A discrete simulation of 2-D fluid flow on TERASYS
Mullins, P.G.; Krolak, P.D.
1995-12-01
A discrete simulation of two-dimensional (2-D) fluid flow, on a recently designed novel architecture called TERASYS is presented. The simulation uses a cellular automaton approach, implemented in a new language called data-parallel bit C (dbC). A performance comparison between our implementation on TERASYS and an implementation on the Connection Machine is discussed. We comment briefly on the suitability of the TERASYS system for modeling fluid flow using cellular automata.
Numerical simulation of ( T 2, T 1) 2D NMR and fluid responses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tan, Mao-Jin; Zou, You-Long; Zhang, Jin-Yan; Zhao, Xin
2012-12-01
One-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (1D NMR) logging technology is limited for fluid typing, while two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D NMR) logging can provide more parameters including longitudinal relaxation time ( T 1) and transverse relaxation time ( T 2) relative to fluid types in porous media. Based on the 2D NMR relaxation mechanism in a gradient magnetic field, echo train simulation and 2D NMR inversion are discussed in detail. For 2D NMR inversion, a hybrid inversion method is proposed based on the damping least squares method (LSQR) and an improved truncated singular value decomposition (TSVD) algorithm. A series of spin echoes are first simulated with multiple waiting times ( T W s) in a gradient magnetic field for given fluid models and these synthesized echo trains are inverted by the hybrid method. The inversion results are consistent with given models. Moreover, the numerical simulation of various fluid models such as the gas-water, light oil-water, and vicious oil-water models were carried out with different echo spacings ( T E s) and T W s by this hybrid method. Finally, the influences of different signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) on inversion results in various fluid models are studied. The numerical simulations show that the hybrid method and optimized observation parameters are applicable to fluid typing of gas-water and oil-water models.
2-D Three Fluid Simulation of Upstreaming Ions Above Auroral Precipitation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Danielides, M. A.; Lummerzheim, D.; Otto, A.; Stevens, R. J.
2006-12-01
The ionosphere is a rich reservoir of charged particles from which a variable fraction is transported to the magnetosphere. An important transport phenomena is the formation of upward ion flow above auroral structure. A primary region of the outflow is not known, but contributions come from polar cap, dayside cusp/cleft region, auroral oval, or even from mid-latitudes. In the past global magnetospheric models and fluid codes were used to simulate large scale ion outflow above, e.g., the polar-cap aurora. However, satellites orbiting at low- altitudes have repeatingly detected localized ion outflow above the auroral oval. Ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling simulations gave first insides into the small-scale dynamics of aurora. The aim of this study is the investigation of coupled plasma and neutral dynamics in smaller scale aurora to explain the generation, structure, and dynamics of vertical ion upstream. We consider auroral electron precipitation at ionospheric heights in a 2-D three fluid ionospheric-magnetospheric coupling code (Otto and Zhu, 2003). Specially we examine the effects of the electron precipitation, heat conduction and heating in field- aligned current through coulomb collisions or turbulence causing: i) electron heating, ii) electron pressure gradients, and iii) upstreaming of ions through a resulting ambipolar electric field. Our first case studies are performed for different boundary conditions and for different auroral electron precipitation parameters (variation in characteristic auroral energy, auroral energy flux and horizontal scale). The results shall clarify how auroral precipitation can drive ions upwards. Finally we discuss the effect of ion drag and the interaction of the upstreaming ions with a stable neutral constituent. Otto, O. and H. Zhu, Fluid plasma simulation of coupled systems: Ionosphere and magnetosphere, Space Plasma Simulation. Edited by J. Buechner, C. Dum, and M. Scholer., Lecture Notes in Physics, vol. 615, p.193
2D fluid simulations of acoustic waves in pulsed ICP discharges: Comparison with experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Despiau-Pujo, Emilie; Cunge, Gilles; Sadeghi, Nader; Braithwaite, N. St. J.
2012-10-01
Neutral depletion, which is mostly caused by gas heating under typical material processing conditions, is an important phenomenon in high-density plasmas. In low pressure pulsed discharges, experiments show that additional depletion due to electron pressure (Pe) may have a non-negligible influence on radical transport [1]. To evaluate this effect, comparisons between 2D fluid simulations and measurements of gas convection in Ar/Cl2 pulsed ICP plasmas are reported. In the afterglow, Pe drops rapidly by electron cooling which generates a neutral pressure gradient between the plasma bulk and the reactor walls. This in turn forces the cold surrounding gas to move rapidly towards the center, thus launching an acoustic wave in the reactor. Time-resolved measurements of atoms drift velocity and gas temperature by LIF and LAS in the early afterglow are consistent with gas drifting at acoustic wave velocity followed by rapid gas cooling. Similar results are predicted by the model. The ion flux at the reactor walls is also shown to oscillate in phase with the acoustic wave due to ion-neutral friction forces. Finally, during plasma ignition, experiments show opposite phenomena when Pe rises.[4pt] [1] Cunge et al, APL 96, 131501 (2010)
SAGE 2D and 3D Simulations of the Explosive Venting of Supercritical Fluids Through Porous Media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weaver, R.; Gisler, G.; Svensen, H.; Mazzini, A.
2008-12-01
Magmatic intrusive events in large igneous provinces heat sedimentary country rock leading to the eventual release of volatiles. This has been proposed as a contributor to climate change and other environmental impacts. By means of numerical simulations, we examine ways in which these volatiles can be released explosively from depth. Gases and fluids cooked out of country rock by metamorphic heating may be confined for a time by impermeable clays or other barriers, developing high pressures and supercritical fluids. If confinement is suddenly breached (by an earthquake for example) in such a way that the fluid has access to porous sediments, a violent eruption of a non-magmatic mixture of fluid and sediment may result. Surface manifestations of these events could be hydrothermal vent complexes, kimberlite pipes, pockmarks, or mud volcanoes. These are widespread on Earth, especially in large igneous provinces, as in the Karoo Basin of South Africa, the North Sea off the Norwegian margin, and the Siberian Traps. We have performed 2D and 3D simulations with the Sage hydrocode (from Los Alamos and Science Applications International) of supercritical venting in a variety of geometries and configurations. The simulations show several different patterns of propagation and fracturing in porous or otherwise weakened overburden, dependent on depth, source conditions (fluid availability, temperature, and pressure), and manner of confinement breach. Results will be given for a variety of 2D and 3D simulations of these events exploring the release of volatiles into the atmosphere.
2D fluid simulations of discharges at atmospheric pressure in reactive gas mixtures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bourdon, Anne
2015-09-01
Since a few years, low-temperature atmospheric pressure discharges have received a considerable interest as they efficiently produce many reactive chemical species at a low energy cost. This potential is of great interest for a wide range of applications as plasma assisted combustion or biomedical applications. Then, in current simulations of atmospheric pressure discharges, there is the need to take into account detailed kinetic schemes. It is interesting to note that in some conditions, the kinetics of the discharge may play a role on the discharge dynamics itself. To illustrate this, we consider the case of the propagation of He-N2 discharges in long capillary tubes, studied for the development of medical devices for endoscopic applications. Simulation results put forward that the discharge dynamics and structure depend on the amount of N2 in the He-N2 mixture. In particular, as the amount of N2 admixture increases, the discharge propagation velocity in the tube increases, reaches a maximum for about 0 . 1 % of N2 and then decreases, in agreement with experiments. For applications as plasma assisted combustion with nanosecond repetitively pulsed discharges, there is the need to handle the very different timescales of the nanosecond discharge with the much longer (micro to millisecond) timescales of combustion processes. This is challenging from a computational point of view. It is also important to better understand the coupling of the plasma induced chemistry and the gas heating. To illustrate this, we present the simulation of the flame ignition in lean mixtures by a nanosecond pulsed discharge between two point electrodes. In particular, among the different discharge regimes of nanosecond repetitively pulsed discharges, a ``spark'' regime has been put forward in the experiments, with an ultra-fast local heating of the gas. For other discharge regimes, the gas heating is much weaker. We have simulated the nanosecond spark regime and have observed shock waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kawamura, E.; Lichtenberg, A. J.; Lieberman, M. A.; Marakhtanov, A. M.
2016-06-01
A fast 2D axisymmetric fluid-analytical multifrequency capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) reactor code is used to study center high nonuniformity in a low pressure electronegative chlorine discharge. In the code, a time-independent Helmholtz wave equation is used to solve for the capacitive fields in the linearized frequency domain. This eliminates the time dependence from the electromagnetic (EM) solve, greatly speeding up the simulations at the cost of neglecting higher harmonics. However, since the code allows up to three driving frequencies, we can add the two most important harmonics to the CCP simulations as the second and third input frequencies. The amplitude and phase of these harmonics are estimated by using a recently developed 1D radial nonlinear transmission line (TL) model of a highly asymmetric cylindrical discharge (Lieberman et al 2015 Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 24 055011). We find that at higher applied frequencies, the higher harmonics contribute significantly to the center high nonuniformity due to their shorter plasma wavelengths.
Collective excitations in 2D hard-disc fluid.
Huerta, Adrian; Bryk, Taras; Trokhymchuk, Andrij
2015-07-01
Collective dynamics of a two-dimensional (2D) hard-disc fluid was studied by molecular dynamics simulations in the range of packing fractions that covers states up to the freezing. Some striking features concerning collective excitations in this system were observed. In particular, the short-wavelength shear waves while being absent at low packing fractions were observed in the range of high packing fractions, just before the freezing transition in a 2D hard-disc fluid. In contrast, the so-called "positive sound dispersion" typically observed in dense Lennard-Jones-like fluids, was not detected for the 2D hard-disc fluid. The ratio of specific heats in the 2D hard-disc fluid shows a monotonic increase with density approaching the freezing, resembling in this way the similar behavior in the vicinity of the Widom line in the case of supercritical fluids. PMID:25595625
A new inversion method for (T2, D) 2D NMR logging and fluid typing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tan, Maojin; Zou, Youlong; Zhou, Cancan
2013-02-01
One-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (1D NMR) logging technology has some significant limitations in fluid typing. However, not only can two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D NMR) provide some accurate porosity parameters, but it can also identify fluids more accurately than 1D NMR. In this paper, based on the relaxation mechanism of (T2, D) 2D NMR in a gradient magnetic field, a hybrid inversion method that combines least-squares-based QR decomposition (LSQR) and truncated singular value decomposition (TSVD) is examined in the 2D NMR inversion of various fluid models. The forward modeling and inversion tests are performed in detail with different acquisition parameters, such as magnetic field gradients (G) and echo spacing (TE) groups. The simulated results are discussed and described in detail, the influence of the above-mentioned observation parameters on the inversion accuracy is investigated and analyzed, and the observation parameters in multi-TE activation are optimized. Furthermore, the hybrid inversion can be applied to quantitatively determine the fluid saturation. To study the effects of noise level on the hybrid method and inversion results, the numerical simulation experiments are performed using different signal-to-noise-ratios (SNRs), and the effect of different SNRs on fluid typing using three fluid models are discussed and analyzed in detail.
ENERGY LANDSCAPE OF 2D FLUID FORMS
Y. JIANG; ET AL
2000-04-01
The equilibrium states of 2D non-coarsening fluid foams, which consist of bubbles with fixed areas, correspond to local minima of the total perimeter. (1) The authors find an approximate value of the global minimum, and determine directly from an image how far a foam is from its ground state. (2) For (small) area disorder, small bubbles tend to sort inwards and large bubbles outwards. (3) Topological charges of the same sign repel while charges of opposite sign attract. (4) They discuss boundary conditions and the uniqueness of the pattern for fixed topology.
Realistic and efficient 2D crack simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yadegar, Jacob; Liu, Xiaoqing; Singh, Abhishek
2010-04-01
Although numerical algorithms for 2D crack simulation have been studied in Modeling and Simulation (M&S) and computer graphics for decades, realism and computational efficiency are still major challenges. In this paper, we introduce a high-fidelity, scalable, adaptive and efficient/runtime 2D crack/fracture simulation system by applying the mathematically elegant Peano-Cesaro triangular meshing/remeshing technique to model the generation of shards/fragments. The recursive fractal sweep associated with the Peano-Cesaro triangulation provides efficient local multi-resolution refinement to any level-of-detail. The generated binary decomposition tree also provides efficient neighbor retrieval mechanism used for mesh element splitting and merging with minimal memory requirements essential for realistic 2D fragment formation. Upon load impact/contact/penetration, a number of factors including impact angle, impact energy, and material properties are all taken into account to produce the criteria of crack initialization, propagation, and termination leading to realistic fractal-like rubble/fragments formation. The aforementioned parameters are used as variables of probabilistic models of cracks/shards formation, making the proposed solution highly adaptive by allowing machine learning mechanisms learn the optimal values for the variables/parameters based on prior benchmark data generated by off-line physics based simulation solutions that produce accurate fractures/shards though at highly non-real time paste. Crack/fracture simulation has been conducted on various load impacts with different initial locations at various impulse scales. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed system has the capability to realistically and efficiently simulate 2D crack phenomena (such as window shattering and shards generation) with diverse potentials in military and civil M&S applications such as training and mission planning.
Rheological Properties of Quasi-2D Fluids in Microgravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stannarius, Ralf; Trittel, Torsten; Eremin, Alexey; Harth, Kirsten; Clark, Noel; Maclennan, Joseph; Glaser, Matthew; Park, Cheol; Hall, Nancy; Tin, Padetha
2015-01-01
In recent years, research on complex fluids and fluids in restricted geometries has attracted much attention in the scientific community. This can be attributed not only to the development of novel materials based on complex fluids but also to a variety of important physical phenomena which have barely been explored. One example is the behavior of membranes and thin fluid films, which can be described by two-dimensional (2D) rheology behavior that is quite different from 3D fluids. In this study, we have investigated the rheological properties of freely suspended films of a thermotropic liquid crystal in microgravity experiments. This model system mimics isotropic and anisotropic quasi 2D fluids [46]. We use inkjet printing technology to dispense small droplets (inclusions) onto the film surface. The motion of these inclusions provides information on the rheological properties of the films and allows the study of a variety of flow instabilities. Flat films have been investigated on a sub-orbital rocket flight and curved films (bubbles) have been studied in the ISS project OASIS. Microgravity is essential when the films are curved in order to avoid sedimentation. The experiments yield the mobility of the droplets in the films as well as the mutual mobility of pairs of particles. Experimental results will be presented for 2D-isotropic (smectic-A) and 2D-nematic (smectic-C) phases.
Simulation of Yeast Cooperation in 2D.
Wang, M; Huang, Y; Wu, Z
2016-03-01
Evolution of cooperation has been an active research area in evolutionary biology in decades. An important type of cooperation is developed from group selection, when individuals form spatial groups to prevent them from foreign invasions. In this paper, we study the evolution of cooperation in a mixed population of cooperating and cheating yeast strains in 2D with the interactions among the yeast cells restricted to their small neighborhoods. We conduct a computer simulation based on a game theoretic model and show that cooperation is increased when the interactions are spatially restricted, whether the game is of a prisoner's dilemma, snow drifting, or mutual benefit type. We study the evolution of homogeneous groups of cooperators or cheaters and describe the conditions for them to sustain or expand in an opponent population. We show that under certain spatial restrictions, cooperator groups are able to sustain and expand as group sizes become large, while cheater groups fail to expand and keep them from collapse. PMID:26988702
A 2D electrohydrodynamic model for electrorotation of fluid drops.
Feng, James Q
2002-02-01
A theoretical analysis of spontaneous electrorotation of deformable fluid drops in a DC electric field is presented with a 2D electrohydrodynamic model. The fluids in the system are assumed to be leaky dielectric and Newtonian. If the rotating flow is dominant over the cellular convection type of electrohydrodynamic flow, closed-form solutions for drops of small deformations can be obtained. Because the governing equations are in general nonlinear even when drop deformations are ignored, the general solution for even undeformed drop takes a form of infinite series and can only be evaluated by numerical means. Both closed-form solutions for special cases and numerical solutions for more general cases are obtained here to describe steady-state field variables and first-order drop deformations. In a DC electric field of strength beyond the threshold value, spontaneous electrorotation of a drop is shown to occur when charge relaxation in the surrounding fluid is faster than the fluid inside the drop. With increasing the strength of the applied electric field from the threshold for onset of electrorotation, the axis of drop contraction deviates from from that of the applied electric field in the direction of the rotating flow with an angle increasing with the field strength. PMID:16290391
Friedel, Michael J.
2001-01-01
This report describes a model for simulating transient, Variably Saturated, coupled water-heatsolute Transport in heterogeneous, anisotropic, 2-Dimensional, ground-water systems with variable fluid density (VST2D). VST2D was developed to help understand the effects of natural and anthropogenic factors on quantity and quality of variably saturated ground-water systems. The model solves simultaneously for one or more dependent variables (pressure, temperature, and concentration) at nodes in a horizontal or vertical mesh using a quasi-linearized general minimum residual method. This approach enhances computational speed beyond the speed of a sequential approach. Heterogeneous and anisotropic conditions are implemented locally using individual element property descriptions. This implementation allows local principal directions to differ among elements and from the global solution domain coordinates. Boundary conditions can include time-varying pressure head (or moisture content), heat, and/or concentration; fluxes distributed along domain boundaries and/or at internal node points; and/or convective moisture, heat, and solute fluxes along the domain boundaries; and/or unit hydraulic gradient along domain boundaries. Other model features include temperature and concentration dependent density (liquid and vapor) and viscosity, sorption and/or decay of a solute, and capability to determine moisture content beyond residual to zero. These features are described in the documentation together with development of the governing equations, application of the finite-element formulation (using the Galerkin approach), solution procedure, mass and energy balance considerations, input requirements, and output options. The VST2D model was verified, and results included solutions for problems of water transport under isohaline and isothermal conditions, heat transport under isobaric and isohaline conditions, solute transport under isobaric and isothermal conditions, and coupled water
An Integrative Model of Excitation Driven Fluid Flow in a 2D Uterine Channel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maggio, Charles; Fauci, Lisa; Chrispell, John
2009-11-01
We present a model of intra-uterine fluid flow in a sagittal cross-section of the uterus by inducing peristalsis in a 2D channel. This is an integrative multiscale computational model that takes as input fluid viscosity, passive tissue properties of the uterine channel and a prescribed wave of membrane depolarization. This voltage pulse is coupled to a model of calcium dynamics inside a uterine smooth muscle cell, which in turn drives a kinetic model of myosin phosphorylation governing contractile muscle forces. Using the immersed boundary method, these muscle forces are communicated to a fluid domain to simulate the contractions which occur in a human uterus. An analysis of the effects of model parameters on the flow properties and emergent geometry of the peristaltic channel will be presented.
Simulating MEMS Chevron Actuator for Strain Engineering 2D Materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vutukuru, Mounika; Christopher, Jason; Bishop, David; Swan, Anna
2D materials pose an exciting paradigm shift in the world of electronics. These crystalline materials have demonstrated high electric and thermal conductivities and tensile strength, showing great potential as the new building blocks of basic electronic circuits. However, strain engineering 2D materials for novel devices remains a difficult experimental feat. We propose the integration of 2D materials with MEMS devices to investigate the strain dependence on material properties such as electrical and thermal conductivity, refractive index, mechanical elasticity, and band gap. MEMS Chevron actuators, provides the most accessible framework to study strain in 2D materials due to their high output force displacements for low input power. Here, we simulate Chevron actuators on COMSOL to optimize actuator design parameters and accurately capture the behavior of the devices while under the external force of a 2D material. Through stationary state analysis, we analyze the response of the device through IV characteristics, displacement and temperature curves. We conclude that the simulation precisely models the real-world device through experimental confirmation, proving that the integration of 2D materials with MEMS is a viable option for constructing novel strain engineered devices. The authors acknowledge support from NSF DMR1411008.
Simulation of 2D Fields of Raindrop Size Distributions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berne, A.; Schleiss, M.; Uijlenhoet, R.
2008-12-01
The raindrop size distribution (DSD hereafter) is of primary importance for quantitative applications of weather radar measurements. The radar reflectivity~Z (directly measured by radar) is related to the power backscattered by the ensemble of hydrometeors within the radar sampling volume. However, the rain rate~R (the flux of water to the surface) is the variable of interest for many applications (hydrology, weather forecasting, air traffic for example). Usually, radar reflectivity is converted into rain rate using a power law such as Z=aRb. The coefficients a and b of the Z-R relationship depend on the DSD. The variability of the DSD in space and time has to be taken into account to improve radar rain rate estimates. Therefore, the ability to generate a large number of 2D fields of DSD which are statistically homogeneous provides a very useful simulation framework that nicely complements experimental approaches based on DSD data, in order to investigate radar beam propagation through rain as well as radar retrieval techniques. The proposed approach is based on geostatistics for structural analysis and stochastic simulation. First, the DSD is assumed to follow a gamma distribution. Hence a 2D field of DSDs can be adequately described as a 2D field of a multivariate random function consisting of the three DSD parameters. Such fields are simulated by combining a Gaussian anamorphosis and a multivariate Gaussian random field simulation algorithm. Using the (cross-)variogram models fitted on data guaranties that the spatial structure of the simulated fields is consistent with the observed one. To assess its validity, the proposed method is applied to data collected during intense Mediterranean rainfall. As only time series are available, Taylor's hypothesis is assumed to convert time series in 1D range profile. Moreover, DSD fields are assumed to be isotropic so that the 1D structure can be used to simulate 2D fields. A large number of 2D fields of DSD parameters are
2-D traveling-wave patterns in binary fluid convection
Surko, C.M.; Porta, A.L.
1996-12-31
An overview is presented of recent experiments designed to study two-dimensional traveling-wave convection in binary fluid convection in a large aspect ratio container. Disordered patterns are observed when convection is initiated. As time proceeds, they evolve to more ordered patterns, consisting of several domains of traveling-waves separated by well-defined domain boundaries. The detailed character of the patterns depends sensitively on the Rayleigh number. Numerical techniques are described which were developed to provide a quantitative characterization of the traveling-wave patterns. Applications of complex demodulation techniques are also described, which make a detailed study of the structure and dynamics of the domain boundaries possible.
In situ fluid typing and quantification with 1D and 2D NMR logging.
Sun, Boqin
2007-05-01
In situ nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) fluid typing has recently gained momentum due to data acquisition and inversion algorithm enhancement of NMR logging tools. T(2) distributions derived from NMR logging contain information on bulk fluids and pore size distributions. However, the accuracy of fluid typing is greatly overshadowed by the overlap between T(2) peaks arising from different fluids with similar apparent T(2) relaxation times. Nevertheless, the shapes of T(2) distributions from different fluid components are often different and can be predetermined. Inversion with predetermined T(2) distributions allows us to perform fluid component decomposition to yield individual fluid volume ratios. Another effective method for in situ fluid typing is two-dimensional (2D) NMR logging, which results in proton population distribution as a function of T(2) relaxation time and fluid diffusion coefficient (or T(1) relaxation time). Since diffusion coefficients (or T(1) relaxation time) for different fluid components can be very different, it is relatively easy to separate oil (especially heavy oil) from water signal in a 2D NMR map and to perform accurate fluid typing. Combining NMR logging with resistivity and/or neutron/density logs provides a third method for in situ fluid typing. We shall describe these techniques with field examples. PMID:17466778
Development of models for the two-dimensional, two-fluid code for sodium boiling NATOF-2D. [LMFBR
Zielinski, R.G.; Kazimi, M.S.
1981-09-01
Several features were incorporated into NATOF-2D, a two-dimensional, two fluid code developed at MIT for the purpose of analysis of sodium boiling transients under LMFBR conditions. They include improved interfacial mass, momentum and energy exchange rate models, and a cell-to-cell radial heat conduction mechanism which was calibrated by simulation of Westinghouse Blanket Heat Transfer Test Program Runs 544 and 545. Finally, a direct method of pressure field solution was implemented into a direct method of pressure field solution was implemented into NATOF-2D, replacing the iterative technique previously available, and resulted in substantially reduced computational costs.
Gradient-Driven Vortex Motion in Nonneutral Plasmas and Ideal 2D Fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schecter, David A.
2000-10-01
Two-dimensional (2D) turbulent flows can relax to metastable patterns without dissipation of kinetic energy. This ``rapid'' relaxation has been observed in computer simulations of ideal 2D fluids, and more recently in experiments with pure electron plasmas, which can obey similar dynamics. The late stage of relaxation often involves small vortices moving in a larger ``background'' shear-flow.(X.P. Huang et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 74), 4424 (1995). In time, positive vortices (rotating counter-clockwise) move to peaks in background vorticity, whereas negative vortices (rotating clockwise) move to minima.(C.G. Rossby, J. Mar. Res. 7), 175 (1948); C.H. Liu and L. Ting, Comp. & Fluids 15, 77 (1987). In general, the rate of this migration increases with the magnitude of the background vorticity gradient, whereas it decreases as the background shear intensifies.\\vspace12pt Positive and negative vortices can also be classified as either prograde or retrograde, depending on whether they rotate with or against the local background shear. Surprisingly, a retrograde vortex moves up or down a background vorticity gradient orders of magnitude faster than a prograde vortex of equal strength.(D.A. Schecter and D.H.E. Dubin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83), 2191 (1999). An accurate expression for the velocity of a weak retrograde vortex is obtained from an analytic calculation, in which the response of the background flow to the vortex is linearized. However, this linear theory fails for prograde vortices of any strength. Interestingly, the velocity of a prograde vortex can be obtained from a simple estimate, which accounts for the nonlinear ``trapping'' of background fluid around the vortex. The analytic expressions for the velocities of both prograde and retrograde vortices are in good quantitative agreement with vortex-in-cell simulations, and with electron plasma experiments, when the background shear is below a critical level. When the ratio of background shear to background vorticity
Numerical simulation of rock cutting using 2D AUTODYN
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Woldemichael, D. E.; Rani, A. M. Abdul; Lemma, T. A.; Altaf, K.
2015-12-01
In a drilling process for oil and gas exploration, understanding of the interaction between the cutting tool and the rock is important for optimization of the drilling process using polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) cutters. In this study the finite element method in ANSYS AUTODYN-2D is used to simulate the dynamics of cutter rock interaction, rock failure, and fragmentation. A two-dimensional single PDC cutter and rock model were used to simulate the orthogonal cutting process and to investigate the effect of different parameters such as depth of cut, and back rake angle on two types of rocks (sandstone and limestone). In the simulation, the cutting tool was dragged against stationary rock at predetermined linear velocity and the depth of cut (1,2, and 3 mm) and the back rake angles(-10°, 0°, and +10°) were varied. The simulation result shows that the +10° back rake angle results in higher rate of penetration (ROP). Increasing depth of cut leads to higher ROP at the cost of higher cutting force.
Multiscale simulation of 2D elastic wave propagation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Wensheng; Zheng, Hui
2016-06-01
In this paper, we develop the multiscale method for simulation of elastic wave propagation. Based on the first-order velocity-stress hyperbolic form of 2D elastic wave equation, the particle velocities are solved first ona coarse grid by the finite volume method. Then the stress tensor is solved by using the multiscale basis functions which can represent the fine-scale variation of the wavefield on the coarse grid. The basis functions are computed by solving a local problem with the finite element method. The theoretical formulae and description of the multiscale method for elastic wave equation are given in more detail. The numerical computations for an inhomogeneous model with random scatter are completed. The results show the effectiveness of the multiscale method.
Quantum Simulation with 2D Arrays of Trapped Ions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Richerme, Philip
2016-05-01
The computational difficulty of solving fully quantum many-body spin problems is a significant obstacle to understanding the behavior of strongly correlated quantum matter. This work proposes the design and construction of a 2D quantum spin simulator to investigate the physics of frustrated materials, highly entangled states, mechanisms potentially underpinning high-temperature superconductivity, and other topics inaccessible to current 1D systems. The effective quantum spins will be encoded within the well-isolated electronic levels of trapped ions, confined in a two-dimensional planar geometry, and made to interact using phonon-mediated optical dipole forces. The system will be scalable to 100+ quantum particles, far beyond the realm of classical intractability, while maintaining individual-ion control, long quantum coherence times, and site-resolved projective spin measurements. Once constructed, the two-dimensional quantum simulator will implement a broad range of spin models on a variety of reconfigurable lattices and characterize their behavior through measurements of spin-spin correlations and entanglement. This versatile tool will serve as an important experimental resource for exploring difficult quantum many-body problems in a regime where classical methods fail.
A 2D simulation model for urban flood management
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Price, Roland; van der Wielen, Jonathan; Velickov, Slavco; Galvao, Diogo
2014-05-01
The European Floods Directive, which came into force on 26 November 2007, requires member states to assess all their water courses and coast lines for risk of flooding, to map flood extents and assets and humans at risk, and to take adequate and coordinated measures to reduce the flood risk in consultation with the public. Flood Risk Management Plans are to be in place by 2015. There are a number of reasons for the promotion of this Directive, not least because there has been much urban and other infrastructural development in flood plains, which puts many at risk of flooding along with vital societal assets. In addition there is growing awareness that the changing climate appears to be inducing more frequent extremes of rainfall with a consequent increases in the frequency of flooding. Thirdly, the growing urban populations in Europe, and especially in the developing countries, means that more people are being put at risk from a greater frequency of urban flooding in particular. There are urgent needs therefore to assess flood risk accurately and consistently, to reduce this risk where it is important to do so or where the benefit is greater than the damage cost, to improve flood forecasting and warning, to provide where necessary (and possible) flood insurance cover, and to involve all stakeholders in decision making affecting flood protection and flood risk management plans. Key data for assessing risk are water levels achieved or forecasted during a flood. Such levels should of course be monitored, but they also need to be predicted, whether for design or simulation. A 2D simulation model (PriceXD) solving the shallow water wave equations is presented specifically for determining flood risk, assessing flood defense schemes and generating flood forecasts and warnings. The simulation model is required to have a number of important properties: -Solve the full shallow water wave equations using a range of possible solutions; -Automatically adjust the time step and
A new model for two-dimensional numerical simulation of pseudo-2D gas-solids fluidized beds
Li, Tingwen; Zhang, Yongmin
2013-10-11
Pseudo-two dimensional (pseudo-2D) fluidized beds, for which the thickness of the system is much smaller than the other two dimensions, is widely used to perform fundamental studies on bubble behavior, solids mixing, or clustering phenomenon in different gas-solids fluidization systems. The abundant data from such experimental systems are very useful for numerical model development and validation. However, it has been reported that two-dimensional (2D) computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations of pseudo-2D gas-solids fluidized beds usually predict poor quantitative agreement with the experimental data, especially for the solids velocity field. In this paper, a new model is proposed to improve the 2D numerical simulations of pseudo-2D gas-solids fluidized beds by properly accounting for the frictional effect of the front and back walls. Two previously reported pseudo-2D experimental systems were simulated with this model. Compared to the traditional 2D simulations, significant improvements in the numerical predictions have been observed and the predicted results are in better agreement with the available experimental data.
A 2D simulation model for urban flood management
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Price, Roland; van der Wielen, Jonathan; Velickov, Slavco; Galvao, Diogo
2014-05-01
The European Floods Directive, which came into force on 26 November 2007, requires member states to assess all their water courses and coast lines for risk of flooding, to map flood extents and assets and humans at risk, and to take adequate and coordinated measures to reduce the flood risk in consultation with the public. Flood Risk Management Plans are to be in place by 2015. There are a number of reasons for the promotion of this Directive, not least because there has been much urban and other infrastructural development in flood plains, which puts many at risk of flooding along with vital societal assets. In addition there is growing awareness that the changing climate appears to be inducing more frequent extremes of rainfall with a consequent increases in the frequency of flooding. Thirdly, the growing urban populations in Europe, and especially in the developing countries, means that more people are being put at risk from a greater frequency of urban flooding in particular. There are urgent needs therefore to assess flood risk accurately and consistently, to reduce this risk where it is important to do so or where the benefit is greater than the damage cost, to improve flood forecasting and warning, to provide where necessary (and possible) flood insurance cover, and to involve all stakeholders in decision making affecting flood protection and flood risk management plans. Key data for assessing risk are water levels achieved or forecasted during a flood. Such levels should of course be monitored, but they also need to be predicted, whether for design or simulation. A 2D simulation model (PriceXD) solving the shallow water wave equations is presented specifically for determining flood risk, assessing flood defense schemes and generating flood forecasts and warnings. The simulation model is required to have a number of important properties: -Solve the full shallow water wave equations using a range of possible solutions; -Automatically adjust the time step and
Validation of a 2-D semi-coupled numerical model for fluid-structure-seabed interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ye, Jianhong; Jeng, Dongsheng; Wang, Ren; Zhu, Changqi
2013-10-01
A 2-D semi-coupled model PORO-WSSI 2D (also be referred as FSSI-CAS 2D) for the Fluid-Structure-Seabed Interaction (FSSI) has been developed by employing RANS equations for wave motion in fluid domain, VARANS equations for porous flow in porous structures; and taking the dynamic Biot's equations (known as "u - p" approximation) for soil as the governing equations. The finite difference two-step projection method and the forward time difference method are adopted to solve the RANS, VARANS equations; and the finite element method is adopted to solve the "u - p" approximation. A data exchange port is developed to couple the RANS, VARANS equations and the dynamic Biot's equations together. The analytical solution proposed by Hsu and Jeng (1994) and some experiments conducted in wave flume or geotechnical centrifuge in which various waves involved are used to validate the developed semi-coupled numerical model. The sandy bed involved in these experiments is poro-elastic or poro-elastoplastic. The inclusion of the interaction between fluid, marine structures and poro-elastoplastic seabed foundation is a special point and highlight in this paper, which is essentially different with other previous coupled models The excellent agreement between the numerical results and the experiment data indicates that the developed coupled model is highly reliablefor the FSSI problem.
Chang, F.H.; Santee, G.E. Jr.; Mortensen, G.A.; Brockett, G.F.; Gross, M.B.; Silling, S.A.; Belytschko, T.
1981-03-01
This report, the second in a series of reports for RP-1065, describes the second step in the stepwise approach for developing the three-dimensional, nonlinear, fluid/structure interaction methodology to assess the hydroloads on a large PWR during the subcooled portions of a hypothetical LOCA. The second step in the methodology considers enhancements and special modifications to the 2D STEALTH-HYDRO computer program and the 2D WHAMSE computer program. The 2D STEALTH-HYDRO enhancements consist of a fluid-fluid coupling control-volume model and an orifice control-volume model. The enhancements to 2D WHAMSE include elimination of the implicit integration routines, material models, and structural elements not required for the hydroloads application. In addition the logic for coupling the 2D STEALTH-HYDRO computer program to the 2D WHAMSE computer program is discussed.
Incorporating a Turbulence Transport Model into 2-D Hybrid Hall Thruster Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cha, Eunsun; Cappelli, Mark A.; Fernandez, Eduardo
2014-10-01
2-D hybrid simulations of Hall plasma thrusters that do not resolve cross-field transport-generating fluctuations require a model to capture how electrons migrate across the magnetic field. We describe the results of integrating a turbulent electron transport model into simulations of plasma behavior in a plane spanned by the E and B field vectors. The simulations treat the electrons as a fluid and the heavy species (ions/neutrals) as discrete particles. The transport model assumes that the turbulent eddy cascade in the electron fluid to smaller scales is the primary means of electron energy dissipation. Using this model, we compare simulations to experimental measurements made on a laboratory Hall discharge over a range of discharge voltage. Both the current-voltage trends as well as the plasma properties such as plasma temperature, electron density, and ion velocities seem agree favorably with experiments, where a simple Bohm transport model tends to perform poorly in capturing much of the discharge behavior.
Roton Excitations and the Fluid-Solid Phase Transition in Superfluid 2D Yukawa Bosons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Molinelli, S.; Galli, D. E.; Reatto, L.; Motta, M.
2016-05-01
We compute several ground-state properties and the dynamical structure factor of a zero-temperature system of Bosons interacting with the 2D screened Coulomb (2D-SC) potential. We resort to the exact shadow path integral ground state (SPIGS) quantum Monte Carlo method to compute the imaginary-time correlation function of the model, and to the genetic algorithm via falsification of theories (GIFT) to retrieve the dynamical structure factor. We provide a detailed comparison of ground-state properties and collective excitations of 2D-SC and ^4 He atoms. The roton energy of the 2D-SC system is an increasing function of density, and not a decreasing one as in ^4 He. This result is in contrast with the view that the roton is the soft mode of the fluid-solid transition. We uncover a remarkable quasi-universality of backflow and of other properties when expressed in terms of the amount of short-range order as quantified by the height of the first peak of the static structure factor.
Atmospheric Outflows from Hot Jupiters: 2D MHD Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Uribe, A.; Matsakos, T.; Konigl, A.
2015-01-01
Recent observations of stellar hydrogen Ly-α line absorption during transits of some hot Jupiter exoplanets suggest the presence of a dense, fast wind that is blowing from planetary atmosphere tep{2003Natur.422..143V,2007ApJ...671L..61B}. Modeling efforts include 1D hydrodynamic models tep{2009ApJ...693...23M,2004Icar..170..167Y,2007P&SS...55.1426G} and 2D isothermal magnetized wind models tep{2014arXiv1404.5817T}, among others. In this work, we model the 2D structure of the irradiated upper atmosphere of a hot Jupiter planet and its interaction with the planetary magnetic field. We calculate self consistently the heating by stellar UV radiation and the cooling of the atmosphere by Ly-α emission. We solve for the ionization structure assuming a 100% hydrogen atmosphere, accounting for the radiative ionization, recombination and advection of the gas. We show the effect of stellar tides and planetary magnetic field on the planet outflow and calculate the Ly-α transmission spectra of the resulting atmosphere.
Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell Simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1998-01-01
Computer simulation of atmospheric flow corresponds well to imges taken during the second Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell (BFFC) mission. The top shows a view from the pole, while the bottom shows a view from the equator. Red corresponds to hot fluid rising while blue shows cold fluid falling. This simulation was developed by Anil Deane of the University of Maryland, College Park and Paul Fischer of Argorne National Laboratory. Credit: NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center
Simulation of abrasive flow machining process for 2D and 3D mixture models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dash, Rupalika; Maity, Kalipada
2015-12-01
Improvement of surface finish and material removal has been quite a challenge in a finishing operation such as abrasive flow machining (AFM). Factors that affect the surface finish and material removal are media viscosity, extrusion pressure, piston velocity, and particle size in abrasive flow machining process. Performing experiments for all the parameters and accurately obtaining an optimized parameter in a short time are difficult to accomplish because the operation requires a precise finish. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation was employed to accurately determine optimum parameters. In the current work, a 2D model was designed, and the flow analysis, force calculation, and material removal prediction were performed and compared with the available experimental data. Another 3D model for a swaging die finishing using AFM was simulated at different viscosities of the media to study the effects on the controlling parameters. A CFD simulation was performed by using commercially available ANSYS FLUENT. Two phases were considered for the flow analysis, and multiphase mixture model was taken into account. The fluid was considered to be a
Rise characteristics of gas bubbles in a 2D rectangular column: VOF simulations vs experiments
Krishna, R.; Baten, J.M. van
1999-10-01
About five centuries ago, Leonardo da Vinci described the sinuous motion of gas bubbles rising in water. The authors have attempted to simulate the rise trajectories of bubbles of 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 12, and 20 mm in diameter rising in a 2D rectangular column filled with water. The simulations were carried out using the volume-of-fluid (VOF) technique developed by Hirt and Nichols (J. Computational Physics, 39, 201--225 (1981)). To solve the Navier-Stokes equations of motion the authors used a commercial solver, CFX 4.1c of AEA Technology, UK. They developed their own bubble-tracking algorithm to capture sinuous bubble motions. The 4 and 5 mm bubbles show large lateral motions observed by Da Vinci. The 7, 8 and 9 mm bubble behave like jellyfish. The 12 mm bubble flaps its wings like a bird. The extent of lateral motion of the bubbles decreases with increasing bubble size. Bubbles larger than 20 mm in size assume a spherical cap form and simulations of the rise characteristics match experiments exactly. VOF simulations are powerful tools for a priori determination of the morphology and rise characteristics of bubbles rising in a liquid. Bubble-bubble interactions are also properly modeled by the VOF technique.
COYOTE: A computer program for 2-D reactive flow simulations
Cloutman, L.D.
1990-04-01
We describe the numerical algorithm used in the COYOTE two- dimensional, transient, Eulerian hydrodynamics program for reactive flows. The program has a variety of options that provide capabilities for a wide range of applications, and it is designed to be robust and relatively easy to use while maintaining adequate accuracy and efficiency to solve realistic problems. It is based on the ICE method, and it includes a general species and chemical reaction network for simulating reactive flows. It also includes swirl, turbulence transport models, and a nonuniform mesh capability. We describe several applications of the program. 33 refs., 4 figs.
2D numerical simulation of the resistive reconnection layer
D. A. Uzdensky; R. M. Kulsrud
2000-07-21
In this paper the authors present a two-dimensional numerical simulation of a reconnection current layer in incompressible resistive magnetohydrodynamics with uniform resistivity in the limit of very large Lundquist numbers. They use realistic boundary conditions derived consistently from the outside magnetic field, and they also take into account the effect of the backpressure from flow into the separatrix region. They find that within a few Alfven times the system reaches a steady state consistent with the Sweet-Parker model, even if the initial state is Petschek-like.
2D Numerical Simulation of the Resistive Reconnection Layer
Kulsrud, R.M.; Uzdensky, D.A.
1999-03-01
In this paper we present a two-dimensional numerical simulation of a reconnection current layer in incompressible resistive magnetohydrodynamics with uniform resistivity in the limit of very large Lundquist numbers. We use realistic boundary conditions derived consistently from the outside magnetic field, and we also take into account the effect of the back pressure from flow into the separatrix region. We find that within a few Alfvén times the system reaches a steady state consistent with the Sweet-Parker model, even if the initial state is Petschek-like.
Simulation of subgrid orographic precipitation with an embedded 2-D cloud-resolving model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jung, Joon-Hee; Arakawa, Akio
2016-03-01
By explicitly resolving cloud-scale processes with embedded two-dimensional (2-D) cloud-resolving models (CRMs), superparameterized global atmospheric models have successfully simulated various atmospheric events over a wide range of time scales. Up to now, however, such models have not included the effects of topography on the CRM grid scale. We have used both 3-D and 2-D CRMs to simulate the effects of topography with prescribed "large-scale" winds. The 3-D CRM is used as a benchmark. The results show that the mean precipitation can be simulated reasonably well by using a 2-D representation of topography as long as the statistics of the topography such as the mean and standard deviation are closely represented. It is also shown that the use of a set of two perpendicular 2-D grids can significantly reduce the error due to a 2-D representation of topography.
Hall-Effect Thruster Simulations with 2-D Electron Transport and Hydrodynamic Ions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira; Hofer, Richard H.; Goebel, Dan M.
2009-01-01
A computational approach that has been used extensively in the last two decades for Hall thruster simulations is to solve a diffusion equation and energy conservation law for the electrons in a direction that is perpendicular to the magnetic field, and use discrete-particle methods for the heavy species. This "hybrid" approach has allowed for the capture of bulk plasma phenomena inside these thrusters within reasonable computational times. Regions of the thruster with complex magnetic field arrangements (such as those near eroded walls and magnets) and/or reduced Hall parameter (such as those near the anode and the cathode plume) challenge the validity of the quasi-one-dimensional assumption for the electrons. This paper reports on the development of a computer code that solves numerically the 2-D axisymmetric vector form of Ohm's law, with no assumptions regarding the rate of electron transport in the parallel and perpendicular directions. The numerical challenges related to the large disparity of the transport coefficients in the two directions are met by solving the equations in a computational mesh that is aligned with the magnetic field. The fully-2D approach allows for a large physical domain that extends more than five times the thruster channel length in the axial direction, and encompasses the cathode boundary. Ions are treated as an isothermal, cold (relative to the electrons) fluid, accounting for charge-exchange and multiple-ionization collisions in the momentum equations. A first series of simulations of two Hall thrusters, namely the BPT-4000 and a 6-kW laboratory thruster, quantifies the significance of ion diffusion in the anode region and the importance of the extended physical domain on studies related to the impact of the transport coefficients on the electron flow field.
A case study of fluid flow in fractured rock mass based on 2-D DFN modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, Jisu; Noh, Young-Hwan; Um, Jeong-Gi; Choi, Yosoon
2014-05-01
A two dimensional steady-state fluid flow through fractured rock mass of an abandoned copper mine in Korea is addressed based on discrete fracture network modeling. An injection well and three observation wells were installed at the field site to monitor the variations of total heads induced by injection of fresh water. A series of packer tests were performed to estimate the rock mass permeability. First, the two dimensional stochastic fracture network model was built and validated for a granitic rock mass using the geometrical and statistical data obtained from surface exposures and borehole logs. This validated fracture network model was combined with the fracture data observed on boreholes to generate a stochastic-deterministic fracture network system. Estimated apertures for each of the fracture sets using permeability data obtained from borehole packer tests were discussed next. Finally, a systematic procedure for fluid flow modeling in fractured rock mass in two dimensional domain was presented to estimate the conductance, flow quantity and nodal head in 2-D conceptual linear pipe channel network. The results obtained in this study clearly show that fracture geometry parameters (orientation, density and size) play an important role in the hydraulic behavior of fractured rock masses.
Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Majumdar, Alok Kumar (Inventor); Bailey, John W. (Inventor); Schallhorn, Paul Alan (Inventor); Steadman, Todd E. (Inventor)
2004-01-01
A general purpose program implemented on a computer analyzes steady state and transient flow in a complex fluid network, modeling phase changes, compressibility, mixture thermodynamics and external body forces such as gravity and centrifugal force. A preprocessor provides for the inter- active development of a fluid network simulation having nodes and branches. Mass, energy, and specie conservation equations are solved at the nodes, and momentum conservation equations are solved in the branches. Contained herein are subroutines for computing "real fluid" thermodynamic and thermophysical properties for 12 fluids, and a number of different source options are provided for model- ing momentum sources or sinks in the branches. The system of equations describing the fluid network is solved by a hybrid numerical method that is a combination of the Newton-Raphson and successive substitution methods. Application and verification of this invention are provided through an example problem, which demonstrates that the predictions of the present invention compare most reasonably with test data.
2-D simulation of a waveguide free electron laser having a helical undulator
Kim, S.K.; Lee, B.C.; Jeong, Y.U.
1995-12-31
We have developed a 2-D simulation code for the calculation of output power from an FEL oscillator having a helical undulator and a cylindrical waveguide. In the simulation, the current and the energy of the electron beam is 2 A and 400 keV, respectively. The parameters of the permanent-magnet helical undulator are : period = 32 mm, number of periods = 20, magnetic field = 1.3 kG. The gain per pass is 10 and the output power is calculated to be higher than 10 kW The results of the 2-D simulation are compared with those of 1-D simulation.
Simulation of bootstrap current in 2D and 3D ideal magnetic fields in tokamaks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raghunathan, M.; Graves, J. P.; Cooper, W. A.; Pedro, M.; Sauter, O.
2016-09-01
We aim to simulate the bootstrap current for a MAST-like spherical tokamak using two approaches for magnetic equilibria including externally caused 3D effects such as resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs), the effect of toroidal ripple, and intrinsic 3D effects such as non-resonant internal kink modes. The first approach relies on known neoclassical coefficients in ideal MHD equilibria, using the Sauter (Sauter et al 1999 Phys. Plasmas 6 2834) expression valid for all collisionalities in axisymmetry, and the second approach being the quasi-analytic Shaing–Callen (Shaing and Callen 1983 Phys. Fluids 26 3315) model in the collisionless regime for 3D. Using the ideal free-boundary magnetohydrodynamic code VMEC, we compute the flux-surface averaged bootstrap current density, with the Sauter and Shaing–Callen expressions for 2D and 3D ideal MHD equilibria including an edge pressure barrier with the application of resonant magnetic perturbations, and equilibria possessing a saturated non-resonant 1/1 internal kink mode with a weak internal pressure barrier. We compare the applicability of the self-consistent iterative model on the 3D applications and discuss the limitations and advantages of each bootstrap current model for each type of equilibrium.
The simulation of 3D microcalcification clusters in 2D digital mammography and breast tomosynthesis
Shaheen, Eman; Van Ongeval, Chantal; Zanca, Federica; Cockmartin, Lesley; Marshall, Nicholas; Jacobs, Jurgen; Young, Kenneth C.; Dance, David R.; Bosmans, Hilde
2011-12-15
Purpose: This work proposes a new method of building 3D models of microcalcification clusters and describes the validation of their realistic appearance when simulated into 2D digital mammograms and into breast tomosynthesis images. Methods: A micro-CT unit was used to scan 23 breast biopsy specimens of microcalcification clusters with malignant and benign characteristics and their 3D reconstructed datasets were segmented to obtain 3D models of microcalcification clusters. These models were then adjusted for the x-ray spectrum used and for the system resolution and simulated into 2D projection images to obtain mammograms after image processing and into tomographic sequences of projection images, which were then reconstructed to form 3D tomosynthesis datasets. Six radiologists were asked to distinguish between 40 real and 40 simulated clusters of microcalcifications in two separate studies on 2D mammography and tomosynthesis datasets. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to test the ability of each observer to distinguish between simulated and real microcalcification clusters. The kappa statistic was applied to assess how often the individual simulated and real microcalcification clusters had received similar scores (''agreement'') on their realistic appearance in both modalities. This analysis was performed for all readers and for the real and the simulated group of microcalcification clusters separately. ''Poor'' agreement would reflect radiologists' confusion between simulated and real clusters, i.e., lesions not systematically evaluated in both modalities as either simulated or real, and would therefore be interpreted as a success of the present models. Results: The area under the ROC curve, averaged over the observers, was 0.55 (95% confidence interval [0.44, 0.66]) for the 2D study, and 0.46 (95% confidence interval [0.29, 0.64]) for the tomosynthesis study, indicating no statistically significant difference between real and simulated
3D multiple-point statistics simulation using 2D training images
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Comunian, A.; Renard, P.; Straubhaar, J.
2012-03-01
One of the main issues in the application of multiple-point statistics (MPS) to the simulation of three-dimensional (3D) blocks is the lack of a suitable 3D training image. In this work, we compare three methods of overcoming this issue using information coming from bidimensional (2D) training images. One approach is based on the aggregation of probabilities. The other approaches are novel. One relies on merging the lists obtained using the impala algorithm from diverse 2D training images, creating a list of compatible data events that is then used for the MPS simulation. The other (s2Dcd) is based on sequential simulations of 2D slices constrained by the conditioning data computed at the previous simulation steps. These three methods are tested on the reproduction of two 3D images that are used as references, and on a real case study where two training images of sedimentary structures are considered. The tests show that it is possible to obtain 3D MPS simulations with at least two 2D training images. The simulations obtained, in particular those obtained with the s2Dcd method, are close to the references, according to a number of comparison criteria. The CPU time required to simulate with the method s2Dcd is from two to four orders of magnitude smaller than the one required by a MPS simulation performed using a 3D training image, while the results obtained are comparable. This computational efficiency and the possibility of using MPS for 3D simulation without the need for a 3D training image facilitates the inclusion of MPS in Monte Carlo, uncertainty evaluation, and stochastic inverse problems frameworks.
2D and 3D Mass Transfer Simulations in β Lyrae System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nazarenko, V. V.; Glazunova, L. V.; Karetnikov, V. G.
2001-12-01
2D and 3D mass transfer simulations of the mass transfer in β Lyrae binary system. We have received that from a point L3 40 per cent of mass transfer from L1-point is lost.The structure of a gas envelope, around system is calculated.3-D mass transfer simulations has shown presence the spiral shock in the disk around primary star's and a jet-like structures (a mass flow in vertical direction) over a stream.
The simulation of 3D mass models in 2D digital mammography and breast tomosynthesis
Shaheen, Eman De Keyzer, Frederik; Bosmans, Hilde; Ongeval, Chantal Van; Dance, David R.; Young, Kenneth C.
2014-08-15
Purpose: This work proposes a new method of building 3D breast mass models with different morphological shapes and describes the validation of the realism of their appearance after simulation into 2D digital mammograms and breast tomosynthesis images. Methods: Twenty-five contrast enhanced MRI breast lesions were collected and each mass was manually segmented in the three orthogonal views: sagittal, coronal, and transversal. The segmented models were combined, resampled to have isotropic voxel sizes, triangularly meshed, and scaled to different sizes. These masses were referred to as nonspiculated masses and were then used as nuclei onto which spicules were grown with an iterative branching algorithm forming a total of 30 spiculated masses. These 55 mass models were projected into 2D projection images to obtain mammograms after image processing and into tomographic sequences of projection images, which were then reconstructed to form 3D tomosynthesis datasets. The realism of the appearance of these mass models was assessed by five radiologists via receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis when compared to 54 real masses. All lesions were also given a breast imaging reporting and data system (BIRADS) score. The data sets of 2D mammography and tomosynthesis were read separately. The Kendall's coefficient of concordance was used for the interrater observer agreement assessment for the BIRADS scores per modality. Further paired analysis, using the Wilcoxon signed rank test, of the BIRADS assessment between 2D and tomosynthesis was separately performed for the real masses and for the simulated masses. Results: The area under the ROC curves, averaged over all observers, was 0.54 (95% confidence interval [0.50, 0.66]) for the 2D study, and 0.67 (95% confidence interval [0.55, 0.79]) for the tomosynthesis study. According to the BIRADS scores, the nonspiculated and the spiculated masses varied in their degrees of malignancy from normal (BIRADS 1) to highly
2D-simulation of wet steam flow in a steam turbine with spontaneous condensation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Lan-Xin; Zheng, Qun; Liu, Shun-Long
2007-06-01
Removal of condensates from wet steam flow in the last stages of steam turbines significantly promotes stage efficiency and prevents erosion of rotors. In this paper, homogeneous spontaneous condensation in transonic steam flow in the 2-D rotor-tip section of a stage turbine is investigated. Calculated results agree with experimental data reasonably well. On the basis of the above work, a 2-D numerical simulation of wet steam flow in adjacent root sections of a complex steam turbine stage was carried out. Computational results were analyzed and provide insights into effective removal of humidity.
2D-3D hybrid stabilized finite element method for tsunami runup simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takase, S.; Moriguchi, S.; Terada, K.; Kato, J.; Kyoya, T.; Kashiyama, K.; Kotani, T.
2016-09-01
This paper presents a two-dimensional (2D)-three-dimensional (3D) hybrid stabilized finite element method that enables us to predict a propagation process of tsunami generated in a hypocentral region, which ranges from offshore propagation to runup to urban areas, with high accuracy and relatively low computational costs. To be more specific, the 2D shallow water equation is employed to simulate the propagation of offshore waves, while the 3D Navier-Stokes equation is employed for the runup in urban areas. The stabilized finite element method is utilized for numerical simulations for both of the 2D and 3D domains that are independently discretized with unstructured meshes. The multi-point constraint and transmission methods are applied to satisfy the continuity of flow velocities and pressures at the interface between the resulting 2D and 3D meshes, since neither their spatial dimensions nor node arrangements are consistent. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the performance of the proposed hybrid method to simulate tsunami behavior, including offshore propagation and runup to urban areas, with substantially lower computation costs in comparison with full 3D computations.
2D-3D hybrid stabilized finite element method for tsunami runup simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takase, S.; Moriguchi, S.; Terada, K.; Kato, J.; Kyoya, T.; Kashiyama, K.; Kotani, T.
2016-05-01
This paper presents a two-dimensional (2D)-three-dimensional (3D) hybrid stabilized finite element method that enables us to predict a propagation process of tsunami generated in a hypocentral region, which ranges from offshore propagation to runup to urban areas, with high accuracy and relatively low computational costs. To be more specific, the 2D shallow water equation is employed to simulate the propagation of offshore waves, while the 3D Navier-Stokes equation is employed for the runup in urban areas. The stabilized finite element method is utilized for numerical simulations for both of the 2D and 3D domains that are independently discretized with unstructured meshes. The multi-point constraint and transmission methods are applied to satisfy the continuity of flow velocities and pressures at the interface between the resulting 2D and 3D meshes, since neither their spatial dimensions nor node arrangements are consistent. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the performance of the proposed hybrid method to simulate tsunami behavior, including offshore propagation and runup to urban areas, with substantially lower computation costs in comparison with full 3D computations.
FRANC2D: A two-dimensional crack propagation simulator. Version 2.7: User's guide
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wawrzynek, Paul; Ingraffea, Anthony
1994-01-01
FRANC 2D (FRacture ANalysis Code, 2 Dimensions) is a menu driven, interactive finite element computer code that performs fracture mechanics analyses of 2-D structures. The code has an automatic mesh generator for triangular and quadrilateral elements. FRANC2D calculates the stress intensity factor using linear elastic fracture mechanics and evaluates crack extension using several methods that may be selected by the user. The code features a mesh refinement and adaptive mesh generation capability that is automatically developed according to the predicted crack extension direction and length. The code also has unique features that permit the analysis of layered structure with load transfer through simulated mechanical fasteners or bonded joints. The code was written for UNIX workstations with X-windows graphics and may be executed on the following computers: DEC DecStation 3000 and 5000 series, IBM RS/6000 series, Hewlitt-Packard 9000/700 series, SUN Sparc stations, and most Silicon Graphics models.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharapov, V. N.; Cherepanov, A. N.; Popov, V. N.; Bykova, V. G.
2012-11-01
A model describing two-dimensional (2D) dynamics of heat transfer in the fluid systems with a localized sink of a magmatic fluid into local fractured zones above the roof of crystallizing crustal intrusions is suggested. Numerical modeling of the migration of the phase boundaries in 2D intrusive chambers under retrograde boiling of magma with relatively high initial water content in the melt shows that, depending on the character of heat dissipation from a magmatic fluid into the host rock, two types of fluid magmatic systems can arise. (1) At high heat losses, the zoning of fluidogenic ore formation is determined by the changes in temperature of the rocks within the contact aureole of the intrusive bodies. These temperature variations are controlled by the migration of the phase boundaries in the cooling melt towards the center of the magmatic bodies from their contacts. (2) In the case of a localized sink of the magmatic fluid in different parts of the top of the intrusive chambers, a specific characteristic scenario of cooling of the magmatic bodies is probably implemented. In 2D systems with a heat transfer coefficient α k < 5 × 104 W/m2 K, an area with quasi-stationary phase boundaries develops close to the region of fluid drainage through the fractured zone in the intrusion. Therefore, as the phase boundaries contract to the sink zone of a fluid, specific thermal tubes arise, whose characteristics depend on the width of the fluid-conductive zone and the heat losses into the side rocks. (3) The time required for the intrusion to solidify varies depending on the particular position of the fluid conductor above the top of the magmatic body.
Simulation of Cardiac Arrhythmias Using a 2D Heterogeneous Whole Heart Model
Balakrishnan, Minimol; Chakravarthy, V. Srinivasa; Guhathakurta, Soma
2015-01-01
Simulation studies of cardiac arrhythmias at the whole heart level with electrocardiogram (ECG) gives an understanding of how the underlying cell and tissue level changes manifest as rhythm disturbances in the ECG. We present a 2D whole heart model (WHM2D) which can accommodate variations at the cellular level and can generate the ECG waveform. It is shown that, by varying cellular-level parameters like the gap junction conductance (GJC), excitability, action potential duration (APD) and frequency of oscillations of the auto-rhythmic cell in WHM2D a large variety of cardiac arrhythmias can be generated including sinus tachycardia, sinus bradycardia, sinus arrhythmia, sinus pause, junctional rhythm, Wolf Parkinson White syndrome and all types of AV conduction blocks. WHM2D includes key components of the electrical conduction system of the heart like the SA (Sino atrial) node cells, fast conducting intranodal pathways, slow conducting atriovenctricular (AV) node, bundle of His cells, Purkinje network, atrial, and ventricular myocardial cells. SA nodal cells, AV nodal cells, bundle of His cells, and Purkinje cells are represented by the Fitzhugh-Nagumo (FN) model which is a reduced model of the Hodgkin-Huxley neuron model. The atrial and ventricular myocardial cells are modeled by the Aliev-Panfilov (AP) two-variable model proposed for cardiac excitation. WHM2D can prove to be a valuable clinical tool for understanding cardiac arrhythmias. PMID:26733873
Simulation of Cardiac Arrhythmias Using a 2D Heterogeneous Whole Heart Model.
Balakrishnan, Minimol; Chakravarthy, V Srinivasa; Guhathakurta, Soma
2015-01-01
Simulation studies of cardiac arrhythmias at the whole heart level with electrocardiogram (ECG) gives an understanding of how the underlying cell and tissue level changes manifest as rhythm disturbances in the ECG. We present a 2D whole heart model (WHM2D) which can accommodate variations at the cellular level and can generate the ECG waveform. It is shown that, by varying cellular-level parameters like the gap junction conductance (GJC), excitability, action potential duration (APD) and frequency of oscillations of the auto-rhythmic cell in WHM2D a large variety of cardiac arrhythmias can be generated including sinus tachycardia, sinus bradycardia, sinus arrhythmia, sinus pause, junctional rhythm, Wolf Parkinson White syndrome and all types of AV conduction blocks. WHM2D includes key components of the electrical conduction system of the heart like the SA (Sino atrial) node cells, fast conducting intranodal pathways, slow conducting atriovenctricular (AV) node, bundle of His cells, Purkinje network, atrial, and ventricular myocardial cells. SA nodal cells, AV nodal cells, bundle of His cells, and Purkinje cells are represented by the Fitzhugh-Nagumo (FN) model which is a reduced model of the Hodgkin-Huxley neuron model. The atrial and ventricular myocardial cells are modeled by the Aliev-Panfilov (AP) two-variable model proposed for cardiac excitation. WHM2D can prove to be a valuable clinical tool for understanding cardiac arrhythmias. PMID:26733873
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tang, H. T.; Hofmann, R.; Yee, G.; Vaughan, D. K.
1980-01-01
Transient, nonlinear soil-structure interaction simulations of an Electric Power Research Institute, SIMQUAKE experiment were performed using the large strain, time domain STEALTH 2D code and a cyclic, kinematically hardening cap soil model. Results from the STEALTH simulations were compared to identical simulations performed with the TRANAL code and indicate relatively good agreement between all the STEALTH and TRANAL calculations. The differences that are seen can probably be attributed to: (1) large (STEALTH) vs. small (TRANAL) strain formulation and/or (2) grid discretization differences.
Simulations of the infrared, Raman, and 2D-IR photon echo spectra of water in nanoscale silica pores
Burris, Paul C.; Laage, Damien; Thompson, Ward H.
2016-05-20
Vibrational spectroscopy is frequently used to characterize nanoconfined liquids and probe the effect of the confining framework on the liquid structure and dynamics relative to the corresponding bulk fluid. However, it is still unclear what molecular-level information can be obtained from such measurements. In this Paper, we address this question by using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to reproduce the linear infrared (IR), Raman, and two-dimensional IR (2D-IR) photon echo spectra for water confined within hydrophilic (hydroxyl-terminated) silica mesopores. To simplify the spectra the OH stretching region of isotopically dilute HOD in D2O is considered. An empirical mapping approach is usedmore » to obtain the OH vibrational frequencies, transition dipoles, and transition polarizabilities from the MD simulations. The simulated linear IR and Raman spectra are in good general agreement with measured spectra of water in mesoporous silica reported in the literature. The key effect of confinement on the water spectrum is a vibrational blueshift for OH groups that are closest to the pore interface. The blueshift can be attributed to the weaker hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) formed between the OH groups and silica oxygen acceptors. Non-Condon effects greatly diminish the contribution of these OH moieties to the linear IR spectrum, but these weaker H-bonds are readily apparent in the Raman spectrum. The 2D-IR spectra have not yet been measured and thus the present results represent a prediction. Lastly, the simulated spectra indicate that it should be possible to probe the slower spectral diffusion of confined water compared to the bulk liquid by analysis of the 2D-IR spectra.« less
Burris, Paul C; Laage, Damien; Thompson, Ward H
2016-05-21
Vibrational spectroscopy is frequently used to characterize nanoconfined liquids and probe the effect of the confining framework on the liquid structure and dynamics relative to the corresponding bulk fluid. However, it is still unclear what molecular-level information can be obtained from such measurements. In this paper, we address this question by using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to reproduce the linear infrared (IR), Raman, and two-dimensional IR (2D-IR) photon echo spectra for water confined within hydrophilic (hydroxyl-terminated) silica mesopores. To simplify the spectra the OH stretching region of isotopically dilute HOD in D2O is considered. An empirical mapping approach is used to obtain the OH vibrational frequencies, transition dipoles, and transition polarizabilities from the MD simulations. The simulated linear IR and Raman spectra are in good general agreement with measured spectra of water in mesoporous silica reported in the literature. The key effect of confinement on the water spectrum is a vibrational blueshift for OH groups that are closest to the pore interface. The blueshift can be attributed to the weaker hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) formed between the OH groups and silica oxygen acceptors. Non-Condon effects greatly diminish the contribution of these OH moieties to the linear IR spectrum, but these weaker H-bonds are readily apparent in the Raman spectrum. The 2D-IR spectra have not yet been measured and thus the present results represent a prediction. The simulated spectra indicates that it should be possible to probe the slower spectral diffusion of confined water compared to the bulk liquid by analysis of the 2D-IR spectra. PMID:27208967
Simulations of the infrared, Raman, and 2D-IR photon echo spectra of water in nanoscale silica pores
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burris, Paul C.; Laage, Damien; Thompson, Ward H.
2016-05-01
Vibrational spectroscopy is frequently used to characterize nanoconfined liquids and probe the effect of the confining framework on the liquid structure and dynamics relative to the corresponding bulk fluid. However, it is still unclear what molecular-level information can be obtained from such measurements. In this paper, we address this question by using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to reproduce the linear infrared (IR), Raman, and two-dimensional IR (2D-IR) photon echo spectra for water confined within hydrophilic (hydroxyl-terminated) silica mesopores. To simplify the spectra the OH stretching region of isotopically dilute HOD in D2O is considered. An empirical mapping approach is used to obtain the OH vibrational frequencies, transition dipoles, and transition polarizabilities from the MD simulations. The simulated linear IR and Raman spectra are in good general agreement with measured spectra of water in mesoporous silica reported in the literature. The key effect of confinement on the water spectrum is a vibrational blueshift for OH groups that are closest to the pore interface. The blueshift can be attributed to the weaker hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) formed between the OH groups and silica oxygen acceptors. Non-Condon effects greatly diminish the contribution of these OH moieties to the linear IR spectrum, but these weaker H-bonds are readily apparent in the Raman spectrum. The 2D-IR spectra have not yet been measured and thus the present results represent a prediction. The simulated spectra indicates that it should be possible to probe the slower spectral diffusion of confined water compared to the bulk liquid by analysis of the 2D-IR spectra.
Momentum Transport: 2D and 3D Cloud Resolving Model Simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tao, Wei-Kuo
2001-01-01
The major objective of this study is to investigate the momentum budgets associated with several convective systems that developed during the TOGA COARE IOP (west Pacific warm pool region) and GATE (east Atlantic region). The tool for this study is the improved Goddard Cumulas Ensemble (GCE) model which includes a 3-class ice-phase microphysical scheme, explicit cloud radiative interactive processes and air-sea interactive surface processes. The model domain contains 256 x 256 grid points (with 2 km resolution) in the horizontal and 38 grid points (to a depth of 22 km) in the vertical. The 2D domain has 1024 grid points. The simulations were performed over a 7-day time period (December 19-26, 1992, for TOGA COARE and September 1-7, 1994 for GATE). Cyclic literal boundary conditions are required for this type of long-term integration. Two well organized squall systems (TOGA, COARE February 22, 1993, and GATE September 12, 1994) were also simulated using the 3D GCE model. Only 9 h simulations were required to cover the life time of the squall systems. the lateral boundary conditions were open for these two squall systems simulations. the following will be examined: (1) the momentum budgets in the convective and stratiform regions, (2) the relationship between momentum transport and cloud organization (i.e., well organized squall lines versus less organized convective), (3) the differences and similarities in momentum transport between 2D and 3D simulated convective systems, and (4) the differences and similarities in momentum budgets between cloud systems simulated with open and cyclic lateral boundary conditions. Preliminary results indicate that there are only small differences between 2D and 3D simulated momentum budgets. Major differences occur, however, between momentum budgets associated with squall systems simulated using different lateral boundary conditions.
Simulation of surface tension in 2D and 3D with smoothed particle hydrodynamics method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Mingyu
2010-09-01
The methods for simulating surface tension with smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method in two dimensions and three dimensions are developed. In 2D surface tension model, the SPH particle on the boundary in 2D is detected dynamically according to the algorithm developed by Dilts [G.A. Dilts, Moving least-squares particle hydrodynamics II: conservation and boundaries, International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 48 (2000) 1503-1524]. The boundary curve in 2D is reconstructed locally with Lagrangian interpolation polynomial. In 3D surface tension model, the SPH particle on the boundary in 3D is detected dynamically according to the algorithm developed by Haque and Dilts [A. Haque, G.A. Dilts, Three-dimensional boundary detection for particle methods, Journal of Computational Physics 226 (2007) 1710-1730]. The boundary surface in 3D is reconstructed locally with moving least squares (MLS) method. By transforming the coordinate system, it is guaranteed that the interface function is one-valued in the local coordinate system. The normal vector and curvature of the boundary surface are calculated according to the reconstructed boundary surface and then surface tension force can be calculated. Surface tension force acts only on the boundary particle. Density correction is applied to the boundary particle in order to remove the boundary inconsistency. The surface tension models in 2D and 3D have been applied to benchmark tests for surface tension. The ability of the current method applying to the simulation of surface tension in 2D and 3D is proved.
Modeling and 2-D discrete simulation of dislocation dynamics for plastic deformation of metal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Juan; Cui, Zhenshan; Ou, Hengan; Ruan, Liqun
2013-05-01
Two methods are employed in this paper to investigate the dislocation evolution during plastic deformation of metal. One method is dislocation dynamic simulation of two-dimensional discrete dislocation dynamics (2D-DDD), and the other is dislocation dynamics modeling by means of nonlinear analysis. As screw dislocation is prone to disappear by cross-slip, only edge dislocation is taken into account in simulation. First, an approach of 2D-DDD is used to graphically simulate and exhibit the collective motion of a large number of discrete dislocations. In the beginning, initial grains are generated in the simulation cells according to the mechanism of grain growth and the initial dislocation is randomly distributed in grains and relaxed under the internal stress. During the simulation process, the externally imposed stress, the long range stress contribution of all dislocations and the short range stress caused by the grain boundaries are calculated. Under the action of these forces, dislocations begin to glide, climb, multiply, annihilate and react with each other. Besides, thermal activation process is included. Through the simulation, the distribution of dislocation and the stress-strain curves can be obtained. On the other hand, based on the classic dislocation theory, the variation of the dislocation density with time is described by nonlinear differential equations. Finite difference method (FDM) is used to solve the built differential equations. The dislocation evolution at a constant strain rate is taken as an example to verify the rationality of the model.
The influence of slope profile extraction techniques and DEM resolution on 2D rockfall simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, X.; Frattini, P.; Agliardi, F.; Crosta, G. B.
2012-04-01
The development of advanced 3D rockfall modelling algorithms and tools during the last decade has allowed to gain insights in the topographic controls on the quality and reliability of rockfall simulation results. These controls include DEM resolution and roughness, and depend on the adopted rockfall simulation approach and DEM generation techniques. Despite the development of 3D simulations, the 2D modelling approach still remains suitable and convenient in some cases. Therefore, the accuracy of high-quality 3D descriptions of topography must be preserved when extracting slope profiles for 2D simulations. In this perspective, this study compares and evaluates three different techniques commonly used to extract slope profiles from DEM, in order to assess their suitability and effects on rockfall simulation results. These methods include: (A) an "interpolated shape" method (ESRI 3D Analyst), (B) a raw raster sampling method (EZ Profiler), and (C) a vector TIN sampling method (ESRI 3D Analyst). The raster DEMs used in the study were all derived from the same TIN DEM used for method C. For raster DEM, the "interpolated shape" method (A) extracts the profile by bi-linear interpolating the elevation among the four neighbouring cells at each sampling location along the profile trace. The EZ Profiler extension (B) extracts the profile by sampling elevation values directly from the DEM raster grid at each sampling location. These methods have been compared to the extraction of profiles from TIN DEM (C), where slope profile elevations are directly obtained by sampling the TIN triangular facets. 2D rockfall simulations performed using a widely used commercial software (RocfallTM) with the different profiles show that: (1) method A and C provide similar results; (2) runout simulated using profiles obtained by method A is usually shorter than method C; (3) method B presents abrupt horizontal steps in the profiles, resulting in unrealistic runout. To study the influence of DEM
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pan, Li-Hua; Hou, Peng-Fei; Chen, Jia-Yun
2016-08-01
The 2D steady-state solutions regarding the expressions of stress and strain for fluid-saturated, orthotropic, poroelastic plane are derived in this paper. For this object, the general solutions of the corresponding governing equation are first obtained and expressed in harmonic functions. Based on these compact general solutions, the suitable harmonic functions with undetermined constants for line fluid source in the interior of infinite poroelastic body and a line fluid source on the surface of semi-infinite poroelastic body are presented, respectively. The fundamental solutions can be obtained by substituting these functions into the general solution, and the undetermined constants can be obtained by the continuous conditions, equilibrium conditions and boundary conditions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pérez-Corona, M.; García, J. A.; Taller, G.; Polgár, D.; Bustos, E.; Plank, Z.
2016-02-01
The purpose of geophysical electrical surveys is to determine the subsurface resistivity distribution by making measurements on the ground surface. From these measurements, the true resistivity of the subsurface can be estimated. The ground resistivity is related to various geological parameters, such as the mineral and fluid content, porosity and degree of water saturation in the rock. Electrical resistivity surveys have been used for many decades in hydrogeological, mining and geotechnical investigations. More recently, they have been used for environmental surveys. To obtain a more accurate subsurface model than is possible with a simple 1-D model, a more complex model must be used. In a 2-D model, the resistivity values are allowed to vary in one horizontal direction (usually referred to as the x direction) but are assumed to be constant in the other horizontal (the y) direction. A more realistic model would be a fully 3-D model where the resistivity values are allowed to change in all three directions. In this research, a simulation of the cone penetration test and 2D imaging resistivity are used as tools to simulate the distribution of hydrocarbons in soil.
Vlasov Fluid stability of a 2-D plasma with a linear magnetic field null
Kim, J.S.
1984-01-01
Vlasov Fluid stability of a 2-dimensional plasma near an O type magnetic null is investigated. Specifically, an elongated Z-pinch is considered, and applied to Field Reversed Configurations at Los Alamos National Laboratory by making a cylindrical approximation of the compact torus. The orbits near an elliptical O type null are found to be very complicated; the orbits are large and some are stochastic. The kinetic corrections to magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) are investigated by evaluating the expectation values of the growth rates of a Vlasov Fluid dispersion functional by using a set of trial functions based on ideal MHD. The dispersion functional involves fluid parts and orbit dependent parts. The latter involves phase integral of two time correlations. The phase integral is replaced by the time integral both for the regular and for the stochastic orbits. Two trial functions are used; one has a large displacement near the null and the other away from the null.
Quantum simulation of 2D topological physics in a 1D array of optical cavities
Luo, Xi-Wang; Zhou, Xingxiang; Li, Chuan-Feng; Xu, Jin-Shi; Guo, Guang-Can; Zhou, Zheng-Wei
2015-01-01
Orbital angular momentum of light is a fundamental optical degree of freedom characterized by unlimited number of available angular momentum states. Although this unique property has proved invaluable in diverse recent studies ranging from optical communication to quantum information, it has not been considered useful or even relevant for simulating nontrivial physics problems such as topological phenomena. Contrary to this misconception, we demonstrate the incredible value of orbital angular momentum of light for quantum simulation by showing theoretically how it allows to study a variety of important 2D topological physics in a 1D array of optical cavities. This application for orbital angular momentum of light not only reduces required physical resources but also increases feasible scale of simulation, and thus makes it possible to investigate important topics such as edge-state transport and topological phase transition in a small simulator ready for immediate experimental exploration. PMID:26145177
2D numerical modelling of fluid percolation in the subduction zone
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dymkova, D.; Gerya, T.; Podladchikov, Y.
2012-04-01
Subducting slab dehydration and resulting aqueous fluid percolation triggers partial melting in the mantle wedge and is accompanied with the further melt percolation through the porous space to the region above the slab. This problem is a complex coupled chemical, thermal and mechanical process responsible for the magmatic arcs formation and change of the mantle wedge properties. We have created a two-dimensional model of a two-phase flow in a porous media solving a coupled Darcy-Stokes system of equations for two incompressible media for the case of nonlinear visco-plastic rheology of solid matrix. Our system of equation is expanded for the high-porosity limits and stabilized for the case of high porosity contrasts. We use a finite-difference method with fully staggered grid in a combination with marker-in-cell technique for advection of fluid and solid phase. We performed a comparison with a benchmark of a thermal convection in a porous media in a bottom-heated box to verify the interdependency of Rayleigh and Nusselt numbers with earlier obtained ones (Cherkaoui & Wilcock, 1999). We have demonstrated the stability and robustness of the algorithm in case of strongly non-linear visco-plastic rheology of solid including cases with localization of both deformation and porous flow along spontaneously forming shear bands. We have checked our model for the forming of localized porous channels under a simple shear stress (Katz et al, 2006). We have developed a setup of a self-initiating due to gravitational instability subduction. With our coupled fluid-solid flow we have achieved a self-consistent water downward suction by a slab bending predicted by the other models with a simplified fluid kinematical motion implementation (Faccenda et al, 2009). With this setup we have obtained a self-consistent upper crust weakening by a porous fluid pressure which was theoretically assumed in the previously existing subduction models (Gerya & Meilick, 2011; Faccenda et al, 2009
A faster method for 3D/2D medical image registration--a simulation study.
Birkfellner, Wolfgang; Wirth, Joachim; Burgstaller, Wolfgang; Baumann, Bernard; Staedele, Harald; Hammer, Beat; Gellrich, Niels Claudius; Jacob, Augustinus Ludwig; Regazzoni, Pietro; Messmer, Peter
2003-08-21
3D/2D patient-to-computed-tomography (CT) registration is a method to determine a transformation that maps two coordinate systems by comparing a projection image rendered from CT to a real projection image. Iterative variation of the CT's position between rendering steps finally leads to exact registration. Applications include exact patient positioning in radiation therapy, calibration of surgical robots, and pose estimation in computer-aided surgery. One of the problems associated with 3D/2D registration is the fact that finding a registration includes solving a minimization problem in six degrees of freedom (dof) in motion. This results in considerable time requirements since for each iteration step at least one volume rendering has to be computed. We show that by choosing an appropriate world coordinate system and by applying a 2D/2D registration method in each iteration step, the number of iterations can be grossly reduced from n6 to n5. Here, n is the number of discrete variations around a given coordinate. Depending on the configuration of the optimization algorithm, this reduces the total number of iterations necessary to at least 1/3 of it's original value. The method was implemented and extensively tested on simulated x-ray images of a tibia, a pelvis and a skull base. When using one projective image and a discrete full parameter space search for solving the optimization problem, average accuracy was found to be 1.0 +/- 0.6(degrees) and 4.1 +/- 1.9 (mm) for a registration in six parameters, and 1.0 +/- 0.7(degrees) and 4.2 +/- 1.6 (mm) when using the 5 + 1 dof method described in this paper. Time requirements were reduced by a factor 3.1. We conclude that this hardware-independent optimization of 3D/2D registration is a step towards increasing the acceptance of this promising method for a wide number of clinical applications. PMID:12974581
2D radiation-magnetohydrodynamic simulations of SATURN imploding Z-pinches
Hammer, J.H.; Eddleman, J.L.; Springer, P.T.
1995-11-06
Z-pinch implosions driven by the SATURN device at Sandia National Laboratory are modeled with a 2D radiation magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code, showing strong growth of magneto-Rayleigh Taylor (MRT) instability. Modeling of the linear and nonlinear development of MRT modes predicts growth of bubble-spike structures that increase the time span of stagnation and the resulting x-ray pulse width. Radiation is important in the pinch dynamics keeping the sheath relatively cool during the run-in and releasing most of the stagnation energy. The calculations give x-ray pulse widths and magnitudes in reasonable agreement with experiments, but predict a radiating region that is too dense and radially localized at stagnation. We also consider peaked initial density profiles with constant imploding sheath velocity that should reduce MRT instability and improve performance. 2D krypton simulations show an output x-ray power > 80 TW for the peaked profile.
Comparison between 2D and 3D Numerical Modelling of a hot forging simulative test
Croin, M.; Ghiotti, A.; Bruschi, S.
2007-04-07
The paper presents the comparative analysis between 2D and 3D modelling of a simulative experiment, performed in laboratory environment, in which operating conditions approximate hot forging of a turbine aerofoil section. The plane strain deformation was chosen as an ideal case to analyze the process because of the thickness variations in the final section and the consequent distributions of contact pressure and sliding velocity at the interface that are closed to the conditions of the real industrial process. In order to compare the performances of 2D and 3D approaches, two different analyses were performed and compared with the experiments in terms of loads and temperatures peaks at the interface between the dies and the workpiece.
Spatially Resolved Synthetic Spectra from 2D Simulations of Stainless Steel Wire Array Implosions
Clark, R. W.; Giuliani, J. L.; Thornhill, J. W.; Chong, Y. K.; Dasgupta, A.; Davis, J.
2009-01-21
A 2D radiation MHD model has been developed to investigate stainless steel wire array implosion experiments on the Z and refurbished Z machines. This model incorporates within the Mach2 MHD code a self-consistent calculation of the non-LTE kinetics and ray trace based radiation transport. Such a method is necessary in order to account for opacity effects in conjunction with ionization kinetics of K-shell emitting plasmas. Here the model is used to investigate multi-dimensional effects of stainless steel wire implosions. In particular, we are developing techniques to produce non-LTE, axially and/or radially resolved synthetic spectra based upon snapshots of our 2D simulations. Comparisons between experimental spectra and these synthetic spectra will allow us to better determine the state of the experimental pinches.
Simulation of the flow and mass transfer for KDP crystals undergoing 2D translation during growth
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Chuan; Li, Mingwei; Hu, Zhitao; Yin, Huawei; Wang, Bangguo; Cui, Qidong
2016-09-01
In this study, a novel motion mode for crystals during growth, i.e., 2D translation, is proposed. Numerical simulations of flow and mass transfer are conducted for the growth of large-scale potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals subjected to the new motion mode. Surface supersaturation and shear stress are obtained as functions of the translational velocity, distance, size, orientation of crystals. The dependence of these two parameters on the flow fields around the crystals is also discussed. The thicknesses of the solute boundary layer varied with translational velocity are described. The characteristics of solution flow and surface supersaturation distribution are summarized, where it suggests that the morphological stability of a crystal surface can be enhanced if the proposed 2D translation is applied to crystal growth.
Simulation of 2D NMR Spectra of Carbohydrates Using GODESS Software.
Kapaev, Roman R; Toukach, Philip V
2016-06-27
Glycan Optimized Dual Empirical Spectrum Simulation (GODESS) is a web service, which has been recently shown to be one of the most accurate tools for simulation of (1)H and (13)C 1D NMR spectra of natural carbohydrates and their derivatives. The new version of GODESS supports visualization of the simulated (1)H and (13)C chemical shifts in the form of most 2D spin correlation spectra commonly used in carbohydrate research, such as (1)H-(1)H TOCSY, COSY/COSY-DQF/COSY-RCT, and (1)H-(13)C edHSQC, HSQC-COSY, HSQC-TOCSY, and HMBC. Peaks in the simulated 2D spectra are color-coded and labeled according to the signal assignment and can be exported in JCAMP-DX format. Peak widths are estimated empirically from the structural features. GODESS is available free of charge via the Internet at the platform of the Carbohydrate Structure Database project ( http://csdb.glycoscience.ru ). PMID:27227420
Application of 2-D simulations to hollow z-pinch implosions
Peterson, D.L.; Bowers, R.L.; Brownell, J.H.
1997-12-01
The application of simulations of z-pinch implosions should have at least two goals: first, to properly model the most important physical processes occurring in the pinch allowing for a better understanding of the experiments and second, provide a design capability for future experiments. Beginning with experiments fielded at Los Alamos on the Pegasus 1 and Pegasus 2 capacitor banks, the authors have developed a methodology for simulating hollow z-pinches in two dimensions which has reproduced important features of the measured experimental current drive, spectrum, radiation pulse shape, peak power and total radiated energy. This methodology employs essentially one free parameter, the initial level of the random density perturbations imposed at the beginning of the 2-D simulation, but in general no adjustments to other parameters are required. Currently the authors are applying this capability to the analysis of recent Saturn and PBFA-Z experiments. The code results provide insight into the nature of the pinch plasma prior to arrival on-axis, during thermalization and development after peak pinch time. Among other things, the simulation results provide an explanation for the production of larger amounts of radiated energy than would be expected from a simple slug-model kinetic energy analysis and the appearance of multiple peaks in the radiation power. The 2-D modeling has also been applied to the analysis of Saturn dynamic hohlraum experiments and is being used in the design of this and other Z-Pinch applications on PBFA-Z.
Fast Acceleration of 2D Wave Propagation Simulations Using Modern Computational Accelerators
Wang, Wei; Xu, Lifan; Cavazos, John; Huang, Howie H.; Kay, Matthew
2014-01-01
Recent developments in modern computational accelerators like Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) and coprocessors provide great opportunities for making scientific applications run faster than ever before. However, efficient parallelization of scientific code using new programming tools like CUDA requires a high level of expertise that is not available to many scientists. This, plus the fact that parallelized code is usually not portable to different architectures, creates major challenges for exploiting the full capabilities of modern computational accelerators. In this work, we sought to overcome these challenges by studying how to achieve both automated parallelization using OpenACC and enhanced portability using OpenCL. We applied our parallelization schemes using GPUs as well as Intel Many Integrated Core (MIC) coprocessor to reduce the run time of wave propagation simulations. We used a well-established 2D cardiac action potential model as a specific case-study. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to study auto-parallelization of 2D cardiac wave propagation simulations using OpenACC. Our results identify several approaches that provide substantial speedups. The OpenACC-generated GPU code achieved more than speedup above the sequential implementation and required the addition of only a few OpenACC pragmas to the code. An OpenCL implementation provided speedups on GPUs of at least faster than the sequential implementation and faster than a parallelized OpenMP implementation. An implementation of OpenMP on Intel MIC coprocessor provided speedups of with only a few code changes to the sequential implementation. We highlight that OpenACC provides an automatic, efficient, and portable approach to achieve parallelization of 2D cardiac wave simulations on GPUs. Our approach of using OpenACC, OpenCL, and OpenMP to parallelize this particular model on modern computational accelerators should be applicable to other computational models of wave propagation in
2D PIC/MC simulations of electrical asymmetry effect in capacitive coupled plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Quan-Zhi; Jiang, Wei; Wang, You-Nian
2011-10-01
Recently a so-called electrical asymmetry effect (EAE), which could achieve high-degree separate control of ion flux and energy in dual-frequency capacitively coupled plasmas, was discovered theoretically by Heil et al. and was confirmed by experiments and theory/numerical simulations later on. However, since there always is a bigger grounded surface area for experiment devices, which reduces the geometrical symmetry, and all the simulations were limited to 1D before, it is, thus, worth studying the EAE when coupling the electrically and geometrically asymmetric discharges theoretically. Here, we perform 2D PIC/MC simulations, which can include both electrically and geometrically asymmetric factors. The EAE on plasma parameters, such as dc self-bias voltage, density profiles, ion energy distribution and power absorption of electron have been examined for different pressures and geometry conditions. Recently a so-called electrical asymmetry effect (EAE), which could achieve high-degree separate control of ion flux and energy in dual-frequency capacitively coupled plasmas, was discovered theoretically by Heil et al. and was confirmed by experiments and theory/numerical simulations later on. However, since there always is a bigger grounded surface area for experiment devices, which reduces the geometrical symmetry, and all the simulations were limited to 1D before, it is, thus, worth studying the EAE when coupling the electrically and geometrically asymmetric discharges theoretically. Here, we perform 2D PIC/MC simulations, which can include both electrically and geometrically asymmetric factors. The EAE on plasma parameters, such as dc self-bias voltage, density profiles, ion energy distribution and power absorption of electron have been examined for different pressures and geometry conditions. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No 10635010) and the Important National Science & Technology Specific Project (Grant No
Phase Transitions in Quasi-2D Plasma-Dust Systems: Simulations and Experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petrov, Oleg; Vasiliev, Mikhail; Statsenko, Konstantin; Koss, Xeniya; Vasilieva, Elena; Myasnikov, Maxim; Lisin, Evgeny
2015-11-01
A nature of phase transition in quasi-2D dusty plasma structures was studied and the influence of the quasi-2D cluster size (a number of particles in it) on the features of the phase transition was investigated. Experiments and numerical simulation was conducted for the systems consisting of small (~ 10) and large (~ 103) number of particles. To investigate the phase state of the system with 7, 18 and 100 particles observed in numerical and laboratory experiments, we used the method based on analysis of dynamic entropy. Numerical modeling of small systems was conducted by the Langevin molecular dynamic method with the Langevin force, responsible for the stochastic nature of the motion of particles with a given kinetic temperature. Phase state of systems with the number of elements in the order of 103, was studied using the methods of statistical thermodynamics. Here we present new results of an experimental study of the change of translational and orientational order and topological defects, and the pair interactions at 2D melting of dust cluster in rf discharge plasma. The experimental results have revealed the existence of hexatic phase as well as solid-to-hexatic phase and hexatic-to-liquid transitions. This work was supported by the Russian Science Foundation (O.F. Petrov, M.M.Vasiliev, K.B. Stacenko, X.G. Koss, E.V. Vasilieva, M.I.Myasnikov and E.?.Lisin) through Grant No. 14-12-01440).
2-D/3-D ECE imaging data for validation of turbulence simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, Minjun; Lee, Jaehyun; Yun, Gunsu; Lee, Woochang; Park, Hyeon K.; Park, Young-Seok; Sabbagh, Steve A.; Wang, Weixing; Luhmann, Neville C., Jr.
2015-11-01
The 2-D/3-D KSTAR ECEI diagnostic can provide a local 2-D/3-D measurement of ECE intensity. Application of spectral analysis techniques to the ECEI data allows local estimation of frequency spectra S (f) , wavenumber spectra S (k) , wavernumber and frequency spectra S (k , f) , and bispectra b (f1 ,f2) of ECE intensity over the 2-D/3-D space, which can be used to validate turbulence simulations. However, the minimum detectable fluctuation amplitude and the maximum detectable wavenumber are limited by the temporal and spatial resolutions of the diagnostic system, respectively. Also, the finite measurement area of the diagnostic channel could introduce uncertainty in the spectra estimation. The limitations and accuracy of the ECEI estimated spectra have been tested by a synthetic ECEI diagnostic with the model and/or fluctuations calculated by GTS. Supported by the NRF of Korea under Contract No. NRF-2014M1A7A1A03029881 and NRF-2014M1A7A1A03029865 and by U.S. DOE grant DE-FG02-99ER54524.
Tuning and simulating a 193-nm resist for 2D applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Howard, William B.; Wiaux, Vincent; Ercken, Monique; Bui, Bang; Byers, Jeff D.; Pochkowski, Mike
2002-07-01
For some applications, the usefulness of lithography simulation results depends strongly on the matching between experimental conditions and the simulation input parameters. If this matching is optimized and other sources of error are minimized, then the lithography model can be used to explain printed wafer experimental results. Further, simulation can be useful in predicting the results or in choosing the correct set of experiments. In this paper, PROLITH and ProDATA AutoTune were used to systematically vary simulation input parameters to match measured results on printed wafers used in a 193 nm process. The validity of the simulation parameters was then checked using 3D simulation compared to 2D top-down SEM images. The quality of matching was evaluated using the 1D metrics of average gate CD and Line End Shortening (LES). To ensure the most accurate simulation, a new approach was taken to create a compound mask from GDSII contextual information surrounding an accurate SEM image of the reticle region of interest. Corrections were made to account for all metrology offsets.
Multipacting Simulation Study for 56 MHz Quarter Wave Resonator using 2D Code
Naik,D.; Ben-Zvi, I.
2009-01-02
A beam excited 56 MHz Radio Frequency (RF) Niobium Quarter Wave Resonator (QWR) has been proposed to enhance RHIC beam luminosity and bunching. Being a RF cavity, multipacting is expected; therefore an extensive study was carried out with the Multipac 2.1 2D simulation code. The study revealed that multipacting occurs in various bands up to peak surface electric field 50 kV/m and is concentrated mostly above the beam gap and on the outer conductor. To suppress multipacting, a ripple structure was introduced to the outer conductor and the phenomenon was successfully eliminated from the cavity.
Modeling and Simulation of Fluid Mixing Laser Experiments and Supernova
James Glimm
2009-06-04
The three year plan for this project was to develop novel theories and advanced simulation methods leading to a systematic understanding of turbulent mixing. A primary focus is the comparison of simulation models (Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS), Large Eddy Simulations (LES), full two fluid simulations and subgrid averaged models) to experiments. The comprehension and reduction of experimental and simulation data are central goals of this proposal. We model 2D and 3D perturbations of planar or circular interfaces. We compare these tests with models derived from averaged equations (our own and those of others). As a second focus, we develop physics based subgrid simulation models of diffusion across an interface, with physical but no numerical mass diffusion. Multiple layers and reshock are considered here.
Comparing a 2D fluid model of the DC planar magnetron cathode to experiments
Garcia, M.
1996-05-01
Planar magnetron cathodes have arching magnetic field lines which concentrate plasma density near the electrode surface. This enhances the ion bombardment of the surface and the yield of sputtered atoms. Magnetron cathodes are used in the Plasma Electrode Pockels Cell (PEPC) devices of the Laser Program because they provide for significantly higher conduction than do glow discharges. An essential feature of magnetron cathodes is that the vector product of the perpendicular electric field, E[sub y], with the parallel component of the magnetic field, B[sub x], forms a closed track with a circulating current along the cathode surface. An analytical, 2D, two component, quasi-neutral, continuum model yields formulas for the plasma density, the total and component current densities, the electric field, and the positive electrical potential, between the cathode surface and a distant, uniform plasma. For a specific gas, the free parameters are electron temperature, gas number density, and total current. The model is applied to the interpretation of experimental data from the PEPC device, as well as a small vacuum facility for testing magnetron cathodes. Finally, the model has been applied to generate cross sectional views of a PEPC magnetron cathode track.
Ion acoustic wave collapse via two-ion wave decay: 2D Vlasov simulation and theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chapman, Thomas; Berger, Richard; Banks, Jeffrey; Brunner, Stephan
2015-11-01
The decay of ion acoustic waves (IAWs) via two-ion wave decay may transfer energy from the electric field of the IAWs to the particles, resulting in a significant heating of resonant particles. This process has previously been shown in numerical simulations to decrease the plasma reflectivity due to stimulated Brillouin scattering. Two-ion wave decay is a fundamental property of ion acoustic waves that occurs over most if not all of the parameter space of relevance to inertial confinement fusion experiments, and can lead to a sudden collapse of IAWs. The treatment of all species kinetically, and in particular the electrons, is required to describe the decay process correctly. We present fully kinetic 2D+2V Vlasov simulations of IAWs undergoing decay to a highly nonlinear turbulent state using the code LOKI. The scaling of the decay rate with characteristic plasma parameters and wave amplitude is shown. A new theory describing two-ion wave decay in 2D, that incorporates key kinetic properties of the electrons, is presented and used to explain quantitatively for the first time the observed decay of IAWs. Work performed under auspices of U.S. DoE by LLNL, Contract DE-AC52-07NA2734. Funded by LDRD 15-ERD-038 and supported by LLNL Grand Challenge allocation.
Anomalous diffusion of an ellipsoid in quasi-2D active fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peng, Yi; Yang, Ou; Tang, Chao; Cheng, Xiang
Enhanced diffusion of a tracer particle is a unique feature in active fluids. Here, we studied the diffusion of an ellipsoid in a free-standing film of E. coli. Particle diffusion is linearly enhanced at low bacterial concentrations, whereas a non-linear enhancement is observed at high bacterial concentrations due to the giant fluctuation. More importantly, we uncover an anomalous coupling between the translational and rotational degrees of freedom that is strictly prohibited in the classical Brownian diffusion. Combining experiments with theoretical modeling, we show that such an anomaly arises from the stretching flow induced by the force dipole of swimming bacteria. Our work illustrates a novel universal feature of active matter and transforms the understanding of fundamental transport processes in microbiological systems. ACS Petroleum Research Fund #54168-DNI9, NSF Faculty Early Career Development Program, DMR-1452180.
Superclusters of galaxies from the 2dF redshift survey. 2. Comparison with simulations
Einasto, Jaan; Einasto, M.; Saar, E.; Tago, E.; Liivamagi, L.J.; Joeveer, M.J; Suhhonenko, I.; Hutsi, G.; Jaaniste, J.; Heinamaki, P.; Muller, V.; Knebe, A.; Tucker, D.; /Fermilab
2006-04-01
We investigate properties of superclusters of galaxies found on the basis of the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey, and compare them with properties of superclusters from the Millennium Simulation.We study the dependence of various characteristics of superclusters on their distance from the observer, on their total luminosity, and on their multiplicity. The multiplicity is defined by the number of Density Field (DF) clusters in superclusters. Using the multiplicity we divide superclusters into four richness classes: poor, medium, rich and extremely rich.We show that superclusters are asymmetrical and have multi-branching filamentary structure, with the degree of asymmetry and filamentarity being higher for the more luminous and richer superclusters. The comparison of real superclusters with Millennium superclusters shows that most properties of simulated superclusters agree very well with real data, the main differences being in the luminosity and multiplicity distributions.
Calibration and simulation of ASM2d at different temperatures in a phosphorus removal pilot plant.
García-Usach, F; Ferrer, J; Bouzas, A; Seco, A
2006-01-01
In this work, an organic and nutrient removal pilot plant was used to study the temperature influence on phosphorus accumulating organisms. Three experiments were carried out at 13, 20 and 24.5 degrees C, achieving a high phosphorus removal percentage in all cases. The ASM2d model was calibrated at 13 and 20 degrees C and the Arrhenius equation constant was obtained for phosphorus removal processes showing that the temperature influences on the biological phosphorus removal subprocesses in a different degree. The 24.5 degrees C experiment was simulated using the model parameters obtained by means of the Arrhenius equation. The simulation results for the three experiments showed good correspondence with the experimental data, demonstrating that the model and the calibrated parameters were able to predict the pilot plant behaviour. PMID:16889256
Well-posedness and generalized plane waves simulations of a 2D mode conversion model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Imbert-Gérard, Lise-Marie
2015-12-01
Certain types of electro-magnetic waves propagating in a plasma can undergo a mode conversion process. In magnetic confinement fusion, this phenomenon is very useful to heat the plasma, since it permits to transfer the heat at or near the plasma center. This work focuses on a mathematical model of wave propagation around the mode conversion region, from both theoretical and numerical points of view. It aims at developing, for a well-posed equation, specific basis functions to study a wave mode conversion process. These basis functions, called generalized plane waves, are intrinsically based on variable coefficients. As such, they are particularly adapted to the mode conversion problem. The design of generalized plane waves for the proposed model is described in detail. Their implementation within a discontinuous Galerkin method then provides numerical simulations of the process. These first 2D simulations for this model agree with qualitative aspects studied in previous works.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bezzeccheri, E.; Colasanti, S.; Falco, A.; Liguori, R.; Rubino, A.; Lugli, P.
2016-05-01
Vertical Organic Transistors and Phototransistors have been proven to be promising technologies due to the advantages of reduced channel length and larger sensitive area with respect to planar devices. Nevertheless, a real improvement of their performance is subordinate to the quantitative description of their operation mechanisms. In this work, we present a comparative study on the modeling of vertical and planar Organic Phototransistor (OPT) structures. Computer-based simulations of the devices have been carried out with Synopsys Sentaurus TCAD in a 2D Drift-Diffusion framework. The photoactive semiconductor material has been modeled using the virtual semiconductor approach as the archetypal P3HT:PC61BM bulk heterojunction. It has been found that both simulated devices have comparable electrical and optical characteristics, accordingly to recent experimental reports on the subject.
Highly-resolved 2D HYDRA simulations of Double-Shell Ignition Designs
Milovich, J L; Amendt, P; Hamza, A; Marinak, M; Robey, H
2006-06-30
Double-shell (DS) targets (Amendt, P. A. et al., 2002) offer a complementary approach to the cryogenic baseline design (Lindl, J. et al., 2004) for achieving ignition on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Among the expected benefits are the ease of room temperature preparation and fielding, the potential for lower laser backscatter and the reduced need for careful shock timing. These benefits are offset, however, by demanding fabrication tolerances, e.g., shell concentricity and shell surface smoothness. In particular, the latter is of paramount importance since DS targets are susceptible to the growth of interface perturbations from impulsive and time-dependent accelerations. Previous work (Milovich, J. L. et al., 2004) has indicated that the growth of perturbations on the outer surface of the inner shell is potentially disruptive. To control this instability new designs have been proposed requiring bimetallic inner shells and material-matching mid-Z nanoporous foam. The challenges in manufacturing such exotic foams have led to a further evaluation of the densities and pore sizes needed to reduce the seeding of perturbations on the outer surface of the inner shell, thereby guiding the ongoing material science research efforts. Highly-resolved 2D simulations of porous foams have been performed to establish an upper limit on the allowable pore sizes for instability growth. Simulations indicate that foams with higher densities than previously thought are now possible. Moreover, while at the present time we are only able to simulate foams with average pore sizes larger than 1 micron (due to computational limitations), we can conclude that these pore sizes are potentially problematic. Furthermore, the effect of low-order hohlraum radiation asymmetries on the growth of intrinsic surface perturbations is also addressed. Highly-resolved 2D simulations indicate that the transverse flows that are set up by these low-order mode features (which can excite Kelvin
Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes Simulation of a 2D Circulation Control Wind Tunnel Experiment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Allan, Brian G.; Jones, Greg; Lin, John C.
2011-01-01
Numerical simulations are performed using a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) flow solver for a circulation control airfoil. 2D and 3D simulation results are compared to a circulation control wind tunnel test conducted at the NASA Langley Basic Aerodynamics Research Tunnel (BART). The RANS simulations are compared to a low blowing case with a jet momentum coefficient, C(sub u), of 0:047 and a higher blowing case of 0.115. Three dimensional simulations of the model and tunnel walls show wall effects on the lift and airfoil surface pressures. These wall effects include a 4% decrease of the midspan sectional lift for the C(sub u) 0.115 blowing condition. Simulations comparing the performance of the Spalart Allmaras (SA) and Shear Stress Transport (SST) turbulence models are also made, showing the SST model compares best to the experimental data. A Rotational/Curvature Correction (RCC) to the turbulence model is also evaluated demonstrating an improvement in the CFD predictions.
Spot size variation FCS in simulations of the 2D Ising model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burns, Margaret C.; Nouri, Mariam; Veatch, Sarah L.
2016-06-01
Spot variation fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (svFCS) was developed to study the movement and organization of single molecules in plasma membranes. This experimental technique varies the size of an illumination area while measuring correlations in time using standard fluorescence correlation methods. Frequently, this data is interpreted using the assumption that correlation measurements reflect the dynamics of single molecule motions, and not motions of the average composition. Here, we explore how svFCS measurements report on the dynamics of components diffusing within simulations of a 2D Ising model with a conserved order parameter. Simulated correlation functions report on both the fast dynamics of single component mobility and the slower dynamics of the average composition. Over a range of simulation conditions, a conventional svFCS analysis suggests the presence of anomalous diffusion even though single molecule motions are nearly Brownian in these simulations. This misinterpretation is most significant when the surface density of the fluorescent label is elevated, therefore we suggest future measurements be made over a range of tracer densities. Some simulation conditions reproduce qualitative features of published svFCS experimental data. Overall, this work emphasizes the need to probe membranes using multiple complimentary experimental methodologies in order to draw conclusions regarding the nature of spatial and dynamical heterogeneity in these systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yong, Heng; Zhai, ChuanLei; Jiang, Song; Song, Peng; Dai, ZhenSheng; Gu, JianFa
2016-01-01
In this paper, we introduce a multi-material arbitrary Lagrangian and Eulerian method for the hydrodynamic radiative multi-group diffusion model in 2D cylindrical coordinates. The basic idea in the construction of the method is the following: In the Lagrangian step, a closure model of radiation-hydrodynamics is used to give the states of equations for materials in mixed cells. In the mesh rezoning step, we couple the rezoning principle with the Lagrangian interface tracking method and an Eulerian interface capturing scheme to compute interfaces sharply according to their deformation and to keep cells in good geometric quality. In the interface reconstruction step, a dual-material Moment-of-Fluid method is introduced to obtain the unique interface in mixed cells. In the remapping step, a conservative remapping algorithm of conserved quantities is presented. A number of numerical tests are carried out and the numerical results show that the new method can simulate instabilities in complex fluid field under large deformation, and are accurate and robust.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choquard, Ph.; Vuffray, M.
2014-10-01
The coupling between dilatation and vorticity, two coexisting and fundamental processes in fluid dynamics (Wu et al., 2006, pp. 3, 6) is investigated here, in the simplest cases of inviscid 2D isotropic Burgers and pressureless Euler-Coriolis fluids respectively modeled by single vortices confined in compressible, local, inertial and global, rotating, environments. The field equations are established, inductively, starting from the equations of the characteristics solved with an initial Helmholtz decomposition of the velocity fields namely a vorticity free and a divergence free part (Wu et al., 2006, Sects. 2.3.2, 2.3.3) and, deductively, by means of a canonical Hamiltonian Clebsch like formalism (Clebsch, 1857, 1859), implying two pairs of conjugate variables. Two vector valued fields are constants of the motion: the velocity field in the Burgers case and the momentum field per unit mass in the Euler-Coriolis one. Taking advantage of this property, a class of solutions for the mass densities of the fluids is given by the Jacobian of their sum with respect to the actual coordinates. Implementation of the isotropy hypothesis entails a radial dependence of the velocity potentials and of the stream functions associated to the compressible and to the rotational part of the fluids and results in the cancellation of the dilatation-rotational cross terms in the Jacobian. A simple expression is obtained for all the radially symmetric Jacobians occurring in the theory. Representative examples of regular and singular solutions are shown and the competition between dilatation and vorticity is illustrated. Inspired by thermodynamical, mean field theoretical analogies, a genuine variational formula is proposed which yields unique measure solutions for the radially symmetric fluid densities investigated. We stress that this variational formula, unlike the Hopf-Lax formula, enables us to treat systems which are both compressible and rotational. Moreover in the one
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shaari, M. F.; Abu Bakar, H.; Nordin, N.; Saw, S. K.; Samad, Z.
2013-12-01
Contractile body is an alternative mechanism instead of rotating blade propeller to generate water jet for locomotion. The oscillating motion of the actuator at different frequencies varies the pressure and volume of the pressure chamber in time to draw in and jet out the water at a certain mass flow rate. The aim of this research was to analyze the influence of the actuating frequency of the fluid flow in the pressure chamber of the thruster during this inflation-deflation process. A 70mm × 70mm × 18mm (L × W × T) 2D water jet thruster was fabricated for this purpose. The contractile function was driven using two lateral pneumatic actuators where the fluid flow analysis was focused on the X-Y plane vector. Observation was carried out using a video camera and Matlab image measurement technique to determine the volume of the flowing mass. The result demonstrated that the greater actuating frequency decreases the fluid flow rate and the Reynolds number. This observation shows that the higher frequency would give a higher mass flow rate during water jet generation.
Numerical simulation of 2D buoyant jets in ice-covered and temperature-stratified water
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gu, Ruochuan
A two-dimensional (2D) unsteady simulation model is applied to the problem of a submerged warm water discharge into a stratified lake or reservoir with an ice cover. Numerical simulations and analyses are conducted to gain insight into large-scale convective recirculation and flow processes in a cold waterbody induced by a buoyant jet. Jet behaviors under various discharge temperatures are captured by directly modeling flow and thermal fields. Flow structures and processes are described by the simulated spatial and temporal distributions of velocity and temperature in various regions: deflection, recirculation, attachment, and impingement. Some peculiar hydrothermal and dynamic features, e.g. reversal of buoyancy due to the dilution of a warm jet by entraining cold ambient water, are identified and examined. Simulation results show that buoyancy is the most important factor controlling jet behavior and mixing processes. The inflow boundary is treated as a liquid wall from which the jet is offset. Similarity and difference in effects of boundaries perpendicular and parallel to flow, and of buoyancy on jet attachment and impingement, are discussed. Symmetric flow configuration is used to de-emphasize the Coanda effect caused by offset.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Jinghe; Song, Linping; Liu, Qing Huo
2016-02-01
A simultaneous multiple frequency contrast source inversion (CSI) method is applied to reconstructing hydrocarbon reservoir targets in a complex multilayered medium in two dimensions. It simulates the effects of a salt dome sedimentary formation in the context of reservoir monitoring. In this method, the stabilized biconjugate-gradient fast Fourier transform (BCGS-FFT) algorithm is applied as a fast solver for the 2D volume integral equation for the forward computation. The inversion technique with CSI combines the efficient FFT algorithm to speed up the matrix-vector multiplication and the stable convergence of the simultaneous multiple frequency CSI in the iteration process. As a result, this method is capable of making quantitative conductivity image reconstruction effectively for large-scale electromagnetic oil exploration problems, including the vertical electromagnetic profiling (VEP) survey investigated here. A number of numerical examples have been demonstrated to validate the effectiveness and capacity of the simultaneous multiple frequency CSI method for a limited array view in VEP.
Relaxation of ferroelectric states in 2D distributions of quantum dots: EELS simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cortés, C. M.; Meza-Montes, L.; Moctezuma, R. E.; Carrillo, J. L.
2016-06-01
The relaxation time of collective electronic states in a 2D distribution of quantum dots is investigated theoretically by simulating EELS experiments. From the numerical calculation of the probability of energy loss of an electron beam, traveling parallel to the distribution, it is possible to estimate the damping time of ferroelectric-like states. We generate this collective response of the distribution by introducing a mean field interaction among the quantum dots, and then, the model is extended incorporating effects of long-range correlations through a Bragg–Williams approximation. The behavior of the dielectric function, the energy loss function, and the relaxation time of ferroelectric-like states is then investigated as a function of the temperature of the distribution and the damping constant of the electronic states in the single quantum dots. The robustness of the trends and tendencies of our results indicate that this scheme of analysis can guide experimentalists to develop tailored quantum dots distributions for specific applications.
Numerical Simulation of Fluid Mud Gravity Currents
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yilmaz, N. A.; Testik, F. Y.
2011-12-01
Fluid mud bottom gravity currents are simulated numerically using a commercial computational fluid dynamics software, ANSYS-Fluent. In this study, Eulerian-Eulerian multi-fluid method is selected since this method treats all phases in a multiphase system as interpenetrated continua. There are three different phases in the computational model constructed for this study: water, fluid mud, and air. Water and fluid mud are defined as two miscible fluids and the mass and momentum transfers between these two phases are taken into account. Fluid mud, which is a dense suspension of clay particles and water, is defined as a single-phase non-Newtonian fluid via user-defined-functions. These functions define the physical characteristics (density, viscosity, etc.) of the fluid mud and these characteristics vary with changing suspension concentration due to mass transfer between the fluid mud and the water phase. Results of this two-dimensional numerical model are verified with data obtained from experiments conducted in a laboratory flume with a lock-release set-up. Numerical simulations are currently being conducted to elucidate turbulent entrainment of ambient water into fluid mud gravity currents. This study is motivated by coastal dredge disposal operations.
Numerical simulation of HTPB combustion in a 2D hybrid slab combustor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gariani, Gabriela; Maggi, Filippo; Galfetti, Luciano
2011-09-01
A code for the numerical simulation of combustion processes in hybrid rockets, developed at the Space Propulsion Laboratory of Politecnico di Milano (SPLab), is presented. The code deals with Navier-Stokes equations solved with RANS approach, blowing effect, combustion kinetics and radiation. The equations are closed with k-epsilon turbulence model and well stirred reactor model. The P1 model, a simplification of the PN radiation model, is adopted. Specific simulation tools were developed using OpenFOAM®open source technology. The computational domain is 2D and split in two subdomains, simulating the reacting gas mixture on one side and the solid fuel grain on the other. The interface between the two regions plays a key role as the solid grain pyrolysis comes from a straight solution of the model without shortcuts. A propellant combination with polybutadiene and gaseous oxygen has been chosen and a reduced kinetic model for combustion of butadiene, considered as the major gaseous constituent coming from polybutadiene pyrolysis, has been developed for reactions occurring in oxygen atmosphere. The computational domain tries to replicate the real experimental setup and is split into three areas: pre-chamber, slab zone and post-chamber. High speed camera visualizations of the combustion processes allow to compare the flame height, obtained by the code and by experimental tests, along the grain for given boundary conditions.
What Can We Learn about Magnetotail Reconnection from 2D PIC Harris-Sheet Simulations?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goldman, M. V.; Newman, D. L.; Lapenta, G.
2016-03-01
The Magnetosphere Multiscale Mission (MMS) will provide the first opportunity to probe electron-scale physics during magnetic reconnection in Earth's magnetopause and magnetotail. This article will address only tail reconnection—as a non-steady-state process in which the first reconnected field lines advance away from the x-point in flux pile-up fronts directed Earthward and anti-Earthward. An up-to-date microscopic physical picture of electron and ion-scale collisionless tail reconnection processes is presented based on 2-D Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulations initiated from a Harris current sheet and on Cluster and Themis measurements of tail reconnection. The successes and limitations of simulations when compared to measured reconnection are addressed in detail. The main focus is on particle and field diffusion region signatures in the tail reconnection geometry. The interpretation of these signatures is vital to enable spacecraft to identify physically significant reconnection events, to trigger meaningful data transfer from MMS to Earth and to construct a useful overall physical picture of tail reconnection. New simulation results and theoretical interpretations are presented for energy transport of particles and fields, for the size and shape of electron and ion diffusion regions, for processes occurring near the fronts and for the j × B (Hall) electric field.
Lattice Boltzmann simulations of 2D laminar flows past two tandem cylinders
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mussa, Alberto; Asinari, Pietro; Luo, Li-Shi
2009-03-01
We apply the lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE) with multiple-relaxation-time (MRT) collision model to simulate laminar flows in two-dimensions (2D). In order to simulate flows in an unbounded domain with the LBE method, we need to address two issues: stretched non-uniform mesh and inflow and outflow boundary conditions. We use the interpolated grid stretching method to address the need of non-uniform mesh. We demonstrate that various inflow and outflow boundary conditions can be easily and consistently realized with the MRT-LBE. The MRT-LBE with non-uniform stretched grids is first validated with a number of test cases: the Poiseuille flow, the flow past a cylinder asymmetrically placed in a channel, and the flow past a cylinder in an unbounded domain. We use the LBE method to simulate the flow past two tandem cylinders in an unbounded domain with Re = 100. Our results agree well with existing ones. Through this work we demonstrate the effectiveness of the MRT-LBE method with grid stretching.
Immersed Boundary Simulations of Active Fluid Droplets.
Whitfield, Carl A; Hawkins, Rhoda J
2016-01-01
We present numerical simulations of active fluid droplets immersed in an external fluid in 2-dimensions using an Immersed Boundary method to simulate the fluid droplet interface as a Lagrangian mesh. We present results from two example systems, firstly an active isotropic fluid boundary consisting of particles that can bind and unbind from the interface and generate surface tension gradients through active contractility. Secondly, a droplet filled with an active polar fluid with homeotropic anchoring at the droplet interface. These two systems demonstrate spontaneous symmetry breaking and steady state dynamics resembling cell motility and division and show complex feedback mechanisms with minimal degrees of freedom. The simulations outlined here will be useful for quantifying the wide range of dynamics observable in these active systems and modelling the effects of confinement in a consistent and adaptable way. PMID:27606609
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kononenko, O.; Lopes, N. C.; Cole, J. M.; Kamperidis, C.; Mangles, S. P. D.; Najmudin, Z.; Osterhoff, J.; Poder, K.; Rusby, D.; Symes, D. R.; Warwick, J.; Wood, J. C.; Palmer, C. A. J.
2016-09-01
In this work, two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamic simulations of a variable length gas cell were performed using the open source fluid code OpenFOAM. The gas cell was designed to study controlled injection of electrons into a laser-driven wakefield at the Astra Gemini laser facility. The target consists of two compartments: an accelerator and an injector section connected via an aperture. A sharp transition between the peak and plateau density regions in the injector and accelerator compartments, respectively, was observed in simulations with various inlet pressures. The fluid simulations indicate that the length of the down-ramp connecting the sections depends on the aperture diameter, as does the density drop outside the entrance and the exit cones. Further studies showed, that increasing the inlet pressure leads to turbulence and strong fluctuations in density along the axial profile during target filling, and consequently, is expected to negatively impact the accelerator stability.
Application of 2-D simulations to hollow Z-pinch implosions
Peterson, D. L.; Bowers, R. L.; Brownell, J. H.; Lund, C.; Matuska, W.; McLenithan, K.; Oona, H.; Deeney, C.; Derzon, M.; Spielman, R. B.; Nash, T. J.; Chandler, G.; Mock, R. C.; Sanford, T. W. L.; Matzen, M. K.; Roderick, N. F.
1997-05-05
The application of simulations of z-pinch implosions should have at least two goals: first, to properly model the most important physical processes occurring in the pinch allowing for a better understanding of the experiments and second, provide a design capability for future experiments. Beginning with experiments fielded at Los Alamos on the Pegasus I and Pegasus II capacitor banks, we have developed a methodology for simulating hollow z-pinches in two dimensions which has reproduced important features of the measured experimental current drive, spectrum, radiation pulse shape, peak power and total radiated energy (1,2,3). This methodology employs essentially one free parameter, the initial level of the random density perturbations imposed at the beginning of the 2-D simulation, but in general no adjustments to other parameters (such as the resistivity) are required (1). Limitations in the use of this approach include the use of the 3-T, gray diffusion treatment of radiation and the fact that the initial perturbation conditions are not known a priori. Nonetheless, the approach has been successful in reproducing important experimental features of such implosions over a wide variety of timescales (tens of nanoseconds to microseconds), current drives (3 to 16 MA), masses (submilligram to tens of milligrams), initial radii (<1 cm to 5 cm), materials (Al and W) and initial configurations (thin foils and wire arrays with 40 to 240 wires). Currently we are applying this capability to the analysis of recent Saturn and PBFA-Z experiments (4,5). The code results provide insight into the nature of the pinch plasma prior to arrival on-axis, during thermalization and development after peak pinch time. Among other things, the simulation results provide an explanation for the production of larger amounts of radiated energy than would be expected from a simple slug-model kinetic energy analysis and the appearance of multiple peaks in the radiation power. The 2-D modeling has
Application of 2-D simulations to hollow Z-pinch implosions
Peterson, D.L.; Bowers, R.L.; Brownell, J.H.; Lund, C.; Matuska, W.; McLenithan, K.; Oona, H.; Deeney, C.; Derzon, M.; Spielman, R.B.; Nash, T.J.; Chandler, G.; Mock, R.C.; Sanford, T.W.; Matzen, M.K.; Roderick, N.F.
1997-05-01
The application of simulations of z-pinch implosions should have at least two goals: first, to properly model the most important physical processes occurring in the pinch allowing for a better understanding of the experiments and second, provide a design capability for future experiments. Beginning with experiments fielded at Los Alamos on the Pegasus I and Pegasus II capacitor banks, we have developed a methodology for simulating hollow z-pinches in two dimensions which has reproduced important features of the measured experimental current drive, spectrum, radiation pulse shape, peak power and total radiated energy (1,2,3). This methodology employs essentially one free parameter, the initial level of the random density perturbations imposed at the beginning of the 2-D simulation, but in general no adjustments to other parameters (such as the resistivity) are required (1). Limitations in the use of this approach include the use of the 3-T, gray diffusion treatment of radiation and the fact that the initial perturbation conditions are not known {ital a priori}. Nonetheless, the approach has been successful in reproducing important experimental features of such implosions over a wide variety of timescales (tens of nanoseconds to microseconds), current drives (3 to 16 MA), masses (submilligram to tens of milligrams), initial radii ({lt}1cm to 5 cm), materials (Al and W) and initial configurations (thin foils and wire arrays with 40 to 240 wires). Currently we are applying this capability to the analysis of recent Saturn and PBFA-Z experiments (4,5). The code results provide insight into the nature of the pinch plasma prior to arrival on-axis, during thermalization and development after peak pinch time. Among other things, the simulation results provide an explanation for the production of larger amounts of radiated energy than would be expected from a simple slug-model kinetic energy analysis and the appearance of multiple peaks in the radiation power. The 2-D
Flight trajectory simulation of fluid payload projectiles
Vaughn, H.R.; Wolfe, W.P.; Oberkampf, W.L.
1985-01-01
A flight trajectory simulation method has been developed for calculating the six degree of freedom motion of fluid filled projectiles. Numerically calculated internal fluid moments and experimentally known aerodynamic forces and moments are coupled to the projectile motion. Comparisons of predicted results with flight test data of an M483 155mm artillery projectile with a highly viscous payload confirm the accuracy of the simulation. This simulation clearly shows that the flight instability is due to the growth of the nutation component of angular motion caused by the viscous effects of the fluid payload. This simulation procedure, when used in conjunction with the previously developed method for calculating internal fluid moments, allows the designer to examine the effects of various liquid payloads and container geometries on the dynamic behavior of flight vehicles.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Simão Ferreira, C. J.; Bijl, H.; van Bussel, G.; van Kuik, G.
2007-07-01
The implementation of wind energy conversion systems in the built environment renewed the interest and the research on Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWT), which in this application present several advantages over Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines (HAWT). The VAWT has an inherent unsteady aerodynamic behavior due to the variation of angle of attack with the angle of rotation, perceived velocity and consequentially Reynolds number. The phenomenon of dynamic stall is then an intrinsic effect of the operation of a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine at low tip speed ratios, having a significant impact in both loads and power. The complexity of the unsteady aerodynamics of the VAWT makes it extremely attractive to be analyzed using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models, where an approximation of the continuity and momentum equations of the Navier-Stokes equations set is solved. The complexity of the problem and the need for new design approaches for VAWT for the built environment has driven the authors of this work to focus the research of CFD modeling of VAWT on: •comparing the results between commonly used turbulence models: URANS (Spalart-Allmaras and k-epsilon) and large eddy models (Large Eddy Simulation and Detached Eddy Simulation) •verifying the sensitivity of the model to its grid refinement (space and time), •evaluating the suitability of using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) experimental data for model validation. The 2D model created represents the middle section of a single bladed VAWT with infinite aspect ratio. The model simulates the experimental work of flow field measurement using Particle Image Velocimetry by Simão Ferreira et al for a single bladed VAWT. The results show the suitability of the PIV data for the validation of the model, the need for accurate simulation of the large eddies and the sensitivity of the model to grid refinement.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamada, Susumu; Kitamura, Akihiro; Kurikami, Hiroshi; Machida, Masahiko
2015-04-01
Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident on March 2011 released significant quantities of radionuclides to atmosphere. The most significant nuclide is radioactive cesium isotopes. Therefore, the movement of the cesium is one of the critical issues for the environmental assessment. Since the cesium is strongly sorbed by soil particles, the cesium transport can be regarded as the sediment transport which is mainly brought about by the aquatic system such as a river and a lake. In this research, our target is the sediment transport on Ogaki dam reservoir which is located in about 16 km northwest from FDNPP. The reservoir is one of the principal irrigation dam reservoirs in Fukushima Prefecture and its upstream river basin was heavily contaminated by radioactivity. We simulate the sediment transport on the reservoir using 2-D river simulation code named Nays2D originally developed by Shimizu et al. (The latest version of Nays2D is available as a code included in iRIC (http://i-ric.org/en/), which is a river flow and riverbed variation analysis software package). In general, a 2-D simulation code requires a huge amount of calculation time. Therefore, we parallelize the code and execute it on a parallel computer. We examine the relationship between the behavior of the sediment transport and the height of the reservoir exit. The simulation result shows that almost all the sand that enter into the reservoir deposit close to the entrance of the reservoir for any height of the exit. The amounts of silt depositing within the reservoir slightly increase by raising the height of the exit. However, that of the clay dramatically increases. Especially, more than half of the clay deposits, if the exit is sufficiently high. These results demonstrate that the water level of the reservoir has a strong influence on the amount of the clay discharged from the reservoir. As a result, we conclude that the tuning of the water level has a possibility for controlling the
1D and 2D simulations of seismic wave propagation in fractured media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Möller, Thomas; Friederich, Wolfgang
2016-04-01
Fractures and cracks have a significant influence on the propagation of seismic waves. Their presence causes reflections and scattering and makes the medium effectively anisotropic. We present a numerical approach to simulation of seismic waves in fractured media that does not require direct modelling of the fracture itself, but uses the concept of linear slip interfaces developed by Schoenberg (1980). This condition states that at an interface between two imperfectly bonded elastic media, stress is continuous across the interface while displacement is discontinuous. It is assumed that the jump of displacement is proportional to stress which implies a jump in particle velocity at the interface. We use this condition as a boundary condition to the elastic wave equation and solve this equation in the framework of a Nodal Discontinuous Galerkin scheme using a velocity-stress formulation. We use meshes with tetrahedral elements to discretise the medium. Each individual element face may be declared as a slip interface. Numerical fluxes have been derived by solving the 1D Riemann problem for slip interfaces with elastic and viscoelastic rheology. Viscoelasticity is realised either by a Kelvin-Voigt body or a Standard Linear Solid. These fluxes are not limited to 1D and can - with little modification - be used for simulations in higher dimensions as well. The Nodal Discontinuous Galerkin code "neXd" developed by Lambrecht (2013) is used as a basis for the numerical implementation of this concept. We present examples of simulations in 1D and 2D that illustrate the influence of fractures on the seismic wavefield. We demonstrate the accuracy of the simulation through comparison to an analytical solution in 1D.
Simulation and analysis of solute transport in 2D fracture/pipe networks: The SOLFRAC program
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bodin, Jacques; Porel, Gilles; Delay, Fred; Ubertosi, Fabrice; Bernard, Stéphane; de Dreuzy, Jean-Raynald
2007-01-01
The Time Domain Random Walk (TDRW) method has been recently developed by Delay and Bodin [Delay, F. and Bodin, J., 2001. Time domain random walk method to simulate transport by advection-dispersion and matrix diffusion in fracture networks. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28(21): 4051-4054.] and Bodin et al. [Bodin, J., Porel, G. and Delay, F., 2003c. Simulation of solute transport in discrete fracture networks using the time domain random walk method. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 6566: 1-8.] for simulating solute transport in discrete fracture networks. It is assumed that the fracture network can reasonably be represented by a network of interconnected one-dimensional pipes (i.e. flow channels). Processes accounted for are: (1) advection and hydrodynamic dispersion in the channels, (2) matrix diffusion, (3) diffusion into stagnant zones within the fracture planes, (4) sorption reactions onto the fracture walls and in the matrix, (5) linear decay, and (6) mass sharing at fracture intersections. The TDRW method is handy and very efficient in terms of computation costs since it allows for the one-step calculation of the particle residence time in each bond of the network. This method has been programmed in C++, and efforts have been made to develop an efficient and user-friendly software, called SOLFRAC. This program is freely downloadable at the URL http://labo.univ-poitiers.fr/hydrasa/intranet/telechargement.htm. It calculates solute transport into 2D pipe networks, while considering different types of injections and different concepts of local dispersion within each flow channel. Post-simulation analyses are also available, such as the mean velocity or the macroscopic dispersion at the scale of the entire network. The program may be used to evaluate how a given transport mechanism influences the macroscopic transport behaviour of fracture networks. It may also be used, as is the case, e.g., with analytical solutions, to interpret laboratory or field tracer test experiments
2D properties of core turbulence on DIII-D and comparison to gyrokinetic simulations
Shafer, Morgan W; Fonck, R. J.; McKee, G. R.; Holland, Chris; White, A. E.; Schlossberg, D J
2012-01-01
Quantitative 2D characteristics of localized density fluctuations are presented over the range of 0.3 < r/a < 0.9 in L-mode plasmas on DIII-D [J. L. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42, 614 (2002)]. Broadband density fluctuations increase in amplitude from (n) over tilde/n < 0.5% in the deep core to (n) over tilde/n similar to 2.5% near the outer region. The observed Doppler-shift due to the E x B velocity matches well with the measured turbulence group and phase velocities (in toroidally rotating neutral beam heated plasmas). Turbulence decorrelation rates are found to be similar to 200 kHz at the edge and to decrease toward the core (0.45 < r/a < 0.9) where they approach the E x B shearing rate (similar to 50 kHz). Radial and poloidal correlation lengths are found to scale with the ion gyroradius and exhibit an asymmetric poloidally elongated eddy structure. The ensemble-averaged turbulent eddy structure changes its tilt with respect to the radial-poloidal coordinates in the core, consistent with an E x B shear mechanism. The 2D spatial correlation and wavenumber spectra [S(k(r); k(theta))] are presented and compared to nonlinear flux-tube GYRO simulations at two radii, r/a = 0.5 and r/a = 0.75, showing reasonable overall agreement, but the GYRO spectrum exhibits a peak at finite kr for r/a = 0.75 that is not observed experimentally; E x B shear may cause this discrepancy. (C) 2012 American Institute of Physics.
2D IR spectra of cyanide in water investigated by molecular dynamics simulations
Lee, Myung Won; Carr, Joshua K.; Göllner, Michael; Hamm, Peter; Meuwly, Markus
2013-01-01
Using classical molecular dynamics simulations, the 2D infrared (IR) spectroscopy of CN− solvated in D2O is investigated. Depending on the force field parametrizations, most of which are based on multipolar interactions for the CN− molecule, the frequency-frequency correlation function and observables computed from it differ. Most notably, models based on multipoles for CN− and TIP3P for water yield quantitatively correct results when compared with experiments. Furthermore, the recent finding that T 1 times are sensitive to the van der Waals ranges on the CN− is confirmed in the present study. For the linear IR spectrum, the best model reproduces the full widths at half maximum almost quantitatively (13.0 cm−1 vs. 14.9 cm−1) if the rotational contribution to the linewidth is included. Without the rotational contribution, the lines are too narrow by about a factor of two, which agrees with Raman and IR experiments. The computed and experimental tilt angles (or nodal slopes) α as a function of the 2D IR waiting time compare favorably with the measured ones and the frequency fluctuation correlation function is invariably found to contain three time scales: a sub-ps, 1 ps, and one on the 10-ps time scale. These time scales are discussed in terms of the structural dynamics of the surrounding solvent and it is found that the longest time scale (≈10 ps) most likely corresponds to solvent exchange between the first and second solvation shell, in agreement with interpretations from nuclear magnetic resonance measurements.
2D IR spectra of cyanide in water investigated by molecular dynamics simulations.
Lee, Myung Won; Carr, Joshua K; Göllner, Michael; Hamm, Peter; Meuwly, Markus
2013-08-01
Using classical molecular dynamics simulations, the 2D infrared (IR) spectroscopy of CN(-) solvated in D2O is investigated. Depending on the force field parametrizations, most of which are based on multipolar interactions for the CN(-) molecule, the frequency-frequency correlation function and observables computed from it differ. Most notably, models based on multipoles for CN(-) and TIP3P for water yield quantitatively correct results when compared with experiments. Furthermore, the recent finding that T1 times are sensitive to the van der Waals ranges on the CN(-) is confirmed in the present study. For the linear IR spectrum, the best model reproduces the full widths at half maximum almost quantitatively (13.0 cm(-1) vs. 14.9 cm(-1)) if the rotational contribution to the linewidth is included. Without the rotational contribution, the lines are too narrow by about a factor of two, which agrees with Raman and IR experiments. The computed and experimental tilt angles (or nodal slopes) α as a function of the 2D IR waiting time compare favorably with the measured ones and the frequency fluctuation correlation function is invariably found to contain three time scales: a sub-ps, 1 ps, and one on the 10-ps time scale. These time scales are discussed in terms of the structural dynamics of the surrounding solvent and it is found that the longest time scale (≈10 ps) most likely corresponds to solvent exchange between the first and second solvation shell, in agreement with interpretations from nuclear magnetic resonance measurements. PMID:23927269
2D IR spectra of cyanide in water investigated by molecular dynamics simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Myung Won; Carr, Joshua K.; Göllner, Michael; Hamm, Peter; Meuwly, Markus
2013-08-01
Using classical molecular dynamics simulations, the 2D infrared (IR) spectroscopy of CN- solvated in D2O is investigated. Depending on the force field parametrizations, most of which are based on multipolar interactions for the CN- molecule, the frequency-frequency correlation function and observables computed from it differ. Most notably, models based on multipoles for CN- and TIP3P for water yield quantitatively correct results when compared with experiments. Furthermore, the recent finding that T1 times are sensitive to the van der Waals ranges on the CN- is confirmed in the present study. For the linear IR spectrum, the best model reproduces the full widths at half maximum almost quantitatively (13.0 cm-1 vs. 14.9 cm-1) if the rotational contribution to the linewidth is included. Without the rotational contribution, the lines are too narrow by about a factor of two, which agrees with Raman and IR experiments. The computed and experimental tilt angles (or nodal slopes) α as a function of the 2D IR waiting time compare favorably with the measured ones and the frequency fluctuation correlation function is invariably found to contain three time scales: a sub-ps, 1 ps, and one on the 10-ps time scale. These time scales are discussed in terms of the structural dynamics of the surrounding solvent and it is found that the longest time scale (≈10 ps) most likely corresponds to solvent exchange between the first and second solvation shell, in agreement with interpretations from nuclear magnetic resonance measurements.
2D simulation of transport and degradation in the River Rhine.
Teichmann, L; Reuschenbach, P; Müller, B; Horn, H
2002-01-01
A simple 2D model has been developed for the simulation of mass transport and degradation of substances in the river Rhine. The model describes mass transport in the flow direction with a convective and a dispersive term. Transversal transport is described by segmenting the river and formulating a transversal exchange coefficient between the segments. Degradation can be formulated with any kinetics from first order to complex enzyme kinetics. The model was verified with monitoring data from the river Rhine. The hydrodynamic parameters such as dispersion coefficients and exchange coefficients were fitted to the conductivity, which was assumed to be non-degradable. The degradation term was fitted to ammonia values. The model was used to simulate measured concentrations of a readily (Aniline) and a poorly biodegradable substance (1,4-Dioxan) 10 m from the left river bank. It was the objective of this research program to develop a model which allows a realistic estimation of the locally and regionally predicted environmental concentration of chemical substances in the EU risk assessment scheme. PMID:12380980
Simulations of SH wave scattering due to cracks by the 2-D finite difference method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suzuki, Y.; Kawahara, J.; Okamoto, T.; Miyashita, K.
2006-05-01
We simulate SH wave scattering by 2-D parallel cracks using the finite difference method (FDM), instead of the popularly used boundary integral equation method (BIEM). Here special emphasis is put on simplicity; we apply a standard FDM (fourth-order velocity-stress scheme with a staggered grid) to media in cluding traction-freecracks, which are expressed by arrays of grid points with zero traction. Two types of accuracy tests based oncomparison with a reliable BIEM, suggest that the present method gives practically sufficient accuracy, except for the wavefields in the vicinity of cracks, which can be well handled if the second-order FDM is used instead. As an application of this method, we also simulate wave propagation in media with randomly distributed cracks of the same length. We experimentally determine the attenuation and velocity dispersion induced by scattering from the synthetic seismograms, using a waveform averaging technique. It is shown that the results are well explained by a theory based on the Foldy approximation for crack densities of up to about 01. The presence of a free surface does not affect the validity of the theory. A preliminary experiment also suggests that the validity will not change even for multi-scale cracks.
2D Mesoscale Simulation of Shock Response of Dry Sand in Plate Impact Experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pei, L.; Teeter, R. D.; Dwivedi, S. K.; Gupta, Y. M.
2007-06-01
The one-dimensional approach with a homogenized continuum model used in the literature to derive the shock Hugoniot of sand from plate impact experimental data neglects heterogeneous deformation and cannot incorporate mesoscale phenomena. We present a 2D mesoscale simulation approach to probe the shock response of dry sand with the main objectives to identify important mesoscale phenomena and the role of inter granular friction. The in-house code ISP-SAND was used to generate sand with desired grain size distribution and porosity. The explicit finite element code ISP-TROTP was used to simulate plate impact experiments of assumed configurations. The deformation of individual sand grains was modeled by non-linear mean stress volume compression relation with an assumed mean stress dependent yield strength. The results show heterogeneous deformation with finite lateral velocity and regions of stress concentrations in the sand sample. The effects of grain size distribution, porosity and friction between grains are discussed by comparing the particle velocity profiles at the window interface. Work supported by DOE and AFOSR.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jung, J.; Arakawa, A.
2015-12-01
Through explicitly resolved cloud-scale processes by embedded 2-D cloud-resolving models (CRMs), the Multiscale Modeling Framework (MMF) known as the superparameterization has been reasonably successful to simulate various atmospheric events over a wide range of time scales. One thing to be justified is, however, if the influence of complex 3-D topography can be adequately represented by the embedded 2-D CRMs. In this study, simulations are performed in the presence of a variety of topography with embedded 3-D and 2-D CRMs in a single-column inactive GCM. Through the comparison between these simulations, it is demonstrated that the 2-D representation of topography is able to simulate the statistics of precipitation due to 3-D topography reasonably well as long as the topographic characteristics, such as the mean and standard deviation, are closely recognized. It is also shown that the use of two perpendicular sets of 2-D representations tends to reduce the error due to a 2-D representation.
Using high resolution bathymetric lidar data for a Telemac2D simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dobler, Wolfgang; Baran, Ramona; Steinbacher, Frank; Ritter, Marcel; Aufleger, Markus
2014-05-01
Knowledge about the hydraulic situation in a mountain torrent is relevant to quantify flood risks, to study sediment transport and to assess the waterbodies' ecology. To conduct reliable calculations, high-quality terrain data of riverbeds, riverbanks and floodplains are required. Typically, digital terrain models (DTMs) of floodplains are derived from classical airborne laserscanning (red wavelength) together with terrestrial surveys along riverbeds and riverbanks. Usually, these are restricted to a limited number of cross sections. Terrestrial surveys are required since laser measurement systems cannot penetrate the water column of the observed waterbodies. Consequently, data describing the geometry of riverbeds and bank structures are hardly available at high spatial resolutions and extents, comparable to the airborne-laser scanning derived data for river floodplains. In this study, a newly available, water-penetrating airborne laser system (green wavelength, FFG research project between the University of Innsbruck and Riegl LMS) was used to survey a mountain torrent. Detailed and extensive data (~30 points/m² on topo-bathy side) of the riverbed and the riverbanks were acquired with this single sensor. In order to construct a 2D-Telemac simulation, the point cloud was down-sampled to an appropriate resolution required for the simulation. The creation of the mesh was carried out with the Software HydroVish and imported into Blue Kenue for further boundary treatment. On one hand the calibration of the numerical model was based on a known water discharge-rate and on the other on abundant data points of the water surface. The green laser system demonstrates its great potential for such an analysis. The final results of the numerical simulation show clearly the supremacy of using such a high resolution data basis in contrast to the traditional way of terrestrial surveying of cross sections along riverbeds.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Magri, F.; Inbar, N.; Raggad, M.; Möller, S.; Siebert, C.; Möller, P.; Kuehn, M.
2014-12-01
Lake Kinneret (Lake Tiberias or Sea of Galilee) is the most important freshwater reservoir in the Northern Jordan Valley. Simulations that couple fluid flow, heat and mass transport are built to understand the mechanisms responsible for the salinization of this important resource. Here the effects of permeability distribution on 2D and 3D convective patterns are compared. 2D simulations indicate that thermal brine in Haon and some springs in the Yamourk Gorge (YG) are the result of mixed convection, i.e. the interaction between the regional flow from the bordering heights and thermally-driven flow (Magri et al., 2014). Calibration of the calculated temperature profiles suggests that the faults in Haon and the YG provides paths for ascending hot waters, whereas the fault in the Golan recirculates water between 1 and 2 km depths. At higher depths, faults induce 2D layered convection in the surrounding units. The 2D assumption for a faulted basin can oversimplify the system, and the conclusions might not be fully correct. The 3D results also point to mixed convection as the main mechanism for the thermal anomalies. However, in 3D the convective structures are more complex allowing for longer flow paths and residence times. In the fault planes, hydrothermal convection develops in a finger regime enhancing inflow and outflow of heat in the system. Hot springs can form locally at the surface along the fault trace. By contrast, the layered cells extending from the faults into the surrounding sediments are preserved and are similar to those simulated in 2D. The results are consistent with the theory from Zhao et al. (2003), which predicts that 2D and 3D patterns have the same probability to develop given the permeability and temperature ranges encountered in geothermal fields. The 3D approach has to be preferred to the 2D in order to capture all patterns of convective flow, particularly in the case of planar high permeability regions such as faults. Magri, F., et al., 2014
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, C.; Chang, T.
2010-12-01
A new method in describing the multifractal characteristics of intermittent events was introduced by Cheng and Wu [Chang T. and Wu C.C., Physical Rev, E77, 045401(R), 2008]. The procedure provides a natural connection between the rank-ordered spectrum and the idea of one-parameter scaling for monofractals. This technique has been demonstrated using results obtained from a 2D MHD simulation. It has also been successfully applied to in-situ solar wind observations [Chang T., Wu, C.C. and Podesta, J., AIP Conf Proc. 1039, 75, 2008], and the broadband electric field oscillations from the auroral zone [Tam, S.W.Y. et al., Physical Rev, E81, 036414, 2010]. We take the next step in this procedure. By using the ROMA spectra and the scaled probability distribution functions (PDFs), raw PDFs can be calculated, which can be compared directly with PDFs from observations or simulation results. In addition to 2D MHD simulation results and in-situ solar wind observation, we show clearly using the ROMA analysis the multifractal character of the 3D fluid simulation data obtained from the JHU turbulence database cluster at http://turbulence.pha.jhu.edu. In particular, we show the scaling of the non-symmetrical PDF for the parallel-velocity fluctuations of this 3D fluid data.
Extension of Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program's Fluid Property Database
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Patel, Kishan
2011-01-01
This internship focused on the development of additional capabilities for the General Fluid Systems Simulation Program (GFSSP). GFSSP is a thermo-fluid code used to evaluate system performance by a finite volume-based network analysis method. The program was developed primarily to analyze the complex internal flow of propulsion systems and is capable of solving many problems related to thermodynamics and fluid mechanics. GFSSP is integrated with thermodynamic programs that provide fluid properties for sub-cooled, superheated, and saturation states. For fluids that are not included in the thermodynamic property program, look-up property tables can be provided. The look-up property tables of the current release version can only handle sub-cooled and superheated states. The primary purpose of the internship was to extend the look-up tables to handle saturated states. This involves a) generation of a property table using REFPROP, a thermodynamic property program that is widely used, and b) modifications of the Fortran source code to read in an additional property table containing saturation data for both saturated liquid and saturated vapor states. Also, a method was implemented to calculate the thermodynamic properties of user-fluids within the saturation region, given values of pressure and enthalpy. These additions required new code to be written, and older code had to be adjusted to accommodate the new capabilities. Ultimately, the changes will lead to the incorporation of this new capability in future versions of GFSSP. This paper describes the development and validation of the new capability.
2-D transmitral flows simulation by means of the immersed boundary method on unstructured grids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Denaro, F. M.; Sarghini, F.
2002-04-01
Interaction between computational fluid dynamics and clinical researches recently allowed a deeper understanding of the physiology of complex phenomena involving cardio-vascular mechanisms. The aim of this paper is to develop a simplified numerical model based on the Immersed Boundary Method and to perform numerical simulations in order to study the cardiac diastolic phase during which the left ventricle is filled with blood flowing from the atrium throughout the mitral valve. As one of the diagnostic problems to be faced by clinicians is the lack of a univocal definition of the diastolic performance from the velocity measurements obtained by Eco-Doppler techniques, numerical simulations are supposed to provide an insight both into the physics of the diastole and into the interpretation of experimental data. An innovative application of the Immersed Boundary Method on unstructured grids is presented, fulfilling accuracy requirements related to the development of a thin boundary layer along the moving immersed boundary. It appears that this coupling between unstructured meshes and the Immersed Boundary Method is a promising technique when a wide range of spatial scales is involved together with a moving boundary. Numerical simulations are performed in a range of physiological parameters and a qualitative comparison with experimental data is presented, in order to demonstrate that, despite the simplified model, the main physiological characteristics of the diastole are well represented. Copyright
Engineering Fracking Fluids with Computer Simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shaqfeh, Eric
2015-11-01
There are no comprehensive simulation-based tools for engineering the flows of viscoelastic fluid-particle suspensions in fully three-dimensional geometries. On the other hand, the need for such a tool in engineering applications is immense. Suspensions of rigid particles in viscoelastic fluids play key roles in many energy applications. For example, in oil drilling the ``drilling mud'' is a very viscous, viscoelastic fluid designed to shear-thin during drilling, but thicken at stoppage so that the ``cuttings'' can remain suspended. In a related application known as hydraulic fracturing suspensions of solids called ``proppant'' are used to prop open the fracture by pumping them into the well. It is well-known that particle flow and settling in a viscoelastic fluid can be quite different from that which is observed in Newtonian fluids. First, it is now well known that the ``fluid particle split'' at bifurcation cracks is controlled by fluid rheology in a manner that is not understood. Second, in Newtonian fluids, the presence of an imposed shear flow in the direction perpendicular to gravity (which we term a cross or orthogonal shear flow) has no effect on the settling of a spherical particle in Stokes flow (i.e. at vanishingly small Reynolds number). By contrast, in a non-Newtonian liquid, the complex rheological properties induce a nonlinear coupling between the sedimentation and shear flow. Recent experimental data have shown both the shear thinning and the elasticity of the suspending polymeric solutions significantly affects the fluid-particle split at bifurcations, as well as the settling rate of the solids. In the present work, we use the Immersed Boundary Method to develop computer simulations of viscoelastic flow in suspensions of spheres to study these problems. These simulations allow us to understand the detailed physical mechanisms for the remarkable physical behavior seen in practice, and actually suggest design rules for creating new fluid recipes.
A New 2D-Advection-Diffusion Model Simulating Trace Gas Distributions in the Lowermost Stratosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hegglin, M. I.; Brunner, D.; Peter, T.; Wirth, V.; Fischer, H.; Hoor, P.
2004-12-01
Tracer distributions in the lowermost stratosphere are affected by both, transport (advective and non-advective) and in situ sources and sinks. They influence ozone photochemistry, radiative forcing, and heating budgets. In-situ measurements of long-lived species during eight measurement campaigns revealed relatively simple behavior of the tracers in the lowermost stratosphere when represented in an equivalent-latitude versus potential temperature framework. We here present a new 2D-advection-diffusion model that simulates the main transport pathways influencing the tracer distributions in the lowermost stratosphere. The model includes slow diabatic descent of aged stratospheric air and vertical and/or horizontal diffusion across the tropopause and within the lowermost stratosphere. The diffusion coefficients used in the model represent the combined effects of different processes with the potential of mixing tropospheric air into the lowermost stratosphere such as breaking Rossby and gravity waves, deep convection penetrating the tropopause, turbulent diffusion, radiatively driven upwelling etc. They were specified by matching model simulations to observed distributions of long-lived trace gases such as CO and N2O obtained during the project SPURT. The seasonally conducted campaigns allow us to study the seasonal dependency of the diffusion coefficients. Despite its simplicity the model yields a surprisingly good description of the small scale features of the measurements and in particular of the observed tracer gradients at the tropopause. The correlation coefficients between modeled and measured trace gas distributions were up to 0.95. Moreover, mixing across isentropes appears to be more important than mixing across surfaces of constant equivalent latitude (or PV). With the aid of the model, the distribution of the fraction of tropospheric air in the lowermost stratosphere can be determined.
Icarus: A 2-D Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) Code for Multi-Processor Computers
BARTEL, TIMOTHY J.; PLIMPTON, STEVEN J.; GALLIS, MICHAIL A.
2001-10-01
Icarus is a 2D Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) code which has been optimized for the parallel computing environment. The code is based on the DSMC method of Bird[11.1] and models from free-molecular to continuum flowfields in either cartesian (x, y) or axisymmetric (z, r) coordinates. Computational particles, representing a given number of molecules or atoms, are tracked as they have collisions with other particles or surfaces. Multiple species, internal energy modes (rotation and vibration), chemistry, and ion transport are modeled. A new trace species methodology for collisions and chemistry is used to obtain statistics for small species concentrations. Gas phase chemistry is modeled using steric factors derived from Arrhenius reaction rates or in a manner similar to continuum modeling. Surface chemistry is modeled with surface reaction probabilities; an optional site density, energy dependent, coverage model is included. Electrons are modeled by either a local charge neutrality assumption or as discrete simulational particles. Ion chemistry is modeled with electron impact chemistry rates and charge exchange reactions. Coulomb collision cross-sections are used instead of Variable Hard Sphere values for ion-ion interactions. The electro-static fields can either be: externally input, a Langmuir-Tonks model or from a Green's Function (Boundary Element) based Poison Solver. Icarus has been used for subsonic to hypersonic, chemically reacting, and plasma flows. The Icarus software package includes the grid generation, parallel processor decomposition, post-processing, and restart software. The commercial graphics package, Tecplot, is used for graphics display. All of the software packages are written in standard Fortran.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Ho Jun; Lee, Hae June
2016-06-01
The wide applicability of capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) deposition has increased the interest in developing comprehensive numerical models, but CCP imposes a tremendous computational cost when conducting a transient analysis in a three-dimensional (3D) model which reflects the real geometry of reactors. In particular, the detailed flow features of reactive gases induced by 3D geometric effects need to be considered for the precise calculation of radical distribution of reactive species. Thus, an alternative inclusive method for the numerical simulation of CCP deposition is proposed to simulate a two-dimensional (2D) CCP model based on the 3D gas flow results by simulating flow, temperature, and species fields in a 3D space at first without calculating the plasma chemistry. A numerical study of a cylindrical showerhead-electrode CCP reactor was conducted for particular cases of SiH4/NH3/N2/He gas mixture to deposit a hydrogenated silicon nitride (SiN x H y ) film. The proposed methodology produces numerical results for a 300 mm wafer deposition reactor which agree very well with the deposition rate profile measured experimentally along the wafer radius.
Debris Flow Hazard Map Simulation using FLO-2D For Selected Areas in the Philippines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khallil Ferrer, Peter; Llanes, Francesca; dela Resma, Marvee; Realino, Victoriano, II; Obrique, Julius; Ortiz, Iris Jill; Aquino, Dakila; Narod Eco, Rodrigo; Mahar Francisco Lagmay, Alfredo
2014-05-01
On December 4, 2012, Super Typhoon Bopha wreaked havoc in the southern region of Mindanao, leaving 1,067 people dead and causing USD 800 million worth of damage. Classified as a Category 5 typhoon by the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC), Bopha brought intense rainfall and strong winds that triggered landslides and debris flows, particularly in Barangay (village) Andap, New Bataan municipality, in the southern Philippine province of Compostela Valley. The debris flow destroyed school buildings and covered courts and an evacuation center. Compostela Valley also suffered the most casualties of any province: 612 out of a total of 1,067. In light of the disaster in Compostela, measures were immediately devised to improve available geohazard maps to raise public awareness about landslides and debris flows. A debris flow is a very rapid to extremely rapid flow of saturated non-plastic debris in a steep channel. They are generated when heavy rainfall saturates sediments, causing them to flow down river channels within an alluvial fan situated at the base of the slope of a mountain drainage network. Many rural communities in the Philippines, such as Barangay Andap, are situated at the apex of alluvial fans and in the path of potential debris flows. In this study, we conducted simulations of debris flows to assess the risks in inhabited areas throughout the Philippines and validated the results in the field, focusing on the provinces of Pangasinan and Aurora as primary examples. Watersheds that drain in an alluvial fan using a 10-m resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)-derived Digital Elevation Model (DEM) was first delineated, and then a 1 in 100-year rain return rainfall scenario for the watershed was used to simulate debris flows using FLO-2D, a flood-routing software. The resulting simulations were used to generate debris flow hazard maps which are consistent with danger zones in alluvial fans delineated previously from satellite imagery and available DEMs. The
Simulation of Inundation Zone triggered by Dam Failure using FLO-2D
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, K.; Kim, S. W.; Kim, J. M.
2014-12-01
Floods due to gradual dam breach can lead to devastating disasters with tremendous loss of life and property. Hence it is important to identify the potential risk areas for natural hazard problem such as dam failure. A numerical modeling approach is often used to build a flood hazard map caused by dam failure. The two primary tasks in the analysis of a dam breach are the prediction of the reservoir outflow hydrograph and the routing of the hydrograph through the downstream valley. The hydrograph to be routed downstream may be prescribed, and parametric models could be used to build a outflow hydrograph once breach parameters capturing breach formation and progress are specified. Even though breach growth is one of the most important parameter in building the reservoir outflow hydrograph, observations are rarely available. In the mean while lake level data is often measured during the dam failure on the real time basis and they may capture the characteristics of breach formation and progress. Thus a simple method is developed to reproduce breach formation. The breach formation is retrieved from lake level data as a function of time during dam failure event. The new method uses an optimization scheme as a primary tool. Because observation for breach formation doesn't exist, it is hard to validate the performance of the new method. Alternatively the retrieved breach formation curve is linked with a parametric dam failure model to give outflow hydrograph. Then FLO-2D is run to route the outflow hydrograph through the downstream valley for the test site. To validate the new method the simulation of FLO-2D is relatively compared with the on-site investigation for the inundation zone. The new method is promising in that it provides reasonable accuracy in the test site. Keywords: Dam failure, Natural hazard, Breach, Hydrograph AcknowledgementThis research was supported by a grant (13SCIPS01) from Smart Civil Infrastructure Research Program funded by Ministry of Land
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shie, Chung-Lin; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Simpson, Joanne
2003-01-01
The 1999 Kwajalein Atoll field experiment (KWAJEX), one of several major TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) field experiments, has successfully obtained a wealth of information and observation data on tropical convective systems over the western Central Pacific region. In this paper, clouds and convective systems that developed during three active periods (Aug 7-12, Aug 17-21, and Aug 29-Sep 13) around Kwajalein Atoll site are simulated using both 2D and 3D Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) models. Based on numerical results, the clouds and cloud systems are generally unorganized and short lived. These features are validated by radar observations that support the model results. Both the 2D and 3D simulated rainfall amounts and their stratiform contribution as well as the heat, water vapor, and moist static energy budgets are examined for the three convective episodes. Rainfall amounts are quantitatively similar between the two simulations, but the stratiform contribution is considerably larger in the 2D simulation. Regardless of dimension, fo all three cases, the large-scale forcing and net condensation are the two major physical processes that account for the evolution of the budgets with surface latent heat flux and net radiation solar and long-wave radiation)being secondary processes. Quantitative budget differences between 2D and 3D as well as between various episodes will be detailed.Morover, simulated radar signatures and Q1/Q2 fields from the three simulations are compared to each other and with radar and sounding observations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kapoor, Kamlesh; Anderson, Bernhard H.; Shaw, Robert J.
1994-01-01
A two-dimensional computational code, PRLUS2D, which was developed for the reactive propulsive flows of ramjets and scramjets, was validated for two-dimensional shock-wave/turbulent-boundary-layer interactions. The problem of compression corners at supersonic speeds was solved using the RPLUS2D code. To validate the RPLUS2D code for hypersonic speeds, it was applied to a realistic hypersonic inlet geometry. Both the Baldwin-Lomax and the Chien two-equation turbulence models were used. Computational results showed that the RPLUS2D code compared very well with experimentally obtained data for supersonic compression corner flows, except in the case of large separated flows resulting from the interactions between the shock wave and turbulent boundary layer. The computational results compared well with the experiment results in a hypersonic NASA P8 inlet case, with the Chien two-equation turbulence model performing better than the Baldwin-Lomax model.
Simulating the oxygen content of ambient organic aerosol with the 2D volatility basis set
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murphy, B. N.; Donahue, N. M.; Fountoukis, C.; Pandis, S. N.
2011-08-01
A module predicting the oxidation state of organic aerosol (OA) has been developed using the two-dimensional volatility basis set (2D-VBS) framework. This model is an extension of the 1D-VBS framework and tracks saturation concentration and oxygen content of organic species during their atmospheric lifetime. The host model, a one-dimensional Lagrangian transport model, is used to simulate air parcels arriving at Finokalia, Greece during the Finokalia Aerosol Measurement Experiment in May 2008 (FAME-08). Extensive observations were collected during this campaign using an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) and a thermodenuder to determine the chemical composition and volatility, respectively, of the ambient OA. Although there are several uncertain model parameters, the consistently high oxygen content of OA measured during FAME-08 (O:C = 0.8) can help constrain these parameters and elucidate OA formation and aging processes that are necessary for achieving the high degree of oxygenation observed. The base-case model reproduces observed OA mass concentrations (measured mean = 3.1 μg m-3, predicted mean = 3.3 μg m-3) and O:C (predicted O:C = 0.78) accurately. A suite of sensitivity studies explore uncertainties due to (1) the anthropogenic secondary OA (SOA) aging rate constant, (2) assumed enthalpies of vaporization, (3) the volatility change and number of oxygen atoms added for each generation of aging, (4) heterogeneous chemistry, (5) the oxidation state of the first generation of compounds formed from SOA precursor oxidation, and (6) biogenic SOA aging. Perturbations in most of these parameters do impact the ability of the model to predict O:C well throughout the simulation period. By comparing measurements of the O:C from FAME-08, several sensitivity cases including a high oxygenation case, a low oxygenation case, and biogenic SOA aging case are found to unreasonably depict OA aging, keeping in mind that this study does not consider possibly important processes
Simulating the oxygen content of ambient organic aerosol with the 2D volatility basis set
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murphy, B. N.; Donahue, N. M.; Fountoukis, C.; Pandis, S. N.
2011-03-01
A module predicting the oxidation state of organic aerosol (OA) has been developed using the two-dimensional volatility basis set (2D-VBS) framework. This model is an extension of the 1D-VBS framework and tracks saturation concentration and oxygen content of organic species during their atmospheric lifetime. The host model, a one-dimensional Lagrangian transport model, is used to simulate air parcels arriving at Finokalia, Greece during the Finokalia Aerosol Measurement Experiment in May 2008 (FAME-08). Extensive observations were collected during this campaign using an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) and a thermodenuder to determine the chemical composition and volatility, respectively, of the ambient OA. Although there are several uncertain model parameters, the consistently high oxygen content of OA measured during FAME-08 (O:C = 0.8) can help constrain these parameters and elucidate OA formation and aging processes that are necessary for achieving the high degree of oxygenation observed. The base-case model reproduces observed OA mass concentrations (measured mean = 3.1 μg m-3, predicted mean = 3.3 μg m-3) and O:C ratio (predicted O:C = 0.78) accurately. A suite of sensitivity studies explore uncertainties due to (1) the anthropogenic secondary OA (SOA) aging rate constant, (2) assumed enthalpies of vaporization, (3) the volatility change and number of oxygen atoms added for each generation of aging, (4) heterogeneous chemistry, (5) the oxidation state of the first generation of compounds formed from SOA precursor oxidation, and (6) biogenic SOA aging. Perturbations in most of these parameters do impact the ability of the model to predict O:C ratios well throughout the simulation period. By comparing measurements of the O:C ratio from FAME-08, several sensitivity cases including a high oxygenation case, low oxygenation case, and biogenic SOA aging case are found to unreasonably depict OA aging. However, many of the cases chosen for this study predict average
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Polukhin, V. A.; Kurbanova, E. D.
2016-02-01
Molecular dynamics simulation is used to study the thermal stability of the interfacial states of metallic Al, Ag, Sn, Pb, and Hg films (i.e., the structural elements of superconductor composites and conducting electrodes) reinforced by 2D graphene and silicene crystals upon heating up to disordering and to analyze the formation of nonautonomous fluid pseudophases in interfaces. The effect of perforation defects in reinforcing 2D-C and 2D-Si planes with passivated edge covalent bonds on the atomic dynamics is investigated. As compared to Al and Ag, the diffusion coefficients in Pd and Hg films increase monotonically with temperature during thermally activated disordering processes, the interatomic distances decrease, the sizes decrease, drops form, and their density profile grows along the normal. The coagulation of Pb and Hg drops is accompanied by a decrease in the contact angle, the reduction of the interface contact with graphene, and the enhancement of its corrugation (waviness).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sidler, Rolf; Carcione, José M.; Holliger, Klaus
2013-02-01
We present a novel numerical approach for the comprehensive, flexible, and accurate simulation of poro-elastic wave propagation in 2D polar coordinates. An important application of this method and its extensions will be the modeling of complex seismic wave phenomena in fluid-filled boreholes, which represents a major, and as of yet largely unresolved, computational problem in exploration geophysics. In view of this, we consider a numerical mesh, which can be arbitrarily heterogeneous, consisting of two or more concentric rings representing the fluid in the center and the surrounding porous medium. The spatial discretization is based on a Chebyshev expansion in the radial direction and a Fourier expansion in the azimuthal direction and a Runge-Kutta integration scheme for the time evolution. A domain decomposition method is used to match the fluid-solid boundary conditions based on the method of characteristics. This multi-domain approach allows for significant reductions of the number of grid points in the azimuthal direction for the inner grid domain and thus for corresponding increases of the time step and enhancements of computational efficiency. The viability and accuracy of the proposed method has been rigorously tested and verified through comparisons with analytical solutions as well as with the results obtained with a corresponding, previously published, and independently benchmarked solution for 2D Cartesian coordinates. Finally, the proposed numerical solution also satisfies the reciprocity theorem, which indicates that the inherent singularity associated with the origin of the polar coordinate system is adequately handled.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suzuki, Y.; KOYAGUCHI, T.; OGAWA, M.; Hachisu, I.
2001-05-01
Mixing of eruption cloud and air is one of the most important processes for eruption cloud dynamics. The critical condition of eruption types (eruption column or pyroclastic flow) depends on efficiency of mixing of eruption cloud and the ambient air. However, in most of the previous models (e.g., Sparks,1986; Woods, 1988), the rate of mixing between cloud and air is taken into account by introducing empirical parameters such as entrainment coefficient or turbulent diffusion coefficient. We developed a numerical model of 2-D (axisymmetrical) eruption columns in order to simulate the turbulent mixing between eruption column and air. We calculated the motion of an eruption column from a circular vent on the flat surface of the earth. Supposing that relative velocity of gas and ash particles is sufficiently small, we can treat eruption cloud as a single gas. Equation of state (EOS) for the mixture of the magmatic component (i.e. volcanic gas plus pyroclasts) and air can be expressed by EOS for an ideal gas, because volume fraction of the gas phase is very large. The density change as a function of mixing ratio between air and the magmatic component has a strong non-linear feature, because the density of the mixture drastically decreases as entrained air expands by heating. This non-linear feature can be reproduced by changing the gas constant and the ratio of specific heat in EOS for ideal gases; the molecular weight increases and the ratio of specific heat approaches 1 as the magmatic component increases. It is assumed that the dynamics of eruption column follows the Euler equation, so that no viscous effect except for the numerical viscosity is taken into account. Roe scheme (a general TVD scheme for compressible flow) is used in order to simulate the generation of shock waves inside and around the eruption column. The results show that many vortexes are generated around the boundary between eruption cloud and air, which results in violent mixing. When the size of
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuhl, J. M.; Desjardin, P. E.
2012-01-01
Two-dimensional, fully coupled direct numerical simulations (DNS) are conducted to examine the local energy dynamics of a flexible cantilevered plate in the wake of a two-dimensional circular cylinder. The motion of the cantilevered plate is described using a finite element formulation and a fully compressible, finite volume Navier Stokes solver is used to compute the flow field. A sharp interface level set method is employed in conjunction with a ghost fluid method to describe the immersed boundaries of the bluff body and flexible plate. DNS is first conducted to validate the numerical methodology and compared with previous studies of flexible cantilevered plates and flow over bluff bodies; excellent agreement with previous results is observed. A newly defined power production/loss geometry metric is introduced based on surface curvature and plate velocity. The metric is found to be useful for determining which sections of the plate will produce energy based on curvature and deflection rate. Scatter plots and probability measures are presented showing a high correlation between the direction of energy transfer (i.e., to or from the plate) and the sign of the newly defined curvature-deflection-rate metric. The findings from this study suggest that a simple local geometry/kinematic based metric can be devised to aid in the development and design of flexible wind energy harvesting flutter mills.
SmaggIce 2D Version 1.8: Software Toolkit Developed for Aerodynamic Simulation Over Iced Airfoils
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Choo, Yung K.; Vickerman, Mary B.
2005-01-01
SmaggIce 2D version 1.8 is a software toolkit developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center that consists of tools for modeling the geometry of and generating the grids for clean and iced airfoils. Plans call for the completed SmaggIce 2D version 2.0 to streamline the entire aerodynamic simulation process--the characterization and modeling of ice shapes, grid generation, and flow simulation--and to be closely coupled with the public-domain application flow solver, WIND. Grid generated using version 1.8, however, can be used by other flow solvers. SmaggIce 2D will help researchers and engineers study the effects of ice accretion on airfoil performance, which is difficult to do with existing software tools because of complex ice shapes. Using SmaggIce 2D, when fully developed, to simulate flow over an iced airfoil will help to reduce the cost of performing flight and wind-tunnel tests for certifying aircraft in natural and simulated icing conditions.
Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell (GFFC) Simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1999-01-01
These simulations of atmospheric flow use the same experimental parameters but started with slightly different initial conditions in the model. The simulations were part of data analysis for the Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell (GFFC), a planet in a test tube apparatus flown on Spacelab to mimic the atmospheres on gas giant planets and stars. (Credit: Dr. Tim Miller of Global Hydrology and Climate Center at the Marshall Space Flight Center)
Nonlocal Closures for Plasma Fluid Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Held, Eric
2003-10-01
Theoretical tools applied to lab and astrophysical plasmas tend toward two extremes: kinetic models rife with physics but operating for short times and fluid models employing simplified closure relations but operating for long times. Until computers are fast enough to calculate kinetic physics over resistive times, efforts to extend plasma fluid models to handle a wider range of physics are critical. In this work, we generalize the program of fluid closure to capture kinetic effects in nonlocal, integral forms for higher-order fluid moments. These closures embody collisional, particle-trapping and Landau physics by integrating the fluid drives and closure moments along characteristics of the distribution function, F. The inversion of an operator that includes these physical effects begins with an expansion in eigenfunctions of the collision operator. Next, the characteristics of F are identified by diagonalizing the resultant system of hyperbolic equations. Integrating and taking the closure moments of F results in coupled Volterra equations involving the fluid drives and closures. It is shown that the collisional and nearly collisionless limits of these integral equations match onto previous expressions. In addition to significantly advancing the realism of previous fluid closures, integration along comparatively few ( ˜ 100)characteristics represents a significant reduction in work compared to kinetic treatments that follow millions of particles. These characteristics uncover the essential velocity-space dependence of F and hence render this closure scheme suitable for simulation of long time scale behavior. As a specific example, we conclude this talk by discussing the incorporation of these closures in plasma fluid simulations of neoclassical tearing modes in ITER-relevant discharges.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cappelli, Mark; Young, Chris; Cha, Eusnun; Fernandez, Eduardo; Stanford Plasma Physics Laboratory Collaboration; Eckerd College Collaboration
2015-09-01
We present a simple, zero-equation turbulence model for electron transport across the magnetic field of a plasma Hall thruster and integrate this model into 2-D hybrid particle-in-cell simulations of a 72 mm diameter laboratory thruster operating at 400 W. The turbulent transport model is based on the assumption that the primary means of electron energy dissipation is the turbulent eddy cascade in the electron fluid to smaller scales. Implementing the model into 2-D hybrid simulations is relatively straightforward and leverages the existing framework for solving the electron fluid equations. We find that the model captures the strong axial variation in the mobility seen in experiments. In particular, it predicts the existence of a strong transport barrier which anchors the region of plasma acceleration. The model also captures the time-averaged experimental discharge current and its fluctuations due to ionization instabilities. We observe quantitative agreement with recent laser induced fluorescence measurements of time-averaged xenon ion and neutral velocities along the channel centerline. This work was supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research.
Two-fluid Hydrodynamic Model for Fluid-Flow Simulation in Fluid-Solids Systems
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
1994-06-20
FLUFIX is a two-dimensional , transient, Eulerian, and finite-difference program, based on a two-fluid hydrodynamic model, for fluid flow simulation in fluid-solids systems. The software is written in a modular form using the Implicit Multi-Field (IMF) numerical technique. Quantities computed are the spatial distribution of solids loading, gas and solids velocities, pressure, and temperatures. Predicted are bubble formation, bed frequencies, and solids recirculation. Applications include bubbling and circulating atmospheric and pressurized fluidized bed reactors, combustors,more » gasifiers, and FCC (Fluid Catalytic Cracker) reactors.« less
Textbook Multigrid Efficiency for Fluid Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thomas, James L.
Recent advances in achieving textbook multigrid efficiency for fluid simulations are presented. Textbook multigrid efficiency is defined as attaining the solution to the governing system of equations in a computational work that is a small multiple of the operation counts associated with discretizing the system. Strategies are reviewed to attain this efficiency by exploiting the factorizability properties inherent to a range of fluid simulations, including the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. Factorizability is used to separate the elliptic and hyperbolic factors contributing to the target system; each of the factors can then be treated individually and optimally. Boundary regions and discontinuities are addressed with separate (local) treatments. New formulations and recent calculations demonstrating the attainment of textbook efficiency for aerodynamic simulations are shown.
Geomechanical Simulation of Fluid-Driven Fractures
Makhnenko, R.; Nikolskiy, D.; Mogilevskaya, S.; Labuz, J.
2012-11-30
The project supported graduate students working on experimental and numerical modeling of rock fracture, with the following objectives: (a) perform laboratory testing of fluid-saturated rock; (b) develop predictive models for simulation of fracture; and (c) establish educational frameworks for geologic sequestration issues related to rock fracture. These objectives were achieved through (i) using a novel apparatus to produce faulting in a fluid-saturated rock; (ii) modeling fracture with a boundary element method; and (iii) developing curricula for training geoengineers in experimental mechanics, numerical modeling of fracture, and poroelasticity.
Justification for a 2D versus 3D fingertip finite element model during static contact simulations.
Harih, Gregor; Tada, Mitsunori; Dolšak, Bojan
2016-10-01
The biomechanical response of a human hand during contact with various products has not been investigated in details yet. It has been shown that excessive contact pressure on the soft tissue can result in discomfort, pain and also cumulative traumatic disorders. This manuscript explores the benefits and limitations of a simplified two-dimensional vs. an anatomically correct three-dimensional finite element model of a human fingertip. Most authors still use 2D FE fingertip models due to their simplicity and reduced computational costs. However we show that an anatomically correct 3D FE fingertip model can provide additional insight into the biomechanical behaviour. The use of 2D fingertip FE models is justified when observing peak contact pressure values as well as displacement during the contact for the given studied cross-section. On the other hand, an anatomically correct 3D FE fingertip model provides a contact pressure distribution, which reflects the fingertip's anatomy. PMID:26856769
Mach number validation of a new zonal CFD method (ZAP2D) for airfoil simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Strash, Daniel J.; Summa, Michael; Yoo, Sungyul
1991-01-01
A closed-loop overlapped velocity coupling procedure has been utilized to combine a two-dimensional potential-flow panel code and a Navier-Stokes code. The fully coupled two-zone code (ZAP2D) has been used to compute the flow past a NACA 0012 airfoil at Mach numbers ranging from 0.3 to 0.84 near the two-dimensional airfoil C(lmax) point for a Reynolds number of 3 million. For these cases, the grid domain size can be reduced to 3 chord lengths with less than 3-percent loss in accuracy for freestream Mach numbers through 0.8. Earlier validation work with ZAP2D has demonstrated a reduction in the required Navier-Stokes computation time by a factor of 4 for subsonic Mach numbers. For this more challenging condition of high lift and Mach number, the saving in CPU time is reduced to a factor of 2.
Simulation of multi-steps thermal transition in 2D spin-crossover nanoparticles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jureschi, Catalin-Maricel; Pottier, Benjamin-Louis; Linares, Jorge; Richard Dahoo, Pierre; Alayli, Yasser; Rotaru, Aurelian
2016-04-01
We have used an Ising like model to study the thermal behavior of a 2D spin crossover (SCO) system embedded in a matrix. The interaction parameter between edge SCO molecules and its local environment was included in the standard Ising like model as an additional term. The influence of the system's size and the ratio between the number of edge molecules and the other molecules were also discussed.
Automated Fluid Feature Extraction from Transient Simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Haimes, Robert; Lovely, David
1999-01-01
In the past, feature extraction and identification were interesting concepts, but not required to understand the underlying physics of a steady flow field. This is because the results of the more traditional tools like iso-surfaces, cuts and streamlines were more interactive and easily abstracted so they could be represented to the investigator. These tools worked and properly conveyed the collected information at the expense of much interaction. For unsteady flow-fields, the investigator does not have the luxury of spending time scanning only one "snap-shot" of the simulation. Automated assistance is required in pointing out areas of potential interest contained within the flow. This must not require a heavy compute burden (the visualization should not significantly slow down the solution procedure for co-processing environments like pV3). And methods must be developed to abstract the feature and display it in a manner that physically makes sense. The following is a list of the important physical phenomena found in transient (and steady-state) fluid flow: (1) Shocks, (2) Vortex cores, (3) Regions of recirculation, (4) Boundary layers, (5) Wakes. Three papers and an initial specification for the (The Fluid eXtraction tool kit) FX Programmer's guide were included. The papers, submitted to the AIAA Computational Fluid Dynamics Conference, are entitled : (1) Using Residence Time for the Extraction of Recirculation Regions, (2) Shock Detection from Computational Fluid Dynamics results and (3) On the Velocity Gradient Tensor and Fluid Feature Extraction.
Sidler, Rolf; Carcione, José M.; Holliger, Klaus
2013-02-15
We present a novel numerical approach for the comprehensive, flexible, and accurate simulation of poro-elastic wave propagation in 2D polar coordinates. An important application of this method and its extensions will be the modeling of complex seismic wave phenomena in fluid-filled boreholes, which represents a major, and as of yet largely unresolved, computational problem in exploration geophysics. In view of this, we consider a numerical mesh, which can be arbitrarily heterogeneous, consisting of two or more concentric rings representing the fluid in the center and the surrounding porous medium. The spatial discretization is based on a Chebyshev expansion in the radial direction and a Fourier expansion in the azimuthal direction and a Runge–Kutta integration scheme for the time evolution. A domain decomposition method is used to match the fluid–solid boundary conditions based on the method of characteristics. This multi-domain approach allows for significant reductions of the number of grid points in the azimuthal direction for the inner grid domain and thus for corresponding increases of the time step and enhancements of computational efficiency. The viability and accuracy of the proposed method has been rigorously tested and verified through comparisons with analytical solutions as well as with the results obtained with a corresponding, previously published, and independently benchmarked solution for 2D Cartesian coordinates. Finally, the proposed numerical solution also satisfies the reciprocity theorem, which indicates that the inherent singularity associated with the origin of the polar coordinate system is adequately handled.
Montmorillonite Dissolution in Simulated Lung Fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmidt, M.; Wendlandt, R. F.
2008-12-01
Because lung fluids" first interaction is with the surface of inhaled grains, the surface properties of inhaled mineral dusts may have a generally mitigating effect on cytotoxicity and carcinogenicity. Wendlandt et al. (Appl. Geochem. 22, 2007) investigated the surface properties of respirable-sized quartz grains in bentonites and recognized pervasive montmorillonite surface coatings on silica grains. The purpose of this study was to determine the dissolution rate and biodurability of montmorillonite in simulated lung fluids and to assess its potential to mitigate silica cytotoxicity. Modified batch reaction experiments were conducted on purified and size fractionated calcic (SAz-2; 0.4-5 μm) and sodic (DC-2; 0.4-2 μm) montmorillonites for 120 to 160 days of reaction time at 37°C in both simulated extracellular lung fluid (Lu) and simulated lysosomal fluid (Ly). Modified batch experiments simulated a flow-through setup and minimized sample handling difficulties. Reacted Lu and Ly fluid was analyzed for Mg, Al, and Si on an ICP-OE spectrometer. Steady state dissolution was reached 90-100 days after the start of the experiment and maintained for 40-60 days. Measured montmorillonite dissolution rates based on BET surface areas and Si steady state release range from 4.1x10-15 mol/m2/s at the slowest to 1.0x10-14 mol/m2/s at the fastest with relative uncertainties of less than 10%. Samples reacting in Ly (pH = 4.55) dissolved faster than those in Lu (pH = 7.40), and DC-2 dissolved faster than SAz-2. The measured range of biodurabilities was 1,300 to 3,400 years for a 1 μm grain assuming a spherical volume and a molar volume equal to that of illite. The difference in salinities of the two fluids was too slight to draw conclusions about the relationship of ionic strength to dissolution rate. Results indicate that montmorillonite dissolution is incongruent and edge controlled. Dissolution rates for DC- 2 and SAz-2 clays were comparable to those reported in the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elangovan, Premkumar; Warren, Lucy M.; Mackenzie, Alistair; Rashidnasab, Alaleh; Diaz, Oliver; Dance, David R.; Young, Kenneth C.; Bosmans, Hilde; Strudley, Celia J.; Wells, Kevin
2014-08-01
Planar 2D x-ray mammography is generally accepted as the preferred screening technique used for breast cancer detection. Recently, digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) has been introduced to overcome some of the inherent limitations of conventional planar imaging, and future technological enhancements are expected to result in the introduction of further innovative modalities. However, it is crucial to understand the impact of any new imaging technology or methodology on cancer detection rates and patient recall. Any such assessment conventionally requires large scale clinical trials demanding significant investment in time and resources. The concept of virtual clinical trials and virtual performance assessment may offer a viable alternative to this approach. However, virtual approaches require a collection of specialized modelling tools which can be used to emulate the image acquisition process and simulate images of a quality indistinguishable from their real clinical counterparts. In this paper, we present two image simulation chains constructed using modelling tools that can be used for the evaluation of 2D-mammography and DBT systems. We validate both approaches by comparing simulated images with real images acquired using the system being simulated. A comparison of the contrast-to-noise ratios and image blurring for real and simulated images of test objects shows good agreement ( < 9% error). This suggests that our simulation approach is a promising alternative to conventional physical performance assessment followed by large scale clinical trials.
Karavitis, G.A.
1984-01-01
The SIMSYS2D two-dimensional water-quality simulation system is a large-scale digital modeling software system used to simulate flow and transport of solutes in freshwater and estuarine environments. Due to the size, processing requirements, and complexity of the system, there is a need to easily move the system and its associated files between computer sites when required. A series of job control language (JCL) procedures was written to allow transferability between IBM and IBM-compatible computers. (USGS)
SEM simulation for 2D and 3D inspection metrology and defect review
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Levi, Shimon; Schwartsband, Ishai; Khristo, Sergey; Ivanchenko, Yan; Adan, Ofer
2014-03-01
Advanced SEM simulation has become a key element in the ability of SEM inspection, metrology and defect review to meet the challenges of advanced technologies. It grants additional capabilities to the end user, such as 3D height measurements, accurate virtual metrology, and supports Design Based Metrology to bridge the gap between design layout and SEM image. In this paper we present SEM simulations capabilities, which take into consideration all parts of the SEM physical and electronic path, interaction between Electron beam and material, multi perspective SEM imaging and shadowing derived from proximity effects caused by the interaction of the Secondary Electrons signal with neighboring pattern edges. Optimizing trade-off between simulation accuracy, calibration procedures and computational complexity, the simulation is running in real-time with minimum impact on throughput. Experiment results demonstrate Height measurement capacities, and CAD based simulated pattern is compared with SEM image to evaluate simulated pattern fidelity.
Simulation of Ultra-Small MOSFETs Using a 2-D Quantum-Corrected Drift-Diffusion Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Biegal, Bryan A.; Rafferty, Connor S.; Yu, Zhiping; Ancona, Mario G.; Dutton, Robert W.; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)
1998-01-01
The continued down-scaling of electronic devices, in particular the commercially dominant MOSFET, will force a fundamental change in the process of new electronics technology development in the next five to ten years. The cost of developing new technology generations is soaring along with the price of new fabrication facilities, even as competitive pressure intensifies to bring this new technology to market faster than ever before. To reduce cost and time to market, device simulation must become a more fundamental, indeed dominant, part of the technology development cycle. In order to produce these benefits, simulation accuracy must improve markedly. At the same time, device physics will become more complex, with the rapid increase in various small-geometry and quantum effects. This work describes both an approach to device simulator development and a physical model which advance the effort to meet the tremendous electronic device simulation challenge described above. The device simulation approach is to specify the physical model at a high level to a general-purpose (but highly efficient) partial differential equation solver (in this case PROPHET, developed by Lucent Technologies), which then simulates the model in 1-D, 2-D, or 3-D for a specified device and test regime. This approach allows for the rapid investigation of a wide range of device models and effects, which is certainly essential for device simulation to catch up with, and then stay ahead of, electronic device technology of the present and future. The physical device model used in this work is the density-gradient (DG) quantum correction to the drift-diffusion model [Ancona, Phys. Rev. B 35(5), 7959 (1987)]. This model adds tunneling and quantum smoothing of carrier density profiles to the drift-diffusion model. We used the DG model in 1-D and 2-D (for the first time) to simulate both bipolar and unipolar devices. Simulations of heavily-doped, short-base diodes indicated that the DG quantum
This study is a part of an ongoing research project that aims at assessing the environmental benefits of DNAPL removal. The laboratory part of the research project is to examine the functional relationship between DNAPL architecture, mass removal and contaminant mass flux in 2-D ...
Direct MD Simulations of Terahertz Absorption and 2D Spectroscopy Applied to Explosive Crystals.
Katz, G; Zybin, S; Goddard, W A; Zeiri, Y; Kosloff, R
2014-03-01
A direct molecular dynamics simulation of the THz spectrum of a molecular crystal is presented. A time-dependent electric field is added to a molecular dynamics simulation of a crystal slab. The absorption spectrum is composed from the energy dissipated calculated from a series of applied pulses characterized by a carrier frequency. The spectrum of crystalline cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX) and triacetone triperoxide (TATP) were simulated with the ReaxFF force field. The proposed direct method avoids the linear response and harmonic approximations. A multidimensional extension of the spectroscopy is suggested and simulated based on the nonlinear response to a single polarized pulse of radiation in the perpendicular polarization direction. PMID:26274066
HEAT.PRO - THERMAL IMBALANCE FORCE SIMULATION AND ANALYSIS USING PDE2D
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vigue, Y.
1994-01-01
HEAT.PRO calculates the thermal imbalance force resulting from satellite surface heating. The heated body of a satellite re-radiates energy at a rate that is proportional to its temperature, losing the energy in the form of photons. By conservation of momentum, this momentum flux out of the body creates a reaction force against the radiation surface, and the net thermal force can be observed as a small perturbation that affects long term orbital behavior of the satellite. HEAT.PRO calculates this thermal imbalance force and then determines its effects on satellite orbits, especially where the Earth's shadowing of an orbiting satellite causes periodic changes in the spacecraft's thermal environment. HEAT.PRO implements a finite element method routine called PDE2D which incorporates material properties to determine the solar panel surface temperatures. The nodal temperatures are computed at specified time steps and are used to determine the magnitude and direction of the thermal force on the spacecraft. These calculations are based on the solar panel orientation and satellite's position with respect to the earth and sun. It is necessary to have accurate, current knowledge of surface emissivity, thermal conductivity, heat capacity, and material density. These parameters, which may change due to degradation of materials in the environment of space, influence the nodal temperatures that are computed and thus the thermal force calculations. HEAT.PRO was written in FORTRAN 77 for Cray series computers running UNICOS. The source code contains directives for and is used as input to the required partial differential equation solver, PDE2D. HEAT.PRO is available on a 9-track 1600 BPI magnetic tape in UNIX tar format (standard distribution medium) or a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge in UNIX tar format. An electronic copy of the documentation in Macintosh Microsoft Word format is included on the distribution tape. HEAT.PRO was developed in 1991. Cray and UNICOS are
2D grating simulation for X-ray phase-contrast and dark-field imaging with a Talbot interferometer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zanette, Irene; David, Christian; Rutishauser, Simon; Weitkamp, Timm
2010-04-01
Talbot interferometry is a recently developed and an extremely powerful X-ray phase-contrast imaging technique. Besides giving access to ultra-high sensitivity differential phase contrast images, it also provides the dark field image, which is a map of the scattering power of the sample. In this paper we investigate the potentialities of an improved version of the interferometer, in which two dimensional gratings are used instead of standard line grids. This approach allows to overcome the difficulties that might be encountered in the images produced by a one dimensional interferometer. Among these limitations there are the phase wrapping and quantitative phase retrieval problems and the directionality of the differential phase and dark-field signals. The feasibility of the 2D Talbot interferometer has been studied with a numerical simulation on the performances of its optical components under different circumstances. The gratings can be obtained either by an ad hoc fabrication of the 2D structures or by a superposition of two perpendicular linear grids. Through this simulation it has been possible to find the best parameters for a practical implementation of the 2D Talbot interferometer.
2D Quantum Simulation of MOSFET Using the Non Equilibrium Green's Function Method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Svizhenko, Alexel; Anantram, M. P.; Govindan, T. R.; Yan, Jerry (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
The objectives this viewgraph presentation summarizes include: (1) the development of a quantum mechanical simulator for ultra short channel MOSFET simulation, including theory, physical approximations, and computer code; (2) explore physics that is not accessible by semiclassical methods; (3) benchmarking of semiclassical and classical methods; and (4) study other two-dimensional devices and molecular structure, from discretized Hamiltonian to tight-binding Hamiltonian.
Numerical Simulations of High-Frequency Respiratory Flows in 2D and 3D Lung Bifurcation Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Zixi; Parameswaran, Shamini; Hu, Yingying; He, Zhaoming; Raj, Rishi; Parameswaran, Siva
2014-07-01
To better understand the human pulmonary system and optimize the high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) design, numerical simulations were conducted under normal breathing frequency and HFOV condition using a CFD code Ansys Fluent and its user-defined C programs. 2D and 3D double bifurcating lung models were created, and the geometry corresponds to fifth to seventh generations of airways with the dimensions based on the Weibel's pulmonary model. Computations were carried out for different Reynolds numbers (Re = 400 and 1000) and Womersley numbers (α = 4 and 16) to study the air flow fields, gas transportation, and wall shear stresses in the lung airways. Flow structure was compared with experimental results. Both 2D and 3D numerical models successfully reproduced many results observed in the experiment. The oxygen concentration distribution in the lung model was investigated to analyze the influence of flow oscillation on gas transport inside the lung model.
Tracer dispersion simulation in low wind speed conditions with a new 2D Langevin equation system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anfossi, D.; Alessandrini, S.; Trini Castelli, S.; Ferrero, E.; Oettl, D.; Degrazia, G.
The simulation of atmospheric dispersion in low wind speed conditions (LW) is still recognised as a challenge for modellers. Recently, a new system of two coupled Langevin equations that explicitly accounts for meandering has been proposed. It is based on the study of turbulence and dispersion properties in LW. The new system was implemented in the Lagrangian stochastic particle models LAMBDA and GRAL. In this paper we present simulations with this new approach applying it to the tracer experiments carried out in LW by Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL, USA) in 1974 and by the Graz University of Technology and CNR-Torino near Graz in 2003. To assess the improvement obtained with the present model with respect to previous models not taking into account the meandering effect, the simulations for the INEL experiments were also performed with the old version of LAMBDA. The results of the comparisons clearly indicate that the new approach improves the simulation results.
Radar Reflectivity Simulated by a 2-D Spectra Bin Model: Sensitivity of Cloud-aerosol Interaction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Li, Kiaowen; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Khain, Alexander; Simpson, Joanne; Johnson, Daniel
2003-01-01
The Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) model with bin spectra microphysics is used to simulate mesoscale convective systems.The model uses explicit bins to represent size spectra of cloud nuclei, water drops, ice crystals, snow and graupel. Each hydrometeorite category is described by 33 mass bins. The simulations provide a unique data set of simulated raindrop size distribution in a realistic dynamic frame. Calculations of radar parameters using simulated drop size distribution serve as an evaluation of numerical model performance. In addition, the GCE bin spectra modes is a very useful tool to study uncertainties related to radar observations; all the environmental parameters are precisely known. In this presentation, we concentrate on the discussion of Z-R (ZDR-R) relation in the simulated systems. Due to computational limitations, the spectra bin model has been run in two dimensions with 31 stretched vertical layers and 1026 horizontal grid points (1 km resolution). Two different cases, one in midlatitude continent, the other in tropical ocean, have been simulated. The continental case is a strong convection which lasted for two hours. The oceanic case is a persistent system with more than 10 hours' life span. It is shown that the simulated Z-R (ZDR-R) relations generally agree with observations using radar and rain gauge data. The spatial and temporal variations of Z-R relation in different locations are also analyzed. Impact of aerosols on cloud formation and raindrop size distribution was studied. Both clean (low CCN) and dirty (high CCN) cases are simulated. The Z-R relation is shown to vary considerable in the initial CCN concentrations.
Fourier based methodology for simulating 2D-random shapes in heterogeneous materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mattrand, C.; Béakou, A.; Charlet, K.
2015-08-01
Gaining insights into the effects of microstructural details on materials behavior may be achieved by incorporating their attributes into numerical modeling. This requires us to make considerable efforts to feature heterogeneity morphology distributions and their spatial arrangement. This paper focuses on modeling the scatter observed in materials heterogeneity geometry. The proposed strategy is based on the development of a 1D-shape signature function representing the 2D-section of a given shape, on Fourier basis functions. The Fourier coefficients are then considered as random variables. This methodology has been applied to flax fibers which are gradually introduced into composite materials as a potential alternative to synthetic reinforcements. In this contribution, the influence of some underlying assumptions regarding the choice of one 1D-shape signature function, its discretization scheme and truncation level, and the best way of modeling the associated random variables is also investigated. Some configurations coming from the combination of these tuning parameters are found to be sufficiently relevant to render efficiently the morphometric factors of the observed fibers statistically speaking.
Monte Carlo simulations of a novel Micromegas 2D array for proton dosimetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dolney, D.; Ainsley, C.; Hollebeek, R.; Maughan, R.
2016-02-01
Modern proton therapy affords control of the delivery of radiotherapeutic dose on fine length and temporal scales. The authors have developed a novel detector technology based on Micromesh Gaseous Structure (Micromegas) that is uniquely tailored for applications using therapeutic proton beams. An implementation of a prototype Micromegas detector for Monte Carlo using Geant4 is presented here. Comparison of simulation results with measurements demonstrates agreement in relative dose along the proton longitudinal dose profile to be 1%. The effect of a radioactive calibration source embedded in the chamber gas is demonstrated by measurements and reproduced by simulations, also at the 1% level. Our Monte Carlo simulations are shown to reproduce the time structure of ionization pulses produced by a double-scattering delivery system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Michelson, Sara; Bao, Jian-Wen; Grell, Evelyn
2016-04-01
In this study, numerical model simulations of an idealized 2-D squall line are investigated using microphysics budget analysis. Four commonly-used microphysics schemes of various complexity are used in the simulations. Diagnoses of the source and sink terms of the hydrometeor budget equations reveal that the differences related to the assumptions of hydrometeor size-distributions between the schemes lead to the differences in the simulations due to the net effect of various microphysical processes on the interaction between latent heating/evaporative cooling and flow dynamics as the squall line develops. Results from this study also highlight the possibility that the advantage of double-moment formulations can be overshadowed by the uncertainties in the spectral definition of individual hydrometeor categories and spectrum-dependent microphysical processes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steinke, R. C.
2015-12-01
Discretizing 1-D vadose zone simulations in the moisture content domain, such as is done in the Talbot-Ogden method, provides some advantages over discretizing in depth, such as is done in Richards' Equation. These advantages include inherent mass conservation and lower computational cost. However, doing so presents a difficulty for integration with 2-D groundwater interflow simulations. The equations of motion of the bins of discrete moisture content take the depth of the water table as an input. They do not produce it as an output. Finding the correct water table depth so that the groundwater recharge from the 1-D vadose zone simulation mass balances with the lateral flows from the 2-D groundwater interflow simulation was a previously unsolved problem. In this paper we present a net-groundwater-recharge method to solve to this problem and compare it with the source-term method used with Richards' Equation.
2D and 3D PIC-MCC simulations of a low temperature magnetized plasma on CPU and GPU
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Claustre, Jonathan; Chaudhury, Bhaskar; Fubiani, Gwenael; Boeuf, Jean-Pierre
2012-10-01
A Particle-In-Cell Monte Carlo Collisions model is used to described plasma transport in a low temperature magnetized plasma under conditions similar to those of the negative ion source for the neutral beam injector of ITER. A large diamagnetic electron current is present in the plasma because of the electron pressure gradient between the ICP driver of the source and the entrance of the magnetic filter, and is directed toward the chamber walls. The plasma potential adjusts to limit the diamagnetic electron current to the wall, leading to large electron current flow through the filter, and to a non uniform plasma density in the region between magnetic filter and extracting grids. On the basis of the PIC-MCC simulation results, we describe the plasma properties and electron current density distributions through the filter in 2D and 3D situations and use these models to better understand plasma transport across the filter in these conditions. We also present comparisons between computation times of two PIC-MCC simulation codes that have been developed for operations on standard CPU (Central Processing Units, code in Fortran) and on GPU (Graphics Processing Units, code in CUDA). The results show that the GPU simulation is about 25 times faster than the CPU one for a 2D domain with 512x512 grid points. The computation time ratio increases with the number of grid points.
Kaiglová, Jana; Langhammer, Jakub; Jiřinec, Petr; Janský, Bohumír; Chalupová, Dagmar
2015-03-01
This article used various hydrodynamic and sediment transport models to analyze the potential and the limits of different channel schematizations. The main aim was to select and evaluate the most suitable simulation method for fine-grained sediment remobilization assessment. Three types of channel schematization were selected to study the flow potential for remobilizing fine-grained sediment in artificially modified channels. Schematization with a 1D cross-sectional horizontal plan, a 1D+ approach, splitting the riverbed into different functional zones, and full 2D mesh, adopted in MIKE by the DHI modeling suite, was applied to the study. For the case study, a 55-km stretch of the Bílina River, in the Czech Republic, Central Europe, which has been heavily polluted by the chemical and coal mining industry since the mid-twentieth century, was selected. Long-term exposure to direct emissions of toxic pollutants including heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) resulted in deposits of pollutants in fine-grained sediments in the riverbed. Simulations, based on three hydrodynamic model schematizations, proved that for events not exceeding the extent of the riverbed profile, the 1D schematization can provide comparable results to a 2D model. The 1D+ schematization can improve accuracy while keeping the benefits of high-speed simulation and low requirements of input DEM data, but the method's suitability is limited by the channel properties. PMID:25687259
The 2-D simulations of the NRL (Naval Research Laboratory) laser experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lyon, J. G.
1985-05-01
Two-dimensional gas-dynamic simulations of the NRL laser experiment have been performed to study the formation of aneurysms in the blast wave and to study the formation of structure internal to the blast front itself. In one set of simulations the debris shell was perturbed sinusoidally in mass and position and also perturbed to mimic the action of a slow jet of material leaving the target at slower speeds than the bulk of the debris. In all cases the blast wave remained stable to any aneurysm-like instability. Internal structure, however, was quite easily produced and grew as a function of time. In the other set of simulations the effect of a pre-heated channel upon the propagation of the blast wave was examined. Bulges in the blast wave shock front were produced in these simulations that could be the beginning of the aneurysm phenomenon, but the preheated channel by itself appears to be insufficient to produce the observed aneurysm.
A convergent 2D finite-difference scheme for the Dirac–Poisson system and the simulation of graphene
Brinkman, D.; Heitzinger, C.; Markowich, P.A.
2014-01-15
We present a convergent finite-difference scheme of second order in both space and time for the 2D electromagnetic Dirac equation. We apply this method in the self-consistent Dirac–Poisson system to the simulation of graphene. The model is justified for low energies, where the particles have wave vectors sufficiently close to the Dirac points. In particular, we demonstrate that our method can be used to calculate solutions of the Dirac–Poisson system where potentials act as beam splitters or Veselago lenses.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lopes Filho, Milton C.; Nussenzveig Lopes, Helena J.; Titi, Edriss S.; Zang, Aibin
2015-06-01
The second-grade fluid equations are a model for viscoelastic fluids, with two parameters: α > 0, corresponding to the elastic response, and , corresponding to viscosity. Formally setting these parameters to 0 reduces the equations to the incompressible Euler equations of ideal fluid flow. In this article we study the limits of solutions of the second-grade fluid system, in a smooth, bounded, two-dimensional domain with no-slip boundary conditions. This class of problems interpolates between the Euler- α model (), for which the authors recently proved convergence to the solution of the incompressible Euler equations, and the Navier-Stokes case ( α = 0), for which the vanishing viscosity limit is an important open problem. We prove three results. First, we establish convergence of the solutions of the second-grade model to those of the Euler equations provided , as α → 0, extending the main result in (Lopes Filho et al., Physica D 292(293):51-61, 2015). Second, we prove equivalence between convergence (of the second-grade fluid equations to the Euler equations) and vanishing of the energy dissipation in a suitably thin region near the boundary, in the asymptotic regime , as α → 0. This amounts to a convergence criterion similar to the well-known Kato criterion for the vanishing viscosity limit of the Navier-Stokes equations to the Euler equations. Finally, we obtain an extension of Kato's classical criterion to the second-grade fluid model, valid if , as . The proof of all these results relies on energy estimates and boundary correctors, following the original idea by Kato.
Maximov, Philipp Y; McDaniel, Russell E; Fernandes, Daphne J; Korostyshevskiy, Valeriy R; Bhatta, Puspanjali; Mürdter, Thomas E; Flockhart, David A; Jordan, V Craig
2014-01-01
Background and Purpose Tamoxifen is a prodrug that is metabolically activated by 4-hydroxylation to the potent primary metabolite 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4OHT) or via another primary metabolite N-desmethyltamoxifen (NDMTAM) to a biologically active secondary metabolite endoxifen through a cytochrome P450 2D6 variant system (CYP2D6). To elucidate the mechanism of action of tamoxifen and the importance of endoxifen for its effect, we determined the anti-oestrogenic efficacy of tamoxifen and its metabolites, including endoxifen, at concentrations corresponding to serum levels measured in breast cancer patients with various CYP2D6 genotypes (simulating tamoxifen treatment). Experimental Approach The biological effects of tamoxifen and its metabolites on cell growth and oestrogen-responsive gene modulation were evaluated in a panel of oestrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cell lines. Actual clinical levels of tamoxifen metabolites in breast cancer patients were used in vitro along with actual levels of oestrogens observed in premenopausal patients taking tamoxifen. Key Results Tamoxifen and its primary metabolites (4OHT and NDMTAM) only partially inhibited the stimulant effects of oestrogen on cells. The addition of endoxifen at concentrations corresponding to different CYP2D6 genotypes was found to enhance the anti-oestrogenic effect of tamoxifen and its metabolites with an efficacy that correlated with the concentration of endoxifen; at concentrations corresponding to the extensive metabolizer genotype it further inhibited the actions of oestrogen. In contrast, lower concentrations of endoxifen (intermediate and poor metabolizers) had little or no anti-oestrogenic effects. Conclusions and Implications Endoxifen may be a clinically relevant metabolite in premenopausal patients as it provides additional anti-oestrogenic actions during tamoxifen treatment. PMID:25073551
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krause, M.; Camenzind, M.
2001-12-01
In the present paper, we examine the convergence behavior and inter-code reliability of astrophysical jet simulations in axial symmetry. We consider both pure hydrodynamic jets and jets with a dynamically significant magnetic field. The setups were chosen to match the setups of two other publications, and recomputed with the MHD code NIRVANA. We show that NIRVANA and the two other codes give comparable, but not identical results. We explain the differences by the different application of artificial viscosity in the three codes and numerical details, which can be summarized in a resolution effect, in the case without magnetic field: NIRVANA turns out to be a fair code of medium efficiency. It needs approximately twice the resolution as the code by Lind (Lind et al. 1989) and half the resolution as the code by Kössl (Kössl & Müller 1988). We find that some global properties of a hydrodynamical jet simulation, like e.g. the bow shock velocity, converge at 100 points per beam radius (ppb) with NIRVANA. The situation is quite different after switching on the toroidal magnetic field: in this case, global properties converge even at 10 ppb. In both cases, details of the inner jet structure and especially the terminal shock region are still insufficiently resolved, even at our highest resolution of 70 ppb in the magnetized case and 400 ppb for the pure hydrodynamic jet. The magnetized jet even suffers from a fatal retreat of the Mach disk towards the inflow boundary, which indicates that this simulation does not converge, in the end. This is also in definite disagreement with earlier simulations, and challenges further studies of the problem with other codes. In the case of our highest resolution simulation, we can report two new features: first, small scale Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities are excited at the contact discontinuity next to the jet head. This slows down the development of the long wavelength Kelvin-Helmholtz instability and its turbulent cascade to smaller
2D simulations based on general time-dependent reciprocal relation for LFEIT.
Karadas, Mursel; Gencer, Nevzat Guneri
2015-08-01
Lorentz field electrical impedance tomography (LFEIT) is a newly proposed technique for imaging the conductivity of the tissues by measuring the electromagnetic induction under the ultrasound pressure field. In this paper, the theory and numerical simulations of the LFEIT are reported based on the general time dependent formulation. In LFEIT, a phased array ultrasound probe is used to introduce a current distribution inside a conductive body. The velocity current occurs, due to the movement of the conductive particles under a static magnetic field. In order to sense this current, a receiver coil configuration that surrounds the volume conductor is utilized. Finite Element Method (FEM) is used to carry out the simulations of LFEIT. It is shown that, LFEIT can be used to reconstruct the conductivity even up to 50% perturbation in the initial conductivity distribution. PMID:26736569
Mixed-RKDG Finite Element Methods for the 2-D Hydrodynamic Model for Semiconductor Device Simulation
Chen, Zhangxin; Cockburn, Bernardo; Jerome, Joseph W.; Shu, Chi-Wang
1995-01-01
In this paper we introduce a new method for numerically solving the equations of the hydrodynamic model for semiconductor devices in two space dimensions. The method combines a standard mixed finite element method, used to obtain directly an approximation to the electric field, with the so-called Runge-Kutta Discontinuous Galerkin (RKDG) method, originally devised for numerically solving multi-dimensional hyperbolic systems of conservation laws, which is applied here to the convective part of the equations. Numerical simulations showing the performance of the new method are displayed, and the results compared with those obtained by using Essentially Nonoscillatory (ENO) finite difference schemes. Frommore » the perspective of device modeling, these methods are robust, since they are capable of encompassing broad parameter ranges, including those for which shock formation is possible. The simulations presented here are for Gallium Arsenide at room temperature, but we have tested them much more generally with considerable success.« less
A mathematical model for a didactic device able to simulate a 2D Newtonian gravitational field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De Marchi, Fabrizio
2015-01-01
In this paper we propose a mathematical model to describe a theoretical device able to simulate an inverse-square force on a test mass moving on a horizontal plane. We use two pulleys, a counterweight, a wire and a smooth rail, in addition to the test mass. The tension of the wire (i.e. the attractive force on the test mass) is determined by the position of a counterweight free to move on a rail placed under the plane. The profile of the rail is calculated in order to obtain the required Newtonian force. Details of this calculation are reported in the paper, and numerical simulations are provided in order to investigate the stability of the orbits under the effect of the main friction forces and other perturbative effects. This work points out that there are some criticalities intrinsic to the apparatus and gives some suggestions about how to minimize their impact.
Seismic wavefield propagation in 2D anisotropic media: Ray theory versus wave-equation simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bai, Chao-ying; Hu, Guang-yi; Zhang, Yan-teng; Li, Zhong-sheng
2014-05-01
Despite the ray theory that is based on the high frequency assumption of the elastic wave-equation, the ray theory and the wave-equation simulation methods should be mutually proof of each other and hence jointly developed, but in fact parallel independent progressively. For this reason, in this paper we try an alternative way to mutually verify and test the computational accuracy and the solution correctness of both the ray theory (the multistage irregular shortest-path method) and the wave-equation simulation method (both the staggered finite difference method and the pseudo-spectral method) in anisotropic VTI and TTI media. Through the analysis and comparison of wavefield snapshot, common source gather profile and synthetic seismogram, it is able not only to verify the accuracy and correctness of each of the methods at least for kinematic features, but also to thoroughly understand the kinematic and dynamic features of the wave propagation in anisotropic media. The results show that both the staggered finite difference method and the pseudo-spectral method are able to yield the same results even for complex anisotropic media (such as a fault model); the multistage irregular shortest-path method is capable of predicting similar kinematic features as the wave-equation simulation method does, which can be used to mutually test each other for methodology accuracy and solution correctness. In addition, with the aid of the ray tracing results, it is easy to identify the multi-phases (or multiples) in the wavefield snapshot, common source point gather seismic section and synthetic seismogram predicted by the wave-equation simulation method, which is a key issue for later seismic application.
Zhou, Y. L.; Wang, Z. H.; Xu, X. Q.; Li, H. D.; Feng, H.; Sun, W. G.
2015-01-15
Plasma fueling with high efficiency and deep injection is very important to enable fusion power performance requirements. It is a powerful and efficient way to study neutral transport dynamics and find methods of improving the fueling performance by doing large scale simulations. Two basic fueling methods, gas puffing (GP) and supersonic molecular beam injection (SMBI), are simulated and compared in realistic divertor geometry of the HL-2A tokamak with a newly developed module, named trans-neut, within the framework of BOUT++ boundary plasma turbulence code [Z. H. Wang et al., Nucl. Fusion 54, 043019 (2014)]. The physical model includes plasma density, heat and momentum transport equations along with neutral density, and momentum transport equations. Transport dynamics and profile evolutions of both plasma and neutrals are simulated and compared between GP and SMBI in both poloidal and radial directions, which are quite different from one and the other. It finds that the neutrals can penetrate about four centimeters inside the last closed (magnetic) flux surface during SMBI, while they are all deposited outside of the LCF during GP. It is the radial convection and larger inflowing flux which lead to the deeper penetration depth of SMBI and higher fueling efficiency compared to GP.
Zhou, Y. L.; Wang, Z. H.; Xu, X. Q.; Li, H. D.; Feng, H.; Sun, W. G.
2015-01-09
Plasma fueling with high efficiency and deep injection is very important to enable fusion power performance requirements. It is a powerful and efficient way to study neutral transport dynamics and find methods of improving the fueling performance by doing large scale simulations. Furthermore, two basic fueling methods, gas puffing (GP) and supersonic molecular beam injection (SMBI), are simulated and compared in realistic divertor geometry of the HL-2A tokamak with a newly developed module, named trans-neut, within the framework of BOUT++ boundary plasma turbulence code [Z. H. Wang et al., Nucl. Fusion 54, 043019 (2014)]. The physical model includes plasma density,more » heat and momentum transport equations along with neutral density, and momentum transport equations. In transport dynamics and profile evolutions of both plasma and neutrals are simulated and compared between GP and SMBI in both poloidal and radial directions, which are quite different from one and the other. It finds that the neutrals can penetrate about four centimeters inside the last closed (magnetic) flux surface during SMBI, while they are all deposited outside of the LCF during GP. Moreover, it is the radial convection and larger inflowing flux which lead to the deeper penetration depth of SMBI and higher fueling efficiency compared to GP.« less
Two-fluid simulations of galaxy formation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Evrard, August E.; Summers, F. J.; Davis, Marc
1994-01-01
We investigate the formation of galaxies and larger structure with a simulation modeling two gravitationally coupled fluids representing dark matter and baryons. The baryon gas dynamics are calculated with a smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method, and the physics modeled includes thermal pressure, shock heating, and radiative cooling. We simulate a 16 Mpc periodic cube with 64(exp 3) particles in each fluid and 10% baryon mass fraction. We confirm, for the first time experimentally, disk formation as a natural consequence of hierarchical clustering in a large-scale cosmological environment. The majority of isolated galaxies exhibit centrifugally supported disks. A power-law relation between cold baryonic mass and maximum rotation velocity is found, M varies as nu(sub rot)(exp alpha) with alpha = 2.5 after correcting for differential numerical resolution. Both the spatial and velocity distributions of the simulated galaxies are biased with respect to the dark matter. A counts-in-cells analysis indicates that an unphysical degree of merging in the central cluster is likely responsible for the antibias signal in the correlation function. A robust, scale-dependent velocity bias is measured. The ratio of galaxy to dark matter pairwise velocity dispersions on a scale of 1 Mpc is 0.7. The amplitude is only mildly dependent on redshift or mass cutoff and scales with separation as r(exp 0.2). The degree to which these results depend on numerical parameters is discussed. Mass resolution plays a key role in controlling the resulting fraction of cold, dense baryons. The mass fraction associated with galaxies decreases by a factor of approximately greater than 3 when the mass per particle is increased by a factor 8. Photoionization and energy input from supernova will have to be included to determine more carefully the fraction of highly dissipated material and the characteristics of the stellar component of galaxies.
A GPU Simulation Tool for Training and Optimisation in 2D Digital X-Ray Imaging
Gallio, Elena; Rampado, Osvaldo; Gianaria, Elena; Bianchi, Silvio Diego; Ropolo, Roberto
2015-01-01
Conventional radiology is performed by means of digital detectors, with various types of technology and different performance in terms of efficiency and image quality. Following the arrival of a new digital detector in a radiology department, all the staff involved should adapt the procedure parameters to the properties of the detector, in order to achieve an optimal result in terms of correct diagnostic information and minimum radiation risks for the patient. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a software capable of simulating a digital X-ray imaging system, using graphics processing unit computing. All radiological image components were implemented in this application: an X-ray tube with primary beam, a virtual patient, noise, scatter radiation, a grid and a digital detector. Three different digital detectors (two digital radiography and a computed radiography systems) were implemented. In order to validate the software, we carried out a quantitative comparison of geometrical and anthropomorphic phantom simulated images with those acquired. In terms of average pixel values, the maximum differences were below 15%, while the noise values were in agreement with a maximum difference of 20%. The relative trends of contrast to noise ratio versus beam energy and intensity were well simulated. Total calculation times were below 3 seconds for clinical images with pixel size of actual dimensions less than 0.2 mm. The application proved to be efficient and realistic. Short calculation times and the accuracy of the results obtained make this software a useful tool for training operators and dose optimisation studies. PMID:26545097
A GPU Simulation Tool for Training and Optimisation in 2D Digital X-Ray Imaging.
Gallio, Elena; Rampado, Osvaldo; Gianaria, Elena; Bianchi, Silvio Diego; Ropolo, Roberto
2015-01-01
Conventional radiology is performed by means of digital detectors, with various types of technology and different performance in terms of efficiency and image quality. Following the arrival of a new digital detector in a radiology department, all the staff involved should adapt the procedure parameters to the properties of the detector, in order to achieve an optimal result in terms of correct diagnostic information and minimum radiation risks for the patient. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a software capable of simulating a digital X-ray imaging system, using graphics processing unit computing. All radiological image components were implemented in this application: an X-ray tube with primary beam, a virtual patient, noise, scatter radiation, a grid and a digital detector. Three different digital detectors (two digital radiography and a computed radiography systems) were implemented. In order to validate the software, we carried out a quantitative comparison of geometrical and anthropomorphic phantom simulated images with those acquired. In terms of average pixel values, the maximum differences were below 15%, while the noise values were in agreement with a maximum difference of 20%. The relative trends of contrast to noise ratio versus beam energy and intensity were well simulated. Total calculation times were below 3 seconds for clinical images with pixel size of actual dimensions less than 0.2 mm. The application proved to be efficient and realistic. Short calculation times and the accuracy of the results obtained make this software a useful tool for training operators and dose optimisation studies. PMID:26545097
Kelly, Sinead; O'Rourke, Malachy
2012-04-01
This article describes the use of fluid, solid and fluid-structure interaction simulations on three patient-based abdominal aortic aneurysm geometries. All simulations were carried out using OpenFOAM, which uses the finite volume method to solve both fluid and solid equations. Initially a fluid-only simulation was carried out on a single patient-based geometry and results from this simulation were compared with experimental results. There was good qualitative and quantitative agreement between the experimental and numerical results, suggesting that OpenFOAM is capable of predicting the main features of unsteady flow through a complex patient-based abdominal aortic aneurysm geometry. The intraluminal thrombus and arterial wall were then included, and solid stress and fluid-structure interaction simulations were performed on this, and two other patient-based abdominal aortic aneurysm geometries. It was found that the solid stress simulations resulted in an under-estimation of the maximum stress by up to 5.9% when compared with the fluid-structure interaction simulations. In the fluid-structure interaction simulations, flow induced pressure within the aneurysm was found to be up to 4.8% higher than the value of peak systolic pressure imposed in the solid stress simulations, which is likely to be the cause of the variation in the stress results. In comparing the results from the initial fluid-only simulation with results from the fluid-structure interaction simulation on the same patient, it was found that wall shear stress values varied by up to 35% between the two simulation methods. It was concluded that solid stress simulations are adequate to predict the maximum stress in an aneurysm wall, while fluid-structure interaction simulations should be performed if accurate prediction of the fluid wall shear stress is necessary. Therefore, the decision to perform fluid-structure interaction simulations should be based on the particular variables of interest in a given
Real-time 2D floating-point fast Fourier transforms for seeker simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chamberlain, Richard; Lord, Eric; Shand, David J.
2002-07-01
The floating point Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) is one of the most useful basic functions available to the image and signal processing engineer allowing many complex and detailed special functions to be implemented more simply in the frequency domain. In the Hardware-in-the-Loop field an image transformed using FFT would allow the designer to think about accurate frequency based simulation of seeker lens effects, motion blur, detector transfer functions and much more. Unfortunately, the transform requires many hundreds of thousands or millions of floating point operations on a single modest sized image making it impractical for realtime Hardware-in-the-Loop systems. .until now. This paper outlines the development, by Nallatech, of an FPGA based IEEE floating point core. It traces the subsequent use of this core to develop a full 256 X 256 FFT and filter process implemented on COTS hardware at frame rates up to 150Hz. This transform can be demonstrated to model optical transfer functions at a far greater accuracy than the current spatial models. Other applications and extensions of this technique will be discussed such as filtering for image tracking algorithms and in the simulation of radar processing in the frequency domain.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cao, Jiang; Cresti, Alessandro; Esseni, David; Pala, Marco
2016-02-01
We simulate a band-to-band tunneling field-effect transistor based on a vertical heterojunction of single-layer MoS2 and WTe2, by exploiting the non-equilibrium Green's function method and including electron-phonon scattering. For both in-plane and out-of-plane transport, we attempt to calibrate out models to the few available experimental results. We focus on the role of chemical doping and back-gate biasing, and investigate the off-state physics of this device by analyzing the influence of the top-gate geometrical alignment on the device performance. The device scalability as a function of gate length is also studied. Finally, we present two metrics for the switching delay and energy of the device. Our simulations indicate that vertical field-effect transistors based on transition metal dichalcogenides can provide very small values of sub-threshold swing when properly designed in terms of doping concentration and top-gate extension length.
Gyrokinetic simulations of 2D magnetic reconnection turbulence in guide fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Terry, P. W.; Pueschel, M. J.; Jenko, F.; Zweibel, E.; Zhdankin, V.; Told, D.
2012-10-01
Following the analyses in [M.J. Pueschel et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 112102 (2011)], a study of turbulence in driven reconnection is commenced, with a sinusoidal current sheet providing the drive through a Krook-type operator in a bi-periodic box. Simulations with the Gene code cover all relevant physical parameters, allowing for encompassing comparisons with expectations from linear simulations. A central observed feature are coherent circular current structures which may be identified as plasmoids. These objects move randomly in the plane perpendicular to the guide field, and may either disappear again after some time or instead merge with one another---the setup can thus be described as turbulence driven by reconnection, but simultaneously creating its own reconnection. Such merger events are associated with large bursts in the heating rate jE, and display strong non-Maxwellian components of the distribution function in parallel velocity space. The plasmoid energetics are studied, as are their ability to produce populations of fast particles. Statistics of such populations are used to facilitate direct comparisons with astrophysical scenarios of energetic particle production.
Evans, T.E.; Leonard, A.W.; West, W.P.; Finkenthal, D.F.; Fenstermacher, M.E.; Porter, G.D.
1998-08-01
Experimentally measured carbon line emissions and total radiated power distributions from the DIII-D divertor and Scrape-Off Layer (SOL) are compared to those calculated with the Monte Carlo Impurity (MCI) model. A UEDGE background plasma is used in MCI with the Roth and Garcia-Rosales (RG-R) chemical sputtering model and/or one of six physical sputtering models. While results from these simulations do not reproduce all of the features seen in the experimentally measured radiation patterns, the total radiated power calculated in MCI is in relatively good agreement with that measured by the DIII-D bolometric system when the Smith78 physical sputtering model is coupled to RG-R chemical sputtering in an unaltered UEDGE plasma. Alternatively, MCI simulations done with UEDGE background ion temperatures along the divertor target plates adjusted to better match those measured in the experiment resulted in three physical sputtering models which when coupled to the RG-R model gave a total radiated power that was within 10% of measured value.
An IPOT meshless method using DC PSE approximation for fluid flow equations in 2D and 3D geometries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bourantas, G. C.; Loukopoulos, V. C.; Skouras, E. D.; Burganos, V. N.; Nikiforidis, G. C.
2016-06-01
Navier-Stokes (N-S) equations, in their primitive variable (u-v-p) formulation, are numerically solved using the Implicit Potential (IPOT) numerical scheme in the context of strong form Meshless Point Collocation (MPC) method. The unknown field functions are computed using the Discretization Correction Particle Strength Exchange (DC PSE) approximation method. The latter makes use of discrete moment conditions to derive the operator kernels, which leads to low condition number for the moment matrix compared to other meshless interpolation methods and increased stability for the numerical solution. The proposed meshless scheme is applied on 2D and 3D spatial domains, using uniform or irregular set of nodes to represent the domain. The numerical results obtained are compared against those obtained using well-established methods.
Thermal and Fluid Flow Brazing Simulations
HOSKING, FLOYD MICHAEL; GIANOULAKIS,STEVEN E.; GIVLER,RICHARD C.; SCHUNK,P. RANDALL
1999-12-15
The thermal response of fixtured parts in a batch-type brazing furnace can require numerous, time-consuming development runs before an acceptable furnace schedule or joint design is established. Powerful computational simulation tools are being developed to minimize the required number of verification experiments, improve furnace throughput, and increase product yields. Typical furnace simulations are based on thermal, fluid flow, and structural codes that incorporate the fundamental physics of the brazing process. The use of massively parallel computing to predict furnace and joint-level responses is presented. Measured and computed data are compared. Temperature values are within 1-270 of the expected peak brazing temperature for different loading conditions. Sensitivity studies reveal that the thermal response is more sensitive to the thermal boundary conditions of the heating enclosure than variability y in the materials data. Braze flow simulations predict fillet geometry and free surface joint defects. Dynamic wetting conditions, interfacial reactions, and solidification structure add a high degree of uncertainty to the flow results.
SIMULATION REAL SCALE EXPERIMENT ON LEVEE BREACH USING 2D SHALLOW FLOW MODEL
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zenno, Hiroki; Iwasaki, Toshiki; Shimizu, Yasuyuki; Kimura, Ichiro
Flood in rivers is a common disaster all over the world. If a levee breach happens, it sometimes causes a fatal disaster. In addition, many buildings, urban facilities, lifelines, etc. are seriously damaged. Detailed mechanism of a levee breach has not been clarified yet. Therefore, it is important to predict the collapsing process of riverbank and behavior of overtop flow for reducing damage. We applied a two-dimensional shallow flow computational model to levee breach phenomena caused by overflow and the performance of the model was elucidated. A calibration of the numerical model is made through the comparison with field experimental data. Recently, a real-scale experiment on a levee breach was carried out at the Chiyoda Experimental Channel in Hokkaido, Japan. We performed the computation under the same conditions in the experiment. The computational results showed the excellent performance for simulating levee breach phenomena.
Simulating HFIR Core Thermal Hydraulics Using 3D-2D Model Coupling
Travis, Adam R; Freels, James D; Ekici, Kivanc
2013-01-01
A model utilizing interdimensional variable coupling is presented for simulating the thermal hydraulic interactions of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) core at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The model s domain consists of a single, explicitly represented three-dimensional fuel plate and a simplified two-dimensional coolant channel slice. In simplifying the coolant channel, and thus the number of mesh points in which the Navier-Stokes equations must be solved, the computational cost and solution time are both greatly reduced. In order for the reduced-dimension coolant channel to interact with the explicitly represented fuel plate, however, interdimensional variable coupling must be enacted along all shared boundaries. The primary focus of this paper is in detailing the collection, storage, passage, and application of variables across this interdimensional interface. Comparisons are made showing the general speed-up associated with this simplified coupled model.
A hierarchical lattice spring model to simulate the mechanics of 2-D materials-based composites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brely, Lucas; Bosia, Federico; Pugno, Nicola
2015-07-01
In the field of engineering materials, strength and toughness are typically two mutually exclusive properties. Structural biological materials such as bone, tendon or dentin have resolved this conflict and show unprecedented damage tolerance, toughness and strength levels. The common feature of these materials is their hierarchical heterogeneous structure, which contributes to increased energy dissipation before failure occurring at different scale levels. These structural properties are the key to exceptional bioinspired material mechanical properties, in particular for nanocomposites. Here, we develop a numerical model in order to simulate the mechanisms involved in damage progression and energy dissipation at different size scales in nano- and macro-composites, which depend both on the heterogeneity of the material and on the type of hierarchical structure. Both these aspects have been incorporated into a 2-dimensional model based on a Lattice Spring Model, accounting for geometrical nonlinearities and including statistically-based fracture phenomena. The model has been validated by comparing numerical results to continuum and fracture mechanics results as well as finite elements simulations, and then employed to study how structural aspects impact on hierarchical composite material properties. Results obtained with the numerical code highlight the dependence of stress distributions on matrix properties and reinforcement dispersion, geometry and properties, and how failure of sacrificial elements is directly involved in the damage tolerance of the material. Thanks to the rapidly developing field of nanocomposite manufacture, it is already possible to artificially create materials with multi-scale hierarchical reinforcements. The developed code could be a valuable support in the design and optimization of these advanced materials, drawing inspiration and going beyond biological materials with exceptional mechanical properties.
NMR Mechanisms and Fluid Typing Based on Numerical Simulation in Gas-Bearing Shale
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tan, M.; Xu, J.; Wang, X.
2013-12-01
In Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) survey of oil- or gas-bearing shales, the relaxation is so fast and the diffusion is so low, and oil or gas typing is difficult to distinguish from each other using the previous analysis method. To study the NMR responses in gas-bearing shale, we supposed an ideal shale model including incredible water, free and adsorbed gas, and kerogen. Firstly, we supposed a series of ideal shale models with incredible water, free and adsorbed gas, and kerogen. Then, some simulations are performed for two-dimensional T2-D plots, and NMR characteristics are summarized successfully. Then, a series of simulations of different models with different adsorbed gas fractions are made, and the NMR responses are analyzed, from which we can identify the adsorbed gas and free gas. In inversion, a hybrid method with LSQR and TSVD is proved suitable for D-T2 NMR of gas shale with slow and fast diffusion, and short and long relaxation. It is noticed that the activation sequence of NMR is also important for accurate fluid typing in gas-bearing shale. We design a series of activation sequences, and simulate the corresponding NMR echo decays, and invert the fluid properties to search for an optimal activation sequence for fluid typing purpose. Figure 1 SEM picture and petrophysical model of organic shale. (a) 2D SEM shows pore and kerogen within shale. Black deposits pore, and dark gray is kerogen, light grey is matrix including clay and silica; (b) Petrophysical model Figure 2 Comparison of 2D-NMR simulations with different adsorbed gas fractions, (a) ɛ =0.0, (b) ɛ =0.2, (c) ɛ=0.4, t (d) ɛ =0.6, (e) ɛ =0.8, and (f) ɛ=1.0. From D-T2 plots, the position and amplitude of signals in T2-D plots indicate the fluid typing and fraction of the gas or adsorbed gas.
Ion Dynamics at a Rippled Quasi-parallel Shock: 2D Hybrid Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hao, Yufei; Lu, Quanming; Gao, Xinliang; Wang, Shui
2016-05-01
In this paper, two-dimensional hybrid simulations are performed to investigate ion dynamics at a rippled quasi-parallel shock. The results show that the ripples around the shock front are inherent structures of a quasi-parallel shock, and the re-formation of the shock is not synchronous along the surface of the shock front. By following the trajectories of the upstream ions, we find that these ions behave differently when they interact with the shock front at different positions along the shock surface. The upstream particles are transmitted more easily through the upper part of a ripple, and the corresponding bulk velocity downstream is larger, where a high-speed jet is formed. In the lower part of the ripple, the upstream particles tend to be reflected by the shock. Ions reflected by the shock may suffer multiple-stage acceleration when moving along the shock surface or trapped between the upstream waves and the shock front. Finally, these ions may escape further upstream or move downstream; therefore, superthermal ions can be found both upstream and downstream.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zimmerman, Michael I.; Farrell, W. M.; Snubbs, T. J.; Halekas, J. S.
2011-01-01
Anticipating the plasma and electrical environments in permanently shadowed regions (PSRs) of the moon is critical in understanding local processes of space weathering, surface charging, surface chemistry, volatile production and trapping, exo-ion sputtering, and charged dust transport. In the present study, we have employed the open-source XOOPIC code [I] to investigate the effects of solar wind conditions and plasma-surface interactions on the electrical environment in PSRs through fully two-dimensional pattic1e-in-cell simulations. By direct analogy with current understanding of the global lunar wake (e.g., references) deep, near-terminator, shadowed craters are expected to produce plasma "mini-wakes" just leeward of the crater wall. The present results (e.g., Figure I) are in agreement with previous claims that hot electrons rush into the crater void ahead of the heavier ions, fanning a negative cloud of charge. Charge separation along the initial plasma-vacuum interface gives rise to an ambipolar electric field that subsequently accelerates ions into the void. However, the situation is complicated by the presence of the dynamic lunar surface, which develops an electric potential in response to local plasma currents (e.g., Figure Ia). In some regimes, wake structure is clearly affected by the presence of the charged crater floor as it seeks to achieve current balance (i.e. zero net current to the surface).
KEEN and KEEPN wave simulations from 2D to 4D
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mehrenberger, Michel; Afeyan, Bedros; Larson, David; Crouseilles, Nicolas; Casas, Fernando; Faou, Erwan; Dodhy, Adila; Sonnendrucker, Eric; Shoucri, Magdi
2015-11-01
We show for well-driven KEEN (Kinetic Electrostatic Electron Nonlinear) waves and their analogs in pair plasmas KEEPN (Positron) waves, how the dynamics is captured in a variety of complimentary numerical approaches. Symplectic integration and quadrature node based techniques are deployed to achieve satisfactory results in the long time evolution of highly nonlinear, kinetic, non-stationary, self-organized structures in phase space. Fixed and composite velocity grid arbitrary-order interpolation approaches have advantages we highlight. Adaptivity to local phase space density morphological structures will be discussed starting within the framework of the Shape Function Kinetics (SFK) approach. Fine resolution in velocity only in the range affected by KEEN waves makes for more efficient simulations, especially in higher dimensions. We explore the parameter space of unequal electron and positron temperatures as well as the effects of a relative drift velocity in their initial conditions. Ponderomotively driven KEEPN waves have many novelties when compared to KEEN waves, such as double, staggered, vortex structures, which we highlight. Work supported by the AFOSR and OFES.
A New Simulation Algorithm Combining Fluid and Kinetic Properties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Larson, David; Hewett, Dennis
2007-11-01
Complex Particle Kinetics (CPK) [1,2] uses particles with internal degrees of freedom in an effort to simulate the transition between continuum and kinetic dynamics. Recent work [3] has provided a new path towards extending the adaptive particle capabilities of CPK. The resulting algorithm bridges the gap between fluid and kinetic regimes. The method uses an ensemble of macro-particles with a Gaussian spatial profile and a Mawellian velocity distribution to represent particle distributions in phase space. In addition to the standard PIC quantities of location, drift velocity, mass, and charge, the macro-particles also carry width, thermal velocity, and an internal velocity. The particle shape, internal velocity, and drift velocity respond to internal and eternal forces. The particles can contract, expand, rotate, and pass through one another. The algorithm allows arbitrary collisionality and functions effectively in the collision-dominated limit. We will present details of the algorithm as well as the results from several simulations. [1] D. W. Hewett, J. Comp. Phys. 189 (2003). [2] D. J. Larson, J. Comp. Phys. 188 (2003). [3] C. Gauger, et.al., SIAM J. Numer. Anal. 37 (2000).
Origin of energetic ions observed in the terrestrial ion foreshock : 2D full-particle simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Savoini, Philippe; Lembege, bertrand
2016-04-01
Collisionless shocks are well-known structures in astrophysical environments which dissipate bulk flow kinetic energy and accelerate large fraction of particle. Spacecrafts have firmly established the existence of the so-called terrestrial foreshock region magnetically connected to the shock and filled by two distinct populations in the quasi-perpendicular shock region (i.e. for 45r{ } ≤ quad θ Bn quad ≤ 90r{ }, where θ Bn is the angle between the shock normal and the upstream magnetic field) : (i) the field-aligned ion beams or `` FAB '' characterized by a gyrotropic distributionsout{,} and (ii) the gyro-phase bunched ions or `` GPB '' characterized by a NON gyrotropic distribution. The present work is based on the use of two dimensional PIC simulation of a curved shock and associated foreshock region where full curvature effects, time of flight effects and both electrons and ions dynamics are fully described by a self consistent approach. Our previous analysis (Savoini et Lembège, 2015) has evidenced that these two types of backstreaming populations can originate from the shock front itself without invoking any local diffusion by ion beam instabilities. Present results are focussed on individual ion trajectories and evidence that "FAB" population is injected into the foreshock mainly along the shock front whereas the "GPB" population penetrates more deeply the shock front. Such differences explain why the "FAB" population loses their gyro-phase coherency and become gyrotropic which is not the case for the "GPB". The impact of these different injection features on the energy gain for each ion population will be presented in détails. Savoini, P. and B. Lembège (2015), `` Production of nongyrotropic and gyrotropic backstreaming ion distributions in the quasi-perpendicular ion foreshock région '', J. Geophys. Res., 120, pp 7154-7171, doi = 10.1002/2015JA021018.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dages, Cecile; Samouelian, Anatja; Lanoix, Marthe; Dollinger, Jeanne; Chakkour, Sara; Chovelon, Gabrielle; Trabelsi, Khouloud; Voltz, Marc
2015-04-01
Ditches are involved in the transfer of pesticide to surface and groundwaters (e.g. Louchart et al., 2001). Soil horizons underlying ditch beds may present specific soil characteristics compared to neighbouring field soils due to erosion/deposition processes, to the specific biological activities (rooting dynamic and animal habitat) in the ditches (e.g. Vaughan et al., 2008) and to management practices (burning, dredging, mowing,...). Moreover, in contrast to percolation processes in field soils that can be assumed to be mainly 1D vertical, those occurring in the ditch beds are by essence 2D or even 3D. Nevertheless, due to a lake of knowledge, these specific aspects of transfer within ditch beds are generally omitted for hydrological simulation at the catchment scale (Mottes et al., 2014). Accordingly, the aims of this study were i) to characterize subsurface solute transfer through ditch beds and ii) to determine equivalent hydraulic parameters of the ditch beds for use in catchment scale hydrological simulations. A complementary aim was to evaluate the error in predictions performed when percolation in ditches is assumed to be similar to that in the neighbouring field soil. First, bromide transfer experiments were performed on undisturbed soil column (15 cm long with a 15 cm inner-diameter), horizontally and vertically sampled within each soil horizon underlying a ditch bed and within the neighboring field. Columns were sampled at the Roujan catchment (Hérault, France), which belongs to the long term Mediterranean hydrological observatory OMERE (Voltz and Albergel, 2002). Second, for each column, a set of parameters was determined by inverse optimization with mobile-immobile or dual permeability models, with CXTFIT (Toride et al., 1999) or with HYDRUS (Simunek et al., 1998). Third, infiltration and percolation in the ditch was simulated by a 2D flow domain approach considering the 2D variation in hydraulic properties of the cross section of a ditch bed. Last
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campforts, Benjamin; Vanacker, Veerle; Vanderborght, Jan; Baken, Stijn; Smolders, Erik; Govers, Gerard
2016-04-01
Meteoric 10Be allows for the quantification of vertical and lateral soil fluxes over long time scales (103-105 yr). However, the mobility of meteoric 10Be in the soil system makes a translation of meteoric 10Be inventories into erosion and deposition rates complex. Here, we present a spatially explicit 2D model simulating the behaviour of meteoric 10Be on a hillslope. The model consists of two parts. The first component deals with advective and diffusive mobility of meteoric 10Be within the soil profile, and the second component describes lateral soil and meteoric 10Be fluxes over the hillslope. Soil depth is calculated dynamically, accounting for soil production through weathering as well as downslope fluxes of soil due to creep, water and tillage erosion. Synthetic model simulations show that meteoric 10Be inventories can be related to erosion and deposition across a wide range of geomorphological and pedological settings. Our results also show that meteoric 10Be can be used as a tracer to detect human impact on soil fluxes for soils with a high affinity for meteoric 10Be. However, the quantification of vertical mobility is essential for a correct interpretation of the observed variations in meteoric 10Be profiles and inventories. Application of the Be2D model to natural conditions using data sets from the Southern Piedmont (Bacon et al., 2012) and Appalachian Mountains (Jungers et al., 2009; West et al., 2013) allows to reliably constrain parameter values. Good agreement between simulated and observed meteoric 10Be concentrations and inventories is obtained with realistic parameter values. Furthermore, our results provide detailed insights into the processes redistributing meteoric 10Be at the soil-hillslope scale.
Molecular dynamics simulations of microscale fluid transport
Wong, C.C.; Lopez, A.R.; Stevens, M.J.; Plimpton, S.J.
1998-02-01
Recent advances in micro-science and technology, like Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS), have generated a group of unique liquid flow problems that involve characteristic length scales of a Micron. Also, in manufacturing processes such as coatings, current continuum models are unable to predict microscale physical phenomena that appear in these non-equilibrium systems. It is suspected that in these systems, molecular-level processes can control the interfacial energy and viscoelastic properties at the liquid/solid boundary. A massively parallel molecular dynamics (MD) code has been developed to better understand microscale transport mechanisms, fluid-structure interactions, and scale effects in micro-domains. Specifically, this MD code has been used to analyze liquid channel flow problems for a variety of channel widths, e.g. 0.005-0.05 microns. This report presents results from MD simulations of Poiseuille flow and Couette flow problems and addresses both scaling and modeling issues. For Poiseuille flow, the numerical predictions are compared with existing data to investigate the variation of the friction factor with channel width. For Couette flow, the numerical predictions are used to determine the degree of slip at the liquid/solid boundary. Finally, the results also indicate that shear direction with respect to the wall lattice orientation can be very important. Simulation results of microscale Couette flow and microscale Poiseuille flow for two different surface structures and two different shear directions will be presented.
FireStem2D – A Two-Dimensional Heat Transfer Model for Simulating Tree Stem Injury in Fires
Chatziefstratiou, Efthalia K.; Bohrer, Gil; Bova, Anthony S.; Subramanian, Ravishankar; Frasson, Renato P. M.; Scherzer, Amy; Butler, Bret W.; Dickinson, Matthew B.
2013-01-01
FireStem2D, a software tool for predicting tree stem heating and injury in forest fires, is a physically-based, two-dimensional model of stem thermodynamics that results from heating at the bark surface. It builds on an earlier one-dimensional model (FireStem) and provides improved capabilities for predicting fire-induced mortality and injury before a fire occurs by resolving stem moisture loss, temperatures through the stem, degree of bark charring, and necrotic depth around the stem. We present the results of numerical parameterization and model evaluation experiments for FireStem2D that simulate laboratory stem-heating experiments of 52 tree sections from 25 trees. We also conducted a set of virtual sensitivity analysis experiments to test the effects of unevenness of heating around the stem and with aboveground height using data from two studies: a low-intensity surface fire and a more intense crown fire. The model allows for improved understanding and prediction of the effects of wildland fire on injury and mortality of trees of different species and sizes. PMID:23894599
A volume of fluid method for simulating fluid/fluid interfaces in contact with solid boundaries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mahady, Kyle; Afkhami, Shahriar; Kondic, Lou
2015-08-01
In this paper, we present a novel approach to model the fluid/solid interaction forces in a direct solver of the Navier-Stokes equations based on the volume of fluid interface tracking method. The key ingredient of the model is the explicit inclusion of the fluid/solid interaction forces into the governing equations. We show that the interaction forces lead to a partial wetting condition and in particular to a natural definition of the equilibrium contact angle. We present two numerical methods to discretize the interaction forces that enter the model; these two approaches differ in complexity and convergence. To validate the computational framework, we consider the application of these models to simulate two-dimensional drops at equilibrium, as well as drop spreading. We demonstrate that the model, by including the underlying physics, captures contact line dynamics for arbitrary contact angles. More generally, the approach permits novel means to study contact lines, as well as a diverse range of phenomena that previously could not be addressed in direct simulations.
Two-Phase Acto-Cytosolic Fluid Flow in a Moving Keratocyte: A 2D Continuum Model.
Nikmaneshi, M R; Firoozabadi, B; Saidi, M S
2015-09-01
The F-actin network and cytosol in the lamellipodia of crawling cells flow in a centripetal pattern and spout-like form, respectively. We have numerically studied this two-phase flow in the realistic geometry of a moving keratocyte. Cytosol has been treated as a low viscosity Newtonian fluid flowing through the high viscosity porous medium of F-actin network. Other involved phenomena including myosin activity, adhesion friction, and interphase interaction are also discussed to provide an overall view of this problem. Adopting a two-phase coupled model by myosin concentration, we have found new accurate perspectives of acto-cytosolic flow and pressure fields, myosin distribution, as well as the distribution of effective forces across the lamellipodia of a keratocyte with stationary shape. The order of magnitude method is also used to determine the contribution of forces in the internal dynamics of lamellipodia. PMID:26403420
Analysis of Highly-Resolved Simulations of 2-D Humps Toward Improvement of Second-Moment Closures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jeyapaul, Elbert; Rumsey Christopher
2013-01-01
Fully resolved simulation data of flow separation over 2-D humps has been used to analyze the modeling terms in second-moment closures of the Reynolds-averaged Navier- Stokes equations. Existing models for the pressure-strain and dissipation terms have been analyzed using a priori calculations. All pressure-strain models are incorrect in the high-strain region near separation, although a better match is observed downstream, well into the separated-flow region. Near-wall inhomogeneity causes pressure-strain models to predict incorrect signs for the normal components close to the wall. In a posteriori computations, full Reynolds stress and explicit algebraic Reynolds stress models predict the separation point with varying degrees of success. However, as with one- and two-equation models, the separation bubble size is invariably over-predicted.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kwan, Thomas; Huang, Chengkun; Carlsten, Bruce
2012-10-01
Understanding CSR effects in a bunch compressor requires accurate and self-consistent dynamical simulations accounting for the realistic beam shape and parameters, transient dynamics and possibly a material boundary. We first extend the well-known 1D CSR model into two dimensions and develop a simple numerical algorithm based on the Lienard-Wiechert formula for the electric field of a stiff beam. This numerical model includes the 2D spatial dependence of the field in the bending plane and is accurate for arbitrary beam energy. It also removes the singularity in space charge field presented in a 1D model. Good agreement is obtained with 1D CSR analytic [1] result for FEL related beam parameters but deviations are also found for low-energy or large spot size beams and off-axis fields. We also employ fully electromagnetic Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulations for self-consistent CSR modeling. The relatively large numerical phase error and anisotropy in a standard PIC algorithm is improved with a high order Finite Difference Time Domain scheme. Detail self-consistent PIC simulations of the CSR fields and beam dynamics will be presented and discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, K.; You, Y.; Noblesse, F.
2016-07-01
Experiments are conducted in a linear stratified fluid with a momentum source modeled via a nozzle jet moving horizontally. The generation mechanism of the quasi-two-dimensional dipolar vortex streets is investigated and their evolution characteristics are analyzed. Observation shows that the formation of a dipolar vortex street requires a nonzero motion of the nozzle in addition to conditions of the Reynolds and Froude number (Re, Fr). The (Re, Fr) condition that the dipolar vortex streets can be generated is determined via experimental measurements. The explanation for the absence of such a vortex street can be the low energy of the jet and the strong body-effect disturbance of the solid nozzle. The dependence of the vortex street dimensionless formation time τ and the Strouhal number St on the Froude number Fr or the Reynolds number Re is analyzed. This analysis shows that τ and St appear to be independent of Re and approximately have power-law relations with Fr via data fitting. The exponents of Fr in the two power-law functions are -0.27 for τ and -0.21 for St, while the constant coefficients are 65 and 0.21.
Parallel simulation of subsonic fluid dynamics on a cluster of workstations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Skordos, Panayotis A.
1994-11-01
An effective approach of simulating fluid dynamics on a cluster of non-dedicated workstations is presented. The approach uses local interaction algorithms, small communication capacity, and automatic migration of parallel processes from busy hosts to free hosts. The approach is well-suited for simulating subsonic flow problems which involve both hydrodynamics and acoustic waves, for example, the flow of air inside wind musical instruments. Typical simulations achieve 80% parallel efficiency (speedup/processors) using 20 HP-Apollo workstations. Detailed measurements of the parallel efficiency of 2D and 3D simulations are presented, and a theoretical model of efficiency is developed which fits closely the measurements. Two numerical methods of fluid dynamics are tested: explicit finite differences, and the lattice Boltzmann method.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schiettekatte, François; Chicoine, Martin
2016-03-01
Corteo is a program that implements Monte Carlo (MC) method to simulate ion beam analysis (IBA) spectra of several techniques by following the ions trajectory until a sufficiently large fraction of them reach the detector to generate a spectrum. Hence, it fully accounts for effects such as multiple scattering (MS). Here, a version of Corteo is presented where the target can be a 2D or 3D image. This image can be derived from micrographs where the different compounds are identified, therefore bringing extra information into the solution of an IBA spectrum, and potentially significantly constraining the solution. The image intrinsically includes many details such as the actual surface or interfacial roughness, or actual nanostructures shape and distribution. This can for example lead to the unambiguous identification of structures stoichiometry in a layer, or at least to better constraints on their composition. Because MC computes in details the trajectory of the ions, it simulates accurately many of its aspects such as ions coming back into the target after leaving it (re-entry), as well as going through a variety of nanostructures shapes and orientations. We show how, for example, as the ions angle of incidence becomes shallower than the inclination distribution of a rough surface, this process tends to make the effective roughness smaller in a comparable 1D simulation (i.e. narrower thickness distribution in a comparable slab simulation). Also, in ordered nanostructures, target re-entry can lead to replications of a peak in a spectrum. In addition, bitmap description of the target can be used to simulate depth profiles such as those resulting from ion implantation, diffusion, and intermixing. Other improvements to Corteo include the possibility to interpolate the cross-section in angle-energy tables, and the generation of energy-depth maps.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nissen-Meyer, Tarje; Fournier, Alexandre; Dahlen, F. A.
2008-09-01
We portray a dedicated spectral-element method to solve the elastodynamic wave equation upon spherically symmetric earth models at the expense of a 2-D domain. Using this method, 3-D wavefields of arbitrary resolution may be computed to obtain Fréchet sensitivity kernels, especially for diffracted arrivals. The meshing process is presented for varying frequencies in terms of its efficiency as measured by the total number of elements, their spacing variations and stability criteria. We assess the mesh quantitatively by defining these numerical parameters in a general non-dimensionalized form such that comparisons to other grid-based methods are straightforward. Efficient-mesh generation for the PREM example and a minimum-messaging domain decomposition and parallelization strategy lay foundations for waveforms up to frequencies of 1 Hz on moderate PC clusters. The discretization of fluid, solid and respective boundary regions is similar to previous spectral-element implementations, save for a fluid potential formulation that incorporates the density, thereby yielding identical boundary terms on fluid and solid sides. We compare the second-order Newmark time extrapolation scheme with a newly implemented fourth-order symplectic scheme and argue in favour of the latter in cases of propagation over many wavelengths due to drastic accuracy improvements. Various validation examples such as full moment-tensor seismograms, wavefield snapshots, and energy conservation illustrate the favourable behaviour and potential of the method.
Automated Fluid Feature Extraction from Transient Simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Haimes, Robert
1998-01-01
In the past, feature extraction and identification were interesting concepts, but not required to understand the underlying physics of a steady flow field. This is because the results of the more traditional tools like iso-surfaces, cuts and streamlines were more interactive and easily abstracted so they could be represented to the investigator. These tools worked and properly conveyed the collected information at the expense of much interaction. For unsteady flow-fields, the investigator does not have the luxury of spending time scanning only one 'snap-shot' of the simulation. Automated assistance is required in pointing out areas of potential interest contained within the flow. This must not require a heavy compute burden (the visualization should not significantly slow down the solution procedure for co-processing environments like pV3). And methods must be developed to abstract the feature and display it in a manner that physically makes sense. The following is a list of the important physical phenomena found in transient (and steady-state) fluid flow: Shocks; Vortex ores; Regions of Recirculation; Boundary Layers; Wakes.
Fully nonlinear simulation for fluid/structure impact: A review
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Shili; Wu, Guoxiong
2014-09-01
This paper presents a review of the work on fluid/structure impact based on inviscid and imcompressible liquid and irrotational flow. The focus is on the velocity potential theory together with boundary element method (BEM). Fully nonlinear boundary conditions are imposed on the unknown free surface and the wetted surface of the moving body. The review includes (1) vertical and oblique water entry of a body at constant or a prescribed varying speed, as well as free fall motion, (2) liquid droplets or column impact as well as wave impact on a body, (3) similarity solution of an expanding body. It covers two dimensional (2D), axisymmetric and three dimensional (3D) cases. Key techniques used in the numerical simulation are outlined, including mesh generation on the multivalued free surface, the stretched coordinate system for expanding domain, the auxiliary function method for decoupling the mutual dependence of the pressure and the body motion, and treatment for the jet or the thin liquid film developed during impact.
Fluid spray simulation with two-fluid nozzles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ingebo, Robert D.
1988-01-01
Two-phase interacting flow inside a two-fluid fuel atomizer was investigated and a correction of aerodynamic and liquid-surface forces with characteristic drop diameter was obtained for liquid-jet breakup in Mach 1 gas flow. Nitrogen gas mass-flux was varied from 6 to 50 g/sq cm sec by using four differently sized two-fluid atomizers with nozzle diameters varyig from 0.32 to 0.56 cm. The correlation was derived by using the acoustic gas velocity, V sub c, as a basic parameter in defining and evaluating the dimensionless product of the Weber (We) and Reynolds (Re) numbers. By using the definition of WeRe, it was found that the ratio of orifice diameter to Sauter mean drop diameter could be correlated with the dimensionless ratio WeRe and the gas to liquid density ratio.
2D simulation of active species and ozone production in a multi-tip DC air corona discharge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meziane, M.; Eichwald, O.; Sarrette, J. P.; Ducasse, O.; Yousfi, M.
2011-11-01
The present paper shows for the first time in the literature a complete 2D simulation of the ozone production in a DC positive multi-tip to plane corona discharge reactor crossed by a dry air flow at atmospheric pressure. The simulation is undertaken until 1 ms and involves tens of successive discharge and post-discharge phases. The air flow is stressed by several monofilament corona discharges generated by a maximum of four anodic tips distributed along the reactor. The nonstationary hydrodynamics model for reactive gas mixture is solved using the commercial FLUENT software. During each discharge phase, thermal and vibrational energies as well as densities of radical and metastable excited species are locally injected as source terms in the gas medium surrounding each tip. The chosen chemical model involves 10 neutral species reacting following 24 reactions. The obtained results allow us to follow the cartography of the temperature and the ozone production inside the corona reactor as a function of the number of high voltage anodic tips.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jia, Xiaojie; Ai, Bin; Deng, Youjun; Xu, Xinxiang; Peng, Hua; Shen, Hui
2015-08-01
On the basis of perfect PC2D simulation to the measured current density vs voltage (J-V) curve of the best selective emitter (SE) solar cell fabricated by the CSG Company using the screen printing phosphoric paste method, we systematically investigated the effect of the parameters of gridline, base, selective emitter, back surface field (BSF) layer and surface recombination rate on performance of the SE solar cell. Among these parameters, we identified that the base minority carrier lifetime, the front and back surface recombination rate and the ratio of the sheet-resistance of heavily and lightly doped region are the four largest efficiency-affecting factors. If all the parameters have ideal values, the SE solar cell fabricated on a p-type monocrystalline silicon wafer can even obtain the efficiency of 20.45%. In addition, the simulation also shows that fine gridline combining dense gridline and increasing bus bar number while keeping the lower area ratio can offer the other ways to improve the efficiency.
Simulations of P-SV wave scattering due to cracks by the 2-D finite difference method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suzuki, Yuji; Shiina, Takahiro; Kawahara, Jun; Okamoto, Taro; Miyashita, Kaoru
2013-12-01
We simulate P-SV wave scattering by 2-D parallel cracks using the finite difference method (FDM). Here, special emphasis is put on simplicity; we apply a standard FDM (second-order velocity-stress scheme with a staggered grid) to media including traction-free, infinitesimally thin cracks, which are expressed in a simple manner. As an accuracy test of the present method, we calculate the displacement discontinuity along an isolated crack caused by harmonic waves using the method, which is compared with the corresponding results based on a reliable boundary integral equation method. The test resultantly indicates that the present method yields sufficient accuracy. As an application of this method, we also simulate wave propagation in media with randomly distributed cracks. We experimentally determine the attenuation and velocity dispersion induced by scattering from the synthetic seismograms, using a waveform averaging technique. It is shown that the results are well explained by a theory based on the Foldy approximation, if the crack density is sufficiently low. The theory appears valid with a crack density up to at least 0.1 for SV wave incidence, whereas the validity limit appears lower for P wave incidence.
Lappala, E.G.; Healy, R.W.; Weeks, E.P.
1987-01-01
This report documents FORTRAN computer code for solving problems involving variably saturated single-phase flow in porous media. The flow equation is written with total hydraulic potential as the dependent variable, which allows straightforward treatment of both saturated and unsaturated conditions. The spatial derivatives in the flow equation are approximated by central differences, and time derivatives are approximated either by a fully implicit backward or by a centered-difference scheme. Nonlinear conductance and storage terms may be linearized using either an explicit method or an implicit Newton-Raphson method. Relative hydraulic conductivity is evaluated at cell boundaries by using either full upstream weighting, the arithmetic mean, or the geometric mean of values from adjacent cells. Nonlinear boundary conditions treated by the code include infiltration, evaporation, and seepage faces. Extraction by plant roots that is caused by atmospheric demand is included as a nonlinear sink term. These nonlinear boundary and sink terms are linearized implicitly. The code has been verified for several one-dimensional linear problems for which analytical solutions exist and against two nonlinear problems that have been simulated with other numerical models. A complete listing of data-entry requirements and data entry and results for three example problems are provided. (USGS)
Scaglione, S; Wendt, D; Miggino, S; Papadimitropoulos, A; Fato, M; Quarto, R; Martin, I
2008-08-01
In this study, we investigated the effect of the long-term (10 days) application of a defined and uniform level of fluid flow (uniform shear stress of 1.2 x 10(-3) N/m(2)) on human bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) cultured on different substrates (i.e., uncoated glass or calcium phosphate coated glass, Osteologictrade mark) in a 2D parallel plate model. Both exposure to flow and culture on Osteologic significantly reduced the number of cell doublings. BMSC cultured under flow were more intensely stained for collagen type I and by von Kossa for mineralized matrix. BMSC exposed to flow displayed an increased osteogenic commitment (i.e., higher mRNA expression of cbfa-1 and osterix), although phenotype changes in response to flow (i.e., mRNA expression of osteopontin, osteocalcin and bone sialoprotein) were dependent on the substrate used. These findings highlight the importance of the combination of physical forces and culture substrate to determine the functional state of differentiating osteoblastic cells. The results obtained using a simple and controlled 2D model system may help to interpret the long-term effects of BMSC culture under perfusion within 3D porous scaffolds, where multiple experimental variables cannot be easily studied independently, and shear stresses cannot be precisely computed. PMID:17969030
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Llanes, F.; dela Resma, M.; Ferrer, P.; Realino, V.; Aquino, D. T.; Eco, R. C.; Lagmay, A.
2013-12-01
From November 14 to December 3, 2004, Luzon Island was ravaged by 4 successive typhoons: Typhoon Mufia, Tropical Storm Merbok, Tropical Depression Winnie, and Super Typhoon Nanmadol. Tropical Depression Winnie was the most destructive of the four when it triggered landslides on November 29 that devastated the municipalities of Infanta, General Nakar, and Real in Quezon Province, southeast Luzon. Winnie formed east of Central Luzon on November 27 before it moved west-northwestward over southeastern Luzon on November 29. A total of 1,068 lives were lost and more than USD 170 million worth of damages to crops and infrastructure were incurred from the landslides triggered by Typhoon Winnie on November 29 and the flooding caused by the 4 typhoons. FLO-2D, a flood routing software for generating flood and debris flow hazard maps, was utilized to simulate the debris flows that could potentially affect the study area. Based from the rainfall intensity-duration-frequency analysis, the cumulative rainfall from typhoon Winnie on November 29 which was approximately 342 mm over a 9-hour period was classified within a 100-year return period. The Infanta station of the Philippine Atmospheric Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) was no longer able to measure the amount of rainfall after this period because the rain gauge in that station was washed away by floods. Rainfall data with a 100-year return period was simulated over the watersheds delineated from a SAR-derived digital elevation model. The resulting debris flow hazard map was compared with results from field investigation and previous studies made on the landslide event. The simulation identified 22 barangays (villages) with a total of 45,155 people at risk of turbulent flow and flooding.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martowicz, A.; Ruzzene, M.; Staszewski, W. J.; Rimoli, J. J.; Uhl, T.
2014-03-01
The work deals with the reduction of numerical dispersion in simulations of wave propagation in solids. The phenomenon of numerical dispersion naturally results from time and spatial discretization present in a numerical model of mechanical continuum. Although discretization itself makes possible to model wave propagation in structures with complicated geometries and made of different materials, it inevitably causes simulation errors when improper time and length scales are chosen for the simulations domains. Therefore, by definition, any characteristic parameter for spatial and time resolution must create limitations on maximal wavenumber and frequency for a numerical model. It should be however noted that expected increase of the model quality and its functionality in terms of affordable wavenumbers, frequencies and speeds should not be achieved merely by denser mesh and reduced time integration step. The computational cost would be simply unacceptable. The authors present a nonlocal finite difference scheme with the coefficients calculated applying a Fourier series, which allows for considerable reduction of numerical dispersion. There are presented the results of analyses for 2D models, with isotropic and anisotropic materials, fulfilling the planar stress state. Reduced numerical dispersion is shown in the dispersion surfaces for longitudinal and shear waves propagating for different directions with respect to the mesh orientation and without dramatic increase of required number of nonlocal interactions. A case with the propagation of longitudinal wave in composite material is studied with given referential solution of the initial value problem for verification of the time-domain outcomes. The work gives a perspective of modeling of any type of real material dispersion according to measurements and with assumed accuracy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Machado, Christiano B.; Pereira, Wagner C. A.; Padilla, Frédéric; Laugier, Pascal
2012-05-01
Ultrasound axial transmission (UAT) has been proposed to the diagnosis and follow-up of fracture healing. Some researchers have already pointed out the influence of fracture length, geometry and callus composition on the ultrasound time-of-flight and attenuation, with experimental and simulation studies. The aim of this work was to develop a pilot study on the effect of bone fracture unevenness on UAT measurements. Two-dimensional (2D) numerical simulations of ultrasound wave propagation were run using a custom-made finite-difference time domain code (SimSonic2D). Numerical models were composed of two 4-mm thick bone plates, with fracture lengths varying from 0 to 4 mm. For each case, an upward (UWun) and downward (DWun) unevenness of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mm was implemented in the second plate. The 1-MHz emitter and receptor transducers were placed at 40 mm from each other, 20 mm apart from the center fracture. Two configurations were considered: 1.5 mm above the plates (for the 0-mm unevenness case) and transducers in contact with bone plate. For each situation, the time-of-flight of the first arriving signal (TOFFAS) and the FAS energy amplitude loss measured by the sound pressure level (SPLFAS) were computed. Results showed that there was a linear increase in TOFFAS with increasing fracture length, and a decrease of SPLFAS with the presence of a discontinuity. TOFFAS values were decreased with UWun (-0.87 μs for UWun = 1.5 mm), and increased with DWun (+0.99 μs for DWun = 1.5 mm). The SPLFAS increased with both UWun (+3.54 dB for UWun = 1.5 mm) and DWun (+8.15 dB for DWun = 1.5 mm). Both parameters showed the same variability. When transducers were put in contact with bone surface, fracture unevenness had no influence on TOF and SPL estimates. Previous works have already demonstrated that a fracture of 3 mm can increase TOFFAS in an order of 1 μs. Considering these preliminary results, it can be concluded that, although the variable fracture unevenness (until 1
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Xi; Showman, Adam P.
2015-11-01
Most of the current atmospheric chemistry models for planets (e.g., Krasnopolsky & Parshev 1981; Yung & Demore 1982; Yung, Allen & Pinto 1984; Lavvas et al. 2008; Zhang et al. 2012) and exoplanets (e.g., Line, Liang & Yung 2010; Moses et al. 2011; Hu & Seager 2014) adopt a one-dimensional (1D) chemical-diffusion approach in the vertical coordinate. Although only a crude approximation, these 1D models have succeeded in explaining the global-averaged vertical profiles of many chemical species in observations. One of the important assumptions of these models is that all chemical species are transported via the same eddy diffusion profile--that is, the assumption is made that the eddy diffusivity is a fundamental property of the dynamics alone, and does not depend on the chemistry. Here we show that, as also noticed in the Earth community (e.g., Holton 1986), this “homogenous eddy diffusion” assumption generally breaks down. We first show analytically why the 1D eddy diffusivity must generally depend both on the horizontal eddy mixing and the chemical lifetime of the species. This implies that the long-lived species and short-lived chemical species will generally exhibit different eddy diffusion profiles, even in a given atmosphere with identical dynamics. Next, we present tracer-transport simulations in a 2D chemical-diffusion-advection model (Shia et al. 1989; Zhang, Shia & Yung 2013) and a 3D general circulation model (MITgcm, e.g., Liu & Showman 2013), for both rapid-rotating planets and tidally-locked exoplanets, to further explore the effect of chemical timescales on the eddy diffusivity. From the 2D and 3D simulation outputs, we derive effective 1D eddy diffusivity profiles for chemical tracers exhibiting a range of chemical timescales. We show that the derived eddy diffusivity can depend strongly on the horizontal eddy mixing and chemistry, although the dependences are more complex than the analytic model predicts. Overall, these results suggest that
On the accuracy of simulations of a 2D boundary layer with RANS models implemented in OpenFoam
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Graves, Benjamin J.; Gomez, Sebastian; Poroseva, Svetlana V.
2013-11-01
The OpenFoam software is an attractive Computational Fluid Dynamics solver for evaluating new turbulence models due to the open-source nature, and the suite of existing standard model implementations. Before interpreting results obtained with a new model, a baseline for performance of the OpenFoam solver and existing models is required. In the current study we analyze the RANS models in the OpenFoam incompressible solver for two planar (two-dimensional mean flow) benchmark cases generated by the AIAA Turbulence Model Benchmarking Working Group (TMBWG): a zero-pressure-gradient flat plate and a bump-in-channel. The OpenFoam results are compared against both experimental data and simulation results obtained with the NASA CFD codes CFL3D and FUN3D. Sensitivity of simulation results to the grid resolution and model implementation are analyzed. Testing is conducted using the Spalart-Allmaras one-equation model, Wilcox's two-equation k-omega model, and the Launder-Reece-Rodi Reynolds-stress model. Simulations using both wall functions and wall-resolved (low Reynolds number) formulations are considered. The material is based upon work supported by NASA under award NNX12AJ61A.
Geochemical simulations on CO2-fluid-rock interactions in EGS reservoirs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pan, F.; McPherson, B. J.; Lichtner, P. C.; Kaszuba, J. P.; Lo Re, C.; Karra, S.; Lu, C.; Xu, T.
2012-12-01
Supercritical CO2 has been suggested as a heat transmission fluid in Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) reservoirs to improve energy extraction. Understanding the geochemical processes of CO2-fluid-rock interactions in EGS reservoirs is significant important to investigate the performance of energy extraction with CO2 instead of water as a working fluid, carbon sequestration and risk assessment. The objectives of this study: (1) to calibrate and evaluate the kinetic rate constants and specific reactive surface areas of minerals based on the batch experimental data conducted by other researchers (collaborators Kaszuba and Lo Ré at the University of Wyoming); (2) to investigate the effects of CO2-fluid-rock geochemical interactions on the energy extraction efficiency, carbon sequestration, and risk assessment. A series of laboratory experiments were conducted (Lo Ré et al., 2012) to investigate the geochemical reactions among water, fractured granite rocks, and injected supercritical CO2 at elevated temperatures of 250 oC, and pressures of 250-450 bars. The batch simulations were firstly conducted to mimic the laboratory experiments with the calibration of mineral reactive surface areas using TOUGHREACT model and parameter estimation software (PEST). Then, we performed 2-D geochemical modeling to simulate the chemical interactions among CO2, fluids, and rocks at high temperatures and pressures of EGS reservoirs. We further investigated the effects of fluid-rock interactions on the energy extraction, carbon sequestration, and risk assessment with CO2 as a heat transmission fluid instead of water for EGS reservoirs. Results of carbonate mineral precipitations suggested that the CO2 as a working fluid instead of water was favorable for EGS reservoirs on the CO2 sequestration. Our simulations also suggested that the energy extraction could be enhanced using CO2 as the transmission fluid compared to water.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Li, Xiaofan; Sui, C.-H.; Lau, K.-M.
1999-01-01
The phase relation between the perturbation kinetic energy (K') associated with the tropical convection and the horizontal-mean moist available potential energy (bar-P) associated with environmental conditions is investigated by an energetics analysis of a numerical experiment. This experiment is performed using a 2-D cloud resolving model forced by the TOGA-COARE derived vertical velocity. The imposed upward motion leads to a decrease of bar-P directly through the associated vertical advective cooling, and to an increase of K' directly through cloud related processes, feeding the convection. The maximum K' and its maximum growth rate lags and leads, respectively, the maximum imposed large-scale upward motion by about 1-2 hours, indicating that convection is phase locked with large-scale forcing. The dominant life cycle of the simulated convection is about 9 hours, whereas the time scales of the imposed large-scale forcing are longer than the diurnal cycle. In the convective events, maximum growth of K' leads maximum decay of the perturbation moist available potential energy (P') by about 3 hours through vertical heat transport by perturbation circulation, and perturbation cloud heating. Maximum decay of P' leads maximum decay of bar-P by about one hour through the perturbation radiative, processes, the horizontal-mean cloud heating, and the large-scale vertical advective cooling. Therefore, maximum gain of K' occurs about 4-5 hours before maximum decay of bar-P.
Zhong, Lirong; Oostrom, Martinus; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Covert, Matthew A.
2008-07-29
Abstract Heterogeneity is often encountered in subsurface contamination characterization and remediation. Low-permeability zones are typically bypassed when remedial fluids are injected into subsurface heterogeneous aquifer systems. Therefore, contaminants in the bypassed areas may not be contacted by the amendments in the remedial fluid, which may significantly prolong the remediation operations. Laboratory experiments and numerical studies have been conducted to develop the Mobility-Controlled Flood (MCF) technology for subsurface remediation and to demonstrate the capability of this technology in enhancing the remedial amendments delivery to the lower permeability zones in heterogeneous systems. Xanthan gum, a bio-polymer, was used to modify the viscosity of the amendment-containing remedial solutions. Sodium mono-phosphate and surfactant were the remedial amendment used in this work. The enhanced delivery of the amendments was demonstrated in two-dimensional (2-D) flow cell experiments, packed with heterogeneous systems. The impact of polymer concentration, fluid injection rate, and permeability contract in the heterogeneous systems has been studied. The Subsurface Transport over Multiple Phases (STOMP) simulator was modified to include polymer-induced shear thinning effects. Shear rates of polymer solutions were computed from pore-water velocities using a relationship proposed in the literature. Viscosity data were subsequently obtained from empirical viscosity-shear rate relationships derived from laboratory data. The experimental and simulation results clearly show that the MCF technology is capable of enhancing the delivery of remedial amendments to subsurface lower permeability zones. The enhanced delivery significantly improved the NAPL removal from these zones and the sweeping efficiency on a heterogeneous system was remarkably increased when a polymer fluid was applied. MCF technology is also able to stabilize the fluid displacing front when there is a
TITAN2D simulations of pyroclastic flows at Cerro Machín Volcano, Colombia: Hazard implications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murcia, H. F.; Sheridan, M. F.; Macías, J. L.; Cortés, G. P.
2010-03-01
Cerro Machín is a dacitic tuff ring located in the central part of the Colombian Andes. It lies at the southern end of the Cerro Bravo-Cerro Machín volcanic belt. This volcano has experienced at least six major explosive eruptions during the last 5000 years. These eruptions have generated pyroclastic flows associated with Plinian activity that have traveled up to 8 km from the crater, and pyroclastic flows associated with Vulcanian activity with shorter runouts of 5 km from the source. Today, some 21,000 people live within a 8 km radius of Cerro Machín. The volcano is active with fumaroles and has shown increasing seismic activity since 2004, and therefore represents a potentially increasing threat to the local population. To evaluate the possible effects of future eruptions that may generate pyroclastic density currents controlled by granular flow dynamics we performed flow simulations with the TITAN2D code. These simulations were run in all directions around the volcano, using the input parameters of the largest eruption reported. The results show that an eruption of 0.3 km 3 of pyroclastic flows from a collapsing Plinian column would travel up to 9 km from the vent, emplacing a deposit thicker than 60 m within the Toche River valley. Deposits >45 m thick can be expected in the valleys of San Juan, Santa Marta, and Azufral creeks, while 30 m thick deposits could accumulate within the drainages of the Tochecito, Bermellón, and Coello Rivers. A minimum area of 56 km 2 could be affected directly by this kind of eruption. In comparison, Vulcanian column-collapse pyroclastic flows of 0.1 km 3 would travel up to 6 km from the vent depositing >45 m thick debris inside the Toche River valley and more than 30 m inside the valleys of San Juan, Santa Marta, and Azufral creeks. The minimum area that could be affected directly by this kind of eruption is 33 km 2. The distribution and thickness of the deposits obtained by these simulations are consistent with the hazard
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
López-Venegas, Alberto M.; Horrillo, Juan; Pampell-Manis, Alyssa; Huérfano, Victor; Mercado, Aurelio
2015-06-01
The most recent tsunami observed along the coast of the island of Puerto Rico occurred on October 11, 1918, after a magnitude 7.2 earthquake in the Mona Passage. The earthquake was responsible for initiating a tsunami that mostly affected the northwestern coast of the island. Runup values from a post-tsunami survey indicated the waves reached up to 6 m. A controversy regarding the source of the tsunami has resulted in several numerical simulations involving either fault rupture or a submarine landslide as the most probable cause of the tsunami. Here we follow up on previous simulations of the tsunami from a submarine landslide source off the western coast of Puerto Rico as initiated by the earthquake. Improvements on our previous study include: (1) higher-resolution bathymetry; (2) a 3D-2D coupled numerical model specifically developed for the tsunami; (3) use of the non-hydrostatic numerical model NEOWAVE (non-hydrostatic evolution of ocean WAVE) featuring two-way nesting capabilities; and (4) comprehensive energy analysis to determine the time of full tsunami wave development. The three-dimensional Navier-Stokes model tsunami solution using the Navier-Stokes algorithm with multiple interfaces for two fluids (water and landslide) was used to determine the initial wave characteristic generated by the submarine landslide. Use of NEOWAVE enabled us to solve for coastal inundation, wave propagation, and detailed runup. Our results were in agreement with previous work in which a submarine landslide is favored as the most probable source of the tsunami, and improvement in the resolution of the bathymetry yielded inundation of the coastal areas that compare well with values from a post-tsunami survey. Our unique energy analysis indicates that most of the wave energy is isolated in the wave generation region, particularly at depths near the landslide, and once the initial wave propagates from the generation region its energy begins to stabilize.
Fediai, Artem; Ryndyk, Dmitry A; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio
2016-10-01
Up to now, the electrical properties of the contacts between 3D metals and 2D materials have never been computed at a fully ab initio level due to the huge number of atomic orbitals involved in a current path from an electrode to a pristine 2D material. As a result, there are still numerous open questions and controversial theories on the electrical properties of systems with 3D/2D interfaces-for example, the current path and the contact length scalability. Our work provides a first-principles solution to this long-standing problem with the use of the modular approach, a method which rigorously combines a Green function formalism with the density functional theory (DFT) for this particular contact type. The modular approach is a general approach valid for any 3D/2D contact. As an example, we apply it to the most investigated among 3D/2D contacts-metal/graphene contacts-and show its abilities and consistency by comparison with existing experimental data. As it is applicable to any 3D/2D interface, the modular approach allows the engineering of 3D/2D contacts with the pre-defined electrical properties. PMID:27502169
Korecka, Magdalena; Waligorska, Teresa; Figurski, Michal; Toledo, Jon B; Arnold, Steven E; Grossman, Murray; Trojanowski, John Q; Shaw, Leslie M
2014-01-01
The primary aims of this work were to: 1) establish a calibrator surrogate matrix for quantification of amyloid-β (Aβ)42 in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and preparation of quality control samples for LC-MS-MS methodology, 2) validate analytical performance of the assay, and 3) evaluate its diagnostic utility and compare it with the AlzBio3 immunoassay. The analytical methodology was based on a 2D-UPLC-MS-MS platform. Sample pretreatment used 5 M guanidine hydrochloride and extraction on μElution SPE columns as previously described. A column cleaning procedure involved gradual removal of aqueous solvents by acetonitrile assured consistent long-term chromatography performance. Receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) curve and correlation analyses evaluated the diagnostic utility of UPLC-MS-MS compared to AlzBio3 immunoassay for detection of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The surrogate matrix, artificial CSF containing 4 mg/mL of BSA, provides linear and reproducible calibration comparable to human pooled CSF as calibration matrix. Appropriate cleaning of the trapping and analytical columns provided every-day, trouble-free runs. Analyses of CSF Aβ42 showed that UPLC-MS-MS distinguished neuropathologically-diagnosed AD subjects from healthy controls with at least equivalent diagnostic utility to AlzBio3. Comparison of ROC curves for these two assays showed no statistically significant difference (p = 0.2229). Linear regression analysis of Aβ42 concentrations measured by this mass spectrometry-based method compared to the AlzBio3 immunoassay showed significantly higher but highly correlated results. In conclusion, the newly established surrogate matrix for 2D-UPLC-MS-MS measurement of Aβ42 provides selective, reproducible, and accurate results. The documented analytical performance and diagnostic performance for AD versus controls supports consideration as a candidate reference method. PMID:24625802
Mitri, F G
2015-09-01
The classical Resonance Scattering Theory (RST) for plane waves in acoustics is generalized for the case of a 2D arbitrarily-shaped beam incident upon an elastic cylinder with arbitrary location that is immersed in a nonviscous fluid. The formulation is valid for an elastic (or viscoelastic) cylinder (or a cylindrical shell, a layered cylinder/shell, or a multilayered cylindrical shell, etc.) of any size and material. Partial-wave series expansions (PWSEs) for the incident, internal and scattered fields are derived, and numerical examples illustrate the theory. The wave-fields are expressed using a generalized PWSE involving the beam-shape coefficients (BSCs) and the scattering coefficients of the cylinder. When the beam is shifted off the center of the cylinder, the off-axial BSCs are evaluated by performing standard numerical integration. Acoustic resonance scattering directivity diagrams are calculated by subtracting an appropriate background from the expression of the scattered pressure field. The properties related to the arbitrary scattering of a zeroth-order quasi-Gaussian cylindrical beam (chosen as an example) by an elastic brass cylinder centered on the axis of wave propagation of the beam, and shifted off-axially are analyzed and discussed. Moreover, the total and resonance backscattering form function moduli are numerically computed, and the results discussed with emphasis on the contribution of the surface waves circumnavigating the cylinder circular surface to the resonance backscattering. Furthermore, the analysis is extended to derive general expressions for the axial and transverse acoustic radiation force functions for the cylinder in any 2D beam of arbitrary shape. Examples are provided for a zeroth-order quasi Gaussian cylindrical beam with different waist. Potential applications are in underwater and physical acoustics, however, ongoing research in biomedical ultrasound, non-destructive evaluation, imaging, manufacturing, instrumentation, and
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fleming, Eric L.; Jackman, Charles H.; Considine, David B.; Stolarski, Richard S.
1999-01-01
In this study, we examine the sensitivity of long lived tracers to changes in the base transport components in our 2-D model. Changes to the strength of the residual circulation in the upper troposphere and stratosphere and changes to the lower stratospheric K(sub zz) had similar effects in that increasing the transport rates decreased the overall stratospheric mean age, and increased the rate of removal of material from the stratosphere. Increasing the stratospheric K(sub yy) increased the mean age due to the greater recycling of air parcels through the middle atmosphere, via the residual circulation, before returning to the troposphere. However, increasing K(sub yy) along with self-consistent increases in the corresponding planetary wave drive, which leads to a stronger residual circulation, more than compensates for the K(sub yy)-effect, and produces significantly younger ages throughout the stratosphere. Simulations with very small tropical stratospheric K(sub yy) decreased the globally averaged age of air by as much as 25% in the middle and upper stratosphere, and resulted in substantially weaker vertical age gradients above 20 km in the extratropics. We found only very small stratospheric tracer sensitivity to the magnitude of the horizontal mixing across the tropopause, and to the strength of the mesospheric gravity wave drag and diffusion used in the model. We also investigated the transport influence on chemically active tracers and found a strong age-tracer correlation, both in concentration and calculated lifetimes. The base model transport gives the most favorable overall comparison with a variety of inert tracer observations, and provides a significant improvement over our previous 1995 model transport. Moderate changes to the base transport were found to provide modest agreement with some of the measurements. Transport scenarios with residence times ranging from moderately shorter to slightly longer relative to the base case simulated N2O lifetimes
Vaughn, H.R.; Wolfe, W.P.; Oberkampf, W.L.
1985-07-01
A flight trajectory simulation method has been developed for calculating the six degree of freedom motion of fluid filled projectiles. Numerically calculated internal fluid moments and experimentally known aerodynamic forces and moments are coupled to the projectile motion. Comparisons of predicted results with flight test data of an M483 155mm artillery projectile with a highly viscous payload confirm the accuracy of the simulation. This simulation clearly shows that the flight instability is due to the growth of the nutation component of angular motion caused by the viscous effects of the fluid payload. This simulation procedure, when used in conjunction with the previously developed method for calculating internal fluid moments, allows the designer to examine the effects of various liquid payloads and container geometries on the dynamic behavior of flight vehicles.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fernández-Pato, Javier; Caviedes-Voullième, Daniel; García-Navarro, Pilar
2016-05-01
One of the most difficult issues in the development of hydrologic models is to find a rigorous source of data and specific parameters to a given problem, on a given location that enable reliable calibration. In this paper, a distributed and physically based model (2D Shallow Water Equations) is used for surface flow and runoff calculations in combination with two infiltration laws (Horton and Green-Ampt) for estimating infiltration in a watershed. This technique offers the capability of assigning a local and time-dependent infiltration rate to each computational cell depending on the available surface water, soil type or vegetation. We investigate how the calibration of parameters is affected by transient distributed Shallow Water model and the complexity of the problem. In the first part of this work, we calibrate the infiltration parameters for both Horton and Green-Ampt models under flat ponded soil conditions. Then, by means of synthetic test cases, we perform a space-distributed sensitivity analysis in order to show that this calibration can be significantly affected by the introduction of topography or rainfall. In the second part, parameter calibration for a real catchment is addressed by comparing the numerical simulations with two different sets of experimental data, corresponding to very different events in terms of the rainfall volume. We show that the initial conditions of the catchment and the rainfall pattern have a special relevance in the quality of the adjustment. Hence, it is shown that the topography of the catchment and the storm characteristics affect the calibration of infiltration parameters.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lembege, B.; Savoini, P.; Stienlet, J.
2013-05-01
Two distinct ion populations backstreaming into the solar wind have been clearly evidenced by various space missions within the quasi-perpendicular region of the ion foreshock located upstream of the Earth's Bow shock (i.e. for 45° ≤ Theta_Bn ≤ 90°, where Theta_Bn is the angle between the shock normal and the upstream magnetostatic field): (i) field-aligned ion beams (« FAB ») characterized by a gyrotropic distribution, and (ii) gyro-phase bunched ions («GPB »), characterized by a NON gyrotropic distribution. The origin of these backstreaming ions has not been clearly identified and is presently analyzed with the help of 2D PIC simulation of a curved shock, where full curvature effects, time of flight effects and both electrons and ions dynamics are fully described within a self consistent approach. Present simulations evidence that these two populations can be effectively created directly by the shock front without invoking microinstabilities. The analysis of both individual and statistical ion trajectories evidences that: (i) two new parameters, namely the interaction time DT_inter and distance of penetration L_depth into the shock wave, play a key role and allow to discriminate these two populations. "GPB" population is characterized by a very short interaction time (DT_inter = 1 to 2 Tci) in comparison to the "FAB" population (DT_inter = 2 Tci to 10 Tci) which moves back and forth between the upstream edge of the shock front and the overshoot, where tci is the upstream ion gyroperiod. (ii) the importance of the injection angle (i.e. the angle between the normal of the shock front and the gyration velocity when ions reach the shock) to understand how the reflection process takes place. (iii) "FAB" population drifts along the curved shock front scanning a large Theta_Bn range from 90°. (iv) "GPB" population is embedded within the "FAB" population near the shock front which explains the difficulty to identify such a population in the experimental
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rodriguez, David L. (Inventor); Sturdza, Peter (Inventor)
2013-01-01
Fluid-flow simulation over a computer-generated aircraft surface is generated using inviscid and viscous simulations. A fluid-flow mesh of fluid cells is obtained. At least one inviscid fluid property for the fluid cells is determined using an inviscid fluid simulation that does not simulate fluid viscous effects. A set of intersecting fluid cells that intersects the aircraft surface are identified. One surface mesh polygon of the surface mesh is identified for each intersecting fluid cell. A boundary-layer prediction point for each identified surface mesh polygon is determined. At least one boundary-layer fluid property for each boundary-layer prediction point is determined using the at least one inviscid fluid property of the corresponding intersecting fluid cell and a boundary-layer simulation that simulates fluid viscous effects. At least one updated fluid property for at least one fluid cell is determined using the at least one boundary-layer fluid property and the inviscid fluid simulation.
An electro-fluid-dynamic simulator for the cardiovascular system.
Felipini, Celso Luiz; de Andrade, Aron José Pazin; Lucchi, Júlio César; da Fonseca, Jeison Willian Gomes; Nicolosi, Denys
2008-04-01
This work presents the initial studies and the proposal for a cardiovascular system electro-fluid-dynamic simulator to be applied in the development of left ventricular assist devices (LVADs). The simulator, which is being developed at University Sao Judas Tadeu and at Institute Dante Pazzanese of Cardiology, is composed of three modules: (i) an electrical analog model of the cardiovascular system operating in the PSpice electrical simulator environment; (ii) an electronic controller, based on laboratory virtual instrumentation engineering workbench (LabVIEW) acquisition and control tool, which will act over the physical simulator; and (iii) the physical simulator: a fluid-dynamic equipment composed of pneumatic actuators and compliance tubes for the simulation of active cardiac chambers and big vessels. The physical simulator (iii) is based on results obtained from the electrical analog model (i) and physiological parameters. PMID:18370952
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baudon, Catherine; Gillet, Hervé; Cremer, Michel
2013-04-01
High-quality bathymetric, 2D seismic and Chirp data located in the southern parts of the Bay of Biscay, France, collected by the University of Bordeaux 1 (Cruises ITSAS 2, 2001; PROSECAN 3, 2006 and SARGASS, 2010) have recently been compiled. The survey area widely covers the Capbreton Canyon, which lies on the boundary between two major structural zones: the Aquitanian passive margin to the North, and the Basque-Cantabrian margin to the South which corresponds to the offshore Pyrenean front. The dataset revealed a large number of key seafloor features potentially associated with focused fluid-flow processes and subsurface sediment-remobilization. Focused fluid migration through sub-seabed sediments is a common phenomenon on continental margins worldwide and has widespread implications from both industrial and fundamental perspectives, from seafloor marine environmental issues to petroleum exploration and hazard assessments. Our study analyses the relationships between seafloor features, deeper structures and fluid migration through the Plio-Quaternary sedimentary pile. The geometrical characteristics, mechanisms of formation and kinematics of four main groups of seabed features have been investigated. (i) A 150km2 field of pockmarks can be observed on the Basque margin. These features are cone-shaped circular or elliptical depressions that are either randomly distributed as small pockmarks (diameter < 20m) or aligned in trains of large pockmarks (ranging from 200 to 600m in diameter) along shallow troughs leading downstream to the Capbreton Canyon. Seismic data show that most pockmarks reach the seabed through vertically staked V-shaped features but some are buried and show evidence of lateral migration through time. (ii) A second field of widely-spaced groups of pockmarks pierce the upper slope of the Aquitanian margin. These depressions are typically a few hundred meters in diameter and seem to be preferentially located in the troughs or on the stoss sides of
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Khil-Ha; Kim, Sung-Wook; Kim, Sang-Hyun
2014-05-01
model, called FLO-2D runs to simulate channel routing downstream to give the maximum water level. Once probable inundation areas are identified by the huge volume of water in the caldera lake, the unique geography, and the limited control capability, a potential hazard assessment can be represented. The study will contribute to build a geohazard map for the decision-makers and practitioners. Keywords: Volcanic flood, Caldera lake, Hazard assessment, Magma effusion Acknowledgement This research was supported by a grant [NEMA-BAEKDUSAN-2012-1-2] from the Volcanic Disaster Preparedness Research Center sponsored by National Emergency Management Agency of Korea.
Pore scale simulations for the extension of the Darcy-Forchheimer law to shear thinning fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tosco, Tiziana; Marchisio, Daniele; Lince, Federica; Boccardo, Gianluca; Sethi, Rajandrea
2014-05-01
Flow of non-Newtonian fluids through porous media at high Reynolds numbers is often encountered in chemical, pharmaceutical and food as well as petroleum and groundwater engineering and in many other industrial applications (1 - 2). In particular, the use of shear thinning polymeric solutions has been recently proposed to improve colloidal stability of micro- and nanoscale zerovalent iron particles (MZVI and NZVI) for groundwater remediation. In all abovementioned applications, it is of paramount importance to correctly predict the pressure drop resulting from non-Newtonian fluid flow through the porous medium. For small Reynolds numbers, usually up to 1, typical of laboratory column tests, the extended Darcy law is known to be applicable also to non Newtonian fluids, provided that all non-Newtonian effects are lumped together into a proper viscosity parameter (1,3). For higher Reynolds numbers (eg. close to the injection wells) non linearities between pressure drop and flow rate arise, and the Darcy-Forchheimer law holds for Newtonian fluids, while for non-Newtonian fluids, it has been demonstrated that, at least for simple rheological models (eg. power law fluids) a generalized Forchheimer law can be applied, even if the determination of the flow parameters (permeability K, inertial coefficient β, and equivalent viscosity) is not straightforward. This work (co-funded by European Union project AQUAREHAB FP7 - Grant Agreement Nr. 226565) aims at proposing an extended formulation of the Darcy-Forchheimer law also for shear-thinning fluids, and validating it against results of pore-scale simulations via computational fluid dynamics (4). Flow simulations were performed using Fluent 12.0 on four different 2D porous domains for Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids (Cross, Ellis and Carreau models). The micro-scale flow simulation results are analyzed in terms of 'macroscale' pressure drop between inlet and outlet of the model domain as a function of flow rate. The
SIMULATIONS OF 2D AND 3D THERMOCAPILLARY FLOWS BY A LEAST-SQUARES FINITE ELEMENT METHOD. (R825200)
Numerical results for time-dependent 2D and 3D thermocapillary flows are presented in this work. The numerical algorithm is based on the Crank-Nicolson scheme for time integration, Newton's method for linearization, and a least-squares finite element method, together with a matri...
Image analysis for Validation of Simulations of Fluid Mix Problem
Kamath, C; Miller, P
2007-01-10
As computer simulations gain acceptance for the modeling of complex physical phenomena, there is an increasing need to validate these simulation codes by comparing them to experiments. Currently, this is done qualitatively, using a visual approach. This is obviously very subjective and more quantitative metrics are needed, especially to identify simulations which are closer to experiments than other simulations. In this paper, we show how image processing techniques can be effectively used in such comparisons. Using an example from the problem of mixing of two fluids, we show that we can quantitatively compare experimental and simulation images by extracting higher level features to characterize the objects in the images.
Local fluid shifts and edema in humans during simulated microgravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hargens, Alan R.
1991-01-01
Local fluid shifts and edema in humans during simulated microgravity is studied. Recent results and significance and future plans on the following research topics are discussed: mechanisms of headward edema formation during head-down tilt; postural responses of head and foot microcirculations and their sensitivity to bed rest; and transcapillary fluid transport associated with lower body negative pressure (LBNP) with and without saline ingestion.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Le, A.; Daughton, W. S.
2015-12-01
Fully kinetic simulations have shown that the structure of the thin current sheets that form during collisionless reconnection can fall into a variety of regimes depending on the electron pressure anisotropy [1]. Furthermore, recent two-fluid simulations with anisotropic electron equations of state appropriate for reconnection confirm that the electron pressure anisotropy may drive highly elongated current sheets in the reconnection exhaust [2]. While fully kinetic simulations are useful to model small regions of the Earth's magnetosphere, they are still far too expensive for global modeling. Thus, we have implemented the electron equations of state in the hybrid (kinetic ions and fluid electrons) code H3D [3], and initial 2D hybrid simulations of reconnection agree well with fully kinetic simulations. The updated hybrid code is a first step towards including electron anisotropy and full ion kinetics in global simulations of Earth's magnetosphere and laboratory experiments. [1] Le et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 135004 (2013)[2] Ohia et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 115004 (2012) [3] Karimabadi et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 062308 (2014)
Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Binary Fluid in a Nanochannel
Mullick, Shanta; Ahluwalia, P. K.; Pathania, Y.
2011-12-12
This paper presents the results from a molecular dynamics simulation of binary fluid (mixture of argon and krypton) in the nanochannel flow. The computational software LAMMPS is used for carrying out the molecular dynamics simulations. Binary fluids of argon and krypton with varying concentration of atom species were taken for two densities 0.65 and 0.45. The fluid flow takes place between two parallel plates and is bounded by horizontal walls in one direction and periodic boundary conditions are imposed in the other two directions. To drive the flow, a constant force is applied in one direction. Each fluid atom interacts with other fluid atoms and wall atoms through Week-Chandler-Anderson (WCA) potential. The velocity profile has been looked at for three nanochannel widths i.e for 12{sigma}, 14{sigma} and 16{sigma} and also for the different concentration of two species. The velocity profile of the binary fluid predicted by the simulations agrees with the quadratic shape of the analytical solution of a Poiseuille flow in continuum theory.
Diffuse interface simulation of ternary fluids in contact with solid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Chun-Yu; Ding, Hang; Gao, Peng; Wu, Yan-Ling
2016-03-01
In this article we developed a geometrical wetting condition for diffuse-interface simulation of ternary fluid flows with moving contact lines. The wettability of the substrate in the presence of ternary fluid flows is represented by multiple contact angles, corresponding to the different material properties between the respective fluid and the substrate. Displacement of ternary fluid flows on the substrate leads to the occurrence of moving contact point, at which three moving contact lines meet. We proposed a weighted contact angle model, to replace the jump in contact angle at the contact point by a relatively smooth transition of contact angle over a region of 'diffuse contact point' of finite size. Based on this model, we extended the geometrical formulation of wetting condition for two-phase flows with moving contact lines to ternary flows with moving contact lines. Combining this wetting condition, a Navier-Stokes solver and a ternary-fluid model, we simulated two-dimensional spreading of a compound droplet on a substrate, and validated the numerical results of the drop shape at equilibrium by comparing against the analytical solution. We also checked the convergence rate of the simulation by investigating the axisymmetric drop spreading in a capillary tube. Finally, we applied the model to a variety of applications of practical importance, including impact of a circular cylinder into a pool of two layers of different fluids and sliding of a three-dimensional compound droplet in shear flows.
Modeling and Simulation of Fluid Mixing Laser Experiments and Supernova
Glimm, James
2008-06-24
The three year plan for this project is to develop novel theories and advanced simulation methods leading to a systematic understanding of turbulent mixing. A primary focus is the comparison of simulation models (both Direct Numerical Simulation and subgrid averaged models) to experiments. The comprehension and reduction of experimental and simulation data are central goals of this proposal. We will model 2D and 3D perturbations of planar interfaces. We will compare these tests with models derived from averaged equations (our own and those of others). As a second focus, we will develop physics based subgrid simulation models of diffusion across an interface, with physical but no numerical mass diffusion. We will conduct analytic studies of mix, in support of these objectives. Advanced issues, including multiple layers and reshock, will be considered.
Adaptive mesh fluid simulations on GPU
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Peng; Abel, Tom; Kaehler, Ralf
2010-10-01
We describe an implementation of compressible inviscid fluid solvers with block-structured adaptive mesh refinement on Graphics Processing Units using NVIDIA's CUDA. We show that a class of high resolution shock capturing schemes can be mapped naturally on this architecture. Using the method of lines approach with the second order total variation diminishing Runge-Kutta time integration scheme, piecewise linear reconstruction, and a Harten-Lax-van Leer Riemann solver, we achieve an overall speedup of approximately 10 times faster execution on one graphics card as compared to a single core on the host computer. We attain this speedup in uniform grid runs as well as in problems with deep AMR hierarchies. Our framework can readily be applied to more general systems of conservation laws and extended to higher order shock capturing schemes. This is shown directly by an implementation of a magneto-hydrodynamic solver and comparing its performance to the pure hydrodynamic case. Finally, we also combined our CUDA parallel scheme with MPI to make the code run on GPU clusters. Close to ideal speedup is observed on up to four GPUs.