sub 3}-treated leukemia cells and our results may have provided the first molecular explanation for the contradictory observations reported on VD{sub 3}-mediated immune-regulation.

  20. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 influences cellular homocysteine levels in murine pre-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells by direct regulation of cystathionine β-synthase

    PubMed Central

    Kriebitzsch, Carsten; Verlinden, Lieve; Eelen, Guy; van Schoor, Natasja M.; Swart, Karin; Lips, Paul; Meyer, Mark B.; Pike, J Wesley; Boonen, Steven; Carlberg, Carsten; Vitvitsky, Victor; Bouillon, Roger; Banerjee, Ruma; Verstuyf, Annemieke

    2011-01-01

    High homocysteine (HCY) levels are a risk factor for osteoporotic fracture. Furthermore, bone quality and strength are compromised by elevated HCY due to its negative impact on collagen maturation. HCY is cleared by cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), the first enzyme in the transsulfuration pathway. CBS converts HCY to cystathionine, thereby committing it to cysteine synthesis. A microarray experiment on MC3T3-E1 murine pre-osteoblasts treated with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] revealed a cluster of genes including the cbs gene, of which the transcription was rapidly and strongly induced by 1,25(OH)2D3. Quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot analysis confirmed higher levels of cbs mRNA and protein after 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment in murine and human cells. Moreover, measurement of CBS enzyme activity and quantitative measurements of HCY, cystathionine and cysteine concentrations were consistent with elevated transsulfuration activity in 1,25(OH)2D3-treated cells. The importance of a functional vitamin D receptor (VDR) for transcriptional regulation of cbs was shown in primary murine VDR knock-out osteoblasts, in which up-regulation of cbs in response to 1,25(OH)2D3 was abolished. Chromatin immunoprecipitation on chip and transfection studies revealed a functional vitamin D response element in the second intron of cbs. To further explore the potential clinical relevance of our ex vivo findings, human data from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam suggested a correlation between vitamin D status [25(OH)D3 levels] and HCY levels. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that cbs is a primary 1,25(OH)2D3 target gene which renders HCY metabolism responsive to 1,25(OH)2D3. PMID:21898591

  1. Loss of CYP3A7 gene induction by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 is caused by less binding of VDR to the proximal ER6 in CYP3A7 gene.

    PubMed

    Hara, Hirokazu; Yasunami, Yoko; Adachi, Tetsuo

    2004-09-01

    Cytochrome P450 3A4 and 3A7 (CYP3A4 and CYP3A7, respectively) are predominant forms in the human adult and fetal liver, respectively. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25(OH)(2)D(3)) is known to be a potent inducer of CYP3A4 in human colon carcinoma Caco-2 via vitamin D receptor (VDR). However, whether CYP3A7 is inducible by 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) has not yet been elucidated. In the present study, we examined the effect of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) on CYP3A7 gene expression in Caco-2 cells, which express CYP3A4 and CYP3A7 mRNAs. 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) hardly induced the expression of CYP3A7 mRNA in contrast to the marked induction of CYP3A4 mRNA. Reporter assay using 5'-franking region CYP3A4 and CYP3A7 genes also revealed that 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) activates CYP3A4 promoter, but not CYP3A7 promoter, which has two mutations in the proximal ER6 site compared with CYP3A4 promoter. In addition, we found that the binding of VDR to the proximal ER6 in CYP3A7 gene was markedly less than that to the proximal ER6 in CYP3A4 gene using gel shift assay. Taken together, the decrease of VDR binding to the proximal ER6 caused by the mutation results in the loss of CYP3A7 gene activation by 1,25(OH)(2)D(3). PMID:15358113

  2. Expression of human kinase suppressor of Ras 2 (hKSR-2) gene in HL60 leukemia cells is directly upregulated by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} and is required for optimal cell differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Xuening; Wang, T.-T.; White, John H.; Studzinski, George P. . E-mail: studzins@umdnj.edu

    2007-08-15

    Induction of terminal differentiation of neoplastic cells offers potential for a novel approach to cancer therapy. One of the agents being investigated for this purpose in preclinical studies is 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} (1,25D), which can convert myeloid leukemia cells into normal monocyte-like cells, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this process are not fully understood. Here, we report that 1,25D upregulates the expression of hKSR-2, a new member of a small family of proteins that exhibit evolutionarily conserved function of potentiating ras signaling. The upregulation of hKSR-2 is direct, as it occurs in the presence of cycloheximide, and occurs primarily at the transcriptional level, via activation of vitamin D receptor, which acts as a ligand-activated transcription factor. Two VDRE-type motifs identified in the hKSR-2 gene bind VDR-RXR alpha heterodimers present in nuclear extracts of 1,25D-treated HL60 cells, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays show that these VDRE motifs bind VDR in 1,25D-dependent manner in intact cells, coincident with the recruitment of RNA polymerase II to these motifs. Treatment of the cells with siRNA to hKSR-2 reduced the proportion of the most highly differentiated cells in 1,25D-treated cultures. These results demonstrate that hKSR-2 is a direct target of 1,25D in HL60 cells, and is required for optimal monocytic differentiation.

  3. Differential effect of 1{alpha},25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} on Hsp28 and PKC{beta} gene expression in the phorbol ester-resistant human myeloid HL-525 leukemic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Yong J.; Galoforo, S.S.; Berns, C.M.

    1997-08-01

    We investigated the effect of 1{alpha},25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} [1,25-(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3}] on the expression of the 28-kDa heat shock protein gene (hsp28) and the protein kinase C beta gene (PKC{beta}) in the human myeloid HL-60 leukemic cell variant HL-525, which is resistance to phorbol ester-induced macrophage differentiation. Northern and Western blot analysis showed little or no hsp28 gene expression in the HL-60 cell variant, HL-205, which is susceptible to such differentiation, while a relatively high basal level of hps28 gene expression was observed in the HL-525 cells. However, both cell lines demonstrated heat shock-induced expression of this gene. During treatment with 50-300 nM 1,25-(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3}, a marked reduction of hsp28 gene expression was not associated with heat shock transcription factor-heat shock element (HSF-HSE) binding activity. Our results suggest that the differential effect of 1,25-(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3} on hsp28 and PKC{beta} gene expression is due to the different sequence composition of the vitamin D response element in the in the promoter region as well as an accessory factor for each gene or that 1,25-(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3} increases PKC{beta} gene expression, which in turn negatively regulates the expression of the hsp28 gene, or vice versa.

  4. Diabetes prevalence is associated with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in US middle-aged Caucasian men and women: a cross-sectional analysis within the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial.

    PubMed

    Brock, Kaye E; Huang, Wen-Yi; Fraser, David R; Ke, Liang; Tseng, Marilyn; Mason, Rebecca S; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z; Freedman, D Michal; Ahn, Jiyoung; Peters, Ulrike; McCarty, Catherine; Hollis, Bruce W; Ziegler, Regina G; Purdue, Mark P; Graubard, Barry I

    2011-08-01

    Hypovitaminosis D may be associated with diabetes, hypertension and CHD. However, because studies examining the associations of all three chronic conditions with circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)(2)D) are limited, we examined these associations in the US Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial (n 2465). Caucasian PLCO participants selected as controls in previous nested case-control studies of 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)(2)D were included in this analysis. Diabetes, CHD and hypertension prevalence, risk factors for these conditions and intake of vitamin D and Ca were collected from a baseline questionnaire. Results indicated that serum levels of 25(OH)D were low (< 50 nmol/l) in 29 % and very low (< 37 nmol/l) in 11 % of subjects. The prevalence of diabetes, hypertension and CHD was 7, 30 and 10 %, respectively. After adjustment for confounding by sex, geographical location, educational level, smoking history, BMI, physical activity, total dietary energy and vitamin D and Ca intake, only diabetes was significantly associated with lower 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)(2)D levels. Caucasians who had 25(OH)D ≥ 80 nmol/l were half as likely to have diabetes (OR 0·5 (95 % CI 0·3, 0·9)) compared with those who had 25(OH)D < 37 nmol/l. Those in the highest quartile of 1,25(OH)(2)D (≥ 103 pmol/l) were less than half as likely to have diabetes (OR 0·3 (95 % CI 0·1, 0·7)) than those in the lowest quartile (< 72 pmol/l). In conclusion, the independent associations of 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)(2)D with diabetes prevalence in a large population are new findings, and thus warrant confirmation in larger, prospective studies. PMID:21736838

  5. Vitamin D-Binding Protein Influences Total Circulating Levels of 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 but Does Not Directly Modulate the Bioactive Levels of the Hormone in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Zella, Lee A.; Shevde, Nirupama K.; Hollis, Bruce W.; Cooke, Nancy E.; Pike, J. Wesley

    2008-01-01

    Mice deficient in the expression of vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) are normocalcemic despite undetectable levels of circulating 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3]. We used this in vivo mouse model together with cells in culture to explore the impact of DBP on the biological activity of 1,25(OH)2D3. Modest changes in the basal expression of genes involved in 1,25(OH)2D3 metabolism and calcium homeostasis were observed in vivo; however, these changes seemed unlikely to explain the normal calcium balance seen in DBP-null mice. Further investigation revealed that despite the reduced blood levels of 1,25(OH)2D3 in these mice, tissue concentrations were equivalent to those measured in wild-type counterparts. Thus, the presence of DBP has limited impact on the extracellular pool of 1,25(OH)2D3 that is biologically active and that accumulates within target tissues. In cell culture, in contrast, the biological activity of 1,25(OH)2D3 is significantly impacted by DBP. Here, although DBP deficiency had no effect on the activation profile itself, the absence of DBP strongly reduced the concentration of exogenous 1,25(OH)2D3 necessary for transactivation. Surprisingly, analogous studies in wild-type and DBP-null mice, wherein we explored the activity of exogenous 1,25(OH)2D3, produced strikingly different results as compared with those in vitro. Here, the carrier protein had virtually no impact on the distribution, uptake, activation profile, or biological potency of the hormone. Collectively, these experiments suggest that whereas DBP is important to total circulating 1,25(OH)2D3 and sequesters extracellular levels of this hormone both in vivo and in vitro, the binding protein does not influence the hormone’s biologically active pool. PMID:18372326

  6. Effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and its 20-epi analogues (MC 1288, MC 1301, KH 1060), on clonal keratinocyte growth: evidence for differentiation of keratinocyte stem cells and analysis of the modulatory effects of cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Gniadecki, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Keratinocytes are functionally divided into stem cells, transit amplifying cells and terminally differentiated cells. In a hyperproliferative skin disease, psoriasis, increased mitotic activity of the stem cells is chiefly responsible for epidermal hyperplasia. The effects of 1,25dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) and potent vitamin D3 analogues (MC 1288: 20-epi-1,25(OH)2D3, MC 1301: 20-epi-24a-homo-26,27-dimethyl-1,25(OH)2D3, KH 1060: 20-epi-22-oxa-24a-homo-26,27-dimethyl-1,25(OH)2D3) on the stem cells were investigated.Stem cells were identified retrospectively as those giving rise to large keratinocyte colonies in culture (holoclones). 1,25(OH)2D3 (10−8–10−6 M) suppressed formation of holoclones by stimulating the progenitor cell differentiation into the phenotype expressing differentiation markers (keratins K1/K10 and involucrin).20-Epi vitamin D3 analogues were more potent than 1,25(OH)2D3 in inhibiting the clonal keratinocyte growth. This activity correlated with the ability to induce cell differentiation (KH 1060>MC 1301>MC 1288>1,25(OH)2D3).Cytokines modulated the effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 on clonal growth. One of the following cytokines (epidermal growth factor, transforming growth factor α, interleukin-1α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, interleukin-8) was required for 1,25(OH)2D3 to suppress clonal growth and induce cell differentiation. In contrast, keratinocyte growth factor and insulin-like growth factor I attenuated the effects of 1,25(OH)2D3.In conclusion, 1,25(OH)2D3 and 20-epi vitamin D3 analogues suppress clonal growth by directly inducing the differentiation of progenitor cells. It is conceivable that stimulation of stem cells differentiation is a major mechanism of action of vitamin D3 compounds in psoriasis. Balance between different types of cytokines in psoriatic epidermis may be an important factor determining the clinical effect of vitamin D-based therapy. PMID:9134225

  7. Ablation of the Stimulatory G Protein α-Subunit in Renal Proximal Tubules Leads to Parathyroid Hormone-Resistance With Increased Renal Cyp24a1 mRNA Abundance and Reduced Serum 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yan; He, Qing; Aydin, Cumhur; Rubera, Isabelle; Tauc, Michel; Chen, Min; Weinstein, Lee S; Marshansky, Vladimir; Jüppner, Harald; Bastepe, Murat

    2016-02-01

    PTH regulates serum calcium, phosphate, and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) levels by acting on bone and kidney. In renal proximal tubules (PTs), PTH inhibits reabsorption of phosphate and stimulates the synthesis of 1,25(OH)2D. The PTH receptor couples to multiple G proteins. We here ablated the α-subunit of the stimulatory G protein (Gsα) in mouse PTs by using Cre recombinase driven by the promoter of type-2 sodium-glucose cotransporter (Gsα(Sglt2KO) mice). Gsα(Sglt2KO) mice were normophosphatemic but displayed, relative to controls, hypocalcemia (1.19 ±0.01 vs 1.23 ±0.01 mmol/L; P < .05), reduced serum 1,25(OH)2D (59.3 ±7.0 vs 102.5 ±12.2 pmol/L; P < .05), and elevated serum PTH (834 ±133 vs 438 ±59 pg/mL; P < .05). PTH-induced elevation in urinary cAMP excretion was blunted in Gsα(Sglt2KO) mice (2- vs 4-fold over baseline in controls; P < .05). Relative to baseline in controls, PTH-induced reduction in serum phosphate tended to be blunted in Gsα(Sglt2KO) mice (-0.39 ±0.33 vs -1.34 ±0.36 mg/dL; P = .07). Gsα(Sglt2KO) mice showed elevated renal vitamin D 24-hydroxylase and bone fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) mRNA abundance (∼3.4- and ∼11-fold over controls, respectively; P < .05) and tended to have elevated serum FGF23 (829 ±76 vs 632 ±60 pg/mL in controls; P = .07). Heterozygous mice having constitutive ablation of the maternal Gsα allele (E1(m-/+)) (model of pseudohypoparathyroidism type-Ia), in which Gsα levels in PT are reduced, also exhibited elevated serum FGF23 (474 ±20 vs 374 ±27 pg/mL in controls; P < .05). Our findings indicate that Gsα is required in PTs for suppressing renal vitamin D 24-hydroxylase mRNA levels and for maintaining normal serum 1,25(OH)2D. PMID:26671181

  8. The Effects of 1α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and Transforming Growth Factor-β3 on Bone Development in an Ex Vivo Organotypic Culture System of Embryonic Chick Femora

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Emma L.; Rashidi, Hassan; Kanczler, Janos M.; Shakesheff, Kevin M.; Oreffo, Richard O. C.

    2015-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta3 (TGF-β3) and 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1α,25 (OH) 2D3) are essential factors in chondrogenesis and osteogenesis respectively. These factors also play a fundamental role in the developmental processes and the maintenance of skeletal integrity, but their respective direct effects on these processes are not fully understood. Using an organotypic bone rudiment culture system the current study has examined the direct roles the osteotropic factors 1α,25 (OH)2D3 and TGF-β3 exert on the development and modulation of the three dimensional structure of the embryonic femur. Isolated embryonic chick femurs (E11) were organotypically cultured for 10 days in basal media, or basal media supplemented with either 1α,25 (OH) 2D3 (25 nM) or TGF-β3 (5 ng/mL & 15 ng/mL). Analyses of the femurs were undertaken using micro-computed tomography (μCT), histology and immunohistochemistry. 1α,25 (OH)2D3 supplemented cultures enhanced osteogenesis directly in the developing femurs with elevated levels of osteogenic markers such as type 1 collagen. In marked contrast organotypic femur cultures supplemented with TGF-β3 (5 ng/mL & 15 ng/mL) demonstrated enhanced chondrogenesis with a reduction in osteogenesis. These studies demonstrate the efficacy of the ex vivo organotypic embryonic femur culture employed to elucidate the direct roles of these molecules, 1α,25 (OH) 2D3 and TGF-β3 on the structural development of embryonic bone within a three dimensional framework. We conclude that 1α,25(OH)2D and TGF-β3 modify directly the various cell populations in bone rudiment organotypic cultures effecting tissue metabolism resulting in significant changes in embryonic bone growth and modulation. Understanding the roles of osteotropic agents in the process of skeletal development is integral to developing new strategies for the recapitulation of bone tissue in later life. PMID:25835745

  9. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 regulates expression of LRP1 and RAGE in vitro and in vivo, enhancing Aβ1-40 brain-to-blood efflux and peripheral uptake transport.

    PubMed

    Guo, Y-X; He, L-Y; Zhang, M; Wang, F; Liu, F; Peng, W-X

    2016-05-13

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the accumulation and deposition of plaques of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide in the brain. Growing epidemiological and experimental studies have shown that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) exerts neuroprotection against AD. However, the underlying mechanisms of the action remain unclear. Since Aβ clearance plays a crucial role in Aβ balance in the brain, the aim of the present study was to investigate potential effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 on Aβ1-40, the major soluble oligomeric form of Aβ, clearance via transport across blood-brain barrier (BBB) mediated by low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) (efflux) and receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) (influx) and peripheral uptake by liver mediated by LRP1. We identified colocalization of LRP1 and RAGE at BBB of mice, established an in vitro BBB model by culturing monolayer mouse brain microvascular endothelial cell line (bEnd.3) cells under hypoxia and observed that 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment enhanced Aβ1-40 efflux across the BBB model and uptake by HepG2 cells. After 1,25(OH)2D3 exposure, LRP1 expression was increased significantly both in vivo and in vitro, and RAGE expression was reduced in the in vitro BBB model but not in microvascular endothelial cells of mice hippocampus. Additionally, we explored the correlation between the corresponding effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 and its nuclear hormone receptor vitamin D receptor (VDR) level. We found that VDR expression was upregulated after 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment both in vivo and in vitro. Collectively, our finding that 1,25(OH)2D3 reduces cerebral Aβ1-40 level by increasing Aβ1-40 brain-to-blood efflux and peripheral uptake through regulating LRP1 and RAGE could shed light on the mechanism of 1,25(OH)2D3 neuroprotection against AD. And the action of 1,25(OH)2D3 might be associated with the VDR pathway. PMID:26820600

  10. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D decreases HTRA1 promoter activity in the rhesus monkey--a plausible explanation for the influence of vitamin D on age-related macular degeneration?

    PubMed

    Pahl, Lisa; Schubert, Stephanie; Skawran, Britta; Sandbothe, Maria; Schmidtke, Jörg; Stuhrmann, Manfred

    2013-11-01

    Age-related macular degeneration is the major cause of blindness in the elderly worldwide and the risk is influenced by both environmental and genetic risk factors. One important disease-associated region in humans is located on 10q26 and includes the two candidate genes ARMS2 and HTRA1. However, determination of the causative gene has not yet been possible and examining the situation in the rhesus monkey may help understand the situation in humans. In a recent paper, we characterized the rhesus monkey 10q26-orthologue region on chromosome 9 in detail and identified the drusen-associated HTRA1 promoter SNP rs196357513 as a putative risk factor. In this study, we predicted 9 binding sites for the vitamin D-dependent transcription factor vitamin D receptor in the rhesus HTRA1 promoter, one of which is destroyed by the rs196357513-risk allele. As patients with vitamin D deficit are at increased risk for age-related macular degeneration, a luciferase assay in transiently transfected ARPE19-cells was performed to evaluate the influence of the SNP rs196357513 and of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D on the rhesus monkey HTRA1 promoter activity. This revealed that the luciferase activity of the promoter construct containing the rs196357513 wild type allele was significantly reduced after vitamin D stimulation. An in silico analysis and literature search imply that this regulation could also play a role in human HTRA1 expression. Moreover, HTRA1 promoter activity of the construct containing the rs196357513 risk allele appeared diminished in comparison to the construct with the wild type allele, albeit this difference was not significant. The lower promoter activity due to the rhesus monkey rs196357513 risk allele apparently contradicts the common hypothesis for the human HTRA1 promoter risk allele of SNP rs11200638, for which a higher promoter activity has been observed. Our data point to a yet unexpected effect of decreased HTRA1 expression on drusen pathogenesis. Thus not only a

  11. Differential expression and regulation of vitamin D hydroxylases and inflammatory genes in prostate stroma and epithelium by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in men with prostate cancer and an in vitro model

    PubMed Central

    Giangreco, Angeline A.; Dambal, Shweta; Wagner, Dennis; Van der Kwast, Theodorus; Vieth, Reinhold; Prins, Gail S.; Nonn, Larisa

    2014-01-01

    Previous work on vitamin D in the prostate has focused on the prostatic epithelium, from which prostate cancer arises. Prostatic epithelial cells are surrounded by stroma, which has well-established regulatory control over epithelial proliferation, differentiation, and the inflammatory response. Here we examined the regulation of vitamin D-related genes and inflammatory genes by 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D) in laser-capture microdissected prostate tissue from a vitamin D3 clinical trial and in an in vitro model that facilitates stromal–epithelial crosstalk. Analysis of the trial tissues showed that VDR was present in both cell types, whereas expression of the hydroxylases was the highest in the epithelium. Examination of gene expression by prostatic (1,25(OH)2D) concentrations showed that VDR was significantly lower in prostate tissues with the highest concentration of 1,25(OH)2D, and down-regulation of VDR by 1,25(OH) 2D was confirmed in the primary cell cultures. Analysis of inflammatory genes in the patient tissues revealed that IL-6 expression was the highest in the prostate stroma while PTGS2 (COX2) levels were lowest in the prostate cancer tissues from men in the highest tertile of prostatic 1,25(OH)2D. In vitro, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8 were suppressed by 1,25 (OH)2D in the primary epithelial cells, whereas TNF-α and PTGS2 were suppressed by 1,25(OH) 2D in the stromal cells. Importantly, the ability of 1,25(OH)2D to alter pro-inflammatory-induced changes in epithelial cell growth were dependent on the presence of the stromal cells. In summary, whereas both stromal and epithelial cells of the prostate express VDR and can presumably respond to 1,25(OH)2D, which appears to be primarily produced by the prostatic epithelium. Further, while the prostate epithelium was more responsive to the anti-inflammatory activity of 1,25 (OH)2D than stromal cells, stroma–epithelial crosstalk enhanced the phenotypic effects of 1,25(OH)2D and the inflammatory

  12. Inhibition of insulin- and insulin-like growth factor-I-stimulated growth of human breast cancer cells by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and the vitamin D3 analogue EB1089.

    PubMed

    Vink-van Wijngaarden, T; Pols, H A; Buurman, C J; Birkenhäger, J C; van Leeuwen, J P

    1996-05-01

    1,25 Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-(OH)2D3) and a number of synthetic vitamin D3 analogues with low calcaemic activity, have been shown to inhibit breast cancer cell growth in vitro as well as in vivo. The purpose of the present study was to investigate a possible interaction of 1,25-(OH)2D3 and the vitamin D3 analogue EB1089 with the insulin-IGF-I regulatory system. The oestrogen receptor-positive MCF-7 human breast cancer cells used in this study are able to grow autonomously and their growth is stimulated by insulin. In order to avoid interference of IGF-binding proteins (IGF-BPs), we used an analogue of IGF-I, long R3 IGF-I, which stimulated MCF-7 cell growth similar to insulin. The growth stimulation by insulin and by long R3 IGF-I was completely inhibited by 1,25-(OH)2D3 and EB1089. Autonomous growth was also inhibited by 1,25-(OH)2D3 and EB1089. The analogue EB1089 was active at 50 times lower concentrations than 1,25-(OH)2D3. It was shown that growth inhibition was not achieved through downregulation of insulin and IGF-I binding after 48 h. Paradoxically, after prolonged treatment (8 days), an upregulation of insulin and IGF-I binding was observed. Two possible intracellular mediators of the insulin-IGF mitogenic signal are C-FOS and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase. Insulin-induced C-FOS mRNA was inhibited by 1,25-(OH)2D3, suggesting that it could be involved in the growth inhibition by 1,25-(OH)2D3. MAP kinase activation appeared not to be involved in growth stimulation by both insulin and IGF-I. Together, the present study demonstrates that vitamin D3 compounds can block the mitogenic activity of insulin and IGF-I, which may contribute to their tumour suppressive activity observed in vivo. PMID:9081364

  13. Differential response to 1α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1α,25(OH)2D3) in non-small cell lung cancer cells with distinct oncogene mutations1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qiuhong; Kanterewicz, Beatriz; Shoemaker, Suzanne; Hu, Qiang; Liu, Song; Atwood, Kristopher; Hershberger, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells and primary human lung tumors aberrantly express the vitamin D3-catabolizing enzyme, CYP24, and that CYP24 restricts transcriptional regulation and growth control by 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) in NSCLC cells. To ascertain the basis for CYP24 dysregulation, we assembled a panel of cell lines that represent distinct molecular classes of lung cancer: Cell lines were selected which harbored mutually exclusive mutations in either the K-ras or the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) genes. We observed that K-ras mutant lines displayed a basal vitamin D receptor (VDR)lowCYP24high phenotype, whereas EGFR mutant lines had a VDRhighCYP24low phenotype. A mutation-associated difference in CYP24 expression was also observed in clinical specimens. Specifically, K-ras mutation was associated with a median 4.2-fold increase in CYP24 mRNA expression (p = 4.8 × 10−7) compared to EGFR mutation in a series of 147 primary lung adenocarcinoma cases. Because of their differential basal expression of VDR and CYP24, we hypothesized that NSCLC cells with an EGFR mutation would be more responsive to 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment than those with a K-ras mutation. To test this, we measured the ability of 1,25(OH)2D3 to increase reporter gene activity, induce transcription of endogenous target genes, and suppress colony formation. In each assay, the extent of 1,25(OH)2D3 response was greater in EGFR mutation-positive HCC827 and H1975 cells than in K-ras mutation-positive A549 and 128.88T cells. We subsequently examined the effect of combining 1,25(OH)2D3 with erlotinib, which is used clinically in the treatment of EGFR mutation-positive NSCLC. 1,25(OH)2D3/erlotinib combination resulted in significantly greater growth inhibition than either single agent in both the erlotinib-sensitive HCC827 cell line and the erlotinib-resistant H1975 cell line. These data are the first to suggest that EGFR mutations may

  14. 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 acts via transforming growth factor-β to up-regulate expression of immunosuppressive CD73 on human CD4+ Foxp3- T cells.

    PubMed

    Mann, Elizabeth H; Chambers, Emma S; Chen, Yin-Huai; Richards, David F; Hawrylowicz, Catherine M

    2015-11-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased incidence and severity of various immune-mediated diseases. Active vitamin D (1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3; 1,25(OH)2 D3) up-regulates CD4(+) T-cell expression of the purine ectonucleotidase CD39, a molecule that is associated with the generation of anti-inflammatory adenosine. Here we aimed to investigate the direct impact of 1,25(OH)2 D3 on expression of the downstream ecto-5'-nucleotidase CD73 by human CD4 T cells, and components of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) pathway, which have been implicated in the modulation of CD73 by murine T cells. At 10(-8) to 10(-7) m, 1,25(OH)2 D3 significantly increased expression of CD73 on peripheral human CD4(+) T cells. Although 1,25(OH)2 D3 did not affect the mRNA expression of latent TGF-β1 , 1,25(OH)2 D3 did up-regulate expression of TGF-β-associated molecules [latency-associated peptide (LAP), glycophorin A repetitions predominant (GARP), GP96, neuropilin-1, thrombospondin-1 and αv integrin] which is likely to have contributed to the observed enhancement in TGF-β bioactivity. CD73 was highly co-expressed with LAP and GARP following 1,25(OH)2 D3 treatment, but unexpectedly, each of these cell surface molecules was expressed primarily on CD4(+) Foxp3(-) T cells, rather than CD4(+) Foxp3(+) T cells. Notably, neutralization of TGF-β significantly impaired 1,25(OH)2 D3-mediated induction of CD73. Collectively, we show that 1,25(OH)2 D3 enhances expression of CD73 on CD4(+) Foxp3(-) T cells in a process that is at least partially TGF-β-dependent. These data reveal an additional contributing mechanism by which vitamin D may be protective in immune-mediated disease. PMID:26251265

  15. Topography Influences Adherent Cell Regulation of Osteoclastogenesis.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, M; Cooper, L F; Ogino, Y; Mendonca, D; Liang, R; Yang, S; Mendonca, G; Uoshima, K

    2016-03-01

    The importance of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption in the process of osseointegration has not been widely considered. In this study, cell culture was used to investigate the hypothesis that the function of implant-adherent bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) in osteoclastogenesis is influenced by surface topography. BMSCs isolated from femur and tibia of Sprague-Dawley rats were seeded onto 3 types of titanium surfaces (smooth, micro, and nano) and a control surface (tissue culture plastic) with or without osteogenic supplements. After 3 to 14 d, conditioned medium (CM) was collected. Subsequently, rat bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) were cultured in media supplemented with soluble receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) as well as BMSC CM from each of the 4 surfaces. Gene expression levels of soluble RANKL, osteoprotegerin, tumor necrosis factor α, and M-CSF in cultured BMSCs at different time points were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The number of differentiated osteoclastic cells was determined after tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining. Analysis of variance and t test were used for statistical analysis. The expression of prominent osteoclast-promoting factors tumor necrosis factor α and M-CSF was increased by BMSCs cultured on both micro- and nanoscale titanium topographies (P < 0.01). BMSC CM contained a heat-labile factor that increased BMMs osteoclastogenesis. CM from both micro- and nanoscale surface-adherent BMSCs increased the osteoclast number (P < 0.01). Difference in surface topography altered BMSC phenotype and influenced BMM osteoclastogenesis. Local signaling by implant-adherent cells at the implant-bone interface may indirectly control osteoclastogenesis and bone accrual around endosseous implants. PMID:26553885

  16. Glechoma hederacea Suppresses RANKL-mediated Osteoclastogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, J.K.; Erkhembaatar, M.; Gu, D.R.; Lee, S.H.; Lee, C.H.; Shin, D.M.; Lee, Y.R.; Kim, M.S.

    2014-01-01

    Glechoma hederacea (GH), commonly known as ground-ivy or gill-over-the-ground, has been extensively used in folk remedies for relieving symptoms of inflammatory disorders. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the therapeutic action of GH are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that GH constituents inhibit osteoclastogenesis by abrogating receptor activator of nuclear κ-B ligand (RANKL)-induced free cytosolic Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) oscillations. To evaluate the effect of GH on osteoclastogenesis, we assessed the formation of multi-nucleated cells (MNCs), enzymatic activity of tartrate-resistant acidic phosphatase (TRAP), expression of nuclear factor of activated T-cells cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1), and [Ca2+]i alterations in response to treatment with GH ethanol extract (GHE) in primarily cultured bone marrow–derived macrophages (BMMs). Treatment of RANKL-stimulated or non-stimulated BMMs with GHE markedly suppressed MNC formation, TRAP activity, and NFATc1 expression in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, GHE treatment induced a large transient elevation in [Ca2+]i while suppressing RANKL-induced [Ca2+]i oscillations, which are essential for NFATc1 activation. GHE-evoked increase in [Ca2+]i was dependent on extracellular Ca2+ and was inhibited by 1,4-dihydropyridine (DHP), inhibitor of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (VGCCs), but was independent of store-operated Ca2+ channels. Notably, after transient [Ca2+] elevation, treatment with GHE desensitized the VGCCs, resulting in an abrogation of RANKL-induced [Ca2+]i oscillations and MNC formation. These findings demonstrate that treatment of BMMs with GHE suppresses RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis by activating and then desensitizing DHP-sensitive VGCCs, suggesting potential applications of GH in the treatment of bone disorders, such as periodontitis, osteoporosis, and rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:24850617

  17. Adseverin knockdown inhibits osteoclastogenesis in RAW264.7 cells

    PubMed Central

    QI, WENTING; GAO, YAN; TIAN, JUN; JIANG, HONGWEI

    2014-01-01

    Osteoclastogenesis is a complex process that is highly dependent on the dynamic regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. Adseverin (Ads), a member of the gelsolin superfamily of actin-binding proteins, regulates actin remodeling by severing and capping actin filaments. The objective of the present study was to characterize the role of Ads during osteoclastogenesis by assessing Ads expression and using a knockdown strategy. Immunoblot analyses were used to examine Ads expression during osteoclastogenesis. A stable Ads knockdown macrophage cell line was generated using a retroviral shRNA construct. Osteoclast differentiation was morphologically examined via cell staining with osteoclast specific markers and light microscopy. The results showed that Ads expression was significantly increased in response to receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand during osteoclastogenesis, and Ads was highly expressed in mature osteoclasts. Ads-knockdown macrophages showed major osteoclastogenesis defects, most likely caused by a pre-osteoclast fusion defect. These results indicate that Ads deficiency in monocytes inhibits osteoclastogenesis. Thus, in future studies it could be noteworthy to investigate the function of Ads in bone marrow monocytes during osteoclastogenesis. PMID:25339151

  18. Crosstalk between the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) and the vitamin D receptor (VDR) in human breast cancer cells: PPAR{gamma} binds to VDR and inhibits 1{alpha},25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} mediated transactivation

    SciTech Connect

    Alimirah, Fatouma; Peng, Xinjian; Yuan, Liang; Mehta, Rajeshwari R.; Knethen, Andreas von; Choubey, Divaker; Mehta, Rajendra G.

    2012-11-15

    Heterodimerization and cross-talk between nuclear hormone receptors often occurs. For example, estrogen receptor alpha (ER{alpha}) physically binds to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR{gamma}) and inhibits its transcriptional activity. The interaction between PPAR{gamma} and the vitamin D receptor (VDR) however, is unknown. Here, we elucidate the molecular mechanisms linking PPAR{gamma} and VDR signaling, and for the first time we show that PPAR{gamma} physically associates with VDR in human breast cancer cells. We found that overexpression of PPAR{gamma} decreased 1{alpha},25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} (1,25D{sub 3}) mediated transcriptional activity of the vitamin D target gene, CYP24A1, by 49% and the activity of VDRE-luc, a vitamin D responsive reporter, by 75% in T47D human breast cancer cells. Deletion mutation experiments illustrated that helices 1 and 4 of PPAR{gamma}'s hinge and ligand binding domains, respectively, governed this suppressive function. Additionally, abrogation of PPAR{gamma}'s AF2 domain attenuated its repressive action on 1,25D{sub 3} transactivation, indicating that this domain is integral in inhibiting VDR signaling. PPAR{gamma} was also found to compete with VDR for their binding partner retinoid X receptor alpha (RXR{alpha}). Overexpression of RXR{alpha} blocked PPAR{gamma}'s suppressive effect on 1,25D{sub 3} action, enhancing VDR signaling. In conclusion, these observations uncover molecular mechanisms connecting the PPAR{gamma} and VDR pathways. -- Highlights: PPAR{gamma}'s role on 1{alpha},25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} transcriptional activity is examined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PPAR{gamma} physically binds to VDR and inhibits 1{alpha},25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} action. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PPAR{gamma}'s hinge and ligand binding domains are important for this inhibitory effect. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PPAR{gamma} competes with VDR for the availability of their binding partner, RXR{alpha}.

  19. Microgravity control of autophagy modulates osteoclastogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sambandam, Yuvaraj; Townsend, Molly T; Pierce, Jason J; Lipman, Cecilia M; Haque, Azizul; Bateman, Ted A; Reddy, Sakamuri V

    2014-04-01

    Evidence indicates that astronauts experience significant bone loss during space mission. Recently, we used the NASA developed rotary cell culture system (RCCS) to simulate microgravity (μXg) conditions and demonstrated increased osteoclastogenesis in mouse bone marrow cultures. Autophagy is a cellular recycling process of nutrients. Therefore, we hypothesize that μXg control of autophagy modulates osteoclastogenesis. Real-time PCR analysis of total RNA isolated from mouse bone marrow derived non-adherent cells subjected to modeled μXg showed a significant increase in autophagic marker Atg5, LC3 and Atg16L mRNA expression compared to ground based control (Xg) cultures. Western blot analysis of total cell lysates identified an 8.0-fold and 7.0-fold increase in the Atg5 and LC3-II expression, respectively. Confocal microscopy demonstrated an increased autophagosome formation in μXg subjected RAW 264.7 preosteoclast cells. RT(2) profiler PCR array screening for autophagy related genes identified that μXg upregulates intracellular signaling molecules associated with autophagy, autophagosome components and inflammatory cytokines/growth factors which coregulate autophagy in RAW 264.7 preosteoclast cells. Autophagy inhibitor, 3-methyladenine (3-MA) treatment of mouse bone marrow derived non-adherent mononuclear cells showed a significant decrease in μXg induced Atg5 and LC3 mRNA expression in the presence or absence of RANK ligand (RANKL) stimulation. Furthermore, RANKL treatment significantly increased (8-fold) p-CREB transcription factor levels under μXg as compared to Xg cultures and 3-MA inhibited RANKL increased p-CREB expression in these cells. Also, 3-MA suppresses μXg elevated osteoclast differentiation in mouse bone marrow cultures. Thus, our results suggest that μXg induced autophagy plays an important role in enhanced osteoclast differentiation and could be a potential therapeutic target to prevent bone loss in astronauts during space flight missions

  20. Microgravity control of autophagy modulates osteoclastogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sambandam, Yuvaraj; Townsend, Molly T.; Pierce, Jason J.; Lipman, Cecilia M.; Haque, Azizul; Bateman, Ted A.; Reddy, Sakamuri V.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence indicates that astronauts experience significant bone loss during space mission. Recently, we used the NASA developed rotary cell culture system (RCCS) to simulate microgravity (μXg) conditions and demonstrated increased osteoclastogenesis in mouse bone marrow cultures. Autophagy is a cellular recycling process of nutrients. Therefore, we hypothesize that μXg control of autophagy modulates osteoclastogenesis. Real-time PCR analysis of total RNA isolated from mouse bone marrow derived non-adherent cells subjected to modeled μXg showed a significant increase in autophagic marker Atg5, LC3 and Atg16L mRNA expression compared to ground based control (Xg) cultures. Western blot analysis of total cell lysates identified an 8.0-fold and 7.0-fold increase in the Atg5 and LC3-II expression, respectively. Confocal microscopy demonstrated an increased autophagosome formation in μXg subjected RAW 264.7 preosteoclast cells. RT2 profiler PCR array screening for autophagy related genes identified that μXg upregulates intracellular signaling molecules associated with autophagy, autophagosome components and inflammatory cytokines/growth factors which coregulate autophagy in RAW 264.7 preosteoclast cells. Autophagy inhibitor, 3-methyladenine (3-MA) treatment of mouse bone marrow derived non-adherent mononuclear cells showed a significant decrease in μXg induced Atg5 and LC3 mRNA expression in the presence or absence of RANK ligand (RANKL) stimulation. Furthermore, RANKL treatment significantly increased (8-fold) p-CREB transcription factor levels under μXg as compared to Xg cultures and 3-MA inhibited RANKL increased p-CREB expression in these cells. Also, 3-MA suppresses μXg elevated osteoclast differentiation in mouse bone marrow cultures. Thus, our results suggest that μXg induced autophagy plays an important role in enhanced osteoclast differentiation and could be a potential therapeutic target to prevent bone loss in astronauts during space flight missions

  1. Calebin A downregulates osteoclastogenesis through suppression of RANKL signalling.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Amit K; Prasad, Sahdeo; Majeed, Muhammed; Aggarwal, Bharat B

    2016-03-01

    Osteoporosis is a bone disease that is exacerbated by aging and age-associated chronic diseases such as cancer. Cancer-induced bone loss is usually treated with bisphosphonates or denosumab, an antibody against receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF)-κB ligand (RANKL). Because these drugs are expensive and have numerous side effects and high rates of toxicity, safer, more effective, and more affordable therapies for osteoporosis are still needed. We identified a compound, calebin A (CA), derived from turmeric (Curcuma longa) that affects osteoclastogenesis through modulation of the RANKL signalling pathway. The CA's effect on NF-κB activation was examined by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Using mouse macrophages in vitro model, we found that CA suppressed RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation of macrophages into osteoclasts, and downregulate RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis-related marker gene expression, including NFATc-1, TRAP, CTR, and cathepsin K. CA also suppressed the osteoclastogenesis induced by multiple myeloma and breast cancer cells. This effect of CA was correlated with suppression of the phosphorylation and degradation of inhibitor of κB and, thus, inhibition of NF-κB activation. Furthermore, we found that an NF-κB-specific inhibitory peptide blocked RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis, demonstrating that the NF-κB signalling pathway is mandatory for RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. Our results conclusively indicate that CA downmodulates the osteoclastogenesis induced by RANKL and by tumour cells through suppression of NF-κB pathway. PMID:26874195

  2. Inhibition of protein kinase CK2 reduces CYP24A1 expression and enhances 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 anti-tumor activity in human prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Wei; Yu, Wei-Dong; Ma, Yingyu; Chernov, Mikhail; Trump, Donald L.; Johnson, Candace S.

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D has broad range of physiological functions and anti-tumor effects. 24-hydroxylase, encoded by the CYP24A1 gene, is the key enzyme for degrading many forms of vitamin D including the most active form, 1,25D3. Inhibition of CYP24A1 enhances 1,25D3 anti-tumor activity. In order to isolate regulators of CYP24A1 expression in prostate cancer cells, we established a stable prostate cancer cell line PC3 with CYP24A1 promoter driving luciferase expression to screen a small molecular library for compounds that inhibit CYP24A1 promoter activity. From this screening, we identified, 4,5,6,7-tetrabromobenzimidazole (TBBz), a protein kinase CK2 selective inhibitor as a disruptor of CYP24A1 promoter activity. We show that TBBz inhibits CYP24A1 promoter activity induced by 1,25D3 in prostate cancer cells. In addition, TBBz downregulates endogenous CYP24A1 mRNA level in TBBz treated PC3 cells. Furthermore, siRNA-mediated CK2 knockdown reduces 1,25D3 induced CYP24A1 mRNA expression in PC3 cells. These results suggest that CK2 contributes to 1,25D3 mediated target gene expression. Lastly, inhibition of CK2 by TBBz or CK2 siRNA significantly enhanced 1,25D3 mediated anti-proliferative effect in vitro and in vivo in a xenograft model. In summary, our findings reveal that protein kinase CK2 is involved in the regulation of CYP24A1 expression by 1,25D3 and CK2 inhibitor enhances 1,25D3 mediated anti-tumor effect. PMID:23358686

  3. Mitf Induction by RANKL Is Critical for Osteoclastogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Ssu-Yi; Li, Mengtao

    2010-01-01

    Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (Mitf) regulates the development and function of several cell lineages, including osteoclasts. In this report, we identified a novel mechanism by which RANKL regulates osteoclastogenesis via induction of Mitf isoform E (Mitf-E). Both Mitf-A and Mitf-E are abundantly present in osteoclasts. Unlike Mitf-A, which is ubiquitously expressed and is present in similar amounts in macrophages and osteoclasts, Mitf-E is almost nondetectable in macrophages, but its expression is significantly up-regulated during osteoclastogenesis. In addition to their different expression profiles, the two isoforms are drastically different in their abilities to support osteoclastogenesis, despite sharing all known functional domains. Unlike Mitf-A, small amounts of Mitf-E are present in nuclear lysates unless chromatin is digested/sheared during the extraction. Based on these data, we propose a model in which Mitf-E is induced during osteoclastogenesis and is closely associated with chromatin to facilitate its interaction with target promoters; therefore, Mitf-E has a stronger osteoclastogenic activity. Mitf-A is a weaker osteoclastogenic factor, but activated Mitf-A alone is not sufficient to fully support osteoclastogenesis. Therefore, this receptor activator for nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced Mitf phenomenon seems to play an important role during osteoclastogenesis. Although the current theory indicates that Mitf and its binding partner Tfe3 are completely redundant in osteoclasts, using RNA interference, we demonstrated that Mitf has a distinct role from Tfe3. This study provides the first evidence that RANKL-induced Mitf is critical for osteoclastogenesis and Mitf is not completely redundant with Tfe3. PMID:20357005

  4. The Modulatory Effects of Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Osteoclastogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sharaf-Eldin, Wessam E.; Abu-Shahba, Nourhan; Mahmoud, Marwa; El-Badri, Nagwa

    2016-01-01

    The effect of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on bone formation has been extensively demonstrated through several in vitro and in vivo studies. However, few studies addressed the effect of MSCs on osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption. Under physiological conditions, MSCs support osteoclastogenesis through producing the main osteoclastogenic cytokines, RANKL and M-CSF. However, during inflammation, MSCs suppress osteoclast formation and activity, partly via secretion of the key anti-osteoclastogenic factor, osteoprotegerin (OPG). In vitro, co-culture of MSCs with osteoclasts in the presence of high concentrations of osteoclast-inducing factors might reflect the in vivo inflammatory pathology and prompt MSCs to exert an osteoclastogenic suppressive effect. MSCs thus seem to have a dual effect, by stimulating or inhibiting osteoclastogenesis, depending on the inflammatory milieu. This effect of MSCs on osteoclast formation seems to mirror the effect of MSCs on other immune cells, and may be exploited for the therapeutic potential of MSCs in bone loss associated inflammatory diseases. PMID:26823668

  5. The actin binding protein adseverin regulates osteoclastogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hassanpour, Siavash; Jiang, Hongwei; Wang, Yongqiang; Kuiper, Johannes W P; Glogauer, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Adseverin (Ads), a member of the Gelsolin superfamily of actin binding proteins, regulates the actin cytoskeleton architecture by severing and capping existing filamentous actin (F-actin) strands and nucleating the assembly of new F-actin filaments. Ads has been implicated in cellular secretion, exocytosis and has also been shown to regulate chondrogenesis and megakaryoblastic leukemia cell differentiation. Here we report for the first time that Ads is involved in regulating osteoclastogenesis (OCG). Ads is induced during OCG downstream of RANK-ligand (RANKL) stimulation and is highly expressed in mature osteoclasts. The D5 isoform of Ads is not involved in regulating OCG, as its expression is not induced in response to RANKL. Three clonal Ads knockdown RAW264.7 (RAW) macrophage cell lines with varying degrees of Ads expression and OCG deficiency were generated. The most drastic OCG defect was noted in the clonal cell line with the greatest degree of Ads knockdown as indicated by a lack of TRAcP staining and multinucleation. RNAi mediated knockdown of Ads in osteoclast precursors resulted in distinct morphological changes characterized by altered F-actin distribution and increased filopodia formation. Ads knockdown precursor cells experienced enhanced migration while fusion of knockdown precursors cells was limited. Transient reintroduction of de novo Ads back into the knockdown system was capable of rescuing TRAcP expression but not osteoclast multinucleation most likely due to the transient nature of Ads expression. This preliminary study allows us to conclude that Ads is a RANKL induced early regulator of OCG with a potential role in pre-osteoclast differentiation and fusion. PMID:25275604

  6. The Actin Binding Protein Adseverin Regulates Osteoclastogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yongqiang; Kuiper, Johannes W. P.; Glogauer, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Adseverin (Ads), a member of the Gelsolin superfamily of actin binding proteins, regulates the actin cytoskeleton architecture by severing and capping existing filamentous actin (F-actin) strands and nucleating the assembly of new F-actin filaments. Ads has been implicated in cellular secretion, exocytosis and has also been shown to regulate chondrogenesis and megakaryoblastic leukemia cell differentiation. Here we report for the first time that Ads is involved in regulating osteoclastogenesis (OCG). Ads is induced during OCG downstream of RANK-ligand (RANKL) stimulation and is highly expressed in mature osteoclasts. The D5 isoform of Ads is not involved in regulating OCG, as its expression is not induced in response to RANKL. Three clonal Ads knockdown RAW264.7 (RAW) macrophage cell lines with varying degrees of Ads expression and OCG deficiency were generated. The most drastic OCG defect was noted in the clonal cell line with the greatest degree of Ads knockdown as indicated by a lack of TRAcP staining and multinucleation. RNAi mediated knockdown of Ads in osteoclast precursors resulted in distinct morphological changes characterized by altered F-actin distribution and increased filopodia formation. Ads knockdown precursor cells experienced enhanced migration while fusion of knockdown precursors cells was limited. Transient reintroduction of de novo Ads back into the knockdown system was capable of rescuing TRAcP expression but not osteoclast multinucleation most likely due to the transient nature of Ads expression. This preliminary study allows us to conclude that Ads is a RANKL induced early regulator of OCG with a potential role in pre-osteoclast differentiation and fusion. PMID:25275604

  7. SHP2 regulates osteoclastogenesis by promoting preosteoclast fusion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genes that regulate osteoclast development and function under physiological and disease conditions remain incompletely understood. Shp2, a ubiquitously expressed cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase, was implicated in regulating M-CSF and RANKL-evoked signaling, its role in osteoclastogenesis an...

  8. Glucocorticoid dexamethasone down-regulates basal and vitamin D3 induced cathelicidin expression in human monocytes and bronchial epithelial cell line.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Nikhil Nitin; Gunnarsson, Hörður Ingi; Yi, Zhiqian; Gudmundsdottir, Steinunn; Sigurjonsson, Olafur E; Agerberth, Birgitta; Gudmundsson, Gudmundur H

    2016-02-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) have been extensively used as the mainstream treatment for chronic inflammatory disorders. The persistent use of steroids in the past decades and the association with secondary infections warrants for detailed investigation into their effects on the innate immune system and the therapeutic outcome. In this study, we analyse the effect of GCs on antimicrobial polypeptide (AMP) expression. We hypothesize that GC related side effects, including secondary infections are a result of compromised innate immune responses. Here, we show that treatment with dexamethasone (Dex) inhibits basal mRNA expression of the following AMPs; human cathelicidin, human beta defensin 1, lysozyme and secretory leukocyte peptidase 1 in the THP-1 monocytic cell-line (THP-1 monocytes). Furthermore, pre-treatment with Dex inhibits vitamin D3 induced cathelicidin expression in THP-1 monocytes, primary monocytes and in the human bronchial epithelial cell line BCi NS 1.1. We also demonstrate that treatment with the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) inhibitor RU486 counteracts Dex mediated down-regulation of basal and vitamin D3 induced cathelicidin expression in THP-1 monocytes. Moreover, we confirmed the anti-inflammatory effect of Dex. Pre-treatment with Dex inhibits dsRNA mimic poly IC induction of the inflammatory chemokine IP10 (CXCL10) and cytokine IL1B mRNA expression in THP-1 monocytes. These results suggest that GCs inhibit innate immune responses, in addition to exerting beneficial anti-inflammatory effects. PMID:26358366

  9. RANKL Signaling and Osteoclastogenesis Is Negatively Regulated by Cardamonin

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Vivek R.; Gupta, Subash C.; Reuter, Simone; Yamamoto, Norio; Murakami, Akira; Aggarwal, Bharat B.

    2013-01-01

    Bone loss/resorption or osteoporosis is a disease that is accelerated with aging and age-associated chronic diseases such as cancer. Bone loss has been linked with human multiple myeloma, breast cancer, and prostate cancer and is usually treated with bisphosphonates, and recently approved denosumab, an antibody against receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL). Because of the numerous side effects of the currently available drugs, the search continues for safe and effective therapies for bone loss. RANKL, a member of the TNF superfamily, has emerged as a major mediator of bone loss via activation of osteoclastogenesis. We have identified cardamonin, a chalcone isolated from Alpinia katsumadai Hayata that can affect osteoclastogenesis through modulation of RANKL. We found that treatment of monocytes with cardamonin suppressed RANKL-induced NF-κB activation and this suppression correlated with inhibition of IκBα kinase and of phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα, an inhibitor of NF-κB. Furthermore, cardamonin also downregulated RANKL-induced phosphorylation of MAPK including ERK and p38 MAPK. Cardamonin suppressed the RANKL-induced differentiation of monocytes to osteoclasts in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. We also found that an inhibitor of NF-κB essential modulator (NEMO) blocked RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis, indicating a direct link with NF-κB. Finally, osteoclastogenesis induced by human breast cancer cells or human multiple myeloma cells were completely suppressed by cardamonin. Collectively, our results indicate that cardamonin suppresses osteoclastogenesis induced by RANKL and tumor cells by suppressing activation of the NF-κB and MAPK pathway. PMID:23691159

  10. The molecular mechanism of osteoclastogenesis in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Udagawa, Nobuyuki; Kotake, Shigeru; Kamatani, Naoyuki; Takahashi, Naoyuki; Suda, Tatsuo

    2002-01-01

    Bone-resorbing osteoclasts are formed from hemopoietic cells of the monocyte–macrophage lineage under the control of bone-forming osteoblasts. We have cloned an osteoblast-derived factor essential for osteoclastogenesis, the receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL). Synovial fibroblasts and activated T lymphocytes from patients with rheumatoid arthritis also express RANKL, which appears to trigger bone destruction in rheumatoid arthritis as well. Recent studies have shown that T lymphocytes produce cytokines other than RANKL such as IL-17, granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor and IFN-γ, which have powerful regulatory effects on osteoclastogenesis. The possible roles of RANKL and other cytokines produced by T lymphocytes in bone destruction are described. PMID:12223101

  11. Sialylation of cell surface glycoconjugates is essential for osteoclastogenesis.

    PubMed

    Takahata, Masahiko; Iwasaki, Norimasa; Nakagawa, Hiroaki; Abe, Yuichiro; Watanabe, Takuya; Ito, Manabu; Majima, Tokifumi; Minami, Akio

    2007-07-01

    Sialic acid, which is located at the end of the carbohydrate moiety of cell surface glycoconjugates, is involved in many biologic responses, such as intercellular reactions and virus-cell fusion, especially in hematopoietic cells. Here we provide experimental evidence that the sialic acid of cell surface glycoconjugates has a role in osteoclast differentiation. Lectin histochemical study demonstrated the existence of both alpha (2,3)-linked-sialic acid and alpha (2,6)-linked-sialic acid in mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages and in the RAW264.7 macrophage cell line, which are osteoclast precursors. Flow cytometric analysis of surface lectin staining revealed the kinetics of these sialic acids during osteoclastogenesis: alpha (2,3)-linked-sialic acid was abundantly expressed throughout osteoclastogenesis, whereas alpha (2,6)-linked-sialic acid levels declined at the terminal stage of osteoclast differentiation. To investigate the role of sialic acid in osteoclast differentiation, we performed an osteoclastogenesis assay with or without exogenous sialidase treatment. Desialylated cells formed TRAP-positive mononuclear cells, but did not become multinuclear cells despite the normal expression of osteoclast markers such as cathepsin K, integrin beta3, and nuclear factor-ATc1. Flow cytometric analysis also demonstrated that exogenous sialidase effectively removed alpha (2,6)-linked-sialic acid, but only slightly changed the alpha (2,3)-linked-sialic acid content, suggesting that alpha (2,6)-linked-sialic acid might be involved in osteoclast differentiation. Findings from knockdown analysis using small interfering RNA oligonucleotides against alpha 2,6-sialyltransferase support this idea: alpha (2,6)-linked-sialic acid-deficient cells markedly inhibit the formation of multinuclear osteoclasts. Our findings suggest that alpha (2,6)-linked-sialic acid of cell surface glycoconjugates has a role in osteoclast differentiation, possibly via its role in the cell-cell fusion

  12. Ameloblastin modulates osteoclastogenesis through the integrin/ERK pathway.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xuanyu; Ito, Yoshihiro; Atsawasuwan, Phimon; Dangaria, Smit; Yan, Xiulin; Wu, Tuojiang; Evans, Carla A; Luan, Xianghong

    2013-05-01

    Proteins of the extracellular matrix often have multiple functions to facilitate complex tasks ranging from signaling to structural support. Here we have focused on the function of one of the matrix proteins expressed in bones and teeth, the matrix adhesion protein ameloblastin (AMBN). Transgenic mice with 5-fold elevated AMBN levels in mandibles suffered from root cementum resorption, delamination, and reduced alveolar bone thickness. AMBN gain of function also resulted in a significant reduction in trabecular bone volume and bone mass dentistry in 42 days postnatal mouse jaws. In an in vitro model of osteoclastogenesis, AMBN modulated osteoclast differentiation from bone marrow derived monocytes (BMMCs), and dramatically increased osteoclast numbers and resorption pits. Furthermore, AMBN more than doubled BMMC adhesion, accelerated cell spreading, and promoted podosome belt and actin ring formation. These effects were associated with elevated ERK1/2 and AKT phosphorylation as well as higher expression of osteoclast activation related genes. Blocking integrin α2β1 and ERK 1/2 pathways alleviated the effects of AMBN on osteoclast differentiation. Together, our data indicate that AMBN increases osteoclast number and differentiation as well as mineralized tissue resorption by regulating cell adhesion and actin cytoskeleton polymerization, initiating integrin-dependent extracellular matrix signaling cascades and enhancing osteoclastogenesis. PMID:23385480

  13. Amlexanox Suppresses Osteoclastogenesis and Prevents Ovariectomy-Induced Bone Loss

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yong; Guan, Hanfeng; Li, Jing; Fang, Zhong; Chen, Wenjian; Li, Feng

    2015-01-01

    The activity of protein kinases IKK-ε and TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) has been shown to be associated with inflammatory diseases. As an inhibitor of IKK-ε and TBK1, amlexanox is an anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, immunomodulator and used for treatment of ulcer, allergic rhinitis and asthma in clinic. We hypothesized that amlexanox may be used for treatment of osteoclast-related diseases which frequently associated with a low grade of systemic inflammation. In this study, we investigated the effects of amlexanox on RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in vitro and ovariectomy-mediated bone loss in vivo. In primary bone marrow derived macrophages (BMMs), amlexanox inhibited osteoclast formation and bone resorption. At the molecular level, amlexanox suppressed RANKL-induced activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKs), c-Fos and NFATc1. Amlexanox decreased the expression of osteoclast-specific genes, including TRAP, MMP9, Cathepsin K and NFATc1. Moreover, amlexanox enhanced osteoblast differentiation of BMSCs. In ovariectomized (OVX) mouse model, amlexanox prevented OVX-induced bone loss by suppressing osteoclast activity. Taken together, our results demonstrate that amlexanox suppresses osteoclastogenesis and prevents OVX-induced bone loss. Therefore, amlexanox may be considered as a new therapeutic candidate for osteoclast-related diseases, such as osteoporosis and rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:26338477

  14. Ameloblastin modulates osteoclastogenesis through the integrin/ERK pathway

    PubMed Central

    Atsawasuwan, Phimon; Dangaria, Smit; Yan, Xiulin; Wu, Tuojiang; Evans, Carla A.; Luan, Xianghong

    2014-01-01

    Proteins of the extracellular matrix often have multiple functions to facilitate complex tasks ranging from signaling to structural support. Here we have focused on the function of one of the matrix proteins expressed in bones and teeth, the matrix adhesion protein ameloblastin (AMBN). Transgenic mice with 5-fold elevated AMBN levels in mandibles suffered from root cementum resorption, delamination, and reduced alveolar bone thickness. AMBN gain of function also resulted in a significant reduction in trabecular bone volume and bone mass dentistry in 42 days postnatal mouse jaws. In an in vitro model of osteoclastogenesis, AMBN modulated osteoclast differentiation from bone marrow derived monocytes (BMMCs), and dramatically increased osteoclast numbers and resorption pits. Furthermore, AMBN more than doubled BMMC adhesion, accelerated cell spreading, and promoted podosome belt and actin ring formation. These effects were associated with elevated ERK1/2 and AKT phosphorylation as well as higher expression of osteoclast activation related genes. Blocking integrin α2β1 and ERK 1/2 pathways alleviated the effects of AMBN on osteoclast differentiation. Together, our data indicate that AMBN increases osteoclast number and differentiation as well as mineralized tissue resorption by regulating cell adhesion and actin cytoskeleton polymerization, initiating integrin-dependent extracellular matrix signaling cascades and enhancing osteoclastogenesis. PMID:23385480

  15. RBP-J-Regulated miR-182 Promotes TNF-α-Induced Osteoclastogenesis.

    PubMed

    Miller, Christine H; Smith, Sinead M; Elguindy, Mahmoud; Zhang, Tuo; Xiang, Jenny Z; Hu, Xiaoyu; Ivashkiv, Lionel B; Zhao, Baohong

    2016-06-15

    Increased osteoclastogenesis is responsible for osteolysis, which is a severe consequence of inflammatory diseases associated with bone destruction, such as rheumatoid arthritis and periodontitis. The mechanisms that limit osteoclastogenesis under inflammatory conditions are largely unknown. We previously identified transcription factor RBP-J as a key negative regulator that restrains TNF-α-induced osteoclastogenesis and inflammatory bone resorption. In this study, we tested whether RBP-J suppresses inflammatory osteoclastogenesis by regulating the expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) important for this process. Using high-throughput sequencing of miRNAs, we obtained the first, to our knowledge, genome-wide profile of miRNA expression induced by TNF-α in mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages/osteoclast precursors during inflammatory osteoclastogenesis. Furthermore, we identified miR-182 as a novel miRNA that promotes inflammatory osteoclastogenesis driven by TNF-α and whose expression is suppressed by RBP-J. Downregulation of miR-182 dramatically suppressed the enhanced osteoclastogenesis program induced by TNF-α in RBP-J-deficient cells. Complementary loss- and gain-of-function approaches showed that miR-182 is a positive regulator of osteoclastogenic transcription factors NFATc1 and B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1. Moreover, we identified that direct miR-182 targets, Foxo3 and Maml1, play important inhibitory roles in TNF-α-mediated osteoclastogenesis. Thus, RBP-J-regulated miR-182 promotes TNF-α-induced osteoclastogenesis via inhibition of Foxo3 and Maml1. Suppression of miR-182 by RBP-J serves as an important mechanism that restrains TNF-α-induced osteoclastogenesis. Our results provide a novel miRNA-mediated mechanism by which RBP-J inhibits osteoclastogenesis and suggest that targeting of the newly described RBP-J-miR-182-Foxo3/Maml1 axis may represent an effective therapeutic approach to suppress inflammatory osteoclastogenesis and bone

  16. AG490 inhibits NFATc1 expression and STAT3 activation during RANKL induced osteoclastogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Chang-hong; Zhao, Jin-xia; Sun, Lin; Yao, Zhong-qiang; Deng, Xiao-li; Liu, Rui; Liu, Xiang-yuan

    2013-06-14

    Highlights: •AG490 inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in RAW264.7 cells. •AG490 affects cell proliferation and cell cycle distribution. •AG490 reduces NFATc1 expression during RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. •AG490 disrupts the activation of RANKL-mediated JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway. •STAT3 depletion partly mimics the effect of AG490 on RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. -- Abstract: Commonly, JAK/STAT relays cytokine signals for cell activation and proliferation, and recent studies have shown that the elevated expression of JAK/STAT is associated with the immune rejection of allografts and the inflammatory processes of autoimmune disease. However, the role which JAK2/STAT3 signaling plays in the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-mediated osteoclastogenesis is unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of AG490, specific JAK2 inhibitor, on osteoclast differentiation in vitro. AG490 significantly inhibited osteoclastogenesis in murine osteoclast precursor cell line RAW264.7 induced by RANKL. AG490 suppressed cell proliferation and delayed the G1 to S cell cycle transition. Furthermore, AG490 also suppressed the expression of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) c1 but not c-Fos in RAW264.7. Subsequently, we investigated various intracellular signaling components associated with osteoclastogenesis. AG490 had no effects on RANKL-induced activation of Akt, ERK1/2. Interestingly, AG490 partly inhibited RANKL-induced phosphorylation of Ser{sup 727} in STAT3. Additionally, down-regulation of STAT3 using siRNA resulted in suppression of TRAP, RANK and NFATc1 expression. In conclusion, we demonstrated that AG490 inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis by suppressing NFATc1 production and cell proliferation via the STAT3 pathway. These results suggest that inhibition of JAK2 may be useful for the treatment of bone diseases characterized by excessive osteoclastogenesis.

  17. SCFβ-TRCP regulates osteoclastogenesis via promoting CYLD ubiquitination

    PubMed Central

    North, Brian J.; Nagaoka, Yoshiyuki; Nagashima, Katsuyuki; Deng, Feng; Okabe, Koji; Inuzuka, Hiroyuki; Wei, Wenyi

    2014-01-01

    CYLD negatively regulates the NF-κB signaling pathway and osteoclast differentiation largely through antagonizing TNF receptor-associated factor (TRAF)-mediated K63-linkage polyubiquitination in osteoclast precursor cells. CYLD activity is controlled by IκB kinase (IKK), but the molecular mechanism(s) governing CYLD protein stability remains largely undefined. Here, we report that SCFβ-TRCP regulates the ubiquitination and degradation of CYLD, a process dependent on prior phosphorylation of CYLD at Ser432/Ser436 by IKK. Furthermore, depletion of β-TRCP induced CYLD accumulation and TRAF6 deubiquitination in osteoclast precursor cells, leading to suppression of RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation. Therefore, these data pinpoint the IKK/β-TRCP/CYLD signaling pathway as an important modulator of osteoclastogenesis. PMID:24961988

  18. HDAC2 regulates FoxO1 during RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis.

    PubMed

    Dou, Ce; Li, Nan; Ding, Ning; Liu, Chuan; Yang, Xiaochao; Kang, Fei; Cao, Zhen; Quan, Hongyu; Hou, Tianyong; Xu, Jianzhong; Dong, Shiwu

    2016-05-15

    The bone-resorbing osteoclast (OC) is essential for bone homeostasis, yet deregulation of OCs contributes to diseases such as osteoporosis, osteopetrosis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Here we show that histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) is a key positive regulator during receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption. Bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) showed increased HDAC2 expression during osteoclastogenesis. HDAC2 overexpression enhanced, whereas HDAC2 deletion suppressed osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption using lentivirus infection. Mechanistically, upon RANKL activation, HDAC2 activated Akt; Akt directly phosphorylates and abrogates Forkhead box protein O1 (FoxO1), which is a negative regulator during osteoclastogenesis through reducing reactive oxygen species. HDAC2 deletion in BMMs resulted in decreased Akt activation and increased FoxO1 activity during osteoclastogenesis. In conclusion, HDAC2 activates Akt thus suppresses FoxO1 transcription results in enhanced osteoclastogenesis. Our data imply the potential value of HDAC2 as a new target in regulating osteoclast differentiation and function. PMID:26962001

  19. Osteocytes produce interferon-β as a negative regulator of osteoclastogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hayashida, Chiyomi; Ito, Junta; Nakayachi, Mai; Okayasu, Mari; Ohyama, Yoko; Hakeda, Yoshiyuki; Sato, Takuya

    2014-04-18

    Osteoclastogenesis is controlled by osteocytes; osteocytic osteoclastogenesis regulatory molecules are largely unknown. We searched for such factors using newly developed culture methods. Our culture system mimics the three-dimensional cellular structure of bone, consisting of collagen gel-embedded osteocytic MLO-Y4 cells, stromal ST2 cells on the gel as bone lining cells, and bone marrow cells. The gel-embedded MLO-Y4 cells inhibited the osteoclastogenesis induced by 1,25(OH)2D3 without modulating receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) production by ST2 cells, despite MLO-Y4 cells supported osteoclastogenesis in the absence of ST2 cells. In the bone marrow cell culture, the conditioned medium from MLO-Y4 cells decreased the capability of osteoclastic differentiation from the cells induced by macrophage colony-stimulating factor. This decreased capability was concomitant with an increase in protein kinase R mRNA expression and an inhibition of c-Fos translation. These changes were partially normalized by the simultaneous addition of an anti-interferon (IFN)-β neutralizing antibody to MLO-Y4 cell conditioned medium. To study primary osteocytes, we prepared non-osteocytic cell-free osteocyte-enriched bone fragments (OEBFs). When osteoclast precursors were induced by macrophage colony-stimulating factor in the presence of OEBFs, the generated cells exhibited a diminished capacity for osteoclastogenesis. OEBFs prepared from OPG-knock-out mice exhibited a similar effect, indicating OPG-independent inhibition. The addition of anti-IFN-β neutralizing antibody during the co-culture with OEBFs partially recovered the osteoclastogenic potential of the generated cells. The MLO-Y4 cells and OEBFs expressed IFN-β mRNA. Although osteocytic RANKL is known to be important for osteoclastogenesis, our data suggest that osteocytes also produce IFN-β as an inhibitor of osteoclastogenesis. PMID:24610813

  20. MiR-125a TNF receptor-associated factor 6 to inhibit osteoclastogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Li-Juan; Liao, Lan; Yang, Li; Li, Yu; Jiang, Tie-Jian

    2014-02-15

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption. In the present study, we found that miR-125a was dramatically down-regulated during macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) induced osteoclastogenesis of circulating CD14+ peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Overexpression of miR-125a in CD14+ PBMCs inhibited osteoclastogenesis, while inhibition of miR-125a promoted osteoclastogenesis. TNF receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6), a transduction factor for RANKL/RANK/NFATc1 signal, was confirmed to be a target of miR-125a. EMSA and ChIP assays confirmed that NFATc1 bound to the promoter of the miR-125a. Overexpression of NFATc1 inhibited miR-125a transcription, and block of NFATc1 expression attenuated RANKL-regulated miR-125a transcription. Here, we reported that miR-125a played a biological function in osteoclastogenesis through a novel TRAF6/ NFATc1/miR-125a regulatory feedback loop. It suggests that regulation of miR-125a expression may be a potential strategy for ameliorating metabolic disease. - Highlights: • MiR-125a was significantly down-regulated in osteoclastogenesis of CD14+ PBMCs. • MiR-125a inhibited osteoclast differentiation by targeting TRAF6. • NFATc1 inhibited miR-125a transciption by binding to the promoter of miR-125a. • TRAF6/NFATc1 and miR-125a form a regulatory feedback loop in osteoclastogenesis.

  1. Cutting Edge: EZH2 Promotes Osteoclastogenesis by Epigenetic Silencing of the Negative Regulator IRF8.

    PubMed

    Fang, Celestia; Qiao, Yu; Mun, Se Hwan; Lee, Min Joon; Murata, Koichi; Bae, Seyeon; Zhao, Baohong; Park-Min, Kyung-Hyun; Ivashkiv, Lionel B

    2016-06-01

    Osteoclasts are resorptive cells that are important for homeostatic bone remodeling and pathological bone resorption. Emerging evidence suggests an important role for epigenetic mechanisms in osteoclastogenesis. A recent study showed that epigenetic silencing of the negative regulator of osteoclastogenesis Irf8 by DNA methylation is required for osteoclast differentiation. In this study, we investigated the role of EZH2, which epigenetically silences gene expression by histone methylation, in osteoclastogenesis. Inhibition of EZH2 by the small molecule GSK126, or decreasing its expression using antisense oligonucleotides, impeded osteoclast differentiation. Mechanistically, EZH2 was recruited to the IRF8 promoter after RANKL stimulation to deposit the negative histone mark H3K27me3 and downregulate IRF8 expression. GSK126 attenuated bone loss in the ovariectomy mouse model of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Our findings provide evidence for an additional mechanism of epigenetic IRF8 silencing during osteoclastogenesis that likely works cooperatively with DNA methylation, further emphasizing the importance of IRF8 as a negative regulator of osteoclastogenesis. PMID:27183582

  2. Inhibition of osteoclastogenesis and inflammatory bone resorption by targeting BET proteins and epigenetic regulation.

    PubMed

    Park-Min, Kyung-Hyun; Lim, Elisha; Lee, Min Joon; Park, Sung Ho; Giannopoulou, Eugenia; Yarilina, Anna; van der Meulen, Marjolein; Zhao, Baohong; Smithers, Nicholas; Witherington, Jason; Lee, Kevin; Tak, Paul P; Prinjha, Rab K; Ivashkiv, Lionel B

    2014-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that RANKL-induced changes in chromatin state are important for osteoclastogenesis, but these epigenetic mechanisms are not well understood and have not been therapeutically targeted. In this study, we find that the small molecule I-BET151 that targets bromo and extra-terminal (BET) proteins that 'read' chromatin states by binding to acetylated histones strongly suppresses osteoclastogenesis. I-BET151 suppresses pathologic bone loss in TNF-induced inflammatory osteolysis, inflammatory arthritis and post-ovariectomy models. Transcriptome analysis identifies a MYC-NFAT axis important for osteoclastogenesis. Mechanistically, I-BET151 inhibits expression of the master osteoclast regulator NFATC1 by suppressing expression and recruitment of its newly identified upstream regulator MYC. MYC is elevated in rheumatoid arthritis macrophages and its induction by RANKL is important for osteoclastogenesis and TNF-induced bone resorption. These findings highlight the importance of an I-BET151-inhibited MYC-NFAT axis in osteoclastogenesis, and suggest targeting epigenetic chromatin regulators holds promise for treatment of inflammatory and oestrogen deficiency-mediated pathologic bone resorption. PMID:25391636

  3. Hemin activation of innate cellular response blocks human immunodeficiency virus type-1-induced osteoclastogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Takeda, Kazuyo; Adhikari, Rewati; Yamada, Kenneth M.; Dhawan, Subhash

    2015-08-14

    The normal skeletal developmental and homeostatic process termed osteoclastogenesis is exacerbated in numerous pathological conditions and causes excess bone loss. In cancer and HIV-1-infected patients, this disruption of homeostasis results in osteopenia and eventual osteoporesis. Counteracting the factors responsible for these metabolic disorders remains a challenge for preventing or minimizing this co-morbidity associated with these diseases. In this report, we demonstrate that a hemin-induced host protection mechanism not only suppresses HIV-1 associated osteoclastogenesis, but it also exhibits anti-osteoclastogenic activity for non-infected cells. Since the mode of action of hemin is both physiological and pharmacological through induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), an endogenous host protective response to an FDA-licensed therapeutic used to treat another disease, our study suggests an approach to developing novel, safe and effective therapeutic strategies for treating bone disorders, because hemin administration in humans has previously met required FDA safety standards. - Highlights: • HIV-1 infection induced osteoclastogenesis in primary human macrophages. • Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) induction inhibited HIV-1-induced osteoclastogenesis in macrophages. • HO-1 induction suppressed RANKL-enhanced osteoclastogenesis in HIV-1-infected macrophages. • This inverse relationship between HO-1 and HIV-1 pathogenesis may define a novel host defense response against HIV-1 infection.

  4. Molecular regulatory mechanisms of osteoclastogenesis through cytoprotective enzymes.

    PubMed

    Kanzaki, Hiroyuki; Shinohara, Fumiaki; Kanako, Itohiya; Yamaguchi, Yuuki; Fukaya, Sari; Miyamoto, Yutaka; Wada, Satoshi; Nakamura, Yoshiki

    2016-08-01

    It has been reported that reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as hydrogen peroxide and superoxide, take part in osteoclast differentiation as intra-cellular signaling molecules. The current assumed signaling cascade from RANK to ROS production is RANK, TRAF6, Rac1, and then Nox. The target molecules of ROS in RANKL signaling remain unclear; however, several reports support the theory that NF-κB signaling could be the crucial downstream signaling molecule of RANKL-mediated ROS signaling. Furthermore, ROS exert cytotoxic effects such as peroxidation of lipids and phospholipids and oxidative damage to proteins and DNA. Therefore, cells have several protective mechanisms against oxidative stressors that mainly induce cytoprotective enzymes and ROS scavenging. Three well-known mechanisms regulate cytoprotective enzymes including Nrf2-, FOXO-, and sirtuin-dependent mechanisms. Several reports have indicated a crosslink between FOXO- and sirtuin-dependent regulatory mechanisms. The agonists against the regulatory mechanisms are reported to induce these cytoprotective enzymes successfully. Some of them inhibit osteoclast differentiation and bone destruction via attenuation of intracellular ROS signaling. In this review article, we discuss the above topics and summarize the current information available on the relationship between cytoprotective enzymes and osteoclastogenesis. PMID:26795736

  5. Analysis of Osteoclastogenesis/Osteoblastogenesis on Nanotopographical Titania Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Silverwood, Robert K; Fairhurst, Paul G; Sjöström, Terje; Welsh, Findlay; Sun, Yuxin; Li, Gang; Yu, Bin; Young, Peter S; Su, Bo; Meek, Robert M D; Dalby, Matthew J; Tsimbouri, Penelope M

    2016-04-20

    A focus of orthopedic research is to improve osteointegration and outcomes of joint replacement. Material surface topography has been shown to alter cell adhesion, proliferation, and growth. The use of nanotopographical features to promote cell adhesion and bone formation is hoped to improve osteointegration and clinical outcomes. Use of block-copolymer self-assembled nanopatterns allows nanopillars to form via templated anodization with control over height and order, which has been shown to be of cellular importance. This project assesses the outcome of a human bone marrow-derived co-culture of adherent osteoprogenitors and osteoclast progenitors on polished titania and titania patterned with 15 nm nanopillars, fabricated by a block-copolymer templated anodization technique. Substrate implantation in rabbit femurs is performed to confirm the in vivo bone/implant integration. Quantitative and qualitative results demonstrate increased osteogenesis on the nanopillar substrate with scanning electron microscopy, histochemical staining, and real-time quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis performed. Osteoblast/osteoclast co-culture analysis shows an increase in osteoblastogenesis-related gene expression and reduction in osteoclastogenesis. Supporting this in vitro finding, in vivo implantation of substrates in rabbit femora indicates increased implant/bone contact by ≈20%. These favorable osteogenic characteristics demonstrate the potential of 15 nm titania nanopillars fabricated by the block-copolymer templated anodization technique. PMID:26890261

  6. Molecular regulatory mechanisms of osteoclastogenesis through cytoprotective enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Kanzaki, Hiroyuki; Shinohara, Fumiaki; Kanako, Itohiya; Yamaguchi, Yuuki; Fukaya, Sari; Miyamoto, Yutaka; Wada, Satoshi; Nakamura, Yoshiki

    2016-01-01

    It has been reported that reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as hydrogen peroxide and superoxide, take part in osteoclast differentiation as intra-cellular signaling molecules. The current assumed signaling cascade from RANK to ROS production is RANK, TRAF6, Rac1, and then Nox. The target molecules of ROS in RANKL signaling remain unclear; however, several reports support the theory that NF-κB signaling could be the crucial downstream signaling molecule of RANKL-mediated ROS signaling. Furthermore, ROS exert cytotoxic effects such as peroxidation of lipids and phospholipids and oxidative damage to proteins and DNA. Therefore, cells have several protective mechanisms against oxidative stressors that mainly induce cytoprotective enzymes and ROS scavenging. Three well-known mechanisms regulate cytoprotective enzymes including Nrf2-, FOXO-, and sirtuin-dependent mechanisms. Several reports have indicated a crosslink between FOXO- and sirtuin-dependent regulatory mechanisms. The agonists against the regulatory mechanisms are reported to induce these cytoprotective enzymes successfully. Some of them inhibit osteoclast differentiation and bone destruction via attenuation of intracellular ROS signaling. In this review article, we discuss the above topics and summarize the current information available on the relationship between cytoprotective enzymes and osteoclastogenesis. PMID:26795736

  7. Dopamine D2-like receptor signaling suppresses human osteoclastogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hanami, Kentaro; Nakano, Kazuhisa; Saito, Kazuyoshi; Okada, Yosuke; Yamaoka, Kunihiro; Kubo, Satoshi; Kondo, Masahiro; Tanaka, Yoshiya

    2013-09-01

    Dopamine, a major neurotransmitter, transmits signals via five different seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors termed D1 to D5. Although the relevance of neuroendocrine system to bone metabolism has been emerging, the precise effects of dopaminergic signaling upon osteoclastogenesis remain unknown. Here, we demonstrate that human monocyte-derived osteoclast precursor cells express all dopamine-receptor subtypes. Dopamine and dopamine D2-like receptor agonists such as pramipexole and quinpirole reduced the formation of TRAP-positive multi-nucleated cells, cathepsin K mRNA expression, and pit formation area in vitro. These inhibitory effects were reversed by pre-treatment with a D2-like receptor antagonist haloperidol or a Gαi inhibitor pertussis toxin, but not with the D1-like receptor antagonist SCH-23390. Dopamine and dopamine D2-like receptor agonists, but not a D1-like receptor agonist, suppressed intracellular cAMP concentration as well as RANKL-meditated induction of c-Fos and NFATc1 mRNA expression in human osteoclast precursor cells. Finally, the dopamine D2-like receptor agonist suppressed LPS-induced osteoclast formation in murine bone marrow culture ex vivo. These findings indicate that dopaminergic signaling plays an important role in bone homeostasis via direct effects upon osteoclast differentiation and further suggest that the clinical use of neuroleptics is likely to affect bone mass. PMID:23631878

  8. Global epigenomic analysis indicates protocadherin-7 activates osteoclastogenesis by promoting cell–cell fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, Haruhiko; Nakashima, Tomoki; Hayashi, Mikihito; Izawa, Naohiro; Yasui, Tetsuro; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Sakae; Takayanagi, Hiroshi

    2014-12-12

    Highlights: • Identification of epigenetically regulated genes during osteoclastogenesis. • Pcdh7 is regulated by H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 during osteoclastogenesis. • Pcdh7 expression is increased by RANKL during osteoclastogenesis. • Establishment of novel cell fusion analysis for osteoclasts by imaging cytometer. • Pcdh7 regulates osteoclastogenesis by promoting cell fusion related gene expressions. - Abstract: Gene expression is dependent not only on genomic sequences, but also epigenetic control, in which the regulation of chromatin by histone modification plays a crucial role. Histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) and histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) are related to transcriptionally activated and silenced sequences, respectively. Osteoclasts, the multinucleated cells that resorb bone, are generated by the fusion of precursor cells of monocyte/macrophage lineage. To elucidate the molecular and epigenetic regulation of osteoclast differentiation, we performed a chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) analysis for H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 in combination with RNA sequencing. We focused on the histone modification change from H3K4me3(+)H3K27me3(+) to H3K4me3(+)H3K27me3(–) and identified the protocadherin-7 gene (Pcdh7) to be among the genes epigenetically regulated during osteoclastogenesis. Pcdh7 was induced by RANKL stimulation in an NFAT-dependent manner. The knockdown of Pcdh7 inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation due to the impairment of cell–cell fusion, accompanied by a decreased expression of the fusion-related genes Dcstamp, Ocstamp and Atp6v0d2. This study demonstrates that Pcdh7 plays a key role in osteoclastogenesis by promoting cell–cell fusion.

  9. CD147 deficiency blocks IL-8 secretion and inhibits lung cancer-induced osteoclastogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hongkai; Zhuo, Yunyun; Hu, Xu; Shen, Weiwei; Zhang, Ying; Chu, Tongwei

    2015-03-06

    Bone is a frequent target of lung cancer metastasis, which is associated with significant morbidity and poor prognosis; however, the molecular basis of this process is still unknown. This study investigated the role of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (also known as cluster of differentiation (CD)147) in osteoclastogenesis resulting from bone metastasis, based on the enrichment of this glycoprotein on the surface of many malignant bone tumors. RNA interference was used to silence CD147 expression in A549 human lung cancer cells. Compared with conditioned medium (CM) from control cells (A549-CM), CM from CD147-deficient cells (A549-si-CM) suppressed receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand-stimulated osteoclastogenesis in RAW 264.7 cells and bone marrow-derived macrophages. The mRNA levels of osteoclast-specific genes such as tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, calcitonin receptor, and cathepsin K were also reduced in the presence of A549-si-CM. CD147 knockdown in A549 cells decreased interleukin (IL)-8mRNA and protein expression. IL-8 is present in large amounts in A549-CM and mimicked its inductive effect on osteoclastogenesis; this was reversed by depletion of IL-8 from the medium. Taken together, these results indicate that CD147 promotes lung cancer-induced osteoclastogenesis by modulating IL-8 secretion, and suggest that CD147 is a potential therapeutic target for cancer-associated bone resorption in lung cancer patients. - Highlights: • Bone loss frequently results from lung cancer metastasis. • Cluster of differentiation (CD)147 was depleted in A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells. • RAW 264.7 cell osteoclastogenesis was blocked by medium from CD147-deficient cells. • Interleukin (IL)-8 level was reduced in the conditioned medium. • Osteoclastogenesis induced by lung tumor cells requires CD147-mediated IL-8 release.

  10. RANKL downregulates cell surface CXCR6 expression through JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway during osteoclastogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Changhong; Zhao, Jinxia; Sun, Lin; Yao, Zhongqiang; Liu, Rui; Huang, Jiansheng; Liu, Xiangyuan

    2012-12-14

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CXCR6 is down-regulated during RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in RAW264.7 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CXCR6 reduction was nearly reversed by inhibition of JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CXCL16 alone does not positively regulate osteoclastogenesis. -- Abstract: The receptor activator of nuclear factor-{kappa}B ligand (RANKL), as a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family, plays an essential role in osteoclast differentiation and function. Chemokines and their receptors have recently been shown to play critical roles in osteoclastogenesis, however, whether CXCL16-CXCR6 plays role in RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis is unknown. In this study, we first reported that RANKL decreased CXCR6 in a dose-dependent manner, which may be through deactivation of Akt and STAT3 signaling induced by CXCL16. Interestingly, RANKL-mediated CXCR6 reduction may be associated to the activation of STAT3 by phosphorylation. When STAT3 activation was blocked by JAK2/STAT3 inhibitor AG490, RANKL failed to shut down CXCR6 expression during osteoclastogenesis. However, CXCL16 alone did not augment RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation and did not alter RANKL-receptor RANK mRNA expression. These results demonstrate that reduction of CXCL16-CXCR6 is critical in RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis, which is mainly through the activation of JAK2/STAT3 signaling. CXCL16-CXCR6 axis may become a novel target for the therapeutic intervention of bone resorbing diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis.

  11. Identification of a novel compound that inhibits osteoclastogenesis by suppressing nucleoside transporters.

    PubMed

    Katsuyama, Shun; Sugino, Kumi; Sasazawa, Yukiko; Nakano, Yoshihiko; Aono, Harumi; Morishita, Keisuke; Kawatani, Makoto; Umezawa, Kazuo; Osada, Hiroyuki; Simizu, Siro

    2016-04-01

    We screened small-molecule compounds that inhibit osteoclast differentiation to find new anti-osteoporosis agents and found that a novel compound, SUKU-1, suppressed osteoclastogenesis. We also synthesized 38 derivatives of SUKU-1 and discovered that nine of them had inhibitory effects on osteoclastogenesis and that SUKU-33 was the most potent inhibitor. Next, we investigated the mechanisms by which SUKU-33 suppressed osteoclast differentiation. By measuring the uptake of [(3) H]-uridine in cells, we found that SUKU-33 suppressed both equilibrative nucleoside transporters and concentrative nucleoside transporters. These results suggest that SUKU-33 inhibits osteoclast differentiation by suppressing nucleoside transporters. PMID:27001232

  12. E-cadherin is important for cell differentiation during osteoclastogenesis.

    PubMed

    Fiorino, Cara; Harrison, Rene E

    2016-05-01

    E-cadherin, a protein responsible for intercellular adhesion between epithelial cells, is also expressed in the monocyte/macrophage lineage. In this study we have explored the involvement of E-cadherin during receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-stimulated osteoclast differentiation. Osteoclastogenesis involves a period of precursor expansion followed by multiple fusion events to generate a multinuclear osteoclast that is capable of bone resorption. We asked whether E-cadherin participated in early precursor interactions and recognition or was a component of the osteoclast fusion machinery. Here, we show that endogenous E-cadherin expression is the highest during early stages of osteoclast differentiation, with surface expression visible on small precursor cells (fewer than four nuclei per cell) in both RAW 264.7 cells and primary macrophages. Blocking E-cadherin function with neutralizing antibodies prior to the onset of fusion delayed the expression of TRAP, Cathepsin K, DC-STAMP and NFATc1 and significantly diminished multinucleated osteoclast formation. Conversely, E-cadherin-GFP overexpressing macrophages displayed earlier NFATc1 nuclear translocation along with faster formation of multinucleated osteoclasts compared to control macrophages. Through live imaging we identified that disrupting E-cadherin function prolonged the proliferative phase of the precursor population while concomitantly decreasing the proportion of migrating precursors. The lamellipodium and polarized membrane extensions appeared to be the principal sites of fusion, indicating precursor migration was a critical factor contributing to osteoclast fusion. These findings demonstrate that E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell contacts can modulate osteoclast-specific gene expression and prompt differentiating osteoclast precursors toward migratory and fusion activities. PMID:26959175

  13. Mevalonates restore zoledronic acid-induced osteoclastogenesis inhibition.

    PubMed

    Nagaoka, Y; Kajiya, H; Ozeki, S; Ikebe, T; Okabe, K

    2015-04-01

    Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) is likely to be caused by continuous imperfection of bone healing after surgical treatments in patients with long-term administration of nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates (NBPs). NBPs inhibit osteoclastic bone resorption by impairing the mevalonic acid sterol pathway in osteoclasts. Thus, we hypothesized that exogenous mevalonic acid metabolites restore the inhibitory effects of NBPs on osteoclastogenesis and bone remodeling. To clarify the effects of mevalonic acid metabolites, especially geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP) and geranylgeranyl transferase substrate geranylgeranyl acid (GGOH), we examined the effects of zoledronic acid with or without GGOH or GGPP on osteoclast differentiation, multinucleation, and bone mineral deposition in tooth-extracted sockets. Zoledronic acid decreased the number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive multinuclear cells derived from mouse osteoclast precursors treated with receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand and macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Zoledronic acid simultaneously suppressed not only the expressions of osteoclastic differentiation-related molecules such as TRAP, cathepsin K, calcitonin receptor, and vacuolar H-ATPase but also those of multinucleation-related molecules such as dendrocyte-expressed 7 transmembrane proteins and osteoclast stimulatory transmembrane protein. Treatment with GGOH or GGPP, but not farnesyl acid, restored the zoledronic acid-inhibited number of TRAP-positive multinuclear cells together with the expressions of these molecules. Although intraperitoneal administration of zoledronic acid and lipopolysaccharide into mice appeared to induce BRONJ-like lesions with empty bone lacunae and decreased mineral deposition in tooth-extracted socket, both GGOH and GGPP partially restored the inhibitory effects on zoledronic acid-related mineral deposition. These results suggest the potential of mevalonic acid

  14. Impact of Docosahexaenoic Acid on Gene Expression during Osteoclastogenesis in Vitro—A Comprehensive Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Akiyama, Masako; Nakahama, Ken-ichi; Morita, Ikuo

    2013-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), are known to protect against inflammation-induced bone loss in chronic inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, periodontitis and osteoporosis. We previously reported that DHA, not EPA, inhibited osteoclastogenesis induced by the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (sRANKL) in vitro. In this study, we performed gene expression analysis using microarrays to identify genes affected by the DHA treatment during osteoclastogenesis. DHA strongly inhibited osteoclastogenesis at the late stage. Among the genes upregulated by the sRANKL treatment, 4779 genes were downregulated by DHA and upregulated by the EPA treatment. Gene ontology analysis identified sets of genes related to cell motility, cell adhesion, cell-cell signaling and cell morphogenesis. Quantitative PCR analysis confirmed that DC-STAMP, an essential gene for the cell fusion process in osteoclastogenesis, and other osteoclast-related genes, such as Siglec-15, Tspan7 and Mst1r, were inhibited by DHA. PMID:23945674

  15. Myeloid thrombomodulin lectin-like domain inhibits osteoclastogenesis and inflammatory bone loss

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Tsung-Lin; Lai, Chao-Han; Shieh, Shyh-Jou; Jou, Yin-Bo; Yeh, Jwu-Lai; Yang, Ai-Lun; Wang, Yan-Hsiung; Wang, Chau-Zen; Chen, Chung-Hwan; Shi, Guey-Yueh; Ho, Mei-Ling; Wu, Hua-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Osteoclastogenesis is an essential process during bone metabolism which can also be promoted by inflammatory signals. Thrombomodulin (TM), a transmembrane glycoprotein, exerts anti-inflammatory activities such as neutralization of proinflammatory high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) through TM lectin-like domain. This study aimed to identify the role of myeloid TM (i.e., endogenous TM expression on the myeloid lineage) in osteoclastogenesis and inflammatory bone loss. Using human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages, we observed that the protein levels of TM were dramatically reduced as these cells differentiated into osteoclasts. In addition, osteoclastogenesis and extracellular HMGB1 accumulation were enhanced in primary cultured monocytes from myeloid-specific TM-deficient mice (LysMcre/TMflox/flox) and from TM lectin-like domain deleted mice (TMLeD/LeD) compared with their respective controls. Micro-computerized tomography scans showed that ovariectomy-induced bone loss was more pronounced in TMLeD/LeD mice compared with controls. Finally, the inhibiting effects of recombinant TM lectin-like domain (rTMD1) on bone resorption in vitro, and bone loss in both the ovariectomized model and collagen antibody-induced arthritis model has been detected. These findings suggested that the myeloid TM lectin-like domain may inhibit osteoclastogenesis by reducing HMGB1 signaling, and rTMD1 may hold therapeutic potential for inflammatory bone loss. PMID:27311356

  16. Transforming growth factor-{beta} enables NFATc1 expression during osteoclastogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, S.W. Evans, K.E.; Lovibond, A.C.

    2008-02-01

    Osteoclastogenesis is dependent on distinct stimuli that prime and activate osteoclast differentiation. One cytokine needed to prime monocytes for osteoclastogenesis is TGF-{beta}, which enables and augments RANKL and TNF-{alpha}-induced osteoclast differentiation. However, the precise time-period during which this occurs and the molecular mechanism mediating this action are unknown. We report here TGF-{beta} prime monocytes for osteoclast formation within 24 h by regulating expression of NFATc1, a key osteoclastic transcription factor. TGF-{beta} directly induces cytoplasmic NFATc1 expression within 24 h, but is unable to stimulate NFATc1 nuclear translocation. Furthermore, RANKL-induced NFATc1 expression is dependent on the presence of TGF-{beta} during the early stages of osteoclastogenesis. Similarly, TNF-{alpha} activates osteoclastogenesis by stimulating translocation of TGF-{beta}-induced NFATc1. In light of these findings, it is apparent that osteoclast formation is dependent on coordinated interactions between TGF-{beta} and RANKL/TNF-{alpha} that regulate the expression and intracellular distribution of NFATc1 during early stages of osteoclast differentiation.

  17. Micromolar sodium fluoride mediates anti-osteoclastogenesis in Porphyromonas gingivalis-induced alveolar bone loss.

    PubMed

    Bhawal, Ujjal K; Lee, Hye-Jin; Arikawa, Kazumune; Shimosaka, Michiharu; Suzuki, Masatoshi; Toyama, Toshizo; Sato, Takenori; Kawamata, Ryota; Taguchi, Chieko; Hamada, Nobushiro; Nasu, Ikuo; Arakawa, Hirohisa; Shibutani, Koh

    2015-12-01

    Osteoclasts are bone-specific multinucleated cells generated by the differentiation of monocyte/macrophage lineage precursors. Regulation of osteoclast differentiation is considered an effective therapeutic approach to the treatment of bone-lytic diseases. Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease characterized by extensive bone resorption. In this study, we investigated the effects of sodium fluoride (NaF) on osteoclastogenesis induced by Porphyromonas gingivalis, an important colonizer of the oral cavity that has been implicated in periodontitis. NaF strongly inhibited the P. gingivalis-induced alveolar bone loss. That effect was accompanied by decreased levels of cathepsin K, interleukin (IL)-1β, matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9), and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, which were up-regulated during P. gingivalis-induced osteoclastogenesis. Consistent with the in vivo anti-osteoclastogenic effect, NaF inhibited osteoclast formation caused by the differentiation factor RANKL (receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF). The RANKL-stimulated induction of the transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) c1 was also abrogated by NaF. Taken together, our data demonstrate that NaF inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis by reducing the induction of NFATc1, ultimately leading to the suppressed expression of cathepsin K and MMP9. The in vivo effect of NaF on the inhibition of P. gingivalis-induced osteoclastogenesis strengthens the potential usefulness of NaF for treating periodontal diseases. PMID:26674426

  18. Myeloid thrombomodulin lectin-like domain inhibits osteoclastogenesis and inflammatory bone loss.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Tsung-Lin; Lai, Chao-Han; Shieh, Shyh-Jou; Jou, Yin-Bo; Yeh, Jwu-Lai; Yang, Ai-Lun; Wang, Yan-Hsiung; Wang, Chau-Zen; Chen, Chung-Hwan; Shi, Guey-Yueh; Ho, Mei-Ling; Wu, Hua-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Osteoclastogenesis is an essential process during bone metabolism which can also be promoted by inflammatory signals. Thrombomodulin (TM), a transmembrane glycoprotein, exerts anti-inflammatory activities such as neutralization of proinflammatory high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) through TM lectin-like domain. This study aimed to identify the role of myeloid TM (i.e., endogenous TM expression on the myeloid lineage) in osteoclastogenesis and inflammatory bone loss. Using human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages, we observed that the protein levels of TM were dramatically reduced as these cells differentiated into osteoclasts. In addition, osteoclastogenesis and extracellular HMGB1 accumulation were enhanced in primary cultured monocytes from myeloid-specific TM-deficient mice (LysMcre/TM(flox/flox)) and from TM lectin-like domain deleted mice (TM(LeD/LeD)) compared with their respective controls. Micro-computerized tomography scans showed that ovariectomy-induced bone loss was more pronounced in TM(LeD/LeD) mice compared with controls. Finally, the inhibiting effects of recombinant TM lectin-like domain (rTMD1) on bone resorption in vitro, and bone loss in both the ovariectomized model and collagen antibody-induced arthritis model has been detected. These findings suggested that the myeloid TM lectin-like domain may inhibit osteoclastogenesis by reducing HMGB1 signaling, and rTMD1 may hold therapeutic potential for inflammatory bone loss. PMID:27311356

  19. Butein, a Tetrahydroxychalcone, Suppresses Cancer-induced Osteoclastogenesis Through Inhibition of RANKL Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Bokyung; Cho, Sung-Gook; Liu, Mingyao; Aggarwal, Bharat B.

    2011-01-01

    Osteoclastogenesis is associated with aging and various age-related inflammatory chronic diseases, including cancer. Receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL), a member of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily, has been implicated as a major mediator of bone resorption, suggesting that agents that can suppress RANKL signaling might inhibit osteoclastogenesis, a process closely linked to bone resorption. We therefore investigated whether butein, a tetrahydroxychalcone, could inhibit RANKL signaling and suppress osteoclastogenesis induced by RANKL or tumor cells. We found that human multiple myeloma cells (MM.1S and U266), breast tumor cells (MDA-MB-231), and prostate tumor cells (PC-3) induced differentiation of macrophages to osteoclasts, as indicated by TRAP-positive cells, and that butein suppressed this process. The chalcone also suppressed the expression of RANKL by the tumor cells. We further found that butein suppressed RANKL-induced NF-κB activation and that this suppression correlated with the inhibition of IκBα kinase and suppression of phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα, an inhibitor of NF-κB. Finally, butein also suppressed the RANKL-induced differentiation of macrophages to osteoclasts in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. Collectively, our results indicate that butein suppresses the osteoclastogenesis induced by tumor cells and by RANKL, by suppression of the NF-κB activation pathway. PMID:21170936

  20. Mechanical loading prevents the stimulating effect of IL-1{beta} on osteocyte-modulated osteoclastogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Kulkarni, Rishikesh N.; Bakker, Astrid D.; Everts, Vincent; Klein-Nulend, Jenneke

    2012-03-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Osteocyte incubation with IL-1{beta} stimulated osteocyte-modulated osteoclastogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conditioned medium from IL-1{beta}-treated osteocytes increased osteoclastogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer IL-1{beta} upregulated RANKL and downregulated OPG gene expression by osteocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CYR61 is upregulated in mechanically stimulated osteocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mechanical loading of osteocytes may abolish IL-1{beta}-induced osteoclastogenesis. -- Abstract: Inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis are often accompanied by higher plasma and synovial fluid levels of interleukin-1{beta} (IL-1{beta}), and by increased bone resorption. Since osteocytes are known to regulate bone resorption in response to changes in mechanical stimuli, we investigated whether IL-1{beta} affects osteocyte-modulated osteoclastogenesis in the presence or absence of mechanical loading of osteocytes. MLO-Y4 osteocytes were pre-incubated with IL-1{beta} (0.1-1 ng/ml) for 24 h. Cells were either or not subjected to mechanical loading by 1 h pulsating fluid flow (PFF; 0.7 {+-} 0.3 Pa, 5 Hz) in the presence of IL-1{beta} (0.1-1 ng/ml). Conditioned medium was collected after 1 h PFF or static cultures. Subsequently mouse bone marrow cells were seeded on top of the IL-1{beta}-treated osteocytes to determine osteoclastogenesis. Conditioned medium from mechanically loaded or static IL-1{beta}-treated osteocytes was added to co-cultures of untreated osteocytes and mouse bone marrow cells. Gene expression of cysteine-rich protein 61 (CYR61/CCN1), receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL), and osteoprotegerin (OPG) by osteocytes was determined immediately after PFF. Incubation of osteocytes with IL-1{beta}, as well as conditioned medium from static IL-1{beta}-treated osteocytes increased the formation of osteoclasts. However, conditioned medium from mechanically loaded IL

  1. The Adaptor Protein p62 Is Involved in RANKL-induced Autophagy and Osteoclastogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Rui-Fang; Chen, Gang; Ren, Jian-Gang; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Zhong-Xing; Liu, Bing; Zhao, Yi-Fang

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have implicated autophagy in osteoclast differentiation. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential role of p62, a characterized adaptor protein for autophagy, in RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. Real-time quantitative PCR and western blot analyses were used to evaluate the expression levels of autophagy-related markers during RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in mouse macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells. Meanwhile, the potential relationship between p62/LC3 localization and F-actin ring formation was tested using double-labeling immunofluorescence. Then, the expression of p62 in RAW264.7 cells was knocked down using small-interfering RNA (siRNA), followed by detecting its influence on RANKL-induced autophagy activation, osteoclast differentiation, and F-actin ring formation. The data showed that several key autophagy-related markers including p62 were significantly altered during RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation. In addition, the expression and localization of p62 showed negative correlation with LC3 accumulation and F-actin ring formation, as demonstrated by western blot and immunofluorescence analyses, respectively. Importantly, the knockdown of p62 obviously attenuated RANKL-induced expression of autophagy- and osteoclastogenesis-related genes, formation of TRAP-positive multinuclear cells, accumulation of LC3, as well as formation of F-actin ring. Our study indicates that p62 may play essential roles in RANKL-induced autophagy and osteoclastogenesis, which may help to develop a novel therapeutic strategy against osteoclastogenesis-related diseases. PMID:25163928

  2. STAT5 is a key transcription factor for IL-3-mediated inhibition of RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jongwon; Seong, Semun; Kim, Jung Ha; Kim, Kabsun; Kim, Inyoung; Jeong, Byung-Chul; Nam, Kwang-Il; Kim, Kyung Keun; Hennighausen, Lothar; Kim, Nacksung

    2016-01-01

    Among the diverse cytokines involved in osteoclast differentiation, interleukin (IL)-3 inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. However, the mechanism underlying IL-3-mediated inhibition of osteoclast differentiation is not fully understood. Here we demonstrate that the activation of signal transducers and activators of transcription 5 (STAT5) by IL-3 inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis through the induction of the expression of Id genes. We found that STAT5 overexpression inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. However, RANKL did not regulate the expression or activation of STAT5 during osteoclast differentiation. STAT5 deficiency prevented IL-3-mediated inhibition of osteoclastogenesis, suggesting a key role of STAT5 in IL-3-mediated inhibition of osteoclast differentiation. In addition, IL-3-induced STAT5 activation upregulated the expression of Id1 and Id2, which are negative regulators of osteoclastogenesis. Overexpression of ID1 or ID2 in STAT5-deficient cells reversed osteoclast development recovered from IL-3-mediated inhibition. Importantly, microcomputed tomography and histomorphometric analysis revealed that STAT5 conditional knockout mice showed reduced bone mass, with an increased number of osteoclasts. Furthermore, IL-3 inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation less effectively in the STAT5 conditional knockout mice than in the wild-type mice after RANKL injection. Taken together, our findings indicate that STAT5 contributes to the remarkable IL-3-mediated inhibition of RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis by activating Id genes and their associated pathways. PMID:27485735

  3. STAT5 is a key transcription factor for IL-3-mediated inhibition of RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jongwon; Seong, Semun; Kim, Jung Ha; Kim, Kabsun; Kim, Inyoung; Jeong, Byung-chul; Nam, Kwang-Il; Kim, Kyung Keun; Hennighausen, Lothar; Kim, Nacksung

    2016-01-01

    Among the diverse cytokines involved in osteoclast differentiation, interleukin (IL)-3 inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. However, the mechanism underlying IL-3-mediated inhibition of osteoclast differentiation is not fully understood. Here we demonstrate that the activation of signal transducers and activators of transcription 5 (STAT5) by IL-3 inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis through the induction of the expression of Id genes. We found that STAT5 overexpression inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. However, RANKL did not regulate the expression or activation of STAT5 during osteoclast differentiation. STAT5 deficiency prevented IL-3-mediated inhibition of osteoclastogenesis, suggesting a key role of STAT5 in IL-3-mediated inhibition of osteoclast differentiation. In addition, IL-3-induced STAT5 activation upregulated the expression of Id1 and Id2, which are negative regulators of osteoclastogenesis. Overexpression of ID1 or ID2 in STAT5-deficient cells reversed osteoclast development recovered from IL-3-mediated inhibition. Importantly, microcomputed tomography and histomorphometric analysis revealed that STAT5 conditional knockout mice showed reduced bone mass, with an increased number of osteoclasts. Furthermore, IL-3 inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation less effectively in the STAT5 conditional knockout mice than in the wild-type mice after RANKL injection. Taken together, our findings indicate that STAT5 contributes to the remarkable IL-3-mediated inhibition of RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis by activating Id genes and their associated pathways. PMID:27485735

  4. Mechanical loading prevents the stimulating effect of IL-1β on osteocyte-modulated osteoclastogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Rishikesh N; Bakker, Astrid D; Everts, Vincent; Klein-Nulend, Jenneke

    2012-03-30

    Inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis are often accompanied by higher plasma and synovial fluid levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and by increased bone resorption. Since osteocytes are known to regulate bone resorption in response to changes in mechanical stimuli, we investigated whether IL-1β affects osteocyte-modulated osteoclastogenesis in the presence or absence of mechanical loading of osteocytes. MLO-Y4 osteocytes were pre-incubated with IL-1β (0.1-1 ng/ml) for 24h. Cells were either or not subjected to mechanical loading by 1h pulsating fluid flow (PFF; 0.7 ± 0.3 Pa, 5 Hz) in the presence of IL-1β (0.1-1 ng/ml). Conditioned medium was collected after 1h PFF or static cultures. Subsequently mouse bone marrow cells were seeded on top of the IL-1β-treated osteocytes to determine osteoclastogenesis. Conditioned medium from mechanically loaded or static IL-1β-treated osteocytes was added to co-cultures of untreated osteocytes and mouse bone marrow cells. Gene expression of cysteine-rich protein 61 (CYR61/CCN1), receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL), and osteoprotegerin (OPG) by osteocytes was determined immediately after PFF. Incubation of osteocytes with IL-1β, as well as conditioned medium from static IL-1β-treated osteocytes increased the formation of osteoclasts. However, conditioned medium from mechanically loaded IL-1β-treated osteocytes prevented osteoclast formation. Incubation with IL-1β upregulated RANKL and downregulated OPG gene expression by static osteocytes. PFF upregulated CYR61, RANKL, and OPG gene expression by osteocytes. Our results suggest that IL-1β increases osteocyte-modulated osteoclastogenesis, and that mechanical loading of osteocytes may abolish IL-1β-induced osteoclastogenesis. PMID:22390927

  5. Aldehydic components of cinnamon bark extract suppresses RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis through NFATc1 downregulation.

    PubMed

    Tsuji-Naito, Kentaro

    2008-10-15

    Several major bone diseases are directly attributable to bone loss, including osteoporosis, bone metastasis, and rheumatoid arthritis. The nuclear factor of activated T cell 1 (NFATc1), a transcription factor, has recently been shown to play an essential role in osteoclastogenesis. In this study, we found that of several herbs, Cinnamomum zeylanicum (C. zeylanicum) exhibited the strong inhibitory effects on osteoclastogenesis and that its mechanism of action involves the suppression of NFATc1-mediated signal transduction. C. zeylanicum dose-dependently inhibited osteoclast-like cell formation at concentrations of 12.5-50 microg/ml without affecting cell viability. Resorption pit assays have shown that C. zeylanicum also inhibits the bone-resorbing activity of mature osteoclasts. Treatment with C. zeylanicum inhibited the receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL)-induced NFATc1 and c-fos expression. Additionally, C. zeylanicum moderately inhibited phosphorylation of IkappaB-alpha, suggesting that the c-fos/NFATc1 pathway, rather than the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) pathway, is the primary target of C. zeylanicum during RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. Using an HPLC-DAD system, we identified three major peaks for four characteristic components in the C. zeylanicum extract and identified an unknown peak as 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde via HPLC and a 2D-COSY (1)H NMR study. We identified cinnamaldehyde and 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde as active components reducing osteoclast-like cell formation and inhibiting NFATc1 expression. Notably, in a resorption pit assay, 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde exhibited remarkable inhibition rates of 95% at 2 microM on bone resorption. In summary, this study points to the conclusion that C. zeylanicum inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. This finding raises prospects for the development of a novel approach in the treatment of osteopenic disease. PMID:18823786

  6. Lanostane Triterpenes Isolated from Antrodia heteromorpha and Their Inhibitory Effects on RANKL-Induced Osteoclastogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jaeyoung; Lee, Hyaemin; Yoon, Yeo Dae; Hwang, Bang Yeon; Guo, Yuanqiang; Kang, Jong Soon; Kim, Jae-Jin; Lee, Dongho

    2016-06-24

    Two new spiro-lanostane triterpenoids, antrolactones A and B (1 and 2), along with polyporenic acid C (3), were isolated from an EtOAc-soluble extract of Antrodia heteromorpha culture medium, and the chemical structures of the new compounds were elucidated by application of NMR, MS, and ECD spectroscopic techniques. All isolated compounds exhibited inhibitory effects on receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand-induced osteoclastogenesis. PMID:27266877

  7. Lipopolysaccharide-induced osteoclastogenesis in Src homology 2-domain phosphatase-1-deficient viable motheaten mice.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Shin-Ichi; Tsuneto, Motokazu; Yamada, Takayuki; Nose, Michinari; Yoshino, Miya; Shultz, Leonard D; Yamazaki, Hidetoshi

    2004-06-01

    Osteoclasts are hemopoietic cells that participate in bone resorption and remodeling. Receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) are critical for development of osteoclasts. The Toll-like receptor (TLR) family shares some of the downstream signaling with RANK. The TLR4 ligand, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), is reported to accelerate bone lysis; however, signaling via TLRs has never been reported to induce osteoclastogenesis without RANKL. In this study we showed that significant numbers of mature osteoclasts were generated from protein tyrosine phosphatase Src homology 2-domain phosphatase-1-defective Hcph(me-v)/Hcph(me-v) (me(v)/me(v)) bone marrow cells in the presence of M-CSF and LPS without addition of RANKL in culture. This M-CSF plus LPS-induced osteoclastogenesis was not inhibited by an anti-TNFalpha antagonistic antibody or by osteoprotegerin, a decoy receptor for RANKL. The replacement of RANKL by TLR ligands only occurred with LPS. Other ligands, a peptidoglycan for TLR2 or an unmethylated CpG oligonucleotide for TLR9, did not support osteoclast generation. The osteoclast precursors as well as RANKL-responsive osteoclast precursors were present in the Kit-positive cell-enriched fraction of bone marrow cells. Although me(v)/me(v) bone marrow cells required a comparable concentration of RANKL or TNFalpha as wild-type cells for the initiation of osteoclastogenesis, the numbers of multinucleated osteoclasts in me(v)/me(v) bone marrow cultures were significantly increased by the equivalent dose of RANKL or TNFalpha in the presence of M-CSF. These results indicate that a defect of Src homology 2-domain phosphatase-1 function not only accelerates physiological osteoclast development by RANKL/RANK, but also acquires a novel pathway for osteoclastogenesis by LPS. PMID:14988381

  8. Gambogic acid inhibits multiple myeloma mediated osteoclastogenesis through suppression of chemokine receptor CXCR4 signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Manoj K; Kale, Vijay P; Song, Chunhua; Sung, Shen-shu; Sharma, Arun K; Talamo, Giampaolo; Dovat, Sinisa; Amin, Shantu G

    2014-10-01

    Bone disease, characterized by the presence of lytic lesions and osteoporosis is the hallmark of multiple myeloma (MM). Stromal cell-derived factor 1α (SDF-1α) and its receptor, CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), has been implicated as a regulator of bone resorption, suggesting that agents that can suppress SDF1α/CXCR4 signaling might inhibit osteoclastogenesis, a process closely linked to bone resorption. We, therefore, investigated whether gambogic acid (GA), a xanthone, could inhibit CXCR4 signaling and suppress osteoclastogenesis induced by MM cells. Through docking studies we predicted that GA directly interacts with CXCR4. This xanthone down-regulates the expression of CXCR4 on MM cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The down-regulation of CXCR4 was not due to proteolytic degradation, but rather GA suppresses CXCR4 mRNA expression by inhibiting nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) DNA binding. This was further confirmed by quantitative chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, as GA inhibits p65 binding at the CXCR4 promoter. GA suppressed SDF-1α-induced chemotaxis of MM cells and downstream signaling of CXCR4 by inhibiting phosphorylation of Akt, p38, and Erk1/2 in MM cells. GA abrogated the RANKL-induced differentiation of macrophages to osteoclasts in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In addition, we found that MM cells induced differentiation of macrophages to osteoclasts, and that GA suppressed this process. Importantly, suppression of osteoclastogenesis by GA was mediated through IL-6 inhibition. Overall, our results show that GA is a novel inhibitor of CXCR4 expression and has a strong potential to suppress osteoclastogenesis mediated by MM cells. PMID:25034231

  9. Structural basis of collagen recognition by human osteoclast-associated receptor and design of osteoclastogenesis inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Haywood, Joel; Qi, Jianxun; Chen, Chun-Chi; Lu, Guangwen; Liu, Yingxia; Yan, Jinghua; Shi, Yi; Gao, George F.

    2016-01-01

    Human osteoclast-associated receptor (OSCAR) is an immunoglobulin (Ig)-like collagen receptor that is up-regulated on osteoclasts during osteoclastogenesis and is expressed in a range of myeloid cells. As a member of the leukocyte receptor complex family of proteins, OSCAR shares a high degree of sequence and structural homology with other collagen receptors of this family, including glycoprotein VI, leukocyte-associated Ig-like receptor-1, and leukocyte Ig-like receptor B4, but recognizes a unique collagen sequence. Here, we present the crystal structures of OSCAR in its free form and in complex with a triple-helical collagen-like peptide (CLP). These structures reveal that the CLP peptide binds only one of the two Ig-like domains, the membrane-proximal domain (domain 2) of OSCAR, with the middle and trailing chain burying a total of 661 Å2 of solvent-accessible collagen surface. This binding mode is facilitated by the unusual topography of the OSCAR protein, which displays an obtuse interdomain angle and a rotation of domain 2 relative to the membrane-distal domain 1. Moreover, the binding of the CLP to OSCAR appears to be mediated largely by tyrosine residues and conformational changes at a shallow Phe pocket. Furthermore, we investigated CLP peptides as inhibitors of osteoclastogenesis and found that a peptide length of 40 amino acids is required to ensure adequate inhibition of osteoclastogenesis in vitro. These findings provide valuable structural insights into the mode of collagen recognition by OSCAR and into the use of synthetic peptide matrikines for osteoclastogenesis inhibition. PMID:26744311

  10. Sympathetic Neurotransmitters Modulate Osteoclastogenesis and Osteoclast Activity in the Context of Collagen-Induced Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Muschter, Dominique; Schäfer, Nicole; Stangl, Hubert; Straub, Rainer H.; Grässel, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Excessive synovial osteoclastogenesis is a hallmark of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Concomitantly, local synovial changes comprise neuronal components of the peripheral sympathetic nervous system. Here, we wanted to analyze if collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) alters bone marrow-derived macrophage (BMM) osteoclastogenesis and osteoclast activity, and how sympathetic neurotransmitters participate in this process. Therefore, BMMs from Dark Agouti rats at different CIA stages were differentiated into osteoclasts in vitro and osteoclast number, cathepsin K activity, matrix resorption and apoptosis were analyzed in the presence of acetylcholine (ACh), noradrenaline (NA) vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and assay-dependent, adenylyl cyclase activator NKH477. We observed modulation of neurotransmitter receptor mRNA expression in CIA osteoclasts without affecting protein level. CIA stage-dependently altered marker gene expression associated with osteoclast differentiation and activity without affecting osteoclast number or activity. Neurotransmitter stimulation modulated osteoclast differentiation, apoptosis and activity. VIP, NA and adenylyl cyclase activator NKH477 inhibited cathepsin K activity and osteoclastogenesis (NKH477, 10-6M NA) whereas ACh mostly acted pro-osteoclastogenic. We conclude that CIA alone does not affect metabolism of in vitro generated osteoclasts whereas stimulation with NA, VIP plus specific activation of adenylyl cyclase induced anti-resorptive effects probably mediated via cAMP signaling. Contrary, we suggest pro-osteoclastogenic and pro-resorptive properties of ACh mediated via muscarinic receptors. PMID:26431344