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Sample records for 250-ghz electron spin

  1. 250-GHz electron spin resonance studies of polarity gradients along the aliphatic chains in phospholipid membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Earle, K. A.; Moscicki, J. K.; Ge, M.; Budil, D. E.; Freed, J. H.

    1994-01-01

    Rigid-limit 250-GHz electron spin resonance (FIR-ESR) spectra have been studied for a series of phosphatidylcholine spin labels (n-PC, where n = 5, 7, 10, 12, 16) in pure lipid dispersions of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoylphosphatidylcholine (POPC), as well as dispersions of DPPC containing the peptide gramicidin A (GA) in a 1:1 molar ratio. The enhanced g-tensor resolution of 250-GHz ESR for these spin labels permitted a careful study of the nitroxide g-tensor as a function of spin probe location and membrane composition. In particular, as the spin label is displaced from the polar head group, Azz decreases and gxx increases as they assume values typical of a nonpolar environment, appropriate for the hydrophobic alkyl chains in the case of pure lipid dispersions. The field shifts of spectral features due to changes in gxx are an order of magnitude larger than those from changes in Azz. The magnetic tensor parameters measured in the presence of GA were characteristic of a polar environment and showed only a very weak dependence of Azz and gxx on label position. These results demonstrate the significant influence of GA on the local polarity along the lipid molecule, and may reflect increased penetration of water into the alkyl chain region of the lipid in the presence of GA. The spectra from the pure lipid dispersions also exhibit a broad background signal that is most significant for 7-, 10-, and 12-PC, and is more pronounced in DPPC than in POPC. It is attributed to spin probe aggregation yielding spin exchange narrowing. The addition of GA to DPPC essentially suppressed the broad background signal observed in pure DPPC dispersions. PMID:7518705

  2. Pierce-Wiggler electron beam system for 250 GHz GYRO-BWO: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pirkle, D.R.; Alford, C.W.; Anderson, M.H.; Garcia, R.F.; Legarra, J.R.; Nordquist, A.L.

    1989-01-01

    This final report summarizes the design and performance of the VUW-8028 Pierce-Wiggler electron beam systems, which can be used to power high frequency gyro-BWO's. The operator's manual for this gyro-BWO beamstick is included as appendix A. Researchers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) are developing a gyro-BWO with a center frequency of 250 GHz, 6% bandwidth, and 10 kV peak output power. The gyro-BWO will be used to drive a free electron laser amplifier at LLNL. The electron beam requirements of the gyro-BWO application are: Small beam size, .100 inch at 2500 gauss axial magnetic field; a large fraction of the electron energy in rotational velocity; ability to vary the electrons' axial velocity easily, for electronic tuning; and low velocity spread i.e. little variation in the axial velocities of the electrons in the interaction region. 1 ref., 13 figs.

  3. Dynamic nuclear polarization at 9T using a novel 250GHz gyrotron microwave source.

    PubMed

    Bajaj, V S; Farrar, C T; Hornstein, M K; Mastovsky, I; Vieregg, J; Bryant, J; Eléna, B; Kreischer, K E; Temkin, R J; Griffin, R G

    2003-02-01

    In this communication, we report enhancements of nuclear spin polarization by dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) in static and spinning solids at a magnetic field strength of 9T (250 GHz for g=2 electrons, 380 MHz for 1H). In these experiments, 1H enhancements of up to 170+/-50 have been observed in 1-13C-glycine dispersed in a 60:40 glycerol/water matrix at temperatures of 20K; in addition, we have observed significant enhancements in 15N spectra of unoriented pf1-bacteriophage. Finally, enhancements of approximately 17 have been obtained in two-dimensional 13C-13C chemical shift correlation spectra of the amino acid U-13C, 15N-proline during magic angle spinning (MAS), demonstrating the stability of the DNP experiment for sustained acquisition and for quantitative experiments incorporating dipolar recoupling. In all cases, we have exploited the thermal mixing DNP mechanism with the nitroxide radical 4-amino-TEMPO as the paramagnetic dopant. These are the highest frequency DNP experiments performed to date and indicate that significant signal enhancements can be realized using the thermal mixing mechanism even at elevated magnetic fields. In large measure, this is due to the high microwave power output of the 250 GHz gyrotron oscillator used in these experiments. PMID:12615147

  4. Dynamic nuclear polarization at 9T using a novel 250GHz gyrotron microwave source

    PubMed Central

    Bajaj, V.S.; Farrar, C.T.; Hornstein, M.K.; Mastovsky, I.; Vieregg, J.; Bryant, J.; Eléna, B.; Kreischer, K.E.; Temkin, R.J.; Griffin, R.G.

    2010-01-01

    In this communication, we report enhancements of nuclear spin polarization by dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) in static and spinning solids at a magnetic field strength of 9T (250 GHz for g = 2 electrons, 380 MHz for 1H). In these experiments, 1H enhancements of up to 170 ± 50 have been observed in 1-13C-glycine dispersed in a 60:40 glycerol/water matrix at temperatures of 20 K; in addition, we have observed significant enhancements in 15N spectra of unoriented pf1-bacteriophage. Finally, enhancements of ~17 have been obtained in two-dimensional 13C–13C chemical shift correlation spectra of the amino acid U-13C, 15N-proline during magic angle spinning (MAS), demonstrating the stability of the DNP experiment for sustained acquisition and for quantitative experiments incorporating dipolar recoupling. In all cases, we have exploited the thermal mixing DNP mechanism with the nitroxide radical 4-amino-TEMPO as the paramagnetic dopant. These are the highest frequency DNP experiments performed to date and indicate that significant signal enhancements can be realized using the thermal mixing mechanism even at elevated magnetic fields. In large measure, this is due to the high microwave power output of the 250 GHz gyrotron oscillator used in these experiments. PMID:12615147

  5. A 250-GHz CARM (Cyclotron Auto Resonance Maser) oscillator experiment driven by an induction linac

    SciTech Connect

    Caplan, M.; Kulke, B.; Bubp, D.G. ); McDermott, D.; Luhmann, N. )

    1990-09-14

    A 250-GHz Cyclotron Auto Resonance Maser (CARM) oscillator has been designed and constructed and will be tested using a 1-kA, 2-MeV electron beam produced by the induction linac at the Accelerator Research Center (ARC) facility of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The oscillator circuit was made to operate in the TE{sub 11} mode at ten times cutoff using waveguide Bragg reflectors to create an external cavity Q of 8000. Theory predicts cavity fill times of less than 30 ns (pulse length) and efficiencies approaching 20% is sufficiently low transverse electron velocity spreads are maintained (2%).

  6. 250 GHz CW Gyrotron Oscillator for Dynamic Nuclear Polarization in Biological Solid State NMR

    PubMed Central

    Bajaj, Vikram S.; Hornstein, Melissa K.; Kreischer, Kenneth E.; Sirigiri, Jagadishwar R.; Woskov, Paul P.; Mak-Jurkauskas, Melody L.; Herzfeld, Judith; Temkin, Richard J.; Griffin, Robert G.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a 250 GHz gyrotron oscillator, a critical component of an integrated system for magic angle spinning (MAS) dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) experiments at 9T, corresponding to 380 MHz 1H frequency. The 250 GHz gyrotron is the first gyro-device designed with the goal of seamless integration with an NMR spectrometer for routine DNP-enhanced NMR spectroscopy and has operated under computer control for periods of up to 21 days with a 100% duty cycle. Following a brief historical review of the field, we present studies of the membrane protein bacteriorhodopsin (bR) using DNP-enhanced multidimensional NMR. These results include assignment of active site resonances in [U-13C,15N]-bR and demonstrate the utility of DNP for studies of membrane proteins. Next, we review the theory of gyro-devices from quantum mechanical and classical viewpoints and discuss the unique considerations that apply to gyrotron oscillators designed for DNP experiments. We then characterize the operation of the 250 GHz gyrotron in detail, including its long-term stability and controllability. We have measured the spectral purity of the gyrotron emission using both homodyne and heterodyne techniques. Radiation intensity patterns from the corrugated waveguide that delivers power to the NMR probe were measured using two new techniques to confirm pure mode content: a thermometric approach based on the temperature-dependent color of liquid crystalline media applied to a substrate and imaging with a pyroelectric camera. We next present a detailed study of the mode excitation characteristics of the gyrotron. Exploration of the operating characteristics of several fundamental modes reveals broadband continuous frequency tuning of up to 1.8 GHz as a function of the magnetic field alone, a feature that may be exploited in future tunable gyrotron designs. Oscillation of the 250 GHz gyrotron at the second harmonic of cyclotron resonance begins at extremely low beam currents (as low

  7. 250 GHz CW gyrotron oscillator for dynamic nuclear polarization in biological solid state NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajaj, Vikram S.; Hornstein, Melissa K.; Kreischer, Kenneth E.; Sirigiri, Jagadishwar R.; Woskov, Paul P.; Mak-Jurkauskas, Melody L.; Herzfeld, Judith; Temkin, Richard J.; Griffin, Robert G.

    2007-12-01

    In this paper, we describe a 250 GHz gyrotron oscillator, a critical component of an integrated system for magic angle spinning (MAS) dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) experiments at 9 T, corresponding to 380 MHz 1H frequency. The 250 GHz gyrotron is the first gyro-device designed with the goal of seamless integration with an NMR spectrometer for routine DNP enhanced NMR spectroscopy and has operated under computer control for periods of up to 21 days with a 100% duty cycle. Following a brief historical review of the field, we present studies of the membrane protein bacteriorhodopsin (bR) using DNP enhanced multidimensional NMR. These results include assignment of active site resonances in [U- 13C, 15N]-bR and demonstrate the utility of DNP for studies of membrane proteins. Next, we review the theory of gyro-devices from quantum mechanical and classical viewpoints and discuss the unique considerations that apply to gyrotron oscillators designed for DNP experiments. We then characterize the operation of the 250 GHz gyrotron in detail, including its long-term stability and controllability. We have measured the spectral purity of the gyrotron emission using both homodyne and heterodyne techniques. Radiation intensity patterns from the corrugated waveguide that delivers power to the NMR probe were measured using two new techniques to confirm pure mode content: a thermometric approach based on the temperature-dependent color of liquid crystalline media applied to a substrate and imaging with a pyroelectric camera. We next present a detailed study of the mode excitation characteristics of the gyrotron. Exploration of the operating characteristics of several fundamental modes reveals broadband continuous frequency tuning of up to 1.8 GHz as a function of the magnetic field alone, a feature that may be exploited in future tunable gyrotron designs. Oscillation of the 250 GHz gyrotron at the second harmonic of cyclotron resonance begins at extremely low beam currents (as

  8. 250GHz CW gyrotron oscillator for dynamic nuclear polarization in biological solid state NMR.

    PubMed

    Bajaj, Vikram S; Hornstein, Melissa K; Kreischer, Kenneth E; Sirigiri, Jagadishwar R; Woskov, Paul P; Mak-Jurkauskas, Melody L; Herzfeld, Judith; Temkin, Richard J; Griffin, Robert G

    2007-12-01

    In this paper, we describe a 250 GHz gyrotron oscillator, a critical component of an integrated system for magic angle spinning (MAS) dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) experiments at 9T, corresponding to 380 MHz (1)H frequency. The 250 GHz gyrotron is the first gyro-device designed with the goal of seamless integration with an NMR spectrometer for routine DNP enhanced NMR spectroscopy and has operated under computer control for periods of up to 21 days with a 100% duty cycle. Following a brief historical review of the field, we present studies of the membrane protein bacteriorhodopsin (bR) using DNP enhanced multidimensional NMR. These results include assignment of active site resonances in [U-(13)C, (15)N]-bR and demonstrate the utility of DNP for studies of membrane proteins. Next, we review the theory of gyro-devices from quantum mechanical and classical viewpoints and discuss the unique considerations that apply to gyrotron oscillators designed for DNP experiments. We then characterize the operation of the 250 GHz gyrotron in detail, including its long-term stability and controllability. We have measured the spectral purity of the gyrotron emission using both homodyne and heterodyne techniques. Radiation intensity patterns from the corrugated waveguide that delivers power to the NMR probe were measured using two new techniques to confirm pure mode content: a thermometric approach based on the temperature-dependent color of liquid crystalline media applied to a substrate and imaging with a pyroelectric camera. We next present a detailed study of the mode excitation characteristics of the gyrotron. Exploration of the operating characteristics of several fundamental modes reveals broadband continuous frequency tuning of up to 1.8 GHz as a function of the magnetic field alone, a feature that may be exploited in future tunable gyrotron designs. Oscillation of the 250 GHz gyrotron at the second harmonic of cyclotron resonance begins at extremely low beam currents

  9. Design of an induction linac driven CARM (Cyclotron Auto Resonance Maser) oscillator at 250 GHz

    SciTech Connect

    Caplan, M.; Kulke, B.

    1990-01-24

    We present the design of a 250 GHz, 400 MW Cyclotron Auto Resonance Maser (CARM) oscillator driven by a 1 KA, 2 MeV electron beam produced by the induction linac at the ARC facility of LLNL. The oscillator circuit is designed as a feedback amplifier operating in the TE{sub 11} mode at ten times cutoff terminated at each end with Bragg reflectors. Theory and cold test results are in good agreement for a manufactured Bragg reflector using 50 {mu}m corrugations to ensure mode purity. The CARM is to be operational by February 1990. 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. A 250 GHz Photonic Band Gap Gyrotron Amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanni, Emilio A.; Lewis, Samantha M.; Shapiro, Michael A.; Temkin, Richard J.

    2012-10-01

    Initial results for a high power 250 GHz gyrotron traveling wave tube (gyro-TWT) amplifier will be presented. The amplifier uses a novel photonic band gap (PBG) interaction circuit that confines the TE03-like mode for operation. Stability from oscillations in lower order modes is provided by the PBG circuit. At 26.6 kV and 0.25 A the gyro-TWT operates with peak small signal gain of 27.3 dB at 251 GHz. The instantaneous -3 dB bandwidth of the amplifier at peak gain is 0.4 GHz. The amplifier can be tuned for operation from 245-254 GHz. A peak output power of 7.5 W has been measured. Experimental results taken over a wide range of parameters, 15-30 kV and 0.25-0.5 A, show good agreement with a theoretical model in the small signal gain regime. The theoretical model incorporates cold test measurements for the transmission line, input coupler, PBG waveguide and mode converter.

  11. Ultrastrong light-matter-coupling at 250 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maissen, Curdin; Scalari, Giacomo; Beck, Mattias; Faist, Jérôme; Reichl, Christian; Wegscheider, Werner

    2016-03-01

    The Ultrastrong light-matter coupling regime is attained when the coupling rate Ω is comparable or larger than the resonance frequency of the light ωLC and electronic transition frequency of the matter part ωc. This regime has attained much attention due to the peculiar properties of the coupled state. Here, we present a physical system showing a high normalized coupling rate not far from unity. The LC-mode of a THz-metasurface unitcell at ωLC = 2π x 0:25 THz is coupled to the collective cyclotron transition of 4 two dimensional electron gases (2DEGs) resulting in a normalized coupling rate of Ω/ωc = 0:9, Ω being the vacuum Rabi frequency. The high coupling rate is enabled by the small mode volume provided by the LC-mode of the split ring resonator geometry which was employed. Equally important is the large collective transition dipole element of the cyclotron transition.

  12. PREFACE: Spin Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dieny, B.; Sousa, R.; Prejbeanu, L.

    2007-04-01

    Conventional electronics has in the past ignored the spin on the electron, however things began to change in 1988 with the discovery of giant magnetoresistance in metallic thin film stacks which led to the development of a new research area, so called spin-electronics. In the last 10 years, spin-electronics has achieved a number of breakthroughs from the point of view of both basic science and application. Materials research has led to several major discoveries: very large tunnel magnetoresistance effects in tunnel junctions with crystalline barriers due to a new spin-filtering mechanism associated with the spin-dependent symmetry of the electron wave functions new magnetic tunnelling barriers leading to spin-dependent tunnelling barrier heights and acting as spin-filters magnetic semiconductors with increasingly high ordering temperature. New phenomena have been predicted and observed: the possibility of acting on the magnetization of a magnetic nanostructure with a spin-polarized current. This effect, due to a transfer of angular momentum between the spin polarized conduction electrons and the local magnetization, can be viewed as the reciprocal of giant or tunnel magnetoresistance. It can be used to switch the magnetization of a magnetic nanostructure or to generate steady magnetic excitations in the system. the possibility of generating and manipulating spin current without charge current by creating non-equilibrium local accumulation of spin up or spin down electrons. The range of applications of spin electronics materials and phenomena is expanding: the first devices based on giant magnetoresistance were the magnetoresistive read-heads for computer disk drives. These heads, introduced in 1998 with current-in plane spin-valves, have evolved towards low resistance tunnel magnetoresistice heads in 2005. Besides magnetic recording technology, these very sensitive magnetoresistive sensors are finding applications in other areas, in particular in biology. magnetic

  13. First demonstration of a vehicle mounted 250GHz real time passive imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Chris

    2009-05-01

    This paper describes the design and performance of a ruggedized passive Terahertz imager, the frequency of operation is a 40GHz band centred around 250GHz. This system has been specifically targeted at vehicle mounted operation, outdoors in extreme environments. The unit incorporates temperature stabilization along with an anti-vibration chassis and is sealed to allow it to be used in a dusty environment. Within the system, a 250GHz heterodyne detector array is mated with optics and scanner to allow real time imaging out to 100 meters. First applications are envisaged to be stand-off, person borne IED detection to 30 meters but the unique properties in this frequency band present other potential uses such as seeing through smoke and fog. The possibility for use as a landing aid is discussed. A detailed description of the system design and video examples of typical imaging output will be presented.

  14. Continuously Tunable 250 GHz Gyrotron with a Double Disk Window for DNP-NMR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Jawla, Sudheer; Ni, Qing Zhe; Barnes, Alexander; Guss, William; Daviso, Eugenio; Herzfeld, Judith; Griffin, Robert; Temkin, Richard

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the design and experimental results from the rebuild of a 250 GHz gyrotron used for Dynamic Nuclear Polarization enhanced Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy on a 380 MHz spectrometer. Tuning bandwidth of approximately 2 GHz is easily achieved at a fixed magnetic field of 9.24 T and a beam current of 95 mA producing an average output power of >10 W over the entire tuning band. This tube incorporates a double disk output sapphire window in order to maximize the transmission at 250.58 GHz. DNP Signal enhancement of >125 is achieved on a 13C-Urea sample using this gyrotron. PMID:23539422

  15. Continuously Tunable 250 GHz Gyrotron with a Double Disk Window for DNP-NMR Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jawla, Sudheer; Ni, Qing Zhe; Barnes, Alexander; Guss, William; Daviso, Eugenio; Herzfeld, Judith; Griffin, Robert; Temkin, Richard

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the design and experimental results from the rebuild of a 250 GHz gyrotron used for Dynamic Nuclear Polarization enhanced Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy on a 380 MHz spectrometer. Tuning bandwidth of approximately 2 GHz is easily achieved at a fixed magnetic field of 9.24 T and a beam current of 95 mA producing an average output power of >10 W over the entire tuning band. This tube incorporates a double disk output sapphire window in order to maximize the transmission at 250.58 GHz. DNP Signal enhancement of >125 is achieved on a 13C-Urea sample using this gyrotron.

  16. Continuously Tunable 250 GHz Gyrotron with a Double Disk Window for DNP-NMR Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Jawla, Sudheer; Ni, Qing Zhe; Barnes, Alexander; Guss, William; Daviso, Eugenio; Herzfeld, Judith; Griffin, Robert; Temkin, Richard

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the design and experimental results from the rebuild of a 250 GHz gyrotron used for Dynamic Nuclear Polarization enhanced Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy on a 380 MHz spectrometer. Tuning bandwidth of approximately 2 GHz is easily achieved at a fixed magnetic field of 9.24 T and a beam current of 95 mA producing an average output power of >10 W over the entire tuning band. This tube incorporates a double disk output sapphire window in order to maximize the transmission at 250.58 GHz. DNP Signal enhancement of >125 is achieved on a (13)C-Urea sample using this gyrotron. PMID:23539422

  17. Functional and shunt states of bacteriorhodopsin resolved by 250 GHz dynamic nuclear polarization–enhanced solid-state NMR

    PubMed Central

    Bajaj, Vikram S.; Mak-Jurkauskas, Melody L.; Belenky, Marina; Herzfeld, Judith; Griffin, Robert G.

    2009-01-01

    Observation and structural studies of reaction intermediates of proteins are challenging because of the mixtures of states usually present at low concentrations. Here, we use a 250 GHz gyrotron (cyclotron resonance maser) and cryogenic temperatures to perform high-frequency dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) NMR experiments that enhance sensitivity in magic-angle spinning NMR spectra of cryo-trapped photocycle intermediates of bacteriorhodopsin (bR) by a factor of ≈90. Multidimensional spectroscopy of U-13C,15N-labeled samples resolved coexisting states and allowed chemical shift assignments in the retinylidene chromophore for several intermediates not observed previously. The correlation spectra reveal unexpected heterogeneity in dark-adapted bR, distortion in the K state, and, most importantly, 4 discrete L substates. Thermal relaxation of the mixture of L's showed that 3 of these substates revert to bR568 and that only the 1 substate with both the strongest counterion and a fully relaxed 13-cis bond is functional. These definitive observations of functional and shunt states in the bR photocycle provide a preview of the mechanistic insights that will be accessible in membrane proteins via sensitivity-enhanced DNP NMR. These observations would have not been possible absent the signal enhancement available from DNP. PMID:19474298

  18. Functional and shunt states of bacteriorhodopsin resolved by 250 GHz dynamic nuclear polarization-enhanced solid-state NMR.

    PubMed

    Bajaj, Vikram S; Mak-Jurkauskas, Melody L; Belenky, Marina; Herzfeld, Judith; Griffin, Robert G

    2009-06-01

    Observation and structural studies of reaction intermediates of proteins are challenging because of the mixtures of states usually present at low concentrations. Here, we use a 250 GHz gyrotron (cyclotron resonance maser) and cryogenic temperatures to perform high-frequency dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) NMR experiments that enhance sensitivity in magic-angle spinning NMR spectra of cryo-trapped photocycle intermediates of bacteriorhodopsin (bR) by a factor of approximately 90. Multidimensional spectroscopy of U-(13)C,(15)N-labeled samples resolved coexisting states and allowed chemical shift assignments in the retinylidene chromophore for several intermediates not observed previously. The correlation spectra reveal unexpected heterogeneity in dark-adapted bR, distortion in the K state, and, most importantly, 4 discrete L substates. Thermal relaxation of the mixture of L's showed that 3 of these substates revert to bR(568) and that only the 1 substate with both the strongest counterion and a fully relaxed 13-cis bond is functional. These definitive observations of functional and shunt states in the bR photocycle provide a preview of the mechanistic insights that will be accessible in membrane proteins via sensitivity-enhanced DNP NMR. These observations would have not been possible absent the signal enhancement available from DNP. PMID:19474298

  19. A 250 GHz gyrotron with a 3 GHz tuning bandwidth for dynamic nuclear polarization.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Alexander B; Nanni, Emilio A; Herzfeld, Judith; Griffin, Robert G; Temkin, Richard J

    2012-08-01

    We describe the design and implementation of a novel tunable 250 GHz gyrotron oscillator with >10 W output power over most of a 3 GHz band and >35 W peak power. The tuning bandwidth and power are sufficient to generate a >1 MHz nutation frequency across the entire nitroxide EPR lineshape for cross effect DNP, as well as to excite solid effect transitions utilizing other radicals, without the need for sweeping the NMR magnetic field. Substantially improved tunability is achieved by implementing a long (23 mm) interaction cavity that can excite higher order axial modes by changing either the magnetic field of the gyrotron or the cathode potential. This interaction cavity excites the rotating TE(₅,₂,q) mode, and an internal mode converter outputs a high-quality microwave beam with >94% Gaussian content. The gyrotron was integrated into a DNP spectrometer, resulting in a measured DNP enhancement of 54 on the membrane protein bacteriorhodopsin. PMID:22743211

  20. A 250 GHz gyrotron with a 3 GHz tuning bandwidth for dynamic nuclear polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Alexander B.; Nanni, Emilio A.; Herzfeld, Judith; Griffin, Robert G.; Temkin, Richard J.

    2012-08-01

    We describe the design and implementation of a novel tunable 250 GHz gyrotron oscillator with >10 W output power over most of a 3 GHz band and >35 W peak power. The tuning bandwidth and power are sufficient to generate a >1 MHz nutation frequency across the entire nitroxide EPR lineshape for cross effect DNP, as well as to excite solid effect transitions utilizing other radicals, without the need for sweeping the NMR magnetic field. Substantially improved tunability is achieved by implementing a long (23 mm) interaction cavity that can excite higher order axial modes by changing either the magnetic field of the gyrotron or the cathode potential. This interaction cavity excites the rotating TE5,2,q mode, and an internal mode converter outputs a high-quality microwave beam with >94% Gaussian content. The gyrotron was integrated into a DNP spectrometer, resulting in a measured DNP enhancement of 54 on the membrane protein bacteriorhodopsin.

  1. A 250 GHz Gyrotron with a 3 GHz Tuning Bandwidth for Dynamic Nuclear Polarization

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Alexander B.; Nanni, Emilio A.; Herzfeld, Judith; Griffin, Robert G.; Temkin, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    We describe the design and implementation of a novel tunable 250 GHz gyrotron oscillator with >10 W output power over most of a 3 GHz band and >35 W peak power. The tuning bandwidth and power are sufficient to generate a >1 MHz nutation frequency across the entire nitroxide EPR lineshape for cross effect DNP, as well as to excite solid effect transitions utilizing other radicals, without the need for sweeping the NMR magnetic field. Substantially improved tunability is achieved by implementing a long (23 mm) interaction cavity that can excite higher order axial modes by changing either the magnetic field of the gyrotron or the cathode potential. This interaction cavity excites the rotating TE5,2,q mode, and an internal mode converter outputs a high-quality microwave beam with >94% Gaussian content. The gyrotron was integrated into a DNP spectrometer, resulting in a measured DNP enhancement of 54 on the membrane protein bacteriorhodopsin. PMID:22743211

  2. Electron Spin and Its History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Commins, Eugene D.

    2012-11-01

    The history of electron spin is summarized. Topics include the discovery of electron spin, the birth of quantum electrodynamics, the invention of magnetic resonance, the invention of renormalization, the anomalous magnetic moment of the electron in experiment and theory, and searches for the electron electric dipole moment.

  3. Corrugated Waveguide and Directional Coupler for CW 250-GHz Gyrotron DNP Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Woskov, Paul P.; Bajaj, Vikram S.; Hornstein, Melissa K.; Temkin, Richard J.; Griffin, Robert G.

    2007-01-01

    A 250-GHz corrugated transmission line with a directional coupler for forward and backward power monitoring has been constructed and tested for use with a 25-W continuous-wave gyrotron for dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) experiments. The main corrugated line (22-mm internal diameter, 2.4-m long) connects the gyrotron output to the DNP probe input. The directional coupler, inserted approximately midway, is a four-port crossed waveguide beamsplitter design. Two beamsplitters, a quartz plate and ten-wire array, were tested with output coupling of 2.5% (−16 dB) at 250.6 GHz and 1.6% (−18 dB), respectively. A pair of mirrors in the DNP probe transferred the gyrotron beam from the 22-mm waveguide to an 8-mm helically corrugated waveguide for transmission through the final 0.58-m distance inside the NMR magnet to the sample. The transmission-line components were all cold tested with a 248 ± 4-GHz radiometer. A total insertion loss of 0.8 dB was achieved for HE11 -mode propagation from the gyrotron to the sample with only 1% insertion loss for the 22-mm-diameter waveguide. A clean Gaussian gyrotron beam at the waveguide output and reliable forward power monitoring were achieved for many hours of continuous operation. PMID:17901907

  4. Corrugated Waveguide and Directional Coupler for CW 250-GHz Gyrotron DNP Experiments.

    PubMed

    Woskov, Paul P; Bajaj, Vikram S; Hornstein, Melissa K; Temkin, Richard J; Griffin, Robert G

    2005-06-01

    A 250-GHz corrugated transmission line with a directional coupler for forward and backward power monitoring has been constructed and tested for use with a 25-W continuous-wave gyrotron for dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) experiments. The main corrugated line (22-mm internal diameter, 2.4-m long) connects the gyrotron output to the DNP probe input. The directional coupler, inserted approximately midway, is a four-port crossed waveguide beamsplitter design. Two beamsplitters, a quartz plate and ten-wire array, were tested with output coupling of 2.5% (-16 dB) at 250.6 GHz and 1.6% (-18 dB), respectively. A pair of mirrors in the DNP probe transferred the gyrotron beam from the 22-mm waveguide to an 8-mm helically corrugated waveguide for transmission through the final 0.58-m distance inside the NMR magnet to the sample. The transmission-line components were all cold tested with a 248 ± 4-GHz radiometer. A total insertion loss of 0.8 dB was achieved for HE(11) -mode propagation from the gyrotron to the sample with only 1% insertion loss for the 22-mm-diameter waveguide. A clean Gaussian gyrotron beam at the waveguide output and reliable forward power monitoring were achieved for many hours of continuous operation. PMID:17901907

  5. Electron spin decoherence in nuclear spin baths and dynamical decoupling

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, N.; Yang, W.; Ho, S. W.; Hu, J. L.; Wan, J. T. K.; Liu, R. B.

    2011-12-23

    We introduce the quantum theory of the electron spin decoherence in a nuclear spin bath and the dynamical decoupling approach for protecting the electron spin coherence. These theories are applied to various solid-state systems, such as radical spins in molecular crystals and NV centers in diamond.

  6. Electron spin decoherence in silicon carbide nuclear spin bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Li-Ping

    In this paper, we study the electron spin decoherence of single defects in silicon carbide (SiC) nuclear spin bath. We find that, although the natural abundance of 29Si (4.7 counter-intuitive result, is the suppression of heteronuclear-spin flip-flop process in finite magnetic field. Our results show that electron spin of defect centers in SiC are excellent candidates for solid state spin qubit in quantum information processing.

  7. Designing electron spin textures and spin interferometers by shape deformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Zu-Jian; Gentile, Paola; Ortix, Carmine; Cuoco, Mario

    2016-08-01

    We demonstrate that the spin orientation of an electron propagating in a one-dimensional nanostructure with Rashba spin-orbit (SO) coupling can be manipulated on demand by changing the geometry of the nanosystem. Shape deformations that result in a nonuniform curvature give rise to complex three-dimensional spin textures in space. We employ the paradigmatic example of an elliptically deformed quantum ring to unveil the way to get an all-geometrical and all-electrical control of the spin orientation. The resulting spin textures exhibit a tunable topological character with windings around the radial and the out-of-plane directions. We show that these topologically nontrivial spin patterns affect the spin interference effect in the deformed ring, thereby resulting in different geometry-driven ballistic electronic transport behaviors. Our results establish a deep connection between electronic spin textures, spin transport, and the nanoscale shape of the system.

  8. Highly efficient spin filtering of ballistic electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinmuller, S. J.; Trypiniotis, T.; Cho, W. S.; Hirohata, A.; Lew, W. S.; Vaz, C. A.; Bland, J. A.

    2004-04-01

    Spin dependent electron transport in hybrid Au/Co/Cu/NiFe/n-GaAs spin valve Schottky barrier structures was investigated using photoexcitation at various wavelengths. For excitation with the photon energy well above the Schottky barrier height we found a ˜2400% increase in helicity dependent photocurrent on switching the spin valve from parallel to antiparallel alignment. Our observations provide clear evidence for highly efficient spin filtering of spin polarized ballistic electrons.

  9. Spin Electronics in Metallic Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birk, Felipe Tijiwa

    2011-12-01

    The work described in this thesis reflects a through investigation of spin-dependent transport through metallic nanoparticles, via tunnel junctions. Our devices consist of metallic nanoparticles embedded in an insulating matrix tunnel coupled to two metallic electrodes. At low temperatures, the small dimensions of the particles provide the necessary conditions to study the role played by discrete energy levels in the transport properties of these devices. In Chapter 1, a brief introduction to some of the relevant background topics related to this work, will be presented. Chapter 2 gives a detailed description of measurement procedures used on the experiments, and the adopted techniques for sample fabrication. In some of the devices presented here, the electrodes are made of ferromagnetic materials, which are used as source of spin-polarized current. The case where both electrodes are ferromagnetic, in a spin-valve configuration, will be discussed in Chapter 3, showing that spin accumulation mechanisms are responsible for the observed spin-polarized current. It will also be shown that the effect of an applied perpendicular magnetic field, relative to the magnetization orientation of the electrodes, indicates the suppression of spin precession in such small particles. Moreover, in the presence of an external non-collinear magnetic field, it is the local field "felt" by the particle that determines the character of the tunnel current. Even in samples where only one of the electrodes is ferromagnetic, spin-polarization of the tunnel current due to spin accumulation in the particle is observed. Asymmetries in the current-voltage (IV) characteristics as well as in the tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) of these devices will be presented in Chapter 4. Another type of device, which will be addressed in Chapter 5, consists of ferromagnetic nanoparticles coupled to normal-metal electrodes. The rich electronic structure as well as a complex set of relaxation mechanisms in these

  10. Electron spin from self interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Spavieri, G. |

    1992-06-01

    The author explores the possibility that the electron self-interaction is the origin of the spin and of the radiative effects of QED. The electron is conceived as a charged, massless, point particle with a quantum or stochastic, internal motion about its center of mass and bound by a self-interaction potential. The hydrodynamic equations of motion describing the electron in its center of mass frame are related to non-Markovian stochastic equations recently used to derive the Schroedinger equation. By averaging over this stochastic internal motion and identifying the energy with the rest mass energy, the angular momentum exhibits properties characteristic of spin. The electromagnetic self-interactions added to the Hamiltonian of the particle correct the g factor to yield the anomalous value (g{minus}2)/2 {approx} 1159.7(2.3) X 10{sup {minus}6} in agreement with experiment. Calculations of other {open_quotes}radiative{close_quotes} effects including the Lamb shift are presented. The results obtained are finite and suggest that the QED corrections attributed to radiative effects could be obtained classically, i.e., without second quantization and renormalization, by complementing the Dirac theory with this self-interaction mechanism. The g factor dependence on the external magnetic field of this and other spin models is compared with that of QED, showing that these theories can be tested by the present precision measurements of the g factor. 33 refs., 2 tabs.

  11. Pseudospin, real spin, and spin polarization of photoemitted electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Rui; Weng, Hongming; Fang, Zhong; Dai, Xi

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we discuss the connections between pseudospin, real spin of electrons in a material, and spin polarization of photoemitted electrons out of a material. By investigating these three spin textures for Bi2Se3 and SmB6 compounds, we find that the spin orientation of photoelectrons for SmB6 has a different correspondence to pseudospin and real spin compared to Bi2Se3 , due to the different symmetry properties of the photoemission matrix between the initial and final states. We calculate the spin polarization and circular dichroism spectra of photoemitted electrons for both compounds, which can be detected by spin-resolved and circular dichroism angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy experiments.

  12. Electron-spin dynamics induced by photon spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauke, Heiko; Ahrens, Sven; Keitel, Christoph H.; Grobe, Rainer

    2014-10-01

    Strong rotating magnetic fields may cause a precession of the electron's spin around the rotation axis of the magnetic field. The superposition of two counterpropagating laser beams with circular polarization and opposite helicity features such a rotating magnetic field component but also carries spin. The laser's spin density, which can be expressed in terms of the laser's electromagnetic fields and potentials, couples to the electron's spin via a relativistic correction to the Pauli equation. We show that the quantum mechanical interaction of the electron's spin with the laser's rotating magnetic field and with the laser's spin density counteract each other in such a way that a net spin rotation remains with a precession frequency that is much smaller than the frequency one would expect from the rotating magnetic field alone. In particular, the frequency scales differently with the laser's electric field strength depending on whether relativistic corrections are taken into account or not. Thus, the relativistic coupling of the electron's spin to the laser's spin density changes the dynamics not only quantitatively but also qualitatively as compared to the nonrelativistic theory. The electron's spin dynamics are a genuine quantum mechanical relativistic effect.

  13. Electron Spin Dynamics in Semiconductor Quantum Dots

    SciTech Connect

    Marie, X.; Belhadj, T.; Urbaszek, B.; Amand, T.; Krebs, O.; Lemaitre, A.; Voisin, P.

    2011-07-15

    An electron spin confined to a semiconductor quantum dot is not subject to the classical spin relaxation mechanisms known for free carriers but it strongly interacts with the nuclear spin system via the hyperfine interaction. We show in time resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy experiments on ensembles of self assembled InAs quantum dots in GaAs that this interaction leads to strong electron spin dephasing.

  14. Spin-spin and spin-orbit interaction effects of two-electron quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaseghi, B.; Rezaei, G.; Taghizadeh, S. F.; Shahedi, Z.

    2014-09-01

    Simultaneous effects of spin-spin and spin-orbit interactions on the energy spectrum of a two-electron spherical quantum dot with parabolic confinement and under the influence of external electric and magnetic fields are investigated. We have calculated energy eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the system for different spin states. Results show that effects of spin-spin interactions are negligible in comparison with those of the spin-orbit interactions. Spin-orbit interaction splits energy levels and removes degeneracy of different spin states. Moreover it is seen that energy eigenvalues and levels splitting strongly depend on the external magnetic field and the dot dimensions.

  15. Spin transport in tilted electron vortex beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Banasri; Chowdhury, Debashree

    2014-12-01

    In this paper we have enlightened the spin related issues of tilted Electron vortex beams. We have shown that in the skyrmionic model of electron we can have the spin Hall current considering the tilted type of electron vortex beam. We have considered the monopole charge of the tilted vortex as time dependent and through the time variation of the monopole charge we can explain the spin Hall effect of electron vortex beams. Besides, with an external magnetic field we can have a spin filter configuration.

  16. Optoelectronic spin memories of electrons in semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miah, M. Idrish

    2016-03-01

    We optically generate electron spins in semiconductors and apply an external magnetic field perpendicularly to them. Time-resolved photoluminescence measurements, pumped with a circularly polarized light, are performed to study the spin polarization and spin memory times in the semiconducting host. The measured spin polarization is found to be an exponential decay with the time delay of the probe. It is also found that the spin memory times, extracted from the polarization decays, enhance with the strength of the external magnetic field. However, at higher fields, the memory times get saturated to sub- μs because of the coupling for interacting electrons with the local nuclear field.

  17. Versatile spin-polarized electron source

    DOEpatents

    Jozwiak, Chris; Park, Cheol -Hwan; Gotlieb, Kenneth; Louie, Steven G.; Hussain, Zahid; Lanzara, Alessandra

    2015-09-22

    One or more embodiments relate generally to the field of photoelectron spin and, more specifically, to a method and system for creating a controllable spin-polarized electron source. One preferred embodiment of the invention generally comprises: method for creating a controllable spin-polarized electron source comprising the following steps: providing one or more materials, the one or more materials having at least one surface and a material layer adjacent to said surface, wherein said surface comprises highly spin-polarized surface electrons, wherein the direction and spin of the surface electrons are locked together; providing at least one incident light capable of stimulating photoemission of said surface electrons; wherein the photon polarization of said incident light is tunable; and inducing photoemission of the surface electron states.

  18. Separated spin-up and spin-down quantum hydrodynamics of degenerated electrons: Spin-electron acoustic wave appearance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreev, Pavel A.

    2015-03-01

    The quantum hydrodynamic (QHD) model of charged spin-1/2 particles contains physical quantities defined for all particles of a species including particles with spin-up and with spin-down. Different populations of states with different spin directions are included in the spin density (the magnetization). In this paper I derive a QHD model, which separately describes spin-up electrons and spin-down electrons. Hence electrons with different projections of spins on the preferable direction are considered as two different species of particles. It is shown that the numbers of particles with different spin directions do not conserve. Hence the continuity equations contain sources of particles. These sources are caused by the interactions of the spins with the magnetic field. Terms of similar nature arise in the Euler equation. The z projection of the spin density is no longer an independent variable. It is proportional to the difference between the concentrations of the electrons with spin-up and the electrons with spin-down. The propagation of waves in the magnetized plasmas of degenerate electrons is considered. Two regimes for the ion dynamics, the motionless ions and the motion of the degenerate ions as the single species with no account of the spin dynamics, are considered. It is shown that this form of the QHD equations gives all solutions obtained from the traditional form of QHD equations with no distinction of spin-up and spin-down states. But it also reveals a soundlike solution called the spin-electron acoustic wave. Coincidence of most solutions is expected since this derivation was started with the same basic equation: the Pauli equation. Solutions arise due to the different Fermi pressures for the spin-up electrons and the spin-down electrons in the magnetic field. The results are applied to degenerate electron gas of paramagnetic and ferromagnetic metals in the external magnetic field. The dispersion of the spin-electron acoustic waves in the partially spin

  19. Separated spin-up and spin-down quantum hydrodynamics of degenerated electrons: Spin-electron acoustic wave appearance.

    PubMed

    Andreev, Pavel A

    2015-03-01

    The quantum hydrodynamic (QHD) model of charged spin-1/2 particles contains physical quantities defined for all particles of a species including particles with spin-up and with spin-down. Different populations of states with different spin directions are included in the spin density (the magnetization). In this paper I derive a QHD model, which separately describes spin-up electrons and spin-down electrons. Hence electrons with different projections of spins on the preferable direction are considered as two different species of particles. It is shown that the numbers of particles with different spin directions do not conserve. Hence the continuity equations contain sources of particles. These sources are caused by the interactions of the spins with the magnetic field. Terms of similar nature arise in the Euler equation. The z projection of the spin density is no longer an independent variable. It is proportional to the difference between the concentrations of the electrons with spin-up and the electrons with spin-down. The propagation of waves in the magnetized plasmas of degenerate electrons is considered. Two regimes for the ion dynamics, the motionless ions and the motion of the degenerate ions as the single species with no account of the spin dynamics, are considered. It is shown that this form of the QHD equations gives all solutions obtained from the traditional form of QHD equations with no distinction of spin-up and spin-down states. But it also reveals a soundlike solution called the spin-electron acoustic wave. Coincidence of most solutions is expected since this derivation was started with the same basic equation: the Pauli equation. Solutions arise due to the different Fermi pressures for the spin-up electrons and the spin-down electrons in the magnetic field. The results are applied to degenerate electron gas of paramagnetic and ferromagnetic metals in the external magnetic field. The dispersion of the spin-electron acoustic waves in the partially spin

  20. Control of electron spin decoherence caused by electron nuclear spin dynamics in a quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ren-Bao; Yao, Wang; Sham, L. J.

    2007-07-01

    Control of electron spin decoherence in contact with a mesoscopic bath of many interacting nuclear spins in an InAs quantum dot is studied by solving the coupled quantum dynamics. The nuclear spin bath, because of its bifurcated evolution predicated on the electron spin up or down state, measures the which-state information of the electron spin and hence diminishes its coherence. The many-body dynamics of the nuclear spin bath is solved with a pair-correlation approximation. In the relevant timescale, nuclear pair-wise flip flops, as elementary excitations in the mesoscopic bath, can be mapped into the precession of non-interacting pseudo-spins. Such mapping provides a geometrical picture for understanding the decoherence and for devising control schemes. A close examination of nuclear bath dynamics reveals a wealth of phenomena and new possibilities of controlling the electron spin decoherence. For example, when the electron spin is flipped by a π-pulse at τ, its coherence will partially recover at \\sqrt{2}\\tau as a consequence of quantum disentanglement from the mesoscopic bath. In contrast to the re-focusing of inhomogeneously broadened phases by conventional spin-echoes, the disentanglement is realized through shepherding quantum evolution of the bath state via control of the quantum object. A concatenated construction of pulse sequences can eliminate the decoherence with arbitrary accuracy, with the nuclear nuclear spin interaction strength acting as the controlling small parameter.

  1. Nanomechanical detection of itinerant electron spin flip.

    PubMed

    Zolfagharkhani, Guiti; Gaidarzhy, Alexei; Degiovanni, Pascal; Kettemann, Stefan; Fulde, Peter; Mohanty, Pritiraj

    2008-12-01

    Electrons and other fundamental particles have an intrinsic angular momentum called spin. A change in the spin state of such a particle is therefore equivalent to a mechanical torque. This spin-induced torque is central to our understanding of experiments ranging from the measurement of the angular momentum of photons and the g-factor of metals to magnetic resonance and magnetization reversal in magnetic multilayers. When a spin-polarized current passes through a metallic nanowire in which one half is ferromagnetic and the other half is nonmagnetic, the spins of the itinerant electrons are 'flipped' at the interface between the two regions to produces a torque. Here, we report direct measurement of this mechanical torque in an integrated nanoscale torsion oscillator, and measurements of the itinerant electron spin polarization that could yield new information on the itinerancy of the d-band electrons. The unprecedented torque sensitivity of 1 x 10(-22) N-m Hz(-1/2) may have applications in spintronics and precision measurements of charge-parity-violating forces, and might also enable experiments on the untwisting of DNA and torque-generating molecules. PMID:19057590

  2. Anisotropic spin dephasing of impurity-bound electron spins in ZnO

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jieun; Sih, Vanessa; Venugopal, Aneesh

    2015-01-05

    We investigate the electron spin dynamics of n-type c-axis oriented bulk zinc oxide (ZnO) by using time-resolved Kerr rotation and resonant spin amplification measurements. Calculating resonant spin amplification using an anisotropic spin dephasing model reveals that there are two species involved in the spin dynamics, which we attribute to conduction and impurity-bound electron spins, respectively. We find that the impurity-bound electron spin dephasing mechanism is strongly anisotropic due to anisotropic exchange interactions. The identification of the two spin species and their dephasing mechanisms is further supported by the temperature, power, and wavelength dependence of the spin coherence measurements.

  3. Detection and Control of Individual Nuclear Spins Using a Weakly Coupled Electron Spin

    SciTech Connect

    Taminiau, T.H.; Wagenaar, J.J.T.; van der Sar, T.; Jelezko, F.; Dobrovitski, Viatcheslav V.; Hanson, R.

    2012-09-28

    We experimentally isolate, characterize, and coherently control up to six individual nuclear spins that are weakly coupled to an electron spin in diamond. Our method employs multipulse sequences on the electron spin that resonantly amplify the interaction with a selected nuclear spin and at the same time dynamically suppress decoherence caused by the rest of the spin bath. We are able to address nuclear spins with interaction strengths that are an order of magnitude smaller than the electron spin dephasing rate. Our results provide a route towards tomography with single-nuclear-spin sensitivity and greatly extend the number of available quantum bits for quantum information processing in diamond.

  4. Undergraduate Electron-Spin-Resonance Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, James S.

    1980-01-01

    Describes the basic procedures for use of an electron-spin resonance spectrometer and potassium azide (KN3) in an experiment which extends from the phase of sample preparation (crystal growth, sample mounting, and orientation) through data taking to the stages of calculation and theoretical explanation. (Author/DS)

  5. Fast electron spin resonance controlled manipulation of spin injection into quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Merz, Andreas Siller, Jan; Schittny, Robert; Krämmer, Christoph; Kalt, Heinz; Hetterich, Michael

    2014-06-23

    In our spin-injection light-emitting diodes, electrons are spin-polarized in a semimagnetic ZnMnSe spin aligner and then injected into InGaAs quantum dots. The resulting electron spin state can be read out by measuring the circular polarization state of the emitted light. Here, we resonantly excite the Mn 3d electron spin system with microwave pulses and perform time-resolved measurements of the spin dynamics. We find that we are able to control the spin polarization of the injected electrons on a microsecond timescale. This electron spin resonance induced spin control could be one of the ingredients required to utilize the quantum dot electrons or the Mn spins as qubits.

  6. Spin Structure Functions from Electron Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Seonho Choi

    2012-09-01

    The spin structure of the nucleon can play a key testing ground for Quantum Chromo-Dynamics (QCD) at wide kinematic ranges from smaller to large four momentum transfer Q{sup 2}. The pioneering experiments have confirmed several QCD sum rules at high Q{sup 2} where a perturbative picture holds. For a full understanding of QCD at various scales, various measurements were made at intermediate and small Q{sup 2} region and their interpretation would be a challenging task due to the non-perturbative nature. Jefferson Lab has been one of the major experimental facilities for the spin structure with its polarized electron beams and various polarized targets. A few QCD sum rules have been compared with the measured spin structure functions g{sub 1}(x, Q{sup 2}) and g{sub 2}(x, Q{sup 2}) at low Q{sup 2} and surprising results have been obtained for the spin polarizabilities, {gamma}{sub 0} and {delta}{sub LT} . As for the proton spin structure functions, the lack of data for g{sub 2}(x,Q{sup 2}) structure functions has been complemented with a new experiment at Jefferson Lab, SANE. The results from SANE will provide a better picture of the proton spin structure at a wide kinematic range in x and Q{sup 2}.

  7. Spin filtration of unpolarized electrons by impurity centers in semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Bobin, E. G.; Berdinskiy, V. L.

    2011-11-15

    It is shown that unpolarized paramagnetic centers can implement the spin filtration of unpolarized conduction electrons in semiconductors. This ability of paramagnetic centers is caused by the difference in the spin evolution of the states of electron-paramagnetic-center pairs and by the spin selectivity of electron capture exclusively from singlet pairs. The electron spin polarization should be opposite to the paramagneticcenter polarization. To implement spin filtration, an external magnetic field is necessary. The polarization can attain the largest values ({approx}10%) if the probability of spin-selective electron capture from singlet pairs exceeds the pair-decay rate by a factor of 5-7.

  8. Electronic spin working mechanically (Review Article)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shekhter, R. I.; Gorelik, L. Y.; Krive, I. V.; Kiselev, M. N.; Kulinich, S. I.; Parafilo, A. V.; Kikoin, K.; Jonson, M.

    2014-07-01

    A single-electron tunneling (SET) device with a nanoscale central island that can move with respect to the bulk source- and drain electrodes allows for a nanoelectromechanical (NEM) coupling between the electrical current through the device and mechanical vibrations of the island. Although an electromechanical "shuttle" instability and the associated phenomenon of single-electron shuttling were predicted more than 15 years ago, both theoretical and experimental studies of NEM-SET structures are still carried out. New functionalities based on quantum coherence, Coulomb correlations and coherent electron-spin dynamics are of particular current interest. In this article we present a short review of recent activities in this area.

  9. Electron-Spin Filters Would Offer Spin Polarization Greater than 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, David Z.

    2009-01-01

    A proposal has been made to develop devices that would generate spin-polarized electron currents characterized by polarization ratios having magnitudes in excess of 1. Heretofore, such devices (denoted, variously, as spin injectors, spin polarizers, and spin filters) have typically offered polarization ratios having magnitudes in the approximate range of 0.01 to 0.1. The proposed devices could be useful as efficient sources of spin-polarized electron currents for research on spintronics and development of practical spintronic devices.

  10. Electron-Spin Resonance in Boron Carbide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Charles; Venturini, Eugene L.; Azevedo, Larry J.; Emin, David

    1987-01-01

    Samples exhibit Curie-law behavior in temperature range of 2 to 100 K. Technical paper presents studies of electron-spin resonance of samples of hot pressed B9 C, B15 C2, B13 C2, and B4 C. Boron carbide ceramics are refractory solids with high melting temperatures, low thermal conductives, and extreme hardnesses. They show promise as semiconductors at high temperatures and have unusually large figures of merit for use in thermoelectric generators.

  11. Induction-detection electron spin resonance with spin sensitivity of a few tens of spins

    SciTech Connect

    Artzi, Yaron; Twig, Ygal; Blank, Aharon

    2015-02-23

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) is a spectroscopic method that addresses electrons in paramagnetic materials directly through their spin properties. ESR has many applications, ranging from semiconductor characterization to structural biology and even quantum computing. Although it is very powerful and informative, ESR traditionally suffers from low sensitivity, requiring many millions of spins to get a measureable signal with commercial systems using the Faraday induction-detection principle. In view of this disadvantage, significant efforts were made recently to develop alternative detection schemes based, for example, on force, optical, or electrical detection of spins, all of which can reach single electron spin sensitivity. This sensitivity, however, comes at the price of limited applicability and usefulness with regard to real scientific and technological issues facing modern ESR which are currently dealt with conventional induction-detection ESR on a daily basis. Here, we present the most sensitive experimental induction-detection ESR setup and results ever recorded that can detect the signal from just a few tens of spins. They were achieved thanks to the development of an ultra-miniature micrometer-sized microwave resonator that was operated at ∼34 GHz at cryogenic temperatures in conjunction with a unique cryogenically cooled low noise amplifier. The test sample used was isotopically enriched phosphorus-doped silicon, which is of significant relevance to spin-based quantum computing. The sensitivity was experimentally verified with the aid of a unique high-resolution ESR imaging approach. These results represent a paradigm shift with respect to the capabilities and possible applications of induction-detection-based ESR spectroscopy and imaging.

  12. Induction-detection electron spin resonance with spin sensitivity of a few tens of spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artzi, Yaron; Twig, Ygal; Blank, Aharon

    2015-02-01

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) is a spectroscopic method that addresses electrons in paramagnetic materials directly through their spin properties. ESR has many applications, ranging from semiconductor characterization to structural biology and even quantum computing. Although it is very powerful and informative, ESR traditionally suffers from low sensitivity, requiring many millions of spins to get a measureable signal with commercial systems using the Faraday induction-detection principle. In view of this disadvantage, significant efforts were made recently to develop alternative detection schemes based, for example, on force, optical, or electrical detection of spins, all of which can reach single electron spin sensitivity. This sensitivity, however, comes at the price of limited applicability and usefulness with regard to real scientific and technological issues facing modern ESR which are currently dealt with conventional induction-detection ESR on a daily basis. Here, we present the most sensitive experimental induction-detection ESR setup and results ever recorded that can detect the signal from just a few tens of spins. They were achieved thanks to the development of an ultra-miniature micrometer-sized microwave resonator that was operated at ˜34 GHz at cryogenic temperatures in conjunction with a unique cryogenically cooled low noise amplifier. The test sample used was isotopically enriched phosphorus-doped silicon, which is of significant relevance to spin-based quantum computing. The sensitivity was experimentally verified with the aid of a unique high-resolution ESR imaging approach. These results represent a paradigm shift with respect to the capabilities and possible applications of induction-detection-based ESR spectroscopy and imaging.

  13. Spintronics: a spin-based electronics vision for the future.

    PubMed

    Wolf, S A; Awschalom, D D; Buhrman, R A; Daughton, J M; von Molnár, S; Roukes, M L; Chtchelkanova, A Y; Treger, D M

    2001-11-16

    This review describes a new paradigm of electronics based on the spin degree of freedom of the electron. Either adding the spin degree of freedom to conventional charge-based electronic devices or using the spin alone has the potential advantages of nonvolatility, increased data processing speed, decreased electric power consumption, and increased integration densities compared with conventional semiconductor devices. To successfully incorporate spins into existing semiconductor technology, one has to resolve technical issues such as efficient injection, transport, control and manipulation, and detection of spin polarization as well as spin-polarized currents. Recent advances in new materials engineering hold the promise of realizing spintronic devices in the near future. We review the current state of the spin-based devices, efforts in new materials fabrication, issues in spin transport, and optical spin manipulation. PMID:11711666

  14. Electron Spin Dephasing and Decoherence by Interaction with Nuclear Spins in Self-Assembled Quantum Dots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Seungwon; vonAllmen, Paul; Oyafuso, Fabiano; Klimeck, Gerhard; Whale, K. Birgitta

    2004-01-01

    Electron spin dephasing and decoherence by its interaction with nuclear spins in self-assembled quantum dots are investigated in the framework of the empirical tight-binding model. Electron spin dephasing in an ensemble of dots is induced by the inhomogeneous precession frequencies of the electron among dots, while electron spin decoherence in a single dot arises from the inhomogeneous precession frequencies of nuclear spins in the dot. For In(x)Ga(1-x) As self-assembled dots containing 30000 nuclei, the dephasing and decoherence times are predicted to be on the order of 100 ps and 1 (micro)s.

  15. 47 CFR 15.256 - Operation of level probing radars within the bands 5.925-7.250 GHz, 24.05-29.00 GHz, and 75-85 GHz.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Operation of level probing radars within the bands 5.925-7.250 GHz, 24.05-29.00 GHz, and 75-85 GHz. 15.256 Section 15.256 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Intentional Radiators Radiated Emission Limits, Additional Provisions § 15.256 Operation...

  16. Spin current swapping and Hanle spin Hall effect in a two-dimensional electron gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Ka; Raimondi, R.; Vignale, G.

    2015-07-01

    We analyze the effect known as "spin current swapping" (SCS) due to electron-impurity scattering in a uniform spin-polarized two-dimensional electron gas. In this effect a primary spin current Jia (lower index for spatial direction, upper index for spin direction) generates a secondary spin current Jai if i ≠a , or Jjj, with j ≠i , if i =a . Contrary to naive expectation, the homogeneous spin current associated with the uniform drift of the spin polarization in the electron gas does not generate a swapped spin current by the SCS mechanism. Nevertheless, a swapped spin current will be generated, if a magnetic field is present, by a completely different mechanism, namely, the precession of the spin Hall spin current in the magnetic field. We refer to this second mechanism as Hanle spin Hall effect, and we notice that it can be observed in an experiment in which a homogeneous drift current is passed through a uniformly magnetized electron gas. In contrast to this, we show that an unambiguous observation of SCS requires inhomogeneous spin currents, such as those that are associated with spin diffusion in a metal, and no magnetic field. An experimental setup for the observation of the SCS is therefore proposed.

  17. Exploration method using electron spin resonance signals from hydrocarbon crude

    SciTech Connect

    Nicksic, S.W.; Starke, G.W.

    1986-08-19

    An exploration method is described for mapping the subsurface course of crude petroleum accumulated in a producible subsurface reservoir by distinguishing crude petroleum based electron spin resonance signals from electron spin resonance signals from other constituent materials in earth formation samples. The method consists of: (a) collecting samples of subsurface earth formation materials from known positions within a formation from wells having known locations; (b) subjecting the earth formation samples to suitable conditions for the establishment of electron spin resonance of electrons present in the samples, and detecting electron spin resonance from the samples; (c) selecting those earth formation samples from which the electron spin resonance signals were detected and contacting the selected samples with a solution containing iodine; (d) subjecting the selected and contacted samples to the suitable conditions for establishment of electron spin resonance of electrons present in the samples, and detecting electron spin resonance signals from the selected samples; (e) identifying from the first selected samples those earth formation samples from which enhanced electron spin resonance signals were detected attributable to the contacting with the solution containing iodine as samples containing electrons associated with crude petroleum; (f) mapping the presence of the crude petroleum materials; (g) producing a representation of potential migration paths of hydrocarbon crudes within the formation; and (h) locating the origin of the identified samples demonstrating the enhanced electron spin resonance signals in distance, direction and depth with respect to the subsurface reservoir by using the mapped potential migration paths.

  18. Spin-orbit coupling in tungsten by spin-polarized two-electron spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samarin, S.; Artamonov, O. M.; Sergeant, A. D.; Kirschner, J.; Morozov, A.; Williams, J. F.

    2004-08-01

    We present experimental results on low-energy spin-polarized two-electron spectroscopy of W(100) and W(110). A combination of a coincidence technique with the time-of-flight energy analysis was used to record angular and energy distributions of correlated electron pairs excited by spin-polarized low-energy primary electrons from a single crystal of tungsten. These distributions depend strongly on the polarization and the angle of incidence of the incident electron beam. Experimental data are discussed in terms of the symmetry properties, spin-dependent scattering dynamics, and spin-resolved electronic structure of the sample.

  19. Kerr-Newman Electron as Spinning Soliton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burinskii, Alexander

    2015-10-01

    Measurable parameters of the electron indicate that its background should be described by the Kerr-Newman (KN) solution. The spin/mass ratio of the electron is extreme large, and the black hole horizons disappear, opening a topological defect of space-time - the Kerr singular ring of Compton size, which may be interpreted as a closed fundamental string of low energy string theory. The singular and two-sheeted structure of the corresponding Kerr space has to be regularised, and we consider the old problem of regularising the source of the KN solution. As a development of the earlier Keres-Israel-Hamity-López model, we describe the model of smooth and regular source forming a gravitating and relativistically rotating soliton based on the chiral field model and the Higgs mechanism of broken symmetry. The model reveals some new remarkable properties: (1) the soliton forms a relativistically rotating bubble of Compton radius, which is filled by the oscillating Higgs field in a pseudo-vacuum state; (2) the boundary of the bubble forms a domain wall which interpolates between the internal flat background and the external exact Kerr-Newman (KN) solution; (3) the phase transition is provided by a system of chiral fields; (4) the vector potential of the external the KN solution forms a closed Wilson loop which is quantised, giving rise to a quantised spin of the soliton; (5) the soliton is bordered by a closed string, which is a part of the general complex stringy structure.

  20. ELECTRON SPIN RESONANCE STUDIES ON MELANIN.

    PubMed

    BLOIS, M S; ZAHLAN, A B; MALING, J E

    1964-11-01

    Electron spin resonance (e.s.r.) observations of squid melanin have been conducted over the temperature range 500 degrees K to 4.2 degrees K, and the effect of various chemical treatments of the melanin upon the e.s.r. spectrum has been studied. The findings have shown that the paramagnetism of this melanin follows the Curie Law from 500 degrees K to 4.2 degrees K, that the spin signal can be eliminated by the addition of Cu(++) to the melanin, and that the optical and e.s.r. absorptions of melanin are independent since either can be reduced or eliminated without affecting the other. Similar studies on synthetic melanins produced by autoxidation or by enzymatic oxidation of a number of biphenols were carried out. It was found that the e.s.r. signals of these synthetic melanins were strikingly similar (with respect to line width, line shape, and g-value) with those of squid melanin. It is concluded that the unpaired electrons observed are associated with trapped free radicals in the melanin polymer, that the biosynthesis of melanin may involve a free radical mechanism, and that these physical data are in accord with the concept of Nicolaus that melanin is a highly irregular, three-dimensional, polymer. PMID:14232133

  1. Few electron quantum dot coupling to donor implanted electron spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudolph, Martin; Harvey-Collard, Patrick; Neilson, Erik; Gamble, John; Muller, Richard; Jacobson, Toby; Ten-Eyck, Greg; Wendt, Joel; Pluym, Tammy; Lilly, Michael; Carroll, Malcolm

    2015-03-01

    Donor-based Si qubits are receiving increased interest because of recent demonstrations of high fidelity electron or nuclear spin qubits and their coupling. Quantum dot (QD) mediated interactions between donors are of interest for future coupling of two donors. We present experiment and modeling of a polysilicon/Si MOS QD, charge-sensed by a neighboring many electron QD, capable of coupling to one or two donor implanted electron spins (D) while tuned to the few electron regime. The unique design employs two neighboring gated wire FETs and self-aligned implants, which supports many configurations of implanted donors. We can access the (0,1) ⇔(1,0) transition between the D and QD, as well as the resonance condition between the few electron QD and two donors ((0,N,1) ⇔(0,N +1,0) ⇔(1,N,0)). We characterize capacitances and tunnel rate behavior combined with semi-classical and full configuration interaction simulations to study the energy landscape and kinetics of D-QD transitions. This work was performed, in part, at the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, a U.S. DOE, Office of Basic Energy Sciences user facility. The work was supported by the Sandia National Laboratories Directed Research and Development Program. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed-Martin Company, for the U. S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  2. Single-electron Spin Resonance in a Quadruple Quantum Dot

    PubMed Central

    Otsuka, Tomohiro; Nakajima, Takashi; Delbecq, Matthieu R.; Amaha, Shinichi; Yoneda, Jun; Takeda, Kenta; Allison, Giles; Ito, Takumi; Sugawara, Retsu; Noiri, Akito; Ludwig, Arne; Wieck, Andreas D.; Tarucha, Seigo

    2016-01-01

    Electron spins in semiconductor quantum dots are good candidates of quantum bits for quantum information processing. Basic operations of the qubit have been realized in recent years: initialization, manipulation of single spins, two qubit entanglement operations, and readout. Now it becomes crucial to demonstrate scalability of this architecture by conducting spin operations on a scaled up system. Here, we demonstrate single-electron spin resonance in a quadruple quantum dot. A few-electron quadruple quantum dot is formed within a magnetic field gradient created by a micro-magnet. We oscillate the wave functions of the electrons in the quantum dots by applying microwave voltages and this induces electron spin resonance. The resonance energies of the four quantum dots are slightly different because of the stray field created by the micro-magnet and therefore frequency-resolved addressable control of each electron spin resonance is possible. PMID:27550534

  3. Enhanced electron spin rotation in CdS quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Masumoto, Yasuaki; Umino, Hikaru; Sun, Jianhui; Suzumura, Eri

    2015-10-14

    We studied the spin rotation of electrons in CdS quantum dots (QDs) and CdS QDs with charge acceptors by means of time-resolved Faraday rotation (TRFR) at room temperature. The electron spin rotation had an oscillatory component in the TRFR signal and the oscillation frequency proportional to the magnetic field gave a g-factor of the electrons of 1.965 ± 0.006. The non-oscillatory component came from the population of excitons and showed an additional decay in CdS QDs with hole acceptors. The electron spin rotation signal was largely enhanced and lasted for a spin coherence time of T2* = 450 ps in CdS QDs tethered to TiO2 electron acceptors, where the spin initialization was triggered by the positive trion transition. These results give clear evidence that the electron spin rotation signal in QDs can be enhanced by transient p-doping. PMID:26352679

  4. Single-electron Spin Resonance in a Quadruple Quantum Dot.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Tomohiro; Nakajima, Takashi; Delbecq, Matthieu R; Amaha, Shinichi; Yoneda, Jun; Takeda, Kenta; Allison, Giles; Ito, Takumi; Sugawara, Retsu; Noiri, Akito; Ludwig, Arne; Wieck, Andreas D; Tarucha, Seigo

    2016-01-01

    Electron spins in semiconductor quantum dots are good candidates of quantum bits for quantum information processing. Basic operations of the qubit have been realized in recent years: initialization, manipulation of single spins, two qubit entanglement operations, and readout. Now it becomes crucial to demonstrate scalability of this architecture by conducting spin operations on a scaled up system. Here, we demonstrate single-electron spin resonance in a quadruple quantum dot. A few-electron quadruple quantum dot is formed within a magnetic field gradient created by a micro-magnet. We oscillate the wave functions of the electrons in the quantum dots by applying microwave voltages and this induces electron spin resonance. The resonance energies of the four quantum dots are slightly different because of the stray field created by the micro-magnet and therefore frequency-resolved addressable control of each electron spin resonance is possible. PMID:27550534

  5. Klein paradox with spin-resolved electrons and positrons

    SciTech Connect

    Krekora, P.; Su, Q.; Grobe, R.

    2005-12-15

    Using numerical solutions to relativistic quantum field theory with space-time resolution, we illustrate how an incoming electron wave packet with a definite spin scatters off a supercritical potential step. We show that the production rate is reduced of only those electrons that have the same spin as the incoming electron is reduced. This spin-resolved result further clarifies the importance of the Pauli-exclusion principle for the Klein paradox.

  6. Spin relaxation via exchange with donor impurity-bound electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qing, Lan; Li, Jing; Appelbaum, Ian; Dery, Hanan

    2015-06-01

    At low temperatures, electrons in semiconductors are bound to shallow donor impurity ions, neutralizing their charge in equilibrium. Inelastic scattering of other externally injected conduction electrons accelerated by electric fields can excite transitions within the manifold of these localized states. Promotion of the bound electron into highly spin-orbit-mixed excited states drives a strong spin relaxation of the conduction electrons via exchange interactions, reminiscent of the Bir-Aronov-Pikus process where exchange occurs with valence band hole states. Through low-temperature experiments with silicon spin transport devices and complementary theory, we reveal the consequences of this spin depolarization mechanism both below and above the impact ionization threshold.

  7. Electronic measurement and control of spin transport in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appelbaum, Ian; Huang, Biqin; Monsma, Douwe J.

    2007-05-01

    The spin lifetime and diffusion length of electrons are transport parameters that define the scale of coherence in spintronic devices and circuits. As these parameters are many orders of magnitude larger in semiconductors than in metals, semiconductors could be the most suitable for spintronics. So far, spin transport has only been measured in direct-bandgap semiconductors or in combination with magnetic semiconductors, excluding a wide range of non-magnetic semiconductors with indirect bandgaps. Most notable in this group is silicon, Si, which (in addition to its market entrenchment in electronics) has long been predicted a superior semiconductor for spintronics with enhanced lifetime and transport length due to low spin-orbit scattering and lattice inversion symmetry. Despite this promise, a demonstration of coherent spin transport in Si has remained elusive, because most experiments focused on magnetoresistive devices; these methods fail because of a fundamental impedance mismatch between ferromagnetic metal and semiconductor, and measurements are obscured by other magnetoelectronic effects. Here we demonstrate conduction-band spin transport across 10μm undoped Si in a device that operates by spin-dependent ballistic hot-electron filtering through ferromagnetic thin films for both spin injection and spin detection. As it is not based on magnetoresistance, the hot-electron spin injection and spin detection avoids impedance mismatch issues and prevents interference from parasitic effects. The clean collector current shows independent magnetic and electrical control of spin precession, and thus confirms spin coherent drift in the conduction band of silicon.

  8. Electron spin coherence near room temperature in magnetic quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Moro, Fabrizio; Turyanska, Lyudmila; Wilman, James; Fielding, Alistair J; Fay, Michael W; Granwehr, Josef; Patanè, Amalia

    2015-01-01

    We report on an example of confined magnetic ions with long spin coherence near room temperature. This was achieved by confining single Mn(2+) spins in colloidal semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) and by dispersing the QDs in a proton-spin free matrix. The controlled suppression of Mn-Mn interactions and minimization of Mn-nuclear spin dipolar interactions result in unprecedentedly long phase memory (TM ~ 8 μs) and spin-lattice relaxation (T1 ~ 10 ms) time constants for Mn(2+) ions at T = 4.5 K, and in electron spin coherence observable near room temperature (TM ~ 1 μs). PMID:26040432

  9. Electron-spin dynamics in elliptically polarized light waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauke, Heiko; Ahrens, Sven; Grobe, Rainer

    2014-11-01

    We investigate the coupling of the spin angular momentum of light beams with elliptical polarization to the spin degree of freedom of free electrons. It is shown that this coupling, which is of similar origin as the well-known spin-orbit coupling, can lead to spin precession. The spin-precession frequency is proportional to the product of the laser field's intensity and its spin density. The electron-spin dynamics is analyzed by employing exact numerical methods as well as time-dependent perturbation theory based on the fully relativistic Dirac equation and on the nonrelativistic Pauli equation that is amended by a relativistic correction that accounts for the light's spin density.

  10. Pumped Spin-Current in Single Quantum Dot with Spin-Dependent Electron Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jia; Wang, Song; Du, Xiaohong

    2016-05-01

    Spin-dependent electron temperature effect on the spin pump in a single quantum dot connected to Normal and/or Ferromagnetic leads are investigated with the help of master equation method. Results show that spin heat accumulation breaks the tunneling rates balance at the thermal equilibrium state thus the charge current and the spin current are affected to some extent. Pure spin current can be obtained by adjusting pumping intensity or chemical potential of the lead. Spin heat accumulation of certain material can be detected by measuring the charge current strength in symmetric leads architectures. In practical devices, spin-dependent electron temperature effect is quite significant and our results should be useful in quantum information processing and spin Caloritronics.

  11. Pumped Spin-Current in Single Quantum Dot with Spin-Dependent Electron Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jia; Wang, Song; Du, Xiaohong

    2016-09-01

    Spin-dependent electron temperature effect on the spin pump in a single quantum dot connected to Normal and/or Ferromagnetic leads are investigated with the help of master equation method. Results show that spin heat accumulation breaks the tunneling rates balance at the thermal equilibrium state thus the charge current and the spin current are affected to some extent. Pure spin current can be obtained by adjusting pumping intensity or chemical potential of the lead. Spin heat accumulation of certain material can be detected by measuring the charge current strength in symmetric leads architectures. In practical devices, spin-dependent electron temperature effect is quite significant and our results should be useful in quantum information processing and spin Caloritronics.

  12. Study of electronic structure and spin polarization of dysprosium

    SciTech Connect

    Mund, H. S.

    2015-06-24

    In this paper, I have presented the spin-dependent momentum density of ferromagnetic dysprosium using spin polarized relativistic Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker method. A fully relativistic approach has been used to determine the magnetic Compton profile. The density of state in term of majority-spin and minority-spin of Dy also calculated using SPR-KKR. The magnetic Compton profile discussed in term of 4f and diffused electrons.

  13. Nonlinear induction detection of electron spin resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachar, Gil; Suchoi, Oren; Shtempluck, Oleg; Blank, Aharon; Buks, Eyal

    2012-07-01

    We present an approach to the induction detection of electron spin resonance (ESR) signals exploiting the nonlinear properties of a superconducting resonator. Our experiments employ a yttrium barium copper oxide superconducting stripline microwave (MW) resonator integrated with a microbridge. A strong nonlinear response of the resonator is thermally activated in the microbridge when exceeding a threshold in the injected MW power. The responsivity factor characterizing the ESR-induced change in the system's output signal is about 100 times larger when operating the resonator near the instability threshold, compared to the value obtained in the linear regime of operation. Preliminary experimental results, together with a theoretical model of this phenomenon are presented. Under appropriate conditions, nonlinear induction detection of ESR can potentially improve upon the current capabilities of conventional linear induction detection ESR.

  14. Spin relaxation in bilayer graphene: the role of electron-electron scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katiyar, Saurabh; Ghosh, Bahniman; Salimath, Akshay Kumar

    2016-02-01

    This paper investigates the influence of electron-electron scattering on spin relaxation length in bilayer graphene using semiclassical Monte Carlo simulation. Both D'yakonov-P'erel and Elliot-Yafet mechanisms are considered for spin relaxation. It is shown that spin relaxation length decreases by 17 % at 300 K on including electron-electron scattering. The reason of this variation in spin relaxation length is that the ensemble spin is modified upon an e-e collision, and also e-e scattering rate is greater than phonon scattering rate which causes change in spin transport profile.

  15. Torque for electron spin induced by electron permanent electric dipole moment

    SciTech Connect

    Senami, Masato E-mail: akitomo@scl.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Fukuda, Masahiro E-mail: akitomo@scl.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Ogiso, Yoji E-mail: akitomo@scl.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Tachibana, Akitomo E-mail: akitomo@scl.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2014-10-06

    The spin torque of the electron is studied in relation to the electric dipole moment (EDM) of the electron. The spin dynamics is known to be given by the spin torque and the zeta force in quantum field theory. The effect of the EDM on the torque of the spin brings a new term in the equation of motion of the spin. We study this effect for a solution of the Dirac equation with electromagnetic field.

  16. Spin relaxation via exchange with donor impurity-bound electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appelbaum, Ian

    In the Bir-Aronov-Pikus depolarization process affecting conduction electrons in p-type cubic semiconductors, spin relaxation is driven by exchange with short-lived valence band hole states. We have identified an analogous spin relaxation mechanism in nominally undoped silicon at low temperatures, when many electrons are bound to dilute dopant ion potentials. Inelastic scattering with externally injected conduction electrons accelerated by electric fields can excite transitions into highly spin-orbit-mixed bound excited states, driving strong spin relaxation of the conduction electrons via exchange interaction. We reveal the consequences of this spin depolarization mechanism both below and above the impact ionization threshold, where conventional charge and spin transport are restored. Based upon: Lan Qing, Jing Li, Ian Appelbaum, and Hanan Dery, Phys Rev. B 91, 241405(R) (2015). We acknowledge support from NSF, DTRA, and ONR.

  17. Development of a spin polarized low energy electron diffraction system.

    PubMed

    Pradeep, A V; Roy, Arnab; Kumar, P S Anil; Kirschner, J

    2016-02-01

    We have designed and constructed a spin polarized low energy electron diffraction system working in the reflected electron pulse counting mode. This system is capable of measuring asymmetries due to spin-orbit and exchange interactions. Photoemission from a strained GaAs/GaAsP super lattice is used as the source of spin polarized electrons. Spin-orbit asymmetry is evaluated for Ir(100) single crystal at various energies. Subsequently, exchange asymmetry has been evaluated on 40 monolayer Fe deposited on Ir(100). This instrument proves to be useful in understanding structure and magnetism at surfaces. PMID:26931865

  18. Electron spin control of optically levitated nanodiamonds in vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang, Thai; Ahn, Jonghoon; Bang, Jaehoon; Li, Tongcang

    2016-05-01

    Electron spins of diamond nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers are important quantum resources for nanoscale sensing and quantum information. Combining such NV spin systems with levitated optomechanical resonators will provide a hybrid quantum system for many novel applications. Here we optically levitate a nanodiamond and demonstrate electron spin control of its built-in NV centers in low vacuum. We observe that the strength of electron spin resonance (ESR) is enhanced when the air pressure is reduced. To better understand this novel system, we also investigate the effects of trap power and measure the absolute internal temperature of levitated nanodiamonds with ESR after calibration of the strain effect.

  19. Development of a spin polarized low energy electron diffraction system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradeep, A. V.; Roy, Arnab; Kumar, P. S. Anil; Kirschner, J.

    2016-02-01

    We have designed and constructed a spin polarized low energy electron diffraction system working in the reflected electron pulse counting mode. This system is capable of measuring asymmetries due to spin-orbit and exchange interactions. Photoemission from a strained GaAs/GaAsP super lattice is used as the source of spin polarized electrons. Spin-orbit asymmetry is evaluated for Ir(100) single crystal at various energies. Subsequently, exchange asymmetry has been evaluated on 40 monolayer Fe deposited on Ir(100). This instrument proves to be useful in understanding structure and magnetism at surfaces.

  20. Adapting a compact Mott spin polarimeter to a large commercial electron energy analyzer for spin-polarized electron spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Di-Jing; Lee, Jae-Yong; Suen, Jih-Shih; Mulhollan, G. A.; Andrews, A. B.; Erskine, J. L.

    1993-12-01

    A modified Rice University-type compact Mott spin polarimeter operating at 20 kV is adapted to a large commerical hemispherical electron energy analyzer. Normal energy analyzer functions are preserved via a retractable channeltron in the polarimeter acceleration column. In the spin-detection mode, the polarimeter permits analysis of two orthogonal transverse spin-polarization components. Electron trajectory analysis is used to optimize polarimeter lens column voltages in both normal and spin-detection modes. Performance levels are established by experiments and significantly improved spin-detection efficiency is shown to be accessible by changes in the polarimeter collection solid angle.

  1. Spin flip probability of electron in a uniform magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Hammond, Richard T.

    2012-03-19

    The probability that an electromagnetic wave can flip the spin of an electron is calculated. It is assumed that the electron resides in a uniform magnetic field and interacts with an incoming electromagnetic pulse. The scattering matrix is constructed and the time needed to flip the spin is calculated.

  2. Spin orbit torque based electronic neuron

    SciTech Connect

    Sengupta, Abhronil Choday, Sri Harsha; Kim, Yusung; Roy, Kaushik

    2015-04-06

    A device based on current-induced spin-orbit torque (SOT) that functions as an electronic neuron is proposed in this work. The SOT device implements an artificial neuron's thresholding (transfer) function. In the first step of a two-step switching scheme, a charge current places the magnetization of a nano-magnet along the hard-axis, i.e., an unstable point for the magnet. In the second step, the SOT device (neuron) receives a current (from the synapses) which moves the magnetization from the unstable point to one of the two stable states. The polarity of the synaptic current encodes the excitatory and inhibitory nature of the neuron input and determines the final orientation of the magnetization. A resistive crossbar array, functioning as synapses, generates a bipolar current that is a weighted sum of the inputs. The simulation of a two layer feed-forward artificial neural network based on the SOT electronic neuron shows that it consumes ∼3× lower power than a 45 nm digital CMOS implementation, while reaching ∼80% accuracy in the classification of 100 images of handwritten digits from the MNIST dataset.

  3. Spin orbit torque based electronic neuron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, Abhronil; Choday, Sri Harsha; Kim, Yusung; Roy, Kaushik

    2015-04-01

    A device based on current-induced spin-orbit torque (SOT) that functions as an electronic neuron is proposed in this work. The SOT device implements an artificial neuron's thresholding (transfer) function. In the first step of a two-step switching scheme, a charge current places the magnetization of a nano-magnet along the hard-axis, i.e., an unstable point for the magnet. In the second step, the SOT device (neuron) receives a current (from the synapses) which moves the magnetization from the unstable point to one of the two stable states. The polarity of the synaptic current encodes the excitatory and inhibitory nature of the neuron input and determines the final orientation of the magnetization. A resistive crossbar array, functioning as synapses, generates a bipolar current that is a weighted sum of the inputs. The simulation of a two layer feed-forward artificial neural network based on the SOT electronic neuron shows that it consumes ˜3× lower power than a 45 nm digital CMOS implementation, while reaching ˜80% accuracy in the classification of 100 images of handwritten digits from the MNIST dataset.

  4. Stopping power of two-dimensional spin quantum electron gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ya; Jiang, Wei; Yi, Lin

    2015-04-01

    Quantum effects can contribute significantly to the electronic stopping powers in the interactions between the fast moving beams and the degenerate electron gases. From the Pauli equation, the spin quantum hydrodynamic (SQHD) model is derived and used to calculate the stopping power and the induced electron density for protons moving above a two-dimensional (2D) electron gas with considering spin effect under an external in-plane magnetic field. In our calculation, the stopping power is not only modulated by the spin direction, but also varied with the strength of the spin effect. It is demonstrated that the spin effect can obviously enhance or reduce the stopping power of a 2D electron gas within a laboratory magnetic field condition (several tens of Tesla), thus a negative stopping power appears at some specific proton velocity, which implies the protons drain energy from the Pauli gas, showing another significant example of the low-dimensional physics.

  5. Electron spin relaxation in carbon nanotubes: Dyakonov-Perel mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, Yuriy; Zavada, John; Kim, Ki Wook

    2010-03-01

    The long standing problem of unaccountable short spin relaxation in carbon nanotubes (CNT) meets a disclosure in terms of curvature-mediated spin-orbital interaction that leads to spin fluctuating precession analogous to Dyakonov-Perel mechanism. Strong anisotropy imposed by arbitrary directed magnetic field has been taken into account in terms of extended Bloch equations. Especially, stationary spin current through CNT can be controlled by spin-flip processes with relaxation time as less as 150 ps, the rate of transversal polarization (i.e. decoherence) runs up to 1/(70 ps) at room temperature while spin interference of the electrons related to different valleys can be responsible for shorter spin dephasing. Dependencies of spin-relaxation parameters on magnetic field strength and orientation, CNT curvature and chirality have been analyzed.

  6. Coherent electron-spin-resonance manipulation of three individual spins in a triple quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noiri, A.; Yoneda, J.; Nakajima, T.; Otsuka, T.; Delbecq, M. R.; Takeda, K.; Amaha, S.; Allison, G.; Ludwig, A.; Wieck, A. D.; Tarucha, S.

    2016-04-01

    Quantum dot arrays provide a promising platform for quantum information processing. For universal quantum simulation and computation, one central issue is to demonstrate the exhaustive controllability of quantum states. Here, we report the addressable manipulation of three single electron spins in a triple quantum dot using a technique combining electron-spin-resonance and a micro-magnet. The micro-magnet makes the local Zeeman field difference between neighboring spins much larger than the nuclear field fluctuation, which ensures the addressable driving of electron-spin-resonance by shifting the resonance condition for each spin. We observe distinct coherent Rabi oscillations for three spins in a semiconductor triple quantum dot with up to 25 MHz spin rotation frequencies. This individual manipulation over three spins enables us to arbitrarily change the magnetic spin quantum number of the three spin system, and thus to operate a triple-dot device as a three-qubit system in combination with the existing technique of exchange operations among three spins.

  7. Optical electron spin pumping in n-doped quantum wells.

    PubMed

    Ungier, W; Buczko, R

    2009-01-28

    A theoretical model for optical spin pumping of electrons in a quantum well with low intrinsic electron density is presented. A system of electrons under continuous-wave illumination by circularly polarized light tuned to the electron-trion resonance is considered. The simultaneous off-resonant creation of excitons is also taken into account. The spin flip of trions and their radiative decay as the basic processes which allow the electronic spin pumping, as well as other processes, such as the formation of trions from excitons and electrons, are accounted for in the appropriate kinetic equations. The results obtained for CdTe and GaAs quantum wells indicate that significant electron spin polarization can be achieved in a time range of a few nanoseconds. PMID:21715824

  8. Current-Controlled Spin Precession of Quasistationary Electrons in a Cubic Spin-Orbit Field.

    PubMed

    Altmann, P; Hernandez, F G G; Ferreira, G J; Kohda, M; Reichl, C; Wegscheider, W; Salis, G

    2016-05-13

    Space- and time-resolved measurements of spin drift and diffusion are performed on a GaAs-hosted two-dimensional electron gas. For spins where forward drift is compensated by backward diffusion, we find a precession frequency in the absence of an external magnetic field. The frequency depends linearly on the drift velocity and is explained by the cubic Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction, for which drift leads to a spin precession angle twice that of spins that diffuse the same distance. PMID:27232032

  9. Current-Controlled Spin Precession of Quasistationary Electrons in a Cubic Spin-Orbit Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altmann, P.; Hernandez, F. G. G.; Ferreira, G. J.; Kohda, M.; Reichl, C.; Wegscheider, W.; Salis, G.

    2016-05-01

    Space- and time-resolved measurements of spin drift and diffusion are performed on a GaAs-hosted two-dimensional electron gas. For spins where forward drift is compensated by backward diffusion, we find a precession frequency in the absence of an external magnetic field. The frequency depends linearly on the drift velocity and is explained by the cubic Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction, for which drift leads to a spin precession angle twice that of spins that diffuse the same distance.

  10. Stark Tuning of Donor Electron Spins of Silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Bradbury, Forrest R.; Tyryshkin, Alexei M.; Sabouret, Guillaume; Bokor, Jeff; Schenkel, Thomas; Lyon, Stephen A.

    2006-03-23

    We report Stark shift measurements for {sup 121}Sb donor electron spins in silicon using pulsed electron spin resonance. Interdigitated metal gates on top of a Sb-implanted {sup 28}Si epi-layer are used to apply electric fields. Two Stark effects are resolved: a decrease of the hyperfine coupling between electron and nuclear spins of the donor and a decrease in electron Zeeman g-factor. The hyperfine term prevails at X-band magnetic fields of 0.35T, while the g-factor term is expected to dominate at higher magnetic fields. A significant linear Stark effect is also resolved presumably arising from strain.

  11. Enhancement of electron spin coherence by optical preparation of nuclear spins.

    PubMed

    Stepanenko, Dimitrije; Burkard, Guido; Giedke, Geza; Imamoglu, Atac

    2006-04-01

    We study a large ensemble of nuclear spins interacting with a single electron spin in a quantum dot under optical excitation and photon detection. At the two-photon resonance between the two electron-spin states, the detection of light scattering from the intermediate exciton state acts as a weak quantum measurement of the effective magnetic (Overhauser) field due to the nuclear spins. In a coherent population trapping state without light scattering, the nuclear state is projected into an eigenstate of the Overhauser field operator, and electron decoherence due to nuclear spins is suppressed: We show that this limit can be approached by adapting the driving frequencies when a photon is detected. We use a Lindblad equation to describe the driven system under photon emission and detection. Numerically, we find an increase of the electron coherence time from 5 to 500 ns after a preparation time of 10 micros. PMID:16712008

  12. Anomalous organic magnetoresistance from competing carrier-spin-dependent interactions with localized electronic and nuclear spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flatté, Michael E.

    Transport of carriers through disordered electronic energy landscapes occurs via hopping or tunneling through various sites, and can enhance the effects of carrier spin dynamics on the transport. When incoherent hopping preserves the spin orientation of carriers, the magnetic-field-dependent correlations between pairs of spins influence the charge conductivity of the material. Examples of these phenomena have been identified in hopping transport in organic semiconductors and colloidal quantum dots, as well as tunneling through oxide barriers in complex oxide devices, among other materials. The resulting room-temperature magnetic field effects on the conductivity or electroluminescence require external fields of only a few milliTesla. These magnetic field effects can be dramatically modified by changes in the local spin environment. Recent theoretical and experimental work has identified a regime for low-field magnetoresistance in organic semiconductors in which the spin-relaxing effects of localized nuclear spins and electronic spins interfere1. The regime is studied experimentally by the controlled addition of localized electronic spins, through the addition of a stable free radical (galvinoxyl) to a material (MEH-PPV) that exhibits substantial room-temperature magnetoresistance (20 initially suppressed by the doping, as the localized electronic spin mixes one of the two spins whose correlation controls the transport. At intermediate doping, when one spin is fully decohered but the other is not, there is a regime where the magnetoresistance is insensitive to the doping level. For much greater doping concentrations the magnetoresistance is fully suppressed as both spins that control the charge conductivity of the material are mixed. The behavior is described within a theoretical model describing the effect of carrier spin dynamics on the current. Generalizations to amorphous and other disordered crystalline semiconductors will also be described. This work was

  13. A new spin on electron liquids: Phenomena in systems with spin-orbit coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernevig, B. Andrei

    Conventional microelectronic devices are based on the ability to store and control the flow of electronic charge. Spin-based electronics promises a radical alternative, offering the possibility of logic operations with much lower power consumption than equivalent charge-based logic operations. Our research suggests that spin transport is fundamentally different from the transport of charge. The generalized Ohm's law that governs the flow of spins indicates that the generation of spin current by an electric field can be reversible and non-dissipative. Spin-orbit coupling and spin currents appear in many other seemingly unrelated areas of physics. Spin currents are as fundamental in theoretical physics as charge currents. In strongly correlated systems such as spin-chains, one can write down the Hamiltonian as a spin-current - spin-current interaction. The research presented here shows that the fractionalized excitations of one-dimensional spin chains are gapless and carry spin current. We present the most interesting example of such a chain, the Haldane-Shastry spin chain, which is exactly solvable in terms of real-space wavefunctions. Spin-orbit coupling can be found in high-energy physics, hidden under a different name: non-trivial fibrations. Particles moving in a space which is non-trivially related to an (iso)spin space acquire a gauge connection (the condensed-matter equivalent of a Berry phase) which can be either abelian or non-abelian. In most cases, the consequences of such gauge connection are far-reaching. We present a problem where particles move on an 8-dimensional manifold and posses an isospin space with is a 7-sphere S 7. The non-trivial isospin space gives the Hamiltonian SO (8) landau-level structure, and the system exhibits a higher-dimensional Quantum Hall Effect.

  14. Changing the Electron Count in Spin Liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Zachary; McQueen, Tyrel

    Materials which possess the resonating valence bond (RVB) ``spin-liquid'' state have been long sought after by scientists due to their predicted exotic properties. Several materials have been identified as potential spin liquid candidates and laboratory studies have only just begun to provide insight into the properties of these materials and their theoretical description. Recently theoretical calculations predict doping of a spin liquid could lead to a rich and unique phase diagram including complex magnetic states, Dirac metal behavior, and superconductivity. We report the results of structural and physical property characterizations of newly synthesized doped candidate spin liquids. This work was supported by a Cottrell Scholar Award.

  15. Long-lived spin plasmons in a spin-polarized two-dimensional electron gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Amit; Polini, Marco; Vignale, Giovanni; Flatté, Michael E.

    2014-10-01

    Collective charge-density modes (plasmons) of the clean two-dimensional unpolarized electron gas are stable, for momentum conservation prevents them from decaying into single-particle excitations. Collective spin-density modes (spin plasmons) possess no similar protection and rapidly decay by production of electron-hole pairs. Nevertheless, if the electron gas has a sufficiently high degree of spin polarization (P >1/7, where P is the ratio of the equilibrium spin density and the total electron density, for a parabolic single-particle spectrum) we find that a long-lived spin plasmon—a collective mode in which the densities of up and down spins oscillate with opposite phases—can exist within a "pseudogap" of the single-particle excitation spectrum. The ensuing collectivization of the spin excitation spectrum is quite remarkable and should be directly visible in Raman-scattering experiments. The predicted mode could dramatically improve the efficiency of coupling between spin-wave-generating devices, such as spin-torque oscillators.

  16. Spin-orbit induced two-electron spin relaxation in double quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borhani, Massoud; Hu, Xuedong

    2011-03-01

    We study the spin decay of two electrons confined in a double quantum dots via the spin-orbit interaction and acoustic phonons. We have obtained a generic form for the spin Hamiltonian for two electrons confined in (elliptic) harmonic potentials in doubles dots and in the presence of an arbitrary applied magnetic field. Our focus is on the interdot bias regime where singlet-triplet splitting is small, in contrast to the spin-blockade regime. Our results clarify the spin-orbit mediated two-spin relaxation in lateral/nanowire quantum dots, particularly when the confining potentials are different in each dot. We thank support by NSA/LPS thorugh ARO.

  17. Relativistic electrons spin states and spin light in dense neutrino fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balantsev, Ilya; Studenikin, Alexander

    2016-05-01

    Relativistic electrons can produce electromagnetic radiation in moving background composed of neutrinos, that is the “spin light of electron in neutrino flux” (SLev ) [1, 2]. In this paper we further specify the electron quantum states in moving neutrino background by introdusing the electron spin operator that enables one to define the electron wave function in an exact and close form. This justifies our previous studies of SLev in dense neutrino fluxes and derivations of the electron energy spectrum, the radiation rate and power, and also the emitted photon energy. We argue that the SLev can have important consequences in different astrophysical settings.

  18. Ballistic electron magnetic microscopy on epitaxial spin valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heindl, E.; Vancea, J.; Back, C. H.

    2007-02-01

    The tip of a scanning tunneling microscope has been used as an injector of hot electrons or hot holes into a spin valve epitaxially grown on n-GaAs67P33 . Spin-dependent transport of injected and hole excited electrons has been studied in an external magnetic field at room temperature. Significant variations in the collector current due to the spin-dependent inelastic decay of the hot charge carriers have been measured for parallel and antiparallel configurations of the magnetization of the individual layers. We found magnetocurrent effects on the order of 600% and relative large transmission values compared to other ballistic electron magnetic microscopy studies. In addition, we investigated the excitation of electron-hole pairs with its subsequent electron transport in the spin valve and found a magnetocurrent effect with positive sign.

  19. Spin fluctuations of nonequilibrium electrons and excitons in semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glazov, M. M.

    2016-03-01

    Effects that are related to deviations from thermodynamic equilibrium have a special place in modern physics. Among these, nonequilibrium phenomena in quantum systems attract the highest interest. The experimental technique of spin-noise spectroscopy has became quite widespread, which makes it possible to observe spin fluctuations of charge carriers in semiconductors under both equilibrium and nonequilibrium conditions. This calls for the development of a theory of spin fluctuations of electrons and electron-hole complexes for nonequilibrium conditions. In this paper, we consider a range of physical situations where a deviation from equilibrium becomes pronounced in the spin noise. A general method for the calculation of electron and exciton spin fluctuations in a nonequilibrium state is proposed. A short review of the theoretical and experimental results in this area is given.

  20. Electron spin changes during general anesthesia in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Turin, Luca; Skoulakis, Efthimios M. C.; Horsfield, Andrew P.

    2014-01-01

    We show that the general anesthetics xenon, sulfur hexafluoride, nitrous oxide, and chloroform cause rapid increases of different magnitude and time course in the electron spin content of Drosophila. With the exception of CHCl3, these changes are reversible. Anesthetic-resistant mutant strains of Drosophila exhibit a different pattern of spin responses to anesthetic. In two such mutants, the spin response to CHCl3 is absent. We propose that these spin changes are caused by perturbation of the electronic structure of proteins by general anesthetics. Using density functional theory, we show that general anesthetics perturb and extend the highest occupied molecular orbital of a nine-residue α-helix. The calculated perturbations are qualitatively in accord with the Meyer–Overton relationship and some of its exceptions. We conclude that there may be a connection between spin, electron currents in cells, and the functioning of the nervous system. PMID:25114249

  1. Electron spin control of optically levitated nanodiamonds in vacuum.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Thai M; Ahn, Jonghoon; Bang, Jaehoon; Li, Tongcang

    2016-01-01

    Electron spins of diamond nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centres are important quantum resources for nanoscale sensing and quantum information. Combining NV spins with levitated optomechanical resonators will provide a hybrid quantum system for novel applications. Here we optically levitate a nanodiamond and demonstrate electron spin control of its built-in NV centres in low vacuum. We observe that the strength of electron spin resonance (ESR) is enhanced when the air pressure is reduced. To better understand this system, we investigate the effects of trap power and measure the absolute internal temperature of levitated nanodiamonds with ESR after calibration of the strain effect. We also observe that oxygen and helium gases have different effects on both the photoluminescence and the ESR contrast of nanodiamond NV centres, indicating potential applications of NV centres in oxygen gas sensing. Our results pave the way towards a levitated spin-optomechanical system for studying macroscopic quantum mechanics. PMID:27432560

  2. Nanoscale magnetic imaging of individual electron spins under ambient conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinolds, Michael

    2014-03-01

    The detection of ensembles of spins under ambient conditions has revolutionized the biological, chemical, and physical sciences through magnetic resonance imaging and nuclear magnetic resonance. Pushing sensing capabilities to the individual-spin level would enable unprecedented applications such as single molecule structural imaging; however, the weak magnetic fields from single spins are undetectable by conventional methods. Recently, there has been significant theoretical and experimental research into using nitrogen-vacancy (NV) defect centers in diamond as a new type of magnetometer capable of detecting individual spins. In this talk I present measurements using such an NV-based magnetometer to detect and image the magnetic fields from individual electron spins under ambient conditions. Magnetic imaging is achieved by either spatially mapping a target spin's magnetic field using a scanning magnetometer, or by performing magnetic resonance imaging via scanning magnetic field gradients. These results in imaging individual electron spins makes NV-based magnetometry immediately applicable to diverse systems including imaging spin chains, readout of individual spin-based quantum bits, and determining the precise location of spin labels in biological systems.

  3. Impurities and electron spin relaxations in nanodiamonds studied by multi-frequency electron spin resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Franklin; Takahashi, Susumu

    2014-03-01

    Nano-sized diamond or nanodiamond is a fascinating material for potential applications of fluorescence imaging and magnetic sensing of biological systems via nitrogen-vacancy defect centers in diamonds. Sensitivity of the magnetic sensing strongly depends on coupling to surrounding environmental noises, thus understanding of the environment is critical to realize the application. In the present study, we employ multi-frequency (X-band, 115 GHz and 230 GHz) continuous-wave (cw) and pulsed electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy to investigate impurity contents and spin relaxation properties in various sizes of nanodiamonds. Spectra taken with our home-built 230/115 GHz cw/pulsed ESR spectrometer shows presence of two major impurity contents; single substitutional nitrogen impurities (P1) also common in bulk diamonds and paramagnetic impurities (denoted as X) unique to nanodiamonds. The ESR measurement also shows a strong dependence of the population ratio between P1 and X on particle size. Furthermore, we will discuss the nature of spin-lattice relaxation time T1 of nanodiamonds studied by pulsed ESR measurements at X-band, 115 GHz and 230 GHz.

  4. Long-lived Spin Relaxation and Spin Coherence of Electrons in Monolayer MoS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Luyi

    Monolayer MoS2 and related transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are direct-gap semiconductors in which strong spin-orbit coupling and a lack of structural inversion symmetry give rise to new coupled spin-valley physics. Although robust spin and valley degrees of freedom have been inferred from polarized photoluminescence (PL) studies of excitons, PL timescales are necessarily constrained by short (3-100 ps) electron-hole recombination. Direct probes of spin/valley dynamics of resident carriers in electron (or hole)-doped TMDs, which may persist long after recombination ceases, are still at an early stage. Here we directly measure the coupled spin-valley dynamics of resident electrons in n-type monolayer MoS2 using optical Kerr-rotation spectroscopy, and reveal very long spin lifetimes exceeding 3ns at 5K (orders of magnitude longer than typical exciton lifetimes). In contrast with conventional III-V or II-VI semiconductors, spin relaxation accelerates rapidly in small transverse magnetic fields. This suggests a novel mechanism of electron spin dephasing in monolayer TMDs, driven by rapidly-fluctuating internal spin-orbit fields due to fast intervalley scattering. Additionally, a small but very long-lived oscillatory signal is observed, indicating spin coherence of localized states. These studies provide direct insight into the physics underpinning the spin and valley dynamics of electrons in monolayer TMDs. In collaboration with S.A. Crooker & N.A. Sinitsyn (Los Alamos), W. Chen, J. Yuan, J. Zhang & J. Lou (Rice University), K.M. McCreary & B.T. Jonker (Naval Research Lab), and supported by the Los Alamos LDRD program.

  5. Quantum Computing in Silicon with Donor Electron Spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, Michelle

    2014-03-01

    Extremely long electron and nuclear spin coherence times have recently been demonstrated in isotopically pure Si-28 making silicon one of the most promising semiconductor materials for spin based quantum information. The two level spin state of single electrons bound to shallow phosphorus donors in silicon in particular provide well defined, reproducible qubits and represent a promising system for a scalable quantum computer in silicon. An important challenge in these systems is the realisation of an architecture, where we can position donors within a crystalline environment with approx. 20-50nm separation, individually address each donor, manipulate the electron spins using ESR techniques and read-out their spin states. We have developed a unique fabrication strategy for a scalable quantum computer in silicon using scanning tunneling microscope hydrogen lithography to precisely position individual P donors in a Si crystal aligned with nanoscale precision to local control gates necessary to initialize, manipulate, and read-out the spin states. During this talk I will focus on demonstrating electronic transport characteristics and single-shot spin read-out of precisely-positioned P donors in Si. Additionally I will report on our recent progress in performing single spin rotations by locally applying oscillating magnetic fields and initial characterization of transport devices with two and three single donors. The challenges of scaling up to practical 2D architectures will also be discussed.

  6. Electron spin manipulation and readout through an optical fiber.

    PubMed

    Fedotov, I V; Doronina-Amitonova, L V; Voronin, A A; Levchenko, A O; Zibrov, S A; Sidorov-Biryukov, D A; Fedotov, A B; Velichansky, V L; Zheltikov, A M

    2014-01-01

    The electron spin of nitrogen--vacancy (NV) centers in diamond offers a solid-state quantum bit and enables high-precision magnetic-field sensing on the nanoscale. Implementation of these approaches in a fiber format would offer unique opportunities for a broad range of technologies ranging from quantum information to neuroscience and bioimaging. Here, we demonstrate an ultracompact fiber-optic probe where a diamond microcrystal with a well-defined orientation of spin quantization NV axes is attached to the fiber tip, allowing the electron spins of NV centers to be manipulated, polarized, and read out through a fiber-optic waveguide integrated with a two-wire microwave transmission line. The microwave field transmitted through this line is used to manipulate the orientation of electron spins in NV centers through the electron-spin resonance tuned by an external magnetic field. The electron spin is then optically initialized and read out, with the initializing laser radiation and the photoluminescence spin-readout return from NV centers delivered by the same optical fiber. PMID:25028257

  7. Electron spin manipulation and readout through an optical fiber

    PubMed Central

    Fedotov, I. V.; Doronina-Amitonova, L. V.; Voronin, A. A.; Levchenko, A. O.; Zibrov, S. A.; Sidorov-Biryukov, D. A.; Fedotov, A. B.; Velichansky, V. L.; Zheltikov, A. M.

    2014-01-01

    The electron spin of nitrogen--vacancy (NV) centers in diamond offers a solid-state quantum bit and enables high-precision magnetic-field sensing on the nanoscale. Implementation of these approaches in a fiber format would offer unique opportunities for a broad range of technologies ranging from quantum information to neuroscience and bioimaging. Here, we demonstrate an ultracompact fiber-optic probe where a diamond microcrystal with a well-defined orientation of spin quantization NV axes is attached to the fiber tip, allowing the electron spins of NV centers to be manipulated, polarized, and read out through a fiber-optic waveguide integrated with a two-wire microwave transmission line. The microwave field transmitted through this line is used to manipulate the orientation of electron spins in NV centers through the electron-spin resonance tuned by an external magnetic field. The electron spin is then optically initialized and read out, with the initializing laser radiation and the photoluminescence spin-readout return from NV centers delivered by the same optical fiber. PMID:25028257

  8. Electronic spin transport and spin precession in single graphene layers at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Tombros, Nikolaos; Jozsa, Csaba; Popinciuc, Mihaita; Jonkman, Harry T; van Wees, Bart J

    2007-08-01

    Electronic transport in single or a few layers of graphene is the subject of intense interest at present. The specific band structure of graphene, with its unique valley structure and Dirac neutrality point separating hole states from electron states, has led to the observation of new electronic transport phenomena such as anomalously quantized Hall effects, absence of weak localization and the existence of a minimum conductivity. In addition to dissipative transport, supercurrent transport has also been observed. Graphene might also be a promising material for spintronics and related applications, such as the realization of spin qubits, owing to the low intrinsic spin orbit interaction, as well as the low hyperfine interaction of the electron spins with the carbon nuclei. Here we report the observation of spin transport, as well as Larmor spin precession, over micrometre-scale distances in single graphene layers. The 'non-local' spin valve geometry was used in these experiments, employing four-terminal contact geometries with ferromagnetic cobalt electrodes making contact with the graphene sheet through a thin oxide layer. We observe clear bipolar (changing from positive to negative sign) spin signals that reflect the magnetization direction of all four electrodes, indicating that spin coherence extends underneath all of the contacts. No significant changes in the spin signals occur between 4.2 K, 77 K and room temperature. We extract a spin relaxation length between 1.5 and 2 mum at room temperature, only weakly dependent on charge density. The spin polarization of the ferromagnetic contacts is calculated from the measurements to be around ten per cent. PMID:17632544

  9. Electronic spin transport and spin precession in single graphene layers at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tombros, Nikolaos; Jozsa, Csaba; Popinciuc, Mihaita; Jonkman, Harry T.; van Wees, Bart J.

    2007-08-01

    Electronic transport in single or a few layers of graphene is the subject of intense interest at present. The specific band structure of graphene, with its unique valley structure and Dirac neutrality point separating hole states from electron states, has led to the observation of new electronic transport phenomena such as anomalously quantized Hall effects, absence of weak localization and the existence of a minimum conductivity. In addition to dissipative transport, supercurrent transport has also been observed. Graphene might also be a promising material for spintronics and related applications, such as the realization of spin qubits, owing to the low intrinsic spin orbit interaction, as well as the low hyperfine interaction of the electron spins with the carbon nuclei. Here we report the observation of spin transport, as well as Larmor spin precession, over micrometre-scale distances in single graphene layers. The `non-local' spin valve geometry was used in these experiments, employing four-terminal contact geometries with ferromagnetic cobalt electrodes making contact with the graphene sheet through a thin oxide layer. We observe clear bipolar (changing from positive to negative sign) spin signals that reflect the magnetization direction of all four electrodes, indicating that spin coherence extends underneath all of the contacts. No significant changes in the spin signals occur between 4.2K, 77K and room temperature. We extract a spin relaxation length between 1.5 and 2μm at room temperature, only weakly dependent on charge density. The spin polarization of the ferromagnetic contacts is calculated from the measurements to be around ten per cent.

  10. Pulsed electron-electron double resonance spectroscopy between a high-spin Mn(2+) ion and a nitroxide spin label.

    PubMed

    Akhmetzyanov, D; Plackmeyer, J; Endeward, B; Denysenkov, V; Prisner, T F

    2015-03-14

    Pulsed Electron-Electron Double Resonance (PELDOR) has attracted considerable attention for biomolecular applications, as it affords precise measurements of distances between pairs of spin labels in the range of 1.5-8 nm. Usually nitroxide moieties incorporated by site-directed spin labelling with cysteine residues are used as spin probes in protein systems. Recently, naturally occurring cofactors and metal ions have also been explored as paramagnetic spin species for such measurements. In this work we investigate the performance of PELDOR between a nitroxide spin label and a high-spin Mn(2+) ion in a synthetic model compound at Q-band (34 GHz) and G-band (180 GHz). We demonstrate that the distances obtained with high-frequency PELDOR are in good agreement with structural predictions. At Q-band frequencies experiments have been performed by probing either the high-spin Mn(2+) ion or the nitroxide spin label. At G-band frequencies we have been able to detect changes in the dipolar oscillation frequency, depending on the pump-probe positions across the g-tensor resolved nitroxide EPR spectrum. These changes result from the restricted mobility of the nitroxide spin label in the model compound. Our results demonstrate that the high-spin Mn(2+) ion can be used for precise distance measurements and open the doors for many biological applications, as naturally occurring Mg(2+) sites can be readily exchanged for Mn(2+). PMID:25669744

  11. High time resolution observations of the polar stratosphere and mesosphere using a ground-based 230-250 GHz microwave radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newnham, D. A.; Espy, P. J.; Clilverd, M. A.; Maxfield, D. J.; Hartogh, P.; Holmén, K.; Blindheim, S.; Horne, R. B.

    2012-04-01

    Microwave radiometry is used to measure thermal emission by the Doppler- and pressure-broadened molecular rotational lines of atmospheric gases, from which vertical abundance profiles can be determined. Since solar radiation is not required for the measurement, the technique has the advantage that continuous observations are possible including throughout the polar winter. We describe the development of a passive microwave radiometer [Espy, P. J., P. Hartogh, and K. Holmen (2006), Proc. SPIE, 6362, 63620P, doi:10.1117/12.688953] for ground-based remote sensing of the polar middle atmosphere. The instrument measures nitric oxide (NO), ozone (O3), and carbon monoxide (CO) vertical profiles over the altitude range 35-90 km with time resolution as high as 15 minutes, allowing the diurnal variability of trace chemical species to be investigated. Heterodyne detection of atmospheric emission at 230 GHz and 250 GHz (wavelength ~1.25 mm) with a receiver noise temperature of 300 K is achieved using a superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) mixer cooled to 4 K. The down-converted signals at 1.35 GHz and 2.10 GHz are analysed using both a moderate-resolution (28 kHz, 220 MHz bandwidth) and a high-resolution (14 kHz, 40 MHz bandwidth) chirp-transform spectrometer (CTS). The instrument was operated semi-autonomously at Troll station (72° 01'S 02° 32'E, 1270 m above sea level), Antarctica during 2008-10 and at the Arctic LIDAR Observatory for Middle Atmosphere Research (ALOMAR, 69° 16'N, 16° 00'E, 380 m above sea level), northern Norway during 2011-12. NO volume mixing ratio (VMR) profiles have been inverted from calibrated brightness temperature spectra of the NO line centred at 250.796 GHz, observed above Troll station, using the Microwave Observation Line Estimation and Retrieval (MOLIERE) version 5 code. A priori pressure, temperature, ozone, water vapour, and NO profiles above 30 km were calculated using the Sodankylä Ion and Neutral Chemistry (SIC, version 6

  12. Nanometer-scale probing of spin waves using single electron spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Sar, Toeno; Casola, Francesco; Walsworth, Ronald; Yacoby, Amir

    2015-05-01

    We have developed a new approach to exploring magnetic excitations in correlated-electron systems, based on single electronic spins in atom-like defects diamond known as nitrogen-vacancy (NV) color centers. We demonstrate the power of this approach by detecting spin-wave excitations in a ferromagnetic microdisc with nanoscale spatial sensitivity over a broad range of frequencies and magnetic fields. We show how spin-wave resonances can be exploited for on-chip amplification of microwave magnetic fields, allowing strongly increased spin manipulation rates and single-spin magnetometry with enhanced sensitivity. Finally, we show the possibility to detect the magnetic spin noise produced by a thin (~ 30 nm) layer of a patterned ferromagnet. For the interpretation of our results, we develop a general framework describing single-spin stray field detection in terms of a filter function sensitive mostly to spin fluctuations with wavevector ~ 1 / d , where d is the NV-ferromagnet distance. Our results pave the way towards quantitative and non-perturbative detection of spectral properties in nanomagnets, establishing NV center magnetometry as an emergent probe of collective spin dynamics in condensed matter.

  13. Foucault's pendulum, a classical analog for the electron spin state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linck, Rebecca A.

    Spin has long been regarded as a fundamentally quantum phenomena that is incapable of being described classically. To bridge the gap and show that aspects of spin's quantum nature can be described classically, this work uses a classical Lagrangian based on the coupled oscillations of Foucault's pendulum as an analog for the electron spin state in an external magnetic field. With this analog it is possible to demonstrate that Foucault's pendulum not only serves as a basis for explaining geometric phase, but is also a basis for reproducing a broad range of behavior from Zeeman-like frequency splitting to precession of the spin state. By demonstrating that unmeasured electron spin states can be fully described in classical terms, this research opens the door to using the tools of classical physics to examine an inherently quantum phenomenon.

  14. Generalized theory of spin fluctuations in itinerant electron magnets: Crucial role of spin anharmonicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solontsov, A.

    2015-06-01

    The paper critically overviews the recent developments of the theory of spatially dispersive spin fluctuations (SF) in itinerant electron magnetism with particular emphasis on spin-fluctuation coupling or spin anharmonicity. It is argued that the conventional self-consistent renormalized (SCR) theory of spin fluctuations is usually used aside of the range of its applicability actually defined by the constraint of weak spin anharmonicity based on the random phase approximation (RPA) arguments. An essential step in understanding SF in itinerant magnets beyond RPA-like arguments was made recently within the soft-mode theory of SF accounting for strong spin anharmonicity caused by zero-point SF. In the present paper we generalize it to apply for a wider range of temperatures and regimes of SF and show it to lead to qualitatively new results caused by zero-point effects.

  15. Spin flips in cyclotron emission by an electron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melrose, D. B.; Russell, K.

    2002-01-01

    The spin dependence of cyclotron emission is treated using the non-relativistic limit of the Dirac equation; the Schrödinger-Pauli theory is inadequate because of the importance of spin-orbit coupling, which is an intrinsically relativistic effect. Only the choice of the magnetic moment as the spin operator is physically acceptable; all other spin operators precess at a rate comparable with or in excess of cyclotron transition rates. The spin-flip (s = 1 → -1) transition rate is smaller than the non-spin-flip of the order B/Bc (Bc = 4.4 × 109 T), and the reverse spin-flip (s = -1 → +1) transition rate is smaller by a further factor of order (B/Bc)2, implying that it is strongly forbidden. It is shown that there is a preference for electrons with spin s = 1 initially in a high Landau level, n ≫ 1, to relax to the ground state, s = -1, n = 0, by stepwise jumps to the lowest Landau level for s = 1 and then making the spin-flip transition to s = -1, rather than making the spin-flip transition from a higher Landau level, and that this preference increases with decreasing B/Bc.

  16. Spin-dependent electron transport in nanoscale samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yaguang

    In this thesis, we describe the research in which we use metallic nanoparticles to explore spin-dependent electron transport at nanometer scale. Nanoscale samples were fabricated by using a state of the art electron beam lithography and shadow evaporation technique. We have investigated spin relaxation and decoherence in metallic grains as a function of bias voltage and magnetic field at low temperatures (down to ˜30mK). At low temperatures, the discrete energy levels within a metallic nanoparticle provides a new means to study the physics of the spin-polarized electron tunneling. We describe measurements of spin-polarized tunneling via discrete energy levels of single Aluminum grain. Spin polarized current saturates quickly as a function of bias voltage, which demonstrates that the ground state and the lowest excited states carry spin polarized current. The ratio of electron-spin relaxation time (T1) to the electron-phonon relaxation rate is in quantitative agreement with the Elliot-Yafet scaling, an evidence that spin-relaxation in Al grains is driven by the spin-orbit interaction. The spin-relaxation time of the low-lying excited states is T1 ≈ 0.7 mus and 0.1 mus in two samples, showing that electron spin in a metallic grain could be a potential candidate for quantum information research. We also present measurements of mesoscopic resistance fluctuations in cobalt nanoparticles at low temperature and study how the fluctuations with bias voltage, bias fingerprints, respond to magnetization-reversal processes. Bias fingerprints rearrange when domains are nucleated or annihilated. The domain wall causes an electron wave function-phase shift of ˜5 pi. The phase shift is not caused by the Aharonov-Bohm effect; we explain how it arises from the mistracking effect, where electron spins lag in orientation with respect to the moments inside the domain wall. The dephasing length at low temperatures is only 30 nm, which is attributed to the large magnetocrystalline

  17. High-resolution spin-polarized scanning electron microscopy (spin SEM).

    PubMed

    Kohashi, Teruo; Konoto, Makoto; Koike, Kazuyuki

    2010-01-01

    We have developed spin-polarized scanning electron microscopy (spin SEM) with a 5-nm resolution. The secondary electron optics is very important, as it needs to transfer a sufficient number of secondary electrons to the spin polarimeter, due to the low efficiency of the polarimeter. The optics was designed using a three-dimensional (3D) simulation program of the secondary electron trajectories, and it achieves highly efficient collection and transport of the secondary electrons even though the distance between the sample and the objective lens exit of the electron gun remains short. Moreover, the designed optics enables us to obtain clear SEM images in the spin SEM measurement and to precisely adjust the probe beam shape. These functions lead to images with high spatial resolution and sufficient signal-to-noise (S/N) ratios. This optics has been installed in an ultra-high vacuum (UHV) spin SEM chamber with a Schottky-type electron gun for the probe electron beam. We observed recorded bits on a perpendicular magnetic recording medium and visualized small irregularities in the bit shapes around the track edges and bit boundaries. The high resolution of 5 nm was demonstrated by observing the smallest domain composed by a single grain in the recording medium. PMID:19840986

  18. Electron spin control of optically levitated nanodiamonds in vacuum

    PubMed Central

    Hoang, Thai M.; Ahn, Jonghoon; Bang, Jaehoon; Li, Tongcang

    2016-01-01

    Electron spins of diamond nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centres are important quantum resources for nanoscale sensing and quantum information. Combining NV spins with levitated optomechanical resonators will provide a hybrid quantum system for novel applications. Here we optically levitate a nanodiamond and demonstrate electron spin control of its built-in NV centres in low vacuum. We observe that the strength of electron spin resonance (ESR) is enhanced when the air pressure is reduced. To better understand this system, we investigate the effects of trap power and measure the absolute internal temperature of levitated nanodiamonds with ESR after calibration of the strain effect. We also observe that oxygen and helium gases have different effects on both the photoluminescence and the ESR contrast of nanodiamond NV centres, indicating potential applications of NV centres in oxygen gas sensing. Our results pave the way towards a levitated spin–optomechanical system for studying macroscopic quantum mechanics. PMID:27432560

  19. Intramembrane Polarity by Electron Spin Echo Spectroscopy of Labeled Lipids

    PubMed Central

    Bartucci, Rosa; Guzzi, Rita; Marsh, Derek; Sportelli, Luigi

    2003-01-01

    The association of water (D2O) with phospholipid membranes was studied by using pulsed-electron spin resonance techniques. We measured the deuterium electron spin echo modulation of spin-labeled phospholipids by D2O in membranes of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine with and without 50 mol% of cholesterol. The Fourier transform of the relaxation-corrected two-pulse echo decay curve reveals peaks, at one and two times the deuterium NMR frequency, that arise from the dipolar hyperfine interaction of the deuterium nucleus with the unpaired electron spin of the nitroxide-labeled lipid. For phosphatidylcholine spin-labeled at different positions down the sn-2 chain, the amplitude of the deuterium signal decreases toward the center of the membrane, and is reduced to zero from the C-12 atom position onward. At chain positions C-5 and C-7 closer to the phospholipid headgroups, the amplitude of the deuterium signal is greater in the presence of cholesterol than in its absence. These results are in good agreement with more indirect measurements of the transmembrane polarity profile that are based on the 14N-hyperfine splittings in the conventional continuous-wave electron spin resonance spectrum. PMID:12547783

  20. Quantum and classical correlations in electron-nuclear spin echo

    SciTech Connect

    Zobov, V. E.

    2014-11-15

    The quantum properties of dynamic correlations in a system of an electron spin surrounded by nuclear spins under the conditions of free induction decay and electron spin echo have been studied. Analytical results for the time evolution of mutual information, classical part of correlations, and quantum part characterized by quantum discord have been obtained within the central-spin model in the high-temperature approximation. The same formulas describe discord in both free induction decay and spin echo although the time and magnetic field dependences are different because of difference in the parameters entering into the formulas. Changes in discord in the presence of the nuclear polarization β{sub I} in addition to the electron polarization β{sub S} have been calculated. It has been shown that the method of reduction of the density matrix to a two-spin electron-nuclear system provides a qualitatively correct description of pair correlations playing the main role at β{sub S} ≈ β{sub I} and small times. At large times, such correlations decay and multispin correlations ensuring nonzero mutual information and zero quantum discord become dominant.

  1. Magnetohydrodynamic spin waves in degenerate electron-positron-ion plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Mushtaq, A.; Maroof, R.; Ahmad, Zulfiaqr; Qamar, A.

    2012-05-15

    Low frequency magnetosonic waves are studied in magnetized degenerate electron-positron-ion plasmas with spin effects. Using the fluid equations of magnetoplasma with quantum corrections due to the Bohm potential, temperature degeneracy, and spin magnetization energy, a generalized dispersion relation for oblique magnetosonic waves is derived. Spin effects are incorporated via spin force and macroscopic spin magnetization current. For three different values of angle {theta}, the generalized dispersion relation is reduced to three different relations under the low frequency magnetohydrodynamic assumptions. It is found that the effect of quantum corrections in the presence of positron concentration significantly modifies the dispersive properties of these modes. The importance of the work relevant to compact astrophysical bodies is pointed out.

  2. Electron spin coherence near room temperature in magnetic quantum dots

    PubMed Central

    Moro, Fabrizio; Turyanska, Lyudmila; Wilman, James; Fielding, Alistair J.; Fay, Michael W.; Granwehr, Josef; Patanè, Amalia

    2015-01-01

    We report on an example of confined magnetic ions with long spin coherence near room temperature. This was achieved by confining single Mn2+ spins in colloidal semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) and by dispersing the QDs in a proton-spin free matrix. The controlled suppression of Mn–Mn interactions and minimization of Mn–nuclear spin dipolar interactions result in unprecedentedly long phase memory (TM ~ 8 μs) and spin–lattice relaxation (T1 ~ 10 ms) time constants for Mn2+ ions at T = 4.5 K, and in electron spin coherence observable near room temperature (TM ~ 1 μs). PMID:26040432

  3. Stark tuning of donor electron spins in silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Bradbury, F.R.; Tyryshkin, A.M.; Sabouret, G.; Bokor, J.; Schenkel, T.; Lyon, S.A.

    2006-03-12

    We report Stark shift measurements for 121Sb donor electronspins in silicon using pulsed electron spin resonance. Interdigitatedmetal gates on top of a Sb-implanted 28Si epi-layer are used to applyelectric fields. Two Stark effects are resolved: a decrease of thehyperfine coupling between electron and nuclear spins of the donor and adecrease in electron Zeeman g-factor. The hyperfine term prevails atX-band magnetic fields of 0.35T, while the g-factor term is expected todominate at higher magnetic fields. A significant linear Stark effect isalso resolved presumably arising from strain.

  4. Resonant spin amplification in nanostructures with anisotropic spin relaxation and spread of the electronic g factor

    SciTech Connect

    Glazov, M. M. Ivchenko, E. L.

    2008-08-15

    Spin dynamics of electrons in semiconductors and structures with quantum wells under conditions where pumping and probing are performed in the form of a periodical series of pulses is theoretically studied. It is shown that, at a fixed delay between the pump and probe pulses, the signal of spin amplification as a function of the magnetic field consists of a series of narrow peaks conditioned by commensurability of the period of spin precession and pulse repetition interval. In the case of anisotropic spin relaxation, the peak centered at the zero magnetic field is suppressed compared with the neighboring peaks. The role of inhomogeneous broadening of the frequency of the Larmor precession in the formation of the spin amplification signal is analyzed.

  5. Highly selective detection of individual nuclear spins with rotary echo on an electron spin probe

    SciTech Connect

    Mkhitaryan, V. V.; Jelezko, F.; Dobrovitski, V. V.

    2015-10-26

    We consider an electronic spin, such as a nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond, weakly coupled to a large number of nuclear spins, and subjected to the Rabi driving with a periodically alternating phase. We show that by switching the driving phase synchronously with the precession of a given nuclear spin, the interaction to this spin is selectively enhanced, while the rest of the bath remains decoupled. The enhancement is of resonant character. The key feature of the suggested scheme is that the width of the resonance is adjustable, and can be greatly decreased by increasing the driving strength. Thus, the resonance can be significantly narrowed, by a factor of 10–100 in comparison with the existing detection methods. Significant improvement in selectivity is explained analytically and confirmed by direct numerical many-spin simulations. As a result, the method can be applied to a wide range of solid-state systems.

  6. Highly selective detection of individual nuclear spins with rotary echo on an electron spin probe

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mkhitaryan, V. V.; Jelezko, F.; Dobrovitski, V. V.

    2015-10-26

    We consider an electronic spin, such as a nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond, weakly coupled to a large number of nuclear spins, and subjected to the Rabi driving with a periodically alternating phase. We show that by switching the driving phase synchronously with the precession of a given nuclear spin, the interaction to this spin is selectively enhanced, while the rest of the bath remains decoupled. The enhancement is of resonant character. The key feature of the suggested scheme is that the width of the resonance is adjustable, and can be greatly decreased by increasing the driving strength. Thus, the resonancemore » can be significantly narrowed, by a factor of 10–100 in comparison with the existing detection methods. Significant improvement in selectivity is explained analytically and confirmed by direct numerical many-spin simulations. As a result, the method can be applied to a wide range of solid-state systems.« less

  7. Highly selective detection of individual nuclear spins with rotary echo on an electron spin probe

    PubMed Central

    Mkhitaryan, V. V.; Jelezko, F.; Dobrovitski, V. V.

    2015-01-01

    We consider an electronic spin, such as a nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond, weakly coupled to a large number of nuclear spins, and subjected to the Rabi driving with a periodically alternating phase. We show that by switching the driving phase synchronously with the precession of a given nuclear spin, the interaction to this spin is selectively enhanced, while the rest of the bath remains decoupled. The enhancement is of resonant character. The key feature of the suggested scheme is that the width of the resonance is adjustable, and can be greatly decreased by increasing the driving strength. Thus, the resonance can be significantly narrowed, by a factor of 10–100 in comparison with the existing detection methods. Significant improvement in selectivity is explained analytically and confirmed by direct numerical many-spin simulations. The method can be applied to a wide range of solid-state systems. PMID:26497777

  8. Optically-pumped spin-exchange polarized electron source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirbhai, Munir Hussein

    Polarized electron beams are an indispensable probe of spin-dependent phenomena in fields of atomic and molecular physics, magnetism and biophysics. While their uses have become widespread, the standard source based on negative electron affinity gallium arsenide (GaAs) remains technically complicated. This has hindered progress on many experiments involving spin-polarized electrons, especially those using target gas loads, which tend to adversely affect the performance of GaAs sources. A robust system based on an alternative way to make polarized electron beams has been devised in this study, which builds on previous work done in our lab. It involves spin-exchange collisions between free, unpolarized electrons and oriented rubidium atoms in the presence of a quenching gas. This system has less stringent vacuum requirements than those of GaAs sources, and is capable of operating in background pressures of ~1mTorr. Beams with ~24% polarization and 4μA of current have been recorded, which is comparable to the performance obtained with the earlier version built in our lab. The present system is however not as unstable as in the previous work, and has the potential to be developed into a "turn-key" source of polarized electron beams. It has also allowed us to undertake a study to find factors which affect the beam polarization in this scheme of producing polarized electrons. Such knowledge will help us to design better optically-pumped spin-exchange polarized electron sources.

  9. Resonant spin Hall effect in two dimensional electron gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Shun-Qing

    2005-03-01

    Remarkable phenomena have been observed in 2DEG over last two decades, most notably, the discovery of integer and fractional quantum Hall effect. The study of spin transport provides a good opportunity to explore spin physics in two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) with spin-orbit coupling and other interaction. It is already known that the spin-orbit coupling leads to a zero-field spin splitting, and competes with the Zeeman spin splitting if the system is subjected to a magnetic field perpendicular to the plane of 2DEG. The result can be detected as beating of the Shubnikov-de Haas oscillation. Very recently the speaker and his collaborators studied transport properties of a two-dimensional electron system with Rashba spin-orbit coupling in a perpendicular magnetic field. The spin-orbit coupling competes with the Zeeman splitting to generate additional degeneracies between different Landau levels at certain magnetic fields. It is predicted theoretically that this degeneracy, if occurring at the Fermi level, gives rise to a resonant spin Hall conductance, whose height is divergent as 1/T and whose weight is divergent as -lnT at low temperatures. The charge Hall conductance changes by 2e^2/h instead of e^2/h as the magnetic field changes through the resonant point. The speaker will address the resonance condition, symmetries in the spin-orbit coupling, the singularity of magnetic susceptibility, nonlinear electric field effect, the edge effect and the disorder effect due to impurities. This work was supported by the Research Grants Council of Hong Kong under Grant No.: HKU 7088/01P. *S. Q. Shen, M. Ma, X. C. Xie, and F. C. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 256603 (2004) *S. Q. Shen, Y. J. Bao, M. Ma, X. C. Xie, and F. C. Zhang, cond-mat/0410169

  10. Surface spin-electron acoustic waves in magnetically ordered metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreev, Pavel A.; Kuz'menkov, L. S.

    2016-05-01

    Degenerate plasmas with motionless ions show existence of three surface waves: the Langmuir wave, the electromagnetic wave, and the zeroth sound. Applying the separated spin evolution quantum hydrodynamics to half-space plasma, we demonstrate the existence of the surface spin-electron acoustic wave (SSEAW). We study dispersion of the SSEAW. We show that there is hybridization between the surface Langmuir wave and the SSEAW at rather small spin polarization. In the hybridization area, the dispersion branches are located close to each other. In this area, there is a strong interaction between these waves leading to the energy exchange. Consequently, generating the Langmuir waves with the frequencies close to hybridization area we can generate the SSEAWs. Thus, we report a method of creation of the spin-electron acoustic waves.

  11. Electron spin resonance studies on reduction process of nitroxyl spin radicals used in molecular imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Dhas, M. Kumara; Benial, A. Milton Franklin; Jawahar, A.

    2014-04-24

    The Electron spin resonance studies on the reduction process of nitroxyl spin probes were carried out for 1mM {sup 14}N labeled nitroxyl radicals in pure water and 1 mM concentration of ascorbic acid as a function of time. The electron spin resonance parameters such as signal intensity ratio, line width, g-value, hyperfine coupling constant and rotational correlation time were determined. The half life time was estimated for 1mM {sup 14}N labeled nitroxyl radicals in 1 mM concentration of ascorbic acid. The ESR study reveals that the TEMPONE has narrowest line width and fast tumbling motion compared with TEMPO and TEMPOL. From the results, TEMPONE has long half life time and high stability compared with TEMPO and TEMPOL radical. Therefore, this study reveals that the TEMPONE radical can act as a good redox sensitive spin probe for molecular imaging.

  12. Optical Generation of Hot Spin-Polarized Electrons from a Ferromagnetic Two-Dimensional Electron Gas.

    PubMed

    Ellguth, Martin; Tusche, Christian; Kirschner, Jürgen

    2015-12-31

    Linearly polarized light with an energy of 3.1 eV has been used to excite highly spin-polarized electrons in an ultrathin film of face-centered-tetragonal cobalt to majority-spin quantum well states (QWS) derived from an sp band at the border of the Brillouin zone. The spin-selective excitation process has been studied by spin- and momentum-resolved two-photon photoemission. Analyzing the photoemission patterns in two-dimensional momentum planes, we find that the optically driven transition from the valence band to the QWS acts almost exclusively on majority-spin electrons. The mechanism providing the high spin polarization is discussed by the help of a density-functional theory calculation. Additionally, a sizable effect of spin-orbit coupling for the QWS is evidenced. PMID:26765012

  13. Electron-Spin Filters Based on the Rashba Effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, David Z.-Y.; Cartoixa, Xavier; McGill, Thomas C.; Moon, Jeong S.; Chow, David H.; Schulman, Joel N.; Smith, Darryl L.

    2004-01-01

    Semiconductor electron-spin filters of a proposed type would be based on the Rashba effect, which is described briefly below. Electron-spin filters more precisely, sources of spin-polarized electron currents have been sought for research on, and development of, the emerging technological discipline of spintronics (spin-based electronics). There have been a number of successful demonstrations of injection of spin-polarized electrons from diluted magnetic semiconductors and from ferromagnetic metals into nonmagnetic semiconductors. In contrast, a device according to the proposal would be made from nonmagnetic semiconductor materials and would function without an applied magnetic field. The Rashba effect, named after one of its discoverers, is an energy splitting, of what would otherwise be degenerate quantum states, caused by a spin-orbit interaction in conjunction with a structural-inversion asymmetry in the presence of interfacial electric fields in a semiconductor heterostructure. The magnitude of the energy split is proportional to the electron wave number. The present proposal evolved from recent theoretical studies that suggested the possibility of devices in which electron energy states would be split by the Rashba effect and spin-polarized currents would be extracted by resonant quantum-mechanical tunneling. Accordingly, a device according to the proposal would be denoted an asymmetric resonant interband tunneling diode [a-RITD]. An a-RITD could be implemented in a variety of forms, the form favored in the proposal being a double-barrier heterostructure containing an asymmetric quantum well. It is envisioned that a-RITDs would be designed and fabricated in the InAs/GaSb/AlSb material system for several reasons: Heterostructures in this material system are strong candidates for pronounced Rashba spin splitting because InAs and GaSb exhibit large spin-orbit interactions and because both InAs and GaSb would be available for the construction of highly asymmetric

  14. Manipulating single electron spins and coherence in quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awschalom, David

    2008-05-01

    The non-destructive detection of a single electron spin in a quantum dot (QD) is demonstrated using a time- averaged magneto-optical Kerr rotation measurementootnotetextJ. Berezovsky, M. H. Mikkelsen, O. Gywat, N. G. Stoltz, L. A. Coldren, and D. D. Awschalom, Science 314, 1916 (2006).. This technique provides a means to directly probe the spin off- resonance, thus minimally disturbing the system. Furthermore, the ability to sequentially initialize, manipulate, and read out the state of a qubit, such as an electron spin in a quantum dot, is necessary for virtually any scheme for quantum information processing. In addition to the time-averaged measurements, we have extended the single dot KR technique into the time domain with pulsed pump and probe lasers, allowing the observation of the coherent evolution of an electron spin stateootnotetextM. H. Mikkelsen, J. Berezovsky, N. G. Stoltz, L. A. Coldren, and D. D. Awschalom, Nature Physics 3, 770 (2007).. The dot is formed by interface fluctuations of a GaAs quantum well and embedded in a diode structure to allow controllable gating/charging of the QD. To enhance the small single spin signal, the QD is positioned within a vertical optical cavity. Observations of coherent single spin precession in an applied magnetic field allow a direct measurement of the electron g-factor and transverse spin lifetime. These measurements reveal information about the relevant spin decoherence mechanisms, while also providing a sensitive probe of the local nuclear spin environment. Finally, we have recently eveloped a scheme for high speed all-optical manipulation of the spin state that enables multiple operations within the coherence timeootnotetextJ. Berezovsky, M. H. Mikkelsen, N. G. Stoltz, L. A. Coldren, and D. D. Awschalom, accepted for publication (2008).. The results represent progress toward the control and coupling of single spins and photons for quantum information processingootnotetextS. Ghosh, W.H. Wang, F. M. Mendoza, R. C

  15. Foucault's Pendulum, Analog for an Electron Spin State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linck, Rebecca

    2012-11-01

    The classical Lagrangian that describes the coupled oscillations of Foucault's pendulum presents an interesting analog to an electron's spin state in an external magnetic field. With a simple modification, this classical Lagrangian yields equations of motion that directly map onto the Schrodinger-Pauli Equation. This analog goes well beyond the geometric phase, reproducing a broad range of behavior from Zeeman-like frequency splitting to precession of the spin state. By demonstrating that unmeasured spin states can be fully described in classical terms, this research opens the door to using the tools of classical physics to examine an inherently quantum phenomenon.

  16. Strong mechanical driving of a single electron spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barfuss, A.; Teissier, J.; Neu, E.; Nunnenkamp, A.; Maletinsky, P.

    2015-10-01

    Quantum devices for sensing and computing applications require coherent quantum systems, which can be manipulated in fast and robust ways. Such quantum control is typically achieved using external electromagnetic fields, which drive the system’s orbital, charge or spin degrees of freedom. However, most existing approaches require complex and unwieldy gate structures, and with few exceptions are limited to the regime of weak coherent driving. Here, we present a novel approach to coherently drive a single electronic spin using internal strain fields in an integrated quantum device. Specifically, we employ time-varying strain in a diamond cantilever to induce long-lasting, coherent oscillations of an embedded nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centre spin. We perform direct spectroscopy of the phonon-dressed states emerging from this drive and observe hallmarks of the sought-after strong-driving regime, where the spin rotation frequency exceeds the spin splitting. Furthermore, we employ our continuous strain driving to significantly enhance the NV’s spin coherence time. Our room-temperature experiments thereby constitute an important step towards strain-driven, integrated quantum devices and open new perspectives to investigate unexplored regimes of strongly driven multilevel systems and exotic spin dynamics in hybrid spin-oscillator devices.

  17. Electron spin resonance of spin-labeled lipid assemblies and proteins.

    PubMed

    Guzzi, Rita; Bartucci, Rosa

    2015-08-15

    Spin-label electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy is a valuable means to study molecular mobility and interactions in biological systems. This paper deals with conventional, continuous wave ESR of nitroxide spin-labels at 9-GHz providing an introduction to the basic principles of the technique and applications to self-assembled lipid aggregates and proteins. Emphasis is given to segmental lipid chain order and rotational dynamics of lipid structures, environmental polarity of membranes and proteins, structure and conformational dynamics of proteins. PMID:26116378

  18. A single-atom electron spin qubit in silicon.

    PubMed

    Pla, Jarryd J; Tan, Kuan Y; Dehollain, Juan P; Lim, Wee H; Morton, John J L; Jamieson, David N; Dzurak, Andrew S; Morello, Andrea

    2012-09-27

    A single atom is the prototypical quantum system, and a natural candidate for a quantum bit, or qubit--the elementary unit of a quantum computer. Atoms have been successfully used to store and process quantum information in electromagnetic traps, as well as in diamond through the use of the nitrogen-vacancy-centre point defect. Solid-state electrical devices possess great potential to scale up such demonstrations from few-qubit control to larger-scale quantum processors. Coherent control of spin qubits has been achieved in lithographically defined double quantum dots in both GaAs (refs 3-5) and Si (ref. 6). However, it is a formidable challenge to combine the electrical measurement capabilities of engineered nanostructures with the benefits inherent in atomic spin qubits. Here we demonstrate the coherent manipulation of an individual electron spin qubit bound to a phosphorus donor atom in natural silicon, measured electrically via single-shot read-out. We use electron spin resonance to drive Rabi oscillations, and a Hahn echo pulse sequence reveals a spin coherence time exceeding 200 µs. This time should be even longer in isotopically enriched (28)Si samples. Combined with a device architecture that is compatible with modern integrated circuit technology, the electron spin of a single phosphorus atom in silicon should be an excellent platform on which to build a scalable quantum computer. PMID:22992519

  19. Local spin dynamics with the electron electric dipole moment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, Masahiro; Soga, Kota; Senami, Masato; Tachibana, Akitomo

    2016-01-01

    The local spin dynamics of the electron is studied from the viewpoint of the electric dipole moment (EDM) of the electron in the framework of the quantum field theory. The improvements of the computational accuracy of the effective electric field (Eeff) for the EDM and the understanding of spin precession are important for the experimental determination of the upper bound of the EDM. Calculations of Eeff in YbF (2Σ1 /2 ), BaF (2Σ1 /2 ), ThO (3Δ1 ), and HF+ (2Π1 /2 ) are performed on the basis of the restricted active space configuration interaction approach by using the four-component relativistic electronic structure calculation. The spin precession is also discussed from the viewpoint of local spin torque dynamics. We show that a contribution to the torque density for the spin is brought into by the EDM. Distributions of the local spin angular momentum density and torque densities induced by external fields in the above molecules are calculated and a property related with large Eeff is discussed.

  20. Hot electron spin transport in C60 fullerene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hueso, Luis Eduardo; Gobbi, Marco; Bedoya-Pinto, Amilcar; Golmar, Federico; Llopis, Roger; Casanova, Felix

    2012-02-01

    Carbon-based molecular materials are interesting for spin transport application mainly due to their small sources of spin relaxation [1]. However, spin coherence lengths reported in many molecular films do not exceed a few tens of nanometers [2]. In this work we will present results showing how hot spin-polarized electrons injected well above the Fermi level in C60 fullerene films travel coherently for hundreds of nanometers. We fabricated hot-electron vertical transistors, in which the current created across an Al/Al2O3 junction is polarized by a metallic Co/Cu/Py spin valve trilayer and subsequently injected in the molecular thin film. This geometry allows us to determine the energy level alignment at each interface between different materials. Moreover, the collector magnetocurrent excess 85%, even for C60 films thicknesses of 300 nm. We believe these results show the importance of hot spin-polarized electron injection and propagation in molecular materials. [1] V. Dediu, L.E. Hueso, I. Bergenti, C. Taliani, Nature Mater. 8, 707 (2009) [2] M. Gobbi, F. Golmar, R. Llopis, F. Casanova, L.E. Hueso, Adv. Mater. 23, 1609 (2011)

  1. Dynamics of a mesoscopic nuclear spin ensemble interacting with an optically driven electron spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, M. J.; Matthiesen, C.; Hansom, J.; Le Gall, C.; Schulte, C. H. H.; Clarke, E.; Atatüre, M.

    2014-11-01

    The ability to discriminate between simultaneously occurring noise sources in the local environment of semiconductor InGaAs quantum dots, such as electric and magnetic field fluctuations, is key to understanding their respective dynamics and their effect on quantum dot coherence properties. We present a discriminatory approach to all-optical sensing based on two-color resonance fluorescence of a quantum dot charged with a single electron. Our measurements show that local magnetic field fluctuations due to nuclear spins in the absence of an external magnetic field are described by two correlation times, both in the microsecond regime. The nuclear spin bath dynamics show a strong dependence on the strength of resonant probing, with correlation times increasing by a factor of 4 as the optical transition is saturated. We interpret the behavior as motional averaging of both the Knight field of the resident electron spin and the hyperfine-mediated nuclear spin-spin interaction due to optically induced electron spin flips.

  2. Active plasmonic devices via electron spin.

    PubMed

    Baron, C A; Elezzabi, A Y

    2009-04-27

    A class of active terahertz devices that operate via particle plasmon oscillations is introduced for ensembles consisting of ferromagnetic and dielectric micro-particles. By utilizing an interplay between spin-orbit interaction manifesting as anisotropic magnetoresistance and the optical distance between ferromagnetic particles, a multifaceted paradigm for device design is demonstrated. Here, the phase accumulation of terahertz radiation across the device is actively modulated via the application of an external magnetic field. An active plasmonic directional router and an active plasmonic cylindrical lens are theoretically explored using both an empirical approach and finite-difference time-domain calculations. These findings are experimentally supported. PMID:19399088

  3. Spin and orbital rotation of electrons and photons via spin-orbit interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leary, C. C.; Raymer, M. G.; van Enk, S. J.

    2009-12-01

    We show that when an electron or photon propagates in a cylindrically symmetric waveguide, its spin angular momentum (SAM) and its orbital angular momentum (OAM) interact. Remarkably, we find that the dynamics resulting from this spin-orbit interaction are quantitatively described by a single expression applying to both electrons and photons. This leads to the prediction of several rotational effects: the spatial or time evolution of either particle’s spin-polarization vector is controlled by its OAM quantum number or, conversely, its spatial wave function is controlled by its SAM. We show that the common origin of these effects in electrons and photons is a universal geometric phase. We demonstrate how these phenomena can be used to reversibly transfer entanglement between the SAM and OAM degrees of freedom of two-particle states.

  4. Spin and Orbital Rotation of Electrons and Photons via Spin-Orbit Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leary, Cody; Raymer, Michael; van Enk, Steven

    2010-03-01

    We show that when an electron or photon propagates in a cylindrically symmetric waveguide, its spin angular momentum (SAM) and its orbital angular momentum (OAM) interact. Remarkably, we find that the dynamics resulting from this spin- orbit interaction are quantitatively described by a single expression applying to both electrons and photons. This leads to the prediction of several novel rotational effects: the spatial or time evolution of either particle's spin/polarization vector is controlled by its OAM quantum number, or conversely, its spatial wavefunction is controlled by its SAM. We show that the common origin of these effects in electrons and photons is a universal geometric phase. We demonstrate how these phenomena can be used to reversibly transfer entanglement between the SAM and OAM degrees of freedom of two-particle states.

  5. Electron Spin Relaxation of Hole and Electron Polarons in π-Conjugated Porphyrin Arrays: Spintronic Implications.

    PubMed

    Rawson, Jeff; Angiolillo, Paul J; Frail, Paul R; Goodenough, Isabella; Therien, Michael J

    2015-06-18

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopic line shape analysis and continuous-wave (CW) progressive microwave power saturation experiments are used to probe the relaxation behavior and the relaxation times of charged excitations (hole and electron polarons) in meso-to-meso ethyne-bridged (porphinato)zinc(II) oligomers (PZnn compounds), which can serve as models for the relevant states generated upon spin injection. The observed ESR line shapes for the PZnn hole polaron ([PZnn](+•)) and electron polaron ([PZnn](-•)) states evolve from Gaussian to more Lorentzian as the oligomer length increases from 1.9 to 7.5 nm, with solution-phase [PZnn](+•) and [PZnn](-•) spin-spin (T2) and spin-lattice (T1) relaxation times at 298 K ranging, respectively, from 40 to 230 ns and 0.2 to 2.3 μs. Notably, these very long relaxation times are preserved in thick films of these species. Because the magnitudes of spin-spin and spin-lattice relaxation times are vital metrics for spin dephasing in quantum computing or for spin-polarized transport in magnetoresistive structures, these results, coupled with the established wire-like transport behavior across metal-dithiol-PZnn-metal junctions, present meso-to-meso ethyne-bridged multiporphyrin systems as leading candidates for ambient-temperature organic spintronic applications. PMID:25697578

  6. Cryogenic single-chip electron spin resonance detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gualco, Gabriele; Anders, Jens; Sienkiewicz, Andrzej; Alberti, Stefano; Forró, László; Boero, Giovanni

    2014-10-01

    We report on the design and characterization of a single-chip electron spin resonance detector, operating at a frequency of about 20 GHz and in a temperature range extending at least from 300 K down to 4 K. The detector consists of an LC oscillator formed by a 200 μm diameter single turn aluminum planar coil, a metal-oxide-metal capacitor, and two metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors used as negative resistance network. At 300 K, the oscillator has a frequency noise of 20 Hz/Hz1/2 at 100 kHz offset from the 20 GHz carrier. At 4 K, the frequency noise is about 1 Hz/Hz1/2 at 10 kHz offset. The spin sensitivity measured with a sample of DPPH is 108 spins/Hz1/2 at 300 K and down to 106 spins/Hz1/2 at 4 K.

  7. Electronic measurement of strain effects on spin transport in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qing, Lan; Tinkey, Holly; Appelbaum, Ian

    Spin transport in silicon is limited by the Elliott-Yafet spin relaxation mechanism, which is driven by scattering between degenerate conduction band valleys. Mechanical strain along a valley axis partially breaks this degeneracy, and will ultimately quench intervalley spin relaxation for transitions between states on orthogonal axes. Using a custom-designed and constructed strain probe, we study the effects of uniaxial compressive strain along the < 100 > direction on ballistic tunnel junction devices used to inject spin-polarized electrons into silicon. The effects of strain-induced valley splitting will be presented and compared to our theoretical model. This work is supported by the Office of Naval Research under Contract No. N000141410317, the National Science Foundation under Contract No. ECCS-1231855, the Defense Threat Reduction Agency under Contract No. HDTRA1-13-1-0013, and the Maryland NanoCenter.

  8. All-electric spin control in interference single electron transistors.

    PubMed

    Donarini, Andrea; Begemann, Georg; Grifoni, Milena

    2009-08-01

    Single particle interference lies at the heart of quantum mechanics. The archetypal double-slit experiment(1) has been repeated with electrons in vacuum(2,3) up to the more massive C(60) molecules.(4) Mesoscopic rings threaded by a magnetic flux provide the solid-state analogues.(5,6) Intramolecular interference has been recently discussed in molecular junctions.(7-11) Here we propose to exploit interference to achieve all-electrical control of a single electron spin in quantum dots, a highly desirable property for spintronics(12-14) and spin-qubit applications.(15-19) The device consists of an interference single electron transistor,(10,11) where destructive interference between orbitally degenerate electronic states produces current blocking at specific bias voltages. We show that in the presence of parallel polarized ferromagnetic leads the interplay between interference and the exchange interaction on the system generates an effective energy renormalization yielding different blocking biases for majority and minority spins. Hence, by tuning the bias voltage full control over the spin of the trapped electron is achieved. PMID:19719108

  9. Observation of doubly spin-polarized deuterium by electron-spin resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Shinkoda, I.; Reynolds, M.W.; Cline, R.W.; Hardy, W.N.

    1986-09-08

    We have studied spin-polarized deuterium, Darrow-down, in the temperature range 0.3 to 0.7 K in a field of 40 kG using electron-spin resonance at 114 GHz. The intrinsic rates for recombination of two D atoms to form D/sub 2/ on the surface of l-/sup 4/He have been measured for both the ortho and para channels. The two rates are approximately equal and when extrapolated to zero field are 1600 times greater than the rates for H/sub 2/ formation. Doubly spin-polarized deuterium, Darrow-downX, has been observed for the first time, with nuclear-spin purities >0.98 and sample lifetimes as long as 1 h.

  10. Rubidium Optical Pumping for an Electron Spin Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norrgard, Eric

    2010-03-01

    Our group is designing a novel polarized electron source based on spin exchange between an incident beam of electrons and an optically-pumped rubidium vapor target [1,2]. An overview of the spin filter design will be provided. I will then discuss optical pumping of rubidium and techniques for measuring spin polarization. An anomalous Rb polarization reversal detected when varying the wavelength of a pump laser with a spectral width of about 6 percent of the absorption profile of the Rb D2 transition width over the absorption profile will be examined. In the rubidium electron spin filter, viable spin exchange is thought to occur in the immediate vicinity of the exit aperture of the optical pumping region. Therefore, optical techniques for mapping the spatial dependence of a pumped Rb sample will be discussed, and measurements of Rb polarization throughout the optically-pump region will be presented.[4pt] [1] H. Batelaan et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 82, 4216 (1999).[0pt] [2] M.A. Rosenberry, J.P. Reyes, D. Tupa, T.J. Gay Phys. Rev. A 75, 023401 (2007).

  11. Electron Spin Qubits in Si/SiGe Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksson, Mark

    2010-10-01

    It is intriguing that silicon, the central material of modern classical electronics, also has properties well suited to quantum electronics. Recent advances in Si/SiGe quantum devices have enabled the creation of high-quality silicon quantum dots, also known as artificial atoms. Motivated in part by the potential for very long spin coherence times in this material, we are pursuing the development of individual electron spin qubits in silicon quantum dots. I will discuss recent demonstrations of single-shot spin measurement in a Si/SiGe quantum dot spin qubit, and the demonstration of spin-relaxation times longer than one second in such a system. These and similar measurements depend on a knowledge of tunnel rates between quantum dots and nearby reservoirs or between pairs of quantum dots. Measurements of such rates provide an opportunity to revisit classic experiments in quantum mechanics. At the same time, the unique features of the silicon conduction band lead to novel and unexpected effects, demonstrating that Si/SiGe quantum dots provide a highly controlled experimental system in which to study ideas at the heart of quantum physics.

  12. Oblique propagation of longitudinal waves in magnetized spin-1/2 plasmas: Independent evolution of spin-up and spin-down electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Andreev, Pavel A. Kuz’menkov, L.S.

    2015-10-15

    We consider quantum plasmas of electrons and motionless ions. We describe separate evolution of spin-up and spin-down electrons. We present corresponding set of quantum hydrodynamic equations. We assume that plasmas are placed in an uniform external magnetic field. We account different occupation of spin-up and spin-down quantum states in equilibrium degenerate plasmas. This effect is included via equations of state for pressure of each species of electrons. We study oblique propagation of longitudinal waves. We show that instead of two well-known waves (the Langmuir wave and the Trivelpiece–Gould wave), plasmas reveal four wave solutions. New solutions exist due to both the separate consideration of spin-up and spin-down electrons and different occupation of spin-up and spin-down quantum states in equilibrium state of degenerate plasmas.

  13. Spin correlations in electron-doped high-Tc superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, M.

    2007-11-01

    Spin correlations in the electron-doped Pr1-xLaCexCuO4 have been investigated by neutron-scattering and muon rotation/relaxation measurements. The low-enegy spin correlations were found to be in commensurate with the wide superconducting phase, unlike the incommensurate ones in the hole-doped La2-xSrxCuO4. No enhancement of the magnetic order by impurity-doping and applying magnetic fields was observed, although the superconductivity is effectively suppressed, compared to that in the hole-doped system. Distinct impurity and magnetic field effects between the static spin correlation in the electron-doped system and those in the hole-doped systems suggest the different magnetic ground state in the two systems.

  14. Sample heating system for spin-polarized scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kohashi, Teruo; Motai, Kumi

    2013-08-01

    A sample-heating system for spin-polarized scanning electron microscopy (spin SEM) has been developed and used for microscopic magnetization analysis at temperatures up to 500°C. In this system, a compact ceramic heater and a preheating operation keep the ultra-high vacuum conditions while the sample is heated during spin SEM measurement. Moreover, the secondary-electron collector, which is arranged close to the sample, was modified so that it is not damaged at high temperatures. The system was used to heat a Co(1000) single-crystal sample from room temperature up to 500°C, and the magnetic-domain structures were observed. Changes of the domain structures were observed around 220 and 400°C, and these changes are considered to be due to phase transitions of this sample. PMID:23349241

  15. Negative electronic compressibility and tunable spin splitting in WSe2.

    PubMed

    Riley, J M; Meevasana, W; Bawden, L; Asakawa, M; Takayama, T; Eknapakul, T; Kim, T K; Hoesch, M; Mo, S-K; Takagi, H; Sasagawa, T; Bahramy, M S; King, P D C

    2015-12-01

    Tunable bandgaps, extraordinarily large exciton-binding energies, strong light-matter coupling and a locking of the electron spin with layer and valley pseudospins have established transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) as a unique class of two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors with wide-ranging practical applications. Using angle-resolved photoemission (ARPES), we show here that doping electrons at the surface of the prototypical strong spin-orbit TMD WSe2, akin to applying a gate voltage in a transistor-type device, induces a counterintuitive lowering of the surface chemical potential concomitant with the formation of a multivalley 2D electron gas (2DEG). These measurements provide a direct spectroscopic signature of negative electronic compressibility (NEC), a result of electron-electron interactions, which we find persists to carrier densities approximately three orders of magnitude higher than in typical semiconductor 2DEGs that exhibit this effect. An accompanying tunable spin splitting of the valence bands further reveals a complex interplay between single-particle band-structure evolution and many-body interactions in electrostatically doped TMDs. Understanding and exploiting this will open up new opportunities for advanced electronic and quantum-logic devices. PMID:26389661

  16. Negative electronic compressibility and tunable spin splitting in WSe2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, J. M.; Meevasana, W.; Bawden, L.; Asakawa, M.; Takayama, T.; Eknapakul, T.; Kim, T. K.; Hoesch, M.; Mo, S.-K.; Takagi, H.; Sasagawa, T.; Bahramy, M. S.; King, P. D. C.

    2015-12-01

    Tunable bandgaps, extraordinarily large exciton-binding energies, strong light-matter coupling and a locking of the electron spin with layer and valley pseudospins have established transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) as a unique class of two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors with wide-ranging practical applications. Using angle-resolved photoemission (ARPES), we show here that doping electrons at the surface of the prototypical strong spin-orbit TMD WSe2, akin to applying a gate voltage in a transistor-type device, induces a counterintuitive lowering of the surface chemical potential concomitant with the formation of a multivalley 2D electron gas (2DEG). These measurements provide a direct spectroscopic signature of negative electronic compressibility (NEC), a result of electron-electron interactions, which we find persists to carrier densities approximately three orders of magnitude higher than in typical semiconductor 2DEGs that exhibit this effect. An accompanying tunable spin splitting of the valence bands further reveals a complex interplay between single-particle band-structure evolution and many-body interactions in electrostatically doped TMDs. Understanding and exploiting this will open up new opportunities for advanced electronic and quantum-logic devices.

  17. Quantum information processing with electronic and nuclear spins in semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimov, Paul Victor

    Traditional electronic and communication devices operate by processing binary information encoded as bits. Such digital devices have led to the most advanced technologies that we encounter in our everyday lives and they influence virtually every aspect of our society. Nonetheless, there exists a much richer way to encode and process information. By encoding information in quantum mechanical states as qubits, phenomena such as coherence and entanglement can be harnessed to execute tasks that are intractable to digital devices. Under this paradigm, it should be possible to realize quantum computers, quantum communication networks and quantum sensors that outperform their classical counterparts. The electronic spin states of color-center defects in the semiconductor silicon carbide have recently emerged as promising qubit candidates. They have long-lived quantum coherence up to room temperature, they can be controlled with mature magnetic resonance techniques, and they have a built-in optical interface operating near the telecommunication bands. In this thesis I will present two of our contributions to this field. The first is the electric-field control of electron spin qubits. This development lays foundation for quantum electronics that operate via electrical gating, much like traditional electronics. The second is the universal control and entanglement of electron and nuclear spin qubits in an ensemble under ambient conditions. This development lays foundation for quantum devices that have a built-in redundancy and can operate in real-world conditions. Both developments represent important steps towards practical quantum devices in an electronic grade material.

  18. Spin Relaxation in III-V Semiconductors in various systems: Contribution of Electron-Electron Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogan, Fatih; Kesserwan, Hasan; Manchon, Aurelien

    2015-03-01

    In spintronics, most of the phenomena that we are interested happen at very fast time scales and are rich in structure in time domain. Our understanding, on the other hand, is mostly based on energy domain calculations. Many of the theoretical tools use approximations and simplifications that can be perceived as oversimplifications. We compare the structure, material, carrier density and temperature dependence of spin relaxation time in n-doped III-V semiconductors using Elliot-Yafet (EY) and D'yakanov-Perel'(DP) with real time analysis using kinetic spin Bloch equations (KSBE). The EY and DP theories fail to capture details as the system investigated is varied. KSBE, on the other hand, incorporates all relaxation sources as well as electron-electron interaction which modifies the spin relaxation time in a non-linear way. Since el-el interaction is very fast (~ fs) and spin-conserving, it is usually ignored in the analysis of spin relaxation. Our results indicate that electron-electron interaction cannot be neglected and its interplay with the other (spin and momentum) relaxation mechanisms (electron-impurity and electron-phonon scattering) dramatically alters the resulting spin dynamics. We use each interaction explicitly to investigate how, in the presence of others, each relaxation source behaves. We use GaAs and GaN for zinc-blend structure, and GaN and AlN for the wurtzite structure.

  19. Long-lived nanosecond spin relaxation and spin coherence of electrons in monolayer MoS2 and WS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Luyi; Sinitsyn, Nikolai A.; Chen, Weibing; Yuan, Jiangtan; Zhang, Jing; Lou, Jun; Crooker, Scott A.

    2015-10-01

    The recently discovered monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) provide a fertile playground to explore new coupled spin-valley physics. Although robust spin and valley degrees of freedom are inferred from polarized photoluminescence (PL) experiments, PL timescales are necessarily constrained by short-lived (3-100 ps) electron-hole recombination. Direct probes of spin/valley polarization dynamics of resident carriers in electron (or hole)-doped TMDCs, which may persist long after recombination ceases, are at an early stage. Here we directly measure the coupled spin-valley dynamics in electron-doped MoS2 and WS2 monolayers using optical Kerr spectroscopy, and reveal very long electron spin lifetimes, exceeding 3 ns at 5 K (two to three orders of magnitude longer than typical exciton recombination times). In contrast with conventional III-V or II-VI semiconductors, spin relaxation accelerates rapidly in small transverse magnetic fields. Supported by a model of coupled spin-valley dynamics, these results indicate a novel mechanism of itinerant electron spin dephasing in the rapidly fluctuating internal spin-orbit field in TMDCs, driven by fast inter-valley scattering. Additionally, a long-lived spin coherence is observed at lower energies, commensurate with localized states. These studies provide insight into the physics underpinning spin and valley dynamics of resident electrons in atomically thin TMDCs.

  20. Uniform Spinning Sampling Gradient Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, David H.; Ahmad, Rizwan; Liu, Yangping; Chen, Zhiyu; Samouilov, Alexandre; Zweier, Jay L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To improve the quality and speed of electron paramagnetic resonance imaging (EPRI) acquisition by combining a uniform sampling distribution with spinning gradient acquisition. Theory and Methods A uniform sampling distribution was derived for spinning gradient EPRI acquisition (Uniform Spinning Sampling, USS) and compared to the existing (Equilinear Spinning Sampling, ESS) acquisition strategy. Novel corrections were introduced to reduce artifacts in experimental data. Results Simulations demonstrated that USS puts an equal number of projections near each axis whereas ESS puts excessive projections at one axis, wasting acquisition time. Artifact corrections added to the magnetic gradient waveforms reduced noise and correlation between projections. USS images had higher SNR (85.9±0.8 vs. 56.2±0.8) and lower mean-squared error than ESS images. The quality of the USS images did not vary with the magnetic gradient orientation, in contrast to ESS images. The quality of rat heart images was improved using USS compared to that with ESS or traditional fast-scan acquisitions. Conclusion A novel EPRI acquisition which combines spinning gradient acquisition with a uniform sampling distribution was developed. This USS spinning gradient acquisition offers superior SNR and reduced artifacts compared to prior methods enabling potential improvements in speed and quality of EPR imaging in biological applications. PMID:23475830

  1. Electronic spin-flipping collisions of hydrogen atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Zygelman, B.

    2010-03-15

    We present a unified multichannel approach to calculate electron spin-exchange and spin-flipping transition cross sections for collisions of H with H, H with T, and T with T. We use the theory to calculate the hyperfine quenching cross sections for collision energies that range from 1 mK to thermal temperatures. We show that spin-flipping transitions are induced by the splitting of the b {sup 3{Sigma}}{sub u} Born-Oppenheimer potential via the long-range magnetic interactions among electrons. We find that the spin-flipping cross sections in the tritium dimer are about a magnitude larger than that predicted by mass scaling the H-H cross sections. For the former, we show that the spin-exchange cross sections are several magnitudes larger, at cold temperatures, than that of the hydrogen system. We compare the results of the multichannel approach with those obtained using approximate methods such as the degenerate internal-state, the elastic, and Born approximations and discuss their respective range of validity.

  2. Electron spin resonance scanning probe spectroscopy for ultrasensitive biochemical studies.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Jason P; Ryan, Jason T; Shrestha, Pragya R; Liu, Zhanglong; Vaz, Canute; Kim, Ji-Hong; Georgiou, Vasileia; Cheung, Kin P

    2015-01-01

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy's affinity for detecting paramagnetic free radicals, or spins, has been increasingly employed to examine a large variety of biochemical interactions. Such paramagnetic species are broadly found in nature and can be intrinsic (defects in solid-state materials systems, electron/hole pairs, stable radicals in proteins) or, more often, purposefully introduced into the material of interest (doping/attachment of paramagnetic spin labels to biomolecules of interest). Using ESR to trace the reactionary path of paramagnetic spins or spin-active proxy molecules provides detailed information about the reaction's transient species and the label's local environment. For many biochemical systems, like those involving membrane proteins, synthesizing the necessary quantity of spin-labeled biomolecules (typically 50 pmol to 100 pmol) is quite challenging and often limits the possible biochemical reactions available for investigation. Quite simply, ESR is too insensitive. Here, we demonstrate an innovative approach that greatly enhances ESR's sensitivity (>20000× improvement) by developing a near-field, nonresonant, X-band ESR spectrometric method. Sensitivity improvement is confirmed via measurement of 140 amol of the most common nitroxide spin label in a ≈593 fL liquid cell at ambient temperature and pressure. This experimental approach eliminates many of the typical ESR sample restrictions imposed by conventional resonator-based ESR detection and renders the technique feasible for spatially resolved measurements on a wider variety of biochemical samples. Thus, our approach broadens the pool of possible biochemical and structural biology studies, as well as greatly enhances the analytical power of existing ESR applications. PMID:25867553

  3. Electron spin relaxation in cryptochrome-based magnetoreception.

    PubMed

    Kattnig, Daniel R; Solov'yov, Ilia A; Hore, P J

    2016-05-14

    The magnetic compass sense of migratory birds is thought to rely on magnetically sensitive radical pairs formed photochemically in cryptochrome proteins in the retina. An important requirement of this hypothesis is that electron spin relaxation is slow enough for the Earth's magnetic field to have a significant effect on the coherent spin dynamics of the radicals. It is generally assumed that evolutionary pressure has led to protection of the electron spins from irreversible loss of coherence in order that the underlying quantum dynamics can survive in a noisy biological environment. Here, we address this question for a structurally characterized model cryptochrome expected to share many properties with the putative avian receptor protein. To this end we combine all-atom molecular dynamics simulations, Bloch-Redfield relaxation theory and spin dynamics calculations to assess the effects of spin relaxation on the performance of the protein as a compass sensor. Both flavin-tryptophan and flavin-Z˙ radical pairs are studied (Z˙ is a radical with no hyperfine interactions). Relaxation is considered to arise from modulation of hyperfine interactions by librational motions of the radicals and fluctuations in certain dihedral angles. For Arabidopsis thaliana cryptochrome 1 (AtCry1) we find that spin relaxation implies optimal radical pair lifetimes of the order of microseconds, and that flavin-Z˙ pairs are less affected by relaxation than flavin-tryptophan pairs. Our results also demonstrate that spin relaxation in isolated AtCry1 is incompatible with the long coherence times that have been postulated to explain the disruption of the avian magnetic compass sense by weak radiofrequency magnetic fields. We conclude that a cryptochrome sensor in vivo would have to differ dynamically, if not structurally, from isolated AtCry1. Our results clearly mark the limits of the current hypothesis and lead to a better understanding of the operation of radical pair magnetic sensors

  4. Photon-assisted electronic and spin transport in a junction containing precessing molecular spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filipović, Milena; Belzig, Wolfgang

    2016-02-01

    We study the ac charge and -spin transport through an orbital of a magnetic molecule with spin precessing in a constant magnetic field. We assume that the source and drain contacts have time-dependent chemical potentials. We employ the Keldysh nonequilibrium Green's functions method to calculate the spin and charge currents to linear order in the time-dependent potentials. The molecular and electronic spins are coupled via exchange interaction. The time-dependent molecular spin drives inelastic transitions between the molecular quasienergy levels, resulting in a rich structure in the transport characteristics. The time-dependent voltages allow us to reveal the internal precession time scale (the Larmor frequency) by a dc conductance measurement if the ac frequency matches the Larmor frequency. In the low-ac-frequency limit the junction resembles a classical electric circuit. Furthermore, we show that the setup can be used to generate dc-spin currents, which are controlled by the molecular magnetization direction and the relative phases between the Larmor precession and the ac voltage.

  5. Nanometre-scale probing of spin waves using single-electron spins

    PubMed Central

    van der Sar, Toeno; Casola, Francesco; Walsworth, Ronald; Yacoby, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Pushing the frontiers of condensed-matter magnetism requires the development of tools that provide real-space, few-nanometre-scale probing of correlated-electron magnetic excitations under ambient conditions. Here we present a practical approach to meet this challenge, using magnetometry based on single nitrogen-vacancy centres in diamond. We focus on spin-wave excitations in a ferromagnetic microdisc, and demonstrate local, quantitative and phase-sensitive detection of the spin-wave magnetic field at ∼50 nm from the disc. We map the magnetic-field dependence of spin-wave excitations by detecting the associated local reduction in the disc's longitudinal magnetization. In addition, we characterize the spin–noise spectrum by nitrogen-vacancy spin relaxometry, finding excellent agreement with a general analytical description of the stray fields produced by spin–spin correlations in a 2D magnetic system. These complementary measurement modalities pave the way towards imaging the local excitations of systems such as ferromagnets and antiferromagnets, skyrmions, atomically assembled quantum magnets, and spin ice. PMID:26249673

  6. Detection and Imaging of Superoxide in Roots by an Electron Spin Resonance Spin-Probe Method

    PubMed Central

    Warwar, Nasim; Mor, Avishai; Fluhr, Robert; Pandian, Ramasamy P.; Kuppusamy, Periannan; Blank, Aharon

    2011-01-01

    The detection, quantification, and imaging of short-lived reactive oxygen species, such as superoxide, in live biological specimens have always been challenging and controversial. Fluorescence-based methods are nonspecific, and electron spin resonance (ESR) spin-trapping methods require high probe concentrations and lack the capability for sufficient image resolution. In this work, a novel (to our knowledge), sensitive, small ESR imaging resonator was used together with a stable spin probe that specifically reacts with superoxide with a high reaction rate constant. This ESR spin-probe-based methodology was used to examine superoxide generated in a plant root as a result of an apical leaf injury. The results show that the spin probe rapidly permeated the plant's extracellular space. Upon injury of the plant tissue, superoxide was produced and the ESR signal decreased rapidly in the injured parts as well as in the distal part of the root. This is attributed to superoxide production and thus provides a means of quantifying the level of superoxide in the plant. The spin probe's narrow single-line ESR spectrum, together with the sensitive imaging resonator, facilitates the quantitative measurement of superoxide in small biological samples, such as the plant's root, as well as one-dimensional imaging along the length of the root. This type of methodology can be used to resolve many questions involving the production of apoplastic superoxide in plant biology. PMID:21943435

  7. Separating the Spin States of a Free Electron Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rifkin, Neil

    2008-10-01

    In 1922 Otto Stern and Walther Gerlach set out to test the spacial quantization of the electron by passing a beam of neutral silver atoms through a transverse magnetic field. The interaction of the two projections of the electron's magnetic moment with the magnetic field resulted in a splitting of the beam. However, for some sixty years it was generally accepted that the spin of free electrons, and thus their magnetic moment, could not be measured with an experiment similar to that of Stern and Gerlach. The reason being that the lorentz force on charged particles is far greater than the force due to the magnetic moment of the electron, thus blurring any desired results. To reduce the lorentz force, the electrons could be passed through a magnetic field whose gradient is in the direction of the electrons' momentum. This longitudinal Stern-Gerlach device, with a superconducting magnet, could polarize the tails of a low energy electron beam.

  8. Self-spin-controlled rotation of spatial states of a Dirac electron in a cylindrical potential via spin orbit interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leary, C. C.; Reeb, D.; Raymer, M. G.

    2008-10-01

    Solution of the Dirac equation predicts that when an electron with nonzero orbital angular momentum (OAM) propagates in a cylindrically symmetric potential, its spin and orbital degrees of freedom interact, causing the electron's phase velocity to depend on whether its spin angular momentum (SAM) and OAM vectors are oriented parallel or anti-parallel with respect to each other. This spin-orbit splitting of the electronic dispersion curves can result in a rotation of the electron's spatial state in a manner controlled by the electron's own spin z-component value. These effects persist at non-relativistic velocities. To clarify the physical origin of this effect, we compare solutions of the Dirac equation to perturbative predictions of the Schrödinger-Pauli equation with a spin-orbit term, using the standard Foldy-Wouthuysen Hamiltonian. This clearly shows that the origin of the effect is the familiar relativistic spin-orbit interaction.

  9. Inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy of local "spin accumulation" devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinkey, Holly N.; Li, Pengke; Appelbaum, Ian

    2014-06-01

    We investigate the origin of purported "spin accumulation" signals observed in local "three-terminal" (3T) measurements of ferromagnet/insulator/n-Si tunnel junctions using inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS). Voltage bias and magnetic field dependences of the IET spectra were found to account for the dominant contribution to 3T magnetoresistance, thus indicating that it arises from inelastic tunneling through impurities and defects at junction interfaces and within the barrier, rather than from spin accumulation due to pure elastic tunneling into bulk Si as has been previously assumed.

  10. Role of the Electron Spin Polarization in Water Splitting

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We show that in an electrochemical cell, in which the photoanode is coated with chiral molecules, the overpotential required for hydrogen production drops remarkably, as compared with cells containing achiral molecules. The hydrogen evolution efficiency is studied comparing seven different organic molecules, three chiral and four achiral. We propose that the spin specificity of electrons transferred through chiral molecules is the origin of a more efficient oxidation process in which oxygen is formed in its triplet ground state. The new observations are consistent with recent theoretical works pointing to the importance of spin alignment in the water-splitting process. PMID:26615833

  11. Probing Spin Accumulation induced Magnetocapacitance in a Single Electron Transistor

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Teik-Hui; Chen, Chii-Dong

    2015-01-01

    The interplay between spin and charge in solids is currently among the most discussed topics in condensed matter physics. Such interplay gives rise to magneto-electric coupling, which in the case of solids was named magneto-electric effect, as predicted by Curie on the basis of symmetry considerations. This effect enables the manipulation of magnetization using electrical field or, conversely, the manipulation of electrical polarization by magnetic field. The latter is known as the magnetocapacitance effect. Here, we show that non-equilibrium spin accumulation can induce tunnel magnetocapacitance through the formation of a tiny charge dipole. This dipole can effectively give rise to an additional serial capacitance, which represents an extra charging energy that the tunneling electrons would encounter. In the sequential tunneling regime, this extra energy can be understood as the energy required for a single spin to flip. A ferromagnetic single-electron-transistor with tunable magnetic configuration is utilized to demonstrate the proposed mechanism. It is found that the extra threshold energy is experienced only by electrons entering the islands, bringing about asymmetry in the measured Coulomb diamond. This asymmetry is an unambiguous evidence of spin accumulation induced tunnel magnetocapacitance, and the measured magnetocapacitance value is as high as 40%. PMID:26348794

  12. Hybrid optical-electrical detection of donor electron spins with bound excitons in silicon.

    PubMed

    Lo, C C; Urdampilleta, M; Ross, P; Gonzalez-Zalba, M F; Mansir, J; Lyon, S A; Thewalt, M L W; Morton, J J L

    2015-05-01

    Electrical detection of spins is an essential tool for understanding the dynamics of spins, with applications ranging from optoelectronics and spintronics, to quantum information processing. For electron spins bound to donors in silicon, bulk electrically detected magnetic resonance has relied on coupling to spin readout partners such as paramagnetic defects or conduction electrons, which fundamentally limits spin coherence times. Here we demonstrate electrical detection of donor electron spin resonance in an ensemble by transport through a silicon device, using optically driven donor-bound exciton transitions. We measure electron spin Rabi oscillations, and obtain long electron spin coherence times, limited only by the donor concentration. We also experimentally address critical issues such as non-resonant excitation, strain, and electric fields, laying the foundations for realizing a single-spin readout method with relaxed magnetic field and temperature requirements compared with spin-dependent tunnelling, enabling donor-based technologies such as quantum sensing. PMID:25799326

  13. Hybrid optical-electrical detection of donor electron spins with bound excitons in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, C. C.; Urdampilleta, M.; Ross, P.; Gonzalez-Zalba, M. F.; Mansir, J.; Lyon, S. A.; Thewalt, M. L. W.; Morton, J. J. L.

    2015-05-01

    Electrical detection of spins is an essential tool for understanding the dynamics of spins, with applications ranging from optoelectronics and spintronics, to quantum information processing. For electron spins bound to donors in silicon, bulk electrically detected magnetic resonance has relied on coupling to spin readout partners such as paramagnetic defects or conduction electrons, which fundamentally limits spin coherence times. Here we demonstrate electrical detection of donor electron spin resonance in an ensemble by transport through a silicon device, using optically driven donor-bound exciton transitions. We measure electron spin Rabi oscillations, and obtain long electron spin coherence times, limited only by the donor concentration. We also experimentally address critical issues such as non-resonant excitation, strain, and electric fields, laying the foundations for realizing a single-spin readout method with relaxed magnetic field and temperature requirements compared with spin-dependent tunnelling, enabling donor-based technologies such as quantum sensing.

  14. Dynamics of entanglement of two electron spins interacting with nuclear spin baths in quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bragar, Igor; Cywiński, Łukasz

    2015-04-01

    We study the dynamics of entanglement of two electron spins in two quantum dots, in which each electron is interacting with its nuclear spin environment. Focusing on the case of uncoupled dots, and starting from either Bell or Werner states of two qubits, we calculate the decay of entanglement due to the hyperfine interaction with the nuclei. We mostly focus on the regime of magnetic fields in which the bath-induced electron spin flips play a role, for example, their presence leads to the appearance of entanglement sudden death at finite time for two qubits initialized in a Bell state. For these fields, the intrabath dipolar interactions and spatial inhomogeneity of hyperfine couplings are irrelevant on the time scale of coherence (and entanglement) decay, and most of the presented calculations are performed using the uniform-coupling approximation to the exact hyperfine Hamiltonian. We provide a comprehensive overview of entanglement decay in this regime, considering both free evolution of the qubits, and an echo protocol with simultaneous application of π pulses to the two spins. All the currently relevant for experiments bath states are considered: the thermal state, narrowed states (characterized by diminished uncertainty of one of the components of the Overhauser field) of two uncorrelated baths, and a correlated narrowed state with a well-defined value of the z component of the Overhauser field interdot gradient. While we mostly use concurrence to quantify the amount of entanglement in a mixed state of the two electron spins, we also show that their entanglement dynamics can be reconstructed from measurements of the currently relevant for experiments entanglement witnesses and the fidelity of quantum teleportation, performed using a partially disentangled state as a resource.

  15. Spin coherence of the two-dimensional electron gas in a GaAs quantum well

    SciTech Connect

    Larionov, A. V.

    2015-01-15

    The coherent spin dynamics of the quasi-two-dimensional electron gas in a GaAs quantum well is experimentally investigated using the time-resolved spin Kerr effect in an optical cryostat with a split coil inducing magnetic fields of up to 6 T at a temperature of about 2 K. The electron spin dephasing times and degree of anisotropy of the spin relaxation of electrons are measured in zero magnetic field at different electron densities. The dependence of the spin-orbit splitting on the electron-gas density is established. In the integral quantum-Hall-effect mode, the unsteady behavior of the spin dephasing time of 2D electrons of the lower Landau spin sublevel near the odd occupation factor ν = 3 is found. The experimentally observed unsteady behavior of the spin dephasing time can be explained in terms of new-type cyclotron modes that occur in a liquid spin texture.

  16. Polarization transfer of bremsstrahlung arising from spin-polarized electrons.

    PubMed

    Märtin, R; Weber, G; Barday, R; Fritzsche, Y; Spillmann, U; Chen, W; DuBois, R D; Enders, J; Hegewald, M; Hess, S; Surzhykov, A; Thorn, D B; Trotsenko, S; Wagner, M; Winters, D F A; Yerokhin, V A; Stöhlker, Th

    2012-06-29

    We report on a study of the polarization transfer between transversely polarized incident electrons and the emitted x rays for electron-atom bremsstrahlung. By means of Compton polarimetry we performed for the first time an energy-differential measurement of the complete properties of bremsstrahlung emission related to linear polarization, i.e., the degree of linear polarization as well as the orientation of the polarization axis. For the high-energy end of the bremsstrahlung continuum the experimental results for both observables show a high sensitivity on the initial electron spin polarization and prove that the polarization orientation is virtually independent of the photon energy. PMID:23004992

  17. Conduction-electron spin resonance in two-dimensional structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edelstein, Victor M.

    2016-09-01

    The influence of the conduction-electron spin magnetization density, induced in a two-dimensional electron layer by a microwave electromagnetic field, on the reflection and transmission of the field is considered. Because of the induced magnetization and electric current, both the electric and magnetic components of the field should have jumps on the layer. A way to match the waves on two sides of the layer, valid when the quasi-two-dimensional electron gas is in the one-mode state, is proposed. By following this way, the amplitudes of transmitted and reflected waves as well as the absorption coefficient are evaluated.

  18. Microwave Manipulation of Electrically Injected Spin-Polarized Electrons in Silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, C. C.; Li, J.; Appelbaum, I.; Morton, J. J. L.

    2014-02-01

    We demonstrate microwave manipulation of the spin states of electrically injected spin-polarized electrons in silicon. Although the silicon channel is bounded by ferromagnetic metal films, we show that moderate microwave power can be applied to the devices without altering the device operation significantly. Resonant microwave irradiation is used to induce spin rotation of spin-polarized electrons as they travel across a silicon channel, and the resultant spin polarization is subsequently detected by a ferromagnetic Schottky barrier spin detector. These results demonstrate the potential for combining advanced electron spin resonance techniques to complement the study of semiconductor spintronic devices beyond standard magnetotransport measurements.

  19. Nonlinear Spin Polarization Dependence of Spin Susceptibility in Interacting Two-Dimensional Electron Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, K. F.; Liu, H. W.; Nagase, K.; Amakata, K.; Mishima, T. D.; Santos, M. B.; Hirayama, Y.

    2011-12-01

    We measure the spin polarization (P) of two-dimensional electron gases confined to an InSb quantum well using parallel and tilted magnetic fields. The nonlinear field dependence of P is prominent, leading to a direct deduction of the spin susceptibility (χs) over a wide range of P from 0.07 to 1. χs is found to increase nonlinearly with P and exceed χgm ∝ m*g* (where m* and g* are the effective mass and g factor) as commonly used in experiments. We show that χs and χgm obey a square law χs/χ0 = (χgm/χ0)2, where χ0 is the paramagnetic spin susceptibility.

  20. Effects of the electron-electron interaction in the spin resonance in 2D systems with Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Krishtopenko, S. S.

    2015-02-15

    The effect of the electron-electron interaction on the spin-resonance frequency in two-dimensional electron systems with Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling is investigated. The oscillatory dependence of many-body corrections on the magnetic field is demonstrated. It is shown that the consideration of many-body interaction leads to a decrease or an increase in the spin-resonance frequency, depending on the sign of the g factor. It is found that the term cubic in quasimomentum in Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling partially decreases exchange corrections to the spin resonance energy in a two-dimensional system.

  1. Spin Chains and Electron Transfer at Stepped Silicon Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Aulbach, J; Erwin, S C; Claessen, R; Schäfer, J

    2016-04-13

    High-index surfaces of silicon with adsorbed gold can reconstruct to form highly ordered linear step arrays. These steps take the form of a narrow strip of graphitic silicon. In some cases--specifically, for Si(553)-Au and Si(557)-Au--a large fraction of the silicon atoms at the exposed edge of this strip are known to be spin-polarized and charge-ordered along the edge. The periodicity of this charge ordering is always commensurate with the structural periodicity along the step edge and hence leads to highly ordered arrays of local magnetic moments that can be regarded as "spin chains." Here, we demonstrate theoretically as well as experimentally that the closely related Si(775)-Au surface has--despite its very similar overall structure--zero spin polarization at its step edge. Using a combination of density-functional theory and scanning tunneling microscopy, we propose an electron-counting model that accounts for these differences. The model also predicts that unintentional defects and intentional dopants can create local spin moments at Si(hhk)-Au step edges. We analyze in detail one of these predictions and verify it experimentally. This finding opens the door to using techniques of surface chemistry and atom manipulation to create and control silicon spin chains. PMID:26974012

  2. Spin tuning of electron-doped metal-phthalocyanine layers.

    PubMed

    Stepanow, Sebastian; Lodi Rizzini, Alberto; Krull, Cornelius; Kavich, Jerald; Cezar, Julio C; Yakhou-Harris, Flora; Sheverdyaeva, Polina M; Moras, Paolo; Carbone, Carlo; Ceballos, Gustavo; Mugarza, Aitor; Gambardella, Pietro

    2014-04-01

    The spin state of organic-based magnets at interfaces is to a great extent determined by the organic environment and the nature of the spin-carrying metal center, which is further subject to modifications by the adsorbate-substrate coupling. Direct chemical doping offers an additional route for tailoring the electronic and magnetic characteristics of molecular magnets. Here we present a systematic investigation of the effects of alkali metal doping on the charge state and crystal field of 3d metal ions in Cu, Ni, Fe, and Mn phthalocyanine (Pc) monolayers adsorbed on Ag. Combined X-ray absorption spectroscopy and ligand field multiplet calculations show that Cu(II), Ni(II), and Fe(II) ions reduce to Cu(I), Ni(I), and Fe(I) upon alkali metal adsorption, whereas Mn maintains its formal oxidation state. The strength of the crystal field at the Ni, Fe, and Mn sites is strongly reduced upon doping. The combined effect of these changes is that the magnetic moment of high- and low-spin ions such as Cu and Ni can be entirely turned off or on, respectively, whereas the magnetic configuration of MnPc can be changed from intermediate (3/2) to high (5/2) spin. In the case of FePc a 10-fold increase of the orbital magnetic moment accompanies charge transfer and a transition to a high-spin state. PMID:24635343

  3. Half-metallic alloys: electronic structure, magnetism and spin polarization.

    PubMed

    Dederichs, P H; Galanakis, I; Mavropoulos, Ph

    2005-01-01

    Using the state-of-the-art screened Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker Green function method we study the electronic and magnetic properties of NiMnSb and similar Heusler alloys. We show that all these compounds are half-metals, e.g. the minority-spin band is semiconducting and the Fermi level falls within this gap resulting in 100% spin polarization at the Fermi level. The total spin moment M(t) shows the so-called Slater-Pauling behaviour and scales with the total valence charge Z(t) following the rule M(t) = Z(t) - 18 for half and M(t) = Z(t) - 24 for full Heusler alloys. These rules are connected to the origin of the gap. Finally we show that the inclusion of the spin-orbit interaction in our calculations kills the half-metallic gap but the spin-polarization at the Fermi level can be still very high, approximately 99% for NiMnSb, but much lower for a half-metallic compound like zinc-blende MnBi (77%). PMID:16157642

  4. Reaching the quantum limit of sensitivity in electron spin resonance.

    PubMed

    Bienfait, A; Pla, J J; Kubo, Y; Stern, M; Zhou, X; Lo, C C; Weis, C D; Schenkel, T; Thewalt, M L W; Vion, D; Esteve, D; Julsgaard, B; Mølmer, K; Morton, J J L; Bertet, P

    2016-03-01

    The detection and characterization of paramagnetic species by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy is widely used throughout chemistry, biology and materials science, from in vivo imaging to distance measurements in spin-labelled proteins. ESR relies on the inductive detection of microwave signals emitted by the spins into a coupled microwave resonator during their Larmor precession. However, such signals can be very small, prohibiting the application of ESR at the nanoscale (for example, at the single-cell level or on individual nanoparticles). Here, using a Josephson parametric microwave amplifier combined with high-quality-factor superconducting microresonators cooled at millikelvin temperatures, we improve the state-of-the-art sensitivity of inductive ESR detection by nearly four orders of magnitude. We demonstrate the detection of 1,700 bismuth donor spins in silicon within a single Hahn echo with unit signal-to-noise ratio, reduced to 150 spins by averaging a single Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill sequence. This unprecedented sensitivity reaches the limit set by quantum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field instead of thermal or technical noise, which constitutes a novel regime for magnetic resonance. The detection volume of our resonator is ∼ 0.02 nl, and our approach can be readily scaled down further to improve sensitivity, providing a new versatile toolbox for ESR at the nanoscale. PMID:26657787

  5. Reaching the quantum limit of sensitivity in electron spin resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bienfait, A.; Pla, J. J.; Kubo, Y.; Stern, M.; Zhou, X.; Lo, C. C.; Weis, C. D.; Schenkel, T.; Thewalt, M. L. W.; Vion, D.; Esteve, D.; Julsgaard, B.; Mølmer, K.; Morton, J. J. L.; Bertet, P.

    2016-03-01

    The detection and characterization of paramagnetic species by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy is widely used throughout chemistry, biology and materials science, from in vivo imaging to distance measurements in spin-labelled proteins. ESR relies on the inductive detection of microwave signals emitted by the spins into a coupled microwave resonator during their Larmor precession. However, such signals can be very small, prohibiting the application of ESR at the nanoscale (for example, at the single-cell level or on individual nanoparticles). Here, using a Josephson parametric microwave amplifier combined with high-quality-factor superconducting microresonators cooled at millikelvin temperatures, we improve the state-of-the-art sensitivity of inductive ESR detection by nearly four orders of magnitude. We demonstrate the detection of 1,700 bismuth donor spins in silicon within a single Hahn echo with unit signal-to-noise ratio, reduced to 150 spins by averaging a single Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill sequence. This unprecedented sensitivity reaches the limit set by quantum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field instead of thermal or technical noise, which constitutes a novel regime for magnetic resonance. The detection volume of our resonator is ˜0.02 nl, and our approach can be readily scaled down further to improve sensitivity, providing a new versatile toolbox for ESR at the nanoscale.

  6. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy using a direct current-SQUID magnetometer directly coupled to an electron spin ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toida, Hiraku; Matsuzaki, Yuichiro; Kakuyanagi, Kosuke; Zhu, Xiaobo; Munro, William J.; Nemoto, Kae; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Saito, Shiro

    2016-02-01

    We demonstrate electron spin polarization detection and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy using a direct current superconducting quantum interference device (dc-SQUID) magnetometer. Our target electron spin ensemble is directly bonded to the dc-SQUID magnetometer that detects electron spin polarization induced by an external magnetic field or EPR in a micrometer-sized area. The minimum distinguishable number of polarized spins and sensing volume of the electron spin polarization detection and the EPR spectroscopy are estimated to be ˜106 and ˜10-10 cm3 (˜0.1 pl), respectively.

  7. Spin-label electron spin resonance studies on the interactions of lysine peptides with phospholipid membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Kleinschmidt, J H; Marsh, D

    1997-01-01

    The interactions of lysine oligopeptides with dimyristoyl phosphatidylglycerol (DMPG) bilayer membranes were studied using spin-labeled lipids and electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Tetralysine and pentalysine were chosen as models for the basic amino acid clusters found in a variety of cytoplasmic membrane-associating proteins, and polylysine was chosen as representative of highly basic peripherally bound proteins. A greater motional restriction of the lipid chains was found with increasing length of the peptide, while the saturation ratio of lipids per peptide was lower for the shorter peptides. In DMPG and dimyristoylphosphatidylserine host membranes, the perturbation of the lipid chain mobility by polylysine was greater for negatively charged spin-labeled lipids than for zwitterionic lipids, but for the shorter lysine peptides these differences were smaller. In mixed bilayers composed of DMPG and dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine, little difference was found in selectivity between spin-labeled phospholipid species on binding pentalysine. Surface binding of the basic lysine peptides strongly reduced the interfacial pK of spin-labeled fatty acid incorporated into the DMPG bilayers, to a greater extent for polylysine than for tetralysine or pentalysine at saturation. The results are consistent with a predominantly electrostatic interaction with the shorter lysine peptides, but with a closer surface association with the longer polylysine peptide. PMID:9370448

  8. Electron-spin-reversal phenomenon in optically pumped rubidium

    SciTech Connect

    Norrgard, E. B.; Dreiling, J. M.; Gay, T. J.; Tupa, D.

    2010-09-15

    We have studied the optical pumping of mixtures of Rb vapor and N{sub 2} buffer gas by laser light tuned to the D{sub 1} transition having a spectral width of {approx}500 MHz. The Rb densities are of the order of 10{sup 13} cm{sup -3}, while the buffer-gas pressures range from 0.1 to 10 torr. As the frequency of the right-hand circularly polarized laser is varied across the D{sub 1} absorption profile, the electron spin polarization of the Rb is found to take on negative values for small negative values of pump detuning from the absorption profile center. This occurs for N{sub 2} pressures below {approx}1 torr; at 10 torr the electron spins consistently point in the same direction as the angular momentum of the pump light. The spin-reversal effect can be understood in terms of populations of the F=2 ({sup 85}Rb) and F=1 ({sup 87}Rb) states caused by small unpolarized fractions in the pump beam and its elimination in terms of pressure broadening caused by the N{sub 2} buffer gas. We speculate that this effect could be used for fast Rb spin modulation.

  9. Randomized benchmarking of quantum gates implemented by electron spin resonance.

    PubMed

    Park, Daniel K; Feng, Guanru; Rahimi, Robabeh; Baugh, Jonathan; Laflamme, Raymond

    2016-06-01

    Spin systems controlled and probed by magnetic resonance have been valuable for testing the ideas of quantum control and quantum error correction. This paper introduces an X-band pulsed electron spin resonance spectrometer designed for high-fidelity coherent control of electron spins, including a loop-gap resonator for sub-millimeter sized samples with a control bandwidth ∼40MHz. Universal control is achieved by a single-sideband upconversion technique with an I-Q modulator and a 1.2GS/s arbitrary waveform generator. A single qubit randomized benchmarking protocol quantifies the average errors of Clifford gates implemented by simple Gaussian pulses, using a sample of gamma-irradiated quartz. Improvements in unitary gate fidelity are achieved through phase transient correction and hardware optimization. A preparation pulse sequence that selects spin packets in a narrowed distribution of static fields confirms that inhomogeneous dephasing (1/T2(∗)) is the dominant source of gate error. The best average fidelity over the Clifford gates obtained here is 99.2%, which serves as a benchmark to compare with other technologies. PMID:27131777

  10. Randomized benchmarking of quantum gates implemented by electron spin resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Daniel K.; Feng, Guanru; Rahimi, Robabeh; Baugh, Jonathan; Laflamme, Raymond

    2016-06-01

    Spin systems controlled and probed by magnetic resonance have been valuable for testing the ideas of quantum control and quantum error correction. This paper introduces an X-band pulsed electron spin resonance spectrometer designed for high-fidelity coherent control of electron spins, including a loop-gap resonator for sub-millimeter sized samples with a control bandwidth ∼40 MHz. Universal control is achieved by a single-sideband upconversion technique with an I-Q modulator and a 1.2 GS/s arbitrary waveform generator. A single qubit randomized benchmarking protocol quantifies the average errors of Clifford gates implemented by simple Gaussian pulses, using a sample of gamma-irradiated quartz. Improvements in unitary gate fidelity are achieved through phase transient correction and hardware optimization. A preparation pulse sequence that selects spin packets in a narrowed distribution of static fields confirms that inhomogeneous dephasing (1 / T2∗) is the dominant source of gate error. The best average fidelity over the Clifford gates obtained here is 99.2 % , which serves as a benchmark to compare with other technologies.

  11. Generation of electron spin polarization in disordered organic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shushin, A. I.

    2012-07-01

    The generation mechanisms of electron spin polarization (ESP) of charge carriers (electrons and holes, called “doublets”) in doublet-doublet (D-D) recombination and triplet-doublet (T-D) quenching in disordered organic semiconductors are analyzed in detail. The ESP is assumed to result from nonadiabatic transitions between the states of the spin Hamiltonian of D-D or T-D pairs. The transitions are induced by the hyperfine and anisotropic Zeeman interactions (for D-D process), or zero field splitting interaction (for T-D process). The proposed mechanism of ESP generation is essentially different from those based on polarized spin injection (using ferromagnetic electrodes) and optical pumping. In this mechanism, the ESP magnitude appears to depend on specific features of relative motion of particles. In our work, we have considered the cage and free diffusion models of this motion. The effect of possible attractive spin-independent interactions between particles is also analyzed. Estimations with obtained formulas show that the proposed mechanisms can lead to a fairly strong ESP much larger than the thermal one (at room temperatures).

  12. Spin-resolved inelastic mean free path of slow electrons in Fe.

    PubMed

    Zdyb, R; Bauer, E

    2013-07-10

    The spin-dependent reflectivity of slow electrons from ultrathin Fe films on W(110) has been measured with spin polarized low energy electron microscopy. From the amplitude of the quantum size oscillations observed in the reflectivity curves the spin-dependent inelastic mean free path (IMFP) of electrons in Fe has been determined in the energy range from 5 to 16 eV above the vacuum level. The resulting IMFP values for the spin-up electrons are clearly larger than those for the spin-down electrons and the difference between the two values decreases with increasing electron energy in agreement with theoretical predictions. PMID:23765334

  13. Optimized Electron-spin-cavity coupling in a double quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xuedong; Liu, Yu-Xi; Nori, Franco

    2011-03-01

    We search for the optimal regime to couple an electron spin in a semiconductor double quantum dot to a superconducting stripline resonator via the electrically driven spin resonance technique. In particular, we calculate the spin relaxation rate in the regime when spin-photon coupling is strong, so that we can identify system parameters that allow the electron spin to reach the strong coupling limit. We thank support by NSA/LPS through ARO.

  14. Quantum logic readout and cooling of a single dark electron spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Fazhan; Zhang, Qi; Naydenov, Boris; Jelezko, Fedor; Du, Jiangfeng; Reinhard, Friedemann; Wrachtrup, Jörg

    2013-05-01

    We study a single dark N2 electron spin defect in diamond, which is magnetically coupled to a nearby nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center. We perform pulsed electron spin resonance on this single spin by mapping its state to the NV center spin and optically reading out the latter. Moreover, we show that the NV center's spin polarization can be transferred to the electron spin by combined two decoupling control-NOT gates. These two results allow us to extend the NV center's two key properties—optical spin polarization and detection—to any electron spin in its vicinity. This enables dark electron spins to be used as local quantum registers and engineerable memories.

  15. Negative Electronic Compressibility and Tuneable Spin Splitting in WSe2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, J. M.; Meevasana, W.; Bawden, L.; Asakawa, M.; Takayama, T.; Eknapakul, T.; Kim, T. K.; Hoesch, M.; Mo, S.-K.; Takagi, H.; Sasagawa, T.; Bahramy, M. S.; King, P. D. C.

    Recently, semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides have gained attention for their extraordinarily large exciton-binding energies and locking of the spin with valley and layer pseudospins. Through sub-monolayer deposition of alkali metals onto the surface of WSe2, analogous to the gating in a field-effect transistor, we create a 2DEG at the sample surface with tuneable carrier concentration. Counter-intuitively, we find that the addition of carriers induces a reduction of the chemical potential in the near-surface. We attribute this to negative electronic compressibility where strong Coulomb effects lead to the lowering of the chemical potential with band filling, which we find persists to remarkably high electron densities. Simultaneously, we show this is accompanied by a giant tuneable spin-splitting of the valence band states and a reduction of the quasiparticle band gap.

  16. Electron spin echo modulation study of AOT reverse micelles

    SciTech Connect

    Baglioni, P. ); Nakamura, Hiroshi ); Kevan, L. )

    1991-05-02

    Electron spin echo deuterium modulation studies have been carried out for x-doxylstearic acid spin probes in frozen reversed micellar solutions of sodium bis(2-ethyl-1-hexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT)/isooctane as a function of the water pool size with deuterium located in the isooctane or in the water. The results determine the probe location and conformation in the reverse micelle and the amount of water and isooctane penetration into the AOT interface. Modulation effects due to the interaction of the unpaired electron with deuterated isooctane or deuterated water show that the probes are in an extended conformation and are located at the interface of the reverse micelle. The results obtained are in good agreement with the current view of the structure of AOT reversed micelles in liquids and demonstrate at a molecular level that the micellar structure is retained upon fast freezing.

  17. Graphene-diamond interface: Gap opening and electronic spin injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yandong; Dai, Ying; Guo, Meng; Huang, Baibiao

    2012-06-01

    Creating a finite band gap, injecting electronic spin, and finding a suitable substrate are the three important challenges for building graphene-based devices. Here, first-principles calculations are performed to investigate the electronic and magnetic properties of graphene adsorbed on the (111) surface of diamond, which is synthesized experimentally [Nature10.1038/nature09979 472, 74 (2011); J. Appl. Phys.10.1063/1.3627370 110, 044324 (2011); Nano Lett.10.1021/nl204545q 12, 1603 (2012); ACS Nano10.1021/nn204362p 6, 1018 (2012)]. Our results reveal that the graphene adsorbed on the diamond surface is a semiconductor with a finite gap depending on the adsorption arrangements due to the variation of on-site energy induced by the diamond surface, with the extra advantage of maintaining main characters of the linear band dispersion of graphene. More interestingly, different from typical graphene/semiconductor hybrid systems, we find that electronic spin can arise ``intrinsically'' in graphene owing to the exchange proximity interaction between electrons in graphene and localized electrons in the diamond surface rather than the characteristic graphene states. These predications strongly revive this new synthesized system as a viable candidate to overcome all the aforementioned challenges, providing an ideal platform for future graphene-based electronics.

  18. Electron tunneling in lithium-ammonia solutions probed by frequency-dependent electron spin relaxation studies.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Kiminori; Lodge, Matthew T J; Harmer, Jeffrey; Freed, Jack H; Edwards, Peter P

    2012-06-01

    Electron transfer or quantum tunneling dynamics for excess or solvated electrons in dilute lithium-ammonia solutions have been studied by pulse electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy at both X- (9.7 GHz) and W-band (94 GHz) frequencies. The electron spin-lattice (T(1)) and spin-spin (T(2)) relaxation data indicate an extremely fast transfer or quantum tunneling rate of the solvated electron in these solutions which serves to modulate the hyperfine (Fermi-contact) interaction with nitrogen nuclei in the solvation shells of ammonia molecules surrounding the localized, solvated electron. The donor and acceptor states of the solvated electron in these solutions are the initial and final electron solvation sites found before, and after, the transfer or tunneling process. To interpret and model our electron spin relaxation data from the two observation EPR frequencies requires a consideration of a multiexponential correlation function. The electron transfer or tunneling process that we monitor through the correlation time of the nitrogen Fermi-contact interaction has a time scale of (1-10) × 10(-12) s over a temperature range 230-290 K in our most dilute solution of lithium in ammonia. Two types of electron-solvent interaction mechanisms are proposed to account for our experimental findings. The dominant electron spin relaxation mechanism results from an electron tunneling process characterized by a variable donor-acceptor distance or range (consistent with such a rapidly fluctuating liquid structure) in which the solvent shell that ultimately accepts the transferring electron is formed from random, thermal fluctuations of the liquid structure in, and around, a natural hole or Bjerrum-like defect vacancy in the liquid. Following transfer and capture of the tunneling electron, further solvent-cage relaxation with a time scale of ∼10(-13) s results in a minor contribution to the electron spin relaxation times. This investigation illustrates the great

  19. A capacitive probe for Electron Spin Resonance detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aloisi, Giovanni; Dolci, David; Carlà, Marcello; Mannini, Matteo; Piuzzi, Barbara; Caneschi, Andrea

    2016-02-01

    The use of the magnetic field associated with Maxwell displacement current in a capacitor is proposed for the detection of Electron Spin Resonance. A probe based on this concept is realized and successfully tested with CW radio-frequency in the band going from 200 MHz to 1 GHz with a DPPH sample. A significant increase of Signal to Noise Ratio is observed while increasing the frequency.

  20. High fidelity readout of a single electron spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keselman, Anna; Glickman, Yinnon; Akerman, Nitzan; Kotler, Shlomi; Dallal, Yehonatan; Ozeri, Roee

    2010-03-01

    We use the two spin states of the valence electron of a single trapped ^88Sr^+ ion as a physical qubit implementation. For qubit readout one of the qubit states is shelved to a metastable D level using a narrow linewidth 674nm diode laser followed by state-selective fluorescence detection. Careful analysis of the resulting photon detection statistics allows for a minimal detection error of 2 . 10-3, compatible with recent estimates of the fault-tolerance required error threshold.

  1. The role of spinning electrons in paramagnetic phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bose, D. M.

    1986-01-01

    An attempt is made to explain paramagnetic phenomena without assuming the orientation of a molecule or ion in a magnetic field. Only the spin angular momentum is assumed to be responsible. A derivative of the Gurie-Langevin law and the magnetic moments of ions are given as a function of the number of electrons in an inner, incomplete shell. An explanation of Gerlach's experiments with iron and nickel vapors is attempted. An explanation of magnetomechanical experiments with ferromagne elements is given.

  2. RKKY interaction for the spin-polarized electron gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valizadeh, Mohammad M.; Satpathy, Sashi

    2015-11-01

    We extend the original work of Ruderman, Kittel, Kasuya and Yosida (RKKY) on the interaction between two magnetic moments embedded in an electron gas to the case where the electron gas is spin-polarized. The broken symmetry of a host material introduces the Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya (DM) vector and tensor interaction terms, in addition to the standard RKKY term, so that the net interaction energy has the form ℋ = JS1 ṡS2 + D ṡS1 ×S2 + S1 ṡΓ ↔ṡS2. We find that for the spin-polarized electron gas, a nonzero tensor interaction Γ ↔ is present in addition to the scalar RKKY interaction J, while D is zero due to the presence of inversion symmetry. Explicit expressions for these are derived for the electron gas both in 2D and 3D and we show that the net magnetic interaction can be expressed as a sum of Heisenberg and Ising like terms. The RKKY interaction exhibits a beating pattern, caused by the presence of the two Fermi momenta kF↑ and kF↓, while the R-3 distance dependence of the original RKKY result for the 3D electron gas is retained. This model serves as a simple example of the magnetic interaction in systems with broken symmetry, which goes beyond the RKKY interaction.

  3. Electron and spin transport studies of gated lateral organic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alborghetti, S.; Coey, J. M. D.; Stamenov, P.

    2012-12-01

    In view of the many, often contradictory, reports of magneto-resistance (MR) in spin valve stacks containing a layer of organic semiconductor, mostly of the small molecule variety, we have investigated interdigitated lateral structures with an organic layer deposited in the narrow gap between two ferromagnetic electrodes, which are well-suited for studying charge and spin transport in novel (high resistivity) semiconducting materials. For the channel material we used three different organic semiconductors, the small molecule tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3), single crystals of pentacene, and the conductive polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). The channel length was 80 nm. Temperature-dependent current-voltage characteristics reveal that in all instances the current is limited by field-assisted thermionic injection over an energy barrier at the metal/organic interface. No measurable magneto-resistance was observed down to 7 K. The interface energy barrier, together with the vastly different electronic structure of metals and organics close to the Fermi level, preclude spin injection. Nonetheless, unlike the case of inorganic semiconductors, the insertion of an artificial tunnel barrier at the contact did not improve spin injection. Gate-dependent measurements exhibited short-channel effects and transistor operation with on/off ratios of 103, but no magneto-resistance. We suggest the observations are a consequence of the formation of bipolaron-states at increasing carrier concentration.

  4. Electrically tunable spin filtering for electron tunneling between spin-resolved quantum Hall edge states and a quantum dot

    SciTech Connect

    Kiyama, H. Fujita, T.; Teraoka, S.; Oiwa, A.; Tarucha, S.

    2014-06-30

    Spin filtering with electrically tunable efficiency is achieved for electron tunneling between a quantum dot and spin-resolved quantum Hall edge states by locally gating the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) leads near the tunnel junction to the dot. The local gating can change the potential gradient in the 2DEG and consequently the edge state separation. We use this technique to electrically control the ratio of the dot–edge state tunnel coupling between opposite spins and finally increase spin filtering efficiency up to 91%, the highest ever reported, by optimizing the local gating.

  5. Possibility of introducing spin into attoscience with spin-polarized electrons produced by a bichromatic circularly polarized laser field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milošević, D. B.

    2016-05-01

    We show that the electrons, produced in strong-bicircular-field-induced above-threshold ionization of inert-gas atoms, have a large spin asymmetry if the ions exhibit fine-structure splitting. For a bicircular field, which consists of two coplanar counterrotating circularly polarized fields of frequencies ω and 2 ω , the spin-asymmetry parameter changes rapidly with the electron energy. Since the electron-parent-ion rescattering in a counterrotating bicircular field is characterized on the attosecond time scale, this spin asymmetry may introduce the spin degree of freedom into attoscience. We show that the high-energy backward and low-energy forward scattered electrons, which are produced on the scale of a fraction of the laser cycle, exhibit spin asymmetry.

  6. Fatty Acid Desaturase Mutants of Yeast: Growth Requirements and Electron Spin Resonance Spin-Label Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Wisnieski, Bernadine J.; Kiyomoto, Richard K.

    1972-01-01

    Two respiratory-sufficient and one respiratory-deficient (nuclear petite) strains of yeast Δ9-desaturase mutants were analyzed to determine which fatty acids would serve as replacements for the naturally occurring fatty acids, 16:1 Δ9cis and 18:1 Δ9cis. The requirement can be satisfied by several fatty acids differing in double-bond position, steric configuration, chain length, and degree of unsaturation. The features common to growth-supporting fatty acids are presented and the effects of varying the carbon source and temperature are considered. In addition, we illustrate several pitfalls encountered in membrane studies which exploit lipid-requiring organisms. Since the membrane fatty acid composition of these mutants can be modified readily, electron spin resonance spectroscopy is used to compare membranes of mutant strains enriched for different fatty acids. The lipid distribution pattern of the most commonly employed electron spin resonance spin-label, 12-nitroxide stearate, was ascertained and compared to that of 18:1 Δ9cis. PMID:4333377

  7. Growth and Electronic Structure of Heusler Compounds for Use in Electron Spin Based Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Sahil Jaykumar

    Spintronic devices, where information is carried by the quantum spin state of the electron instead of purely its charge, have gained considerable interest for their use in future computing technologies. For optimal performance, a pure spin current, where all electrons have aligned spins, must be generated and transmitted across many interfaces and through many types of materials. While conventional spin sources have historically been elemental ferromagnets, like Fe or Co, these materials pro duce only partially spin polarized currents. To increase the spin polarization of the current, materials like half-metallic ferromagnets, where there is a gap in the minority spin density of states around the Fermi level, or topological insulators, where the current transport is dominated by spin-locked surface states, show promise. A class of materials called Heusler compounds, with electronic structures that range from normal metals, to half metallic ferromagnets, semiconductors, superconductors and even topological insulators, interfaces well with existing device technologies, and through the use of molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) high quality heterostructures and films can be grown. This dissertation examines the electronic structure of surfaces and interfaces of both topological insulator (PtLuSb-- and PtLuBi--) and half-metallic ferromagnet (Co2MnSi-- and Co2FeSi--) III-V semiconductor heterostructures. PtLuSb and PtLuBi growth by MBE was demonstrated on Alx In1--xSb (001) ternaries. PtLuSb (001) surfaces were observed to reconstruct with either (1x3) or c(2x2) unit cells depending on Sb overpressure and substrate temperature. viii The electronic structure of these films was studied by scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/STS) and photoemission spectroscopy. STS measurements as well as angle resolved photoemission spectropscopy (ARPES) suggest that PtLuSb has a zero-gap or semimetallic band structure. Additionally, the observation of linearly dispersing surface

  8. Charge, current and spin densities of a two-electron system in Russell-Saunders spin-orbit coupled eigenstates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayuel, K.; de Châtel, P. F.; Amani, Salah

    2002-04-01

    Charge, current and spin densities are calculated for a two-electron system, maintaining the explicit form of the wave functions, in terms of Slater determinants. The two-electron Russell-Saunders spin-orbit coupled eigenstates | L, S, J, MJ> are expressed as four-component spinors, and the operators of the above densities as 4×4 matrices. The contributions of various one-electron states to these densities are identified.

  9. Nanoscale Engineering of Closely-Spaced Electronic Spins in Diamond.

    PubMed

    Scarabelli, Diego; Trusheim, Matt; Gaathon, Ophir; Englund, Dirk; Wind, Shalom J

    2016-08-10

    Numerous theoretical protocols have been developed for quantum information processing with dipole-coupled solid-state spins. Nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers in diamond have many of the desired properties, but a central challenge has been the positioning of NV centers at the nanometer scale that would allow for efficient and consistent dipolar couplings. Here we demonstrate a method for chip-scale fabrication of arrays of single NV centers with record spatial localization of about 10 nm in all three dimensions and controllable inter-NV spacing as small as 40 nm, which approaches the length scale of strong dipolar coupling. Our approach uses masked implantation of nitrogen through nanoapertures in a thin gold film, patterned via electron-beam lithography and dry etching. We verified the position and spin properties of the resulting NVs through wide-field super-resolution optically detected magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:27428077

  10. Spin Orbit Induced Electronic Structure and Magnetotransport in WTe2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, David J.; Pan, Minghu; Yan, Jiaqiang; Yang, Biao; Zang, Yunyi; Zhang, Junjie; He, Ke; Wu, Menghao; Zhao, Yanfei; Mandrus, David; Wang, Jian; Xue, Qikun; Chi, Lifeng; Li, Qing

    We report electronic structure studies of WTe2, which shows an XMR behavior and is non-centrosymmetric. We find a spin-orbit split semimetallic band structure with a different Fermi surface topology than that initially reported, including Rashba split bands with Fermi surface around the zone center. The metallic properties are not one dimensional and are best described in terms of an anisotropic 3D metal with compensating low carrier density Fermi surfaces. The spin texture and transport is discussed as the origin of the XMR effect and in particular is consistent with the geometry in which the XMR effect is observed and its angle dependence. Work supported by DOE through the Computational Synthesis of Materials Software Project.

  11. Perpendicular hot electron transport in the spin-valve photodiode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Biqin; Appelbaum, Ian

    2006-08-01

    The spin-valve photodiode is a ferromagnetic metal multilayer/n-type semiconductor Schottky device operated by photoexciting hot electrons in the metal and causing internal photoemission (IPE) into the semiconductor. Simple IPE theory predicts that the magnitude of the spin-valve effect (modulation of the photocurrent) should monotonically increase as a metallic capping layer thickness increases. Experimentally, however, we observe a nonmonotonic behavior with cap layer thickness, where the magnetocurrent reaches an optimum value and then decreases. The disagreement between this experimental result and the previous theoretical model is discussed, leading to an alternative interpretation of transport including reflection from the air-metal interface. Calculations with this model are consistent with the observed phenomena.

  12. Hot electron injection, vertical transport, and electrical spin detection in Silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appelbaum, Ian; Huang, Biqin; Altfeder, Igor; Monsma, Douwe

    2007-03-01

    In our devices, spin-dependent hot electron transport through metallic ferromagnetic thin films is used to polarize a charge current injected into the conduction band of Si, and then to analyze the remaining polarization after vertical drift. Our measurements of a clear spin-valve signature indicate substantial electron spin polarization after transport through several microns of Si.

  13. Detection of nanoscale electron spin resonance spectra demonstrated using nitrogen-vacancy centre probes in diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, L. T.; Kehayias, P.; Simpson, D. A.; Jarmola, A.; Stacey, A.; Budker, D.; Hollenberg, L. C. L.

    2016-01-01

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) describes a suite of techniques for characterizing electronic systems with applications in physics, chemistry, and biology. However, the requirement for large electron spin ensembles in conventional ESR techniques limits their spatial resolution. Here we present a method for measuring ESR spectra of nanoscale electronic environments by measuring the longitudinal relaxation time of a single-spin probe as it is systematically tuned into resonance with the target electronic system. As a proof of concept, we extracted the spectral distribution for the P1 electronic spin bath in diamond by using an ensemble of nitrogen-vacancy centres, and demonstrated excellent agreement with theoretical expectations. As the response of each nitrogen-vacancy spin in this experiment is dominated by a single P1 spin at a mean distance of 2.7 nm, the application of this technique to the single nitrogen-vacancy case will enable nanoscale ESR spectroscopy of atomic and molecular spin systems.

  14. Nonlinear separate spin evolution in degenerate electron-positron-ion plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, Z.; Andreev, Pavel A.

    2016-06-01

    The non-linear evolution of spin-electron acoustic, positron-acoustic, and spin-electron-positron acoustic waves is considered. It is demonstrated that weakly nonlinear dynamics of each wave leads to the soliton formation. Altogether, we report on the existence of three different solitons. The spin-electron acoustic soliton known for electron-ion plasmas is described for electron-positron-ion plasmas for the first time. The existence of the spin-electron-positron acoustic soliton is reported for the first time. The positron-acoustic soliton and the spin-electron-positron acoustic soliton arise as the areas of a positive electric potential. The spin-electron acoustic soliton behaves as the area of a negative electric potential at the relatively small positron imbalance n 0 p / n 0 e = 0.1 and as the area of a positive electric potential at the relatively large positron imbalance n 0 p / n 0 e = 0.5 .

  15. Electronic Spin Tunneling in the Binding of Carbon - to Hemoglobin.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerstman, Bernard Scott

    1981-11-01

    A non-adiabatic quantum tunneling process is investigated as the mechanism for effecting the electronic spin change of the hemoglobin's iron upon the binding of carbon monoxide. As the carbon monoxide approaches there is a spin state change in the Fe('2+) from S = 2 to S = 0. The Born -Oppenheimer approximation can be used to separate the recombination of the CO to the iron in the heme at low temperatures into a nuclear tunneling and an electronic tunneling. Based upon the spin change of the Fe as well as the size of the tunneling matrix element and the energy splitting of the two states in the transition region, we assume the reaction to be a non-adiabatic electronic Landau-Zener state to state tunneling. The tunneling involves a spin change of the Fe and thus a spin-orbit interaction is used as the perturbation that couples the S = 2 and S = 0 manifolds. Since the matrix element for the transition is due to spin-orbit coupling the size of the matrix element can be changed, and hence the tunneling rate, by changing the spin magnetic sublevel of the initially CO unbound Fe. This is accomplished by applying a strong magnetic field of approximately 100 000 gauss which will tend to align the Fe spin at low enough temperature. The L vector will be affected only slightly by the external magnetic field since the Zeeman effect on the orbital levels is much smaller (10('-2)) than that of the internal crystal field of the molecule. Hence the crystal field of the heme determines the L quantization axis in each local heme coordinate system. Thus in a random oriented distribution of hemes frozen in place we expect faster CO recombination for those hemes who have their L vector aligned in the direction of the magnetic field than for those hemes whose L vector is perpendicular to the magnetic field. Hemoglobin has a strong absorption band at 436 nm when CO is bound. This absorption is also orientation dependent for the absorption is predominantly for light polarized in the plane

  16. Dynamics of nuclear spin polarization induced and detected by coherently precessing electron spins in fluorine-doped ZnSe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heisterkamp, F.; Kirstein, E.; Greilich, A.; Zhukov, E. A.; Kazimierczuk, T.; Yakovlev, D. R.; Pawlis, A.; Bayer, M.

    2016-02-01

    We study the dynamics of optically induced nuclear spin polarization in a fluorine-doped ZnSe epilayer via time-resolved Kerr rotation. The nuclear polarization in the vicinity of a fluorine donor is induced by interaction with coherently precessing electron spins in a magnetic field applied in the Voigt geometry. It is detected by nuclei-induced changes in the electron spin coherence signal. This all-optical technique allows us to measure the longitudinal spin relaxation time T1 of the 77Se isotope in a magnetic field range from 10 to 130 mT under illumination. We combine the optical technique with radio frequency methods to address the coherent spin dynamics of the nuclei and measure Rabi oscillations, Ramsey fringes, and the nuclear spin echo. The inhomogeneous spin dephasing time T2* and the spin coherence time T2 of the 77Se isotope are measured. While the T1 time is on the order of several milliseconds, the T2 time is several hundred microseconds. The experimentally determined condition T1≫T2 verifies the validity of the classical model of nuclear spin cooling for describing the optically induced nuclear spin polarization.

  17. Decrease of electron spin lifetime in external electric field due to intervalley phonon scattering in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qing, Lan; Dery, Hanan; Li, Jing; Appelbaum, Ian

    2012-02-01

    We derive a simple approximate expression of the spin lifetime of drifting electrons in silicon. This expression agrees well with elaborate Monte Carlo simulations of the charge transport and spin relaxation of conduction electrons heated by the electric field. Already at low temperatures, the drifting electrons become hot enough to undergo f-processes (scattering between valleys of different crystal axes following emission of a shortwave phonon). Such a process involves a direct coupling of valence and conduction bands and dominates the spin relaxation. A sharp decrease of spin lifetime can then be expected in intermediate electric fields in between ˜100 V/cm and ˜1 kV/cm. When electrons are transported between a spin injector and a spin-resolved detector, the decrease of both transit time and spin lifetime results in a non-monotonic behavior of the detected spin polarization with the electric field. The theory shows excellent agreement with empirical results.

  18. Force detected electron spin resonance at 94 GHz.

    PubMed

    Cruickshank, Paul A S; Smith, Graham M

    2007-01-01

    Force detected electron spin resonance (FDESR) detects the presence of unpaired electrons in a sample by measuring the change in force on a mechanical resonator as the magnetization of the sample is modulated under magnetic resonance conditions. The magnetization is coupled to the resonator via a magnetic field gradient. It has been used to both detect and image distributions of electron spins, and it offers both extremely high absolute sensitivity and high spatial imaging resolution. However, compared to conventional induction mode ESR the technique also has a comparatively poor concentration sensitivity and it introduces complications in interpreting and combining both spectroscopy and imaging. One method to improve both sensitivity and spectral resolution is to operate in high magnetic fields in order to increase the sample magnetization and g-factor resolution. In this article we present FDESR measurements on the organic conductor (fluoranthene)(2)PF(6) at 3.2 T, with a corresponding millimeter-wave frequency of 93.5 GHz, which we believe are the highest field results for FDESR reported in the literature to date. A magnet-on-cantilever approach was used, with a high-anisotropy microwave ferrite as the gradient source and employing cyclic saturation to modulate the magnetization at the cantilever fundamental frequency. PMID:17503940

  19. Imaging chiral spin textures with spin-polarized low energy electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, Andreas

    2015-03-01

    Chirality in magnetic materials is fundamentally interesting holds potential for logic and memory applications. Using spin-polarized low-energy electron microscopy, we recently observed chiral Néel walls in thin films. We developed ways to tailor the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, which drives the chirality, by interface engineering, and we found that Néel- and Bloch- chirality type can be tuned in the presence of uniaxial strain. This work was done in collaboration with G. Chen, A.T.N'diaye, T.P.Ma, A.Mascaraque, C.Won, Z.Q.Qiu, Y.Z.Wu.

  20. Spin dynamics and relaxation in graphene nanoribbons: electron spin resonance probing.

    PubMed

    Rao, Singamaneni S; Stesmans, Andre; van Tol, Johan; Kosynkin, Dmitry V; Higginbotham-Duque, A; Lu, Wei; Sinitskii, Alexander; Tour, James M

    2012-09-25

    Here we report the results of a multifrequency (~9, 20, 34, 239.2, and 336 GHz) variable-temperature continuous wave (cw) and X-band (~9 GHz) pulse electron spin resonance (ESR) measurement performed at cryogenic temperatures on potassium split graphene nanoribbons (GNRs). Important experimental findings include the following: (a) The multifrequency cw ESR data infer the presence of only carbon-related paramagnetic nonbonding states, at any measured temperature, with the g value independent of microwave frequency and temperature. (b) A linear broadening of the ESR signal as a function of microwave frequency is noticed. The observed linear frequency dependence of ESR signal width points to a distribution of g factors causing the non-Lorentzian line shape, and the g broadening contribution is found to be very small. (c) The ESR process is found to be characterized by slow and fast components, whose temperature dependences could be well described by a tunneling level state model. This work not only could help in advancing the present fundamental understanding on the edge spin (or magnetic)-based properties of GNRs but also pave the way to GNR-based spin devices. PMID:22901098

  1. Local electron-electron interaction strength in ferromagnetic nickel determined by spin-polarized positron annihilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceeh, Hubert; Weber, Josef Andreass; Böni, Peter; Leitner, Michael; Benea, Diana; Chioncel, Liviu; Ebert, Hubert; Minár, Jan; Vollhardt, Dieter; Hugenschmidt, Christoph

    2016-02-01

    We employ a positron annihilation technique, the spin-polarized two-dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation (2D-ACAR), to measure the spin-difference spectra of ferromagnetic nickel. The experimental data are compared with the theoretical results obtained within a combination of the local spin density approximation (LSDA) and the many-body dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT). We find that the self-energy defining the electronic correlations in Ni leads to anisotropic contributions to the momentum distribution. By direct comparison of the theoretical and experimental results we determine the strength of the local electronic interaction U in ferromagnetic Ni as 2.0 ± 0.1 eV.

  2. Local electron-electron interaction strength in ferromagnetic nickel determined by spin-polarized positron annihilation

    PubMed Central

    Ceeh, Hubert; Weber, Josef Andreass; Böni, Peter; Leitner, Michael; Benea, Diana; Chioncel, Liviu; Ebert, Hubert; Minár, Jan; Vollhardt, Dieter; Hugenschmidt, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    We employ a positron annihilation technique, the spin-polarized two-dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation (2D-ACAR), to measure the spin-difference spectra of ferromagnetic nickel. The experimental data are compared with the theoretical results obtained within a combination of the local spin density approximation (LSDA) and the many-body dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT). We find that the self-energy defining the electronic correlations in Ni leads to anisotropic contributions to the momentum distribution. By direct comparison of the theoretical and experimental results we determine the strength of the local electronic interaction U in ferromagnetic Ni as 2.0 ± 0.1 eV. PMID:26879249

  3. Local electron-electron interaction strength in ferromagnetic nickel determined by spin-polarized positron annihilation.

    PubMed

    Ceeh, Hubert; Weber, Josef Andreass; Böni, Peter; Leitner, Michael; Benea, Diana; Chioncel, Liviu; Ebert, Hubert; Minár, Jan; Vollhardt, Dieter; Hugenschmidt, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    We employ a positron annihilation technique, the spin-polarized two-dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation (2D-ACAR), to measure the spin-difference spectra of ferromagnetic nickel. The experimental data are compared with the theoretical results obtained within a combination of the local spin density approximation (LSDA) and the many-body dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT). We find that the self-energy defining the electronic correlations in Ni leads to anisotropic contributions to the momentum distribution. By direct comparison of the theoretical and experimental results we determine the strength of the local electronic interaction U in ferromagnetic Ni as 2.0 ± 0.1 eV. PMID:26879249

  4. Nonlocal Nuclear Spin Quieting in Quantum Dot Molecules: Optically Induced Extended Two-Electron Spin Coherence Time.

    PubMed

    Chow, Colin M; Ross, Aaron M; Kim, Danny; Gammon, Daniel; Bracker, Allan S; Sham, L J; Steel, Duncan G

    2016-08-12

    We demonstrate the extension of coherence between all four two-electron spin ground states of an InAs quantum dot molecule (QDM) via nonlocal suppression of nuclear spin fluctuations in two vertically stacked quantum dots (QDs), while optically addressing only the top QD transitions. Long coherence times are revealed through dark-state spectroscopy as resulting from nuclear spin locking mediated by the exchange interaction between the QDs. Line shape analysis provides the first measurement of the quieting of the Overhauser field distribution correlating with reduced nuclear spin fluctuations. PMID:27563998

  5. Nonlocal Nuclear Spin Quieting in Quantum Dot Molecules: Optically Induced Extended Two-Electron Spin Coherence Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow, Colin M.; Ross, Aaron M.; Kim, Danny; Gammon, Daniel; Bracker, Allan S.; Sham, L. J.; Steel, Duncan G.

    2016-08-01

    We demonstrate the extension of coherence between all four two-electron spin ground states of an InAs quantum dot molecule (QDM) via nonlocal suppression of nuclear spin fluctuations in two vertically stacked quantum dots (QDs), while optically addressing only the top QD transitions. Long coherence times are revealed through dark-state spectroscopy as resulting from nuclear spin locking mediated by the exchange interaction between the QDs. Line shape analysis provides the first measurement of the quieting of the Overhauser field distribution correlating with reduced nuclear spin fluctuations.

  6. Coherent transfer of light polarization to electron spins in a semiconductor.

    PubMed

    Kosaka, Hideo; Shigyou, Hideki; Mitsumori, Yasuyoshi; Rikitake, Yoshiaki; Imamura, Hiroshi; Kutsuwa, Takeshi; Arai, Koichiro; Edamatsu, Keiichi

    2008-03-01

    We demonstrate that the superposition of light polarization states is coherently transferred to electron spins in a semiconductor quantum well. By using time-resolved Kerr rotation, we observe the initial phase of Larmor precession of electron spins whose coherence is transferred from light. To break the electron-hole spin entanglement, we utilized the big discrepancy between the transverse g factors of electrons and light-holes. The result encourages us to make a quantum media converter between flying photon qubits and stationary electron-spin qubits in semiconductors. PMID:18352739

  7. Local spin torque induced by electron electric dipole moment in the YbF molecule

    SciTech Connect

    Fukuda, Masahiro; Senami, Masato; Ogiso, Yoji; Tachibana, Akitomo

    2014-10-06

    In this study, we show the modification of the equation of motion of the electronic spin, which is derived by the quantum electron spin vorticity principle, by the effect of the electron electric dipole moment (EDM). To investigate the new contribution to spin torque by EDM, using first principle calculations, we visualize distributions of the local spin angular momentum density and local spin torque density of the YbF molecule on which the static electric field and magnetic field are applied at t = 0.

  8. Local spin torque induced by electron electric dipole moment in the Ybf molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, Masahiro; Senami, Masato; Ogiso, Yoji; Tachibana, Akitomo

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we show the modification of the equation of motion of the electronic spin, which is derived by the quantum electron spin vorticity principle, by the effect of the electron electric dipole moment (EDM). To investigate the new contribution to spin torque by EDM, using first principle calculations, we visualize distributions of the local spin angular momentum density and local spin torque density of the YbF molecule on which the static electric field and magnetic field are applied at t = 0.

  9. Millisecond Coherence Time in a Tunable Molecular Electronic Spin Qubit.

    PubMed

    Zadrozny, Joseph M; Niklas, Jens; Poluektov, Oleg G; Freedman, Danna E

    2015-12-23

    Quantum information processing (QIP) could revolutionize areas ranging from chemical modeling to cryptography. One key figure of merit for the smallest unit for QIP, the qubit, is the coherence time (T 2), which establishes the lifetime for the qubit. Transition metal complexes offer tremendous potential as tunable qubits, yet their development is hampered by the absence of synthetic design principles to achieve a long T 2. We harnessed molecular design to create a series of qubits, (Ph4P)2[V(C8S8)3] (1), (Ph4P)2[V(β-C3S5)3] (2), (Ph4P)2[V(α-C3S5)3] (3), and (Ph4P)2[V(C3S4O)3] (4), with T 2s of 1-4 μs at 80 K in protiated and deuterated environments. Crucially, through chemical tuning of nuclear spin content in the vanadium(IV) environment we realized a T 2 of ∼1 ms for the species (d 20-Ph4P)2[V(C8S8)3] (1') in CS2, a value that surpasses the coordination complex record by an order of magnitude. This value even eclipses some prominent solid-state qubits. Electrochemical and continuous wave electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) data reveal variation in the electronic influence of the ligands on the metal ion across 1-4. However, pulsed measurements indicate that the most important influence on decoherence is nuclear spins in the protiated and deuterated solvents utilized herein. Our results illuminate a path forward in synthetic design principles, which should unite CS2 solubility with nuclear spin free ligand fields to develop a new generation of molecular qubits. PMID:27163013

  10. Millisecond Coherence Time in a Tunable Molecular Electronic Spin Qubit

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Quantum information processing (QIP) could revolutionize areas ranging from chemical modeling to cryptography. One key figure of merit for the smallest unit for QIP, the qubit, is the coherence time (T2), which establishes the lifetime for the qubit. Transition metal complexes offer tremendous potential as tunable qubits, yet their development is hampered by the absence of synthetic design principles to achieve a long T2. We harnessed molecular design to create a series of qubits, (Ph4P)2[V(C8S8)3] (1), (Ph4P)2[V(β-C3S5)3] (2), (Ph4P)2[V(α-C3S5)3] (3), and (Ph4P)2[V(C3S4O)3] (4), with T2s of 1–4 μs at 80 K in protiated and deuterated environments. Crucially, through chemical tuning of nuclear spin content in the vanadium(IV) environment we realized a T2 of ∼1 ms for the species (d20-Ph4P)2[V(C8S8)3] (1′) in CS2, a value that surpasses the coordination complex record by an order of magnitude. This value even eclipses some prominent solid-state qubits. Electrochemical and continuous wave electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) data reveal variation in the electronic influence of the ligands on the metal ion across 1–4. However, pulsed measurements indicate that the most important influence on decoherence is nuclear spins in the protiated and deuterated solvents utilized herein. Our results illuminate a path forward in synthetic design principles, which should unite CS2 solubility with nuclear spin free ligand fields to develop a new generation of molecular qubits. PMID:27163013

  11. Interaction induced staggered spin-orbit order in two-dimensional electron gas

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Tanmoy

    2012-06-05

    Decoupling spin and charge transports in solids is among the many prerequisites for realizing spin electronics, spin caloritronics, and spin-Hall effect. Beyond the conventional method of generating and manipulating spin current via magnetic knob, recent advances have expanded the possibility to optical and electrical method which are controllable both internally and externally. Yet, due to the inevitable presence of charge excitations and electrical polarizibility in these methods, the separation between spin and charge degrees of freedom of electrons remains a challenge. Here we propose and formulate an interaction induced staggered spin-orbit order as a new emergent phase of matter. We show that when some form of inherent spin-splitting via Rashba-type spin-orbit coupling renders two helical Fermi surfaces to become significantly nested, a Fermi surface instability arises. To lift this degeneracy, a spontaneous symmetry breaking spin-orbit density wave develops, causing a surprisingly large quasiparticle gapping with chiral electronic states, with no active charge excitations. Since the staggered spin-orbit order is associated with a condensation energy, quantified by the gap value, destroying such spin-orbit interaction costs sufficiently large perturbation field or temperature or de-phasing time. BiAg2 surface state is shown to be a representative system for realizing such novel spin-orbit interaction with tunable and large strength, and the spin-splitting is decoupled from charge excitations.

  12. Electron spin polarization in strong-field ionization of xenon atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartung, Alexander; Morales, Felipe; Kunitski, Maksim; Henrichs, Kevin; Laucke, Alina; Richter, Martin; Jahnke, Till; Kalinin, Anton; Schöffler, Markus; Schmidt, Lothar Ph. H.; Ivanov, Misha; Smirnova, Olga; Dörner, Reinhard

    2016-08-01

    As a fundamental property of the electron, the spin plays a decisive role in the electronic structure of matter, from solids to molecules and atoms, for example, by causing magnetism. Yet, despite its importance, the spin dynamics of the electrons released during the interaction of atoms with strong ultrashort laser pulses has remained experimentally unexplored. Here, we report the experimental detection of electron spin polarization by the strong-field ionization of xenon atoms and support our results with theoretical analysis. We found up to 30% spin polarization changing its sign with electron energy. This work opens the new dimension of spin to strong-field physics. It paves the way to the production of sub-femtosecond spin-polarized electron pulses with applications ranging from probing the magnetic properties of matter at ultrafast timescales to testing chiral molecular systems with sub-femtosecond temporal and sub-ångström spatial resolutions.

  13. Doppler Velocimetry of Current Driven Spin Helices in a Two-Dimensional Electron Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Luyi

    2013-05-17

    Spins in semiconductors provide a pathway towards the development of spin-based electronics. The appeal of spin logic devices lies in the fact that the spin current is even under time reversal symmetry, yielding non-dissipative coupling to the electric field. To exploit the energy-saving potential of spin current it is essential to be able to control it. While recent demonstrations of electrical-gate control in spin-transistor configurations show great promise, operation at room temperature remains elusive. Further progress requires a deeper understanding of the propagation of spin polarization, particularly in the high mobility semiconductors used for devices. This dissertation presents the demonstration and application of a powerful new optical technique, Doppler spin velocimetry, for probing the motion of spin polarization at the level of 1 nm on a picosecond time scale. We discuss experiments in which this technique is used to measure the motion of spin helices in high mobility n-GaAs quantum wells as a function of temperature, in-plane electric field, and photoinduced spin polarization amplitude. We find that the spin helix velocity changes sign as a function of wave vector and is zero at the wave vector that yields the largest spin lifetime. This observation is quite striking, but can be explained by the random walk model that we have developed. We discover that coherent spin precession within a propagating spin density wave is lost at temperatures near 150 K. This finding is critical to understanding why room temperature operation of devices based on electrical gate control of spin current has so far remained elusive. We report that, at all temperatures, electron spin polarization co-propagates with the high-mobility electron sea, even when this requires an unusual form of separation of spin density from photoinjected electron density. Furthermore, although the spin packet co-propagates with the two-dimensional electron gas, spin diffusion is strongly

  14. Characterization of hyperfine interaction between an NV electron spin and a first-shell 13C nuclear spin in diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, K. Rama Koteswara; Suter, Dieter

    2016-08-01

    The nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond has attractive properties for a number of quantum technologies that rely on the spin angular momentum of the electron and the nuclei adjacent to the center. The nucleus with the strongest interaction is the 13C nuclear spin of the first shell. Using this degree of freedom effectively hinges on precise data on the hyperfine interaction between the electronic and the nuclear spin. Here, we present detailed experimental data on this interaction, together with an analysis that yields all parameters of the hyperfine tensor, as well as its orientation with respect to the atomic structure of the center.

  15. Quadrupolar and anisotropy effects on dephasing in two-electron spin qubits in GaAs

    PubMed Central

    Botzem, Tim; McNeil, Robert P. G.; Mol, Jan-Michael; Schuh, Dieter; Bougeard, Dominique; Bluhm, Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the decoherence of electron spins in semiconductors due to their interaction with nuclear spins is of fundamental interest as they realize the central spin model and of practical importance for using them as qubits. Interesting effects arise from the quadrupolar interaction of nuclear spins with electric field gradients, which have been shown to suppress diffusive nuclear spin dynamics and might thus enhance electron spin coherence. Here we show experimentally that for gate-defined GaAs quantum dots, quadrupolar broadening of the nuclear Larmor precession reduces electron spin coherence by causing faster decorrelation of transverse nuclear fields. However, this effect disappears for appropriate field directions. Furthermore, we observe an additional modulation of coherence attributed to an anisotropic electronic g-tensor. These results complete our understanding of dephasing in gated quantum dots and point to mitigation strategies. They may also help to unravel unexplained behaviour in self-assembled quantum dots and III–V nanowires. PMID:27079269

  16. Detection of single electron spin resonance in a double quantum dota)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koppens, F. H. L.; Buizert, C.; Vink, I. T.; Nowack, K. C.; Meunier, T.; Kouwenhoven, L. P.; Vandersypen, L. M. K.

    2007-04-01

    Spin-dependent transport measurements through a double quantum dot are a valuable tool for detecting both the coherent evolution of the spin state of a single electron, as well as the hybridization of two-electron spin states. In this article, we discuss a model that describes the transport cycle in this regime, including the effects of an oscillating magnetic field (causing electron spin resonance) and the effective nuclear fields on the spin states in the two dots. We numerically calculate the current flow due to the induced spin flips via electron spin resonance, and we study the detector efficiency for a range of parameters. The experimental data are compared with the model and we find a reasonable agreement.

  17. Spin noise of electrons and holes in (In,Ga)As quantum dots: Experiment and theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasenapp, Ph.; Smirnov, D. S.; Greilich, A.; Hackmann, J.; Glazov, M. M.; Anders, F. B.; Bayer, M.

    2016-05-01

    The spin fluctuations of electron and hole doped self-assembled quantum dot ensembles are measured optically in the low-intensity limit of a probe laser for absence and presence of longitudinal or transverse magnetic fields. The experimental results are modeled by two complementary approaches based either on a semiclassical or quantum mechanical description. This allows us to characterize the hyperfine interaction of electron and hole spins with the surrounding bath of nuclei on time scales covering several orders of magnitude. Our results demonstrate (i) the intrinsic precession of the electron spin fluctuations around the effective Overhauser field caused by the host lattice nuclear spins, (ii) the comparably long time scales for electron and hole spin decoherence, as well as (iii) the dramatic enhancement of the spin lifetimes induced by a longitudinal magnetic field due to the decoupling of nuclear and charge carrier spins.

  18. Quadrupolar and anisotropy effects on dephasing in two-electron spin qubits in GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botzem, Tim; McNeil, Robert P. G.; Mol, Jan-Michael; Schuh, Dieter; Bougeard, Dominique; Bluhm, Hendrik

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the decoherence of electron spins in semiconductors due to their interaction with nuclear spins is of fundamental interest as they realize the central spin model and of practical importance for using them as qubits. Interesting effects arise from the quadrupolar interaction of nuclear spins with electric field gradients, which have been shown to suppress diffusive nuclear spin dynamics and might thus enhance electron spin coherence. Here we show experimentally that for gate-defined GaAs quantum dots, quadrupolar broadening of the nuclear Larmor precession reduces electron spin coherence by causing faster decorrelation of transverse nuclear fields. However, this effect disappears for appropriate field directions. Furthermore, we observe an additional modulation of coherence attributed to an anisotropic electronic g-tensor. These results complete our understanding of dephasing in gated quantum dots and point to mitigation strategies. They may also help to unravel unexplained behaviour in self-assembled quantum dots and III-V nanowires.

  19. Quadrupolar and anisotropy effects on dephasing in two-electron spin qubits in GaAs.

    PubMed

    Botzem, Tim; McNeil, Robert P G; Mol, Jan-Michael; Schuh, Dieter; Bougeard, Dominique; Bluhm, Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the decoherence of electron spins in semiconductors due to their interaction with nuclear spins is of fundamental interest as they realize the central spin model and of practical importance for using them as qubits. Interesting effects arise from the quadrupolar interaction of nuclear spins with electric field gradients, which have been shown to suppress diffusive nuclear spin dynamics and might thus enhance electron spin coherence. Here we show experimentally that for gate-defined GaAs quantum dots, quadrupolar broadening of the nuclear Larmor precession reduces electron spin coherence by causing faster decorrelation of transverse nuclear fields. However, this effect disappears for appropriate field directions. Furthermore, we observe an additional modulation of coherence attributed to an anisotropic electronic g-tensor. These results complete our understanding of dephasing in gated quantum dots and point to mitigation strategies. They may also help to unravel unexplained behaviour in self-assembled quantum dots and III-V nanowires. PMID:27079269

  20. Understanding and controlling spin-systems using electron spin resonance techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martens, Mathew

    Single molecule magnets (SMMs) posses multi-level energy structures with properties that make them attractive candidates for implementation into quantum information technologies. However there are some major hurdles that need to be overcome if these systems are to be used as the fundamental components of an eventual quantum computer. One such hurdle is the relatively short coherence times these systems display which severely limits the amount of time quantum information can remain encoded within them. In this dissertation, recent experiments conducted with the intent of bringing this technology closer to realization are presented. The detailed knowledge of the spin Hamiltonian and mechanisms of decoherence in SMMs are absolutely essential if these systems are to be used in technologies. To that effect, experiments were done on a particularly promising SMM, the complex K6[VIV15AsIII 6O42(H2O)] · 8H2O, known as V15. High-field electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements were performed on this system at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory. The resulting spectra allowed for detailed analysis of the V15 spin Hamiltonian which will be presented as well as the most precise values yet reported for the g-factors of this system. Additionally, the line widths of the ESR spectra are studied in depth and found to reveal that fluctuations within the spin-orbit interaction are a mechanism for decoherence in V15. A new model for decoherence is presented that describes very well both the temperature and field orientation dependences of the measured ESR line widths. Also essential is the ability to control spin-states of SMMs. Presented in this dissertation as well is the demonstration of the coherent manipulation of the multi-state spin system Mn2+ diluted in MgO by means of a two-tone pulse drive. Through the detuning between the excitation and readout radio frequency pulses it is possible to select the number of photons involved in a Rabi oscillation as well as increase

  1. Observation of electron spin resonance of negative ions in liquid helium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reichert, J. F.; Dahm, A. J.

    1973-01-01

    Electron spin resonance signals of negative ions in liquid helium were observed. The line width and g-value were measured. Electrons injected into helium by field emission from ferromagnetic tips are shown to be polarized. A new technique for the measurement of electron spin polarization is presented.

  2. Ultrafast optical control of electron spins in quantum wells and quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Samuel G.; Economou, Sophia E.; Shabaev, Andrew; Kennedy, Thomas A.; Bracker, Allan S.; Reinecke, Thomas L.; Chen, Zhigang; Cundiff, Steven T.

    2010-02-01

    Using two-color time-resolved Faraday rotation and ellipticity, we demonstrate ultrafast optical control of electron spins in GaAs quantum wells and InAs quantum dots. In quantum wells, a magnetic-field induced electron spin polarization is manipulated by off-resonant pulses. By measuring the amplitude and phase of the spin polarization as a function of pulse detuning, we observe the two competing optical processes: real excitation, which generates a spin polarization through excitation of electron-hole pairs; and virtual excitation, which can manipulate a spin polarization through a stimulated Raman process without exciting electron-hole pairs. In InAs quantum dots, the spin coherence time is much longer, so that the effect of many repetitions of the pump pulses is important. Through real excitation, the pulse train efficiently polarizes electron spins that precess at multiples of the laser repetition frequency, leading to a "mode-locking" phenomenon. Through virtual excitation, the spins can be partially rotated toward the magnetic field direction, leading to a sensitive dependence of the spin orientation on the precession frequency and detuning. The electron spin dynamics strongly influence the nuclear spin dynamics as well, leading to directional control of the nuclear polarization distribution.

  3. Electron spin echo of Cu(2+) in the triglycine sulfate crystal family (TGS, TGSe, TGFB): electron spin-lattice relaxation, Debye temperature and spin-phonon coupling.

    PubMed

    Lijewski, S; Goslar, J; Hoffmann, S K

    2006-07-01

    The electron spin-lattice relaxation of Cu(2+) has been studied by the electron spin echo technique in the temperature range 4.2-115 K in triglycine sulfate (TGS) family crystals. Assuming that the relaxation is due to Raman relaxation processes the Debye temperature Θ(D) was determined as 190 K for TGS, 168 K for triglycine selenate (TGSe) and 179 K for triglycine fluoroberyllate (TGFB). We also calculated the Θ(D) values from the sound velocities derived from available elastic constants. The elastic Debye temperatures were found as 348 K for TGS, 288 K for TGSe and 372 K for TGFB. The results shown good agreement with specific heat data for TGS. The elastic Θ(D) are considerably larger than those determined from the Raman spin-lattice relaxation. The possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. We propose to use a modified expression describing two-phonon Raman relaxation with a single variable only (Θ(D)) after elimination of the sound velocity. Moreover, we show that the relaxation data can be fitted using the elastic Debye temperature value as a constant with an additional relaxation process contributing at low temperatures. This mechanism can be related to a local mode of the Cu(2+) defect in the host lattice. Electron paramagnetic resonance g-factors and hyperfine splitting were analysed in terms of the molecular orbital theory and the d-orbital energies and covalency factors of the Cu(gly)(2) complexes were found. Using the structural data and calculated orbital energies the spin-phonon coupling matrix element of the second-order Raman process was calculated as 553 cm(-1) for TGS, 742 cm(-1) for TGSe and 569 cm(-1) for TGFB. PMID:21690828

  4. Electron-electron interaction, weak localization and spin valve effect in vertical-transport graphene devices

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Mingsheng; Gong, Youpin; Wei, Xiangfei; Zhu, Chao; Xu, Jianbao; Liu, Ping; Guo, Yufen; Li, Weiwei; Liu, Liwei; Liu, Guangtong

    2014-04-14

    We fabricated a vertical structure device, in which graphene is sandwiched between two asymmetric ferromagnetic electrodes. The measurements of electron and spin transport were performed across the combined channels containing the vertical and horizontal components. The presence of electron-electron interaction (EEI) was found not only at low temperatures but also at moderate temperatures up to ∼120 K, and EEI dominates over weak localization (WL) with and without applying magnetic fields perpendicular to the sample plane. Moreover, spin valve effect was observed when magnetic filed is swept at the direction parallel to the sample surface. We attribute the EEI and WL surviving at a relatively high temperature to the effective suppress of phonon scattering in the vertical device structure. The findings open a way for studying quantum correlation at relatively high temperature.

  5. Spin-Selective Transport of Electrons in DNA Double Helix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Ai-Min; Sun, Qing-feng

    2012-05-01

    The experiment that the high spin selectivity and the length-dependent spin polarization are observed in double-stranded DNA [Science 331, 894 (2011)SCIEAS0036-807510.1126/science.1199339], is elucidated by considering the combination of the spin-orbit coupling, the environment-induced dephasing, and the helical symmetry. We show that the spin polarization in double-stranded DNA is significant even in the case of weak spin-orbit coupling, while no spin polarization appears in single-stranded DNA. Furthermore, the underlying physical mechanism and the parameter dependence of the spin polarization are studied.

  6. Electron spin-polarization and spin lattices in the boron- and nitrogen-doped organic framework COF-5.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaobiao; Tan, Jie; Wang, Aizhu; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhao, Mingwen

    2014-11-14

    Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) hold great promise in several applications, such as sieves, catalytic supports and gas storage because of their unique structures and electronic properties. However, most of these metal-free COFs are nonmagnetic and cannot be directly used in spintronics. Here, based on first-principles calculations, we predict that substitutional doping of COF-5 with nitrogen and boron atoms can modify the electronic structures, inducing stable electron spin-polarization in the framework. The preferability of the different doping sites is checked. The electronic structures of the doped COF-5 are dependent on the doping sites and doping atoms, which offer high degrees of freedom to tune the electronic properties. Kagome lattices of S = 1/2 spins can be achieved in the COF-5, suggesting a promising candidate for spin-liquid materials. PMID:25255699

  7. Enantiospecific spin polarization of electrons photoemitted through layers of homochiral organic molecules.

    PubMed

    Niño, Miguel Ángel; Kowalik, Iwona Agnieszka; Luque, Francisco Jesús; Arvanitis, Dimitri; Miranda, Rodolfo; de Miguel, Juan José

    2014-11-26

    Electrons photoemitted through layers of purely organic chiral molecules become strongly spin-polarized even at room temperature and for double-monolayer thicknesses. The substitution of one enantiomer for its mirror image does not revert the sign of the spin polarization, rather its direction in space. These findings might lead to the obtention of highly efficient spin filters for spintronic applications. PMID:25183637

  8. Spin-dependent electron emission from metals in the neutralization of He{sup +} ions

    SciTech Connect

    Alducin, M.; Roesler, M.; Juaristi, J.I.

    2005-08-15

    We calculate the spin-polarization of electrons emitted in the neutralization of He{sup +} ions interacting with metals. All stages of the emission process are included: the spin-dependent perturbation induced by the projectile, the excitation of electrons in Auger neutralization processes, the creation of a cascade of secondaries, and the escape of the electrons through the surface potential barrier. The model allows us to explain in quantitative terms the measured spin-polarization of the yield in the interaction of spin-polarized He{sup +} ions with paramagnetic surfaces, and to disentangle the role played by each of the involved mechanisms. We show that electron-electron scattering processes at the surface determine the spin-polarization of the total yield. High energy emitted electrons are the ones providing direct information on the He{sup +} ion neutralization process and on the electronic properties of the surface.

  9. Non-diffusive spin dynamics in a two-dimensional electron gas

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, C.P.

    2010-04-28

    We describe measurements of spin dynamics in the two-dimensional electron gas in GaAs/GaAlAs quantum wells. Optical techniques, including transient spin-grating spectroscopy, are used to probe the relaxation rates of spin polarization waves in the wavevector range from zero to 6 x 10{sup 4} cm{sup -1}. We find that the spin polarization lifetime is maximal at nonzero wavevector, in contrast with expectation based on ordinary spin diffusion, but in quantitative agreement with recent theories that treat diffusion in the presence of spin-orbit coupling.

  10. Changes in the unoccupied electronic structure of the spin crossover molecule [Co(dpzca)2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Xin; Enders, Axel; Dowben, Peter; Luo, Jian; Zhang, Jian; N'diaye, Alpha

    We have investigated the changes in the unoccupied electronic structure of the spin crossover molecule - [Co(dpzca)2] using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and have compared the results with magnetometry (SQUID) measurements. The studies of the variable temperature of the electronic structure of this cobalt complex with symmetric pyrazine imide ligands, -(2-pyrazylcarbonyl)-2-pyrazinecarboxamide, i.e. [Co(dpzca)2], are consistent with density functional theory (DFT). The temperature dependence of the occupancy of the high-spin state and low-spin state molecular orbital states, the unoccupied eg/t2g ratio from XAS and high spin state to low spin state ratio from molecular magnetic susceptibility χMT indicates that the low spin state is not a zero spin state, but simply a lower moment state that would occur below the spin crossover transition of [Co(dpzca)2].