Science.gov

Sample records for 27-s 263db evidence

  1. Determination of the repeated oral toxicity of halocarbon oil, series 27-S

    SciTech Connect

    Kinkead, E.R.; Culpepper, B.T.; Henry, S.S.; Szotak, P.S.; Flemming, C.D.

    1990-01-01

    Halocarbon 27-S (HC 27-S), a polymer of chlorotrifluoroethylene (CTFE), is used as a lubricating oil for pumps in hyperbaric chambers. Although monomeric CTFE has been shown to produce renal lesions in rats, the toxicity of CTFE polymers have been investigated. To assess the toxicity of repeated exposure to HC 27-S, three groups of male and female Fischer-344 rats were dosed. Decreased water consumption and urine output were apparent in all test groups. Statistically significant increases in fluoride excretion were noted in 24-hr urine samples assessed periodically during the study. Neurotoxic signs were observed in female rats but not in male rats. Significant increases in liver and kidney weights were seen in all rats, regardless of number of dosing days. The increased fluoride burden in treated animals appeared sufficient to alter bone calcium/phosphate ratios in male rats but not female rats. Gross liver enlargement and hepatocellular cytomegaly indicated that the liver was probably the primary target organ following repeated administration of HC 27-S.

  2. Determination of the acute and repeated oral toxicity of halocarbon oil, series 27-S. Interim report, December 1986-November 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Kinkead, E.R.; Culpepper, B.T.; Henry, S.S.; Szotak, P.S.; Flemming, C.D.

    1989-02-01

    Halocarbon 27-S (HC 27-S), a polymer of chlorotrifluoroethylene (CTFE), is used as a lubricating oil for pumps in hyperbaric chambers. Although monomeric CTFE has been shown to produce renal lesions in rats, the toxicity of CTFE polymers has not been investigated. Following a single dose of 5 g HC 27-S, no signs of toxicity were noted and no lesions observed at sacrifice 14 days following treatment. To assess the toxicity of repeated exposure to HC 27-S, three groups (n=5) of male and female rats were dosed with 2.5 g HC 27-S/kg for 7 or 21 consecutive days. Groups were sacrificed at 7, 21, and 35 days after the initial dose. Decreased water consumption and urine output were apparent in all test groups. Significant increase in fluoride excretion was noted in 24-hr urine samples collected periodically during the study. The increased fluoride burden in treated animals appeared sufficient to alter bone calcium/phosphate ratios in male but not female rats. Increased liver and kidney weights were observed in all treated rats on all assessment days. Gross liver enlargement and hepatocellular cytomegaly indicated that the liver is probably the primary target organ following repeated administration of HC 27-S.

  3. Interpreting Evidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munsart, Craig A.

    1993-01-01

    Presents an activity that allows students to experience the type of discovery process that paleontologists necessarily followed during the early dinosaur explorations. Students are read parts of a story taken from the "American Journal of Science" and interpret the evidence leading to the discovery of Triceratops and Stegosaurus. (PR)

  4. Elemental evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    He set out to prove that ocean sediments contain elevated levels of the rare element iridium because of the natural weathering of the continents. Instead, what Ariel Anbar found was new evidence that a meteorite may have had a role in the mass extinctions that marked the end of the Cretaceous era.By studying the geochemical properties of iridium, Anbar, a professor of earth and environmental sciences and chemistry at the University of Rochester, found that the residence time—a measure of the rate at which an element settles out of water into sediments—of iridium in ocean water is 2000 to 20,000 years. That finding suggests that a large deposit of iridium could have lingered in the world's oceans long enough to explain the thickness of the iridium-rich sediment layers at the K-T boundary.

  5. Fishy evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adding to the ongoing debate over the mass extinctions that marked the end of the Cretaceous period, a paleontologist from Purdue University recently uncovered a bed of 65-million-year old fish bones that bears the fingerprints of a meteorite impact. Gathering the fossils from Seymour Island, near the Antarctic Peninsula, William Zinsmeister discovered what he has termed a "horizon of death," a 12-square-kilometer bone bed resting just above a layer of iridium. The element is rare on Earth but common to most meteorites.The Purdue professor of geosciences believes the site provides strong evidence that the impact of an extraterrestrial object played at least some part in the mass extinctions that marked the end of the Cretaceous.

  6. Assertions and Evidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy, Michael; Medsker, Karen

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the need to provide evidence when making claims, particularly when reporting research results. Suggests evidence should be precise; be wary of generalizations; question authority; and link the manuscript together in a coherent manner. (LRW)

  7. A Question of Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Ross J.

    2008-01-01

    Broadly defined, evidence-based practice (EBP) is fundamentally about professional practice being informed and guided by best available evidence of what works. The EBP movement had its origins in the early 1990s in the United Kingdom in medicine and health care services. Sackett et al. defined evidence-based medicine as the "conscientious,…

  8. Some Thoughts on Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy, Michael; Medsker, Karen

    2004-01-01

    Evidence seems to be a particularly newsworthy topic these days, prominent in stories about weapons of mass destruction, the President's record in the National Guard, Martha Stewart's stock sales, global warming and the EPA, and so forth. "Evidence," not surprisingly, derives from "evident," which the American Heritage Dictionary defines as…

  9. Synthesizing Evidence: Synthesis Methods for Evidence Clearinghouses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentine, Jeff; Lau, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Following the theme of the first two presentations, this presentation will focus on the choices available for research synthesis when summarizing research evidence. The presenters will describe the current research synthesis practice of the What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) as well as several alternative models, including inverse-variance weighted…

  10. Balancing innovation and evidence.

    PubMed

    Pilcher, Jobeth W

    2015-01-01

    Nurse educators are encouraged to use evidence to guide their teaching strategies. However, evidence is not always available. How can educators make decisions regarding strategies when data are limited or absent? Where do innovation and creativity fit? How can innovation be balanced with evidence? This article provides a discussion regarding other sources of evidence, such as extrapolations, theories and principles, and collective expertise. Readers are encouraged to review the options and then analyze how they might be applied to innovation in education. PMID:25790361

  11. Observational Evidence for Atoms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Edwin R., Jr.; Childers, Richard L.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the development of the concept of atomicity and some of the many which can be used to establish its validity. Chemical evidence, evidence from crystals, Faraday's law of electrolysis, and Avogadro's number are among the areas which show how the concept originally developed from a purely philosophical idea. (JN)

  12. Evidence-based medicine.

    PubMed

    Sackett, D L

    1997-02-01

    Evidence-based medicine, whose philosophical origins extend back to mid-19th century Paris and earlier, is the conscientious, explicit and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients. The practice of evidence-based medicine means integrating individual clinical expertise with the best available external clinical evidence from systematic research. By individual clinical expertise we mean the proficiency and judgment that we individual clinicians acquire through clinical experience and clinical practice. Increased expertise is reflected in many ways, but especially in more effective and efficient diagnosis and in the more thoughtful identification and compassionate use of individual patients' predicaments, rights, and preferences in making clinical decisions about their care. By best available external clinical evidence we mean clinically relevant research, often from the basic sciences of medicine, but especially from patient centered clinical research into the accuracy and precision of diagnostic tests (including the clinical examination), the power of prognostic markers, and the efficacy and safety of therapeutic, rehabilitative, and preventive regimens. External clinical evidence both invalidates previously accepted diagnostic tests and treatment and replaces them with new ones that are more powerful, more accurate, more efficacious, and safer. Good doctors use both individual clinical expertise and the best available external evidence, and neither alone is enough. Without clinical expertise, practice risks becoming tyrannized by external evidence, for even excellent external evidence may be inapplicable to or inappropriate for an individual patient. Without current best external evidence, practice risks becoming rapidly out of date, to the detriment of patients. The practice of evidence-based medicine is a process of life-long, self-directed learning in which caring for our own patients creates the need for

  13. Rivers of Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Clive E

    2013-01-01

    There has been too much of a one-way flow drift down a river of evidence. Researchers from rich countries have produced the primary evidence which they proceed to summarise within reviews. These summaries have directed care worldwide. However, things are changing and the river of evidence can flow in the other direction. The care of women with eclampsia has been changed or refined throughout the world because of a large low and middle income country trial. The global care of people with heart disease has been greatly modified by studies originating in China. The care of people who are acutely aggressive because of psychosis has to be reconsidered in the light of the evidence coming from Brazil and India. Healthcare is an issue everywhere and evaluation of care is not the premise of any one culture—the evidence—river must run both ways. PMID:24596880

  14. Evidence-based dentistry.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2010-01-01

    Both panegyric and criticism of evidence-based dentistry tend to be clumsy because the concept is poorly defined. This analysis identifies several contributions to the profession that have been made under the EBD banner. Although the concept of clinicians integrating clinical epidemiology, the wisdom of their practices, and patients' values is powerful, its implementation has been distorted by a too heavy emphasis of computerized searches for research findings that meet the standards of academics. Although EBD advocates enjoy sharing anecdotal accounts of mistakes others have made, faulting others is not proof that one's own position is correct. There is no systematic, high-quality evidence that EBD is effective. The metaphor of a three-legged stool (evidence, experience, values, and integration) is used as an organizing principle. "Best evidence" has become a preoccupation among EBD enthusiasts. That overlong but thinly developed leg of the stool is critiqued from the perspectives of the criteria for evidence, the difference between internal and external validity, the relationship between evidence and decision making, the ambiguous meaning of "best," and the role of reasonable doubt. The strongest leg of the stool is clinical experience. Although bias exists in all observations (including searches for evidence), there are simple procedures that can be employed in practice to increase useful and objective evidence there, and there are dangers in delegating policy regarding allowable treatments to external groups. Patient and practitioner values are the shortest leg of the stool. As they are so little recognized, their integration in EBD is problematic and ethical tensions exist where paternalism privileges science over patient's self-determined best interests. Four potential approaches to integration are suggested, recognizing that there is virtually no literature on how the "seat" of the three-legged stool works or should work. It is likely that most dentists

  15. Where's the evidence?

    PubMed

    Vieland, Veronica J

    2011-01-01

    Science is in large part the art of careful measurement, and a fixed measurement scale is the sine qua non of this art. It is obvious to us that measurement devices lacking fixed units and constancy of scale across applications are problematic, yet we seem oddly laissez faire in our approach to measurement of one critically important quantity: statistical evidence. Here I reconsider problems with reliance on p values or maximum LOD scores as measures of evidence, from a measure-theoretic perspective. I argue that the lack of an absolute scale for evidence measurement is every bit as problematic for modern biological research as was lack of an absolute thermal scale in pre-thermodynamic physics. Indeed, the difficulty of establishing properly calibrated evidence measures is strikingly similar to the problem 19th century physicists faced in deriving an absolute scale for the measurement of temperature. I propose that the formal relationship between the two problems might enable us to apply the mathematical foundations of thermodynamics to establish an absolute scale for the measurement of evidence, in statistical applications and possibly other areas of mathematical modeling as well. Here I begin to sketch out what such an endeavor might look like. PMID:21422761

  16. Where's the Evidence?

    PubMed Central

    Vieland, Veronica J.

    2011-01-01

    Science is in large part the art of careful measurement, and a fixed measurement scale is the sine qua non of this art. It is obvious to us that measurement devices lacking fixed units and constancy of scale across applications are problematic, yet we seem oddly laissez faire in our approach to measurement of one critically important quantity: statistical evidence. Here I reconsider problems with reliance on p values or maximum LOD scores as measures of evidence, from a measure-theoretic perspective. I argue that the lack of an absolute scale for evidence measurement is every bit as problematic for modern biological research as was lack of an absolute thermal scale in pre-thermodynamic physics. Indeed, the difficulty of establishing properly calibrated evidence measures is strikingly similar to the problem 19th century physicists faced in deriving an absolute scale for the measurement of temperature. I propose that the formal relationship between the two problems might enable us to apply the mathematical foundations of thermodynamics to establish an absolute scale for the measurement of evidence, in statistical applications and possibly other areas of mathematical modeling as well. Here I begin to sketch out what such an endeavor might look like. PMID:21422761

  17. What Counts as Evidence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty Stahl, Katherine A.

    2014-01-01

    Each disciplinary community has its own criteria for determining what counts as evidence of knowledge in their academic field. The criteria influence the ways that a community's knowledge is created, communicated, and evaluated. Situating reading, writing, and language instruction within the content areas enables teachers to explicitly…

  18. Homeopathy: promotion versus evidence.

    PubMed

    Ernst, E

    2006-01-01

    Homeopathy is a biologically implausible form of treatment. The best clinical evidence available to date fails to support its effectiveness. Nevertheless, it is gaining in popularity. One reason for this is that, at least in the UK, it is being promoted by influential people. PMID:19442345

  19. Evidence of Absence software

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dalthorp, Daniel; Huso, Manuela M. P.; Dail, David; Kenyon, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Evidence of Absence software (EoA) is a user-friendly application used for estimating bird and bat fatalities at wind farms and designing search protocols. The software is particularly useful in addressing whether the number of fatalities has exceeded a given threshold and what search parameters are needed to give assurance that thresholds were not exceeded. The software is applicable even when zero carcasses have been found in searches. Depending on the effectiveness of the searches, such an absence of evidence of mortality may or may not be strong evidence that few fatalities occurred. Under a search protocol in which carcasses are detected with nearly 100 percent certainty, finding zero carcasses would be convincing evidence that overall mortality rate was near zero. By contrast, with a less effective search protocol with low probability of detecting a carcass, finding zero carcasses does not rule out the possibility that large numbers of animals were killed but not detected in the searches. EoA uses information about the search process and scavenging rates to estimate detection probabilities to determine a maximum credible number of fatalities, even when zero or few carcasses are observed.

  20. Evidence of Sway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chryst, Carolyn; McKay, Zanna; Lassonde, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses the metaphor of trees and their tendency to sway with the wind and grow new leaves and branches to represent teacher candidates as diverse learners who come to our classes with their own experiences and understandings. This collaborative research study analyzed a particular cohort of candidates' evidence of sway and how the sway…

  1. The Appraising Evidence Game.

    PubMed

    Mick, JoAnn

    2016-04-01

    This column shares the best evidence-based strategies and innovative ideas on how to facilitate the learning of EBP principles and processes by clinicians as well as nursing and interprofessional students. Guidelines for submission are available at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1741-6787. PMID:26766171

  2. Substantial evidence of effect.

    PubMed

    Gould, A Lawrence

    2002-02-01

    Pressures for rapid drug development, especially for treatments that may affect public health significantly, drive a need to reconsider what is necessary to establish the "substantial evidence" of efficacy and safety required for regulatory approval. The concept of substantial evidence of effect can be stated fairly simply in principle, but its application to the evaluation of findings from real clinical drug development programs can be quite complicated and depend on circumstances relating to the population studied and the condition being treated. This paper discusses a number of considerations that arise in attempting to address this issue. These include confirmation of efficacy/safety as opposed to replication of results, the use of surrogates for the clinical outcome, ethical considerations, the use of trials aimed at demonstrating equivalence or noninferiority instead of superiority of a new drug, and the balance between benefits and risks. Recent developments such as the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines dealing with statistical principles and choice of control group, and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidances interpreting the 1998 Modernization Act identify useful alternative definitions of substantial evidence and also identify when a single study can be enough to demonstrate a clinically important effect. The primary difficulty with the use of noninferiority trials is the need to demonstrate assay sensitivity or validity, i.e., that the trial would have demonstrated the superiority of the active control treatment to placebo had the trial included a placebo group. Failure to demonstrate a significant difference between the presumed active treatments and an inactive control precludes a definitive conclusion of assay validity, but external evidence, e.g., from trials demonstrating the activity of the active control, may yet justify concluding that the trial was assay valid. Issues of interpretation of important unexpected

  3. NCCN Evidence Blocks.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Robert W; Jonasch, Eric

    2016-05-01

    NCCN has developed a series of Evidence Blocks: graphics that provide ratings for each recommended treatment regimen in terms of efficacy, toxicity, quality and consistency of the supporting data, and affordability. The NCCN Evidence Blocks are currently available in 10 tumor types within the NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines). At a glance, patients and providers can understand how a given treatment was assessed by the NCCN Guidelines Panel and get a sense of how a given treatment may match individual needs and preferences. Robert W. Carlson, MD, CEO of NCCN, described the reasoning behind this new feature and how the tool is used, and Eric Jonasch, MD, Professor of Genitourinary Medical Oncology at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, and Vice Chair of the NCCN Kidney Cancer Panel, described its applicability in the management of metastatic renal cell carcinoma. PMID:27226499

  4. Evidence and Clinical Trials.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, Steven N.

    1989-11-01

    This dissertation explores the use of a mathematical measure of statistical evidence, the log likelihood ratio, in clinical trials. The methods and thinking behind the use of an evidential measure are contrasted with traditional methods of analyzing data, which depend primarily on a p-value as an estimate of the statistical strength of an observed data pattern. It is contended that neither the behavioral dictates of Neyman-Pearson hypothesis testing methods, nor the coherency dictates of Bayesian methods are realistic models on which to base inference. The use of the likelihood alone is applied to four aspects of trial design or conduct: the calculation of sample size, the monitoring of data, testing for the equivalence of two treatments, and meta-analysis--the combining of results from different trials. Finally, a more general model of statistical inference, using belief functions, is used to see if it is possible to separate the assessment of evidence from our background knowledge. It is shown that traditional and Bayesian methods can be modeled as two ends of a continuum of structured background knowledge, methods which summarize evidence at the point of maximum likelihood assuming no structure, and Bayesian methods assuming complete knowledge. Both schools are seen to be missing a concept of ignorance- -uncommitted belief. This concept provides the key to understanding the problem of sampling to a foregone conclusion and the role of frequency properties in statistical inference. The conclusion is that statistical evidence cannot be defined independently of background knowledge, and that frequency properties of an estimator are an indirect measure of uncommitted belief. Several likelihood summaries need to be used in clinical trials, with the quantitative disparity between summaries being an indirect measure of our ignorance. This conclusion is linked with parallel ideas in the philosophy of science and cognitive psychology.

  5. Evidence Basis for Hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Byrnes, Jenifer N; Trabuco, Emanuel C

    2016-09-01

    Although vaginal hysterectomy has long been championed by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists as the preferred mode of uterine removal, nationwide vaginal hysterectomy utilization has steadily declined. This article reviews the evidence comparing vaginal with other modes of hysterectomy and highlights areas of ongoing controversy regarding contraindications to vaginal surgery, risk of subsequent prolapse development, and impacts of changing hysterectomy trends on resident education. PMID:27521881

  6. Evidence based vaccinology.

    PubMed

    Nalin, David R

    2002-02-22

    Evidence based vaccinology (EBV) is the identification and use of the best evidence in making and implementing decisions during all of the stages of the life of a vaccine, including pre-licensure vaccine development and post-licensure manufacture and research, and utilization of the vaccine for disease control. Vaccines, unlike most pharmaceuticals, are in a continuous process of development both before and after licensure. Changes in biologics manufacturing technology and changes that vaccines induce in population and disease biology lead to periodic review of regimens (and sometimes dosage) based on changing immunologic data or public perceptions relevant to vaccine safety and effectiveness. EBV includes the use of evidence based medicine (EBM) both in clinical trials and in national disease containment programs. The rationale for EBV is that the highest evidentiary standards are required to maintain a rigorous scientific basis of vaccine quality control in manufacture and to ensure valid determination of vaccine efficacy, field effectiveness and safety profiles (including post-licensure safety monitoring), cost-benefit analyses, and risk:benefit ratios. EBV is increasingly based on statistically validated, clearly defined laboratory, manufacturing, clinical and epidemiological research methods and procedures, codified as good laboratory practices (GLP), good manufacturing practices (GMP), good clinical research practices (GCRP) and in clinical and public health practice (good vaccination practices, GVP). Implementation demands many data-driven decisions made by a spectrum of specialists pre- and post-licensure, and is essential to maintaining public confidence in vaccines. PMID:11858871

  7. Insufficient Evidence: The Problems of Evidence-Based Nursing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rolfe, Gary

    1999-01-01

    Challenges the wisdom of basing nursing practice on the findings of statistical research and offers objections to the philosophy of evidence-based nursing. Proposes rethinking what counts as evidence, suggesting a model based on reflection after the event. (SK)

  8. Evidence for mantle plumes?

    PubMed

    Anderson, Don L; Natland, James H

    2007-11-22

    Geophysical hotspots have been attributed to partially molten asthenosphere, fertile blobs, small-scale convection and upwellings driven by core heat. Most are short-lived or too close together to be deeply seated, and do not have anomalous heat flow or temperature; many are related to tectonic features. Bourdon et al. investigate the dynamics of mantle plumes from uranium-series geochemistry and interpret their results as evidence for thermal plumes. Here we show why alternative mechanisms of upwelling and melting should be considered. PMID:18033248

  9. Evidence for homosexuality gene

    SciTech Connect

    Pool, R.

    1993-07-16

    A genetic analysis of 40 pairs of homosexual brothers has uncovered a region on the X chromosome that appears to contain a gene or genes for homosexuality. When analyzing the pedigrees of homosexual males, the researcheres found evidence that the trait has a higher likelihood of being passed through maternal genes. This led them to search the X chromosome for genes predisposing to homosexuality. The researchers examined the X chromosomes of pairs of homosexual brothers for regions of DNA that most or all had in common. Of the 40 sets of brothers, 33 shared a set of five markers in the q28 region of the long arm of the X chromosome. The linkage has a LOD score of 4.0, which translates into a 99.5% certainty that there is a gene or genes in this area that predispose males to homosexuality. The chief researcher warns, however, that this one site cannot explain all instances of homosexuality, since there were some cases where the trait seemed to be passed paternally. And even among those brothers where there was no evidence that the trait was passed paternally, seven sets of brothers did not share the Xq28 markers. It seems likely that homosexuality arises from a variety of causes.

  10. Evidence-based management.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Frank

    2012-01-01

    It's OK to be lucky when you're lucky, but it's not OK when the issues are critical. Too often, we manage by anecdote, which is OK when you can afford to be wrong, but when finances are tight, or the market is overregulated, or a lot is at stake, making mistakes is not an option. Evidence-based management depends on attention to three components: analytics, decision making, and problem solving. These are skills that should be required of everyone who assumes a management position, no matter how high or low one is on the totem pole. Understanding basic analytical techniques, knowing how to apply these techniques to making good decisions, and learning how to become a skilled problem solver ensure that, when we manage our businesses, we minimize the risk of mistakes and maximize the potential for positive outcomes. PMID:22594062

  11. Weighing evidence: quantitative measures of the importance of bitemark evidence.

    PubMed

    Kittelson, J M; Kieser, J A; Buckingham, D M; Herbison, G P

    2002-12-01

    Quantitative measures of the importance of evidence such as the "likelihood ratio" have become increasingly popular in the courtroom. These measures have been used by expert witnesses formally to describe their certainty about a piece of evidence. These measures are commonly interpreted as the amount by which the evidence should revise the opinion of guilt, and thereby summarize the importance of a particular piece of evidence. Unlike DNA evidence, quantitative measures have not been widely used by forensic dentists to describe their certainty when testifying about bitemark evidence. There is, however, no inherent reason why they should not be used to evaluate bitemarks. The purpose of this paper is to describe the likelihood ratio as it might be applied to bitemark evidence. We use a simple bitemark example to define the likelihood ratio, its application, and interpretation. In particular we describe how the jury interprets the likelihood ratio from a Bayesian perspective when evaluating the impact of the evidence on the odds that the accused is guilty. We describe how the dentist would calculate the likelihood ratio based on frequentist interpretations. We also illustrate some of the limitations of the likelihood ratio, and show how those limitations apply to bitemark evidence. We conclude that the quality of bitemark evidence cannot be adequately summarized by the likelihood ratio, and argue that its application in this setting may be more misleading than helpful. PMID:12585671

  12. Synthesizing Quantitative Evidence for Evidence-based Nursing: Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Oh, Eui Geum

    2016-06-01

    As evidence-based practice has become an important issue in healthcare settings, the educational needs for knowledge and skills for the generation and utilization of healthcare evidence are increasing. Systematic review (SR), a way of evidence generation, is a synthesis of primary scientific evidence, which summarizes the best evidence on a specific clinical question using a transparent, a priori protocol driven approach. SR methodology requires a critical appraisal of primary studies, data extraction in a reliable and repeatable way, and examination for validity of the results. SRs are considered hierarchically as the highest form of evidence as they are a systematic search, identification, and summarization of the available evidence to answer a focused clinical question with particular attention to the methodological quality of studies or the credibility of opinion and text. The purpose of this paper is to introduce an overview of the fundamental knowledge, principals and processes in SR. The focus of this paper is on SR especially for the synthesis of quantitative data from primary research studies that examines the effectiveness of healthcare interventions. To activate evidence-based nursing care in various healthcare settings, the best and available scientific evidence are essential components. This paper will include some examples to promote understandings. PMID:27349664

  13. Quadratic negative evidence discrimination

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.N.; Redgate, T.; Anderson, K.K.; Rohay, A.C.; Ryan, F.M.

    1997-05-01

    This paper develops regional discrimination methods which use information inherent in phase magnitudes that are unmeasurable due to small amplitudes and/or high noise levels. The methods are enhancements to teleseismic techniques proposed by, and are extended to regional discrimination. Events observed at teleseismic distances are effectively identified with the M{sub s} vs m{sub b} discriminant because relative to the pressure wave energy (m{sub b}) of an event, an earthquake generates more shear wave energy (M{sub s}) than does an explosion. For some teleseismic events, the M{sub s} magnitude is difficult to measure and is known only to be below a threshold . With M{sub s} unmeasurable, the M{sub s} vs m{sub b} discriminant cannot be formed. However, if the M{sub s} is sufficiently small relative to a measured m{sub b}, then the event is still likely to be an explosion. The methods presented in this report are developed for a single seismic station, and make use of empirical evidence in the regional L{sub g} vs p{sub g} discriminant. The L{sub g} vs p{sub g} discriminant is analogous to the teleseismic M{sub s} vs m{sub b} discriminant.

  14. When Lack of Evidence Is Evidence of Lack.

    PubMed

    Pickering, Neil

    2015-12-01

    In their recent article "A Gentle Ethical Defence of Homeopathy," Levy, Gadd, Kerridge, and Komesaroff use the claim that "lack of evidence is not equivalent to evidence of lack" as a component of their ethical defence of homeopathy. In response, this article argues that they cannot use this claim to shore up their ethical arguments. This is because it is false. PMID:26631232

  15. [Evidence and Lack of Evidence in the Treatment of Tinnitus].

    PubMed

    Hesse, G

    2016-04-01

    A broad variety of therapeutic regimen is proposed, introduced and sold against tinnitus, but most of these approaches lack scientific validation and evidence. Up to date a causal, tinnitus eliminating therapy is not available. Most probably this will not be possible at all, as the mechanism of tinnitus generation are multiple and include peripheral as well as central or cortical reactions. Like in fashion and design however, therapeutic medical interventions against tinnitus come in waves again and again over the last decades, without being able to prove lasting and scientifically evident effects.This review presents, discusses and assesses almost all available therapies regarding their evidence. Evidence should include besides external evidence through publications and available data also internal evidence, e.g. including experience of the therapist and needs of the patients.Almost all interventions that try to influence the inner ear or the auditory cortex either pharmaceutically or by direct stimulation or modulation do not reach evidence. However, there are procedures that have proven to be effective and show at least certain degrees of evidence with proven strength of effect. These are habituation therapies and psychotherapeutic interventions like cognitive behavioural therapy, especially when they are combined with concrete measures to improve auditory perception like hearing-aids, cochlear implants or hearing-therapy. PMID:27128400

  16. Evidence-Based Language Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, Eric J.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to examine evidence-based procedures in medicine and to demonstrate that the same protocols can be used in English language instruction. In the evidence-based methodology, studies are divided into those that address specific language problems. Integrated studies are presented as a systematic overview, meta-analysis,…

  17. Warrantable evidence in nursing science.

    PubMed

    Forbes, D A; King, K M; Kushner, K E; Letourneau, N L; Myrick, A F; Profetto-McGrath, J

    1999-02-01

    Consensus among nurse scholars has not been reached regarding suitable qualities for accepting or rejecting the evidence arising from various world views. The authors' purpose in writing the paper is to describe the qualities or warrants for evaluating scientific findings (the 'evidence') of different research perspectives. The warrantable evidence pertinent to post-positivist, interpretivist, critical social theorist, and feminist perspectives are described and common warrants are suggested. Three warrants common to these scientific perspectives are proposed: (a) scrutiny and critique of methodological rigor and findings by the scientific community; (b) corroboration and intersubjectivity; and (c) scope of the evidence. The identification of common warrantable evidence will assist nurses in developing some core values regarding the constituents of good science or good scholarship even in the face of pluralism in nursing science approaches. PMID:10197937

  18. Additional evidence of Mercurian volcanism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trask, N.J.; Strom, R.G.

    1976-01-01

    Evidence concerned with (1) the character and distribution of terrain surrounding fresh basins, (2) albedo, color and temporal differences between a basin rim and smooth plains on its floor, and (3) the stratigraphic relations and local distribution of smooth plains in the hilly and lineated terrain are cited as additional evidence for an internal origin of much of the Mercurian smooth plains. Altough the question of Mercurian volcanism should be kept open, this evidence together with that presented in an earlier paper suggests that volcanism occurred on Mercury early in its history. ?? 1976.

  19. Schematic Patterns of Causal Evidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rholes, William S.; Walters, Jackie

    1982-01-01

    The study was to determine when the patterns of causal evidence proposed by Orvis, Cunningham and Kelly (1975) begin to function as schemata in the attributional process. One hundred forty-four subjects took part in the study. (RH)

  20. "New" Persuasive Evidence for Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Max, Edward E.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses some new evidence for evolution that might be useful in persuading students who question the scientific basis for evolution. Draws on findings from the fields of molecular biology and genetics. (DDR)

  1. NASA 2010 Pharmacology Evidence Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, Susan

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, the Institute of Medicine reviewed NASA's Human Research Program Evidence in assessing the Pharmacology risk identified in NASA's Human Research Program Requirements Document (PRD). Since this review there was a major reorganization of the Pharmacology discipline within the HRP, as well as a re-evaluation of the Pharmacology evidence. This panel is being asked to review the latest version of the Pharmacology Evidence Report. Specifically, this panel will: (1) Appraise the descriptions of the human health-related risk in the HRP PRD. (2) Assess the relevance and comprehensiveness of the evidence in identifying potential threats to long-term space missions. (3) Assess the associated gaps in knowledge and identify additional areas for research as necessary.

  2. Gravitational Waves: The Evidence Mounts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wick, Gerald L.

    1970-01-01

    Reviews the work of Weber and his colleagues in their attempts at detecting extraterrestial gravitational waves. Coincidence events recorded by special detectors provide the evidence for the existence of gravitational waves. Bibliography. (LC)

  3. Evidence for glaciation in Elysium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Duwayne M.; Brandstrom, Gary W.

    1987-01-01

    It is suggested that certain landforms in the Elysium region of Mars provide strong evidence for glaciation. Landscapes related to subglacial volcanism suggest that ice was a primary agent in the development of Elysium.

  4. Evidence accumulation for spatial reasoning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsuyama, T.; Hwang, V. S. S.; Davis, L. S.

    1984-01-01

    The evidence accumulation proces of an image understanding system is described enabling the system to perform top-down(goal-oriented) picture processing as well as bottom-up verification of consistent spatial relations among objects.

  5. Forensic Botany: Evidence and Analysis.

    PubMed

    Coyle, H M

    2009-01-01

    Forensic botany is the use of plant evidence in matters of law. While plant fragments are often collected as trace evidence, they are only occasionally identified using microscopy and are still more rarely assessed using molecular biology techniques for individualization and sourcing of a sample. There are many different methods useful for DNA typing of plants; this review focuses on those techniques (DNA sequencing, STR, AFLP, RAPD) most relevant to the forensic science community and on those methods currently in practice. Plant evidence is commonly associated with homicides, with clandestine graves, as trace pollen on clothing, vehicles, or packaging, or in the transport of illicit drugs. DNA can be especially useful for the identification of minute quantity of samples, for differentiation of plants that lack distinguishing morphological features, and for generating a unique identifier for associative forensic evidence. PMID:26242238

  6. Evidence-based medicine and levels of evidence.

    PubMed

    Wallace, David K

    2010-01-01

    Evidence-based medicine is the practice of making medical decisions based on evidence gained from applying the scientific method. Published studies are evaluated using three key questions: "Are the results valid?"; "What are the results?"; and "Can the results be applied to my patients?" The hierarchy of study methods for obtaining evidence is, in order from least to most useful: laboratory research, editorials, case reports and series, case-control studies, cohort studies, and randomized clinical trials. Retrospective case series can suffer from problems such as selection of a biased sample, mixing of treatment effects, and lack of control group. Randomized clinical trials (and meta-analyses of multiple trials) provide the highest level of evidence because randomization limits confounding and prevents bias of treatment assignment. In addition, randomized trials have standardization of interventions, prospective data collection, and masked outcome measures. Although every question cannot be addressed by a randomized clinical trial, the best available evidence should be sought and used to guide treatments. PMID:21061876

  7. 33 CFR 20.803 - Hearsay evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hearsay evidence. 20.803 Section 20.803 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE, PROCEDURE, AND EVIDENCE FOR FORMAL ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEEDINGS OF THE COAST GUARD Evidence § 20.803 Hearsay evidence. Hearsay evidence...

  8. 42 CFR 423.1048 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evidence. 423.1048 Section 423.1048 Public Health....1048 Evidence. Evidence may be received at the hearing even though inadmissible under the rules of evidence applicable to court procedure. The ALJ rules on the admissibility of evidence....

  9. 42 CFR 498.61 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evidence. 498.61 Section 498.61 Public Health... PROGRAM Hearings § 498.61 Evidence. Evidence may be received at the hearing even though inadmissible under the rules of evidence applicable to court procedure. The ALJ rules on the admissibility of evidence....

  10. 31 CFR 8.64 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evidence. 8.64 Section 8.64 Money and... AND FIREARMS Disciplinary Proceedings § 8.64 Evidence. (a) Rules of evidence. The rules of evidence... shall exclude evidence which is irrelevant, immaterial, or unduly repetitious. (b)...

  11. 27 CFR 71.83 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence. 71.83 Section 71... General § 71.83 Evidence. Any evidence which would be admissible under the rules of evidence governing... his case or defense by oral or documentary evidence, depositions, duly authenticated copies of...

  12. Indigenous communities and evidence building.

    PubMed

    Echo-Hawk, Holly

    2011-01-01

    Indigenous populations in the U.S. and Pacific Islands are underrepresented in mental health and substance abuse research, are underserved, and have limited access to mainstream providers. Often, they receive care that is low quality and culturally inappropriate, resulting in compromised service outcomes. The First Nations Behavioral Health Association (U.S.) and the Pacific Substance Abuse and Mental Health Collaborating Council (Pacific Jurisdictions), have developed a Compendium of Best Practices for American Indian/Alaska Native and Pacific Island Populations. The private and public sector's increasing reliance on evidence-based practices (EBP) leaves many Indigenous communities at a disadvantage. For example, funding sources may require the use of EBP without awareness of its cultural usefulness to the local Indigenous population. Indigenous communities are then faced with having to select an EBP that is rooted in non-native social and cultural contexts with no known effectiveness in an Indigenous community. The field of cultural competence has tried to influence mainstream research, and the escalating requirement of EBP use. These efforts have given rise to the practice-based evidence (PBE) and the community-defined evidence (CDE) fields. All of these efforts, ranging from evidence-based practice to community-defined evidence, have a shared goal: practice improvement. PMID:22400456

  13. Coarticulatory evidence in stuttered disfluencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbisi-Kelm, Timothy

    2005-09-01

    While the disfluencies produced in stuttered speech surface at a significantly higher rate than those found in normal speech, it is less clear from the previous stuttering literature how exactly these disfluency patterns might differ in kind [Wingate (1988)]. One tendency found in normal speech is for disfluencies to remove acoustic evidence of coarticulation patterns [Shriberg (1999)]. This appears attributable to lexical search errors which prevent a speaker from accessing a word's phonological form; that is, coarticulation between words will fail to occur when segmental material from the following word is not retrieved. Since stuttering is a disorder which displays evidence of phonological but not lexical impairment, it was predicted that stuttered disfluencies would differ from normal errors in that the former would reveal acoustic evidence of word transitions. Eight speakers four stutterers and four control subjects participated in a narrative-production task, spontaneously describing a picture book. Preliminary results suggest that while both stutterers and controls did produce similar rates of disfluencies occurring without coarticulatory evidence, only the stutterers regularly produced disfluencies reflecting this transitional evidence. These results support the argument that disfluencies proper to stuttering result from a phonological deficit, while normal disfluencies are generally lexically based.

  14. Evidence in the learning organization

    PubMed Central

    Crites, Gerald E; McNamara, Megan C; Akl, Elie A; Richardson, W Scott; Umscheid, Craig A; Nishikawa, James

    2009-01-01

    Background Organizational leaders in business and medicine have been experiencing a similar dilemma: how to ensure that their organizational members are adopting work innovations in a timely fashion. Organizational leaders in healthcare have attempted to resolve this dilemma by offering specific solutions, such as evidence-based medicine (EBM), but organizations are still not systematically adopting evidence-based practice innovations as rapidly as expected by policy-makers (the knowing-doing gap problem). Some business leaders have adopted a systems-based perspective, called the learning organization (LO), to address a similar dilemma. Three years ago, the Society of General Internal Medicine's Evidence-based Medicine Task Force began an inquiry to integrate the EBM and LO concepts into one model to address the knowing-doing gap problem. Methods During the model development process, the authors searched several databases for relevant LO frameworks and their related concepts by using a broad search strategy. To identify the key LO frameworks and consolidate them into one model, the authors used consensus-based decision-making and a narrative thematic synthesis guided by several qualitative criteria. The authors subjected the model to external, independent review and improved upon its design with this feedback. Results The authors found seven LO frameworks particularly relevant to evidence-based practice innovations in organizations. The authors describe their interpretations of these frameworks for healthcare organizations, the process they used to integrate the LO frameworks with EBM principles, and the resulting Evidence in the Learning Organization (ELO) model. They also provide a health organization scenario to illustrate ELO concepts in application. Conclusion The authors intend, by sharing the LO frameworks and the ELO model, to help organizations identify their capacities to learn and share knowledge about evidence-based practice innovations. The ELO model

  15. The Notion of Evidence in Evidence-Based Practice by the Nursing Philosophy Working Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romyn, Donna M.; Allen, Marion N.; Boschma, Geertje; Duncan, Susan M.; Edgecombe, Nancy; Jensen, Louise A.; Ross-Kerr, Janet C.; Marck, Patricia; Salsali, Mahvash; Tourangeau, Ann E.; Warnock, Fay

    2003-01-01

    Addresses these questions: To what end is evidence sought? What is the nature of evidence? What kinds of evidence are valued by the nursing profession? and What kinds of evidence should underlie clinical decision making? (Contains 28 references.) (SK)

  16. Electrophysiological evidence for phenomenal consciousness.

    PubMed

    Revonsuo, Antti; Koivisto, Mika

    2010-09-01

    Abstract Recent evidence from event-related brain potentials (ERPs) lends support to two central theses in Lamme's theory. The earliest ERP correlate of visual consciousness appears over posterior visual cortex around 100-200 ms after stimulus onset. Its scalp topography and time window are consistent with recurrent processing in the visual cortex. This electrophysiological correlate of visual consciousness is mostly independent of later ERPs reflecting selective attention and working memory functions. Overall, the ERP evidence supports the view that phenomenal consciousness of a visual stimulus emerges earlier than access consciousness, and that attention and awareness are served by distinct neural processes. PMID:24168341

  17. Evidence on global medical travel

    PubMed Central

    Záliš, Ladislav; Meurice, Christopher R; Hilton, Ian; Ly, Terry-Lisa; Zupan, Zorana; Hinrichs, Saba

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The potential benefits of travelling across national borders to obtain medical treatment include improved care, decreased costs and reduced waiting times. However, medical travel involves additional risks, compared to obtaining treatment domestically. We review the publicly-available evidence on medical travel. We suggest that medical travel needs to be understood in terms of its potential risks and benefits so that it can be evaluated against alternatives by patients who are seeking care. We propose three domains –quality standards, informed decision-making, economic and legal protection – in which better evidence could support the development of medical travel policies. PMID:26549906

  18. Current Evidence for Osteoarthritis Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Anandacoomarasamy, Ananthila; March, Lyn

    2010-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis and the leading cause of chronic disability among older people. The burden of the disease is expected to rise with an aging population and the increasing prevalence of obesity. Despite this, there is as yet no cure for OA. However, in recent years, a number of potential therapeutic advances have been made, in part due to improved understanding of the underlying pathophysiology. This review provides the current evidence for symptomatic management of OA including nonpharmacological, pharmacological and surgical approaches. The current state of evidence for disease-modifying therapy in OA is also reviewed. PMID:22870434

  19. Evidence on global medical travel.

    PubMed

    Ruggeri, Kai; Záliš, Ladislav; Meurice, Christopher R; Hilton, Ian; Ly, Terry-Lisa; Zupan, Zorana; Hinrichs, Saba

    2015-11-01

    The potential benefits of travelling across national borders to obtain medical treatment include improved care, decreased costs and reduced waiting times. However, medical travel involves additional risks, compared to obtaining treatment domestically. We review the publicly-available evidence on medical travel. We suggest that medical travel needs to be understood in terms of its potential risks and benefits so that it can be evaluated against alternatives by patients who are seeking care. We propose three domains -quality standards, informed decision-making, economic and legal protection - in which better evidence could support the development of medical travel policies. PMID:26549906

  20. Materials Data on Ta27S50 (SG:1) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2014-07-09

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  1. Water on Mars: Petrographic Evidence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wentworth, S. J.; Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; McKay, D. S.

    2002-01-01

    FE-SEM and TEM studies of martian meteorites are focused on identifying and characterizing possible martian weathering products using SEM petrography. New data include unambiguous evidence that Ca-sulfate in the Nakhla meteorite is of martian origin. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  2. What Good Is Soft Evidence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murdach, Allison D.

    2010-01-01

    Along with other helping professions, social work is today struggling to become a more "evidence-based" activity. This article explores some of the issues raised by this reevaluation of social work, especially as it relates to the issue of direct social work practice. Despite the current push to base social work helping methods on scientific…

  3. Learned Helplessness: Theory and Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maier, Steven F.; Seligman, Martin E. P.

    1976-01-01

    Authors believes that three phenomena are all instances of "learned helplessness," instances in which an organism has learned that outcomes are uncontrollable by his responses and is seriously debilitated by this knowledge. This article explores the evidence for the phenomena of learned helplessness, and discussed a variety of theoretical…

  4. Learning Styles: Where's the Evidence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohrer, Doug; Pashler, Harold

    2012-01-01

    Whereas modern medicine owes much of its success to its reliance upon evidence-based treatments, most popular techniques of instruction have not been subjected to thorough empirical scrutiny. A particularly glaring and costly result of this, we argue, is the wide acceptance of the idea that instruction should be tailored to a student's so-called…

  5. School Centered Evidence Based Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milligan, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Achievement scores drive much of the effort in today's accountability system, however, there is much more that occurs in every school, every day. School Centered Evidence Based Accountability can be used from micro to macro giving School Boards and Administration a process for monitoring the results of the entire school operation effectively and…

  6. New evidence of animal consciousness.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Donald R; Speck, Gayle B

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews evidence that increases the probability that many animals experience at least simple levels of consciousness. First, the search for neural correlates of consciousness has not found any consciousness-producing structure or process that is limited to human brains. Second, appropriate responses to novel challenges for which the animal has not been prepared by genetic programming or previous experience provide suggestive evidence of animal consciousness because such versatility is most effectively organized by conscious thinking. For example, certain types of classical conditioning require awareness of the learned contingency in human subjects, suggesting comparable awareness in similarly conditioned animals. Other significant examples of versatile behavior suggestive of conscious thinking are scrub jays that exhibit all the objective attributes of episodic memory, evidence that monkeys sometimes know what they know, creative tool-making by crows, and recent interpretation of goal-directed behavior of rats as requiring simple nonreflexive consciousness. Third, animal communication often reports subjective experiences. Apes have demonstrated increased ability to use gestures or keyboard symbols to make requests and answer questions; and parrots have refined their ability to use the imitation of human words to ask for things they want and answer moderately complex questions. New data have demonstrated increased flexibility in the gestural communication of swarming honey bees that leads to vitally important group decisions as to which cavity a swarm should select as its new home. Although no single piece of evidence provides absolute proof of consciousness, this accumulation of strongly suggestive evidence increases significantly the likelihood that some animals experience at least simple conscious thoughts and feelings. The next challenge for cognitive ethologists is to investigate for particular animals the content of their awareness and what life is

  7. Evidence-Based Practice and School Nursing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Susan; McCarthy, Ann Marie

    2005-01-01

    School nurses need to demonstrate that their practice is based on the best evidence available, which is usually data obtained from research. Evidence-based practice involves combining the best evidence available with nursing expertise and patient and family preferences to determine optimum care. Evidence-based practice guidelines are developed by…

  8. 15 CFR 25.34 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence. 25.34 Section 25.34 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROGRAM Fraud Civil Remedies § 25.34 Evidence... of Evidence where appropriate, e.g., to exclude unreliable evidence. (c) The ALJ shall...

  9. 31 CFR 15.737-21 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evidence. 15.737-21 Section 15.737-21... Administrative Enforcement Proceedings § 15.737-21 Evidence. (a) In general. The rules of evidence prevailing in... exclude evidence which is irrelevant, immaterial, or unduly repetitious. (b) Depositions. The...

  10. 14 CFR 13.59 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence. 13.59 Section 13.59 Aeronautics... AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Rules of Practice for FAA Hearings § 13.59 Evidence. (a) Each party to a hearing may present the party's case or defense by oral or documentary evidence, submit evidence...

  11. 31 CFR 360.23 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evidence. 360.23 Section 360.23 Money... BONDS, SERIES I Judicial Proceedings § 360.23 Evidence. (a) General. To establish the validity of... must be supported by appropriate evidence of appointment and qualification. The evidence must...

  12. 20 CFR 901.45 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence. 901.45 Section 901.45 Employees... § 901.45 Evidence. (a) In general. The rules of evidence prevailing in courts of law and equity are not... actuaries. However, the Administrative Law Judge shall exclude evidence which is irrelevant, immaterial,...

  13. 21 CFR 17.39 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence. 17.39 Section 17.39 Food and Drugs FOOD... HEARINGS § 17.39 Evidence. (a) The presiding officer shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b... Evidence.” However, the presiding officer may apply the “Federal Rules of Evidence” when appropriate,...

  14. 42 CFR 426.540 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evidence. 426.540 Section 426.540 Public Health... § 426.540 Evidence. (a) Except as provided in this part, the Board is not bound by the Federal Rules of Evidence. However, the Board may apply the Federal Rules of Evidence when appropriate, for example,...

  15. 42 CFR 422.678 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evidence. 422.678 Section 422.678 Public Health... PROGRAM MEDICARE ADVANTAGE PROGRAM Medicare Contract Determinations and Appeals § 422.678 Evidence. The hearing officer rules on the admissibility of evidence and may admit evidence that would be...

  16. 37 CFR 11.50 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evidence. 11.50 Section 11.50... Proceedings; Jurisdiction, Sanctions, Investigations, and Proceedings § 11.50 Evidence. (a) Rules of evidence. The rules of evidence prevailing in courts of law and equity are not controlling in hearings...

  17. 29 CFR 511.13 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evidence. 511.13 Section 511.13 Labor Regulations Relating... AMERICAN SAMOA § 511.13 Evidence. In accordance with the notice of hearing, the committee and any... they are not refuted by evidence received at the hearing. Other pertinent evidence available to...

  18. 49 CFR 511.43 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evidence. 511.43 Section 511.43 Transportation..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ADJUDICATIVE PROCEDURES Hearings § 511.43 Evidence. (a) Applicability of Federal Rules of Evidence. The Federal Rules of Evidence shall apply to proceedings held under this part only...

  19. 49 CFR 821.38 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evidence. 821.38 Section 821.38 Transportation... PRACTICE IN AIR SAFETY PROCEEDINGS Hearing § 821.38 Evidence. Each party shall have the right to present a case-in-chief, or defense, by oral and documentary evidence, to submit evidence in rebuttal, and...

  20. 42 CFR 423.659 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evidence. 423.659 Section 423.659 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE....659 Evidence. The hearing officer rules on the admissibility of evidence and may admit evidence...

  1. 14 CFR 406.149 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence. 406.149 Section 406.149... Transportation Adjudications § 406.149 Evidence. (a) General. A party is entitled to present the party's case or defense by oral, documentary, or demonstrative evidence, to submit rebuttal evidence, and to conduct...

  2. 16 CFR 3.43 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence. 3.43 Section 3.43 Commercial... ADJUDICATIVE PROCEEDINGS Hearings § 3.43 Evidence. (a) Burden of proof. Counsel representing the Commission, or... reliable evidence shall be admitted. Irrelevant, immaterial, and unreliable evidence shall be...

  3. 7 CFR 1.332 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence. 1.332 Section 1.332 Agriculture Office of... Under the Program Fraud Civil Remedies Act of 1986 § 1.332 Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided herein, the Federal Rules of Evidence are not applicable...

  4. 16 CFR 1025.43 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence. 1025.43 Section 1025.43 Commercial... § 1025.43 Evidence. (a) Applicability of Federal Rules of Evidence. Unless otherwise provided by statute or these rules, the Federal Rules of Evidence shall apply to all proceedings held pursuant to...

  5. 45 CFR 213.25 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evidence. 213.25 Section 213.25 Public Welfare... Evidence. (a) Testimony. Testimony shall be given orally under oath or affirmation by witnesses at the... hearing if the presiding officer so requires. (c) Rules of evidence. Technical rules of evidence shall...

  6. 42 CFR 422.1048 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evidence. 422.1048 Section 422.1048 Public Health... PROGRAM MEDICARE ADVANTAGE PROGRAM Appeal procedures for Civil Money Penalties § 422.1048 Evidence. Evidence may be received at the hearing even though inadmissible under the rules of evidence applicable...

  7. 42 CFR 426.440 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evidence. 426.440 Section 426.440 Public Health... § 426.440 Evidence. (a) Except as provided in this part, the ALJ is not bound by the Federal Rules of Evidence. However, the ALJ may apply the Federal Rules of Evidence when appropriate, for example,...

  8. 40 CFR 164.81 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evidence. 164.81 Section 164.81... (Other Than Expedited Hearings) The Hearings § 164.81 Evidence. (a) General. The Administrative Law Judge shall admit all relevant, competent and material evidence, except evidence that is unduly...

  9. 31 CFR 315.23 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evidence. 315.23 Section 315.23 Money... Caveats Permitted § 315.23 Evidence. (a) General. To establish the validity of judicial proceedings... supported by appropriate evidence of appointment and qualification. The evidence must be certified by...

  10. 22 CFR 224.34 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence. 224.34 Section 224.34 Foreign....34 Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this part, the ALJ shall not be bound by the Federal Rules of Evidence. However, the ALJ may apply...

  11. 22 CFR 18.16 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence. 18.16 Section 18.16 Foreign Relations... Enforcement Proceedings § 18.16 Evidence. The rules of evidence prevailing in courts of law and equity are not controlling in hearings under this part. However, the hearing examiner shall exclude evidence which...

  12. 34 CFR 81.15 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evidence. 81.15 Section 81.15 Education Office of the... Evidence. (a) The Federal Rules of Evidence do not apply to proceedings under this part. However, the ALJ accepts only evidence that is— (1) Relevant; (2) Material; (3) Not unduly repetitious; and (4)...

  13. Best Available Evidence: Three Complementary Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slocum, Timothy A.; Spencer, Trina D.; Detrich, Ronnie

    2012-01-01

    The best available evidence is one of the three critical features of evidence-based practice. Best available evidence is often considered to be synonymous with extremely high standards for research methodology. However, this notion may limit the scope and impact of evidence based practice to those educational decisions on which high quality…

  14. 39 CFR 959.17 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evidence. 959.17 Section 959.17 Postal Service... STATUTES § 959.17 Evidence. (a) Except as otherwise provided in these rules, the rules of evidence... repetitious evidence. (b) Testimony shall be under oath or affirmation and witnesses shall be subject to...

  15. 14 CFR 13.222 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence. 13.222 Section 13.222 Aeronautics... AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Rules of Practice in FAA Civil Penalty Actions § 13.222 Evidence. (a... evidence, to submit rebuttal evidence, and to conduct any cross-examination that may be required for a...

  16. 10 CFR 2.711 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence. 2.711 Section 2.711 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... Adjudications § 2.711 Evidence. (a) General. Every party to a proceeding has the right to present oral or documentary evidence and rebuttal evidence and to conduct, in accordance with an approved...

  17. 45 CFR 672.15 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evidence. 672.15 Section 672.15 Public Welfare... PROCEDURES § 672.15 Evidence. (a) General. The Presiding Officer shall admit all evidence which is not.... Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, evidence relating to settlement which would be excluded in the...

  18. 45 CFR 501.6 - Documentary evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Documentary evidence. 501.6 Section 501.6 Public... Documentary evidence. Documentary evidence may consist of books, records, correspondence or other documents..., correspondence or other documents sought. The production of documentary evidence will not be required at...

  19. 45 CFR 501.6 - Documentary evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Documentary evidence. 501.6 Section 501.6 Public... Documentary evidence. Documentary evidence may consist of books, records, correspondence or other documents..., correspondence or other documents sought. The production of documentary evidence will not be required at...

  20. 22 CFR 51.41 - Documentary evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Documentary evidence. 51.41 Section 51.41 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE NATIONALITY AND PASSPORTS PASSPORTS Evidence of U.S. Citizenship or Nationality § 51.41 Documentary evidence. The applicant must provide documentary evidence that he or she is...

  1. 22 CFR 51.41 - Documentary evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Documentary evidence. 51.41 Section 51.41 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE NATIONALITY AND PASSPORTS PASSPORTS Evidence of U.S. Citizenship or Nationality § 51.41 Documentary evidence. The applicant must provide documentary evidence that he or she is...

  2. 45 CFR 501.6 - Documentary evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Documentary evidence. 501.6 Section 501.6 Public... Documentary evidence. Documentary evidence may consist of books, records, correspondence or other documents..., correspondence or other documents sought. The production of documentary evidence will not be required at...

  3. 22 CFR 51.41 - Documentary evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Documentary evidence. 51.41 Section 51.41 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE NATIONALITY AND PASSPORTS PASSPORTS Evidence of U.S. Citizenship or Nationality § 51.41 Documentary evidence. The applicant must provide documentary evidence that he or she is...

  4. 22 CFR 51.41 - Documentary evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Documentary evidence. 51.41 Section 51.41 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE NATIONALITY AND PASSPORTS PASSPORTS Evidence of U.S. Citizenship or Nationality § 51.41 Documentary evidence. The applicant must provide documentary evidence that he or she is...

  5. 45 CFR 501.6 - Documentary evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Documentary evidence. 501.6 Section 501.6 Public... Documentary evidence. Documentary evidence may consist of books, records, correspondence or other documents..., correspondence or other documents sought. The production of documentary evidence will not be required at...

  6. 45 CFR 501.6 - Documentary evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Documentary evidence. 501.6 Section 501.6 Public... Documentary evidence. Documentary evidence may consist of books, records, correspondence or other documents..., correspondence or other documents sought. The production of documentary evidence will not be required at...

  7. 22 CFR 51.41 - Documentary evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Documentary evidence. 51.41 Section 51.41 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE NATIONALITY AND PASSPORTS PASSPORTS Evidence of U.S. Citizenship or Nationality § 51.41 Documentary evidence. The applicant must provide documentary evidence that he or she is...

  8. Evidence for Ancient Martian Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Everett K., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Three SNC meteorites ranging in age from 4.5 Ga. to 1.3 Ga. to 165 m.y. contain features suggestive, of past biogenic activity on Mars. Because we do not know what past martian life looks like or its physical or chemical properties, the only tools or criteria which the scientific community have to evaluate evidence of past life is to use evidence for early life on earth. There are features within ALH8400 I's carbonate globules and the pre-terrestrial aqueous alteration phases of Nakhla and Shergotty which have been interpreted as possible evidence for past life on early Mars. Eight criteria have been established for the recognition of past life within terrestrial geologic samples. They are: (a) geologic context; (b) sample's age and stratigraphic location (c) cellular morphology; (d) colonies; (e) biominerals; (f) stable isotope patterns unique to biology; (g) organic biomarkers; (h) indigenous features to the sample. For general acceptance of past life, essentially most or all of these criteria must be met. Studies have shown conclusively that the reduced carbon components in ALH84001 and Nakhla are indigenous to the meteorites and are not terrestrial contaminants Based on carbon isotopic compositions and mineralogical morphologies, there is no question or disagreement that the carbonate globules or embedded magnetites in ALH84001 and the pre-terrestrial aqueous alteration products in Nakhla and Shergotty were formed on Mars. Possible microfossil structures and some reduced carbon components in the carbonates and pre-terrestrial aqueous alteration products are, therefore, almost certainly indigenous, but other possible evidence for life (e.g. amino acids) may be a result of terrestrial contamination Our hypothesis of possible early life on Mars was presented in August 1996. Today, we believe it stands stronger than when originally presented. To date, no fatal strikes have been made to any of our original four lines of evidence. While details of the hypothesis are

  9. Healthy Places: Exploring the Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Frumkin, Howard

    2003-01-01

    “Sense of place” is a widely discussed concept in fields as diverse as geography, environmental psychology, and art, but it has little traction in the field of public health. The health impact of place includes physical, psychological, social, spiritual, and aesthetic outcomes. In this article, the author introduces sense of place as a public health construct. While many recommendations for “good places” are available, few are based on empirical evidence, and thus they are incompatible with current public health practice. Evidence-based recommendations for healthy place making could have important public health implications. Four aspects of the built environment, at different spatial scales—nature contact, buildings, public spaces, and urban form—are identified as offering promising opportunities for public health research, and potential research agendas for each are discussed. PMID:12948962

  10. Physical evidence for dark energy

    SciTech Connect

    Scranton, Ryan; Connolly, Andrew J.; Nichol, Robert C.; Stebbins, Albert; Szapudi, Istvan; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Afshordi, Niayesh; Budavari, Tamas; Csabai, Istvan; Frieman, Joshua A.; Gunn, James E.; Johnston, David; Loh, Yeong-Shang; Lupton, Robert H.; Miller, Christopher J.; Sheldon, Erin Scott; Sheth, Ravi K.; Szalay, Alexander S.; Tegmark, Max; Xu, Yongzhong; Anderson, Scott F.; /Pittsburgh U. /Carnegie Mellon U. /Fermilab /Inst. Astron., Honolulu /Arizona U., Astron. Dept. - Steward Observ. /Princeton U. Observ. /Johns Hopkins U. /Eotvos U. /Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr. /KICP, Chicago /Pennsylvania U. /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept. /Apache Point Observ. /Illinois U., Urbana, Astron. Dept. /Tokyo U., ICRR /LLNL, Livermore /Sussex U., Astron. Ctr. /Baltimore, Space Telescope Sci. /Michigan U. /Naval Observ., Flagstaff /Penn State U., Astron. Astrophys.

    2003-07-01

    The authors present measurements of the angular cross-correlation between luminous red galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the cosmic microwave background temperature maps from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe. They find a statistically significant achromatic positive correlation between these two data sets, which is consistent with the expected signal from the late Integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect. they do not detect any anti-correlation on small angular scales as would be produced from a large Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect, although they do see evidence for some SZ effect for their highest redshift samples. Assuming a flat universe, their preliminary detection of the ISW effect provides independent physical evidence for the existence of dark energy.

  11. Evidence for a nonplanar amplituhedron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bern, Zvi; Herrmann, Enrico; Litsey, Sean; Stankowicz, James; Trnka, Jaroslav

    2016-06-01

    The scattering amplitudes of planar mathcal{N} = 4 super-Yang-Mills exhibit a number of remarkable analytic structures, including dual conformal symmetry and logarithmic singularities of integrands. The amplituhedron is a geometric construction of the integrand that incorporates these structures. This geometric construction further implies the amplitude is fully specified by constraining it to vanish on spurious residues. By writing the amplitude in a dlog basis, we provide nontrivial evidence that these analytic properties and "zero conditions" carry over into the nonplanar sector. This suggests that the concept of the amplituhedron can be extended to the nonplanar sector of mathcal{N} = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory.

  12. Digital evidence obfuscation: recovery techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craiger, J. Philip; Swauger, Jeff; Marberry, Chris

    2005-05-01

    Criminals who use computers to commit crimes often hide the fruits of the commission of those crimes. Hiding files on a computer can take on many forms, from file names and extensions to more technical methods such as encryption and steganography. Encryption and steganography have the potential to severely impede the recovery of digital evidence. We discuss encryption and steganography below and describe potential methods of coping with each. The techniques we discuss require no special knowledge or advanced hardware or software; however, the use of these techniques does not guarantee the recovery of obfuscated information.

  13. Fossil evidence of Archaean life

    PubMed Central

    Schopf, J. William

    2006-01-01

    Evidence for the existence of life during the Archaean segment of Earth history (more than 2500 Myr ago) is summarized. Data are presented for 48 Archaean deposits reported to contain biogenic stromatolites, for 14 such units reported to contain 40 morphotypes of putative microfossils, and for 13 especially ancient, 3200–3500 Myr old geologic units for which available organic geochemical data are also summarized. These compilations support the view that life's existence dates from more than or equal to 3500 Myr ago. PMID:16754604

  14. Authentication of digital video evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beser, Nicholas D.; Duerr, Thomas E.; Staisiunas, Gregory P.

    2003-11-01

    In response to a requirement from the United States Postal Inspection Service, the Technical Support Working Group tasked The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) to develop a technique tha will ensure the authenticity, or integrity, of digital video (DV). Verifiable integrity is needed if DV evidence is to withstand a challenge to its admissibility in court on the grounds that it can be easily edited. Specifically, the verification technique must detect additions, deletions, or modifications to DV and satisfy the two-part criteria pertaining to scientific evidence as articulated in Daubert et al. v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals Inc., 43 F3d (9th Circuit, 1995). JHU/APL has developed a prototype digital video authenticator (DVA) that generates digital signatures based on public key cryptography at the frame level of the DV. Signature generation and recording is accomplished at the same time as DV is recorded by the camcorder. Throughput supports the consumer-grade camcorder data rate of 25 Mbps. The DVA software is implemented on a commercial laptop computer, which is connected to a commercial digital camcorder via the IEEE-1394 serial interface. A security token provides agent identification and the interface to the public key infrastructure (PKI) that is needed for management of the public keys central to DV integrity verification.

  15. Reconstructing Nursing: Evidence, Artistry and the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks-Maran, Di

    1999-01-01

    The prevailing world view is shifting from positivism to postmodernism. A postmodern perspective on evidence-based nursing suggests that evidence for nursing decisions should be derived from research, patient and nurse values, reflection, intuition, and tacit knowledge. (SK)

  16. 7 CFR 1421.12 - Production evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... collateral such as: (i) Evidence of sales, (ii) Delivery evidence, (iii) Load summaries from warehouse, processor, or buyer, (iv) Warehouse receipts (v) Paid measurement service (vi) Spot check measurements...

  17. 7 CFR 1421.12 - Production evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... collateral such as: (i) Evidence of sales, (ii) Delivery evidence, (iii) Load summaries from warehouse, processor, or buyer, (iv) Warehouse receipts (v) Paid measurement service (vi) Spot check measurements...

  18. 12 CFR 509.36 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) Except as is otherwise set forth in this section, relevant, material, and reliable evidence that is not... such evidence is relevant, material, reliable and not unduly repetitive. (b) Official notice....

  19. 31 CFR 306.101 - Evidence required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., decree, or order of court and of any necessary supplementary proceedings must be submitted. Assignments... judgment, decree, or order, or evidence of qualification, is in full force. Any such evidence must...

  20. Evidence-based periodontal therapy: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Vijayalakshmi, R.; Anitha, V.; Ramakrishnan, T.; Sudhakar, Uma

    2008-01-01

    Dentists need to make clinical decisions based on limited scientific evidence. In clinical practice, a clinician must weigh a myriad of evidences every day. The goal of evidence-based dentistry is to help practitioners provide their patients with optimal care. This is achieved by integrating sound research evidence with personal clinical expertise and patient values to determine the best course of treatment. Periodontology has a rich background of research and scholarship. Therefore, efficient use of this wealth of research data needs to be a part of periodontal practice. Evidence-based periodontology aims to facilitate such an approach and it offers a bridge from science to clinical practice. The clinician must integrate the evidence with patient preference, scientific knowledge, and personal experience. Most important, it allows us to care for our patients. Therefore, evidence-based periodontology is a tool to support decision-making and integrating the best evidence available with clinical practice. PMID:20142947

  1. 37 CFR 351.10 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evidence. 351.10 Section 351.10 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ROYALTY JUDGES RULES AND PROCEDURES PROCEEDINGS § 351.10 Evidence. (a) Admissibility. All evidence that is relevant and not unduly repetitious or...

  2. 45 CFR 150.445 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evidence. 150.445 Section 150.445 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS CMS ENFORCEMENT IN GROUP AND INDIVIDUAL INSURANCE MARKETS Administrative Hearings § 150.445 Evidence. (a) The ALJ will determine the admissibility of evidence....

  3. 45 CFR 160.540 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evidence. 160.540 Section 160.540 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ADMINISTRATIVE DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Procedures for Hearings § 160.540 Evidence. (a) The ALJ must determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except...

  4. 45 CFR 160.540 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Evidence. 160.540 Section 160.540 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ADMINISTRATIVE DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Procedures for Hearings § 160.540 Evidence. (a) The ALJ must determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except...

  5. 45 CFR 160.540 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Evidence. 160.540 Section 160.540 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services ADMINISTRATIVE DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Procedures for Hearings § 160.540 Evidence. (a) The ALJ must determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except...

  6. 10 CFR 10.30 - New evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false New evidence. 10.30 Section 10.30 Energy NUCLEAR... NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION OR AN EMPLOYMENT CLEARANCE Procedures § 10.30 New evidence. After the close of the hearing, in the event the individual discovers new evidence not previously available or...

  7. 10 CFR 10.30 - New evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false New evidence. 10.30 Section 10.30 Energy NUCLEAR... NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION OR AN EMPLOYMENT CLEARANCE Procedures § 10.30 New evidence. After the close of the hearing, in the event the individual discovers new evidence not previously available or...

  8. 10 CFR 10.30 - New evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false New evidence. 10.30 Section 10.30 Energy NUCLEAR... NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION OR AN EMPLOYMENT CLEARANCE Procedures § 10.30 New evidence. After the close of the hearing, in the event the individual discovers new evidence not previously available or...

  9. 10 CFR 10.30 - New evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false New evidence. 10.30 Section 10.30 Energy NUCLEAR... NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION OR AN EMPLOYMENT CLEARANCE Procedures § 10.30 New evidence. After the close of the hearing, in the event the individual discovers new evidence not previously available or...

  10. Using Science as Evidence in Public Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prewitt, Kenneth, Ed.; Schwandt, Thomas A., Ed.; Straf, Miron L., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Using Science as Evidence in Public Policy" encourages scientists to think differently about the use of scientific evidence in policy making. This report investigates why scientific evidence is important to policy making and argues that an extensive body of research on knowledge utilization has not led to any widely accepted explanation…

  11. 21 CFR 1404.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adequate evidence. 1404.900 Section 1404.900 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1404.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient to support the reasonable belief that a particular...

  12. 19 CFR 171.43 - Evidence required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence required. 171.43 Section 171.43 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) FINES, PENALTIES, AND FORFEITURES Restoration of Proceeds of Sale § 171.43 Evidence required. In addition to such other evidence as...

  13. 22 CFR 35.34 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence. 35.34 Section 35.34 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CLAIMS AND STOLEN PROPERTY PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 35.34 Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided herein, the ALJ shall not be...

  14. 29 CFR 22.34 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Evidence. 22.34 Section 22.34 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT OF 1986 § 22.34 Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this part, the ALJ shall not be bound by the Federal...

  15. 12 CFR 263.36 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence. 263.36 Section 263.36 Banks and... PRACTICE FOR HEARINGS Uniform Rules of Practice and Procedure § 263.36 Evidence. (a) Admissibility. (1) Except as is otherwise set forth in this section, relevant, material, and reliable evidence that is...

  16. 15 CFR 904.251 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence. 904.251 Section 904.251... and Appeal Procedures Hearings § 904.251 Evidence. (a) In general. (1) At the hearing, every party has the right to present oral or documentary evidence in support of its case or defense, to...

  17. 5 CFR 831.103 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence. 831.103 Section 831.103...) RETIREMENT Administration and General Provisions § 831.103 Evidence. (a) Standard Form 2806 (Individual..., the department, agency, or OPM should request inferior or secondary evidence which is then admissible....

  18. 28 CFR 71.34 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evidence. 71.34 Section 71.34 Judicial... REMEDIES ACT OF 1986 Implementation for Actions Initiated by the Department of Justice § 71.34 Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this part, the...

  19. 41 CFR 105-70.034 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evidence. 105-70.034...-IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT OF 1986 § 105-70.034 Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this part, the ALJ shall not be bound by...

  20. 8 CFR 315.3 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence. 315.3 Section 315.3 Aliens and...: EXEMPTION FROM MILITARY SERVICE § 315.3 Evidence. (a) The records of the Selective Service System and the military department under which the alien served shall be conclusive evidence of whether the alien...

  1. 39 CFR 952.18 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evidence. 952.18 Section 952.18 Postal Service... AND LOTTERY ORDERS § 952.18 Evidence. (a) Except as otherwise provided in these rules, the Federal Rules of Evidence shall govern. However, such rules may be relaxed to the extent that the...

  2. 49 CFR 31.34 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evidence. 31.34 Section 31.34 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 31.34 Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this part, the ALJ shall not...

  3. 39 CFR 957.16 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evidence. 957.16 Section 957.16 Postal Service... SUSPENSION FROM CONTRACTING § 957.16 Evidence. (a) Except as otherwise provided in the rules in this part, the rules of evidence governing civil proceedings in matters not involving trial by jury in the...

  4. 38 CFR 18b.57 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evidence. 18b.57 Section 18b.57 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PRACTICE AND... § 18b.57 Evidence. Irrelevant, immaterial, unreliable, and unduly repetitious evidence will be excluded....

  5. 49 CFR 1503.635 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evidence. 1503.635 Section 1503.635 Transportation... Rules of Practice in TSA Civil Penalty Actions § 1503.635 Evidence. (a) General. A party is entitled to present the party's case or defense by oral, documentary, or demonstrative evidence, to submit...

  6. 13 CFR 134.312 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence. 134.312 Section 134.312 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION RULES OF PROCEDURE GOVERNING CASES BEFORE THE... Designations § 134.312 Evidence. To the extent the rules in this subpart permit the submission of evidence,...

  7. 10 CFR 13.34 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence. 13.34 Section 13.34 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 13.34 Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this part, the ALJ shall not be bound by the Federal Rules of...

  8. 12 CFR 747.36 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence. 747.36 Section 747.36 Banks and... Procedure § 747.36 Evidence. (a) Admissibility. (1) Except as is otherwise set forth in this section, relevant, material, and reliable evidence that is not unduly repetitive is admissible to the fullest...

  9. 31 CFR 16.34 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evidence. 16.34 Section 16.34 Money... FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT OF 1986 § 16.34 Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided herein, the ALJ shall not be bound by the Federal Rules of...

  10. 7 CFR 15.117 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence. 15.117 Section 15.117 Agriculture Office of... and Administrative Review Under the Civil Rights Act of 1964 Hearing Procedures § 15.117 Evidence. Irrelevant, immaterial, unreliable, and unduly repetitious evidence will be excluded, and technical rules...

  11. 12 CFR 308.36 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence. 308.36 Section 308.36 Banks and... PROCEDURE Uniform Rules of Practice and Procedure § 308.36 Evidence. (a) Admissibility. (1) Except as is otherwise set forth in this section, relevant, material, and reliable evidence that is not unduly...

  12. 40 CFR 209.26 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evidence. 209.26 Section 209.26... Orders Issued Under Section 11(d) of the Noise Control Act § 209.26 Evidence. (a) The official... record. Evidence may be received at the hearing even though inadmissible under the rules of...

  13. 49 CFR 211.75 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evidence. 211.75 Section 211.75 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE Interim Procedures for the Review of Emergency Orders § 211.75 Evidence. (a) The Federal Rules of Evidence for United States Courts and Magistrates shall be employed as general...

  14. 42 CFR 93.208 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evidence. 93.208 Section 93.208 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS... MISCONDUCT Definitions § 93.208 Evidence. Evidence means any document, tangible item, or testimony offered...

  15. 42 CFR 430.88 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evidence. 430.88 Section 430.88 Public Health... Plans and Practice to Federal Requirements § 430.88 Evidence. (a) Evidentiary purpose. The hearing is directed to receiving factual evidence and expert opinion testimony related to the issues involved in...

  16. 5 CFR 831.905 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence. 831.905 Section 831.905...) RETIREMENT Law Enforcement Officers and Firefighters § 831.905 Evidence. (a) An agency head's determination... determination under § 831.904 must be based on the official position description and any other evidence...

  17. 12 CFR 308.533 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence. 308.533 Section 308.533 Banks and... PROCEDURE Program Fraud Civil Remedies and Procedures § 308.533 Evidence. (a) The ALJ will determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this subpart, the ALJ will not be bound by the...

  18. 8 CFR 1240.46 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence. 1240.46 Section 1240.46 Aliens....46 Evidence. (a) Sufficiency. A determination of deportability shall not be valid unless it is found by clear, unequivocal, and convincing evidence that the facts alleged as grounds for deportation...

  19. 19 CFR 210.37 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence. 210.37 Section 210.37 Customs Duties... ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT Prehearing Conferences and Hearings § 210.37 Evidence. (a) Burden of proof. The.... (b) Admissibility. Relevant, material, and reliable evidence shall be admitted....

  20. 31 CFR 353.23 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evidence. 353.23 Section 353.23 Money... BONDS, SERIES EE AND HH Judicial Proceedings § 353.23 Evidence. (a) General. To establish the validity... insolvent's estate must be supported by appropriate evidence of appointment and qualification. The...

  1. 49 CFR 845.26 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evidence. 845.26 Section 845.26 Transportation... PRACTICE IN TRANSPORTATION; ACCIDENT/INCIDENT HEARINGS AND REPORTS Conduct of Hearing § 845.26 Evidence. The chairman of the board of inquiry shall receive all testimony and evidence which may be of aid...

  2. 39 CFR 964.10 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evidence. 964.10 Section 964.10 Postal Service... DELIVERY PURSUANT TO 39 U.S.C. 3003, 3004 § 964.10 Evidence. (a) In general, admissibility will hinge on relevancy and materiality. However, relevant evidence may be excluded if its probative value...

  3. Is Probabilistic Evidence a Source of Knowledge?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Ori; Turri, John

    2015-01-01

    We report a series of experiments examining whether people ascribe knowledge for true beliefs based on probabilistic evidence. Participants were less likely to ascribe knowledge for beliefs based on probabilistic evidence than for beliefs based on perceptual evidence (Experiments 1 and 2A) or testimony providing causal information (Experiment 2B).…

  4. 31 CFR 10.73 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evidence. 10.73 Section 10.73 Money... SERVICE Rules Applicable to Disciplinary Proceedings § 10.73 Evidence. (a) In general. The rules of evidence prevailing in courts of law and equity are not controlling in hearings or proceedings...

  5. 42 CFR 3.540 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evidence. 3.540 Section 3.540 Public Health PUBLIC... AND PATIENT SAFETY WORK PRODUCT Enforcement Program § 3.540 Evidence. (a) The ALJ must determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this subpart, the ALJ is not bound by the Federal Rules...

  6. 34 CFR 101.78 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evidence. 101.78 Section 101.78 Education Regulations... PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE FOR HEARINGS UNDER PART 100 OF THIS TITLE Hearing Procedures § 101.78 Evidence. Irrelevant, immaterial, unreliable, and unduly repetitious evidence will be excluded....

  7. 5 CFR 831.805 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence. 831.805 Section 831.805...) RETIREMENT Nuclear Materials Couriers § 831.805 Evidence. (a) The Secretary of Energy's determination under... other evidence deemed appropriate by the agency head for making the determination. (c) If an employee...

  8. 34 CFR 33.34 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evidence. 33.34 Section 33.34 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT § 33.34 Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this part, the ALJ is not bound by...

  9. 12 CFR 19.36 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence. 19.36 Section 19.36 Banks and Banking... Practice and Procedure § 19.36 Evidence. (a) Admissibility. (1) Except as is otherwise set forth in this section, relevant, material, and reliable evidence that is not unduly repetitive is admissible to...

  10. 38 CFR 42.34 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evidence. 42.34 Section... IMPLEMENTING THE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT § 42.34 Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this part, the ALJ shall not be bound by the Federal...

  11. 45 CFR 79.34 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evidence. 79.34 Section 79.34 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 79.34 Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this part,...

  12. 45 CFR 81.78 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evidence. 81.78 Section 81.78 Public Welfare... 80 OF THIS TITLE Hearing Procedures § 81.78 Evidence. Irrelevant, immaterial, unreliable, and unduly repetitious evidence will be excluded....

  13. 12 CFR 509.36 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence. 509.36 Section 509.36 Banks and... ADJUDICATORY PROCEEDINGS Uniform Rules of Practice and Procedure § 509.36 Evidence. (a) Admissibility. (1) Except as is otherwise set forth in this section, relevant, material, and reliable evidence that is...

  14. 5 CFR 842.905 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence. 842.905 Section 842.905... EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-BASIC ANNUITY Nuclear Materials Couriers § 842.905 Evidence. (a) The Secretary... official position description and any other evidence deemed appropriate by the agency head for making...

  15. 6 CFR 13.34 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence. 13.34 Section 13.34 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 13.34 Evidence. (a) The ALJ will determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this part, the...

  16. 14 CFR 1264.133 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence. 1264.133 Section 1264.133... PENALTIES ACT OF 1986 § 1264.133 Evidence. (a) The presiding officer shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided herein, the presiding officer shall not be bound by the Federal Rules...

  17. 13 CFR 134.223 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence. 134.223 Section 134.223... OFFICE OF HEARINGS AND APPEALS Rules of Practice for Most Cases § 134.223 Evidence. (a) Federal Rules of Evidence. Unless contrary to a particular rule in this part, or an order of the Judge, the Federal Rules...

  18. 39 CFR 952.18 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evidence. 952.18 Section 952.18 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO FALSE REPRESENTATION AND LOTTERY ORDERS § 952.18 Evidence. (a) Except as otherwise provided in these rules, the Federal Rules of Evidence shall govern. However,...

  19. 10 CFR 2.711 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Evidence. 2.711 Section 2.711 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION AGENCY RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Rules for Formal Adjudications § 2.711 Evidence. (a... directed by the presiding officer. (e) Admissibility. Only relevant, material, and reliable evidence...

  20. 10 CFR 2.711 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Evidence. 2.711 Section 2.711 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION AGENCY RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Rules for Formal Adjudications § 2.711 Evidence. (a... directed by the presiding officer. (e) Admissibility. Only relevant, material, and reliable evidence...

  1. 20 CFR 220.46 - Medical evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Medical evidence. 220.46 Section 220.46 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT DETERMINING DISABILITY Evidence of Disability § 220.46 Medical evidence. (a) Acceptable sources. The Board needs reports about the claimant's impairment(s)...

  2. 20 CFR 220.46 - Medical evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Medical evidence. 220.46 Section 220.46 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT DETERMINING DISABILITY Evidence of Disability § 220.46 Medical evidence. (a) Acceptable sources. The Board needs reports about the claimant's impairment(s)...

  3. 10 CFR 710.30 - New evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Matter or Special Nuclear Material Administrative Review § 710.30 New evidence. (a) In the event of the discovery of new evidence relevant to the allegations contained in the notification letter prior to final... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false New evidence. 710.30 Section 710.30 Energy DEPARTMENT...

  4. 20 CFR 404.1512 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence. 404.1512 Section 404.1512 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Evidence § 404.1512 Evidence. (a) General. In general, you have to prove to us that you are blind or...

  5. 20 CFR 404.1512 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Evidence. 404.1512 Section 404.1512 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Evidence § 404.1512 Evidence. (a) General. In general, you have to prove to us that you are blind or...

  6. 20 CFR 416.912 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Evidence. 416.912 Section 416.912 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Evidence § 416.912 Evidence. (a) General. In general, you have to prove to us that you are blind or...

  7. 20 CFR 404.1512 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Evidence. 404.1512 Section 404.1512 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Evidence § 404.1512 Evidence. (a) General. In general, you have to prove to us that you are blind or...

  8. 20 CFR 416.912 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Evidence. 416.912 Section 416.912 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Evidence § 416.912 Evidence. (a) General. In general, you have to prove to us that you are blind or...

  9. 20 CFR 416.912 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Evidence. 416.912 Section 416.912 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Evidence § 416.912 Evidence. (a) General. In general, you have to prove to us that you are blind or...

  10. 20 CFR 416.912 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence. 416.912 Section 416.912 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Evidence § 416.912 Evidence. (a) General. In general, you have to prove to us that you are blind or...

  11. 20 CFR 404.1512 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Evidence. 404.1512 Section 404.1512 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Evidence § 404.1512 Evidence. (a) General. In general, you have to prove to us that you are blind or...

  12. 40 CFR 27.34 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evidence. 27.34 Section 27.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 27.34 Evidence. (a) The presiding officer shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as...

  13. 29 CFR 98.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Adequate evidence. 98.900 Section 98.900 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 98.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient to support the reasonable belief that a...

  14. 49 CFR 511.43 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Evidence. 511.43 Section 511.43 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ADJUDICATIVE PROCEDURES Hearings § 511.43 Evidence. (a) Applicability of Federal Rules of Evidence. The Federal...

  15. 5 CFR 185.126 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence. 185.126 Section 185.126 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 185.126 Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided...

  16. 16 CFR 3.43 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Evidence. 3.43 Section 3.43 Commercial... danger of unfair prejudice, confusion of the issues, or if the evidence would be misleading, or based on... conducted activity as a regular practice. (d) Presentation of evidence. (1) A party is entitled to...

  17. 16 CFR 3.43 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Evidence. 3.43 Section 3.43 Commercial... danger of unfair prejudice, confusion of the issues, or if the evidence would be misleading, or based on... regular practice. (d) Presentation of evidence. (1) A party is entitled to present its case or defense...

  18. 16 CFR 3.43 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Evidence. 3.43 Section 3.43 Commercial... danger of unfair prejudice, confusion of the issues, or if the evidence would be misleading, or based on... regular practice. (d) Presentation of evidence. (1) A party is entitled to present its case or defense...

  19. 16 CFR 3.43 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Evidence. 3.43 Section 3.43 Commercial... danger of unfair prejudice, confusion of the issues, or if the evidence would be misleading, or based on... regular practice. (d) Presentation of evidence. (1) A party is entitled to present its case or defense...

  20. 20 CFR 220.46 - Medical evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical evidence. 220.46 Section 220.46... DISABILITY Evidence of Disability § 220.46 Medical evidence. (a) Acceptable sources. The Board needs reports about the claimant's impairment(s) from acceptable medical sources. Acceptable medical sources are—...

  1. 20 CFR 220.46 - Medical evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Medical evidence. 220.46 Section 220.46... DISABILITY Evidence of Disability § 220.46 Medical evidence. (a) Acceptable sources. The Board needs reports about the claimant's impairment(s) from acceptable medical sources. Acceptable medical sources are—...

  2. 20 CFR 220.46 - Medical evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Medical evidence. 220.46 Section 220.46... DISABILITY Evidence of Disability § 220.46 Medical evidence. (a) Acceptable sources. The Board needs reports about the claimant's impairment(s) from acceptable medical sources. Acceptable medical sources are—...

  3. Critical Dispositions: Evidence and Expertise in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimitriadis, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Set against the current proliferation of global "difference" and economic realignment, "Critical Dispositions" explores the notions of "evidence" and "expertise" in times of material scarcity. Both have come to the forefront of national and international debate in education as "evidence" and "evidence-based" research and pedagogical practices…

  4. 39 CFR 952.18 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evidence. 952.18 Section 952.18 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO FALSE REPRESENTATION AND LOTTERY ORDERS (EFF. UNTIL 7-22-2011) § 952.18 Evidence. (a) Except as otherwise provided in these rules, the Federal Rules of Evidence...

  5. 39 CFR 952.18 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evidence. 952.18 Section 952.18 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO FALSE REPRESENTATION AND LOTTERY ORDERS § 952.18 Evidence. (a) Except as otherwise provided in these rules, the Federal Rules of Evidence shall govern. However,...

  6. 20 CFR 404.1512 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Evidence. 404.1512 Section 404.1512 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Evidence § 404.1512 Evidence. (a) General. In general, you have to...

  7. 39 CFR 952.18 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Evidence. 952.18 Section 952.18 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO FALSE REPRESENTATION AND LOTTERY ORDERS § 952.18 Evidence. (a) Except as otherwise provided in these rules, the Federal Rules of Evidence shall govern. However,...

  8. Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy: the evidence.

    PubMed

    Underwood, S R; Anagnostopoulos, C; Cerqueira, M; Ell, P J; Flint, E J; Harbinson, M; Kelion, A D; Al-Mohammad, A; Prvulovich, E M; Shaw, L J; Tweddel, A C

    2004-02-01

    This review summarises the evidence for the role of myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) in patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease. It is the product of a consensus conference organised by the British Cardiac Society, the British Nuclear Cardiology Society and the British Nuclear Medicine Society and is endorsed by the Royal College of Physicians of London and the Royal College of Radiologists. It was used to inform the UK National Institute of Clinical Excellence in their appraisal of MPS in patients with chest pain and myocardial infarction. MPS is a well-established, non-invasive imaging technique with a large body of evidence to support its effectiveness in the diagnosis and management of angina and myocardial infarction. It is more accurate than the exercise ECG in detecting myocardial ischaemia and it is the single most powerful technique for predicting future coronary events. The high diagnostic accuracy of MPS allows reliable risk stratification and guides the selection of patients for further interventions, such as revascularisation. This in turn allows more appropriate utilisation of resources, with the potential for both improved clinical outcomes and greater cost-effectiveness. Evidence from modelling and observational studies supports the enhanced cost-effectiveness associated with MPS use. In patients presenting with stable or acute chest pain, strategies of investigation involving MPS are more cost-effective than those not using the technique. MPS also has particular advantages over alternative techniques in the management of a number of patient subgroups, including women, the elderly and those with diabetes, and its use will have a favourable impact on cost-effectiveness in these groups. MPS is already an integral part of many clinical guidelines for the investigation and management of angina and myocardial infarction. However, the technique is underutilised in the UK, as judged by the inappropriately long waiting times and by

  9. Hard evidence on soft skills✩

    PubMed Central

    Heckman, James J.; Kautz, Tim

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes recent evidence on what achievement tests measure; how achievement tests relate to other measures of “cognitive ability” like IQ and grades; the important skills that achievement tests miss or mismeasure, and how much these skills matter in life. Achievement tests miss, or perhaps more accurately, do not adequately capture, soft skills—personality traits, goals, motivations, and preferences that are valued in the labor market, in school, and in many other domains. The larger message of this paper is that soft skills predict success in life, that they causally produce that success, and that programs that enhance soft skills have an important place in an effective portfolio of public policies. PMID:23559694

  10. Paleoseismology: evidence of earth activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nováková, Lucie

    2016-07-01

    The paleoseismic research aims to document earth activity during earthquakes, such as displacements of fault, rupture location, distribution of slip or ground shaking intensity. The earthquakes are usually distributed on the plate boundaries causing big damages of life on the Earth. Four faults in North America, New Zealand and Europe with different behaviour, direction and sense of movement have been chosen to document the seismic activity within the world. The White Creek Fault, the Greendale Fault, the San Andreas Fault and the Paganica Fault have been responsible for the earthquakes of M > 6 in the last century. Figures in this paper show the evidence of the earthquakes that can be visible in the field.

  11. The Evidence Regarding Maintenance Tocolysis

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, John P.; Morrison, John C.

    2013-01-01

    Preterm delivery is a public health issue of major proportion. More than 12% of deliveries in the United States that occur at less than 37 weeks gestation preterm labor (PTL) represents the largest single reason for preterm birth (PTB). Attempts to prevent PTB have been unsuccessful. This paper of maintenance tocolytic therapy will examine the efficacy and safety of the drugs, both oral and subcutaneous, which have been utilized for prolongation of pregnancy following successful arrest of a documented episode of acute preterm labor. The evidence for oral tocolytics as maintenance therapy as well as parenteral medications for such patients is offered. Finally, the effects in the United States of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) action on such medications are reported. PMID:23577034

  12. Sexually antagonistic genes: experimental evidence.

    PubMed

    Rice, W R

    1992-06-01

    When selection differs between the sexes, a mutation beneficial to one sex may be harmful to the other (sexually antagonistic). Because the sexes share a common gene pool, selection in one sex can interfere with the other's adaptive evolution. Theory predicts that sexually antagonistic mutations should accumulate in tight linkage with a new sex-determining gene, even when the harm to benefit ratio is high. Genetic markers and artificial selection were used to make a pair of autosomal genes segregate like a new pair of sex-determining genes in a Drosophila melanogaster model system. A 29-generation study provides experimental evidence that sexually antagonistic genes may be common in nature and will accumulate in response to a new sex-determining gene. PMID:1604317

  13. Evidence-based Science Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahan, D.

    2012-12-01

    This presentation will describe a concrete strategy for bridging the gap between the *science* of science communication and the practice of it. In recent years, social scientists have made substantial progress in identifying the psychological influences that shape public receptivity to scientific information relating to climate change and other public policy issues. That work, however, has consisted nearly entirely of laboratory experiments and public opinion surveys; these methods identify general mechanisms of information processing but do not yield concrete prescriptions for communication in field settings. In order to integrate the findings of the science of science communication with the practice of it, field communication must now be made into a meaningful site of science communication research. "Evidence-based science communication" will involve collaborative work between social scientists and practitioners aimed at formulating and testing scientifically informed communication strategies in real-world contexts.

  14. Paleoseismology: evidence of earth activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nováková, Lucie

    2016-05-01

    The paleoseismic research aims to document earth activity during earthquakes, such as displacements of fault, rupture location, distribution of slip or ground shaking intensity. The earthquakes are usually distributed on the plate boundaries causing big damages of life on the Earth. Four faults in North America, New Zealand and Europe with different behaviour, direction and sense of movement have been chosen to document the seismic activity within the world. The White Creek Fault, the Greendale Fault, the San Andreas Fault and the Paganica Fault have been responsible for the earthquakes of M > 6 in the last century. Figures in this paper show the evidence of the earthquakes that can be visible in the field.

  15. The evidence-based paradox.

    PubMed

    Hinojosa, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Many occupational therapy practitioners consider evidence-based practice (EBP) to be the means by which occupational therapy can prove the validity of its services and thus support the legitimacy of our profession. The unquestioned acceptance of EBP as the way to establish credibility concerns me; unchallenged acceptance of any idea concerns me. Do practitioners accept EBP as the paradigm for guiding occupational therapy practice and research solely because it is presented as what we must do? I believe that practitioners must examine the implications for our profession of accepting EBP without question. In this article, I review EBP, present criticisms and concerns voiced by other professions and, finally, examine the implications of adopting an EBP perspective that replaces theory-directed practice. PMID:23433283

  16. Evidence of the big fix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamada, Yuta; Kawai, Hikaru; Kawana, Kiyoharu

    2014-06-01

    We give an evidence of the Big Fix. The theory of wormholes and multiverse suggests that the parameters of the Standard Model are fixed in such a way that the total entropy at the late stage of the universe is maximized, which we call the maximum entropy principle. In this paper, we discuss how it can be confirmed by the experimental data, and we show that it is indeed true for the Higgs vacuum expectation value vh. We assume that the baryon number is produced by the sphaleron process, and that the current quark masses, the gauge couplings and the Higgs self-coupling are fixed when we vary vh. It turns out that the existence of the atomic nuclei plays a crucial role to maximize the entropy. This is reminiscent of the anthropic principle, however it is required by the fundamental law in our case.

  17. Evaluating the Quality of Evidence from Correlational Research for Evidence-Based Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Bruce; Diamond, Karen E.; McWilliam, Robin; Snyder, Patricia; Snyder, Scott W.

    2005-01-01

    Only true experiments offer definitive evidence for causal inferences, but not all educational interventions are readily amenable to experiments. Correlational evidence can at least tentatively inform evidence-based practice when sophisticated causal modeling or exclusion methods are employed. Correlational evidence is most informative when…

  18. Legal and Research Evidence and the O. J. Simpson Trial (Continuing the Dialogue of Evidence).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuetz, Janice

    1995-01-01

    Discusses how communication researchers should use evidence. Shows the similarities between legal and scholarly evidence using illustrations from the O. J. Simpson case. Identifies similarities between the use of evidence in legal and in communication research forums; delineates parallels between the genres of evidence used in the two contexts;…

  19. Evidence-Based Integrative Dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Narahari, Saravu R; Prasanna, Kodimoole S; Sushma, Kandathu V

    2013-01-01

    American recognition for medical pluralism arrived in 1991. The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine was established under the National Institutes of Health in 1998. Following this, patients and researchers began exploring use of integrative medicine. Terence Ryan with Gerry Bodeker in Europe, Brian Berman in America, and the Indian council of Medical Research advocated traditional medicine and integrative medicine. The Institute of Applied Dermatology (IAD), Kerala has developed integrated allopathic (biomedical) and ayurvedic therapies to treat Lymphatic Filariasis, Lichen planus, and Vitiligo. Studies conducted at the IAD have created a framework for evidence-based and integrative dermatology (ID). This paper gives an overview of advances in ID with an example of Lichen Planus, which was examined jointly by dermatologists and Ayurveda doctors. The clinical presentation in these patients was listed in a vikruthi table of comparable biomedical terms. A vikruthi table was used for drug selection in ayurvedic dermatology. A total of 19 patients were treated with ayurvedic prescriptions to normalize the vatha-kapha for 3 months. All patients responded and no side effects were recorded. In spite of advancing knowledge on ID, several challenges remain for its use on difficult to treat chronic skin diseases. The formation of new integrative groups and financial support are essential for the growth of ID in India. PMID:23716802

  20. Imitation: definitions, evidence, and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Zentall, Thomas R

    2006-10-01

    Imitation can be defined as the copying of behavior. To a biologist, interest in imitation is focused on its adaptive value for the survival of the organism, but to a psychologist, the mechanisms responsible for imitation are the most interesting. For psychologists, the most important cases of imitation are those that involve demonstrated behavior that the imitator cannot see when it performs the behavior (e.g., scratching one's head). Such examples of imitation are sometimes referred to as opaque imitation because they are difficult to account for without positing cognitive mechanisms, such as perspective taking, that most animals have not been acknowledged to have. The present review first identifies various forms of social influence and social learning that do not qualify as opaque imitation, including species-typical mechanisms (e.g., mimicry and contagion), motivational mechanisms (e.g., social facilitation, incentive motivation, transfer of fear), attentional mechanisms (e.g., local enhancement, stimulus enhancement), imprinting, following, observational conditioning, and learning how the environment works (affordance learning). It then presents evidence for different forms of opaque imitation in animals, and identifies characteristics of human imitation that have been proposed to distinguish it from animal imitation. Finally, it examines the role played in opaque imitation by demonstrator reinforcement and observer motivation. Although accounts of imitation have been proposed that vary in their level of analysis from neural to cognitive, at present no theory of imitation appears to be adequate to account for the varied results that have been found. PMID:17024510

  1. Earliest evidence of cynodont burrowing.

    PubMed

    Damiani, Ross; Modesto, Sean; Yates, Adam; Neveling, Johann

    2003-08-22

    A 251 million year old partial burrow cast containing an articulated skeleton of the mammal-like carnivore Thrinaxodon liorhinus is the oldest evidence for burrowing by a cynodont synapsid. The burrow cast comes from terrestrial flood plain sediments close to the Permian-Triassic boundary in the Karoo of South Africa. Together with those of the later cynodont Trirachodon, the Thrinaxodon burrow cast indicates that burrow-making was broadly distributed in basal synapsids and has a long history in non-mammalian synapsid evolution. A reconstruction of its appendicular skeleton in cross-section indicates that Thrinaxodon was able to adopt a facultatively mammalian stance within its burrow shaft. Burrows of cynodont design are more common in Triassic rocks than previously realized, and suggest that burrowing may represent an adaptive response by cynodonts to the environmental conditions associated with the mass extinction event that punctuated the end of the preceding Permian period. The widespread occurrence of burrowing among extant mammals implies that the ancient synapsid ability to burrow conferred a strong adaptive value in the evolution of Mammalia. PMID:12965004

  2. Earliest evidence of cynodont burrowing.

    PubMed Central

    Damiani, Ross; Modesto, Sean; Yates, Adam; Neveling, Johann

    2003-01-01

    A 251 million year old partial burrow cast containing an articulated skeleton of the mammal-like carnivore Thrinaxodon liorhinus is the oldest evidence for burrowing by a cynodont synapsid. The burrow cast comes from terrestrial flood plain sediments close to the Permian-Triassic boundary in the Karoo of South Africa. Together with those of the later cynodont Trirachodon, the Thrinaxodon burrow cast indicates that burrow-making was broadly distributed in basal synapsids and has a long history in non-mammalian synapsid evolution. A reconstruction of its appendicular skeleton in cross-section indicates that Thrinaxodon was able to adopt a facultatively mammalian stance within its burrow shaft. Burrows of cynodont design are more common in Triassic rocks than previously realized, and suggest that burrowing may represent an adaptive response by cynodonts to the environmental conditions associated with the mass extinction event that punctuated the end of the preceding Permian period. The widespread occurrence of burrowing among extant mammals implies that the ancient synapsid ability to burrow conferred a strong adaptive value in the evolution of Mammalia. PMID:12965004

  3. Ultrasound enhanced thrombolysis: Clinical evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrov, Andrei V.

    2005-04-01

    Phase II CLOTBUST randomized clinical trial (Houston, Barcelona, Edmonton, Calgary) evaluated patients with acute ischemic stroke due to intracranial occlusion and treated with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (TPA) within 3 h of symptom onset. Randomization: monitoring with pulsed wave 2 MHz transcranial Doppler (TCD) (Target) or placebo monitoring (Control). Safety: symptomatic bleeding to the brain (sICH). Primary end-point: complete recanalization on TCD or dramatic clinical recovery by the total NIHSS score <3, or improvement by >10 NIHSS points within 2 hours after TPA bolus. All projected 126 patients were randomized 1:1 to target (median NIHSS 16) or control (NIHSS 17). sICH: 4.8% Target, 4.8% Controls. Primary end-point was achieved by 31 (49%, Target) versus 19 (30%, Control), p<0.03. At 3 months, 22 (42% Target) and 14 (29% Control) patients achieved favorable outcomes. Continuous TCD monitoring of intracranial occlusion safely augments TPA-induced arterial recanalization, and 2 MHz diagnostic ultrasound has a positive biological activity that aids systemic thrombolytic therapy. For the first time in clinical medicine, the CLOTBUST trial provides the evidence that ultrasound enhances thrombolytic activity of a drug in humans thereby confirming intense multi-disciplinary experimental research conducted worldwide for the past 30 years.

  4. Trichloroethylene and cancer: epidemiologic evidence.

    PubMed Central

    Wartenberg, D; Reyner, D; Scott, C S

    2000-01-01

    Trichloroethylene is an organic chemical that has been used in dry cleaning, for metal degreasing, and as a solvent for oils and resins. It has been shown to cause liver and kidney cancer in experimental animals. This article reviews over 80 published papers and letters on the cancer epidemiology of people exposed to trichloroethylene. Evidence of excess cancer incidence among occupational cohorts with the most rigorous exposure assessment is found for kidney cancer (relative risk [RR] = 1.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-2.7), liver cancer (RR = 1.9, 95% CI(1.0-3.4), and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (RR = 1.5, 95% CI 0.9-2.3) as well as for cervical cancer, Hodgkin's disease, and multiple myeloma. However, since few studies isolate trichloroethylene exposure, results are likely confounded by exposure to other solvents and other risk factors. Although we believe that solvent exposure causes cancer in humans and that trichloroethylene likely is one of the active agents, we recommend further study to better specify the specific agents that confer this risk and to estimate the magnitude of that risk. PMID:10807550

  5. Active oxygen doctors the evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelló, Ana; Francès, Francesc; Corella, Dolores; Verdú, Fernando

    2009-02-01

    Investigation at the scene of a crime begins with the search for clues. In the case of bloodstains, the most frequently used reagents are luminol and reduced phenolphthalein (or phenolphthalin that is also known as the Kastle-Meyer colour test). The limitations of these reagents have been studied and are well known. Household cleaning products have evolved with the times, and new products with active oxygen are currently widely used, as they are considered to be highly efficient at removing all kinds of stains on a wide range of surfaces. In this study, we investigated the possible effects of these new cleaning products on latent bloodstains that may be left at a scene of a crime. To do so, various fabrics were stained with blood and then washed using cleaning agents containing active oxygen. The results of reduced phenolphthalein, luminol and human haemoglobin tests on the washed fabrics were negative. The conclusion is that these new products alter blood to such an extent that it can no longer be detected by currently accepted methods employed in criminal investigations. This inability to locate bloodstains means that highly important evidence (e.g. a DNA profile) may be lost. Consequently, it is important that investigators are aware of this problem so as to compensate for it.

  6. Racial discrimination & health: pathways & evidence.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Ameena T; Mohammed, Selina A; Williams, David R

    2007-10-01

    This review provides an overview of the existing empirical research of the multiple ways by which discrimination can affect health. Institutional mechanisms of discrimination such as restricting marginalized groups to live in undesirable residential areas can have deleterious health consequences by limiting socio-economic status (SES) and creating health-damaging conditions in residential environments. Discrimination can also adversely affect health through restricting access to desirable services such as medical care and creating elevated exposure to traditional stressors such as unemployment and financial strain. Central to racism is an ideology of inferiority that can adversely affect non-dominant groups because some members of marginalized populations will accept as true the dominant society's ideology of their group's inferiority. Limited empirical research indicates that internalized racism is inversely related to health. In addition, the existence of these negative stereotypes can lead dominant group members to consciously and unconsciously discriminate against the stigmatized. An overview of the growing body of research examining the ways in which psychosocial stress generated by subjective experiences of discrimination can affect health is also provided. We review the evidence from the United States and other societies that suggest that the subjective experience of discrimination can adversely affect health and health enhancing behaviours. Advancing our understanding of the relationship between discrimination and health requires improved assessment of the phenomenon of discrimination and increased attention to identifying the psychosocial and biological pathways that may link exposure to discrimination to health status. PMID:18032807

  7. Measuring statistical evidence using relative belief.

    PubMed

    Evans, Michael

    2016-01-01

    A fundamental concern of a theory of statistical inference is how one should measure statistical evidence. Certainly the words "statistical evidence," or perhaps just "evidence," are much used in statistical contexts. It is fair to say, however, that the precise characterization of this concept is somewhat elusive. Our goal here is to provide a definition of how to measure statistical evidence for any particular statistical problem. Since evidence is what causes beliefs to change, it is proposed to measure evidence by the amount beliefs change from a priori to a posteriori. As such, our definition involves prior beliefs and this raises issues of subjectivity versus objectivity in statistical analyses. This is dealt with through a principle requiring the falsifiability of any ingredients to a statistical analysis. These concerns lead to checking for prior-data conflict and measuring the a priori bias in a prior. PMID:26925207

  8. Measuring statistical evidence using relative belief

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Michael

    2016-01-01

    A fundamental concern of a theory of statistical inference is how one should measure statistical evidence. Certainly the words “statistical evidence,” or perhaps just “evidence,” are much used in statistical contexts. It is fair to say, however, that the precise characterization of this concept is somewhat elusive. Our goal here is to provide a definition of how to measure statistical evidence for any particular statistical problem. Since evidence is what causes beliefs to change, it is proposed to measure evidence by the amount beliefs change from a priori to a posteriori. As such, our definition involves prior beliefs and this raises issues of subjectivity versus objectivity in statistical analyses. This is dealt with through a principle requiring the falsifiability of any ingredients to a statistical analysis. These concerns lead to checking for prior-data conflict and measuring the a priori bias in a prior. PMID:26925207

  9. Finding and using best evidence for rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Salmond, Susan W; Holly, Cheryl; Smith, Jane

    2014-12-01

    With the demands for improved experiences of care, improved outcomes, and greater efficiency/lower costs, the need for an evidence-based approach to care in rehabilitation settings has never been more urgent. This article guides practitioners in how to find the best available evidence for rehabilitation settings. It then discusses the use of evidence from systematic reviews through a high-impact case study: delirium in patients with postoperative hip fracture. PMID:25458135

  10. Evidence synthesis, economics and public policy.

    PubMed

    Shemilt, Ian; Mugford, Miranda; Vale, Luke; Marsh, Kevin; Donaldson, Cam; Drummond, Michael

    2010-04-01

    Systematic reviews and syntheses of evidence are increasingly used to inform public policy decisions. Growing budgetary pressures mean that decision makers often need to consider evidence on the costs and efficiency of alternatives as well as their effects. There are a number of methodological challenges in the identification, appraisal, synthesis, interpretation and use of economic evidence. This article draws on a recently published edited volume to review the latest developments, proposals and controversies in these aspects of economic evidence synthesis methodology. It focuses on two broad classes of approach: systematic review to summarize and compare the findings of existing economic analyses and synthesis of new economic results using decision models. The availability and scope of economic evidence is currently limited in many fields, but improving. Increased engagement between economists, the wider evidence synthesis community, and decision makers is needed to improve both the production and use of economic evidence. Further research to improve the evidence base that underpins application of economic evidence synthesis methodology will need to embrace a broader range of methods than economic evaluation and systematic review alone. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26061378

  11. Evidence-based medicine: medical librarians providing evidence at the point of care.

    PubMed

    Yaeger, Lauren H; Kelly, Betsy

    2014-01-01

    Evidence-based medicine is the conscientious, explicit, and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients. .. by best available external clinical evidence we mean clinically relevant research.' Health care reform authorized by the Affordable Care Act is based on the belief that evidence-based practice (EBP) generates cost savings due to the delivery of more effective care.2 Medical librarians, skilled in identifying appropriate resources and working with multiple complex interfaces, can support clinicians' efforts to practice evidence based medicine by providing time and expertise in articulating the clinical question and identifying the best evidence. PMID:25438362

  12. Evidence-based medicine: medical librarians providing evidence at the point of care.

    PubMed

    Yaeger, Lauren H; Kelly, Betsy

    2014-01-01

    Evidence-based medicine is the conscientious, explicit, and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients. .. by best available external clinical evidence we mean clinically relevant research.' Health care reform authorized by the Affordable Care Act is based on the belief that evidence-based practice (EBP) generates cost savings due to the delivery of more effective care.2 Medical librarians, skilled in identifying appropriate resources and working with multiple complex interfaces, can support clinicians' efforts to practice evidence based medicine by providing time and expertise in articulating the clinical question and identifying the best evidence. PMID:25507879

  13. Sicily statement on evidence-based practice

    PubMed Central

    Dawes, Martin; Summerskill, William; Glasziou, Paul; Cartabellotta, Antonino; Martin, Janet; Hopayian, Kevork; Porzsolt, Franz; Burls, Amanda; Osborne, James

    2005-01-01

    Background A variety of definitions of evidence-based practice (EBP) exist. However, definitions are in themselves insufficient to explain the underlying processes of EBP and to differentiate between an evidence-based process and evidence-based outcome. There is a need for a clear statement of what Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) means, a description of the skills required to practise in an evidence-based manner and a curriculum that outlines the minimum requirements for training health professionals in EBP. This consensus statement is based on current literature and incorporating the experience of delegates attending the 2003 Conference of Evidence-Based Health Care Teachers and Developers ("Signposting the future of EBHC"). Discussion Evidence-Based Practice has evolved in both scope and definition. Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) requires that decisions about health care are based on the best available, current, valid and relevant evidence. These decisions should be made by those receiving care, informed by the tacit and explicit knowledge of those providing care, within the context of available resources. Health care professionals must be able to gain, assess, apply and integrate new knowledge and have the ability to adapt to changing circumstances throughout their professional life. Curricula to deliver these aptitudes need to be grounded in the five-step model of EBP, and informed by ongoing research. Core assessment tools for each of the steps should continue to be developed, validated, and made freely available. Summary All health care professionals need to understand the principles of EBP, recognise EBP in action, implement evidence-based policies, and have a critical attitude to their own practice and to evidence. Without these skills, professionals and organisations will find it difficult to provide 'best practice'. PMID:15634359

  14. Dopamine effects on evidence gathering and integration

    PubMed Central

    Andreou, Christina; Schneider, Brooke C.; Braun, Vivien; Kolbeck, Katharina; Gallinat, Jürgen; Moritz, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    Background Disturbances in evidence gathering and disconfirmatory evidence integration have been associated with the presence of or propensity for delusions. Previous evidence suggests that these 2 types of reasoning bias might be differentially affected by antipsychotic medication. We aimed to investigate the effects of a dopaminergic agonist (L-dopa) and a dopaminergic antagonist (haloperidol) on evidence gathering and disconfirmatory evidence integration after single-dose administration in healthy individuals. Methods The study used a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 3-way crossover design. Participants were healthy individuals aged 18–40 years. We administered a new data-gathering task designed to increase sensitivity to change compared with traditional tasks. The Bias Against Disconfirmatory Evidence (BADE) task was used as a measure of disconfirmatory evidence integration. Results We included 30 individuals in our study. In the data-gathering task, dopaminergic modulation had no significant effect on the amount of evidence gathered before reaching a decision. In contrast, the ability of participants to integrate disconfirmatory evidence showed a significant linear dopaminergic modulation pattern (highest with haloperidol, intermediate with placebo, lowest with L-dopa), with the difference between haloperidol and L-dopa marginally reaching significance. Limitations Although the doses used for haloperidol and L-dopa were similar to those used in previous studies, drug plasma level measurements would have added to the validity of findings. Conclusion Evidence gathering and disconfirmatory evidence integration might be differentially influenced by dopaminergic agents. Our findings are in support of a dual-disturbance account of delusions and provide a plausible neurobiological basis for the use of interventions targeted at improving reasoning biases as an adjunctive treatment in patients with psychotic disorders. PMID:26197302

  15. Truth and Evidence in Validity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borsboom, Denny; Markus, Keith A.

    2013-01-01

    According to Kane (this issue), "the validity of a proposed interpretation or use depends on how well the evidence supports" the claims being made. Because truth and evidence are distinct, this means that the validity of a test score interpretation could be high even though the interpretation is false. As an illustration, we discuss the case of…

  16. 14 CFR 13.222 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Evidence. 13.222 Section 13.222 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROCEDURAL RULES INVESTIGATIVE AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Rules of Practice in FAA Civil Penalty Actions § 13.222 Evidence....

  17. Advancing Evidence in Preterm Neonatal Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donahue, Pamela K.; Robinson, Karen A.

    2010-01-01

    Few interventions and treatments for premature infants have undergone the rigors of a randomized controlled trial (RCT), the cornerstone of evidence-based healthcare. Multiple barriers in establishing a quality evidence base for the care of preterm infants are examined including the systematic exclusion of children from drug trials, vulnerability…

  18. Evidence-Based Clearinghouses in Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soydan, Haluk; Mullen, Edward J.; Alexandra, Laine; Rehnman, Jenny; Li, You-Ping

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this article is to describe several evidence-based clearinghouses focused on social work and related intervention outcomes, placing them in the context of how such clearinghouses can contribute to research dissemination to foster effective, evidence-based practice. Method: The study employed an analysis of data provided…

  19. What's New about Evidence-Based Assessment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barlow, David H.

    2005-01-01

    A clear consensus has emerged around the world concerning the desirability and even the urgency of basing health care delivery systems on evidence. Among behavioral health care providers such as psychologists, evidence-based practice (EBP) has been focused largely on interventions. Psychologists have long emphasized a scientifically based…

  20. Evidence-based librarianship: an overview

    PubMed Central

    Eldredge, Jonathan D.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To demonstrate how the core characteristics of both evidence-based medicine (EBM) and evidence-based health care (EBHC) can be adapted to health sciences librarianship. Method: Narrative review essay involving development of a conceptual framework. The author describes the central features of EBM and EBHC. Following each description of a central feature, the author then suggests ways that this feature applies to health sciences librarianship. Results: First, the decision-making processes of EBM and EBHC are compatible with health sciences librarianship. Second, the EBM and EBHC values of favoring rigorously produced scientific evidence in decision making are congruent with the core values of librarianship. Third, the hierarchical levels of evidence can be applied to librarianship with some modifications. Library researchers currently favor descriptive-survey and case-study methods over systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, or other higher levels of evidence. The library literature nevertheless contains diverse examples of randomized controlled trials, controlled-comparison studies, and cohort studies conducted by health sciences librarians. Conclusions: Health sciences librarians are confronted with making many practical decisions. Evidence-based librarianship offers a decision-making framework, which integrates the best available research evidence. By employing this framework and the higher levels of research evidence it promotes, health sciences librarians can lay the foundation for more collaborative and scientific endeavors. PMID:11055296

  1. A Taxonomy for the Classification of Evidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fadely, Dean

    An understanding of evidence is necessary for effective rhetoric, especially in the sub-area of argumentation. Evidence can be classified according to (1) the argument field in which it is used (court of reason or court of law); (2) the linkage to the assertion being made (direct or circumstantial); and (3) its persuasive force (how convincing it…

  2. School Resegregation: A Synthesis of the Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, William J.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the evidence that supports and rebuts the claims of school resegregation. By examining both types of evidence and considering them complementary (James 1986; Kelly and Miller 1989), the author gives the reader a deeper understanding of the current trends in school segregation. First, the literature on the topic of school…

  3. 39 CFR 965.9 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evidence. 965.9 Section 965.9 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO MAIL DISPUTES § 965.9 Evidence. (a) In general, admissibility will hinge on relevancy and materiality. However,...

  4. 39 CFR 965.9 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Evidence. 965.9 Section 965.9 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO MAIL DISPUTES § 965.9 Evidence. (a) In general, admissibility will hinge on relevancy and materiality. However,...

  5. 39 CFR 965.9 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evidence. 965.9 Section 965.9 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO MAIL DISPUTES § 965.9 Evidence. (a) In general, admissibility will hinge on relevancy and materiality. However,...

  6. 39 CFR 965.9 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evidence. 965.9 Section 965.9 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO MAIL DISPUTES § 965.9 Evidence. (a) In general, admissibility will hinge on relevancy and materiality. However,...

  7. 10 CFR 710.30 - New evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false New evidence. 710.30 Section 710.30 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO CLASSIFIED MATTER OR SPECIAL... Matter or Special Nuclear Material Administrative Review § 710.30 New evidence. (a) In the event of...

  8. 10 CFR 710.30 - New evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false New evidence. 710.30 Section 710.30 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO CLASSIFIED MATTER OR SPECIAL... Matter or Special Nuclear Material Administrative Review § 710.30 New evidence. (a) In the event of...

  9. 10 CFR 10.30 - New evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false New evidence. 10.30 Section 10.30 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO RESTRICTED DATA OR NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION OR AN EMPLOYMENT CLEARANCE Procedures § 10.30 New evidence. After the close of the hearing, in the event the...

  10. 10 CFR 710.30 - New evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false New evidence. 710.30 Section 710.30 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO CLASSIFIED MATTER OR SPECIAL... Matter or Special Nuclear Material Administrative Review § 710.30 New evidence. (a) In the event of...