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Sample records for 252-californium nubar problem

  1. Clinical assessment of 252Californium neutron intracavitary brachytherapy using a two-channel Y applicator combined with external beam radiotherapy for endometrial cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qian; Cheng Tang; Zhao, Ke-Wei; Xiong, Yan-Li; Chen, Shu; Xu, Wen-Jing; Lei, Xin

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of 252Californium neutron intracavitary brachytherapy using a two-channel Y applicator combined with external beam radiotherapy for the treatment of endometrial cancer. METHODS: Thirty-one patients with stage I–III endometrial cancer were recruited for this study. The stage I patients received only 252Californium neutron intracavitary brachytherapy with a two-channel applicator. The stage II and III patients received both 252Californium neutron intracavitary brachytherapy using a two-channel applicator and parallel-opposed whole pelvic radiotherapy. RESULTS: The five-year local control rate was 80.6% (25/31), the overall survival rate was 51.6% (16/31), and the disease-free survival rate was 54.8% (17/31). The incidence of serious late complications was 12.9% (4/31). CONCLUSIONS: 252Californium neutron intracavitary brachytherapy using a two-channel applicator combined with external beam radiotherapy was effective for treating endometrial cancer and the incidence of serious late complications related to this combination was within an acceptable range. PMID:26872078

  2. Simulations of Multiplicity Distributions and Perturbations to Nubar Data

    SciTech Connect

    Bolding, Simon R.

    2013-01-14

    The objectives of this project are: (1) Use covariance data to generate random samples of energy dependent nubar; (2) Input the new samples of nubar into MCNP; (3) Run simulations and compare to experimental data; and (4) Repeat until a set of nubar that matches multiplicity distribution without significantly altering k{sub eff} is found. Some conclusions are: (1) Demonstrated that by adjusting nubar within covariance data can recreate multiplicity distributions correctly; (2) k{sub eff} was not changed that significantly, and more trials will likely generate a better result; (3) Can adjust FOM to produce a set of data that does what is desired; and (4) The covariances are tiny relative to the variances.

  3. Search for the Rare Decay B -> K nu nubar

    SciTech Connect

    del Amo Sanchez, P.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Tisserand, V.; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; Martinelli, M.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, David Nathan; Hooberman, B.; Kerth, L.T.; Kolomensky, Yu.G.; Lynch, G.; Osipenkov, I.L.; Tanabe, T.; /more authors..

    2010-09-14

    We present a search for the rare decays B{sup +} {yields} K{sup +}{nu}{bar {nu}} and B{sup 0} {yields} K{sup 0}{nu}{bar {nu}} using 459 million B{bar B} pairs collected with the BABAR detector at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. Flavor-changing neutral-current decays such as these are forbidden at tree level but can occur through one-loop diagrams in the Standard Model (SM), with possible contributions from new physics at the same order. The presence of two neutrinos in the final state makes identification of signal events challenging, so reconstruction in the semileptonic decay channels B {yields} D{sup (*)}l{nu} of the B meson recoiling from the signal B is used to suppress backgrounds. We set an upper limit at the 90% confidence level of 1.3 x 10{sup -5} on the total branching fraction for B{sup +} {yields} K{sup +}{nu}{bar {nu}}, and 5.6 x 10{sup -5} for B{sup 0} {yields} K{sup 0}{nu}{bar {nu}}. We additionally report partial branching fractions in two ranges of di-neutrino mass squared for B{sup +} {yields} K{sup +}{nu}{bar {nu}}.

  4. A Search for the Decay B+ --> K+ nu nubar

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B

    2004-08-17

    In this work the authors report the results of a search for the exclusive decay mode B{sup +} --> K{sup +}{nu}{bar {nu}}. By modifying the particle identification (PID) criteria used in the search, they additionally obtain a limit on the related decay B{sup +} --> {pi}{sup +}{nu}{bar {nu}}. The data used in this analysis were collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} storage ring.

  5. Evidence for the Decay K{sup +}{r_arrow}{pi}{sup +}{nu}{bar v}

    SciTech Connect

    Adler, S.; Atiya, M.S.; Chiang, I.; Diwan, M.V.; Frank, J.S.; Haggerty, J.S.; Kettell, S.H.; Kycia, T.F.; Li, K.K.; Littenberg, L.S.; Ng, C.; Sambamurti, A.; Stevens, A.; Strand, R.C.; Witzig, C.; Komatsubara, T.K.; Kuriki, M.; Muramatsu, N.; Sugimoto, S.; Inagaki, T.; Kabe, S.; Kobayashi, M.; Kuno, Y.; Sato, T.; Shinkawa, T.; Yoshimura, Y.; Kishi, Y.; Nakano, T.; Ardebili, M.; Bazarko, A.O.; Convery, M.R.; Ito, M.M.; Marlow, D.R.; McPherson, R.A.; Meyers, P.D.; Shoemaker, F.C.; Smith, A.J.; Stone, J.R.; Aoki, M.; Blackmore, E.W.; Bergbusch, P.C.; Bryman, D.A.; Konaka, A.; Macdonald, J.A.; Mildenberger, J.; Numao, T.; Padley, P.; Poutissou, J.; Poutissou, R.; Redlinger, G.; Roy, J.; Turcot, A.S.; Kitching, P.; Soluk, R.

    1997-09-01

    An event consistent with the signature expected for the rare kaon decay K{sup +}{r_arrow}{pi}{sup +}{nu}{bar {nu}} has been observed. In the pion momentum region examined, 211{lt}P{lt}230 MeV/c , the backgrounds are estimated to contribute 0.08{plus_minus}0.03 events. If the event is due to K{sup +}{r_arrow}{pi}{sup +}{nu}{bar {nu}} , the branching ratio is 4.2{sup +9.7}{sub {minus}3.5}{times}10{sup {minus}10} . {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  6. Search for the B to K nu nu-bar Decay Using Semi-Leptonic Tags

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Prudent, X.; Tisserand, V.; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; Martinelli, M.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D.N.; Hooberman, B.; Kerth, L.T.; Kolomensky, Yu.G.; Lynch, G. /UC, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Ruhr U., Bochum /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UC, Riverside /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /Frascati /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /Harvard U. /Heidelberg U. /Humboldt U., Berlin /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa State U. /Iowa State U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Orsay, LAL /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Mainz U., Inst. Kernphys. /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT /McGill U. /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /Mt. Holyoke Coll. /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /INFN, Naples /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /Paris U., VI-VII /Pennsylvania U. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Princeton U. /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DAPNIA, Saclay /SLAC /South Carolina U. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Albany /Tel Aviv U. /Tennessee U. /Texas Nuclear Corp., Austin /Texas U., Dallas /INFN, Turin /Turin U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /Valencia U. /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2010-06-02

    We present an update of the search for the flavor-changing neutral current B{sup +} {yields} K{sup +}{nu}{bar {nu}} decay using 351 X 10{sup 6} B{bar B} pairs collected at the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance with the BABAR detector at the SLAC PEP-II B factory. Due to the presence of two neutrinos in the final state, we require the reconstruction of the companion B in the event through the decay channel B{sup -} {yields} D{sup 0}{ell}{sup -}{bar {nu}}X. We find 38 candidates in the data with an expected background of 31{-+} 12. This allows us to set an upper limit on the branching fraction for B{sup +} {yields} K{sup +}{nu}{bar {nu}} of 4.5 X 10{sup -5} at 90% confidence level.

  7. Evidence for K{sup +} {r_arrow} {pi}{sup +} {nu}{bar {nu}}

    SciTech Connect

    KETTELL,S.

    1998-12-18

    The first observation of the decay K{sup +} {r_arrow} {pi}{sup +} {nu}{bar {nu}} has been reported. The E787 experiment presented evidence for the K{sup +} {r_arrow} {pi}{sup +} {nu}{bar {nu}} decay, based on the observation of a single clean event from data collected during the 1995 run of the AGS (Alternating Gradient Synchrotron at Brookhaven National Laboratory). The branching ratio indicated by this observation, B(K{sup +} {r_arrow} {pi}{sup +} {nu}{bar {nu}}) = 4.2{sub {minus}3.5}{sup +9.7} x 10{sup {minus}10}, is consistent with the Standard Model expectation although the central experimental value is four times larger. The final E787 data sample, from the 1995--98 runs, should reach a sensitivity of about five times that of the 1995 run alone. A new experiment, E949, has been given scientific approval and should start data collection in 2001. It is expected to achieve a sensitivity of more than an order of magnitude below the prediction of the Standard Model.

  8. New result on K{sup +} {r_arrow} {pi}{sup +} {nu}{bar {nu}} from BNL E787

    SciTech Connect

    REDLINGER,G.

    1999-06-21

    E787 at BNL has reported evidence for the rare decay K{sup +} {r_arrow} {pi}{sup +}{nu}{bar {nu}}, based on the observation of one candidate event. In this paper, we present the result of analyzing a new dataset of comparable sensitivity to the published result.

  9. Calibration of a Manganese Bath Relative to 252Cf Nu-Bar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilliam, David M.; Yue, Andrew T.; Scott Dewey, M.

    2009-08-01

    A large manganese sulfate bath is employed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to calibrate isotopic neutron sources relative to the national standard neutron source NBS-I. In the past few years many low-emission Cf-252 neutron sources have been calibrated for testing of neutron detectors for the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS). The low-emission DHS sources are about a factor of 100 lower in emission rate than NBS-I, so that background fluctuations become more significant in making accurate calibrations. To verify and improve the calibrations relative to NBS-I, a new calibration for sealed Cf-252 neutron sources has been made by measuring the fission rate of a bare Cf-252 deposit and inferring its neutron emission rate from Cf-252 nu-bar, the well-established neutron multiplicity of spontaneous fission in Cf-252. The fission rate of the bare deposit was measured by counting fission fragments in vacuum with a surface barrier detector behind an aperture and spacer, which provided a well-defined solid angle for detection. A thin polyimide film was placed just above the Cf deposit to prevent contamination of the detector by self-sputtering of the Cf material in vacuum. Tests with additional layers of polyimide were performed to observe any perturbation in the detection efficiency due to scattering or absorption of alpha particles or fission fragments in the polyimide film. The increase in the background count rate due to accumulation of Cf on the polyimide film was less than 0.02% of the fission fragment count rate from the sample, at the end of all runs. It is estimated that this increase in background would have been about 150 times higher without the polyimide film. The sealed Cf source NIST-DHSA was compared to the bare source by relative neutron counting in an assembly of polyethylene moderator and He-3 detectors. The calibration via Cf-252 nu-bar gave a result that was 1.7% higher than the previous calibration relative to NBS

  10. Prospects for measuring K{sup +} {r_arrow} {pi}{sup +} {nu}{bar {nu}} and K{sub L}{sup 0} {r_arrow} {pi}{sup 0} {nu}{bar {nu}} at BNL

    SciTech Connect

    Bryman, D.A.; Littenberg, L.

    2000-09-18

    Rare kaon decay experiments underway or planned for the BNL AGS will yield new and independent determinations of V*{sub ts}V{sub td}. A measurement of B(K{sub L}{sup 0} {r_arrow} {pi}{sup 0} {nu}{bar {nu}}) allows a determination of the imaginary part of this quantity, which is the fundamental CP-violating parameter of the Standard Model, in a uniquely clean manner. Since the measurement of B(K{sup +} {r_arrow} {pi}{sup +} {nu}{bar {nu}}) determines {vert_bar}V*{sub ts}V{sub td}, a complete derivation of the unitarity triangle is facilitated. These results can be compared to high precision data expected to come from the B sector in a number of ways, allowing for unique tests of new physics.

  11. 919: Evidence for K{sup +} {r_arrow} {pi}{sup +} {nu}{bar {nu}} from E787

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, J.S.; E787 Collaboration

    1997-12-01

    A collaboration from KEK, INS, Osaka, TRIUMF, Princeton, and BNL is currently running E787 at the AGS. The experiment is designed primarily to search for the rare decay K{sup +} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{nu}{bar {nu}}, with an expected branching ratio of {approximately} 10{sup {minus}10}. The authors report evidence that they have observed this decay. They also discuss the future outlook for the experiment.

  12. Review and Assessment of Neutron Cross Section and Nubar Covariances for Advanced Reactor Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Maslov,V.M.; Oblozinsky, P.; Herman, M.

    2008-12-01

    In January 2007, the National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC) produced a set of preliminary neutron covariance data for the international project 'Nuclear Data Needs for Advanced Reactor Systems'. The project was sponsored by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), Paris, under the Subgroup 26 of the International Working Party on Evaluation Cooperation (WPEC). These preliminary covariances are described in two recent BNL reports. The NNDC used a simplified version of the method developed by BNL and LANL that combines the recent Atlas of Neutron Resonances, the nuclear reaction model code EMPIRE and the Bayesian code KALMAN with the experimental data used as guidance. There are numerous issues involved in these estimates of covariances and it was decided to perform an independent review and assessment of these results so that better covariances can be produced for the revised version in future. Reviewed and assessed are uncertainties for fission, capture, elastic scattering, inelastic scattering and (n,2n) cross sections as well as prompt nubars for 15 minor actinides ({sup 233,234,236}U, {sup 237}Np, {sup 238,240,241,242}Pu, {sup 241,242m,243}Am and {sup 242,243,244,245}Cm) and 4 major actinides ({sup 232}Th, {sup 235,238}U and {sup 239}Pu). We examined available evaluations, performed comparison with experimental data, taken into account uncertainties in model parameterization and made use state-of-the-art nuclear reaction theory to produce the uncertainty assessment.

  13. PRELIMINARY CROSS SECTION AND NU-BAR COVARIANCES FOR WPEC SUBGROUP 26

    SciTech Connect

    ROCHMAN,D.

    2007-01-31

    We report preliminary cross section covariances developed for the WPEC Subgroup 26 for 45 out of 52 requested materials. The covariances were produced in 15- and 187-group representations as follows: (1) 36 isotopes ({sup 16}O, {sup 19}F, {sup 23}Na, {sup 27}Al, {sup 28}Si, {sup 52}Cr, {sup 56,56}Fe, {sup 58}Ni, {sup 90,91,92,94}Zr, {sup 166,167,168,170}Er, {sup 206,207,208}Pb, {sup 209}Bi, {sup 233,234,236}U, {sup 237}Np, {sup 238,240,241,242}Pu, {sup 241,242m,243}Am, {sup 242,243,244,245}Cm) were evaluated using the BNL-LANL methodology. For the thermal region and the resolved and unresolved resonance regions, the methodology has been based on the Atlas-Kalman approach, in the fast neutron region the Empire-Kalman method has been used; (2) 6 isotopes ({sup 155,156,157,158,160}Gd and {sup 232}Th) were taken from ENDF/B-VII.0; and (3) 3 isotopes ({sup 1}H, {sup 238}U and {sup 239}Pu) were taken from JENDL-3.3. For 6 light nuclei ({sup 4}He, {sup 6,7}Li, {sup 9}Be, {sup 10}B, {sup 12}C), only partial cross section covariance results were obtained, additional work is needed and they do not report the results here. Likewise, the cross section covariances for {sup 235}U, which they recommend to take from JENDL-3.3, will be included once the multigroup processing is successfully completed. Covariances for the average number of neutrons per fission, total {nu}-bar, are provided for 10 actinides identified as priority by SG26. Further work is needed to resolve some of the issues and to produce covariances for the full set of 52 materials.

  14. SEARCH FOR THE RARE KAON DECAY K{sup +} {yields} {pi}{sup +} {nu}{bar {nu}}

    SciTech Connect

    BHUYAN,B.

    2003-05-03

    This thesis describes the search for the rare decay K{sup +} {yields} {pi}{sup +} {nu}{bar {nu}} in the pion momentum region 140 MeV/c {le} P{sub {pi}{sup +}} {le} 195 MeV/c. This is a Flavor Changing Neutral Current (FCNC) decay which is forbidden to the first order in the Standard Model (SM) by the GIM mechanism. However, this decay mode is allowed in the second order by two Z-Penguin and one box diagram and is expected to have a branching ratio of (0.72 {+-} 0.21) x 10{sup -10}. This decay mode is sensitive to the coupling of top to down quark and therefore a measurement of the branching ratio for this decay mode provides a measurement of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix element V{sub td}. The recent observation of two events in the pion momentum region 211 MeV/c {le} P{sup {pi}{sup +}} {le} 229 MeV/c estimates a branching ratio of 1.57{sub -0.82}{sup +1.75} x 10{sup -10} for the same decay mode. We have extended the search for this decay to the lower pion momentum region. Data collected by the Experiment E787 at Brookhaven National Laboratory during the 1996 and 1997 run were analyzed in this thesis.

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  15. Puzzles & Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Pat, Ed.

    1993-01-01

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    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, G. Patrick

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  17. Observation of the Decay B- --> Ds(*) K- l- nubar

    SciTech Connect

    del Amo Sanchez, P.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Tisserand, V.; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; Martinelli, M.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, David Nathan; Hooberman, B.; Kerth, L.T.; Kolomensky, Yu.G.; Lynch, G.; Osipenkov, I.L.; Tanabe, T.; /more authors..

    2011-08-12

    We report the observation of the decay B{sup -} {yields} D{sub s}{sup (*)+} K{sup -}{ell}{sup -}{bar {nu}}{sub {ell}} based on 342 fb{sup -1} of data collected at the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II e{sup +}e{sup -} storage rings at SLAC. A simultaneous fit to three D{sub s}{sup +} decay chains is performed to extract the signal yield from measurements of the squared missing mass in the B meson decay. We observe the decay B{sup -} {yields} D{sub s}{sup (*)+} K{sup -}{ell}{sup -}{bar {nu}}{sub {ell}} with a significance greater than five standard deviations (including systematic uncertainties) and measure its branching fraction to be {Beta}(B{sup -} {yields} D{sub s}{sup (*)+} K{sup -}{ell}{sup -}{bar {nu}}{sub {ell}}) = [6.13{sub -1.03}{sup +1.04}(stat.) {+-} 0.43(syst.) {+-} 0.51({Beta}(D{sub s}))] x 10{sup -4}, where the last error reflects the limited knowledge of the D{sub s} branching fractions.

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    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

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    2010-01-01

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    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

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    2011-01-01

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    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Charles A.

    2000-01-01

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    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutz, K. Scott; Stefan, Victor

    2007-01-01

    TRIZ (pronounced TREES), the Russian acronym for the theory of inventive problem solving, enables a person to focus his attention on finding genuine, potential solutions in contrast to searching for ideas that "may" work through a happenstance way. It is a patent database-backed methodology that helps to reduce time spent on the problem,…

  6. Quadratic eigenvalue problems.

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, Timothy Francis; Day, David Minot

    2007-04-01

    In this report we will describe some nonlinear eigenvalue problems that arise in the areas of solid mechanics, acoustics, and coupled structural acoustics. We will focus mostly on quadratic eigenvalue problems, which are a special case of nonlinear eigenvalue problems. Algorithms for solving the quadratic eigenvalue problem will be presented, along with some example calculations.

  7. [The mind -- body problem].

    PubMed

    Pérez, Diana I

    2005-01-01

    In this paper I present, in the first place, two of the main problems in the philosophy of mind: 1) the problem of the criteria of the mental, and 2) the problem of the relationship between the mental and the physical. In the last part, I mention two problems highly discussed nowadays which, in my view, will produce the most important advance in the knowledge of our minds in the next decades: the problem of consciousness and its neural basis, and the problem of the origin and development of a theory of mind. PMID:16220149

  8. The Algorithm Selection Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minton, Steve; Allen, John; Deiss, Ron (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Work on NP-hard problems has shown that many instances of these theoretically computationally difficult problems are quite easy. The field has also shown that choosing the right algorithm for the problem can have a profound effect on the time needed to find a solution. However, to date there has been little work showing how to select the right algorithm for solving any particular problem. The paper refers to this as the algorithm selection problem. It describes some of the aspects that make this problem difficult, as well as proposes a technique for addressing it.

  9. Locating Problems with Quality Circles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Donald D.; Bednar, David A.

    1985-01-01

    Five categories of common quality circles problems are identified to help firms anticipate difficulties and avert circle failures. These categories include encountered internal problems, encountered external problems, created internal problems, created external problems, and interface problems. Solutions are suggested. (CT)

  10. Problem: Heart Valve Regurgitation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Problem: Heart Valve Regurgitation Updated:May 26,2016 What ... content was last reviewed May 2016. Heart Valve Problems and Disease • Home • About Heart Valves • Heart Valve ...

  11. Problem: Heart Valve Stenosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Problem: Heart Valve Stenosis Updated:Aug 10,2016 About ... content was last reviewed May 2016. Heart Valve Problems and Disease • Home • About Heart Valves • Heart Valve ...

  12. Women and sexual problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000663.htm Women and sexual problems To use the sharing features on this page, ... feel better about your sex life. Common Sexual Problems You may have sexual dysfunction if you are ...

  13. Increases in Problem Drinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Increases in Problem Drinking Alcohol use disorder is becoming more common, a ... the need to better educate people about problem drinking and its treatment. Alcohol use disorder, or AUD, ...

  14. Sexual Problems in Women

    MedlinePlus

    There are many problems that can keep a woman from enjoying sex. They include Lack of sexual desire Inability to become aroused Lack of orgasm, or sexual climax Painful intercourse These problems may have physical or psychological causes. Physical causes ...

  15. Diabetic Eye Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... this can damage your eyes. The most common problem is diabetic retinopathy. It is a leading cause ... surgery, with follow-up care. Two other eye problems can happen to people with diabetes. A cataract ...

  16. IT Problem Management

    NASA Video Gallery

    IT Problem Management – process responsible for managing Lifecycle of all IT problems. The primary objective is to prevent incidents from occurring and to minimize impact of incidents that cannot...

  17. Study the Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choate, Joyce S.

    1990-01-01

    The initial step of a strategic process for solving mathematical problems, "studying the question," is discussed. A lesson plan for teaching students to identify and revise arithmetic problems is presented, involving directed instruction and supervised practice. (JDD)

  18. Puzzles Pastimes Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eperson, D. B.

    1991-01-01

    This section includes eight problems to which the journal invites readers to respond. Problem topics include angles in alternate segments, pentominoes, a new triangle of numbers, cricket scores, symmetrical pentagons, inequalities, a pythagorean dissection, and magic squares. (MDH)

  19. Solving Word Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karrison, Joan; Carroll, Margaret Kelly

    1991-01-01

    Students with language and learning disabilities may have difficulty solving mathematics word problems. Use of a sequential checklist, identifying clues and keywords, and illustrating a problem can all help the student identify and implement the correct computational process. (DB)

  20. Traveling with breathing problems

    MedlinePlus

    If you have breathing problems and you: Are short of breath most of the time Get short of breath when you walk 150 ... or less Have been in the hospital for breathing problems recently Use oxygen at home, even if ...

  1. Diabetes and Foot Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease, and Other Dental Problems Diabetic Eye Disease Diabetes and Foot Problems How can diabetes affect my feet? Too much glucose, also called ... you have any of these signs. How can diabetes change the shape of my feet? Nerve damage ...

  2. The molecular matching problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kincaid, Rex K.

    1993-01-01

    Molecular chemistry contains many difficult optimization problems that have begun to attract the attention of optimizers in the Operations Research community. Problems including protein folding, molecular conformation, molecular similarity, and molecular matching have been addressed. Minimum energy conformations for simple molecular structures such as water clusters, Lennard-Jones microclusters, and short polypeptides have dominated the literature to date. However, a variety of interesting problems exist and we focus here on a molecular structure matching (MSM) problem.

  3. The problem of simultaneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marx, G.

    Drake's formula for the possible number of independent civilizations in the Galaxy is discussed in the light of several new hypotheses (e.g., Lovelock's Gaia hypothesis). Emphasis is placed on ways to overcome the time problem, i.e., the problem of how to communicate with civilizations that may arise in the future. Electronic, nucleonic, and bionic approaches to this problem are discussed.

  4. TRAINING IN PROBLEM SOLVING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DEVANE, J.R.; RIMOLDI, H.J.A.

    CHANGES WERE STUDIED IN THE PROBLEM-SOLVING BEHAVIOR OF HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS AS A FUNCTION OF A CAREFULLY DESIGNED TRAINING PROGRAM. TRAINING WAS DEFINED AS THE DEVELOPMENT OF STUDENT AWARENESS OF PROBLEM-SOLVING STRATEGIES USED. INSTRUMENTS WERE DEVELOPED AND REFINED TO MEASURE PROBLEM-SOLVING BEHAVIOR. SPECIFICALLY TESTED WAS THE FOLLOWING…

  5. Exploratory Problems in Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Frederick W.

    This book attempts to introduce students to the creative aspects of mathematics through exploratory problems. The introduction presents the criteria for the selection of the problems in the book. Criteria indicate that problems should: be immediately attractive, require data to be generated or gathered, appeal to students from junior high school…

  6. Grievance Procedure Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Gary J.

    This paper presents two actual problems involving grievance procedures. Both problems involve pending litigation and one of them involves pending arbitration. The first problem occurred in a wealthy Minnesota school district and involved a seniority list. Because of changes in the financial basis for supporting public schools, it became necessary…

  7. Problem Solving by Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capobianco, Brenda M.; Tyrie, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    In a unique school-university partnership, methods students collaborated with fifth graders to use the engineering design process to build their problem-solving skills. By placing the problem in the context of a client having particular needs, the problem took on a real-world appeal that students found intriguing and inviting. In this article, the…

  8. Techniques of Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krantz, Steven G.

    The purpose of this book is to teach the basic principles of problem solving in both mathematical and non-mathematical problems. The major components of the book consist of learning to translate verbal discussion into analytical data, learning problem solving methods for attacking collections of analytical questions or data, and building a…

  9. Mathematics as Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soifer, Alexander

    This book contains about 200 problems. It is suggested that it be used by students, teachers or anyone interested in exploring mathematics. In addition to a general discussion on problem solving, there are problems concerned with number theory, algebra, geometry, and combinatorics. (PK)

  10. [Doctors' alcohol problems].

    PubMed

    Florkowski, Antoni; Gruszczyński, Wojciech; Gałecki, Piotr; Szubert, Sławomir; Klus, Marek; Zboralski, Krzysztof

    2008-01-01

    An overusing and an addiction to alcoholic drinks are important problems in a medical society. The studies made in the United States had documented that about 8-12% doctors were addicted to alcohol. In many cases the doctors are able to keep their problem as a secret and their activity is satisfied up to the moment when a decrease is noticed. Some factors--such as a high level of stress--predispose doctors to alcoholic problems especially surgeons. Alcohol problems should be identified as early as possible, and therapy ought to be given as well. There is no reason to hide the problem. PMID:19025048

  11. Matrix interdiction problem

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Feng; Kasiviswanathan, Shiva

    2010-01-01

    In the matrix interdiction problem, a real-valued matrix and an integer k is given. The objective is to remove k columns such that the sum over all rows of the maximum entry in each row is minimized. This combinatorial problem is closely related to bipartite network interdiction problem which can be applied to prioritize the border checkpoints in order to minimize the probability that an adversary can successfully cross the border. After introducing the matrix interdiction problem, we will prove the problem is NP-hard, and even NP-hard to approximate with an additive n{gamma} factor for a fixed constant {gamma}. We also present an algorithm for this problem that achieves a factor of (n-k) mUltiplicative approximation ratio.

  12. ROV overcomes deepwater problems

    SciTech Connect

    Frisbie, F.R.; Hughes, E.W.

    1984-09-01

    The use of remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) in supportive drill ships operating in more than 200 meters of water poses severe technical and operational problems. Defining these problems beforehand and addressing them during design, manufacture, testing and installation ensures a functional and effective support capability. Such problems as the availability of desk space, and the subsequent installation, maintenance, and the launch/recovery of the system are described.

  13. On Euler's problem

    SciTech Connect

    Egorov, Yurii V

    2013-04-30

    We consider the classical problem on the tallest column which was posed by Euler in 1757. Bernoulli-Euler theory serves today as the basis for the design of high buildings. This problem is reduced to the problem of finding the potential for the Sturm-Liouville equation corresponding to the maximum of the first eigenvalue. The problem has been studied by many mathematicians but we give the first rigorous proof of the existence and uniqueness of the optimal column and we give new formulae which let us find it. Our method is based on a new approach consisting in the study of critical points of a related nonlinear functional. Bibliography: 6 titles.

  14. Known TCP Implementation Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paxson, Vern (Editor); Allman, Mark; Dawson, Scott; Fenner, William; Griner, Jim; Heavens, Ian; Lahey, K.; Semke, J.; Volz, B.

    1999-01-01

    This memo catalogs a number of known TCP implementation problems. The goal in doing so is to improve conditions in the existing Internet by enhancing the quality of current TCP/IP implementations. It is hoped that both performance and correctness issues can be resolved by making implementors aware of the problems and their solutions. In the long term, it is hoped that this will provide a reduction in unnecessary traffic on the network, the rate of connection failures due to protocol errors, and load on network servers due to time spent processing both unsuccessful connections and retransmitted data. This will help to ensure the stability of the global Internet. Each problem is defined as follows: Name of Problem The name associated with the problem. In this memo, the name is given as a subsection heading. Classification one or more problem categories for which the problem is classified: "congestion control", "performance", "reliability", "resource management". Description A definition of the problem, succinct but including necessary background material. Significance A brief summary of the sorts of environments for which the problem is significant.

  15. Tactical missile turbulence problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickson, Richard E.

    1987-01-01

    Of particular interest is atmospheric turbulence in the atmospheric boundary layer, since this affects both the launch and terminal phase of flight, and the total flight for direct fire systems. Brief discussions are presented on rocket artillery boost wind problems, mean wind correction, turbulent boost wind correction, the Dynamically Aimed Free Flight Rocket (DAFFR) wind filter, the DAFFR test, and rocket wake turbulence problems. It is concluded that many of the turbulence problems of rockets and missiles are common to those of aircraft, such as structural loading and control system design. However, these problems have not been solved at this time.

  16. Specific Pronunciation Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avery, Peter; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Reviews common pronunciation problems experienced by learners of English as a second language who are native speakers of Vietnamese, Cantonese, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, Polish, Greek, and Punjabi. (CB)

  17. ITOUGH2 sample problems

    SciTech Connect

    Finsterle, S.

    1997-11-01

    This report contains a collection of ITOUGH2 sample problems. It complements the ITOUGH2 User`s Guide [Finsterle, 1997a], and the ITOUGH2 Command Reference [Finsterle, 1997b]. ITOUGH2 is a program for parameter estimation, sensitivity analysis, and uncertainty propagation analysis. It is based on the TOUGH2 simulator for non-isothermal multiphase flow in fractured and porous media [Preuss, 1987, 1991a]. The report ITOUGH2 User`s Guide [Finsterle, 1997a] describes the inverse modeling framework and provides the theoretical background. The report ITOUGH2 Command Reference [Finsterle, 1997b] contains the syntax of all ITOUGH2 commands. This report describes a variety of sample problems solved by ITOUGH2. Table 1.1 contains a short description of the seven sample problems discussed in this report. The TOUGH2 equation-of-state (EOS) module that needs to be linked to ITOUGH2 is also indicated. Each sample problem focuses on a few selected issues shown in Table 1.2. ITOUGH2 input features and the usage of program options are described. Furthermore, interpretations of selected inverse modeling results are given. Problem 1 is a multipart tutorial, describing basic ITOUGH2 input files for the main ITOUGH2 application modes; no interpretation of results is given. Problem 2 focuses on non-uniqueness, residual analysis, and correlation structure. Problem 3 illustrates a variety of parameter and observation types, and describes parameter selection strategies. Problem 4 compares the performance of minimization algorithms and discusses model identification. Problem 5 explains how to set up a combined inversion of steady-state and transient data. Problem 6 provides a detailed residual and error analysis. Finally, Problem 7 illustrates how the estimation of model-related parameters may help compensate for errors in that model.

  18. Visual Channel Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Philip H.; Suiter, Patricia A.

    This teacher training module classifies visual channel problems into the following four main areas: visual perception, revisualization (memory), visual-motor (eye-hand coordination), and ocular-motor tasks. Specific deficits are listed under these main headings, behaviors are given to help identify the problem, and ways to improve the condition…

  19. What Is Problem Solving?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Michael E.

    1998-01-01

    Many important human activities involve accomplishing goals without a script. There is no formula for true problem-solving. Heuristic, cognitive "rules of thumb" are the problem-solver's best guide. Learners should understand heuristic tools such as means-end analysis, working backwards, successive approximation, and external representation. Since…

  20. Teaching through Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fi, Cos D.; Degner, Katherine M.

    2012-01-01

    Teaching through Problem Solving (TtPS) is an effective way to teach mathematics "for" understanding. It also provides students with a way to learn mathematics "with" understanding. In this article, the authors present a definition of what it means to teach through problem solving. They also describe a professional development vignette that…

  1. Inquiry and Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorson, Annette, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This issue of ENC Focus focuses on the topic of inquiry and problem solving. Featured articles include: (1) "Inquiry in the Everyday World of Schools" (Ronald D. Anderson); (2) "In the Cascade Reservoir Restoration Project Students Tackle Real-World Problems" (Clint Kennedy with Advanced Biology Students from Cascade High School); (3) "Project…

  2. Problems Facing Rural Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, C. E.; And Others

    Problems facing rural Scottish schools range from short term consideration of daily operation to long term consideration of organizational alternatives. Addressed specifically, such problems include consideration of: (1) liaison between a secondary school and its feeder primary schools; (2) preservice teacher training for work in small, isolated…

  3. Aircraft noise problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-01-01

    The problems related to aircraft noise were studied. Physical origin (sound), human reaction (noise), quantization of noise and sound sources of aircraft noise are discussed. Noise abatement at the source, technical, fleet-political and air traffic measures are explained. The measurements and future developments are also discussed. The position of Lufthansa as regards aircraft noise problems is depicted.

  4. GREECE--SELECTED PROBLEMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MARTONFFY, ANDREA PONTECORVO; AND OTHERS

    A CURRICULUM GUIDE IS PRESENTED FOR A 10-WEEK STUDY OF ANCIENT GREEK CIVILIZATION AT THE 10TH-GRADE LEVEL. TEACHING MATERIALS FOR THE UNIT INCLUDE (1) PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SOURCES DEALING WITH THE PERIOD FROM THE BRONZE AGE THROUGH THE HELLENISTIC PERIOD, (2) GEOGRAPHY PROBLEMS, AND (3) CULTURAL MODEL PROBLEM EXERCISES. THOSE CONCEPTS WITH WHICH…

  5. Problem of glider models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lippisch, Espenlaub

    1922-01-01

    Any one endeavoring to solve the problem of soaring flight is confronted not only by structural difficulties, but also by the often far more difficult aerodynamic problem of flight properties and efficiency, which can only be determined by experimenting with the finished glider.

  6. Stabilization of Kepler's problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stokes, A.

    1977-01-01

    A regularization of Kepler's problem due to Moser (1970) is used to stabilize the equations of motion. In other words, a particular solution of Kepler's problem is imbedded in a Liapunov stable system. Perturbations can be introduced into the stabilized equations.

  7. Hip Problems in Infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... problems that can lead to dislocation of the hip bones. This is also called dysplasia (say: "diss-play-see-uh"). This means that ... problems later in life? Source Screening for Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip by LM French, M.D., and FR Dietz, ...

  8. Word Problem Wizardry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy, Jack

    1991-01-01

    Presents suggestions for teaching math word problems to elementary students. The strategies take into consideration differences between reading in math and reading in other areas. A problem-prediction game and four self-checking activities are included along with a magic password challenge. (SM)

  9. Student-Posed Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harper, Kathleen A.; Etkina, Eugenia

    2002-10-01

    As part of weekly reports,1 structured journals in which students answer three standard questions each week, they respond to the prompt, If I were the instructor, what questions would I ask or problems assign to determine if my students understood the material? An initial analysis of the results shows that some student-generated problems indicate fundamental misunderstandings of basic physical concepts. A further investigation explores the relevance of the problems to the week's material, whether the problems are solvable, and the type of problems (conceptual or calculation-based) written. Also, possible links between various characteristics of the problems and conceptual achievement are being explored. The results of this study spark many more questions for further work. A summary of current findings will be presented, along with its relationship to previous work concerning problem posing.2 1Etkina, E. Weekly Reports;A Two-Way Feedback Tool, Science Education, 84, 594-605 (2000). 2Mestre, J.P., Probing Adults Conceptual Understanding and Transfer of Learning Via Problem Posing, Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 23, 9-50 (2002).

  10. Current Social Problem Novels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Donald J.

    This review of social problem novels for young adults opens with a brief background of the genre, then lists the dominant themes of social problem fiction and nonfiction novels that have been published in the last two years, such as alcoholism, alienation, death, growing up and self-awarness, drugs, and divorce. Other themes mentioned are…

  11. Problems in baryon spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Capstick, S.

    1994-04-01

    Current issues and problems in the physics of ground- and excited-state baryons are considered, and are classified into those which should be resolved by CEBAF in its present form, and those which may require CEBAF to undergo an energy upgrade to 8 GeV or more. Recent theoretical developments designed to address these problems are outlined.

  12. Modern Problems. Grade 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilmington Public Schools, DE.

    The general purpose of the twelfth grade course is to help the student assume his role as a decision-maker in a democratic society. The nature and complexity of contemporary problems are examined using this guide to enable the student: 1) to analyze alternative solutions to these problems; 2) to develop attitudes and values appropriate to a…

  13. Problem Solving in Nursing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karns, Phyllis Spear

    The relationship of educational preparation to the problem- solving performance of 55 hospital employed baccalaureate and associate degree nurses working in Wyoming hospitals was studied. Participant data were collected that might correlate with problem-solving ability: age, years of experience in nursing, years of work experience in a…

  14. Problem Solving Techniques Seminar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts Career Development Inst., Springfield.

    This booklet is one of six texts from a workplace literacy curriculum designed to assist learners in facing the increased demands of the workplace. Six problem-solving techniques are developed in the booklet to assist individuals and groups in making better decisions: problem identification, data gathering, data analysis, solution analysis,…

  15. Medical problems affecting musicians.

    PubMed Central

    Potter, P. J.; Jones, I. C.

    1995-01-01

    The physical demands of performing on musical instruments can cause pain, sensory loss, and lack of coordination. Five cases illustrate common problems. Knowledge of the interaction between the technique of playing the instrument and the particular musician can help physicians diagnose and resolve problems. Images Figure 1 PMID:8680295

  16. Problem Solving in Electricity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caillot, Michel; Chalouhi, Elias

    Two studies were conducted to describe how students perform direct current (D-C) circuit problems. It was hypothesized that problem solving in the electricity domain depends largely on good visual processing of the circuit diagram and that this processing depends on the ability to recognize when two or more electrical components are in series or…

  17. Problems of Advocacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Robert

    This paper focusses on problems involved in adopting the newer modes of social science and professionalism. The complexities which precede these problems are recognized. It is mentioned that many recent entrants to these fields have made value commitments in their professionalism without very long detention at the portals of objectivity or…

  18. A Stochastic Employment Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Teng

    2013-01-01

    The Stochastic Employment Problem(SEP) is a variation of the Stochastic Assignment Problem which analyzes the scenario that one assigns balls into boxes. Balls arrive sequentially with each one having a binary vector X = (X[subscript 1], X[subscript 2],...,X[subscript n]) attached, with the interpretation being that if X[subscript i] = 1 the ball…

  19. Some Little Night Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon, Lawrence O.; Elich, Joe

    In most mathematics problem solving work, students' motivation comes from trying to please their teachers or to earn a good grade. The questions students must tackle are almost never generated by their own interest. Seven open-ended college algebra-level problems are presented in which the solution of one question suggests other related questions.…

  20. Auditory Channel Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Philip H.; Suiter, Patricia A.

    This teacher's guide contains a list of general auditory problem areas where students have the following problems: (a) inability to find or identify source of sound; (b) difficulty in discriminating sounds of words and letters; (c) difficulty with reproducing pitch, rhythm, and melody; (d) difficulty in selecting important from unimportant sounds;…

  1. Problem-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Deborah E.; Donham, Richard S.; Bernhardt, Stephen A.

    2011-01-01

    In problem-based learning (PBL), students working in collaborative groups learn by resolving complex, realistic problems under the guidance of faculty. There is some evidence of PBL effectiveness in medical school settings where it began, and there are numerous accounts of PBL implementation in various undergraduate contexts, replete with…

  2. Problem Solving and Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnick, Lauren B.; Glaser, Robert

    This paper argues that a major aspect of intelligence is the ability to solve problems and that careful analysis of problem-solving behavior is a means of specifying many of the psychological processes that make up intelligence. The focus is on the mechanisms involved when, in the absence of complete instruction, a person must "invent" a new…

  3. California's Water Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheatley, Judy; Sudman, Rita Schmidt, Ed.

    This packet of instructional materials is designed to give social science students in grades 6-9 a first-hand experience in working out solutions to real-life problems involving the management of California's water. Students work in groups on one of three problems presented in the packet: (1) the management of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta that…

  4. The Guderley problem revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsey, Scott D; Kamm, James R; Bolstad, John H

    2009-01-01

    The self-similar converging-diverging shock wave problem introduced by Guderley in 1942 has been the source of numerous investigations since its publication. In this paper, we review the simplifications and group invariance properties that lead to a self-similar formulation of this problem from the compressible flow equations for a polytropic gas. The complete solution to the self-similar problem reduces to two coupled nonlinear eigenvalue problems: the eigenvalue of the first is the so-called similarity exponent for the converging flow, and that of the second is a trajectory multiplier for the diverging regime. We provide a clear exposition concerning the reflected shock configuration. Additionally, we introduce a new approximation for the similarity exponent, which we compare with other estimates and numerically computed values. Lastly, we use the Guderley problem as the basis of a quantitative verification analysis of a cell-centered, finite volume, Eulerian compressible flow algorithm.

  5. Generalized emissivity inverse problem.

    PubMed

    Ming, DengMing; Wen, Tao; Dai, XianXi; Dai, JiXin; Evenson, William E

    2002-04-01

    Inverse problems have recently drawn considerable attention from the physics community due to of potential widespread applications [K. Chadan and P. C. Sabatier, Inverse Problems in Quantum Scattering Theory, 2nd ed. (Springer Verlag, Berlin, 1989)]. An inverse emissivity problem that determines the emissivity g(nu) from measurements of only the total radiated power J(T) has recently been studied [Tao Wen, DengMing Ming, Xianxi Dai, Jixin Dai, and William E. Evenson, Phys. Rev. E 63, 045601(R) (2001)]. In this paper, a new type of generalized emissivity and transmissivity inverse (GETI) problem is proposed. The present problem differs from our previous work on inverse problems by allowing the unknown (emissivity) function g(nu) to be temperature dependent as well as frequency dependent. Based on published experimental information, we have developed an exact solution formula for this GETI problem. A universal function set suggested for numerical calculation is shown to be robust, making this inversion method practical and convenient for realistic calculations. PMID:12005916

  6. Problem-Solving Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    CBR Express software solves problems by adapting sorted solutions to new problems specified by a user. It is applicable to a wide range of situations. The technology was originally developed by Inference Corporation for Johnson Space Center's Advanced Software Development Workstation. The project focused on the reuse of software designs, and Inference used CBR as part of the ACCESS prototype software. The commercial CBR Express is used as a "help desk" for customer support, enabling reuse of existing information when necessary. It has been adopted by several companies, among them American Airlines, which uses it to solve reservation system software problems.

  7. Astronauts' menu problem.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lesso, W. G.; Kenyon, E.

    1972-01-01

    Consideration of the problems involved in choosing appropriate menus for astronauts carrying out SKYLAB missions lasting up to eight weeks. The problem of planning balanced menus on the basis of prepackaged food items within limitations on the intake of calories, protein, and certain elements is noted, as well as a number of other restrictions of both physical and arbitrary nature. The tailoring of a set of menus for each astronaut on the basis of subjective rankings of each food by the astronaut in terms of a 'measure of pleasure' is described, and a computer solution to this problem by means of a mixed integer programming code is presented.

  8. Diabetic Eye Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... too high. Over time, this can damage your eyes. The most common problem is diabetic retinopathy. It ... light-sensitive tissue at the back of your eye. You need a healthy retina to see clearly. ...

  9. Preventing Diabetes Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... the biggest health problem for people with diabetes. LDL cholesterol. LDL cholesterol is known as the bad cholesterol because it ... you often eat foods that are high in LDL cholesterol high cholesterol runs in your family HDL cholesterol. ...

  10. NAEP Note: Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Thomas P.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Student weaknesses on problem-solving portions of the NAEP mathematics assessment are discussed using Polya's heuristics as a framework. Recommendations for classroom instruction are discussed. (MP) Aspect of National Assessment (NAEP) dealt with in this document: Results (Interpretation).

  11. [Oral problems in divers].

    PubMed

    Scheper, W A; Lobbezoo, F; Eijkman, M A J

    2005-05-01

    Divers can have several oral problems. Firstly, problems caused by pressure changes. These are barodontalgia and odontocrexis. Barodontalgia is toothache by barotrauma. Odontocrexis is restorations coming lose or breaking or tooth fractures by expansion of air beneath restorations. Other problems can occur by cements used to fix casted restorations, by inflammations in the orofacial region, and by not yet fully healed oral wounds. Secondly, there are problems related to the diver's mouthpiece. To keep the mouthpiece in place, the mandible has to be forced in a forward position. Holding this position often and for long periods of time, may develop or aggravate temporomandibular dysfunction. Insufficient fit of the mouthpiece may induce oral mucosal lesions. Therefore, it is recommended to produce individual diver mouthpieces. It is also recommended to produce individual diver mouthpieces for complete dentures wearing divers and for divers with fixed orthodontic appliances. PMID:15932043

  12. Enuresis: A Social Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, James E.

    1978-01-01

    Several theories and treatments of enuresis are described. The authors conclude that enuresis is a social problem (perhaps due to maturational lag, developmental delay or faulty learning) which requires teacher and parental tolerance and understanding. (SE)

  13. Solving Tommy's Writing Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burdman, Debra

    1986-01-01

    The article describes an approach by which word processing helps to solve some of the writing problems of learning disabled students. Aspects considered include prewriting, drafting, revising, and completing the story. (CL)

  14. Types of Learning Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... words, whereas motor clumsiness or defective visual-spatial perception affects only handwriting, not spelling. Dyscalculia Dyscalculia is ... related to memory, problem solving skills, logical thought, perception and attention span. Like parents of other adolescents ...

  15. Women and sexual problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... problems may include: Getting older: a woman's sex drive often decreases with age. This is normal. It ... pressure, depression, and chemotherapy can decrease your sex drive or make it hard to have an orgasm. ...

  16. The Pesticide Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosch, Van Den Robert

    1979-01-01

    Contains a discussion of insects' ability to survive, of the development of pesticides and the introduction of DDT, of the problems of pesticide use and resistance to insecticides, and of the advantages of integrated pest control. (BB)

  17. Overcoming breastfeeding problems

    MedlinePlus

    Plugged milk ducts; Nipple soreness when breastfeeding; Breastfeeding - overcoming problems; Let-down reflex ... Breastfeeding (nursing) your baby can be a good experience for both the mother and the baby. It ...

  18. Down Syndrome: Eye Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... life expectancy. Do children with Down syndrome have eye problems? Individuals with Down syndrome are at increased ... When should children with Down syndrome receive an eye exam? The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that ...

  19. Rotator cuff problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... days, such as in painting and carpentry Poor posture over many years Aging Rotator cuff tears TEARS ... also help prevent rotator cuff problems. Practice good posture to keep your rotator cuff tendons and muscles ...

  20. Puzzles, Pastimes, Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eperson, D. B.

    1985-01-01

    Presents six mathematical problems (with answers) which focus on: (1) chess moves; (2) patterned numbers; (3) quadratics with rational roots; (4) number puzzles; (5) Euclidean geometry; and (6) Carrollian word puzzles. (JN)

  1. STAGS Example Problems Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Rankin, Charles C.

    2006-01-01

    This document summarizes the STructural Analysis of General Shells (STAGS) development effort, STAGS performance for selected demonstration problems, and STAGS application problems illustrating selected advanced features available in the STAGS Version 5.0. Each problem is discussed including selected background information and reference solutions when available. The modeling and solution approach for each problem is described and illustrated. Numerical results are presented and compared with reference solutions, test data, and/or results obtained from mesh refinement studies. These solutions provide an indication of the overall capabilities of the STAGS nonlinear finite element analysis tool and provide users with representative cases, including input files, to explore these capabilities that may then be tailored to other applications.

  2. The cosmological constant problem

    SciTech Connect

    Dolgov, A.D.

    1989-05-01

    A review of the cosmological term problem is presented. Baby universe model and the compensating field model are discussed. The importance of more accurate data on the Hubble constant and the Universe age is stressed. 18 refs.

  3. Problems with Taste

    MedlinePlus

    ... less frequently than problems with smell. How Our Sense of Taste Works Our sense of taste, along ... may start to lose taste buds. Five Taste Sensations We can experience five basic taste sensations: sweet, ...

  4. Mouth Problems and HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... orientation. This information is for people who have mouth (oral) problems related to HIV infection. It explains ... look like. It also describes where in the mouth they occur and how they are treated. They ...

  5. The Problems of WARC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pool, Ithiel de Sola

    1979-01-01

    Presents several anticipated problems to be handled at the 1979 World Administrative Conference including an orbital allocation plan, political and ideological issues concerning sovereignty and prior consent, spectrum assignments, and sharing of TV frequencies with land mobile radio. (JMF)

  6. The problem of pain.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Keith; Martelli, Michael F

    2004-01-01

    Pain problems, especially posttraumatic headache, are very common following head trauma. Pain may be the most significant problem, more disabling than any brain or other injuries, and interfering with aspects of cognition or other function. However, posttraumatic headache and most other chronic posttraumatic pain problems remain poorly understood. This article reviews fundamental issues that should be considered in understanding the nature of chronic pain including the distinction between acute and chronic pain; neurobiological distinctions between the lateral and medial pain system; nociceptive versus neuropathic or other central pain; sensitization effects; the widely accepted view of chronic pain as a multidimensional subjective experience involving sensory, motivational-affective and cognitive-behavioral components; the problem of mind-body dualism; the role of psychosocial factors in the onset, maintenance, exacerbation or severity of pain; plus issues of response bias and malingering. PMID:14732827

  7. Our Accountability Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Luvern L.

    1969-01-01

    Evaluation of school administrators to determine whether they are truly performing their functions adequately has presented a problem of long standing since most administrators find excuses to avoid appraisal of their performance. (CK)

  8. Menstrual Cycle Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... or legs? Yes Your symptoms may be from FIBROIDS, noncancerous tumors of the uterus. See your doctor. ... premature MENOPAUSE. Irregular periods may be due to FIBROIDS, HORMONE PROBLEMS, or other medical conditions. See your ...

  9. The Problem of Heroin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, James Q.; And Others

    1972-01-01

    Argues that most of the underlying assumptions of presently recommended solutions to the problem of heroin addiction are unreasonable, unwarranted, or at least open to more than one interpretation. (DM)

  10. Overcoming breastfeeding problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... position Reducing distractions during nursing, performing a gentle massage, and applying heat to the breast Nursing often ( ... JL, et al, eds. Obstetrics: Normal and Problem Pregnancies . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap ...

  11. Network problem threshold

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gejji, Raghvendra, R.

    1992-01-01

    Network transmission errors such as collisions, CRC errors, misalignment, etc. are statistical in nature. Although errors can vary randomly, a high level of errors does indicate specific network problems, e.g. equipment failure. In this project, we have studied the random nature of collisions theoretically as well as by gathering statistics, and established a numerical threshold above which a network problem is indicated with high probability.

  12. The Sahel problem.

    PubMed

    Sinn, H

    1988-01-01

    Problems concerning the provision of development aid to the Sahel region of Africa are discussed. The author argues that the population already exceeds the area's carrying capacity, and that the provision of direct aid to the region will only encourage further in-migration and exacerbate the problem. He argues that aid should be provided to neighboring areas with the capacity to support larger populations, which will eventually improve the standard of living of the whole region. PMID:12315680

  13. Smoothers for Optimization Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arian, Eyal; Ta'asan, Shlomo

    1996-01-01

    We present a multigrid one-shot algorithm, and a smoothing analysis, for the numerical solution of optimal control problems which are governed by an elliptic PDE. The analysis provides a simple tool to determine a smoothing minimization process which is essential for multigrid application. Numerical results include optimal control of boundary data using different discretization schemes and an optimal shape design problem in 2D with Dirichlet boundary conditions.

  14. The basketball problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröer, H.

    In basketball there is the problem of hitting a basket at a determined distance and a determined height. The quantities that can be changed during the inclined throw are the initial velocity and the angle of throw. At first we neglect the air resistance. Then we treat the same problem in a medium (liquid, gas) with constant density. We obtain two differential equations. Then we view special cases of the retarding force. There is an english and a german edition.

  15. Living with Bowel Control Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Living with Bowel Control Problems Resources Bowel Control Awareness Campaign Home Resources for Health Care Providers ... Living with Bowel Control Problems Living with Bowel Control Problems Living with a bowel control problem can ...

  16. Measure recognition problem.

    PubMed

    Dzamonja, Mirna

    2006-12-15

    This is a paper in mathematics, specifically in set theory. On the example of the measure recognition problem (MRP), the paper highlights the phenomenon of the utility of a multidisciplinary mathematical approach to a single mathematical problem, in particular, the value of a set-theoretic analysis. MRP asks if for a given Boolean algebra, B, and a property, Phi, of measures, one can recognize by purely combinatorial means if B supports a strictly positive measure with property Phi. The most famous instance of this problem is MRP (countable additivity), and in the first part of the paper, we survey the known results on this and some other problems. We show how these results naturally lead to asking about two other specific instances of the problem MRP, namely MRP (non-atomic) and MRP (separable). Then, we show how our recent work gives an easy solution to the former of these problems and some partial information about the latter. The long-term goal of this line of research is to obtain a structure theory of Boolean algebras that support a finitely additive strictly positive measure, along the lines of Maharam theorem, which gives such a structure theorem for measure algebras. PMID:17090453

  17. Bicriteria network design problems

    SciTech Connect

    Marathe, M.V.; Ravi, R.; Sundaram, R.; Ravi, S.S.; Rosenkrantz, D.J.; Hunt, H.B. III

    1997-11-20

    The authors study a general class of bicriteria network design problems. A generic problem in this class is as follows: Given an undirected graph and two minimization objectives (under different cost functions), with a budget specified on the first, find a subgraph from a given subgraph class that minimizes the second objective subject to the budget on the first. They consider three different criteria -- the total edge cost, the diameter and the maximum degree of the network. Here, they present the first polynomial-time approximation algorithms for a large class of bicriteria network design problems for the above mentioned criteria. The following general types of results are presented. First, they develop a framework for bicriteria problems and their approximations. Second, when the two criteria are the same they present a black box parametric search technique. This black box takes in as input an (approximation) algorithm for the criterion situation and generates an approximation algorithm for the bicriteria case with only a constant factor loss in the performance guarantee. Third, when the two criteria are the diameter and the total edge costs they use a cluster based approach to devise approximation algorithms. The solutions violate both the criteria by a logarithmic factor. Finally, for the class of treewidth-bounded graphs, they provide pseudopolynomial-time algorithms for a number of bicriteria problems using dynamic programming. The authors show how these pseudopolynomial-time algorithms can be converted to fully polynomial-time approximation schemes using a scaling technique.

  18. Colored Traveling Salesman Problem.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Zhou, MengChu; Sun, Qirui; Dai, Xianzhong; Yu, Xiaolong

    2015-11-01

    The multiple traveling salesman problem (MTSP) is an important combinatorial optimization problem. It has been widely and successfully applied to the practical cases in which multiple traveling individuals (salesmen) share the common workspace (city set). However, it cannot represent some application problems where multiple traveling individuals not only have their own exclusive tasks but also share a group of tasks with each other. This work proposes a new MTSP called colored traveling salesman problem (CTSP) for handling such cases. Two types of city groups are defined, i.e., each group of exclusive cities of a single color for a salesman to visit and a group of shared cities of multiple colors allowing all salesmen to visit. Evidences show that CTSP is NP-hard and a multidepot MTSP and multiple single traveling salesman problems are its special cases. We present a genetic algorithm (GA) with dual-chromosome coding for CTSP and analyze the corresponding solution space. Then, GA is improved by incorporating greedy, hill-climbing (HC), and simulated annealing (SA) operations to achieve better performance. By experiments, the limitation of the exact solution method is revealed and the performance of the presented GAs is compared. The results suggest that SAGA can achieve the best quality of solutions and HCGA should be the choice making good tradeoff between the solution quality and computing time. PMID:25494521

  19. The Guderley problem revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsey, Scott D.; Kamm, James R.; Bolstad, John H.

    2012-02-01

    The self-similar converging-diverging shock wave problem introduced by Guderley in 1942 has been the source of considerable mathematical and physical interest. We investigate a novel application of the Guderley solution as a unique and challenging code verification test problem for compressible flow algorithms; this effort requires a unified understanding of the problem's mathematical and computational subtleties. Hence, we review the simplifications and group invariance properties that reduce the compressible flow equations for a polytropic gas to two coupled nonlinear eigenvalue problems: the first for the similarity exponent in the converging regime, and the second for a trajectory multiplier in the diverging regime. The information we provide, together with previously published material, gives a complete description of the computational steps required to construct a semi-analytic Guderley solution. We employ the problem in a quantitative code verification analysis of a cell-centred, finite volume, Eulerian compressible flow algorithm. Lastly, in appended material, we introduce a new approximation for the similarity exponent, which may prove useful in the future construction of certain semi-analytic Guderley solutions.

  20. Preventing remediation problems

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, W.H.

    1994-12-31

    Remediation, the design and construction of a remedy, typically represents the most significant portion of the cleanup process. The cost may be 5 to 10 times the cost of earlier investigation and feasibility efforts. Furthermore, the risks associated with remediation activities and their ability to meet ultimate cleanup goals and objectives are far greater than those associated with earlier efforts. Often times there are unrealistic expectations interjected throughout the design and construction process in the remediation field. The simple fact that most problems are buried, and one cannot see all that is below the ground surface provides sufficient uncertainty to result in problems. There are three key points during the remediation process which provide opportunities to prevent and avoid problems. These are: (1) during design; (2) during procurement and contracting; and (3) during construction. This paper examines actions which the author has found or believes will assist in providing a formula for success.

  1. Revisiting Lambert's problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izzo, Dario

    2015-01-01

    The orbital boundary value problem, also known as Lambert problem, is revisited. Building upon Lancaster and Blanchard approach, new relations are revealed and a new variable representing all problem classes, under L-similarity, is used to express the time of flight equation. In the new variable, the time of flight curves have two oblique asymptotes and they mostly appear to be conveniently approximated by piecewise continuous lines. We use and invert such a simple approximation to provide an efficient initial guess to an Householder iterative method that is then able to converge, for the single revolution case, in only two iterations. The resulting algorithm is compared, for single and multiple revolutions, to Gooding's procedure revealing to be numerically as accurate, while having a significantly smaller computational complexity.

  2. VERIFICATION TEST PROBLEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, B

    2007-08-08

    We present analytic solutions to two test problems that can be used to check the hydrodynamic implementation in computer codes designed to calculate the propagation of shocks in spherically convergent geometry. Our analysis is restricted to fluid materials with constant bulk modulus. In the first problem we present the exact initial acceleration and pressure gradient at the outer surface of a sphere subjected to an exponentially decaying pressure of the form P(t) = P{sub 0}e{sup -at}. We show that finely-zoned hydro-code simulations are in good agreement with our analytic solution. In the second problem we discuss the implosions of incompressible spherical fluid shells and we present the radial pressure profile across the shell thickness. We also discuss a semi-analytic solution to the time-evolution of a nearly spherical shell with arbitrary but small initial 3-dimensional (3-D) perturbations on its inner and outer surfaces.

  3. Global geochemical problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harriss, R. C.

    1980-01-01

    Application of remote sensing techniques to the solution of geochemical problems is considered with emphasis on the 'carbon-cycle'. The problem of carbon dioxide sinks and the areal extent of coral reefs are treated. In order to assess the problems cited it is suggested that remote sensing techniques be utilized to: (1)monitor globally the carbonate and bicarbonate concentrations in surface waters of the world ocean; (2)monitor the freshwater and oceanic biomass and associated dissolved organic carbon; (3) inventory the coral reef areas and types and the associated oceanographic climatic conditions; and (4)measure the heavy metal fluxes from forested and vegetated areas, from volcanos, from different types of crustal rocks, from soils, and from sea surfaces.

  4. The Sedov Test Problem

    SciTech Connect

    Fung, Jimmy; Masser, Thomas; Morgan, Nathaniel R.

    2012-06-25

    The Sedov test is classically defined as a point blast problem. The Sedov problem has led us to advances in algorithms and in their understanding. Vorticity generation can be physical or numerical. Both play a role in Sedov calculations. The RAGE code (Eulerian) resolves the shock well, but produces vorticity. The source definition matters. For the FLAG code (Lagrange), CCH is superior to SGH by avoiding spurious vorticity generation. FLAG SGH currently has a number of options that improve results over traditional settings. Vorticity production, not shock capture, has driven the Sedov work. We are pursuing treatments with respect to the hydro discretization as well as to artificial viscosity.

  5. Problems of space chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voitkevich, Georgii V.

    The main problems of space chemistry are examined, including the origin and abundance of chemical elements, their migration to different regions of the universe, the formation of the chemical composition of cosmic bodies, and the chemical evolution of the solar system and the origin of life. Based on current astrophysical and space-chemical data, the main stages of the evolution of matter from the beginning of universe expansion to the formation of the solar system are described. The problem of the origin of life is examined in the light of space-chemical data on the formation of high-molecular compounds before the formation of the planets.

  6. The Urinal Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kranakis, Evangelos; Krizanc, Danny

    A man walks into a men's room and observes n empty urinals. Which urinal should he pick so as to maximize his chances of maintaining privacy, i.e., minimize the chance that someone will occupy a urinal beside him? In this paper, we attempt to answer this question under a variety of models for standard men's room behavior. Our results suggest that for the most part one should probably choose the urinal furthest from the door (with some interesting exceptions). We also suggest a number of variations on the problem that lead to many open problems.

  7. Assessing the Quality of Problems in Problem-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sockalingam, Nachamma; Rotgans, Jerome; Schmidt, Henk

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the construct validity and reliability of a newly devised 32-item problem quality rating scale intended to measure the quality of problems in problem-based learning. The rating scale measured the following five characteristics of problems: the extent to which the problem (1) leads to learning objectives, (2) is familiar, (3)…

  8. and Internalizing Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofer, Claire; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Morris, Amanda S.; Gershoff, Elizabeth; Valiente, Carlos; Kupfer, Anne; Eggum, Natalie D.

    2013-01-01

    Stability and change in mother-adolescent conflict reactions (CRs) and the prediction of CRs from adolescents' earlier behavior problems (and vice versa) were examined with 131 mothers and their adolescents (63 boys). Dyads engaged in a 6-min conflict discussion twice, 2 years apart ["M" age was 13 at Time 1 (T1)]. Non-verbal expressive and verbal…

  9. Problem Behaviors as Operants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyer, William J.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Many of the clinically disabling behaviors of elderly persons may be viewed as operants. Research bearing on the efficacy of operant techniques for programming individualized, group based, and ward-wide therapeutic intervention is reviewed. Suggests the operant view is useful for conceptualizing and treating many problem behaviors of elderly…

  10. The Eight Queens Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Alton T.

    1993-01-01

    Presents a series of solution methods to the Eight Queens Problem of placing eight queens on a chess board so that no one queen can capture another. Solution methods progress from empirical approaches to the use of computer algorithms. Geometric transformations are used to find other solutions. (MDH)

  11. [Problem Solving Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ. - Stout, Menomonie. Center for Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    The teacher directed problem solving activities package contains 17 units: Future Community Design, Let's Build an Elevator, Let's Construct a Catapult, Let's Design a Recreational Game, Let's Make a Hand Fishing Reel, Let's Make a Wall Hanging, Let's Make a Yo-Yo, Marooned in the Past, Metrication, Mousetrap Vehicles, The Multi System…

  12. Bicriteria network design problems

    SciTech Connect

    Marathe, M.V.; Ravi, R.; Sundaram, R.; Ravi, S.S.; Rosenkrantz, D.J.; Hunt, H.B. III

    1995-05-01

    We study several bicriteria network design problems phrased as follows: given an indirected graph and two minimization objectives with a budget specified on one objective, find a subgraph satisfying certain connectivity requirements that minimizes the second objective subject to the budget on the first. First, we develop a formalism for bicriteria problems and their approximations. Secondly, we use a simple parametric search technique to provide bicriteria approximation algorithms for problems with two similar criteria, where both criteria are the same measure (such as the diameter or the total cost of a tree) but differ only in the cost function under which the measure is computed. Thirdly, we present an (O(log n), O(log n))-approximation algorithm for finding a diameter-constrained minimum cost spanning tree of an undirected graph on n nodes. Finally, for the class of treewidth-bounded graphs, we provide pseudopolynomial-time algorithms for a number of bicriteria problems using dynamic programming. These pseudopolynomial-time algorithms can be converted to fully polynomial-time approximation schemes using a scaling technique.

  13. Unfolding a Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currier, Sarah Cox

    2015-01-01

    In this article, Sarah Currier, a math specialist at Elizabeth Hall International School in Minnesota, describes how she used origami in a deliberate manner to teach content. She shares how she uses paper folding to teach mathematical concepts, reinforce vocabulary, and as a problem-solving model. She also offers ideas for using origami in other…

  14. Solving Problems in Genetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aznar, Mercedes Martinez; Orcajo, Teresa Ibanez

    2005-01-01

    A teaching unit on genetics and human inheritance using problem-solving methodology was undertaken with fourth-level Spanish Secondary Education students (15 year olds). The goal was to study certain aspects of the students' learning process (concepts, procedures and attitude) when using this methodology in the school environment. The change…

  15. Chemical Reaction Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veal, William

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the role of chemical-equation problem solving in helping students predict reaction products. Methods for helping students learn this process must be taught to students and future teachers by using pedagogical skills within the content of chemistry. Emphasizes that solving chemical reactions should involve creative cognition where…

  16. Problem Solving Using Calculators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billings, Karen; Moursund, David

    1978-01-01

    The first part in the serialized version of a book on the use of calculators for problem solving is presented. It contains prefaces for teachers and students and a chapter on getting started which includes topics such as symmetries, operations, powers, and chaining. (MP)

  17. Solving Common Mathematical Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luz, Paul L.

    2005-01-01

    Mathematical Solutions Toolset is a collection of five software programs that rapidly solve some common mathematical problems. The programs consist of a set of Microsoft Excel worksheets. The programs provide for entry of input data and display of output data in a user-friendly, menu-driven format, and for automatic execution once the input data has been entered.

  18. Learning through Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Hanlie; Olivier, Alwyn; Human, Piet

    After conducting several studies on young students' understanding of particular concepts before, during, and after instruction, this paper focuses on the two small scale and several informal teaching experiments based on the idea that the teacher should pose problems to students for which they do not yet have a routine solution method available,…

  19. Hearing Problems in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... age 6 months. That's because children start learning speech and language long before they talk. Hearing problems can be temporary or permanent. Sometimes, ear infections, injuries or diseases affect hearing. If your child does not hear well, get help. NIH: National ...

  20. Tackling a Local Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Martin

    1995-01-01

    Students studying water as a class project were concerned by levels of pollution at a nearby river and the local beach. They identified three environmental problems for research including sewage discharge, beach litter, and quality of swimming water. Research consisted of field trips which allowed for opportunities to improve skills in collecting…

  1. Universal Design Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Mary C.

    2004-01-01

    Universal design is made up of four elements: accessibility, adaptability, aesthetics, and affordability. This article addresses the concept of universal design problem solving through experiential learning for an interior design studio course in postsecondary education. Students' experiences with clients over age 55 promoted an understanding of…

  2. Correct Problems, Desperate Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donohue, William A.

    1996-01-01

    Argues that the social problems confronting America have been bombarded with ill-conceived and unsuccessful social policy largely driven by fear. Explains that parental licensing is a draconian and unworkable solution. Vouchers for indigent youth to attend Catholic schools, developing after-school and summer programs, and reforming welfare are…

  3. Problems in Graduate Education...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whaley, W. Gordon

    The Commission on Graduate Education of the National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges has assembled in this booklet the nature of the fundamental problems of graduate education accompanied by recommendations for action. Nine areas of concern include redesigning graduate education for the twentieth century, distinguishing…

  4. Dermatologic problems of musicians.

    PubMed

    Rimmer, S; Spielvogel, R L

    1990-04-01

    The unique occupational dermatologic disorders of musicians are reviewed and compiled to provide the clinician with a reference list. Our results were obtained by a survey of 24 members of a professional symphony orchestra. The results of the survey revealed a significant incidence of occupationally related skin problems in musicians. PMID:2138638

  5. Problems of Excess Capacity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglas, G.

    1972-01-01

    The problems of excess capacity in the airline industry are discussed with focus on the following topics: load factors; fair rate of return on investment; service-quality rivalry among airlines; pricing (fare) policies; aircraft production; and the impacts of excess capacity on operating costs. Also included is a discussion of the interrelationships among these topics.

  6. "Righting" the Writing Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaughnessy, Michael F.; Eastham, Nicholas

    The problem of college students' writing skills or lack thereof is generally agreed upon in academia. One cause is the inordinate amount of multiple choice/true false/fill in the blank type of tests that students take in high school and college. Not only is there is a dearth of actual classes in writing available, few students recognize the need…

  7. Transformation Problem Solving Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmel, Sarah Jane

    The relationship between transformation problem performance and Guilford Structure of Intellect (SI) abilities is explored. During two group sessions 42 females and 35 males, age 18-39, were administered 12 Guilford SI tests exemplifying all five symbolic content (numeric) operations, and three contents in the divergent production area. Logical…

  8. The Problem of Consciousness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crick, Francis; Koch, Christof

    1992-01-01

    Discusses approaches to the problem presented in understanding consciousness as a yet undiscovered process of interacting neuron activity. Presents the historical context of research in the area of human awareness and identifies research necessary to scientifically explain how the brain relates to the mind. (MCO)

  9. Convention Problems - 1787.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Deroy L.

    Designed to motivate eighth-grade civics students in the study of the United States Constitution, this game is intended to simulate the basic problems faced by the delegates to the Philadelphia Convention of 1787. The four parts of the game introduce the governmental concepts of the bicameral legislature, the executive branch, the judicial branch,…

  10. Children Solve Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Bono, Edward

    A group of children were presented with several tasks, including the invention of a sleep machine and a machine to weigh elephants. The tasks were chosen to involve the children in coping with problems of a distinct character. A study of the children's drawings and interpretations shows that children's thinking ability is not very different from…

  11. Thermodynamics with Design Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cilento, E. V.; Sears, J. T.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses how basic thermodynamics concepts are integrated with design problems. Includes course goals, instructional strategies, and major advantages/disadvantages of the integrated design approach. Advantages include making subject more concrete, emphasizing interrelation of variables, and reinforcing concepts by use in design analysis; whereas…

  12. The Classical Cake Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Norman N.; Fisch, Forest N.

    1973-01-01

    Discussed are techniques of presentation and solution of the Classical Cake Problem. A frosted cake with a square base is to be cut into n pieces with the volume of cake and frosting the same for each piece. Needed are minimal geometric concepts and the formula for the volume of a prism. (JP)

  13. Environmental Health Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Health Service (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    Aimed at a society which is forced to make decisions relative to their total environment, this pamphlet discusses a few of the problems associated with restoring and maintaining an environmental relationship conducive to the health and well-being of man. The topics covered include: air pollution, noise, solid waste, the urban environment, drinking…

  14. Dynamical impurity problems

    SciTech Connect

    Emery, V.J.; Kivelson, S.A.

    1993-12-31

    In the past few years there has been a resurgence of interest in dynamical impurity problems, as a result of developments in the theory of correlated electron systems. The general dynamical impurity problem is a set of conduction electrons interacting with an impurity which has internal degrees of freedom. The simplest and earliest example, the Kondo problem, has attracted interest since the mid-sixties not only because of its physical importance but also as an example of a model displaying logarithmic divergences order by order in perturbation theory. It provided one of the earliest applications of the renormalization group method, which is designed to deal with just such a situation. As we shall see, the antiferromagnetic Kondo model is controlled by a strong-coupling fixed point, and the essence of the renormalization group solution is to carry out the global renormalization numerically starting from the original (weak-coupling) Hamiltonian. In these lectures, we shall describe an alternative route in which we identify an exactly solvable model which renormalizes to the same fixed point as the original dynamical impurity problem. This approach is akin to determining the critical behavior at a second order phase transition point by solving any model in a given universality class.

  15. Problem Solving with Patents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Jerilou; Sumrall, William J.

    2008-01-01

    Exploring our patent system is a great way to engage students in creative problem solving. As a result, the authors designed a teaching unit that uses the study of patents to explore one avenue in which scientists and engineers do science. Specifically, through the development of an idea, students learn how science and technology are connected.…

  16. The Pyramid Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onions, Chris

    1991-01-01

    Presented are the solutions generated by a fifth grade class to the problem of finding the sum of the number of blocks in a pyramid with a bottom layer containing seven blocks. Three methods were recorded: a levels method, a columns method, and a vertical slice method. (MDH)

  17. Solving Problems through Circles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grahamslaw, Laura; Henson, Lisa H.

    2015-01-01

    Several problem-solving interventions that utilise a "circle" approach have been applied within the field of educational psychology, for example, Circle Time, Circle of Friends, Sharing Circles, Circle of Adults and Solution Circles. This research explored two interventions, Solution Circles and Circle of Adults, and used thematic…

  18. Symmetries of Spectral Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabat, A.

    Deriving abelian KdV and NLS hierarchies, we describe non-abelian symmetries and "pre-Lax" elementary approach to Lax pairs. Discrete symmetries of spectral problems are considered in Sect. 4.2. Here we prove Darboux classical theorem and discuss a modern theory of dressing chains.

  19. Human Population Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmel, Thomas C.; Sligh, Michael M.

    1970-01-01

    Asserts that overpopulation is the most pressing world problem. Topics discussed include population control in primitive societies, population growth and control in modern societies, methods of motivational population control, consequences of no population control, and mass famines during the 1970's in underdeveloped countries. Cities 33…

  20. The Problem of "Noise"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vagianos, Louis

    1972-01-01

    The library problem consists of equal parts of external and internal noise. The external noise consists of the volume of publication. The internal noise can be characterized by the present and continuing brouhaha concerning reform of library education. Scientists frankly regard librarians as impediments to information. (Author/NH)

  1. Circumference and Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, Katie; White, David

    The concept of pi is one of great importance to all developed civilization and one that can be explored and mastered by elementary students through an inductive and problem-solving approach. Such an approach is outlined and discussed. The approach involves the following biblical quotation: "And he made a moltin sea ten cubits from one brim to the…

  2. Health Problems in Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Every pregnancy has some risk of problems. The causes can be conditions you already have or conditions you develop. They also include being pregnant with ... health care provider about how to minimize your risk before you get pregnant. Once you are pregnant, ...

  3. LEXICOGRAPHICAL PROBLEMS IN PASHTO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CHAVARRIS-AGUILAR, O.L.; PENZL, HERBERT

    PROBLEMS IN DEVELOPING SUITABLE DICTIONARIES OF PASHTO WERE REPORTED. PASHTO WAS DESCRIBED AS A MEMBER OF THE IRANIAN BRANCH OF THE INDO-EUROPEAN LANGUAGES SPOKEN IN EASTERN AND SOUTHERN AFGHANISTAN AND IN NORTHEASTERN PAKISTAN. FIVE TOPICS DEALING WITH THE PASHTO LANGUAGE WERE DISCUSSED--(1) STATISTICS, (2) WRITTEN CORPUS AND LEXICAL STUDIES, (3)…

  4. A Multifaceted Minimization Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pomeranz, Janet Bellcourt

    1983-01-01

    The problem "Given three planar points, find a point such that the sum of the distances from that point to the three points is a minimum" is discussed from several points of view. A solution that uses only calculus and geometry is examined in detail. (MNS)

  5. Cognitive Problems (Disorientation, Perception, Attention, Learning and Problem-Solving)

    MedlinePlus

    ... SOMEONE WITH EMOTIONAL & BEHAVIORAL NEEDS Cognitive Problems (Disorientation, Perception, Attention, Learning & Problem-Solving) Cognition is the process ... What Are Some Other Cognitive Problems? What Is Perception? Remember What Is Attention or Concentration? More Resources ...

  6. Bicriteria network design problems

    SciTech Connect

    Marathe, M.V.; Ravi, R.; Sundaram, R.; Ravi, S.S.; Rosenkrantz, D.J.; Hunt, H.B. III

    1994-12-31

    We study several bicriteria network design problems phrased as follows: given an undirected graph and two minimization objectives with a budget specified on one objective, find a subgraph satisfying certain connectivity requirements that minimizes the second objective subject to the budget on the first. Define an ({alpha}, {beta})-approximation algorithm as a polynomial-time algorithm that produces a solution in which the first objective value is at most {alpha} times the budget, and the second objective value is at most {alpha} times the minimum cost of a network obeying the budget oil the first objective. We, present the first approximation algorithms for bicriteria problems obtained by combining classical minimization objectives such as the total edge cost of the network, the diameter of the network and a weighted generalization of the maximum degree of any node in the network. We first develop some formalism related to bicriteria problems that leads to a clean way to state bicriteria approximation results. Secondly, when the two objectives are similar but only differ based on the cost function under which they are computed we present a general parametric search technique that yields approximation algorithms by reducing the problem to one of minimizing a single objective of the same type. Thirdly, we present an O(log n, log n)-approximation algorithm for finding a diameter-constrained minimum cost spanning tree of an undirected graph on n nodes generalizing the notion of shallow, light trees and light approximate shortest-path trees that have been studied before. Finally, for the class of treewidth-bounded graphs, we provide pseudopolynomial-time algorithms for a number of bicriteria problems using dynamic programming. These pseudopolynomial-time algorithms can be converted to fully polynomial-time approximation schemes using a scaling technique.

  7. Physics Problem Workbook, Student Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, John L.

    This workbook contains 50 undergraduate physics problems designed for use in conjunction with a computer in a time-sharing mode. Each of the problems includes a statement of the problem topic, a background description of the problem, problem objectives, suggested readings, and a related graph or figure. Various topics in general physics are…

  8. Buffon's Coin Problem and beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneiter, Kady

    2011-01-01

    This article describes an investigation of Buffon's coin problem and related problems with the aid of an applet. The problems are accessible at a variety of grade levels and facilitate making connections between geometry and probability.

  9. Gravitational Many-Body Problem

    SciTech Connect

    Makino, J.

    2008-04-29

    In this paper, we briefly review some aspects of the gravitational many-body problem, which is one of the oldest problems in the modern mathematical science. Then we review our GRAPE project to design computers specialized to this problem.

  10. MCNP: Photon benchmark problems

    SciTech Connect

    Whalen, D.J.; Hollowell, D.E.; Hendricks, J.S.

    1991-09-01

    The recent widespread, markedly increased use of radiation transport codes has produced greater user and institutional demand for assurance that such codes give correct results. Responding to these pressing requirements for code validation, the general purpose Monte Carlo transport code MCNP has been tested on six different photon problem families. MCNP was used to simulate these six sets numerically. Results for each were compared to the set's analytical or experimental data. MCNP successfully predicted the analytical or experimental results of all six families within the statistical uncertainty inherent in the Monte Carlo method. From this we conclude that MCNP can accurately model a broad spectrum of photon transport problems. 8 refs., 30 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Solving bearing overheating problems

    SciTech Connect

    Jendzurski, T.

    1995-05-08

    Overheating is a major indicator, along with vibration and noise, of an underlying problem affecting a bearing or related components. Because normal operating temperatures vary widely from one application to another, no single temperature is a reliable sign of overheating in every situation. By observing an application when it is running smoothly, a technician can establish a benchmark temperature for a particular bearing arrangement. Wide deviations from this accepted norm generally indicate troublesome overheating. The list of possible causes of over-heating ranges from out-of-round housings and oversize shaft diameters to excessive lubrication and bearing preloading. These causes fall into two major categories: improper or faulty lubrication and mechanical problems, such as incorrect fits and tolerances. These are discussed along with solutions.

  12. [Mental health problems].

    PubMed

    Momotani, Hiroko; Yamamoto, Haruyoshi

    2014-02-01

    This paper describes current issues in occupational mental health, occupational mental health activities currently underway, and priorities to improve the situation in Japan. A new tool to support these activities is then discussed. The incidence of employee mental health problems is rising, despite efforts to promote occupational mental health activities. The adoption of such activities is lagging behind in medium and small-sized enterprises. Priorities to improve occupational mental health include motivating business operators to address mental health issues, focusing more on prevention, and promoting mental health initiatives in medium and small-sized enterprises. Mental-Rosai, a web-based mental health check system, is a useful tool for the prevention of mental health problems and can provide support for medium and small-sized enterprises. PMID:24605529

  13. Cosmological axino problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, Clifford; Elor, Gilly; Hall, Lawrence J.

    2012-01-01

    We revisit the cosmology of the supersymmetric QCD axion, highlighting the existence of a serious cosmological axino problem that is fully analogous to the gravitino problem of overclosure via thermal production. A general analysis implies that the QCD axino has a mass greater than or equal to that of the gravitino in the absence of unnatural fine-tuning or sequestering. As a consequence, bounds from thermal gravitino and QCD axino production are complementary in parameter space, and together provide a quite stringent limit on the reheating temperature after inflation given by TR<103-106GeV for an axion decay constant of fa=109-1012GeV. Motivated by this result, we explore the cosmology of gravitino lightest supersymmetric particle and axino next to lightest supersymmetric particle at low TR and present three realistic scenarios for dark matter.

  14. FBST for Cointegration Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diniz, M.; Pereira, C. A. B.; Stern, J. M.

    2008-11-01

    In order to estimate causal relations, the time series econometrics has to be aware of spurious correlation, a problem first mentioned by Yule [21]. To solve the problem, one can work with differenced series or use multivariate models like VAR or VEC models. In this case, the analysed series are going to present a long run relation i.e. a cointegration relation. Even though the Bayesian literature about inference on VAR/VEC models is quite advanced, Bauwens et al. [2] highlight that "the topic of selecting the cointegrating rank has not yet given very useful and convincing results." This paper presents the Full Bayesian Significance Test applied to cointegration rank selection tests in multivariate (VAR/VEC) time series models and shows how to implement it using available in the literature and simulated data sets. A standard non-informative prior is assumed.

  15. Modern problems of thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikov, I. I.

    2012-12-01

    The role of energy and methods of its saving for the development of human society and life are analyzed. The importance of future use of space energy flows and energy of water and air oceans is emphasized. The authors consider the idea of the unit for production of electric energy and pure substances using sodium chloride which reserves are limitless on the planet. Looking retrospectively at the development of power engineering from the elementary fire to modern electric power station, we see that the used method of heat production, namely by direct interaction of fuel and oxidizer, is the simplest. However, it may be possible to combust coal, i.e., carbon in salt melt, for instance, sodium chloride that would be more rational and efficient. If the stated problems are solved positively, we would master all energy properties of the substance; and this is the main problem of thermodynamics being one of the sciences on energy.

  16. Hematological Problems of Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Ballem, P.J.

    1988-01-01

    Hematologic complications are relatively common in pregnancy. Furthermore, many chronic hematologic disorders require special surveillance and intervention in pregnancy. In this brief review, the author discusses common nutritional anemias in pregnancy. She reviews the disorders of hemoglobin synthesis and the need for early genetic counselling and prenatal diagnosis, as well as the special requirements and problems affected patients encounter in pregnancy. An overview of the frequent causes of thrombocytopenia in pregnancy is given and an approach suggested to the management of both the mother and the fetus. An approach is also presented to the management of women at risk for thrombosis in pregnancy, a particularly vexing and controversial problem. The risks of the various forms of anticoagulation are reviewed. Finally, a brief review of obstetrical hemorrhage is presented along with some guidelines useful in its management. PMID:21253125

  17. The inhibiting bisection problem.

    SciTech Connect

    Pinar, Ali

    2010-11-01

    Given a graph where each vertex is assigned a generation or consumption volume, we try to bisect the graph so that each part has a significant generation/consumption mismatch, and the cutsize of the bisection is small. Our motivation comes from the vulnerability analysis of distribution systems such as the electric power system. We show that the constrained version of the problem, where we place either the cutsize or the mismatch significance as a constraint and optimize the other, is NP-complete, and provide an integer programming formulation. We also propose an alternative relaxed formulation, which can trade-off between the two objectives and show that the alternative formulation of the problem can be solved in polynomial time by a maximum flow solver. Our experiments with benchmark electric power systems validate the effectiveness of our methods.

  18. The Boolean Isomorphism problem

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, M.; Thierauf, T.

    1996-12-31

    We investigate the computational complexity of the Boolean Isomorphism problem (BI): on input of two Boolean formulas F and G decide whether there exists a permutation of the variables of G such that F and G become equivalent. Our main result is a one-round interactive proof for BI, where the verifier has access to an NP oracle. To obtain this, we use a recent result from learning theory by Bshouty et.al. that Boolean formulas can be learned probabilistically with equivalence queries and access to an NP oracle. As a consequence, BI cannot be {sigma}{sup p}{sub 2} complete unless the Polynomial Hierarchy collapses. This solves an open problem posed in [BRS95]. Further properties of BI are shown: BI has And- and Or-functions, the counting version, No. BI, can be computed in polynomial time relative to BI, and BI is self-reducible.

  19. Energy - A systems problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourke, Roger D.

    1982-01-01

    Energy management in its most comprehensive sense encompasses economic, technical, environmental, and political problems. The present evaluation of prospects notes that opportunities for energy conservation are widespread, in such fields as building air conditioning, transportation, electrical appliances, and industrial processes. Further conservation is expected to be achieved through a combination of technology development and economics; the latter factor must not be unduly influenced by political measures that shield consumers from the true cost of energy.

  20. Working on interesting problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Arfon M.

    2015-01-01

    BSc Chemistry, The University of Sheffield 2001... PhD Astrochemistry, The University of Nottingham 2006... Scientist at GitHub Inc. 2013.From the outside, the path an individual has taken from academia to industry is not an obvious one. In this session I'll (try and) explain how an interest in software, engineering and chasing interesting problems makes internet startup in San Francisco a great home.

  1. Childhood behavior problems.

    PubMed

    Novak, L L

    1996-01-01

    Educating parents about normal, age-appropriate behavior in their children, teaching them basic behavioral techniques (such as the time-out and positive-reward systems) and giving them specific suggestions for intervention can increase parental confidence and decrease anxiety. Anticipating problems before they develop can help parents prevent inappropriate behavior patterns from developing in their children and may decrease abusive behavior. PMID:8546052

  2. Problem of hidden variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Emilio

    1992-10-01

    The problem of hidden variables in quantum mechanics is formalized as follows. A general or contextual (noncontextual) hidden-variables theory is defined as a mapping f: Q×M → C (f: Q→C) where Q is the set of projection operators in the appropriate (quantum) Hilbert space, M is the set of maximal Boolean subalgebras of Q and C is a (classical) Boolean algebra. It is shown that contextual (noncontextual) hidden-variables always exist (do not exist).

  3. Ear problems in swimmers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mao-Che; Liu, Chia-Yu; Shiao, An-Suey; Wang, Tyrone

    2005-08-01

    Acute diffuse otitis externa (swimmer's ear), otomycosis, exostoses, traumatic eardrum perforation, middle ear infection, and barotraumas of the inner ear are common problems in swimmers and people engaged in aqua activities. The most common ear problem in swimmers is acute diffuse otitis externa, with Pseudomonas aeruginosa being the most common pathogen. The symptoms are itching, otalgia, otorrhea, and conductive hearing loss. The treatment includes frequent cleansing of the ear canal, pain control, oral or topical medications, acidification of the ear canal, and control of predisposing factors. Swimming in polluted waters and ear-canal cleaning with cotton-tip applicators should be avoided. Exostoses are usually seen in people who swim in cold water and present with symptoms of accumulated debris, otorrhea and conductive hearing loss. The treatment for exostoses is transmeatal surgical removal of the tumors. Traumatic eardrum perforations may occur during water skiing or scuba diving and present with symptoms of hearing loss, otalgia, otorrhea, tinnitus and vertigo. Tympanoplasty might be needed if the perforations do not heal spontaneously. Patients with chronic otitis media with active drainage should avoid swimming, while patients who have undergone mastoidectomy and who have no cavity problems may swim. For children with ventilation tubes, surface swimming is safe in a clean, chlorinated swimming pool. Sudden sensorineural hearing loss and some degree of vertigo may occur after diving because of rupture of the round or oval window membrane. PMID:16138712

  4. Medical problems of musicians.

    PubMed

    Lockwood, A H

    1989-01-26

    Surveys of performing musicians indicate that almost half of them experience playing-related medical problems, some of which threaten or end their careers. Overuse injuries involving the muscle--tendon unit are the most common problem, with symptoms ranging from mild pain while the musician is playing to pain severe enough to preclude any use of the affected hand. String players are the most commonly affected, and percussionists the least. The most important predisposing characteristic is the use of repetitive movements during long hours of practice, but awkward body positions mandated by the shape and weight of the instrument, the technical difficulty of the repertoire, and unfamiliar instruments may also play a part. Women are more commonly affected than men. Rest is the cornerstone of therapy. Neural impingement syndromes affecting the median or ulnar nerves or the thoracic outlet affect many musicians. Focal dystonias may involve part or all of a hand or the muscles forming the embouchure (the position of the lips in wind players). These are very resistant to therapy and may terminate or drastically alter a career. Stress, especially performance anxiety, may impede performance. Beta-adrenergic blocking agents prevent the symptoms of performance anxiety and are frequently used by musicians without medical supervision. A recognition of the unique problems of musician-patients has led to the formation of successful specialty clinics in a number of cities. PMID:2643048

  5. The Feline Josephus Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruskey, Frank; Williams, Aaron

    In the classic Josephus problem, elements 1, 2,...,n are placed in order around a circle and a skip value k is chosen. The problem proceeds in n rounds, where each round consists of traveling around the circle from the current position, and selecting the kth remaining element to be eliminated from the circle. After n rounds, every element is eliminated. Special attention is given to the last surviving element, denote it by j. We generalize this popular problem by introducing a uniform number of lives ℓ, so that elements are not eliminated until they have been selected for the ℓth time. We prove two main results: 1) When n and k are fixed, then j is constant for all values of ℓ larger than the nth Fibonacci number. In other words, the last surviving element stabilizes with respect to increasing the number of lives. 2) When n and j are fixed, then there exists a value of k that allows j to be the last survivor simultaneously for all values of ℓ. In other words, certain skip values ensure that a given position is the last survivor, regardless of the number of lives. For the first result we give an algorithm for determining j (and the entire sequence of selections) that uses O(n 2) arithmetic operations.

  6. High Altitude Medical Problems

    PubMed Central

    Hultgren, Herbert N.

    1979-01-01

    Increased travel to high altitude areas by mountaineers and nonclimbing tourists has emphasized the clinical problems associated with rapid ascent. Acute mountain sickness affects most sojourners at elevations above 10,000 feet. Symptoms are usually worse on the second or third day after arrival. Gradual ascent, spending one to three days at an intermediate altitude, and the use of acetazolamide (Diamox) will prevent or ameliorate symptoms in most instances. Serious and potentially fatal problems, such as high altitude pulmonary edema or cerebral edema, occur in approximately 0.5 percent to 1.0 percent of visitors to elevations above 10,000 feet—especially with heavy physical exertion on arrival, such as climbing or skiing. Early recognition, high flow oxygen therapy and prompt descent are crucially important in management. Our knowledge of the causes of these and other high altitude problems, such as retinal hemorrhage, systemic edema and pulmonary hypertension, is still incomplete. Even less is known of the effect of high altitudes on medical conditions common at sea level or on the action of commonly used drugs. ImagesFigure 2. PMID:483805

  7. Adolescent Temperament: Childhood Problem Precursors and Problem Behavior Correlates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windle, Michael

    Interrelations between childhood behavior problems and adolescent temperament, and between adolescent temperament and problem behaviors, were studied. A sample of 311 adolescents with an average age of 15.7 years completed self-report measures regarding behavior problems before age 13, temperament, alcohol consumption, alcohol-related problems,…

  8. Problem-Framing: A perspective on environmental problem-solving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardwell, Lisa V.

    1991-09-01

    The specter of environmental calamity calls for the best efforts of an involved public. Ironically, the way people understand the issues all too often serves to discourage and frustrate rather than motivate them to action. This article draws from problem-solving perspectives offered by cognitive psychology and conflict management to examine a framework for thinking about environmental problems that promises to help rather than hinder efforts to address them. Problem-framing emphasizes focusing on the problem definition. Since how one defines a problem determines one's understanding of and approach to that problem, being able to redefine or reframe a problem and to explore the “problem space” can help broaden the range of alternatives and solutions examined. Problem-framing incorporates a cognitive perspective on how people respond to information. It explains why an emphasis on problem definition is not part of people's typical approach to problems. It recognizes the importance of structure and of having ways to organize that information on one's problem-solving effort. Finally, problem-framing draws on both cognitive psychology and conflict management for strategies to manage information and to create a problem-solving environment that not only encourages participation but can yield better approaches to our environmental problems.

  9. Space Power Engineering Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senkevich, V. P.

    2002-01-01

    Development of space power engineering in the first half of XXI century shall be aimed at preventing the forthcoming energy crisis and ecological catastrophes. The problem can be solved through using solar energy being perpetual, endless, and ecologically safe. As of now, issues on the development and employment of solar power stations and its beaming to the ground stations in the SHF band are put on the agenda. The most pressing problem is to develop orbital solar reflectors to illuminate towns in the polar regions, agricultural regions, and areas of processing sea products. Space-based technologies can be used to deal with typhoons, green house effects, and "ozone holes". Recently, large, frameless film structures formed by centrifugal forces offer the promise of structures for orbital power plants, reflectors, and solar sails. A big success is achieved in the development of power generating solar array elements of amorphous silicon. These innovations would make the development of orbital solar power plants dozens of times cheaper. Such solar arrays shall be used in the nearest future on heavy communication satellites and the Earth remote sensing platforms for generation of 140-160 kW at a specific power beyond 300 W/kg. The cargo traffic needed to develop and maintain the orbital power plants and reflector systems could be equipped with solar sails as the future low thrust propulsion. In 2000, the mankind witnessed an unexpected beginning of energy crisis along with strong hydro- meteorological events (typhoons, floods) that shocked the USA, the Western Europe, England, Japan, and other countries. The total damage is estimated as 90 billions of dollars. The mankind is approaching a boundary beyond which its further existence would depend on how people would learn to control weather and use ecologically safe power sources. Space technology base on the research potential accumulated in the previous century could serve for the solution of this problem.

  10. Mechanics: Ideas, problems, applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishlinskii, A. Iu.

    The book contains the published articles and reports by academician Ishlinskii which deal with the concepts and ideas of modern mechanics, its role in providing a general understanding of the natural phenomena, and its applications to various problems in science and engineering. Attention is given to the methodological aspects of mechanics, to the history of the theories of plasticity, friction, gyroscopic and inertial systems, and inertial navigation, and to mathematical methods in mechanics. The book also contains essays on some famous scientists and engineers.

  11. Irrelevance in Problem Solving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, Alon Y.

    1992-01-01

    The notion of irrelevance underlies many different works in AI, such as detecting redundant facts, creating abstraction hierarchies and reformulation and modeling physical devices. However, in order to design problem solvers that exploit the notion of irrelevance, either by automatically detecting irrelevance or by being given knowledge about irrelevance, a formal treatment of the notion is required. In this paper we present a general framework for analyzing irrelevance. We discuss several properties of irrelevance and show how they vary in a space of definitions outlined by the framework. We show how irrelevance claims can be used to justify the creation of abstractions thereby suggesting a new view on the work on abstraction.

  12. [Skin problems in joggers].

    PubMed

    Itin, P; Rufli, T

    1986-08-30

    Reports on skin problems in joggers are rare in medical literature. Jogger dermatoses are caused by repeated trauma, mechanic overuse, thermic effects, allergic-toxic reactions and infectious processes. Most common are bullosis mechanica, piezogenic papules, hyperkeratosis haemorrhagica and subungual haematomas. Contact allergies and infections such as athlete's foot, pitted keratolysis and pyoderma are well-known complications in joggers. Frostbite and actinic damage, abrasions of the nipples, collisions with vehicles and injuries by buzzards are further possible incidents to be reckoned with occasionally. In most cases, prophylaxis is possible by training adaptation and use of adequate footwear. Jogger dermatoses usually clear after a suitable jogging-free interval. PMID:3764389

  13. The nanostructure problem

    SciTech Connect

    Billinge, S.

    2010-03-22

    Diffraction techniques are making progress in tackling the difficult problem of solving the structures of nanoparticles and nanoscale materials. The great gift of x-ray crystallography has made us almost complacent in our ability to locate the three-dimensional coordinates of atoms in a crystal with a precision of around 10{sup -4} nm. However, the powerful methods of crystallography break down for structures in which order only extends over a few nanometers. In fact, as we near the one hundred year mark since the birth of crystallography, we face a resilient frontier in condensed matter physics: our inability to routinely and robustly determine the structure of complex nanostructured and amorphous materials. Knowing the structure and arrangement of atoms in a solid is so fundamental to understanding its properties that the topic routinely occupies the early chapters of every solid-state physics textbook. Yet what has become clear with the emergence of nanotechnology is that diffraction data alone may not be enough to uniquely solve the structure of nanomaterials. As part of a growing effort to incorporate the results of other techniques to constrain x-ray refinements - a method called 'complex modeling' which is a simple but elegant approach for combining information from spectroscopy with diffraction data to solve the structure of several amorphous and nanostructured materials. Crystallography just works, so we rarely question how and why this is so, yet understanding the physics of diffraction can be very helpful as we consider the nanostructure problem. The relationship between the electron density distribution in three dimensions (i.e., the crystal structure) and an x-ray diffraction pattern is well established: the measured intensity distribution in reciprocal space is the square of the Fourier transform of the autocorrelation function <{rho}(r){rho}(r+r')> of the electron density distribution {rho}(r). The fact that we get the autocorrelation function

  14. Uncovering Sexual Problems

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, May

    1977-01-01

    While patients frequently make it difficult for us to uncover their sexual concerns, a much greater difficulty is due to physicians' unwillingness to deal with this subject. Physicians need to acquire basic knowledge about human sexuality as well as skills in making patients feel comfortable and open. A non-judgmental attitude is essential. The physician will also be able to anticipate and prevent sexual distress by education. Expertise must be developed in differentiating those problems requiring referral for specialized sexual counselling from those which the family physician can handle. PMID:21304865

  15. Problem-Based Learning Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chin, Christine; Chia, Li-Gek

    2008-01-01

    One way of implementing project-based science (PBS) is to use problem-based learning (PBL), in which students formulate their own problems. These problems are often ill-structured, mirroring complex real-life problems where data are often messy and inclusive. In this article, the authors describe how they used PBL in a ninth-grade biology class in…

  16. Problem Solving in the Professions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackling, Noel; And Others

    1990-01-01

    It is proposed that algorithms and heuristics are useful in improving professional problem-solving abilities when contextualized within the academic discipline. A basic algorithm applied to problem solving in undergraduate engineering education and a similar algorithm applicable to legal problems are used as examples. Problem complexity and…

  17. A Method for Solving Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoop, Robert

    1987-01-01

    Problem solving and decision making are considered to be keys to successful management. A normative method for problem solving is presented, suggesting that the analysis of the problem be structured along a five-step procedure: problem identification, analysis, decision alternatives, decision making, and decision implementation. Follow-up…

  18. Problem Order Implications for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Nan; Cohen, William W.; Koedinger, Kenneth R.

    2013-01-01

    The order of problems presented to students is an important variable that affects learning effectiveness. Previous studies have shown that solving problems in a blocked order, in which all problems of one type are completed before the student is switched to the next problem type, results in less effective performance than does solving the problems…

  19. Design Problems for Secondary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonassen, David H.

    2011-01-01

    Are there different kinds of design problems? Jonassen (2011) argued that problems vary in terms of structuredness, complexity, and context. On the structuredness and complexity continua, design problems tend to be the most ill-structured and complex. Brown and Chandrasekaran suggest that design problems may vary along a continuum from…

  20. Posing Problems: Two Classroom Examples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Shukkwan S.; Wu, Rui-xiang

    1999-01-01

    Shares two lessons in which students help teachers pose problems and discover the importance of posing problems properly. Presents a fifth-grade lesson in which students found a mistake in a proportion problem, and an eighth-grade lesson that discusses a geometry problem with insufficient information. (ASK)

  1. Methodological Problems of Nanotechnoscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorokhov, V. G.

    Recently, we have reported on the definitions of nanotechnology as a new type of NanoTechnoScience and on the nanotheory as a cluster of the different natural and engineering theories. Nanotechnology is not only a new type of scientific-engineering discipline, but it evolves also in a “nonclassical” way. Nanoontology or nano scientific world view has a function of the methodological orientation for the choice the theoretical means and methods toward a solution to the scientific and engineering problems. This allows to change from one explanation and scientific world view to another without any problems. Thus, nanotechnology is both a field of scientific knowledge and a sphere of engineering activity, in other words, NanoTechnoScience is similar to Systems Engineering as the analysis and design of large-scale, complex, man/machine systems but micro- and nanosystems. Nano systems engineering as well as Macro systems engineering includes not only systems design but also complex research. Design orientation has influence on the change of the priorities in the complex research and of the relation to the knowledge, not only to “the knowledge about something”, but also to the knowledge as the means of activity: from the beginning control and restructuring of matter at the nano-scale is a necessary element of nanoscience.

  2. PSYCHOSOMATIC PROBLEMS IN UROLOGY

    PubMed Central

    Auerback, Alfred; Smith, Donald R.

    1952-01-01

    The intimate relationship between the urinary and genital systems permits stimuli in one system to influence the other. At least 15 per cent of women with symptoms of cystitis have no organic basis for their complaints. In psychiatric studies it has been noted that sexual conflict is the primary etiological factor in these patients. In some cases, continuance of the disorder leads to irreversible organic change. Urinary symptoms such as frequency, urgency, burning or retention are most common in women and become an automatic response to anxiety-provoking or sexual stimuli. In men, functional urinary symptoms are relatively infrequent. Often they indicate problems of genital dysfunction. Complaints of impotence, penile pain, testicular pain, or non-specific urethritis stem back to difficulties in their sexual lives. Many of the patients have symptoms of a generalized anxiety tension state due to sexual problems. A purely organic consideration of genitourinary disorders will lead to erroneous conclusions and unsatisfactory therapeutic results. The psychosomatic approach—that is, considering both physical and psychological aspects—will explain many hitherto difficult cases. PMID:14886756

  3. Microchip problems plague DOD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, R. J.

    1984-10-01

    The major issues in the controversy over the discovery of millions of defective microchips sold to the DOD by the Texas Instruments (TI) corporation are outlined. Defects in the microcircuits are blamed on inadequate testing procedures performed by TI during manufacture, and on inadequate testing procedures used by a subcontractor especially contracted to test the chips. Because the problem persisted over a period of years, defects might be possible in as many as 100 million chips used in a broad range of military applications including the Trident submarine, the B-52, B-1B, F-15, F-111, F-4, A-6, and A-7 aircraft, the Harpoon and HARM missile systems, and the Space Shuttles Discovery and Challenger. It is pointed out that although TI has accepted responsibility for the defective chips, little will be done by the DOD to compel the company to replace them, or to upgrade testing procedures. It is concluded that the serious nature of the problem could renew interest in recommendations for the standardization of military microcircuits.

  4. Search for B to K nu nubar Decays with a Semileptonic Tag

    SciTech Connect

    Vuosalo, Carl

    2010-01-01

    Flavor-changing neutral-current transitions such as b → sν$\\bar{v}$ are absent at tree level in the Standard Model and can only occur via loop diagrams. Several new physics models may enhance the rate of these transitions. This document presents searches for the exclusive decays B+ u → K+ν$\\bar{v}$ and B0 d → K0S ν$\\bar{v}$, which have a predicted theoretical branching fraction of (3.8+1.2 -0.6) × 10-6. The presence of two neutrinos in the final state makes recognition of the signal challenging, so the full reconstruction of one B meson in the semileptonic decay channel B → D(*)lν is used to facilitate the search for the signal in the recoiling B. This analysis uses approximately 420 fb-1 or 460 million B$\\bar{B}$ pairs collected over runs 1-6 with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II B factory. This analysis finds 90% confidence level upper limits on the branching fractions of 1.3×10-5 for B+ u → K+ν$\\bar{v}$, 5.6×10-5 for B0 d → K0ν$\\bar{v}$, and the first upper limits on the partial branching fractions for B+ u → K+ν$\\bar{v}$ of 3.1 × 10-5 for K+ CMS momentum < 1.5 GeV/c and of 0.89 × 10-5 for K+ CMS momentum > 1.5 GeV/c. These results improve upon the previous best upper limits, which came from the Belle experiment, of 1.4 × 10-5 for B+ u → K+ν$\\bar{v}$ and 16 × 10-5 for B0 d → K0ν$\\bar{v}$. They also rule out a new physics model of scalar dark matter for scalar particle masses below 1.7 GeV/c2.

  5. Abstraction and Problem Reformulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giunchiglia, Fausto

    1992-01-01

    In work done jointly with Toby Walsh, the author has provided a sound theoretical foundation to the process of reasoning with abstraction (GW90c, GWS9, GW9Ob, GW90a). The notion of abstraction formalized in this work can be informally described as: (property 1), the process of mapping a representation of a problem, called (following historical convention (Sac74)) the 'ground' representation, onto a new representation, called the 'abstract' representation, which, (property 2) helps deal with the problem in the original search space by preserving certain desirable properties and (property 3) is simpler to handle as it is constructed from the ground representation by "throwing away details". One desirable property preserved by an abstraction is provability; often there is a relationship between provability in the ground representation and provability in the abstract representation. Another can be deduction or, possibly inconsistency. By 'throwing away details' we usually mean that the problem is described in a language with a smaller search space (for instance a propositional language or a language without variables) in which formulae of the abstract representation are obtained from the formulae of the ground representation by the use of some terminating rewriting technique. Often we require that the use of abstraction results in more efficient .reasoning. However, it might simply increase the number of facts asserted (eg. by allowing, in practice, the exploration of deeper search spaces or by implementing some form of learning). Among all abstractions, three very important classes have been identified. They relate the set of facts provable in the ground space to those provable in the abstract space. We call: TI abstractions all those abstractions where the abstractions of all the provable facts of the ground space are provable in the abstract space; TD abstractions all those abstractions wllere the 'unabstractions' of all the provable facts of the abstract space are

  6. Understanding the Problem. Problem Solving and Communication Activity Series. The Math Forum: Problems of the Week

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Math Forum @ Drexel, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Different techniques for understanding a problem can lead to ideas for never-used-before solutions. Good problem-solvers use a problem-solving strategy and may come back to it frequently while they are working on the problem to refine their strategy, see if they can find better solutions, or find other questions. Writing is an integral part of…

  7. Problems of massive gravities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deser, S.; Izumi, K.; Ong, Y. C.; Waldron, A.

    2015-01-01

    The method of characteristics is a key tool for studying consistency of equations of motion; it allows issues such as predictability, maximal propagation speed, superluminality, unitarity and acausality to be addressed without requiring explicit solutions. We review this method and its application to massive gravity (mGR) theories to show the limitations of these models' physical viability: Among their problems are loss of unique evolution, superluminal signals, matter coupling inconsistencies and micro-acausality (propagation of signals around local closed time-like curves (CTCs)/closed causal curves (CCCs)). We extend previous no-go results to the entire three-parameter range of mGR theories. It is also argued that bimetric models suffer a similar fate.

  8. [Hypersomnia: a diagnostic problem].

    PubMed

    Kranenburg, Guido; Teunissen, Laurien L

    2014-01-01

    Hypersomnia is a frequently occurring problem. When taking a medical history it is important to distinguish between fatigue and sleepiness. We present a 14-year-old girl with narcolepsy and a 59-year-old man with idiopathic hypersomnia. Features that are typical of narcolepsy are cataplexy and weight gain. Features that are typical of both narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia are daytime naps, insomnia, sleep paralysis and hypnagogic hallucinations. Additional testing in patients with hypersomnia should include a polysomnography in order to exclude other sleeping disorders, and a mean sleep latency test. Practice shows that both patients with narcolepsy and those with idiopathic hypersomnia benefit from treatment with stimulating drugs such as modafinil. PMID:25096034

  9. The Microchp Scheduling Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosman, M. G. C.; Bakker, V.; Molderink, A.; Hurink, J. L.; Smit, G. J. M.

    2009-08-01

    The increasing penetration of renewable energy sources, the demand for more energy efficient electricity production and the increase in distributed electricity generation causes a shift in the way electricity is produced and consumed. The downside of these changes in the electricity grid is that network stability and controllability becomes more difficult compared to the old situation. The new network has to accommodate various means of production, consumption and buffering and needs to offer control over the energy flows between these three elements. In order to offer such a control mechanism we need to know more about the individual aspects. In this paper we focus on the modelling of distributed production. Especially we look at the use of microCHP (Combined Heat and Power) appliances in a group of houses. The problem of planning the production runs of the microCHP is modelled via an ILP formulation both for a single house and for a group of houses.

  10. The four bars problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauroy, Alexandre; Taslakian, Perouz; Langerman, Stefan; Jungers, Raphaël

    2016-09-01

    A four-bar linkage is a mechanism consisting of four rigid bars which are joined by their endpoints in a polygonal chain and which can rotate freely at the joints (or vertices). We assume that the linkage lies in the 2-dimensional plane so that one of the bars is held horizontally fixed. In this paper we consider the problem of reconfiguring a four-bar linkage using an operation called a pop. Given a four-bar linkage, a pop reflects a vertex across the line defined by its two adjacent vertices along the polygonal chain. Our main result shows that for certain conditions on the lengths of the bars, the neighborhood of any configuration that can be reached by smooth motion can also be reached by pops. The proof relies on the fact that pops are described by a map on the circle with an irrational number of rotation.

  11. The Brazil nut problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huerta, Dora; Ruiz-Suarez, Jesus

    2004-03-01

    The segregation of large intruders in a vertically vibrated granular bed is studied. We measure rising times a function of density, diameter and depth; for two different sinusoidal excitations. Our results shed definitive light to explain the fundamental aspects of the fascinating Brazil nut problem. At low frequencies (high amplitudes), inertia and convection are the only mechanisms behind segregation. Inertia dominates when the relative density of the intruder is greater than one and convection when it is less than one. At high frequencies (small amplitudes), where convection is suppressed, segregation occurs by buoyancy or sinkage. Finally, when the diameter of the intruders is changed, the well known paradigm "larger intruders rise faster" fails if the mass of the intruders is kept constant (while their relative densities are greater than one).

  12. PROBLEMS OF HOMOSEXUALITY

    PubMed Central

    Reider, Norman

    1957-01-01

    Moral, religious and legal attitudes in attempts to control sexual behavior have interfered with a clear view of the medical and psychological aspects of homosexuality. This phenomenon is probably much less destructive of social aspects of our society and culture than is generally believed, since it is actually more widespread than is generally acknowledged. Homosexuality probably has hormonal and undoubtedly social and psychological factors, the latter of which are the only ones which can be worked with successfully in our present state of knowledge. A general practitioner's task is to aid those who wish and need help with this problem in finding psychiatric treatment in the same way that persons with any other emotional disturbance are referred. This should be carried out without bias just as with any other emotional disturbance. PMID:13426813

  13. The problem of choice

    PubMed Central

    Naqvi, Hassan R; Mathur, Shawn; Covarrubias, David; Curcio, Josephine A; Schmidt, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Convictions are a driving force for actions. Considering that every individual has a different set of convictions and larger groups act once a consensus decision is reached, one can see that debate is an inherent exercise in decision-making. This requires a sustainably generated surplus to allow time for intellectual exchange, gathering of information and dissemination of findings. It is essential that the full spectrum of options remain treated equally. At the end of this process, a choice has to be made. Looking back at a later time point, a retrospective analysis sometimes reveals that the choice was neither completely free nor a truly conscious one. Leaving the issue of consequences of a once made decision aside, we wish to contribute to the debate of the problem of choice. PMID:19025607

  14. Wicked Problem Solvers.

    PubMed

    Edmondson, Amy C

    2016-06-01

    Companies today increasingly rely on teams that span many industries for radical innovation, especially to solve "wicked problems." So leaders have to understand how to promote collaboration when roles are uncertain, goals are shifting, expertise and organizational cultures are varied, and participants have clashing or even antagonistic perspectives. HBS professor Amy Edmondson has studied more than a dozen cross-industry innovation projects, among them the creation of a new city, a mango supply-chain transformation, and the design and construction of leading-edge buildings. She has identified the leadership practices that make successful cross-industry teams work: fostering an adaptable vision, promoting psychological safety, enabling knowledge sharing, and encouraging collaborative innovation. Though these practices are broadly familiar, their application within cross-industry teams calls for unique leadership approaches that combine flexibility, open-mindedness, humility, and fierce resolve. PMID:27491195

  15. [Legionellosis, a tourist problem?].

    PubMed

    Kistler, W; Fleisch, F; Reinhart, W H; Wieland, T

    2002-07-31

    Legionellosis is a relatively rare disease characterized by an often prolonged and complicated course even in immunocompetent patients. Its diagnosis is mandatory for therapeutic and epidemiologic reasons. At the Kantonsspital Chur between 1998 and 2001, 6 cases of legionellosis have been observed: four of them were travel-associated and one concerned a local hotel employee. Due to the increasing international mobility epidemiologic investigations for the localization and elimination of the sources of infection are very difficult. A european task force, the European Working Group for Legionella Infections (EWGLI/www.ewgli.org) is addressing this problem. It is a matter of debate to what extent the public should be informed about sources of legionellosis (so called legionella hotels). PMID:12212344

  16. The attitude control problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wen, John Ting-Yung; Kreutz-Delgado, Kenneth

    1991-01-01

    A general framework for the analysis of the attitude tracking control problem for a rigid body is presented. A large family of globally stable control laws is obtained by using the globally nonsingular unit quaternion representation in a Lyapunov function candidate whose form is motivated by the consideration of the total energy of the rigid body. The controllers share the common structure of a proportional-derivative feedback plus some feedforward which can be zero (the model-independent case), the Coriolis torque compensation, or an adaptive compensation. These controller structures are compared in terms of the requirement on the a priori model information, guaranteed transient performance, and robustness. The global stability of the Luh-Walker-Paul robot end-effector controller is also analyzed in this framework.

  17. The worldwide "wildfire" problem.

    PubMed

    Gill, A Malcolm; Stephens, Scott L; Cary, Geoffrey J

    2013-03-01

    The worldwide "wildfire" problem is headlined by the loss of human lives and homes, but it applies generally to any adverse effects of unplanned fires, as events or regimes, on a wide range of environmental, social, and economic assets. The problem is complex and contingent, requiring continual attention to the changing circumstances of stakeholders, landscapes, and ecosystems; it occurs at a variety of temporal and spatial scales. Minimizing adverse outcomes involves controlling fires and fire regimes, increasing the resistance of assets to fires, locating or relocating assets away from the path of fires, and, as a probability of adverse impacts often remains, assisting recovery in the short-term while promoting the adaptation of societies in the long-term. There are short- and long-term aspects to each aspect of minimization. Controlling fires and fire regimes may involve fire suppression and fuel treatments such as prescribed burning or non-fire treatments but also addresses issues associated with unwanted fire starts like arson. Increasing the resistance of assets can mean addressing the design and construction materials of a house or the use of personal protective equipment. Locating or relocating assets can mean leaving an area about to be impacted by fire or choosing a suitable place to live; it can also mean the planning of land use. Assisting recovery and promoting adaptation can involve insuring assets and sharing responsibility for preparedness for an event. There is no single, simple, solution. Perverse outcomes can occur. The number of minimizing techniques used, and the breadth and depth of their application, depends on the geographic mix of asset types. Premises for policy consideration are presented. PMID:23634593

  18. The Billiard Problem.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Barry Alan

    The billiard problem is studied in this thesis. The first chapter consists of a general introduction to the billiard problem and the question of the long time behavior of Hamiltonian systems. In Chapter 2 we study the behavior of the Kolmogorov -Sinai entropy for Sinai billiard systems. In particular, we numerically calculate the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy h(,S('t)) for the two dimensional square and triangular Sinai billiards. We find, in both cases, for small scatterer radius R that h(,S('t))<(tau)> (DBLTURN) -2 Ln R where <(tau)> is the mean free time between collisions. Asymptotic analysis in support of this rela- tion is given. We present conjectures that a similar relationship holds for all Sinai billiard systems. We also find that the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy is not affected by the change from bounded to unbounded horizon. In Chapter 3 we study the decay of the velocity autocorrelation function for the classical periodic Lorentz gas. We study numerically the behavior of the velocity autocorrelation function for the triangu- lar periodic Lorentz gas as the horizon changes from bounded to unbounded. We note a qualitative difference in the velocity auto- correlation function between the case of bounded and unbounded horizon; when the horizon is bounded the decay is exponential, when the horizon is unbounded we find an algebraic decay. In the case of unbounded horizon (for the triangular case) numerical evidence and simple arguments indicate a 1/t decay rate. Similar arguments for a 1/t decay rate for the square periodic Lorentz gas in two and three dimensions are given. We thus conclude that for the square periodic Lorentz gas and the triangular periodic Lorentz gas (when the hori- zon is unbounded) the diffusion constant does not exist.

  19. Addressing problems of employee performance.

    PubMed

    McConnell, Charles R

    2011-01-01

    Employee performance problems are essentially of 2 kinds: those that are motivational in origin and those resulting from skill deficiencies. Both kinds of problems are the province of the department manager. Performance problems differ from problems of conduct in that traditional disciplinary processes ordinarily do not apply. Rather, performance problems are addressed through educational and remedial processes. The manager has a basic responsibility in ensuring that everything reasonable is done to help each employee succeed. There are a number of steps the manager can take to address employee performance problems. PMID:21537142

  20. Computer Problem-Solving Coaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Leon; Heller, Kenneth

    2005-09-01

    Computers might be able to play an important role in physics instruction by coaching students to develop good problem-solving skills. Building on previous research on student problem solving and on designing computer programs to teach cognitive skills, we are developing a prototype computer coach to provide students with guided practice in solving problems. In addition to helping students become better problem solvers, such programs can be useful in studying how students learn to solve problems and how and if problem-solving skills can be transferred from a computer to a pencil-and-paper environment.

  1. Developing Metacognitive and Problem-Solving Skills through Problem Manipulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker Siburt, Claire J.; Bissell, Ahrash N.; Macphail, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    In a collaborative effort between the our university's department of chemistry and the academic resource center, we designed a model for general chemistry recitation based on a problem manipulation method in which students actively assess the skills and knowledge used to answer a chemical problem and then manipulate the problem to create a new…

  2. Adolescent Problem Behavior and Problem Driving in Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bingham, C. Raymond; Shope, Jean T.

    2004-01-01

    Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death among drivers younger than age 35, making problem driving behavior among young drivers a significant public concern. Effective intervention requires a better understanding of the antecedents of problem driving. Problem behavior theory, social control theory, and Kandel's model of substance use…

  3. Problem Solvers: Problem--How Long Can You Stand?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teaching Children Mathematics, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Healthy lifestyles are increasingly emphasized these days. This month the authors begin a series of mathematical problems that also address physical activity. They hope that these problems offer opportunities to investigate mathematics and also reinforce the desire to lead a healthy life. In their first problem of the academic year, students…

  4. Problem Solving through an Optimization Problem in Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poon, Kin Keung; Wong, Hang-Chi

    2011-01-01

    This article adapts the problem-solving model developed by Polya to investigate and give an innovative approach to discuss and solve an optimization problem in geometry: the Regiomontanus Problem and its application to football. Various mathematical tools, such as calculus, inequality and the properties of circles, are used to explore and reflect…

  5. Energy Problems and Environmental Concern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Train, Russell E.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses problems encountered in energy extraction and consumption, involving nuclear power plant construction, environmental consequences of energy systems, and energy conservation ethics. Indicates that the increasing concern over environmental quality is not the true cause of present energy problems. (CC)

  6. Dementia - behavior and sleep problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000029.htm Dementia - behavior and sleep problems To use the sharing features on this ... sleep and stay asleep Tips for Behavior and Sleep Problems Having a daily routine may help. Calmly ...

  7. Strengthening Programs through Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyer, Jim

    1993-01-01

    Describes a secondary agricultural education program that was a dumping ground for academically disadvantaged students. Discusses how such a program can be improved by identifying problems and symptoms, treating problems, and goal setting. (JOW)

  8. Decision Analysis for Environmental Problems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental management problems are often complex and uncertain. A formal process with proper guidance is needed to understand the issues, identify sources of disagreement, and analyze the major uncertainties in environmental problems. This course will present a process that fo...

  9. Dental Health and Orthodontic Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size Email Print Share Dental Health and Orthodontic Problems Page Content Article Body Dental Health Twin ... color can be tinted to match the teeth. Orthodontic Problems Crooked teeth, overbites and underbites are best ...

  10. Sherlock Holmes, Master Problem Solver.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballew, Hunter

    1994-01-01

    Shows the connections between Sherlock Holmes's investigative methods and mathematical problem solving, including observations, characteristics of the problem solver, importance of data, questioning the obvious, learning from experience, learning from errors, and indirect proof. (MKR)

  11. The Problem of Defining Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubar, David

    1981-01-01

    The major philosophical issues surrounding the concept of intelligence are reviewed with respect to the problems surrounding the process of defining and developing artificial intelligence (AI) in computers. Various current definitions and problems with these definitions are presented. (MP)

  12. Enhancing chemistry problem-solving achievement using problem categorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunce, Diane M.; Gabel, Dorothy L.; Samuel, John V.

    The enhancement of chemistry students' skill in problem solving through problem categorization is the focus of this study. Twenty-four students in a freshman chemistry course for health professionals are taught how to solve problems using the explicit method of problem solving (EMPS) (Bunce & Heikkinen, 1986). The EMPS is an organized approach to problem analysis which includes encoding the information given in a problem (Given, Asked For), relating this to what is already in long-term memory (Recall), and planning a solution (Overall Plan) before a mathematical solution is attempted. In addition to the EMPS training, treatment students receive three 40-minute sessions following achievement tests in which they are taught how to categorize problems. Control students use this time to review the EMPS solutions of test questions. Although problem categorization is involved in one section of the EMPS (Recall), treatment students who received specific training in problem categorization demonstrate significantly higher achievement on combination problems (those problems requiring the use of more than one chemical topic for their solution) at (p = 0.01) than their counterparts. Significantly higher achievement for treatment students is also measured on an unannounced test (p = 0.02). Analysis of interview transcripts of both treatment and control students illustrates a Rolodex approach to problem solving employed by all students in this study. The Rolodex approach involves organizing equations used to solve problems on mental index cards and flipping through them, matching units given when a new problem is to be solved. A second phenomenon observed during student interviews is the absence of a link in the conceptual understanding of the chemical concepts involved in a problem and the problem-solving skills employed to correctly solve problems. This study shows that explicit training in categorization skills and the EMPS can lead to higher achievement in complex problem

  13. Large Spectral Library Problem

    SciTech Connect

    Chilton, Lawrence K.; Walsh, Stephen J.

    2008-10-03

    Hyperspectral imaging produces a spectrum or vector at each image pixel. These spectra can be used to identify materials present in the image. In some cases, spectral libraries representing atmospheric chemicals or ground materials are available. The challenge is to determine if any of the library chemicals or materials exist in the hyperspectral image. The number of spectra in these libraries can be very large, far exceeding the number of spectral channels collected in the ¯eld. Suppose an image pixel contains a mixture of p spectra from the library. Is it possible to uniquely identify these p spectra? We address this question in this paper and refer to it as the Large Spectral Library (LSL) problem. We show how to determine if unique identi¯cation is possible for any given library. We also show that if p is small compared to the number of spectral channels, it is very likely that unique identi¯cation is possible. We show that unique identi¯cation becomes less likely as p increases.

  14. Inverse Problems of Thermoelectricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anatychuk, L. I.; Luste, O. J.; Kuz, R. V.; Strutinsky, M. N.

    2011-05-01

    Classical thermoelectricity is based on the use of the Seebeck and Thomson effects that occur in the near-contact areas between n- and p-type materials. A conceptually different approach to thermoelectric power converter design that is based on the law of thermoelectric induction of currents is also known. The efficiency of this approach has already been demonstrated by its first applications. More than 10 basically new types of thermoelements were discovered with properties that cannot be achieved by thermocouple power converters. Therefore, further development of this concept is of practical interest. This paper provides a classification and theory for solving the inverse problems of thermoelectricity that form the basis for devising new thermoelement types. Computer methods for their solution for anisotropic and inhomogeneous media are elaborated. Regularities related to thermoelectric current excitation in anisotropic and inhomogeneous media are established. The possibility of obtaining eddy currents of a particular configuration through control of the temperature field and material parameters for the creation of new thermo- element types is demonstrated for three-dimensional (3D) models of anisotropic and inhomogeneous media.

  15. Problems of rapid growth.

    PubMed

    Kim, T D

    1980-01-01

    South Korea's export-oriented development strategy has achieved a remarkable growth record, but it has also brought 2 different problems: 1) since the country's exports accounted for about 1% of total world export volume, the 1st world has become fearful about Korea's aggressive export drive; and 2) the fact that exports account for over 30% of its total gross national product (GNP) exposes the vulnerability of South Korea's economy itself. South Korea continues to be a poor nation, although it is rated as 1 of the most rapidly growing middle income economies. A World Bank 1978 report shows Korea to be 28th of 58 middle income countries in terms of per capita GNP in 1976. Of 11 newly industrializing countries (NIC), 5 in the European continent are more advanced than the others. A recent emphasis on the basic human needs approach has tended to downgrade the concept of GNP. Korea has only an abundant labor force and is without any natural resources. Consequently, Korea utilized an export-oriented development strategy. Oil requirements are met with imports, and almost all raw materials to be processed into exportable products must be imported. To pay import bills Korea must export and earn foreign exchange. It must be emphasized that foreign trade must always be 2-way traffic. In order to export more to middle income countries like Korea, the countries of the 1st world need to ease their protectionist measures against imports from developing countries. PMID:12336527

  16. Identifying and managing problem drinkers.

    PubMed Central

    Kahan, M.

    1996-01-01

    Problem drinking is far more common than severe alcohol dependence and is associated with considerable morbidity and health care costs. Whereas patients with alcohol dependence respond best to intensive treatment, one or more brief sessions of physician advice and counseling reduces alcohol consumption among problem drinkers. The two most useful tools to identify problem drinkers are the CAGE and the drinking problem question. PMID:8653034

  17. The lawnmower problem and other geometric path covering problems

    SciTech Connect

    Fekete, S.; Arkin, E.; Mitchell, J.

    1994-12-31

    We discuss the Lawnmower Problem: Given a polygonal region, find the shortest closed path along which we have to move a given object (typically a square or a circle), such that any point of the region will be covered by the object for some position of it movement. In another version of the problem, known as the Milling Problem, the object has to stay within the region at all times. Practical motivations for considering the Lawnmower Problem come from manufacturing (spray painting, quality control), geography (aerial surveys), optimization (tour planning for a large number of clients with limited mobility), and gardening. The Milling Problem has gained attention by its importance for NC pocket machining. We show that both problems are NP-hard and discuss approximation methods for various versions of the problem.

  18. Common problems in gastrointestinal radiology

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, W.M.

    1989-01-01

    This book covers approximately 70 common diagnostic problems in gastro-intestinal radiology. Each problem, includes a short illustrated case history, a discussion of the radiologic findings, a general discussion of the case, the differential diagnosis, a description of the management of the problem or procedure used, and, where appropriate, the results of the therapy suggested.

  19. The Problem-Solving Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardige, Art

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the use of microcomputers and software as problem-solving tools, including comments on "TK! Solver," automatic problem-solving program (reviewed in detail on pp.84-86 in this same issue). Also discusses problem-solving approaches to bridge the disciplines, such as music/physics, junior high science/mathematics (genetics),…

  20. Crustal growth: Some major problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arculus, R. J.

    1988-01-01

    Fundamental problems with models currently used to explain the genesis and evolution of continental crust were raised. These problems focus around the difficulty of generating the upper continental crust from a lower crustal or mantle protolith without leaving a very large, and so far undetected, volume of restite. No conclusive resolution to the problems was achieved.

  1. The Identity of Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mamona-Downs, Joanna; Downs, Martin

    2005-01-01

    This paper raises issues motivated by considering the "identity" of problem solving. This means that we are concerned with how other mathematics education topics impinge on problem solving, and with themes that naturally arise within the problem-solving agenda. We claim that some of these issues need more attention by educational research, while…

  2. Must "Hard Problems" Be Hard?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolata, Gina

    1985-01-01

    To determine how hard it is for computers to solve problems, researchers have classified groups of problems (polynomial hierarchy) according to how much time they seem to require for their solutions. A difficult and complex proof is offered which shows that a combinatorial approach (using Boolean circuits) may resolve the problem. (JN)

  3. Supporting Problem Solving in PBL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonassen, David

    2011-01-01

    Although the characteristics of PBL (problem focused, student centered, self-directed, etc.) are well known, the components of a problem-based learning environment (PBLE) and the cognitive scaffolds necessary to support learning to solve different kinds of problems with different learners is less clear. This paper identifies the different…

  4. Families and Definitions of Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldous, Joan; Ganey, Rodney

    Problem definition appears to influence problem solving outcomes with respect to their quality. In order to determine whether or not families, confronted as a group by a series of possibly problematic situations, would engage in a problem definition phase, and whether or not the phase or its absence would be related to family members' satisfaction…

  5. Problem Analysis: Challenging All Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Katie; Davis, Alicia

    2013-01-01

    In this article, Garcia and Davis describe problem analysis as the process of examining a given mathematics exercise to find ways in which the problem can be modified and extended to create a richer learning opportunity for students. Students are often reluctant to attempt what they perceive to be higher-order thinking problems, but problem…

  6. Problem Reporting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, Don; Serian, Charles; Sweet, Robert; Sapir, Babak; Gamez, Enrique; Mays, David

    2008-01-01

    The Problem Reporting System (PRS) is a Web application, running on two Web servers (load-balanced) and two database servers (RAID-5), which establishes a system for submission, editing, and sharing of reports to manage risk assessment of anomalies identified in NASA's flight projects. PRS consolidates diverse anomaly-reporting systems, maintains a rich database set, and incorporates a robust engine, which allows tracking of any hardware, software, or paper process by configuring an appropriate life cycle. Global and specific project administration and setup tools allow lifecycle tailoring, along with customizable controls for user, e-mail, notifications, and more. PRS is accessible via the World Wide Web for authorized user at most any location. Upon successful log-in, the user receives a customizable window, which displays time-critical 'To Do' items (anomalies requiring the user s input before the system moves the anomaly to the next phase of the lifecycle), anomalies originated by the user, anomalies the user has addressed, and custom queries that can be saved for future use. Access controls exist depending on a user's role as system administrator, project administrator, user, or developer, and then, further by association with user, project, subsystem, company, or item with provisions for business-to-business exclusions, limitations on access according to the covert or overt nature of a given project, all with multiple layers of filtration, as needed. Reporting of metrics is built in. There is a provision for proxy access (in which the user may choose to grant one or more other users to view screens and perform actions as though they were the user, during any part of a tracking life cycle - especially useful during tight build schedules and vacations to keep things moving). The system also provides users the ability to have an anomaly link to or notify other systems, including QA Inspection Reports, Safety, GIDEP (Government-Industry Data Exchange Program

  7. [361 million problems].

    PubMed

    Livi Bacci, M

    1990-01-01

    changing from the basic subsistence and energy of Malthus's day, as are the factors of election and adaptation. In an increasingly interdependent world, the link between production and consumption of natural resources has become less obvious, so that signs of dangerous imbalances between population and resources may be overlooked. But the demographic problems of 1 region will increasingly affect all other regions. PMID:12316837

  8. The Association between Attention Problems and Internalizing and Externalizing Problems: The Mediating Role of Peer Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yip, Vania T.; Ang, Rebecca P.; Ooi, Yoon Phaik; Fung, Daniel S. S.; Mehrotra, Kala; Sung, Min; Lim, Choon Guan

    2013-01-01

    Background: The high prevalence of attention problems in children warrants concern, as it is a risk factor for internalizing and externalizing problems. There lies a need to understand possible factors that may mediate this link so that interventions may be targeted to alleviate these mediators and interrupt the link between attention problems and…

  9. Inverse problem in hydrogeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrera, Jesús; Alcolea, Andrés; Medina, Agustín; Hidalgo, Juan; Slooten, Luit J.

    2005-03-01

    The state of the groundwater inverse problem is synthesized. Emphasis is placed on aquifer characterization, where modelers have to deal with conceptual model uncertainty (notably spatial and temporal variability), scale dependence, many types of unknown parameters (transmissivity, recharge, boundary conditions, etc.), nonlinearity, and often low sensitivity of state variables (typically heads and concentrations) to aquifer properties. Because of these difficulties, calibration cannot be separated from the modeling process, as it is sometimes done in other fields. Instead, it should be viewed as one step in the process of understanding aquifer behavior. In fact, it is shown that actual parameter estimation methods do not differ from each other in the essence, though they may differ in the computational details. It is argued that there is ample room for improvement in groundwater inversion: development of user-friendly codes, accommodation of variability through geostatistics, incorporation of geological information and different types of data (temperature, occurrence and concentration of isotopes, age, etc.), proper accounting of uncertainty, etc. Despite this, even with existing codes, automatic calibration facilitates enormously the task of modeling. Therefore, it is contended that its use should become standard practice. L'état du problème inverse des eaux souterraines est synthétisé. L'accent est placé sur la caractérisation de l'aquifère, où les modélisateurs doivent jouer avec l'incertitude des modèles conceptuels (notamment la variabilité spatiale et temporelle), les facteurs d'échelle, plusieurs inconnues sur différents paramètres (transmissivité, recharge, conditions aux limites, etc.), la non linéarité, et souvent la sensibilité de plusieurs variables d'état (charges hydrauliques, concentrations) des propriétés de l'aquifère. A cause de ces difficultés, le calibrage ne peut êtreséparé du processus de modélisation, comme c'est le

  10. Emerging drug problems in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Bart, Gavin

    2014-01-01

    This session, “Emerging Drug Problems in Asia,” focused on emerging drug problems in Asia. Dr. Juana Tomás-Rosselló discussed “East and Southeast Asia: Emerging Drug Problems and Response” and Dr. Wei J. Chen discussed “Ketamine Use among Regular Tobacco and Alcohol Users as Revealed by Respondent Driven Sampling in Taipei: Prevalence, Expectancy, and Users' Risky Decision Making.” PMID:25267884

  11. Student Constructs of Mathematical Problems: Problem Types, Achievement and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Mei-Shiu; Yeh, Huei-Ming; Whitebread, David

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to understand students' constructs regarding mathematical problems. Fifty-one Taiwanese primary students' constructs are elicited using interviews with the repertory grid technique based on their responses to creative and non-creative problems. The results of qualitative data analysis show that students' initial constructs can be…

  12. Problem Effectiveness in a Course Using Problem-Based Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolmans, Diana H. J. M.

    1993-01-01

    A University of Limburg (Netherlands) medical school study investigated the relationship between student-generated learning issues and faculty instructional objectives (i.e., the effectiveness of the problems posed) in a problem-centered obstetrics and child development curriculum. Subjects were 120 students and 12 faculty. Results indicated…

  13. The generalized pole assignment problem. [dynamic output feedback problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Djaferis, T. E.; Mitter, S. K.

    1979-01-01

    Two dynamic output feedback problems for a linear, strictly proper system are considered, along with their interrelationships. The problems are formulated in the frequency domain and investigated in terms of linear equations over rings of polynomials. Necessary and sufficient conditions are expressed using genericity.

  14. The Problem of "The Problem with Educational Research"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWilliam, Erica; Lee, Alison

    2006-01-01

    This paper takes up the question of the way in which "the problem with educational research" is represented. It takes as its point of departure two recent views on "the problem"--one expressed by an educational journalist and one presented by the Australian Council of Deans of Education. It locates these within a larger frame of international…

  15. Pet Problems at Home: Pet Problems in the Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soltow, Willow

    1984-01-01

    Discusses problems of pets in the community, examining the community's role related to disruptive pets and pet overpopulation. Also discusses pet problems at home, offering advice on selecting a pet, meeting a pet's needs, and disciplining pets. Includes a list of books, films/filmstrips, teaching materials, and various instructional strategies.…

  16. Parent Problem Solving: Analysis of Problem Solving in Parenthood Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alpert, Judith L.; And Others

    The general purpose of this study was to explore the possibility of adapting the Means-Ends Problem-Solving procedure (MEPS) to the investigation of the individual's transition to parenthood. Specific purposes were to determine (1) the internal consistency of the Parent Problem-Solving Scale (PPSS), of its subclasses, and of a combined subscale;…

  17. Problem Solvers: Problem--Jesse's Train

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Julie; Steimle, Alice

    2014-01-01

    Persevering in problem solving and constructing and critiquing mathematical arguments are some of the mathematical practices included in the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSI 2010). To solve unfamiliar problems, students must make sense of the situation and apply current knowledge. Teachers can present such opportunities by…

  18. Haplotyping Problem, A Clustering Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Eslahchi, Changiz; Sadeghi, Mehdi; Pezeshk, Hamid; Kargar, Mehdi; Poormohammadi, Hadi

    2007-09-06

    Construction of two haplotypes from a set of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) fragments is called haplotype reconstruction problem. One of the most popular computational model for this problem is Minimum Error Correction (MEC). Since MEC is an NP-hard problem, here we propose a novel heuristic algorithm based on clustering analysis in data mining for haplotype reconstruction problem. Based on hamming distance and similarity between two fragments, our iterative algorithm produces two clusters of fragments; then, in each iteration, the algorithm assigns a fragment to one of the clusters. Our results suggest that the algorithm has less reconstruction error rate in comparison with other algorithms.

  19. The PPP: Problem Panel Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Russell K.

    The Problem Panel Project is an instructor-developed, one-semester course in contemporary problems. Based on the inquiry approach, the course is structured for independent research and group work and requires no traditionally-structured daily lesson plans. The course is divided into six procedural points. First, students decide which contemporary…

  20. Historical problem areas lessons learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sackheim, Bob; Fester, Dale A.

    1991-01-01

    Historical problem areas in space transportation propulsion technology are identified in viewgraph form. Problem areas discussed include materials compatibility, contamination, pneumatic/feed system flow instabilities, instabilities in rocket engine combustion and fuel sloshing, exhaust plume interference, composite rocket nozzle failure, and freeze/thaw damage.

  1. Problem Solving vis Soap Bubbles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bader, William A.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the use of a scientific phenomenon related to the concept of surface tension as an intriguing vehicle to direct attention to useful problem solving techniques. The need for a definite building process in attempts to solve mathematical problems is stressed. (EB)

  2. School Discipline: Problems Effecting Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitzman, Andrew J.; Wiley, David B.

    1987-01-01

    Failure to solve school discipline problems is attributed to four factors: school district priorities, unclear problem dimensions, inadequate teacher training, and flaws in teacher/ administrator applied psychology. Psychological approaches that provide systems to control student behavior are described, including biophysical, interactionist, and…

  3. A Problem on Optimal Transportation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cechlarova, Katarina

    2005-01-01

    Mathematical optimization problems are not typical in the classical curriculum of mathematics. In this paper we show how several generalizations of an easy problem on optimal transportation were solved by gifted secondary school pupils in a correspondence mathematical seminar, how they can be used in university courses of linear programming and…

  4. The Cereal Box Problem Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Jesse L. M.

    1999-01-01

    Investigates the cereal box problem using both an experimental and theoretical framework, and Monte Carlo methods. Using empirical data, students can discover patterns and relationships that help them understand the origin of the theoretical solution to the problem. Contains 17 references. (Author/ASK)

  5. Contextual Problem Solving Model Origination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ernst, Jeremy V.

    2009-01-01

    Problem solving has become a central focus of instructional activity in technology education classrooms at all levels (Boser, 1993). Impact assessment considerations incorporating society, culture, and economics are factors that require high-level deliberation involving critical thinking and the implementation of problem solving strategy. The…

  6. Difficulties in Genetics Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolman, Richard R.

    1982-01-01

    Examined problem-solving strategies of 30 high school students as they solved genetics problems. Proposes a new sequence of teaching genetics based on results: meiosis, sex chromosomes, sex determination, sex-linked traits, monohybrid and dihybrid crosses (humans), codominance (humans), and Mendel's pea experiments. (JN)

  7. Pen Pals: Practicing Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lampe, Kristen A.; Uselmann, Linda

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a semester-long pen-pal project in which preservice teachers composed mathematical problems and the middle school students worked for solutions. The college students assessed the solution and the middle school students provided feedback regarding the problem itself. (Contains 6 figures.)

  8. Revised Behavior Problem Checklist (RBPC).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Robert G.

    1990-01-01

    The Revised Behavior Problem Checklist is used to screen for behavior disorders in K-12 students, develop clinical diagnoses, classify juvenile offenders, and evaluate psychological and pharmacological interventions. The checklist addresses conduct disorder, socialized aggression, attention problems-immaturity, and anxiety-withdrawal. This paper…

  9. Learning Impasses in Problem Solving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodgson, J. P. E.

    1992-01-01

    Problem Solving systems customarily use backtracking to deal with obstacles that they encounter in the course of trying to solve a problem. This paper outlines an approach in which the possible obstacles are investigated prior to the search for a solution. This provides a solution strategy that avoids backtracking.

  10. NCHEMS IEP: Problems and Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Robert; Turrisi, Ilona

    Problems with the Information Exchange Procedures (IEP) developed by the National Center for Higher Education Management Systems are discussed. IEP procedures analyze student records, faculty effort, and annual expenditures. The particular approach taken in the analysis of the student faculty relationship has important theoretical problems, is too…

  11. Representations of an Osmosis Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuckerman, June Trop

    1998-01-01

    Explores whether students with several years of high school science are able to represent an osmosis problem correctly. The study problem features a typical osmotic system with students expected to make a graph to show how the solution level in the stem of the funnel changes over time. (DDR)

  12. Classroom Management: Problems and Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Debra G.

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on classroom management in the music classroom. Discusses why a management system is important and how to meet student needs. Addresses types of behavior problems and solutions for four levels of problems related to student behavior. Explores the importance of proactive management on the part of the music teacher. (CMK)

  13. Problem Solving, Scaffolding and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Shih-Yin

    2012-01-01

    Helping students to construct robust understanding of physics concepts and develop good solving skills is a central goal in many physics classrooms. This thesis examine students' problem solving abilities from different perspectives and explores strategies to scaffold students' learning. In studies involving analogical problem solving…

  14. Creative Thinking and Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacy, Grace

    The booklet considers the nature of creativity in children and examines classroom implications. Among the topics addressed are the following: theories about creativity; research; developments in brain research; the creative process; creative problem solving; the Structure of Intellect Problem Solving (SIPS) model; a rationale for creativity in the…

  15. Readiness for Solving Story Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlap, William F.

    1982-01-01

    Readiness activities are described which are designed to help learning disabled (LD) students learn to perform computations in story problems. Activities proceed from concrete objects to numbers and involve the students in devising story problems. The language experience approach is incorporated with the enactive, iconic, and symbolic levels of…

  16. Problem Behaviors & Tourette Syndrome. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruun, Ruth Dowling; And Others

    This pamphlet discusses behavioral problems which are sometimes associated with Tourette Syndrome (TS), along with suggestions for parents to help manage these behaviors. Consideration is given to the following problems: obsessive-compulsive symptoms; attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; aggressive and explosive behaviors; self-injurious…

  17. Problem Based Learning: Mystery Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohland, Mark A.

    This guide features a problem-based learning (PBL) unit specifically designed for student-centered learning of new and meaningful content on diseases. Students grapple with a complex and changing problem that requires higher level thinking skills in an environment in which students work both individually and in collaboration with others. Includes…

  18. The Problem of Faculty Relocation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabachnick, Stephen E.

    1992-01-01

    A faculty move to a new campus can be traumatic, but colleges and universities can take steps to lessen the strain. Solutions to faculty relocation problems should be a standard part of any hiring package, not left to chance and individual negotiation. Some problems are inexpensive and easy to solve. (MSE)

  19. Conduct Problem or Learning Disability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Loyd S.

    1974-01-01

    Forty-seven third grade boys with conduct problems were administered a battery of tests to determine how many had reading problems and central processing dysfunctions and the correlations between their reading performance and 1) central information processing abilities, 2) race, 3) social class, and 4) maternal employment. (Author/DB)

  20. Geothermal Energy: Prospects and Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, William W.

    1973-01-01

    An examination of geothermal energy as a means of increasing the United States power resources with minimal pollution problems. Developed and planned geothermal-electric power installations around the world, capacities, installation dates, etc., are reviewed. Environmental impact, problems, etc. are discussed. (LK)

  1. Problem Solving through Paper Folding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wares, Arsalan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a couple of challenging mathematical problems that involve paper folding. These problem-solving tasks can be used to foster geometric and algebraic thinking among students. The context of paper folding makes some of the abstract mathematical ideas involved relatively concrete. When implemented…

  2. How Social Problems Are Born.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazer, Nathan

    1994-01-01

    Examines how social conditions can become social problems and argues that there are objective ways of determining the scale of a particular problem. The paper supports its argument through examinations of prohibition, the decline in tobacco consumption, and the war on drugs. (GLR)

  3. Is the Drug Problem Soluble?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonas, Steven

    1989-01-01

    Concludes that the principle drug problems in the United States arise from the use of cigarette tobacco and alcoholic beverages. Identifies a drug culture as the persistent force in society that promotes drug use. Points out that the influence of the primary drug industries inhibit attempts to deal effectively with drug problems. (KO)

  4. The Balance-Scale Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwood, Jay, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    Presents the reflections of students on a problem given in May, 1996 issue of this journal in order to share the thinking of middle school students. The problem concerned weighing on a double per balance if given a clump of clay, and a 20-gram and 50-gram balance. (ASK)

  5. Quantitative Reasoning in Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramful, Ajay; Ho, Siew Yin

    2015-01-01

    In this article, Ajay Ramful and Siew Yin Ho explain the meaning of quantitative reasoning, describing how it is used in the to solve mathematical problems. They also describe a diagrammatic approach to represent relationships among quantities and provide examples of problems and their solutions.

  6. The Persistent Problems of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodring, Paul

    Because discussions of educational problems seem to be retracing the same paths and problems, there is need to identify and define the enduring controversies in education and explore reasons for their currency. These issues are discussed in a historical context. The questions of what sort of education is of most worth and what subjects should be…

  7. Rethinking the American Race Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Roy L.

    Whereas political inequality was once seen as the key element of the American race problem, today the problem can be seen in terms of social and economic disparities. Three general socioeconomic classes have emerged in the United States, a middle class, a working class, and a poverty-stricken class. The status of African Americans can no longer be…

  8. YOUTH EDUCATION, PROBLEMS, PERSPECTIVES, PROMISES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MUESSIG, RAYMOND H.

    IN AN ANALYSIS OF CONTEMPORARY ADOLESCENT EDUCATION BY SEVEN MEMBERS OF A YEARBOOK COMMITTEE, FIVE PERSPECTIVES--SOCIAL-PHILOSOPHICAL, PSYCHOPHYSICAL, LITERARY, CURRICULAR, AND METHODOLOGICAL--ARE CONSIDERED, AND CONSTRUCTIVE PROPOSALS FOR SOLVING RELATED PROBLEMS ARE SUGGESTED. AN INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER DISCUSSES THE BASIC TEEN-AGE PROBLEM AREAS OF…

  9. Problem Based Learning in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pepper, Coral

    2009-01-01

    Problem based learning (PBL) is a recognised teaching and learning strategy used to engage students in deep rather than surface learning. It is also viewed as a successful strategy to align university courses with the real life professional work students are expected to undertake on graduation (Biggs, 2003). Problem based learning is practised…

  10. The Problems of Human Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations, New York, NY.

    Presented is a summary of considerations Specialized Agencies within the United Nations have given to the problems of the human environment. Uppermost are the problems of pollution--air, water, noise, marine, radiation, food, pesticide--as well as those of economic and social concern, environmental health, and misuse of the environment. Agencies…

  11. Students' Problem Solving and Justification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Barbara; Maher, Carolyn A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on methods of students' justifications of their solution to a problem in the area of combinatorics. From the analysis of the problem solving of 150 students in a variety of settings from high-school to graduate study, four major forms of reasoning evolved: (1) Justification by Cases, (2) Inductive Argument, (3) Elimination…

  12. The three-body problem.

    PubMed

    Musielak, Z E; Quarles, B

    2014-06-01

    The three-body problem, which describes three masses interacting through Newtonian gravity without any restrictions imposed on the initial positions and velocities of these masses, has attracted the attention of many scientists for more than 300 years. In this paper, we present a review of the three-body problem in the context of both historical and modern developments. We describe the general and restricted (circular and elliptic) three-body problems, different analytical and numerical methods of finding solutions, methods for performing stability analysis and searching for periodic orbits and resonances. We apply the results to some interesting problems of celestial mechanics. We also provide a brief presentation of the general and restricted relativistic three-body problems, and discuss their astronomical applications. PMID:24913140

  13. Ten Problems in Experimental Mathematics

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.; Kapoor, Vishaal; Weisstein, Eric

    2004-09-30

    This article was stimulated by the recent SIAM ''100 DigitChallenge'' of Nick Trefethen, beautifully described in a recent book. Indeed, these ten numeric challenge problems are also listed in a recent book by two of present authors, where they are followed by the ten symbolic/numeric challenge problems that are discussed in this article. Our intent was to present ten problems that are characteristic of the sorts of problems that commonly arise in ''experimental mathematics''. The challenge in each case is to obtain a high precision numeric evaluation of the quantity, and then, if possible, to obtain a symbolic answer, ideally one with proof. Our goal in this article is to provide solutions to these ten problems, and in the process present a concise account of how one combines symbolic and numeric computation, which may be termed ''hybrid computation'', in the process of mathematical discovery.

  14. Surface crack problems in plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joseph, P. F.; Erdogan, F.

    1989-01-01

    The mode I crack problem in plates under membrane loading and bending is reconsidered. The purpose is to examine certain analytical features of the problem further and to provide some new results. The formulation and the results given by the classical and the Reissner plate theories for through and part-through cracks are compared. For surface cracks the three-dimensional finite element solution is used as the basis of comparison. The solution is obtained and results are given for the crack/contact problem in a plate with a through crack under pure bending and for the crack interaction problem. Also, a procedure is developed to treat the problem of subcritical crack growth and to trace the evolution of the propagating crack.

  15. Non-linear potential problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skerget, P.; Brebbia, C. A.

    In many practical applications of boundary elements, the potential problems may be nonlinear. The use of Kirchoff's transform provides an approach to convert a nonlinear material problem into a linear one. A description of several different shape functions to define the conductivity is presented. Attention is given to the type of integral equations which are obtained if the Kirchoff's transform is applied for nonlinear material in the presence of mixed boundary conditions. The integral formulation for nonlinear radiation boundary conditions with and without potential dependent conductivity is also considered. For steady heat conduction problems with constant conductivity a boundary integral equation relating boundary values for temperatures (or potentials) and its normal derivatives over the boundary can be obtained. Applications which concern the solution of steady state conduction problems are investigated. The problems are related to a hollow cylinder, a nuclear reactor pressure vessel, and an industrial furnace.

  16. Development of adolescent problem behavior.

    PubMed

    Ary, D V; Duncan, T E; Biglan, A; Metzler, C W; Noell, J W; Smolkowski, K

    1999-04-01

    The developmental model of adolescent antisocial behavior advanced by Patterson and colleagues (e.g., Patterson, Reid, & Dishion, 1992) appears to generalize the development of a diverse set of problem behaviors. Structural equation modeling methods were applied to 18-month longitudinal data from 523 adolescents. The problem behavior construct included substance use, antisocial behavior, academic failure, and risky sexual behavior. Families with high levels of conflict were less likely to have high levels of parent-child involvement. Such family conditions resulted in less adequate parental monitoring of adolescent behavior, making associations with deviant peers more likely. Poor parental monitoring and associations with deviant peers were strong predictors of engagement in problem behavior. These constructs accounted for 46% of the variance in problem behavior. Although association with deviant peers was the most proximal social influence on problem behavior, parental monitoring and family factors (conflict and involvement) were key parenting practices that influenced this developmental process. PMID:10400060

  17. 30 Years of Wahba's Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis

    1999-01-01

    This article discusses a problem proposed by Grace Wahba: Find the orthogonal matrix A with determinant +1 that minimizes the loss function L(A) is identical with the 1/2(summation from i( a(sub i) * absolute value of (b(sub i)- Ar(sub i))squared). where {b(sub i)} is a set of unit vectors measured in a spacecraft's body frame, {r(sub i)} e the corresponding unit vectors in a reference frame and {a(sub i) are non-negative weights). The orthogonal Procrustes problem is to find the orthogonal matrix A that is closest to B in the sense of the Fobenius norm, so that Wahba's Problem is equivalent to the orthogonal Procrustes problem with the provision that the determinant of A must be +1. The article reviews various solutions to this problem and the implementations of the various solutions.

  18. Generating Problems from Problems and Solutions from Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arcavi, Abraham; Resnick, Zippora

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a geometrical solution to a problem that is usually solved geometrically as an example of how alternative solutions may enrich the teaching and learning of mathematics. (Contains 11 figures.)

  19. Problem solving stages in the five square problem.

    PubMed

    Fedor, Anna; Szathmáry, Eörs; Öllinger, Michael

    2015-01-01

    According to the restructuring hypothesis, insight problem solving typically progresses through consecutive stages of search, impasse, insight, and search again for someone, who solves the task. The order of these stages was determined through self-reports of problem solvers and has never been verified behaviorally. We asked whether individual analysis of problem solving attempts of participants revealed the same order of problem solving stages as defined by the theory and whether their subjective feelings corresponded to the problem solving stages they were in. Our participants tried to solve the Five-Square problem in an online task, while we recorded the time and trajectory of their stick movements. After the task they were asked about their feelings related to insight and some of them also had the possibility of reporting impasse while working on the task. We found that the majority of participants did not follow the classic four-stage model of insight, but had more complex sequences of problem solving stages, with search and impasse recurring several times. This means that the classic four-stage model is not sufficient to describe variability on the individual level. We revised the classic model and we provide a new model that can generate all sequences found. Solvers reported insight more often than non-solvers and non-solvers reported impasse more often than solvers, as expected; but participants did not report impasse more often during behaviorally defined impasse stages than during other stages. This shows that impasse reports might be unreliable indicators of impasse. Our study highlights the importance of individual analysis of problem solving behavior to verify insight theory. PMID:26300794

  20. Problem solving stages in the five square problem

    PubMed Central

    Fedor, Anna; Szathmáry, Eörs; Öllinger, Michael

    2015-01-01

    According to the restructuring hypothesis, insight problem solving typically progresses through consecutive stages of search, impasse, insight, and search again for someone, who solves the task. The order of these stages was determined through self-reports of problem solvers and has never been verified behaviorally. We asked whether individual analysis of problem solving attempts of participants revealed the same order of problem solving stages as defined by the theory and whether their subjective feelings corresponded to the problem solving stages they were in. Our participants tried to solve the Five-Square problem in an online task, while we recorded the time and trajectory of their stick movements. After the task they were asked about their feelings related to insight and some of them also had the possibility of reporting impasse while working on the task. We found that the majority of participants did not follow the classic four-stage model of insight, but had more complex sequences of problem solving stages, with search and impasse recurring several times. This means that the classic four-stage model is not sufficient to describe variability on the individual level. We revised the classic model and we provide a new model that can generate all sequences found. Solvers reported insight more often than non-solvers and non-solvers reported impasse more often than solvers, as expected; but participants did not report impasse more often during behaviorally defined impasse stages than during other stages. This shows that impasse reports might be unreliable indicators of impasse. Our study highlights the importance of individual analysis of problem solving behavior to verify insight theory. PMID:26300794

  1. Optimization and geophysical inverse problems

    SciTech Connect

    Barhen, J.; Berryman, J.G.; Borcea, L.; Dennis, J.; de Groot-Hedlin, C.; Gilbert, F.; Gill, P.; Heinkenschloss, M.; Johnson, L.; McEvilly, T.; More, J.; Newman, G.; Oldenburg, D.; Parker, P.; Porto, B.; Sen, M.; Torczon, V.; Vasco, D.; Woodward, N.B.

    2000-10-01

    A fundamental part of geophysics is to make inferences about the interior of the earth on the basis of data collected at or near the surface of the earth. In almost all cases these measured data are only indirectly related to the properties of the earth that are of interest, so an inverse problem must be solved in order to obtain estimates of the physical properties within the earth. In February of 1999 the U.S. Department of Energy sponsored a workshop that was intended to examine the methods currently being used to solve geophysical inverse problems and to consider what new approaches should be explored in the future. The interdisciplinary area between inverse problems in geophysics and optimization methods in mathematics was specifically targeted as one where an interchange of ideas was likely to be fruitful. Thus about half of the participants were actively involved in solving geophysical inverse problems and about half were actively involved in research on general optimization methods. This report presents some of the topics that were explored at the workshop and the conclusions that were reached. In general, the objective of a geophysical inverse problem is to find an earth model, described by a set of physical parameters, that is consistent with the observational data. It is usually assumed that the forward problem, that of calculating simulated data for an earth model, is well enough understood so that reasonably accurate synthetic data can be generated for an arbitrary model. The inverse problem is then posed as an optimization problem, where the function to be optimized is variously called the objective function, misfit function, or fitness function. The objective function is typically some measure of the difference between observational data and synthetic data calculated for a trial model. However, because of incomplete and inaccurate data, the objective function often incorporates some additional form of regularization, such as a measure of smoothness

  2. Civil law problems and morbidity

    PubMed Central

    Pleasence, P; Balmer, N; Buck, A; O'Grady, A; Genn, H

    2004-01-01

    Study objective: In the United Kingdom, recognition of the links between social and health problems has led to government initiatives such as health action zones. The principles of civil law apply to many types of social problem, and the civil justice system provides one means through which they can be tackled. However, little research has been undertaken into the particular links between problems to which civil legal principles and processes can be applied and morbidity. This study examines these links, and the role of legal advice and services in preventing ill health. Design: This study examined survey respondents' self reports of longstanding illness/disability and experience of 18 problems to which legal principles can be applied. Setting: A random national survey conducted across England and Wales. Participants: 5611 adults drawn from 3348 residential households. Main results: Significant associations were found between illness/disability and 13 of the problem types. Moreover, experience of greater numbers of problems increased the likelihood of reported illness/disability. In attempting to resolve problems respondents' health also frequently suffered. Conclusions: This study highlights the contribution that public legal education and legal advice can make to the promotion of public health, and the importance of further integration of health and civil justice initiatives through health action zones, community legal service partnerships, etc, to further this end. PMID:15194714

  3. Periodically specified satisfiability problems: An alternative to domino problems

    SciTech Connect

    Marathe, M.V.; Rosenkrantz, D.J.; Stearns, R.E.

    1997-02-01

    The authors characterize the complexities of several basic generalized CNF satisfiability problems SAT(S), when instances are specified using various kinds of 1- and 2-dimensional periodic specifications. They outline how this characterization can be used to prove a number of new hardness results for the complexity classes DSPACE(n), NSPACE(n), DEXPTIME, NEXPTIME, EXPSPACE etc. The hardness results presented significantly extend the known hardness results for periodically specified problems. Several advantages are outlined of the use of periodically specified satisfiability problems over the use of domino problems in proving both hardness and easiness results. As one corollary, the authors show that a number of basic NP-hard problems become EXPSPACE-hard when inputs are represented using 1-dimensional infinite periodic wide specifications. This answers a long standing open question posed by Orlin. The results can also be used as starting points for proving the hardness of a number of combinatorial problems when instances are specified succinctly using various succinct specifications. These results significantly extend the results of earlier research in this area.

  4. The Soccer-Ball Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossenfelder, Sabine

    2014-07-01

    The idea that Lorentz-symmetry in momentum space could be modified but still remain observer-independent has received quite some attention in the recent years. This modified Lorentz-symmetry, which has been argued to arise in Loop Quantum Gravity, is being used as a phenomenological model to test possibly observable effects of quantum gravity. The most pressing problem in these models is the treatment of multi-particle states, known as the 'soccer-ball problem'. This article briefly reviews the problem and the status of existing solution attempts.

  5. General aviation IFR operational problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolz, E. H.; Eisele, J. E.

    1979-01-01

    Operational problems of general aviation IFR operators (particularly single pilot operators) were studied. Several statistical bases were assembled and utilized to identify the more serious problems and to demonstrate their magnitude. These bases include official activity projections, historical accident data and delay data, among others. The GA operating environment and cockpit environment were analyzed in detail. Solutions proposed for each of the problem areas identified are based on direct consideration of currently planned enhancements to the ATC system, and on a realistic assessment of the present and future limitations of general aviation avionics. A coordinated set of research program is suggested which would provide the developments necessary to implement the proposed solutions.

  6. Robot, computer problem solving system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, J. D.

    1972-01-01

    The development of a computer problem solving system is reported that considers physical problems faced by an artificial robot moving around in a complex environment. Fundamental interaction constraints with a real environment are simulated for the robot by visual scan and creation of an internal environmental model. The programming system used in constructing the problem solving system for the simulated robot and its simulated world environment is outlined together with the task that the system is capable of performing. A very general framework for understanding the relationship between an observed behavior and an adequate description of that behavior is included.

  7. Problems in nonlinear resistive MHD

    SciTech Connect

    Turnbull, A.D.; Strait, E.J.; La Haye, R.J.; Chu, M.S.; Miller, R.L.

    1998-12-31

    Two experimentally relevant problems can relatively easily be tackled by nonlinear MHD codes. Both problems require plasma rotation in addition to the nonlinear mode coupling and full geometry already incorporated into the codes, but no additional physics seems to be crucial. These problems discussed here are: (1) nonlinear coupling and interaction of multiple MHD modes near the B limit and (2) nonlinear coupling of the m/n = 1/1 sawtooth mode with higher n gongs and development of seed islands outside q = 1.

  8. Imbalance problem in community detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Peng Gang

    2016-09-01

    Community detection gives us a simple way to understand complex networks' structures. However, there is an imbalance problem in community detection. This paper first introduces the imbalance problem and then proposes a new measure to alleviate the imbalance problem. In addition, we study two variants of the measure and further analyze the resolution scale of community detection. Finally, we compare our approach with some state of the art methods on random networks as well as real-world networks for community detection. Both the theoretical analysis and the experimental results show that our approach achieves better performance for community detection. We also find that our approach tends to separate densely connected subgroups preferentially.

  9. The unsolved problems of neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Adolphs, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    Some problems in neuroscience are nearly solved. For others, solutions are decades away. The current pace of advances in methods forces us to take stock, to ask where we are going, and what we should research next. PMID:25703689

  10. The Math Contest Candidate's Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Kenneth W.

    1985-01-01

    A simply posed problem suitable for a class studying summations and series, a class in elementary computer programing, a high school mathematics club, or an individual study project is given, with solution and challenges. (MNS)

  11. Systems management techniques and problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Report is reviewed which discusses history and trends of systems management, its basic principles, and nature of problems that lend themselves to systems approach. Report discusses systems engineering as applied to weapons acquisition, ecology, patient monitoring, and retail merchandise operations.

  12. A Few Problems Involving Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKillip, William D.; Kay, Cynthia Stinnette

    1985-01-01

    Some applications of ratio and proportion to scale drawing involving geometric figures are given. The activities or problems concern the earth and space, scale speeds, and the earth-moon system. (MNS)

  13. Problems in Recording the Electrocardiogram.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, John G.

    The unwanted signals that arise in electrocardiography are discussed. A technical background of electrocardiography is given, along with teaching techniques that educate students of medical instrumentation to solve the problems caused by these signals. (MJH)

  14. Enteral nutrition - child - managing problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000164.htm Enteral nutrition - child - managing problems To use the sharing features ... trouble breathing, call 911. References Mcclave SA. Enteral nutrition. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ...

  15. Quantum Computing: Solving Complex Problems

    ScienceCinema

    DiVincenzo, David [IBM Watson Research Center

    2009-09-01

    One of the motivating ideas of quantum computation was that there could be a new kind of machine that would solve hard problems in quantum mechanics. There has been significant progress towards the experimental realization of these machines (which I will review), but there are still many questions about how such a machine could solve computational problems of interest in quantum physics. New categorizations of the complexity of computational problems have now been invented to describe quantum simulation. The bad news is that some of these problems are believed to be intractable even on a quantum computer, falling into a quantum analog of the NP class. The good news is that there are many other new classifications of tractability that may apply to several situations of physical interest.

  16. Multiple Solutions Involving Geoboard Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Lyle R.

    1993-01-01

    Illustrates various methods to determine the perimeter and area of triangles and polygons formed on the geoboard. Methods utilize algebraic techniques, trigonometry, geometric theorems, and analytic geometry to solve problems and connect a variety of mathematical concepts. (MDH)

  17. Corrosion Problems in Absorption Chillers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stetson, Bruce

    1978-01-01

    Absorption chillers use a lithium bromide solution as the medium of absorption and water as the refrigerant. Discussed are corrosion and related problems, tests and remedies, and cleaning procedures. (Author/MLF)

  18. Special Medical Problems of Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couch, Joan M.

    1987-01-01

    This article addresses the situations in which athletes with special needs and considerations participate in sports. The health problems discussed are diabetes mellitus, exercise-induced asthma, exercise-induced anaphylaxis, and epilepsy. (MT)

  19. Solving a problem by analogy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Easton, Don

    1999-03-01

    This note is a description of a student solution to a problem. I found the solution exciting because it exemplifies the kind of solution by analogy that Feynman describes in The Feynman Lectures on Physics.

  20. Late Blooming or Language Problem?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Swallowing / Disorders and Diseases Late Blooming or Language Problem? Parents are smart. They listen to their ... or not their child is developing speech and language at a normal rate. If parents think that ...

  1. Quantum Computing: Solving Complex Problems

    SciTech Connect

    DiVincenzo, David

    2007-04-12

    One of the motivating ideas of quantum computation was that there could be a new kind of machine that would solve hard problems in quantum mechanics. There has been significant progress towards the experimental realization of these machines (which I will review), but there are still many questions about how such a machine could solve computational problems of interest in quantum physics. New categorizations of the complexity of computational problems have now been invented to describe quantum simulation. The bad news is that some of these problems are believed to be intractable even on a quantum computer, falling into a quantum analog of the NP class. The good news is that there are many other new classifications of tractability that may apply to several situations of physical interest.

  2. Quantum Computing: Solving Complex Problems

    SciTech Connect

    DiVincenzo, David

    2007-04-11

    One of the motivating ideas of quantum computation was that there could be a new kind of machine that would solve hard problems in quantum mechanics. There has been significant progress towards the experimental realization of these machines (which I will review), but there are still many questions about how such a machine could solve computational problems of interest in quantum physics. New categorizations of the complexity of computational problems have now been invented to describe quantum simulation. The bad news is that some of these problems are believed to be intractable even on a quantum computer, falling into a quantum analog of the NP class. The good news is that there are many other new classifications of tractability that may apply to several situations of physical interest.

  3. The Mind-Body Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fodor, Jerry A.

    1981-01-01

    Describes several different philosophies of mind with each philosophy's explanation of the mind-body problem. Philosophies discussed include dualism, materialism, functionalism, radical behaviorism, logical behaviorism and central-state identity. (DS)

  4. Risks for Heart Valve Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... had rheumatic fever or a case of infective endocarditis are at greater risk for heart valve problems. ... needed before dental procedures to help protect against endocarditis . You should discuss your individual risk and the ...

  5. Surrogate Guderley Test Problem Definition

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsey, Scott D.; Shashkov, Mikhail J.

    2012-07-06

    The surrogate Guderley problem (SGP) is a 'spherical shock tube' (or 'spherical driven implosion') designed to ease the notoriously subtle initialization of the true Guderley problem, while still maintaining a high degree of fidelity. In this problem (similar to the Guderley problem), an infinitely strong shock wave forms and converges in one-dimensional (1D) cylindrical or spherical symmetry through a polytropic gas with arbitrary adiabatic index {gamma}, uniform density {rho}{sub 0}, zero velocity, and negligible pre-shock pressure and specific internal energy (SIE). This shock proceeds to focus on the point or axis of symmetry at r = 0 (resulting in ostensibly infinite pressure, velocity, etc.) and reflect back out into the incoming perturbed gas.

  6. Developmental Problems and Dental Morphology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, William C., Jr.; Erickson, Marilyn T.

    1973-01-01

    Ninety-five subjects (mean age 55 months) with mental retardation, learning disabilities, and/or minimal brain dysfunction and 47 control subjects (mean age 46 months) were compared to determine the relationship between developmental problems and dental morphology. (Author)

  7. Problem Solving with General Semantics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewson, David

    1996-01-01

    Discusses how to use general semantics formulations to improve problem solving at home or at work--methods come from the areas of artificial intelligence/computer science, engineering, operations research, and psychology. (PA)

  8. Nervous System Problems and Dementia

    MedlinePlus

    ... especially when compared to reflexes in the knees. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI,) a radiologic procedure, may show abnormalities in ... later stages of HIV disease. However, problems with memory can show up even in people with no ...

  9. The continuation inverse problem revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huestis, Stephen P.

    1998-06-01

    The non-uniqueness of the continuation of a finite collection of harmonic potential field data to a level surface in the source-free region forces its treatment as an inverse problem. A formalism is proposed for the construction of continuation functions which are extremal by various measures. The problem is cast in such a form that the inverse problem solution is the potential function on the lowest horizontal surface above all sources, serving as the boundary function for the Dirichlet problem in the upper half-plane. The desired continuation, at the higher level of interest, must then be in the range of the upward continuation operator acting on this boundary function, rather than being allowed the full freedom of itself being part of a Dirichlet problem boundary function. Extremal solutions minimize non-linear functionals of the continuation function, which are re-expressed as different functionals of the boundary function. A crux of the method is that there is no essential distinction between the upward and downward continuation inverse problems to levels above or below data locations. Casting the optimization as a Lagrange multiplier problem leads to an integral equation for the boundary function, which is readily solved in the Fourier domain for a certain class of functionals. The desired extremal continuation is then given by upward continuation. It is found that for some functionals, application of the Lagrange multiplier theorem requires a further restriction on the set of allowable boundary functions: bandlimitedness is a natural choice for the continuation problem. With this imposition, the theory is developed in detail for semi-norm functionals penalizing departure from a constant potential, in the 2-norm and Sobelev norm senses, and illustrated by application for a small synthetic Deep Tow magnetic field data set.

  10. Noise: a forgotten environmental problem

    SciTech Connect

    Kloos, J.B.

    1980-01-01

    Highway traffic noise is a serious problem for communities. The traffic noise can be lessened by source controls. The impact of the noise can be mitigated with barriers built along heavily traveled roads. However, the most promising long-range solution is noise compatible land use planning at the local level. Low cost methods are available to prevent noise problems from ever occuring. The Federal Highway Administration is attempting to encourage local officials to use these methods.

  11. Families and Pediatric Feeding Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martorana, Pamela; Bove, Kelly; Scarcelli, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    When a child is born with a feeding and/or swallowing problem, it affects the entire family. Parents, mothers specifically, internalize the problem and come to believe it is due to something they've done. Families are put on an emotional rollercoaster with the ups and downs being dependant on how much the child has eaten that day. In this article,…

  12. Coulomb problem for vector bosons

    SciTech Connect

    Kuchiev, M.Yu.; Flambaum, V.V.

    2006-05-01

    The Coulomb problem for vector bosons W{sup {+-}} incorporates a well-known difficulty; the charge of the boson localized in a close vicinity of the attractive Coulomb center proves to be infinite. The paradox is shown to be resolved by the QED vacuum polarization, which brings in a strong effective repulsion that eradicates the infinite charge of the boson on the Coulomb center. This property allows one to define the Coulomb problem for vector bosons properly.

  13. Multilevel techniques for nonelliptic problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jespersen, D. C.

    1981-01-01

    Multigrid and multilevel methods are extended to the solution of nonelliptic problems. A framework for analyzing these methods is established. A simple nonelliptic problem is given, and it is shown how a multilevel technique can be used for its solution. Emphasis is on smoothness properties of eigenvectors and attention is drawn to the possibility of conditioning the eigensystem so that eigenvectors have the desired smoothness properties.

  14. Diabetes and Sexual and Urologic Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease, and Other Dental Problems Diabetic Eye Disease Diabetes and Sexual and Urologic Problems Troublesome bladder symptoms ... early onset of these sexual and urologic problems. Diabetes and Sexual Problems Both men and women with ...

  15. The Consistent Vehicle Routing Problem

    SciTech Connect

    Groer, Christopher S; Golden, Bruce; Edward, Wasil

    2009-01-01

    In the small package shipping industry (as in other industries), companies try to differentiate themselves by providing high levels of customer service. This can be accomplished in several ways, including online tracking of packages, ensuring on-time delivery, and offering residential pickups. Some companies want their drivers to develop relationships with customers on a route and have the same drivers visit the same customers at roughly the same time on each day that the customers need service. These service requirements, together with traditional constraints on vehicle capacity and route length, define a variant of the classical capacitated vehicle routing problem, which we call the consistent VRP (ConVRP). In this paper, we formulate the problem as a mixed-integer program and develop an algorithm to solve the ConVRP that is based on the record-to-record travel algorithm. We compare the performance of our algorithm to the optimal mixed-integer program solutions for a set of small problems and then apply our algorithm to five simulated data sets with 1,000 customers and a real-world data set with more than 3,700 customers. We provide a technique for generating ConVRP benchmark problems from vehicle routing problem instances given in the literature and provide our solutions to these instances. The solutions produced by our algorithm on all problems do a very good job of meeting customer service objectives with routes that have a low total travel time.

  16. The three-body problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchal, Christian

    Recent research on the theory of perturbations, the analytical approach and the quantitative analysis of the three-body problem have reached a high degree of perfection. The use of electronics has aided developments in quantitative analysis and has helped to disclose the extreme complexity of the set of solutions. This accelerated progress has given new orientation and impetus to the qualitative analysis that is so complementary to the quantitative analysis. The book begins with the various formulations of the three-body problem, the main classical results and the important questions and conjectures involved in this subject. The main part of the book describes the remarkable progress achieved in qualitative analysis which has shed new light on the three-body problem. It deals with questions such as escapes, captures, periodic orbits, stability, chaotic motions, Arnold diffusion, etc. The most recent tests of escape have yielded very impressive results and border very close on the true limits of escape, showing the domain of bounded motions to be much smaller than was expected. An entirely new picture of the three-body problem is emerging, and the book reports on this recent progress. The structure of the solutions for the three-body problem lead to a general conjecture governing the picture of solutions for all Hamiltonian problems. The periodic, quasi-periodic and almost-periodic solutions form the basis for the set of solutions and separate the chaotic solutions from the open solutions.

  17. Conceptual approach to astronomical problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skvortsov, N. A.; Avvakumova, E. A.; Bryukhov, D. O.; Vovchenko, A. E.; Vol'nova, A. A.; Dluzhnevskaya, O. B.; Kaigorodov, P. V.; Kalinichenko, L. A.; Kniazev, A. Yu.; Kovaleva, D. A.; Malkov, O. Yu.; Pozanenko, A. S.; Stupnikov, S. A.

    2016-01-01

    New technical capabilities have brought about the sweeping growth of the amount of data acquired by the astronomers from observations with different instruments in various parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. We consider conceptual approach to be a promising tool to efficiently deal with these data. It uses problem domain knowledge to formulate the tasks and develop problem-solving algorithms and data analysis methods in terms of domain concepts without reference to particular data sources, and thereby allows solving certain problems in general form. We demonstrate the benefits of conceptual approach by using it to solve problems related to search for secondary photometric standard candidates, determination of galaxy redshifts, creation of a binary and multiple star repository based on inhomogeneous databases, and classification of eclipsing binaries.We formulate and solve these problems over specifications of astronomical knowledge units such as photometric systems, astronomical objects, multiple stars, etc., and define them in terms of the corresponding problem domains independently of the existing data resources.

  18. Approximating random quantum optimization problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, B.; Laumann, C. R.; Läuchli, A. M.; Moessner, R.; Sondhi, S. L.

    2013-06-01

    We report a cluster of results regarding the difficulty of finding approximate ground states to typical instances of the quantum satisfiability problem k-body quantum satisfiability (k-QSAT) on large random graphs. As an approximation strategy, we optimize the solution space over “classical” product states, which in turn introduces a novel autonomous classical optimization problem, PSAT, over a space of continuous degrees of freedom rather than discrete bits. Our central results are (i) the derivation of a set of bounds and approximations in various limits of the problem, several of which we believe may be amenable to a rigorous treatment; (ii) a demonstration that an approximation based on a greedy algorithm borrowed from the study of frustrated magnetism performs well over a wide range in parameter space, and its performance reflects the structure of the solution space of random k-QSAT. Simulated annealing exhibits metastability in similar “hard” regions of parameter space; and (iii) a generalization of belief propagation algorithms introduced for classical problems to the case of continuous spins. This yields both approximate solutions, as well as insights into the free energy “landscape” of the approximation problem, including a so-called dynamical transition near the satisfiability threshold. Taken together, these results allow us to elucidate the phase diagram of random k-QSAT in a two-dimensional energy-density-clause-density space.

  19. Solving the Tulsa ozone problem

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, K.K.; Wilson, J.D.; Gibeau, E.

    1998-12-31

    Local governments and interested parties in Tulsa, Oklahoma are planning actions to keep Tulsa in compliance with the ozone ambient air quality standard. Based on recent data Tulsa exceeds the new eight hour average national ambient air quality standard for ozone and occasionally exceeds the previous one hour standard. Currently, Tulsa is in attainment of the former one-hour ozone standard. The first planning step is to integrate the existing information about Tulsa`s ozone problem. Prior studies of Tulsa ozone are reviewed. Tulsa`s recent air quality and meteorological monitoring are evaluated. Emission inventory estimates are assessed. Factors identified with Tulsa`s ozone problem are the transport of ozone and precursor gases, a possible role for biogenic emissions, and a simplistic ozone forecasting method. The integration of information found that current air quality and meteorological monitoring is meager. Observations of volatile organic compounds and NO{sub y} are absent. Prior intensive studies in 1977 and 1985 are more than ten years old and lack relevance to today`s problem. Emission inventory estimates are scarce and uncertain. The current knowledge base was judged inadequate to properly characterize the present ozone problem. Actions are recommended to enlarge the information base to address Tulsa`s ozone problem.

  20. Problems of collisional stellar dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heggie, D. C.

    2011-03-01

    The discovery of dynamical friction was Chandrasekhar's best known contribution to the theory of stellar dynamics, but his work ranged from the few-body problem to the limit of large N (in effect, galaxies). Much of this work was summarised in the text "Principles of Stellar Dynamics" tep{C1942,C1960}, which ranges from a precise calculation of the time of relaxation, through a long analysis of galaxy models, to the behaviour of star clusters in tidal fields. The later edition also includes the work on dynamical friction and related issues. In this review we focus on progress in the collisional aspects of these problems, i.e. those where few-body interactions play a dominant role, and so we omit further discussion of galaxy dynamics. But we try to link Chandrasekhar's fundamental discoveries in collisional problems with the progress that has been made in the 50 years since the publication of the enlarged edition. There is one other such problem to which Chandrasekhar contributed, though the paper in question tep{C1944} was not reprinted in the book. See Section ref{sec:binaries}. For more on the collisionless problems studied by Chandrasekhar, see the paper by N. Wyn Evans (2011) in the present volume.

  1. Computational problems in Arctic Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, I.

    2016-02-01

    This article is to inform about main problems in the area of Arctic shelf seismic prospecting and exploitation of the Northern Sea Route: simulation of the interaction of different ice formations (icebergs, hummocks, and drifting ice floes) with fixed ice-resistant platforms; simulation of the interaction of icebreakers and ice- class vessels with ice formations; modeling of the impact of the ice formations on the underground pipelines; neutralization of damage for fixed and mobile offshore industrial structures from ice formations; calculation of the strength of the ground pipelines; transportation of hydrocarbons by pipeline; the problem of migration of large ice formations; modeling of the formation of ice hummocks on ice-resistant stationary platform; calculation the stability of fixed platforms; calculation dynamic processes in the water and air of the Arctic with the processing of data and its use to predict the dynamics of ice conditions; simulation of the formation of large icebergs, hummocks, large ice platforms; calculation of ridging in the dynamics of sea ice; direct and inverse problems of seismic prospecting in the Arctic; direct and inverse problems of electromagnetic prospecting of the Arctic. All these problems could be solved by up-to-date numerical methods, for example, using grid-characteristic method.

  2. Problem Solvers: Problem--Area beyond the Formula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Chrystal

    2014-01-01

    In this article, associate professor Chrystal Dean describes how teachers can challenge their upper elementary students' understanding of area beyond a memorized formula. Herein she describes an activity that will show students the "why" behind using A = l × w to solve rectangular area problems. The activity will help deepen…

  3. The Problem with Theory Is the Problem with Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otte, George

    When composition educators talk about either "theory" or "practice," they are not referring to a monolithic and unified field, but instead to any number of competing, ideologically charged metacommentaries. The "problem with practice" refers to its own socially complex and temporally diffuse nature. Applications of theory to practice often are…

  4. The Problem of Assessing Problem Solving: Can Comparative Judgement Help?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Ian; Inglis, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    School mathematics examination papers are typically dominated by short, structured items that fail to assess sustained reasoning or problem solving. A contributory factor to this situation is the need for student work to be marked reliably by a large number of markers of varied experience and competence. We report a study that tested an…

  5. Organization of Classical Genetics Problems by Faculty Problem Solvers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Mike U.

    This paper is a progress report of the first phase of a project which essentially seeks to replicate previous studies using the successful/unsuccessful design in an attempt to: (1) corroborate the surface/deep structure conclusion which has become an essential component of an understanding of problem-solving; (2) examine more closely the nature of…

  6. OPEN PROBLEM: Some problems in differential geometry and topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donaldson, S. K.

    2008-09-01

    This does not attempt to be a systematic overview or to present a comprehensive list of problems. We outline some questions in three different areas which seem interesting to the author. Experts will learn little that is new; our goal is to give some picture of the fields for non-specialists.

  7. Fracture problems in composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erdogan, F.

    1972-01-01

    A series of fracture problems in composite materials are identified, their methods of solution are briefly discussed, and some sample results are presented. The main problem of interest is the determination of the stress state in the neighborhood of localized imperfections such as cracks and inclusions which may exist in the composite. Particular emphasis is placed on the evaluation of quantities such as the stress intensity factors, the power of the stress singularity, and the strain energy release rate, which may be used directly or indirectly in connection with an appropriate fracture criterion for the prediction of fracture initiation and propagation load levels. The topics discussed include a crack in layered composites, a crack terminating at and going through a bi-material interface, a penny-shaped crack in a filament-reinforced elastic matrix, and inclusion problems in bonded materials.

  8. Psychological Distress and Problem Drinking.

    PubMed

    Mentzakis, Emmanouil; Roberts, Bayard; Suhrcke, Marc; McKee, Martin

    2016-03-01

    We examine the influence of harmful alcohol use on mental health using a flexible two-step instrumental variables approach and household survey data from nine countries of the former Soviet Union. Using alcohol advertisements to instrument for alcohol, we show that problem drinking has a large detrimental effect on psychological distress, with problem drinkers exhibiting a 42% increase in the number of mental health problems reported and a 15% higher chance of reporting very poor mental health. Ignoring endogeneity leads to an underestimation of the damaging effect of excessive drinking. Findings suggest that more effective alcohol policies and treatment services in the former Soviet Union may have added benefits in terms of reducing poor mental health. PMID:25640167

  9. Theoretical Problems in Materials Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langer, J. S.; Glicksman, M. E.

    1985-01-01

    Interactions between theoretical physics and material sciences to identify problems of common interest in which some of the powerful theoretical approaches developed for other branches of physics may be applied to problems in materials science are presented. A unique structure was identified in rapidly quenched Al-14% Mn. The material has long-range directed bonds with icosahedral symmetry which does not form a regular structure but instead forms an amorphous-like quasiperiodic structure. Finite volume fractions of second phase material is advanced and is coupled with nucleation theory to describe the formation and structure of precipitating phases in alloys. Application of the theory of pattern formation to the problem of dendrite formation is studied.

  10. Image Processing: Some Challenging Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, T. S.; Aizawa, K.

    1993-11-01

    Image processing can be broadly defined as the manipulation of signals which are inherently multidimensional. The most common such signals are photographs and video sequences. The goals of processing or manipulation can be (i) compression for storage or transmission; (ii) enhancement or restoration; (iii) analysis, recognition, and understanding; or (iv) visualization for human observers. The use of image processing techniques has become almost ubiquitous; they find applications in such diverse areas as astronomy, archaeology, medicine, video communication, and electronic games. Nonetheless, many important problems in image processing remain unsolved. It is the goal of this paper to discuss some of these challenging problems. In Section I, we mention a number of outstanding problems. Then, in the remainder of this paper, we concentrate on one of them: very-low-bit-rate video compression. This is chosen because it involves almost all aspects of image processing.

  11. Challenge problems for artificial intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    Selman, B.; Brooks, R.A.; Dean, T.

    1996-12-31

    AI textbooks and papers of ten discuss the big questions, such as {open_quotes}how to reason with uncertainty{close_quotes}, {open_quotes}how to reason efficiently{close_quotes}, or {open_quotes}how to improve performance through learning.{close_quotes} It is more difficult, however, to find descriptions of concrete problems or challenges that are still ambitious and interesting, yet not so open-ended. The goal of this panel is to formulate a set of such challenge problems for the field. Each panelist was asked to formulate one or more challenges. The emphasis is on problems for which there is a good chance that they will be resolved within the next five to ten years.

  12. Food production -- problems and prospects.

    PubMed

    Anifowoshe, T O

    1990-03-01

    Improvements are needed in balancing the problems associated with population growth and food production. A review of the problems of rapid population growth and declining food production and suggestions for resolution are given. World population has increased over the past 10 years by 760 million, which is equal to adding the combined population of Africa and South America. Future increases are expected to bring total population to 6.1 billion by the year 2000 and 8.2 billion in 2025 (exponential increases). Food production/capita has declined since 1971 in the world and in Nigeria, particularly in the recent past. The food production problem is technical, environmental, social, political, and economic. Various scientific and technological methods for increasing food production are identified: mechanization, irrigation, use of fertilizers, control of weeds and insects, new varieties of farm animals or high-yielding strains of grain, land reclamation, soil conservation, river basin development, adequate storage facilities, infrastructure development, and birth control. Economic and social approaches involve short-term and long-term strategies in social readjustment and institutional change. For instance, large scale farmers should become contract growers for certain firms. Bureaucratic red tape should be eliminated in institutions which provide agricultural services. Environmental problems need urgent attention. Some of these problems are soil erosion from mechanization, water salinization from irrigation, accumulation of DDT in food and water and animal life from pesticide use, and water pollution from chemical fertilizers. Food production can be increased with more ecologically sound practices. Information about weather and weather forecasting allows for more suitable land management. The influence of rainfall (the amount and distribution) in Nigeria is greater than any other climatic factor. Solar radiation is a significant feature in production of dry matter and

  13. Efficient algorithms for proximity problems

    SciTech Connect

    Wee, Y.C.

    1989-01-01

    Computational geometry is currently a very active area of research in computer science because of its applications to VLSI design, database retrieval, robotics, pattern recognition, etc. The author studies a number of proximity problems which are fundamental in computational geometry. Optimal or improved sequential and parallel algorithms for these problems are presented. Along the way, some relations among the proximity problems are also established. Chapter 2 presents an O(N log{sup 2} N) time divide-and-conquer algorithm for solving the all pairs geographic nearest neighbors problem (GNN) for a set of N sites in the plane under any L{sub p} metric. Chapter 3 presents an O(N log N) divide-and-conquer algorithm for computing the angle restricted Voronoi diagram for a set of N sites in the plane. Chapter 4 introduces a new data structure for the dynamic version of GNN. Chapter 5 defines a new formalism called the quasi-valid range aggregation. This formalism leads to a new and simple method for reducing non-range query-like problems to range queries and often to orthogonal range queries, with immediate applications to the attracted neighbor and the planar all-pairs nearest neighbors problem. Chapter 6 introduces a new approach for the construction of the Voronoi diagram. Using this approach, we design an O(log N) time O (N) processor algorithm for constructing the Voronoi diagram with L{sub 1} and L. metrics on a CREW PRAM machine. Even though the GNN and the Delaunay triangulation (DT) do not have an inclusion relation, we show, using some range type queries, how to efficiently construct DT from the GNN relations over a constant number of angular ranges.

  14. The Averaging Problem in Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paranjape, Aseem

    2009-06-01

    This thesis deals with the averaging problem in cosmology, which has gained considerable interest in recent years, and is concerned with correction terms (after averaging inhomogeneities) that appear in the Einstein equations when working on the large scales appropriate for cosmology. It has been claimed in the literature that these terms may account for the phenomenon of dark energy which causes the late time universe to accelerate. We investigate the nature of these terms by using averaging schemes available in the literature and further developed to be applicable to the problem at hand. We show that the effect of these terms when calculated carefully, remains negligible and cannot explain the late time acceleration.

  15. Rosetta Stones for Energy Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Howard C.

    1981-01-01

    Demonstrates, using specific problems, how various energy units can be converted to joules and power units to watts. Conversion tables are provided for power, energy, generation values, thermal insulation, consumption values, sunlight, with tables also on metric prefixes and time conversions. (SK)

  16. Inverse problem in radionuclide transport

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, C.

    1988-01-01

    The disposal of radioactive waste must comply with the performance objectives set forth in 10 CFR 61 for low-level waste (LLW) and 10 CFR 60 for high-level waste (HLW). To determine probable compliance, the proposed disposal system can be modeled to predict its performance. One of the difficulties encountered in such a study is modeling the migration of radionuclides through a complex geologic medium for the long term. Although many radionuclide transport models exist in the literature, the accuracy of the model prediction is highly dependent on the model parameters used. The problem of using known parameters in a radionuclide transport model to predict radionuclide concentrations is a direct problem (DP); whereas the reverse of DP, i.e., the parameter identification problem of determining model parameters from known radionuclide concentrations, is called the inverse problem (IP). In this study, a procedure to solve IP is tested, using the regression technique. Several nonlinear regression programs are examined, and the best one is recommended. 13 refs., 1 tab.

  17. RESULTATIVE VERBS AND OTHER PROBLEMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HASHIMOTO, ANNE YUE

    THE SO-CALLED RESULTATIVE VERBS IN MANDARIN CHINESE ARE STUDIED WITHIN THE GENERAL FRAMEWORK OF A TRANSFORMATIONAL GRAMMAR. THE RESULTATIVE VERBS ARE GENERALLY CONSIDERED AS CONSISTING OF TWO COMPONENTS--A VERBAL COMPONENT FOLLOWED BY A RESULTATIVE OR DIRECTIONAL COMPLEMENT. OTHER PROBLEMS RELATED TO COMPLEMENTS ARE ALSO TOUCHED UPON, FOR EXAMPLE,…

  18. Serials Problems in Education Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrill, Richard L.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the problem of rising costs for serial subscriptions and declining purchasing power of education libraries, and describes three studies undertaken in a university library to obtain reliable data for recommending the continuation or cancellation of education periodical subscriptions. Eleven references are listed. (CHC)

  19. Solving the wrong hierarchy problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blinov, Nikita; Hook, Anson

    2016-06-01

    Many theories require augmenting the Standard Model with additional scalar fields with large order one couplings. We present a new solution to the hierarchy problem for these scalar fields. We explore parity- and Z_2 -symmetric theories where the Standard Model Higgs potential has two vacua. The parity or Z_2 copy of the Higgs lives in the minimum far from the origin while our Higgs occupies the minimum near the origin of the potential. This approach results in a theory with multiple light scalar fields but with only a single hierarchy problem, since the bare mass is tied to the Higgs mass by a discrete symmetry. The new scalar does not have a new hierarchy problem associated with it because its expectation value and mass are generated by dimensional transmutation of the scalar quartic coupling. The location of the second Higgs minimum is not a free parameter, but is rather a function of the matter content of the theory. As a result, these theories are extremely predictive. We develop this idea in the context of a solution to the strong CP problem. We show this mechanism postdicts the top Yukawa to be within 1 σ of the currently measured value and predicts scalar color octets with masses in the range 9-200 TeV.

  20. Solving a Spacecraft Design Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, D. K.

    1998-01-01

    We have probably all been amazed at the ingenuity of spacecraft engineers when we see some of the solutions they invent for such problems as landing a roving vehicle on Mars-as engineers at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory did for NASA's Mars Pathfinder project-without using retro-rockets or even putting a spacecraft in orbit first.

  1. Investigating the Antibiotic Resistance Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Michael; Lawson, Amy L.

    1998-01-01

    Seeks to give teachers useful information on the extent of the problem of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, mechanisms bacteria use to resist antibiotics, the causes of the emergence of antibiotic-resistant organisms, and practices that can prevent or reverse this trend. Contains 19 references. (DDR)

  2. The Child-Fat Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eberstadt, Mary

    2003-01-01

    Experts believe that child obesity is a serious medical problem that affects people in all socioeconomic groups. Suggests that there is a relationship between absentee parents, particularly mothers, and obese children, focusing on working/absentee mothers, television watching habits, the prophylactic effect of breastfeeding, and poor exercise…

  3. Robot, computer problem solving system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, J. D.; Merriam, E. W.

    1973-01-01

    The TENEX computer system, the ARPA network, and computer language design technology was applied to support the complex system programs. By combining the pragmatic and theoretical aspects of robot development, an approach is created which is grounded in realism, but which also has at its disposal the power that comes from looking at complex problems from an abstract analytical point of view.

  4. Robot computer problem solving system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, J. D.; Merriam, E. W.

    1974-01-01

    The conceptual, experimental, and practical aspects of the development of a robot computer problem solving system were investigated. The distinctive characteristics were formulated of the approach taken in relation to various studies of cognition and robotics. Vehicle and eye control systems were structured, and the information to be generated by the visual system is defined.

  5. The Particle--Motion Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demana, Franklin; Waits, Bert K.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses solutions to real-world linear particle-motion problems using graphing calculators to simulate the motion and traditional analytic methods of calculus. Applications include (1) changing circular or curvilinear motion into linear motion and (2) linear particle accelerators in physics. (MDH)

  6. Problem Solvers' Conceptions about Osmosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuckerman, June T.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the scheme and findings of a study designed to identify the conceptual knowledge used by high school students to solve a significant problem related to osmosis. Useful tips are provided to teachers to aid students in developing constructs that maximize understanding. (ZWH)

  7. Problems, Perseverance, and Mathematical Residue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thom, Jennifer S.; Pirie, Susan E. B.

    2002-01-01

    Reports on a study in which three 3rd grade students were presented with the volume of cuboids. Examines the problem solving actions students demonstrate and analyzes students' strategies and solutions. Explores the connection between spatial structuring and the use of numerical operation. Considers perseverance and control emerging when solving…

  8. Solving Problems by Reading Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witkowski, Joseph C.

    1988-01-01

    A course at the University of Georgia is described that helps students acquire problem-solving skills so that ultimately the entire remedial program would be improved, giving students with major deficiencies in basic skills a better chance to succeed in their regular university courses. (MLW)

  9. Problems with German Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riess, Falk

    2000-01-01

    The main problems of science teaching in Germany are students' lack of interest and motivation and their poor understanding of scientific concepts, ideas, methods, and results. Lists examples from science curricula and textbooks and describes some reform projects in Germany. Proposes a compensatory program in order to create prerequisites for…

  10. Group Counselling for Problem Gambling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coman, Gregory J.; Evans, Barry J.; Burrows, Graham D.

    2002-01-01

    Group counseling has been used to assist individuals to overcome difficulties associated with problem gambling behavior; however, there are few reports of this application in the clinical and research literature. This paper provides a brief review of group counseling, and describes the application of group counseling to assist individuals with…

  11. Environmental Problems and the Scientist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batisse, Michel

    1973-01-01

    Suggests that any environmental problem can be traced at biosphere, technosphere, sociosphere, and noosphere level. Scientists have generally ignored the latter two spheres in making scientific discoveries. New social ethics need to be recognized that are based on progress, and scientists must consider how these ethics are influenced by their…

  12. Research Grants: Problems and Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Brian

    2000-01-01

    Provides a broader perspective on research grants. Outlines several key types of problems with grant schemes (bias, waste, discouragement, orientation to interests) and presents several methods for decision making (administrative decision, peer review, performance-based funding, equality, community-based allocation). Assesses recent changes in…

  13. Eldercare at Home: Communication Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... t remember the word, the name of the game." You might ask how to play the game, where it is played, or offer a few ... Plan Isn't Working If communication problems are serious and persist, review the section on "When to ...

  14. "Top School Problems" Are Myths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Males, Mike

    1992-01-01

    A well-known "study" comparing the top school problems of 1940 (talking and gum chewing) with those of 1987 (drug abuse, pregnancy, and violence) is nonexistent. In 1940, 49 percent of all youth did not finish high school, 37,000 teenagers died from violence or disease, and 335,000 teens gave birth. Educators should discount pastoral memories and…

  15. Childhood Obesity: A Heavy Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costley, Kevin C.; Leggett, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    The youth of today are faced with a big problem; they are becoming more obese every day. The time of children playing outside all day and being extremely active has been overtaken by the television and video games. The days of sitting down as a family and eating a good healthy meal has been replaced by the rush to the nearest fast food…

  16. Building Collections. The Problem Novel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krapp, JoAnn Vergona

    2005-01-01

    Realistic fiction has changed dramatically over the years. Formerly a sentimental, family-oriented story, today's realism focuses on today's problems and the protagonist's struggle to overcome them. Parents, once portrayed as protectors of the children, now often are cast as failures, needing help themselves. Yesterday's taboo subjects--drugs,…

  17. Literacy as a Human Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raymond, James C., Ed.

    First presented as papers in a symposium on literacy conducted at the University of Alabama, essays in this volume explore three areas of human literacy--law, linguistics, and the English language; testing; and literacy's relation with culture and human consciousness. Following an introduction examining literacy as a human problem, the following…

  18. Breathing Problems: An Individualized Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vodola, Thomas M.

    As one of the components of the Project ACTIVE (All Children Totally Involved Exercising) Teacher Training Model Kit, the manual is designed to enable the educator to organize, conduct, and evaluate individualized-personalized physical education programs for children (prekindergarten through high school) with breathing problems. An introductory…

  19. Introduction: Unsolved Problems on Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oriols, X.; Ciliberto, S.

    2016-05-01

    This paper is an introduction to the special issue of the 7th Int. Conf. on Unsolved Problems on Noise (UPoN) that took place at Casa Convalescència in Barcelona (Spain) in July 2015. The aim of the UPoN conferences is to provide a forum for researchers working on different fields of noise, fluctuations and variability, where they present their scientific problems which resist solutions. The papers of this Special Issue reflect the interdisciplinary topics (physics, biology, circuits, financial markets, psychology, technology, etc) presented at the UPoN conference. Noise is not only a hindrance to signal detection, but it is indeed a valuable source of information (not present in the signal) that help us to get a deeper understanding on how Nature works. This special issue of the 7th International Conference on Unsolved Problems on Noise (UPoN) is dedicated to Laszlo Kish in the occasion of his 60th birthday. He organized the first edition of these UPoN conferences in Szeged (Hungary) in 1996. Many of us have greatly benefited from his ‘volcanic imagination in tackling new problems from unconventional points of views’.

  20. Robot computer problem solving system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, J. D.; Merriam, E. W.

    1974-01-01

    The conceptual, experimental, and practical phases of developing a robot computer problem solving system are outlined. Robot intelligence, conversion of the programming language SAIL to run under the THNEX monitor, and the use of the network to run several cooperating jobs at different sites are discussed.

  1. Behavior: My Problem or Yours?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trede, Mildred

    1991-01-01

    Activities are described for learning about problem classroom behaviors, the impact of one's manner of attire on one's behavior, and personal responsibility for one's behavior. Learning activities include role playing, making math puzzles, writing personal anecdotes, drawing a persuasive cartoon concerning smoking and discipline, and making bar…

  2. Dyslexia: Problems of Reading Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Herman K.; Schiffman, Gilbert B.

    The purpose of this book is to provide an understanding of both the educational and medical aspects of reading and to show how they are interrelated in reading disabilities. The various aspects of reading disabilities are presented in the following chapters: Introduction to the Reading Problem; Early Predictive Studies; Psychological Evaluation;…

  3. Skin problems in sugar artists.

    PubMed

    Bangha, E; Elsner, P

    1996-11-01

    Sugar artistry is a growing profession amongst bakers and confectioners and an increasingly common hobby in amateur cooks. The main work consists of manual manipulation of sugar which is formed into figures and objects for table and food decoration. The sugar must be warmed up to 50 degrees C in order to be liquid and malleable and so the artists suffer from diverse thermally induced skin problems on their hands. Such changes have not to date been reported in the dermatological literature. In this study we report our experience in 50 Swiss sugar artists who have suffered from skin problems. The study took the form of a questionnaire survey. The response rate was 30 out of 50. Twenty-six reported no chronic skin disorder. Four suffered from a palmar vesicular relapsing type of chronic eczema. The main skin problems on the hands during work with hot sugar were increased sweating, seen in 20 out of 30 (67%), and burning with erythema and blistering, seen in 12 out of 30 (40%). Most participants (83%) were highly irritated by the skin problems during their work, and applied a protective cream before working with sugar, or wore rubber gloves. Topical therapy with a preparation containing 10% aluminium chloride hexahydrate, used once daily for 3 weeks, evaluated in 14 participants, decreased sweating in 10 (71%) and reduced the thermally induced erythema in one (7%). PMID:8977679

  4. Psychological Problems in Mental Deficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarason, Seymour B.; Doris, John

    A statement of goals and the rationale for organization precede a historical discussion of mental deficiency and society. The problem of labels like IQ and brain injured and the consequences of the diagnostic process are illustrated by case histories; case studies are also used to examine the criteria used to decide who is retarded and to discuss…

  5. Solving the wrong hierarchy problem

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Blinov, Nikita; Hook, Anson

    2016-06-29

    Many theories require augmenting the Standard Model with additional scalar fields with large order one couplings. We present a new solution to the hierarchy problem for these scalar fields. We explore parity- and Z2-symmetric theories where the Standard Model Higgs potential has two vacua. The parity or Z2 copy of the Higgs lives in the minimum far from the origin while our Higgs occupies the minimum near the origin of the potential. This approach results in a theory with multiple light scalar fields but with only a single hierarchy problem, since the bare mass is tied to the Higgs massmore » by a discrete symmetry. The new scalar does not have a new hierarchy problem associated with it because its expectation value and mass are generated by dimensional transmutation of the scalar quartic coupling. The location of the second Higgs minimum is not a free parameter, but is rather a function of the matter content of the theory. As a result, these theories are extremely predictive. We develop this idea in the context of a solution to the strong CP problem. Lastly, we show this mechanism postdicts the top Yukawa to be within 1σ of the currently measured value and predicts scalar color octets with masses in the range 9-200 TeV.« less

  6. Selected Problems in Sports Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Washington, DC.

    This publication, covering a broad spectrum of sports safety problems, is designed as a source of information for those who plan, organize, administer, or evaluate various physical education and recreational activities, athletics, or sports. In the first section, the prevention of sports injury is stressed with attention to different age groups…

  7. Uncommon Infant and Newborn Problems

    MedlinePlus

    It can be scary when your baby is sick, especially when it is not an everyday problem like a cold or a fever. You may not know whether the ... treat it. If you have concerns about your baby's health, call your health care provider right away. ...

  8. Linearization problem in pseudolite surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cellmer, Slawomir; Rapinski, Jacek

    2010-06-01

    GPS augmented with pseudolites (PL), can be used in various engineering surveys. Also pseudolite—only navigation system can be designed and used in any place, even if GPS signal is not available (Kee et al. Development of indoor navigation system using asynchronous pseudolites, 1038-1045, 2000). Especially in engineering surveys, where harsh survey environment is common, pseudolites have a lot of applications. Pseudolites may be used in construction sites, open pit mines, city canyons, GPS and PL baseline processing is similar, although there are few differences that must be taken into account. One of the major issues is linearization problem. The source of the problem is neglecting second terms of Taylor series expansion in GPS baseline processing software. This problem occurs when the pseudolite is relatively close to the receiver, which is the case in PL surveys. In this paper authors presents the algorithm for GPS + PL data processing including, neglected in classical GPS only approach, second terms of Taylor series expansion. The mathematical model of adjustment problem, detailed proposal of application in baseline processing algorithms, and numerical tests are presented.

  9. Time Out for Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champagne, Audrey B.; And Others

    Teachers in elementary schools, supervisors of instruction, and other educational practitioners are the primary audience for this publication. The paper presents philosophical, psychological, and practical reasons for including a problem-solving approach in elementary school instruction. It draws on the writings of John Dewey, Jean Piaget, James…

  10. Eldercare at Home: Hearing Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... members and friends to comment on how much communication has improved when your mother is wearing the hearing aid. If your mother is concerned about the appearance of a hearing aid, tell her that most women can style their hair to cover the hearing aids. Problem " ...

  11. English as a Problem Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Peter

    2010-01-01

    At a time when English has emerged as the dominant language of academic communication, there is a disturbing silence about the risks and problems attendant on this development and a failure to ask critical questions about its consequences. Who gains and who loses? What is lost in translation? What are the consequences of one way linguistic…

  12. PROBLEMS IN MODERN GREEK LEXICOGRAPHY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KAHANE, HENRY; KAHANE, RENEE

    PROBLEMS DEALING WITH LEVELS OF SPEECH AND LEVELS OF ANALYSIS IN CONNECTION WITH MODERN GREEK LEXICOGRAPHICAL STUDY WERE DISCUSSED. CONCERNING THE POSSIBLE CONSTRUCTION OF A COMPETENT BILINGUAL DICTIONARY, THE INVESTIGATORS SUGGESTED THAT THE VARIOUS STRUCTURES (NAMELY, PHONOLOGY, MORPHOLOGY, AND SYNTAX) BE TIED TOGETHER TO INVOLVE (1) LISTING IN…

  13. Urban Problems and Community Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Ronald F., Ed.; Dickens, William T., Ed.

    The essays in this collection promote a conception of community development that entails building practical capacities to improve the quality of life among residents of targeted neighborhoods. The causes, consequences, and potential solutions of urban problems that lie both inside and outside neighborhood borders are emphasized. The chapters are:…

  14. Problems in unification and supergravity

    SciTech Connect

    Farrar, G.; Henyey, F.

    1984-01-01

    Problems in unification of the various gauge groups, quantum gravity, supersymmetry and supergravity, compact dimensions of space-time, and conditions at the beginning of the universe are discussed. Separate entries were prepared for the data base for the 15 papers presented. (WHK)

  15. Customer Service & Team Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Sabrina Budasi

    This curriculum guide provides materials for a six-session, site-specific training course in customer service and team problem solving for the Claretian Medical Center. The course outline is followed the six lesson plans. Components of each lesson plan include a list of objectives, an outline of activities and discussion topics for the lesson,…

  16. Malaysian Serials: Issues and Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahri, Che Norma

    This paper analyzes the issues and problems while looking at the trends and developments of serials publishing in Malaysia. The first section provides background; topics addressed include the country and people of Malaysia, the history of serials publishing in Malaysia, categories and formats of serials publishing, academic publications,…

  17. Problem Based Learning in Metaverse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Dana M.; Kanematsu, Hideyuki; Fukumura, Yoshimi

    2010-01-01

    Problem Based Learning (PBL) is a powerful tool for both science and engineering education in the real world. Therefore, Japanese educators/researchers (with assistance from a US educator) carried out a pilot study to determine the effectiveness of using PBL activities in Metaverse. Their project was carried out by student teams from the US and…

  18. Polyomino Problems to Confuse Computers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffin, Stewart

    2009-01-01

    Computers are very good at solving certain types combinatorial problems, such as fitting sets of polyomino pieces into square or rectangular trays of a given size. However, most puzzle-solving programs now in use assume orthogonal arrangements. When one departs from the usual square grid layout, complications arise. The author--using a computer,…

  19. The Problem of Bicultural Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conkright, Tom D.

    1975-01-01

    Discusses concerns about the conceptualization of the problems and potential benefits related to the bicultural learning situation. Presents ideas for helping to build a conceptual framework to tackle the questions posed. [Available from CAE, 1703 New Hampshire Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20009]. (Author/AM)

  20. The Problem of World Hunger.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czarra, Fred R.; Long, Cathryn J., Eds.

    1983-01-01

    The major hunger problem today is chronic undernutrition, the primary cause of which is poverty. Hunger can be alleviated through food supplements, nutrition programs, and disaster relief. It can be eliminated by redistributing existing wealth and producing enough food and through equitable economic growth and a world food security system. (CS)

  1. Sour landfill gas problem solved

    SciTech Connect

    Nagl, G.; Cantrall, R.

    1996-05-01

    In Broward County, Fla., near Pompano Beach, Waste Management of North America (WMNA, a subsidiary of WMX Technologies, Oak Brook, IL) operates the Central Sanitary Landfill and Recycling Center, which includes the country`s largest landfill gas-to-energy plant. The landfill consists of three collection sites: one site is closed, one is currently receiving garbage, and one will open in the future. Approximately 9 million standard cubic feet (scf) per day of landfill gas is collected from approximately 300 wells spread over the 250-acre landfill. With a dramatic increase of sulfur-containing waste coming to a South Florida landfill following Hurricane Andrew, odors related to hydrogen sulfide became a serious problem. However, in a matter of weeks, an innovative desulfurization unit helped calm the landfill operator`s fears. These very high H{sub 2}S concentrations caused severe odor problems in the surrounding residential area, corrosion problems in the compressors, and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emission problems in the exhaust gas from the turbine generators.

  2. Energy Problems Provide Job Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Allen B.

    In response to the problems created by a diminishing energy supply but an increasing energy demand, this second in a series of national reports studies the linkage of vocational education and energy. Through an examination of selected literature with reference to types of energy resources, the author identifies the emerging occupations related to…

  3. Language Problems of Developing Nations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishman, Joshua A., Ed.; And Others

    Most of the papers in this collection were presented at a conference on language problems of the developing nations at Airlie House, Warrenton, Virginia in November 1966. This conference was one of the several organized and sponsored by the Committee on Sociolinguistics of the Social Science Research Council in its effort to promote…

  4. The Problem with Toxic Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beecher, John L.; Fossa, Arthur J.

    1980-01-01

    Traced is the historical development of toxic waste problems in western New York State from 1825 to the present. Three major data sources are described: Industrial Chemical Survey, Inventory of Industrial Waste Generation Study, and the Interagency Task Force Study, developed by the Department of Environmental Conservation to prevent future…

  5. Modeling Applied to Problem Solving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawl, Andrew; Barrantes, Analia; Pritchard, David E.

    2009-11-01

    We describe a modeling approach to help students learn expert problem solving. Models are used to present and hierarchically organize the syllabus content and apply it to problem solving, but students do not develop and validate their own Models through guided discovery. Instead, students classify problems under the appropriate instructor-generated Model by selecting a system to consider and describing the interactions that are relevant to that system. We believe that this explicit System, Interactions and Model (S.I.M.) problem modeling strategy represents a key simplification and clarification of the widely disseminated modeling approach originated by Hestenes and collaborators. Our narrower focus allows modeling physics to be integrated into (as opposed to replacing) a typical introductory college mechanics course, while preserving the emphasis on understanding systems and interactions that is the essence of modeling. We have employed the approach in a three-week review course for MIT freshmen who received a D in the fall mechanics course with very encouraging results.

  6. Sexual Harrassment: A Hidden Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandler, Bernice R.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    The hidden but serious problem of sexual harassment of students and employees by college faculty is discussed, some statistics are given, and legal and court opinions outlined. Harassment as a violation of Title IX is analyzed, and implications for institutional action to curb it are outlined. (MSE)

  7. Problem Gambling on College Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McComb, Jennifer L.; Hanson, William E.

    2009-01-01

    The vast majority of college students gamble, with some doing so problematically. This article discusses gambling and problem gambling among college students, framing it as an emerging health issue on college campuses nationwide. Given that 4 out of 5 college students admit to gambling, and that approximately 8% gamble problematically, it is…

  8. Problems on Divisibility of Binomial Coefficients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osler, Thomas J.; Smoak, James

    2004-01-01

    Twelve unusual problems involving divisibility of the binomial coefficients are represented in this article. The problems are listed in "The Problems" section. All twelve problems have short solutions which are listed in "The Solutions" section. These problems could be assigned to students in any course in which the binomial theorem and Pascal's…

  9. Theoretical and Philosophical Perspectives to Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Thomas M.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Five articles explore various theoretical aspects of problems and problem solving skills. Highlights include strategies to learn problem solving skills; knowledge structures; metacognition; behavioral processes and cognitive psychology; erotetic logic; creativity as an aspect of computer problem solving; and programing as a problem-solving…

  10. Word Problems: Where Test Bias Creeps In.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chipman, Susan F.

    The problem of sex bias in mathematics word problems is discussed, with references to the appropriate literature. Word problems are assessed via cognitive science analysis of word problem solving. It has been suggested that five basic semantic relations are adequate to classify nearly all story problems, namely, change, combine, compare, vary, and…

  11. Predicting the Problem Behavior in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karaman, Neslihan G.

    2013-01-01

    Problem statement: Problem behavior theory describes both protective factors and risk factors to explain adolescent problem behaviors, such as delinquency, alcohol use, and reckless driving. The theory holds that problem behaviors involving risky behavior are used by adolescents as a means to gain peer acceptance and respect. Problem behaviors…

  12. Children's Health Problems and Maternal Work Status.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salkever, David S.

    1982-01-01

    This paper estimates the influence on working mothers' employment status of children's health problems. Effects are estimated for several different types of families, various groups of health problems, and differing degrees of problem severity. (CT)

  13. Problems of Adolescents in Sydney, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, John K.; Harper, Juliet F.

    1974-01-01

    Investigated the problems of 514 male and female adolescents of 14 and 15 years of age using an open-ended questionnaire. Boys reported more problems concerned with educational adjustments, girls more problems concerned with family adjustment. (Author/SDH)

  14. Ethical problems in psychopharmacological research.

    PubMed

    Gentili, C; Ferrari, G

    1979-01-01

    1. Scientific research poses considerable ethical problems which in human psychopharmacological studies are frequently faced by singling out consent as the only reliable source of human respect, although it is never free, spontaneous, or informed. 2. On the other hand, various ethical problems present in the "life" of a new substance in the case of industry and preclinical, clinical and mass experiments, are left behind. 3. Thus there arise justified protests which go so far as disowning science and technology. To criticize science and technology is of no use: incorrect use of them must be prevented. 4. Such a guarantee can only come from an international control committee, capable of coping with a multinational power such as industry, supported by peripheral elective committees, which grant the citizens a direct participation in the administration of health. PMID:400986

  15. Occupational Health Problems of Musicians

    PubMed Central

    Chong, John; Lynden, Melody; Harvey, David; Peebles, Marie

    1989-01-01

    Musicians, as well as other performing artists, may have their careers interrupted by, interfered with, or terminated by occupational health problems involving the neuro-musculoskeletal system. Adverse working conditions, organization, and activity may affect the health of musicians in all age groups and at all levels of performing ability. Instrument-specific health problems are related to excessive force, static loading, repetitive movement, and duration of musical performance. Important risk factors are 1) change in technique or instrument; 2) intense preparation for a performance; 3) preparation of a new and difficult repertoire; and 4) prolonged periods of performance without rest. Treatment protocols and health promotion or disease prevention programs are being developed in collaboration with the performing arts community. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3 PMID:21248930

  16. Coagulation problems in human pregnancy.

    PubMed Central

    Redman, C. W.

    1979-01-01

    Coagulation problems in pregnancy are primarily associated with overactivity of the intrinsic clotting system. This accounts for the increased incidence of thrombo-embolism during pregnancy. Where specific obstetric complications cause clotting problems the common underlying feature is usually placental pathology as in abruptio placentae, pre-eclampsia or hydatidiform mole. Abnormal activation of the clotting system is an early, and occasionally the first detectable feature of pre-eclampsia, but there is no evidence that this is a primary change. Therefore the role of anticoagulant treatment in the management of pre-eclampsia remains questionable. A new test for estimating factor VIII consumption is proving to be a sensitive index of early activation of the clotting system and can be used for the diagnosis of early pre-eclampsia. PMID:382170

  17. Retrofitting and the mu Problem

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Daniel; Weigand, Timo; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2010-08-26

    One of the challenges of supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking and mediation is generating a {mu} term consistent with the requirements of electro-weak symmetry breaking. The most common approach to the problem is to generate the {mu} term through a SUSY breaking F-term. Often these models produce unacceptably large B{mu} terms as a result. We will present an alternate approach, where the {mu} term is generated directly by non-perturtative effects. The same non-perturbative effect will also retrofit the model of SUSY breaking in such a way that {mu} is at the same scale as masses of the Standard Model superpartners. Because the {mu} term is not directly generated by SUSY breaking effects, there is no associated B{mu} problem. These results are demonstrated in a toy model where a stringy instanton generates {mu}.

  18. Vortex shedding and Maxwell's problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelin, Sebastien; Smith, Stefan Llewellyn

    2006-11-01

    The coupled problem of a flow around a solid body has applications from the fall of objects in a fluid to the computation of forces on wind-exposed structures. A simplified 2D model is proposed here for the interaction between solid bodies and potential flows. Potential flows over sharp edges generate singular velocities at the edges. To satisfy the Kutta condition, vorticity sheets must be shed from the edges to remove these singularities. Here 2D vorticity sheets are represented as discrete point-vortices with monotically varying intensity. From the fluid momentum conservation, an equation of motion for these vortices, the Brown and Michael equation, is derived and mechanical efforts applied by the fluid on the body are computed. The set of dynamical equations obtained for the fluid-body system is closed and is applied to Maxwell's problem of the 2D fall of a plate in an inviscid fluid initially at rest.

  19. Some nutritional problems of horses.

    PubMed

    Hintz, H F; Kallfelz, F A

    1981-07-01

    The effects of overfeeding, calcium-phosphorus imbalance, misuse of supplements and false advertising on equine nutrition are discussed. Overfeeding is known to cause disorders in several species but, although a similar relationship has been suggested on clinical evidence, no controlled trials on horses have been reported. It has also been suggested that overfeeding is a problem only for those horses with a genetic predisposition to skeletal problems. The importance of adequate calcium and phosphorus levels has been known for many years but severe cases of calcium deficiency still occur. Client education is important and should not be neglected. Excessive use of supplements containing high levels of trace minerals (eg, iodine and selenium) or fat soluble vitamins (eg, vitamin A and vitamin D) can be harmful. Some manufacturers advertise supplements in terms which may inadvertently or intentionally misrepresent their products. Supplements should, therefore, be selected carefully to ensure that they meet the particular requirements of the individual. PMID:7197619

  20. Problems in characterizing barrier performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Harry F.

    1988-01-01

    The barrier is a synchronization construct which is useful in separating a parallel program into parallel sections which are executed in sequence. The completion of a barrier requires cooperation among all executing processes. This requirement not only introduces the wait for the slowest process delay which is inherent in the definition of the synchronization, but also has implications for the efficient implementation and measurement of barrier performance in different systems. Types of barrier implementation and their relationship to different multiprocessor environments are described. Then the problem of measuring the performance of barrier implementations on specific machine architecture is discussed. The fact that the barrier synchronization requires the cooperation of all processes makes the problem of performance measurement similarly global. Making non-intrusive measurements of sufficient accuracy can be tricky on systems offering only rudimentary measurement tools.

  1. Reading problems and depressed mood.

    PubMed

    Maughan, Barbara; Rowe, Richard; Loeber, Rolf; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda

    2003-04-01

    Although reading difficulties show well-established overlaps with disruptive behavior disorders in childhood, much less is known about reading-disabled children's vulnerability to emotional difficulties. Using longitudinal data from 6 assessments of boys in the Pittsburgh Youth Study, we found robust links between severe, persistent reading problems and increased risk for depressed mood in a community sample of boys aged 7 and 10 years at initial assessment, though not in those who had already entered their teens. These associations could not be accounted for in terms of selected family risks or comorbid disruptive behaviors; instead, the pattern of the findings pointed to the existence of more direct causal processes whereby reading problems influence younger boys' risk of depressed mood. PMID:12735404

  2. An archetype hydrogen atmosphere problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Athay, R. G.; Mihalas, D.; Shine, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    Populations for the first three bound states and the continuum of hydrogen are determined for an isothermal hydrostatic atmosphere at 20,000 K. The atmosphere is treated as optically thin in the Balmer and Paschen continua and illuminated by continuum radiation at these wavelengths with prescribed radiation temperatures. The atmosphere is optically thick in the 2-1, 3-1, 3-2 and c-1 transitions. Three stages of approximation are treated: (1) radiative detailed balance in the 2-1, 3-1 and 3-2 transitions, (2) radiative detailed balance in the 3-1 and 3-2 transitions, and (3) all transitions out of detailed balance. The solution of this problem is nontrivial and presents sufficient difficulty to have caused the failure of at least one rather standard technique. The problem is thus a good archetype against which new methods or new implementations of old methods may be tested.

  3. On the tumbling toast problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borghi, Riccardo

    2012-09-01

    A didactical revisitation of the so-called tumbling toast problem is presented here. The numerical solution of the related Newton's equations has been found in the space domain, without resorting to the complete time-based law of motion, with a considerable reduction of the mathematical complexity of the problem. This could allow the effect of the different physical mechanisms ruling the overall dynamics to be appreciated in a more transparent way, even by undergraduates. Moreover, the availability from the literature of experimental investigations carried out on tumbling toast allows us to propose different theoretical models of growing complexity in order to show the corresponding improvement of the agreement between theory and observation.

  4. Public health problems of urbanization.

    PubMed

    Mutatkar, R K

    1995-10-01

    Developing countries have been peasant societies. The cities in traditional societies have been pilgrimage centres, seats of administration and educational centres. These cities had homogeneous relationships with the villages. Industrialization has developed modern megacities whose way of life is heterogeneous with that in the villages. Rural poverty has pushed villagers to the cities, which were never planned to accommodate immigrants. Public health and social problems have arisen lowering the quality of life. Communicable diseases among the urban poor coexist with non-communicable diseases among the comparatively affluent. Problems of pollution, crime and chronic morbidity increase. The NGOs provide relief to the poor and needy but do nothing toward creating an infrastructure for balanced development. The election of women as a result of non-discriminatory legislation provides good ground for hope. PMID:8545672

  5. Two Problems with Table Saws

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vautaw, William R.

    2008-01-01

    We solve two problems that arise when constructing picture frames using only a table saw. First, to cut a cove running the length of a board (given the width of the cove and the angle the cove makes with the face of the board) we calculate the height of the blade and the angle the board should be turned as it is passed over the blade. Second, to…

  6. Sleep problems in healthy preadolescents.

    PubMed

    Kahn, A; Van de Merckt, C; Rebuffat, E; Mozin, M J; Sottiaux, M; Blum, D; Hennart, P

    1989-09-01

    Few data currently exist concerning the sleep problems of preadolescents. A parent report questionnaire concerning sleep habits and problems was developed. The questionnaires were completed by the parents of 1000 unscreened elementary school children attending the third, fourth, and fifth grades. The schools were randomly selected from an urban area. Of the 1000 questionnaires, 972 were completed and could be used for statistical analysis. Among the parents, 24% reported sleeping poorly and 12% regularly relied on sedatives to induce sleep. Sleep difficulties lasting more than 6 months were present in 43% of the children. In 14% (132 of 972), sleep latency was longer than 30 minutes, and more than one complete arousal occurred during the night at least two nights per week. The following variables were seen among the poor sleepers: lower parental educational and professional status, parents who were more likely to be divorced or separated, and more noise or light in the rooms were they slept. They also presented a higher incidence of somnambulism, somniloquia, and night fears (nightmares and night terrors) than the children who slept well. Boys who slept poorly were significantly more likely to have insomniac fathers (P less than .010). Regular use of sedatives was described in 4% (5 of 132) of the children who slept poorly. Among the "poor sleepers," 21% (33 of 132) had failed 1 or more years at school. School achievement difficulties were encountered significantly more often among the poor sleepers than among the children without sleep problems (P = .001). Of the families with children suffering from sleep problems, 28% expressed a desire for counseling.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2788868

  7. Deadlock problem: a classifying bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Zobel, D.

    1983-10-01

    The desire for a better utilisation of resources and an acceleration of computing introduced the concept of parallelism with all its difficulties. Soon the danger of eternal delays of processes was discovered and called deadlock. For almost twenty years a lot of publications have dealt with problems considering deadlocks or their environment. The author gives a classification of collected publications. He hopes to have found essential articles for nearly all the different topics fitting under the title 'deadlock'. 74 references.

  8. Solution of the Robbins problem.

    SciTech Connect

    McCune, W.; Mathematics and Computer Science

    1997-01-01

    In this article we show that the three equations known as commutativity, associativity, and the Robbins equation are a basis for the variety of Boolean algebras. The problem was posed by Herbert Robbins in the 1930s. The proof was found automatically by EQP, a theorem-proving program for equational logic. We present the proof and the search strategies that enabled the program to find the proof.

  9. Benchmark problems in computational aeroacoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter-Locklear, Freda

    1994-01-01

    A recent directive at NASA Langley is aimed at numerically predicting principal noise sources. During my summer stay, I worked with high-order ENO code, developed by Dr. Harold Atkins, for solving the unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations, as it applies to computational aeroacoustics (CAA). A CAA workshop, composed of six categories of benchmark problems, has been organized to test various numerical properties of code. My task was to determine the robustness of Atkins' code for these test problems. In one category, we tested the nonlinear wave propagation of the code for the one-dimensional Euler equations, with initial pressure, density, and velocity conditions. Using freestream boundary conditions, our results were plausible. In another category, we solved the linearized two-dimensional Euler equations to test the effectiveness of radiation boundary conditions. Here we utilized MAPLE to compute eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the Jacobian given variable and flux vectors. We experienced a minor problem with inflow and outflow boundary conditions. Next, we solved the quasi one dimensional unsteady flow equations with an incoming acoustic wave of amplitude 10(exp -6). The small amplitude sound wave was incident on a convergent-divergent nozzle. After finding a steady-state solution and then marching forward, our solution indicated that after 30 periods the acoustic wave had dissipated (a period is time required for sound wave to traverse one end of nozzle to other end).

  10. The zero exemplar distance problem.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Minghui

    2011-09-01

    Given two genomes with duplicate genes, Zero Exemplar Distance is the problem of deciding whether the two genomes can be reduced to the same genome without duplicate genes by deleting all but one copy of each gene in each genome. Blin, Fertin, Sikora, and Vialette recently proved that Zero Exemplar Distance for monochromosomal genomes is NP-hard even if each gene appears at most two times in each genome, thereby settling an important open question on genome rearrangement in the exemplar model. In this article, we give a very simple alternative proof of this result. We also study the problem Zero Exemplar Distance for multichromosomal genomes without gene order, and prove the analogous result that it is also NP-hard even if each gene appears at most two times in each genome. For the positive direction, we show that both variants of Zero Exemplar Distance admit polynomial-time algorithms if each gene appears exactly once in one genome and at least once in the other genome. In addition, we present a polynomial-time algorithm for the related problem Exemplar Longest Common Subsequence in the special case that each mandatory symbol appears exactly once in one input sequence and at least once in the other input sequence. This answers an open question of Bonizzoni et al. We also show that Zero Exemplar Distance for multichromosomal genomes without gene order is fixed-parameter tractable in the general case if the parameter is the maximum number of chromosomes in each genome. PMID:21899417

  11. Whither the global population problem.

    PubMed

    Greep, R O

    1998-02-15

    Growth of the human population has been underway for thousands of years and was never a problem until recently. It is now expanding exponentially, and today global population stands at nearly 6 billion with 97 million being added each year. Currently, overpopulation has led to serious social and environmental problems such as poverty, overcrowded slums, crime, terrorism, pollution of air and water, and depletion of the protective ozone layer. Warnings were sounded, but few listened. The enthusiasm once generated for solving the problem of too many people was short-lived. The press with puzzling abrogation of its responsibility to the public managed to allay all fears of population overgrowth. Two U.S. presidents welcomed such growth as a stimulus to economic development. Although modern contraceptives are safe, effective, and widely available, more are badly needed, but none are in the pipeline. Research is being hampered by hostile attitudes and by the high cost in time and money of bringing a new contraceptive to an uncertain market with the added threat of litigation. At the present rate of growth, the population will double in the next century. This is believed to be beyond the carrying capacity of our planet. Corrective measures by man or nature need to be undertaken. PMID:9514071

  12. Algorithmic Perspectives on Problem Formulations in MDO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexandrov, Natalia M.; Lewis, Robert Michael

    2000-01-01

    This work is concerned with an approach to formulating the multidisciplinary optimization (MDO) problem that reflects an algorithmic perspective on MDO problem solution. The algorithmic perspective focuses on formulating the problem in light of the abilities and inabilities of optimization algorithms, so that the resulting nonlinear programming problem can be solved reliably and efficiently by conventional optimization techniques. We propose a modular approach to formulating MDO problems that takes advantage of the problem structure, maximizes the autonomy of implementation, and allows for multiple easily interchangeable problem statements to be used depending on the available resources and the characteristics of the application problem.

  13. Fibonacci's Triangle: A Vehicle for Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouellette, Hugh

    1979-01-01

    A method for solving certain types of problems is illustrated by problems related to Fibonacci's triangle. The method involves pattern recognition, generalizing, algebraic manipulation, and mathematical induction. (MP)

  14. Context in Mathematics Learning: Problems and Possibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Ji-Eun

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an instructional idea that facilitates the students' active participation in the problem analysis process using insufficient or contradictory problem contexts. (Contains 1 figure.)

  15. Authentication: A Standard Problem or a Problem of Standards?

    PubMed

    Capes-Davis, Amanda; Neve, Richard M

    2016-06-01

    Reproducibility and transparency in biomedical sciences have been called into question, and scientists have been found wanting as a result. Putting aside deliberate fraud, there is evidence that a major contributor to lack of reproducibility is insufficient quality assurance of reagents used in preclinical research. Cell lines are widely used in biomedical research to understand fundamental biological processes and disease states, yet most researchers do not perform a simple, affordable test to authenticate these key resources. Here, we provide a synopsis of the problems we face and how standards can contribute to an achievable solution. PMID:27300550

  16. Authentication: A Standard Problem or a Problem of Standards?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Reproducibility and transparency in biomedical sciences have been called into question, and scientists have been found wanting as a result. Putting aside deliberate fraud, there is evidence that a major contributor to lack of reproducibility is insufficient quality assurance of reagents used in preclinical research. Cell lines are widely used in biomedical research to understand fundamental biological processes and disease states, yet most researchers do not perform a simple, affordable test to authenticate these key resources. Here, we provide a synopsis of the problems we face and how standards can contribute to an achievable solution. PMID:27300550

  17. Unresolved Problems by Shock Capturing: Taming the Overheating Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Meng-Sing

    2012-01-01

    The overheating problem, first observed by von Neumann [1] and later studied extensively by Noh [2] using both Eulerian and Lagrangian formulations, remains to be one of the unsolved problems by shock capturing. It is historically well known to occur when a flow is under compression, such as when a shock wave hits and reflects from a wall or when two streams collides with each other. The overheating phenomenon is also found numerically in a smooth flow undergoing rarefaction created by two streams receding from each other. This is in contrary to one s intuition expecting a decrease in internal energy. The excessive amount in the temperature increase does not reduce by refining the mesh size or increasing the order of accuracy. This study finds that the overheating in the receding flow correlates with the entropy generation. By requiring entropy preservation, the overheating is eliminated and the solution is grid convergent. The shock-capturing scheme, as being practiced today, gives rise to the entropy generation, which in turn causes the overheating. This assertion stands up to the convergence test.

  18. The Hard Problem of Cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, Kimmo; Strimling, Pontus

    2012-01-01

    Based on individual variation in cooperative inclinations, we define the “hard problem of cooperation” as that of achieving high levels of cooperation in a group of non-cooperative types. Can the hard problem be solved by institutions with monitoring and sanctions? In a laboratory experiment we find that the answer is affirmative if the institution is imposed on the group but negative if development of the institution is left to the group to vote on. In the experiment, participants were divided into groups of either cooperative types or non-cooperative types depending on their behavior in a public goods game. In these homogeneous groups they repeatedly played a public goods game regulated by an institution that incorporated several of the key properties identified by Ostrom: operational rules, monitoring, rewards, punishments, and (in one condition) change of rules. When change of rules was not possible and punishments were set to be high, groups of both types generally abided by operational rules demanding high contributions to the common good, and thereby achieved high levels of payoffs. Under less severe rules, both types of groups did worse but non-cooperative types did worst. Thus, non-cooperative groups profited the most from being governed by an institution demanding high contributions and employing high punishments. Nevertheless, in a condition where change of rules through voting was made possible, development of the institution in this direction was more often voted down in groups of non-cooperative types. We discuss the relevance of the hard problem and fit our results into a bigger picture of institutional and individual determinants of cooperative behavior. PMID:22792282

  19. [Addiction therapy. Limits, problems, perspectives].

    PubMed

    Kalapos, Miklós Péter

    2014-01-01

    In health care, tending is a process, which offers for the patients a continuous watching on, a control, a treatment, and the prevention of worsening of their medical status as well as the reduction of their complaints. In the article, some fundamental segments of tending in addictology are reviewed, particularly paying attention to whom, how, where and how long to take care. On the basis of literature, the author stresses whatever method is used to treat addict patients it is more beneficial to society than the avoidance of any intervention due to the negligence of the problem. Addictology has lost a lot from its power in Hungary. The author recommends the introduction of the methods of health quality assurance to decrease the effect of negative trends seen in addictology. The paper also deals with special patient groups including homeless clients, adolescents, elderly and pregnant patients as well as health care professionals. The author critically mentions the double communication of society, the dual-face character of politics and has the opinion that competences are not clear making the situation confused. As a mistake of the point of view is it regarded that the addictological problems are classified as to belonging to the authority of psychiatry. It is emphasized that multidisciplinary approach is needed to understand the problem and to treat the client. General screening for addictological diseases does not seem possible in the light of low capacity of the system, but the screening of adolescents and pregnant women is definitely recommended. And finally, a financial support for medicines to prevent craving, a moratorium for the continuous changing of rules and law, the sponsoring of harm reduction programs as well as a better utilization of opportunities offered by local drug coordinating boards are proposed. PMID:25411227

  20. Genetics problem solving and worldview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dale, Esther

    The research goal was to determine whether worldview relates to traditional and real-world genetics problem solving. Traditionally, scientific literacy emphasized content knowledge alone because it was sufficient to solve traditional problems. The contemporary definition of scientific literacy is, "The knowledge and understanding of scientific concepts and processes required for personal decision-making, participation in civic and cultural affairs and economic productivity" (NRC, 1996). An expanded definition of scientific literacy is needed to solve socioscientific issues (SSI), complex social issues with conceptual, procedural, or technological associations with science. Teaching content knowledge alone assumes that students will find the scientific explanation of a phenomenon to be superior to a non-science explanation. Formal science and everyday ways of thinking about science are two different cultures (Palmer, 1999). Students address this rift with cognitive apartheid, the boxing away of science knowledge from other types of knowledge (Jedege & Aikenhead, 1999). By addressing worldview, cognitive apartheid may decrease and scientific literacy may increase. Introductory biology students at the University of Minnesota during fall semester 2005 completed a written questionnaire-including a genetics content-knowledge test, four genetic dilemmas, the Worldview Assessment Instrument (WAI) and some items about demographics and religiosity. Six students responded to the interview protocol. Based on statistical analysis and interview data, this study concluded the following: (1) Worldview, in the form of metaphysics, relates to solving traditional genetic dilemmas. (2) Worldview, in the form of agency, relates to solving traditional genetics problems. (3) Thus, worldview must be addressed in curriculum, instruction, and assessment.

  1. The hard problem of cooperation.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Kimmo; Strimling, Pontus

    2012-01-01

    Based on individual variation in cooperative inclinations, we define the "hard problem of cooperation" as that of achieving high levels of cooperation in a group of non-cooperative types. Can the hard problem be solved by institutions with monitoring and sanctions? In a laboratory experiment we find that the answer is affirmative if the institution is imposed on the group but negative if development of the institution is left to the group to vote on. In the experiment, participants were divided into groups of either cooperative types or non-cooperative types depending on their behavior in a public goods game. In these homogeneous groups they repeatedly played a public goods game regulated by an institution that incorporated several of the key properties identified by Ostrom: operational rules, monitoring, rewards, punishments, and (in one condition) change of rules. When change of rules was not possible and punishments were set to be high, groups of both types generally abided by operational rules demanding high contributions to the common good, and thereby achieved high levels of payoffs. Under less severe rules, both types of groups did worse but non-cooperative types did worst. Thus, non-cooperative groups profited the most from being governed by an institution demanding high contributions and employing high punishments. Nevertheless, in a condition where change of rules through voting was made possible, development of the institution in this direction was more often voted down in groups of non-cooperative types. We discuss the relevance of the hard problem and fit our results into a bigger picture of institutional and individual determinants of cooperative behavior. PMID:22792282

  2. [Aviation medicine problems in otorhinolaryngology].

    PubMed

    Kressin, J

    1999-10-01

    The physico-technical conditions during flight change the physiology of the paranasal sinus, of the middle ear and of the teeth especially due to decompression. Clinical problems and the possibility of prophylaxis and therapy before and under flying conditions are declared. Aerosinusitis, -otitis and aerodontalgia are discussed. The hearing system under conditions of aircraft noise, noise protection for passengers and pilots are explained as some advises for flying with implanted hearing aids. The kinetosis as a disturbed physiological process connected with the kinetic stimulus of flying, the influence of their origin and their strengthening or prevention are described. PMID:10568253

  3. Scale problem in wormhole physics

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J. E.; Lee, K.

    1989-07-03

    Wormhole physics from the quantum thoery of gravity coupled to the second-rank antisymmetric tensor or Goldstone-boson fields leads to an effective potential for these fields. The cosmological energy-density bound is shown to put an upper bound on the cosmological constant which wormhole physics can make zero. This upper bound, of order 10/sup 11/ GeV, is far smaller than the Planck scale and barely compatible with the possible cosmological constant arising from grand unified theories. In addition, the effect of wormholes on the axion for the strong /ital CP/ problem is discussed.

  4. Insomnia: an ignored health problem.

    PubMed

    Hamblin, Joan E

    2007-09-01

    Insomnia is common in all age groups and impairs quality of life. Untreated insomnia can lead to, or cause worsening of, other health problems. Effective treatment is available. Behavioral approaches should be tried first with chronic insomnia, because they are effective with few adverse effects. A number of medicines are effective for insomnia, but providers need to be cautious with their use because they are expensive, have a number of adverse side effects, and their long-term use has not been studied. PMID:17868765

  5. From Kepler problem to skyrmions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazilu, Nicolae; Agop, Maricel; Gatu, Irina; Iacob, Dan Dezideriu; Ghizdovăt, Vlad

    2016-05-01

    The classical treatment of the Kepler problem leaves room for the description of the space region of the central body by a hyperbolic geometry. If the correspondence between the empty space and the space filled with matter is taken to be a harmonic mapping, then the region of atomic nucleus, like the one of the Sun for the planetary system proper, is described by hyperbolic skyrmions. This fact makes possible the description of the nuclear matter within framework of general relativity. The classical “hedgehog” solution for skyrmions can then be classically interpreted in terms of the characterizations of intra-nuclear forces.

  6. Solving the Dark Matter Problem

    ScienceCinema

    Baltz, Ted

    2009-09-01

    Cosmological observations have firmly established that the majority of matter in the universe is of an unknown type, called 'dark matter'. A compelling hypothesis is that the dark matter consists of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) in the mass range around 100 GeV. If the WIMP hypothesis is correct, such particles could be created and studied at accelerators. Furthermore they could be directly detected as the primary component of our galaxy. Solving the dark matter problem requires that the connection be made between the two. We describe some theoretical and experimental avenues that might lead to this connection.

  7. Research on Computers and Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, John K.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Eight articles review and report on research involving computers and problem solving skills. Topics discussed include research design; problem solving skills and programing languages, including BASIC and LOGO; computer anxiety; diagnostic programs for arithmetic problems; and relationships between ability and problem solving scores and between…

  8. Problem Posing with the Multiplication Table

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickman, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical problem posing is an important skill for teachers of mathematics, and relates readily to mathematical creativity. This article gives a bit of background information on mathematical problem posing, lists further references to connect problem posing and creativity, and then provides 20 problems based on the multiplication table to be…

  9. Teaching Top-Down Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Charles

    Top-down problem solving is a methodical approach to obtaining real solutions for open-ended problems common in the realms of engineering and science. The technique provides a means for logically understanding a problem prior to attempting a solution. Steps in the top-down problem-solving method include the following: (1) identifying a need; (2)…

  10. Elementary Level Mathematics: Word Problems. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosrur, Ridwanul

    2011-01-01

    Word Problems those are also named as "Story Problems" which are well known to the students around the world. In this book there are 26 chapters which encompass diversified problems of four basic mathematical rules--addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. These problems may help students to practice more and more as well as may help…

  11. Journey toward Teaching Mathematics through Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakshaug, Lynae E.; Wohlhuter, Kay A.

    2010-01-01

    Teaching mathematics through problem solving is a challenge for teachers who learned mathematics by doing exercises. How do teachers develop their own problem solving abilities as well as their abilities to teach mathematics through problem solving? A group of teachers began the journey of learning to teach through problem solving while taking a…

  12. The Prisoner Problem--A Generalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gannon, Gerald E.; Martelli, Mario U.

    2000-01-01

    Presents a generalization to the classic prisoner problem, which is inherently interesting and has a solution within the reach of most high school mathematics students. Suggests the problem as a way to emphasize to students the final step in a problem-solver's tool kit, considering possible generalizations when a particular problem has been…

  13. King Oedipus and the Problem Solving Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borchardt, Donald A.

    An analysis of the problem solving process reveals at least three options: (1) finding the cause, (2) solving the problem, and (3) anticipating potential problems. These methods may be illustrated by examining "Oedipus Tyrannus," a play in which a king attempts to deal with a problem that appears to be beyond his ability to solve, and applying…

  14. Disciplinary Foundations for Solving Interdisciplinary Scientific Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Dongmei; Shen, Ji

    2015-01-01

    Problem-solving has been one of the major strands in science education research. But much of the problem-solving research has been conducted on discipline-based contexts; little research has been done on how students, especially individuals, solve interdisciplinary problems. To understand how individuals reason about interdisciplinary problems, we…

  15. Problem Solving in the Context of Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Donald R.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews the book "Medical Problem Solving: An Analysis of Clinical Reasoning," a seminal book whose conclusions on problem solving in medical fields are still valid today. Discusses major problem-solving findings of this book, the application of the findings to education, and relating knowledge to problem-solving skills. (JRH)

  16. Problems without Numbers--At First

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Paul G.

    2006-01-01

    Three sample physics problems are presented in this article. The solutions to the three problems addresses a major student difficulty in problem solving--knowing where to begin. The first suggested step is to begin by stating what is asked for. Step 2 is identifying the fundamental physics that underlies the problem situation. Step 3 is isolating…

  17. Tour of a Simple Trigonometry Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poon, Kin-Keung

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on a simple trigonometric problem that generates a strange phenomenon when different methods are applied to tackling it. A series of problem-solving activities are discussed, so that students can be alerted that the precision of diagrams is important when solving geometric problems. In addition, the problem-solving plan was…

  18. Enhanced Student Learning with Problem Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollenbeck, James

    2008-01-01

    Science educators define a learning environment in which the problem drives the learning as problem based learning (PBL). Problem based learning can be a learning methodology/process or a curriculum based on its application by the teacher. This paper discusses the basic premise of Problem base learning and successful applications of such learning.…

  19. "Seed Problems" in the Teaching of Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLoughlin, Patrick

    1987-01-01

    The technique of using "seed problems" involves starting with a simple problem and seeing how far it leads. It may inspire different, related problems, or it may be approached with varied tools. Problems related to points and lines, pyramids, Pythagorean quadruples, and regular pentagons are discussed. (MNS)

  20. Super 7: Daily Exercises in Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Octavia

    This book is a year-long program of daily exercises in problem solving for 2nd and 3rd grade students that presents 144 lessons, each with seven problems. The problems cover number sense, computation, measurements, geometry, problem solving, and patterns. The material is presented in a sequential fashion with concepts repeated and expanded, and…

  1. Problem-Elephant Translocation: Translocating the Problem and the Elephant?

    PubMed Central

    Fernando, Prithiviraj; Leimgruber, Peter; Prasad, Tharaka; Pastorini, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Human-elephant conflict (HEC) threatens the survival of endangered Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Translocating “problem-elephants” is an important HEC mitigation and elephant conservation strategy across elephant range, with hundreds translocated annually. In the first comprehensive assessment of elephant translocation, we monitored 16 translocations in Sri Lanka with GPS collars. All translocated elephants were released into national parks. Two were killed within the parks where they were released, while all the others left those parks. Translocated elephants showed variable responses: “homers” returned to the capture site, “wanderers” ranged widely, and “settlers” established home ranges in new areas soon after release. Translocation caused wider propagation and intensification of HEC, and increased elephant mortality. We conclude that translocation defeats both HEC mitigation and elephant conservation goals. PMID:23236404

  2. Applying optimization software libraries to engineering problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Healy, M. J.

    1984-01-01

    Nonlinear programming, preliminary design problems, performance simulation problems trajectory optimization, flight computer optimization, and linear least squares problems are among the topics covered. The nonlinear programming applications encountered in a large aerospace company are a real challenge to those who provide mathematical software libraries and consultation services. Typical applications include preliminary design studies, data fitting and filtering, jet engine simulations, control system analysis, and trajectory optimization and optimal control. Problem sizes range from single-variable unconstrained minimization to constrained problems with highly nonlinear functions and hundreds of variables. Most of the applications can be posed as nonlinearly constrained minimization problems. Highly complex optimization problems with many variables were formulated in the early days of computing. At the time, many problems had to be reformulated or bypassed entirely, and solution methods often relied on problem-specific strategies. Problems with more than ten variables usually went unsolved.

  3. [Nutritional problems in palliative medicine].

    PubMed

    Ollenschläger, G

    2000-09-01

    Malnutrition is a frequent problem in the palliative care of the seriously ill and dying. Want of appetite and los of weight are direct symptoms of patients with consumptive infectional diseases (AIDS, TBC) as well as cancer or geriatric patients. Severe malnutrition significantly contributes to a loss of quality of life and increases morbidity of palliative patients. The subjective well-being of seriously ill patients is heavily influenced by want of appetite and loss of weight. Patients often find want of appetite and the incapability to eat as pressing as the physical impairment caused by the disease. Therefore the sole aim of palliative dietotherapy has to be to strengthen the general physical and mental condition of the patient. A specific training of home care staff and relatives of seriously ill patients in dealing sensitively with this problem of care is desirable. Above all, in-patient treatment of affected patients for the sole purpose of feeding has to be avoided. Aggressive dietotherapeutic interventions, especially artificial feeding, should be refrained from as far as possible in the terminal phase. Only if the prognosis of a patient in palliative treatment is improving contrary to expectations are strategies of curative dietotherapy valid. PMID:11048342

  4. Health problems in cold work.

    PubMed

    Mäkinen, Tiina M; Hassi, Juhani

    2009-07-01

    Cold in- and outdoor work can result in different adverse effects on human health. Health problems decrease performance and work productivity and increase the occurrence of accidents and injuries. Serious health problems can also result in absence from work due to sick leave or hospitalization. At its worst, work in cold conditions could be associated with deaths due to cold-related accidents or a sudden health event. Musculoskeletal complaints, like pain, aches etc. are common in indoor cold work. Breathing cold air while working may lead to respiratory symptoms, which can decrease performance in cold. The symptoms are usually worsened by exercise and ageing, being more common in persons having a respiratory disease. Cardiovascular complaints and related performance decrements could be especially pronounced during work in cold weather and involving physical exercise, especially among those with an underlying cardiovascular disease. The article also reviews the current information related to diabetes, skin disorders and diseases, as well as cold injuries and accidents occurring in cold work. Increasing awareness and identifying workplace- and individual-related cold risks is the first step in proper cold risk management. Following this, the susceptible population groups need customized advice on proper prevention and protection in cold work. PMID:19531906

  5. The Sp(1)-Kepler problems

    SciTech Connect

    Meng Guowu

    2009-07-15

    Let n{>=}2 be a positive integer. To each irreducible representation {sigma} of Sp(1), an Sp(1)-Kepler problem in dimension (4n-3) is constructed and analyzed. This system is superintegrable, and when n=2 it is equivalent to a generalized MICZ-Kepler problem in dimension of 5. The dynamical symmetry group of this system is O-tilde*(4n) with the Hilbert space of bound states H({sigma}) being the unitary highest weight representation of O*-tilde(4n) with highest weight, (-1,{center_dot}{center_dot}{center_dot},-1,-(1+{sigma})), which occurs at the rightmost nontrivial reduction point in the Enright-Howe-Wallach classification diagram for the unitary highest weight modules. Here {sigma} is the highest weight of {sigma}. Furthermore, it is shown that the correspondence {sigma}{r_reversible}H({sigma}) is the theta-correspondence for dual pair (Sp(1),O*(4n))subset Sp(8n,R)

  6. Health problems of older persons.

    PubMed

    Poindexter, H A

    1980-03-01

    Health problems among elderly persons are both physical and mental. About 16 percent of the elderly have no easily identifiable gross local pathologies of the major organs or tissues. We refer to their decreased agility, mentation, and metabolic efficiencies as senescence and label their problems gerontologic. Their management requires sensitive professional care in terms of time, tolerance, and holistic metabolic evaluation. This gerontologic group is generally not sick, nor in grave need of specific drugs, surgery, or specialized therapies. Homeostasis and equanimity by diet, regular exercise, sound body care, and social adjustment should be maintained, preferably in their home instead of in an institution. For the 84 percent of the elderly who show gross pathologies, properly trained and oriented physicians in geriatrics are needed. Any tissue and/or organ of the body may show disequilibrium or gross pathology. Geriatric patients need sympathy and skill not only from members of the medical and nursing profession but from the community as well. Social attitudes should ensure them proper care at a price they can afford. PMID:7392071

  7. Some problems of the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Polliack, Max R.

    1980-01-01

    Some problems of the elderly are discussed in relation to a survey undertaken in an urban practice by a primary care team consisting of a family physician, a nurse, and a medical social worker. It was found that 10·6 per cent of the practice population were over the age of 65. Chronic disease was diagnosed in 87 per cent of these, with a high prevalence of multiple pathology and life-threatening and debilitating illnesses which interfered with their ability to function in their daily life. A large proportion of the elderly suffered from psychoneurosis, depression, and social problems. One sixth of the men and more than half the women had been widowed and were living alone. The elderly took up three times as many hospital days as the younger age groups and their admission rates were also three times as high. Nevertheless, admission rates and hospital days of patients from the practice were about half the local rates. This was attributed to the organized supervision and follow-up of this age group by the primary medical team. These findings are discussed in relation to the need for the family physician to undertake increasing responsibility for more comprehensive care of the elderly with the help of a geriatric consultant and his team, members of the primary care team, and other community agencies. PMID:6775076

  8. Community-powered problem solving.

    PubMed

    Gouillart, Francis; Billings, Douglas

    2013-04-01

    Traditionally, companies have managed their constituencies with specific processes: marketing to customers, procuring from vendors, developing HR policies for employees, and so on. The problem is, such processes focus on repeatability and compliance, so they can lead to stagnation. Inviting your constituencies to collectively help you solve problems and exploit opportunities--"co-creation"--is a better approach. It allows you to continually tap the skills and insights of huge numbers of stakeholders and develop new ways to produce value for all. The idea is to provide stakeholders with platforms (physical and digital forums) on which they can interact, get them to start exploring new experiences and connections, and let the system grow organically. A co-creation initiative by a unit of Becton, Dickinson and Company demonstrates how this works. A global leader in syringes, BD set out to deepen its ties with hospital customers and help them reduce the incidence of infections from unsafe injection and syringe disposal practices. The effort began with a cross-functional internal team, brought in the hospital procurement and supply managers BD had relationships with, and then reached out to hospitals' infection-prevention and occupational health leaders. Eventually product designers, nurses, sustainability staffers, and even hospital CFOs were using the platform, contributing data that generated new best practices and reduced infections. PMID:23593769

  9. Specialty functions singularity mechanics problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarigul, Nesrin

    1989-01-01

    The focus is in the development of more accurate and efficient advanced methods for solution of singular problems encountered in mechanics. At present, finite element methods in conjunction with special functions, boolean sum and blending interpolations are being considered. In dealing with systems which contain a singularity, special finite elements are being formulated to be used in singular regions. Further, special transition elements are being formulated to couple the special element to the mesh that models the rest of the system, and to be used in conjunction with 1-D, 2-D and 3-D elements within the same mesh. Computational simulation with a least squares fit is being utilized to construct special elements, if there is an unknown singularity in the system. A novel approach is taken in formulation of the elements in that: (1) the material properties are modified to include time, temperature, coordinate and stress dependant behavior within the element; (2) material properties vary at nodal points of the elements; (3) a hidden-symbolic computation scheme is developed and utilized in formulating the elements; and (4) special functions and boolean sum are utilized in order to interpolate the field variables and their derivatives along the boundary of the elements. It may be noted that the proposed methods are also applicable to fluids and coupled problems.

  10. ''HOT'' coal problems and prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Rigsby, L.S.

    1982-12-01

    The self-heating of coal is a phenomena which, when understood, need not be feared by anyone engaged in the handling or shipping of coal. A lack of knowledge of how and why coal self-heats has resulted in spontaneous combustion events which should never have occurred. A lack of knowledge as to what to do to prevent and stop coal fires has lead to increased damages and costs. Self-heating of coal resulting in spontaneous combustion is a rare event. There is some evidence suggesting that spontaneous combustion of coal cargoes is linked to periods of rapidly accelerating demand. When demand is high lower quality coals are sold. When coal heating problems occur they can often be traced to these low quality coals. The history of the ocean transport of coal has been a long and successful one. While occasional incidences of coal fires have occurred their frequency has declined over the past 80 years. The recent occurrence of a few related incidents has caused concern throughout the shipping community about the problem of coal heating and coal fires. The purpose of this paper is to increase the general level of knowledge concerning coal self-heating.

  11. One solution for two problems.

    PubMed

    This article presents Dr. Nicky Padayachee's resolution concerning AIDS and its effect on the problem of overpopulation. Dr. Nicky Padayachee of Johannesburg City Council's Health Department stated that both of these problems pose a threat to the economic development with solutions depending on the development of the country. The increasing population of South Africa in comparison with its economic decline resulted to unemployment and high fertility. It has been proposed that the local government should double its efforts in the promotion of family planning through the provision of electricity and using television as a mode of disseminating family planning information. Further, a strict implementation of optimal urbanization, education and general economic development opportunity for all individuals was suggested. It was estimated that 2.5-7.5 million people will be HIV-positive by the year 2005, and any long-term planning would need essential re-examination and review as the demographic situation unfolds. AIDS education was insufficient by itself to control AIDS, but the stability in education, family life and empowerment of women were important in the implementation of any AIDS prevention program. Generally, development plays a major role in the decrease of AIDS and fertility by providing individuals with opportunities and jobs. On his last statement, he concluded that the best treatment for AIDS and population growth is a job. PMID:12349359

  12. Revisit of cosmic age problem

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Shuang; Li Xiaodong; Li Miao

    2010-11-15

    We investigate the cosmic age problem associated with 9 extremely old globular clusters in M31 galaxy and 1 very old high-z quasar automatic plate-measuring machine 08279+5255 at z=3.91. These 9 globular clusters have not been used to study the cosmic age problem in the previous literature. By evaluating the age of the Universe in the {Lambda} cold dark matter model with the observational constraints from the Type Ia supernovae, the baryon acoustic oscillations, the cosmic microwave background, and the independent H{sub 0} measurements, we find that the existence of 5 globular clusters and 1 high-z quasar are in tension (over 2{sigma} confidence level) with the current cosmological observations. So if the age estimates of these objects are correct, the cosmic age puzzle still remains in the standard cosmology. Moreover, we extend our investigations to the cases of the interacting dark energy models. It is found that although the introduction of the interaction between dark sectors can give a larger cosmic age, the interacting dark energy models still have difficulty to pass the cosmic age test.

  13. Dermatological problems of the puberty

    PubMed Central

    Brzezińska-Wcisło, Ligia

    2013-01-01

    Puberty is a period of life between childhood and adulthood. It is characterized by many changes in morphology and appearance of the body (biological maturation), in the psyche – development of personality (psychological maturation), and in the attitude towards one's own and the opposite sex (psychosexual maturation), and in the social role (social maturation). Dermatological problems of adolescence are mainly related to fluctuations in hormone levels, mainly androgens. They include acne, hair problems and excessive sweating. Acne vulgaris is the most frequently diagnosed dermatosis in patients aged between 11 and 30 years. It is believed that it affects about 80% of persons in this age group or even, taking into account lesions of low intensity, 100% of young people. Excessive sweating is a condition characterised by excessive production of sweat, resulting from high activity of sweat glands. The sweat glands are localised in almost all areas of the body surface but on the hands, feet, armpits and around the groin they are found at the highest density. Seborrhoeic dermatitis of the scalp is a chronic, relapsing, inflammatory dermatosis, which currently affects about 5% of the population. It affects mostly young people, particularly men. PMID:24278071

  14. The Tunguska Meteorite problem today

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilyev, N. V.

    1998-02-01

    This paper contains basic data relating to the Tunguska Meteorite (TM) as late as 1996, including flight and explosion of a giant bolide in Siberia on 30 June 1908, related geophysical effects, the results of search of the TM matter and the environimental after effects of the event. The TNT equivalent of the Tunguska explosion is estimated between 10 and 40 megatons (most probably 15 megatons), probable energy 4.2 × 10 23-1.7 × 10 24 erg, altitude of the explosion 5-10 km. The explosion devastated a 2150±25 km 2 forest area and produced a radiant burn of flora at more than 100 km 2. The problem of optical events in the summer of 1908 connected to the Tunguska explosion is discussed, as well as that of the origin of element and isotropic anomalies in the area, the most striking feature being peculiarities in the C, H and Pb isotopic composition. A critical analysis is given of hypotheses proposed to explain TM problem. The hypotheses proceeding from concepts of the TM low and hyperlow (<0.01 g/cm 3) density are shown to be inconsistent. It is stated that nowadays the basic aspect of the TM nature discussion is an alternative "stony asteroid-comet". Though the final choice between them has not yet been made, the chances of the stony asteroid version have recently grown substantially. The first priority is to solve a set of questions in order that further development of this problem can be detined as follows: (1) the fate of the meteorite fragments in case the TM was really a stony asteroid; (2) the possibility of a carbonaceous chondrite and mellow comet nucleus penetration into the troposphere; (3) the nature of the element and isotopic cosmochemical anomaly in the area of the Tunguska explosion epicentre; (4) the mechanism of geomagnetic effect and optical anomalies developed in the summer of 1908; (5) the possibility of a quick (within hours) transfer of dusty matter from the area of the Tunguska event to Central Asia, European Russia and Western Europe by

  15. Problems of youth in Africa.

    PubMed

    Muriuki, P

    1981-12-01

    Young people constitute a large and rapidly growing proportion of the population in most countries of Africa and in many parts of the world as a whole. These young people live in a rapidly changing world, faced with many pressures. Young people on the whole experience discomforting confusion, disquieting irritations and perplexities, and adjustment problems as a result of rapid social change. There is an increase in drug and alcohol use among youth leading to vandalism and disrespect toward their elders and authority. There also are teenage pregnancies and school dropouts. Illegal abortion is being practiced by many girls which sometime lead to premature death. Urbanization also has accentuated various kinds of evils and crimes. Modernization and western influences have helped to erode traditional Africa values. The family system has lost ground rapidly, and the indigenous systems of education have largely disappeared. The passing away of old Africa has contributed to laxity in morals. The current socioeconomic conditions in Africa block the progress of the Africa youth. Early marriages complicate matters for youth and increase the burdens of youth. Ignorance, illiteracy, and insufficient knowledge about fertility regulation methods all have helped to increase early childbearing. These are reinforced by African traditional values attached to childbearing. Furthermore, in traditional African society, the young people depended for guidance in behavior and personal relationships on some member of the family. This teaching was gradual and continued until the child was an adult. Today, the family has had to relinquish much of the responsibility of guiding youth on these concerns. Much of the task has been left to formal education and to chance. Problems relating to young people should be attacked at their roots. Such an effort should aim to inform, teach, educate, and orient youth so that they can face the reality of their sexual life. Family Life and Sex Education

  16. [Arsenic as an environmental problem].

    PubMed

    Jensen, K

    2000-12-01

    Chronic exposure to arsenic through drinking water is known in different continents. Arsenic compounds from disintegrating rock may be solubilized after reduction by organic material, and harmful concentrations of arsenic may be found in surface water as well as in water from drilled wells. Because of well drilling since the sixties in the Ganges delta numerous millions of people have been exposed to toxic amounts, and hundreds of thousands demonstrate signs of chronic poisoning. A changed water technology and chemical precipitation of arsenic in the drinking water can reduce the size of the problem, but the late sequelae i.e. malignant disease are incalculable. Indications for antidotal treatment of exposed individuals have not yet been outlined. PMID:11188053

  17. The CCTV system design problem

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, P.E.

    1993-12-31

    There are numerous cases where CCTV system performance is less than ideal. The detection probability of a complete barrier system frequently relies upon the ability of the security operator to perform a particular visual task. This impacts directly upon the staffing costs for the response teams. This situation has given rise to the introduction of systems performance tests. The subsequent adoption of these tests for use in systems performance requirements at purchase time means that the system designer needs to be able to characterize the performance of all of the system components, and to understand the way in which each of them contribute to the performance of the whole system. Broadly this knowledge is not available. Work has been done to review the ways in which the operator performance impacts upon the specification of the different hardware components. A broader understanding of the whole system design problem has been obtained as a result of this work.

  18. The health problem of arachnidism

    PubMed Central

    Maretić, Z.; Stanić, M.

    1954-01-01

    The authors give data on arachnidism (the systemic poisoning caused by the bite of the spider Latrodectus) in general, on its distribution in the world and in Yugoslavia in particular, on the Latrodectus spider, and on the characteristic clinical syndrome of arachnidism. The bite of the Latrodectus causes great pain, disables the bitten person for a certain time, and may even cause death in a few instances. The results of the authors' own observations in the clinic and on experimental animals are given. Of all forms of therapy tried by them, the simultaneous application of calcium, antivenom, and sometimes procaine infiltration for the relief of local pains gave the best results. In view of the apparently increasing importance of arachnidism, the authors recommend the international exchange of experience on the problem. ImagesFIG. 1 PMID:14364184

  19. Protein translocation: what's the problem?

    PubMed Central

    Corey, Robin A.; Allen, William J.; Collinson, Ian

    2016-01-01

    We came together in Leeds to commemorate and celebrate the life and achievements of Prof. Stephen Baldwin. For many years we, together with Sheena Radford and Roman Tuma (colleagues also of the University of Leeds), have worked together on the problem of protein translocation through the essential and ubiquitous Sec system. Inspired and helped by Steve we may finally be making progress. My seminar described our latest hypothesis for the molecular mechanism of protein translocation, supported by results collected in Bristol and Leeds on the tractable bacterial secretion process–commonly known as the Sec system; work that will be published elsewhere. Below is a description of the alternative and contested models for protein translocation that we all have been contemplating for many years. This review will consider their pros and cons. PMID:27284038

  20. The cosmological lithium problem revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertulani, C. A.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Shubhchintak

    2016-07-01

    After a brief review of the cosmological lithium problem, we report a few recent attempts to find theoretical solutions by our group at Texas A&M University (Commerce & College Station). We will discuss our studies on the theoretical description of electron screening, the possible existence of parallel universes of dark matter, and the use of non-extensive statistics during the Big Bang nucleosynthesis epoch. Last but not least, we discuss possible solutions within nuclear physics realm. The impact of recent measurements of relevant nuclear reaction cross sections for the Big Bang nucleosynthesis based on indirect methods is also assessed. Although our attempts may not able to explain the observed discrepancies between theory and observations, they suggest theoretical developments that can be useful also for stellar nucleosynthesis.