Science.gov

Sample records for 25-disk rotary microfilter

  1. TESTING AND EVALUATION OF THE MODIFIED DESIGN OF THE 25-DISK ROTARY MICROFILTER

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, D; Michael Poirier, M; Samuel Fink, S

    2006-09-29

    This report details redesign of a commercially available rotary microfilter to meet the operational and maintenance requirements for radioactive service. Personnel developed the design and coordinated procurement of two filters followed by testing of one unit. System testing examined the ability to rinse soluble material from the system, filtration performance using several insoluble solids loadings, effectiveness in washing sludge, amount of wear to parts and maintenance of the system including the insertion and removal of the filter stack, and the ability to flush solids from the system. The test program examined flushing the filter for soluble material by filling the system with a Rhodamine WT dye solution. Results showed that draining the system and rinsing with 50 gallons of water resulted in grater than 100X reduction of the dye concentration. Personnel determined filter performance using various amounts of insoluble sludge solids ranging from 0.06 to 15 weight percent (wt%) insoluble solids in a 3 molar (M) sodium simulated supernate. Through approximately 120 hours of start-and-stop (i.e., day shift) operation and various insoluble solids loadings, the filter produced filtration rates between 3 and 7 gallons per minute (gpm) (0.12-0.29 gpm/ft{sup 2}) for a 25-disk filter. Personnel washed approximately 80 gallons of simulated sludge using 207 gallons of inhibited water. Washing occurred at constant volume with wash water fed to a well mixed tank at the same rate as filtrate removal. Performance measurement involved collecting and analyzing samples throughout the washing for density and sodium content. Results showed an effective washing, mimicking a predicted dilution calculation for a well mixed tank and reducing the sodium concentration from 3.2 M to less than 0.3 M. Filtration rates during the washing process ranged between 3 and 4.3 gpm for one filter unit. The filter system then concentrated the washed 15 wt% insoluble solids slurry to approximately 20

  2. BACKPRESSURE TESTING OF ROTARY MICROFILTER DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Fowley, M.; Herman, D.

    2011-04-14

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), under the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM), is modifying and testing the SpinTek{trademark} rotary microfilter (RMF) for radioactive filtration service in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. The RMF has been shown to improve filtration throughput when compared to other conventional methods such as cross-flow filtration. A concern with the RMF was that backpressure, or reverse flow through the disk, would damage the filter membranes. Reverse flow might happen as a result of an inadvertent valve alignment during flushing. Testing was completed in the Engineering Development Laboratory (EDL) located in SRNL to study the physical effects of backpressure as well as to determine the maximum allowable back-pressure for RMF disks. The RMF disks tested at the EDL were manufactured by SpinTek{trademark} Filtration and used a Pall Corporation PMM050 filter membrane (0.5 micron nominal pore size) made from 316L stainless steel. Early versions of the RMF disks were made from synthetic materials that were incompatible with caustic solutions and radioactive service as well as being susceptible to delaminating when subjected to backpressure. Figure 1-1 shows the essential components of the RMF; 3 rotating disks and 3 stationary turbulence promoters (or shear elements) are shown. Figure 1-2 show the assembly view of a 25 disk RMF proposed for use at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and at the Hanford Facility. The purpose of the testing discussed in this report was to determine the allowable backpressure for RMF disks as well as study the physical effects of backpressure on RMF disks made with the Pall PMM050 membrane. This was accomplished by pressurizing the disks in the reverse flow direction (backpressure) until the test limit was reached or until membrane failure occurred. Backpressure was applied to the disks with air while submerged in deionized (DI) water. This method provided a visual

  3. TESTING OF A ROTARY MICROFILTER TO SUPPORT HANFORD APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M; David Herman, D; David Stefanko, D; Samuel Fink, S

    2008-06-26

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) researchers are investigating and developing a rotary microfilter for solid-liquid separation applications at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Because of the success of that work, the Hanford Site is evaluating the use of the rotary microfilter for its Supplemental Pretreatment process. The authors performed rotary filter testing with a full-scale, 25-disk unit with 0.5 {micro} filter media manufactured by Pall Corporation using a Hanford AN-105 simulant at solids loadings of 0.06, 0.29, and 1.29 wt%. The conclusions from this testing are: (1) The filter flux at 0.06 wt% solids reached a near constant value at an average of 0.26 gpm/ft{sup 2} (6.25 gpm total). (2) The filter flux at 0.29 wt% solids reached a near constant value at an average of 0.17 gpm/ft{sup 2} (4 gpm total). (3) The filter flux at 1.29 wt% solids reached a near constant value at an average of 0.10 gpm/ft{sup 2} (2.4 gpm total). (4) Because of differences in solids loadings, a direct comparison between crossflow filter flux and rotary filter flux is not possible. The data show the rotary filter produces a higher flux than the crossflow filter, but the improvement is not as large as seen in previous testing. (5) Filtrate turbidity measured < 4 NTU in all samples collected. (6) During production, the filter should be rinsed with filtrate or dilute caustic and drained prior to an extended shutdown to prevent the formation of a layer of settled solids on top of the filter disks. (7) Inspection of the seal faces after {approx} 140 hours of operation showed an expected amount of initial wear, no passing of process fluid through the seal faces, and very little change in the air channeling grooves on the stationary face. (8) Some polishing was observed at the bottom of the shaft bushing. The authors recommend improving the shaft bushing by holding it in place with a locking ring and incorporated grooves to provide additional cooling. (9) The authors recommend that

  4. TESTING OF A FULL-SCALE ROTARY MICROFILTER FOR THE ENHANCED PROCESS FOR RADIONUCLIDES REMOVAL

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, D; David Stefanko, D; Michael Poirier, M; Samuel Fink, S

    2009-01-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) researchers are investigating and developing a rotary microfilter for solid-liquid separation applications in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. One application involves use in the Enhanced Processes for Radionuclide Removal (EPRR) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). To assess this application, the authors performed rotary filter testing with a full-scale, 25-disk unit manufactured by SpinTek Filtration with 0.5 micron filter media manufactured by Pall Corporation. The filter includes proprietary enhancements by SRNL. The most recent enhancement is replacement of the filter's main shaft seal with a John Crane Type 28LD gas-cooled seal. The feed material was SRS Tank 8F simulated sludge blended with monosodium titanate (MST). Testing examined total insoluble solids concentrations of 0.06 wt % (126 hours of testing) and 5 wt % (82 hours of testing). The following are conclusions from this testing.

  5. Development of a Rotary Microfilter for SRS HLW Applications

    SciTech Connect

    MICHAEL, POIRIER

    2004-11-24

    The processing rate of Savannah River Site high level waste decontamination processes are limited by the flow rate of the solid-liquid separation. The baseline process, using a 0.1 micron cross flow filter, produces 0.02 gpm/ft2 of filtrate under expected operating conditions. Savannah River National Laboratory personnel identified the rotary microfilter as a technology that could significantly increase filter flux, with throughput improvements of as much as 10X for that specific operation. With funding from the Department of Energy Office of Cleanup Technologies, SRNL personnel are evaluating and developing the rotary microfilter for radioactive service at SRS. This work includes pilot-scale and actual waste testing to evaluate system reliability, the impact of radiation on system components, the filter flux for a variety of waste streams, and relative performance for alternative filter media.

  6. Evaluation of Alternative Filter Media for the Rotary Microfilter

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M. R.; Herman, D. T.; Bhave, R.

    2011-11-09

    The Savannah River Site is currently developing and testing several processes to treat high level radioactive liquid waste. Each of these processes has a solid-liquid separation process that limits its throughput. Savannah River National Laboratory researchers identified and tested the rotary microfilter as a technology to increase solid-liquid separation throughput. The authors believe the rotary microfilter throughput can be improved by using a better filter membrane. Previous testing showed that asymmetric filters composed of a ceramic membrane on top of a stainless steel support produced higher filter flux than 100% stainless steel symmetric filters in crossflow filter tests. Savannah River National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are working together to develop asymmetric ceramic ? stainless steel composite filters and asymmetric 100% stainless steel filters to improve the throughput of the rotary microfilter. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Inorganic Membrane Group fabricated samples of alternative filter membranes. In addition, Savannah River National Laboratory obtained samples of filter membranes from Pall, Porvair, and SpinTek. They tested these samples in a static test cell with feed slurries containing monosodium titanate and simulated sludge.

  7. EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVE FILTER MEDIA FOR THE ROTARY MICROFILTER

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M.; Herman, D.; Bhave, R.

    2011-09-13

    SRS is currently developing and testing several processes to treat high level radioactive liquid waste. These processes include the Integrated Salt Disposition Process (ISDP), the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF), and the Small Column Ion Exchange Process (SCIX). Each of these processes has a solid-liquid separation process that limits its throughput. SRNL researchers identified and tested the rotary microfilter as a technology to increase solid-liquid separation throughput. The testing showed significant improvement in filter flux with the rotary microfilter over the baseline crossflow filter (i.e., 2.5-6.5X during scoping tests, as much as 10X in actual waste tests, and approximately 3X in pilot-scale tests). SRNL received funding from DOE EM-21, and subsequently DOE EM-31 to develop the rotary microfilter for high level radioactive service. The work has included upgrading the rotary microfilter for radioactive service, testing with simulated SRS waste streams, and testing it with simulated Hanford waste streams. While the filtration rate is better than that obtained during testing of crossflow filters, the authors believe the rotary microfilter throughput can be improved by using a better filter membrane. The rotary microfilter membrane is made of stainless steel (Pall PMM050). Previous testing, funded by DOE EM-21, showed that asymmetric filters composed of a ceramic membrane on top of a stainless steel support produced higher filter flux than 100% stainless steel symmetric filters in crossflow filter tests. In that testing, the Pall Accusep and Graver filters produced 13-21% larger filter flux than the baseline 0.1 {micro}m Mott filter. While the improvement in flux is not as dramatic as the improvement of the rotary filter over a crossflow filter, a 13-21% increase could reduce the lifetime of a 30 year process by 4-6 years, with significant cost savings. Subsequent rotary filter testing showed the Pall PMM050 stainless steel filter membrane produced

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF A ROTARY MICROFILTER FOR RADIOACTIVE WASTE APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M; David Herman, D; Samuel Fink, S

    2008-02-25

    The processing rate of Savannah River Site (SRS) high-level waste decontamination processes are limited by the flow rate of the solid-liquid separation. The baseline process, using a 0.1 micron cross-flow filter, produces {approx}0.02 gpm/sq. ft. of filtrate under expected operating conditions. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) demonstrated significantly higher filter flux for actual waste samples using a small-scale rotary filter. With funding from the U. S. Department of Energy Office of Cleanup Technology, SRNL personnel are evaluating and developing the rotary microfilter for radioactive service at SRS. The authors improved the design for the disks and filter unit to make them suitable for high-level radioactive service. They procured two units using the new design, tested them with simulated SRS wastes, and evaluated the operation of the units. Work to date provides the following conclusions and program status: (1) The authors modified the design of the filter disks to remove epoxy and Ryton{reg_sign}. The new design includes welding both stainless steel and ceramic coated stainless steel filter media to a stainless steel support plate. The welded disks were tested in the full-scale unit. They showed good reliability and met filtrate quality requirements. (2) The authors modified the design of the unit, making installation and removal easier. The new design uses a modular, one-piece filter stack that is removed simply by disassembly of a flange on the upper (inlet) side of the filter housing. All seals and rotary unions are contained within the removable stack. (3) While it is extremely difficult to predict the life of the seal, the vendor representative indicates a minimum of one year in present service conditions is reasonable. Changing the seal face material from silicon-carbide to a graphite-impregnated silicon-carbide is expected to double the life of the seal. Replacement of the current seal with an air seal could increase the lifetime to 5 years

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF A LAMINATED DISK FOR THE SPIN TEK ROTARY MICROFILTER

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, D.

    2011-06-03

    Funded by the Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management, EM-31, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) partnered with SpinTek Filtration{trademark} to develop a filter disk that would withstand a reverse pressure or flow during operation of the rotary microfilter. The ability to withstand a reverse pressure and flow eliminates a potential accident scenario that could have resulted in damage to the filter membranes. While the original welded filter disks have been shown to withstand and reverse pressure/flow in the static condition, the filter disk design discussed in this report will allow a reverse pressure/flow while the disks are rotating. In addition, the laminated disk increases the flexibility during filter startup and cleaning operations. The new filter disk developed by SRNL and SpinTek is manufactured with a more open structure significantly reducing internal flow restrictions in the disk. The prototype was tested at the University of Maryland and demonstrated to withstand the reverse pressure due to the centrifugal action of the rotary filter. The tested water flux of the disk was demonstrated to be 1.34 gpm in a single disk test. By comparison, the water flux of the current disk was 0.49 gpm per disk during a 25 disk test. The disk also demonstrated rejection of solids by filtering a 5 wt % Strontium Carbonate slurry with a filtrate clarity of less the 1.4 Nephelometric Turbidity Units (NTU) throughout the two hour test. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been working with SpinTek Filtration{trademark} to adapt the rotary microfilter for radioactive service in the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex. One potential weakness is the loose nature of the membrane on the filter disks. The current disk is constructed by welding the membrane at the outer edge of the disk. The seal for the center of the membrane is accomplished by an o-ring in compression for the assembled stack. The remainder of the membrane is free floating on

  10. Development of a Rotary Micro-filter for Radioactive Waste Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M.R.; Herman, D.T.; Fink, S.D.

    2008-07-01

    The processing rates of Savannah River Site (SRS) high-level waste decontamination processes are limited by the flow rate of the solid-liquid separation. The baseline process, using a 0.1 micron cross-flow filter, produces {approx}1.36 x 10{sup -5} m/s ({approx}0.02 gpm/ft{sup 2}) of filtrate under expected operating conditions. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) demonstrated significantly higher filter flux for actual waste samples using a small-scale rotary filter. With funding from the U. S. Department of Energy Office of Cleanup Technology, SRNL personnel are evaluating and developing the rotary micro-filter for radioactive service at SRS. The authors improved the design for the disks and filter unit to make them suitable for high-level radioactive service. They procured two units using the new design, tested them with simulated SRS wastes, and evaluated the operation of the units. Work to date provides the following conclusions and program status. - The authors modified the design of the filter disks to remove epoxy and Ryton{sup R}. The new design includes welding both stainless steel and ceramic coated stainless steel filter media to a stainless steel support plate. The welded disks were tested in the full-scale unit. They showed good reliability and met filtrate quality requirements. - The authors modified the design of the unit, making installation and removal easier. The new design uses a modular, one-piece filter stack that is removed simply by disassembly of a flange on the upper (inlet) side of the filter housing. All seals and rotary unions are contained within the removable stack. - While it is extremely difficult to predict the life of the seal, the vendor representative indicates a minimum of one year in present service conditions is reasonable. Changing the seal face material from silicon-carbide to a graphite-impregnated silicon-carbide is expected to double the life of the seal. Replacement of the current seal with an air seal could

  11. EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVE FILTER MEDIA FOR THE ROTARY MICROFILTER, PHASE 2

    SciTech Connect

    Fowley, M.

    2012-07-31

    Testing was conducted at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to investigate filter membrane performance in an effort to increase rotary microfilter (RMF) throughput. Membranes were tested in the SpinTek Filtration, Inc. Static Test Cell (STC), which permitted quick and easy testing of several different membranes. Testing consisted of 100 hours tests with two different slurry feeds, based on recommendations from the phase 1 testing. One feed contained Monosodium Titanate (MST) solids in a simulated salt solution. The other feed contained simulated sludge batch 6 (SB6) solids in a simulated salt solution. Five membranes were tested, one each from filter manufactures Pall and Porvair and three from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The membrane from Pall is the current membrane used on the latest generation RMF. The Porvair membrane performed well in previous STC tests as well as one of the ORNL membranes. The other two membranes from ORNL were recently developed and not available for the previous STC test. The results indicate that the Porvair filter performed best with the MST slurry and the ORNL SVB6-1B filter performed best with the SB6 slurry. Difficulty was encountered with the ORNL filters due to their dimensional thickness, which was greater than the recommended filter thickness for the STC. The STC equipment was modified to complete the testing of the ORNL filters.

  12. TESTING OF THE SPINTEK ROTARY MICROFILTER USING ACTUAL HANFORD WASTE SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    HUBER HJ

    2010-04-13

    The SpinTek rotary microfilter was tested on actual Hanford tank waste. The samples were a composite of archived Tank 241-AN-105 material and a sample representing single-shell tanks (SST). Simulants of the two samples have been used in non-rad test runs at the 222-S laboratory and at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The results of these studies are compared in this report. Two different nominal pore sizes for the sintered steel rotating disk filter were chosen: 0.5 and 0.1 {micro}m. The results suggest that the 0.5-{micro}m disk is preferable for Hanford tank waste for the following reasons: (1) The filtrate clarity is within the same range (<<4 ntu for both disks); (2) The filtrate flux is in general higher for the 0.5-{micro}m disk; and (3) The 0.1-{micro}m disk showed a higher likelihood of fouling. The filtrate flux of the actual tank samples is generally in the range of 20-30% compared to the equivalent non-rad tests. The AN-105 slurries performed at about twice the filtrate flux of the SST slurries. The reason for this difference has not been identified. Particle size distributions in both cases are very similar; comparison of the chemical composition is not conclusive. The sole hint towards what material was stuck in the filter pore holes came from the analysis of the dried flakes from the surface of the fouled 0.1-{micro}m disk. A cleaning approach developed by SRNL personnel to deal with fouled disks has been found adaptable when using actual Hanford samples. The use of 1 M nitric acid improved the filtrate flux by approximately two times; using the same simulants as in the non-rad test runs showed that the filtrate flux was restored to 1/2 of its original amount.

  13. EVALUATION OF AP-FARM SIMULANT COMPOSITION FOR ROTARY MICROFILTER TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    HUBER HJ

    2011-09-19

    This document identifies the feed composition of a Hanford AP tank farm simulant for rotary microfiltration testing. The composition is based on an Hanford Tank Waste Operations Simulator (HTWOS) model run in combination with Tank Waste Information Network (TWINS) data and mineralogical studies of actual waste solids. The feed simulant is intended to be used in test runs at SRNL. The simulant will be prepared in two parts: (1) A supernate, composed of water-soluble salts and (2) The undissolved (actually, undissolvable) solids. Test slurries with distinct solids concentrations (e.g., 0.5, 5 and 10 wt%) are then prepared as needed. The base for the composition of supernate and solids is the modeled feed sequence for a deployment scenario of the Supplemental Pretreatment units within AP-farm. These units comprise a filtration part, the RMF, and a Cesium-removal part, a Small Column Ion Exchange. The primary use of this simulant is for filtration testing - however, in case that it is also used for ion-exchange tests, the amount of Cs-137 that would need to be added is available in Table 1 and Attachment 3. A modified model run (MMR-049) of the Hanford Tank Waste Operations Simulator (HTWOS) system plan 6 case 3 was performed to identify the feed sequence. Case 3 assumed supplemental treatment besides the low activity waste (LAW) melter with supplemental pretreatment supporting the pretreatment facility. The MMR did not cap the duration of supplemental pretreatment to 15 months, but rather used it throughout the entire treatment mission as an add-on option to the pretreatment facility at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Tank 241-AP-105 (AP-105) was chosen as the feed tank to the filtration unit. Other parameters included a fixed minimum of 0.5 wt% solids in the feed and a maximum Na-concentration of 5M in the supernate. The solids rejection from the filtration unit was set to 99.99% and the maximum allowed amount of solids within tank AP-105 was set

  14. TESTING OF THE SECOND GENERATION SPINTEK ROTARY FILTER -11357

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, D.; Poirier, M.; Fowley, M.; Keefer, M.; Huff, T.

    2011-02-02

    The SpinTek rotary microfilter has been developed under the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) for the purpose of deployment in radioactive service in the DOE complex. The unit that was fabricated and tested is the second generation of the filter that incorporates recommended improvements from previous testing. The completion of this test satisfied a key milestone for the EM technology development program and technology readiness for deployment by Savannah River Remediation in the Small Column Ion Exchange and Sludge Washing processes at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) contracted SpinTek Filtration to fabricate a full scale 25 disk rotary filter and perform a 1000 hour endurance test with a simulated SRS sludge. Over 1500 hours of operation have been completed with the filter. SpinTek Filtration fabricated a prototypic 25 disk rotary filter including updates to manufacturing tolerances, an updated design to the rotary joint, improved cooling to the bottom journal, decreases in disk and filter shaft hydraulic resistances. The filter disks were fabricated with 0.5 {micro} pore size, sintered-metal filter media manufactured by Pall Corporation (M050). After fabrication was complete, the filter passed acceptance tests demonstrating rejection of solids and clean water flux with a 50% improvement over the previous filters. Once the acceptance test was complete, a 1000 hour endurance test was initiated simulating a sludge washing process. The test used a simulated SRS Sludge Batch 6 recipe. The insoluble solids started at 5 wt% and were raised to 10 and 15 wt% insoluble solids to simulate the concentration of a large volume tank. The filter system was automated and set up for 24 hour unattended operation. To facilitate this, process control logic was written to operate the filter. During the development it was demonstrated that the method of starting and stopping the filter can affect the build

  15. Testing Dual Rotary Filters - 12373

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, D.T.; Fowley, M.D.; Stefanko, D.B.; Shedd, D.A.; Houchens, C.L.

    2012-07-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) installed and tested two hydraulically connected SpinTek{sup R} Rotary Micro-filter units to determine the behavior of a multiple filter system and develop a multi-filter automated control scheme. Developing and testing the control of multiple filters was the next step in the development of the rotary filter for deployment. The test stand was assembled using as much of the hardware planned for use in the field including instrumentation and valving. The control scheme developed will serve as the basis for the scheme used in deployment. The multi filter setup was controlled via an Emerson DeltaV control system running version 10.3 software. Emerson model MD controllers were installed to run the control algorithms developed during this test. Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Process Control Engineering personnel developed the software used to operate the process test model. While a variety of control schemes were tested, two primary algorithms provided extremely stable control as well as significant resistance to process upsets that could lead to equipment interlock conditions. The control system was tuned to provide satisfactory response to changing conditions during the operation of the multi-filter system. Stability was maintained through the startup and shutdown of one of the filter units while the second was still in operation. The equipment selected for deployment, including the concentrate discharge control valve, the pressure transmitters, and flow meters, performed well. Automation of the valve control integrated well with the control scheme and when used in concert with the other control variables, allowed automated control of the dual rotary filter system. Experience acquired on a multi-filter system behavior and with the system layout during this test helped to identify areas where the current deployment rotary filter installation design could be improved. Completion of this testing provides the necessary

  16. Rotary Transformer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLyman, Colonel Wm. T.

    1996-01-01

    None given. From first Par: Many spacecraft (S/C) and surface rovers require the transfer of signals and power across rotating interfaces. Science instruments, antennas and solar arrays are elements needing rotary power transfer for certain (S/C) configurations. Delivery of signal and power has mainly been done by using the simplest means, the slip ring approach. This approach, although simple, leaves debris generating noise over a period of time...The rotary transformer is a good alternative to slip rings for signal and power transfer.

  17. Rotary ATPases

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Alastair G.; Sobti, Meghna; Harvey, Richard P.; Stock, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Rotary ATPases are molecular rotary motors involved in biological energy conversion. They either synthesize or hydrolyze the universal biological energy carrier adenosine triphosphate. Recent work has elucidated the general architecture and subunit compositions of all three sub-types of rotary ATPases. Composite models of the intact F-, V- and A-type ATPases have been constructed by fitting high-resolution X-ray structures of individual subunits or sub-complexes into low-resolution electron densities of the intact enzymes derived from electron cryo-microscopy. Electron cryo-tomography has provided new insights into the supra-molecular arrangement of eukaryotic ATP synthases within mitochondria and mass-spectrometry has started to identify specifically bound lipids presumed to be essential for function. Taken together these molecular snapshots show that nano-scale rotary engines have much in common with basic design principles of man made machines from the function of individual “machine elements” to the requirement of the right “fuel” and “oil” for different types of motors. PMID:23369889

  18. ROTARY SWITCH

    DOEpatents

    Watterberg, J.P.E.

    1960-03-15

    BS>A compact rotary-type switoh was designed wherein an insulating shell carries circumferentially spaced contacts exposed to its interior and also carries, on a re-entrant portion, resilient contact arms having contact portions aligned wth and biased toward the spaced contacts. A dielectric rotor with a movable wall between the contacts and contact arms has an aperture that may be turned into or out of registry with the contacts so as to establish or interrupt circuits.

  19. Rotary latch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, Joel M. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A rotary latch is disclosed, including a hollow, cylindrical outer member and a concentrically arranged inner rotor. The rotor is rotatable within the outer cylindrical member. The outer cylindrical member includes a pair of aligned openings as a cylinder first end facing a latch pin. The rotor includes a pair of aligned slots at a rotor first end facing the latch pin. Slot extensions are provided in the rotor, the slot extensions extending generally perpendicularly to the slots and generally parallel to the rotor first end. In a first position, the outer cylindrical member openings and the rotor slots are aligned to allow receipt of the latch pin. In a second position, the openings and the slot extensions are aligned thereby engaging the latch pin within a closed area defined by the rotor slot extensions and the outer cylinder openings.

  20. Rotary actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brudnicki, Myron (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Rotary actuators and other mechanical devices incorporating shape memory alloys are provided herein. Shape memory alloys are a group of metals which when deformed at temperatures below their martensite temperatures, resume the shapes which they had prior to the deformation if they are heated to temperatures above their austensite temperatures. Actuators in which shape memory alloys are employed include bias spring types, in which springs deform the shape memory alloy (SMA), and differential actuators, which use two SMA members mechanically connected in series. Another type uses concentric cylindrical members. One member is in the form of a sleeve surrounding a cylinder, both being constructed of shape memory alloys. Herein two capstans are mounted on a shaft which is supported in a framework. Each capstan is capable of rotating the shaft. Shape memory wire, as two separate lengths of wire, is wrapped around each capstan to form a winding around that capstan. The winding on one capstan is so wrapped that the wire is in a prestretched state. The winding on the other capstan is so wrapped that the wire is in a taut, but not a prestretched, state. Heating one performs work in one direction, thus deforming the other one. When the other SMA is heated the action is reversed.

  1. Polymer microfilters with nanostructured surfaces for the culture of circulating cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Makarova, Olga V; Adams, Daniel L; Divan, Ralu; Rosenmann, Daniel; Zhu, Peixuan; Li, Shuhong; Amstutz, Platte; Tang, Cha-Mei

    2016-09-01

    There is a critical need to improve the accuracy of drug screening and testing through the development of in vitro culture systems that more effectively mimic the in vivo environment. Surface topographical features on the nanoscale level, in short nanotopography, effect the cell growth patterns, and hence affect cell function in culture. We report the preliminary results on the fabrication, and subsequent cellular growth, of nanoscale surface topography on polymer microfilters using cell lines as a precursor to circulating tumor cells (CTCs). To create various nanoscale features on the microfilter surface, we used reactive ion etching (RIE) with and without an etching mask. An anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane fabricated directly on the polymer surface served as an etching mask. Polymer filters with a variety of modified surfaces were used to compare the effects on the culture of cancer cell lines in blank culture wells, with untreated microfilters or with RIE-treated microfilters. We then report the differences of cell shape, phenotype and growth patterns of bladder and glioblastoma cancer cell lines after isolation on the various types of material modifications. Our data suggest that RIE modified polymer filters can isolate model cell lines while retaining ell viability, and that the RIE filter modification allows T24 monolayering cells to proliferate as a structured cluster. PMID:27207054

  2. Rotary drive mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Kenderdine, Eugene W.

    1991-01-01

    A rotary drive mechanism includes a rotary solenoid having a stator and multi-poled rotor. A moving member rotates with the rotor and is biased by a biasing device. The biasing device causes a further rotational movement after rotation by the rotary solenoid. Thus, energization of the rotary solenoid moves the member in one direction to one position and biases the biasing device against the member. Subsequently, de-energization of the rotary solenoid causes the biasing device to move the member in the same direction to another position from where the moving member is again movable by energization and de-energization of the rotary solenoid. Preferably, the moving member is a multi-lobed cam having the same number of lobes as the rotor has poles. An anti-overdrive device is also preferably provided for preventing overdrive in the forward direction or a reverse rotation of the moving member and for precisely aligning the moving member.

  3. Advanced rotary engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, C.

    1983-01-01

    The broad objectives of this paper are the following: (1) to summarize the Curtiss-Wright design, development and field testing background in the area of rotary aircraft engines; (2) to briefly summarize past activity and update development work in the area of stratified charge rotary combustion engines; and (3) to discuss the development of a high-performance direct injected unthrottled stratified charge rotary combustion aircraft engine. Efficiency improvements through turbocharging are also discussed.

  4. Rotary filtration system

    DOEpatents

    Herman, David T.; Maxwell, David N.

    2011-04-19

    A rotary filtration apparatus for filtering a feed fluid into permeate is provided. The rotary filtration apparatus includes a container that has a feed fluid inlet. A shaft is at least partially disposed in the container and has a passageway for the transport of permeate. A disk stack made of a plurality of filtration disks is mounted onto the shaft so that rotation of the shaft causes rotation of the filtration disks. The filtration disks may be made of steel components and may be welded together. The shaft may penetrate a filtering section of the container at a single location. The rotary filtration apparatus may also incorporate a bellows seal to prevent leakage along the shaft, and an around the shaft union rotary joint to allow for removal of permeate. Various components of the rotary filtration apparatus may be removed as a single assembly.

  5. Compact rotary sequencer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appleberry, W. T.

    1980-01-01

    Rotary sequencer is assembled from conventional planetary differential gearset and latching mechanism utilizing inputs and outputs which are coaxial. Applications include automated production-line equipment in home appliances and in vehicles.

  6. Equations For Rotary Transformers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomon, Phil M.; Wiktor, Peter J.; Marchetto, Carl A.

    1988-01-01

    Equations derived for input impedance, input power, and ratio of secondary current to primary current of rotary transformer. Used for quick analysis of transformer designs. Circuit model commonly used in textbooks on theory of ac circuits.

  7. Rotary antenna attenuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, R. M.; Hardy, J. C.

    1969-01-01

    Radio frequency attenuator, having negligible insertion loss at minimum attenuation, can be used for making precise antenna gain measurements. It is small in size compared to a rotary-vane attenuator.

  8. Advanced rotary engine studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, C.

    1980-01-01

    A review of rotary engine developments relevant to a stratified charge rotary aircraft engine is presented. Advantages in module size and weight, fuel efficiency, reliability, and multi-fuel capability are discussed along with developments in turbocharging, increased mean effective pressure, improved apex seal/trochoid wear surfacing materials, and high strength and temperature aluminum casting alloys. A carbureted prototype aircraft engine is also described.

  9. Rotary Series Elastic Actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Mehling, Joshua S. (Inventor); Parsons, Adam H. (Inventor); Griffith, Bryan Kristian (Inventor); Radford, Nicolaus A. (Inventor); Permenter, Frank Noble (Inventor); Davis, Donald R. (Inventor); Ambrose, Robert O. (Inventor); Junkin, Lucien Q. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A rotary actuator assembly is provided for actuation of an upper arm assembly for a dexterous humanoid robot. The upper arm assembly for the humanoid robot includes a plurality of arm support frames each defining an axis. A plurality of rotary actuator assemblies are each mounted to one of the plurality of arm support frames about the respective axes. Each rotary actuator assembly includes a motor mounted about the respective axis, a gear drive rotatably connected to the motor, and a torsion spring. The torsion spring has a spring input that is rotatably connected to an output of the gear drive and a spring output that is connected to an output for the joint.

  10. Rotary series elastic actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Mehling, Joshua S. (Inventor); Parsons, Adam H. (Inventor); Griffith, Bryan Kristian (Inventor); Radford, Nicolaus A. (Inventor); Permenter, Frank Noble (Inventor); Davis, Donald R. (Inventor); Ambrose, Robert O. (Inventor); Junkin, Lucien Q. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A rotary actuator assembly is provided for actuation of an upper arm assembly for a dexterous humanoid robot. The upper arm assembly for the humanoid robot includes a plurality of arm support frames each defining an axis. A plurality of rotary actuator assemblies are each mounted to one of the plurality of arm support frames about the respective axes. Each rotary actuator assembly includes a motor mounted about the respective axis, a gear drive rotatably connected to the motor, and a torsion spring. The torsion spring has a spring input that is rotatably connected to an output of the gear drive and a spring output that is connected to an output for the joint.

  11. Smart hybrid rotary damper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, C. S. Walter; DesRoches, Reginald

    2014-03-01

    This paper develops a smart hybrid rotary damper using a re-centering smart shape memory alloy (SMA) material as well as conventional energy-dissipating metallic plates that are easy to be replaced. The ends of the SMA and steel plates are inserted in the hinge. When the damper rotates, all the plates bend, providing energy dissipating and recentering characteristics. Such smart hybrid rotary dampers can be installed in structures to mitigate structural responses and to re-center automatically. The damaged energy-dissipating plates can be easily replaced promptly after an external excitation, reducing repair time and costs. An OpenSEES model of a smart hybrid rotary was established and calibrated to reproduce the realistic behavior measured from a full-scale experimental test. Furthermore, the seismic performance of a 3-story moment resisting model building with smart hybrid rotary dampers designed for downtown Los Angeles was also evaluated in the OpenSEES structural analysis software. Such a smart moment resisting frame exhibits perfect residual roof displacement, 0.006", extremely smaller than 18.04" for the conventional moment resisting frame subjected to a 2500 year return period ground motion for the downtown LA area (an amplified factor of 1.15 on Kobe earthquake). The smart hybrid rotary dampers are also applied into an eccentric braced steel frame, which combines a moment frame system and a bracing system. The results illustrate that adding smart hybrid rotaries in this braced system not only completely restores the building after an external excitation, but also significantly reduces peak interstory drifts.

  12. Rotary blasthole drilling update

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2008-02-15

    Blasthole drilling rigs are the unsung heroes of open-pit mining. Recently manufacturers have announced new tools. Original equipment manufactures (OEMs) are making safer and more efficient drills. Technology and GPS navigation systems are increasing drilling accuracy. The article describes features of new pieces of equipment: Sandvik's DR460 rotary blasthole drill, P & H's C-Series drills and Atlas Copco's Pit Viper PV275 multiphase rotary blasthole drill rig. DrillNav Plus is a blasthole navigation system developed by Leica Geosystems. 5 photos.

  13. Rotary mechanical latch

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, Barry L.; Martinez, Michael A.; Marron, Lisa C.

    2012-11-13

    A rotary mechanical latch for positive latching and unlatching of a rotary device with a latchable rotating assembly having a latching gear that can be driven to latched and unlatched states by a drive mechanism such as an electric motor. A cam arm affixed to the latching gear interfaces with leading and trailing latch cams affixed to a flange within the drive mechanism. The interaction of the cam arm with leading and trailing latch cams prevents rotation of the rotating assembly by external forces such as those due to vibration or tampering.

  14. Rotary drum separator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barone, Michael R. (Inventor); Murdoch, Karen (Inventor); Scull, Timothy D. (Inventor); Fort, James H. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A rotary phase separator system generally includes a step-shaped rotary drum separator (RDS) and a motor assembly. The aspect ratio of the stepped drum minimizes power for both the accumulating and pumping functions. The accumulator section of the RDS has a relatively small diameter to minimize power losses within an axial length to define significant volume for accumulation. The pumping section of the RDS has a larger diameter to increase pumping head but has a shorter axial length to minimize power losses. The motor assembly drives the RDS at a low speed for separating and accumulating and a higher speed for pumping.

  15. Solar heated rotary kiln

    DOEpatents

    Shell, Pamela K.

    1984-01-01

    A solar heated rotary kiln utilized for decomposition of materials, such as zinc sulfate. The rotary kiln has an open end and is enclosed in a sealed container having a window positioned for directing solar energy into the open end of the kiln. The material to be decomposed is directed through the container into the kiln by a feed tube. The container is also provided with an outlet for exhaust gases and an outlet for spent solids, and rests on a tiltable base. The window may be cooled and kept clear of debris by coolant gases.

  16. Solar heated rotary kiln

    SciTech Connect

    Shell, P.K.

    1984-04-17

    A solar heated rotary kiln utilized for decomposition of materials, such as zinc sulfate. The rotary kiln has an open end and is enclosed in a sealed container having a window positioned for directing solar energy into the open end of the kiln. The material to be decomposed is directed through the container into the kiln by a feed tube. The container is also provided with an outlet for exhaust gases and an outlet for spent solids, and rests on a tiltable base. The window may be cooled and kept clear of debris by coolant gases.

  17. TESTING OF THE DUAL ROTARY FILTER SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, D.; Fowley, M.; Stefanko, D.

    2011-08-29

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) installed and tested two hydraulically connected SpinTek rotary microfilter (RMF) units to determine the behavior of a multiple filter system. Both units were successfully controlled by a control scheme written in DELTA-V architecture by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Process Control Engineering personnel. The control system was tuned to provide satisfactory response to changing conditions during the operation of the multi-filter system. Stability was maintained through the startup and shutdown of one of the filter units while the second was still in operation. The installation configuration originally proposed by the Small Colum Ion Exchange (SCIX) project of independent filter and motor mountings may be susceptible to vibration. Significant stiffening of the filter and motor mounts was required to minimize the vibration. Alignment of the motor to the filter was a challenge in this test configuration. The deployment configuration must be easy to manipulate and allow for fine adjustment. An analysis of the vibration signature of the test system identified critical speeds. Whether it corresponds to the resonance frequency of a rotor radial vibration mode that was excited by rotor unbalance is uncertain based upon the measurements. A relative motion series should be completed on the filter with the final shaft configuration to determine if the resonances exist in the final filter design. The instrumentation selected for deployment, including the concentrate discharge control valve and flow meters, performed well. Automation of the valve control integrated well with the control scheme and when used in concert with the other control variables, allowed automated control of the dual RMF system. The one area of concern with the instrumentation was the condition resulting when the filtrate flow meter operated with less than three gpm. This low flow was at the lower range of performance for the flow meter. This should not be

  18. Rotary magnetic heat pump

    DOEpatents

    Kirol, Lance D.

    1988-01-01

    A rotary magnetic heat pump constructed without flow seals or segmented rotor accomplishes recuperation and regeneration by using split flow paths. Heat exchange fluid pumped through heat exchangers and returned to the heat pump splits into two flow components: one flowing counter to the rotor rotation and one flowing with the rotation.

  19. Rotary Burner Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Flanagan

    2003-04-30

    The subject technology, the Calcpos Rotary Burner (CRB), is a burner that is proposed to reduce energy consumption and emission levels in comparison to currently available technology. burners are used throughout industry to produce the heat that is required during the refining process. Refineries seek to minimize the use of energy in refining while still meeting EPA regulations for emissions.

  20. Rotary shaft sealing assembly

    DOEpatents

    Dietle, Lannie L.; Schroeder, John E.; Kalsi, Manmohan S.; Alvarez, Patricio D.

    2010-09-21

    A rotary shaft sealing assembly in which a first fluid is partitioned from a second fluid in a housing assembly having a rotary shaft located at least partially within. In one embodiment a lip seal is lubricated and flushed with a pressure-generating seal ring preferably having an angled diverting feature. The pressure-generating seal ring and a hydrodynamic seal may be used to define a lubricant-filled region with each of the seals having hydrodynamic inlets facing the lubricant-filled region. Another aspect of the sealing assembly is having a seal to contain pressurized lubricant while withstanding high rotary speeds. Another rotary shaft sealing assembly embodiment includes a lubricant supply providing a lubricant at an elevated pressure to a region between a lip seal and a hydrodynamic seal with a flow control regulating the flow of lubricant past the lip seal. The hydrodynamic seal may include an energizer element having a modulus of elasticity greater than the modulus of elasticity of a sealing lip of the hydrodynamic seal.

  1. Rotary shaft sealing assembly

    DOEpatents

    Dietle, Lannie L; Schroeder, John E; Kalsi, Manmohan S; Alvarez, Patricio D

    2013-08-13

    A rotary shaft sealing assembly in which a first fluid is partitioned from a second fluid in a housing assembly having a rotary shaft located at least partially within. In one embodiment a lip seal is lubricated and flushed with a pressure-generating seal ring preferably having an angled diverting feature. The pressure-generating seal ring and a hydrodynamic seal may be used to define a lubricant-filled region with each of the seals having hydrodynamic inlets facing the lubricant-filled region. Another aspect of the sealing assembly is having a seal to contain pressurized lubricant while withstanding high rotary speeds. Another rotary shaft sealing assembly embodiment includes a lubricant supply providing a lubricant at an elevated pressure to a region between a lip seal and a hydrodynamic seal with a flow control regulating the flow of lubricant past the lip seal. The hydrodynamic seal may include an energizer element having a modulus of elasticity greater than the modulus of elasticity of a sealing lip of the hydrodynamic seal.

  2. Rotary magnetic heat pump

    DOEpatents

    Kirol, L.D.

    1987-02-11

    A rotary magnetic heat pump constructed without flow seals or segmented rotor accomplishes recuperation and regeneration by using split flow paths. Heat exchange fluid pumped through heat exchangers and returned to the heat pump splits into two flow components: one flowing counter to the rotor rotation and one flowing with the rotation. 5 figs.

  3. Rotary pneumatic valve

    DOEpatents

    Hardee, Harry C.

    1991-01-01

    A rotary pneumatic valve which is thrust balanced and the pneumatic pressure developed produces only radial loads on the valve cylinder producing negligible resistance and thus minimal torque on the bearings of the valve. The valve is multiplexed such that at least two complete switching cycles occur for each revolution of the cylinder spindle.

  4. Piezoelectric Rotary Tube Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Charles D.; Badescu, Mircea; Braun, David F.; Culhane, Robert

    2011-01-01

    A custom rotary SQUIGGLE(Registered TradeMark) motor has been developed that sets new benchmarks for small motor size, high position resolution, and high torque without gear reduction. Its capabilities cannot be achieved with conventional electromagnetic motors. It consists of piezoelectric plates mounted on a square flexible tube. The plates are actuated via voltage waveforms 90 out of phase at the resonant frequency of the device to create rotary motion. The motors were incorporated into a two-axis postioner that was designed for fiber-fed spectroscopy for ground-based and space-based projects. The positioner enables large-scale celestial object surveys to take place in a practical amount of time.

  5. Recirculating rotary gas compressor

    DOEpatents

    Weinbrecht, J.F.

    1992-02-25

    A positive displacement, recirculating Roots-type rotary gas compressor is described which operates on the basis of flow work compression. The compressor includes a pair of large diameter recirculation conduits which return compressed discharge gas to the compressor housing, where it is mixed with low pressure inlet gas, thereby minimizing adiabatic heating of the gas. The compressor includes a pair of involutely lobed impellers and an associated port configuration which together result in uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas. The large diameter recirculation conduits equalize gas flow velocities within the compressor and minimize gas flow losses. The compressor is particularly suited to applications requiring sustained operation at higher gas compression ratios than have previously been feasible with rotary pumps, and is particularly applicable to refrigeration or other applications requiring condensation of a vapor. 12 figs.

  6. Recirculating rotary gas compressor

    DOEpatents

    Weinbrecht, John F.

    1992-01-01

    A positive displacement, recirculating Roots-type rotary gas compressor which operates on the basis of flow work compression. The compressor includes a pair of large diameter recirculation conduits (24 and 26) which return compressed discharge gas to the compressor housing (14), where it is mixed with low pressure inlet gas, thereby minimizing adiabatic heating of the gas. The compressor includes a pair of involutely lobed impellers (10 and 12) and an associated port configuration which together result in uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas. The large diameter recirculation conduits equalize gas flow velocities within the compressor and minimize gas flow losses. The compressor is particularly suited to applications requiring sustained operation at higher gas compression ratios than have previously been feasible with rotary pumps, and is particularly applicable to refrigeration or other applications requiring condensation of a vapor.

  7. Sequenced drive for rotary valves

    DOEpatents

    Mittell, Larry C.

    1981-01-01

    A sequenced drive for rotary valves which provides the benefits of applying rotary and linear motions to the movable sealing element of the valve. The sequenced drive provides a close approximation of linear motion while engaging or disengaging the movable element with the seat minimizing wear and damage due to scrubbing action. The rotary motion of the drive swings the movable element out of the flowpath thus eliminating obstruction to flow through the valve.

  8. Can Microfiltered Seminal Plasma Preserve the Morphofunctional Characteristics of Porcine Spermatozoa in the Absence of Antibiotics? A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Barone, F; Ventrella, D; Zannoni, A; Forni, M; Bacci, M L

    2016-08-01

    Artificial insemination is extensively performed in pig farms in Europe, the United States and Canada. Antibiotics are typically added to the inseminating dose to limit bacterial growth during liquid phase storage at 16°C, as bacterial contamination is unavoidable. The World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) take action to control and reduce antibiotic use in animals as more bacteria are becoming resistant to antimicrobials. To avoid the use of antibiotics, we prepared inseminating doses using microfiltered seminal plasma (SP). Microfiltration is a common technology used to reduce bacterial contamination but may retain seminal substances, influencing sperm quality during storage. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the morphofunctional parameters of spermatozoa during storage at 16°C in doses prepared with or without microfiltered SP, with or without the addition of antibiotics, in a Latin square design. Artificial insemination doses with microfiltered SP and without antibiotic addition preserved spermatozoa viability, mitochondrial membrane potential, acrosome integrity and objective motility, with absolute values equal or even better than those observed in conventional doses. In conclusion, although the results could be considered preliminary due to the small sample size, this study suggests that microfiltration of SP can be a simple method, feasible on farms, to replace antibiotic use in extended doses stored in the liquid phase at 16°C for up to 7 days. PMID:27174664

  9. Optical rotary joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, R. G., Jr.

    1982-06-01

    The primary objective of this contract is the design, fabrication, and testing of an optical rotary joint which permits transmission of signals through optical fibers across the interface of two environments rotating relative to each other. Outstanding optical performance is achieved through the use of gradient index lenses to couple radiation across the separation between two fibers. The salient features of this device are bidirectional operation at two wavelengths (850 nm and 1300 nm), low insertion loss, low rotationally induced variation of attenuation, a seven-circuit electrical slip-ring assembly, and rugged construction. The device is designed to facilitate the application of future designs to pressurized, subsea environments.

  10. Rotary and Magnus balances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malcolm, G. N.

    1981-01-01

    Two wind tunnel techniques for determining part of the aerodynamic information required to describe the dynamic bahavior of various types of vehicles in flight are described. Force and moment measurements are determined with a rotary-balance apparatus in a coning motion and with a Magnus balance in a high-speed spinning motion. Coning motion is pertinent to both aircraft and missiles, and spinning is important for spin stabilized missiles. Basic principles of both techniques are described, and specific examples of each type of apparatus are presented. Typical experimental results are also discussed.

  11. Rotary engine cooling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Charles (Inventor); Gigon, Richard M. (Inventor); Blum, Edward J. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A rotary engine has a substantially trochoidal-shaped housing cavity in which a rotor planetates. A cooling system for the engine directs coolant along a single series path consisting of series connected groups of passages. Coolant enters near the intake port, passes downwardly and axially through the cooler regions of the engine, then passes upwardly and axially through the hotter regions. By first flowing through the coolest regions, coolant pressure is reduced, thus reducing the saturation temperature of the coolant and thereby enhancing the nucleate boiling heat transfer mechanism which predominates in the high heat flux region of the engine during high power level operation.

  12. Development and integration of xerogel polymeric absorbance micro-filters into lab-on-chip systems.

    PubMed

    Carregal-Romero, Ester; Fernández-Sánchez, César; Eguizabal, Alma; Demming, Stefanie; Büttgenbach, Stephanus; Llobera, Andreu

    2012-10-01

    This work reports on the implementation of different absorption micro-filters based on a dye-doped hybrid organic-inorganic xerogel polymeric material synthesized by the sol-gel process. Microstructures containing eight different filter widths were fabricated in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), bonded to glass substrates and filled with the corresponding dye doped polymeric material by a soft lithography approach. The filtering capacity as a function of dye concentration and filter width was studied and revealed a linear dependence with both parameters, as expected according to the Beer-Lambert law. Zero passband transmittance values and relatively sharp stopband regions were achieved with all the filters, also showing rejection levels between -6 dB and -55 dB. Finally, such filters were monolithically integrated into a disposable fluorescence-based photonic lab-on-a-chip (PhLoC) approach. Calibration curves carried out with a model fluorophore target analyte showed an over two-fold increase in sensitivity and a thirty-fold decrease of the limit of detection (LOD) compared with the values recorded using the same PhLoC system but without the polymeric filter structure. The results presented herein clearly indicate the feasibility of these xerogel-based absorbance filtering structures for being applied as low-cost optical components that can be easily incorporated into disposable fluorescence-based photonic lab on a chip systems. PMID:23188336

  13. Low-Cost Photolithographic Fabrication of Nanowires and Microfilters for Advanced Bioassay Devices

    PubMed Central

    Doan, Nhi M.; Qiang, Liangliang; Li, Zhe; Vaddiraju, Santhisagar; Bishop, Gregory W.; Rusling, James F.; Papadimitrakopoulos, Fotios

    2015-01-01

    Integrated microfluidic devices with nanosized array electrodes and microfiltration capabilities can greatly increase sensitivity and enhance automation in immunoassay devices. In this contribution, we utilize the edge-patterning method of thin aluminum (Al) films in order to form nano- to micron-sized gaps. Evaporation of high work-function metals (i.e., Au, Ag, etc.) on these gaps, followed by Al lift-off, enables the formation of electrical uniform nanowires from low-cost, plastic-based, photomasks. By replacing Al with chromium (Cr), the formation of high resolution, custom-made photomasks that are ideal for low-cost fabrication of a plurality of array devices were realized. To demonstrate the feasibility of such Cr photomasks, SU-8 micro-pillar masters were formed and replicated into PDMS to produce micron-sized filters with 3–4 µm gaps and an aspect ratio of 3. These microfilters were capable of retaining 6 µm beads within a localized site, while allowing solvent flow. The combination of nanowire arrays and micro-pillar filtration opens new perspectives for rapid R&D screening of various microfluidic-based immunoassay geometries, where analyte pre-concentration and highly sensitive, electrochemical detection can be readily co-localized. PMID:25774709

  14. Low-cost photolithographic fabrication of nanowires and microfilters for advanced bioassay devices.

    PubMed

    Doan, Nhi M; Qiang, Liangliang; Li, Zhe; Vaddiraju, Santhisagar; Bishop, Gregory W; Rusling, James F; Papadimitrakopoulos, Fotios

    2015-01-01

    Integrated microfluidic devices with nanosized array electrodes and microfiltration capabilities can greatly increase sensitivity and enhance automation in immunoassay devices. In this contribution, we utilize the edge-patterning method of thin aluminum (Al) films in order to form nano- to micron-sized gaps. Evaporation of high work-function metals (i.e., Au, Ag, etc.) on these gaps, followed by Al lift-off, enables the formation of electrical uniform nanowires from low-cost, plastic-based, photomasks. By replacing Al with chromium (Cr), the formation of high resolution, custom-made photomasks that are ideal for low-cost fabrication of a plurality of array devices were realized. To demonstrate the feasibility of such Cr photomasks, SU-8 micro-pillar masters were formed and replicated into PDMS to produce micron-sized filters with 3-4 µm gaps and an aspect ratio of 3. These microfilters were capable of retaining 6 µm beads within a localized site, while allowing solvent flow. The combination of nanowire arrays and micro-pillar filtration opens new perspectives for rapid R&D screening of various microfluidic-based immunoassay geometries, where analyte pre-concentration and highly sensitive, electrochemical detection can be readily co-localized. PMID:25774709

  15. Development and shelf-life determination of pasteurized, microfiltered, lactose hydrolyzed skim milk.

    PubMed

    Antunes, A E C; Silva E Alves, A T; Gallina, D A; Trento, F K H S; Zacarchenco, P B; Van Dender, A G F; Moreno, I; Ormenese, R C S C; Spadoti, L M

    2014-09-01

    The segment of the world population showing permanent or temporary lactose intolerance is quite significant. Because milk is a widely consumed food with an high nutritional value, technological alternatives have been sought to overcome this dilemma. Microfiltration combined with pasteurization can not only extend the shelf life of milk but can also maintain the sensory, functional, and nutritional properties of the product. This studied developed a pasteurized, microfiltered, lactose hydrolyzed (delactosed) skim milk (PMLHSM). Hydrolysis was performed using β-galactosidase at a concentration of 0.4mL/L and incubation for approximately 21h at 10±1°C. During these procedures, the degree of hydrolysis obtained (>90%) was accompanied by evaluation of freezing point depression, and the remaining quantity of lactose was confirmed by HPLC. Milk was processed using a microfiltration pilot unit equipped with uniform transmembrane pressure (UTP) ceramic membranes with a mean pore size of 1.4 μm and UTP of 60 kPa. The product was submitted to physicochemical, microbiological, and sensory evaluations, and its shelf life was estimated. Microfiltration reduced the aerobic mesophilic count by more than 4 log cycles. We were able to produce high-quality PMLHSM with a shelf life of 21 to 27d when stored at 5±1°C in terms of sensory analysis and proteolysis index and a shelf life of 50d in regard to total aerobic mesophile count and titratable acidity. PMID:25022681

  16. Lubrication of rotary rock bits

    SciTech Connect

    MacPhail, J.; Gardner, H.

    1996-12-01

    The rotary rock bit is designed so that both the bearings and cutting structure work together as one unit. Should the bearings wear prematurely before the cutting structure is worn out, then the complete bit will rapidly deteriorate leading to a shortened bit life. The optimum bit run is when the bearings and cutting structure wear out simultaneously, having obtained a good footage and rate of penetration. This paper discusses reasons why users of rotary air blast hole bits encounter premature bit failure due to bearing failure. It also discusses a lubrication system designed for rotary rock bits to combat bearing failure.

  17. Rotary blood pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozeman, Richard J. (Inventor); Akkerman, James W. (Inventor); Aber, Greg S. (Inventor); Vandamm, George A. (Inventor); Bacak, James W. (Inventor); Svejkovsky, Paul A. (Inventor); Benkowski, Robert J. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A rotary blood pump is presented. The pump includes a pump housing for receiving a flow straightener, a rotor mounted on rotor bearings and having an inducer portion and an impeller portion, and a diffuser. The entrance angle, outlet angle, axial, and radial clearances of the blades associated with the flow straightener, inducer portion, impeller portion, and diffuser are optimized to minimize hemolysis while maintaining pump efficiency. The rotor bearing includes a bearing chamber that is filled with crosslinked blood or other bio-compatible material. A back emf integrated circuit regulates rotor operation and a microcomputer may be used to control one or more back emf integrated circuits. A plurality of magnets are disposed in each of a plurality of impeller blades with a small air gap. A stator may be axially adjusted on the pump housing to absorb bearing load and maximize pump efficiency.

  18. Rotary Blood Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr. (Inventor); Akkerman, James W. (Inventor); Aber, Gregory S. (Inventor); VanDamm, George A. (Inventor); Bacak, James W. (Inventor); Svejkovsky, Paul A. (Inventor); Benkowski, Robert J. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A rotary blood pump includes a pump housing for receiving a flow straightener, a rotor mounted on rotor bearings and having an inducer portion and an impeller portion, and a diffuser. The entrance angle, outlet angle, axial and radial clearances of blades associated with the flow straightener, inducer portion, impeller portion and diffuser are optimized to minimize hemolysis while maintaining pump efficiency. The rotor bearing includes a bearing chamber that is filled with cross-linked blood or other bio-compatible material. A back emf integrated circuit regulates rotor operation and a microcomputer may be used to control one or more back emf integrated circuits. A plurality of magnets are disposed in each of a plurality of impeller blades with a small air gap. A stator may be axially adjusted on the pump housing to absorb bearing load and maximize pump efficiency.

  19. Rotary spring energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Cooley, S.

    1981-07-01

    The goal was to design a lightweight system, for bicycles, that can level the input energy requirement (human exertion) in accordance with variations in road load (friction, wind, and grade) and/or to provide a system for regenerative braking, that is, to store energy normally lost in brake pad friction for brief periods until it required for re-acceleration or hill-climbing. The rotary spring, also called the coil, motor, spiral, or power spring is governed by the equations reviewed. Materials used in spring manufacture are briefly discussed, and justification for steel as the design choice of material is given. Torque and power requirements for a bicycle and rider are provided as well as estimated human power output levels. These criteria are examined to define spring size and possible orientations on a bicycle. Patents and designs for coupling the spring to the drive train are discussed.

  20. Rotary multiposition valve

    DOEpatents

    Barclay, J.A.; Dyson, J.E.

    1984-04-06

    The disclosure is directed to a rotary multiposition valve for selectively directing the flow of a fluid through a plurality of paths. The valve comprises an inner member and a hollow housing with a row of ducts on its outer surface. The ducts are in fluid communication with the housing. An engaging section of the inner member is received in the housing. A seal divides the engaging section into a hollow inlet segment and a hollow outlet segment. A plurality of inlet apertures are disposed in the inlet sgegment and a plurality of outlet apertures are disposed in the outlet segment. The inlet apertures are disposed in a longitudinally and radially spaced-apart pattern that can be a helix. The outlet apertures are disposed in a corresponding pattern. As the inner member is rotated, whenever an inlet aperture overlaps one of the ducts, the corresponding outlet aperture overlaps a different duct, thus forming a fluid pathway.

  1. Rotary multiposition valve

    DOEpatents

    Barclay, John A.; Dyson, Jack E.

    1985-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to a rotary multiposition valve for selectively directing the flow of a fluid through a plurality of paths. The valve comprises an inner member and a hollow housing with a row of ducts on its outer surface. The ducts are in fluid communication with the housing. An engaging section of the inner member is received in the housing. A seal divides the engaging section into a hollow inlet segment and a hollow outlet segment. A plurality of inlet apertures are disposed in the inlet segment and a plurality of outlet apertures are disposed in the outlet segment. The inlet apertures are disposed in a longitudinally and radially spaced-apart pattern that can be a helix. The outlet apertures are disposed in a corresponding pattern. As the inner member is rotated, whenever an inlet aperture overlaps one of the ducts, the corresponding outlet aperture overlaps a different duct, thus forming a fluid pathway.

  2. Rotary shaft seal

    DOEpatents

    Langebrake, Clair O.

    1984-01-01

    The invention is a novel rotary shaft seal assembly which provides positive-contact sealing when the shaft is not rotated and which operates with its sealing surfaces separated by a film of compressed ambient gas whose width is independent of the speed of shaft rotation. In a preferred embodiment, the assembly includes a disc affixed to the shaft for rotation therewith. Axially movable, non-rotatable plates respectively supported by sealing bellows are positioned on either side of the disc to be in sealing engagement therewith. Each plate carries piezoelectric transducer elements which are electrically energized at startup to produce films of compressed ambient gas between the confronting surfaces of the plates and the disc. Following shutdown of the shaft, the transducer elements are de-energized. A control circuit responds to incipient rubbing between the plate and either disc by altering the electrical input to the transducer elements to eliminate rubbing.

  3. Rotary shaft seal

    DOEpatents

    Langebrake, C.O.

    1984-01-01

    The invention is a novel rotary shaft seal assembly which provides positive-contact sealing when the shaft is not rotated and which operates with its sealing surfaces separated by a film of compressed ambient gas whose width is independent of the speed of shaft rotation. In a preferred embodiment, the assembly includes a disc affixed to the shaft for rotation therewith. Axially movable, non-rotatable plates respectively supported by sealing bellows are positioned on either side of the disc to be in sealing engagement therewith. Each plate carries piezoelectric transucer elements which are electrically energized at startup to produce films of compressed ambient gas between the confronting surfaces of the plates and the disc. Following shutdown of the shaft, the transducer elements are de-energized. A control circuit responds to incipient rubbing between the plate and either disc by altering the electrical input to the transducer elements to eliminate rubbing.

  4. Seals cap rotary kiln emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Gunkle, D.W. )

    1993-09-01

    The possibility of producing fugitive emissions is one of the most critical aspects of an incineration system. Whether such a system processes hazardous, medical, mixed or municipal waste, fugitive emissions are of special concern to system operators and the public alike. Effectively designed rotary-kiln seals can reduce fugitive emissions to acceptable, minimal levels. Modern air monitoring systems track incineration site emissions. Possible emissions sources include excavation and transfer sites, storage areas, material-feed systems, rotary kiln seals, and exhaust stacks. Several options are available for rotary-kiln seals. Six are discussed here: labyrinth; overlapping spring plate; graphite block; pneumatic; shrouded; and overpressure. Kiln seals are used to prevent process gases from escaping or ambient air from entering a rotary kiln uncontrolled. They are not designed to function as material seals, or prevent spills of solids or liquids. Seal design involves considering differential pressure produced by a kiln's internal-to-external temperature, pressure excursions (explosions) and material spills.

  5. A compact rotary vane attenuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nixon, D. L.; Otosh, T. Y.; Stelzried, C. T.

    1969-01-01

    Rotary vane attenuator, when used as a front end attenuator, introduces an insertion loss that is proportional to the angle of rotation. New technique allows the construction of a shortened compact unit suitable for most installations.

  6. Forces in rotary motion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilsch, Markus K.; Elliott, Gregory K.

    2008-09-01

    In many coating chambers substrates are moved by simple or planetary rotary motion systems. Isaac Newton already taught that an object in uniform motion tends to stay in uniform motion unless acted upon by a net external force. To move a substrate on a rotary trajectory, centripetal and gravitational forces must act upon the substrate. The substrate must be somehow confined. Confinement options range from firm attachment to a fixture to loose placement in a pocket. Depending on the rotary motion pattern, a loosely held substrate may slide once against a confinement boundary and then stay, or may constantly slide around. 'Rattling around' may be undesirable as it could lead to edge destruction, debris formation, precession of the substrate, and other adverse effects. Firm attachment is advantageous in most cases, but often adds process complexity. We examine the forces present on substrates in typical rotary motion systems and discuss the implications of different confinement methods.

  7. Deformability-based circulating tumor cell separation with conical-shaped microfilters: Concept, optimization, and design criteria

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaolin; Xu, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) separation technology has made positive impacts on cancer science in many aspects. The ability of detecting and separating CTCs can play a key role in early cancer detection and treatment. In recent years, there has been growing interest in using deformability-based CTC separation microfilters due to their simplicity and low cost. Most of the previous studies in this area are mainly based on experimental work. Although experimental research provides useful insights in designing CTC separation devices, there is still a lack of design guidelines based on fundamental understandings of the cell separation process in the filters. While experimental efforts face challenges, especially microfabrication difficulties, we adopt numerical simulation here to study conical-shaped microfilters using deformability difference between CTCs and blood cells for the separation process. We use the liquid drop model for modeling a CTC passing through such microfilters. The accuracy of the model in predicting the pressure signature of the system is validated by comparing it with previous experiments. Pressure-deformability analysis of the cell going through the channel is then carried out in detail in order to better understand how a CTC behaves throughout the filtration process. Different system design criteria such as system throughput and unclogging of the system are discussed. Specifically, pressure behavior under different system throughput is analyzed. Regarding the unclogging issue, we define pressure ratio as a key parameter representing the ability to overcome clogging in such CTC separation devices and investigate the effect of conical angle on the optimum pressure ratio. Finally, the effect of unclogging applied pressure on the system performance is examined. Our study provides detailed understandings of the cell separation process and its characteristics, which can be used for developing more efficient CTC separation devices. PMID:26064193

  8. Best compression: Reciprocating or rotary?

    SciTech Connect

    Cahill, C.

    1997-07-01

    A compressor is a device used to increase the pressure of a compressible fluid. The inlet pressure can vary from a deep vacuum to a high positive pressure. The discharge pressure can range from subatmospheric levels to tens of thousands of pounds per square inch. Compressors come in numerous forms, but for oilfield applications there are two primary types, reciprocating and rotary. Both reciprocating and rotary compressors are grouped in the intermittent mode of compression. Intermittent is cyclic in nature, in that a specific quantity of gas is ingested by the compressor, acted upon and discharged before the cycle is repeated. Reciprocating compression is the most common form of compression used for oilfield applications. Rotary screw compressors have a long history but are relative newcomers to oilfield applications. The rotary screw compressor-technically a helical rotor compressor-dates back to 1878. That was when the first rotary screw was manufactured for the purpose of compressing air. Today thousands of rotary screw compression packages are being used throughout the world to compress natural gas.

  9. Control of bacterial contamination in microfiltered water dispensers (MWDs) by disinfection.

    PubMed

    Zanetti, Franca; De Luca, Giovanna; Sacchetti, Rossella

    2009-01-15

    Three microfiltered water dispensers (MWDs) for domestic use were bacteriologically monitored over a period of 1 year to evaluate their hygienic status and to compare the ability of two disinfectants (peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide) to ensure adequate bacteriological quality of the dispensed water. To this end, two dispensers were purposely contaminated with a strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa of environmental origin. A total of 324 samples of input and output water were analyzed. Heterotrophic plate count (HPC) bacteria at 22 degrees C and 36 degrees C, total coliforms (CT), Escherichia coli (EC), enterococci (ENT), P. aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus were enumerated. Throughout the study period, the supply water was always of excellent bacteriological quality. All water samples taken from the MWDs complied with the legal requirements for drinking water: CT, EC, ENT and S. aureus were all consistently absent. P. aeruginosa was never isolated from the uncontaminated dispenser. However, an increase in HPCs up to levels of 10(3)-10(4) cfu/mL was found in the dispensed water. Under the present operative conditions, hydrogen peroxide was seen to be more effective than peracetic acid in controlling bacterial contamination in the water circuits. Periodic disinfection with hydrogen peroxide made it possible to obtain water with HPC levels conforming to Italian regulations for drinking water (< or =100 cfu/mL) as well as to the levels recommended by the American Dental Association (ADA) (< or =200 cfu/mL). Furthermore, in the contaminated circuits, H(2)O(2) disinfection led to a reduction in the concentrations of P. aeruginosa to only a few colony forming units/100 mL or to a complete, albeit temporary, disappearance of the microorganism. In conclusion, hydrogen peroxide at 3% can be proposed as a suitable product for periodic disinfection of domestic MWDs, taking into consideration also its low cost and easy availability. PMID:19017550

  10. Rotary kiln seal

    DOEpatents

    Drexler, Robert L.

    1992-01-01

    A rotary seal used to prevent the escape of contaminates from a rotating kiln incinerator. The rotating seal combines a rotating disc plate which is attached to the rotating kiln shell and four sets of non-rotating carbon seal bars housed in a primary and secondary housing and which rub on the sides of the disc. A seal air system is used to create a positive pressure in a chamber between the primary and secondary seals to create a positive air flow into the contaminated gas chamber. The seal air system also employs an air inlet located between the secondary and tertiary seals to further insure that no contaminates pass the seal and enter the external environment and to provide makeup air for the air which flows into the contaminated gas chamber. The pressure exerted by the seal bars on the rotating disc is controlled by means of a preload spring. The seal is capable of operating in a thermally changing environment where the both radial expansion and axial movement of the rotating kiln do not result in the failure of the seal.

  11. Repulsive force actuated rotary micromirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Siyuan; Ben Mrad, Ridha

    2004-09-01

    In this paper, a novel repulsive force based rotary micromirror is proposed. A repulsive force is produced in the rotary micromirror and the mirror plate is pushed up and away from the substrate. Therefore the rotation angle of the micromirror is not limited to the space underneath the mirror plate and thus the "pull-in" effect is completely circumvented. The novel rotary micromirror can achieve a large rotation angle with a large mirror plate. In addition the novel micromirror has a very simple structure and can be fabricated by standard surface micromachining technology. Numerical simulation is used to verify the working principle of the novel micromirror. A prototype of the novel rotary micromirror is fabricated by a commercially available surface microfabrication process called MUMPs. The prototype has a mirror size of 300μm x 300μm. The experimental measurements show that the prototype can achieve a mechanical rotation of 2.25 degrees (an optical angle of 4.5 degrees) at a driving voltage of 170 volts. A conventional surface micromachined attractive force based rotary micromirror of the same size can only achieve an angle of 0.1~0.2 degree.

  12. Rotary Power Transformer and Inverter Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, C. W. T.; Bridgeforth, A. O.

    1985-01-01

    Noise lower than with sliprings. Rotary transformer transfers electric power across rotary joint. No wearing contacts, no contact noise, and no contamination from lubricants or wear debris. Because additional inductor not required, size and complexity of circuit reduced considerably.

  13. Rotary head type reproducing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Takayama, Nobutoshi; Edakubo, Hiroo; Kozuki, Susumu; Takei, Masahiro; Nagasawa, Kenichi

    1986-01-01

    In an apparatus of the kind arranged to reproduce, with a plurality of rotary heads, an information signal from a record bearing medium having many recording tracks which are parallel to each other with the information signal recorded therein and with a plurality of different pilot signals of different frequencies also recorded one by one, one in each of the recording tracks, a plurality of different reference signals of different frequencies are simultaneously generated. A tracking error is detected by using the different reference signals together with the pilot signals which are included in signals reproduced from the plurality of rotary heads.

  14. Solar-heated rotary kiln

    DOEpatents

    Shell, P.K.

    1982-04-14

    A solar heated rotary kiln utilized for decomposition of materials, such as zinc sulfate is disclosed. The rotary kiln has an open end and is enclosed in a sealed container having a window positioned for directing solar energy into the open end of the kiln. The material to be decomposed is directed through the container into the kiln by a feed tube. The container is also provided with an outlet for exhaust gases and an outlet for spent solids, and rests on a tiltable base. The window may be cooled and kept clear of debris by coolant gases.

  15. Adiabatic Wankel type rotary engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamo, R.; Badgley, P.; Doup, D.

    1988-01-01

    This SBIR Phase program accomplished the objective of advancing the technology of the Wankel type rotary engine for aircraft applications through the use of adiabatic engine technology. Based on the results of this program, technology is in place to provide a rotor and side and intermediate housings with thermal barrier coatings. A detailed cycle analysis of the NASA 1007R Direct Injection Stratified Charge (DISC) rotary engine was performed which concluded that applying thermal barrier coatings to the rotor should be successful and that it was unlikely that the rotor housing could be successfully run with thermal barrier coatings as the thermal stresses were extensive.

  16. Rotary and Rotary-Percussive Drilling of Lunar Simulant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulsen, G.; Zacny, K.; Maksymuk, M.; Wilson, J.; Santoro, C.; Chu, P.; Davis, K.; Roberts, D.; Kumar, N.; Kusack, A.

    2008-12-01

    Honeybee Robotics has been developing a rotary and a rotary-preliminary drill system for planetary exploration. This is a test drill with a power rating of 1000 Watt, whose purpose it to test various drill bits and augers in rotary and rotary percussive operation. It is not optimized for power or mass but rather to acquire qualitative drilling data such as penetration rate, power, and torque, temperature, Weight on Bit, vibration energy and others. In addition, the design of the drill allows it to acquire drill bit temperatures and use pneumatic system (instead of augers) for removing of rock cuttings. The drill is designed to have a 1 meter stroke. In addition to the drill system, we have been developing a matching split vacuum chamber, which is 3ft wide, 3ft deep and 11 feet tall. The chamber consists of two smaller chambers (84 inches tall and 48 inches tall) assembled on top of each other. This allows for additional flexibility if only a smaller chamber is required for some testing. The chamber will be able to maintain pressure of below 1 torr. Maintaining sample temperature will be achieved by closed loop cooling system down to -40C or by using liquid nitrogen that allows a temperature of 77K. The test samples can be varied raging from solid rocks, to loose soils to icy soils and pure ice. The sample holder could also be integrated with temperatures for acquiring of thermal data during drilling process.

  17. Regenerative rotary displacer Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect

    Isshiki, Naotsugu; Watanabe, Hiroichi; Raggi, L.; Isshiki, Seita; Hirata, Koichi

    1996-12-31

    A few rotary displacer Stirling engines in which the displacer has one gas pocket space at one side and rotates in a main enclosed cylinder, which is heated from one side and cooled from opposite side without any regenerator, have been studied for some time by the authors. The authors tried to improve this engine by equipping it with a regenerator, because without a regenerator, pressure oscillation and efficiency are too small. Here, several types of regenerative rotary displacer piston Stirling engines are proposed. One is the contra-rotating tandem two disc type displacer engine using axial heat conduction through side walls or by heat pipes and another is a single disc type with circulating fluid regenerator or heat pipes. Stirling engines of this new rotary displacer type are thought to attain high speed. Here, experimental results of the original rotary displacer Stirling engine without a regenerator, and one contra-rotating tandem displacer engine with side wall regenerator by axial heat conduction are reported accompanied with a discussion of the results.

  18. Rotary wing aerodynamically generated noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, F. J.; Morse, H. A.

    1982-01-01

    The history and methodology of aerodynamic noise reduction in rotary wing aircraft are presented. Thickness noise during hover tests and blade vortex interaction noise are determined and predicted through the use of a variety of computer codes. The use of test facilities and scale models for data acquisition are discussed.

  19. Large hole rotary drill performance

    SciTech Connect

    Workman, J.L.; Calder, P.N.

    1996-12-31

    Large hole rotary drilling is one of the most common methods of producing blastholes in open pit mining. Large hole drilling generally refers to diameters from 9 to 17 inch (229 to 432 mm), however a considerable amount of rotary drilling is done in diameters from 6{1/2} to 9 inch (165 to 229 mm). These smaller diameters are especially prevalent in gold mining and quarrying. Rotary drills are major mining machines having substantial capital cost. Drill bit costs can also be high, depending on the bit type and formation being drilled. To keep unit costs low the drills must perform at a high productivity level. The most important factor in rotary drilling is the penetration rate. This paper discusses the factors affecting penetration rate. An empirical factor in rotary drilling is the penetration rate. This paper discusses the factors affecting penetration rate. An empirical factor is given for calculating the penetration rate based on rock strength, pulldown weight and the RPM. The importance of using modern drill performance monitoring systems to calibrate the penetration equation for specific rock formations is discussed. Adequate air delivered to the bottom of the hole is very important to achieving maximum penetration rates. If there is insufficient bailing velocity cuttings will not be transported from the bottom of the hole rapidly enough and the penetration rate is very likely to decrease. An expression for the balancing air velocity is given. The amount by which the air velocity must exceed the balancing velocity for effective operation is discussed. The effect of altitude on compressor size is also provided.

  20. ROTARY FILTER FINES TESTING FOR SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, D.

    2011-08-03

    SRNL was requested to quantify the amount of 'fines passage' through the 0.5 micron membranes currently used for the rotary microfilter (RMF). Testing was also completed to determine if there is any additional benefit to utilizing a 0.1 micron filter to reduce the amount of fines that could pass through the filter. Quantifying of the amount of fines that passed through the two sets of membranes that were tested was accomplished by analyzing the filtrate by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES) for titanium. Even with preparations to isolate the titanium, all samples returned results of less than the instrument's detection limit of 0.184 mg/L. Test results show that the 0.5 micron filters produced a significantly higher flux while showing a negligible difference in filtrate clarity measured by turbidity. The first targeted deployment of the RMF is with the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). SCIX uses crystalline silicotitanate (CST) to sorb cesium to decontaminate a clarified salt solution. The passage of fine particles through the filter membranes in sufficient quantities has the potential to impact the downstream facilities. To determine the amount of fines passage, a contract was established with SpinTek Filtration to operate a 3-disk pilot scale unit with prototypic filter disk and various feeds and two different filter disk membranes. SpinTek evaluated a set of the baseline 0.5 micron filter disks as well as a set of 0.1 micron filter disks to determine the amount of fine particles that would pass the membrane and to determine the flux each set produced. The membrane on both disk sets is manufactured by the Pall Corporation (PMM 050). Each set of disks was run with three feed combinations: prototypically ground CST, CST plus monosodium titanate (MST), and CST, MST, plus Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) simulant. Throughout the testing, samples of the filtrate were collected, measured for turbidity, and sent back

  1. Rotary Transformer Seals Power In

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Studer, P. A.; Paulkovich, J.

    1982-01-01

    Rotary transformer originally developed for spacecraft transfers electrical power from stationary primary winding to rotating secondary without sliding contacts and very little leakage of electromagnetic radiation. Transformer has two stationary primary windings connected in parallel. Secondary, mounted on a shaft that extends out of housing, rotates between two windings of primary. Shaft of secondary is composed of electrically conducting inner and outer parts separated by an insulator. Electrical contact is made from secondary winding, through shaft, to external leads.

  2. Rough/Smooth Rotary Seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, W. C.; Jackson, E. D.

    1986-01-01

    Rotary seal for turbopump combines low leakage of labyrinth seal with high load capacity of smooth-surface annular seal. New seal acts as strong journal bearing that provides high stiffness - about same as that of ball bearings for turbopump shaft. Seal shares load with ball bearings and prolongs their lives. At same time, seal allows minimal leakage of fluid from pump. By combining leakage control and bearing functions, seal makes multiple seals unnecessary and allows compact design.

  3. Bio-mimicking rotary nanomotors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, Anatoly; Murokh, Lev; Savel'ev, Sergey; Nori, Franco

    2009-05-01

    We propose a simple design of a rotary nanomotor comprised of three quantum dots attached to the rotating ring (rotor) in the presence of an in-plane dc electric field. The quantum dots (sites) can be coupled to or decoupled from source and drain carrier reservoirs, depending on the relative positions of the leads and the dots. We derive equations for the site populations and solve these equations numerically jointly with the Langevin-type equation for the rotational angle. It is shown that the synchronous loading and unloading of the sites results in unidirectional rotation of the nanomotor. The corresponding particle current, torque, and energy conversion efficiency are determined. Our studies are applicable both to biologically-inspired rotary nanomotors, the F0 motor of ATP synthase and the bacterial flagellar motor, which use protons as carriers, and to novel artificial semiconductor systems using electrons. The efficiency of this semiconductor analog of the rotary biomotors is up to 85% at room temperature.

  4. Rotary kilns - transport phenomena and transport processes

    SciTech Connect

    Boateng, A.

    2008-01-15

    Rotary kilns and rotating industrial drying ovens are used for a wide variety of applications including processing raw minerals and feedstocks as well as heat-treating hazardous wastes. They are particularly critical in the manufacture of Portland cement. Their design and operation is critical to their efficient usage, which if done incorrectly can result in improperly treated materials and excessive, high fuel costs. This book treats all engineering aspects of rotary kilns, including thermal and fluid principles involved in their operation, as well as how to properly design an engineering process that uses rotary kilns. Chapter 1: The Rotary Kiln Evolution and Phenomenon Chapter 2: Basic Description of Rotary Kiln Operation Chapter 3: Freeboard Aerodynamic Phenomena Chapter 4: Granular Flows in Rotary Kilns Chapter 5: Mixing and Segregation Chapter 6: Combustion and Flame - includes section on types of fuels used in rotary kilns, coal types, ranking and analysis, petroleum coke combustion, scrap tire combustion, pulverized fuel (coal/coke) firing in kilns, pulverized fuel delivery and firing systems. Chapter 7: Freeboard Heat Transfer Chapter 8: Heat Transfer Processes in the Rotary Kiln Bed Chapter 9: Mass and Energy Balance Chapter 10: Rotary Kiln Minerals Process Applications.

  5. Rotary mode system initial instrument calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Johns, B.R.

    1994-10-01

    The attached report contains the vendor calibration procedures used for the initial instrument calibration of the rotary core sampling equipment. The procedures are from approved vendor information files.

  6. Rotary balances: A selected, annotated bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuttle, Marie H.; Kilgore, Robert A.; Sych, Karen L.

    1989-01-01

    This bibliography on rotary balances contains 102 entries. It is part of NASA's support of the AGARD Fluid Dynamics Panel Working Group 11 on Rotary Balances. This bibliography includes works that might be useful to anyone interested in building or using rotor balances. Emphasis is on the rotary balance rigs and testing techniques rather than the aerodynamic data. Also included are some publications of historical interest which relate to key events in the development and use of rotary balances. The arrangement is chronological by date of publication in the case of reports and by presentation in the case of papers.

  7. Rotary high power transfer apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Peter E. (Inventor); Porter, Ryan S. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    An apparatus for reducing terminal-to-terminal circuit resistance and enhancing heat transfer in a rotary power transfer apparatus of the roll ring type comprising a connecting thimble for attaching an external power cable to a cone shaped terminal which is attached to a tab integral to an outer ring. An inner ring having a spherical recess mates with the spherical end of a tie connector. A cone shaped terminal is fitted to a second connecting thimble for attaching a second external power cable.

  8. High torque bellows seal rotary drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diaguila, A. J.; Macomber, J. W.; Adams, D. W.

    1972-01-01

    Bellows seal rotary drive device was developed which allows high torque transmission through sealed compartments. Bearing friction which would normally be carried by sealing bellows in comparable devices is absorbed by universal-gimbal joint. It can be used to transmit high torque, low speed, rotary motion through sealed barriers to prevent contamination or escape of fluids.

  9. Split Coil Forms for Rotary Transformers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, C. W. T.

    1982-01-01

    Split cores for rotor and stator windings of rotary transformer mounted around their respective coils (which are in bobbins) and cemented together. This arrangement simplifies winding of stator coil to go in a slot in inner diameter of stator coil. One practical application of rotary transformers fabricated according to this technique is for centrifuges, in which conventional sliprings are of uncertain reliability.

  10. Torque-balanced vibrationless rotary coupling

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Donald M.

    1980-01-01

    This disclosure describes a torque-balanced vibrationless rotary coupling for transmitting rotary motion without unwanted vibration into the spindle of a machine tool. A drive member drives a driven member using flexible connecting loops which are connected tangentially and at diametrically opposite connecting points through a free floating ring.

  11. Linear rotary optical delay lines.

    PubMed

    Skorobogatiy, Maksim

    2014-05-19

    I present several classes of analytical and semi-analytical solutions for the design of high-speed rotary optical delay lines that use a combination of stationary and rotating curvilinear reflectors. Detailed analysis of four distinct classes of optical delay lines is presented. Particularly, I consider delay lines based on a single rotating reflector, a single rotating reflector and a single stationary reflector, two rotating reflectors, and two rotating reflectors and a single stationary reflector. I demonstrate that in each of these cases it is possible to design an infinite variety of the optical delay lines featuring linear dependence of the optical delay on the rotation angle. This is achieved via shape optimization of the rotating and stationary reflector surfaces. Moreover, in the case of two rotating reflectors a convenient spatial separation of the incoming and outgoing beams is possible. For the sake of example, all the blades presented in this paper are chosen to fit into a circle of 10 cm diameter and these delay lines feature in excess of 600 ps of optical delay. Finally, two prototypes of rotary delay lines were fabricated using CNC machining, and their optical properties are characterized. PMID:24921303

  12. Control of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia contamination of microfiltered water dispensers with peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Sacchetti, Rossella; De Luca, Giovanna; Zanetti, Franca

    2009-06-30

    The abilities of peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide to remove or reduce Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia in output water from microfiltered water dispensers (MWDs) were investigated. Two MWDs were inoculated with strains of P. aeruginosa and S. maltophilia isolated from water. Dispensers A and B were disinfected with 10% (v/v) peracetic acid (PAA) and 3% (v/v) hydrogen peroxide (HP) respectively. Each dispenser was disinfected three times at monthly intervals with contact times of 10, 30 and 40 min. Water dispensed by the MWDs was collected immediately before and after each treatment and then twice weekly for the remaining period. Once a week a sample of the tap water entering the dispensers was tested. P. aeruginosa and S. maltophilia were enumerated in the 90 samples collected during 6 months. In the output water from the dispensers before the first treatment, the number of the bacteria was 3 to 4 log cfu/100 mL. Treatment with PAA greatly reduced the numbers of P. aeruginosa and S. maltophilia in the dispensed water initially. However, by 2 days after treatment, the numbers increased and remained high. In the case of disinfection with HP for 40 min, P. aeruginosa was not detected in most of the samples (73.7%). Numbers of S. maltophilia decreased with increasing time after treatment. PMID:19439386

  13. Floating seal system for rotary devices

    DOEpatents

    Banasiuk, H.A.

    1983-08-23

    This invention relates to a floating seal system for rotary devices to reduce gas leakage around the rotary device in a duct and across the face of the rotary device to an adjacent duct. The peripheral seal bodies are made of resilient material having a generally U-shaped cross section wherein one of the legs is secured to a support member and the other of the legs forms a contacting seal against the rotary device. The legs of the peripheral seal form an extended angle of intersection of about 10[degree] to about 30[degree] in the unloaded condition to provide even sealing forces around the periphery of the rotary device. The peripheral seal extends around the periphery of the support member except where intersected by radial seals which reduce gas leakage across the face of the rotary device and between adjacent duct portions. The radial seal assembly is fabricated from channel bars, the smaller channel bar being secured to the divider of the support member and a larger inverted rigid floating channel bar having its legs freely movable over the legs of the smaller channel bar forming therewith a tubular channel. A resilient flexible tube is positioned within the tubular channel for substantially its full length to reduce gas leakage across the tubular channel. A spacer extends beyond the face of the floating channel near each end of the floating channel a distance to provide desired clearance between the floating channel and the face of the rotary device. 5 figs.

  14. Floating seal system for rotary devices

    DOEpatents

    Banasiuk, Hubert A.

    1983-01-01

    This invention relates to a floating seal system for rotary devices to reduce gas leakage around the rotary device in a duct and across the face of the rotary device to an adjacent duct. The peripheral seal bodies are made of resilient material having a generally U-shaped cross section wherein one of the legs is secured to a support member and the other of the legs forms a contacting seal against the rotary device. The legs of the peripheral seal form an extended angle of intersection of about 10.degree. to about 30.degree. in the unloaded condition to provide even sealing forces around the periphery of the rotary device. The peripheral seal extends around the periphery of the support member except where intersected by radial seals which reduce gas leakage across the face of the rotary device and between adjacent duct portions. The radial seal assembly is fabricated from channel bars, the smaller channel bar being secured to the divider of the support member and a larger inverted rigid floating channel bar having its legs freely movable over the legs of the smaller channel bar forming therewith a tubular channel. A resilient flexible tube is positioned within the tubular channel for substantially its full length to reduce gas leakage across the tubular channel. A spacer extends beyond the face of the floating channel near each end of the floating channel a distance to provide desired clearance between the floating channel and the face of the rotary device.

  15. Cyclical bi-directional rotary actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stange, W. C. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A thermally powered rotary actuator is disclosed which is used for positioning a shaft in first and second positions which are disposed 180 deg apart. A pair of heat extensible springs are attached to the shaft and to the frame of the rotary actuator for selectively rotating the shaft from one of its two positions to the other position upon the application of heat to one of the heat extensible springs. The heat extensible springs are preferably constructed from the alloy 55-Nitinol. In the preferred embodiment, a detent mechanism is provided for locking the rotatable shaft in its two rotary positions.

  16. Achievements in rotary head magnetic recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallinson, John C.

    1990-06-01

    The principal achievements since 1980 in rotary head recording on magnetic tape are outlined. These developments are related to fundamental improvements in recording media, heads, the design of tape transports, and signal processing. The D-1 and D-2 video tape recorders (VTRs), the Hi-Band 8-mm video cassette recorder (VCR), and the rotary digital audio tape (R-DAT) recorders are discussed. The future of rotary head recorders for consumer digital VCRs, professional high-definition TV (HDTV) VTRs, and consumer HDTV VCRs is assessed.

  17. Rotary Stirling-Cycle Engine And Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandler, Joseph A.

    1990-01-01

    Proposed electric-power generator comprises three motor generators coordinated by microprocessor and driven by rotary Stirling-cycle heat engine. Combination offers thermodynamic efficiency of Stirling cycle, relatively low vibration, and automatic adjustment of operating parameters to suit changing load on generator. Rotary Stirling cycle engine converts heat to power via compression and expansion of working gas between three pairs of rotary pistons on three concentric shafts in phased motion. Three motor/generators each connected to one of concentric shafts, can alternately move and be moved by pistons. Microprocessor coordinates their operation, including switching between motor and generator modes at appropriate times during each cycle.

  18. Enclosed rotary disc air pulser

    DOEpatents

    Olson, A. L.; Batcheller, Tom A.; Rindfleisch, J. A.; Morgan, John M.

    1989-01-01

    An enclosed rotary disc air pulser for use with a solvent extraction pulse olumn includes a housing having inlet, exhaust and pulse leg ports, a shaft mounted in the housing and adapted for axial rotation therein, first and second disc members secured to the shaft within the housing in spaced relation to each other to define a chamber therebetween, the chamber being in communication with the pulse leg port, the first disc member located adjacent the inlet port, the second disc member being located adjacent the exhaust port, each disc member having a milled out portion, the disc members positioned on the shaft so that as the shaft rotates, the milled out portions permit alternative cyclical communication between the inlet port and the chamber and the exhaust port and the chamber.

  19. Ultrasonic rotary-hammer drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor); Badescu, Mircea (Inventor); Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor); Bao, Xiaoqi (Inventor); Kassab, Steve (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A mechanism for drilling or coring by a combination of sonic hammering and rotation. The drill includes a hammering section with a set of preload weights mounted atop a hammering actuator and an axial passage through the hammering section. In addition, a rotary section includes a motor coupled to a drive shaft that traverses the axial passage through the hammering section. A drill bit is coupled to the drive shaft for drilling by a combination of sonic hammering and rotation. The drill bit includes a fluted shaft leading to a distal crown cutter with teeth. The bit penetrates sampled media by repeated hammering action. In addition, the bit is rotated. As it rotates the fluted bit carries powdered cuttings helically upward along the side of the bit to the surface.

  20. Aerodynamic seals for rotary machine

    DOEpatents

    Bidkar, Rahul Anil; Cirri, Massimiliano; Thatte, Azam Mihir; Williams, John Robert

    2016-02-09

    An aerodynamic seal assembly for a rotary machine includes multiple sealing device segments disposed circumferentially intermediate to a stationary housing and a rotor. Each of the segments includes a shoe plate with a forward-shoe section and an aft-shoe section having multiple labyrinth teeth therebetween facing the rotor. The sealing device segment also includes multiple flexures connected to the shoe plate and to a top interface element, wherein the multiple flexures are configured to allow the high pressure fluid to occupy a forward cavity and the low pressure fluid to occupy an aft cavity. Further, the sealing device segments include a secondary seal attached to the top interface element at one first end and positioned about the flexures and the shoe plate at one second end.

  1. Rotary motion driven by a direct current electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takinoue, Masahiro; Atsumi, Yu; Yoshikawa, Kenichi

    2010-03-01

    We report the rotary motion of an aqueous microdroplet in an oil phase under a stationary direct current electric field. A droplet exhibits rotary motion under a suitable geometrical arrangement of positive and negative electrodes. Rotary motion appears above a certain critical electric potential and its frequency increases with an increase in the potential. A simple theoretical model is proposed to describe the occurrence of this rotary motion, together with an argument for the future expansion of this micro rotary motor system.

  2. Gear drive automatically indexes rotary table

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johns, M. F.

    1966-01-01

    Combination indexer and drive unit drills equally spaced circular hole patterns on rotary tables. It automatically rotates the table a distance exactly equal to one hole spacing for each revolution of a special idler gear.

  3. Electronic controller for reciprocating rotary crystallizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroes, Roger L.; Reiss, Donald A.; Hester, Howard B.

    1988-01-01

    An electronic controller for a reciprocating rotary crystallizer is described. The heart of this system is the electronic timer circuit. A schematic along with a detailed description of its operation is given.

  4. Unidirectional rotary motion in achiral molecular motors.

    PubMed

    Kistemaker, Jos C M; Štacko, Peter; Visser, Johan; Feringa, Ben L

    2015-11-01

    Control of the direction of motion is an essential feature of biological rotary motors and results from the intrinsic chirality of the amino acids from which the motors are made. In synthetic autonomous light-driven rotary motors, point chirality is transferred to helical chirality, and this governs their unidirectional rotation. However, achieving directional rotary motion in an achiral molecular system in an autonomous fashion remains a fundamental challenge. Here, we report an achiral molecular motor in which the presence of a pseudo-asymmetric carbon atom proved to be sufficient for exclusive autonomous disrotary motion of two appended rotor moieties. Isomerization around the two double bonds enables both rotors to move in the same direction with respect to their surroundings--like wheels on an axle--demonstrating that autonomous unidirectional rotary motion can be achieved in a symmetric system. PMID:26492009

  5. Unidirectional rotary motion in achiral molecular motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kistemaker, Jos C. M.; Štacko, Peter; Visser, Johan; Feringa, Ben L.

    2015-11-01

    Control of the direction of motion is an essential feature of biological rotary motors and results from the intrinsic chirality of the amino acids from which the motors are made. In synthetic autonomous light-driven rotary motors, point chirality is transferred to helical chirality, and this governs their unidirectional rotation. However, achieving directional rotary motion in an achiral molecular system in an autonomous fashion remains a fundamental challenge. Here, we report an achiral molecular motor in which the presence of a pseudo-asymmetric carbon atom proved to be sufficient for exclusive autonomous disrotary motion of two appended rotor moieties. Isomerization around the two double bonds enables both rotors to move in the same direction with respect to their surroundings—like wheels on an axle—demonstrating that autonomous unidirectional rotary motion can be achieved in a symmetric system.

  6. Airborne rotary air separator study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acharya, A.; Gottzmann, C. F.; Nowobilski, J. J.

    1990-01-01

    Several air breathing propulsion concepts for future earth-to-orbit transport vehicles utilize air collection and enrichment, and subsequent storage of liquid oxygen for later use in the vehicle emission. Work performed during the 1960's established the feasibility of substantially reducing weight and volume of a distillation type air separator system by operating the distillation elements in high 'g' fields obtained by rotating the separator assembly. This contract studied the capability test and hydraulic behavior of a novel structured or ordered distillation packing in a rotating device using air and water. Pressure drop and flood points were measured for different air and water flow rates in gravitational fields of up to 700 g. Behavior of the packing follows the correlations previously derived from tests at normal gravity. The novel ordered packing can take the place of trays in a rotating air separation column with the promise of substantial reduction in pressure drop, volume, and system weight. The results obtained in the program are used to predict design and performance of rotary separators for air collection and enrichment systems of interest for past and present concepts of air breathing propulsion (single or two-stage to orbit) systems.

  7. Rotary valve internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Coman, C.R.

    1987-04-21

    A rotary valve internal combustion engine is described which comprises: a cylinder block having a cylindrical recess therein, a cylindrical bore transverse to the cylindrical recess, an exhaust passageway leading from the cylindrical bore, and an intake passageway leading to the cylindrical bore. A cylindrical piston sealably reciprocable in the cylindrical recess wherein the space defined by the piston and the walls of the cylindrical recess forms a combustion chamber. An arcuate passageway in the block between the cylindrical bore and the combustion chamber; a crankshaft connected to the piston; ignition means in communication with the combustion chamber; carburetion means in connection with the intake passageway to provide a fuel-air mixture; a cylindrical valve rotatably received in the cylindrical bore, the cylindrical valve having a hollow cylindrical body, open ends, at least two axially aligned intake ports near one end of the cylindrical body, at least two axially aligned exhaust ports near the opposite end of the cylindrical body, at least four axially aligned arcuate center openings between the exhaust ports and the intake ports, and at least for internal tubes, each tube connecting one of the center openings with one of the intake or exhaust ports; a sprocket wheel extending from one end of the cylindrical valve; and a tooth belt extending between the sprocket wheel and the crankshaft.

  8. Man-made rotary nanomotors: a review of recent developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kwanoh; Guo, Jianhe; Liang, Z. X.; Zhu, F. Q.; Fan, D. L.

    2016-05-01

    The development of rotary nanomotors is an essential step towards intelligent nanomachines and nanorobots. In this article, we review the concept, design, working mechanisms, and applications of state-of-the-art rotary nanomotors made from synthetic nanoentities. The rotary nanomotors are categorized according to the energy sources employed to drive the rotary motion, including biochemical, optical, magnetic, and electric fields. The unique advantages and limitations for each type of rotary nanomachines are discussed. The advances of rotary nanomotors is pivotal for realizing dream nanomachines for myriad applications including microfluidics, biodiagnosis, nano-surgery, and biosubstance delivery.

  9. Man-made rotary nanomotors: a review of recent developments.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwanoh; Guo, Jianhe; Liang, Z X; Zhu, F Q; Fan, D L

    2016-05-19

    The development of rotary nanomotors is an essential step towards intelligent nanomachines and nanorobots. In this article, we review the concept, design, working mechanisms, and applications of state-of-the-art rotary nanomotors made from synthetic nanoentities. The rotary nanomotors are categorized according to the energy sources employed to drive the rotary motion, including biochemical, optical, magnetic, and electric fields. The unique advantages and limitations for each type of rotary nanomachines are discussed. The advances of rotary nanomotors is pivotal for realizing dream nanomachines for myriad applications including microfluidics, biodiagnosis, nano-surgery, and biosubstance delivery. PMID:27152885

  10. Coal desulfurization in a rotary kiln combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, J.T. Jr.

    1992-09-11

    The purpose of this project was to demonstrate the combustion of coal and coal wastes in a rotary kiln reactor with limestone addition for sulfur control. The rationale for the project was the perception that rotary systems could bring several advantages to combustion of these fuels, and may thus offer an alternative to fluid-bed boilers. Towards this end, an existing wood pyrolysis kiln (the Humphrey Charcoal kiln) was to be suitably refurbished and retrofitted with a specially designed version of a patented air distributor provided by Universal Energy, Inc. (UEI). As the project progressed beyond the initial stages, a number of issues were raised regarding the feasibility and the possible advantages of burning coals in a rotary kiln combustor and, in particular, the suitability of the Humphrey Charcoal kiln as a combustor. Instead, an opportunity arose to conduct combustion tests in the PEDCO Rotary Cascading-Bed Boiler (RCBB) commercial demonstration unit at the North American Rayon CO. (NARCO) in Elizabethton, TN. The tests focused on anthracite culm and had two objectives: (a) determine the feasibility of burning anthracite culms in a rotary kiln boiler and (b) obtain input for any further work involving the Humphrey Charcoal kiln combustor. A number of tests were conducted at the PEDCO unit. The last one was conducted on anthracite culm procured directly from the feed bin of a commercial circulating fluid-bed boiler. The results were disappointing; it was difficult to maintain sustained combustion even when large quantities of supplemental fuel were used. Combustion efficiency was poor, around 60 percent. The results suggest that the rotary kiln boiler, as designed, is ill-suited with respect to low-grade, hard to burn solid fuels, such as anthracite culm. Indeed, data from combustion of bituminous coal in the PEDCO unit suggest that with respect to coal in general, the rotary kiln boiler appears inferior to the circulating fluid bed boiler.

  11. System and method for calibrating a rotary absolute position sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Donald R. (Inventor); Permenter, Frank Noble (Inventor); Radford, Nicolaus A (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A system includes a rotary device, a rotary absolute position (RAP) sensor generating encoded pairs of voltage signals describing positional data of the rotary device, a host machine, and an algorithm. The algorithm calculates calibration parameters usable to determine an absolute position of the rotary device using the encoded pairs, and is adapted for linearly-mapping an ellipse defined by the encoded pairs to thereby calculate the calibration parameters. A method of calibrating the RAP sensor includes measuring the rotary position as encoded pairs of voltage signals, linearly-mapping an ellipse defined by the encoded pairs to thereby calculate the calibration parameters, and calculating an absolute position of the rotary device using the calibration parameters. The calibration parameters include a positive definite matrix (A) and a center point (q) of the ellipse. The voltage signals may include an encoded sine and cosine of a rotary angle of the rotary device.

  12. Coal gasification: New challenge for the Beaumont rotary feeder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stelian, J.

    1977-01-01

    The use of rotary feeders in the coal gasification process is described with emphasis on the efficient conversion of coal to clean gaseous fuels. Commercial applications of the rotary feeder system are summarized.

  13. Rotary bayonets for cryogenic and vacuum service

    SciTech Connect

    Rucinski, R.A.; Dixon, K.D.; Krasa, R.; Krempetz, K.J.; Mulholland, G.T.; Trotter, G.R.; Urbin, J.B.

    1994-12-31

    Rotary bayonets were designed, tested, and installed for liquid nitrogen, liquid argon, and vacuum service. This paper will present the design, testing, and service record for two sizes of vacuum jacketed cryogenic rotary bayonets and two sizes of vacuum service rotary bayonets. Materials used in construction provide electrical isolation across the bayonet joint. The joint permits 360 degrees of rotation between the male and female pipe sections while maintaining integrity of service. Assemblies using three such joints were built to allow end connection points to be translated through at least 1 meter of horizontal travel while kept in service. Vacuum jacketed sizes built in-house at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory are 1 1/2 inches inner pipe size, 3 inches vacuum jacket, and 4 inches inner pipe size, 6 inches vacuum jacket. The single wall vacuum service bayonets are in 4 inch and 6 inch pipe sizes. The bayonets have successfully been in active service for over one year.

  14. Rotary bayonets for cryogenic and vacuum service

    SciTech Connect

    Rucinski, R.A.; Dixon, K.D.; Krasa, R.; Krempetz, K.J.; Mulholland, G.T.; Trotter, G.R.; Urbin, J.B.

    1993-07-01

    Rotary bayonets were designed, tested, and installed for liquid nitrogen, liquid argon, and vacuum service. This paper will present the design, testing, and service record for two sizes of vacuum jacketed cryogenic rotary bayonets and two sizes of vacuum service rotary bayonets. Materials used in construction provide electrical isolation across the bayonet joint. The joint permits 360 degrees of rotation between the male and female pipe sections while maintaining integrity of service. Assemblies using three such joints were built to allow end connection points to be translated through at least 1 meter of horizontal travel while kept in service. Vacuum jacketed sizes built in-house at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory are 1-1/2 in. inner pipe size, 3 in. vacuum jacket, and 4 in. inner pipe size, 6 in. vacuum jacket The single wall vacuum service bayonets are in 4 in. and 6 in. pipe sizes. The bayonets have successfully been in active service for over one year.

  15. 21 CFR 886.1665 - Ophthalmic rotary prism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic rotary prism. 886.1665 Section 886.1665...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1665 Ophthalmic rotary prism. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic rotary prism is a device with various prismatic powers intended to be handheld...

  16. 21 CFR 886.1665 - Ophthalmic rotary prism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ophthalmic rotary prism. 886.1665 Section 886.1665...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1665 Ophthalmic rotary prism. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic rotary prism is a device with various prismatic powers intended to be handheld...

  17. 21 CFR 886.1665 - Ophthalmic rotary prism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ophthalmic rotary prism. 886.1665 Section 886.1665...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1665 Ophthalmic rotary prism. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic rotary prism is a device with various prismatic powers intended to be handheld...

  18. 21 CFR 886.1665 - Ophthalmic rotary prism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ophthalmic rotary prism. 886.1665 Section 886.1665...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1665 Ophthalmic rotary prism. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic rotary prism is a device with various prismatic powers intended to be handheld...

  19. 21 CFR 886.1665 - Ophthalmic rotary prism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ophthalmic rotary prism. 886.1665 Section 886.1665...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1665 Ophthalmic rotary prism. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic rotary prism is a device with various prismatic powers intended to be handheld...

  20. Methods and apparatus for controlling rotary machines

    DOEpatents

    Bagepalli, Bharat Sampathkumaran; Jansen, Patrick Lee; Barnes, Gary R.; Fric, Thomas Frank; Lyons, James Patrick Francis; Pierce, Kirk Gee; Holley, William Edwin; Barbu, Corneliu

    2009-09-01

    A control system for a rotary machine is provided. The rotary machine has at least one rotating member and at least one substantially stationary member positioned such that a clearance gap is defined between a portion of the rotating member and a portion of the substantially stationary member. The control system includes at least one clearance gap dimension measurement apparatus and at least one clearance gap adjustment assembly. The adjustment assembly is coupled in electronic data communication with the measurement apparatus. The control system is configured to process a clearance gap dimension signal and modulate the clearance gap dimension.

  1. Stratified charge rotary engine for general aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mount, R. E.; Parente, A. M.; Hady, W. F.

    1986-01-01

    A development history, a current development status assessment, and a design feature and performance capabilities account are given for stratified-charge rotary engines applicable to aircraft propulsion. Such engines are capable of operating on Jet-A fuel with substantial cost savings, improved altitude capability, and lower fuel consumption by comparison with gas turbine powerplants. Attention is given to the current development program of a 400-hp engine scheduled for initial operations in early 1990. Stratified charge rotary engines are also applicable to ground power units, airborne APUs, shipboard generators, and vehicular engines.

  2. An overview of the NASA rotary engine research program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meng, P. R.; Hady, W. F.

    1984-01-01

    A brief overview and technical highlights of the research efforts and studies on rotary engines over the last several years at the NASA Lewis Research Center are presented. The test results obtained from turbocharged rotary engines and preliminary results from a high performance single rotor engine were discussed. Combustion modeling studies of the rotary engine and the use of a Laser Doppler Velocimeter to confirm the studies were examined. An in-house program in which a turbocharged rotary engine was installed in a Cessna Skymaster for ground test studies was reviewed. Details are presented on single rotor stratified charge rotary engine research efforts, both in-house and on contract.

  3. PARTITIONING OF METALS IN ROTARY KILN INCINERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research project investigated the fate of trace metals in rotary kiln incineration with venturi- and packed tower-scrubber particulate- and acid gas-control. est plan was developed, using a factorial experimental design, to study the partitioning of metals among kiln ash, sc...

  4. Deformation analysis of rotary combustion engine housings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilmann, Carl

    1991-01-01

    This analysis of the deformation of rotary combustion engine housings targeted the following objectives: (1) the development and verification of a finite element model of the trochoid housing, (2) the prediction of the stress and deformation fields present within the trochoid housing during operating conditions, and (3) the development of a specialized preprocessor which would shorten the time necessary for mesh generation of a trochoid housing's FEM model from roughly one month to approximately two man hours. Executable finite element models were developed for both the Mazda and the Outboard Marine Corporation trochoid housings. It was also demonstrated that a preprocessor which would hasten the generation of finite element models of a rotary engine was possible to develop. The above objectives are treated in detail in the attached appendices. The first deals with finite element modeling of a Wankel engine center housing, and the second with the development of a preprocessor that generates finite element models of rotary combustion engine center housings. A computer program, designed to generate finite element models of user defined rotary combustion engine center housing geometries, is also included.

  5. Stratified charge rotary engine combustion studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shock, H.; Hamady, F.; Somerton, C.; Stuecken, T.; Chouinard, E.; Rachal, T.; Kosterman, J.; Lambeth, M.; Olbrich, C.

    1989-01-01

    Analytical and experimental studies of the combustion process in a stratified charge rotary engine (SCRE) continue to be the subject of active research in recent years. Specifically to meet the demand for more sophisticated products, a detailed understanding of the engine system of interest is warranted. With this in mind the objective of this work is to develop an understanding of the controlling factors that affect the SCRE combustion process so that an efficient power dense rotary engine can be designed. The influence of the induction-exhaust systems and the rotor geometry are believed to have a significant effect on combustion chamber flow characteristics. In this report, emphasis is centered on Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) measurements and on qualitative flow visualizations in the combustion chamber of the motored rotary engine assembly. This will provide a basic understanding of the flow process in the RCE and serve as a data base for verification of numerical simulations. Understanding fuel injection provisions is also important to the successful operation of the stratified charge rotary engine. Toward this end, flow visualizations depicting the development of high speed, high pressure fuel jets are described. Friction is an important consideration in an engine from the standpoint of lost work, durability and reliability. MSU Engine Research Laboratory efforts in accessing the frictional losses associated with the rotary engine are described. This includes work which describes losses in bearing, seal and auxillary components. Finally, a computer controlled mapping system under development is described. This system can be used to map shapes such as combustion chamber, intake manifolds or turbine blades accurately.

  6. Compact fast analyzer of rotary cuvette type

    DOEpatents

    Thacker, Louis H.

    1976-01-01

    A compact fast analyzer of the rotary cuvette type is provided for simultaneously determining concentrations in a multiplicity of discrete samples using either absorbance or fluorescence measurement techniques. A rigid, generally rectangular frame defines optical passageways for the absorbance and fluorescence measurement systems. The frame also serves as a mounting structure for various optical components as well as for the cuvette rotor mount and drive system. A single light source and photodetector are used in making both absorbance and fluorescence measurements. Rotor removal and insertion are facilitated by a swing-out drive motor and rotor mount. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The invention relates generally to concentration measuring instruments and more specifically to a compact fast analyzer of the rotary cuvette type which is suitable for making either absorbance or fluorescence measurements. It was made in the course of, or under, a contract with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission.

  7. Transient phenomena in rotary-kiln incineration

    SciTech Connect

    Linak, W.P.; Kilgroe, J.D.; McSorley, J.A.; Wendt, J.O.L.; Dunn, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes results of an ongoing experimental investigation at the U.S. EPA into the waste properties and kiln parameters that determine both the instantaneous intensity and the total magnitude of transient puffs leaving the kiln. (NOTE: The batch introduction of waste-filled drums or containers into practical rotary-kiln incinerators can lead to transient overcharging conditions which, for brevity, are here denoted as 'puffs.') The experimental apparatus utilized was a 73-kW laboratory rotary-kiln simulator. Surrogate solid wastes (plastic rods) and surrogate liquid wastes (on corncob sorbent in cardboard containers) were investigated. A statistically designed parametric study was used to determine the extent to which waste and kiln variables (e.g., charge mass, charge surface area, charge composition, kiln temperature, and kiln rotation speed) affected the intensity (hydrocarbon peak height) and magnitude (hydrocarbon peak area) of puffs.

  8. Rotary Mode Core Sample System availability improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, W.W.; Bennett, K.L.; Potter, J.D.; Cross, B.T.; Burkes, J.M.; Rogers, A.C.

    1995-02-28

    The Rotary Mode Core Sample System (RMCSS) is used to obtain stratified samples of the waste deposits in single-shell and double-shell waste tanks at the Hanford Site. The samples are used to characterize the waste in support of ongoing and future waste remediation efforts. Four sampling trucks have been developed to obtain these samples. Truck I was the first in operation and is currently being used to obtain samples where the push mode is appropriate (i.e., no rotation of drill). Truck 2 is similar to truck 1, except for added safety features, and is in operation to obtain samples using either a push mode or rotary drill mode. Trucks 3 and 4 are now being fabricated to be essentially identical to truck 2.

  9. Equivalent dynamic model of DEMES rotary joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jianwen; Wang, Shu; Xing, Zhiguang; McCoul, David; Niu, Junyang; Huang, Bo; Liu, Liwu; Leng, Jinsong

    2016-07-01

    The dielectric elastomer minimum energy structure (DEMES) can realize large angular deformations by a small voltage-induced strain of the dielectric elastomer (DE), so it is a suitable candidate to make a rotary joint for a soft robot. Dynamic analysis is necessary for some applications, but the dynamic response of DEMESs is difficult to model because of the complicated morphology and viscoelasticity of the DE film. In this paper, a method composed of theoretical analysis and experimental measurement is presented to model the dynamic response of a DEMES rotary joint under an alternating voltage. Based on measurements of equivalent driving force and damping of the DEMES, the model can be derived. Some experiments were carried out to validate the equivalent dynamic model. The maximum angle error between model and experiment is greater than ten degrees, but it is acceptable to predict angular velocity of the DEMES, therefore, it can be applied in feedforward–feedback compound control.

  10. High pressure rotary piston coal feeder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, J. F.; Gencsoy, H. T.; Strimbeck, D. C.

    1977-01-01

    This feeder concept uniquely combines the functions of solids feeding, metering, and pressurization into one compact system. Success with the rotary-piston concept would provide a lower-cost alternative to lock-hopper systems. The design of the feeder is presented, with special emphasis on the difficult problem of seal design. Initial tests will be to check seal performance. Subsequent tests will evaluate solids-feeding ability.

  11. Helical rotary screw expander power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, R. A.; Sprankle, R. S.

    1974-01-01

    An energy converter for the development of wet steam geothermal fields is described. A project to evaluate and characterize a helical rotary screw expander for geothermal applications is discussed. The helical screw expander is a positive displacement machine which can accept untreated corrosive mineralized water of any quality from a geothermal well. The subjects of corrosion, mineral deposition, the expansion process, and experience with prototype devices are reported.

  12. An advanced space rotary power transfer device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, P. E.

    A new electrical signal and rotary power transfer device has recently evolved from ball-bearing and electrical-transfer technologies. This hybrid device, known as a roll ring, has been tested extensively since the late 1970s and has demonstrated important operational advantages in a wide variety of signal and power transfer configurations. A high power version has been developed and evaluated. This paper describes this latter roll ring configuration. The paper also summarizes test results.

  13. Maintenance cost study of rotary wing aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The feasibility was studied of predicting rotary wing operation maintenance costs by using several aircraft design factors for the aircraft dynamic systems. The dynamic systems considered were engines, drives and transmissions, rotors, and flight controls. Multiple regression analysis was used to correlate aircraft design and operational factors with manhours per flight hour, and equations for each dynamic system were developed. Results of labor predictions using the equations compare favorably with actual values.

  14. High Pressure Rotary Shaft Sealing Mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Dietle, Lannie; Gobeli, Jeffrey D.

    2001-05-08

    A laterally translatable pressure staged rotary shaft sealing mechanism having a seal housing with a shaft passage therein being exposed to a fluid pressure P1 and with a rotary shaft being located within the shaft passage. At least one annular laterally translatable seal carrier is provided. First and second annular resilient sealing elements are supported in axially spaced relation by the annular seal carriers and have sealing relation with the rotary shaft. The seal housing and at least one seal carrier define a first pressure staging chamber exposed to the first annular resilient sealing element and a second pressure staging chamber located between and exposed to the first and second annular resilient sealing elements. A first fluid is circulated to the first pressure chamber at a pressure P1, and a second staging pressure fluid is circulated to the second pressure chamber at a fraction of pressure P1 to achieve pressure staging, cooling of the seals. Seal placement provides hydraulic force balancing of the annular seal carriers.

  15. Coal desulfurization in a rotary kiln combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, J.T. Jr.

    1990-08-15

    BCR National Laboratory (BCRNL) has initiated a project aimed at evaluating the technical and economic feasibility of using a rotary kiln, suitably modified, to burn Pennsylvania anthracite wastes, co-fired with high-sulfur bituminous coal. Limestone will be injected into the kiln for sulfur control, to determine whether high sulfur capture levels can be achieved with high sorbent utilization. The principal objectives of this work are: (1) to prove the feasibility of burning anthracite refuse, with co-firing of high-sulfur bituminous coal and with limestone injection for sulfur emissions control, in a rotary kiln fitted with a Universal Energy International (UEI) air injector system; (2) to determine the emissions levels of SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} and specifically to identify the Ca/S ratios that are required to meet New Source Performance Standards; (3) to evaluate the technical and economic merits of a commercial rotary kiln combustor in comparison to fluidized bed combustors; and, (4) to ascertain the need for further work, including additional combustion tests, prior to commercial application, and to recommend accordingly a detailed program towards this end.

  16. Coal desulfurization in a rotary kiln combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, J.T. Jr.

    1991-04-22

    The focus of our work during the first quarter of 1991 was on combustion tests at the PEDCO rotary kiln reactor at North American Rayon (NARCO) plant in Elizabethton, TN. The tests had essentially tow related objectives: (a) to obtain basic data on the combustion of anthracite culm in a rotary kiln reactor, and (b) upon the test results, determine how best to proceed with our own planned program at the Humphrey Charcoal kiln in Brookville, PA. The rationale for the tests at PEDCO arose from process analysis which posted red flags on the feasibility of burning low-grade, hard-to-burn fuels like anthracite culms, in the rotary kiln. The PEDCO unit afforded a unique opportunity to obtain some quick answers at low cost. Two different anthracite culm fuels were tested: a so-called Jeddo culm with an average heating value of 7000 Btu/lb, and a relatively poorer culm, and Emerald'' culm, with an average heating value of 5000 Btu/lb. An attempt was also made to burn a blend of the Emerald culm with bituminous coal in 75/25 percent proportions. This report describes the tests, their chronology, and preliminary results. As it turned out, the PEDCO unit is not configured properly for the combustion of anthracite culm. As a result, it proved difficult to achieve a sustained period of steady-state combustion operation, and combustion efficiencies were low even when supplemental fuel was used to aid combustion of the culm. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  17. Dry coating in a rotary fluid bed.

    PubMed

    Kablitz, Caroline Désirée; Harder, Kim; Urbanetz, Nora Anne

    2006-02-01

    A highly efficient dry coating process was developed to obtain an enteric film avoiding completely the use of organic solvents and water. Using hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS) an enteric coat should be obtained without adding talc as anti-tacking agent because of problems arising from microbiological contamination. Further on, a method was developed preparing isolated films in order to determine the glass transition temperature (T(g)) and the required process temperature. The process was conducted in the rotary fluid bed with a gravimetric powder feeder achieving an exact dosage in contrast to volumetric powder feeder. A three way nozzle was aligned tangential to the pellet bed movement feeding simultaneously powder and plasticizer into the rotary fluid bed. The determined coating efficiency of the talc-free formulation was high with 94% and storage stability regarding tacking could be achieved using colloidal silicium dioxide as top powder. The T(g) of the enteric coat could be determined analyzing the T(g) of isolated films obtained by coating celluloid spheres instead of pellets using the dry coating process in rotary fluid bed. The dry coating process has been demonstrated to be a serious alternative to conventional solvent or water based coating processes. PMID:16290285

  18. Rotary-Atomizer Electric Power Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Trieu; Tran, Tuan; de Boer, Hans; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C. T.

    2015-03-01

    We report experimental and theoretical results on a ballistic energy-conversion method based on a rotary atomizer working with a droplet acceleration-deceleration cycle. In a rotary atomizer, liquid is fed onto the center of a rotating flat surface, where it spreads out under the action of the centrifugal force and creates "atomized" droplets at its edge. The advantage of using a rotary atomizer is that the centrifugal force exerted on the fluid on a smooth, large surface is not only a robust form of acceleration, as it avoids clogging, but also easily allows high throughput, and produces high electrical power. We successfully demonstrate an output power of 4.9 mW and a high voltage up to 3120 V. At present, the efficiency of the system is still low (0.14%). However, the conversion mechanism of the system is fully interpreted in this paper, permitting a conceptual understanding of system operation and providing a roadmap for system optimization. This observation will open up a road for building power-generation systems in the near future.

  19. Study on the Oil Supply System for Rotary Compressors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Takahide; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Fujitani, Makoto; Murata, Nobuo

    Research has been undertaken to clarify the shaft oil pump mechanisms and oil supply network systems for rotary compressors. Numerical expressions were developed for each part of the rotary compressor,(such as drive shaft,oil pump and journal bearing grooves)in order to confirm that the calculated values agree with the experimental results. Finally,a computer program has been developed to evaluate the oil supply system performance under steady conditions for rotary compressors.

  20. Analysis of Apex Seal Friction Power Loss in Rotary Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handschuh, Robert F.; Owen, A. Karl

    2010-01-01

    An analysis of the frictional losses from the apex seals in a rotary engine was developed. The modeling was initiated with a kinematic analysis of the rotary engine. Next a modern internal combustion engine analysis code was altered for use in a rotary engine to allow the calculation of the internal combustion pressure as a function of rotor rotation. Finally the forces from the spring, inertial, and combustion pressure on the seal were combined to provide the frictional horsepower assessment.

  1. Forebody flow physics due to rotary motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwanski, Kenneth Paul

    An experimental investigation of the aerodynamic behavior of an isolated forebody undergoing rotary motion was conducted in a small-scale wind tunnel. Force balance, surface pressure, and flow visualization data was acquired over a range of AOA, for a round and chined configuration of a generic tangent ogive shape. The nature of the fixed location of separation of the chined forebody develops a strong, symmetrical leeward side flowfield. In comparison, the round forebody develops a lateral asymmetry, as a function of AOA, from the naturally occurring separated flow. Quantifying the side force behavior due to the rotary motion of the two distinctively different forebody configurations will lead to a better understanding of the flowfield which plays a primary role in the overall stability and control of an air vehicle. For the round forebody, the side force behavior due to the rotary motion ( CYW ) is dependent upon flow speed (ReD), AOA, as well as the direction and magnitude of rotation ( W=wLV ). In the low AOA range, the rotary-induced flowfield is insufficient in promoting a side force development. In the high AOA range a damping in side force behavior is a result of the "moving wall" effect where the flow along the windward region of the forebody is the predominant influence. In the AOA range where an asymmetrical flowfield is established in a static environment, the rotary motion does not disrupt the natural asymmetric state of the vortices. Additionally, neither the presence of a static side force nor its direction is apparently sufficient in determining the CYW behavior from the axially-varying flowfield. The CYW behavior of the chined forebody is related to the leeward side vortices' vertical trajectory, which is a function of AOA. A slight propelling side force behavior develops in an AOA range where an increased suction develops from the upwind vortex. In the high AOA range there is a diminishing influence from the leeward side vortex suction resulting

  2. The Rotary Combustion Engine: a Candidate for General Aviation. [conferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The state of development of the rotary combustion engine is discussed. The nonturbine engine research programs for general aviation and future requirements for general aviation powerplants are emphasized.

  3. Strain measurements in a rotary engine housing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, C. M.; Bond, T. H.; Addy, H. E.; Chun, K. S.; Lu, C. Y.

    1989-01-01

    The development of structural design tools for Rotary Combustion Engines (RCE) using Finite Element Modeling (FEM) requires knowledge about the response of engine materials to various service conditions. This paper describes experimental work that studied housing deformation as a result of thermal, pressure and mechanical loads. The measurement of thermal loads, clamping pressure, and deformation was accomplished by use of high-temperature strain gauges, thermocouples, and a high speed data acquisition system. FEM models for heat transfer stress analysis of the rotor housing will be verified and refined based on these experimental results.

  4. Rotary stepping device with memory metal actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jamieson, Robert S. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A rotary stepping device includes a rotatable shaft which is driven by means of a coiled spring clutch which is alternately tightened to grip and rotate the shaft and released to return it to a resting position. An actuator formed of a memory metal is used to pull the spring clutch to tighten it and rotate the shaft. The actuator is activated by heating it above its critical temperature and is returned to an elongated configuration by means of the force of the spring cloth.

  5. Rotary atomizers - Performance understanding and prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, S.; Belcher, D. W.; Crosby, E. J.

    The general design features of commercial rotary atomizers used in the chemical process industries are reviewed relative to application and performance requirements. Desired knowledge about atomizer design and spray-cloud characteristics are summarized and compared to available information. The status of understanding based on analysis and experimentation is surveyed. Generally unconsidered aspects of flow within the atomizer body, disengagement from the atomizer periphery, spray cloud configuration, degree of atomization and feedstock properties are discussed. Certain phenomena related to the atomization of multiphase feedstocks are noted.

  6. Microfluidic device with integrated microfilter of conical-shaped holes for high efficiency and high purity capture of circulating tumor cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yadong; Shi, Jian; Li, Sisi; Wang, Li; Cayre, Yvon E.; Chen, Yong

    2014-08-01

    Capture of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from peripheral blood of cancer patients has major implications for metastatic detection and therapy analyses. Here we demonstrated a microfluidic device for high efficiency and high purity capture of CTCs. The key novelty of this approach lies on the integration of a microfilter with conical-shaped holes and a micro-injector with cross-flow components for size dependent capture of tumor cells without significant retention of non-tumor cells. Under conditions of constant flow rate, tumor cells spiked into phosphate buffered saline could be recovered and then cultured for further analyses. When tumor cells were spiked in blood of healthy donors, they could also be recovered at high efficiency and high clearance efficiency of white blood cells. When the same device was used for clinical validation, CTCs could be detected in blood samples of cancer patients but not in that of healthy donors. Finally, the capture efficiency of tumor cells is cell-type dependent but the hole size of the filter should be more closely correlated to the nuclei size of the tumor cells. Together with the advantage of easy operation, low-cost and high potential of integration, this approach offers unprecedented opportunities for metastatic detection and cancer treatment monitoring.

  7. Kinematic Analysis of Rotary Deep-Depth Turning Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurtyakov, A. M.; Babaev, A. S.; Chudinova, A. I.

    2016-04-01

    This article offers a parameterization procedure for deep-depth turning without simplifying assumptions. In this paper the authors will show comparative results of researching parameters for rotary turning according to the developed methodology and according to the methodology of finish-machining conditions. A theoretically found kinematic coefficient of rotary cutting is presented in the paper

  8. CARBON REACTIVATION BY EXTERNALLY-FIRED ROTARY KILN FURNACE

    EPA Science Inventory

    An externally-fired rotary kiln furnace system has been evaluated for cost-effectiveness in carbon reactivation at the Pomona Advanced Wastewater Treatment Research Facility. The pilot scale rotary kiln furnace was operated within the range of 682 kg/day (1,500 lb/day) to 909 kg/...

  9. 38. DETAIL OF VIVIANNA WORKS ROTARY KILN FIREBOX ABOVE CHANNEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. DETAIL OF VIVIANNA WORKS ROTARY KILN FIREBOX ABOVE CHANNEL FOR THE REMOVAL OF TAILINGS FROM THE ROTARY KILN LOOKING NORTHWEST. CONDENSER TO THE RIGHT, TWO STORY OFFICE AND STOREROOM STRUCTURE BEHIND. - Mariscal Quicksilver Mine & Reduction Works, Terlingua, Brewster County, TX

  10. Preliminary design development of 100 KW rotary power transfer device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberger, S. M.

    1981-01-01

    Contactless power transfer devices for transferring electrical power across a rotating spacecraft interface were studied. A power level of 100 KW was of primary interest and the study was limited to alternating current devices. Rotary transformers and rotary capacitors together with the required dc to ac power conditioning electronics were examined. Microwave devices were addressed. The rotary transformer with resonant circuit power conditioning was selected as the most feasible approach. The rotary capacitor would be larger while microwave devices would be less efficient. A design analysis was made of a 100 KW, 20 kHz power transfer device consisting of a rotary transformer, power conditioning electronics, drive mechanism and heat rejection system. The size, weight and efficiency of the device were determined. The characteristics of a baseline slip ring were presented. Aspects of testing the 100 KW power transfer device were examined. The power transfer device is a feasible concept which can be implemented using presently available technologies.

  11. Modeling of pulverized coal combustion in cement rotary kiln

    SciTech Connect

    Shijie Wang; Jidong Lu; Weijie Li; Jie Li; Zhijuan Hu

    2006-12-15

    In this paper, based on analysis of the chemical and physical processes of clinker formation, a heat flux function was introduced to take account of the thermal effect of clinker formation. Combining the models of gas-solid flow, heat and mass transfer, and pulverized coal combustion, a set of mathematical models for a full-scale cement rotary kiln were established. In terms of commercial CFD code (FLUENT), the distributions of gas velocity, gas temperature, and gas components in a cement rotary kiln were obtained by numerical simulation of a 3000 t/d rotary kiln with a four-channel burner. The predicted results indicated that the improved model accounts for the thermal enthalpy of the clinker formation process and can give more insight (such as fluid flow, temperature, etc,) from within the cement rotary kiln, which is a benefit to better understanding of combustion behavior and an improvement of burner and rotary kiln technology. 25 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. A thin membrane artificial muscle rotary motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Iain A.; Hale, Thom; Gisby, Todd; Inamura, Tokushu; McKay, Thomas; O'Brien, Benjamin; Walbran, Scott; Calius, Emilio P.

    2010-01-01

    Desirable rotary motor attributes for robotics include the ability to develop high torque in a low mass body and to generate peak power at low rotational speeds. Electro-active polymer artificial muscles offer promise as actuator elements for robotic motors. A promising artificial muscle technology for use as a driving mechanism for rotary motion is the dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA). We present a membrane DEA motor in which phased actuation of electroded sectors of the motor membrane impart orbital motion to a central drive that turns a rotor. The motor is inherently scalable, flexible, flat, silent in operation, amenable to deposition-based manufacturing approaches, and uses relatively inexpensive materials. As a membrane it can also form part of the skin of a robot. We have investigated the torque and power of stacked membrane layers. Specific power and torque ratios when calculated using active membrane mass only were 20.8 W/kg and 4.1 Nm/kg, respectively. These numbers compare favorably with a commercially available stepper motor. Multi-membrane fabrication substantially boosts torque and power and increases the active mass of membrane relative to supporting framework. Through finite element modeling, we show the mechanisms governing the maximum torque the device can generate and how the motor can be improved.

  13. A metering rotary nanopump for microfluidic systems.

    PubMed

    Darby, Scott G; Moore, Matthew R; Friedlander, Troy A; Schaffer, David K; Reiserer, Ron S; Wikswo, John P; Seale, Kevin T

    2010-12-01

    We describe the design, fabrication, and testing of a microfabricated metering rotary nanopump for the purpose of driving fluid flow in microfluidic devices. The miniature peristaltic pump is composed of a set of microfluidic channels wrapped in a helix around a central camshaft in which a non-cylindrical cam rotates. The cam compresses the helical channels to induce peristaltic flow as it is rotated. The polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) nanopump design is able to produce intermittent delivery or removal of several nanolitres of fluid per revolution as well as consistent continuous flow rates ranging from as low as 15 nL min(-1) to above 1.0 µL min(-1). At back pressures encountered in typical microfluidic devices, the pump acts as a high impedance flow source. The durability, biocompatibility, ease of integration with soft-lithographic fabrication, the use of a simple rotary motor instead of multiple synchronized pneumatic or mechanical actuators, and the absence of power consumption or fluidic conductance in the resting state all contribute to a compact pump with a low cost of fabrication and versatile implementation. This suggests that the pump design may be useful for a wide variety of biological experiments and point of care devices. PMID:20959938

  14. Coal desulfurization in a rotary kiln combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, J.T. Jr.

    1991-08-29

    Several issues that could have an impact on the capability to burn anthracite culm in a rotary bed boiler were identified; specifically, questions were raised concerning the specifications of the anthracite culm itself and some relating to the equipment. The anthracite culm delivered was wet, (with more than 10 percent moisture), and coarser than feed material for fluidized boilers. It was felt that using finer fuel, ensuring that it is largely dry, would aid the combustion of anthracite culm. It also appeared that if provisions were made for more efficient internal and external recycle of ash, this would also enhance the combustion of this fuel. Accordingly, the decision was made to conduct an additional campaign of tests that would incorporate these changes. The tests, conducted on July 15 and 16, 1991, involved an anthracite culm that was, in fact, obtained from a fluidized bed a heating value of 3,000 Btu/lb and came with a top size of 1/4-inch. Despite these changes, sustained combustion could not be achieved without the use of large quantities of supplemental fuel. Based on these tests, we tend to conclude that the rotary kiln is ill suited for the combustion of hard-to-burn, low-grade solid fuels like anthracite culm.

  15. A metering rotary nanopump for microfluidic systems

    PubMed Central

    Darby, Scott G.; Moore, Matthew R.; Friedlander, Troy A.; Schaffer, David K.; Reiserer, Ron S.; Wikswo, John P.

    2014-01-01

    We describe the design, fabrication, and testing of a microfabricated metering rotary nanopump for the purpose of driving fluid flow in microfluidic devices. The miniature peristaltic pump is composed of a set of microfluidic channels wrapped in a helix around a central cam shaft in which a non-cylindrical cam rotates. The cam compresses the helical channels to induce peristaltic flow as it is rotated. The polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) nanopump design is able to produce intermittent delivery or removal of several nanoliters of fluid per revolution as well as consistent continuous flow rates ranging from as low as 15 nL/min to above 1.0 µL/min. At back pressures encountered in typical microfluidic devices, the pump acts as a high impedance flow source. The durability, biocompatibility, ease of integration with soft-lithographic fabrication, the use of a simple rotary motor instead of multiple synchronized pneumatic or mechanical actuators, and the absence of power consumption or fluidic conductance in the resting state all contribute to a compact pump with a low cost of fabrication and versatile implementation. This suggests that the pump design may be useful for a wide variety of biological experiments and point of care devices. PMID:20959938

  16. Rotary sequencing valve with flexible port plate

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, Glenn Paul

    2005-05-10

    Rotary sequencing valve comprising a rotor having a rotor face rotatable about an axis perpendicular to the rotor face, wherein the rotor face has a plurality of openings, one or more of which are disposed at a selected radial distance from the axis, and wherein the rotor includes at least one passage connecting at least one pair of the plurality of openings. The valve includes a flexible port plate having a first side and a second side, wherein the first side faces the rotor and engages the rotor such that the flexible port plate can be rotated coaxially by the rotor and can move axially with respect to the rotor, wherein the flexible port plate has a plurality of ports between the first and second sides, which ports are aligned with the openings in the rotor face. The valve also includes a stator having a stator face disposed coaxially with the rotor and the flexible port plate, wherein the second side of the flexible port plate is in sealable, slidable rotary contact with the stator face, wherein the stator face has a plurality of openings, some of which are disposed at the selected radial distance from the axis, and wherein the plurality of openings extend as passages through the stator. The valve may be used in pressure or temperature swing adsorption systems.

  17. Development of a Piezoelectric Rotary Hammer Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Domm, Lukas N.

    2011-01-01

    The Piezoelectric Rotary Hammer Drill is designed to core through rock using a combination of rotation and high frequency hammering powered by a single piezoelectric actuator. It is designed as a low axial preload, low mass, and low power device for sample acquisition on future missions to extraterrestrial bodies. The purpose of this internship is to develop and test a prototype of the Piezoelectric Rotary Hammer Drill in order to verify the use of a horn with helical or angled cuts as a hammering and torque inducing mechanism. Through an iterative design process using models in ANSYS Finite Element software and a Mason's Equivalent Circuit model in MATLAB, a horn design was chosen for fabrication based on the predicted horn tip motion, electromechanical coupling, and neutral plane location. The design was then machined and a test bed assembled. The completed prototype has proven that a single piezoelectric actuator can be used to produce both rotation and hammering in a drill string through the use of a torque inducing horn. Final data results include bit rotation produced versus input power, and best drilling rate achieved with the prototype.

  18. Descriptors for rotary wing aircraft noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schomer, P. D.

    1984-10-01

    Various hypotheses of needed noise level standards for areas around military air bases with rotary wing aircraft were tested in terms of literature surveys, laboratory tests, and community surveys. The hypotheses tested comprised the validities of A-weighted sound levels, an energy model, and a standard 10 dB difference between day and night (D-N) sound levels. The data base covered annoyance surveys near bases and questionnaires filled out to express the level of perceived annoyance. An energy model was found suitable for helicopter noise, particularly with regard to avoiding rattling buildings, a condition which raises the annoyance levels significantly. The studies supported continuance of the traditional 10 dB D-N noise differential.

  19. Mathematical modeling of a rotary hearth calciner

    SciTech Connect

    Meisingset, H.C.; Balchen, J.G.; Fernandez, R.

    1996-10-01

    Calcination of petroleum coke is a thermal process where green petroleum coke is heat-treated to a pre-determined temperature. During heat treatment the associated moisture is removed and the volatile combustible matter (VCM) is released. The VCM is burned in the gas phase giving the energy to sustain the process. In addition, structural changes take place. The combination of the final calcination temperature and the residence time determine the final real density of the calcined coke. Depending on its further use, different real density requirements may arise. It is important to control the dynamics of the calcination process so that the specified final quality is achieved. A dynamic mathematical model of a Rotary Hearth Calciner is presented. The model is based on physicochemical laws involving the most important phenomena taking place and the relevant calcination parameters. The temperature profile in the coke bed is predicted which in terms is related to the real density of the coke.

  20. Miniature linear-to-rotary motion actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorokach, Michael R., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    A miniature hydraulic actuation system capable of converting linear actuator motion to control surface rotary motion has been designed for application to active controls on dynamic wind tunnel models. Due to space constraints and the torque requirements of an oscillating control surface at frequencies up to 50 Hertz, a new actuation system was developed to meet research objectives. This new actuation system was designed and developed to overcome the output torque limitations and fluid loss/sealing difficulties associated with an existing vane type actuator. Static control surface deflections and dynamic control surface oscillations through a given angle are provided by the actuation system. The actuator design has been incorporated into a transonic flutter model with an active trailing edge flap and two active spoilers. The model is scheduled for testing in the LaRC 16 Foot Transonic Dynamics Tunnel during Summer 1993. This paper will discuss the actuation system, its design, development difficulties, test results, and application to aerospace vehicles.

  1. Development and application of rotary shock absorber

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Kozo; Yamada, Toshihiro; Fukuyama, Katsura

    1995-12-31

    In recent years, rear suspension systems with a single shock absorber unit placed behind the engine, have been used primarily in the middle and large classes of motorcycles. Some features such as the longer rear wheel travel, progressive response characteristics and mass concentration at the center part of motorcycle are effective in improving maneuverability of the motorcycle. In the 1980s, the systems were introduced first in the off-road motorcycles and then in the on-road motorcycles. Performance of the systems are excellent, but there are demands for further improvement of suspension characteristics and space utility at the center part of motorcycle. For this purpose, the authors have developed a prototype of a rotary shock absorber and studied the applicability to modern motorcycles.

  2. Rotary seal with improved film distribution

    DOEpatents

    Dietle, Lannie Laroy; Schroeder, John Erick

    2015-09-01

    The present invention is a generally circular rotary seal that establishes sealing between relatively rotatable machine components for lubricant retention and environmental exclusion, and incorporates seal geometry that interacts with the lubricant during relative rotation to distribute a lubricant film within the dynamic sealing interface. The features of a variable inlet size, a variable dynamic lip flank slope, and a reduction in the magnitude and circumferentially oriented portion of the lubricant side interfacial contact pressure zone at the narrowest part of the lip, individually or in combination thereof, serve to maximize interfacial lubrication in severe operating conditions, and also serve to minimize lubricant shear area, seal torque, seal volume, and wear, while ensuring retrofitability into the seal grooves of existing equipment.

  3. Rotary seal with improved film distribution

    DOEpatents

    Dietle, Lannie Laroy; Schroeder, John Erick

    2013-10-08

    The present invention is a generally circular rotary seal that establishes sealing between relatively rotatable machine components for lubricant retention and environmental exclusion, and incorporates seal geometry that interacts with the lubricant during relative rotation to distribute a lubricant film within the dynamic sealing interface. The features of a variable inlet size, a variable dynamic lip flank slope, and a reduction in the magnitude and circumferentially oriented portion of the lubricant side interfacial contact pressure zone at the narrowest part of the lip, individually or in combination thereof, serve to maximize interfacial lubrication in severe operating conditions, and also serve to minimize lubricant shear area, seal torque, seal volume, and wear, while ensuring retrofitability into the seal grooves of existing equipment.

  4. Rotary fast tool servo system and methods

    DOEpatents

    Montesanti, Richard C.; Trumper, David L.

    2007-10-02

    A high bandwidth rotary fast tool servo provides tool motion in a direction nominally parallel to the surface-normal of a workpiece at the point of contact between the cutting tool and workpiece. Three or more flexure blades having all ends fixed are used to form an axis of rotation for a swing arm that carries a cutting tool at a set radius from the axis of rotation. An actuator rotates a swing arm assembly such that a cutting tool is moved in and away from the lathe-mounted, rotating workpiece in a rapid and controlled manner in order to machine the workpiece. A pair of position sensors provides rotation and position information for a swing arm to a control system. A control system commands and coordinates motion of the fast tool servo with the motion of a spindle, rotating table, cross-feed slide, and in-feed slide of a precision lathe.

  5. Rotary plant growth accelerating apparatus. [weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dedolph, R. D. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    Rotary plant growth accelerating apparatus for increasing plant yields by effectively removing the growing plants from the constraints of gravity and increasing the plant yield per unit of space is described. The apparatus is comprised of cylindrical plant beds supported radially removed from a primary axis of rotation, with each plant bed being driven about its own secondary axis of rotation and simultaneously moved in a planetary path about the primary axis of rotation. Each plant bed is formed by an apertured outer cylinder, a perforated inner cylinder positioned coaxially, and rooting media disposed in the space between. A rotatable manifold distributes liquid nutrients and water to the rooting media through the perforations in the inner cylinders as the plant beds are continuously rotated by suitable drive means.

  6. Tank 241-TY-103 rotary core sampling and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Jo, J.

    1995-10-30

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for two rotary-mode core samples from tank 241-TY-103

  7. Device transmits rotary motion through hermetically sealed wall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, R. N.

    1964-01-01

    A wobble plate, metal bellows, and two shafts, assembled in a four-section housing, make it possible to transmit rotary motion through a hermetically sealed wall. In operation a rotational torque is developed by the wobble plate.

  8. 2. INTERIOR OF THE TIPPLE LOOKING SOUTH THROUGHT THE ROTARY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. INTERIOR OF THE TIPPLE LOOKING SOUTH THROUGHT THE ROTARY TIPPLE MECHANISM USED TO UNLOAD MINE COAL CARS. - Smith Mine, Tipple, Bear Creek 1.5 miles West of Town of Bear Creek, Red Lodge, Carbon County, MT

  9. Rotary endodontics in primary teeth – A review

    PubMed Central

    George, Sageena; Anandaraj, S.; Issac, Jyoti S.; John, Sheen A.; Harris, Anoop

    2015-01-01

    Endodontic treatment in primary teeth can be challenging and time consuming, especially during canal preparation, which is considered one of the most important steps in root canal therapy. The conventional instrumentation technique for primary teeth remains the “gold-standard” over hand instrumentation, which makes procedures much more time consuming and adversely affects both clinicians and patients. Recently nickel–titanium (Ni–Ti) rotary files have been developed for use in pediatric endodontics. Using rotary instruments for primary tooth pulpectomies is cost effective and results in fills that are consistently uniform and predictable. This article reviews the use of nickel–titanium rotary files as root canal instrumentation in primary teeth. The pulpectomy technique is described here according to different authors and the advantages and disadvantages of using rotary files are discussed. PMID:26792964

  10. Aircraft icing instrumentation: Unfilled needs. [rotary wing aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitchens, P. F.

    1980-01-01

    A list of icing instrumentation requirements are presented. Because of the Army's helicopter orientation, many of the suggestions are specific to rotary wing aircraft; however, some of the instrumentation are also suitable for general aviation aircraft.

  11. Two (or more) rotary outputs from one input

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appleberry, W. T.

    1979-01-01

    Mechanical sequencing device produces cyclic rotations of two outputs from single cyclic rotary input. Device is useful in automatic assemble apparatus, in food-processing machinery, and as controller for sequentially operated valves.

  12. Rotary-To-Axial Motion Converter For Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinicke, Robert H.; Mohtar, Rafic

    1991-01-01

    Nearly frictionless mechanism converts rotary motion into axial motion. Designed for use in electronically variable pressure-regulator valve. Changes rotary motion imparted by motor into translation that opens and closes valve poppet. Cables spaced equidistantly around edge of fixed disk support movable disk. As movable disk rotated, cables twist, lifting it. When rotated in opposite direction, cables untwist, lowering it. Spider disk helps to prevent cables from tangling. Requires no lubrication and insensitive to contamination in fluid flowing through valve.

  13. Heat exchange apparatus and process for rotary kilns

    SciTech Connect

    De Beus, A.J.

    1987-06-30

    This patent describes a heat exchange apparatus for use in a rotary kiln, the heat exchange apparatus comprising: refractory means for transferring heat from an upper heated portion of a rotary kiln above a bed disposed in a lower portion to within the bed as the rotary kiln is rotated. The refractory means comprises: tubular refractory members; means for attaching the refractory means in a spaced apart relationship with an interior wall of the rotary kiln in order to cause the refractory means to pass through the bed with a portion of the bed passing under the refractory means. A portion of the bed passes over the refractory means in order to enhance heat transfer as the rotary kiln is rotated. The means for attaching the refractory means comprises rods supported by stanchions and tubular refractory member disposed on the rods; the means for attaching the refractory means and the refractory means is configured and operative for stirring the bed as the refractory means pass through the bed without significant lifting of the bed to the heated upper portions of the rotary kiln as the rotary kiln is rotated; and compressible refractory spacer means disposed between each tubular refractory member for accommodating heat expansion and compressible refractory sleeve means dispersed between the rods and the tubular refractory members for accommodating heat expansion of the rods. Compressible refractory sleeve means and tubular refractory member sized so that the tubular refractory members are tightly held against the tubular refractory spacer means when the rotary kiln is at operating temperatures in order to inhibit fracture of the tubular refractory member as they pass through the bed.

  14. Design study of a high power rotary transformer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberger, S. M.

    1982-01-01

    A design study was made on a rotary transformer for transferring electrical power across a rotating spacecraft interface. The analysis was performed for a 100 KW, 20 KHz unit having a ""pancake'' geometry. The rotary transformer had a radial (vertical) gap and consisted of 4-25 KW modules. It was assumed that the power conditioning comprised of a Schwarz resonant circuit with a 20 KHz switching frequency. The rotary transformer, mechanical and structural design, heat rejection system and drive mechanism which provide a complete power transfer device were examined. The rotary transformer losses, efficiency, weight and size were compared with an axial (axial symmetric) gap transformer having the same performance requirements and input characteristics which was designed as part of a previous program. The ""pancake'' geometry results in a heavier rotary transformer primarily because of inefficient use of the core material. It is shown that the radial gap rotary transformer is a feasible approach for the transfer of electrical power across a rotating interface and can be implemented using presently available technology.

  15. Percussive Augmenter of Rotary Drills for Operating as a Rotary-Hammer Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldrich, Jack Barron (Inventor); Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor); Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor); Badescu, Mircea (Inventor); Bao, Xiaoqi (Inventor); Scott, James Samson (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A percussive augmenter bit includes a connection shaft for mounting the bit onto a rotary drill. In a first modality, an actuator percussively drives the bit, and an electric slip-ring provides power to the actuator while being rotated by the drill. Hammering action from the actuator and rotation from the drill are applied directly to material being drilled. In a second modality, a percussive augmenter includes an actuator that operates as a hammering mechanism that drives a free mass into the bit creating stress pulses that fracture material that is in contact with the bit.

  16. Rotary absorption heat pump sensitivity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamberger, J. A.; Zalondek, F. R.

    1990-03-01

    Conserve Resources, Incorporated is currently developing an innovative, patented absorption heat pump. The heat pump uses rotation and thin film technology to enhance the absorption process and to provide a more efficient, compact system. The results are presented of a sensitivity analysis of the rotary absorption heat pump (RAHP) performance conducted to further the development of a 1-ton RAHP. The objective of the uncertainty analysis was to determine the sensitivity of RAHP steady state performance to uncertainties in design parameters. Prior to conducting the uncertainty analysis, a computer model was developed to describe the performance of the RAHP thermodynamic cycle. The RAHP performance is based on many interrelating factors, not all of which could be investigated during the sensitivity analysis. Confirmatory measurements of LiBr/H2O properties during absorber/generator operation will provide experimental verification that the system is operating as it was designed to operate. Quantities to be measured include: flow rate in the absorber and generator, film thickness, recirculation rate, and the effects of rotational speed on these parameters.

  17. Orienting members in a preselected rotary alignment

    DOEpatents

    Williams, Ray E.

    1987-01-01

    An apparatus for orienting members and for maintaining their rotary alignment during orienting members. The apparatus comprises first and second cylindrical elements, a rotation prevention element, a collar and a retainer. Each element has an outside wall, and first and second ends, each end having an outside edge. The first element has portions defining a first plurality of notches located at the outside edge of its first end. An external threaded portion is on the outside wall of the first element and next to the first plurality of notches. The second element has portions defining a second plurality of notches located at the outside edge of its first end. The first plurality has a different number than the second plurality. The first ends of the first and second tubes have substantially the same outside diameter and are abutted during connection so that a cavity is formed whenever first and second tube notches substantially overlap. A rotation prevention element is placed in the cavity to prevent rotation of the first and second elements. A collar with an internal threaded portion is slidably disposed about the second element. The internal threaded portion engages the external threaded portion of the first element to connect the elements. A lip connected to the collar prevents separation of the collar from the second element.

  18. Transient phenomena in rotary kiln incineration

    SciTech Connect

    Linak, W.P.; Kilgroe, J.D.; Wendt, J.O.; Mc Sorley, J.A.; Dunn, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes results of an ongoing experimental investigation at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency into the waste properties and kiln parameters that determine both the instantaneous intensity and the total magnitude of transient puffs leaving the kiln. The experimental apparatus utilized was a 73 kW (250,000 Btu/hr) laboratory rotary kiln simulator. Surrogate solid wastes in the form of plastic rods and surrogate liquid wastes on corncob sorbent in cardboard containers were investigated. A statistically designed parametric study was used to determine the extent to which waste and kiln variables (such as charge mass, charge surface area, charge composition, kiln temperature, and kiln rotation speed) affected the intensity (hydrocarbon peak height) and magnitude (hydrocarbon peak area) of puffs. Results demonstrate the relative ease with which failure conditions are achieved, even at high excess air values and high kiln temperatures. Transient puffs arising from even innocuous surrogate wastes can contain a number of hazardous compounds. Increasing kiln temperature and kiln rotation speed can cause an adverse effect on puff intensity, probably due to increased devolatilization rates.

  19. Analysis of Rotary Bayonets and Piping

    SciTech Connect

    Chess, K.; Wendlandt, J.; /Fermilab

    1988-08-19

    This report quantifies certain characteristics of the rotary bayonets and associated platform piping on the DO detector. The Vacuum Jacketed 4-inch x 6-inch and 1.5-inch x 3-inch and the 4-inch and 6-inch vacuum pipe articulating jumpers are considered here. The values of greatest importance are the forces required at the bayonet moment arms given in Table II and the stresses summarized in Table III. The forces required should be noted and checked that they are acceptable to the problem. The maximum bending stresses of the vacuum pipes do not exceed 1000 psi and are essentially negligible. The 4-inch x 6-inch vacuum jacketed line experiences the maximum bending stress of 10,300 psi. According to code B31.1, the maximum allowable bending stress is 25,500 psi. The major sources of error in these calculations should be summarized. First, all weights used were approximations and all lengths used were scaled from drawings. Second, while the FRAME MAC{trademark} models resemble the vacuum pipe articulating jumpers, they are definitely simplified. For instance, they do not account for the different stiffnesses of the unions. Finally, the bayonets in the ANSYS models consist of an outer jacket and an inner pipe fixed together at the end of the male sleeve. The actual bayonets are more complex and are composed of various sizes of tubes and pipes which affect the stiffness of the section.

  20. Hazardous-waste incineration in a rotary kiln

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, W.D. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    A rotary-kiln simulator was used to develop a better understanding of how hazardous materials are removed from sorbent clays. Experimental results and associated numerical modeling on the combustion and desorption of toluene from a montmorillonite clay sorbent are presented. The purpose of these tests was to understand the mass and heat transfer characteristics of the material in a rotary kiln environment. The experiments were done in a batch mode, simulating a control volume of solids moving down the length of a full-scale rotary kiln, exchanging time for distance as the independent variable. Studies investigating the effect of oxygen concentration, charge size, rotational velocity, and kiln cavity temperature on the desorption rate were completed. Also, effects of water in the montmorillonite were examined. Two comprehensive models were developed to predict the thermal and mass desorption characteristics of the bed, respectively. Another series of studies in the rotary kiln simulator was focused on NO, formation from nitrogenous waste constituents. These tests were performed to simulate materials (plastics, nylons, dyes, and process waste) usually destroyed in hazardous-waste incinerators. Four surrogate wastes, Aniline, Pyridine, Malononitrile, and Ethylenediamine, were absorbed onto the montmorillonite clay sorbent. A detailed discussion regarding the design, construction and operation of the rotary-kiln simulator for research on the destruction of hazardous waste materials is presented in the Appendices. All facility calibration techniques and calculations in addition to data acquisition and reduction algorithms are also discussed there.

  1. Architectural stability analysis of the rotary-laser scanning technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Bin; Yang, Xiaoxia; Zhu, Jigui

    2016-03-01

    The rotary-laser scanning technique is an important method in scale measurements due to its high accuracy and large measurement range. This paper first introduces a newly designed measurement station which is able to provide two-dimensional measurement information including the azimuth and elevation by using the rotary-laser scanning technique, then presents the architectural stability analysis of this technique by detailed theoretical derivations. Based on the designed station, a validation using both experiment and simulation is presented in order to verify the analytic conclusion. The results show that the architectural stability of the rotary-laser scanning technique is only affected by the two scanning angles' difference. And the difference which brings the best architectural stability can be calculated by using pre-calibrated parameters of the two laser planes. This research gives us an insight into the rotary-laser scanning technique. Moreover, the measurement accuracy of the rotary-laser scanning technique can be further improved based on the results of the study.

  2. Calibration of rotary joints in multi-axis machine tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Abdul Wahid; Liu, Fei; Chen, Wuyi

    2009-05-01

    A novel technique is developed and implemented for error quantification in a rotary joint of a multi-axis machine tool by using a calibrated double ball bar (DBB) system as a working standard. This technique greatly simplified the measurement setup requirement and accelerated the calibration of rotary joints. In addition it is highly economical by reducing the complex optics and eliminating the usage of various tooling, instrumentation and accessories. This methodology is capable of measuring the five degree of freedom (DOF) errors out of 6DOF of a rotary joint by using the calibrated DBB system and a point locating fixture. The methodology is implemented on rotary joints of a five axis CNC machine tools. Equation solvers and error modeling technique are implemented and validity of the methodology and authenticity of the results obtained are tested through simulation in UG and Matlab software. The methodology is found extremely feasible pragmatic, quite simple, efficient and easy to use for error characterization of rotary joints of multi axis machine tools.

  3. Percussive Augmenter of Rotary Drills (PARoD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ressa, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    A percussive augmenter is being developed and it is designed to add ultrasonic hammering to a conventional commercial rotary drill through an adapter using a piezoelectric actuator. The combination of ultrasonic hammering and rotation creates a drill that requires low power and low axial load while providing faster penetration than conventional rotary-only drills. These characteristics make percussive augmentation of rotary drills ideal for not only planetary exploration but commercial applications as well. The purpose of this internship was to produce, test, and optimize an augmenter that drives a 2 inch diameter bit. This task was part of the percussive augmenter's phase II of an ongoing contract and it involved increasing the capability of the .25 inch version of the augmenter prototype that was developed in phase I. Due to fabrication delays of the augmenter, an extensive part of the test effort was conducted using previous rotary and hammer drill prototypes. These tests focused on drilling deep over long periods of time to provide for effective stress test of the drill. Modifications were made to the drill, its components, and the testing procedure to achieve desired borehole depths. These results were used to start initial testing on the 2 inch augmenter and provide preliminary data on the augmenter's ability to significantly improve penetration rate over conventional rotary-only drills.

  4. Planar Rotary Piezoelectric Motor Using Ultrasonic Horns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Geiyer, Daniel; Ostlund, Patrick N.; Allen, Phillip

    2011-01-01

    A motor involves a simple design that can be embedded into a plate structure by incorporating ultrasonic horn actuators into the plate. The piezoelectric material that is integrated into the horns is pre-stressed with flexures. Piezoelectric actuators are attractive for their ability to generate precision high strokes, torques, and forces while operating under relatively harsh conditions (temperatures at single-digit K to as high as 1,273 K). Electromagnetic motors (EM) typically have high rotational speed and low torque. In order to produce a useful torque, these motors are geared down to reduce the speed and increase the torque. This gearing adds mass and reduces the efficiency of the EM. Piezoelectric motors can be designed with high torques and lower speeds directly without the need for gears. Designs were developed for producing rotary motion based on the Barth concept of an ultrasonic horn driving a rotor. This idea was extended to a linear motor design by having the horns drive a slider. The unique feature of these motors is that they can be designed in a monolithic planar structure. The design is a unidirectional motor, which is driven by eight horn actuators, that rotates in the clockwise direction. There are two sets of flexures. The flexures around the piezoelectric material are pre-stress flexures and they pre-load the piezoelectric disks to maintain their being operated under compression when electric field is applied. The other set of flexures is a mounting flexure that attaches to the horn at the nodal point and can be designed to generate a normal force between the horn tip and the rotor so that to first order it operates independently and compensates for the wear between the horn and the rotor.

  5. Single-Molecule Studies of Rotary Molecular Motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilizota, Teuta; Sowa, Yoshiyuki; Berry, Richard M.

    Rotary molecular motors are protein complexes that transform chemical or electrochemical energy into mechanical work. There are five known rotary molecular motors in nature; the bacterial flagellar motor, and two motors in each of ATP-synthase and V-ATPase. Rotation of the flagellar motor drives a helical propeller that powers bacterial swimming. The function of the other rotary motors is to couple electrochemical ion gradients to synthesis or hydrolysis of ATP, and rotation is a detail of the coupling mechanism rather than the ultimate purpose of the motors. Much has been learned about the mechanism of the F1 part of ATP-synthase and the flagellar motor by measuring the rotation of single motors with a variety of techniques under a wide range of conditions. This chapter will review the structures of ATP-synthase and the flagellar motor, and what has been learned about their mechanisms using single molecule techniques.

  6. F(1)-ATPase: a prototypical rotary molecular motor.

    PubMed

    Kinosita, Kazuhiko

    2012-01-01

    F(1)-ATPase, the soluble portion of ATP synthase, has been shown to be a rotary molecular motor in which the central γ subunit rotates inside the cylinder made of α(3)β(3) subunits. The rotation is powered by ATP hydrolysis in three catalytic sites, and reverse rotation of the γ subunit by an external force leads to ATP synthesis in the catalytic sites. Here I look back how our lab became involved in the study of this marvelous rotary machine, and discuss some aspects of its rotary mechanism while confessing we are far from understanding. This article is a very personal essay, not a scientific review, for this otherwise viral machines book. PMID:22297508

  7. Friction Laws Based on Monotonic and Cyclic Rotary Shear Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, C. J.; Dong, J. J.; Togo, T.; Yang, C. M.; Lee, C. T.; Shimamoto, T.

    2014-12-01

    Rotary-shear friction experiments have been successfully used to study the earthquake dynamics and catastrophic landslides in the past two decades. Recent studies indicated that the friction behaviors of fault gouge materials under oscillatory shear are different from those under monotonic shear. Experimental results revealed that the accelerating and decelerating motion caused weakening and strengthening, while undergoing overall slip weakening. In this study, we try to approximate the temporal variation of friction coefficient during accelerating/decelerating slip based on a velocity-displacement dependent friction law derived from monotonic rotary shear tests. The approximated results show a full strength recovery behavior when the slip velocity equals to zero, which cannot depict the experimental results. A frequency dependent factor was introduced into the friction law to improve the approximation. The mechanisms behind the differences of friction behaviors between the oscillatory and monotonic rotary shear tests will be explored.

  8. Performance of rotary kiln reactor for the elephant grass pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    De Conto, D; Silvestre, W P; Baldasso, C; Godinho, M

    2016-10-01

    The influence of process conditions (rotary speed/temperature) on the performance of a rotary kiln reactor for non-catalytic pyrolysis of a perennial grass (elephant grass) was investigated. The product yields, the production of non-condensable gases as well as the biochar properties were evaluated. The maximum H2 yield was close to that observed for catalytic pyrolysis processes, while the bio-oil yield was higher than reported for pyrolysis of other biomass in rotary kiln reactors. A H2/CO ratio suitable for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) was obtained. The biochars presented an alkaline pH (above 10) and interesting contents of nutrients, as well as low electrical conductivity, indicating a high potential as soil amendment. PMID:27367811

  9. A case study of air enrichment in rotary kiln incineration

    SciTech Connect

    Melo, G.F.; Lacava, P.T.; Carvalho, J.A. Jr.

    1998-07-01

    This paper presents a case study of air enrichment in an industrial rotary kiln type incineration unit. The study is based on mass and energy balances, considering the combustion reaction of a mixture composed by the residue and the auxiliary fuel with air enriched with oxygen. The steps are shown for the primary chamber (rotary kiln) and secondary chamber (afterburner). The residence times in the primary and secondary chamber are 2.0 and 3.2 sec, respectively. The pressure is atmospheric in both chambers. Based on constant chamber gas residence time and gas temperature, it is shown that the residue input rates can be increased by one order of magnitude as air is substituted by pure oxygen. As the residue consumption rate in the rotary kiln is also dependent on residue physical characteristics (mainly size), the study was also carried out for different percentages of oxygen in the oxidizer gas.

  10. Operator in-the-loop control of rotary cranes

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, G.G.; Robinett, R.D.; Driessen, B.J.; Dohrmann, C.R.

    1996-03-01

    An open-loop control method is presented for reducing the oscillatory motion of rotary crane payloads during operator commanded maneuvers. A typical rotary crane consists of a multiple degree-of-freedom platform for positioning a spherical pendulum with an attached payload. The crane operator positions the Payload by issuing a combination of translational and rotational commands to the platform as well as load-line length changes. Frequently, these pendulum modes are time-varying and exhibit low natural frequencies. Maneuvers are therefore performed at rates sufficiently slow so as not to excite oscillation. The strategy presented here generates crane commands which suppress vibration of the payload without a priori knowledge of the desired maneuver. Results are presented for operator in-the-loop positioning using a real-time dynamics simulation of a three-axis rotary crane where the residual sway magnitude is reduced in excess of 4OdB.

  11. Biomechanical determinants of transverse and rotary gallop in cursorial mammals.

    PubMed

    Biancardi, Carlo M; Minetti, Alberto E

    2012-12-01

    Transverse and rotary gallop differ in the placement of the leading hindfeet and forefeet: ipsilateral in the former gait, contralateral in the latter. We analysed 351 filmed sequences to assess the gallop type of 89 investigated mammalian species belonging to Carnivora, Artiodactyla and Perissodactyla orders. Twenty-three biometrical, ecological and physiological parameters were collected for each species both from literature data and from animal specimens. Most of the species showed only one kind of gallop: transverse (42%) or rotary (39%), while some species performed rotary gallop only at high speed (19%). In a factorial analysis, the first principal component (PC), which accounted for 40% of the total variance, was positively correlated to the relative speed and negatively correlated to size and body mass. The second PC was correlated to the ratio between distal and proximal limb segments. Large size and longer proximal limb segments were associated with transverse gallop, while rotary and speed-dependent species showed higher metacarpus/humerus and metatarsus/femur length ratio and faster relative speeds. The resulting limb excursion angles were proportional to the square-root of the Froude number, and significantly higher in rotary gallopers. The gait pattern analysis indicated significant differences between transverse and rotary gallop in forelimb and hindlimb duty factor (t-test; P<0.001), and in duration of the forelimb contact (t-test; P=0.045). Our results show that an exclusive gallop gait is adopted by a large number of mammalian species, and indicate that the gallop pattern depends on diverse environmental, morphometrical and biomechanical characters. PMID:22933611

  12. Arterial sound based noninvasive malrotation detection of rotary LVAD.

    PubMed

    Tanishiro, Hiroyuki; Funakubo, Akio; Fukui, Yasuhiro

    2004-01-01

    A number of advanced cardiovascular assist devices have been developed recently with the capability to prolong the life expectancy of patients with cardiac disease. To allow long-term use, it is necessary to assemble these devices using as few accessories as possible; however, a sensor for mechanical disorder detection is typically included to ensure mechanical reliability. Although a rotary left ventricular assist device (LVAD) has a simple mechanism, a malrotation caused by thrombogenesis can occur at any time. This situation could cause fatal damage to the cardiovascular circulation of the patient. In this study, we propose a simple, noninvasive method based on Korotkoff sounds, which would be able to detect the pressure-flow state during circulation supported by a rotary LVAD. Korotkoff sounds provide a means to noninvasively measure blood pressure in auscultation. We have found that the sounds are directly influenced by the pressure-flow state. We measured the arterial sound generated by an occluded brachial artery, as well as the Korotkoff sound generated during rotary LVAD circulation. To verify the effectiveness of the system, a circulatory simulator, rather than a human subject, was used. The arterial sound of several abnormal pressure-flow conditions was investigated. The simulator consists of a pulsatile blood pump, a compliance chamber, flow valves, a venous reservoir, and a rotary LVAD. Abnormal pressure-flow states are generated by simply changing the rotational speed of the rotary LVAD. We established the relationship between an abnormal pressure-flow state and the characteristics of the arterial sound, thus demonstrating that a malrotation of the rotary LVAD can be detected by the change of the arterial sound. PMID:15307538

  13. Development of a natural gas stratified charge rotary engine

    SciTech Connect

    Sierens, R.; Verdonck, W.

    1985-01-01

    A water model has been used to determine the positions of separate inlet ports for a natural gas, stratified charge rotary engine. The flow inside the combustion chamber (mainly during the induction period) has been registered by a film camera. From these tests the best locations of the inlet ports have been obtained, a prototype of this engine has been built by Audi NSU and tested in the laboratories of the university of Gent. The results of these tests, for different stratification configurations, are given. These results are comparable with the best results obtained by Audi NSU for a homogeneous natural gas rotary engine.

  14. Study of a novel rotary cyclone gas-solid separator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Zhiguang; Deng, Xingyong

    2003-08-01

    Based on the analytical study of the characteristics of fine particle motion in swirling flow, a new design idea on flow organization and construction aimed at increasing the positive radial flow in the separation chamber of the rotary cyclone separator (PRV type) was proposed. Experimental verification including the test of variation of separation efficiency and pressure loss with the first and secondary flow ratio show that this new type separator has higher and more stable separation efficiency in broad flow ratio range while the pressure loss is far below the conventional rotary cyclone separator and even comparable with that of simple cyclone separator

  15. Microwave lamp with multi-purpose rotary motor

    DOEpatents

    Ury, Michael G.; Turner, Brian; Wooten, Robert D.

    1999-01-01

    In a microwave powered electrodeless lamp, a single rotary motor is used to a) rotate the bulb and b) provide rotary motion to a blower or pump means for providing cooling fluid to the magnetron and/or to a forced gas cooling for providing cooler gas to the bulb. The blower may consist of only of an impeller without the usual blower housing. The motor, bulb stem and bulb, or motor, bulb stem, bulb and blower may be formed as an integral unit so as to facilitate replacement.

  16. Microwave lamp with multi-purpose rotary motor

    DOEpatents

    Ury, M.G.; Turner, B.; Wooten, R.D.

    1999-02-02

    In a microwave powered electrodeless lamp, a single rotary motor is used to (a) rotate the bulb and (b) provide rotary motion to a blower or pump means for providing cooling fluid to the magnetron and/or to a forced gas cooler for providing cooling gas to the bulb. The blower may consist of only of an impeller without the usual blower housing. The motor, bulb stem and bulb, or motor, bulb stem, bulb and blower may be formed as an integral unit so as to facilitate replacement. 8 figs.

  17. A review of Curtiss-Wright rotary engine developments with respect to general aviation potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, C.

    1979-01-01

    Aviation related rotary (Wankel-type) engine tests, possible growth directions and relevant developments at Curtiss-Wright have been reviewed. Automotive rotary engines including stratified charge are described and flight test results of rotary aircraft engines are presented. The current 300 HP engine prototype shows basic durability and competitive performance potential. Recent parallel developments have separately confirmed the geometric advantages of the rotary engine for direct injected unthrottled stratified charge. Specific fuel consumption equal to or better than pre- or swirl-chamber diesels, low emission and multi-fuel capability have been shown by rig tests of similar rotary engine.

  18. Solar Alpha Rotary Joint Anomaly: The Materials and Processes Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basta, Erin A.; Dasgupta, Rijib; Figert, John; Jerman, Greg; Wright, Clara; Petrakis, Dennis; Golden, Johnny L.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the anomaly discovered on the Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ). This anomaly was discovered when the SARJ mechanism produced anomalous telemetry and noticeable vibrations. Metallic debris was discovered throughout the vicinity of the mechanism. Samples were taken from the SARJ, and the findings of the analysis are discussed.

  19. RICOR development of the next generation highly reliable rotary cryocooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regev, Itai; Nachman, Ilan; Livni, Dorit; Riabzev, Sergey; Filis, Avishai; Segal, Victor

    2016-05-01

    Early rotary cryocoolers were designed for the lifetime of a few thousands operating hours. Ricor K506 model's life expectancy was only 5,000 hours, then the next generation K508 model was designed to achieve 10,000 operating hours in basic conditions, while the modern K508N was designed for 20,000 operating hours. Nowadays, the new challenges in the field of rotary cryocoolers require development of a new generation cooler that could compete with the linear cryocooler reliability, achieving the lifetime goal of 30,000 operating hours, and even more. Such new advanced cryocooler can be used for upgrade existing systems, or to serve the new generation of high-temperature detectors that are currently under development, enabling the cryocooler to work more efficiently in the field. The improvement of the rotary cryocooler reliability is based on a deep analysis and understating of the root failure causes, finding solutions to reduce bearings wear, using modern materials and lubricants. All of those were taken into consideration during the development of the new generation rotary coolers. As a part of reliability challenges, new digital controller was also developed, which allows new options, such as discrete control of the operating frequency, and can extend the cooler operating hours due to new controlling technique. In addition, the digital controller will be able to collect data during cryocooler operation, aiming end of life prediction.

  20. Two-position wax-motor rotary actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stange, W. C.

    1979-01-01

    Two position rotary actuator rotates shaft by precisely 180 deg and rotates it back on command. Mechanism consumes 11 watts of power and functions over wide range of temperatures under high vacuum for long unattended periods. Light weight device may be used to flip magnetometer for calibration in magnetic field.

  1. Southwest view of rotary hearth furnace of the no. 2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Southwest view of rotary hearth furnace of the no. 2 seamless line in bays 17 and 18 of the main pipe mill building. - U.S. Steel National Tube Works, Main Pipe Mill Building, Along Monongahela River, McKeesport, Allegheny County, PA

  2. Southwest view of rotary hearth furnace of the no. 2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Southwest view of rotary hearth furnace of the no. 2 seamless line in bays 17 and 18 of the main pipe mill building. - U.S. Steel National Tube Works, Skelp Mill Building, Along Monongahela River, McKeesport, Allegheny County, PA

  3. Northwest view of rotary hearth furnace of the no. 2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Northwest view of rotary hearth furnace of the no. 2 seamless line in bays 17 and 18 of the main pipe mill building. - U.S. Steel National Tube Works, Skelp Mill Building, Along Monongahela River, McKeesport, Allegheny County, PA

  4. Northwest view of rotary hearth furnace of the no. 2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Northwest view of rotary hearth furnace of the no. 2 seamless line in bays 17 and 18 of the main pipe mill building. - U.S. Steel National Tube Works, Main Pipe Mill Building, Along Monongahela River, McKeesport, Allegheny County, PA

  5. Rotary Drill Operator. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savilow, Bill

    This training outline for rotary drill operators, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for…

  6. A unidirectional rotary solenoid as applied to stronglinks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenderdine, Eugene W.

    1989-01-01

    The design goals and results of an advanced development stronglink are discussed. Special emphasis is placed on a new rotary solenoid concept to provide improved security during the handling, storage, transporting, and deployment of weapons to prevent accidental detonation of the weapons in the event of abnormal environments, such as impact, fire, crush, etc.

  7. Rotary wing aircraft and technical publications of NASA, 1970 - 1982

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hiemstra, J. D. (Compiler)

    1982-01-01

    This bibliography cites 933 documents in the NASA RECON data base which pertain to rotary wing aircraft. The entries are arranged in descending order by publication data except for the NASA-supported documents which are arranged in descending order by accession date.

  8. 37. VIEW OF SIX GAP ROTARY RECTIFIER FOR MAINTAINING CORONA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. VIEW OF SIX GAP ROTARY RECTIFIER FOR MAINTAINING CORONA DISCHARGE IN THE COTTRELL ELECTROSTATIC GENERATORS. THE SYSTEM WAS CAPABLE OF PROVIDING 88,000 VOLTS TO THE ELECTRODES WITHIN THE PRECIPITATOR CHAMBER THE UNIT WAS LOCATED TO THE REAR OF BOILER 904 IN AN ENCLOSED ROOM. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  9. Improved Rotary Transformer For Shaft-Position Indicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, W. T.

    1991-01-01

    Improved rotary transformer for Inductosyn (or equivalent) shaft-position-indicating circuit has pair of ferrite cores instead of the solid-iron cores. Designed with view toward decreasing excitation power (to maximum allowable 2 W) supplied to shaft-position-indicating circuit to increase its output signal and make tracking system less vulnerable to electromagnetic interference.

  10. Micro rotary machine and methods for using same

    DOEpatents

    Stalford, Harold L.

    2012-04-17

    A micro rotary machine may include a micro actuator and a micro shaft coupled to the micro actuator. The micro shaft comprises a horizontal shaft and is operable to be rotated by the micro actuator. A micro tool is coupled to the micro shaft and is operable to perform work in response to motion of the micro shaft.

  11. Micro rotary machine and methods for using same

    DOEpatents

    Stalford, Harold

    2015-01-13

    A micro rotary machine may include a micro actuator and a micro shaft coupled to the micro actuator. The micro shaft comprises a horizontal shaft and is operable to be rotated by the micro actuator. A micro tool is coupled to the micro shaft and is operable to perform work in response to motion of the micro shaft.

  12. TRANSIENT SUPPRESSION PACKAGING FOR REDUCED EMISSIONS FROM ROTARY KILN INCINERATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experiments were performed on a 73 kW rotary kiln incinerator simulator to determine whether innovative waste packaging designs might reduce transient emissions of products of incomplete combustion due to batch charging of containerized liquid surrogate waste compounds bound on g...

  13. MINIMIZATION OF TRANSIENT EMISSIONS FROM ROTARY KILN INCINERATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Transient emissions of organics can occur from rotary kiln incinerators when drums containing liquid wastes bound on sorbents are introduced in a batch-wise fashion. Physical processes controlling the release of waste from the sorbent material are greatly affected by the rotation...

  14. Proposed method of rotary dynamic balancing by laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, W. E.

    1967-01-01

    Laser method, where high energies of monochromatic light can be precisely collimated to perform welding and machining processes, is proposed for rotary dynamic balancing. The unbalance, as detected with the velocity pickup, would trigger the laser system which would emit high energy pulses directed at the heavy side of the component.

  15. Engineering study on the rotary-vee engine concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Edward A.; Bartland, Timothy A.; Beard, John E.

    1989-01-01

    This paper provides a review of the applicable thermodynamic cycle and performance considerations when the rotary-vee mechanism is used as an internal combustion (IC) heat engine. Included is a simplified kinematic analysis and studies of the effects of design parameters on the critical pressures, torques and parasitic losses. A discussion of the principal findings is presented.

  16. INTERIOR OF SHT (ROTARY DRYER FOR SODA) BUILDING OR DRYSIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF SHT (ROTARY DRYER FOR SODA) BUILDING OR DRYSIDE DRYERS WHICH REMOVED TRACES OF LIQUID FROM STD FILTRATE. HEAT CONVERTED SODIUM BICARBONATE TO SODIUM CARBONATE OR SODA ASH, THE PRINCIPAL PRODUCT OF THE WORKS. - Solvay Process Company, SHT Building, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  17. Dual Spark Plugs For Stratified-Charge Rotary Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abraham, John; Bracco, Frediano V.

    1996-01-01

    Fuel efficiency of stratified-charge, rotary, internal-combustion engine increased by improved design featuring dual spark plugs. Second spark plug ignites fuel on upstream side of main fuel injector; enabling faster burning and more nearly complete utilization of fuel.

  18. Engineering study of the rotary-vee engine concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Edward A.; Bartrand, Timothy A.; Beard, John E.

    1989-01-01

    The applicable thermodynamic cycle and performance considerations when the rotary-vee mechanism is used as an internal combustion (I.C.) heat engine are reviewed. Included is a simplified kinematic analysis and studies of the effects of design parameters on the critical pressures, torques and parasitic losses. A discussion of the principal findings is presented.

  19. Rotary Piezoelectric Motors Actuated by Traveling Waves (abstract)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lih, S. S.; Bar-Cohen, Y.

    1997-01-01

    Piezoelectric rotary motors are being developed as a drive mechanism for miniature spacecraft instruments and subsystems. The technology that has recently emerged in commercial products requires more rigorous analytical tools for effective design. The theoretical predictions and the experimental corraboration showed a remarkable agreement and they will be presented and discussed in this paper.

  20. Ultrasonic/Sonic Rotary-Hammer Drills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Bao, Xiaoqi; Kassab, Steve

    2010-01-01

    Ultrasonic/sonic rotary-hammer drill (USRoHD) is a recent addition to the collection of apparatuses based on ultrasonic/sonic drill corer (USDC). As described below, the USRoHD has several features, not present in a basic USDC, that increase efficiency and provide some redundancy against partial failure. USDCs and related apparatuses were conceived for boring into, and/or acquiring samples of, rock or other hard, brittle materials of geological interest. They have been described in numerous previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. To recapitulate: A USDC can be characterized as a lightweight, lowpower, piezoelectrically driven jackhammer in which ultrasonic and sonic vibrations are generated and coupled to a tool bit. A basic USDC includes a piezoelectric stack, an ultrasonic transducer horn connected to the stack, a free mass ( free in the sense that it can bounce axially a short distance between hard stops on the horn and the bit), and a tool bit. The piezoelectric stack creates ultrasonic vibrations that are mechanically amplified by the horn. The bouncing of the free mass between the hard stops generates the sonic vibrations. The combination of ultrasonic and sonic vibrations gives rise to a hammering action (and a resulting chiseling action at the tip of the tool bit) that is more effective for drilling than is the microhammering action of ultrasonic vibrations alone. The hammering and chiseling actions are so effective that unlike in conventional twist drilling, little applied axial force is needed to make the apparatus advance into the material of interest. There are numerous potential applications for USDCs and related apparatuses in geological exploration on Earth and on remote planets. In early USDC experiments, it was observed that accumulation of cuttings in a drilled hole causes the rate of penetration of the USDC to decrease steeply with depth, and that the rate of penetration can be increased by removing the cuttings. The USRoHD concept provides for

  1. Recovery of aluminum from rotary furnace salt cake by low impact rotary tumbling

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, D.J.

    1996-10-01

    The goal of secondary dross recyclers is to maximize the aluminum units recovered from the dross they process and minimize the amount of material they have to send to a landfill. Salt cake is a by-product of the rotary salt furnace processors. Although there are systems available to totally recycle this material, the financial aspects of the process can be debated depending on the volume of salt cake generated by the facility. Normally, from 3 to 10% aluminum is contained in this salt cake by weight. For a generator of only a million pounds a month of salt cake, This amount of aluminum is a significant number. Before now, the equipment to extract the aluminum from the salt cake has been very expensive, difficult to maintain and taken up a lot of real estate. Most processors have not gone with this option and all of the material is sent to the landfill. The Tumbler, as manufactured and designed by Didion and ALTEK, separates the aluminum from the salt cake in an efficient manner. The equipment is simple and easy to run in difficult environments. Yet, it takes a minimum of floor space. In this paper, the authors review the operation of The Tumbler on typical salt cake. White dross, black dross and pot line bath are also materials that can be processed by this system and will be touched on in the paper.

  2. Mixed Lubrication Analysis for Journal Bearings in Rotary Compressors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hattori, Hitoshi; Ito, Yasutaka; Hirayama, Takuya; Miura, Kazuhiko

    This paper describes the numerical analysis of mixed lubrication and the calculated results for journal bearings in rotary compressors. In this analysis, the modified Reynolds equation and the elastic contact equation, considering the effect of surface roughness, are solved as a coupled problem, and then influences of the elastic deformation of the bearing surface and the motion of the rotating shaft with bending deformation are also considered. The appearance of solid contact in hydrodynamic lubrication can be addressed by the analysis. Influences of the rotating speed and the surface roughness on the lubrication characteristics of the journal bearing were investigated by using the mixed lubrication analysis. As the results, it is made clear that the solid contact on the bearing surface occurs in the discharge process of rotary compressors. Furthermore, the contact pressure and the contact area decrease, even though the oil film thickness decreases, when the surface roughness becomes small.

  3. High Bandwidth Short Stroke Rotary Fast Tool Servo

    SciTech Connect

    Montesanti, R C; Trumper, D L

    2003-08-22

    This paper presents the design and performance of a new rotary fast tool servo (FTS) capable of developing the 40 g's tool tip acceleration required to follow a 5 micron PV sinusoidal surface at 2 kHz with a planned accuracy of 50 nm, and having a full stroke of 50 micron PV at lower frequencies. Tests with de-rated power supplies have demonstrated a closed-loop unity-gain bandwidth of 2 kHz with 20 g's tool acceleration, and we expect to achieve 40 g's with supplies providing {+-} 16 Amp to the Lorentz force actuator. The use of a fast tool servo with a diamond turning machine for producing non-axisymmetric or textured surfaces on a workpiece is well known. Our new rotary FTS was designed to specifically accommodate fabricating prescription textured surfaces on 5 mm diameter spherical target components for High Energy Density Physics experiments on the National Ignition Facility Laser (NIF).

  4. Rotary engine performance computer program (RCEMAP and RCEMAPPC): User's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartrand, Timothy A.; Willis, Edward A.

    1993-01-01

    This report is a user's guide for a computer code that simulates the performance of several rotary combustion engine configurations. It is intended to assist prospective users in getting started with RCEMAP and/or RCEMAPPC. RCEMAP (Rotary Combustion Engine performance MAP generating code) is the mainframe version, while RCEMAPPC is a simplified subset designed for the personal computer, or PC, environment. Both versions are based on an open, zero-dimensional combustion system model for the prediction of instantaneous pressures, temperature, chemical composition and other in-chamber thermodynamic properties. Both versions predict overall engine performance and thermal characteristics, including bmep, bsfc, exhaust gas temperature, average material temperatures, and turbocharger operating conditions. Required inputs include engine geometry, materials, constants for use in the combustion heat release model, and turbomachinery maps. Illustrative examples and sample input files for both versions are included.

  5. Rotary photon drag enhanced by a slow-light medium.

    PubMed

    Franke-Arnold, Sonja; Gibson, Graham; Boyd, Robert W; Padgett, Miles J

    2011-07-01

    Transmission through a spinning window slightly rotates the polarization of the light, typically by a microradian. It has been predicted that the same mechanism should also rotate an image. Because this rotary photon drag has a contribution that is inversely proportional to the group velocity, the image rotation is expected to increase in a slow-light medium. Using a ruby window under conditions for coherent population oscillations, we induced an effective group index of about 1 million. The resulting rotation angle was large enough to be observed by the eye. This result shows that rotary photon drag applies to images as well as polarization. The possibility of switching between different rotation states may offer new opportunities for controlled image coding. PMID:21719672

  6. Experimental analysis of IMEP in a rotary combustion engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schock, H. J.; Rice, W. J.; Meng, P. R.

    1981-01-01

    A real time indicated mean effective pressure measurement system is described which is used to judge proposed improvements in cycle efficiency of a rotary combustion engine. This is the first self-contained instrument that is capable of making real time measurements of IMEP in a rotary engine. Previous methods used require data recording and later processing using a digital computer. The unique features of this instrumentation include its ability to measure IMEP on a cycle by cycle, real time basis and the elimination of the need to differentiate volume function in real time. Measurements at two engine speeds (2000 and 3000 rpm) and a full range of loads are presented, although the instrument was designed to operate to speeds of 9000 rpm.

  7. Recent developments in rotary-wing aerodynamic theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W.

    1986-01-01

    Current progress in the computational analysis of rotary-wing flowfields is surveyed, and some typical results are presented in graphs. Topics examined include potential theory, rotating coordinate systems, lifting-surface theory (moving singularity, fixed wing, and rotary wing), panel methods (surface singularity representations, integral equations, and compressible flows), transonic theory (the small-disturbance equation), wake analysis (hovering rotor-wake models and transonic blade-vortex interaction), limitations on computational aerodynamics, and viscous-flow methods (dynamic-stall theories and lifting-line theory). It is suggested that the present algorithms and advanced computers make it possible to begin working toward the ultimate goal of turbulent Navier-Stokes calculations for an entire rotorcraft.

  8. Stratified charge rotary aircraft engine technology enablement program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badgley, P. R.; Irion, C. E.; Myers, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    The multifuel stratified charge rotary engine is discussed. A single rotor, 0.7L/40 cu in displacement, research rig engine was tested. The research rig engine was designed for operation at high speeds and pressures, combustion chamber peak pressure providing margin for speed and load excursions above the design requirement for a high is advanced aircraft engine. It is indicated that the single rotor research rig engine is capable of meeting the established design requirements of 120 kW, 8,000 RPM, 1,379 KPA BMEP. The research rig engine, when fully developed, will be a valuable tool for investigating, advanced and highly advanced technology components, and provide an understanding of the stratified charge rotary engine combustion process.

  9. Analysis and test of insulated components for rotary engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badgley, Patrick R.; Doup, Douglas; Kamo, Roy

    1989-01-01

    The direct-injection stratified-charge (DISC) rotary engine, while attractive for aviation applications due to its light weight, multifuel capability, and potentially low fuel consumption, has until now required a bulky and heavy liquid-cooling system. NASA-Lewis has undertaken the development of a cooling system-obviating, thermodynamically superior adiabatic rotary engine employing state-of-the-art thermal barrier coatings to thermally insulate engine components. The thermal barrier coating material for the cast aluminum, stainless steel, and ductile cast iron components was plasma-sprayed zirconia. DISC engine tests indicate effective thermal barrier-based heat loss reduction, but call for superior coefficient-of-thermal-expansion matching of materials and better tribological properties in the coatings used.

  10. Rotary echos for the preservation of quantum memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uys, Hermann; de Clerq, Ludwig; Green, Todd; Biercuk, Michael; Bollinger, John

    2011-05-01

    Dynamical decoupling is a promising technique for fighting the unwanted effects of decoherence in the context of quantum information. Decoupling techniques span two extremes from pulsed spin-echo sequences to optimized, continuous amplitude and phase modulation allowing arbitrary rotations on the Bloch sphere. On the one hand spin-echo techniques have the advantage of simplicity, while on the other optimized continuous modulation is expected to achieve better performance results at the cost complexity. That complexity exists both in the implementation and the modulation design, which either requires intimate knowledge of the relevant noise environment for numerical optimization or experimental optimization through feedback. Rotary echos represent an intermediate approach which have the advantage of continuous averaging of dephasing noise and pulsed compensation of fluctuations in the control field amplitude. Here we consider a classical dephasing noise environment and compare the performance of rotary echos to both pulsed and optimized continuous control decoupling techniques.

  11. Rotary ultrasonic motors actuated by traveling flexural waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lih, Shyh-Shiuh; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Grandia, Willem

    1997-06-01

    Ultrasonic rotary motors are being developed as actuators for miniature spacecraft instruments and subsystems. The technology that has emerged in commercial products requires rigorous analytical tools for effective design of such motors. An analytical model was developed to examine the excitation of flexural plate wave traveling in a rotary piezoelectrically actuated motor. The model uses annular finite elements that are applied to predict the excitation frequency and modal response of the annular stator. This model allows to design efficient ultrasonic motors (USMs) and it incorporates the details of the stator which include the teeth, piezoelectric crystals, stator geometry, etc. The theoretical predictions and the experimental corroboration showed a remarkable agreement. Parallel to this effort, USMs are made and incorporated into a robotic arm and their capability to operate at the environment of Mars is being studied.

  12. Microgravity Vibration Output Testing of Space Station Rotary Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boucher, Robert L.

    1999-01-01

    The mission of the International Space Station is to provide a working laboratory in orbit for research in engineering, life sciences, and microgravity. Ensuring that the mechanical equipment on Space Station does not unduly disturb the microgravity environment is of paramount importance in meeting the Station's mission. The large inertia being moved by the Space Station's solar array and thermal radiator rotary joints make them one of the largest potential disturbance sources. The present paper describes the mechanical and control system design of these joints, their disturbance producing characteristics, and analytical predictions of some key performance indicators. The component and system functional tests performed to measure the actual vibration output of the joints are detailed and the test results discussed. Results of the rotary joint test program presented here show that the joints do meet the Space Station microgravity requirements, ensuring that this unique laboratory for microgravity research will be unaffected by the operation of the largest moving machinery on board.

  13. A brief survey of rotary wing induced-velocity theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyson, H. H.

    1978-01-01

    An attempt is made to summarize the state of rotary wing flow fields. The theory is traced from its origin as a momentum theory estimate of average interference, through simple vortex theory, to its present status where it is indispensible in calculating blade loads. A comparison of the theory with flow measurements are presented. The modern efforts toward using more detailed digital methods to obtain blade load distribution are described.

  14. Skew and twist resistant hydrodynamic rotary shaft seal

    DOEpatents

    Dietle, Lannie; Kalsi, Manmohan Singh

    1999-01-01

    A hydrodynamically lubricated squeeze packing type rotary shaft seal suitable for lubricant retention and environmental exclusion which incorporates one or more resilient protuberances which and cooperate with the gland walls to hold the seal straight in its installation groove in unpressurized and low pressure lubricant retention applications thereby preventing skew-induced wear caused by impingement of abrasive contaminants present in the environment, and which also serve as radial bearings to prevent tipping of the seal within its installation gland.

  15. Skew and twist resistant hydrodynamic rotary shaft seal

    DOEpatents

    Dietle, L.; Kalsi, M.S.

    1999-02-23

    A hydrodynamically lubricated squeeze packing type rotary shaft seal suitable for lubricant retention and environmental exclusion which incorporates one or more resilient protuberances which cooperate with the gland walls to hold the seal straight in its installation groove in unpressurized and low pressure lubricant retention applications thereby preventing skew-induced wear caused by impingement of abrasive contaminants present in the environment, and which also serve as radial bearings to prevent tipping of the seal within its installation gland. 14 figs.

  16. Zink rotary kiln seal: Cam followers. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.L.

    1994-12-09

    The CIF will treat hazardous and mixed low-level radioactive waste in a rotary kiln and secondary combustion chamber. A high efficiency air pollution control system follows the secondary chamber. The rotary kiln is designed with a gas seal at each end of its rotating barrel which provides a barrier between the interior of the kiln and outside air. The internal pressure of the rotary kiln will be maintained below atmospheric pressure, so exterior air passing the seals is forced into the kiln`s interior. Positive pressure may be applied in the seal labyrinth, adding a barrier to flow. Both CIF seals will be covered entirely with exhaust hoods, drawing air over the outside of the seal and into a HEPA filtered exhaust system. Cam follower misalignment on a John Zink rotary kiln seal caused damage to the seal`s rotor. The misalignment was quantified, corrected, and checked to verify straightness. The primary purpose of the correction was to allow seal testing 1 to continue, but the information is applicable to the Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) since two large seals of similar design will be installed there. Cam follower straightness was off as much as 3.5{degrees}, causing followers to run untrue on the rotor. High contact forces resulted, removing flakes of metal from the rotor surface. The misalignment caused weight bearing followers on one side of the seal to back out of their threaded mounts. The root cause was poor machining of the follower mounting holes. Correction was accomplished by relieving the holes and installing machined spacers and retaining nuts. Cam followers on the CIF`s Zink seals should be inspected for straightness before the seals are installed.

  17. STANDBY TOP AND BOTTOM ROTARY MILLING CUTTERS FOR TORIN LINE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    STANDBY TOP AND BOTTOM ROTARY MILLING CUTTERS FOR TORIN LINE. SOME PRODUCT FROM THE #43 HOT ROLL IS PROCESSED ON THE TORIN LINE TO REMOVE OXIDIZED SURFACE MATERIAL. IN PRACTICE 15-20/1000 IS CUT FROM THE UPPER AND LOWER SURFACES OF THE STRIP AND RECYCLED TO THE CASTING SHOP. TORIN LINE ADDED AS PART OF 1981 EXPANSION PROGRAM. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  18. 5. Photocopied August 1978. FRONT OF A HORRY ROTARY FURNACE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photocopied August 1978. FRONT OF A HORRY ROTARY FURNACE, SHOWING INTERIOR ELECTRODES. THE RAW MATERIALS FOR CALCIUM CARBIDE PRODUCTION--LIMESTONE AND COKE--WERE FED BY HOPPERS PLACED BETWEEN THESE ELECTRODES INTO THE ELECTRIC ARC. THE REMOVABLE PLATES ON THE EXTERNAL CIRCUMSTANCE OF THE HORRY FURNACE ARE SHOWN ON THE FIRST THREE FURNACES. (M) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  19. Development of a rotary instrumentation system, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, A.; Skidmore, W.

    1982-01-01

    A rotary instrumentation system which consists of ruggedized miniature telemetry transmitters installed on the rotating shaft of a gas turbine engine to telemeter the outputs of sensors (strain gages, thermocouples, etc.) on rotating engine components was designed. A small prototype system, which demonstrates the capabilities of performing in the intended environment and demonstrates that the system is expandable to handle about 100 data channels was developed.

  20. FLIR systems submicro rotary stirling cycle IDCA for imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uri, Bin-Nun

    2011-06-01

    The advantages of the common Rotary Stirling cycle coolers over the Split Stirling Linear are the overall size, light weight, low cooler input power and high efficiency. The main disadvantage has always been self induced vibration. Self induced vibration is a major consideration in the design of stabilized IR imaging systems/(GIMBALS) due to the effect it has on image quality i.e. Jitter. The "irregular shape" of the Rotary cooling engine attached to the payload and optics is also a problem in terms of the limits it has on optical system size. To address these issues, FLIR Systems Inc in Boston MA, developed a new rotary Stirling cycle cooling engine known as the FLIR Submicro Cooler. The Submicro is now in production and has been applied in a few products especially in FLIR"S smallest GIMBAL which measures 7.0 inch in spherical diameter. In this paper we discuss the improvements made in terms of IDCA implementation in stabilized imaging systems.

  1. FLIR systems submicro rotary stirling cycle IDCA for imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bin-Nun, Uri

    2011-05-01

    The advantages of the common Rotary Stirling cycle coolers over the Split Stirling Linear are the overall size, light weight, low cooler input power and high efficiency. The main disadvantage has always been self induced vibration. Self induced vibration is a major consideration in the design of stabilized IR imaging systems/(GIMBALS) due to the effect it has on image quality i.e. Jitter. The "irregular shape" of the Rotary cooling engine attached to the payload and optics is also a problem in terms of the limits it has on optical system size. To address these issues, FLIR Systems Inc in Boston MA, developed a new rotary Stirling cycle cooling engine known as the FLIR Submicro Cooler. The Submicro is now in production and has been applied in a few products especially in FLIR"S smallest GIMBAL which measures 7.0 inch in spherical diameter. In this paper we discuss the improvements made in terms of IDCA implementation in stabilized imaging systems.

  2. Multi-fuel rotary engine for general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, C.; Ellis, D. R.; Meng, P. R.

    1983-01-01

    Design studies of advanced multifuel general aviation and commuter aircraft rotary stratified charge engines are summarized. Conceptual design studies were performed at two levels of technology, on advanced general aviation engines sized to provide 186/250 shaft kW/hp under cruise conditions at 7620 (25000 m/ft) altitude. A follow on study extended the results to larger (2500 hp max.) engine sizes suitable for applications such as commuter transports and helicopters. The study engine designs were derived from relevant engine development background including both prior and recent engine test results using direct injected unthrottled rotary engine technology. Aircraft studies, using these resultant growth engines, define anticipated system effects of the performance and power density improvements for both single engine and twin engine airplanes. The calculated results indicate superior system performance and 27 to 33 percent fuel economy improvement for the rotary engine airplanes as compared to equivalent airframe concept designs with current baseline engines. The research and technology activities required to attain the projected engine performance levels are also discussed.

  3. Thermal treatment of medical waste in a rotary kiln.

    PubMed

    Bujak, J

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents the results of a study of an experimental system with thermal treatment (incineration) of medical waste conducted at a large complex of hospital facilities. The studies were conducted for a period of one month. The processing system was analysed in terms of the energy, environmental and economic aspects. A rotary combustion chamber was designed and built with the strictly assumed length to inner diameter ratio of 4:1. In terms of energy, the temperature distribution was tested in the rotary kiln, secondary combustion (afterburner) chamber and heat recovery system. Calorific value of medical waste was 25.0 MJ/kg and the thermal efficiency of the entire system equalled 66.8%. Next, measurements of the pollutant emissions into the atmosphere were performed. Due to the nature of the disposed waste, particular attention was paid to the one-minute average values of carbon oxide and volatile organic compounds as well as hydrochloride, hydrogen fluoride, sulphur dioxide and total dust. Maximum content of non-oxidized organic compounds in slag and bottom ash were also verified during the analyses. The best rotary speed for the combustion chamber was selected to obtain proper afterburning of the bottom slag. Total organic carbon content was 2.9%. The test results were used to determine the basic economic indicators of the test system for evaluating the profitability of its construction. Simple payback time (SPB) for capital expenditures on the implementation of the project was 4 years. PMID:26241929

  4. Testing and Development of a Percussive Augmenter for Rotary Drills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donnelly, Christopher; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Chang, Zensheu; Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart

    2011-01-01

    Hammering drills are effective in fracturing the drilled medium while rotary drills remove cuttings. The combination provides a highly effective penetration mechanism. Piezoelectric actuators were integrated into an adapter to produce ultrasonic percussion; augmenting rotary drilling. The drill is capable of operating at low power, low applied force and, with proper tuning, low noise. These characteristics are of great interest for future NASA missions and the construction/remodeling industry. The developed augmenter connects a commercially available drill and bit and was tested to demonstrate its capability. Input power to the drill was read using a multimeter and the augmenter received a separate input voltage. The drive frequency of the piezoelectric actuator was controlled by a hill climb algorithm that optimizes and records average power usage to operate the drill at resonating frequency. Testing the rotary drill and augmenter across a range of combinations with total power constant at 160 Watts has shown results in concrete and limestone samples that are as good as or better than the commercial drill. The drill rate was increased 1.5 to over 10 times when compared to rotation alone.

  5. Numerical Investigations of an Optimized Airfoil with a Rotary Cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gada, Komal; Rahai, Hamid

    2015-11-01

    Numerical Investigations of an optimized thin airfoil with a rotary cylinder as a control device for reducing separation and improving lift to drag ratio have been performed. Our previous investigations have used geometrical optimization for development of an optimized airfoil with increased torque for applications in a vertical axis wind turbine. The improved performance was due to contributions of lift to torque at low angles of attack. The current investigations have been focused on using the optimized airfoil for micro-uav applications with an active flow control device, a rotary cylinder, to further control flow separation, especially during wind gust conditions. The airfoil has a chord length of 19.66 cm and a width of 25 cm with 0.254 cm thickness. Previous investigations have shown flow separation at approximately 85% chord length at moderate angles of attack. Thus the rotary cylinder with a 0.254 cm diameter was placed slightly downstream of the location of flow separation. The free stream mean velocity was 10 m/sec. and investigations have been performed at different cylinder's rotations with corresponding tangential velocities higher than, equal to and less than the free stream velocity. Results have shown more than 10% improvement in lift to drag ratio when the tangential velocity is near the free stream mean velocity. Graduate Assistant, Center for Energy and Environmental Research and Services (CEERS), College of Engineering, California State University, Long Beach.

  6. Rotary union for use with ultrasonic thickness measuring probe

    DOEpatents

    Nachbar, Henry D.

    1992-01-01

    A rotary union for rotatably supporting an ultrasonic probe operable to nondestructively measure the thickness of steam generator tubes to determine the amount of corrosion experienced by the tubes includes a stationary body having a bore therethrough and an outlet drain, and a fitting rotatably mounted within the upper end of the body. The fitting has a bore aligned with the bore of the body. An electrical cable positioned within a water supply tube in an annular arrangement passes through the bore of the body and the bore of the fitting. This annular arrangement, in turn, is positioned within a connector element which extends outwardly from the fitting bore and is connected to the ultrasonic probe. An elastomeric lower bushing seals the annular arrangement to the lower end of the rotary union body and an elastomeric upper bushing seals the connector element to the fitting to permit the connector element and the ultrasonic probe connected thereto to rotate with the fitting relative to the body. The lower and upper bushings permit water to be passed through the annular arrangement and into the ultrasonic probe and thereafter discharged between the annular arrangement and the connector element to the outlet drain of the rotary union body.

  7. Rotary union for use with ultrasonic thickness measuring probe

    DOEpatents

    Nachbar, H.D.

    1992-09-15

    A rotary union for rotatably supporting an ultrasonic probe operable to nondestructively measure the thickness of steam generator tubes to determine the amount of corrosion experienced by the tubes includes a stationary body having a bore therethrough and an outlet drain, and a fitting rotatably mounted within the upper end of the body. The fitting has a bore aligned with the bore of the body. An electrical cable positioned within a water supply tube in an annular arrangement passes through the bore of the body and the bore of the fitting. This annular arrangement, in turn, is positioned within a connector element which extends outwardly from the fitting bore and is connected to the ultrasonic probe. An elastomeric lower bushing seals the annular arrangement to the lower end of the rotary union body and an elastomeric upper bushing seals the connector element to the fitting to permit the connector element and the ultrasonic probe connected thereto to rotate with the fitting relative to the body. The lower and upper bushings permit water to be passed through the annular arrangement and into the ultrasonic probe and thereafter discharged between the annular arrangement and the connector element to the outlet drain of the rotary union body. 5 figs.

  8. Fragmentation of Newtonian and viscoelastic liquids during rotary atomization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keshavarz, Bavand; Moore, John; Houze, Eric; Koerner, Michael; McKinley, Gareth; MIT Collaboration; Axalta Coating Systems Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    Animals drying their wet fur by rapidly shaking their body and rotary atomization in paint coating are just a few examples in which centripetal acceleration is used to disintegrate liquid films into smaller fragments. Narrower size distributions and well-defined geometrical fluid pathlines (similar to the involute of a circle) are the main advantages of this type of atomization as compared to air-assisted atomization. Despite these inherent advantages there is a paucity of fundamental knowledge about the roles of fluid rheology in this process. We study the effects of viscosity by performing rotary atomization tests on silicone oils with a wide range of viscosities (1-1000 mPa.s). Viscoelastic effects are also probed by spraying solutions of polyethylene oxide (PEO) dissolved in water at different concentrations. Our results show that understanding the effects of liquid properties on the instabilities that control rotary atomization (primarily Rayleigh-Taylor instability during the ligament formation followed by Rayleigh-Plateau instability during droplet pinch-off) can help us understand the resulting fragment size distributions.

  9. Study of advanced rotary combustion engines for commuter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkowitz, M.; Jones, C.; Myers, D.

    1983-01-01

    Performance, weight, size, and maintenance data for advanced rotary aircraft engines suitable for comparative commuter aircraft system evaluation studies of alternate engine candidates are provided. These are turbocharged, turbocompounded, direct injected, stratified charge rotary engines. Hypothetical engines were defined (an RC4-74 at 895 kW and an RC6-87 at 1490 kW) based on the technologies and design approaches used in the highly advanced engine of a study of advanced general aviation rotary engines. The data covers the size range of shaft power from 597 kW (800 hp) to 1865 kW (2500 hp) and is in the form of drawings, tables, curves and written text. These include data on internal geometry and configuration, installation information, turbocharging and turbocompounding arrangements, design features and technologies, engine cooling, fuels, scaling for weight size BSFC and heat rejection for varying horsepower, engine operating and performance data, and TBO and maintenance requirements. The basic combustion system was developed and demonstrated; however the projected power densities and performance efficiencies require increases in engine internal pressures, thermal loading, and rotative speed.

  10. Multi-Fuel Rotary Engine for General Aviation Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, C.; Ellis, D. R.; Meng, P. R.

    1983-01-01

    Design studies, conducted for NASA, of Advanced Multi-fuel General Aviation and Commuter Aircraft Rotary Stratified Charge Engines are summarized. Conceptual design studies of an advanced engine sized to provide 186/250 shaft KW/HP under cruise conditions at 7620/25,000 m/ft. altitude were performed. Relevant engine development background covering both prior and recent engine test results of the direct injected unthrottled rotary engine technology, including the capability to interchangeably operate on gasoline, diesel fuel, kerosene, or aviation jet fuel, are presented and related to growth predictions. Aircraft studies, using these resultant growth engines, define anticipated system effects of the performance and power density improvements for both single engine and twin engine airplanes. The calculated results indicate superior system performance and 30 to 35% fuel economy improvement for the Rotary-engine airplanes as compared to equivalent airframe concept designs with current baseline engines. The research and technology activities required to attain the projected engine performance levels are also discussed.

  11. Rotary solenoid shutter drive assembly and rotary inertia damper and stop plate assembly. [for use with cameras mounted in satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cable, W. L.; Dougherty, H. B. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A camera shutter assembly composed of a pair of superposed opaque planar shutter blades, each having an aperture and being arranged for reciprocal linear movement is disclosed. A pair of rotary solenoids, each connected to one of the blades by a linkage and arranged to be actuated separately at a predetermined interval is provided. An inertia damper and stop plate is built into each solenoid to prevent rebound.

  12. A rotary-airlock valve resists abrasive mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    Hill and Griffith (H and G, Cincinnati, Ohio) is a leading supplier of custom-blended additives to founderies. Thousands of tons of clay and carbon blends such as bentonite, gilsonite and pulverized coal, pass through the company's rotary-airlock feeding system each month. H and G's original rotary valves had cylinders lined with chrome, and closed-end rotors with tips made from nickel-chromium alloys. These valves remained in service for a maximum of only three months each. During that time, the abrasive mixtures passing through the valves virtually eroded them, increasing tolerances and causing significant air leakage. The leaks caused the pneumatic line to plug up, reducing the velocity of the line below the minimum level needed to carry any material. To overcome the leakage, a second blower was added to the system. This unit supplied an additional 40 brake hp to the pneumatic-conveying line. With constant maintenance of the valve and the continuous operation of both blowers, H and G was able to extend the valve's life by nine months. After 20 years of trying valves with various configuration, H and G installed a Smoot Type 6 rotary-airlock valve in September of 1985. The new valve's internals were made from abrasion-resistant grades of NiHard and Stellite. This combination of alloys prolonged the active life of the valve by improving its abrasion resistance. During its first year, the Smoot valve did not break down, leak air or require use of the secondary blower. After its first year of service no wear was found on the valve's internal surfaces. Another mechanical analysis was performed in 1991, after five additional years of valve operation. The valve, which had now handled more than 250,000 tons of product, showed minimal wear. H and G's capital costs had been reduced from 25[cents]/ton to 3[cents]/ton by the new valve.

  13. Testing thread compounds for rotary-shouldered connections

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, E.I. ); Smith, J.E. )

    1993-09-01

    Trouble-free rotary-shouldered-connection performance depends on proper joint makeup. Joints must be tight enough to prevent shoulder separation under bending and tensile loads but not so tight that their tensile capacity decreases or the pin or box is damaged. The preload in a connection from tightening depends on the makeup torque and frictional properties of the thread compound. In 1957, Farr developed and published a simplified torque formula to calculate makeup torque: T[sub mu] = ([sigma]A/12)[(p/2[pi])+(r[sub t]K[sub f]/cos [Theta])+r[sub s]K[sub f

  14. The IRAC Shutter Mechanism: Residual Magnetism and the Rotary Solenoid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwinger, Scott; Hakun, Claef; Brown, Gary; Blumenstock, Ken

    2002-01-01

    The Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) Shutter mechanism was originally presented in the paper, 'A Low Power Cryogenic Shutter Mechanism for Use on Infrared Imagers' at the 34th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium, May 2000. At that time, the shutter was believed to be performing flawlessly and there was every indication it would continue to do so. In early spring of 2001, the calibration shutter, a rotary solenoid designed to be fail-safe open, remained in a closed state with no power to the electromagnetic coils. The ensuing investigation, subsequent testing, proposed remedy, and lessons learned are the focus of this paper.

  15. Improvements for rotary viscous dampers used in spacecraft deployment mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Alphonso; Powers, Charles; Lyons, Ron

    1998-01-01

    During component level thermal-vacuum deployment testing of eight rotary viscous dampers for the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite, all the dampers failed to provide damping during a region of the deployment. Radiographic examination showed that air in the damping fluid caused the undamped motion when the dampers were operated in a vacuum environment. Improvements in the procedure used to fill the dampers with damping fluid, the installation of a Viton vacuum seal in the damper cover, and improved screening techniques eliminated the problem.

  16. System and method for cooling a superconducting rotary machine

    SciTech Connect

    Ackermann, Robert Adolf; Laskaris, Evangelos Trifon; Huang, Xianrui; Bray, James William

    2011-08-09

    A system for cooling a superconducting rotary machine includes a plurality of sealed siphon tubes disposed in balanced locations around a rotor adjacent to a superconducting coil. Each of the sealed siphon tubes includes a tubular body and a heat transfer medium disposed in the tubular body that undergoes a phase change during operation of the machine to extract heat from the superconducting coil. A siphon heat exchanger is thermally coupled to the siphon tubes for extracting heat from the siphon tubes during operation of the machine.

  17. Piezoelectric Versus Conventional Rotary Techniques for Impacted Third Molar Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Qian; Qiu, Yating; Yang, Chi; Yang, Jingyun; Chen, Minjie; Zhang, Zhiyuan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Impacted third molars are frequently encountered in clinical work. Surgical removal of impacted third molars is often required to prevent clinical symptoms. Traditional rotary cutting instruments are potentially injurious, and piezosurgery, as a new osteotomy technique, has been introduced in oral and maxillofacial surgery. No consistent conclusion has been reached regarding whether this new technique is associated with fewer or less severe postoperative sequelae after third molar extraction. The aim of this study was to compare piezosurgery with rotary osteotomy techniques, with regard to surgery time and the severity of postoperative sequelae, including pain, swelling, and trismus. We conducted a systematic literature search in the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, and Google Scholar. The eligibility criteria of this study included the following: the patients were clearly diagnosed as having impacted mandibular third molars; the patients underwent piezosurgery osteotomy, and in the control group rotary osteotomy techniques, for removing impacted third molars; the outcomes of interest include surgery time, trismus, swelling or pain; the studies are randomized controlled trials. We used random-effects models to calculate the difference in the outcomes, and the corresponding 95% confidence interval. We calculated the weighted mean difference if the trials used the same measurement, and a standardized mean difference if otherwise. A total of seven studies met the eligibility criteria and were included in our analysis. Compared with rotary osteotomy, patients undergoing piezosurgery experienced longer surgery time (mean difference 4.13 minutes, 95% confidence interval 2.75–5.52, P < 0.0001). Patients receiving the piezoelectric technique had less swelling at postoperative days 1, 3, 5, and 7 (all Ps ≤0.023). Additionally, there was a trend of less postoperative pain and trismus in the piezosurgery groups. The number of included randomized controlled

  18. Rotary-wing aeroelasticity with application to VTOL vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedmann, Peretz P.

    1993-01-01

    A concise assessment is presented of the state of the art in the field of rotary-wing aeroelasticity (RWE). The basic ingredients of RWE are reviewed, including structural modeling, unsteady aerodynamic modeling, formulation of the equations of motion, and solution methods. Results illustrating these methods are presented for isolated blades and coupled rotor-fuselage problems. The application of active controls to suppress aeromechanical and aeroelastic instabilities and to reduce vibration in rotorcraft is discussed. Structural optimization with aeroelastic constraints, gust response analysis of helicopters, and aeroelastic problems in special VTOL vehicles are briefly examined.

  19. Rotary Percussive Auto-Gopher for Deep Drilling and Sampling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart

    2009-01-01

    The term "rotary percussive auto-gopher" denotes a proposed addition to a family of apparatuses, based on ultrasonic/ sonic drill corers (USDCs), that have been described in numerous previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. These apparatuses have been designed, variously, for boring into, and/or acquiring samples of, rock or other hard, brittle materials of geological interest. In the case of the rotary percussive autogopher, the emphasis would be on developing an apparatus capable of penetrating to, and acquiring samples at, depths that could otherwise be reached only by use of much longer, heavier, conventional drilling-and-sampling apparatuses. To recapitulate from the prior articles about USDCs: A USDC can be characterized as a lightweight, low-power jackhammer in which a piezoelectrically driven actuator generates ultrasonic vibrations and is coupled to a tool bit through a free mass. The bouncing of the free mass between the actuator horn and the drill bit converts the actuator ultrasonic vibrations into sonic hammering of the drill bit. The combination of ultrasonic and sonic vibrations gives rise to a hammering action (and a resulting chiseling action at the tip of the tool bit) that is more effective for drilling than is the microhammering action of ultrasonic vibrations alone. The hammering and chiseling actions are so effective that the size of the axial force needed to make the tool bit advance into soil, rock, or another material of interest is much smaller than in ordinary rotary drilling, ordinary hammering, or ordinary steady pushing. The predecessor of the rotary percussive auto-gopher is an apparatus, now denoted an ultrasonic/sonic gopher and previously denoted an ultrasonic gopher, described in "Ultrasonic/ Sonic Mechanism for Drilling and Coring" (NPO-30291), NASA Tech Briefs Vol. 27, No. 9 (September 2003), page 65. The ultrasonic/sonic gopher is intended for use mainly in acquiring cores. The name of the apparatus reflects the fact that, like a

  20. Skew And Twist Resistant Hydrodynamic Rotary Shaft Seal

    DOEpatents

    Dietle, Lannie; Kalsi, Manmohan Singh

    2000-03-14

    A hydrodynamically lubricated squeeze packing type rotary shaft seal suitable for lubricant retention and environmental exclusion which incorporates one or more resilient protuberances which and cooperate with the gland walls to hold the seal straight in its installation groove in unpressurized and low pressure lubricant retention applications thereby preventing skew-induced wear caused by impingement of abrasive contaminants present in the environment, and which also serve as radial bearings to prevent tipping of the seal within its installation gland. Compared to prior art, this invention provides a dramatic reduction of seal and shaft wear in abrasive environments and provides a significant increase in seal life.

  1. High-Resolution Rotary-To-Linear Motion Converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millam, M. Bruce; Studer, Philip

    1992-01-01

    Compact rotary-to-linear motion converter combines high load-carrying ability with finely resolvable movement. Simple and inexpensive to manufacture. Helical coil of metal ribbon wrapped around spool. Bearing supports spool on fixed base. Restraining bar prevents collar from rotating, but allows it to rise and fall. 1,000-turn coil of ribbon 0.010 in. thick provides for translation of collar over distance of 10 inches. Coil made from flattened roll-formed wire. Material inexpensive, strong, and resistant to fatigue.

  2. 6. Photocopied August 1978. LINEUP OF HORRY ROTARY FURNACES ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photocopied August 1978. LINE-UP OF HORRY ROTARY FURNACES ON THE SECOND FLOOR OF THE MICHIGAN LAKE SUPERIOR POWER COMPANY POWER HOUSE. THE HOPPERS WHICH FED THE RAW MATERIALS INTO THE FURNACES ARE SHOWN ABOVE THE FURNACES. AS THE 'SPOOL' OF THE FURNACE ROTATED PAST THE ELECTRODES PLATES WERE ADDED TO HOLD THE FINISHED PRODUCT AND THE DESCENDING RAW MATERIALS IN PLACE. THE DIRECTION OF ROTATION OF THE FURNACES SHOWN IN THIS PHOTO IS CLOCKWISE, (M). - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  3. ROPEC - ROtary PErcussive Coring Drill for Mars Sample Return

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Philip; Spring, Justin; Zacny, Kris

    2014-01-01

    The ROtary Percussive Coring Drill is a light weight, flight-like, five-actuator drilling system prototype designed to acquire core material from rock targets for the purposes of Mars Sample Return. In addition to producing rock cores for sample caching, the ROPEC drill can be integrated with a number of end effectors to perform functions such as rock surface abrasion, dust and debris removal, powder and regolith acquisition, and viewing of potential cores prior to caching. The ROPEC drill and its suite of end effectors have been demonstrated with a five degree of freedom Robotic Arm mounted to a mobility system with a prototype sample cache and bit storage station.

  4. NASA Subsonic Rotary Wing Project - Structures and Materials Discipline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halbig, Michael C.; Johnson, Susan M.

    2008-01-01

    The Structures & Materials Discipline within the NASA Subsonic Rotary Wing Project is focused on developing rotorcraft technologies. The technologies being developed are within the task areas of: 5.1.1 Life Prediction Methods for Engine Structures & Components 5.1.2 Erosion Resistant Coatings for Improved Turbine Blade Life 5.2.1 Crashworthiness 5.2.2 Methods for Prediction of Fatigue Damage & Self Healing 5.3.1 Propulsion High Temperature Materials 5.3.2 Lightweight Structures and Noise Integration The presentation will discuss rotorcraft specific technical challenges and needs as well as details of the work being conducted in the six task areas.

  5. Pendulation control system and method for rotary boom cranes

    SciTech Connect

    Robinett, III, Rush D.; Groom, Kenneth N.; Feddema, John T.; Parker, Gordon G.

    2002-01-01

    A command shaping control system and method for rotary boom cranes provides a way to reduce payload pendulation caused by real-time input signals, from either operator command or automated crane maneuvers. The method can take input commands and can apply a command shaping filter to reduce contributors to payload pendulation due to rotation, elevation, and hoisting movements in order to control crane response and reduce tangential and radial payload pendulation. A filter can be applied to a pendulation excitation frequency to reduce residual radial pendulation and tangential pendulation amplitudes.

  6. 16 CFR 1205.6 - Warning label for reel-type and rotary power mowers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... adjacent supporting structure or assembly, with the warning label shown in Fig. 7. The label shall be at... size relation to each other and to the label as shown in Fig. 7. EC03OC91.016 (b) Rotary mowers. Walk-behind rotary mowers shall have one label as shown in Fig. 7, on the blade housing. The label shall...

  7. 16 CFR 1205.6 - Warning label for reel-type and rotary power mowers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... adjacent supporting structure or assembly, with the warning label shown in Fig. 7. The label shall be at... size relation to each other and to the label as shown in Fig. 7. EC03OC91.016 (b) Rotary mowers. Walk-behind rotary mowers shall have one label as shown in Fig. 7, on the blade housing. The label shall...

  8. The Influence of Rotary Vestibular Stimulation upon Motor Development of Nonhandicapped and Down Syndrome Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arendt, Robert E.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    A quantifiable regimen of supplemental rotary vestibular stimulation was administered in a cross-over longitudinal design to 11 nonhandicapped and 10 Down's syndrome infants. Results indicated that supplementary rotary vestibular stimulation produced no measurable gain in motor ability. Greater gains were exhibited in the early phase of the study,…

  9. Math modeling and computer mechanization for real time simulation of rotary-wing aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, R. M.

    1979-01-01

    Mathematical modeling and computer mechanization for real time simulation of rotary wing aircraft is discussed. Error analysis in the digital simulation of dynamic systems, such as rotary wing aircraft is described. The method for digital simulation of nonlinearities with discontinuities, such as exist in typical flight control systems and rotor blade hinges, is discussed.

  10. Carbon reactivation by externally-fired rotary kiln furnace. Final report Oct 75-Jan 78

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.; Directo, L.S.

    1980-08-01

    An externally-fired rotary kiln furnace system has been evaluated for cost-effectiveness in carbon reactivation at the Pomona Advanced Wastewater Treatment Research Facility. The pilot scale rotary kiln furnace was operated within the range of 682 kg/day (1,500 lb/day) to 909 kg/day (2,000 lb/day). The rotary kiln furnace was found to be as effective as the multiple hearth furnace in reactivating the exhausted granular activated carbon. The operating and maintenance of the rotary kiln system required less operator skill than the multiple hearth furnace system. However, the corrosion rate was higher in the rotary tube than in the multiple hearth furnace. Cost estimates based on a typical regeneration capacity of 182 kg/hr (400 lb/hr) have been made for both rotary kiln and multiple hearth furnace systems. These indicate that the capital cost for the multiple hearth furnace is about two times that of the rotary kiln furnace. The operation and maintenance costs for both furnace systems are similar. The overall process costs for the multiple hearth and rotary kiln furnace systems are estimated to be 33.2 cents/kg (15.1 cents/lb) of carbon regenerated and 29.2 cents/kg (13.3 cents/lb) of carbon regenerated, respectively.

  11. 33 CFR 100.914 - Trenton Rotary Roar on the River, Trenton, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Trenton Rotary Roar on the River, Trenton, MI. 100.914 Section 100.914 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.914 Trenton Rotary Roar on the River, Trenton, MI. (a)...

  12. Pure-rotary periodic motions of a planar two-ball auto-balancer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Chung-Jen; Tien, Meng-Hsuan

    2012-10-01

    Ball-type automatic balancers have been widely used to suppress the unbalanced vibration of rotor systems. However, instead of reaching the desired perfect balancing position, where the balls of the automatic balancer are allocated properly so that the rotor is perfectly balanced, the system may settle into a pure-rotary periodic motion, in which all the balls stick together and keep rotating around the balancer. Because the associated large vibrations may deteriorate the performance of the rotor system, it is desirable to avoid the pure-rotary periodic motion. To this end, there is a need to understand the properties of pure-rotary periodic motions clearly. In this study, we used the modified incremental harmonic balance method to find pure-rotary periodic motions numerically. The existence and stable regions of the pure-rotary periodic motion in a two-parameter plane were identified. The effects of system parameters on the stable regions of the pure-rotary periodic motion were examined. By comparing the stable regions of the pure-rotary periodic motion with those of the perfect balancing position, the variation of the steady-state response with the rotational speed was investigated. We also conducted experiments to test the stability of the pure-rotary periodic motion under different conditions. The experimental results agree well with the numerical results.

  13. Blast-free mining of coal seams by excavators equipped with rotary dynamic buckets

    SciTech Connect

    Labutin, V.N.; Mattis, A.R.; Zaitseva, A.A.

    2005-04-01

    The necessity to equip cable excavators with rotary buckets is substantiated. The results of graphic-analytical analysis of the rotary bucket operation are presented, and its main advantages are determined in comparison with conventional buckets in mining coal seams of complex structure.

  14. Development of a rotary power transformer and inverter drive for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, W. T.; Bridgeforth, A. O.

    1983-01-01

    Many future satellites and spacecraft with spun and despun configurations will require the transfer of power across rotating interfaces in lieu of slip-rings and/or flexures. This is particularly true of spacecraft that have to demonstrate a long life expectancy. The rotary transformer has the desirable characteristics of high reliability and low noise, which qualify it as a potential replacement for slip rings. Development of a rotary power transformer follows the successful completion of a task to develop rotary signal-level transformers for the Galileo Spacecraft Project. The physical configuration of a rotary power transformer has a significant effect on its magnetic and electrical characteristics and therefore impacts the design of the dc/ac inverter driver. Important characteristics addressed during this development effort include: operating frequency, efficiency, transformer gap size, leakage inductance, and leakage flux. A breadboard inverter and rotary transformer were designed, fabricated and tested.

  15. Choice reaction time to visual motion during prolonged rotary motion in airline pilots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, J. D.; Clark, B.

    1975-01-01

    Thirteen airline pilots were studied to determine the effect of preceding rotary accelerations on the choice reaction time to the horizontal acceleration of a vertical line on a cathode-ray tube. On each trial, one of three levels of rotary and visual acceleration was presented with the rotary stimulus preceding the visual by one of seven periods. The two accelerations were always equal and were presented in the same or opposite directions. The reaction time was found to increase with increases in the time the rotary acceleration preceded the visual acceleration, and to decrease with increased levels of visual and rotary acceleration. The reaction time was found to be shorter when the accelerations were in the same direction than when they were in opposite directions. These results suggest that these findings are a special case of a general effect that the authors have termed 'gyrovisual modulation'.

  16. Effects of angular acceleration on man - Choice reaction time using visual and rotary motion information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, B.; Stewart, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    This experiment was concerned with the effects of rotary acceleration on choice reaction time (RTc) to the motion of a luminous line on a cathode-ray tube. Specifically, it compared the (RTc) to rotary acceleration alone, visual acceleration alone, and simultaneous, double stimulation by both rotary and visual acceleration. Thirteen airline pilots were rotated about an earth-vertical axis in a precision rotation device while they observed a vertical line. The stimuli were 7 rotary and visual accelerations which were matched for rise time. The pilot responded as quickly as possible by displacing a vertical controller to the right or left. The results showed a decreasing (RTc) with increasing acceleration for all conditions, while the (RTc) to rotary motion alone was substantially longer than for all other conditions. The (RTc) to the double stimulation was significantly longer than that for visual acceleration alone.

  17. Reversing the direction in a light-driven rotary molecular motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruangsupapichat, Nopporn; Pollard, Michael M.; Harutyunyan, Syuzanna R.; Feringa, Ben L.

    2011-01-01

    Biological rotary motors can alter their mechanical function by changing the direction of rotary motion. Achieving a similar reversal of direction of rotation in artificial molecular motors presents a fundamental stereochemical challenge: how to change from clockwise to anticlockwise motion without compromising the autonomous unidirectional rotary behaviour of the system. A new molecular motor with multilevel control of rotary motion is reported here, in which the direction of light-powered rotation can be reversed by base-catalysed epimerization. The key steps are deprotonation and reprotonation of the photochemically generated less-stable isomers during the 360° unidirectional rotary cycle, with complete inversion of the configuration at the stereogenic centre. The ability to change directionality is an essential step towards mechanical molecular systems with adaptive functional behaviour.

  18. Experimental research on pressure loss of rotary pressure exchanger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, L.; Shi, Y.; Liu, Z. C.; Li, L.; Feng, Z. M.; Zhao, C. F.; Wei, Y.

    2016-05-01

    In order to research the phenomenon ‘Pressure Loss’ of Rotary Pressure Exchanger when it worked in a certain working condition, such as pressure and flow, two different series of experiments were performed respectively in the same experimental apparatus. One is to set pressure as constant when flow is changeable, the other one is to set flow as constant when pressure is changeable. Then, the curves and tables depicting the relationship between the pressure loss rate and working conditions were illustrated. Results from the curves and tables show that flow and pressure has an impact on pressure loss, and the relationship present some of regularity. According to the regularity, an empirical formula which can be used to approximately predict the magnitude of pressure loss for subsequent engineering application was provided by regression analysis on the basis of experimental data. Meanwhile, a 3-Dimensional geometric model of passageway in rotary pressure exchanger were built to verify the accuracy, making a steady calculation on pressure field by Fluent. At last, the feasibility was verified in a field application in a desalination factory.

  19. Results from Testing of Two Rotary Percussive Drilling Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kriechbaum, Kristopher; Brown, Kyle; Cady, Ian; von der Heydt, Max; Klein, Kerry; Kulczycki, Eric; Okon, Avi

    2010-01-01

    The developmental test program for the MSL (Mars Science Laboratory) rotary percussive drill examined the e ect of various drill input parameters on the drill pene- tration rate. Some of the input parameters tested were drill angle with respect to gravity and percussive impact energy. The suite of rocks tested ranged from a high strength basalt to soft Kaolinite clay. We developed a hole start routine to reduce high sideloads from bit walk. The ongoing development test program for the IMSAH (Integrated Mars Sample Acquisition and Handling) rotary percussive corer uses many of the same rocks as the MSL suite. An additional performance parameter is core integrity. The MSL development test drill and the IMSAH test drill use similar hardware to provide rotation and percussion. However, the MSL test drill uses external stabilizers, while the IMSAH test drill does not have external stabilization. In addition the IMSAH drill is a core drill, while the MSL drill uses a solid powdering bit. Results from the testing of these two related drilling systems is examined.

  20. Cora valveless pulsatile rotary pump: new design and control.

    PubMed

    Monties, J R; Trinkl, J; Mesana, T; Havlik, P J; Demunck, J L

    1996-01-01

    For decades, research for developing a totally implantable artificial ventricle has been carried on. For 4 to 5 years, two devices have been investigated clinically. For many years, we have studied a rotary (but not centrifugal) pump that furnishes pulsatile flow without a valve and does not need external venting or a compliance chamber. It is a hypocycloidal pump based on the principle of the Maillard-Wankel rotary compressor. Currently made of titanium, it is activated by an electrical brushless direct-current motor. The motor-pump unit is totally sealed and implantable, without noise or vibration. This pump was implanted as a left ventricular assist device in calves. The midterm experiments showed good hemodynamic function. The hemolysis was low, but serious problems were encountered: blood components collecting on the gear mechanism inside the rotor jammed the pump. We therefore redesigned the pump to seal the gear mechanism. We used a double system to seal the open end of the rotor cavity with components polished to superfine optical quality. In addition, we developed a control system based on the study of the predicted shape of the motor current. The new design is now underway. We hope to start chronic experiments again in a few months. If the problem of sealing the bearing could be solved, the Cora ventricle could be used as permanent totally implantable left ventricular assist device. PMID:8561627

  1. Electro thermal analysis of rotary type micro thermal actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anwar, M. Arefin; Packirisamy, Muthukumaran; Ahmed, A. K. Waiz

    2005-09-01

    In micro domain, thermal actuators are favored because it provides higher force and deflection than others. This paper presents a new type of micro thermal actuator that provides rotary motion of the circular disc shaped cold arm, which can be used in various optical applications, such as, switching, attenuation, diffraction, etc. The device has been fabricated in MUMPS technology. In this new design, the hot arms are arranged with the cold disc in such a way that thermal expansion of the hot arms due to Joule heating, will make the cold disc to rotate and the rotation is unidirectional on loading. The dominant heat transfer modes in the operating temperature zone are through the anchor and the air between the structure and the substrate because of the very low gap provided by MUMPS. A mathematical model was used for predicting steady state temperature profile along the actuator length and rotational behavior of the cold disc under different applied voltages. A 3-D coupled field finite element analysis (FEM) for the device is also presented. A FEM analysis was done by defining an air volume around the structure and substrate below the structure. Results obtained from the mathematical model, was compared with that of the finite element analysis. The presented results confirm the applicability of this novel rotary type thermal actuator for many optical MEMS applications.

  2. Wear compensating seal means for rotary piston coal feeder

    DOEpatents

    Gencsoy, Hasan T.; Gardner, John F.

    1979-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a wear compensating seal arrangement for use in a rotary piston feeder utilized for feeding pulverized coal into a gasifier operating at relatively high pressures and elevated temperatures. The rotary piston feeder has a circular casing with a coal loading opening therein diametrically opposed from a coal discharge and contains a rotatable disoidal rotor having a cylinder in which a reciprocatable piston is disposed. The reciprocation of the piston within the cylinder is provided by a stationary conjugate cam whereby pulverized coal from a coal hopper at atmospheric pressure can be introduced into the cylinder and then discharged therefrom into the high pressure gasifier while maintaining minimal losses of producer gas and the expenditure of minimal energy which would detract from the efficiency of the gasification. The seal arrangement of the present invention is disposed between the rotor and the casing about the coal discharge and prevents the high pressure gases from within the gasifier from escaping between these relatively movable parts during operation of the coal feeder. The seal utilizes a primary seal in contact with the rotor and a secondary seal supporting the primary seal. The primary seal is continuously urged towards the rotor by springs and the high pressure producer gas.

  3. Minimization of transient emissions from rotary-kiln incinerators, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Lemieux, P.M.; Linak, W.P.; McSorley, J.A.; Wendt, J.O.L.; Dunn, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    The paper discusses combining experimental results from a pilot-scale rotary kiln incinerator simulator with a theoretical model in order to explore the potential of minimizing transient emissions through changes in kiln rotation speed and temperature, steady state oxygen enrichment, and oxygen enrichment in a dynamic mode. Results indicate that transient organic emissions can indeed be minimized by changes in these kiln operating parameters but, because of the complex interactions of physical and chemical processes controlling emissions, the appropriate abatement procedures must be implemented carefully. Transient emissions of organics occur from rotary kiln incinerators when drums containing liquid wastes bound on sorbents are introduced in batches. Physical processes controlling the release of waste from the sorbent material are greatly affected by the rotation speed and temperature of the kiln. Local partial pressure of oxygen influences the rate of oxidation of the puff formed inside the kiln. These physical and chemical phenomena can be used to control transient emissions by oxygen enrichment, where it is done in either a steady or a dynamic mode.

  4. Differential scanning calorimetric studies of nickel titanium rotary endodontic instruments.

    PubMed

    Brantley, W A; Svec, T A; Iijima, M; Powers, J M; Grentzer, T H

    2002-08-01

    Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) analyses were performed between -130 degrees and 100 degrees C on specimens prepared from nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary endodontic instruments: ProFile (n = 5), Lightspeed (n = 4), and Quantec (n = 3). The ProFile and Lightspeed instruments were in the as-received condition, whereas the Quantec instruments were randomly selected from a dental clinic and had unknown history. The DSC plots showed that the ProFile and Lightspeed instruments analyzed had the superelastic NiTi property, with an austenite-finish (Af) temperature of approximately 25 degrees C. Differences in DSC plots for the ProFile instruments and the starting wire blanks (n = 2) were attributed to the manufacturing process. The phase transformation behavior when the specimens were heated and cooled between -130 degrees and 100 degrees C, the temperature ranges for the phase transformations, and the resulting enthalpy changes were similar to those previously reported for nickel-titanium orthodontic wires having superelastic characteristics or shape memory behavior in the oral environment. The experiments demonstrated that DSC is a powerful tool for materials characterization of these rotary instruments, providing direct information not readily available from other analytical techniques about the NiTi phases present, which are fundamentally responsible for their clinical behavior. PMID:12184415

  5. UV imprint fabrication of polymeric scales for optical rotary encoders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jucius, D.; Grybas, I.; Grigaliūnas, V.; Mikolajūnas, M.; Lazauskas, A.

    2014-03-01

    Optical encoders are one of the most common displacement sensors. Scale gratings for such sensors are usually made of glass. However, polymers can offer several advantages such as lightweight, low cost fabrication and versatility in structures and grades. In this paper application of UV imprint technique to fabricate polymeric scale gratings for rotary encoders is reported. Experiments are performed by imprinting 3 μm layer of UV sensitive photopolymer coated on the substrate made of 200 μm PET film. Process of UV imprinting caused no problems concerned with mould contamination or sticking to the polymer. Optical microscopy and AFM measurements of replicated polymeric scales have demonstrated the absence of macro-defects and good reproducibility of Si mould features with lateral dimensions down to the order of hundreds of nanometers. Measurements of intensity distribution in transmitted diffraction pattern have showed an effective diffraction with most of the diffracted light intensity concentrated in the zero and first diffraction order as it is required for the application in optical rotary encoders employing interferential scanning principle. Commercialization of UV imprint technology would allow replacement of conventional glass scales at least in those applications where lightweight and low price of encoders are of great importance.

  6. Percussive Augmenter of Rotary Drills (PARoD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Chang, Zensheu; Donnelly, Chris; Aldrich, Jack

    2012-01-01

    Increasingly, NASA exploration mission objectives include sample acquisition tasks for in-situ analysis or for potential sample return to Earth. To address the requirements for samplers that could be operated at the conditions of the various bodies in the solar system, a piezoelectric actuated percussive sampling device was developed that requires low preload (as low as 10N) which is important for operation at low gravity. This device can be made as light as 400g, can be operated using low average power, and can drill rocks as hard as basalt. Significant improvement of the penetration rate was achieved by augmenting the hammering action by rotation and use of a fluted bit to provide effective cuttings removal. Generally, hammering is effective in fracturing drilled media while rotation of fluted bits is effective in cuttings removal. To benefit from these two actions, a novel configuration of a percussive mechanism was developed to produce an augmenter of rotary drills. The device was called Percussive Augmenter of Rotary Drills (PARoD). A breadboard PARoD was developed with a 6.4 mm (0.25 in) diameter bit and was demonstrated to increase the drilling rate of rotation alone by 1.5 to over 10 times. Further, a large PARoD breadboard with 50.8 mm diameter bit was developed and its tests are currently underway. This paper presents the design, analysis and preliminary test results of the percussive augmenter.

  7. Rotary Motors Actuated by Traveling Ultrasonic Flexural Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Bao, Xiaoqi; Grandia, Willem

    1999-01-01

    Efficient miniature actuators that are compact and consume low power are needed to drive space and planetary mechanisms in future NASA missions. Ultrasonic rotary motors have the potential to meet this NASA need and they are developed as actuators for miniature telerobotic applications. These motors have emerged in commercial products but they need to be adapted for operation at the harsh space environments that include cryogenic temperatures and vacuum and also require effective analytical tools for the design of efficient motors. A finite element analytical model was developed to examine the excitation of flexural plate wave traveling in a piezoelectrically actuated rotary motor. The model uses 3D finite element and equivalent circuit models that are applied to predict the excitation frequency and modal response of the stator. This model incorporates the details of the stator including the teeth, piezoelectric ceramic, geometry, bonding layer, etc. The theoretical predictions were corroborated experimentally for the stator. In parallel, efforts have been made to determine the thermal and vacuum performance of these motors. Experiments have shown that the motor can sustain at least 230 temperature cycles from 0 C to -90 C at 7 Torr pressure significant performance change. Also, in an earlier study the motor lasted over 334 hours at -150 C and vacuum. To explore telerobotic applications for USMs a robotic arm was constructed with such motors.

  8. Rotary ultrasonic motors actuated by traveling flexural waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Bao, Xiaoqi; Grandia, Willem

    1999-06-01

    Efficient miniature actuators that are compact and consume low power are needed to drive space and planetary mechanisms in future NASA missions. Ultrasonic rotary motors have the potential to meet this NASA need and they are developed as actuators for miniature telerobotic applications. These motors have emerged in commercial products but they need to be adapted for operation at the harsh space environments that include cryogenic temperatures and vacuum and also require effective analytical tools for the design of efficient motors. A finite element analytical model was developed to examine the excitation of flexural plate wave traveling in a piezoelectrically actuated rotary motor. The model uses 3D finite element and equivalent circuit models that are applied to predict the excitation frequency and modal response of the stator. This model incorporates the details of the stator including the teeth, piezoelectric ceramic, geometry, bonding layer, etc. The theoretical predictions were corroborated experimentally for the stator. In parallel, efforts have been made to determine the thermal and vacuum performance of these motors. Experiments have shown that the motor can sustain at least 230 temperature cycles from 0 degree(s)C to -90 degree(s)C at 7 Torr pressure significant performance change. Also, in an earlier study the motor lasted over 334 hours at -150 degree(s)C and vacuum. To explore telerobotic applications for USMs a robotic arm was constructed with such motors.

  9. Rotary ultrasonic motors actuated by traveling flexural waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Bao, Xiaoqi; Grandia, Willem

    1998-07-01

    Efficient miniature actuators that are compact and consume low power are needed to drive telerobotic devices and space mechanisms in future NASA missions. Ultrasonic rotary motors have the potential to meet this NASA need and they are developed as actuators for miniature telerobotic applications. The technology that has emerged in commercial products requires rigorous analytical tools for effective design of such motors. A finite element analytical model was developed to examine the excitation of flexural plate wave traveling in a rotary piezoelectrically actuated motor. The model uses annular finite elements that are applied to predict the excitation frequency and modal response of an annular stator. This model is being developed to enable the design of efficient ultrasonic motors (USMs) and it incorporates the details of the stator which include the teeth, piezoelectric crystals, stator geometry, etc. The theoretical predictions were corroborated experimentally for the stator. Parallel to this effect, USMs are made and incorporated into a robotic arm and their capability to operate at the environment of Mars is being studied. Motors with two different actuators layout were tested at cryovac conditions and were shown to operate down to -150 degree(s)C and 16-mTorr when the activation starts at ambient conditions.

  10. Constraints on models for the flagellar rotary motor.

    PubMed

    Berg, H C

    2000-04-29

    Most bacteria that swim are propelled by flagellar filaments, each driven at its base by a rotary motor embedded in the cell wall and cytoplasmic membrane. A motor is about 45 nm in diameter and made up of about 20 different kinds of parts. It is assembled from the inside out. It is powered by a proton (or in some species, a sodium-ion) flux. It steps at least 400 times per revolution. At low speeds and high torques, about 1000 protons are required per revolution, speed is proportional to protonmotive force, and torque varies little with temperature or hydrogen isotope. At high speeds and low torques, torque increases with temperature and is sensitive to hydrogen isotope. At room temperature, torque varies remarkably little with speed from about -100 Hz (the present limit of measurement) to about 200 Hz, and then it declines rapidly reaching zero at about 300 Hz. These are facts that motor models should explain. None of the existing models for the flagellar rotary motor completely do so. PMID:10836502

  11. Rotary and radial forcing effects on center-of-mass locomotion dynamics.

    PubMed

    Shen, Z H; Larson, P L; Seipel, J E

    2014-09-01

    Rotary and radial forcing are two common actuation methods for legged robots. However, these two orthogonal methods of center-of-mass (CoM) forcing have not been compared as potentially alternative strategies of actuation. In this paper, we compare the CoM stability and energetics of running with rotary and radial actuation through the simulation of two models: the rotary-forced spring-loaded inverted pendulum (rotary-forced-SLIP), and the radially-forced-SLIP. We model both radial and rotary actuation in the simplest way, applying them as a constant force during the stance portion of the gait. A simple application of constant rotary forcing throughout stance is capable of producing fully-asymptotically stable motion; however, a similarly constant application of radial forcing throughout the stance is not capable of producing stable solutions. We then allow both the applied rotary and radial forcing functions to turn on or off based on the occurrence of the mid-stance event, which breaks the symmetry of actuation during stance towards a net forward propulsion. We find that both a rotary force applied in the first half of stance and a radial force applied in the second half of stance, are capable of stabilizing running. Interestingly, these two forcing methods improve the motion stability in different ways. Rotary forcing first reduces then greatly increases the size of the stable parameter region when gradually increased. Radial forcing expands the stable parameter region, but only in a moderate way. Also, it is found that parameter region stabilized by rotary and radial forcing are largely complementary. Overall, rotary forcing can better stabilize running for both constant and event-based forcing functions that were attempted. This indicates that rotary forcing has an inherent capability of stabilizing running, even when minimal time-or-event-or-state feedback is present. Radial forcing, however, tends to be more energy efficient when compared to rotary forcing

  12. Prototype and test of a novel rotary magnetorheological damper based on helical flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jianqiang; Dong, Xiaomin; Wang, Wen

    2016-02-01

    To increase the output damping torque of a rotary magnetorheological (MR) damper with limited geometrical space, a novel rotary MR damper based on helical flow is proposed. A new working mode, helical flow mode, is discussed and applied to enlarge the flow path of MR fluids. The helical flow can improve the performance of the rotary damper by enlarging the length of the active region. Based on the idea, a rotary MR damper is designed. The rotary MR damper contains a spiral piston, dual-coil core, a rotating cylinder and a stator cylinder. Based on the Bingham model, the output damping torque of the damper is analytically derived. The finite element method (FEM) is applied to calculate the magnetic field of the active region. The multi-objective optimal design method is adopted to obtain the optimal geometric parameters. A prototype is fabricated based on the optimal results. To validate the proposed rotary MR damper, two types of experiments including the low rotation speed and the high rotation speed are investigated. The results show that the proposed rotary MR damper has high torque density and compact structure. The helical flow mode can increase the output damping torque with limited space.

  13. Mechanically Induced g-Jitter from Space Station Rotary Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boucher, Robert L.

    2000-01-01

    The mission of the International Space Station is to provide a working laboratory in orbit for research in engineering, life sciences, and microgravity. Among the microgravity disciplines that are preparing to utilize this international resource are materials processing, combustion, fluid dynamics, biotechnology, and fundamental physics. The Station promises to enable significant advances in each of these areas by making available a research facility in which gravitational and other accelerations, and their corresponding buoyancy and diffusion effects on various physical processes, are orders of magnitude lower than they are on Earth. In order to fulfill this promise, it is not enough for the Space Station to simply replicate a typical terrestrial scientific laboratory in orbit. Although an orbiting laboratory is free of most of the effects of gravitational acceleration by virtue of its free fall condition, it also produces structural vibration or jitter that can interfere with the processes under study. To ensure the quality of the acceleration environment and enable a successful mission, the Space Station Program has limited potential disturbances in two ways: first, by isolating the most sensitive payloads from the vehicle structure, and second, by quieting major disturbances at their sources. The first area, payload isolation, is implemented inside the pressurized modules at the rack level. Sub-rack level isolators have also been developed. This paper addresses the second area, disturbance source limits, for one of the major sources of mechanical noise on the Space Station: the Solar Alpha Rotary Joints. Due to the potential for large disturbances to the microgravity environment, an initial analytical prediction of rotary joint vibration output was made. Key components were identified and tested to validate the analytical predictions. Based on the component test results, the final vibration output of the joints was verified by a test on each fully assembled

  14. Development of a Low-Cost Rotary Steerable Drilling System

    SciTech Connect

    Roney Nazarian

    2012-01-31

    The project had the goal to develop and commercialize a low-cost rotary steerable system (LCRSS) capable of operating downhole at conventional pressures and temperatures to reduce operating costs by a minimum of 50% and lost-in-hole charges by at least 50% over the currently offered systems. The LCRSS system developed under this project does reduce operating costs by 55% and lost-in-hole charges by at least 50%. The developed product is not commercializable in its current form. The overall objective was to develop and commercialize a low cost rotary steerable system (LCRSS) capable of operating downhole at conventional pressures and temperatures (20,000 psi/150 C) while reducing the operating costs by 50% and the lost-in-hole charges by 50% over the currently available systems. The proposed reduction in costs were to be realized through the significant reduction in tool complexity, a corresponding increase in tool reliability as expressed in the mean-time between failure (MTBF), and a reduction in the time and costs required to service tools after each field operation. Ultimately, the LCRSS system was to be capable of drilling 7 7/8 in. to 9 5/8 in. borehole diameters. The project was divided into three Phases, of which Phases I & II were previously completed and reported on, and are part of the case file. Therefore, the previously reported information is not repeated herein. Phase III included the fabrication of two field ready prototypes that were to be subjected to a series of drilling tests at GTI Catoosa, DOE RMOTC, and at customer partnering wells, if possible, as appropriate in the timing of the field test objectives to fully exercise all elements of the LCRSS. These tests were conducted in an iterative process based on a performance/reliability improvement cycle with the goal of demonstrating the system met all aspects required for commercial viability. These tests were conducted to achieve continuous runs of 100+ hours with well trajectories that fully

  15. Optimization of metam sodium application by rotary spading injection.

    PubMed

    Runia, W T; Molendijk, L P G

    2007-01-01

    In The Netherlands the only chemical alternative for methyl bromide permitted is an application of metam-sodium (MS) with the active ingredient methyl isothiocyanate (MIT). After introduction of a new application method with 'rotary spading injection' legislation restricted the application of MS in 1993 to once in four years and since 2001 once in five years. Efficacy after injection of metam sodium at 10 cm depth and rotary spading a 25 cm soil layer was much better than with shank injection at 19 cm depth with a poor efficacy in the top soil layer. Legislation for arable crops allows a dosage of 300 l Monam (510 g MS/l) per ha. For vegetables, fruits, bulbs and weeds dosages permitted are 600 to 750 l Monam per ha. For an optimal disinfestation result the combination of required dosage and injection depth and rotovation depth had to be established. In a field experiment two dosages Monam were tested for efficacy against Meloidogyne fallax with rotary spading injection at varying injection depths. 300 l Monam per ha was compared with 600 l Monam per ha, both applied at 14 cm injection depth and distributed over a 28 cm soil layer. Another treatment was the application of 600 l Monam per ha, injected at 20 cm depth and rotovated through 40 cm of soil. A carrot crop was sown three weeks after disinfestation and quantity and quality of carrot yield was assessed. Three weeks after application Meloidogyne fallax population was reduced in the furrow with 99% and at 30-50 cm depth with 96% by both applications of 600 l Monam. Efficacy of 300 l Monam was significantly less than 600 l. Nematode population levels after carrot crop stayed lower in the furrow after 600 l in comparison with 300 l Monam. Gross carrot yield was significantly higher after 600 l than after 300 l Monam application at 14 cm depth. Although on this heavy infested field it was not possible to grow carrots without symptoms, after 600 l Monam the percentage of carrots without root-knot symptoms (net

  16. Rotary acceleration of a subject inhibits choice reaction time to motion in peripheral vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borkenhagen, J. M.

    1974-01-01

    Twelve pilots were tested in a rotation device with visual simulation, alone and in combination with rotary stimulation, in experiments with variable levels of acceleration and variable viewing angles, in a study of the effect of S's rotary acceleration on the choice reaction time for an accelerating target in peripheral vision. The pilots responded to the direction of the visual motion by moving a hand controller to the right or left. Visual-plus-rotary stimulation required a longer choice reaction time, which was inversely related to the level of acceleration and directly proportional to the viewing angle.

  17. Buffered Rotary Valve System of Gm-Type Pulse Tube Refrigerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, G.; Jung, J.; Jeong, S.

    2008-03-01

    The buffered rotary valve system was invented to make a valved refrigeration system more efficient. This paper introduces its basic design and operation process, and describes the experimental performance results. The mass flow rate was reduced and the coldhead temperature at no load condition became lower than that of the conventional rotary valve system even though the improvement was not so much as we expected. The experimental results are discussed with the effect of the orifice reservoir of double inlet PTR (Pulse Tube Refrigerator), and the prospect of buffered rotary valve system is suggested.

  18. Rim for rotary inertial energy storage device and method

    DOEpatents

    Knight, Jr., Charles E.; Pollard, Roy E.

    1980-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an improved rim or a high-performance rotary inertial energy storage device (flywheel). The improved rim is fabricated from resin impregnated filamentary material which is circumferentially wound in a side-by-side relationship to form a plurality of discretely and sequentially formed concentric layers of filamentary material that are bound together in a resin matrix. The improved rim is provided by prestressing the filamentary material in each successive layer to a prescribed tension loading in accordance with a predetermined schedule during the winding thereof and then curing the resin in each layer prior to forming the next layer for providing a prestress distribution within the rim to effect a self-equilibrating compressive prestress within the windings which counterbalances the transverse or radial tensile stresses generated during rotation of the rim for inhibiting deleterious delamination problems.

  19. Rotary forcespun styrofoam fibers as a soilless growing medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauzi, Ahmad; Edikresnha, Dhewa; Munir, Muhammad Miftahul; Khairurrijal

    2016-04-01

    To make styrofoam fibers from used styrofoam, rotary forcespinning technique was used because it offers high production rate and affordable production cost. The used styrofoam was dissolved in acetone to obtain styrofoam solution as a precursor of syrofoam fibers. Since the technique utilizes centrifugal force, the precursor was thrown out and its phase changed to be solid following acetone solvent evaporation. Long, clean and light styrofoam fibers were then produced. To determine if the styrofoam fibers is a good soilless growing medium, physico-chemical properties including pH and electrical conductivity, bulk density, water retention and wettability were measured. Rockwool, which is the most popular soilless growing medium and easily obtained from local farm suppliers, was selected as a benchmark to evaluate the styrofoam fibers.

  20. Performance Analysis of Rotary Dehumidifier/Humidifier and Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamamoto, Yoshinori; Okajima, Jiro; Matsuoka, Fumio; Akisawa, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Takao

    The study aims at clarifying the performance of desiccant rotor, and at obtaining the design aspects of high efficient desiccant rotor and systems. In the paper, theoretical analysis is performed for rotary dehumidifier and humidifier. The validity of the model is confirmed by comparison between experimental data and calculation. The influences of several complex factors such as adsorption/desorption time ratio, air flow path patterns and air conditions on rotor performance are examined. It is clarified that there is an optimum angle of adsorption, desorption and purge zone becoming a maximum amount of humidifying And also, there is an optimum desorption side air flow rate. It is confirmed that air flow rate and air temperature influence significantly the amount of dehumidifing and humidifing. Furthermore, it is suggested that heat transfer enhancement of the rotor is efficient in the mass transfer enhancement at the beginning of desorption process.

  1. Aerodynamic Characteristics of Two Rotary Wing UAV Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Henry E.; Wong, Oliver D.; Noonan, Kevin W.; Reis, Deane G.; Malovrh, Brendon D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation of two rotary-wing UAV designs. The primary goal of the investigation was to provide a set of interactional aerodynamic data for an emerging class of rotorcraft. The present paper provides an overview of the test and an introduction to the test articles, and instrumentation. Sample data in the form of a parametric study of fixed system lift and drag coefficient response to changes in configuration and flight condition for both rotor off and on conditions are presented. The presence of the rotor is seen to greatly affect both the character and magnitude of the response. The affect of scaled stores on body drag is observed to be dependent on body shape.

  2. AERODYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF TWO ROTARY WING UAV DESIGNS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Henry E.; Wong, Oliver D.; Noonan, Kevin W.; Reis, Deane G.; Malovrh, Brendon D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation of two rotary-wing UAV designs. The primary goal of the investigation was to provide a set of interactional aerodynamic data for an emerging class of rotorcraft. The present paper provides an overview of the test and an introduction to the test articles, and instrumentation. Sample data in the form of a parametric study of fixed system lift and drag coefficient response to changes in configuration and flight condition for both rotor off and on conditions are presented. The presence of the rotor is seen to greatly affect both the character and magnitude of the response. The affect of scaled stores on body drag is observed to be dependent on body shape.

  3. Real-Time Prognostics of a Rotary Valve Actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daigle, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Valves are used in many domains and often have system-critical functions. As such, it is important to monitor the health of valves and their actuators and predict remaining useful life. In this work, we develop a model-based prognostics approach for a rotary valve actuator. Due to limited observability of the component with multiple failure modes, a lumped damage approach is proposed for estimation and prediction of damage progression. In order to support the goal of real-time prognostics, an approach to prediction is developed that does not require online simulation to compute remaining life, rather, a function mapping the damage state to remaining useful life is found offline so that predictions can be made quickly online with a single function evaluation. Simulation results demonstrate the overall methodology, validating the lumped damage approach and demonstrating real-time prognostics.

  4. Adaptive structures for fixed and rotary wing aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Willi; Jänker, Peter; Siemetzki, Markus; Lorkowski, Thomas; Grohmann, Boris; Maier, Rudolf; Maucher, Christoph; Klöppel, Valentin; Enenkl, Bernhard; Roth, Dieter; Hansen, Heinz

    2007-07-01

    Since more than 10 years EADS Innovation Works, which is the corporate research centre of EADS (European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company), is investigating smart materials and adaptive structures for aircraft in cooperation with EADS business units. Focus of research efforts are adaptive systems for shape control, noise reduction and vibration control of both fixed and rotary wing aircraft as well as for lift optimisation of fixed wing aircraft. Two outstanding adaptive systems which have been pushed ahead in cooperation with Airbus Germany and Eurocopter Germany are adaptive servo flaps for helicopter rotor blades and innovative high lift devices for fixed wing aircraft which both were tested in flight for the first time representing world premieres. In this paper various examples of adaptive systems are presented which were developed and realized by EADS in recent years.

  5. Pallet Optimization of the Heavy Rotary Table Load Carrying System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atapin, V. G.; Bataev, A. A.

    2016-04-01

    The pallet optimization of the heavy rotary table load-carrying system, which is a part of the multi-purpose machine, is considered in terms of the deterministic and probabilistic models. As a result of optimum design in case of the deterministic model the mass of the pallet is reduced by 35.5 % in comparison with a serial model. The evaluation of the influence of optimization problem limitations on design variables confirms the importance of rigidity criterion in relation to other criteria. Calculation for probabilistic model allows reducing the mass of the construction by 27 % in comparison with the deterministic model. Considering a work piece rigidity on the basis of a conventional work piece of the minimum rigidity (without stiffening ribs etc.) leads to reducing of the pallet mass by 22.3 % in comparison with the deterministic model.

  6. Inlet and outlet devices for rotary blood pumps.

    PubMed

    Song, Xinwei; Wood, Houston G; Allaire, Paul E; Antaki, James F; Olsen, Don B

    2004-10-01

    The purposes of inlet and outlet devices for rotary blood pumps, including inducers and diffusers for axial pumps, inlet and exit volutes for centrifugal pumps, and inlet and outlet cannulas, are to guide the blood into the impeller, where the blood is accelerated, and to convert the high kinetic energy into pressure after the impeller discharge, respectively. The designs of the inlet and outlet devices have an important bearing on the pump performance. Their designs are highly dependent on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis, guided by intuition and experience. For inlet devices, the design objectives are to eliminate separated flow, to minimize recirculation, and to equalize the radial components of velocity. For outlet devices, the design goals are to reduce speed, to minimize energy loss, and to avoid flow separation and whirl. CFD analyses indicate the velocity field and pressure distribution. Geometrical optimization of these components has been implemented in order to improve the flow pattern. PMID:15384997

  7. High pressure rotary piston coal feeder for coal gasification applications

    DOEpatents

    Gencsoy, Hasan T.

    1977-05-24

    The subject development is directed to an apparatus for feeding pulverized coal into a coal gasifier operating at relatively high pressures and elevated temperatures. This apparatus is a rotary piston feeder which comprises a circular casing having a coal loading opening therein diametrically opposed from a coal discharge and contains a rotatable discoid rotor having a cylinder in which a reciprocateable piston is disposed. The reciprocation of the piston within the cylinder is provided by a stationary conjugate cam arrangement whereby the pulverized coal from a coal hopper at atmospheric pressure can be introduced into the cylinder cavity and then discharged therefrom into the high-pressure gasifier without the loss of high pressure gases from within the latter.

  8. Low torque hydrodynamic lip geometry for rotary seals

    SciTech Connect

    Dietle, Lannie L.; Schroeder, John E.

    2015-07-21

    A hydrodynamically lubricating geometry for the generally circular dynamic sealing lip of rotary seals that are employed to partition a lubricant from an environment. The dynamic sealing lip is provided for establishing compressed sealing engagement with a relatively rotatable surface, and for wedging a film of lubricating fluid into the interface between the dynamic sealing lip and the relatively rotatable surface in response to relative rotation that may occur in the clockwise or the counter-clockwise direction. A wave form incorporating an elongated dimple provides the gradual convergence, efficient impingement angle, and gradual interfacial contact pressure rise that are conducive to efficient hydrodynamic wedging. Skewed elevated contact pressure zones produced by compression edge effects provide for controlled lubricant movement within the dynamic sealing interface between the seal and the relatively rotatable surface, producing enhanced lubrication and low running torque.

  9. Maintenance cost study of rotary wing aircraft, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The Navy's maintenance and materials management data base was used in a study to determine the feasibility of predicting unscheduled maintenance costs for the dynamic systems of military rotary wing aircraft. The major operational and design variables were identified and the direct maintenance man hours per flight hour were obtained by step-wise multiple regression analysis. Five nonmilitary helicopter users were contacted to supply data on which variables were important factors in civil applications. These uses included offshore oil exploration and support, police and fire department rescue and enforcement, logging and heavy equipment movement, and U.S. Army military operations. The equations developed were highly effective in predicting unscheduled direct maintenance man hours per flying hours for military aircraft, but less effective for commercial or public service helicopters, probably because of the longer mission durations and the much higher utilization of civil users.

  10. Rotary Percussive Sample Acquisition Tool (SAT): Hardware Development and Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, Kerry; Badescu, Mircea; Haddad, Nicolas; Shiraishi, Lori; Walkemeyer, Phillip

    2012-01-01

    In support of a potential Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission an Integrated Mars Sample Acquisition and Handling (IMSAH) architecture has been proposed to provide a means for Rover-based end-to-end sample capture and caching. A key enabling feature of the architecture is the use of a low mass sample Acquisition Tool (SAT) that is capable of drilling and capturing rock cores directly within a sample tube in order to maintain sample integrity and prevent contamination across the sample chain. As such, this paper will describe the development and testing of a low mass rotary percussive SAT that has been shown to provide a means for core generation, fracture, and capture.

  11. History, a projection of the future: A rotary wing perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huston, Robert J.

    1996-01-01

    The success and failure of past vehicle concepts is reviewed in an attempt to highlight some of the advanced vehicle concepts attempted in the past failed because of a lack of appreciation, by both the sponsors and the developer, for the technical and societal requirements critical to their success. This paper will review the history of some attempts to provide both good hover and forward flight efficiency and will point out some of the technical and societal obstacles encountered. Two examples, that of the tiltrotor and tiltwing vehicles. will be highlighted show the different paths followed by a successful and an unsuccessful concept. The outlook for future VTOL/rotary wing concepts will be evaluated.

  12. Experimental Study on Doubly-fed Rotary Frequency Converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takemoto, Yasutoshi; Fujita, Goro; Yokoyama, Ryuichi; Koyanagi, Kaoru; Funabashi, Toshihisa

    Wind power generation using an unlimited, natural energy is getting an attention regarding environment issues in recent years, and the installed capacity of wind power generation system is increasing at a rapid pace, resulting in deterioration of power quality especially in frequency and voltage. This fact will be a big problem to restrict large capacity of wind farm. This paper proposes a new frequency converter: rotary frequency converter (RFC) to moderate the electric output from wind generation, which is to be installed between a set of wind generators and a grid, providing a smoothed electric output, promoting the wind power generation introduction. This mainly consists of a synchronous machine and the adjustable-speed machine. Independent controls of input/output voltage, active power, and reactive power offer electrical separation between the two networks. Experimental study of prototype model and its characteristics, especially dynamic control is discussed in this paper.

  13. Design of a rotary passive viscoelastic joint for wearable robots.

    PubMed

    Carpino, Giorgio; Accoto, Dino; Di Palo, Michelangelo; Tagliamonte, Nevio Luigi; Sergi, Fabrizio; Guglielmelli, Eugenio

    2011-01-01

    In the design of wearable robots that strictly interact with the human body and, in general, in any robotics application that involves the human component, the possibility of having modular joints able to produce a viscoelastic behaviour is very useful to achieve an efficient and safe human-robot interaction and to give rise to emergent dynamical behaviors. In this paper we propose the design of a compact, passive, rotary viscoelastic joint for assistive wearable robotics applications. The system integrates two functionally distinct sub-modules: one to render a desired torsional stiffness profile and the other to provide a desired torsional damping. Concepts and design choices regarding the overall architecture and the single components are presented and discussed. A viscoelastic model of the system has been developed and the design of the joint is presented. PMID:22275560

  14. Application of the Finite Element Method to Rotary Wing Aeroelasticity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Straub, F. K.; Friedmann, P. P.

    1982-01-01

    A finite element method for the spatial discretization of the dynamic equations of equilibrium governing rotary-wing aeroelastic problems is presented. Formulation of the finite element equations is based on weighted Galerkin residuals. This Galerkin finite element method reduces algebraic manipulative labor significantly, when compared to the application of the global Galerkin method in similar problems. The coupled flap-lag aeroelastic stability boundaries of hingeless helicopter rotor blades in hover are calculated. The linearized dynamic equations are reduced to the standard eigenvalue problem from which the aeroelastic stability boundaries are obtained. The convergence properties of the Galerkin finite element method are studied numerically by refining the discretization process. Results indicate that four or five elements suffice to capture the dynamics of the blade with the same accuracy as the global Galerkin method.

  15. Rotary catalysis of FoF1-ATP synthase

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Rikiya

    2013-01-01

    The synthesis of ATP, the key reaction of biological energy metabolism, is accomplished by the rotary motor protein; FoF1-ATP synthase (FoF1). In vivo, FoF1, located on the cell membrane, carries out ATP synthesis by using the proton motive force. This heterologous energy conversion is supposed to be mediated by the mechanical rotation of FoF1; however, it still remained unclear. Recently, we developed the novel experimental setup to reproduce the proton motive force in vitro and succeeded in directly observing the proton-driven rotation of FoF1. In this review, we describe the interesting working principles determined so far for FoF1 and then introduce results from our recent study. PMID:27493540

  16. Advanced stratified charge rotary aircraft engine design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badgley, P.; Berkowitz, M.; Jones, C.; Myers, D.; Norwood, E.; Pratt, W. B.; Ellis, D. R.; Huggins, G.; Mueller, A.; Hembrey, J. H.

    1982-01-01

    A technology base of new developments which offered potential benefits to a general aviation engine was compiled and ranked. Using design approaches selected from the ranked list, conceptual design studies were performed of an advanced and a highly advanced engine sized to provide 186/250 shaft Kw/HP under cruise conditions at 7620/25,000 m/ft altitude. These are turbocharged, direct-injected stratified charge engines intended for commercial introduction in the early 1990's. The engine descriptive data includes tables, curves, and drawings depicting configuration, performance, weights and sizes, heat rejection, ignition and fuel injection system descriptions, maintenance requirements, and scaling data for varying power. An engine-airframe integration study of the resulting engines in advanced airframes was performed on a comparative basis with current production type engines. The results show airplane performance, costs, noise & installation factors. The rotary-engined airplanes display substantial improvements over the baseline, including 30 to 35% lower fuel usage.

  17. Connecting apparatus for limited rotary or rectilinear motion

    DOEpatents

    Hardin, Jr., Roy T.

    1981-11-10

    Apparatus for providing connection between two members movable in a horizontal plane with respect to each other in a rotary or linear fashion. The apparatus includes a set of horizontal shelves affixed to each of the two members, vertically aligned across a selected gap. A number of cables or hoses, for electrical, hydraulic or pneumatic connection are arranged on the aligned shelves in a U-shaped loop, connected through their extremities to the two members, so that through a sliding motion portions of the cable are transferred from one shelf to the other, across the gap, upon relative motion of the members. The apparatus is particularly adaptable to the rotating plugs of the reactor vessel head of a nuclear reactor.

  18. Tritium test of a ferro-fluidic rotary seal

    SciTech Connect

    Antipenkov, A.; Day, C.; Adami, H. D.

    2008-07-15

    The ferro-fluidic seal is being investigated as an internal rotary seal for tritium compatible mechanical roots type vacuum pumps. After its successful testing with helium and integration into a small (250 m{sup 3}/h) test roots pump, the seal, made as a cartridge, has been integrated into a special test unit and is currently being tested with tritium in order to define the leak rates and the possible degradation of the ferro-fluid under long term exposure to tritium radiation. The tritium pressure from one side of the seal is 0.125 MPa, the nitrogen pressure from the other side is 0.075 MPa, the rotation speed is maintained at 1500 rpm. The tritium leak through the cartridge contributes to the tritium concentration in the nitrogen, which is continuously measured by an ionisation chamber; the pressure in both chambers is continuously registered by precise pressure gauges. The experimental program is discussed. (authors)

  19. 4X6" Rotary Bayonet LN2 Test Fill

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzpatrick, J.B.; /Fermilab

    1988-08-02

    This engineering note describes a test fill of the 4-inch x 6-inch rotary bayonet test fixture with LN{sub 2}. This test verifies the operation of valves on the fixture, and checks for proper construction/insulation. Further cold testing is imminent (with rotation and moment loading of the bayonet) after proper construction is verified and the test fixture is accepted. While this test fixture is a pressure vessel (4-inch), it does not require special safety treatment because it is under 6-inch in diameter. Flow capacity calculations were done to insure that the relief valve chosen would be capable of handling fire/loss of vacuum conditions. The D-Zero Safety Committee Chairman was notified of this testing.

  20. Estimation of Rotary Stability Derivatives at Subsonic and Transonic Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobak, Murray; Lessing, Henry C.

    1961-01-01

    The first part of this paper pertains to the estimation of subsonic rotary stability derivatives of wings. The unsteady potential flow problem is solved by a superposition of steady flow solutions. Numerical results for the damping coefficients of triangular wings are presented as functions of aspect ratio and Mach number, and are compared with experimental results over the Mach number range 0 to 1. In the second part, experimental results are used. to point out a close correlation between the nonlinear variations with angle of attack of the static pitching-moment curve slope and the damping-in-pitch coefficient. The underlying basis for the correlation is found as a result of an analysis in which the indicial function concept and. the principle of super-position are adapted to apply to the nonlinear problem. The form of the result suggests a method of estimating nonlinear damping coefficients from results of static wind-tunnel measurements.

  1. Theoretical and experimental study on regenerative rotary displacer Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect

    Raggi, L.; Katsuta, Masafumi; Isshiki, Naotsugu; Isshiki, Seita

    1997-12-31

    Recently a quite new type of hot air engine called rotary displacer engine, in which the displacer is a rotating disk enclosed in a cylinder, has been conceived and developed. The working gas, contained in a notch excavated in the disk, is heated and cooled alternately, on account of the heat transferred through the enclosing cylinder that is heated at one side and cooled at the opposite one. The gas temperature oscillations cause the pressure fluctuations that get out mechanical power acting on a power piston. In order to attempt to increase the performances for this kind of engine, the authors propose three different regeneration methods. The first one comprises two coaxial disks that, revolving in opposite ways, cause a temperature gradient on the cylinder wall and a regenerative axial heat conduction through fins shaped on the cylinder inner wall. The other two methods are based on the heat transferred by a proper closed circuit that in one case has a circulating liquid inside and in the other one is formed by several heat pipes working each one for different temperatures. An engine based on the first principle, the Regenerative Tandem Contra-Rotary Displacer Stirling Engine, has been realized and experimented. In this paper experimental results with and without regeneration are reported comparatively with a detailed description of the unity. A basic explanation of the working principle of this engine and a theoretical analysis investigating the main influential parameters for the regenerative effect are done. This new rotating displacer Stirling engines, for their simplicity, are expected to attain high rotational speed especially for applications as demonstration and hobby unities.

  2. D-Zero Project Rotary Bayonet Assembly Test

    SciTech Connect

    Rucinski, R.; /Fermilab

    1991-04-19

    This report documents the testing of a rotating bayonet assembly. It provides the details of how the test was carried out and the results of the testing. The testing was done on a mock up of an 1 1/2-inch x 3-inch gaseous argon bayonet assembly designed to allow a translational movement of 40-inches. The test was necessary to provide a level of confidence in the design concept The testing was a success. It provided confidence that the bayonet assembly design will work for the 1 1/2-inch x 3-inch pipe size. No leaks were detected during any of the testing. The o-ring seals did not leak when the bayonet assembly was misaligned. The force required to move the assembly was 15 to 60+ pounds force. This seems reasonable. No binding was observed with the misalignments. The misalignments were up to 2.7 degrees from true vertical. This misalignment is noticeable to the casual observer and should be greater than carefully installed field piping. The goal of the rotary bayonet assembly test was to: (1) Determine that the seals in the bayonet are sealing while it is being rotated; (2) Determine the effect misalignment of the bayonets from a true vertical has on the tightness of the o-rings; (3) Get an idea of the magnitude of the forces involved when exercising the assembly with misalignment; (4) Get an idea of how much misalignment can be tolerated; and (5) Provide a level of confidence that the rotary bayonet concept will work as intended in the D-Zero cryogenic system.

  3. Percussive Augmenter of Rotary Drills (PARoD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badescu, Mircea; Hasenoehrl, Jennifer; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Chang, Zensheu; Ostlund, Patrick; Aldrich, Jack

    2013-01-01

    Increasingly, NASA exploration mission objectives include sample acquisition tasks for in-situ analysis or for potential sample return to Earth. To address the requirements for samplers that could be operated at the conditions of the various bodies in the solar system, a piezoelectric actuated percussive sampling device was developed that requires low preload (as low as 10 N) which is important for operation at low gravity. This device can be made as light as 400 g, can be operated using low average power, and can drill rocks as hard as basalt. Significant improvement of the penetration rate was achieved by augmenting the hammering action by rotation and use of a fluted bit to provide effective cuttings removal. Generally, hammering is effective in fracturing drilled media while rotation of fluted bits is effective in cuttings removal. To benefit from these two actions, a novel configuration of a percussive mechanism was developed to produce an augmenter of rotary drills. The device was called Percussive Augmenter of Rotary Drills (PARoD). A breadboard PARoD was developed with a 6.4 mm (0.25 in) diameter bit and was demonstrated to increase the drilling rate of rotation alone by 1.5 to over 10 times. The test results of this configuration were published in a previous publication. Further, a larger PARoD breadboard with a 50.8 mm (2.0 in) diameter bit was developed and tested. This paper presents the design, analysis and test results of the large diameter bit percussive augmenter.

  4. Rotary Steerable Horizontal Directional Drilling: Red River Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherukupally, A.; Bergevin, M.; Jones, J.

    2011-12-01

    Sperry-Sun Drilling, a Halliburton company provides engineering solutions and sets new records for Horizontal and Vertical Displacement Drilling (HVDD). Halliburton Sperry Drilling, Casper, WY, allowed one student to participate in 12-week experiential learning program this summer as HVDD engineer. HVDD is the science of drilling non-vertical wells and can be differentiated into three main groups; Oilfield Directional Drilling (ODD), Utility Installation Directional Drilling (UIDD) and in-seam directional Drilling. Sperry-Sun prior experience with rotary drilling established a number of principles for the configuration of Bottom Hole Assembly (BHA) that would be prone to drilling crooked hole [1]. Combining Measurement While Drilling survey tools (MWD tools) and BHA designs made HVDD possible. Geologists use the MWD survey data to determine the well placement in the stratigraphic sequence. Through the analysis of this data, an apparent dip of the formation can be calculated, and the bit is directed to stay in the target zone of production. Geological modeling assists in directing the well by creating a map of the target zone surface, an Isopach map. The Isopach map provides contour intervals and changes in formation dip. When the inclination of the formation changes the geologist informs the directional drillers to adjust the drill bits. HVDD provides Halliburton the opportunity to reach more production intervals in a given formation sequence [1]. The Down hole motors powered by fluid flow through the drill string create horsepower and rotation of the bit which enables the use of a bend element in the BHA to create the tilt necessary to deviate the wellbore from vertical displacement drilling path. The rotation of Down hole motors is influenced by temperature and aromatics found in water, oil and diesel based mud. The development of HVDD Rotary Steerable tools hold promise to have almost a complete automated process for drilling highly deviated production well

  5. COMPARISON OF IN-SITU VITRIFICATION AND ROTARY KILN INCINERATION FOR SOILS TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the hazardous waste community, the term "thermal destruction" is a catch-all phrase that broadly refers to high temperature destruction of hazardous contaminants. ncluded in the thermal destruction category are treatment technologies such as rotary kiln incineration, fluidized...

  6. Millimeter Wave Synthetic Aperture Imaging System with a Unique Rotary Scanning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghasr, M. T.; Case, J. T.; McClanahan, A. D.; Abou-Khousa, M.; Guinn, K.; Kharkovsky, S.; Zoughi, R.; Afaki-Beni, A.; DePaulis, F.; Pommerenke, D.

    2008-01-01

    This is the video that accompanies the "Millimeter Wave Synthetic Aperture Imaging System with a Unique Rotary Scanning System" presentation. It shows the operation of the scanning system, and reviews the results of the scanning of a sample.

  7. A COMPARISON OF IN-SITU VITRIFICATION AND ROTARY KILN INCINERATION FOR SOILS TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the hazardous waste community, the term "thermal destruction" is a catch-all phrase that broadly refers to high temperature destruction of hazardous contaminants. ncluded in the thermal destruction category are treatment technologies such as rotary kiln incineration, fluidized...

  8. Determination of three-dimensional movement for rotary blades using digital image correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Rong; Chen, Yue; Pan, Yanting; Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Dongsheng

    2015-02-01

    Non-contact and accurate motion measurement of the rotary objects is crucial in engineering applications. A modified Newton-Raphson algorithm, which is capable of positioning marks with large rotation, has been proposed. A stereo imaging system with a pair of synchronized digital high-speed cameras was developed and achieved full-field displacement measurement based on 3D image correlation photogrammetry for rotary objects. This system has been applied to measuring the 3D motion of a wind turbine blade model. The displacement components of the rotary blade were presented, and the corresponding frequency spectra were investigated. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed system could measure the 3D motion of rotary blades precisely, and it also provided an alternative potential non-contact diagnosis means for large wind turbine blades.

  9. A Study of Vibration Reduction of Rolling Piston Type Rotary Compressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimura, Takao; Koyama, Takashi; Morita, Ichiro; Kobayashi, Masanori; Uetuji, Toshio

    In general,the vibration of rolling piston type rotary compressors is greater than that of reciprocating compressors because the compressor-motor unit is fixed to the shell. It is therefore necessary that refrigerators utilizing rotary compressors incorporated a vibration-proof design. This paper refers to the experimental vibration reduction study of rotary compressors (horizontally installed) for household refrigerators and other appliances. The vibration of rotary compressors consists of the rotational vibration caused by the speed variation of the shaft and of the imbalance vibration caused by the mass imbalance in the rotation system. There are various methods for reducing the rotational vibration. This study researched the dynamic damper. It will be shown that the dynamic damper,using a helical extension spring applied to the outside of the shell,is effective in reducing vibration. In regards to the imbalance vibration,this paper researched the influence of the number of correction planes and the accuracy of the balancing.

  10. Molecular structure and rotary dynamics of Enterococcus hirae V₁-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Iino, Ryota; Minagawa, Yoshihiro; Ueno, Hiroshi; Hara, Mayu; Murata, Takeshi

    2014-09-01

    V1-ATPase is a rotary molecular motor in which the mechanical rotation of the rotor DF subunits against the stator A3B3 ring is driven by the chemical free energy of ATP hydrolysis. Recently, using X-ray crystallography, we solved the high-resolution molecular structure of Enterococcus hirae V1-ATPase (EhV1) and revealed how the three catalytic sites in the stator A3B3 ring change their structure on nucleotide binding and interaction with the rotor DF subunits. Furthermore, recently, we also demonstrated directly the rotary catalysis of EhV1 by using single-molecule high-speed imaging and analyzed the properties of the rotary motion in detail. In this critical review, we introduce the molecular structure and rotary dynamics of EhV1 and discuss a possible model of its chemomechanical coupling scheme. PMID:25229752

  11. System Dynamics and Control System for a High Bandwidth Rotary Actuator and Fast Tool Servo

    SciTech Connect

    Montesanti, R C; Trumper, D L

    2005-08-05

    This paper explores some of the system dynamics and control issues for a short-stroke rotary actuator that we designed and tested for a new fast tool servo referred to as the 10 kHz rotary fast tool servo. The use of a fast tool servo (FTS) with a diamond turning machine for producing non-axisymmetric or textured surfaces on a workpiece is well known. In a previous paper [1] the authors provide details on the mechanical design and trade-off issues that were considered during the design phase for the fast tool servo. At the heart of that machine is the normal-stress variable reluctance rotary actuator described in more detail in this paper. In addition to producing the torque that is needed for the 10 kHz rotary fast tool servo, the actuator produces a force and is therefore referred to as a hybrid rotary/linear actuator. The actuator uses bias and steering magnetic fluxes for linearizing the torque versus current relationship. Certain types of electric engraving heads use an actuator similar in principle to our hybrid actuator. In the case of the engraving heads, the actuator is used to produce and sustain a resonating mechanical oscillator. This is in sharp contrast to the arbitrary trajectory point-to-point closed-loop control of the tool tip that we demonstrate with our actuator and the 10 kHz FTS. Furthermore, we demonstrate closed-loop control of both the rotary and linear degrees of freedom for our actuator. We provide a brief summary of the demonstrated performance of the 10 kHz rotary fast tool servo, and discuss the magnetic circuit for the actuator and some of the related control issues. Montesanti [2] provides a more detailed and thorough discussion on the 10 kHz rotary fast tool servo, the hybrid actuator, and the pertinent prior art.

  12. Advanced liquid-cooled, turbocharged and intercooled stratified charge rotary engines for aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mount, Robert E.; Bartel, John; Hady, William F.

    1987-01-01

    Developments concerning stratified-charge rotary (SCR) engines over the past 10 years are reviewed. Aircraft engines being developed using SCR technology are shown and described, and the ability of such technology to meet general aviation engine needs is considered. Production timing and availability of SCR technology for the development of aviation rotary engines are discussed, and continuing efforts toward improving this technology, including NASA efforts, are described.

  13. Simulation of Stress-Strain State of Shovel Rotary Support Kingpin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoreshok, A. A.; Buyankin, P. V.; Vorobiev, A. V.; Dronov, A. A.

    2016-04-01

    The article presents the sequence of computational simulation of stress-strain state of shovel’s rotary support. Computation results are analyzed, the kingpin is specified as the most loaded element, maximum stress zones are identified. Kingpin design modification such as enhancement of fillet curvature radius to 25 mm and displacement of eyebolt holes on the diameter of 165 mm are proposed, thus diminishing impact of stress concentrators and improving reliability of the rotary support.

  14. A Simple Circuit for the Remote Control of a Rotary Chopper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyon, Rene; Nadeau, Daniel

    1988-01-01

    An electronic circuit for the remote-control of a rotary chopper is presented. When the chopper is stopped, the circuit automatically sets the position of the blade out of the way of a light beam crossing its plane. This is useful in situations where the light from the telescope is modulated by a wobbling secondary but that from a calibration lamp must be fed into the optical path and modulated by a rotary chopper.

  15. Mechanical design of a rotary balance system for NASA. Langley Research Center's vertical spin tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allred, J. W.; Fleck, V. J.

    1992-01-01

    A new lightweight Rotary Balance System is presently being fabricated and installed as part of a major upgrade to the existing 20 Foot Vertical Spin Tunnel. This upgrade to improve model testing productivity of the only free spinning vertical wind tunnel includes a modern fan/drive and tunnel control system, an updated video recording system, and the new rotary balance system. The rotary balance is a mechanical apparatus which enables the measurement of aerodynamic force and moment data under spinning conditions (100 rpm). This data is used in spin analysis and is vital to the implementation of large amplitude maneuvering simulations required for all new high performance aircraft. The new rotary balance system described in this report will permit greater test efficiency and improved data accuracy. Rotary Balance testing with the model enclosed in a tare bag can also be performed to obtain resulting model forces from the spinning operation. The rotary balance system will be stored against the tunnel sidewall during free flight model testing.

  16. The International Space Station Solar Alpha Rotary Joint Anomaly Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harik, Elliot P.; McFatter, Justin; Sweeney, Daniel J.; Enriquez, Carlos F.; Taylor, Deneen M.; McCann, David S.

    2010-01-01

    The Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ) is a single-axis pointing mechanism used to orient the solar power generating arrays relative to the sun for the International Space Station (ISS). Approximately 83 days after its on-orbit installation, one of the two SARJ mechanisms aboard the ISS began to exhibit high drive motor current draw. Increased structural vibrations near the joint were also observed. Subsequent inspections via Extravehicular Activity (EVA) discovered that the nitrided case-hardened steel bearing race on the outboard side of the joint had extensive damage to one of its three rolling surfaces. A farreaching investigation of the anomaly was undertaken. The investigation included metallurgical inspections, coupon tests, traction kinematics tests, detailed bearing measurements, and thermal and structural analyses. The results of the investigation showed that the anomaly had most probably been caused by high bearing edge stresses that resulted from inadequate lubrication of the rolling contact. The profile of the roller bearings and the metallurgical properties of the race ring were also found to be significant contributing factors. To mitigate the impact of the damage, astronauts cleaned and lubricated the race ring surface with grease. This corrective action led to significantly improved performance of the mechanism both in terms of drive motor current and induced structural vibration.

  17. The International Space Station Solar Alpha Rotary Joint Anomaly Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harik, Elliot P.; McFatter, Justin; Sweeney, Daniel J.; Enriquez, Carlos F.; Taylor, Deneen M.; McCann, David S.

    2010-01-01

    The Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ) is a single-axis pointing mechanism used to orient the solar power generating arrays relative to the sun for the International Space Station (ISS). Approximately 83 days after its on-orbit installation, one of the two SARJ mechanisms aboard the ISS began to exhibit high drive motor current draw. Increased structural vibrations near the joint were also observed. Subsequent inspections via Extravehicular Activity (EVA) discovered that the nitrided case hardened steel bearing race on the outboard side of the joint had extensive damage to one of its three rolling surfaces. A far-reaching investigation of the anomaly was undertaken. The investigation included metallurgical inspections, coupon tests, traction kinematics tests, detailed bearing measurements, and thermal and structural analyses. The results of the investigation showed that anomaly had most probably been caused by high bearing edge stresses that resulted from inadequate lubrication of the rolling contact. The profile of the roller bearings and the metallurgical properties of the race ring were also found to be significant contributing factors. To mitigate the impact of the damage astronauts cleaned and lubricated the race ring surface with grease. This corrective action led to significantly improved performance of the mechanism both in terms of drive motor current and induced structural vibration.

  18. A Novel Rotary Pulsatile Flow Pump for Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Teman, Nicholas R.; Mazur, Daniel E.; Toomasian, John; Jahangir, Emilia; Alghanem, Fares; Goudie, Marcus; Rojas-Peña, Alvaro; Haft, Jonathan W.

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that pulsatile blood flow is superior to continuous flow in cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). However, adoption of pulsatile flow (PF) technology has been limited due to practically and complexity of creating a consistent physiologic pulse. A pediatric pulsatile rotary ventricular pump (PRVP) was designed to address this problem. We evaluated the PRVP in an animal model, and determined its ability to generate PF during CPB. The PRVP (modified peristaltic pump, with tapering of the outlet of the pump chamber) was tested in 4 piglets (10-12kg). Cannulation was performed with right atrial and aortic cannulae, and pressure sensors were inserted into the femoral arteries. Pressure curves were obtained at different levels of flow and compared with both the animal's baseline physiologic function and a continuous flow (CF) roller pump. Pressure and flow waveforms demonstrated significant pulsatility in the PRVP setup compared to CF at all tested conditions. Measurement of hemodynamic energy data, including the percent pulsatile energy and the surplus hydraulic energy, also revealed a significant increase in pulsatility with the PRVP (p <0.001). PRVP creates physiologically significant PF, similar to the pulsatility of a native heart, and has the potential to be easily implemented in pediatric CPB. PMID:24625536

  19. Design and construction of a novel rotary magnetostrictive motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Nanjia; Blatchley, Charles C.; Ibeh, Christopher C.

    2009-04-01

    Magnetostriction can be used to induce linear incremental motion, which is effective in giant magnetostrictive inchworm motors. Such motors possess the advantage of combining small step incremental motion with large force. However, continuous rotation may be preferred in practical applications. This paper describes a novel magnetostrictive rotary motor using terfenol-D (Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe1.9) material as the driving element. The motor is constructed of two giant magnetostrictive actuators with shell structured flexure-hinge and leaf springs. These two actuators are placed in a perpendicular position to minimize the coupling displacement of the two actuators. The principal design parameters of the actuators and strain amplifiers are optimally determined, and its static analysis is undertaken through finite element analysis software. The small movements of the magnetostrictive actuators are magnified by about three times using oval shell structured amplifiers. When two sinusoidal wave currents with 90° phase shift are applied to the magnetostrictive actuators, purely rotational movement can be produced as in the orbit of a Lissajous diagram in an oscillograph, and this movement is used to drive the rotor of the motor. A prototype has been constructed and tested.

  20. Connecting apparatus for limited rotary of rectilinear motion (II)

    DOEpatents

    Hardin, Jr., Roy T.; Kurinko, Carl D.

    1981-01-01

    Apparatus for providing connection between two members having relative movement in a horizontal plane in a rotary or linear fashion. The apparatus includes a set of vertical surfaces affixed to each of the members, laterally aligned across a selected vertical gap. A number of cables or hoses, for electrical, hydraulic, or pneumatic connection are arranged between consecutive surfaces in a C-shaped traveling loop, connected through their end portions to the two respective members, so that through a sliding motion portions of the cable are transferred from between one set of surfaces to the other aligned set, across the gap, upon relative motion of the members. A number of flexible devices are affixed to the upper set of surfaces for supporting the upper portion of each looped cable. The apparatus is particularly adaptable to an area having limited lateral clearances and requiring signal level separation between electrical cables, such as found in the rotating plugs and associated equipment of the reactor vessel head of a nuclear reactor.

  1. Design of a rotary stepped auger for a lunar environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dardet, Eduardo; Hart, Derek; Herod, Chris; Homiller, Stephen; Meeks, Mickey; Platt, Kirsten

    1988-01-01

    A lunar outpost will have need for deep drilling operations for both explorative and practical purposes. As in any drilling operation, the cuttings must be cleared from the hole. The hard vacuum of the lunar environment renders conventional flushing methods of cutting removal unfeasible, and requires a new system of removal. A rotary stepped auger (RSA) is a simple mechanical method of removing dry cuttings from a deep hole, and is ideally suited to the lunar environment. The RSA consists of a helical auger with stepped ramps which allow cuttings to slide up the helix, but will prevent them from sliding back down. The auger is driven in a pulsed manner by applying a periodic function of acceleration to the auger shaft. These pulses will compel the cuttings to slide up the auger's helix while the stepped ramps prevent the cuttings from backsliding while the auger accelerates. A mathematical model of the RSA was developed and experimentally evaluated. The math model produced a good baseline design, but the experimental model required some tuning to account for the approximations made in the math model. This design is suited for lunar drilling because it is mechanically simple, integral to the drill string, requires no fluids, is suited to the dry soil, and has relatively low weight and power requirements.

  2. Lightweight Low Force Rotary Percussive Coring Tool for Planetary Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hironaka, Ross; Stanley, Scott

    2010-01-01

    A prototype low-force rotary-percussive rock coring tool for use in acquiring samples for geological surveys in future planetary missions was developed. The coring tool could eventually enable a lightweight robotic system to operate from a relatively small (less than 200 kg) mobile or fixed platform to acquire and cache Mars or other planetary rock samples for eventual return to Earth for analysis. To gain insight needed to design an integrated coring tool, the coring ability of commercially available coring bits was evaluated for effectiveness of varying key parameters: weight-on-bit, rotation speed, percussive rate and force. Trade studies were performed for different methods of breaking a core at its base and for retaining the core in a sleeve to facilitate sample transfer. This led to a custom coring tool design which incorporated coring, core breakage, core retention, and core extraction functions. The coring tool was tested on several types of rock and demonstrated the overall feasibility of this approach for robotic rock sample acquisition.

  3. Sealed rotary hearth furnace with central bearing support

    SciTech Connect

    Docherty, J.P.; Johnson, B.E.; Beri, J.

    1989-05-30

    This patent describes a rotary hearth furnace. It comprises a stationary furnace wall with connecting roof and floor defining a closed furnace chamber therein; a rotatable hearth within the furnace chamber having a gas perforate surface for supporting a charge material thereon and having an open center region; a vertical cylindrical conduit supporting the hearth and communicating with the open center region thereof, the vertical cylindrical conduit extending from the hearth downwardly through an opening formed in the furnace floor and the vertical cylindrical conduit supported for rotation on bearing means positioned beneath the furnace floor; sealing means associated with the vertical cylindrical conduit and the furnace floor to seal off the opening therebetween; drive means for rotating the vertical cylindrical conduit and the hearth, feed means extending into the furnace chamber for charging particulate material onto the hearth, means for supplying hot gases to the furnace chamber between the hearth and the floor; means for withdrawing spent gas from the furnace chamber above the hearth; rabble means for moving the charge material across the hearth for discharge into the open enter region and the vertical cylindrical conduit.

  4. Real time pressure signal system for a rotary engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, W. J. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A real-time IMEP signal which is a composite of those produced in any one chamber of a three-lobed rotary engine is developed by processing the signals of four transducers positioned in a Wankel engine housing such that the rotor overlaps two of the transducers for a brief period during each cycle. During the overlap period of any two transducers, their output is compared and sampled for 10 microseconds per 0.18 degree of rotation by a sampling switch and capacitive circuit. When the switch is closed, the instantaneous difference between the value of the transducer signals is provided while with the switch open the average difference is produced. This combined signal, along with the original signal of the second transducer, is fed through a multiplexer to a pressure output terminal. Timing circuits, controlled by a crank angle encoder on the engine, determine which compared transducer signals are applied to the output terminal and when, as well as the open and closed periods of the switches.

  5. High efficiency magnetic bearing for a rotary blood pump.

    PubMed

    Chen, H M; Smith, W A; Walton, J F

    1998-01-01

    Mohawk Innovative Technology, Inc. (MiTi; Albany, NY) and the Cleveland Clinic Foundation (Cleveland, OH) have been engaged in a joint project to develop a new, high efficiency magnetic bearing for use in a rotary blood pump. Such a bearing would have some advantages with respect to permitting large, low shear clearances and avoiding crevice-like pivot interfaces and surface wear related issues. While magnetically suspended blood pumps have been demonstrated, other prototypes reported in the literature consume 5-15 W of power to energize the bearing. The MiTi bearing has been prototyped and tested. The design is a hybrid configuration, radially passive and axially active. The rotor-and-bearing system has been run in air and in blood analog solution, in all orientations. Measurements show a bearing power consumption below 0.5 W. Vibration peaked at 0.2 g in blood analog solution; frequency analysis indicated that this was primarily related to motor design features. Measured displacements from the equilibrium position were less than 0.005 cm. Based on this highly successful bearing prototype, an integrated pump/bearing system is now being developed. PMID:9804532

  6. Rotary two-phase refrigeration apparatus and method

    SciTech Connect

    McCutchen, W.H.

    1994-01-04

    Rotary vacuum evaporation of a primary refrigerant cools a secondary refrigerant mixed with it. The secondary refrigerant does not change state and meanders through a low pressure cooling circuit for refrigeration applications. The primary refrigerant changes state and remains in a short and secure circuit. Evaporation is produced at a surface around the axis of rotation and within the mixture by opposed centrifugal and centripetal forces acting through a narrow afferent mesial passage between rotating disks mounted on a hollow shaft. Vapor is stripped from the surface, scrubbed by cyclonic flow through the afferent mesial passage, and condensed by a centrifugal compressor, which is a centrifugal pump having its inlet communicating with the bore of the hollow shaft and the afferent mesial passage. Latent heat is drawn off by water, making this a water heater, and the water is produced by de-humidification. The primary refrigerant and the secondary refrigerant are cheap and environmentally harmless, e.g. propylene glycol and acetone. A method and apparatus for refrigeration using only water is disclosed. Energy efficiency is maximized by avoidance of positive displacement pumps and narrow conduits, and by operation during times when excess power is in the grid. 7 figs.

  7. Study on Efficiency Improvement of Hermetic Rotary Compressors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsushima, Masatoshi; Nomura, Tomohiro; Nishimura, Nobuya; Iyota, Hiroyuki; Inaba, Koichi

    This research was conducted in order to better identify the torque loss of a hermetic rotary compressor for one revolution, and to directly obtain the actual shaft power of the compressor. A testing compressor and a gas cycle type simplified calorimeter were developed for direct measurement of the compressor torque. A strain gauge was stuck on the shaft between a compressor and a motor. Thus, the compressor torque could be measured directly by the strain gauge and data were transmitted to out of the compressor's vessel through a slip ring. Rotational speed of the compressor was measured by using a gap sensor also. From these measurement results, actual shaft power was calculated experimentally. On the other hand, effective compressive torque for compressing refrigerant gas was predicted theoretically. From both experimental and theoretical results, torque loss of the compressor was determined as the difference of the compressor torque from the effective compressive torque. Consequently, a loss of over-compression could be revealed from the torque loss experimentally. Furthermore, overall adiabatic efficiencies of compressors obtained by the actual shaft power were 1.1∼3.5% higher than former overall adiabatic efficiencies obtained by the motor output.

  8. Stratified charge rotary engine critical technology enablement. Volume 2: Appendixes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irion, C. E.; Mount, R. E.

    1992-01-01

    This second volume of appendixes is a companion to Volume 1 of this report which summarizes results of a critical technology enablement effort with the stratified charge rotary engine (SCRE) focusing on a power section of 0.67 liters (40 cu. in.) per rotor in single and two rotor versions. The work is a continuation of prior NASA Contracts NAS3-23056 and NAS3-24628. Technical objectives are multi-fuel capability, including civil and military jet fuel and DF-2, fuel efficiency of 0.355 Lbs/BHP-Hr. at best cruise condition above 50 percent power, altitude capability of up to 10Km (33,000 ft.) cruise, 2000 hour TBO and reduced coolant heat rejection. Critical technologies for SCRE's that have the potential for competitive performance and cost in a representative light-aircraft environment were examined. Objectives were: the development and utilization of advanced analytical tools, i.e. higher speed and enhanced three dimensional combustion modeling; identification of critical technologies; development of improved instrumentation; and to isolate and quantitatively identify the contribution to performance and efficiency of critical components or subsystems. A family of four-stage third-order explicit Runge-Kutta schemes is derived that required only two locations and has desirable stability characteristics. Error control is achieved by embedding a second-order scheme within the four-stage procedure. Certain schemes are identified that are as efficient and accurate as conventional embedded schemes of comparable order and require fewer storage locations.

  9. Gas phase dispersion in a small rotary kiln

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, B.B.

    1981-07-01

    A study was made of nonideal flow of gas in a rotary kiln reactor. A rotating tube 0.165 m in diameter by 2.17 m long, with internal lifting flights, was operated at room temperature. Rotational speeds from 2.0 to 7.0 rpm, air flow rates from 0.351 to 4.178 m/sup 3//h, and solid contents of 0.0, 5.1, and 15.3% of tube volume were studied. Residence time distribution of the gas was measured by means of the pulse injection technique using a helium tracer. A model was developed based on dispersive flow that exchanges with a deadwater region. Two parameters, a dispersion number describing bulk gas flow and an interchange factor describing exchange between the flow region and the gas trapped in the solids bed, were sufficient to correlate the data, but these parameters are sensitive to experimental error. The model is applicable to analysis of other flow systems, such as packed beds.

  10. Roadside IED detection using subsurface imaging radar and rotary UAV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Yexian; Twumasi, Jones O.; Le, Viet Q.; Ren, Yu-Jiun; Lai, C. P.; Yu, Tzuyang

    2016-05-01

    Modern improvised explosive device (IED) and mine detection sensors using microwave technology are based on ground penetrating radar operated by a ground vehicle. Vehicle size, road conditions, and obstacles along the troop marching direction limit operation of such sensors. This paper presents a new conceptual design using a rotary unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) to carry subsurface imaging radar for roadside IED detection. We have built a UAV flight simulator with the subsurface imaging radar running in a laboratory environment and tested it with non-metallic and metallic IED-like targets. From the initial lab results, we can detect the IED-like target 10-cm below road surface while carried by a UAV platform. One of the challenges is to design the radar and antenna system for a very small payload (less than 3 lb). The motion compensation algorithm is also critical to the imaging quality. In this paper, we also demonstrated the algorithm simulation and experimental imaging results with different IED target materials, sizes, and clutters.

  11. Rotary-wing aeroelasticity with application to VTOL vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedmann, Peretz P.

    1990-01-01

    This survey presents an assessment of the state of the art in rotary-wing aeroelasticity as applied to conventional helicopters as well as other VTOL vehicles such as tilting prop-rotors, the X-wing and a hybrid heavy lift vehicle. The objective is to enable the reader to develop an awareness of what has been accomplished, what remains to be done, and where to find more comprehensive treatments of the various topics discussed. The main topics discussed are: (1) structural modeling; (2) unsteady aerodynamic modeling; (3) formulation of the equations of motion and their solutions; (4) illustrative results for isolated blades in hover and forward flight; (5) illustrative results for coupled rotor/fuselage problems; (6) active control of aeromechanical and aeroelastic problems; (7) active controls for vibration reduction; (8) structural optimization with aeroelastic constraints; (9) gust response analysis of rotors; and (10) aeroelastic problems in special VTOL vehicles. These topics are reviewed with different levels of detail and some useful observation on potentially rewarding areas of future research are made.

  12. Design of a new type of rotary Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect

    Abenavoli, R.I.; Dong, W.; Fedele, L.; Sciaboni, A.

    1996-12-31

    The Stirling machine has had wide diffusion only in cold or cryogenic applications (Philips) while the engine, despite big efforts of large Companies (Philips, Westinghouse, General Motors, etc.), never definitively reached the market; today new interest is raised correlated with environmental and energy related considerations. Thus, researchers efforts are addressed towards the design of innovative and more competitive Stirling engine configurations, like the one here proposed. This paper describes the configuration of a new, rotary Stirling engine. In the cold part of the engine, the working fluid is compressed by a rotating element, then it passes through the regenerator from the cold to the hot end, where it absorbs the heat and expands in the high pressure and temperature area. The high pressure working fluid pushes on the rotating element (the so called rotator) and the engine outputs power. In the design, compression and expansion volumes change with the rotation. Two rotators are connected with a set of gears: therefore, the engine transmission system is simplified and dimensions are reduced.

  13. Bi-flow rotary kiln coal gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Garside, P.G.

    1983-02-22

    A process is disclosed for gasifying solid coal particles in a rotary kiln that produces simultaneously and continuously two distinctly different fuel gas streams from the opposite ends of a single kiln. A relatively low temperature gas is discharged from the solids inlet end of the kiln, which contains substantially all tars produced by the process. A second of the gas streams is discharged from the solids discharge end of the kiln at approximately 1,900* F. And substantially tar-free. Heat is recovered from this tar-free gas after only a simple cleaning of particulate matter, as may be provided by a cyclone separator. The discharge of gas out the solids inlet end of the kiln and the gas discharged out the solids discharge end of the kiln, is adjustably proportioned relative to each other so that at least some high temperature tar-free gas will mix inside the kiln with the lower temperature tar-containing gas, in an amount sufficient to keep such mixed gases at a temperature high enough to avoid the tars condensing on equipment surfaces. Several process parameters are disclosed for adjusting the proportion of the gas flows out each end of the kiln to maintain the aforesaid condition of both gas streams.

  14. Device for charging combustible solids to rotary kilns

    SciTech Connect

    Tutt, J.R.; Benoit, M.R.

    1993-07-13

    An apparatus is described for controlling the entry of combustible solids through a port formed in a wall of a rotary kiln cylinder of an operating cement kiln at a location between an upper end and a lower fired end thereof, the kiln containing hot mineral material for combustion of said solids in contact with said mineral material, the apparatus comprising a port closure assembly comprising a closure movable between a port-opened and port-closed position and means for moving the closure between the port-opened and port-closed positions at predetermined times during rotation of the kiln cylinder; a staging assembly including a support projecting therefrom in alignment with the port for supporting combustible solids; and, a transfer assembly mounted on the kiln wall at a point in alignment with the port for transferring combustible solids from the staging assembly to the port, said transfer assembly being formed to include at least one slot sized to allow said support to pass there through so that combustible solids on the support are lifted from said support by the kiln wall mounted transfer assembly as it sweeps past the staging assembly during kiln cylinder rotation.

  15. Performance Estimation for Two-Dimensional Brownian Rotary Ratchet Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tutu, Hiroki; Horita, Takehiko; Ouchi, Katsuya

    2015-04-01

    Within the context of the Brownian ratchet model, a molecular rotary system that can perform unidirectional rotations induced by linearly polarized ac fields and produce positive work under loads was studied. The model is based on the Langevin equation for a particle in a two-dimensional (2D) three-tooth ratchet potential of threefold symmetry. The performance of the system is characterized by the coercive torque, i.e., the strength of the load competing with the torque induced by the ac driving field, and the energy efficiency in force conversion from the driving field to the torque. We propose a master equation for coarse-grained states, which takes into account the boundary motion between states, and develop a kinetic description to estimate the mean angular momentum (MAM) and powers relevant to the energy balance equation. The framework of analysis incorporates several 2D characteristics and is applicable to a wide class of models of smooth 2D ratchet potential. We confirm that the obtained expressions for MAM, power, and efficiency of the model can enable us to predict qualitative behaviors. We also discuss the usefulness of the torque/power relationship for experimental analyses, and propose a characteristic for 2D ratchet systems.

  16. Stratified Charge Rotary Engine Critical Technology Enablement, Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irion, C. E.; Mount, R. E.

    1992-01-01

    This report summarizes results of a critical technology enablement effort with the stratified charge rotary engine (SCRE) focusing on a power section of 0.67 liters (40 cu. in.) per rotor in single and two rotor versions. The work is a continuation of prior NASA Contracts NAS3-23056 and NAS3-24628. Technical objectives are multi-fuel capability, including civil and military jet fuel and DF-2, fuel efficiency of 0.355 Lbs/BHP-Hr. at best cruise condition above 50 percent power, altitude capability of up to 10Km (33,000 ft.) cruise, 2000 hour TBO and reduced coolant heat rejection. Critical technologies for SCRE's that have the potential for competitive performance and cost in a representative light-aircraft environment were examined. Objectives were: the development and utilization of advanced analytical tools, i.e. higher speed and enhanced three dimensional combustion modeling; identification of critical technologies; development of improved instrumentation, and to isolate and quantitatively identify the contribution to performance and efficiency of critical components or subsystems.

  17. Hydrodynamically Lubricated Rotary Shaft Having Twist Resistant Geometry

    DOEpatents

    Dietle, Lannie; Gobeli, Jeffrey D.

    1993-07-27

    A hydrodynamically lubricated squeeze packing type rotary shaft with a cross-sectional geometry suitable for pressurized lubricant retention is provided which, in the preferred embodiment, incorporates a protuberant static sealing interface that, compared to prior art, dramatically improves the exclusionary action of the dynamic sealing interface in low pressure and unpressurized applications by achieving symmetrical deformation of the seal at the static and dynamic sealing interfaces. In abrasive environments, the improved exclusionary action results in a dramatic reduction of seal and shaft wear, compared to prior art, and provides a significant increase in seal life. The invention also increases seal life by making higher levels of initial compression possible, compared to prior art, without compromising hydrodynamic lubrication; this added compression makes the seal more tolerant of compression set, abrasive wear, mechanical misalignment, dynamic runout, and manufacturing tolerances, and also makes hydrodynamic seals with smaller cross-sections more practical. In alternate embodiments, the benefits enumerated above are achieved by cooperative configurations of the seal and the gland which achieve symmetrical deformation of the seal at the static and dynamic sealing interfaces. The seal may also be configured such that predetermined radial compression deforms it to a desired operative configuration, even through symmetrical deformation is lacking.

  18. Sway control method and system for rotary cranes

    DOEpatents

    Robinett, Rush D.; Parker, Gordon G.; Feddema, John T.; Dohrmann, Clark R.; Petterson, Ben J.

    1999-01-01

    Methods and apparatuses for reducing the oscillatory motion of rotary crane payloads during operator-commanded or computer-controlled maneuvers. An Input-shaping filter receives input signals from multiple operator input devices and converts them into output signals readable by the crane controller to dampen the payload tangential and radial sway associated with rotation of the jib. The input signals are characterized by a hub rotation trajectory .gamma.(t), which includes a jib angular acceleration .gamma., a trolley acceleration x, and a load-line length velocity L. The system state variables are characterized by a tangential rotation angle .theta.(t) and a radial rotation angle .phi.(t) of the load-line. The coupled equations of motion governing the filter are non-linear and configuration-dependent. In one embodiment, a filter is provided between the operator and the crane for filtering undesired frequencies from the angular .gamma. and trolley x velocities to suppress payload oscillation. In another embodiment, crane commands are computer generated and controlled to suppress vibration of the payload using a postulated asymmetrical shape for the acceleration profiles of the jib, which profiles are uniquely determined by a set of parameters (including the acceleration pulse amplitude and the duration and coast time between pulses), or a dynamic programming approach.

  19. Sway control method and system for rotary cranes

    DOEpatents

    Robinett, R.D.; Parker, G.G.; Feddema, J.T.; Dohrmann, C.R.; Petterson, B.J.

    1999-06-01

    Methods and apparatuses are disclosed for reducing the oscillatory motion of rotary crane payloads during operator-commanded or computer-controlled maneuvers. An Input-shaping filter receives input signals from multiple operator input devices and converts them into output signals readable by the crane controller to dampen the payload tangential and radial sway associated with rotation of the jib. The input signals are characterized by a hub rotation trajectory [gamma](t), which includes a jib angular acceleration [gamma], a trolley acceleration x, and a load-line length velocity L. The system state variables are characterized by a tangential rotation angle [theta](t) and a radial rotation angle [phi](t) of the load-line. The coupled equations of motion governing the filter are non-linear and configuration-dependent. In one embodiment, a filter is provided between the operator and the crane for filtering undesired frequencies from the angular [gamma] and trolley x velocities to suppress payload oscillation. In another embodiment, crane commands are computer generated and controlled to suppress vibration of the payload using a postulated asymmetrical shape for the acceleration profiles of the jib, which profiles are uniquely determined by a set of parameters (including the acceleration pulse amplitude and the duration and coast time between pulses), or a dynamic programming approach. 25 figs.

  20. Resurrection of the flagellar rotary motor near zero load

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Junhua; Berg, Howard C.

    2008-01-01

    Flagellated bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, are propelled by helical flagellar filaments, each driven at its base by a reversible rotary motor, powered by a transmembrane proton flux. Torque is generated by the interaction of stator proteins, MotA and MotB, with a rotor protein FliG. The physiology of the motor has been studied extensively in the regime of relatively high load and low speed, where it appears to operate close to thermodynamic equilibrium. Here, we describe an assay that allows systematic study of the motor near zero load, where proton translocation and movement of mechanical components are rate limiting. Sixty-nanometer-diameter gold spheres were attached to hooks of cells lacking flagellar filaments, and light scattered from a sphere was monitored at the image plane of a microscope through a small pinhole. Paralyzed motors of cells carrying a motA point mutation were resurrected at 23°C by expression of wild-type MotA, and speeds jumped from zero to a maximum value (≈300 Hz) in one step. Thus, near zero load, the speed of the motor is independent of the number of torque-generating units. Evidently, the units act independently (they do not interfere with one another), and there are no intervals during which a second unit can add to the speed generated by the first (the duty ratio is close to 1). PMID:18202173

  1. Resolving Two Dimensional Angular Velocity within a Rotary Tumbler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helminiak, Nathaniel; Helminiak, David; Cariapa, Vikram; Borg, John

    2015-11-01

    In this study, a horizontally oriented cylindrical tumbler, filled at variable depth with cylindrical media, was rotated at various constant speeds. A monoplane layer of media was photographed with a high-speed camera and images were post processed with Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV) algorithms in order to resolve both the translational and rotational flow fields. Although the translational velocity fields have been well characterized, contemporary resources enabled the ability to expand upon and refine data regarding rotational characteristics of particles within a rotary tumbler. The results indicate that particles rotate according to intermittent no-slip interactions between the particles and solid body rotation. Particles within the bed, not confined to solid body rotation, exhibited behavior indicative of gearing between particles; each reacting to the tangential component of contact forming rotation chains. Furthermore, it was observed that solid body interactions corresponded to areas of confined motion, as areas of high interaction dissuaded no-slip rotation, while areas of developing flow tended towards no-slip rotation. Special thanks to: NASA Wisconsin Space Grant Consortium Program as well as Marquette University OPUS College of Engineering.

  2. Rotary ultrasonic machining of CFRP: A comparison with grinding.

    PubMed

    Ning, F D; Cong, W L; Pei, Z J; Treadwell, C

    2016-03-01

    Carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) composites have been intensively used in various industries due to their superior properties. In aircraft and aerospace industry, a large number of holes are required to be drilled into CFRP components at final stage for aircraft assembling. There are two major types of methods for hole making of CFRP composites in industry, twist drilling and its derived multi-points machining methods, and grinding and its related methods. The first type of methods are commonly used in hole making of CFRP composites. However, in recent years, rotary ultrasonic machining (RUM), a hybrid machining process combining ultrasonic machining and grinding, has also been successfully used in drilling of CFRP composites. It has been shown that RUM is superior to twist drilling in many aspects. However, there are no reported investigations on comparisons between RUM and grinding in drilling of CFRP. In this paper, these two drilling methods are compared in five aspects, including cutting force, torque, surface roughness, hole diameter, and material removal rate. PMID:26614168

  3. A rotary microgripper with locking function via a ratchet mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Y.; Yuan, W.; Zhang, H.; Kang, H.; Chang, H.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a rotary microgripper with locking function enabled by a ratchet mechanism. The ratchet mechanism enables long-time gripping without having to continuously apply the external excitation signal such as the electrical, thermal or magnetic field. Thus the damage to the gripped micro-scale objects caused by the external excitation signals can be significantly reduced. A logic control strategy is proposed to solve the wearing problems of the ratchet mechanism. The stability of the microgripper is improved by increasing the length of the engaged line. The microgripper is fabricated by an improved silicon-on-insulator dicing-free process to protect the delicate device structure from damage during fabrication. The microgripper has a discrete opening range and can handle micro-scale objects with a size of 20 μm, 40 μm and 60 μm based on the current design parameters. A pick-lock-release gripping experiment on a magnolia pollen cell is performed to form a triangle to prove the feasibility of the gripper in handling biological cells.

  4. Coal desulfurization in a rotary kiln combustor. Final report, March 15, 1990--July 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, J.T. Jr.

    1992-09-11

    The purpose of this project was to demonstrate the combustion of coal and coal wastes in a rotary kiln reactor with limestone addition for sulfur control. The rationale for the project was the perception that rotary systems could bring several advantages to combustion of these fuels, and may thus offer an alternative to fluid-bed boilers. Towards this end, an existing wood pyrolysis kiln (the Humphrey Charcoal kiln) was to be suitably refurbished and retrofitted with a specially designed version of a patented air distributor provided by Universal Energy, Inc. (UEI). As the project progressed beyond the initial stages, a number of issues were raised regarding the feasibility and the possible advantages of burning coals in a rotary kiln combustor and, in particular, the suitability of the Humphrey Charcoal kiln as a combustor. Instead, an opportunity arose to conduct combustion tests in the PEDCO Rotary Cascading-Bed Boiler (RCBB) commercial demonstration unit at the North American Rayon CO. (NARCO) in Elizabethton, TN. The tests focused on anthracite culm and had two objectives: (a) determine the feasibility of burning anthracite culms in a rotary kiln boiler and (b) obtain input for any further work involving the Humphrey Charcoal kiln combustor. A number of tests were conducted at the PEDCO unit. The last one was conducted on anthracite culm procured directly from the feed bin of a commercial circulating fluid-bed boiler. The results were disappointing; it was difficult to maintain sustained combustion even when large quantities of supplemental fuel were used. Combustion efficiency was poor, around 60 percent. The results suggest that the rotary kiln boiler, as designed, is ill-suited with respect to low-grade, hard to burn solid fuels, such as anthracite culm. Indeed, data from combustion of bituminous coal in the PEDCO unit suggest that with respect to coal in general, the rotary kiln boiler appears inferior to the circulating fluid bed boiler.

  5. Rotary Balance Wind Tunnel Testing for the FASER Flight Research Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denham, Casey; Owens, D. Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Flight dynamics research was conducted to collect and analyze rotary balance wind tunnel test data in order to improve the aerodynamic simulation and modeling of a low-cost small unmanned aircraft called FASER (Free-flying Aircraft for Sub-scale Experimental Research). The impetus for using FASER was to provide risk and cost reduction for flight testing of more expensive aircraft and assist in the improvement of wind tunnel and flight test techniques, and control laws. The FASER research aircraft has the benefit of allowing wind tunnel and flight tests to be conducted on the same model, improving correlation between wind tunnel, flight, and simulation data. Prior wind tunnel tests include a static force and moment test, including power effects, and a roll and yaw damping forced oscillation test. Rotary balance testing allows for the calculation of aircraft rotary derivatives and the prediction of steady-state spins. The rotary balance wind tunnel test was conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) 20-Foot Vertical Spin Tunnel (VST). Rotary balance testing includes runs for a set of given angular rotation rates at a range of angles of attack and sideslip angles in order to fully characterize the aircraft rotary dynamics. Tests were performed at angles of attack from 0 to 50 degrees, sideslip angles of -5 to 10 degrees, and non-dimensional spin rates from -0.5 to 0.5. The effects of pro-spin elevator and rudder deflection and pro- and anti-spin elevator, rudder, and aileron deflection were examined. The data are presented to illustrate the functional dependence of the forces and moments on angle of attack, sideslip angle, and angular rate for the rotary contributions to the forces and moments. Further investigation is necessary to fully characterize the control effectors. The data were also used with a steady state spin prediction tool that did not predict an equilibrium spin mode.

  6. CONTINUED DEVELOPMENT OF THE ROTARY COMBUSTOR FOR REFIRING PULVERIZED COAL BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Murray F. Abbott; Jamal B. Mereb; Simon P. Hanson; Michael J. Virr

    2000-11-01

    The Rotary Combustor is a novel concept for burning coal with low SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions. It burns crushed coal in a fluid bed where the bed is maintained in a rotating drum by centripetal force. Since this force may be varied, the combustor may be very compact, and thus be a direct replacement for a p.c. burner on existing boilers. The primary objective of this project is to demonstrate that a typical industrial boiler can be refired with the modified prototype Rotary Combustor to burn Ohio high-sulfur coal with low emissions of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. The primary problem that must be resolved to demonstrate sustained operations with coal is temperature control in the rotating fluid bed. The prototype Rotary Combustor was assembled and installed on the T-850P CNB boiler at the CONSOL Energy site in South Park, Pennsylvania. Several design improvements were investigated and implemented during the assembly to improve the prototype Rotary Combustor operations compared to prior tests at Detroit Stoker in Monroe, Michigan. An Operating Manual and Safety Review were completed. The shakedown test phase was initiated. Two major problems were initially encountered: binding of the rotating drum at operating temperatures, and reduced fluid-bed pressure drop after short periods of operation. Plating the brush seal rotary land ring with a chrome carbide plasma spray and lubricating the seal prior to each test sufficiently resolved these problems to permit a limited number of operations tests. Unlike previous tests at Detroit Stoker, sustained operation of the prototype Rotary Combustor was accomplished burning a high-Btu fuel, metallurgical coke. The prototype Rotary Combustor was operated with coke in gasifier mode on two occasions. Fluid-bed temperature spiking was minimized with manual control of the feeds (coke, air and steam), and no clinker formation problems were encountered in either test. Emission levels of NO{sub x} were measured at about 270 ppmv which

  7. A Magnetic Rotary Optical Fiber Connector for Optogenetic Experiments in Freely Moving Animals

    PubMed Central

    Klorig, David C; Godwin, Dwayne W

    2014-01-01

    Background Performing optogenetic experiments in a behaving animal presents a unique technical challenge. In order to provide an optical path between a fixed light source and a chronically implanted fiber in a freely moving animal, a typical experimental set-up includes a detachable connection between the light source and the head of the animal, as well as a rotary joint to relieve torsional stress during movement. New Method We have combined the functionality of the head mounted connector and the rotary joint into a single integrated device that is inexpensive, simple to build and easy to use. Results A typical rotary connector has a transmission efficiency of 80% with a rotational variability of 4%, but can be configured to have a rotational variability of 2% at the expense of lower transmission efficiency. Depending on configuration, rotational torque ranges from 14 - 180 μN*m, making the rotary connector suitable for use with small animals such as mice. Comparison with Existing Methods Benchmark tests demonstrate that our connectors perform similarly to commercially available solutions in terms of transmission efficiency, rotational variability, and torque but at a fraction of the cost. Unlike currently available solutions, our unique design requires a single optical junction which significantly reduces overall light loss. In addition, magnets allow the connectors and caps to “snap into place” for quick yet reliable connection and disconnection. Conclusions Our rotary connector system offers superior performance, reduced cost, and is easily incorporated into existing optogenetic set-ups. PMID:24613796

  8. A Thermoelectric Waste-Heat-Recovery System for Portland Cement Rotary Kilns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Qi; Li, Peng; Cai, Lanlan; Zhou, Pingwang; Tang, Di; Zhai, Pengcheng; Zhang, Qingjie

    2015-06-01

    Portland cement is produced by one of the most energy-intensive industrial processes. Energy consumption in the manufacture of Portland cement is approximately 110-120 kWh ton-1. The cement rotary kiln is the crucial equipment used for cement production. Approximately 10-15% of the energy consumed in production of the cement clinker is directly dissipated into the atmosphere through the external surface of the rotary kiln. Innovative technology for energy conservation is urgently needed by the cement industry. In this paper we propose a novel thermoelectric waste-heat-recovery system to reduce heat losses from cement rotary kilns. This system is configured as an array of thermoelectric generation units arranged longitudinally on a secondary shell coaxial with the rotary kiln. A mathematical model was developed for estimation of the performance of waste heat recovery. Discussions mainly focus on electricity generation and energy saving, taking a Φ4.8 × 72 m cement rotary kiln as an example. Results show that the Bi2Te3-PbTe hybrid thermoelectric waste-heat-recovery system can generate approximately 211 kW electrical power while saving 3283 kW energy. Compared with the kiln without the thermoelectric recovery system, the kiln with the system can recover more than 32.85% of the energy that used to be lost as waste heat through the kiln surface.

  9. Microstructure Modeling of a Ni-Fe-Based Superalloy During the Rotary Forging Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loyda, A.; Hernández-Muñoz, G. M.; Reyes, L. A.; Zambrano-Robledo, P.

    2016-06-01

    The microstructure evolution of Ni-Fe superalloys has a great influence on the mechanical behavior during service conditions. The rotary forging process offers an alternative to conventional bulk forming processes where the parts can be rotary forged with a fraction of the force commonly needed by conventional forging techniques. In this investigation, a numerical modeling of microstructure evolution for design and optimization of the hot forging operations has been used to manufacture a heat-resistant nickel-based superalloy. An Avrami model was implemented into finite element commercial platform DEFORM 3D to evaluate the average grain size and recrystallization during the rotary forging process. The simulations were carried out considering three initial temperatures, 980, 1000, and 1050 °C, to obtain the microstructure behavior after rotary forging. The final average grain size of one case was validated by comparing with results of previous experimental work of disk forging operation. This investigation was aimed to explore the influence of the rotary forging process on microstructure evolution in order to obtain a homogenous and refined grain size in the final component.

  10. Proton transport and torque generation in rotary biomotors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, A. Yu.; Savel'Ev, S.; Mourokh, L. G.; Nori, Franco

    2008-09-01

    We analyze the dynamics of rotary biomotors within a simple nanoelectromechanical model, consisting of a stator part and a ring-shaped rotor having 12 proton-binding sites. This model is closely related to the membrane-embedded F0 motor of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthase, which converts the energy of the transmembrane electrochemical gradient of protons into mechanical motion of the rotor. It is shown that the Coulomb coupling between the negative charge of the empty rotor site and the positive stator charge, located near the periplasmic proton-conducting channel (proton source), plays a dominant role in the torque-generating process. When approaching the source outlet, the rotor site has a proton energy level higher than the energy level of the site, located near the cytoplasmic channel (proton drain). In the first stage of this torque-generating process, the energy of the electrochemical potential is converted into potential energy of the proton-binding sites on the rotor. Afterwards, the tangential component of the Coulomb force produces a mechanical torque. We demonstrate that, at low temperatures, the loaded motor works in the shuttling regime where the energy of the electrochemical potential is consumed without producing any unidirectional rotation. The motor switches to the torque-generating regime at high temperatures, when the Brownian ratchet mechanism turns on. In the presence of a significant external torque, created by ATP hydrolysis, the system operates as a proton pump, which translocates protons against the transmembrane potential gradient. Here we focus on the F0 motor, even though our analysis is applicable to the bacterial flagellar motor.

  11. Phosphate release coupled to rotary motion of F1-ATPase

    PubMed Central

    Okazaki, Kei-ichi; Hummer, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    F1-ATPase, the catalytic domain of ATP synthase, synthesizes most of the ATP in living organisms. Running in reverse powered by ATP hydrolysis, this hexameric ring-shaped molecular motor formed by three αβ-dimers creates torque on its central γ-subunit. This reverse operation enables detailed explorations of the mechanochemical coupling mechanisms in experiment and simulation. Here, we use molecular dynamics simulations to construct a first atomistic conformation of the intermediate state following the 40° substep of rotary motion, and to study the timing and molecular mechanism of inorganic phosphate (Pi) release coupled to the rotation. In response to torque-driven rotation of the γ-subunit in the hydrolysis direction, the nucleotide-free αβE interface forming the “empty” E site loosens and singly charged Pi readily escapes to the P loop. By contrast, the interface stays closed with doubly charged Pi. The γ-rotation tightens the ATP-bound αβTP interface, as required for hydrolysis. The calculated rate for the outward release of doubly charged Pi from the αβE interface 120° after ATP hydrolysis closely matches the ∼1-ms functional timescale. Conversely, Pi release from the ADP-bound αβDP interface postulated in earlier models would occur through a kinetically infeasible inward-directed pathway. Our simulations help reconcile conflicting interpretations of single-molecule experiments and crystallographic studies by clarifying the timing of Pi exit, its pathway and kinetics, associated changes in Pi protonation, and changes of the F1-ATPase structure in the 40° substep. Important elements of the molecular mechanism of Pi release emerging from our simulations appear to be conserved in myosin despite the different functional motions. PMID:24062450

  12. [In vitro investigation of three NiTi rotary instruments].

    PubMed

    Pataky, Gergely; Bartha, Károly

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of our study was to compare the shaping ability of three nickel-titanium rotary instruments (RaCe/FKG Dentaire/, ProTaper /Dentsply-Maillefer/ and M(two)/VDW/) by measuring the asymmetry that occurs in curved canals during instrumentation. Eight simulated canals in resin blocks (Morita Europe) were prepared in each group by the same operator according to the instructions of the manufacturers. We used M(two) direct (VDW-Sirona) contra-angle with torque control function. Copious irrigation of the canals was performed with the use of Chloramine B solution and File-Eze (Ultradent) was used for lubrication. We accomplished our measurements on the pre- and postoperatively scanned images of the resin blocks with the aid of Image Tool for Windows 3.0 (UTHSCSA). Measuring points were assigned along the curvature of the canal axis line to represent 1 millimeter distance from the apex and from each other. The centre of the curvature was edited and radius lines were drawn from the centre through the measuring points. We determined the value of the preparation asymmetry at the levels of these measuring points along the radius lines. RaCe prepared with the greatest asymmetry at the first, second, fourth and fifth measuring points, at the third level ProTaper produced the highest value of asymmetry. In general M(two) prepared with the lowest asymmetry while it proved as a safe instrument system. The main disadvantage about ProTaper was the high risk of fracture. The RaCe sequence used in this study showed great asymmetry values at the apical area. PMID:24344560

  13. Magnetic drive system for a new centrifugal rotary blood pump.

    PubMed

    Hilton, Andrew; Tansley, Geoff

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to design a novel magnetic drive and bearing system for a new centrifugal rotary blood pump (CRBP). The drive system consists of two components: (i) permanent magnets within the impeller of the CRBP; and (ii) the driving electromagnets. Orientation of the magnets varies from axial through to 60 degrees included out-lean (conical configuration). Permanent magnets replace the electromagnet drive to allow easier characterization. The performance characteristics tested were the axial force of attraction between the stator and rotor at angles of rotational alignment, Ø, and the corresponding torque at those angles. The drive components were tested for various magnetic cone angles, theta. The test was repeated for three backing conditions: (i) non-backed; (ii) steel-cupped; and (iii) steel plate back-iron, performed on an Instron tensile testing machine. Experimental results were expanded upon through finite element and boundary element analysis (BEM). The force/torque characteristics were maximal for a 12-magnet configuration at 0 degree cone angle with steel-back iron (axial force = 60 N, torque = 0.375 Nm). BEM showed how introducing a cone angle increases the radial restoring force threefold while not compromising axial bearing force. Magnets in the drive system may be orientated not only to provide adequate coupling to drive the CRBP, but to provide significant axial and radial bearing forces capable of withstanding over 100 m/s(2) shock excitation on the impeller. Although the 12 magnet 0 degree (theta) configuration yielded the greatest force/torque characteristic, this was seen as potentially unattractive as this magnetic cone angle yielded poor radial restoring force characteristics. PMID:18959665

  14. Dentine chips produced by nickel-titanium rotary instruments.

    PubMed

    Guppy, D R; Curtis, R V; Ford, T R

    2000-12-01

    This study aimed to compare the cross-sectional shape of two nickel-titanium rotary instruments, namely ProFile and Quantec files, both ISO 25, 0.06 taper, and sought to relate this to the chips produced by cutting dentine. A limited comparison was made with stainless steel engine reamers. First, five files of each type were sectioned transversely at 12 mm, 8 mm and 4 mm from the tip and examined by scanning electron microscopy. The cutting angles were assessed by a direct measurement technique which allowed for the inclination of a cutting edge to the root canal. Second, eight samples of cutting debris were collected from instrumentation by each type of nickel-titanium file and four samples from the engine reamers. The major and minor axis, area and roundness of the dentine chips in each sample were measured using computerized particle analysis. The results demonstrated that all files had a negative cutting angle which varied at the different levels (ProFiles range 69.4 degrees to 58.4 degrees and Quantec range 74.8 degrees to 56.8 degrees). The consistency within files of the same type was good as demonstrated by low standard deviations, except for Quantec files at the 4 mm level where higher standard deviations of 4.1 degrees and 5.5 degrees for the two blades were found. The chip analysis showed significant differences between chips produced by ProFile and Quantec files (P < 0.05). The latter were larger and rounder. The chips from the ProFile and the engine reamer chips were similar in dimension (P > 0.05). No simple relationship existed between file geometry and the dentine chips produced during instrumentation. PMID:11202891

  15. A novel permanent maglev rotary LVAD with passive magnetic bearings.

    PubMed

    Qian, K X; Yuan, H Y; Zeng, P; Ru, W M

    2005-01-01

    It has been widely acknowledged that permanent maglev cannot achieve stability; however, the authors have discovered that stable permanent maglev is possible under the effect of a combination of passive magnetic and nonmagnetic forces. In addition, a rotary left ventricular assist device (LVAD) with passive magnetic bearings has been developed. It is a radially driven impeller pump, having a rotor and a stator. The rotor consists of driven magnets and impeller; the motor coil and pump housing form the stator. Two passive magnetic bearings counteract the attractive force between motor coil iron core and rotor magnets; the rotor thereafter can be disaffiliated from the stator and become levitated under the action of passive magnetic and haemodynamic forces. Because of the pressure difference between the outlet and the inlet of the pump, there is a small flow passing through the gap of rotor and stator, and then entering the lower pressure area along the central hole of the rotor. This small flow comes to a full washout of all blood contacting surfaces in the motor. Moreover, a decreased Bernoulli force in the larger gap with faster flow produces a centring force that leads to stable levitation of the rotor. Resultantly, neither mechanical wear nor thrombosis will occur in the pump. The rotor position detection reveals that the precondition of levitation is a high rotating speed (over 3250 rpm) and a high flow rate (over 1 l min(-1)). Haemodynamic tests with porcine blood indicate that the device as a LVAD requires a rotating speed between 3500 and 4000 rpm for producing a blood flow of 4 - 6 l min(-1) against 100 mmHg mean pressure head. The egg-sized device has a weight of 200 g and an O.D. of 40 mm at its largest point. PMID:16126584

  16. Global axial-torsional dynamics during rotary drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Sunit K.; Wahi, Pankaj

    2016-08-01

    We have studied the global dynamics of the bottom hole assembly (BHA) during rotary drilling with a lumped parameter axial-torsional model for the drill-string and a linear cutting force model. Our approach accounts for bit-bounce and stick-slip along with the regenerative effect and is independent of the drill-string and the bit-rock interaction model. Regenerative axial dynamics due to variable depth of cut is incorporated through a functional description of the cut surface profile instead of a delay differential equation with a state-dependent delay. The evolution of the cut surface is governed by a nonlinear partial differential equation (PDE) which is coupled with the ordinary differential equations (ODEs) governing the longitudinal and angular dynamics of the BHA. The boundary condition for the PDE captures multiple regeneration in the event of bit-bounce. Interruption in the torsional dynamics is included by considering separate evolution equations for the various states during the stick period. Finite-dimensional approximation for our coupled PDE-ODE model has been obtained and validated by comparing our results against existing results. Bifurcation analysis of our system reveals a supercritical Hopf bifurcation leading to periodic vibrations without bit-bounce and stick-slip which is followed by solutions involving bit-bounce or stick-slip depending on the operating parameters. Further inroads into the unstable regime leads to a variety of complex behavior including co-existence of periodic and chaotic solutions involving both bit-bounce and stick-slip.

  17. Rotary seal with enhanced lubrication and contaminant flushing

    DOEpatents

    Dietle, Lannie L.

    2000-01-01

    A resilient, ring shaped interference-type hydrodynamic rotary seal having waves on the lubricant side which provide increased film thickness and flushing action by creating contact pressure induced angulated restrictions formed by abrupt restrictive diverters. The angulated restrictions are defined by projecting ridges, corners at the trailing edge of the waves, or simply by use of a converging shape at the trailing edge of the waves which is more abrupt than the gently converging hydrodynamic inlet shape at the leading edge of the waves. The abrupt restrictive diverter performs two functions; a restricting function and a diverting function. The angulated restrictions cause a local film thickness restriction which produces a damming effect preventing a portion of the lubricant from leaking out of the dynamic sealing interface at the trailing edge of the wave, and results in a much thicker lubricant film thickness under the waves. This contributes to more film thickness in the remainder of the dynamic sealing interface toward the environment because film thickness tends to decay gradually rather than abruptly due to the relative stiffness of the seal material. Because of the angle of the abrupt restrictive diverter relative to the relative rotation direction, in conjunction with the restriction or damming effect, a strong diverting action is produced which pumps lubricant across the dynamic sealing interface toward the environment. The lubricant diversion is caused by the component of the rotational velocity tangent to the abrupt restrictive diverter. The component of rotational velocity normal to the abrupt restrictive diverter causes a portion of the lubricant film to be pumped past the abrupt restrictive diverter, thereby assuring adequate lubrication thereof.

  18. SPH Simulation of Liquid Scattering from the Edge of a Rotary Atomizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izawa, Seiichiro; Ito, Takuya; Shigeta, Masaya; Fukunishi, Yu

    2013-11-01

    Three-dimensional incompressible SPH method is used to simulate the behavior of liquid scattering from the edge of a rotary atomizer. Rotary atomizers have been widely used for spraying, painting and coating, for instance, in the automobile industry. However, how the spray droplets are formed after leaving the edge of the rotary atomizer is not well understood, because the scale of the phenomenon is very small and the speed of rotation is very fast. The present computational result shows that while the liquid forms a film on the surface of the rotating disk of the atomizer, it quickly deforms into many thin columns after leaving the disk edge, and these columns soon break up into fine droplets which spread out in the radial direction. The size of droplets tends to become smaller with the increase in the disk rotating speed. The results show good agreement with the experimental observations.

  19. Flight parameters monitoring system for tracking structural integrity of rotary-wing aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohammadi, Jamshid; Olkiewicz, Craig

    1994-01-01

    Recent developments in advanced monitoring systems used in conjunction with tracking structural integrity of rotary-wing aircraft are explained. The paper describes: (1) an overview of rotary-wing aircraft flight parameters that are critical to the aircraft loading conditions and each parameter's specific requirements in terms of data collection and processing; (2) description of the monitoring system and its functions used in a survey of rotary-wing aircraft; and (3) description of the method of analysis used for the data. The paper presents a newly-developed method in compiling flight data. The method utilizes the maneuver sequence of events in several pre-identified flight conditions to describe various flight parameters at three specific weight ranges.

  20. Influence of Additional Tensile Force on Springback of Tube Under Rotary Draw Bending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    E, Daxin; Guan, Zhiping; Chen, Jisheng

    2012-11-01

    According to the characteristics of tube under rotary draw bending, the formulae were derived to calculate the springback angles of tubes subjected to combined bending and additional tension. Especially, as the neutral layer (NL) moves to the inner concave surface of the bend, the analytical values agree very well with the experimental results. The analysis shows that the additional tensile force causes the movement of the NL toward the bending center and makes the deformation behavior under rotary draw bending or numerically controlled (NC) bending different with that under pure bending, and also it could enlarge the springback angle if taking the movement of the NL into consideration. In some range, the springback angle would increase slightly with larger wall thickness/diameter ratio and decrease with wall thinning. The investigation could provide reference for the analysis of rotary draw bending, the design of NC tube bender and the related techniques.

  1. Modelling of Classical and Rotary Inverted Pendulum Systems - A Generalized Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jadlovský, Slávka; Sarnovský, Ján

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the design and program implementation of a general procedure which yields the mathematical model for a classical or rotary inverted pendulum system with an arbitrary number of pendulum links. Lagrange equations of the second kind with an integrated Rayleigh dissipation function are employed in model design, and the energetic balance relations, derived for the base and all pendulum links in a generalized (n-link) classical and rotary inverted pendulum system, are implemented in form of symbolic MATLAB functions and a MATLAB GUI application. The validity and accuracy of motion equations generated by the application are demonstrated by evaluating the open-loop responses of simulation models of classical double and rotary single inverted pendulum.

  2. Processing of Spent Ion Exchange Resins in a Rotary Calciner - 12212

    SciTech Connect

    Kascheev, Vladimir; Musatov, Nikolay

    2012-07-01

    Processing Russian nuclear ion exchange resin KU-2 using a 'Rotary' calciner was conducted. The resulting product is a dry free flowing powder (moisture content 3 wt.%, Angle of repose of ≅ 20 deg.). Compared with the original exchange resin the volume of the final product is about 3 times less.. Rotary calciner product can be stored in metal drums or in special reinforced concrete cubicles. After thermal treatment in a rotary calciner, the spent resin product can be solidified in cement yielding the following attributes: - The cemented waste is only a 35% increase over the volume of powder product; - The volume of cement calciner product is almost 9 times less (8.7) than the volume of cement solidified resin; - The mechanical strength of cemented calciner product meets the radioactive waste regulations in Russia. (authors)

  3. Nanoscale rotary apparatus formed from tight-fitting 3D DNA components

    PubMed Central

    Ketterer, Philip; Willner, Elena M.; Dietz, Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    We report a nanoscale rotary mechanism that reproduces some of the dynamic properties of biological rotary motors in the absence of an energy source, such as random walks on a circle with dwells at docking sites. Our mechanism is built modularly from tight-fitting components that were self-assembled using multilayer DNA origami. The apparatus has greater structural complexity than previous mechanically interlocked objects and features a well-defined angular degree of freedom without restricting the range of rotation. We studied the dynamics of our mechanism using single-particle experiments analogous to those performed previously with actin-labeled adenosine triphosphate synthases. In our mechanism, rotor mobility, the number of docking sites, and the dwell times at these sites may be controlled through rational design. Our prototype thus realizes a working platform toward creating synthetic nanoscale rotary motors. Our methods will support creating other complex nanoscale mechanisms based on tightly fitting, sterically constrained, but mobile, DNA components. PMID:26989778

  4. Nanoscale rotary apparatus formed from tight-fitting 3D DNA components.

    PubMed

    Ketterer, Philip; Willner, Elena M; Dietz, Hendrik

    2016-02-01

    We report a nanoscale rotary mechanism that reproduces some of the dynamic properties of biological rotary motors in the absence of an energy source, such as random walks on a circle with dwells at docking sites. Our mechanism is built modularly from tight-fitting components that were self-assembled using multilayer DNA origami. The apparatus has greater structural complexity than previous mechanically interlocked objects and features a well-defined angular degree of freedom without restricting the range of rotation. We studied the dynamics of our mechanism using single-particle experiments analogous to those performed previously with actin-labeled adenosine triphosphate synthases. In our mechanism, rotor mobility, the number of docking sites, and the dwell times at these sites may be controlled through rational design. Our prototype thus realizes a working platform toward creating synthetic nanoscale rotary motors. Our methods will support creating other complex nanoscale mechanisms based on tightly fitting, sterically constrained, but mobile, DNA components. PMID:26989778

  5. Suppression of vortex-induced vibration using the rotary oscillation of a cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Lin; Sun, Xiaofeng

    2015-02-01

    An active control method for suppressing the response of an elastically mounted cylinder by forcing rotary oscillation is presented. Vortex-induced vibration (VIV) of structures is related to the interaction between body and shedding vortex. In the synchronization/lock-in regime, when the vortex shedding frequency fs matches the natural frequency fN of the spring-mass system, large displacement amplitude in the transverse direction is observed. The effect of rotary oscillation on unsteady laminar flow past a freely vibrating cylinder has been investigated. In this study, the cylinder has two degrees of freedom: forced rotary oscillation and vortex induced vibration. The investigation is based on the solutions of flow equations by using the immersed boundary method at moderate Reynolds number. The present computational results indicate the rotary oscillation control can be implemented to suppress the response amplitude of VIV by locking the vortex shedding frequency fs at the forcing frequency fr in the "lock-on" region. The "lock-on" phenomenon occurs in the wake of a rotationally oscillating cylinder, which is free to vibrate in the transverse direction. The essence of the present active control method is to change the frequency of the vortex shedding, rather than suppress it. The response of an elastically mounted cylinder is drastically suppressed to less than 1% of the cylinder diameter, when proper frequency ratio fr/fN and rotational velocity are imposed. Detailed analyses of aerodynamic performance are given to interpret the mechanism of the suppression of response caused by forced rotary oscillation. The effects of mass ratio and velocity rate of rotary oscillation are also found to play an important role in the spring-mass system. The efficiency of the present method increases with Reynolds number.

  6. Broadband rotary joint for high speed ultrahigh resolution endoscopic OCT imaging (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alemohammad, Milad; Yuan, Wu; Mavadia-Shukla, Jessica; Liang, Wenxuan; Yu, Xiaoyun; Yu, Shaoyong; Li, Xingde

    2016-03-01

    Endoscopic OCT is a promising technology enabling noninvasive in vivo imaging of internal organs, such as the gastrointestinal tract and airways. The past few years have witnessed continued efforts to achieve ultrahigh resolution and speed. It is well-known that the axial resolution in OCT imaging has a quadratic dependence on the central wavelength. While conventional OCT endoscopes operate in 1300 nm wavelength, the second-generation endoscopes are designed for operation around 800 nm where turn-key, broadband sources are becoming readily available. Traditionally 1300 nm OCT endoscopes are scanned at the proximal end, and a broadband fiber-optic rotary joint as a key component in scanning endoscopic OCT is commercially available. Bandwidths in commercial 800 nm rotary joints are unfortunately compromised due to severe chromatic aberration, which limits the resolution afforded by the broadband light source. In the past we remedied this limitation by using a home-made capillary-tube-based rotary joint where the maximum reliable speed is ~10 revolutions/second. In this submission we report our second-generation, home-built high-speed and broadband rotary joint for 800 nm wavelength, which uses achromatic doublets in order achieve broadband achromatic operation. The measured one-way throughput of the rotary joint is >67 % while the fluctuation of the double-pass coupling efficiency during 360° rotation is less than +/-5 % at a speed of 70 revolutions/second. We demonstrate the operation of this rotary joint in conjunction with our ultrahigh-resolution (2.4 µm in air) diffractive catheter by three-dimensional full-circumferential endoscopic imaging of guinea pig esophagus at 70 frames per second in vivo.

  7. Experimental Investigation of a Multi-Cycle Single-Tube Pulse Detonation Rocket Engine with a Coaxial Rotary Valve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuoka, Ken; Esumi, Motoki; Ikeguchi, Ken Bryan; Kasahara, Jiro; Matsuo, Akiko; Funaki, Ikkoh

    We developed a novel coaxial rotary valve for a multi-tube PDE. Since this single valve can supply three different gases (fuel, oxidizer and purge gas) into a combustor, the unification of the valve systems for three different gases is possible by using our newly designed valve. A PDRE system can be simple and lightweight by using this valve, and thus its thrust-weight ratio can be increased. We proposed the design of a multi-tube rotary-valved PDRE system by this rotary valve. Moreover, in preparation for a multi-tube rotary-valved PDRE, we carried out the multi-cycle operation experiment by the single-tube rotary-valved PDRE system. The combustion wave velocity was measured to confirm the operation of the PDRE system. Deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) was confirmed and DDT distance decreased under the condition of high operation frequency. In addition, a maximum operation frequency was 159 Hz.

  8. Choice-reaction time to visual motion with varied levels of simultaneous rotary motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, B.; Stewart, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    Twelve airline pilots were studied to determine the effects of whole-body rotation on choice-reaction time to the horizontal motion of a line on a cathode-ray tube. On each trial, one of five levels of visual acceleration and five corresponding proportions of rotary acceleration were presented simultaneously. Reaction time to the visual motion decreased with increasing levels of visual motion and increased with increasing proportions of rotary acceleration. The results conflict with general theories of facilitation during double stimulation but are consistent with neural-clock model of sensory interaction in choice-reaction time.

  9. Research on high precision equal-angle scanning method in rotary kiln temperature measurement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Shaosheng; Guo, Zhongyuan; You, Changhui; Liu, Jinsong; Cheng, Yang; Tang, Huaming

    2016-05-01

    Aiming at traditional horizontal equal-angle scanning method's disadvantage of measurement error, a high precision equal-angle scanning method is proposed, the proposed method establishes a tilt scanning model by the following steps: introducing height variable, precisely calculating the viewing angle, building scanning model. The model is used to calculate scanning position on rotary kiln's surface, which helps to locate and track temperature variation. The experiment shows that the proposed method can effectively improve the precision of temperature spots' location on the rotary kiln surface.

  10. Carbon Fiber Reinforced Carbon Composites Rotary Valves for Internal Combustion Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Northam, G. Burton (Inventor); Ransone, Philip O. (Inventor); Rivers, H. Kevin (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    Carbon fiber reinforced carbon composite rotary, sleeve, and disc valves for internal combustion engines and the like are disclosed. The valves are formed from knitted or braided or warp-locked carbon fiber shapes. Also disclosed are valves fabricated from woven carbon fibers and from molded carbon matrix material. The valves of the present invention with their very low coefficient of thermal expansion and excellent thermal and self-lubrication properties, do not present the sealing and lubrication problems that have prevented rotary, sleeve, and disc valves from operating efficiently and reliably in the past. Also disclosed are a sealing tang to further improve sealing capabilities and anti-oxidation treatments.

  11. Carbon Fiber Reinforced Carbon Composite Rotary Valve for an Internal Combustion Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Northam, G.Burton (Inventor); Ransone, Philip O. (Inventor); Rivers, H. Kevin (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    Carbon fiber reinforced carbon composite rotary sleeve, and disc valves for internal combustion engines and the like are disclosed. The valves are formed from knitted or braided or wrap-locked carbon fiber shapes. Also disclosed are valves fabricated from woven carbon fibers and from molded carbon matrix material. The valves of the present invention with their very low coefficient of thermal expansion and excellent thermal and self-lubrication properties do not present the sealing and lubrication problems that have prevented rotary sleeve and disc valves from operating efficiently and reliably in the past. Also disclosed are a sealing tang to further improve sealing capabilities and anti-oxidation treatments.

  12. Machine imparting complex rotary motion for lapping a spherical inner diameter

    DOEpatents

    Carroll, T.A.; Yetter, H.H.

    1985-01-30

    An apparatus for imparting complex rotary motion is used to lap an inner spherical diameter surface of a workpiece. A lapping tool consists of a dome and rod mounted along the dome's vertical axis. The workpiece containing the lapping tool is held in a gimbal which uses power derived from a secondary takeoff means to impart rotary motion about a horizontal axis. The gimbal is rotated about a vertical axis by a take means while mounted at a radially outward position on a rotating arm.

  13. Machine imparting complex rotary motion for lapping a spherical inner diameter

    DOEpatents

    Carroll, Thomas A.; Yetter, Harold H.

    1986-01-01

    An apparatus for imparting complex rotary motion is used to lap an inner spherical diameter surface of a workpiece. A lapping tool consists of a dome and rod mounted along the dome's vertical axis. The workpiece containing the lapping tool is held in a gimbal which uses power derived from a secondary takeoff means to impart rotary motion about a horizontal axis. The gimbal is rotated about a vertical axis by a take means while mounted at a radially outward position on a rotating arm.

  14. Straight-Pore Microfilter with Efficient Regeneration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Han; LaConti, Anthony B.; McCallum. Thomas J.; Schmitt, Edwin W.

    2010-01-01

    A novel, high-efficiency gas particulate filter has precise particle size screening, low pressure drop, and a simple and fast regeneration process. The regeneration process, which requires minimal material and energy consumption, can be completely automated, and the filtration performance can be restored within a very short period of time. This filter is of a novel material composite that contains the support structure and a novel coating.

  15. Coupling H(+) transport to rotary catalysis in F-type ATP synthases: structure and organization of the transmembrane rotary motor.

    PubMed

    Fillingame, R H; Jiang, W; Dmitriev, O Y

    2000-01-01

    H(+)-transporting F(1)F(o)-type ATP synthases utilize a transmembrane H(+) potential to drive ATP formation by a rotary catalytic mechanism. ATP is formed in alternating beta subunits of the extramembranous F(1) sector of the enzyme, synthesis being driven by rotation of the gamma subunit in the center of the F(1) molecule between the alternating catalytic sites. The H(+) electrochemical potential is thought to drive gamma subunit rotation by first coupling H(+) transport to rotation of an oligomeric rotor of c subunits within the transmembrane F(o) sector. The gamma subunit is forced to turn with the c(12) oligomeric rotor as a result of connections between subunit c and the gamma and epsilon subunits of F(1). In this essay, we will review recent studies on the Escherichia coli F(o) sector. The monomeric structure of subunit c, determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), is discussed first and used as a basis for the rest of the review. A model for the structural organization of the c(12) oligomer in F(o), deduced from extensive cross-linking studies and by molecular modeling, is then described. The interactions between the the a(1)b(2) 'stator' subcomplex of F(o) and the c(12) oligomer are then considered. A functional interaction between transmembrane helix 4 of subunit a (aTMH-4) and transmembrane helix 2 of subunit c (cTMH-2) during the proton-release step from Asp61 on cTMH-2 is suggested. Current a-c cross-linking data can only be explained by helix-helix swiveling or rotation during the proton transfer steps. A model that mechanically links helix rotation within a single subunit c to the incremental 30 degrees rotation of the c(12) oligomer is proposed. In the final section, the structural interactions between the surface residues of the c(12) oligomer and subunits epsilon and gamma are considered. A molecular model for the binding of subunit epsilon between the exposed, polar surfaces of two subunits c in the oligomer is proposed on the basis of cross

  16. Failure Analysis in Space: International Space Station (ISS) Starboard Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ) Debris Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, V. S.; Wright, M. C.; McDanels, S. J.; Lubas, D.; Tucker, B.; Marciniak, P. J.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the debris analysis of the Starboard Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ), a mechanism that is designed to keep the solar arrays facing the sun. The goal of this was to identify the failure mechanism based on surface morphology and to determine the source of debris through elemental and particle analysis.

  17. A NOVEL METHOD OF REDUCING TRANSIENT EMISSIONS FROM ROTARY KILN INCINERATORS THROUGH MODIFIED WASTE PACKAGING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of tests on a 73 kW pilot-scale rotary kiln incinerator simulator to examine the effect of modified waste packaging on the ability of the incineration system to respond to transients imposed due to batch charging of volatile liquid surrogate hazardous wast...

  18. Computational modeling and parametric study of a rotary actuator driven by piezoelectric composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hing L.; Lee, ShiWei R.

    1998-07-01

    An innovative actuation principle was introduced in a previous study to drive a rotary actuator by piezoelectric composite laminate. The driving element is a three layer laminated beam with piezoceramics sandwiched between two antisymmetric composite laminae. By taking advantage of the structural coupling, a rotary actuator similar to ultrasonic motors can be implemented. A prototype of the mentioned actuator has been fabricated. The objective of this study is to model this device by finite element method. A commercial finite element code, ANSYS, was employed to simulate the rotary actuator. The piezoelectric laminate and the rotor were modeled by solid brick elements and special constraint element was used to account for the contact between two separate bodies. Static and transient dynamic analyses were conducted to simulate the deformation and the angular motion of the rotary actuator, respectively. Parametric study was performed by modal and harmonic analyses to investigate the dynamic response of the driving laminate. The results of this study confirmed the proposed actuation principle and the developed computational model may be used for the optimization of future design.

  19. Viscous rotary vane actuator/damper. [for Mariner and Viking programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    A compact viscous rotary actuator/damper for use on the Mariner '71 and Viking Programs was developed. Several functions were combined into this single mechanism to control the deployment, latching, and damping of the solar panel arrays used on these space vehicles. The design, development, and testing of the actuator/damper are described, and major problems encountered are discussed.

  20. FORMATION OF TRANSIENT PUFFS FROM CONTAINED LIQUID WASTES IN A ROTARY KILN SIMULATOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a study of the generation of transient puffs resulting from the batch incineration of liquid waste into a 73 kW rotary kiln incinerator simulator. Liquid wastes investigated included toluene, methylene chloride, carbon tetrachloride, and No. 5 fuel oil....

  1. 33 CFR 100.914 - Trenton Rotary Roar on the River, Trenton, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.914 Trenton Rotary Roar on... on land located at position 42°7.7′ N; 083°10.7′ W, and along the shoreline to the point of...

  2. 33 CFR 100.914 - Trenton Rotary Roar on the River, Trenton, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.914 Trenton Rotary Roar on... on land located at position 42°7.7′ N; 083°10.7′ W, and along the shoreline to the point of...

  3. 33 CFR 100.914 - Trenton Rotary Roar on the River, Trenton, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.914 Trenton Rotary Roar on... on land located at position 42°7.7′ N; 083°10.7′ W, and along the shoreline to the point of...

  4. 33 CFR 100.914 - Trenton Rotary Roar on the River, Trenton, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.914 Trenton Rotary Roar on... on land located at position 42°7.7′ N; 083°10.7′ W, and along the shoreline to the point of...

  5. Update of development on the new Audi NSU rotary engine generation. [for application to aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanbasshuysen, R.

    1978-01-01

    Rotary engines with a chamber volume of 750 cc as a two rotor automotive powerplant, called KKM 871 are described. This engine is compared to a 3 liter or 183 cubic inch, six-cylinder reciprocating engine. Emphasis is placed on exhaust emission control and fuel economy.

  6. Lensless, ultra-wideband fiber optic rotary joint for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Kim, Wihan; Chen, Xi; Jo, Javier A; Applegate, Brian E

    2016-05-01

    The demands of optical fiber-based biomedical applications can, in many cases, outstrip the capabilities of lens-based commercially available fiber optic rotary joints. In some circumstances, it is necessary to use very broad spectral bandwidths (near UV to short-wave IR) and specialized optical fibers, such as double-clad fiber, and have the capacity to accommodate high rotational velocities. The broad spectrum, stretching down into the UV, presents two problems: (1) adequate chromatic correction in the lenses across the entire bandwidth and (2) strong UV absorption by the fluids used to lubricate the rotary joint. To accommodate these types of applications, we have developed an ultra-wideband lensless fiber optic rotary joint based on the principle that when two optical fibers are coaligned and placed in contact (or very close), the optical losses at the junction are very low. The advances demonstrated here enable excellent performance (<0.2  dB insertion loss), even down into the UV and spanning a wavelength range of at least 355-1360 nm with single-mode, multimode, and double-clad fibers. We also demonstrate excellent performance, ∼0.38  dB insertion loss, at rotational velocities up to 8800 rpm (146 Hz). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of this type of rotary joint capable of such a wide bandwidth and high rotational velocities. PMID:27128052

  7. The Lighthouse Literacy Project: The Rotary Campaign to Assist Literacy Development across the Globe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Richard

    2000-01-01

    This article is based on Rotary literacy projects aimed at doing something substantial about the billion people in developing countries who are locked into an endless cycle of poverty, because they are illiterate. Two projects are highlighted--one in Turkey and one in Egypt--for illustration.(Adjunct ERIC Clearinghouse for ESL Literacy Education)…

  8. Wear-Reducing Technologies for Rotary Compressors Using CO2 Refrigerant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakao, Hideto; Maeyama, Hideaki; Hattori, Naotaka; Takayama, Tomoo

    We have developed a CO2 heat pump water heater compressor with a single-stage rotary mechanism for the first time in the world. Because the rotary compressor has a simple mechanism, it has become the mainstream for air conditioning compressors using R410A. The two-stage rotary and scroll compressors using CO2 have been put into practical use, however the single-stage rotary compressor had not been put to practical use, because the operating pressure of CO2 is more than three times as high as R410A refrigerants. We have applied a processing the DLC-Si (diamond-like-carbon-silicon) to the vane. It is the film of the DLC containing the silicon with a method of the plasma C.V.D. (chemical vapor deposit). The DLC-Si coated vane is hardly worn-out, only the surface roughness is smoothed. This paper describes the relationship between the silicon concentration in the DLC-Si film and their characteristics. Especially the adhesion strength is secured and the internal fracture is prevented by optimizing of the silicon concentration. In applying DLC-Si for practical use of the vane, we controlled the silicon concentration and secured high adhesion strength of the film. We were able to achieve an excellent level of wear durability.

  9. MECHANISMS GOVERNING TRANSIENTS FROM THE BATCH INCINERATION OF LIQUID WASTES IN ROTARY KILNS

    EPA Science Inventory

    When "containerized" liquid wastes, bound on sorbents. are introduced into a rotary kiln in a batch mode, transient phenomena in-volving heat transfer into, and waste mass transfer out of, the sorbent can oromote the raoid release of waste vaoor into the kiln environment. This ra...

  10. Structure of the Vacuolar H+-ATPase Rotary Motor Reveals New Mechanistic Insights

    PubMed Central

    Rawson, Shaun; Phillips, Clair; Huss, Markus; Tiburcy, Felix; Wieczorek, Helmut; Trinick, John; Harrison, Michael A.; Muench, Stephen P.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Vacuolar H+-ATPases are multisubunit complexes that operate with rotary mechanics and are essential for membrane proton transport throughout eukaryotes. Here we report a ∼1 nm resolution reconstruction of a V-ATPase in a different conformational state from that previously reported for a lower-resolution yeast model. The stator network of the V-ATPase (and by implication that of other rotary ATPases) does not change conformation in different catalytic states, and hence must be relatively rigid. We also demonstrate that a conserved bearing in the catalytic domain is electrostatic, contributing to the extraordinarily high efficiency of rotary ATPases. Analysis of the rotor axle/membrane pump interface suggests how rotary ATPases accommodate different c ring stoichiometries while maintaining high efficiency. The model provides evidence for a half channel in the proton pump, supporting theoretical models of ion translocation. Our refined model therefore provides new insights into the structure and mechanics of the V-ATPases. PMID:25661654

  11. Modeling of rotary cement kilns: Applications to reduction in energy consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Mujumdar, K.S.; Arora, A.; Ranade, V.V.

    2006-03-29

    We discuss and evaluate possible ways of reducing energy consumption in rotary cement kilns. A comprehensive one-dimensional model was developed to simulate complex processes occurring in rotary cement kilns. A modeling strategy comprising three submodels, viz. a model for simulating the variation of bed height in the kiln, a model for simulating reactions and heat transfer in the bed region, and a model for simulating coal combustion and heat transfer in the freeboard region, was developed. Melting and formation of coating within the kiln were accounted for. Combustion of coal in the freeboard region was modeled by accounting for devolatilization, finite-rate gas-phase combustion, and char reaction. The simulated results were validated with the available data from three industrial kilns. The model was then used to understand the influence of various design and operating parameters on kiln performance. Several ways of reducing energy consumption in kilns were then computationally investigated. The model was also used to propose and to evaluate a practical solution of using a secondary shell to reduce energy consumption in rotary cement kilns. Simulation results indicate that varying kiln operating variables, viz. solid flow rate or RPM, can result only in small changes in kiln energetics. Use of a secondary shell over the kiln and energy recovery by passing air through the annular gap between the two appears to be a promising way to achieve significant energy savings. The developed model and the presented results will be useful for enhancing the performance of rotary cement kilns.

  12. Pyrolysis of Uinta Basin Oil Sands in fluidized bed and rotary kiln reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Nagpal, S.; Fletcher, J.V.; Hanson, F.V.

    1995-12-31

    A pilot-scale fluidized bed reactor (FBR) was used to pyrolyze the mined and crushed ore from the PR Spring oil sands deposit which is located in the Uinta Basin of Utah. Liquid yields of approximately 80 wt% of the bitumen fed to the reactor were obtained. This compares to 55-70 wt% obtained from smaller laboratory scale fluidized bed reactors and a pilot-scale rotary kiln. The product yields and distributions exhibited no discernable trends with reactor temperature or solids retention time. The liquid products obtained from the pilot-scale fluidized bed reactor were upgraded compared to the bitumen in terms of volatility, viscosity, molecular weight, and metals (Ni and V) content. The nitrogen and sulphur contents of the total liquid products were also reduced relative to the bitumen. A comparison of oil sands pyrolysis yields from a pilot scale FBR and a rotary kiln of the same diameter (15.2 cm) was made. Under similar pyrolysis conditions, the rotary kiln produced a slightly more upgraded product but at lower total liquid yields. Kinetic modeling of the various reactors indicates that the pilot-scale FBR product distributions may be explained using a simplified two-reaction scheme. It is proposed that secondary cracking is suppressed in the large diameter FBR due to elimination of slugging and the superior quality of fluidization in the reactor. More experimental studies with the rotary kiln and an economic evaluation will be required before concluding which reactor is preferred for the thermal recovery process.

  13. Operability test report for rotary mode core sampling system number 3

    SciTech Connect

    Corbett, J.E.

    1996-03-01

    This report documents the successful completion of operability testing for the Rotary Mode Core Sampling (RMCS) system {number_sign}3. The Report includes the test procedure (WHC-SD-WM-OTP-174), exception resolutions, data sheets, and a test report summary.

  14. Prediction of Plug Tip Position in Rotary Tube Piercing Mill Using Simulation and Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyoung Wook; Lee, Geun An; Kim, Eung Zu; Choi, Seogou

    Typical seamless tube production processes are an extrusion and a rotary tube piercing. The rotary piercing process is more competitive than the extrusion process from the viewpoint of flexibility. Main components of this equipment are twin rolling mills and a plug. Twin rolling mills are installed on a skew with proper angles in two directions. These angles are called the cross angle and the feed angle. The internal crack initiation and the growth at central area of the billet are gradually progressed due to the Mannesmann effects. The feed angle affects on the position of the crack initiation in the rotary tube piercing process. Adjustable design parameters in the equipment are the feed angle and the plug insertion depth. In this research, the rotary tube piercing equipment was developed. Finite element analyses with the plug and without the plug were carried out in order to predict the internal crack initiation position under good calculation efficiency. Ductile fracture models with the one variable equation were utilized to crack initiation criteria. The forward distance of the plug was determined to be 5 mm through the analysis. It was testified by experiments of a carbon steel billet.

  15. TRACE METAL FATE IN A ROTARY KILN INCINERATOR WITH AN IONIZING WET SCRUBBER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A series of pilot-scale incineration tests performed at EPA's Incineration Research Facility (IRF) in Jefferson, Arkansas, to evaluate the fate of trace metals fed to a rotary kiln incinerator equipped with an ionizing wet scrubber (IWS) for particulate and acid gas control. est ...

  16. The application of cast SiC/Al to rotary engine components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoller, H. M.; Carluccio, J. R.; Norman, J. P.

    1986-01-01

    A silicon carbide reinforced aluminum (SiC/Al) material fabricated by Dural Aluminum Composites Corporation was tested for various components of rotary engines. Properties investigated included hardness, high temperature strength, wear resistance, fatigue resistance, thermal conductivity, and expansion. SiC/Al appears to be a viable candidate for cast rotors, and may be applicable to other components, primarily housings.

  17. Effects of Spray Adjuvants on Spray Droplet Size from a Rotary Atomizer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rotary atomizers are used in a number of aerial applications, such as forest pest spraying and mosquito control sprays. These types of atomizers have a rotating cage at speeds of 2,000 to 10,000 rpm through which a spray is emitted and atomized. Many applicators routinely add spray adjuvants to ch...

  18. OCCURRENCE OF TRANSIENT PUFFS IN A ROTARY KILN INCINERATOR SIMULATOR. 2. CONTAINED LIQUID WASTES ON SORBENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a study of the generation of transient puffs resulting from the batch incineration of liquid waste into a 73 kW rotary kiln incinerator simulator. The liquid was added onto a sorbent, enclosed in cardboard cylinders that are introduced into the combusti...

  19. Numerical analysis on cavitation inception in the rotary valve of the power steering system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyeon Ryu, Gwang; Park, Sun Hong; Cho, Myung Hwan; Yoo, Jung Yul

    2009-11-01

    The power steering valve directs the power steering oil to either side of a power piston and relieves the driver of the effort to turn the wheel, when a driver begins to operate the vehicle. It is well known that hiss noise occurring at that moment is caused mainly by cavitation of the oil inside the rotary valve. However, it is very difficult to check the flow pattern and the cavitation inception experimentally because of the complex geometry and high pressure in the interior of the rotary valve. In spite of the increasing interest in this flow phenomenon inside the rotary valve, only few studies have been reported. In the present study, this complex oil flow inside the rotary valve has been analyzed numerically using three-dimensional cavitation model provided by the commercial code, FLUENT 6.2. It is confirmed that the location of cavitation inception is similar to that obtained by the existing two-dimensional numerical analysis. Then, the volume fraction of oil vapor has been compared with the hiss noise level measured experimentally in a semi-anechoic room.

  20. A Tribute to Professor Rene H. Miller - A Pioneer in Aeromechanics and Rotary Wing Flight Transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedmann, Peretz P.; Johnson, Wayne; Scully, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    Rene H. Miller (May 19, 1916 January 28, 2003), Emeritus H. N. Slater Professor of Flight Transportation, was one of the most influential pioneers in rotary wing aeromechanics as well as a visionary whose dream was the development of a tilt-rotor based short haul air transportation system. This paper pays a long overdue tribute to his memory and to his extraordinary contributions.

  1. DRIFT POTENTIAL OF TILTED SHIELDED ROTARY ATOMISERS BASED ON WIND TUNNEL MEASUREMENTS.

    PubMed

    Salah, S Ouled Taleb; Massinon, M; De Cock, N; Schiffers, B; Lebeau, F

    2015-01-01

    Crop protection is mainly achieved by applying Plant Protection Products (PPP) using hydraulic nozzles, which rely on pressure, to produce a wide droplet size distribution. Because of always increased concerns about drift reduction, a wider range of low drift nozzles, such as air induction nozzles, was adopted in order to reduce the finest part of the spray. While successful for some treatments, the efficiency of coarser sprays is dramatically reduced on small and superhydrophobic target, i.e. at early stage weed control. This may be related to the increased proportion of big bouncing and splashing droplets. On the other hand, Controlled Droplet Application (CDA), using shielded rotary atomizers, stands for an improved control of droplets diameters and trajectories compared to hydraulic nozzles. Unfortunately, these atomizers, because of their horizontal droplet release, are widely recognized to produce more drift than hydraulic nozzles. The present contribution investigates whether the setting of a rotary atomizer 60 degrees forward tilted can reduce drift to acceptable levels in comparison with vertical and 60 degrees forward tilted standard and low drift flat fan nozzles for the same flow rate. In a wind tunnel, the drift potential of a medium spray produced by a tilted shielded rotary atomizer Micromax 120 was benchmarked with that of a flat fan nozzle XR11002 fine spray and that of an anti-drift nozzle Hardi Injet 015 medium spray. Operating parameters were set to apply 0.56 l/min for every spray generator. Vertical drift profiles were measured 2.0 m downward from nozzle axis for a 2 m.s(-1) wind speed. The tilted hydraulic nozzles resulted in a significant drift increase while droplets trajectories are affected by the decrease of the droplet initial vertical speed. Droplets emitted by the shielded rotary atomizer drift due to low entrained air and turbulence. A significant reduction of the cumulative drift was achieved by the rotary atomizer in comparison

  2. Computed Tomographic Evaluation of K3 Rotary and Stainless Steel K File Instrumentation in Primary Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Kavitha, Swaminathan; Thomas, Eapen; Anadhan, Vasanthakumari; Vijayakumar, Rajendran

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The intention of root canal preparation is to reduce infected content and create a root canal shape allowing for a well condensed root filling. Therefore, it is not necessary to remove excessive dentine for successful root canal preparation and concern must be taken not to over instrument as perforations can occur in the thin dentinal walls of primary molars. Aim This study was done to evaluate the time preparation, the risk of lateral perforation and dentine removal of the stainless steel K file and K3 rotary instrumentation in primary teeth. Materials and Methods Seventy-five primary molars were selected and divided into three groups. Using spiral computed tomography the teeth were scanned before instrumentation. Teeth were prepared using a stainless steel K file for manual technique. All the canals were prepared up to file size 35. In K3 rotary files (.02 taper) instrumentation was done up to 35 size file. In K3 rotary files (.04 taper) the instrumentation was done up to 25 size file and simultaneously the instrumentation time was recorded. The instrumented teeth were once again scanned and the images were compared with the images of the uninstrumented canals. Statistical Analysis Data was statistically analysed using Kruskal Wallis One-way ANOVA, Mann-Whitney U-Test and Pearson’s Chi-square Test. Results K3 rotary files (.02 taper) removed a significantly less amount of dentine, required less instrumentation time than a stainless steel K file. Conclusion K3 files (.02 taper) generated less dentine removal than the stainless steel K file and K3 files (.04 taper). K3 rotary files (.02 taper) were more effective for root canal instrumentation in primary teeth. PMID:26894166

  3. Caries Removal by Chemomechanical (Carisolv™) vs. Rotary Drill: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Maru, Viral P.; Shakuntala, B.S.; Nagarathna, C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chemomechanical caries removal is an effective alternative to the traditional rotary drilling method. The advantages of chemomechanical techniques in terms of the need for anesthesia, pain perception and patient preference are systematically reviewed and a meta-analysis of the time required for caries removal is reported. Method: Randomized controlled studies of comparison of chemomechanical techniques with conventional rotary drill were selected from a systematic search of standard biomedical databases, including the PubMed and Cochrane clinical trials. Non-repeated search results were screened for relevance and risk of bias assessment, followed by methodology assessment. Statistical models were applied to the outcome parameters - time required, pain perception, need of anesthesia and patient preference - extracted from the studies. Results: Out of the 111 non-repeated search results, 26 studies receiving a low bias score were selected for the review, and 16 randomized clinical trials of rotary and Carisolv techniques were considered for meta-analysis. Meta-analysis by fixed effect as well as random effect models indicate that Carisolv takes more time (3.65 ± 0.05 and 4.09 ± 0.29 min) than rotary drill (8.65 ± 0.09 and 8.97 ± 0.66 min) method. Advantages of reduced pain (14.67 for Carisolv vs. 6.76 for rotary drill), need for anesthesia (1.59% vs. 10.52%) outweigh the longer time requirement and make it the preferred (18.68% vs. 4.69%) method. Conclusion: Chemomechanical techniques stand out as a minimally invasive and preferred method based on the meta-analyses. Evaluation of pain experienced using robust methods is needed to strengthen the evidence for their use. PMID:26962375

  4. Effect of initial condition on the sound generation by flow past a rotary-oscillating circular cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Osamu

    2006-11-01

    Effects of forced rotary oscillation on the generation of the sound from a circular cylinder in a uniform flow are investigated by direct solution of the two-dimensional, unsteady, compressible Navier-Stokes equations. Results show that the effect on the sound generation of rotary oscillation with frequency f is equivalent to that of periodic blowing and suction with frequency 2f; the sound field is determined by the interaction between the monopole generated by rotary oscillation and the dipole generated by vortex shedding from the cylinder. Results also show that, depending on initial conditions, different sound fields as well as flow fields can be generated for same flow parameters.

  5. Performance and efficiency evaluation and heat release study of a direct-injection stratified-charge rotary engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, H. L.; Addy, H. E.; Bond, T. H.; Lee, C. M.; Chun, K. S.

    1987-01-01

    A computer simulation which models engine performance of the Direct Injection Stratified Charge (DISC) rotary engines was used to study the effect of variations in engine design and operating parameters on engine performance and efficiency of an Outboard Marine Corporation (OMC) experimental rotary combustion engine. Engine pressure data were used in a heat release analysis to study the effects of heat transfer, leakage, and crevice flows. Predicted engine data were compared with experimental test data over a range of engine speeds and loads. An examination of methods to improve the performance of the rotary engine using advanced heat engine concepts such as faster combustion, reduced leakage, and turbocharging is also presented.

  6. Satisfaction of undergraduate students at University of Jordan after root canal treatment of posterior teeth using rotary or hand preparation.

    PubMed

    Abu-Tahun, Ibrahim; El-Ma'aita, Ahmad; Khraisat, Ameen

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to report the satisfaction of fifth year undergraduate students on the clinical use of rotary endodontic preparation compared with stainless steel standard technique and to evaluate the impact of rotary nickel-titanium instruments on undergraduate teaching. This study was carried out by the fifth year undergraduate students attending peer review sessions as a part of their training program using a questionnaire to assess their satisfaction with these two techniques. The overall results indicated a statistically significant satisfaction of the undergraduate students with the use of the nickel-titanium system (P < 0.001) compared to stainless steel standard technique. Under the conditions of this study, the results showed a positive acceptance and consensus among novice dental students regarding the use of ProTaper rotary files and the need for undergraduate teaching of rotary nickel-titanium systems in Jordan. PMID:26492829

  7. Design, development and evaluation of a precision air bearing rotary table with large diameter through-hole

    SciTech Connect

    Accatino, M.R.

    1991-11-01

    A large diameter precision air bearing rotary table with a 16.0 inch diameter through-hole was designed, fabricated and tested in the course of this research. The rotary table will be used in conjunction with a specialized, computer controlled precision inspection machine being designed for the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC). The design process included a complete engineering analysis to predict the final performance of the rotary table, and to ensure that the rotary table meets the required accuracy of 4.0 microinches of total radial (3.5 microinches average radial) and 4.0 microinches total axial (3.5 microinches average axial) errors. The engineering analysis included structural deformation, thermal sensitivity and dynamic analyses using finite element methods in some cases, as well as other analytic solutions. Comparisons are made between predicted and tested values, which are listed in the rotary table error budget. The rotary table performed as predicted with measured axial and radial stiffnesses of 1.1E06 lbf/inch and 2.9E06 lbf/inch, respectively, as well as average radial, axial and tilt errors of 2.5 microinches, 1.5 microinches, and less than 0.05 arcseconds, respectively.

  8. Computational experience with a three-dimensional rotary engine combustion model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raju, M. S.; Willis, E. A.

    1990-01-01

    A new computer code was developed to analyze the chemically reactive flow and spray combustion processes occurring inside a stratified-charge rotary engine. Mathematical and numerical details of the new code were recently described by the present authors. The results are presented of limited, initial computational trials as a first step in a long-term assessment/validation process. The engine configuration studied was chosen to approximate existing rotary engine flow visualization and hot firing test rigs. Typical results include: (1) pressure and temperature histories, (2) torque generated by the nonuniform pressure distribution within the chamber, (3) energy release rates, and (4) various flow-related phenomena. These are discussed and compared with other predictions reported in the literature. The adequacy or need for improvement in the spray/combustion models and the need for incorporating an appropriate turbulence model are also discussed.

  9. Quantitative control of a rotary carbon nanotube motor under temperature stimulus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Kun; Wan, Jing; Qin, Qing H.; Shi, Jiao

    2016-02-01

    Since a double-walled carbon nanotube (DWCNT)-based rotary motor driven by a uniform temperature field was proposed in 2014, how to control quantitatively the rotation of the rotor is still an open question. In this work, we present a mathematical relationship between the rotor’s speed and interaction energy. Essentially, the increment of interaction energy between the rotor and the stator(s) determines the rotor’s rotational speed, whereas the type of radial deviation of an end carbon atom on the stator determines the rotational direction. The rotational speed of the rotor can be specified by adjusting temperature and radial deviation of an end carbon atom on the stator. It is promising for designing a controllable temperature-driven rotary motor based on DWCNTs with length of few nanometers only.

  10. Rapid multi sample DNA amplification using rotary-linear polymerase chain reaction device (PCRDisc).

    PubMed

    Sugumar, D; Kong, L X; Ismail, Asma; Ravichandran, M; Su Yin, Lee

    2012-03-01

    Multiple sample DNA amplification was done by using a novel rotary-linear motion polymerase chain reaction (PCR) device. A simple compact disc was used to create the stationary sample chambers which are individually temperature controlled. The PCR was performed by shuttling the samples to different temperature zones by using a combined rotary-linear movement of the disc. The device was successfully used to amplify up to 12 samples in less than 30 min with a sample volume of 5 μl. A simple spring loaded heater mechanism was introduced to enable good thermal contact between the samples and the heaters. Each of the heater temperatures are controlled by using a simple proportional-integral-derivative pulse width modulation control system. The results show a good improvement in the amplification rate and duration of the samples. The reagent volume used was reduced to nearly 25% of that used in conventional method. PMID:22685508

  11. Three-dimensional simulation of rotary latch assembly in seismic response and interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, K.K.

    1998-03-02

    The finite element method has been used to investigate the stress field in mechanical suspension systems. The critical seismic loads are depended on three-dimensional dynamic response of vacuum vessels and interactions of the equipment supporting structures to the vacuum vessels and supporting system. In this study of the optics assembly equipment (15 to 27 Hz), it was shown that the pressure vessel systems which supports the optics assembly systems (6.5 to 13 Hz) have significant influence in the seismic response of the rotary latch assembly. A potentially critical failure location is identified. An axisymmetrical elastic analysis predicts stress at the inner radius of the lower housing can be reduced by 60% with simple design modification. Use of three-dimensional dynamic model and static model to evaluate the combined complex stress permits prediction of the rotary latch assembly operating life and seismic safety.

  12. Development and characterization of a rotary motor driven by anisotropic piezoelectric composite laminate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.-W. Ricky; Li, H. L.

    1998-06-01

    A new actuation principle is introduced in this paper to drive a rotary motor by an anisotropic piezoelectric composite laminate. The driving element is a three layer laminated beam with piezoceramics sandwiched between two anti-symmetric composite laminae. By taking advantage of material anisotropy, torsional motion can be induced from in-plane strain actuation. With this structural coupling, a rotary motor can be implemented. In addition to analytical formulation and conceptual design, a prototype has been fabricated. Actual motion was observed in the laboratory to verify the proposed actuation principle. The prototype was characterized for rotating speed, torque, power output, efficiency and stability. The performance of this new piezoelectric motor is discussed in detail.

  13. [Optical Path Difference Analysis and Simulation of Four Typical Rotary Type Interferometer].

    PubMed

    Feng, Ming-chun; Liu, Wen-qing; Xu, Liang; Gao, Min-guang; Wei, Xiu-li; Tong, Jing-jing; Li, Xiang-xian

    2015-11-01

    The four kinds of the structure characteristics of rotary type interferometer are mainly analyzed from the classical Michelson interferometer structure in the paper. The Optical path difference between the interferometer and the rotation angle is also analyzed. By setting parameters, the four kinds of rotary type optical path difference of the interferometer are simulated based on the optical path difference formula. The rotation velcocity of the four kinds of interferometers is also simulated. By simulation and contrast of the optical path difference, the relationship is intuitively reflect by figure between the optical path difference and the rotation angle. The scope of the rotation angle is discussed within 3% of the velocity errors. It is the very good reference significance to study the structure and properties of the interferometer by analyzing and simulating the optical path difference discussed in the paper. PMID:26978939

  14. Cyclic fatigue resistance of newly manufactured rotary nickel titanium instruments used in different rotational directions.

    PubMed

    Gambarini, Gianlucca; Gergi, Richard; Grande, Nicola Maria; Osta, Nada; Plotino, Gianluca; Testarelli, Luca

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether cyclic fatigue resistance is increased for nickel titanium instruments manufactured with improved heating processes in clockwise or counterclockwise continuous rotation. The instruments compared were produced either using the R-phase heat treatment (K3XF; SybronEndo, Orange, CA, USA) or the M-wire alloy (ProFile Vortex; DENTSPLY Tulsa Dental Specialties, Tulsa, OK, USA). Tests were performed with a specific cyclic fatigue device that evaluated cycles to failure of rotary instruments in curved artificial canals. Results indicated no significant difference in resistance to cyclic fatigue when rotary nickel titanium instruments are used in clockwise or counterclockwise continuous rotation. In both directions of rotation, size 04-25 K3XF showed a significant increase (P < 0.05) in the mean number of cycles to failure when compared with size 04-25 ProFile Vortex. PMID:24279663

  15. Rapid multi sample DNA amplification using rotary-linear polymerase chain reaction device (PCRDisc)

    PubMed Central

    Sugumar, D.; Kong, L. X.; Ismail, Asma; Ravichandran, M.; Su Yin, Lee

    2012-01-01

    Multiple sample DNA amplification was done by using a novel rotary-linear motion polymerase chain reaction (PCR) device. A simple compact disc was used to create the stationary sample chambers which are individually temperature controlled. The PCR was performed by shuttling the samples to different temperature zones by using a combined rotary-linear movement of the disc. The device was successfully used to amplify up to 12 samples in less than 30 min with a sample volume of 5 μl. A simple spring loaded heater mechanism was introduced to enable good thermal contact between the samples and the heaters. Each of the heater temperatures are controlled by using a simple proportional–integral–derivative pulse width modulation control system. The results show a good improvement in the amplification rate and duration of the samples. The reagent volume used was reduced to nearly 25% of that used in conventional method. PMID:22685508

  16. Computational Design of a Family of Light-Driven Rotary Molecular Motors with Improved Quantum Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Two new light-driven molecular rotary motors based on the N-alkylated indanylidene benzopyrrole frameworks are proposed and studied using quantum chemical calculations and nonadiabatic molecular dynamics simulations. These new motors perform pure axial rotation, and the photochemical steps of the rotary cycle are dominated by the fast bond-length-alternation motion that enables ultrafast access to the S1/S0 intersection. The new motors are predicted to display a quantum efficiency higher than that of the currently available synthetic all-hydrocarbon motors. Remarkably, the quantum efficiency is not governed by the topography (peaked versus sloped) of the minimum-energy conical intersection, whereas the S1 decay time depends on the topography as well as on the energy of the intersection relative to the S1 minimum. It is the axial chirality (helicity), rather than the point chirality, that controls the sense of rotation of the motor. PMID:26670164

  17. Comparison of the halving of tablets prepared with eccentric and rotary tablet presses.

    PubMed

    Sovány, T; Kása, P; Pintye-Hódi, K

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the densification of powder mixtures on eccentric and rotary tablet presses and to establish relationships with the halving properties of the resulting scored tablets. This is an important problem because the recent guidelines of EU require verification of the equal masses of tablet halves. The models of Walker, Heckel, and Kawakita were used to describe the powder densification on the two machines. The calculated parameters revealed that the shorter compression cycle of rotary machines results in poorer densification and lower tablet hardness at a given compression force. This is manifested in poorer halving properties, which are influenced mainly by the hardness. Better densification improves the halving even at lower tablet hardness. This demonstrates that these parameters can be good predictors of tablet halving properties. PMID:19381830

  18. Natural Frequencies of Rectangular Plate With- and Without-Rotary Inertia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalita, Kanak; Haldar, Salil

    2016-07-01

    A nine-node isoparametric plate element, in conjunction with first-order shear deformation theory, was used for free vibration analysis of rectangular plates. Both thick and thin plate problems were solved for various aspect ratios and boundary conditions. In this work, the primary focus is on the effect of rotary inertia on the natural frequencies of rectangular plates. It is found that rotary inertia significantly affects thick plates, while it can be ignored for thin plates. The numerical convergence is very rapid and based on a comparison with data from the literature; it is proposed that the present formulation can yield highly accurate results. Finally, some numerical solutions are provided here, which may serve as benchmarks for future research on similar problems.

  19. Fuel-air mixing and distribution in a direct-injection stratified-charge rotary engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abraham, J.; Bracco, F. V.

    1989-01-01

    A three-dimensional model for flows and combustion in reciprocating and rotary engines is applied to a direct-injection stratified-charge rotary engine to identify the main parameters that control its burning rate. It is concluded that the orientation of the six sprays of the main injector with respect to the air stream is important to enhance vaporization and the production of flammable mixture. In particular, no spray should be in the wake of any other spray. It was predicted that if such a condition is respected, the indicated efficiency would increase by some 6 percent at higher loads and 2 percent at lower loads. The computations led to the design of a new injector tip that has since yielded slightly better efficiency gains than predicted.

  20. Membrane fouling control using a rotary disk in a submerged anaerobic membrane sponge bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungmin; Shin, Jaewon; Kim, Hyemin; Lee, Jung-Yeol; Yoon, Min-Hyuk; Won, Seyeon; Lee, Byung-Chan; Song, Kyung Guen

    2014-11-01

    Despite significant research efforts over the last few decades, membrane fouling in anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) remains an unsolved problem that increases the overall operational costs and obstructs the industrial applications. Herein, we developed a method for effectively controlling the membrane fouling in a sponge-submerged AnMBRs using an anaerobic rotary disk MBR (ARMBR). The disk rotation led the effective collision between the sponge and membrane surface; thus successfully enhanced the membrane permeability in the ARMBR. The effect of the disk rotational speed and sponge volume fraction on the membrane permeability and the relationship between the water flow direction and membrane permeability were investigated. The long-term feasibility was tested over 100days of synthetic wastewater treatment. As a result, stable and economical performance was observed without membrane replacement and washing. The proposed integrated rotary disk-supporting media appears to be a feasible and even beneficial option in the AnMBR technology. PMID:25277260

  1. NASA Subsonic Rotary Wing Project-Multidisciplinary Analysis and Technology Development: Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamauchi, Gloria K.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the objectives of the Multidisciplinary Analysis and Technology Development (MDATD) in the Subsonic Rotary Wing project. The objectives are to integrate technologies and analyses to enable advanced rotorcraft and provide a roadmap to guide Level 1 and 2 research. The MDATD objectives will be met by conducting assessments of advanced technology benefits, developing new or enhanced design tools, and integrating Level 2 discipline technologies to develop and enable system-level analyses and demonstrations.

  2. Millimeter Wave Synthetic Aperture Imaging System with a Unique Rotary Scanning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghasr, M. T.; Pommerenke, D.; Case, J. T.; McClanahan, A. D.; Afaki-Beni, A.; Abou-Khousa, M.; Guinn, K.; DePaulis, F.; Kharkovsky, S.; Zoughi, R.

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, millimeter wave imaging techniques, using synthetic aperture focusing and holographical approaches, have shown tremendous potential for nondestructive testing applications, involving materials and structures used in space vehicles, including the space shuttle external fuel tank spray on foam insulation and its acreage heat tiles. The ability of signals at millimeter wave frequencies (30 - 300 GHz) to easily penetrate inside of low loss dielectric materials, their relatively small wavelengths, and the possibility of detecting coherent (magnitude and phase) reflections make them suitable for high resolution synthetic aperture focused imaging the interior of such materials and structures. To accommodate imaging requirements, commonly a scanning system is employed that provides for a raster scan of the desired structure. However, most such scanners, although simple in design and construction, are inherently slow primarily due to the need to stop and start at the beginning and end of each scan line. To this end, a millimeter wave synthetic aperture focusing system including a custom-designed transceiver operating at 35 - 45 GHz (Q-band) and unique and complex rotary scanner was designed and developed. The rotary scanner is capable of scanning an area with approximately 80 cm in diameter in less than 10 minutes at step sizes of 3 mm and smaller. The transceiver is capable of producing accurate magnitude and phase of reflected signal from the structure under test. Finally, a synthetic aperture focusing algorithm was developed that translates this rotary-obtained magnitude and phase into a synthetic aperture focusing image of inspected structures. This paper presents the design of the transceiver and the rotary scanning system along with showing several images obtained with this system from various complicated structures.

  3. New development in flying qualities with application to rotary wing aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoh, R. H.

    1982-01-01

    Some recent considerations and developments in handling quality criteria are reviewed with emphasis on using fixed wing experience gained in developing MIL-F-8785C and the more recent MiL Standard and Handbook. Particular emphasis is placed on the tasks and environmental conditions used to develop the criterion boundaries, SAS failures, and potential fixed wing criteria that are applicable to rotary wing aircraft.

  4. Recovering aluminum from aluminum dross in a DC electric-arc rotary furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzonev, Tz.; Lucheva, B.

    2007-11-01

    The recycling of aluminum scrap and dross yields significant economic and energy savings, as well environmental benefits. The recovery of aluminum depends on many factors. The aim of this work is to experimentally investigate aluminum recovery under different conditions. In this study, aluminum dross was processed in a direct-current electric-arc rotary furnace. The presence of crushing refractory bodies during processing was found to increase the degree of aluminum recovery by about ten percent.

  5. Internal combustion engine with rotary valve assembly having variable intake valve timing

    DOEpatents

    Hansen, Craig N.; Cross, Paul C.

    1995-01-01

    An internal combustion engine has rotary valves associated with movable shutters operable to vary the closing of intake air/fuel port sections to obtain peak volumetric efficiency over the entire range of speed of the engine. The shutters are moved automatically by a control mechanism that is responsive to the RPM of the engine. A foot-operated lever associated with the control mechanism is also used to move the shutters between their open and closed positions.

  6. Development of a rotary fluid transfer coupling and support mechanism for space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, O. H., Jr.; Costulis, J. A.; Porter, A. H.

    1988-01-01

    A design was developed for a rotary fluid coupling to transfer coolant fluids (primarily anhydrous ammonia) across rotating joints of the space station. Development testing using three conceptual designs yielded data which were used to establish the design of a multipass fluid coupling capable of handling three fluid circuits. In addition, a mechanism to support the fluid coupling and allow an astronaut to replace the coupling quickly and easily was designed.

  7. Mathematical model and the dynamic simulation of an electromechanical rotary device. [SLENOID

    SciTech Connect

    Emergy, J.D.

    1980-02-01

    A mathematical model of an electro-mechanical rotary device is presented. This device contains a rotor, stator, and two spring-loaded arms which restrict the rotor motion. The desired action is the alignment of the rotor and the consequent movement of the arms. The SLENOID computer program for calculating the magnetic torque, air gap permeance, spring torque, damping effects, and motion of the rotor and arms is described. (LCL)

  8. Optically powered and interrogated rotary position sensor for aircraft engine control applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spillman, W. B.; Crowne, D. H.; Woodward, D. W.

    A throttle level angle (TLA) sensing system is described that utilizes a capacitance based rotary position transducer that is powered and interrogated via light from a single multimode optical fiber. The system incorporates a unique GaAs device that serves as both a power converter and optical data transmitter. Design considerations are discussed, and the fabrication and performance of the sensor system are detailed.

  9. Degradation of aldrin and endosulfan in rotary drum and windrow composting.

    PubMed

    Ali, Muntjeer; Gani, Khalid M; Kazmi, Absar A; Ahmed, Naseem

    2016-05-01

    Removal efficiencies, kinetics and degradation pathways of aldrin, endosulfan α and endosulfan β in vegetable waste were evaluated during rotary drum and conventional windrow composting. The highest percentage removal of aldrin, endosulfan α and endosulfan β in rotary drum composting was 86.8, 83.3 and 85.3% respectively, whereas in windrow composting, it was 66.6%, 77.7% and 67.2% respectively. The rate constant of degradation of aldrin, endosulfan α and endosulfan β during rotary drum composting ranged from 0.410-0.778, 0.057-0.076 and 0.009-0.061 day(-1) respectively. The pathways of degradation of these pesticides in composting process were proposed. Metabolites dieldrin and 1 hydroxychlorodene formed during composting of aldrin in the vegetable waste indicated the occurrence of epoxidation reaction and oxidation of bridge carbon of aldrin containing the methylene group. Formation of chloroendic acid and chloroendic anhydride during composting of endosulfan containing vegetable waste support the occurrence of endosulfan sulfate and dehydration reaction respectively. PMID:26828724

  10. Leaching from waste incineration bottom ashes treated in a rotary kiln.

    PubMed

    Hyks, Jiri; Nesterov, Igor; Mogensen, Erhardt; Jensen, Peter A; Astrup, Thomas

    2011-10-01

    Leaching from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash treated in a rotary kiln was quantified using a combination of lab-scale leaching experiments and geochemical modelling. Thermal treatment in the rotary kiln had no significant effect on the leaching of Al, Ba, Ca, Mg, Si, Sr, Zn, sulfate and inorganic carbon. Leaching of these elements from the treated residues remained unchanged and was, in general, controlled by solubility of the same minerals as in the untreated residues. Leaching of Cd, Co, Ni, Ti, Be, Bi, and Sn from both untreated and treated residues was found to be close to or below their detection limits; no effects of the thermal treatment on leachability of these metals were observed. The leaching of Cl, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), Cu and Pb decreased by at least one order of magnitude after the thermal treatment. This could be explained by evaporation (Cl) and by a better burnout of organic matter which then limited metal-DOC complexation and mobility. At the same time, leaching of Mo and Cr appeared to increase by a factor of 4 and more than two orders of magnitude, respectively. The large changes in Cr leaching may be explained by decreases in Al reduction capacity after the thermal treatment. Overall, rotary kiln thermal treatment of bottom ashes can be recommended to reduce the leaching of Cu, Pb, Cl and DOC; however, increased leaching of Cr and Mo should be expected. PMID:21930523

  11. A new DPIV proceeding algorithm and its application in particle motion study in a rotary drum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhixiao; Chi, Yong; Li, Shuiqing; Shen, Xiaojiang; Cen, Kefa

    2002-05-01

    A new digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) proceeding method, namely, consecutive motion vector estimation algorithm, which fully employs the global information of sequential gray images and the physics property of flow field to get the precise velocity vector at each pixel, is proposed. Therefore it enlarges the application range of DPIV, especially for high-speed flow, large velocity gradient flow and rotational flow. The new method is applied to study the particle motion qualitatively in a partially filled rotary drum in this work. The results indicate that the newly developed algorithm describes the real flow field of granular motion in the transverse plane of rotary drum more accurately than the conventional cross-correlation method, which is adopted here as the comparative one. It can be concluded from DPIV analysis that the burden bed in rotary drum consists of two distinct regions, the active layer and the plug flow region. Moreover, the boundary of these two regions is an arc and the rotational speed plays an important role in the particles flow field.

  12. F1 rotary motor of ATP synthase is driven by the torsionally-asymmetric drive shaft

    PubMed Central

    Kulish, O.; Wright, A. D.; Terentjev, E. M.

    2016-01-01

    F1F0 ATP synthase (ATPase) either facilitates the synthesis of ATP in a process driven by the proton moving force (pmf), or uses the energy from ATP hydrolysis to pump protons against the concentration gradient across the membrane. ATPase is composed of two rotary motors, F0 and F1, which compete for control of their shared γ -shaft. We present a self-consistent physical model of F1 motor as a simplified two-state Brownian ratchet using the asymmetry of torsional elastic energy of the coiled-coil γ -shaft. This stochastic model unifies the physical concepts of linear and rotary motors, and explains the stepped unidirectional rotary motion. Substituting the model parameters, all independently known from recent experiments, our model quantitatively reproduces the ATPase operation, e.g. the ‘no-load’ angular velocity is ca. 400 rad/s anticlockwise at 4 mM ATP. Increasing the pmf torque exerted by F0 can slow, stop and overcome the torque generated by F1, switching from ATP hydrolysis to synthesis at a very low value of ‘stall torque’. We discuss the motor efficiency, which is very low if calculated from the useful mechanical work it produces - but is quite high when the ‘useful outcome’ is measured in the number of H+ pushed against the chemical gradient. PMID:27321713

  13. Comparative analysis of core drilling and rotary drilling in volcanic terrane

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, T.; Trexler, D.T.; Wallace, R.H. Jr.

    1987-04-01

    Initially, the goal of this report is to compare and contrast penetration rates of rotary-mud drilling and core drilling in young volcanic terranes. It is widely recognized that areas containing an abundance of recent volcanic rocks are excellent targets for geothermal resources. Exploration programs depend heavily upon reliable subsurface information, because surface geophysical methods may be ineffective, inconclusive, or both. Past exploration drilling programs have mainly relied upon rotary-mud rigs for virtually all drilling activity. Core-drilling became popular several years ago, because it could deal effectively with two major problems encountered in young volcanic terranes: very hard, abrasive rock and extreme difficulty in controlling loss of circulation. In addition to overcoming these difficulties, core-drilling produced subsurface samples (core) that defined lithostratigraphy, structure and fractures far better than drill-chips. It seemed that the only negative aspect of core drilling was cost. The cost-per-foot may be two to three times higher than an ''initial quote'' for rotary drilling. In addition, penetration rates for comparable rock-types are often much lower for coring operations. This report also seeks to identify the extent of wireline core drilling (core-drilling using wireline retrieval) as a geothermal exploration tool. 25 refs., 21 figs., 13 tabs.

  14. Design and performance evaluation of a rotary magnetorheological damper for unmanned vehicle suspension systems.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Hoon; Han, Changwan; Ahn, Dongsu; Lee, Jin Kyoo; Park, Sang-Hu; Park, Seonghun

    2013-01-01

    We designed and validated a rotary magnetorheological (MR) damper with a specified damping torque capacity, an unsaturated magnetic flux density (MFD), and a high magnetic field intensity (MFI) for unmanned vehicle suspension systems. In this study, for the rotary type MR damper to have these satisfactory performances, the roles of the sealing location and the cover case curvature of the MR damper were investigated by using the detailed 3D finite element model to reflect asymmetrical shapes and sealing components. The current study also optimized the damper cover case curvature based on the MFD, the MFI, and the weight of the MR damper components. The damping torques, which were computed using the characteristic equation of the MR fluid and the MFI of the MR damper, were 239.2, 436.95, and 576.78 N·m at currents of 0.5, 1, and 1.5 A, respectively, at a disk rotating speed of 10 RPM. These predicted damping torques satisfied the specified damping torque of 475 N·m at 1.5 A and showed errors of less than 5% when compared to experimental measurements from the MR damper manufactured by the proposed design. The current study could play an important role in improving the performance of rotary type MR dampers. PMID:23533366

  15. Design and Performance Evaluation of a Rotary Magnetorheological Damper for Unmanned Vehicle Suspension Systems

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae-Hoon; Han, Changwan; Ahn, Dongsu; Lee, Jin Kyoo; Park, Sang-Hu; Park, Seonghun

    2013-01-01

    We designed and validated a rotary magnetorheological (MR) damper with a specified damping torque capacity, an unsaturated magnetic flux density (MFD), and a high magnetic field intensity (MFI) for unmanned vehicle suspension systems. In this study, for the rotary type MR damper to have these satisfactory performances, the roles of the sealing location and the cover case curvature of the MR damper were investigated by using the detailed 3D finite element model to reflect asymmetrical shapes and sealing components. The current study also optimized the damper cover case curvature based on the MFD, the MFI, and the weight of the MR damper components. The damping torques, which were computed using the characteristic equation of the MR fluid and the MFI of the MR damper, were 239.2, 436.95, and 576.78 N·m at currents of 0.5, 1, and 1.5 A, respectively, at a disk rotating speed of 10 RPM. These predicted damping torques satisfied the specified damping torque of 475 N·m at 1.5 A and showed errors of less than 5% when compared to experimental measurements from the MR damper manufactured by the proposed design. The current study could play an important role in improving the performance of rotary type MR dampers. PMID:23533366

  16. Rotary triboelectric nanogenerator based on a hybridized mechanism for harvesting wind energy.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yannan; Wang, Sihong; Lin, Long; Jing, Qingshen; Lin, Zong-Hong; Niu, Simiao; Wu, Zhengyun; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2013-08-27

    Harvesting mechanical energy is becoming increasingly important for its availability and abundance in our living environment. Triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) is a simple, cost-effective, and highly efficient approach for generating electricity from mechanical energies in a wide range of forms. Here, we developed a TENG designed for harvesting tiny-scale wind energy available in our normal living environment using conventional materials. The energy harvester is based on a rotary driven mechanical deformation of multiple plate-based TENGs. The operation mechanism is a hybridization of the contact-sliding-separation-contact processes by using the triboelectrification and electrostatic induction effects. With the introduction of polymer nanowires on surfaces, the rotary TENG delivers an open-circuit voltage of 250 V and a short-circuit current of 0.25 mA, corresponding to a maximum power density of ~39 W/m(2) at a wind speed of ~15 m/s, which is capable of directly driving hundreds of electronic devices such as commercial light-emitting diodes (LEDs), or rapidly charging capacitors. The rotary TENG was also applied as a self-powered sensor for measuring wind speed. This work represents a significant progress in the practical application of the TENG and its great potential in the future wind power technology. This technology can also be extended for harvesting energy from ocean current, making nanotechnology reaching our daily life a possibility in the near future. PMID:23768179

  17. Reduction of the vibration of the hand-arm system by optimization of rotary hammer drills.

    PubMed

    Weinert, K; Gillmeister, F

    1996-02-01

    When operating a hand-held vibrating power tool, for example impact drills and rotary hammers, high vibration loads are introduced into the hand-arm system of the operator. In the long run these mechanical vibrations can lead to health problems of the hand-arm system. Hammer drilling tools for treatment of mineral materials are offered with many different designs of the cutting edge in the diameter range between 16 mm and 50 mm. In this research project the influences of the cutting edge design of drilling tools on the vibration characteristics of rotary hammers are investigated. The vibration exposure of the hand-arm system due to the tool and the volume of chip production are regarded. The gauge being a combination of the weighted acceleration and the drilling capacity. Based on the current spectrum of drillings tools neutral test have been developed to examine geometrical parameters. Both sets of drilling tools have been subjected to the same test programme. The analysis of the results led to the definition of the characteristics of an optimized rotary hammer drilling tool. Lists of criterions have been developed for the different groups of tools. Using these it is possible to create drilling tools optimized for vibration exposure. This was demonstrated by prototype drilling tools. The comparison of the results showed, that the averaged volume of chip production could be significantly improved by modifying the design of the drilling tools retaining the weighted acceleration. The comparison also showed that the total vibration severity parameter decreased. PMID:8996667

  18. CFD modeling using PDF approach for investigating the flame length in rotary kilns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elattar, H. F.; Specht, E.; Fouda, A.; Bin-Mahfouz, Abdullah S.

    2016-02-01

    Numerical simulations using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) are performed to investigate the flame length characteristics in rotary kilns using probability density function (PDF) approach. A commercial CFD package (ANSYS-Fluent) is employed for this objective. A 2-D axisymmetric model is applied to study the effect of both operating and geometric parameters of rotary kiln on the characteristics of the flame length. Three types of gaseous fuel are used in the present work; methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO) and biogas (50 % CH4 + 50 % CO2). Preliminary comparison study of 2-D modeling outputs of free jet flames with available experimental data is carried out to choose and validate the proper turbulence model for the present numerical simulations. The results showed that the excess air number, diameter of kiln air entrance, radiation modeling consideration and fuel type have remarkable effects on the flame length characteristics. Numerical correlations for the rotary kiln flame length are presented in terms of the studied kiln operating and geometric parameters within acceptable error.

  19. ASSESSMENT OF CANAL WALLS AFTER BIOMECHANICAL PREPARATION OF ROOT CANALS INSTRUMENTED WITH PROTAPER UNIVERSAL™ ROTARY SYSTEM

    PubMed Central

    Aguiar, Carlos Menezes; Mendes, Daniela de Andrade; Câmara, Andréa Cruz; de Figueiredo, Jose Antonio Poli

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the instrumented walls of root canals prepared with the ProTaper Universal™ rotary system. Material and Methods: Twenty mesiobuccal canals of human first mandibular molars were divided into 2 groups of 10 specimens each and embedded in a muffle system. The root canals were transversely sectioned 3 mm short of the apex before preparation and remounted in their molds. All root canals were prepared with ProTaper Universal™ rotary system or with Nitiflex™ files. The pre and postoperative images of the apical thirds viewed with a stereoscopic magnifier (×45) were captured digitally for further analysis. Data were analyzed statistically by Fisher's exact test and Chi-square test at 5% significance level. Results: The differences observed between the instrumented and the noninstrumented walls were not statistically significant (p<0.05). Conclusions: The Nitiflex™ files and the ProTaper Universal™ rotary system failed to instrument all the root canal walls. PMID:20027432

  20. Design and Implementation of an Electromagnetic Energy Harvester for Linear and Rotary Motion Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hekmati, Alireza

    This thesis presents a new design for an electromagnetic energy harvester to be used in both linear and rotary motion applications. This electromagnetic energy harvester consists of a moving coil within a fixed magnetic circuit. This magnetic circuit comprises of a permanent magnet (as a magnetic source), a magnetic conductor (such as iron), and an air gap to create a space for coil movement inside energy harvester setup. In the parameter study of this electromagnetic energy harvester, it has been demonstrated that applying design modifications will improve the amount of induced voltage by %50. For linear motion applications, the energy harvester has been mounted on a linear motor and the experimental results indicated that when the coil movements' speed is 70 [mm/s], the maximum harvested power is 5.320 [mW]. For rotary motion applications, first a voice coil speaker has been used as a single degree of freedom system to produce voltage through a rotating beam and hub. Since in lower resonance frequencies, the maximum induced voltage is quite low, thus in next step, the two degrees of freedom energy harvesting system for rotary motion applications has been introduced. This system has been mounted on a car ring and the result illustrated that at the resonance frequency (15 [Hz]), the induced voltage was 0.175 [V] for each coil.

  1. Choice reaction time to movement of eccentric visual targets during concurrent rotary acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamerman, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of concurrent rotary acceleration on choice reaction time (RT) to a small, accelerating visual cursor on a cathode-ray tube. Subjects sat in an enclosed rotating device at the center of rotation and observed a 3-mm dot accelerating at different rates across a cathode-ray tube. The dot was viewed at various eccentricities under conditions of visual stimulation alone and with concurrent rotary acceleration. Subjects responded to both vertical and horizontal dot movements. There was a significant inverse relationship between choice RT and level of dot acceleration (p less than .001), and a significant direct relationship between choice RT and eccentricity (p less than .001). There was no significant difference between choice RT to vertical or horizontal dot motion (p greater than .25), and choice RT was not significantly affected by concurrent rotary acceleration (p greater than .10). The results are discussed in terms of the effects of vestibular stimulation on choice RT to visual motion.

  2. Process challenges in rotary kiln-based incinerators in soil remediation projects

    SciTech Connect

    Acharya, P.; Fogo, D.; McBride, C.

    1996-12-31

    Most Superfund sites undergoing thermal remediation consist of high-moisture content (15 to 40 percent) soils having light organic contamination (low-heat content). In the early 1980s, the rotary kiln incinerators employed at these Superfund sites were relatively small mobile hazardous waste incinerators (HWI) built on standard-size semi-trailers. As the industry matured over the past ten years, competition has driven the industry to larger and more efficient rotary kiln systems that minimize the cost per ton of soil treated by increasing the throughput rates and shortening on-site processing time. Because these units are transported from site to site by truck or a combination of rail and truck, the rotary kiln outside shell diameters have peaked to approximately 13.5 feet. Now the focus has shifted to increasing the processing capacity of these existing, maximized fixed-sized systems. Such actions include the use of oxygen-based combustion systems, which increase the throughput and efficiency by improving heat transfer and reducing the volume of combustion gas requiring treatment. However, despite the experience and expertise gained by the participants in the thermal remediation industry, many of the same process challenges still remain. This article discusses these process challenges facing the industry and potential solutions, based on data from IT`s Hybrid Thermal Treatment System{reg_sign} HTTS{reg_sign} and other sources. 10 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Manipulator having thermally conductive rotary joint for transferring heat from a test specimen

    DOEpatents

    Haney, S.J.; Stulen, R.H.; Toly, N.F.

    1983-05-03

    A manipulator for rotatably moving a test specimen in an ultra-high vacuum chamber includes a translational unit movable in three mutually perpendicular directions. A manipulator frame is rigidly secured to the translational unit for rotatably supporting a rotary shaft. A first copper disc is rigidly secured to an end of the rotary shaft for rotary movement within the vacuum chamber. A second copper disc is supported upon the first disc. The second disc receives a cryogenic cold head and does not rotate with the first disc. The second disc receives a cryogenic cold head and does not rotate with the first disc. A sapphire plate is interposed between the first and second discs to prevent galling of the copper material while maintaining high thermal conductivity between the first and second discs. A spring is disposed on the shaft to urge the second disc toward the first disc and compressingly engage the interposed sapphire plate. A specimen mount is secured to the first disc for rotation within the vacuum chamber. The specimen maintains high thermal conductivity with the second disc receiving the cryogenic transfer line.

  4. Manipulator having thermally conductive rotary joint for transferring heat from a test specimen

    DOEpatents

    Haney, Steven J.; Stulen, Richard H.; Toly, Norman F.

    1985-01-01

    A manipulator for rotatably moving a test specimen in an ultra-high vacuum chamber includes a translational unit movable in three mutually perpendicular directions. A manipulator frame is rigidly secured to the translational unit for rotatably supporting a rotary shaft. A first copper disc is rigidly secured to an end of the rotary shaft for rotary movement within the vacuum chamber. A second copper disc is supported upon the first disc. The second disc receives a cryogenic cold head and does not rotate with the first disc. A sapphire plate is interposed between the first and second discs to prevent galling of the copper material while maintaining high thermal conductivity between the first and second discs. A spring is disposed on the shaft to urge the second disc toward the first disc and compressingly engage the interposed sapphire plate. A specimen mount is secured to the first disc for rotation within the vacuum chamber. The specimen maintains high thermal conductivity with the second disc receiving the cryogenic transfer line.

  5. Simulation of collective behaviour in micro-scale swimmers: Effects of tumbling and rotary diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnamurthy, Deepak; Subramanian, Ganesh

    2013-11-01

    Recent experiments have shown that suspensions of swimming micro-organisms are characterized by complex dynamics involving enhanced swimming speeds, large-scale correlated motions and enhanced tracer diffusion. Understanding this dynamics is of fundamental interest and also has relevance to biological systems. In this work we develop a particle-based computational model to study a suspension of hydrodynamically interacting rod-like swimmers with the relation between the swimming velocity and intrinsic stress being enforced from slender body theory. Such an a priori specification reduces the computational cost since one now has a ``kinematic'' simulation with a fixed interaction law between swimmers; this does not restrict our study of the dynamics since the destabilizing mechanism has been attributed to the intrinsic (rather than the induced) stress field. Importantly, the model will include intrinsic de-correlation mechanisms found in bacteria such as rotary diffusion and tumbling whose effects have so far not been studied via simulations. Using this model we predict a box-size independent stability threshold based on the suspension concentration, tumble-time (duration between subsequent tumble events) and rotary diffusivity. Comparisons are made with the linear stability theory predictions by Subramanian & Koch (JFM 2009). We demonstrate that the effect of tumbling and rotary diffusion is to stabilize the suspension.

  6. Fundamental study to develop a fiber-optic gap sensor for a rotary undulation pump.

    PubMed

    Mitsumune, Norihiko; Saito, Itsuro; Mochizuki, Shuichi; Abe, Yusuke; Isoyama, Takashi; Nakagawa, Hidemoto; Ono, Toshiya; Kouno, Akimasa; Sugino, Ayaka; Chinzei, Tsuneo

    2007-01-01

    The rotary undulation pump is believed to be a good candidate for the next-generation artificial heart. Due to its complex movement, it is desirable to magnetically levitate the rotor and dynamically control the gap. In this article, the applicability of a fiber-optic gap sensor to the dynamic position control of the rotor in the rotary undulation pump was investigated. The fiber-optic gap sensor consisted of two plastic-core fibers and a reflection plate. Two 1-mm-diameter optical fibers were aligned parallel: one for source light propagation and the other for reflected light transmission. The basic properties of gap sensors using four different light sources were explored in five media (air, physiologic saline, and blood samples with three different hematocrit levels). The influence of the oxygen saturation level in the blood on sensing was investigated with two types of light sources. It is desirable to use a light source the wavelength of which shows similar absorption coefficients for both oxygenated blood and deoxygenated blood. The effect of the distance between the two fibers on the sensing and range was also investigated. The results indicated that the fiber-optic gap sensor is quite promising for the active control of rotor positioning in the rotary undulation pump. PMID:18071854

  7. Rotary motion of a micro-solid particle under a stationary difference of electric potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurimura, Tomo; Mori, Seori; Miki, Masako; Yoshikawa, Kenichi

    2016-07-01

    The periodic rotary motion of spherical sub-millimeter-sized plastic objects is generated under a direct-current electric field in an oil phase containing a small amount of anionic or cationic surfactant. Twin-rotary motion is observed between a pair of counter-electrodes; i.e., two vortices are generated simultaneously, where the line between the centers of rotation lies perpendicular to the line between the tips of the electrodes. Interestingly, this twin rotational motion switches to the reverse direction when an anionic surfactant is replaced by a cationic surfactant. We discuss the mechanism of this self-rotary motion in terms of convective motion in the oil phase where nanometer-sized inverted micelles exist. The reversal of the direction of rotation between anionic and cationic surfactants is attributable to the difference in the charge sign of inverted micelles with surfactants. We show that the essential features in the experimental trends can be reproduced through a simple theoretical model, which supports the validity of the above mechanism.

  8. Rotary motion of a micro-solid particle under a stationary difference of electric potential.

    PubMed

    Kurimura, Tomo; Mori, Seori; Miki, Masako; Yoshikawa, Kenichi

    2016-07-21

    The periodic rotary motion of spherical sub-millimeter-sized plastic objects is generated under a direct-current electric field in an oil phase containing a small amount of anionic or cationic surfactant. Twin-rotary motion is observed between a pair of counter-electrodes; i.e., two vortices are generated simultaneously, where the line between the centers of rotation lies perpendicular to the line between the tips of the electrodes. Interestingly, this twin rotational motion switches to the reverse direction when an anionic surfactant is replaced by a cationic surfactant. We discuss the mechanism of this self-rotary motion in terms of convective motion in the oil phase where nanometer-sized inverted micelles exist. The reversal of the direction of rotation between anionic and cationic surfactants is attributable to the difference in the charge sign of inverted micelles with surfactants. We show that the essential features in the experimental trends can be reproduced through a simple theoretical model, which supports the validity of the above mechanism. PMID:27448901

  9. Comparison of in situ vitrification and rotary kiln incineration for soils treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Shearer, T.L. )

    1991-09-01

    In the hazardous waste community, the term thermal destruction' is a catchall phrase that broadly refers to high temperature destruction of hazardous contaminants. Included in the thermal destruction category are treatment technologies such as rotary kiln incineration, fluidized bed incineration, infrared thermal treatment, wet air oxidation, pyrolytic incineration, and vitrification. Among them, conventional rotary kiln incineration, a disposal method for many years, is the most well established, and often serves as a barometer to gauge the relative success of similar technologies. Public sentiment on an environmental issues and increasingly stringent environmental regulations has, over time, spurred design and development of innovative thermal treatment processes directed toward reducing harmful emissions and residuals that may require further treatment or disposal. In situ vitrification (ISV), a technology that combines heat and immobilization, is one such innovative and relatively new technology. This paper presents a comparison of ISV and rotary kiln incineration for soils treatment in the areas of process performance, process residuals, process limitations, applicable or relevant and appropriate (ARARs) regulations, criteria and limitations, and costs.

  10. Rotary instruments in the treatment of chronic periodontitis: A randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Dahiya, Parveen; Kamal, Reet

    2013-01-01

    Background: The study aimed at comparing the effectiveness of rotary instruments with hand instruments in non-surgical treatment of chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: Thirty-eight patients with chronic periodontitis, enrolled to this randomized, controlled clinical trial, were divided into two groups. Patients in the control group received scaling and root planing with hand instruments, whereas patients in the test group received treatment with rotary instruments. Clinical assessment by plaque index, bleeding on probing, probing depth, gingival recession, and clinical attachment level was made prior to and at 6 months after treatment. Differences in the clinical parameters were analyzed using the Wilcoxon signed rank test and Mann–Whitney U test. Results: Both treatments resulted in a significant improvement in all clinical recordings, but no differences in any of the investigated parameters were observed at baseline between the two groups. Conclusion: Non-surgical periodontal therapy with the tested rotary instruments may lead to clinical improvements comparable to those obtained with conventional hand instruments. PMID:24554884

  11. F1 rotary motor of ATP synthase is driven by the torsionally-asymmetric drive shaft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulish, O.; Wright, A. D.; Terentjev, E. M.

    2016-06-01

    F1F0 ATP synthase (ATPase) either facilitates the synthesis of ATP in a process driven by the proton moving force (pmf), or uses the energy from ATP hydrolysis to pump protons against the concentration gradient across the membrane. ATPase is composed of two rotary motors, F0 and F1, which compete for control of their shared γ -shaft. We present a self-consistent physical model of F1 motor as a simplified two-state Brownian ratchet using the asymmetry of torsional elastic energy of the coiled-coil γ -shaft. This stochastic model unifies the physical concepts of linear and rotary motors, and explains the stepped unidirectional rotary motion. Substituting the model parameters, all independently known from recent experiments, our model quantitatively reproduces the ATPase operation, e.g. the ‘no-load’ angular velocity is ca. 400 rad/s anticlockwise at 4 mM ATP. Increasing the pmf torque exerted by F0 can slow, stop and overcome the torque generated by F1, switching from ATP hydrolysis to synthesis at a very low value of ‘stall torque’. We discuss the motor efficiency, which is very low if calculated from the useful mechanical work it produces - but is quite high when the ‘useful outcome’ is measured in the number of H+ pushed against the chemical gradient.

  12. F1 rotary motor of ATP synthase is driven by the torsionally-asymmetric drive shaft.

    PubMed

    Kulish, O; Wright, A D; Terentjev, E M

    2016-01-01

    F1F0 ATP synthase (ATPase) either facilitates the synthesis of ATP in a process driven by the proton moving force (pmf), or uses the energy from ATP hydrolysis to pump protons against the concentration gradient across the membrane. ATPase is composed of two rotary motors, F0 and F1, which compete for control of their shared γ -shaft. We present a self-consistent physical model of F1 motor as a simplified two-state Brownian ratchet using the asymmetry of torsional elastic energy of the coiled-coil γ -shaft. This stochastic model unifies the physical concepts of linear and rotary motors, and explains the stepped unidirectional rotary motion. Substituting the model parameters, all independently known from recent experiments, our model quantitatively reproduces the ATPase operation, e.g. the 'no-load' angular velocity is ca. 400 rad/s anticlockwise at 4 mM ATP. Increasing the pmf torque exerted by F0 can slow, stop and overcome the torque generated by F1, switching from ATP hydrolysis to synthesis at a very low value of 'stall torque'. We discuss the motor efficiency, which is very low if calculated from the useful mechanical work it produces - but is quite high when the 'useful outcome' is measured in the number of H(+) pushed against the chemical gradient. PMID:27321713

  13. Timing of inorganic phosphate release modulates the catalytic activity of ATP-driven rotary motor protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Rikiya; Noji, Hiroyuki

    2014-04-01

    F1-ATPase is a rotary motor protein driven by ATP hydrolysis. The rotary motion of F1-ATPase is tightly coupled to catalysis, in which the catalytic sites strictly obey the reaction sequences at the resolution of elementary reaction steps. This fine coordination of the reaction scheme is thought to be important to achieve extremely high chemomechanical coupling efficiency and reversibility, which is the prominent feature of F1-ATPase among molecular motor proteins. In this study, we intentionally change the reaction scheme by using single-molecule manipulation, and we examine the resulting effect on the rotary motion of F1-ATPase. When the sequence of the products released, that is, ADP and inorganic phosphate, is switched, we find that F1 frequently stops rotating for a long time, which corresponds to inactivation of catalysis. This inactive state presents MgADP inhibition, and thus, we find that an improper reaction sequence of F1-ATPase catalysis induces MgADP inhibition.

  14. Morphometric analysis of root canal cleaning after rotary instrumentation with or without laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchesan, Melissa A.; Geurisoli, Danilo M. Z.; Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.; Barbin, Eduardo L.; Pecora, Jesus D.

    2002-06-01

    The present study examined root canal cleaning, using the optic microscope, after rotary instrumentation with ProFile.04 with or without laser application with different output energies. Cleaning and shaping can be accomplished manually, with ultra-sonic and sub-sonic devices, with rotary instruments and recently, increasing development in laser radiation has shown promising results for disinfection and smear layer removal. In this study, 30 palatal maxillary molar roots were examined using an optic microscope after rotary instrumentation with ProFile .04 with or without Er:YAG laser application (KaVo KeyLaser II, Germany) with different output energies (2940 nm, 15 Hz, 300 pulses, 500 milli-sec duration, 42 J, 140 mJ showed on the display- input, 61 mJ at fiberoptic tip-output and 140 mJ showed on the display-input and 51 mJ at fiberoptic tip-output). Statistical analysis showed no statistical differences between the tested treatments (ANOVA, p>0.05). ANOVA also showed a statistically significant difference (p<0.01) between the root canal thirds, indicating that the middle third had less debris than the apical third. We conclude that: 1) none of the tested treatments led to totally cleaned root canals; 2) all treatments removed debris similarly, 3) the middle third had less debris than the apical third; 4) variation in output energy did not increase cleaning.

  15. Waste water treatment costs reduced by 50% with rotary vacuum precoat filter

    SciTech Connect

    Mrozinski, W.; Short, A.J.

    1983-01-01

    This article describes a rotary vacuum precoat filter which reduces waste treatment costs by 50%. This filter was used to solve Union Carbide Corporation's Linde Division's plant problem of high operating costs at the facility due to frequent cleaning, repair, and replacement of electric filters.The solids separation system at Linde's waste water treatment facility also had high operating, maintenance and sludge disposal costs. Installation of the rotary vacuum precoat filter with diatomite precoat performs the same functions as were previously accomplished with the high pressure filter and a centrifuge, and does these with less total horsepower, fewer water treatment chemicals, reduced maintenance, and lower water content in the sludge. All of these improvements have added up to a 50% reduction in the total cost of waste water treatment. On a trial-basis, the small rotary vacuum precoat flter satisfactorily handled all the waste water treatment required at present plant production rates. Based on full plant operating rates and the installation of an appropriate sized filter, total savings from using this system are estimated at $92,000/yr.

  16. Multi-functional hinge equipped with a magneto-rheological rotary damper for solar array deployment system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Mingfu; Yu, Miao; Fu, Jie; Wu, Zhengzhong

    2015-02-01

    This article describes the design and simulation of a novel multi-functional hinge equipped with a rotary magnetorheological damper for solar array deployment system, which is comprised of a hinge, an angular sensor, a positioning and locking mechanism and a rotary damper. In order to achieve the compact design in structure, some components were reused in different function modules. It's the first to use magnet-rheological fluid (MRF) to dissipate the energy in solar array deployment system. The main advantage in using MR rotary damper instead of a viscous fluid rotary damper is that the damping force of MR damper can be adjusted according to the external magnetic field environment excited. A mechanic model was built and the structure design was focused on the MR rotary damper, a damping force model of this damper is deduced based on hydromechanics with Bingham plastic constitutive model. A simulation of deployment motion was taken to validate the motion sequence of various components during the unfolding and locking process. It can be obtained that a constant damping coefficient can hardly balance the different performance of solar deployment system, then a simulation of the proposed deployment system equipped with rotary MR damper was carried out. According to the simulation, it can be obtained that the terminal velocity decreased by 75.81% and the deployment time decreased by 72.37% compared with a given constant damping coefficients. Therefore, the proposed new type of rotary damper can reach a compromise with different performance utilizing an on-off control strategy.

  17. Rotary Drum Separator and Pump for the Sabatier Carbon Dioxide Reduction System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holder, Don; Fort, James; Barone, Michael; Murdoch, Karen

    2005-01-01

    A trade study conducted in 2001 selected a rotary disk separator as the best candidate to meet the requirements for an International Space Station (ISS) Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA). The selected technology must provide micro-gravity gasfliquid separation and pump the liquid from 10 psia at the gasfliquid interface to 18 psia at the wastewater bus storage tank. The rotary disk concept, which has pedigree in other systems currently being built for installation on the ISS, failed to achieve the required pumping head within the allotted power. The separator discussed in this paper is a new design that was tested to determine compliance with performance requirements in the CRA. The drum separator and pump @SP) design is similar to the Oxygen Generator Assembly (OGA) Rotary Separator Accumulator (RSA) in that it has a rotating assembly inside a stationary housing driven by a integral internal motor. The innovation of the DSP is the drum shaped rotating assembly that acts as the accumulator and also pumps the liquid at much less power than its predecessors. In the CRA application, the separator will rotate at slow speed while accumulating water. Once full, the separator will increase speed to generate sufficient head to pump the water to the wastewater bus. A proof-of- concept (POC) separator has been designed, fabricated and tested to assess the separation efficiency and pumping head of the design. This proof-of-concept item was flown aboard the KC135 to evaluate the effectiveness of the separator in a microgravity environment. This separator design has exceeded all of the performance requirements. The next step in the separator development is to integrate it into the Sabatier Carbon Dioxide Reduction System. This will be done with the Sabatier Engineering Development Unit at the Johnson Space Center.

  18. Failure of ProTaper rotary Ni-Ti instruments used by undergraduate students

    PubMed Central

    Duran-Sindreu, Fernando; Morello-Castro, Sergio; Mercade-Bellido, Montserrat; Bueno-Martínez, Rufino; Roig-Cayón, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of number of uses, angle and radius of curvature and type of instrument on the fracture of ProTaper rotary instruments when used by undergraduate students. Study Design: Three hundred and seventy-six molars, with a total of 1114 root canals, extracted were instrumented by undergraduate students using ProTaper instruments according to the manufacturer´s recommendations. When fracture occurred, data were collected concerning the number of uses, type of instrument, level of fracture, angle and radius of curvature. ANOVA test were used to determine the influence of type of instrument in the incidence of instrument fracture. Logistic regression model was used to determine the influence of number of uses, angle and radius of curvature in the incidence of instrument fracture. Significance was set at p< 0.05. Results: A total of 37 Ni-Ti rotary instruments fractured during the treatment. Fracture occurred in 9.84% (37/376) of the teeth treated and 3.32% of the canals prepared with Ni-Ti rotary instruments (37/1114). A decrease in the radius of curvature of the canal significantly increased the likelihood of fracture (p=0.0001). Instrument fracture significantly increased as the number of uses increased (p=0.0037). No significant differences were found between the 6 types of ProTaper instruments (p=0.8). A reduction in the angle of curvature did not produce a significant decrease in the incidence of instrument separation (p=0.08). Conclusions: The results of this study imply that instrument fracture is linked to radius of curvature and number of uses. Key words:Fracture, ProTaper ®, root canal preparation, undergraduate students. PMID:24558555

  19. Comparing Rotary Bend Wire Fatigue Test Methods at Different Test Speeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, Jason D.; Gutierrez, Erick J.

    2015-12-01

    Given its relatively simple setup and ability to produce results quickly, rotary bend fatigue testing is becoming commonplace in the medical device industry and is the subject of a new standard test method ASTM E2948-14. Although some research has been conducted to determine if results differ for different rotary bend fatigue test setups or test speeds, these parameters have not been extensively studied together. In this work, we investigate the effects of these two parameters on the fatigue life of three commonly used medical device alloys (ASTM F2063 nitinol, ASTM F138 stainless steel, and ASTM F1058 cobalt chromium). Results with three different rotary bend fatigue test setups revealed no difference in fatigue life among those setups. Increasing test speed, however, between 100 and 35,000 RPM led to an increased fatigue life for all three alloys studied (average number of cycles to fracture increased between 2.0 and 5.1 times between slowest and fastest test speed). Supplemental uniaxial tension tests of stainless steel wire at varying strain rates showed a strain rate dependence in the mechanical response which could in part explain the increased fatigue life at faster test speeds. How exactly strain rate dependence might affect the fatigue properties of different alloys at different alternating strain values requires further study. Given the difference in loading rates between benchtop fatigue tests and in vivo deformations, the potential for strain rate dependence should be considered when designing durability tests for medical devices and in extrapolating results of those tests to in vivo performance.

  20. Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program - Entiat River Snorkel Surveys and Rotary Screw Trap, 2007.

    SciTech Connect

    Nelle, R.D.

    2008-01-01

    The USFWS Mid-Columbia River Fishery Resource Office conducted snorkel surveys at 24 sites during the summer and fall periods of 2006 survey periods as part of the Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program in the Entiat River. A total of 37,938 fish from 15 species/genera and an unknown category were enumerated. Chinook salmon were the overall most common fish observed and comprised 15% of fish enumerated followed by rainbow trout (10%) and mountain whitefish (7%). Day surveys were conducted during the summer period 2007 (August), while night surveys were conducted during the fall 2007 (October) surveys. The USFWS Mid-Columbia River Fishery Resource Office (MCFRO) operated two rotary screw traps on the Entiat River as part of the Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program (ISEMP) program from August through November of 2007. Along with the smolt traps, juvenile emigrants were also captured at remote locations throughout the Entiat watershed and its major tributary, the Mad River. A total of 999 wild Oncorhynchus mykiss and 5,107 wild run O. tshawytscha were PIT tagged during the study period. Rotary screw trap efficiencies averaged 22.3% for juvenile O. tshawytscha and 9.0% for juvenile O. mykiss. Rotary screw traps operated 7 days a week and remote capture operations were conducted when flow and temperature regimes permitted. This is third annual progress report to Bonneville Power Administration for the snorkel surveys conducted in the Entiat River as related to long-term effectiveness monitoring of restoration programs in this watershed. The objective of this study is to monitor the fish habitat utilization of planned in-stream restoration efforts in the Entiat River by conducting pre- and post-construction snorkel surveys at selected treatment and control sites.

  1. PREPP (Process Experimental Pilot Plant) rotary kiln seals: Problem and resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Drexler, R.L. )

    1990-01-01

    The Process Experimental Pilot Plant (PREPP) is a facility designed to demonstrate processing of low level chemical and transuranic hazardous waste. The plant includes equipment for handling the incoming waste containers, shredding, incineration and cooling the waste, grouting the residue and scrubbing and filtration of the off gas. The process incinerator is a rotary kiln approximately 8-{1/2} ft diameter and 25 ft long with a rotary seal assembly at each end. Each seal assembly consists of a primary, secondary and tertiary seal, with a positive air pressure between primary and secondary seals to prevent out-leakage from the kiln. The kiln operates at 0.5 inch water negative pressure. From the very outset the kiln seals exhibited excessive drag which taxed the kiln drive capacity and excessive in-leakage which limited kiln temperature. An engineering evaluation concluded that the original seals supplied by the kiln vendor could not accommodate expansion and centerline shift of the kiln resulting from heatup of the kiln and its support system. A totally new concept kiln seal design has been generated to replace the (modified) original seals. This new seal system has been designed to provide a very tight long lasting seal which will accommodate the 1.5 inch axial shift and up to 1 inch radial movement of the kiln shell. Design lifetime of the seal is 10,000 operating hours between major maintenance services while maintaining an acceptable leak rate hot or cold, rotating or stopped. The design appears adaptable to any size kiln and is suitable for retrofit to existing kilns. A one-third scale prototype seal assembly is being built to verify the concept prior to construction of the 10 ft diameter seals for the PREPP rotary kiln. 4 figs.

  2. Automatic system for noninvasive blood pressure determination in rotary pump recipients.

    PubMed

    Schima, Heinrich; Boehm, Herbert; Huber, Leopold; Schmallegger, Helmut; Vollkron, Michael; Hiesmayr, Michael; Noisser, Robert; Wieselthaler, Georg

    2004-05-01

    In patients with implanted rotary pumps, the arterial pressure pulsatility is usually far lower than in normal individuals. Depending on the remaining degree of pulsatility, cuff-based systems such as the classical Riva-Rocci-determination of arterial blood pressure and correlated sounds or pressure measurements based on cuffpressure oscillations become inaccurate or even impossible. Therefore, a system was developed which evaluates the flow in the radial artery using an ultrasound wristwatch sensor, and this additional information is used for pressure determination. A computerized data acquisition and cuff-control system based on a PC using Matlab software, a wristwatch ultrasound device, and a compressor-driven pressure cuff was set up. The cuff was controlled for automatic inflation and deflation cycles. Cuff pressure and arterial flow was recorded. Several algorithm strategies were developed, which gave data for systolic blood pressure and heart rate together with a reliability index for data quality. Finally, the new algorithms were implemented in a microcontroller system. Comparisons with invasive measurements showed excellent correlation with systolic blood pressure (mean deltaP -0.3 mm Hg, n = 28). During exercise of rotary pump patients and therefore enhanced pulsatility the difference from manual evaluation was -2.1 mm Hg (n = 18). In conclusion, adaptation of the classical cuff-pressure method with ultrasound evaluation of peripheral flow allows reliable determination of blood pressure in patients with low pulsatility resulting from implanted rotary cardiac assist pumps. By development of a wristwatch sensor and an automatic control system a robust method for daily use could be developed. PMID:15113339

  3. Comparison of Cyclic Fatigue Resistance of Five Nickel Titanium Rotary File Systems with Different Manufacturing Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Aminsobhani, Mohsen; Sadri, Ehsan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the resistance to fatigue failure of five different nickel-titanium rotary files in three different curved trajectories. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 Neoniti A1, RaCe 25.06, Mtwo 25.06, Twisted file 25.06 and ProTaper Next X2 files with the tip size of 25 were tested (n=30 for each group). Three groove types simulating curved canals were used differing in radius, arc length and position of the arc, each measuring 1.5 mm in width, 20 mm in total length and 2.5 in depth. Resistance to cyclic fatigue was determined by counting the numbers of cycles to failure. Furthermore, the fragment length of the fractured tips and angle and radius of curvature formed by each file in each trajectory were evaluated. The data were analyzed by t-test, one way ANOVA and Tukey’s HSD test. Results: Neoniti showed the highest and RaCe showed the lowest number of cycles to fracture (NCF) values (P<0.05), indicating the highest and lowest fatigue resistance, respectively. The highest and lowest curvature angles were seen in RaCe and Neoniti, respectively. Regarding the radius of curvature, Twisted file had the lowest and Neoniti had the highest values. The mean NCF of all rotary files was lower in the more coronally curved trajectory. Conclusion: The fatigue resistance of the evaluated rotary files was lower in more coronally located curvatures. Neoniti exhibited the highest and RaCe exhibited the lowest fatigue resistance compared to other evaluated files. PMID:27148374

  4. Cleaning Effectiveness of Three NiTi Rotary Instruments: A Focus on Biomaterial Properties

    PubMed Central

    Poggio, Claudio; Dagna, Alberto; Chiesa, Marco; Beltrami, Riccardo; Bianchi, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Nickel-titanium (NiTi) instruments are commonly used for shaping the root canal system in endodontic practice. They are more flexible and have better cutting efficiency than conventional stainless steel files. The superelasticity of NiTi rotary files allows the clinicians to produce the desirable tapered root canal form with a reduced tendency to canal transportation and instrument fracture. HyFlex CM instruments are new NiTi rotary instruments with shape memory produced by an innovative methodology (patent pending) that uses a complex heating and cooling treatment that controls the material’s memory. The aim of the present study was to compare the cleaning efficacy of two conventional (Mtwo, Revo-S) Ni-Ti rotary instruments with HyFlex CM. 30 single-rooted freshly extracted teeth were divided into three groups. Root canals were shaped with three NiTi instruments (Mtwo, Revo-S and HyFlex CM) using 5.25% NaOCl and 17% EDTA solutions. Specimens were fractured longitudinally and prepared for SEM analysis at standard magnification of 1000×. The presence/absence of debris smear layer and the presence/absence of smear layer at coronal, middle, and apical third of each canal were evaluated using a 5-step scale for scores. Numeric data were analyzed using Kruskall-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U statistical tests and significance was predetermined at P < 0.05. This study revealed significant differences among the various groups. Despite some minor differences, all instruments removed smear layer and debris produced during instrumentation. HyFlex CM seem to be not so effective in promoting cleanliness of root canal walls and in removing smear layer from dentine if compared to Mtwo and Revo-S. PMID:25692796

  5. A compliant, banded outflow cannula for decreased afterload sensitivity of rotary right ventricular assist devices.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Shaun D; Schummy, Emma; Pearcy, Mark; Pauls, Jo P; Tansley, Geoff; Fraser, John F; Timms, Daniel

    2015-02-01

    Biventricular support with dual rotary ventricular assist devices (VADs) has been implemented clinically with restriction of the right VAD (RVAD) outflow cannula to artificially increase afterload and, therefore, operate within recommended design speed ranges. However, the low preload and high afterload sensitivity of these devices increase the susceptibility of suction events. Active control systems are prone to sensor drift or inaccurate inferred (sensor-less) data, therefore an alternative solution may be of benefit. This study presents the in vitro evaluation of a compliant outflow cannula designed to passively decrease the afterload sensitivity of rotary RVADs and minimize left-sided suction events. A one-way fluid-structure interaction model was initially used to produce a design with suitable flow dynamics and radial deformation. The resultant geometry was cast with different initial cross-sectional restrictions and concentrations of a softening diluent before evaluation in a mock circulation loop. Pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) was increased from 50 dyne s/cm(5) until left-sided suction events occurred with each compliant cannula and a rigid, 4.5 mm diameter outflow cannula for comparison. Early suction events (PVR ∼ 300 dyne s/cm(5) ) were observed with the rigid outflow cannula. Addition of the compliant section with an initial 3 mm diameter restriction and 10% diluent expanded the outflow restriction as PVR increased, thus increasing RVAD flow rate and preventing left-sided suction events at PVR levels beyond 1000 dyne s/cm(5) . Therefore, the compliant, restricted outflow cannula provided a passive control system to assist in the prevention of suction events with rotary biventricular support while maintaining pump speeds within normal ranges of operation. PMID:25041754

  6. Intra-canal calcium hydroxide removal by two rotary systems: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Dadresanfar, Bahare; Abbas, Fateme Mashhadi; Bashbaghi, Hamide; Miri, Shima Sadat; Ghorbani, Farshid

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The presence of calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) in the root canal interferes with the apical root canal sealing and may result in periapical lesions in the long run. The present study was aimed to compare the efficacy of two rotary systems of Race and Mtwo in the removal of Ca (OH)2 aqueous-based from distobuccal canals of human maxillary molars. Materials and Methods: A total of 44 distobuccal root canals of human maxillary molars were randomly distributed into two groups of 20 canals each and two control groups. Specimens in each group were instrumented with similar master apical rotary (MAR) and flexible files according to the manufacture's guidelines. The Ca (OH)2 paste was placed in canals using # 20 lentulo and radiographs were taken from the two dimensions. The roots were incubated for 1 week at 37°C and 100% humidity and Ca (OH)2 was removed from canals by MAR, afterward. Then, the roots were longitudinally split in halves by diamond disk and chisel without entering the root canals. Photos were taken from the canals’ walls by a stereomicroscope with × 10 magnification. Next, according to a defined scoring system, photos were scored by four endodontists, so that scores 1 and 2 (nonvisible remnants or scattered remnants of Ca(OH)2) were considered as acceptable and scores 3 and 4 (distinct mass or densely-packed mass of Ca(OH)2) were regarded as nonacceptable. Results: The obtained findings indicated that in coronal, middle, and apical portions of the root canal, 45, 60, and 65% of Mtwo specimens and 40, 50, and 55% of specimens prepared by the Race system acquired an acceptable score (1 and 2), respectively. Moreover, the results showed no significant difference between the two groups (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Both Mtwo and Race rotary systems with acceptable removal efficiency (score 1 and 2) were similarly able to remove Ca(OH)2 PMID:26069416

  7. Principle and experimental verification of novel dual driving face rotary ultrasonic motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xiaolong; Hu, Junhui; Yang, Lin; Zhao, Chunsheng

    2013-09-01

    Existing rotary ultrasonic motors operating in extreme environments cannot meet the requirements of good environmental adaptability and compact structure at same time, and existing ultrasonic motors with Langevin transducers show better environmental adaptability, but size of these motors are usually big due to the radial arrangement of the Langevin transducers. A novel dual driving face rotary ultrasonic motor is proposed, and its working principle is experimentally verified. The working principle of the novel ultrasonic motor is firstly proposed. The 5th in-plane flexural vibration travelling wave, excited by the Langevin transducers around the stator ring, is used to drive the rotors. Then the finite element method is used in the determination of dimensions of the prototype motor, and the confirmation of its working principle. After that, a laser Doppler vibrometer system is used for measuring the resonance frequency and vibration amplitude of the stator. At last, output characteristics of the prototype motor are measured, environmental adaptability is tested and performance for driving a metal ball is also investigated. At room temperature and 200 V(zero to peak) driving voltage, the motor’s no-load speed is 80 r/min, the stalling torque is 0.35 N·m and the maximum output power is 0.85 W. The response time of this motor is 0.96 ms at the room temperature, and it decreases or increases little in cold environment. A metal ball driven by the motor can rotate at 210 r/min with the driving voltage 300 V(zero to peak). Results indicate that the prototype motor has a large output torque and good environmental adaptability. A rotary ultrasonic motor owning compact structure and good environmental adaptability is proposed, and lays the foundations of ultrasonic motors’ applications in extreme environments.

  8. Physical aspects of the structure and function of helicases as rotary molecular motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikin, S. A.

    2009-11-01

    Helicases were shown to have common physical properties with rotary molecular motors, such as F 0 F 1-ATP synthase and type I restriction-modification (RM) enzymes. The necessary conditions for action of molecular motors are chirality, the presence of the C 2 (or lower) symmetry axis within rather large atomic groups, and polarization properties. The estimates were made for the material parameters of helicases, which translocate DNA due to moving chiral kinks without DNA cleavage and are characterized by higher viscosity, low mobility, and smaller chiral kinetic coefficients than type II RM enzymes. This paper discusses the efficiency of helicases with opposite polarities that drive DNA translocation in opposite directions.

  9. A slow neutron polarimeter for the measurement of parity-odd neutron rotary power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snow, W. M.; Anderson, E.; Barrón-Palos, L.; Bass, C. D.; Bass, T. D.; Crawford, B. E.; Crawford, C.; Dawkins, J. M.; Esposito, D.; Fry, J.; Gardiner, H.; Gan, K.; Haddock, C.; Heckel, B. R.; Holley, A. T.; Horton, J. C.; Huffer, C.; Lieffers, J.; Luo, D.; Maldonado-Velázquez, M.; Markoff, D. M.; Micherdzinska, A. M.; Mumm, H. P.; Nico, J. S.; Sarsour, M.; Santra, S.; Sharapov, E. I.; Swanson, H. E.; Walbridge, S. B.; Zhumabekova, V.

    2015-05-01

    We present the design, description, calibration procedure, and an analysis of systematic effects for an apparatus designed to measure the rotation of the plane of polarization of a transversely polarized slow neutron beam as it passes through unpolarized matter. This device is the neutron optical equivalent of a crossed polarizer/analyzer pair familiar from light optics. This apparatus has been used to search for parity violation in the interaction of polarized slow neutrons in matter. Given the brightness of existing slow neutron sources, this apparatus is capable of measuring a neutron rotary power of dϕ/dz = 1 × 10-7 rad/m.

  10. Computer program for prediction of the deposition of material released from fixed and rotary wing aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teske, M. E.

    1984-01-01

    This is a user manual for the computer code ""AGDISP'' (AGricultural DISPersal) which has been developed to predict the deposition of material released from fixed and rotary wing aircraft in a single-pass, computationally efficient manner. The formulation of the code is novel in that the mean particle trajectory and the variance about the mean resulting from turbulent fluid fluctuations are simultaneously predicted. The code presently includes the capability of assessing the influence of neutral atmospheric conditions, inviscid wake vortices, particle evaporation, plant canopy and terrain on the deposition pattern.

  11. Ice/berm interaction study using rotary sidescan sonar and acoustic profiling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Good, R.R.; Anderson, K.G.; Lanzier, H.H.

    1984-05-01

    Tarsiut Island, in the Canadian Beaufort Sea, was the first dredged caisson retained island built for exploration drilling operations in the Arctic offshore. Due to the island's configuration location, a large first-year ice rubble pile would result from the ice/structure interaction. This paper outlines how a rotary side-scan sonar and a mechanically scanning, narrow-beam acoustic profiling system were used to determine the geometry and the contact area of the underside of heavily rubbled first-year ice. The results of this study are to be used to further the understanding of the nature and mechanism of the ice/structure interaction in Arctic offshore structures.

  12. Design of a high-performance rotary stratified-charge research aircraft engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, C.; Mount, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    The power section for an advanced rotary stratified-charge general aviation engine has been designed under contract to NASA. The single-rotor research engine of 40 cubic-inches displacement (RCI-40), now being procured for test initiation this summer, is targeted for 320 T.O. horse-power in a two-rotor production engine. The research engine is designed for operating on jet-fuel, gasoline or diesel fuel and will be used to explore applicable advanced technologies and to optimize high output performance variables. Design of major components of the engine is described in this paper.

  13. A High-Precision Instrument for Mapping of Rotational Errors in Rotary Stages

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Xu, W.; Lauer, K.; Chu, Y.; Nazaretski, E.

    2014-11-02

    A rotational stage is a key component of every X-ray instrument capable of providing tomographic or diffraction measurements. To perform accurate three-dimensional reconstructions, runout errors due to imperfect rotation (e.g. circle of confusion) must be quantified and corrected. A dedicated instrument capable of full characterization and circle of confusion mapping in rotary stages down to the sub-10 nm level has been developed. A high-stability design, with an array of five capacitive sensors, allows simultaneous measurements of wobble, radial and axial displacements. The developed instrument has been used for characterization of two mechanical stages which are part of an X-ray microscope.

  14. Residual Stress Examination In Surface Layers Turned By Auto-Rotary Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struharňanský, Jozef; Stančeková, Dana; Martikáň, Anton; Varga, Daniel; Kuždál, Viktor; Rákoci, Jozef

    2015-12-01

    In this article, unconventional kinematics of turning is examined with the aim on influence of cutting parameters on surface layers residual stress. The auto-rotary cutting tool prototype for turning was developed, designed and constructed at the University of Zilina. The tool is made of high speed steel. Residual stress examination of material 100Cr6 was performed by non-destructive measuring method of X-ray diffraction. This method is able to determine normal and shear stress conditions without damaging the examined sample.

  15. Local entropy generation analysis of a rotary magnetic heat pump regenerator

    SciTech Connect

    Drost, M.K.; White, M.D.

    1990-04-01

    The rotary magnetic heat pump has attractive thermodynamic performance but it is strongly influenced by the effectiveness of the regenerator. This study uses local entropy generation analysis to evaluate the regenerator design and to suggest design improvements. The results show that performance of the proposed design is dominated by heat transfer related entropy generation. This suggests that enhancement concepts that improve heat transfer should be considered, even if the enhancement causes a significant increase in viscous losses (pressure drop). One enhancement technique, the use of flow disrupters, was evaluated and the results showed that flow disrupters can significantly reduce thermodynamic losses.

  16. Keep It Flexible: Driving Macromolecular Rotary Motions in Atomistic Simulations with GROMACS

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We describe a versatile method to enforce the rotation of subsets of atoms, e.g., a protein subunit, in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. In particular, we introduce a “flexible axis” technique that allows realistic flexible adaptions of both the rotary subunit as well as the local rotation axis during the simulation. A variety of useful rotation potentials were implemented for the GROMACS 4.5 MD package. Application to the molecular motor F1-ATP synthase demonstrates the advantages of the flexible axis approach over the established fixed axis rotation technique. PMID:21566696

  17. A slow neutron polarimeter for the measurement of parity-odd neutron rotary power

    SciTech Connect

    Snow, W. M.; Anderson, E.; Bass, T. D.; Dawkins, J. M.; Fry, J.; Haddock, C.; Horton, J. C.; Luo, D.; Micherdzinska, A. M.; Walbridge, S. B.; Barrón-Palos, L.; Maldonado-Velázquez, M.; Bass, C. D.; Crawford, B. E.; Crawford, C.; Esposito, D.; Gardiner, H.; Gan, K.; Heckel, B. R.; Swanson, H. E. [University of Washington and others

    2015-05-15

    We present the design, description, calibration procedure, and an analysis of systematic effects for an apparatus designed to measure the rotation of the plane of polarization of a transversely polarized slow neutron beam as it passes through unpolarized matter. This device is the neutron optical equivalent of a crossed polarizer/analyzer pair familiar from light optics. This apparatus has been used to search for parity violation in the interaction of polarized slow neutrons in matter. Given the brightness of existing slow neutron sources, this apparatus is capable of measuring a neutron rotary power of dϕ/dz = 1 × 10{sup −7} rad/m.

  18. A slow neutron polarimeter for the measurement of parity-odd neutron rotary power.

    PubMed

    Snow, W M; Anderson, E; Barrón-Palos, L; Bass, C D; Bass, T D; Crawford, B E; Crawford, C; Dawkins, J M; Esposito, D; Fry, J; Gardiner, H; Gan, K; Haddock, C; Heckel, B R; Holley, A T; Horton, J C; Huffer, C; Lieffers, J; Luo, D; Maldonado-Velázquez, M; Markoff, D M; Micherdzinska, A M; Mumm, H P; Nico, J S; Sarsour, M; Santra, S; Sharapov, E I; Swanson, H E; Walbridge, S B; Zhumabekova, V

    2015-05-01

    We present the design, description, calibration procedure, and an analysis of systematic effects for an apparatus designed to measure the rotation of the plane of polarization of a transversely polarized slow neutron beam as it passes through unpolarized matter. This device is the neutron optical equivalent of a crossed polarizer/analyzer pair familiar from light optics. This apparatus has been used to search for parity violation in the interaction of polarized slow neutrons in matter. Given the brightness of existing slow neutron sources, this apparatus is capable of measuring a neutron rotary power of dϕ/dz = 1 × 10(-7) rad/m. PMID:26026552

  19. A BAPTA employing rotary transformers, stepper motors and ceramic ball bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auer, W.

    1981-01-01

    The utilization of rotary transformers as an alternative to slip rings for the power transfer from solar panels to a satellite's main body could be advantageous, especially if an ac bus system is taken into consideration. Different approaches with main emphasis on the electromagnetic design were investigated and showed efficiencies of up to 99% with a 3 kW power capability. A solidly preloaded pair of ball bearings with ceramic balls assures proper transformer air gaps and acceptable torque changes over temperature and temperature gradients. The bearing and power transfer assembly is driven by a direct drive stepper motor with inherent redundancy properties and needs no caging mechanism.

  20. Modeling of heat transfer in a rotary kiln thermal desorder for removal of petroleum from soils

    SciTech Connect

    Chern, Hsien-Tsung; Krasnoperov, L.V.; Bozzelli, J.W.

    1996-10-01

    A continuous feed rotary kiln thermal desorber was designed and constructed to study the heat transfer in removal of petroleum hydrocarbons from contaminated soils. A mathematical model of heat transfer that correlates temperatures of gas, soil, and kiln wall will purge gas flow, soil feed rate, kiln rotation speed and soil residence time in the kiln desorber is developed. A fourth order Runge-Kutta method was used to numerically integrate the heat transfer process along the kiln length and to calculate the temperature profiles. Comparison of predicted and measured gas and soil temperature profile is presented.