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Sample records for 29-41 peptido antimicrobiano

  1. 7 CFR 29.41 - The Appropriations Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false The Appropriations Act. 29.41 Section 29.41 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Development, Food and Drug Administration, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act for 2002 (Pub. L. 107-76)....

  2. Proteasome inhibition by new dual warhead containing peptido vinyl sulfonyl fluorides.

    PubMed

    Brouwer, Arwin J; Herrero Álvarez, Natalia; Ciaffoni, Adriano; van de Langemheen, Helmus; Liskamp, Rob M J

    2016-08-15

    The success of inhibition of the proteasome by formation of covalent bonds is a major victory over the long held-view that this would lead to binding the wrong targets and undoubtedly lead to toxicity. Great challenges are now found in uncovering ensembles of new moieties capable of forming long lasting ties. We have introduced peptido sulfonyl fluorides for this purpose. Tuning the reactivity of this electrophilic trap may be crucial for modulating the biological action. Here we describe incorporation of a vinyl moiety into a peptido sulfonyl fluoride backbone, which should lead to a combined attack of the proteasome active site threonine on the double bond and the sulfonyl fluoride. Although this led to strong proteasome inhibitors, in vitro studies did not unambiguously demonstrate the formation of the proposed seven-membered ring structure. Possibly, formation of a seven-membered covalent adduct with the proteosomal active site threonine can only be achieved within the context of the enzyme. Nevertheless, this dual warhead concept may provide exclusive possibilities for duration and selectivity of proteasome inhibition. PMID:27316540

  3. Studies on batch formulation of a kit for the preparation of the 99mTc-Ubiquicidin (29-41): An infection imaging agent.

    PubMed

    Arjun, Chanda; Mukherjee, Archana; Bhatt, Jyotsna; Chaudhari, Pradip; Repaka, Krishna Mohan; Venkatesh, Meera; Samuel, Grace

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to formulate an indigenous cold kit of Ubiquicidin, UBI (29-41), for easy preparation of (99m)Tc-UBI (29-41) to be used as an infection imaging agent. A two component kit with the peptide and SnCl2 as vial 1 and optimum amount of NaOH as vial 2 was successfully formulated as seen from the consistent radiochemical and pharmaceutical purity of the product over six consecutive batches of kits. The utility of the kit could be demonstrated through in-vitro and in vivo specificity of (99m)Tc-UBI (29-41). PMID:26405838

  4. Defined Nanoscale Chemistry Influences Delivery of Peptido-Toxins for Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sumin; Pan, Dipanjan

    2015-01-01

    We present an in-silico-to-in-vitro approach to develop well-defined, self-assembled, rigid-cored polymeric (Polybee) nano-architecture for controlled delivery of a key component of bee venom, melittin. A competitive formulation with lipid-encapsulated (Lipobee) rigid cored micelle is also synthesized. In a series of sequential experiments, we show how nanoscale chemistry influences the delivery of venom toxins for cancer regression and help evade systemic disintegrity and cellular noxiousness. A relatively weaker association of melittin in the case of lipid-based nanoparticles is compared to the polymeric particles revealed by energy minimization and docking studies, which are supported by biophysical studies. For the first time, the authors’ experiment results indicate that melittin can play a significant role in DNA association-dissociation processes, which may be a plausible route for their anticancer activity. PMID:26030072

  5. Structure and Ligand Based Drug Design Strategies in the Development of Novel 5-LOX Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Aparoy, Polamarasetty; Kumar Reddy, Kakularam; Reddanna, Pallu

    2012-01-01

    Lipoxygenases (LOXs) are non-heme iron containing dioxygenases involved in the oxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) such as arachidonic acid (AA). Depending on the position of insertion of oxygen, LOXs are classified into 5-, 8-, 9-, 12- and 15-LOX. Among these, 5-LOX is the most predominant isoform associated with the formation of 5-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-HpETE), the precursor of non-peptido (LTB4) and peptido (LTC4, LTD4, and LTE4) leukotrienes. LTs are involved in inflammatory and allergic diseases like asthma, ulcerative colitis, rhinitis and also in cancer. Consequently 5-LOX has become target for the development of therapeutic molecules for treatment of various inflammatory disorders. Zileuton is one such inhibitor of 5-LOX approved for the treatment of asthma. In the recent times, computer aided drug design (CADD) strategies have been applied successfully in drug development processes. A comprehensive review on structure based drug design strategies in the development of novel 5-LOX inhibitors is presented in this article. Since the crystal structure of 5-LOX has been recently solved, efforts to develop 5-LOX inhibitors have mostly relied on ligand based rational approaches. The present review provides a comprehensive survey on these strategies in the development of 5-LOX inhibitors. PMID:22680930

  6. Two linkage-region fragments isolated from skeletal keratan sulphate contain a sulphated N-acetylglucosamine residue.

    PubMed Central

    Dickenson, J M; Huckerby, T N; Nieduszynski, I A

    1990-01-01

    Peptido-keratan sulphate fragments were isolated from the nucleus pulposus of bovine intervertebral discs (6-year-old animals) after chondroitin ABC lyase digestion followed by digestion of A1D1 proteoglycans by diphenylcarbamoyl chloride-treated trypsin and gel-permeation chromatography on Sepharose CL-6B. Treatment of these peptido-keratan sulphate fragments with alkaline NaB3H4 yielded keratan sulphate chains with [3H]galactosaminitol end-labels, and these chains were further purified by gel-permeation chromatography on Sephadex G-50 and ion-exchange chromatography on a Pharmacia Mono-Q column in order to exclude any contamination with O-linked oligosaccharides. The chains were then treated with keratanase, and the digest was chromatographed on a Bio-Gel P-4 column followed by anion-exchange chromatography on a Nucleosil 5 SB column. Two oligosaccharides, each representing 18% of the recovered radiolabel, were examined by 500 MHz 1H-n.m.r. spectroscopy, and shown to have the following structures: [formula: see text] The structure of oligosaccharide (I) confirms the N-acetylneuraminylgalactose substitution at position 3 of N-acetylgalactosamine in the keratan sulphate-protein linkage region found by Hopwood & Robinson [(1974) Biochem. J. 141, 57-69] but additionally shows the presence of a 6-sulphated N-acetylglucosamine. Electron micro-probe analysis specifically confirmed the presence of sulphur in this sample. This sulphate ester group differentiates the keratan sulphate linkage region from similar structures derived from O-linked oligosaccharides [Lohmander, De Luca, Nilsson, Hascall, Caputo, Kimura & Heinegård (1980) J. Biol. Chem. 255, 6084-6091]. PMID:2142881

  7. Participation of fad and mbt Genes in Synthesis of Mycobactin in Mycobacterium smegmatis

    PubMed Central

    LaMarca, B. Babbette D.; Zhu, Wenming; Arceneaux, Jean E. L.; Rowe Byers, B.; Lundrigan, Michael D.

    2004-01-01

    Colonies of Mycobacterium smegmatis LR222 on iron-limiting (0.1 μM Fe) minimal medium agar fluoresce under UV light due to the accumulation in the cells of the deferri form of the siderophore mycobactin. Two mutants with little or no fluorescence, designated LUN8 and LUN9, were isolated by screening colonies of transposon (Tn611)-mutagenized M. smegmatis. Ferrimycobactin prepared from iron-restricted cells of the wild type had an Rf of 0.62 on high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) and a characteristic visible absorption spectrum with a peak near 450 nm. Similar extracts from LUN8 cells contained a small amount of ferrimycobactin with an Rf of 0.58 on HPTLC and an absorption spectrum with the peak shifted to a wavelength lower than that of the wild-type ferrimycobactin. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies suggested that the LUN8 mycobactin may have an altered fatty acid side chain. Mutant strain LUN9 produced no detectable mycobactin. Neither mutant strain produced measurable amounts of excreted mycobactin, although both excreted exochelin (the mycobacterial peptido-hydroxamate siderophore), and both mutants were more sensitive than the wild-type strain to growth inhibition by the iron chelator ethylenediamine-di(o-hydroxyphenylacetic acid). The transposon insertion sites were identified, and sequence analyses of the cloned flanking chromosome regions showed that the mutated gene in LUN9 was an orthologue of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis mycobactin biosynthetic gene mbtE. The mutated gene in LUN8 had homology with M. tuberculosis fadD33 (Rv1345), a gene that may encode an acyl-coenzyme A synthase and which previously was not known to participate in synthesis of mycobactin. PMID:14702306

  8. Nonredundant protective properties of FPR2/ALX in polymicrobial murine sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Gobbetti, Thomas; Coldewey, Sina M.; Chen, Jianmin; McArthur, Simon; le Faouder, Pauline; Cenac, Nicolas; Flower, Roderick J.; Thiemermann, Christoph; Perretti, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Sepsis is characterized by overlapping phases of excessive inflammation temporally aligned with an immunosuppressed state, defining a complex clinical scenario that explains the lack of successful therapeutic options. Here we tested whether the formyl-peptide receptor 2/3 (Fpr2/3)—ortholog to human FPR2/ALX (receptor for lipoxin A4)—exerted regulatory and organ-protective functions in experimental sepsis. Coecal ligature and puncture was performed to obtain nonlethal polymicrobial sepsis, with animals receiving antibiotics and analgesics. Clinical symptoms, temperature, and heart function were monitored up to 24 h. Peritoneal lavage and plasma samples were analyzed for proinflammatory and proresolving markers of inflammation and organ dysfunction. Compared with wild-type mice, Fpr2/3−/− animals exhibited exacerbation of disease severity, including hypothermia and cardiac dysfunction. This scenario was paralleled by higher levels of cytokines [CXCL1 (CXC receptor ligand 1), CCL2 (CC receptor ligand 2), and TNFα] as quantified in cell-free biological fluids. Reduced monocyte recruitment in peritoneal lavages of Fpr2/3−/− animals was reflected by a higher granulocyte/monocyte ratio. Monitoring Fpr2/3−/− gene promoter activity with a GFP proxy marker revealed an over threefold increase in granulocyte and monocyte signals at 24 h post-coecal ligature and puncture, a response mediated by TNFα. Treatment with a receptor peptido-agonist conferred protection against myocardial dysfunction in wild-type, but not Fpr2/3−/−, animals. Therefore, coordinated physio-pharmacological analyses indicate nonredundant modulatory functions for Fpr2/3 in experimental sepsis, opening new opportunities to manipulate the host response for therapeutic development. PMID:25512512

  9. Development of a Hybrid Tracer for SPECT and Optical Imaging of Bacterial Infections.

    PubMed

    Welling, Mick M; Bunschoten, Anton; Kuil, Joeri; Nelissen, Rob G H H; Beekman, Freek J; Buckle, Tessa; van Leeuwen, Fijs W B

    2015-05-20

    In trauma and orthopedic surgery, infection of implants has a major impact on the outcome for patients. Infections may develop either during the initial implantation or during the lifetime of an implant. Both infections, as well as aseptic loosening of the implant, are reasons for revision of the implants. Therefore, discrimination between aseptic-mechanical-loosening and septic-bacterial-loosening of implants is critical during selection of a patient-tailored treatment policy. Specific detection and visualization of infections is a challenge because it is difficult to discriminate infections from inflammation. An imaging tracer that facilitates bacterial identification in a pre- and intraoperative setting may aid the workup for patients suspicious of bacterial infections. In this study we evaluated an antimicrobial peptide conjugated to a hybrid label, which contains both a radioisotope and a fluorescent dye. After synthesis of DTPA-Cy5-UBI29-41 and-when necessary-radiolabeling with (111)In (yield 96.3 ± 2.7%), in vitro binding to various bacterial strains was evaluated using radioactivity counting and confocal fluorescence microscopy. Intramuscular bacterial infections (S. aureus or K. pneumoniae) were also visualized in vivo using a combined nuclear and fluorescence imaging system. The indium-111 was chosen as label as it has a well-defined coordination chemistry, and in pilot studies labeling DTPA-Cy5-UBI29-41 with technetium-99m, we encountered damage to the Cy5 dye after the reduction with SnCl2. As a reference, we used the validated tracer (99m)Tc-UBI29-41. Fast renal excretion of (111)In-DTPA-Cy5-UBI29-41 was observed. Target to nontarget (T/NT) ratios were highest at 2 h post injection: radioactivity counting yielded T/NT ratios of 2.82 ± 0.32 for S. aureus and 2.37 ± 0.05 for K. pneumoniae. Comparable T/NT ratios with fluorescence imaging of 2.38 ± 0.09 for S. aureus and 3.55 ± 0.31 for K. pneumoniae were calculated. Ex vivo confocal microscopy of

  10. [Recommendations for selecting antimicrobial agents for in vitro susceptibility studies using automatic and semiautomatic systems].

    PubMed

    Cantón, Rafael; Alós, Juan Ignacio; Baquero, Fernando; Calvo, Jorge; Campos, José; Castillo, Javier; Cercenado, Emilia; Domínguez, M Angeles; Liñares, Josefina; López-Cerezo, Lorena; Marco, Francesc; Mirelis, Beatriz; Morosini, María-Isabel; Navarro, Ferran; Oliver, Antonio; Pérez-Trallero, Emilio; Torres, Carmen; Martínez-Martínez, Luis

    2007-01-01

    The number of clinical microbiology laboratories that have incorporated automatic susceptibility testing devices has increased in recent years. The majority of these systems determine MIC values using microdilution panels or specific cards, with grouping into clinical categories (susceptible, intermediate or resistant) and incorporate expert systems to infer resistance mechanisms. This document presents the recommendations of a group of experts designated by Grupo de Estudio de los Mecanismos de Acción y Resistencia a los Antimicrobianos (GEMARA, Study group on mechanisms of action and resistance to antimicrobial agents) and Mesa Española de Normalización de la Sensibilidad y Resistencia a los Antimicrobianos (MENSURA, Spanish Group for Normalizing Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Antimicrobial Resistance), with the aim of including antimicrobial agents and selecting concentrations for the susceptibility testing panels of automatic systems. The following have been defined: various antimicrobial categories (A: must be included in the study panel; B: inclusion is recommended; and C: inclusion is secondary, but may facilitate interpretative reading of the antibiogram) and groups (0: not used in therapeutics but may facilitate the detection of resistance mechanisms; 1: must be studied and always reported; 2: must be studied and selectively reported; 3: must be studied and reported at a second level; and 4: should be studied in urinary tract pathogens isolated in urine and other specimens). Recommended antimicrobial concentrations are adapted from the breakpoints established by EUCAST, CLSI and MENSURA. This approach will lead to more accurate susceptibility testing results with better detection of resistance mechanisms, and allowing to reach the clinical goal of the antibiogram. PMID:17583653

  11. Prevalence of molar incisor hypomineralization in 7–9-year-old children of Bengaluru City, India

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniam, Priya; Gupta, Tulika; Sharma, Akhilesh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) is a developmental defect. The prevalence of MIH ranges widely from 2.4% to 40.2%. Aim: This study was under taken to determine the prevalence of MIH in 7–9-year-old children of Bengaluru City, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted in a representative sample of 2500 school children aged 7–9 years of Bengaluru, India. Oral examination was carried out by a single trained calibrated examiner under natural daylight. Results: Twelve children (0.48%) were diagnosed with MIH. A total of 68 teeth were observed with MIH. All four first permanent molars were affected in 50% of children. In the molar group, mandibular molars (29.41%) were more frequently affected than maxillary molars (27.94%). Conclusion: The prevalence of MIH in 7–9-year-old children of Bengaluru was 0.48%, with no gender predilection. PMID:27041893

  12. A high precision feature based on LBP and Gabor theory for face recognition.

    PubMed

    Xia, Wei; Yin, Shouyi; Ouyang, Peng

    2013-01-01

    How to describe an image accurately with the most useful information but at the same time the least useless information is a basic problem in the recognition field. In this paper, a novel and high precision feature called BG2D2LRP is proposed, accompanied with a corresponding face recognition system. The feature contains both static texture differences and dynamic contour trends. It is based on Gabor and LBP theory, operated by various kinds of transformations such as block, second derivative, direct orientation, layer and finally fusion in a particular way. Seven well-known face databases such as FRGC, AR, FERET and so on are used to evaluate the veracity and robustness of the proposed feature. A maximum improvement of 29.41% is achieved comparing with other methods. Besides, the ROC curve provides a satisfactory figure. Those experimental results strongly demonstrate the feasibility and superiority of the new feature and method. PMID:23552103

  13. Aneurysmal bone cysts of the spine: treatment options and considerations.

    PubMed

    Boriani, Stefano; Lo, Sheng-fu L; Puvanesarajah, Varun; Fisher, Charles G; Varga, Peter P; Rhines, Laurence D; Germscheid, Niccole M; Luzzati, Alessandro; Chou, Dean; Reynolds, Jeremy J; Williams, Richard P; Zadnik, Patti; Groves, Mari; Sciubba, Daniel M; Bettegowda, Chetan; Gokaslan, Ziya L

    2014-10-01

    Aneurysmal bone cysts (ABCs) are benign bone lesions with annual incidences ranging from 1.4 to 3.2 cases per million people. Approximately, 10-30% of ABCs are found in the spine. Such lesions are traditionally treated with curettage or other intralesional techniques. Because ABCs can be locally aggressive, intralesional resection can be incomplete and result in recurrence. This has led to increased use of novel techniques, including selective arterial embolization (SAE). This study aims to: (1) compare outcomes based on extent of surgical resection, and (2) compare the efficacy of SAE versus surgical resection. Clinical data pertaining to 71 cases of spinal ABCs were ambispectively collected from nine institutions in Europe, North America, and Australia. Twenty-two spinal ABCs were treated with surgery, 32 received preoperative embolization and surgery, and 17 were treated with SAE. Most tumors were classified as Enneking stage 2 (n = 29, 41%) and stage 3 (n = 29, 41%). Local recurrence and survival were investigated and a significant difference was not observed between treatment groups. However, all three local recurrences occurred following surgical resection. Surgical resection was further categorized based on Enneking appropriateness. Recurrences only occurred following intralesional Enneking inappropriate (EI) resections (P = 0.10), a classification that characterized 47% of all surgical resections. Furthermore, 56% of intralesional resections were EI, compared to only 10% of en bloc resections (P = 0.01). Although SAE treatment did not result in any local recurrences, 35% involved more than five embolization procedures. Spinal ABCs can be effectively treated with intralesional resection, en bloc resection, or SAE. Preoperative embolization should be considered before intralesional resection to limit intraoperative bleeding. Treatment plans must be guided by lesion characteristics and clinical presentation. PMID:25059450

  14. Epstein-Barr virus and human immunodeficiency virus serological responses and viral burdens in HIV-infected patients treated with HAART

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Sullivan, Cathal E.; Peng, RongSheng; Cole, Kelly Stefano; Montelaro, Ronald C.; Sturgeon, Timothy; Jenson, Hal B.; Ling, Paul D.; Butel, J. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) associated non-Hodgkin lymphoma is recognized as a complication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Little is known regarding the influence of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on the biology of EBV in this population. To characterize the EBV- and HIV-specific serological responses together with EBV DNA levels in a cohort of HIV-infected adults treated with HAART, a study was conducted to compare EBV and HIV serologies and EBV DNA copy number (DNAemia) over a 12-month period after the commencement of HAART. All patients were seropositive for EBV at baseline. Approximately 50% of patients had detectable EBV DNA at baseline, and 27/30 had detectable EBV DNA at some point over the follow-up period of 1 year. Changes in EBV DNA copy number over time for any individual were unpredictable. Significant increases in the levels of Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen (EBNA) and Epstein-Barr early antigen (EA) antibodies were demonstrated in the 17 patients who had a good response to HAART. Of 29 patients with paired samples tested, four-fold or greater increases in titers were detected for EA in 12/29 (41%), for EBNA in 7/29 (24%), for VCA-IgG in 4/29 (14%); four-fold decreases in titers were detected in 2/29 (7%) for EA and 12/29 (41%) for EBNA. A significant decline in the titer of anti-HIV antibodies was also demonstrated. It was concluded that patients with advanced HIV infection who respond to HAART have an increase in their EBV specific antibodies and a decrease in their HIV-specific antibodies. For the cohort overall, there was a transient increase in EBV DNA levels that had declined by 12 months. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Transfer RNA recognition by the Escherichia coli delta2-isopentenyl-pyrophosphate:tRNA delta2-isopentenyl transferase: dependence on the anticodon arm structure.

    PubMed

    Motorin, Y; Bec, G; Tewari, R; Grosjean, H

    1997-07-01

    To elucidate the sequence elements required in the anticodon stem for the recognition of Escherichia coli tRNA(Ser) (GGA) by the E. coli isopentenyl-tRNA:A37 transferase (IPTT), which result in the conversion of A37 into isopentenylated i6A37, we have tested and characterized in vitro T7-runoff transcripts of 17 variants of E. coli tRNA(Ser)(GGA) and 7 other tRNAs from E. coli and yeast. Our results indicate that, instead of a stringent specific anticodon stem and loop sequence, the key feature required for the recognition of E. coli tRNAs by IPTT is the A36A37A38 sequence occurring within the seven-membered anticodon loop, and the retention of the standard helical structure and flexibility, especially in the proximal anticodon stem. The G30*U40 mismatch base pair close to the anticodon loop is strictly avoided. The frequent occurrence of a C-G base pair in the three stem locations closest to the loop (positions 29-41, 30-40 and 31-39) or the occurrence of even one such C-G base pair along with some other similarly less suited, but individually tolerated deviations can also totally abolish the A37 isopentenylation of tRNA. For the position 30-40, the G-C base pair is shown uniquely suited, whereas for the adjoining 29-41 stem location, a purine-pyrimidine base pair with pyrimidine on the 3'-side is strongly preferred. Retention of the overall 3D tRNA structure is favorable for isopentenylation and allows some tolerance of proximal stem sequence deviations. Our data suggest a recognition mode that implies the interaction of IPTT with the strictly conserved A36A37A38 sequence and the other functional groups located in the minor groove of the anticodon stem. PMID:9214656

  16. [Recommendations from MENSURA for selection of antimicrobial agents for susceptibility testing and criteria for the interpretation of antibiograms].

    PubMed

    2000-03-01

    This document includes the recommendations from the Spanish antibiogram committee (The MENSURA group, Mesa Española de Normalización de la Sensibilidad y Resistencia a los Antimicrobianos, under the auspices of the Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica) for the selection of antimicrobials for susceptibility testing. Separate tables for each group of organism with proposed susceptibility and resistance breakpoints are updated and comparatively presented with those of other groups, such us NCCLS, CA-SFM and BSAC. The susceptibility breakpoint tends to identify the fully susceptible population, which probably lacks any specific resistance mechanism. The analysis of MIC distributions for different homogeneous populations (same species) is used to define breakpoints for susceptibility. The resistance breakpoint is based on pharmacological and clinical data obtained when the corresponding antibiotic is administered with a conventional schedule. The primary objective of the Spanish MENSURA group is to contribute to the international consensus on the establishment of breakpoints. PMID:10856132

  17. Detection of Merkel cell polyomavirus in the human tissues from 41 Japanese autopsy cases using polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Michiko; Kuwamoto, Satoshi; Iwasaki, Takeshi; Higaki-Mori, Hiromi; Yashima, Shoji; Kato, Masako; Murakami, Ichiro; Horie, Yasushi; Kitamura, Yukisato; Hayashi, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    It has recently been shown that approximately 80% of Merkel cell carcinomas harbor a novel polyomavirus named Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV). MCPyV has been detected in human tissue samples. However, detailed distribution of MCPyV in non-neoplastic Japanese human tissues remains unclear. To address this, we used single or real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for 41 autopsy cases. PCR revealed MCPyV-DNA in non-neoplastic samples: total, 29/41 (71%); adult, 29/39 (74%); fetus or infant, 0/2; men, 24/28 (86%); women, 5/13 (38%); total human tissues, 66/572 (12%); skin, 8/15 (53%); adrenal gland, 9/33 (27%), and other 16 organs (4-25%). This study first reported the presence of MCPyV-DNA in non-neoplastic tissues of thyroid gland, adrenal gland, spleen, bone marrow, stomach, gallbladder, pancreas, heart, and aorta. PCR revealed that viral load ranged from 0.00026 to 0.22 in all MCPyV-positive tissues compared with Merkel cell carcinoma samples. These detailed PCR data showed higher prevalence of MCPyV infection in Japanese men than women (p = 0.004) and broad distribution of MCPyV with low viral load in more non-neoplastic human tissues than in the previous reports. These data provide valuable insights for further studies of MCPyV infection and MCPyV-related diseases. PMID:22986833

  18. Urban Surfaces and Heat Island Mitigation Potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Akbari, Hashem; Akbari, Hashem; Shea Rose, Leanna

    2007-06-14

    Data on materials and surface types that comprise a city, i.e. urban fabric, are needed in order to estimate the effects of light-colored surfaces (roofs and pavements) and urban vegetation (trees, grass, shrubs) on the meteorology and air quality of a city. We discuss the results of a semi-automatic statistical approach used to develop data on surface-type distribution and urban-fabric makeup using aerial color orthophotography, for four metropolitan areas of Chicago, IL, Houston, TX, Sacramento, CA, and Salt Lake City, UT. The digital high resolution (0.3 to 0.5-m) aerial photographs for each of these metropolitan areas covers representative urban areas ranging from 30 km{sup 2} to 52 km{sup 2}. Major land-use types examined included: commercial, residential, industrial, educational, and transportation. On average, for the metropolitan areas studied, vegetation covers about 29-41% of the area, roofs 19-25%, and paved surfaces 29-39%. For the most part, trees shade streets, parking lots, grass, and sidewalks. At ground level, i.e., view from below the tree canopies, vegetation covers about 20-37% of the area, roofs 20-25%, and paved surfaces 29-36%.

  19. Expectancy effects in source memory: how moving to a bad neighborhood can change your memory.

    PubMed

    Kroneisen, Meike; Woehe, Larissa; Rausch, Leonie Sophie

    2015-02-01

    Enhanced memory for cheaters could be suited to avoid social exchange situations in which we run the risk of getting exploited by others. Several experiments demonstrated that we have better source memory for faces combined with negative rather than positive behavior (Bell & Buchner, Memory & Cognition, 38, 29-41, 2010) or for cheaters and cooperators showing unexpected behavior (Bell, Buchner, Kroneisen, Giang, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 38, 1512-1529, 2012). In the present study, we compared two groups: Group 1 just saw faces combined with aggressive, prosocial or neutral behavior descriptions, but got no further information, whereas group 2 was explicitly told that they would now see the behavior descriptions of very aggressive and unsocial persons. To measure old-new discrimination, source memory, and guessing biases separately, we used a multinomial model. When having no expectancies about the behavior of the presented people, enhanced source memory for aggressive persons was found. In comparison, source memory for faces combined with prosocial behavior descriptions was significantly higher in the group expecting only aggressive persons. These findings can be attributed to a mechanism that focuses on expectancy-incongruent information, representing a more flexible and therefore efficient memory strategy for remembering exchange-relevant information. PMID:24838306

  20. Culture of pathogenic campylobacter species at Mymensingh Medical College.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, S R; Hossain, M A; Paul, S K; Mahmud, M C; Ahmed, S; Ray, N C; Hoque, S M; Haq, J A; Yasmin, T

    2014-04-01

    Childhood diarrhea represents a major public health problem in developing countries, where campylobacteriosis is widespread and causes significant morbidity and mortality in infants and children. Despite the increasing importance of campylobacteriosis, most developing countries and even many developed countries do not have surveillance systems to measure the health and economic burden of human campylobacteriosis, nor detect trends in outbreaks. The present study was carried out to diagnose etiology of diarrhea caused by Campylobacter species. A total of 150 clinically diagnosed diarrheal pediatric patients were included in this study, of which 98(65.3%) were male and 52(34.6%) female from the Department of Pediatrics, Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, Mymensingh, Bangladesh from July 2011 to April 2012. Stool specimens were collected from each of the cases. The specimens were cultured in appropriate media and Campylobacters were isolated and identified by recommended tests. Among 150 cases, 17(11.3%) were culture positive for Campylobacter species, of which 15(88.2%) were C. jejuni and 02(11.7%) were C. coli. Of the cases, below 1 year of age group were 106(70.6%) cases showing 12(70.5%) positive for Campylobacters and 44(29.33%) cases were above 1 year of age group showing 05(29.41%) positive. The prevalence of Campylobacter infection found in the present study was higher below 1 year age group and was very much close to other countries of this subcontinent. PMID:24858144

  1. Lipophilic metabolite profiling of maize and sorghum seeds and seedlings, and their pest spotted stem borer larvae: a standardized GC-MS based approach.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sandeep; Dhillon, Mukesh K

    2015-03-01

    In order to better understand the biochemical interactions and to identify new biomarkers for plant resistance against insects, we proposed a suitable lipophilic profiling method for insects and their host plants. The critical components of GC-MS based analysis are: sample amount, extraction, derivatization, temperature gradient, run time, and identification of peaks. For lipophilic metabolite profiling of maize and sorghum, and their insect pest, spotted stem borer larvae, we recommend 100 mg sample weight for seeds and insect samples (whole insect body), and 200 mg for seedlings. Maize and sorghum seeds required less time for fat extraction in comparison to their seedlings and the pest fed on these seedlings. GC-MS was standardized for better separation and intensity of peaks using different temperature gradients in the range of 180-300 C. A total of 48 lipophilic compounds encompassing various classes based on their functional groups such as fatty acids, fatty alcohols, hydrocarbons, sterols and terpenoids, vitamin derivative, etc. were separated in the seedlings (30), seeds (14), and the pest (26) in the retention time range of 3.22 to 29.41 min. This method could be useful to study nutritional aspects of different field crops in relation to various stresses apart from the analysis of lipophilic compounds for better understanding of insect-plant interactions. PMID:25872248

  2. Microbiology of Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media in a Tertiary Care Setup of Uttarakhand State, India

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Rajat; Juyal, Deepak; Negi, Vikrant; Pal, Shekhar; Adekhandi, Shamanth; Sharma, Munesh; Sharma, Neelam

    2013-01-01

    Background: Chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) is a notorious infection and a major health problem in developing countries causing serious local damage and threatening complications. Early and effective treatment based on the knowledge of causative micro-organisms and their antimicrobial sensitivity ensures prompt clinical recovery and possible complications can thus be avoided. Aims: The aim of this study was to isolate the organisms associated with CSOM and to detect the antibiogram of the aerobic isolates. Materials and Methods: A total of 204 patients clinically diagnosed of CSOM were enrolled in the study and the samples were obtained from each patient using sterile cotton swabs and cultured for microbial flora. Drug susceptibility testing for aerobic isolates was conducted using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Results: The most common causative organisms isolated were Staphylococcus aureus (48.69%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (19.89%) amongst the 191 aerobic isolates. Anaerobes accounted for 29.41% of the isolates while 12.25% were fungi. Antimicrobial profile of aerobic isolates revealed maximum sensitivity to amikacin (95.5%), ceftriaxone (83.4%) and gentamicin (82.7%). Conclusion: Knowing the etiological agents of CSOM and their antimicrobial susceptibility is of essential importance for an efficient treatment, prevention of both complications and development of antibiotic resistance and finally, the reduction of the treatment costs. PMID:23724403

  3. Extended spectrum beta lactamase producing gram negative bacilli in a tertiary referral hospital of Assam--experience with two methods.

    PubMed

    Nath, Reema; Saikia, Lahari; Mahanta, J

    2006-10-01

    Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamases (ESBL) are enzymes produced in some gram negative bacilli that mediate resistance to extended spectrum cephalosporins. 683 clinical isolates of Escherisia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were studied for their capacity to produce ESBL. Isolates showing resistance to at least two of the third generation cephalosporins were studied for ESBL production by Jarlier technique and combination disc methods. Out of the 457 E. Coli and 226 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated in Assam Medical College, 29.76% and 53.1% were resistant to two cephalosporins of which 29.41% and 29.16% strains showed production of ESBL. However, 6 (4.41%) and 16 (13.34%) strains additionally showed production of ESBL when tested with combination disc method. Though the Jarlier technique is popular, for detection of ESBL, yet false negative results warrants for alternative method. In the absence of molecular detection methods in routine clinical microbiology laboratory, combination disc method appears to be a better option. PMID:17183880

  4. Potential antiosteoporosis effect of biodegradable magnesium implanted in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, Weili; Zhang, Yu; Yang, Jianhong; Tan, Lili; Yang, Ke

    2011-12-01

    Pure magnesium (Mg) was implanted intramedullary into the femur of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats to investigate its effect on bone growth after 6 weeks degradation. The experimental results showed that the femoral BMD in diabetic rats was significantly lower than that in controls (p < 0.01) but restored notably by Mg implantation. The contents of calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), Mg, zinc (Zn), potassium (K), strontium (Sr), and sulfur (S) in bone of diabetic group were significantly lower than those in controls but remarkably increased with implantation of Mg. The residual weight calculation showed that 29.41% of Mg was degraded in vivo. The energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis showed that the reaction layer on the surface of the Mg implant mainly consisted of C, Ca, O, P, and Mg. Besides, serum Mg level was significantly decreased in diabetic group compared with the control group but increased by Mg treatment. Also, there were no significant differences in body weight and blood glucose, as well as blood glycosylated hemoglobin (HbAIc%), serum Ca, alanine aminitransperase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), uric acid (UA), nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA), cholinesterase (CHE), and creatinine (CR) levels between diabetic and Mg-implanted rats. The study indicated that Mg implant had no obvious toxicity in STZ-induced diabetic rats and may act as a potential agent to treat osteoporosis. PMID:22021186

  5. Distribution of surfactants in sea-surface microlayer and atmospheric aerosols at selected coastal area of Peninsular Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustaffa, Nur Ili Hamizah; Latif, Mohd Talib; Ali, Masni Mohd

    2013-11-01

    Surfactant in marine environment has been recognized to influence the biogeochemical cycle in atmosphere. This study aims to determine the concentration of surfactants in sea-surface microlayer (SML) and atmospheric aerosol at selected coastal area of Peninsular Malaysia. The sampling activities has been carried out between February 2012 and January 2013 using rotation drum to collect SML samples and a High Volume Sampler (HVS) equipped with two cascade impactor to collect fine and coarse mode aerosols. The Colorimetric method has been applied to determine surfactants as MBAS and DBAS using UV-Vis Spectrophotometer. Trajectory analysis was done using online-based HYSPLIT model in order to determine the influence of wind direction on surfactants concentrations. Overall, anionic surfactant as MBAS was dominated in SML with a range 0.19-0.24 μmolL-1. Surfactants in atmospheric aerosol was found to be dominant in fine mode aerosol (MBAS = 62.79-171.30 pmolm-3, DBAS = 29.41-182.86 pmolm-3) influenced by northeast monsoon.

  6. Using the ionospheric response to the solar eclipse on 20 March 2015 to detect spatial structure in the solar corona.

    PubMed

    Scott, C J; Bradford, J; Bell, S A; Wilkinson, J; Barnard, L; Smith, D; Tudor, S

    2016-09-28

    The total solar eclipse that occurred over the Arctic region on 20 March 2015 was seen as a partial eclipse over much of Europe. Observations of this eclipse were used to investigate the high time resolution (1 min) decay and recovery of the Earth's ionospheric E-region above the ionospheric monitoring station in Chilton, UK. At the altitude of this region (100 km), the maximum phase of the eclipse was 88.88% obscuration of the photosphere occurring at 9:29:41.5 UT. In comparison, the ionospheric response revealed a maximum obscuration of 66% (leaving a fraction, Φ, of uneclipsed radiation of 34±4%) occurring at 9:29 UT. The eclipse was re-created using data from the Solar Dynamics Observatory to estimate the fraction of radiation incident on the Earth's atmosphere throughout the eclipse from nine different emission wavelengths in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and X-ray spectrum. These emissions, having varying spatial distributions, were each obscured differently during the eclipse. Those wavelengths associated with coronal emissions (94, 211 and 335 Å) most closely reproduced the time varying fraction of unobscured radiation observed in the ionosphere. These results could enable historic ionospheric eclipse measurements to be interpreted in terms of the distribution of EUV and X-ray emissions on the solar disc.This article is part of the themed issue 'Atmospheric effects of solar eclipses stimulated by the 2015 UK eclipse'. PMID:27550766

  7. A low false negative filter for detecting rare bird species from short video segments using a probable observation data set-based EKF method.

    PubMed

    Song, Dezhen; Xu, Yiliang

    2010-09-01

    We report a new filter to assist the search for rare bird species. Since a rare bird only appears in front of a camera with very low occurrence (e.g., less than ten times per year) for very short duration (e.g., less than a fraction of a second), our algorithm must have a very low false negative rate. We verify the bird body axis information with the known bird flying dynamics from the short video segment. Since a regular extended Kalman filter (EKF) cannot converge due to high measurement error and limited data, we develop a novel probable observation data set (PODS)-based EKF method. The new PODS-EKF searches the measurement error range for all probable observation data that ensures the convergence of the corresponding EKF in short time frame. The algorithm has been extensively tested using both simulated inputs and real video data of four representative bird species. In the physical experiments, our algorithm has been tested on rock pigeons and red-tailed hawks with 119 motion sequences. The area under the ROC curve is 95.0%. During the one-year search of ivory-billed woodpeckers, the system reduces the raw video data of 29.41 TB to only 146.7 MB (reduction rate 99.9995%). PMID:20388596

  8. Sphincterodiplostomum musculosum (Digenea, Diplostomidae) infecting Steindachnerina insculpta (Characiformes, Curimatidae) in the Chavantes Reservoir, Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zago, Aline Cristina; Franceschini, Lidiane; Ramos, Igor Paiva; Zica, Erica de Oliveira Penha; Wunderlich, Alison Carlos; Carvalho, Edmir Daniel; Silva, Reinaldo José da

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to report the infection by Sphincterodiplostomum musculosum metacercariae in Steindachnerina insculpta from the Chavantes Reservoir, medium Paranapanema River, municipality of Ipaussu, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Thirty specimens of S. insculpta were collected and 29 were infected with S. musculosum metacercariae (prevalence = 96.67%) in the eyes and visceral cavity. The mean intensity of infection and abundance were 96.6 ± 29.41 (7-846) and 93.3 ± 28.6 (0-846), respectively. Positive correlation was observed between parasite abundance in the eyes and standard length (rs = 0.5, p = 0.005), total weight (rs = 0.649, p = 0.0001), and condition factor (rs = 0.439, p = 0.0154). The high parasitism rates by S. musculosum metacercariae in S. insculpta can be an indicative that this fish species is highly susceptible to infection by this diplostomid, and even reflect the presence of a large abundance of the intermediate host. Moreover, S. musculosum metacercariae are reported for the first time in S. insculpta. PMID:24252954

  9. Elevated Transforming Growth Factor-β2 in the Aqueous Humor: A Possible Explanation for High Rate of Capsular Contraction Syndrome in High Myopia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Keke; Zhu, Xiangjia; Chen, Minjie; Sun, Xinghuai; Yang, Jin; Zhou, Peng; Lu, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of the study was to elucidate the role of transforming growth factor-beta 2 (TGF-β2) in the development of high myopic capsular contraction syndrome. Methods. Nineteen cases of capsular contraction syndrome, including 14 with high myopia, were collected, and their clinical data were reviewed. Aqueous humor and anterior capsular membranes were obtained during capsulotomy. Hematoxylin-eosin and immunohistochemical staining with anti-TGF-β2 antibody were performed on capsular membranes. TGF-β2 levels in aqueous humor were assayed using ELISA and western blot. Results. High myopia was significantly associated with the incidence of capsular contraction syndrome (odds ratio: 14.74, P < 0.001, 95% CI: 5.29-41.05). Histopathological analysis revealed proliferation of fibroblast-like lens epithelial cells on the shrunken anterior capsule, labeled with TGF-β2 antibodies. ELISA and Western blot showed higher levels of TGF-β2 in aqueous humor of patients with capsular contraction syndrome and high myopia. Conclusions. High myopia is a risk factor for capsular contraction syndrome. Elevated TGF-β2 levels in high myopic cataract patients may play an important role in the pathogenesis of capsular contraction syndrome. PMID:26942002

  10. Survey of ethyl carbamate in fermented foods sold in the United Kingdom in 2004.

    PubMed

    Hasnip, Sarah; Crews, Colin; Potter, Nicholas; Christy, Julie; Chan, Danny; Bondu, Thomas; Matthews, Wendy; Walters, Barry; Patel, Krishna

    2007-04-01

    Results are presented of a survey of fermented foods and beverages sold in the United Kingdom for levels of ethyl carbamate (urethane) carried out to expand the range of food types sold in the United Kingdom for which data regarding ethyl carbamate are available. Samples were analyzed by in-house validated methods, which included measurement uncertainty estimates. The samples comprised 75 fermented liquids (beers, wines, fortified wines, spirits, liqueurs, soy sauces, and vinegars) and 25 fermented solid foods (cheeses, yogurts, soybean products, sauerkraut, yeast extract, olives, and Christmas pudding). Ethyl carbamate was not detected in the beers or the cider. Wines contained between 11 and 24 microg/kg and sake between 81 and 164 microg/kg. Fortified wines contained ethyl carbamate at levels between 14 and 60 microg/kg. Only two of five liqueurs contained ethyl carbamate. Most soy sauces and vinegars did not contain ethyl carbamate. No ethyl carbamate was detected in cheeses, yogurts, olives, or soybean-based products. Single samples of sauerkraut, yeast extract, and Christmas pudding contained low levels (29, 41, and 20 microg/kg ethyl carbamate, respectively). PMID:17328558

  11. Modelling the seasonal dynamics of the Peru-Chile Undercurrent off Central Chile (30-40°S)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergara, Odette A.; Echevín, Vincent; Sepúlveda, Héctor H.; Colas, Francois; Quiñones, Renato A.

    2016-07-01

    The seasonal variability of the hydrology and the poleward subsurface Peru-Chile Undercurrent (PCUC) off the central Chilean coast (29-41°S) were examined using a high-resolution regional model. The model realistically reproduced observed sea level variability, such as intense anticyclonic eddies, the offshore intensification of the poleward flow and the reduced nearshore equatorward flow during autumn, as well as the equatorward intensification of nearshore meandering flow during spring. Values for geostrophic eddy kinetic energy were high along the coast between 30° and 37°S, and lower south of this area. The modelled poleward undercurrent showed latitudinal variability in velocity and transport. The maximum average transport reported was 0.8 Sv near 30°S, consistent with previous modelling studies and estimations derived from in situ observations. The poleward reduction in undercurrent strength was shown to be partly generated by the poleward decrease in wind stress curl and by the formation of a westward jet near 35°S associated with westward-propagating eddies. A Lagrangian analysis of the modelled water parcels transported by the undercurrent shows that only 14-20% of the subsurface floats transported by the undercurrent upwelled into the surface layer within the subsequent six months after their release. The floats remaining within the subsurface layer were likely transported further south by the current, offshore by westward-propagating eddies or equatorward by the deeper part of the surface coastal current.

  12. Evaluation of Chicken IgY Generated Against Canine Parvovirus Viral-Like Particles and Development of Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and Immunochromatographic Assay for Canine Parvovirus Detection.

    PubMed

    He, Jinxin; Wang, Yuan; Sun, Shiqi; Zhang, Xiaoying

    2015-11-01

    Immunoglobulin Y (IgY) antibodies were generated against canine parvovirus virus-like particles (CPV-VLPs) antigen using chickens. Anti-CPV-VLPs-IgY was extracted from hen egg yolk and used for developing enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunochromatographic assay (ICA) for the detection of CPV in dog feces. The cutoff negative values for anti-CPV-VLPs-IgY were determined using negative fecal samples (already confirmed by polymerase chain reaction [PCR]). In both ELISA and ICA, there was no cross-reaction with other diarrheal pathogens. Thirty-four fecal samples were collected from dogs with diarrhea, of which 26.47% were confirmed as CPV-positive samples by PCR, while 29.41% and 32.35% of the samples were found to be positive by ELISA and ICA, respectively. The developed ELISA and ICA exhibited 97.06% and 94.12% conformity with PCR. Higher sensitivity and specificity were observed for IgY-based ELISA and ICA. Thus, they could be suitable for routine use in the diagnosis of CPV in dogs. PMID:26469376

  13. Temporary Fecal Diversion in the Management of Colorectal and Perianal Crohn's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mennigen, Rudolf; Heptner, Britta; Senninger, Norbert; Rijcken, Emile

    2015-01-01

    Aim. To evaluate the results of temporary fecal diversion in colorectal and perianal Crohn's disease. Method. We retrospectively identified 29 consecutive patients (14 females, 15 males; median age: 30.0 years, range: 18–76) undergoing temporary fecal diversion for colorectal (n = 14), ileal (n = 4), and/or perianal Crohn's disease (n = 22). Follow-up was in median 33.0 (3–103) months. Response to fecal diversion, rate of stoma reversal, and relapse rate after stoma reversal were recorded. Results. The response to temporary fecal diversion was complete remission in 4/29 (13.8%), partial remission in 12/29 (41.4%), no change in 7/29 (24.1%), and progress in 6/29 (20.7%). Stoma reversal was performed in 19 out of 25 patients (76%) available for follow-up. Of these, the majority (15/19, 78.9%) needed further surgical therapies for a relapse of the same pathology previously leading to temporary fecal diversion, including colorectal resections (10/19, 52.6%) and creation of a definitive stoma (7/19, 36.8%). At the end of follow-up, only 4/25 patients (16%) had a stable course without the need for further definitive surgery. Conclusion. Temporary fecal diversion can induce remission in otherwise refractory colorectal or perianal Crohn's disease, but the chance of enduring remission after stoma reversal is low. PMID:25649893

  14. A Comparison of Tissue versus Swab Culturing of Infected Diabetic Foot Wounds.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying; Cao, Ying; Zou, Mengchen; Luo, Xiangrong; Jiang, Ya; Xue, Yaoming; Gao, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To compare the efficacy of swabbing versus tissue biopsy for microbiological diagnosis of diabetic foot infection. Methods. This was a prospective trial. Fifty-six patients with diabetic foot infection were divided into the following 3 groups according to the PEDIS grading system: grade 2 (n = 10), grade 3 (n = 29), and grade 4 (n = 17). Two specimens were collected from each wound for microbial culturing after debridement, including a superficial swab and a deep tissue punch biopsy specimen. Results. Swab culturing identified all of the microorganisms isolated from the corresponding deep tissue specimens in 9/10 of grade 2 wounds (90.0%), and this proportion decreased to 12/29 (41.4%) and 7/17 (41.2%) for grades 3 and 4 wounds, respectively (p = 0.02). Moreover, the sensitivity for identifying Gram-negative bacteria, such as E. coli and Citrobacter, by swabbing was low (33.3%). In addition, some Gram-negative bacteria, such as Serratia and Ralstonia pickettii, were isolated from deep tissues but not from swabs. Conclusions. Swab culturing may be reliable for identification of pathogens in diabetic foot wounds classified as grade 2. However, it is advisable to culture deep tissue specimens for wounds of grade ≥3 because swab culturing is associated with a high risk of missing pathogens, especially Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:27123004

  15. A Comparison of Tissue versus Swab Culturing of Infected Diabetic Foot Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ying; Cao, Ying; Zou, Mengchen; Luo, Xiangrong; Jiang, Ya; Xue, Yaoming; Gao, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To compare the efficacy of swabbing versus tissue biopsy for microbiological diagnosis of diabetic foot infection. Methods. This was a prospective trial. Fifty-six patients with diabetic foot infection were divided into the following 3 groups according to the PEDIS grading system: grade 2 (n = 10), grade 3 (n = 29), and grade 4 (n = 17). Two specimens were collected from each wound for microbial culturing after debridement, including a superficial swab and a deep tissue punch biopsy specimen. Results. Swab culturing identified all of the microorganisms isolated from the corresponding deep tissue specimens in 9/10 of grade 2 wounds (90.0%), and this proportion decreased to 12/29 (41.4%) and 7/17 (41.2%) for grades 3 and 4 wounds, respectively (p = 0.02). Moreover, the sensitivity for identifying Gram-negative bacteria, such as E. coli and Citrobacter, by swabbing was low (33.3%). In addition, some Gram-negative bacteria, such as Serratia and Ralstonia pickettii, were isolated from deep tissues but not from swabs. Conclusions. Swab culturing may be reliable for identification of pathogens in diabetic foot wounds classified as grade 2. However, it is advisable to culture deep tissue specimens for wounds of grade ≥3 because swab culturing is associated with a high risk of missing pathogens, especially Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:27123004

  16. Granzyme A as a potential biomarker of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and disease.

    PubMed

    Guggino, Giuliana; Orlando, Valentina; Cutrera, Stella; La Manna, Marco P; Di Liberto, Diana; Vanini, Valentina; Petruccioli, Elisa; Dieli, Francesco; Goletti, Delia; Caccamo, Nadia

    2015-08-01

    Cytotoxic molecules such as granulysin, perforin and granzymes produced by cytolytic T cells directly contribute to immune defense against tuberculosis (TB). In search for novel TB biomarkers, we have evaluated the levels of granzyme A in plasma obtained from QuantiFERON-TB Gold In tube (QFT-IT) assays from patients with active TB disease and subjects with latent TB infection (LTBI). Granzyme A serum levels in TB patients were significantly lower than values found in LTBI subjects even after subtraction of the unstimulated levels from the antigen-stimulated responses. The receiver operator characteristics (ROC) curve analysis comparing TB patients and LTBI groups, showed that at a cut-off value of granzyme A of <3.425pg/ml, the sensitivity and the specificity of the assay were 29.41% and 94.74%, respectively. Our results suggest that granzyme A could be considered another biomarker of TB, that can be used, other than IFN-γ, to discriminate between patients with active TB and LTBI subjects in a well characterized cohort of confirmed Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected individuals. PMID:26051682

  17. Development and validation of glycoprotein-based native-subunit vaccine for fish against Aeromonas hydrophila.

    PubMed

    Çiftci, A; Onuk, E E; Çiftci, G; Fındık, A; Söğüt, M Ü; Didinen, B I; Aksoy, A; Üstünakın, K; Gülhan, T; Balta, F; Altun, S

    2016-08-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is known to be causative agent of an infection named as Bacterial haemorrhagic septicaemia or red pest in freshwater fish. The aim of this study was to develop and validate the glycoprotein-based fish vaccine against Aeromonas hydrophila. For this aim, after identification and characterization of A. hydrophila isolates from fish farms, one A. hydrophila isolate was selected as vaccine strain. Antigenic glycoproteins of this vaccine strain were determined by Western blotting and glycan detection kit. The connection types of these glycoproteins were examined by glycoprotein differentiation kit. Two glycoproteins, molecular weights of 19 and 38 kDa, with SNA connection type were selected for use in vaccination trials. After their purification by SNA-specific lectin and size-exclusion chromatography, protection studies with purified proteins were performed. For challenge trials, four experimental fish groups were designated: Group I (with montanide), Group II (with montanide and ginseng), Group III [with Al(OH)3 ] and Group IV [with Al(OH)3 and ginseng]. The survival ratings of fish were determined, and protection was calculated as 21.56%, 29.41%, 69.83% and 78.88% in groups I, II, III and IV, respectively. In conclusion, A. hydrophila glycoproteins with Al(OH)3 and ginseng could be used as a safe and effective vaccine for fish. PMID:27144782

  18. Antibody levels against rabies among occupationally exposed individuals in a Nigerian University.

    PubMed

    Olugasa, Babasola O; Odeniyi, Adebayo O; Adeogun, Aina O; Adeola, Oluwagbenga A

    2010-01-01

    The authors investigated the levels of anti-glycoprotein antibodies against rabies virus in the sera of occupationally exposed humans at the University of Ibadan, Nigeria. A quantitative indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect rabies virus anti-glycoprotein antibodies in sera from 20 zoological garden workers, 20 veterinarians and 30 clinical veterinary students at the University of Ibadan. The sera were obtained between September 2008 and February 2009. Of these 70 healthy individuals, 29 (41.4%) consisting of 15 zoological garden workers (75.0%), 13 veterinarians (65.0%) and 1 veterinary student (3.3%) were immune to rabies virus (antibody titre > or =0.5 equivalent units per ml), while 41 (58.6%) were not immune. The prevalence of rabies anti-glycoprotein antibody was higher within the older segment of the study population than among the younger veterinary students. Almost all those who had spent at least 10 years on the job had higher levels of rabies vaccination compliance and were immune. Our results indicated that there is low anti-rabies immunity among occupationally exposed individuals at the University of Ibadan. There is a need for a complete course of primary and booster vaccinations of professionals exposed to the rabies virus. The impact of these results on rabies control in Nigeria is discussed. PMID:20391364

  19. Ultrasound-assisted adsorption of 4-dodecylbenzene sulfonate from aqueous solutions by corn cob activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Milenković, D D; Bojić, A Lj; Veljković, V B

    2013-05-01

    This study was aimed at removal of 4-dodecylbenzene sulfonate (DBS) ions from aqueous solutions by ultrasound-assisted adsorption onto the carbonized corn cob (AC). The main attention was focused on modeling the equilibrium and kinetics of adsorption of DBS onto the AC. The AC was prepared from ground dried corn cob by carbonization and activation by carbon dioxide at 880°C for 2h in a rotary furnace. The adsorption isotherm data were fitted by the Langmuir model in both the absence and the presence of ultrasound (US). The maximum adsorption capacities of the adsorbent for DBS, calculated from the Langmuir isotherms, were 29.41mg/g and 27.78mg/g in the presence of US and its absence, respectively. The adsorption process in the absence and the presence of US obeyed the pseudo second-order kinetics. The intraparticular diffusion model indicated that the adsorption of DBS ions on the AC was diffusion controlled as well as that US promoted intraparticular diffusion. The ΔG° values, -24.03kJ/mol, -25.78kJ/mol and -27.78kJ/mol, were negative at all operating temperatures, verifying that the adsorption of DBS ions was spontaneous and thermodynamically favorable. The positive value of ΔS°=187J/molK indicated the increased randomness at the adsorbent-adsorbate interface during the adsorption of DBS ions by the AC. PMID:23187067

  20. “Risk factors associated with virologic failure in HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy at a public hospital in Peru”

    PubMed Central

    Jorge, Alave R; Jorge, Paz B; Elsa, Gonzalez L; Miguel, Campos S; Rodriguez, Martin; Willig, James; Juan, Echevarría Z

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe clinical and biological characteristics of subjects with virologic failure who participated in the sexually transmitted diseases HIV/AIDS National Program from a Peruvian public hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS An exploratory descriptive study was performed with data from subjects older than 18 who started high activity antiretroviral therapy (HAART) between May 2004 and December 2009 and who had a viral load control after 24 weeks of HAART. Virologic failure was defined as a viral load value above 1000 copies/mL on follow up after 24 weeks on HAART. RESULTS Of 1 478 records of patients on HAART analized, the median age was 35 years [IQR, 29-41] and 69.6% were male. Also, virologic failure occurred in 24% and 3.7% died. Of subjects with virologic failure, 9.5% died. On multivariate analysis, age, history of antiretroviral use before starting HAART, change of antiretroviral therapy due to toxicity, opportunistic infections during HAART, level of CD4 + lymphocytes below 100 cells/ml at start of HAART, adherence and clinical stage were independently associated with virologic failure. In the group of patient with no history of antiretroviral use before starting HAART, age, opportunistic infections during HAART were associated with virologic failure. CONCLUSION This study identified factors associated with virologic failure. Further studies are needed to evaluate whether the use of these factors can help to identify prospectively patients at high risk of failure, and to design interventions aimed to reduce this risk. PMID:23450408

  1. SOLID PSEUDOPAPILLARY NEOPLASM OF THE PANCREAS

    PubMed Central

    CARLOTTO, Jorge Roberto Marcante; TORREZ, Franz Robert Apodaca; GONZALEZ, Adriano Miziara; LINHARES, Marcelo Moura; TRIVIÑO, Tarcisio; HERANI-FILHO, Benedito; GOLDENBERG, Alberto; LOPES-FILHO, Gaspar de Jesus; LOBO, Edson José

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The solid pseudopapillary neoplasm is a rare tumor of the pancreas. However, it´s etiology still maintain discussions. Aim: To analyze it´s clinical data, diagnosis and treatment. Methods: A retrospective study of medical records of all patients treated from January 1997 until July 2015. Results: Were identified 17 cases. Most patients were women (94.11%) and the average age was 32.88 years. The main complaint was abdominal mass (47.05%). The most frequent location was in the body/tail of the pancreas (72.22%) and the most frequently performed surgery was distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy (64.70%). No patient had metastases at diagnosis. Conservative surgery for pancreatic parenchyma was performed in only three cases. The rate of complications in the postoperative period was 35.29% and the main complication was pancreatic fistula (29.41%). No patient underwent adjuvant treatment. Conclusions: The treatment is surgical and the most common clinical presentation is abdominal mass. Distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy was the most frequently performed surgery for its treatment. PMID:27438034

  2. Phylogenetic relatedness and diversity of non-typable Haemophilus influenzae in the nasopharynx and middle ear fluid of children with acute otitis media

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Ravinder; Chang, Arthur; Xu, Qingfu; Casey, Janet R.

    2011-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of non-typable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) strains prospectively isolated from healthy children and children with acute otitis media (AOM) were analysed using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). A total of 165 NTHi isolates were collected over a 3.5 year time frame during 2006 through 2009. The strains were tested for β-lactamase production; 28.5 % were positive. Seventy different NTHi sequence types (STs) were identified of which 29 (41.4 %) were novel. NTHi strains did not show any phylogenetic grouping or clustering among asymptomatic colonizing strains or strains that caused AOM, or based on β-lactamase enzyme production. Evaluation of triplets and other siblings over time demonstrated relatively frequent genetic exchanges in NTHi isolates in vivo in a short time frame and subsequent transfer among children in a family. Comparison of the MLST STs isolated at different time points showed that in ~85 % of the nasopharynx (NP) colonizations, NTHi strains cleared from the host within 3 months, that sequential colonization in the same child involved different strains in all cases except one, and that NP and middle ear isolates were identical STs in 84 % of cases. In this first study of its type to our knowledge, we could not identify predominant MLST types among strains colonizing the NP versus those causing AOM or expressing a β-lactamase enzyme conferring penicillin resistance in children. PMID:21799196

  3. Vibro-impacting power harvester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, Scott; Powlesland, Ian; Galea, Stephen; Carman, Gregory

    2010-04-01

    The certification of retro-fitted structural health monitoring (SHM) systems for use on aircraft raises a number of challenges. One critical issue is determining the optimal means of supplying power to these systems, given that access to the existing aircraft power-system is often problematic. Previously, the DSTO has shown that a structural-strain based energy harvesting approach can be used to power a device for SHM of aircraft structure. Acceleration-based power harvesting from airframes can be more demanding than a strain based approach because the vibration spectrum of an aircraft structure can vary dynamically with flight conditions. A vibration spectrum with varying frequency may severely limit the power harvested by a single-degree-of-freedom resonance-based device, and hence a frequency agile or (relatively) broadband device is often required to maximize the energy harvested. This paper reports on an investigation into the use of a vibro-impact approach to construct an acceleration-based power harvester that can operate in the frequency range 29-41 Hz.

  4. Gastrointestinal bezoars: A retrospective analysis of 34 cases

    PubMed Central

    Erzurumlu, Kenan; Malazgirt, Zafer; Bektas, Ahmet; Dervisoglu, Adem; Polat, Cafer; Senyurek, Gokhan; Yetim, Ibrahim; Ozkan, Kayhan

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Bezoars (BZ) are the most common foreign bodies of gastrointestinal tract. Clinical manifestations vary depending on the location of BZ from no symptoms to acute abdominal syndrome. When located in small bowel, they frequently cause small bowel obstruction (SBO). We aimed to present our experience by reviewing literature. METHODS: Thirty-four patients with gastrointestinal BZ were presented. The data were collected from hospital records and analyzed retrospectively. Morbidity and mortality rates were statistically analyzed between the subgroups according to SBO and endoscopic or surgical treatment modalities. RESULTS: The 34 patients had phytobezoars (PBZ). Two patients with mental retardation and trichotillomania had trichobezoars (TBZ). More than half of them (55.88%) had previous gastric surgery. Also most of them had small bowel bezoars resulting in obstruction. Surgical and endoscopic morbidity rates were 32.14% and 14.28% respectively. The total morbidity rate of this study was 29.41%. Four patients in surgically treated group died. There was no death in endoscopically treated group. The total and surgical mortality rates were 11.76% and 14.28% respectively. The differences in morbidity and mortality rates between the subgroups were not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: BZ are commonly seen in stomach and small intestine. SBO is the most common complication. When uncomplicated, endoscopic or surgical removal can be applied easily. PMID:15793871

  5. The Effect of Smoking on Mineral and Protein Compositionof Saliva

    PubMed Central

    Fattahi Bafghi, Ali; Goljanian Tabrizi, Ali; Bakhshayi, Peyman

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: To assess the salivary composition of proteins and minerals in smokers compared with non-smokers. Materials and Methods: In this study we compared the total protein and Ca, Na, K, Mg, Pb of whole saliva in two groups of men (28 smokers and 31nonsmokers) aged between 29-41years. Results: Fifty-nine participants were evaluated. The mean age was 33.14±5.32 years among smokers and 32.15±5.12 years among non-smokers (P>0.05). The mean concentration of total protein, Ca, Pb, and Zn of whole saliva in smokers was lower than that in non-smokers, but the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05). The mean concentration of Na, K, Mg in whole saliva was not significantly different between smokers and non-smokers (P>0.05). Conclusion: We specified that smoking reduced the value of total protein, Ca and Pb of saliva, however it did not have an impact on Na, K, and Mg of saliva. PMID:26788479

  6. Amodal brain activation and functional connectivity in response to high energy-density food cues in obesity

    PubMed Central

    Carnell, Susan; Benson, Leora; Pantazatos, Spiro P.; Hirsch, Joy; Geliebter, Allan

    2014-01-01

    Objective The obesogenic environment is pervasive, yet only some people become obese. We aimed to investigate whether obese individuals show differential neural responses to visual and auditory food cues, independent of cue modality. Design and Methods Obese (BMI 29;-41, n=10) and lean (BMI 20-24, n=10) females underwent fMRI scanning during presentation of auditory (spoken word) and visual (photograph) cues representing high energy-density [ED] and low-ED foods. We examined the effect of obesity on whole brain activation, and on functional connectivity with the midbrain/VTA. Results Obese compared with lean women showed greater modality-independent activation of the midbrain/VTA and putamen in response to high-ED (vs. low-ED) cues, as well as relatively greater functional connectivity between the midbrain/VTA and cerebellum (p<0.05 corrected). Conclusions Heightened modality-independent responses to food cues within the midbrain/VTA and putamen, and altered functional connectivity between the midbrain/VTA and cerebellum, could contribute to excessive food intake in obese individuals. PMID:25098957

  7. Antibiotic prescribing and resistance: knowledge level of medical students of clinical years of University Sultan Zainal Abidin, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Haque, Mainul; Rahman, Nor Iza A; Zulkifli, Zainal; Ismail, Salwani

    2016-01-01

    The innovation of penicillin by Dr Alexander Fleming in 1928 and its use in clinical practice saved many lives, especially during the Second World War. Tuberculosis still carries a significant public health threat and has re-emerged over the past two decades, even in modern countries where tuberculosis was thought to be eliminated. The World Health Organization defines antimicrobial resistance as the resistance of a microorganism to an antimicrobial drug that was initially effective for treatment of infections caused by the microbe. Therefore, the findings of the current study will provide data to enable the design of a new educational program to better equip our students in confronting antimicrobial resistance. This study was a cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey, which was undertaken in the Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia. The study participants were students of the Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery program (MBBS) of Year III, IV, and V. A total of 142 out of 164 (86%) medical students returned the questionnaire. Specifically, the year-wise breakdown of responses was 29% (41), 39% (55), and 32% (45) for Year III, IV, and V, respectively. Among the study respondents, 28% (40) were male, and the remaining 72% (102) were female. In all, 67% of the participants felt more confident in “making an accurate diagnosis of infection/sepsis.” The majority (88%) of the study participants stated that they would like more training on antibiotic selection. This research has found that there is a gap between theoretical input and clinical practice; the students are demanding more educational intervention to face the threat of antimicrobial resistance. PMID:27042083

  8. 99mTc-UBI Biokinetics: A Specific Peptide for Infection Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Cortés, J.; Meléndez-Alafort, L.; Herrera-Rodríguez, R.; Ferro-Flores, G.; Mitsoura, E.; Martínez-Duncker, C.

    2003-09-01

    Recently, antimicrobial peptides have been proposed as new agents to distinguish between bacterial infections and sterile inflammatory processes. Based on these considerations, Ubiquicidin peptide 29-41 (UBI) has been labeled with 99mTc using a new direct method showing a radiochemical purity > 97 %, high stability in human serum, and low protein binding. In addition 99mTc-UBI showed a specific in vitro and in vivo binding to bacteria. However its biokinetic parameters have not been evaluated since it is one of the new generation radiopharmaceuticals based on peptide structures. Therefore the aim of this project was to establish the biokinetic model for 99mTc-UBI. An activity from 74 to 148 MBq was injected to patients with bone infection and 5 whole body scans were taken at 1, 30, 120, 240 min and 24 h after radiopharmaceutical administration, with a dual head scanner. Urine was collected for 24 h. An antropomorphic phantom was previously used to calculate the effect of attenuation and scattered radiation on the gamma camera acquisition images. ROIs of the selected organs in patients (kidney, liver, heart, bone, soft tissue and lesion) were drawn, and attenuation and scatter corrected. The % urine elimination at 24 h and time integrated ROIs (cpm/pixel/ROIs) were used to obtain the residence time (τ) in each tissue and to establish the biokinetic model. Pharmacokinetic data show that blood clearance is biexponential with a mean residence time in the central compartment of 0.52 h. The images showed non-accumulation in metabolic organs. More than 75 % of the injected activity was eliminated by renal clearance 4 h after 99mTc-UBI administration. The mean radiation dose calculated according to the MIRD formalism was 0.130 mGy/MBq for kidney and the effective dose was 4.29 × 10-3 mSv/MBq.

  9. Intracellular Cl- as a signaling ion that potently regulates Na+/HCO3- transporters.

    PubMed

    Shcheynikov, Nikolay; Son, Aran; Hong, Jeong Hee; Yamazaki, Osamu; Ohana, Ehud; Kurtz, Ira; Shin, Dong Min; Muallem, Shmuel

    2015-01-20

    Cl(-) is a major anion in mammalian cells involved in transport processes that determines the intracellular activity of many ions and plasma membrane potential. Surprisingly, a role of intracellular Cl(-) (Cl(-) in) as a signaling ion has not been previously evaluated. Here we report that Cl(-) in functions as a regulator of cellular Na(+) and HCO3 (-) concentrations and transepithelial transport through modulating the activity of several electrogenic Na(+)-HCO3 (-) transporters. We describe the molecular mechanism(s) of this regulation by physiological Cl(-) in concentrations highlighting the role of GXXXP motifs in Cl(-) sensing. Regulation of the ubiquitous Na(+)-HCO3(-) co-transport (NBC)e1-B is mediated by two GXXXP-containing sites; regulation of NBCe2-C is dependent on a single GXXXP motif; and regulation of NBCe1-A depends on a cryptic GXXXP motif. In the basal state NBCe1-B is inhibited by high Cl(-) in interacting at a low affinity GXXXP-containing site. IP3 receptor binding protein released with IP3 (IRBIT) activation of NBCe1-B unmasks a second high affinity Cl(-) in interacting GXXXP-dependent site. By contrast, NBCe2-C, which does not interact with IRBIT, has a single high affinity N-terminal GXXP-containing Cl(-) in interacting site. NBCe1-A is unaffected by Cl(-) in between 5 and 140 mM. However, deletion of NBCe1-A residues 29-41 unmasks a cryptic GXXXP-containing site homologous with the NBCe1-B low affinity site that is involved in inhibition of NBCe1-A by Cl(-) in. These findings reveal a cellular Cl(-) in sensing mechanism that plays an important role in the regulation of Na(+) and HCO3 (-) transport, with critical implications for the role of Cl(-) in cellular ion homeostasis and epithelial fluid and electrolyte secretion. PMID:25561556

  10. Genome-wide analysis of differential mRNA expression of Amsacta moorei entomopoxvirus, mediated by the gene encoding a viral protein kinase (AMV197).

    PubMed

    Muratoglu, Hacer; Nalcacioglu, Remziye; Arif, Basil M; Demirbag, Zihni

    2016-04-01

    Insect-born entomopoxviruses (Fam: Poxviridae) are potentially important bio-pesticide against insect pests and expression vectors as well as vectors for transient human gene therapies including recombinant viral vaccines. For these reasons, it is necessary to understand the regulatory genes functions to improve its biotechnological potential. Here, we focused on the characterization of serine/threonine (Ser/Thr; ORF AMV197) protein kinase gene from the Amsacta moorei entomopoxvirus (AMEV), the type species of the genus Betaentomopoxvirus. Transcription of the parental and an amv197-null recombinant AMEV was compared by whole-genome gene expression microarray analysis. Blast2GO analysis reflected a broad diversity of upregulated and downregulated genes. Results showed that expression levels of 102 genes (45%) out of 226 tested genes changed significantly in the recombinant AMEV infected cells. Of these transcripts, 72 (70.58%) were upregulated and 30 (29.41%) were downregulated throughout the infection period. Genes involved in DNA repair, replication and nucleotide metabolism, transcription and RNA modification, and protein modification were mostly upregulated at different times in cells infected with the recombinant virus. Furthermore, transcription of all studied cellular genes including metabolism of apoptosis (Nedd2-like caspase, hemolin and elongation factor-1 alpha (ef1a) gene) was downregulated in the absence of amv197. Quantitative real time reverse transcription-PCR confirmed viral transcriptional changes obtained by microarray. The results of this study indicated that the product of amv197 appears to affect the transcriptional regulation of most viral and many cellular genes. Further investigations are, however, needed to narrow down the role of AMV197 throughout the infection process. PMID:26820433

  11. Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging of brain development in premature and mature newborns.

    PubMed

    Hüppi, P S; Warfield, S; Kikinis, R; Barnes, P D; Zientara, G P; Jolesz, F A; Tsuji, M K; Volpe, J J

    1998-02-01

    Definition in the living premature infant of the anatomical and temporal characteristics of development of critical brain structures is crucial for insight into the time of greatest vulnerability of such brain structures. We used three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (3D MRI) and image-processing algorithms to quantitate total brain volume and total volumes of cerebral gray matter (GM), unmyelinated white matter (WM), myelinated WM, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in 78 premature and mature newborns (postconceptional age, 29-41 weeks). Total brain tissue volume was shown to increase linearly at a rate of 22 ml/wk. Total GM showed a linear increase in relative intracranial volume of approximately 1.4% or 15 ml in absolute volume per week. The pronounced increase in total GM reflected primarily a fourfold increase in cortical GM. Unmyelinated WM was found to be the most prominent brain tissue class in the preterm infant younger than 36 weeks of postconceptional age. Although minimal myelinated WM was present in the preterm infant at 29 weeks, between 35 and 41 weeks an abrupt fivefold increase in absolute volume of myelinated WM was documented. Extracerebral and intraventricular CSF was readily quantitated by this technique and found to change minimally. The application of 3D MRI and tissue segmentation to the study of human infant brain from 29 to 41 weeks of postconceptional age has provided new insights into cerebral cortical development and myelination and has for the first time provided means of quantitative assessment in vivo of early human brain development. PMID:9485064

  12. Obesity and its Measurement in a Community-Based Sample of Women with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Patricia; Gregorich, Steven; Yazdany, Jinoos; Trupin, Laura; Julian, Laura; Yelin, Edward; Criswell, Lindsey A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of obesity and evaluate how accurately standard anthropometric measures identify obesity among women with SLE. Methods Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), height, weight, and waist and hip circumference were collected from 145 women with SLE. Three anthropometric proxies of obesity (body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m2, waist circumference (WC) ≥88 cm, and waist-hip ratio (WHR) ≥0.85) were compared to a DEXA-based obesity criterion. Correspondence between measures was assessed with Cohen’s kappa. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves determined optimal cut-points for each anthropometric measure, relative to DEXA. Framingham cardiovascular risk scores were compared among women who were classified as not obese by both traditional and revised anthropometric definitions, obese by both definitions, and obese only by the revised definition. Results 28%, 29%, 41%, and 50% were classified as obese by WC, BMI, WHR, and DEXA, respectively. Correspondence between anthropometric and DEXA-based measures was moderate. Women misclassified by anthropometric measures had less truncal fat and more appendicular lean and fat mass. Cut-points were identified for anthropometric measures to better approximate DEXA estimates of percent body fat: BMI ≥26.8 kg/m2, waist circumference ≥84.75 cm., and waist-hip ratio ≥0.80. Framingham risk scores were significantly higher in women classified as obese by either traditional or revised criteria. Conclusions A large percentage of this group of women with SLE was obese. Substantial portions of women were misclassified by anthropometric measures. Utility of revised cut-points compared to traditional cut-points in identifying risk of cardiovascular disease or disability remains to be examined in prospective studies, but results from the Framingham risk score analysis suggest that traditional cut-points exclude a significant number of at-risk women with SLE. PMID:20824801

  13. Hook Wire Localization Procedure and Early Detection of Breast Cancer - Our Experience

    PubMed Central

    Dimitrovska, Maja Jakimovska; Mitreska, Nadica; Lazareska, Menka; Jovanovska, Elizabeta Stojovska; Dodevski, Ace; Stojkoski, Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    AIM: The purpose of this study is to describe our experience with needle localization technique in diagnosing small breast cancers. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This retrospective study included a hundred and twenty patients’ with impalpable breast lesions and they underwent wire localization. All patients had mammography, ultrasound exam and pathohystological results. We use Mammomat Inspiration Siemens digital unit for diagnosing mammography, machine - Lorad Affinity with fenestrated compressive pad for wire localization and ultrasound machine Acuson X300 with linear array probe 10 MhZ. We use two types of wire: Bard hook wire and Kopans breast lesion localization needle, Cook. Comparative radiologic and pathologic data were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: In 120 asymptomatic women, 68 malignancies and 52 benign findings were detected with mammography and ultrasound. The mean age for patients with malignancy was 58.6 years. According BI-RADS classification for mammography the distribution is our group was: BI-RADS 3 was presented in 6 (8.82%) patients, BI-RADS 4 was presented in 56 (82.35%) patients and BI-RADS 5 was present in 6 (8.82%) of the patients. Most wire localizations were performed under mammographic guidance in 58 from 68 patients with malignant lesions (85.29%) and with ultrasound in 10 (14.7%). According the mammographic findings patients with mass on mammograms were 29 (42.65%), mass with calcifications 9 (13.23%), calcifications 20 (29.41%) and architectural distortions or asymmetry 10 (14.71%). CONCLUSION: Wire localization is a well established technique for the management of impalpable breast lesions. PMID:27275234

  14. Association of Hair Manganese Level with Symptoms in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Dong-Won; Kim, Eun-Ji; Lim, Se-Won; Shin, Young-Chul; Oh, Kang-Seob

    2015-01-01

    Objective The study examined the association between hair manganese level and symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Korean children. Methods Forty clinic-referred children with ADHD and 43 normal control children participated in this study. The participants were 6-15 years old and were mainly from the urban area of Seoul, Korea. ADHD was diagnosed using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition and Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Present and Lifetime Version-Korean Version. The severity and symptoms of ADHD was evaluated according to the ADHD Diagnostic System, and parent's Korean ADHD Rating Scale (K-ARS). All participants completed intelligence test and hair mineral analysis. We divided the data of hair Mn into two groups to determine whether a deficit or excess of Mn are associated with ADHD. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to identify hair manganese levels associated with ADHD, controlling for age, sex, and full scale intelligence quotient (IQ). Results The proportion of abnormal range Mn group was significantly high in ADHD compared to controls. However, after statistical control for covariates including age and sex, abnormal range Mn group was significantly associated with ADHD (OR=6.40, 95% CI=1.39-29.41, p=0.017). Conclusion The result of this study suggests that excess exposure or deficiency of Mn were associated with ADHD among children in Korea. Further investigation is needed to evaluate the effects of hair manganese levels on symptoms in ADHD. PMID:25670948

  15. Outcome of lower-intensity allogeneic transplantation in non-Hodgkin lymphoma after autologous transplantation failure.

    PubMed

    Freytes, César O; Zhang, Mei-Jie; Carreras, Jeanette; Burns, Linda J; Gale, Robert Peter; Isola, Luis; Perales, Miguel-Angel; Seftel, Matthew; Vose, Julie M; Miller, Alan M; Gibson, John; Gross, Thomas G; Rowlings, Philip A; Inwards, David J; Pavlovsky, Santiago; Martino, Rodrigo; Marks, David I; Hale, Gregory A; Smith, Sonali M; Schouten, Harry C; Slavin, Simon; Klumpp, Thomas R; Lazarus, Hillard M; van Besien, Koen; Hari, Parameswaran N

    2012-08-01

    We studied the outcome of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation after lower-intensity conditioning regimens (reduced-intensity conditioning and nonmyeloablative) in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma who relapsed after autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Nonrelapse mortality, lymphoma progression/relapse, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival were analyzed in 263 patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma. All 263 patients had relapsed after a previous autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and then had undergone allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from a related (n = 26) or unrelated (n = 237) donor after reduced-intensity conditioning (n = 128) or nonmyeloablative (n = 135) and were reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research between 1996 and 2006. The median follow-up of survivors was 68 months (range, 3-111 months). Three-year nonrelapse mortality was 44% (95% confidence interval [CI], 37%-50%). Lymphoma progression/relapse at 3 years was 35% (95% CI, 29%-41%). Three-year probabilities of PFS and overall survival were 21% (95% CI, 16%-27%) and 32% (95% CI, 27%-38%), respectively. Superior Karnofsky Performance Score, longer interval between transplantations, total body irradiation-based conditioning regimen, and lymphoma remission at transplantation were correlated with improved PFS. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation after lower-intensity conditioning is associated with significant nonrelapse mortality but can result in long-term PFS. We describe a quantitative risk model based on pretransplantation risk factors to identify those patients likely to benefit from this approach. PMID:22198543

  16. Prevalence of Merkel cell polyomavirus in Merkel cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Duncavage, Eric J; Zehnbauer, Barbara A; Pfeifer, John D

    2009-04-01

    It has recently been shown that Merkel cell carcinoma, a rare and often lethal cutaneous malignancy, frequently harbors a novel clonally integrated polyomavirus aptly named Merkel cell polyomavirus. We aimed to study the prevalence of Merkel cell polyomavirus in cases of Merkel cell carcinoma, using specimens from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue blocks. In our archives we identified 41 cases of Merkel cell carcinoma (from 29 different patients). Of these, 20 cases were primary cutaneous tumors, 4 were local recurrences, and 17 were metastases. PCR using two previously published primer sets, LT1 (440 bp amplicon) and LT3 (308 bp amplicon), as well as a novel primer set MCVPS1 (109 bp amplicon), was performed on all cases. Selected PCR products were sequenced to confirm amplicon identity. In addition, the MCVPS1 products were digested with BamH1, yielding an 83 bp product. Amplifiable DNA was recovered in all 41 study cases. The detection rate of Merkel cell polyomavirus for each of the three primer sets was 22 of 29 patients (76%) for MCVPS1, 12 of 29 (41%) for LT3, and 8 of 29 (28%) for LT1. The variation between primer set detection rates was largely due to poor DNA quality, as supported by poor amplification of the higher molecular weight markers in size control ladder products and the fact that all cases that were positive by LT1 and LT3 were positive by MCVPS1. Our findings provide further evidence to link Merkel cell polyomavirus with a possible role in the oncogenesis of Merkel cell carcinoma. On a more practical level, our paraffin-optimized primer set may be used as an ancillary test to confirm the diagnosis of Merkel cell carcinoma in the clinical setting or for screening other rare tumor types for the causative virus, especially those tumor types that are underrepresented in frozen tissue repositories. PMID:19252474

  17. Antibiotic prescribing and resistance: knowledge level of medical students of clinical years of University Sultan Zainal Abidin, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Haque, Mainul; Rahman, Nor Iza A; Zulkifli, Zainal; Ismail, Salwani

    2016-01-01

    The innovation of penicillin by Dr Alexander Fleming in 1928 and its use in clinical practice saved many lives, especially during the Second World War. Tuberculosis still carries a significant public health threat and has re-emerged over the past two decades, even in modern countries where tuberculosis was thought to be eliminated. The World Health Organization defines antimicrobial resistance as the resistance of a microorganism to an antimicrobial drug that was initially effective for treatment of infections caused by the microbe. Therefore, the findings of the current study will provide data to enable the design of a new educational program to better equip our students in confronting antimicrobial resistance. This study was a cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey, which was undertaken in the Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia. The study participants were students of the Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery program (MBBS) of Year III, IV, and V. A total of 142 out of 164 (86%) medical students returned the questionnaire. Specifically, the year-wise breakdown of responses was 29% (41), 39% (55), and 32% (45) for Year III, IV, and V, respectively. Among the study respondents, 28% (40) were male, and the remaining 72% (102) were female. In all, 67% of the participants felt more confident in "making an accurate diagnosis of infection/sepsis." The majority (88%) of the study participants stated that they would like more training on antibiotic selection. This research has found that there is a gap between theoretical input and clinical practice; the students are demanding more educational intervention to face the threat of antimicrobial resistance. PMID:27042083

  18. Serum levels of NT- pro ANP, BNP, NT-pro BNP and function of the left atrium in patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction after myocardial infarction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shurupov, V.; Suslova, T.; Ryabov, V.

    2015-11-01

    The objective of our study was to evaluate the levels of natriuretic peptides in patients (pts) with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) in 12 month after ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) with a focus on the function of left atrium (LA) and left ventricular (LV) filling pressure. 55 pts were included in the study. 6-minute walk test was performed. Echo exam was performed by the diagnostic system VIVID 7. BNP in whole blood was determined using the Triage ® Meter BNP test. The serum levels of NT-pro BNP, NT-pro ANP («Biomedica», Austria) were determined in blood samples by enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA). LA volume index were differences (16.03±3.39 ml/m2; 25.36±8.26 ml/m2; 29.41±9.46 ml/m2 accordingly I, II, III class) depending on severity of HF. Well as E/E' ratio were differences (7.5±1.4; 9.8±5.1; 13.5±7.6 accordingly I, II, III class) depending on severity of HF. The LA volume index correlated with levels of NT-pro ANP (R=0.29; p=0.04), levels of NT-pro BNP (R=0.37; p=0.01), levels of BNP (R=0.51; p=0.0001). The LV filling pressure correlated with levels of NT-pro ANP (R=0.45; p=0.002), levels of NT-pro BNP (R=0.49; p=0.001), levels of BNP (R=0.37; p=0.01).

  19. Temporal and spatial analysis of vegetation coverage changes in Ordos area based on time series GIMMS-NDVI data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Ruimei; Zou, Youfeng; Ma, Chao; Liu, Pei

    2014-11-01

    Ordos area is the desert-wind erosion desertification steppe transition zone and the complex ecological zone. As the research area, Ordos City has the similar natural geographic environment to ShenDong coalfield. To research its ecological patterns and natural evolution law, it has instructive to reveal temporal and spatial changes of ecological environment with artificial disturbance in western mining. In this paper, a time series of AVHRR-NDVI(Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) data was used to monitor the change of vegetation temporal and spatial dynamics from 1981 to 2006 in Ordos City and ShenDong coalfield, where were as the research area. The MVC (Maximum Value Composites) method, average operation, linear regression, and gradation for NDVI change trend were used to obtained some results, as follows: ¬vegetation coverage had obvious characteristics with periodic change in research area for 26 years, and vegetation growth peak appeared on August, while the lowest appeared on January. The extreme values in Ordos City were 0.2351 and 0.1176, while they were 0.2657 and 0.1272 in ShenDong coalfield. The NDVI value fluctuation was a modest rise trend overall in research area. The extreme values were 0.3071 and 0.1861 in Ordos City, while they were 0.3454 and 0.1904 in ShenDong coalfield. In spatial distribution, slight improvement area and slight degradation area were accounting for 42.49% and 8.37% in Ordos City, while slight improvement area moderate improvement area were accounting for 70.59% and 29.41% in ShenDong coalfield. Above of results indicated there was less vegetation coverage in research area, which reflected the characteristics of fragile natural geographical environment. In addition, vegetation coverage was with a modest rise on the whole, which reflected the natural environment change.

  20. Prevalence of Hepatitis C among Egyptian Children with Sickle Cell Disease and the Role of IL28b Gene Polymorphisms in Spontaneous Viral Clearance

    PubMed Central

    Mousa, Somaia Mohammed; El-Ghamrawy, Mona Kamal; Gouda, Heba; Khorshied, Mervat; El-Salam Ahmed, Dina Abd; Shiba, Hala

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major health problem in Egypt with its prevalence estimated to be 14.7% among the general population in 2008. Patients receiving frequent blood transfusions like those with sickle cell disease (SCD) are more exposed to the risk of acquiring HCV. IL28B gene polymorphisms have been associated with spontaneous HCV clearance. This study aims to determine the prevalence of HCV infection among children with SCD and to investigate the relation between IL28B gene polymorphisms and spontaneous HCV clearance. Methods Seventy SCD patients were screened for HCV antibody. HCV-positive patients were tested for the level of HCV RNA using quantitative real-time PCR. IL28B polymorphisms (rs 12979860 SNP and rs 12980275 SNP) were detected using TaqMan QRT-PCR and sequence-specific primers PCR respectively. Results Sixteen patients (23%) were HCV antibody positive, 9 of them (56.3%) had undetectable HCV RNA in serum, and 7 (43.7%) had persistent viremia. Genotypes CC/CT/TT of rs12979860 were found in 30 (42.9%), 29 (41.4%) and 11 (15.7%) patients and rs12980275 AA/AG/GG were found in 8 (11.4%), 59 (84.3%) and 3 (4.3%) patients. There was no significant difference in the frequency of IL28B (rs 12979860 and rs12980275) genotypes among HCV patients who cleared the virus and those with persistent viremia (p=0.308 and 0.724 respectively). Conclusion Egyptian SCD patients have a high prevalence of HCV. Multi-transfused patients still exposed to the risk of transmission of HCV. IL28B gene polymorphismsare not associated with spontaneous clearance of HCV in this cohort of Egyptian children with SCD. PMID:26740868

  1. Audit-based education lowers systolic blood pressure in chronic kidney disease: the Quality Improvement in CKD (QICKD) trial results

    PubMed Central

    de Lusignana, Simon; Gallagher, Hugh; Jones, Simon; Chan, Tom; van Vlymen, Jeremy; Tahir, Aumran; Thomas, Nicola; Jain, Neerja; Dmitrieva, Olga; Rafi, Imran; McGovern, Andrew; Harris, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Strict control of systolic blood pressure is known to slow progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Here we compared audit-based education (ABE) to guidelines and prompts or usual practice in lowering systolic blood pressure in people with CKD. This 2-year cluster randomized trial included 93 volunteer general practices randomized into three arms with 30 ABE practices, 32 with guidelines and prompts, and 31 usual practices. An intervention effect on the primary outcome, systolic blood pressure, was calculated using a multilevel model to predict changes after the intervention. The prevalence of CKD was 7.29% (41,183 of 565,016 patients) with all cardiovascular comorbidities more common in those with CKD. Our models showed that the systolic blood pressure was significantly lowered by 2.41 mm Hg (CI 0.59–4.29 mm Hg), in the ABE practices with an odds ratio of achieving at least a 5 mm Hg reduction in systolic blood pressure of 1.24 (CI 1.05–1.45). Practices exposed to guidelines and prompts produced no significant change compared to usual practice. Male gender, ABE, ischemic heart disease, and congestive heart failure were independently associated with a greater lowering of systolic blood pressure but the converse applied to hypertension and age over 75 years. There were no reports of harm. Thus, individuals receiving ABE are more likely to achieve a lower blood pressure than those receiving only usual practice. The findings should be interpreted with caution due to the wide confidence intervals. PMID:23536132

  2. Peritoneography (Herniography) for Detecting Occult Inguinal Hernia in Patients with Inguinodynia

    PubMed Central

    Heise, Charles P.; Sproat, Ian A.; Starling, James R.

    2002-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the usefulness of peritoneography in patients referred with inguinal pain (inguinodynia) and clinically absent inguinal hernia on physical examination. Summary Background Data In patients with chronic groin pain, peritoneography is a seldom-used yet available technique that can detect an occult inguinal hernia. The value of peritoneography in the diagnosis of occult inguinal hernia has been previously shown. Methods During a 60-month period, 80 consecutive patients with complaints of persistent inguinal pain (inguinodynia) without evidence of hernia on clinical examination were referred for outpatient evaluation by peritoneography. Twenty-nine patients had prior inguinal surgery in the region of their current pain. Peritoneography was performed using a midline or paraumbilical approach. Radiographs were obtained with patients in prone and prone oblique positions with the head elevated 20° to 25°, both with and without provocative maneuvers. All available records were retrospectively reviewed for radiographic findings and outcome. Results Of the 80 patients undergoing peritoneography, 36 (45%) were diagnosed radiographically to have inguinal hernias that were not detectable clinically. Twenty-seven of these patients subsequently underwent inguinal exploration, and a hernia was confirmed in 24 (89%). Of the patients having prior inguinal surgery in the region of their pain, 12/29 (41%) were diagnosed by peritoneography with a hernia. Two complications (2.5%), both colon perforations that did not require significant intervention, occurred as a result of peritoneography. Conclusions Peritoneography is highly reliable for detecting clinically occult inguinal hernia and has a low complication rate. Its usefulness is shown in a prospective consecutive series for detection of occult hernias in patients with chronic inguinal pain. The authors conclude that peritoneography is a safe and useful diagnostic test in the setting of persistent inguinal pain

  3. A New Evaluation Method for Groundwater Quality Applied in Guangzhou Region, China: Using Fuzzy Method Combining Toxicity Index.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fan; Huang, Guanxing; Sun, Jichao; Jing, Jihong; Zhang, Ying

    2016-02-01

    Groundwater quality assessment is essential for drinking from a security point of view. In this paper, a new evaluation method called toxicity combined fuzzy evaluation (TCFE) has been put forward, which is based on the fuzzy synthetic evaluation (FSE) method and the toxicity data from Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. The comparison of TCFE and FSE in the groundwater quality assessment of Guangzhou region also has been done. The assessment results are divided into 5 water quality levels; level I is the best while level V is the worst. Results indicate that the proportion of level I, level II, and level III used by the FSE method was 69.33% in total. By contrast, this proportion rose to 81.33% after applying the TCFE method. In addition, 66.7% of level IV samples in the FSE method became level I (50%), level II (25%), and level III (25%) in the TCFE method and 29.41% of level V samples became level I (50%) and level III (50%). This trend was caused by the weight change after the combination of toxicity index. By analyzing the changes of different indicators' weight, it could be concluded that the better-changed samples mainly exceeded the corresponding standards of regular indicators and the deteriorated samples mainly exceeded the corresponding standards of toxic indicators. The comparison between the two results revealed that the TCFE method could represent the health implications of toxic indicators reasonably. As a result, the TCFE method is more scientific in view of drinking safety. PMID:26803098

  4. Long-Term Safety and Effectiveness of the 'OptEase' Vena Cava Filter

    SciTech Connect

    Kalva, Sanjeeva P.; Marentis, Theodore C.; Yeddula, Kalpana; Somarouthu, Bhanusupriya; Wicky, Stephan; Stecker, Michael S.

    2011-04-15

    Purpose: To assess the long-term safety and effectiveness of the OptEase inferior vena cava (IVC) filter. Materials and Methods: In this Institutional Review Board-approved, retrospective study, we reviewed data of 71 patients who received an OptEase filter at our institution from 2002 to 2007. Thirty-nine (55%) patients had symptoms of venous thromboembolism before filter placement. The indications for filter included contraindication to anticoagulation in 31 (44%) patients, prophylaxis against pulmonary embolism (PE) in 29 (41%) patients, and failure of anticoagulation in 11 (15%) patients. Procedure-related complications, such as symptomatic post-filter PE, deep venous thrombosis (DVT), IVC occlusion, and incidental imaging-evident filter-related complications, were recorded. Safety was assessed by the occurrence of filter-related complications during placement and follow-up. Effectiveness was assessed by the occurrence of post-filter PE. Results: Sixty-five (92%) filters were placed under fluoroscopy, and 6 (8%) were placed using intravascular ultrasound guidance. Seventy (99%) filters were placed successfully. Seven (10%) filters were placed in the suprarenal cava. Retrieval was attempted in 14 (20%) patients, and 12 filters were successfully retrieved. Clinical follow-up was available for 20 {+-} 21 months. Symptoms of postfilter PE and DVT occurred in 15% (n = 11) and 10% (n = 7) patients, respectively. None of these patients had computed tomography (CT)-proven PE, and only one had ultrasound-proven new DVT. One patient had symptomatic IVC occlusion. Follow-up abdominal CT in 20 patients showed thrombus in the filter in two of them. There were no instances of filter migration, filter tilt, or caval wall penetration. Conclusion: The OptEase filter appears to have an acceptable long-term safety profile. The filter was effective against PE.

  5. Arthritis severity locus Cia4 is an early regulator of IL-6, IL-1β, and NF-κB activators' expression in pristane-induced arthritis.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Max; Laragione, Teresina; Gulko, Pércio S

    2013-07-01

    Cia4 is a locus on rat chromosome 7 that regulates disease severity and joint damage in models of rheumatoid arthritis, including pristane-induced arthritis (PIA). To identify molecular processes regulated by Cia4, synovial tissues from MHC-identical DA (severe erosive) and DA.F344(Cia4) congenics (mild nonerosive) rats were collected at preclinical and recent onset stages following the induction of PIA and analyzed for gene expression levels. Il6 levels were significantly higher in DA compared with congenics on day 10 (135-fold) after PIA induction (preclinical stage) and remained increased on days 14 (47.7-fold) and 18 (29.41-fold). Il6 increased before Il1b suggesting that Il6 could be driving Il1b expression and early synovial inflammation; 187 genes had significantly different expression levels and included inflammatory mediators increased in DA such Slpi (10.94-fold), Ccl7 (5.17-fold), and Litaf (2.09-fold). Syk or NF-κB activating and interacting genes, including Cd74 Ccl21, were increased in DA; 59 genes implicated in cancer-related phenotypes were increased in DA. Genes involved in cell metabolism, transport across membranes, and tissue protection such as Dgat1, Dhcr7, and Slc1a1 were increased in DA.F344(Cia4) congenics; 21 genes differentially expressed or expressed in only one of the strains were located within the Cia4 interval and could be the gene accounting for the arthritis effect. In conclusion, the Cia4 interval contains at least one new arthritis gene that regulates early Il6, Il1b expression, and other inflammatory mediators. This gene regulates the expression of cancer genes that could mediate the development of synovial hyperplasia and invasion, and cartilage and bone destruction. PMID:23695883

  6. Splenomegaly in 2,505 patients at a large university medical center from 1913 to 1995. 1963 to 1995: 449 patients.

    PubMed Central

    O'Reilly, R A

    1998-01-01

    Splenomegaly was studied retrospectively at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), School of Medicine in 301 patients from 1963 to 1995 and compared with the UCSF service of the San Francisco General Hospital Medical Center (SFGH) in 148 patients from 1979 to 1994. The combined 449 patients were classified into several diagnostic groups and were studied by means of several clinical and laboratory associations. Hepatic disease in the percentage of patients at UCSF (with those at SFGH given in parentheses) was associated with splenomegaly in 29% (41%), hematologic disease, 32% (16%); infectious diseases, 16% (36%); congestive or inflammatory disease, 10% (4%); primary splenic disease, 6% (1%); other, 5% (1%); and cause unknown, 2% (1%). Massive splenomegaly occurred in 27% of the patients of the combined series, particularly in patients with hematologic diseases. The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) occurred in more than half of the patients with infectious diseases at SFGH and was four times frequent than in the patients at UCSF. The commonest diseases associated with splenomegaly were hematologic (lymphoma), hepatic (chronic liver disease), infectious diseases (AIDS and endocarditis), congestive (congestive heart failure), primary splenic (splenic vein thrombosis), and other (malignancy not metastatic to the spleen). In 11 patients with AIDS and massive splenomegaly, Mycobacterium avium complex occurred in 8 (73%). Splenectomy was performed in 117 patients (26%), primarily for hematologic amelioration. I conclude that for splenomegaly of unknown origin, the invasive procedure of choice for patients with hematologic associations may be a bone marrow biopsy; for hepatic association, a liver biopsy; and for infectious disease associations, a lymph node biopsy, before any consideration of a diagnostic splenectomy. PMID:9735689

  7. Rectifying calibration error of Goldmann applanation tonometer is easy!

    PubMed

    Choudhari, Nikhil S; Moorthy, Krishna P; Tungikar, Vinod B; Kumar, Mohan; George, Ronnie; Rao, Harsha L; Senthil, Sirisha; Vijaya, Lingam; Garudadri, Chandra Sekhar

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: Goldmann applanation tonometer (GAT) is the current Gold standard tonometer. However, its calibration error is common and can go unnoticed in clinics. Its company repair has limitations. The purpose of this report is to describe a self-taught technique of rectifying calibration error of GAT. Materials and Methods: Twenty-nine slit-lamp-mounted Haag-Streit Goldmann tonometers (Model AT 900 C/M; Haag-Streit, Switzerland) were included in this cross-sectional interventional pilot study. The technique of rectification of calibration error of the tonometer involved cleaning and lubrication of the instrument followed by alignment of weights when lubrication alone didn't suffice. We followed the South East Asia Glaucoma Interest Group's definition of calibration error tolerance (acceptable GAT calibration error within ±2, ±3 and ±4 mm Hg at the 0, 20 and 60-mm Hg testing levels, respectively). Results: Twelve out of 29 (41.3%) GATs were out of calibration. The range of positive and negative calibration error at the clinically most important 20-mm Hg testing level was 0.5 to 20 mm Hg and -0.5 to -18 mm Hg, respectively. Cleaning and lubrication alone sufficed to rectify calibration error of 11 (91.6%) faulty instruments. Only one (8.3%) faulty GAT required alignment of the counter-weight. Conclusions: Rectification of calibration error of GAT is possible in-house. Cleaning and lubrication of GAT can be carried out even by eye care professionals and may suffice to rectify calibration error in the majority of faulty instruments. Such an exercise may drastically reduce the downtime of the Gold standard tonometer. PMID:25494251

  8. Insulin sensitizer in prediabetes: a clinical study with DLBS3233, a combined bioactive fraction of Cinnamomum burmanii and Lagerstroemia speciosa

    PubMed Central

    Manaf, Asman; Tjandrawinata, Raymond R; Malinda, Desi

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this paper is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of DLBS3233, a novel bioactive fraction derived from Cinnamomum burmanii and Lagerstroemia speciosa, in improving insulin resistance and preserving β-cell performance in patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Patients and methods Eighty adult subjects with IGT, defined as 2-hour postprandial glucose level of 140–199 mg/dL, were enrolled in this two-arm, 12-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled preliminary study. Eligible subjects were randomly allocated to receive either DLBS3233 at a dose of 50–100 mg daily or placebo for 12 weeks. The study mainly assessed the improvement of homeostatic model-assessed insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), the 15-minute and 2-hour plasma insulin levels, and the oral disposition index. Results After 12 weeks, DLBS3233 improved insulin resistance better than placebo as reflected by a reduced HOMA-IR (−27.04%±29.41% vs −4.90%±41.27%, P=0.013). The improvement of the first- and second-phase insulin secretion was consistently greater in DLBS3233 group than placebo group (−144.78±194.06 vs −71.21±157.19, P=0.022, and −455.03±487.56 vs −269.49±467.77, P=0.033, respectively). Further, DLBS3233 also significantly better improved oral disposition index than placebo. No serious hypoglycemia, edema, or cardiovascular-related adverse events were found in either groups. Conclusion This study has shown that DLBS3233 at the dose of 50–100 mg once daily was well tolerated, and promisingly efficacious in improving insulin sensitivity as well as preserving β-cell performance in subjects with IGT. PMID:27099473

  9. Seroprevelance and molecular detection of peste des petits ruminants in goats of Assam.

    PubMed

    Devi, Maitrayee; Das, Sutopa; Sharma, Krishna; Dutta, Rupam

    2016-03-01

    The present study was undertaken to detect the presence of PPRV in the goats of Assam. Competitive ELISA and Sandwich ELISA are used to detect the PPR viral antibody and antigen respectively. In addition, the study also involved the assessment of specific gene targets for detection of PPRV by RT-PCR from the clinical samples. A total of 579 sera samples (68.65 % in outbreak samples and 5.29 % in random samples) collected from different parts of Assam were tested by c-ELISA, indicated overall prevalence of 27.28 in goats. The percentage prevalence of PPRV antibodies in sera samples from goats collected at the time of outbreaks were 79.26, 85.41, 58.82, 6, 29.41 and 36.36 % in Kamrup, Nalbari, Mongoldoi, Jorhat, Darrang and Barpeta respectively. However, high percent prevalence (20.83 %) was observed in district Dhubri in random samples. Among the suspected samples, high percent prevalence (85.41 %) was observed in Nalbari. The competition percentage values (ranges from 35 to 45) obtained in competitive ELISA from tested goat samples found three categories, viz. positive, doubtful and negative. Most of the serum samples (n = 158) with competition percentage less than or equal to 35 % are considered positive for the presence of PPRV antibodies, (n = 9) greater than 35 % and less than or equal to 45 % are considered doubtful and retested, and (n = 423) greater than 45 % are considered negative. The overall sensitivity, specificity, apparent prevalence and true prevalence rate was found to be 68.65, 94.70, 27.28 and 34.69 % respectively. True prevalence rate was calculated based on the sensitivity and specificity of the c-ELISA employed in the study, which has a relative specificity of 94.70 % and sensitivity of 68.65 %. PMID:26925449

  10. Interpretation Criteria for Comparative Intradermal Tuberculin Test for Diagnosis of Bovine Tuberculosis in Cattle in Maroua Area of Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Awah-Ndukum, J; Temwa, J; Ngwa, V Ngu; Mouiche, M M; Iyawa, D; Zoli, P A

    2016-01-01

    Intradermal tuberculin test (TST) is the choice method for diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis (Tb) in live animals. This work was done to assess the performance of single intradermal comparative cervical tuberculin (SICCT) test in randomly selected cattle in Maroua, Cameroon, against detection of Tb lesions and detection of Tb lesions plus acid fast bacilli in lesions. While 22.28% of slaughtered cattle presented Tb lesions at meat inspection, detection rates of anti-bovine-Tb antibody, Tb lesions, and Tb lesions plus acid fast bacilli were 68.57%, 32.95%, and 22.35%, respectively. SICCT-bovine-Tb positive cattle were 35.29%, 29.41%, 25.88%, 24.7%, and 21.18% at ≥2 mm, ≥2.5 mm, ≥3 mm, ≥3.5 mm, and ≥4 mm cut-offs, respectively. Higher sensitivity and predictive values were obtained at severe interpretations. The best performance was at ≥3 mm and ≥3.5 mm cut-offs. Against detection of Tb lesions, ≥3 mm and ≥3.5 mm showed sensitivity of 67.8% and specificity of 94.7% and 96.5%, respectively. For detection of Tb lesions accompanied with acid fast bacilli in lesions, ≥3 mm and ≥3.5 mm showed sensitivity of 89.4% and specificity of 92.4% and 93.9%, respectively. These findings revealed that interpretations of SICCT-bovine-Tb should be at ≥3 mm and/or ≥3.5 mm cut-offs. Severe interpretation of TST is essential for optimal diagnosis of bovine Tb in cattle in Maroua, Cameroon. PMID:27563481

  11. Interpretation Criteria for Comparative Intradermal Tuberculin Test for Diagnosis of Bovine Tuberculosis in Cattle in Maroua Area of Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Temwa, J.; Mouiche, M. M.; Iyawa, D.; Zoli, P. A.

    2016-01-01

    Intradermal tuberculin test (TST) is the choice method for diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis (Tb) in live animals. This work was done to assess the performance of single intradermal comparative cervical tuberculin (SICCT) test in randomly selected cattle in Maroua, Cameroon, against detection of Tb lesions and detection of Tb lesions plus acid fast bacilli in lesions. While 22.28% of slaughtered cattle presented Tb lesions at meat inspection, detection rates of anti-bovine-Tb antibody, Tb lesions, and Tb lesions plus acid fast bacilli were 68.57%, 32.95%, and 22.35%, respectively. SICCT-bovine-Tb positive cattle were 35.29%, 29.41%, 25.88%, 24.7%, and 21.18% at ≥2 mm, ≥2.5 mm, ≥3 mm, ≥3.5 mm, and ≥4 mm cut-offs, respectively. Higher sensitivity and predictive values were obtained at severe interpretations. The best performance was at ≥3 mm and ≥3.5 mm cut-offs. Against detection of Tb lesions, ≥3 mm and ≥3.5 mm showed sensitivity of 67.8% and specificity of 94.7% and 96.5%, respectively. For detection of Tb lesions accompanied with acid fast bacilli in lesions, ≥3 mm and ≥3.5 mm showed sensitivity of 89.4% and specificity of 92.4% and 93.9%, respectively. These findings revealed that interpretations of SICCT-bovine-Tb should be at ≥3 mm and/or ≥3.5 mm cut-offs. Severe interpretation of TST is essential for optimal diagnosis of bovine Tb in cattle in Maroua, Cameroon. PMID:27563481

  12. Pressure-temperature evolution of eclogites from the Kechros complex in the Eastern Rhodope (NE Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mposkos, E.; Baziotis, I.; Proyer, A.

    2012-06-01

    The Rhodope Domain in NE Greece consists of different tectonometamorphic complexes involved in the Alpine collisional history between the Eurasian and African plates. In the Kechros Complex, which is the lowermost tectonic unit in the East Rhodope, a lense of kyanite eclogite occurs within orthogneiss and common eclogites are found between serpentinized peridotite and underlying pelitic gneisses. In kyanite eclogite, the high-pressure (HP) mineral assemblage is Grt + Omp (Jd35-55) + Ky + Ph + Qz + Rt + (indirectly inferred Tlc + Law); a Na-rich tremolite and zoisite formed at or near peak metamorphic conditions. In common eclogites, the HP mineral assemblage is Grt + Omp (Jd29-41) + Rt and, with less certainty, Amp (Gln-rich + Brs + Wnc + Hbl) ± Czo. The inclusions in garnet are glaucophane, actinolite, barroisite, hornblende, omphacite, clinozoisite, titanite, rutile and rarely paragonite and albite. In kyanite eclogite, peak P- T conditions are constrained at 2.2 GPa and 615°C using garnet-omphacite-phengite geothermobarometry and very similar values of 585 ± 32°C and 2.17 ± 0.11 GPa with the average P- T method, by which conditions of formation could also be narrowed down for the common eclogite (619 ± 53°C and 1.69 ± 0.17 GPa) and for a retrogressed eclogite (534 ± 36°C and 0.77 ± 0.11 GPa). Ages for the HP metamorphism in the Kechros Complex are not yet available. A Rb-Sr white mica age of 37 Ma from orthogneiss records a stage of the exhumation. The HP event may be coeval with the Eocene HP metamorphism (49-55 Ma) recorded in the Nestos Shear Zone in Central Rhodope and in the Attic-Cycladic crystalline belt, where it is interpreted as the result of subduction and final closure of the Axios/Vardar ocean and subsequent subduction of the Apulian continental crust (a promontory of the Africa continent) under the southern margin of the European continent in the late Cretaceous and early Tertiary.

  13. Respiratory effect related to exposure of different concentrations of arsenic in drinking water in West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, B P; Mukherjee, A K; Gangopadhyay, P K; Alam, J; Roychowdhury, A

    2010-04-01

    subjects increased as the concentration of arsenic in drinking water increased, in males 15.78%, 29.41% and 35.29% and in females 4.54%, 5.00% and 23.52% respectively. The pathophysiologic mechanism, by which ingested arsenic leads to impairments of lung function and increased respiratory symptoms, is yet to be understood and needs further investigation. PMID:21114123

  14. Production of Group Specific Monoclonal Antibody to Aflatoxins and its Application to Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Hee; Cha, Sang-Ho; Karyn, Bischoff; Park, Sung-Won; Son, Seong-Wan; Kang, Hwan-Goo

    2011-06-01

    Through the present study, we produced a monoclonal antibody against aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) using AFB1- carboxymethoxylamine BSA conjugates. One clone showing high binding ability was selected and it was applied to develop a direct competitive ELISA system. The epitope densities of AFB1-CMO against BSA and KLH were about 1 : 6 and 1 : 545, respectively. The monoclonal antibody (mAb) from cloned hybridoma cell was the IgG1 subclass with λ-type light chains. The IC50s of the monoclonal antibody developed for AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2 were 4.36, 7.22, 6.61 and 29.41 ng/ml, respectively, based on the AFB1-KLH coated ELISA system and 15.28, 26.62, 32.75 and 56.67 ng/ml, respectively, based on the mAb coated ELISA. Cross-relativities of mAb to AFB1 for AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2 were 60.47, 65.97 and 14.83% in the AFB1-KLH coated ELISA, and 59.41, 46.66 and 26.97% in the mAb coated ELISA, respectively. Quantitative calculations for AFB1 from the AFB1-Ab ELISA and AFB1-Ag ELISA ranged from 0.25 to 25 ng/ml (R(2) > 0.99) and from 1 to 100 ng/ml (R(2) > 0.99), respectively. The intra- and inter-assay precision CVs were < 10% in both ELISA assay, representing good reproducibility of developed assay. Recoveries ranged from 79.18 to 91.27%, CVs ranged from 3.21 to 7.97% after spiking AFB1 at concentrations ranging from 5 to 50 ng/ml and following by extraction with 70% methanol solution in the Ab-coated ELISA. In conclusion, we produced a group specific mAb against aflatoxins and developed two direct competitive ELISAs for the detection of AFB1 in feeds based on a monoclonal antibody developed. PMID:24278561

  15. Mutations of mitochondrial 12S rRNA in gastric carcinoma and their significance

    PubMed Central

    Han, Cheng-Bo; Ma, Jia-Ming; Xin, Yan; Mao, Xiao-Yun; Zhao, Yu-Jie; Wu, Dong-Ying; Zhang, Su-Min; Zhang, Yu-Kui

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To detect the variations of mitochondrial 12S rRNA in patients with gastric carcinoma, and to study their significance and the relationship between these variations and the genesis of gastric carcinoma. METHODS: PCR amplified mitochondrial 12S rRNA of 44 samples including 22 from gastric carcinoma tissues and 22 from adjacent normal tissues, was detected by direct DNA sequencing. Then laser capture microdissection technique (LCM) was used to separate the cancerous cells and dysplasia cells with specific mutations. Denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) plus allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR), nest-PCR and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) were used to further evaluate this mutant property and quantitative difference of mutant type between cancerous and dysplasia cells. Finally, RNAdraw biosoft was used to analyze the RNA secondary structure of mutant-type 12S rRNA. RESULTS: Compared with Mitomap database, some new variations were found, among which np652 G insertion and np716 T-G transversion were found only in cancerous tissues. There was a statistic difference in the frequency of 12S rRNA variation between intestinal type (12/17, 70.59%) and diffusive type (5/17, 29.41%) of gastric carcinoma (P<0.05). DHPLC analysis showed that 12S rRNA np652 G insertion and np716 T-G transversion were heteroplasmic mutations. The frequency of 12S rRNA variation in cancerous cells was higher than that in dysplasia cells (P<0.01). 12S rRNA np652 G insertion showed obviously negative effects on the stability of 12S rRNA secondary structure, while others such as T-G transversion did not. CONCLUSION: The mutations of mitochondrial 12S rRNA may be associated with the occurrence of intestinal-type gastric carcinoma. Most variations exist both in gastric carcinomas and in normal tissues, and they might not be the characteristics of tumors. However, np652 G insertion and np716 T-G transversion may possess some molecular significance in gastric carcinogenesis

  16. Microsatellite instability and loss of heterozygosity in gastric carcinoma in comparison to family history.

    PubMed Central

    Keller, G.; Rudelius, M.; Vogelsang, H.; Grimm, V.; Wilhelm, M. G.; Mueller, J.; Siewert, J. R.; Höfler, H.

    1998-01-01

    We compared 29 gastric carcinomas from patients with a variably strong family history for gastric cancer (group 1) with 36 gastric carcinomas from patients without a family history of this disease (group 2) for microsatellite instability (MSI) and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) with 12 microsatellite markers. Both study groups had similar proportions of histological types and tumor locations. Widespread MSI (alterations at > or = 6 loci) was seen in 5 of 29 (17%) of the tumors belonging to group 1 and in 4 of 36 (11%) group 2 tumors. MSI at a low level (alterations at 1 to 3 loci) was observed in 12 of 29 (41%) of tumors in group 1 and in 10 of 36 (28%) of tumors in group 2, differences that were not statistically significant. A significant difference with respect to low level MSI was observed between the two groups when considering the overall mutation rate of microsatellites. Seventeen of 281 (6%) analyzed microsatellite loci showed alterations in group 1 and 11 of 381 (2.9%) in group 2 (P = 0.046). Comparison of both types of MSI to the clinicopathological parameters in both groups revealed a significant association of low level MSI with advanced tumor stages (P = 0.046) in the group 2, whereas no such association was observed in group 1. In respect to LOH, a significant difference between the two groups was observed at chromosome 17p12, as 13 of 22 (59%) informative cases of group 1 showed LOH in comparison with 7 of 26 (27%) (P = 0.024) in group 2. No correlation of LOH at chromosome 17p12 to the pathological or clinical data was observed either in the two groups or in the study as a whole. Our data show that gastric carcinomas of patients with a positive family history of gastric cancer in group 1 are characterized by a higher mutation rate in respect to low level MSI, particularly at dinucleotide repeats, and by a higher frequency of LOH at chromosome 17p12, indicating that different genetic pathways are involved in the pathogenesis of gastric carcinomas

  17. Long-term Outcome of Lupus Nephritis Class II in Argentine Patients

    PubMed Central

    Collado, Maria Victoria; Dorado, Enrique; Rausch, Silvia; Gomez, Graciela; Khoury, Marina; Zazzetti, Federico; Gargiulo, María; Suarez, Lorena; Chaparro, Rafael; Paira, Sergio; Galvan, Laura; Juarez, Vicente; Pisoni, Cecilia; Garcia, Mercedes; Martinez, Liliana; Alvarez, Analia; Alvarez, Clarisa; Barreira, Juan; Sarano, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Background There is controversy in medical literature over the outcome of patients with lupus nephritis (LN) class II. The aim of this study was to explore the risk of histological transformation (HT) and possible factors related to negative response to treatment in patients with mesangial LN class II. Methods A retrospective and multicenter study was carried out that includes patients who had received a diagnosis of LN class II on their first renal biopsy. Creatinine, urine sediment, and proteinuria were recorded at the time of the first biopsy, 6 months, and 1, 2, and 5 years after the first biopsy. Response to treatment, HT, and long-term outcome were evaluated. Results Forty-one patients were included. The manifestation at first biopsy was proteinuria greater than 0.5 g/d in 28 patients (68.29%; 8 [28.57%] of 28 patients had nephrotic syndrome), hematuria in 18 patients (43.90%), and deterioration of renal function in 3 patients (7.31%). During the follow-up (median, 8 years; range, 1–35 years), a new biopsy was performed in 18 patients (43.90%), and in 17 patients (17/18 [94.44%]), there was HT. Median time at rebiopsy was 32 months (range, 11–305 months). Of the 18 patients who had a second biopsy, 10 (55.55%) were on hydroxychloroquine versus 100% (19/19) of patients who did not undergo the procedure (P = 0.001). A year after the first renal biopsy, there are data available from 34 patients; of them, 24 patients (70.58%) had achieved response, and 10 patients (29.41%) had no response (NR) (missing data in 7). A higher 24-hour urinary protein at 6 months was predictor of worse outcome at 1 year, with statistical significance difference for the nonresponder group (median proteinuria, 2.3 g/d [range, 0–4.7 g/d]) compared with responders (median proteinuria, 0.28 g/d [range, 0–1.7 g/d]) (P = 0.0133). In the long-term follow-up (5 years), HT was the main cause of unfavorable outcome and was measured in 78.57% of patients (11/14 patients). Conclusions This

  18. Predictors of loss to follow-up in antiretroviral treatment for adult patients in the Oromia region, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Megerso, Abebe; Garoma, Sileshi; Eticha, Tolosa; Workineh, Tilaye; Daba, Shallo; Tarekegn, Mihretu; Habtamu, Zelalem

    2016-01-01

    Purpose It is known that antiretroviral treatment (ART) reduces mortality from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome related causes. Patient’s lost to follow-up (LTFU) in this treatment poses a paramount problem to the public and health care services. Information on predictors of loss to follow-up is scarce in this study area and similar settings. Therefore, this study aimed at identifying correlates of loss to follow-up in ART among adult patients in the Oromia region of Ethiopia. Methods A case–control study was conducted between February 2015 and April 2015 using medical records. The stratified sampling technique was used to select health facilities. The number of patient records to be included in the study was proportionally allocated to each stratum based on their patient proportion in the regional data. Specific health facilities from which to include the records were randomly selected from a list of the health facilities per stratum. All adult patient records registered as LTFU (416) in the selected health facilities during the 12-month period prior to the data collection date, and 832 patients with good adherence to ART were included. Data were double-entered into Epi Info 7 and analyzed using SPSS 20. Descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression were used to report the results. Qualitative data were thematically analyzed using open code computer software. Results Age 15–24 years (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 19.82 95% CI: 6.80, 57.73); day laborers (AOR, 5.36; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.23, 8.89), rural residents (AOR, 2.35; 95% CI: 1.45, 3.89), World Health Organization clinical stage IV (AOR, 2.29; 95% CI: 1.45, 3.62), baseline CD4 <350 cells/mL (AOR, 2.06; 95% CI: 1.36, 3.13), suboptimal adherence to ART (AOR, 7.42; 95% CI: 1.87, 29.41), were factors which increased the risk of loss to follow-up in ART. Conclusion Multiple risk factors, both socioeconomic and clinical, were associated with loss to follow-up. Attention is required to

  19. ICT competence in geography: a targeted course based on an Internet-based study tool with quantified effects on improvement of the students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pajtók-Tari, Ilona; Mika, János

    2010-05-01

    The information and communication technology (ICT) is a tool of development for acting or prospective teachers. In geography, however, this competence often needs directed improvement, especially for the students less information and motivation for using the full potential of this tool. In the MA program for prospective teachers of geography there is a course held by one of the authors (PTI) to introduce the students into all possibilities of ICT. The course is focused at and widely illustrated by the GEOGRAPHY nEtQUIPMENT, which is a homepage, first published in Hungarian still in 2006 (http://netszkozkeszlet.ektf.hu), to help in orientation among the rapidly growing information on the Internet. The main objective of the GEOGRAPHY nEtQUIPMENT is to convey structured information to teachers and pupils, as well as, professors and students of geography. It can be used free after registration. The homepage counts ca. three thousand registered users. The English version is available from the same entry. The set of appliances is based on Dreamweaver MX program. Development of the students' ICT-competence was measured in 2008 during the course. Before the course 38 students answered 110 questions and, after the course, the same questions were answered by 29 students. The questions were related to their attitude to ICT, technical abilities in using a PC and projections on application in a school environment. In 31 cases the answers fell into one category not allowing the chi2 test. From the 79 remained questions, there where not any which were reflected significant step-back in the ICT-competence. At the same time, significant improvement of the competence appeared in 29, 41 and 48 % of the questions at the 1, 5 and 10 % level. The course and the homepage also improved their ability to (i) memorise and reconstruct the pieces of knowledge, (ii) reconstruct the patterns in space from their 2D-images, (iii) explain the images and documents in their own words, and (iv) co

  20. Handling time misalignment and rank deficiency in liquid chromatography by multivariate curve resolution: Quantitation of five biogenic amines in fish.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Licarion; Díaz Nieto, César Horacio; Zón, María Alicia; Fernández, Héctor; de Araujo, Mario Cesar Ugulino

    2016-01-01

    Biogenic amines (BAs) are used for identifying spoilage in food. The most common are tryptamine (TRY), 2-phenylethylamine (PHE), putrescine (PUT), cadaverine (CAD) and histamine (HIS). Due to lack of chromophores, chemical derivatization with dansyl was employed to analyze these BAs using high performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). However, the derivatization reaction occurs with any primary or secondary amine, leading to co-elution of analytes and interferents with identical spectral profiles, and thus causing rank deficiency. When the spectral profile is the same and peak misalignment is present on the chromatographic runs, it is not possible to handle the data only with Multivariate Curve Resolution and Alternative Least Square (MCR-ALS), by augmenting the time, or the spectral mode. A way to circumvent this drawback is to receive information from another detector that leads to a selective profile for the analyte. To overcome both problems, (tri-linearity break in time, and spectral mode), this paper proposes a new analytical methodology for fast quantitation of these BAs in fish with HPLC-DAD by using the icoshift algorithm for temporal misalignment correction before MCR-ALS spectral mode augmented treatment. Limits of detection, relative errors of prediction (REP) and average recoveries, ranging from 0.14 to 0.50 µg mL(-1), 3.5-8.8% and 88.08%-99.68%, respectively. These are outstanding results obtained, reaching quantification limits for the five BAs much lower than those established by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and World Health Organization (FAO/WHO), and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), all without any pre-concentration steps. The concentrations of BAs in fish samples ranged from 7.82 to 29.41 µg g(-1), 8.68-25.95 µg g(-1), 4.76-28.54 µg g(-1), 5.18-39.95 µg g(-1) and 1.45-52.62 µg g(-1) for TRY, PHE, PUT, CAD, and HIS, respectively. In addition, the proposed method spends

  1. Development and Initial Porcine and Cadaver Experience with Three-Dimensional Printing of Endoscopic and Laparoscopic Equipment

    PubMed Central

    del Junco, Michael; Okhunov, Zhamshid; Yoon, Renai; Khanipour, Ramtin; Juncal, Samuel; Abedi, Garen; Lusch, Achim

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Recent advances in three-dimensional (3D) printing technology have made it possible to print surgical devices. We report our initial experience with the printing and deployment of endoscopic and laparoscopic equipment. Materials and Methods: We created computer-aided designs for ureteral stents and laparoscopic trocars using SolidWorks. We developed three generations of stents, which were printed with an Objet500 Connex printer, and a fourth generation was printed with an EOSINT P395 printer. The trocars were printed with an Objet30 Pro printer. We deployed the printed stents and trocars in a female cadaver and in vivo porcine model. We compared the printed trocars to two standard trocars for defect area and length using a digital caliper. Paired T-tests and ANOVA were used to test for statistical difference. Results: The first two generations of stents (7F and 9F) were functional failures as their diminutive inner lumen failed to allow the passage of a 0.035 guidewire. The third generation 12F stent allowed passage of a 0.035 guidewire. The 12F diameter limited its deployment, but it was introduced in a cadaver through a ureteral access sheath. The fourth-generation 9F stents were printed and deployed in a porcine model using the standard Seldinger technique. The printed trocars were functional for the maintenance of the pneumoperitoneum and instrument passage. The printed trocars had larger superficial defect areas (p<0.001) and lengths (p=0.001) compared to Karl Storz and Ethicon trocars (29.41, 18.06, and 17.22 mm2, respectively, and 14.29, 11.39, and 12.15 mm, respectively). Conclusions: In this pilot study, 3D printing of ureteral stents and trocars is feasible, and these devices can be deployed in the porcine and cadaver models. Three-dimensional printing is rapidly advancing and may be clinically viable in the future. PMID:24983138

  2. Molecular, Morphologic, and Outcome Analysis of Thyroid Carcinomas According to Degree of Extrathyroid Extension

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Michael; Ricarte-Filho, Julio; Tuttle, Robert Michael; Ganly, Ian; Shaha, Ashok; Knauf, Jeffrey; Fagin, James

    2010-01-01

    Background The impact of varying degrees of extrathyroid extension (ETE), especially microscopic ETE (METE), on survival in thyroid carcinomas (TC) has not been well established. Our objective was to analyze ETE at the molecular and histologic levels and assess the effect of its extent on outcome. Methods All cases of TC with ETE but without nodal metastases at presentation (NMP) were identified over a 20-year period and grouped into gross and METE. Twelve papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs) without ETE and NMP were also analyzed. Cases with paraffin tissues were subjected to mass spectrometry genotyping encompassing the most significant oncogenes in TC: 111 mutations in RET, BRAF, NRAS, HRAS, KRAS, PIK3CA, and AKT1, and other related genes were surveyed. Results Eighty-one (10%) of 829 patients in the database had ETE and no NMP. There was a much higher frequency of poorly differentiated and anaplastic carcinomas (12/29, 41%) in patients with gross ETE than in those with METE (3/52, 6%) (p < 0.01). There was a higher disease-specific survival (DSS) in patients with METE than in those with gross ETE (p < 0.0001). Except for an anaplastic case, no recurrences were detected in 45 patients with METE, including 23 PTC patients followed up for a median of 10 years without radioactive iodine therapy. Within patients with gross invasion into trachea/esophagus, tumors with high mitotic activity and/or tumor necrosis correlated with worse DSS (p < 0.05). Fifty-six cases with ETE were genotyped as follows: BRAFV600E, 39 (70%); BRAFV600E-AKT1, 1 (1.8%); NRAS, 1 (1.8%); KRAS, 1 (1.8%); RET/PTC, 3 (5%); wild type, 11 (19.6%). Within PTCs, BRAF positivity rate increased the risk of ETE (p = 0.01). If PTC follicular variants are excluded, BRAF positivity does not correlate with ETE status within classical/tall cell PTC. Conclusion (i) PTCs with METE without NMP have an extremely low recurrence rate in contrast to tumors with gross ETE. (ii) High mitotic activity

  3. Seep Carbonates From Tubeworm- and Mussel-Associated Environments at Atwater Valley, Northern Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, D.; Roberts, H. H.; Chen, D.

    2008-12-01

    During 2006 and 2007, MMS and NOAA jointly supported cruises where fifteen hydrocarbon seep sites at greater than 1000 m water depth on the lower Louisiana slope in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) were explored. These sites contain numerous authigenic carbonates as well as high-density communities of tubeworms and mussels. However, the integrated petrographic and geochemical characterization of the tubeworm- and mussel-associated carbonates remains poorly known. Here, a comparative study of petrographic and geochemical features of the carbonate samples from tubeworm- and mussel- associated environments was approached for an active and complex seep site at Atwater Valley lease block 340 (AT 340) at 2200 m water depth in the GOM. The carbonate morphologies include concretion, blocky and massive carbonates up to several meters in size, and irregularly shaped carbonates, some of them are displaying high porosity. Some are highly brecciaed with aragonite layers of varying thicknesses lining fractures and voids. Lithologically, the carbonates are microcrystalline Mg-calcite, calcite and aragonite containing peloids, clasts and shell fragments. The carbon isotopic composition of carbonates varies narrowly, ranging from -46.45 ‰ to - 60.81 ‰, indicating 13C-depleted carbon source probably methane of microbial origin. But the common trend is that the tubeworm-associated carbonates have more depleted δ13C values when compared to mussel-associated carbonates. A similarly small variability of δ18O values (+3.12 ‰ to +5.09 ‰) demonstrates the temperature and/or fluid composition did not change greatly during carbonate. The total content of rare earth elements (REE) of the 5% HNO3-treated solution of the carbonates is from 6.54 ppm to 29.41 ppm. The shale-normalized REE patterns show slightly positive Ce anomalies, suggests that the carbonates precipitated under anoxic conditions. The possible factors (i.e. habitat of chemosynthetic animals, depth of carbonate precipitation

  4. Spectral inventory of the SOIR spectra onboard Venus Express

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robert, Séverine; Mahieux, Arnaud; Wilquet, Valérie; Drummond, Rachel; Carine Vandaele, Ann

    2013-04-01

    . Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, 2013. 114: p. 29-41. 4. Mahieux, A., et al., Densities and temperatures in the Venus mesosphere and lower thermosphere retrieved from SOIR onboard Venus Express: Retrieval technique. J. Geophys. Res., 2010. 115(E12014): p. 10.1029/2010JE003589. 5. Rodgers, C., Inverse methods for atmospheric sounding: Theory and practice. World Scientific, ed. N.J. Hackensack. 2000: University of Oxford. 6. Rothman, L.S., et al., The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database. J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, 2009. 110(9-10): p. 533-572.

  5. A cost and clinical effectiveness analysis among moist wound healing dressings versus traditional methods in home care patients with pressure ulcers.

    PubMed

    Souliotis, Kyriakos; Kalemikerakis, Ioannis; Saridi, Maria; Papageorgiou, Manto; Kalokerinou, Athena

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the study was a cost and clinical effectiveness analysis between moist wound healing dressings and gauze in a homecare set up for the treatment of stage III and IV pressure ulcers up to complete healing. In addition, we assessed the overall economic burden on the Healthcare System. Treatment method for each patient was chosen randomly by using sealed opaque envelopes. The authors monitored the healing progress and recorded treatment costs without interfering with the treatment process. The healing progress was estimated by using surface measurement transparent films. To estimate treatment costs, the authors took into account labor costs, cost of dressings, as well the cost of other materials such as cleansing gauzes, normal saline, syringes, examination gloves, antiseptics and adhesive tape. The patient group under treatment with moist wound healing dressings consisted of 27 men and 20 women aged 75.1 ± 8,6 and had an average ulcer surface of 43.5 ± 30.70 cm(2) ; the patient group under treatment with gauze comprised 25 men and 23 women aged 77.02 ± 8.02 and had an average ulcer surface 41.52 ± 29.41 cm(2) (p = 0.25, 95% CI, Student's t test). The average healing time for the moist wound healing dressings group' was 85.56 ± 52.09 days, while 121.4 ± 52.21 days for the "gauze group" (p = 0.0001, 95% CI, Student's t test). The dressing change frequency per patient was reduced in the "moist wound healing dressings group," 49.5 ± 29.61, compared with a dressing change frequency per patient of 222.6 ± 101.86 for the "gauze group" (p = 0.0001, 95% CI, Student's t test). The use of moist wound healing dressings had a lower total treatment cost of 1,351 € per patient compared with, the use of gauzes (3,888 €). PMID:27037729

  6. [Hypercapnic stimulation and ventilation response in the syndrome of sleep obstructive apnea. Comparison of reinhalation and steady state].

    PubMed

    Soto Campos, J G; Cano Gómez, S; Fernández Guerra, J; Sánchez Armengol, M; Capote Gil, F; Castillo Gómez, J

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess ventilatory response to stimulation with CO2 in patients suffering obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) but without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), by examining differences between hyper- and normocapnic patients and comparing the results obtained with the usual techniques used to stimulate hypercapnia (rebreathing and stable-state). To this end, we studied 15 obese patients, all with an apnea-hypopnea index greater than 10 from a polysomnograph lasting a full night. The following lung function tests were performed: spirometry, air way resistance measures and static lung volumes by plethysmograph and arterial gasometry. We later analyzed ventilatory response by the stable-state method, with increasing CO2 concentrations (from 1 to 9%) and by the rebreathing method. Results from the two methods were similar for all patients: delta VE/delta PCO2 (0.64 +/- 0.35 vs 0.67 +/- 0.48 l/min/mmHg; p = 0.59), delta Vt/delta PCO2 (28.33 +/- 16.23 vs 26.42 +/- 16.94 ml/mmHg; p = 0.9), delta Vt/Ti/delta PCO2 (28.82 +/- 20.9 vs 29.41 +/- 23.78 ml/s/mmHg; p = 0.89) y delta P0.1/delta PCO2 (0.11 +/- 0.07 vs 0.117 +/- 0.05 cmH2O/mmHg; p = 0.58). We compared the results obtained by the two techniques by dividing the sample into two groups of 7 and 8 patients, respectively, depending on whether PaCO2 level before stimulation was higher or lower than 45 mmHg. The hypercapnic patients (group I) were older (61 +/- 3.5 vs 50 +/- 9 years; p = 0.04) but were not different with respect to body mass from the normocapnic patients (group II) (37.59 +/- 6.4 vs 34.56 +/- 4.75 kg/m2; p = 0.33). The results from the two techniques for stimulating hypercapnia were similar within each group, with a statistically significant decrease (p < 0.03) in patients with daytime hypercapnia in delta VE/delta PCO2 delta Vt/delta PCO2, delta Vt/Ti/delta PCO2 and delta P0.1/delta PCO2. We conclude that there are no differences in the results obtained with

  7. Relationship between Tumor Heterogeneity Measured on FDG-PET/CT and Pathological Prognostic Factors in Invasive Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Soussan, Michael; Orlhac, Fanny; Boubaya, Marouane; Zelek, Laurent; Ziol, Marianne; Eder, Véronique; Buvat, Irène

    2014-01-01

    increased in 77% (10/13) of TNBC and 71% (29/41) of non-TNBC (p = 0.003), when combining SUVmax and HGRE. Conclusions Tumor heterogeneity measured on FDG-PET/CT was higher in invasive breast cancer with poor prognosis pathological factors. Texture analysis might be used, in addition to SUVmax, as a new tool to assess invasive breast cancer aggressiveness. PMID:24722644

  8. THE ACCELERATING JET OF 3C 279

    SciTech Connect

    Bloom, S. D.; Fromm, C. M.; Ros, E.

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of the proper motions of the subparsec scale jet of the quasar 3C 279 at 15 GHz with the Very Long Baseline Array shows significant accelerations in four of nine superluminal features. Analysis of these motions is combined with the analysis of flux density light curves to constrain values of Lorentz factor and viewing angle (and their derivatives) for each component. The data for each of these components are consistent with significant changes to the Lorentz factor, viewing angle, and azimuthal angle, suggesting jet bending with changes in speed. We see that for these observed components Lorentz factors are in the range {Gamma} = 10-41, viewing angles are in the range thetav = 0. Degree-Sign 1-5. Degree-Sign 0, and intrinsic (source frame) flux density is in the range, F{sub {nu},int} 1.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9}-1.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} Jy. Considering individual components, the Lorentz factors vary from {Gamma} = 11-16 for C1, {Gamma} = 31-41 for C5, {Gamma} = 29-41 for C6, and {Gamma} = 9-12 for C8, indicating that there is no single underlying flow speed to the jet and likely we are seeing pattern speeds from shocks in the jet. The viewing angles vary in time from 0. Degree-Sign 6 to 1. Degree-Sign 5 in the case of C1 (the least extreme example), from 0. Degree-Sign 5 to 5. Degree-Sign 0 in the case of C8, and from 0. Degree-Sign 1 to 0. Degree-Sign 9 for C5 (the last two being the most extreme examples). The intrinsic flux density varies by factors from 1.4 for C8 and 430 for C5. Theoretical analysis of the accelerations also indicates potential jet bending. In addition, for one component, C5, polarization measurements also set limits to the trajectory of the jet.

  9. Accelerating the degradation of green plant waste with chemical decomposition agents.

    PubMed

    Kejun, Sun; Juntao, Zhang; Ying, Chen; Zongwen, Liao; Lin, Ruan; Cong, Liu

    2011-10-01

    Degradation of green plant waste is often difficult, and excess maturity times are typically required. In this study, we used lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose assays; scanning electron microscopy; infrared spectrum analysis and X-ray diffraction analysis to investigate the effects of chemical decomposition agents on the lignocellulose content of green plant waste, its structure and major functional groups and the mechanism of accelerated degradation. Our results showed that adding chemical decomposition agents to Ficus microcarpa var. pusillifolia sawdust reduced the contents of lignin by 0.53%-11.48% and the contents of cellulose by 2.86%-7.71%, and increased the contents of hemicellulose by 2.92%-33.63% after 24 h. With increasing quantities of alkaline residue and sodium lignosulphonate, the lignin content decreased. Scanning electron microscopy showed that, after F. microcarpa var. pusillifolia sawdust was treated with chemical decomposition agents, lignocellulose tube wall thickness increased significantlyIncreases of 29.41%, 3.53% and 34.71% were observed after treatment with NaOH, alkaline residue and sodium lignosulphonate, respectively. Infrared spectroscopy showed that CO and aromatic skeleton stretching absorption peaks were weakened and the C-H vibrational absorption peak from out-of-plane in positions 2 and 6 (S units) (890-900 cm(-1)) was strengthened after F. microcarpa var. pusillifolia sawdust was treated with chemical decomposition agents, indicating a reduction in lignin content. Several absorption peaks [i.e., C-H deformations (asymmetry in methyl groups, -CH(3)- and -CH(2)-) (1450-1460 cm(-1)); Aliphatic C-H stretching in methyl and phenol OH (1370-1380 cm(-1)); CO stretching (cellulose and hemicellulose) (1040-1060 cm(-1))] that indicate the presence of a chemical bond between lignin and cellulose was reduced, indicating that the chemical bond between lignin and cellulose had been partially broken. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that Na

  10. Enabling collaboration across communities through blogs and mashups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blower, Jon; Frey, Jeremy; Haines, Keith; Gemmell, Alastair; Milsted, Andrew

    2010-05-01

    measurements, which have hitherto been inaccessible due to the unfamiliarity of the data format used. The challenges inherent in supporting user-contributed data (including privacy and data format inconsistencies) will be addressed. We shall conclude by discussing common findings from these projects, such as the need for tight controls over the access to user-supplied content and how users can share identities among multiple online collaboration systems. ------- [1] Jon Blower, Keith Haines, Adit Santokhee, Chunlei Liu, Godiva2: Interactive visualization of environmental data on the web, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. A, 367, 1035-9, 2009 [2] A.L. Gemmell, G.C. Smith, K. Haines, J.D. Blower, Validation of ocean model syntheses against hydrography using a new web application, Journal of Operational Oceanography 2(2) August 2009, pp. 29-41

  11. Production of Group Specific Monoclonal Antibody to Aflatoxins and its Application to Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung-Hee; Cha, Sang-Ho; Karyn, Bischoff; Park, Sung-Won; Son, Seong-Wan

    2011-01-01

    Through the present study, we produced a monoclonal antibody against aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) using AFB1- carboxymethoxylamine BSA conjugates. One clone showing high binding ability was selected and it was applied to develop a direct competitive ELISA system. The epitope densities of AFB1-CMO against BSA and KLH were about 1 : 6 and 1 : 545, respectively. The monoclonal antibody (mAb) from cloned hybridoma cell was the IgG1 subclass with λ-type light chains. The IC50s of the monoclonal antibody developed for AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2 were 4.36, 7.22, 6.61 and 29.41 ng/ml, respectively, based on the AFB1-KLH coated ELISA system and 15.28, 26.62, 32.75 and 56.67 ng/ml, respectively, based on the mAb coated ELISA. Cross-relativities of mAb to AFB1 for AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2 were 60.47, 65.97 and 14.83% in the AFB1-KLH coated ELISA, and 59.41, 46.66 and 26.97% in the mAb coated ELISA, respectively. Quantitative calculations for AFB1 from the AFB1-Ab ELISA and AFB1-Ag ELISA ranged from 0.25 to 25 ng/ml (R2 > 0.99) and from 1 to 100 ng/ml (R2 > 0.99), respectively. The intra- and inter-assay precision CVs were < 10% in both ELISA assay, representing good reproducibility of developed assay. Recoveries ranged from 79.18 to 91.27%, CVs ranged from 3.21 to 7.97% after spiking AFB1 at concentrations ranging from 5 to 50 ng/ml and following by extraction with 70% methanol solution in the Ab-coated ELISA. In conclusion, we produced a group specific mAb against aflatoxins and developed two direct competitive ELISAs for the detection of AFB1 in feeds based on a monoclonal antibody developed. PMID:24278561

  12. Diabetes Island: Preliminary Impact of a Virtual World Self-Care Educational Intervention for African Americans With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Moadsiri, Ada; Quinn, Lauretta T; Riley, Barth B; Danielson, Kirstie K; Monahan, Colleen; Bangs, Valerie A; Gerber, Ben S

    2014-01-01

    Background Diabetes is a serious worldwide public health challenge. The burden of diabetes, including prevalence and risk of complications, is greater for minorities, particularly African Americans. Internet-based immersive virtual worlds offer a unique opportunity to reach large and diverse populations with diabetes for self-management education and support. Objective The objective of the study was to examine the acceptability, usage, and preliminary outcome of a virtual world intervention, Diabetes Island, in low-income African Americans with type 2 diabetes. The main hypotheses were that the intervention would: (1) be perceived as acceptable and useful; and (2) improve diabetes self-care (eg, behaviors and barriers) and self-care related outcomes, including glycemic control (A1C), body mass index (BMI), and psychosocial factors (ie, empowerment and distress) over six months. Methods The evaluation of the intervention impact used a single-group repeated measures design, including three assessment time points: (1) baseline, (2) 3 month (mid intervention), and (3) 6 month (immediate post intervention). Participants were recruited from a university primary care clinic. A total of 41 participants enrolled in the 6 month intervention study. The intervention components included: (1) a study website for communication, feedback, and tracking; and (2) access to an immersive virtual world (Diabetes Island) through Second Life, where a variety of diabetes self-care education activities and resources were available. Outcome measures included A1C, BMI, self-care behaviors, barriers to adherence, eating habits, empowerment, and distress. In addition, acceptability and usage were examined. A series of mixed-effects analyses, with time as a single repeated measures factor, were performed to examine preliminary outcomes. Results The intervention study sample (N=41) characteristics were: (1) mean age of 55 years, (2) 71% (29/41) female, (3) 100% (41/41) African American, and (4

  13. Once-daily intravenous busulfan given with fludarabine as conditioning for allogeneic stem cell transplantation: study of pharmacokinetics and early clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Russell, J A; Tran, H T; Quinlan, D; Chaudhry, A; Duggan, P; Brown, C; Stewart, D; Ruether, J D; Morris, D; Glick, S; Gyonyor, E; Andersson, B S

    2002-01-01

    The availability of an i.v. form of busulfan (Bu) has prompted investigation of administration schedules other than the 4-times-daily dosage commonly used with oral Bu. We have studied an allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) preparative regimen comprising fludarabine (FLU) 50 mg/m2 on days -6 to -2 plus i.v. Bu 3.2 mg/kg daily in a 3-hour infusion on days -5 to -2. The regimen was given to 70 patients aged 15 to 64 years (median, 41 years) with hematologic malignancy. Thirty-six patients (51%) had high-risk malignancy, 28 (40%) had unrelated or genotypically mismatched related donors (alternate donors [AD]) and 29 (41%) received bone marrow rather than blood as stem cell source. Acute GVHD prevention comprised antithymocyte globulin 4.5 mg/kg over 3 days pretransplantation, cyclosporin A, and short-course methotrexate with folinic acid. Hepatic toxicity was transient and there was no clinically diagnosed veno-occlusive disease. Grade II stomatitis occurred in 49 patients (70%) and hemorrhagic cystitis in 9 patients (13%). One patient with subtherapeutic phenytoin levels had a convulsion 8 hours after the third i.v. Bu dose, but no other neurotoxicity was apparent. Incidence of acute GVHD grades II to IV was 8% and incidence of grade III-IV was 3%, with no deaths from this cause. Actuarial incidence of chronic GVHD at 2 years is 38%. There were 2 cases of graft failure in unrelated donor BMT recipients, 1 of which was reversed by asecond transplantation. With a median follow-up of 16 months (range, 6-27 months), transplantation-related mortality at 100 days and 2 years was 2% and 5% for matched related donor (MRD) SCT and 8% and 19% for AD SCT, respectively (P = not significant). Relapse rates were 21% for 34 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in complete remission or chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase (low-risk), 66% for 19 patients with high-risk AML, and 18% for 17 patients with other active malignancy. Projected disease-free and overall

  14. Spinacia oleracea L. protects against gamma radiations: a study on glutathione and lipid peroxidation in mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, A L; Jain, M

    2004-11-01

    The present study deals with the protective effect of Spinacia oleracea L. against radiation-induced oxidative stress, which is evaluated in terms of lipid peroxidation (LPO) product and tissue levels of glutathione. Swiss albino male mice aged 6-8 weeks, weighing 22+/-3 g, each were selected from an inbred colony and divided into four groups. One group served as normal and a second group (extract of S. oleracea L. (SE) treated un-irradiated) were administered methanolic (50%) SE at a dose of 1100mg/kg body wt./day dissolved in distilled water. A third group (untreated-irradiated) was administered distilled water orally, which served as control. A fourth group (SE pre-treated irradiated) was administered methanolic (50%) SE at a dose of 1100 mg/kg body wt./day dissolved in distilled water. Two groups, one untreated-irradiated and another S. oleracea pre-treated irradiated were exposed to 5 Gy of gamma radiation at a rate of 1.07 Gy/min with a source-to-surface distance of 77.5 cm. The animals were autopsied at 1, 3, 7, 15, and 30 days post-exposure. LPO increased after irradiation up to day 15 in the untreated-irradiated group and up to day 7 in SE pre-treated irradiated mice. LPO values were significantly lower in the SE pre-treated irradiated group as compared to their respective untreated-irradiated group at all intervals, which reached normal values from day 7 onward. The percentage of protection observed in the SE pre-treated irradiated group was, 22.22%, 24.8%, 33.25%, 42.84% and 26.36% at 1, 3, 7, 15, 30 days post-exposure, respectively. Radiation-induced glutathione depletion was checked after 7 days' exposure in SE pre-treated irradiated as compared to untreated-irradiated in which recovery started after day 15. Values were significantly higher in the SE pre-treated irradiated group from their respective untreated-irradiated group at all intervals. The percentage of protection observed in the SE pre-treated irradiated group was, 29.41%, 42.68%, 43.55%, 53

  15. ASGE Bariatric Endoscopy Task Force systematic review and meta-analysis assessing the ASGE PIVI thresholds for adopting endoscopic bariatric therapies.

    PubMed

    Abu Dayyeh, Barham K; Kumar, Nitin; Edmundowicz, Steven A; Jonnalagadda, Sreenivasa; Larsen, Michael; Sullivan, Shelby; Thompson, Christopher C; Banerjee, Subhas

    2015-09-01

    The increasing global burden of obesity and its associated comorbidities has created an urgent need for additional treatment options to fight this pandemic. Endoscopic bariatric therapies (EBTs) provide an effective and minimally invasive treatment approach to obesity that would increase treatment options beyond surgery, medications, and lifestyle measures. This systematic review and meta-analysis were performed by the American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ASGE) Bariatric Endoscopy Task Force comprising experts in the subject area and the ASGE Technology Committee Chair to specifically assess whether acceptable performance thresholds outlined by an ASGE Preservation and Incorporation of Valuable endoscopic Innovations (PIVI) document for clinical adoption of available EBTs have been met. After conducting a comprehensive search of several English-language databases, we performed direct meta-analyses by using random-effects models to assess whether the Orbera intragastric balloon (IGB) (Apollo Endosurgery, Austin, Tex) and the EndoBarrier duodenal-jejunal bypass sleeve (DJBS) (GI Dynamics, Lexington, Mass) have met the PIVI thresholds. The meta-analyses results indicate that the Orbera IGB meets the PIVI thresholds for both primary and nonprimary bridge obesity therapy. Based on a meta-analysis of 17 studies including 1683 patients, the percentage of excess weight loss (%EWL) with the Orbera IGB at 12 months was 25.44% (95% confidence interval [CI], 21.47%-29.41%) (random model) with a mean difference in %EWL over controls of 26.9% (95% CI, 15.66%-38.24%; P ≤ .01) in 3 randomized, controlled trials. Furthermore, the pooled percentage of total body weight loss (% TBWL) after Orbera IGB implantation was 12.3% (95% CI, 7.9%–16.73%), 13.16% (95% CI, 12.37%–13.95%), and 11.27% (95% CI, 8.17%–14.36%) at 3, 6, and 12 months after implantation, respectively, thus exceeding the PIVI threshold of 5% TBWL for nonprimary (bridge) obesity therapy. With the data

  16. Click “Like” to Change Your Behavior: A Mixed Methods Study of College Students’ Exposure to and Engagement With Facebook Content Designed for Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Weibel, Nadir; Patrick, Kevin; Fowler, James H; Norman, Greg J; Gupta, Anjali; Servetas, Christina; Calfas, Karen; Raste, Ketaki; Pina, Laura; Donohue, Mike; Griswold, William G; Marshall, Simon

    2014-01-01

    significant variability among quantifiable (ie, visible) engagement. Of 199 participants in the final intervention sample, 32 (16.1%) were highly active users and 62 (31.2%) never visibly engaged with the intervention on Facebook. Polls were the most popular type of post followed by photos, with 97.5% (79/81) and 80.3% (386/481) interacted with at least once. Participants visibly engaged less with posts over time (partial r=–.33; P<.001). Approximately 40% of the participants interviewed (12/29, 41%) reported passively engaging with the Facebook posts by reading but not visibly interacting with them. Conclusions Facebook can be used to remotely deliver weight loss intervention content to college students with the help of a health coach who can iteratively tailor content and interact with participants. However, visible engagement with the study’s Facebook page was highly variable and declined over time. Whether the level of observed engagement is meaningful in terms of influencing changes in weight behaviors and outcomes will be evaluated at the completion of the overall study. PMID:24964294

  17. Study of the hydrological functionning of the irrigated crops in the southern mediterranean basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khabba, Said; Jarlan, Lionel; Er-Raki, Salah; Le Page, Michel; Merlin, Olivier; Ezzahar, Jamal; Kharrou, Mohamed H.

    2015-04-01

    In southern Mediterranean region water consumption has significantly increased over the last decades, while available water resources are becoming increasingly scarce. In Morocco, irrigation is highly water demanding: it is estimated that 83% of available resources is dedicated to agriculture with efficiency lower than 50% (Plan Bleu, 2009). In the semiarid region of Tensift Al-Haouz (center of Morocco), typical of southern Mediterranean basin, crop irrigation is inevitable for growth and development. In this situation, and to preserve water resources, the rational management of water irrigation is necessary. This objective is one of the priorities of the research program SudMed (Chehbouni et al., 2008) and the Joint Mixed Laboratory TREMA (Khabba et al. 2013), installed in Marrakech since 2002 and 2011, respectively. In these two programs, the scientific approach adopted, to monitor water transfers in soil-plant-atmosphere system, is based on the synergistic use of the mathematical modeling, the satellite observations and in situ data. Thus, during the decade 2002-2012, 17 experiments on dominant crops in the region (wheat, olive, orange, sugar beet, apricot) were performed. In these experiments, the different terms of water and heat balances exchanged between land surface and atmosphere are controlled with different devices. Results showed that the water losses by evaporation can reach 28% of water inputs for the flooding irrigation site and are obviously lower (about 18-20 % on average) for the drip irrigation sites. Concerning the deep percolation, results are surprising: water losses for the drip irrigation are in the range 29-41% of water input, whereas theses losses are between 26 and 31% for flooding irrigation. Concerning the modeling component, several models ranging from the most simple (FAO-56) to the most complex (i.e. SVAT: Soil Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer) were implemented to estimate the spatio-temporal variability of ET. The results showed that

  18. Neural mechanism of gastric motility regulation by electroacupuncture at RN12 and BL21: A paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus-dorsal vagal complex-vagus nerve-gastric channel pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hao; Liu, Wen-Jian; Shen, Guo-Ming; Zhang, Meng-Ting; Huang, Shun; He, Ying

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To study the neural mechanism by which electroacupuncture (EA) at RN12 (Zhongwan) and BL21 (Weishu) regulates gastric motility. METHODS: One hundred and forty-four adult Sprague Dawley rats were studied in four separate experiments. Intragastric pressure was measured using custom-made rubber balloons, and extracellular neuron firing activity, which is sensitive to gastric distention in the dorsal vagal complex (DVC), was recorded by an electrophysiological technique. The expression levels of c-fos, motilin (MTL) and gastrin (GAS) in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN) were assayed by immunohistochemistry, and the expression levels of motilin receptor (MTL-R) and gastrin receptor (GAS-R) in both the PVN and the gastric antrum were assayed by western blotting. RESULTS: EA at RN12 + BL21 (gastric Shu and Mu points), BL21 (gastric Back-Shu point), RN12 (gastric Front-Mu point), resulted in increased neuron-activating frequency in the DVC (2.08 ± 0.050, 1.17 ± 0.023, 1.55 ± 0.079 vs 0.75 ± 0.046, P < 0.001) compared with a model group. The expression of c-fos (36.24 ± 1.67, 29.41 ± 2.55, 31.79 ± 3.00 vs 5.73 ± 2.18, P < 0.001), MTL (22.48 ± 2.66, 20.76 ± 2.41, 19.17 ± 1.71 vs 11.68 ± 2.52, P < 0.001), GAS (24.99 ± 2.95, 21.69 ± 3.24, 23.03 ± 3.09 vs 12.53 ± 2.15, P < 0.001), MTL-R (1.39 ± 0.05, 1.22 ± 0.05, 1.17 ± 0.12 vs 0.84 ± 0.06, P < 0.001), and GAS-R (1.07 ± 0.07, 0.91 ± 0.06, 0.78 ± 0.05 vs 0.45 ± 0.04, P < 0.001) increased in the PVN after EA compared with the model group. The expression of MTL-R (1.46 ± 0.14, 1.26 ± 0.11, 0.99 ± 0.07 vs 0.65 ± 0.03, P < 0.001), and GAS-R (1.63 ± 0.11, 1.26 ± 0.16, 1.13 ± 0.02 vs 0.80 ± 0.11, P < 0.001) increased in the gastric antrum after EA compared with the model group. Damaging the PVN resulted in reduced intragastric pressure (13.67 ± 3.72 vs 4.27 ± 1.48, P < 0.001). These data demonstrate that the signals induced by EA stimulation of acupoints RN12 and BL21 are detectable

  19. Chemical characteristics of atmospheric fallout in the south of Xi'an during the dust episodes of 2001-2012 (NW China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaoping; Feng, Linna; Huang, Chunchang; Yan, Xiangyang; Zhang, Xu

    2014-02-01

    Atmospheric fallouts (AFs) were collected in the south of Xi'an, NW China, during the dust episodes of 2001-2012. The chemical characteristics of total 68 AF samples including their chemical compositions, size distribution and magnetic susceptibility were studied. The contamination degree and the source of heavy metals in AF were also explored with enrichment factor method and multivariate statistical analysis. The results showed that the particle mass size distribution of AFs dominated by coarse particles (PM10-50) in dust days. The concentrations of 26 elements associated with AFs determined by wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (WDXRF) in studied sites varied from 92.90 to 188.10 mg kg-1 for Cr, 31.40 and 63.00 mg kg-1 for Cu, 16.60 to 167.30 for Pb and 106.60 to 196.80 for Zn. Their average concentrations found in this study were 139.22 ± 29.41 mg kg-1, 46.93 ± 10.56 mg kg-1, 78.42 ± 46.52 mg kg-1 and 150.61 ± 32.84 mg kg-1, respectively, which exceeded their corresponding recommended background values more than two times. While, other elements, such as Br varied from 1.10 to 5.90 with 3.34 ± 1.60 mg kg-1 mean, Cs from 2.90 to 10.90 with mean of 7.23 ± 2.47 mg kg-1, Ga between 6.90 and 20.80 with 15.23 ± 3.59 mg kg-1, Rb in the range of 62.10-124.20 with the average of 80.69 ± 16.89 mg kg-1, Y from 9.90 to 35.00 with 20.43 ± 6.27 mg kg-1 average, La from 29.60 to 54.20 with mean of 37.28 ± 8.28 mg kg-1 and V with average of 81.97 ± 8.93 mg kg-1 in the 57.7-92.10 mg kg-1. Multivariate statistical analysis (principal component analysis and clustering analysis) was suggested that the principal element elements, Al, Fe, Si, K, Ca, Na, Mg, coupled with the trace elements Co, V, Ce, Mn, Ni, Ga, Y, Rb, La, Br, Cs were predominated by crustal material sources, whereas, Cr, Cu, Ba, Sr, As, Pb and Zn were highly influenced by anthropogenic activities. Simultaneously, the water-soluble ions (WS-ions) of NH4+, SO42-, SO32-, NO3-, SiO44-, HSO4

  20. Conversion of Hydrogen Sulfide in Coal Gases to Liquid Elemental Sulfur with Monolithic Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    K.C. Kwon

    2009-09-30

    of syngas appear to behave as inert with respect to sulfur formed at the SSRP conditions. One problem in the SSRP process that needs to be eliminated or minimized is COS formation that may occur due to reaction of CO with sulfur formed from the Claus reaction. The objectives of this research are to formulate monolithic catalysts for removal of H{sub 2}S from coal gases and minimum formation of COS with monolithic catalyst supports, {gamma}-alumina wash coat, and catalytic metals, to develop a regeneration method for a deactivated monolithic catalyst, to measure kinetics of both direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur with SO{sub 2} as an oxidizer and formation of COS in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and moisture, using a monolithic catalyst reactor. The task of developing kinetic rate equations and modeling the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants will be abandoned since formulation of catalysts suitable for the removal of H{sub 2}S and COS is being in progress. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam. Experiments on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur and formation of COS were carried out for the space time range of 46-570 seconds under reaction conditions to formulate catalysts suitable for the removal of H{sub 2}S and COS from coal gases and evaluate their capabilities in reducing hydrogen sulfide and COS in coal gases. Simulated coal gas mixtures consist of 3,200-4,000-ppmv hydrogen sulfide, 1,600-20,000-ppmv sulfur dioxide, 18-27 v% hydrogen, 29-41 v% CO, 8-12 v% CO{sub 2}, 0-10 vol % moisture, and nitrogen as remainder. Volumetric feed rates of simulated coal gas mixtures to the reactor are 30 - 180 cm{sup 3}/min at 1 atm and 25 C (SCCM). The temperature of the reactor is controlled in

  1. The Lu-Hf isotopic composition of CHUR and BSE: Tighter constraints from unequilibrated chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouvier, A.; Vervoort, J. D.; Patchett, J.

    2007-12-01

    = 0.0339 ± 4, 176Hf/177Hf = 0.282816 ± 32, 147Sm/144Nd = 0.1966 ± 10, and 143Nd/144Nd = 0.512639 ± 28. These last values are concordant with the Sm-Nd CHUR and BSE parameters that are currently widely used [4]. Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd isotopic systems involve refractory and lithophile elements, so that the composition of BSE should coincide with that of the CHUR. The Lu/Hf chondrite range in unequilibrated OC and CC is now constrained by ~7%, equivalent to what is found for the paired Sm-Nd system. To refine the Lu-Hf BSE estimate, we need to determine which chondrites are the best representative of BSE. For Sm-Nd isotope systematics, there is wide overlap between the chondrite groups. In constrast, CC have significantly higher Lu/Hf than OC. If we compare with other refractory and lithophile elements, CV, CK, CM and CO chondrites represent the closest composition with Earth's mantle [5]. From O and Cr isotope constraints [6], EC share a common reservoir of formation with the Earth. We will refine the BSE composition based on these observations and also present supplementary data on CI, CR and unequilibrated EC. [1] Blichert-Toft and Albarède, 1997. EPSL, 148, 243-258. [2] Patchett et al., 2004. EPSL, 222, 29-41. [3] Bizzarro et al., 2003. Nature, 421, 931-933. [4] Jacobsen and Wasserburg, 1980. EPSL, 50, 139-155. [5] Palme, 2001. Philo. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., 359, 2061-2075. [6] Trinquier et al., 2007. APJ, 655, 1179-1185.