Toward Scientific Numerical Modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kleb, Bil
2007-01-01
Ultimately, scientific numerical models need quantified output uncertainties so that modeling can evolve to better match reality. Documenting model input uncertainties and verifying that numerical models are translated into code correctly, however, are necessary first steps toward that goal. Without known input parameter uncertainties, model sensitivities are all one can determine, and without code verification, output uncertainties are simply not reliable. To address these two shortcomings, two proposals are offered: (1) an unobtrusive mechanism to document input parameter uncertainties in situ and (2) an adaptation of the Scientific Method to numerical model development and deployment. Because these two steps require changes in the computational simulation community to bear fruit, they are presented in terms of the Beckhard-Harris-Gleicher change model.
Numerical modeling of Hall thruster
Chable, S.; Rogier, F.
2005-05-16
A stationary plasma thruster is numerically studied using different levels. An one dimensional modeling is first analyzed and compared with experimental results. A simplified model of oscillations thruster is proposed and used to control the amplitude of oscillations. A two dimensional numerical method is discussed and applied to the computation of the flow in the exhaust.
Numerical models of galactic dynamos
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elstner, Detlef
The state of the art for dynamo models in spiral galaxies is reviewed. The comparison of numerical models with special properties of observed magnetic fields yields constraints for the turbulent diffusivity and the α-effect. The derivation of the turbulence parameters from the vertical structure of the interstellar medium gives quite reasonable values for modelling the regular magnetic fields in galaxies with an α2Ω-dynamo. Considering the differences of the turbulence between spiral arms and interarm regions, the observed interarm magnetic fields are recovered in the numerical models due to the special properties of the α2Ω-dynamo.
Numerical Modelling of Gelating Aerosols
Babovsky, Hans
2008-09-01
The numerical simulation of the gel phase transition of an aerosol system is an interesting and demanding task. Here, we follow an approach first discussed in [6, 8] which turns out as a useful numerical tool. We investigate several improvements and generalizations. In the center of interest are coagulation diffusion systems, where the aerosol dynamics is supplemented with diffusive spreading in physical space. This leads to a variety of scenarios (depending on the coagulation kernel and the diffusion model) for the spatial evolution of the gelation area.
Comprehensive numerical modelling of tokamaks
Cohen, R.H.; Cohen, B.I.; Dubois, P.F.
1991-01-03
We outline a plan for the development of a comprehensive numerical model of tokamaks. The model would consist of a suite of independent, communicating packages describing the various aspects of tokamak performance (core and edge transport coefficients and profiles, heating, fueling, magnetic configuration, etc.) as well as extensive diagnostics. These codes, which may run on different computers, would be flexibly linked by a user-friendly shell which would allow run-time specification of packages and generation of pre- and post-processing functions, including workstation-based visualization of output. One package in particular, the calculation of core transport coefficients via gyrokinetic particle simulation, will become practical on the scale required for comprehensive modelling only with the advent of teraFLOP computers. Incremental effort at LLNL would be focused on gyrokinetic simulation and development of the shell.
Numerical models of complex diapirs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Podladchikov, Yu.; Talbot, C.; Poliakov, A. N. B.
1993-12-01
Numerically modelled diapirs that rise into overburdens with viscous rheology produce a large variety of shapes. This work uses the finite-element method to study the development of diapirs that rise towards a surface on which a diapir-induced topography creeps flat or disperses ("erodes") at different rates. Slow erosion leads to diapirs with "mushroom" shapes, moderate erosion rate to "wine glass" diapirs and fast erosion to "beer glass"- and "column"-shaped diapirs. The introduction of a low-viscosity layer at the top of the overburden causes diapirs to develop into structures resembling a "Napoleon hat". These spread lateral sheets.
Numerical methods used in fusion science numerical modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yagi, M.
2015-04-01
The dynamics of burning plasma is very complicated physics, which is dominated by multi-scale and multi-physics phenomena. To understand such phenomena, numerical simulations are indispensable. Fundamentals of numerical methods used in fusion science numerical modeling are briefly discussed in this paper. In addition, the parallelization technique such as open multi processing (OpenMP) and message passing interface (MPI) parallel programing are introduced and the loop-level parallelization is shown as an example.
Numerical Modeling of Ocean Circulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miller, Robert N.
2007-01-01
The modelling of ocean circulation is important not only for its own sake, but also in terms of the prediction of weather patterns and the effects of climate change. This book introduces the basic computational techniques necessary for all models of the ocean and atmosphere, and the conditions they must satisfy. It describes the workings of ocean models, the problems that must be solved in their construction, and how to evaluate computational results. Major emphasis is placed on examining ocean models critically, and determining what they do well and what they do poorly. Numerical analysis is introduced as needed, and exercises are included to illustrate major points. Developed from notes for a course taught in physical oceanography at the College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences at Oregon State University, this book is ideal for graduate students of oceanography, geophysics, climatology and atmospheric science, and researchers in oceanography and atmospheric science. Features examples and critical examination of ocean modelling and results Demonstrates the strengths and weaknesses of different approaches Includes exercises to illustrate major points and supplement mathematical and physical details
Numerical Modeling of Nanoelectronic Devices
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Klimeck, Gerhard; Oyafuso, Fabiano; Bowen, R. Chris; Boykin, Timothy
2003-01-01
Nanoelectronic Modeling 3-D (NEMO 3-D) is a computer program for numerical modeling of the electronic structure properties of a semiconductor device that is embodied in a crystal containing as many as 16 million atoms in an arbitrary configuration and that has overall dimensions of the order of tens of nanometers. The underlying mathematical model represents the quantummechanical behavior of the device resolved to the atomistic level of granularity. The system of electrons in the device is represented by a sparse Hamiltonian matrix that contains hundreds of millions of terms. NEMO 3-D solves the matrix equation on a Beowulf-class cluster computer, by use of a parallel-processing matrix vector multiplication algorithm coupled to a Lanczos and/or Rayleigh-Ritz algorithm that solves for eigenvalues. In a recent update of NEMO 3-D, a new strain treatment, parameterized for bulk material properties of GaAs and InAs, was developed for two tight-binding submodels. The utility of the NEMO 3-D was demonstrated in an atomistic analysis of the effects of disorder in alloys and, in particular, in bulk In(x)Ga(l-x)As and in In0.6Ga0.4As quantum dots.
NUMERICAL MODELS FOR PREDICTING WATERSHED ACIDIFICATION
Three numerical models of watershed acidification, including the MAGIC II, ETD, and ILWAS models, are reviewed, and a comparative study is made of the specific process formulations that are incorporated in the models to represent hydrological, geochemical, and biogeochemical proc...
Numerical wind speed simulation model
Ramsdell, J.V.; Athey, G.F.; Ballinger, M.Y.
1981-09-01
A relatively simple stochastic model for simulating wind speed time series that can be used as an alternative to time series from representative locations is described in this report. The model incorporates systematic seasonal variation of the mean wind, its standard deviation, and the correlation speeds. It also incorporates systematic diurnal variation of the mean speed and standard deviation. To demonstrate the model capabilities, simulations were made using model parameters derived from data collected at the Hanford Meteorology Station, and results of analysis of simulated and actual data were compared.
Survey of numerical electrostimulation models.
Reilly, J Patrick
2016-06-21
This paper evaluates results of a survey of electrostimulation models of myelinated nerve. Participants were asked to determine thresholds of excitation for 18 cases involving different characteristics of the neuron, the stimulation waveform, and the electrode arrangement. Responses were received from 7 investigators using 10 models. Excitation thresholds differed significantly among these models. For example, with a 2 ms monophasic stimulus pulse and an electrode/fiber distance of 1 cm, thresholds from the least to greatest value differed by a factor of 8.3; with a 5 μs pulse, thresholds differed by the factor 3.8. Significant differences in reported simulations point to the need for experimental validation. Additional efforts are needed to develop computational models for unmyelinated C-fibers, A-delta fibers, CNS neurons, and CNS Synapses. PMID:27223870
Survey of numerical electrostimulation models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reilly, J. Patrick
2016-06-01
This paper evaluates results of a survey of electrostimulation models of myelinated nerve. Participants were asked to determine thresholds of excitation for 18 cases involving different characteristics of the neuron, the stimulation waveform, and the electrode arrangement. Responses were received from 7 investigators using 10 models. Excitation thresholds differed significantly among these models. For example, with a 2 ms monophasic stimulus pulse and an electrode/fiber distance of 1 cm, thresholds from the least to greatest value differed by a factor of 8.3; with a 5 μs pulse, thresholds differed by the factor 3.8. Significant differences in reported simulations point to the need for experimental validation. Additional efforts are needed to develop computational models for unmyelinated C-fibers, A-delta fibers, CNS neurons, and CNS Synapses.
Waste glass melter numerical and physical modeling
Eyler, L.L.; Peters, R.D.; Lessor, D.L.; Lowery, P.S.; Elliott, M.L.
1991-10-01
Results of physical and numerical simulation modeling of high-level liquid waste vitrification melters are presented. Physical modeling uses simulant fluids in laboratory testing. Visualization results provide insight into convective melt flow patterns from which information is derived to support performance estimation of operating melters and data to support numerical simulation. Numerical simulation results of several melter configurations are presented. These are in support of programs to evaluate melter operation characteristics and performance. Included are investigations into power skewing and alternating current electric field phase angle in a dual electrode pair reference design and bi-modal convective stability in an advanced design. 9 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.
Numerical modeling for underground nuclear test monitoring
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taylor, Steven R.; Kamm, James R.
The symposium for Numerical Modeling for Underground Nuclear Test Monitoring was held March 23-25 in Durango, Colo. Funded by the DOE Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation (OACN) and hosted by the Source Region Program at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the meetings's purpose was to discuss the state-of-the-art in numerical simulations of nuclear explosion phenomenology with applications to test-ban monitoring. In particular, we wished to focus on the uniqueness of model fits to data, the measurement and characterization of material response models, advanced modeling techniques, and applications of modeling to monitoring problems.The concept for the meeting arose through discussions with Marv Denny, who was on assignment at Department of Energy Headquarters from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). In these conversations, the following question was discussed: how are numerical modeling techniques being used to understand the effects of explosion- source phenomenology on test-ban treaty monitoring? Numerical studies are becoming increasingly important in the evaluation of capabilities for proliferation monitoring; this trend has accelerated with the curtailment of the nuclear testing program. During these discussions, the issue of the uniqueness and limitations of numerical models arose. It was decided to address these questions by convening a group of experts to present and discuss the problems associated with modeling of close-in data from explosions.
Ferrofluids: Modeling, numerical analysis, and scientific computation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tomas, Ignacio
This dissertation presents some developments in the Numerical Analysis of Partial Differential Equations (PDEs) describing the behavior of ferrofluids. The most widely accepted PDE model for ferrofluids is the Micropolar model proposed by R.E. Rosensweig. The Micropolar Navier-Stokes Equations (MNSE) is a subsystem of PDEs within the Rosensweig model. Being a simplified version of the much bigger system of PDEs proposed by Rosensweig, the MNSE are a natural starting point of this thesis. The MNSE couple linear velocity u, angular velocity w, and pressure p. We propose and analyze a first-order semi-implicit fully-discrete scheme for the MNSE, which decouples the computation of the linear and angular velocities, is unconditionally stable and delivers optimal convergence rates under assumptions analogous to those used for the Navier-Stokes equations. Moving onto the much more complex Rosensweig's model, we provide a definition (approximation) for the effective magnetizing field h, and explain the assumptions behind this definition. Unlike previous definitions available in the literature, this new definition is able to accommodate the effect of external magnetic fields. Using this definition we setup the system of PDEs coupling linear velocity u, pressure p, angular velocity w, magnetization m, and magnetic potential ϕ We show that this system is energy-stable and devise a numerical scheme that mimics the same stability property. We prove that solutions of the numerical scheme always exist and, under certain simplifying assumptions, that the discrete solutions converge. A notable outcome of the analysis of the numerical scheme for the Rosensweig's model is the choice of finite element spaces that allow the construction of an energy-stable scheme. Finally, with the lessons learned from Rosensweig's model, we develop a diffuse-interface model describing the behavior of two-phase ferrofluid flows and present an energy-stable numerical scheme for this model. For a
Mathematical modeling of electrocardiograms: a numerical study.
Boulakia, Muriel; Cazeau, Serge; Fernández, Miguel A; Gerbeau, Jean-Frédéric; Zemzemi, Nejib
2010-03-01
This paper deals with the numerical simulation of electrocardiograms (ECG). Our aim is to devise a mathematical model, based on partial differential equations, which is able to provide realistic 12-lead ECGs. The main ingredients of this model are classical: the bidomain equations coupled to a phenomenological ionic model in the heart, and a generalized Laplace equation in the torso. The obtention of realistic ECGs relies on other important features--including heart-torso transmission conditions, anisotropy, cell heterogeneity and His bundle modeling--that are discussed in detail. The numerical implementation is based on state-of-the-art numerical methods: domain decomposition techniques and second order semi-implicit time marching schemes, offering a good compromise between accuracy, stability and efficiency. The numerical ECGs obtained with this approach show correct amplitudes, shapes and polarities, in all the 12 standard leads. The relevance of every modeling choice is carefully discussed and the numerical ECG sensitivity to the model parameters investigated. PMID:20033779
Numerical flow modeling of power plant windboxes
LaRose, J.A.; Hopkins, M.W.
1995-12-31
Numerical flow modeling has become an increasingly important design and analysis tool for improving the air distribution to power plant burners. Uniform air distribution allows the burners to perform as designed to achieve the lowest possible emissions and best fuel burn-out. Modifications can be made internal to the existing windbox to improve the burner-to-burner and burner peripheral air distributions. These modifications can include turning vanes, flow splitters, perforated plate, and burner shrouding. Numerical modeling allows the analysis of design trade-offs between adding flow resistance, fan power, and windbox modification construction cost. Numerical modeling has advantages over physical modeling in that actual geometric scales and air temperatures are used. Advantages over a field data based study include the ability to quickly and cheaply analyze a variety of design options without actually modifying the windbox, and the availability of significantly more data with which to interpret the results. Costs to perform a numerical study are generally one-half to one-third of the cost to perform a physical flow model and can be one-forth of the cost to perform a field study. The continued development of affordable, high speed, large memory workstations and reliable, commercially available computation fluid dynamics (CFD) software allows practical analyses of power plant windboxes. This paper discusses (1) the impact of air distribution on burner performance, (2) the methodology used to perform numerical flow modeling of power plant windboxes, and (3) the results from several windbox analyses including available post-modification observations.
Numerical noise in ocean and estuarine models
Walters, R.; Carey, G.F.
1984-01-01
Approximate methods for solving the shallow water equations may lead to solutions exhibiting large fictitious, numerically-induced oscillations. The analysis of the discrete dispersion relation and modal solutions of small wavelengths provides a powerful technique for assessing the sensitivity of alternative numerical schemes to irregular data which may lead to such oscillatory numerical noise. For those schemes where phase speed vanishes at a finite wavenumber or there are multiple roots for wavenumber, oscillation modes can exist which are uncoupled from the dynamics of the problem. The discrete modal analysis approach is used here to identify two classes of spurious oscillation modes associated respectively with the two different asymptotic limits corresponding to estuarine and large scale ocean models. The analysis provides further insight into recent numerical results for models which include large spatial scales and Coriolis acceleration. ?? 1984.
Numerical Modeling of Ablation Heat Transfer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ewing, Mark E.; Laker, Travis S.; Walker, David T.
2013-01-01
A unique numerical method has been developed for solving one-dimensional ablation heat transfer problems. This paper provides a comprehensive description of the method, along with detailed derivations of the governing equations. This methodology supports solutions for traditional ablation modeling including such effects as heat transfer, material decomposition, pyrolysis gas permeation and heat exchange, and thermochemical surface erosion. The numerical scheme utilizes a control-volume approach with a variable grid to account for surface movement. This method directly supports implementation of nontraditional models such as material swelling and mechanical erosion, extending capabilities for modeling complex ablation phenomena. Verifications of the numerical implementation are provided using analytical solutions, code comparisons, and the method of manufactured solutions. These verifications are used to demonstrate solution accuracy and proper error convergence rates. A simple demonstration of a mechanical erosion (spallation) model is also provided to illustrate the unique capabilities of the method.
Numerical Based Linear Model for Dipole Magnets
Li,Y.; Krinsky, S.; Rehak, M.
2009-05-04
In this paper, we discuss an algorithm for constructing a numerical linear optics model for dipole magnets from a 3D field map. The difference between the numerical model and K. Brown's analytic approach is investigated and clarified. It was found that the optics distortion due to the dipoles' fringe focusing must be properly taken into account to accurately determine the chromaticities. In NSLS-II, there are normal dipoles with 35-mm gap and dipoles for infrared sources with 90-mm gap. This linear model of the dipole magnets is applied to the NSLS-II lattice design to match optics parameters between the DBA cells having dipoles with different gaps.
Numerical FEM modeling in dental implantology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roateşi, Iulia; Roateşi, Simona
2016-06-01
This paper is devoted to a numerical approach of the stress and displacement calculation of a system made up of dental implant, ceramic crown and surrounding bone. This is the simulation of a clinical situation involving both biological - the bone tissue, and non-biological - the implant and the crown, materials. On the other hand this problem deals with quite fine technical structure details - the threads, tapers, etc with a great impact in masticatory force transmission. Modeling the contact between the implant and the bone tissue is important to a proper bone-implant interface model and implant design. The authors proposed a three-dimensional numerical model to assess the biomechanical behaviour of this complex structure in order to evaluate its stability by determining the risk zones. A comparison between this numerical analysis and clinical cases is performed and a good agreement is obtained.
Numerical Modelling of Ground Penetrating Radar Antennas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giannakis, Iraklis; Giannopoulos, Antonios; Pajewski, Lara
2014-05-01
Numerical methods are needed in order to solve Maxwell's equations in complicated and realistic problems. Over the years a number of numerical methods have been developed to do so. Amongst them the most popular are the finite element, finite difference implicit techniques, frequency domain solution of Helmontz equation, the method of moments, transmission line matrix method. However, the finite-difference time-domain method (FDTD) is considered to be one of the most attractive choice basically because of its simplicity, speed and accuracy. FDTD first introduced in 1966 by Kane Yee. Since then, FDTD has been established and developed to be a very rigorous and well defined numerical method for solving Maxwell's equations. The order characteristics, accuracy and limitations are rigorously and mathematically defined. This makes FDTD reliable and easy to use. Numerical modelling of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is a very useful tool which can be used in order to give us insight into the scattering mechanisms and can also be used as an alternative approach to aid data interpretation. Numerical modelling has been used in a wide range of GPR applications including archeology, geophysics, forensic, landmine detection etc. In engineering, some applications of numerical modelling include the estimation of the effectiveness of GPR to detect voids in bridges, to detect metal bars in concrete, to estimate shielding effectiveness etc. The main challenges in numerical modelling of GPR for engineering applications are A) the implementation of the dielectric properties of the media (soils, concrete etc.) in a realistic way, B) the implementation of the geometry of the media (soils inhomogeneities, rough surface, vegetation, concrete features like fractures and rock fragments etc.) and C) the detailed modelling of the antenna units. The main focus of this work (which is part of the COST Action TU1208) is the accurate and realistic implementation of GPR antenna units into the FDTD
Numerical Modeling of Ocean Acoustic Wavefields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tappert, Frederick
1997-08-01
The U.S. Navy requires real-time ``acoustic performance prediction'' models in order to optimize sonar tactics in naval combat situations. The need for numerical models that solve the acoustic wave equation in realistic ocean environments is being met by a collaborative effort between university researchers, industrial contractors, and navy laboratory workers. This paper discusses one particularly successful numerical model, called the PE/SSF model, that was originally developed by the author. Here PE stands for Parabolic Equation, a good approximation to the elliptic Helmholtz equation; and SSF stands for the Split-Step Fourier algorithm, a highly efficient marching algorithm for solving parabolic type equations. These techniques are analyzed, and examples are displayed of ocean acoustic wavefields generated by the PE/SSF model.
Numerical modeling tools for chemical vapor deposition
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jasinski, Thomas J.; Childs, Edward P.
1992-01-01
Development of general numerical simulation tools for chemical vapor deposition (CVD) was the objective of this study. Physical models of important CVD phenomena were developed and implemented into the commercial computational fluid dynamics software FLUENT. The resulting software can address general geometries as well as the most important phenomena occurring with CVD reactors: fluid flow patterns, temperature and chemical species distribution, gas phase and surface deposition. The physical models are documented which are available and examples are provided of CVD simulation capabilities.
Numerical modeling of nonintrusive inspection systems
Hall, J.; Morgan, J.; Sale, K.
1992-12-01
A wide variety of nonintrusive inspection systems have been proposed in the past several years for the detection of hidden contraband in airline luggage and shipping containers. The majority of these proposed techniques depend on the interaction of radiation with matter to produce a signature specific to the contraband of interest, whether drugs or explosives. In the authors` role as diagnostic specialists in the Underground Test Program over the past forty years, L-Division of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has developed a technique expertise in the combined numerical and experimental modeling of these types of system. Based on their experience, they are convinced that detailed numerical modeling provides a much more accurate estimate of the actual performance of complex experiments than simple analytical modeling. Furthermore, the construction of detailed numerical prototypes allows experimenters to explore the entire region of parameter space available to them before committing their ideas to hardware. This sort of systematic analysis has often led to improved experimental designs and reductions in fielding costs. L-Division has developed an extensive suite of computer codes to model proposed experiments and possible background interactions. These codes allow one to simulate complex radiation sources, model 3-dimensional system geometries with {open_quotes}real world{close_quotes} complexity, specify detailed elemental distributions, and predict the response of almost any type of detector. In this work several examples are presented illustrating the use of these codes in modeling experimental systems at LLNL and their potential usefulness in evaluating nonintrusive inspection systems is discussed.
Numerical comparison of strong Langmuir turbulence models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shen, Mei-Mei; Nicholson, D. R.
1987-01-01
Two models of Langmuir turbulence, the nonlinear Schroedinger equation and the Zakharov equations, are solved numerically for an initial value problem in which the electric field evolves from an almost flat initial condition via the modulational instability and finally saturates into a set of solitons. The two models agree well with each other only when the initial dimensionless electric field has an amplitude less than unity. An analytic soliton gas model consisting of equal-amplitude, randomly spaced, zero-speed solitons is remarkably good at reproducing the time-averaged Fourier spectra in both cases.
Numerical Modelling Of Pumpkin Balloon Instability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wakefield, D.
Tensys have been involved in the numerical formfinding and load analysis of architectural stressed membrane structures for 15 years. They have recently broadened this range of activities into the `lighter than air' field with significant involvement in aerostat and heavy-lift hybrid airship design. Since early 2004 they have been investigating pumpkin balloon instability on behalf of the NASA ULDB programme. These studies are undertaken using inTENS, an in-house finite element program suite based upon the Dynamic Relaxation solution method and developed especially for the non-linear analysis and patterning of membrane structures. The paper describes the current state of an investigation that started with a numerical simulation of the lobed cylinder problem first studied by Calladine. The influence of material properties and local geometric deformation on stability is demonstrated. A number of models of complete pumpkin balloons have then been established, including a 64-gore balloon with geometry based upon Julian Nott's Endeavour. This latter clefted dramatically upon initial inflation, a phenomenon that has been reproduced in the numerical model. Ongoing investigations include the introduction of membrane contact modelling into inTENS and correlation studies with the series of large-scale ULDB models currently in preparation.
Numerical modeling of flow through orifice meters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sheikholesiami, M. Z.; Patel, B. R.
1988-03-01
Numerical modeling is performed for turbulent flow through orifice meters using Creare's computer program FLUENT. FLUENT solves the time averaged Navier-Stokes equations in 2-D and 3-D Cartesian or cylindrical coordinates. Turbulence is simulated using a two equation k-epsilon or algebraic stress turbulence model. It is shown that an 80 x 60 grid distribution is sufficient to resolve the flow field around the orifice. The variations in discharge coefficient are studied as a result of variation in beta ratio, Reynolds number, upstream and downstream boundary conditions, pipe surface roughness, and upstream swirl. The effects of beta ratio and Reynolds number on the discharge coefficient are shown to be similar to the experimental data. It is also shown that the surface roughness can increase the discharge coefficient by about 0.7 percent for the range of roughness heights encountered in practice. The numerical modeling approach would be most effective if it is combined with a systematic experimental program that can supply the necessary boundary conditions. It is recommended that numerical modeling be used for the study of other flow meters.
A Numerical Model for Atomtronic Circuit Analysis
Chow, Weng W.; Straatsma, Cameron J. E.; Anderson, Dana Z.
2015-07-16
A model for studying atomtronic devices and circuits based on finite-temperature Bose-condensed gases is presented. The approach involves numerically solving equations of motion for atomic populations and coherences, derived using the Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian and the Heisenberg picture. The resulting cluster expansion is truncated at a level giving balance between physics rigor and numerical demand mitigation. This approach allows parametric studies involving time scales that cover both the rapid population dynamics relevant to nonequilibrium state evolution, as well as the much longer time durations typical for reaching steady-state device operation. This model is demonstrated by studying the evolution of a Bose-condensed gas in the presence of atom injection and extraction in a double-well potential. In this configuration phase locking between condensates in each well of the potential is readily observed, and its influence on the evolution of the system is studied.
Numerical model for atomtronic circuit analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chow, Weng W.; Straatsma, Cameron J. E.; Anderson, Dana Z.
2015-07-01
A model for studying atomtronic devices and circuits based on finite-temperature Bose-condensed gases is presented. The approach involves numerically solving equations of motion for atomic populations and coherences, derived using the Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian and the Heisenberg picture. The resulting cluster expansion is truncated at a level giving balance between physics rigor and numerical demand mitigation. This approach allows parametric studies involving time scales that cover both the rapid population dynamics relevant to nonequilibrium state evolution, as well as the much longer time durations typical for reaching steady-state device operation. The model is demonstrated by studying the evolution of a Bose-condensed gas in the presence of atom injection and extraction in a double-well potential. In this configuration phase locking between condensates in each well of the potential is readily observed, and its influence on the evolution of the system is studied.
Lattice Boltzmann model for numerical relativity.
Ilseven, E; Mendoza, M
2016-02-01
In the Z4 formulation, Einstein equations are written as a set of flux conservative first-order hyperbolic equations that resemble fluid dynamics equations. Based on this formulation, we construct a lattice Boltzmann model for numerical relativity and validate it with well-established tests, also known as "apples with apples." Furthermore, we find that by increasing the relaxation time, we gain stability at the cost of losing accuracy, and by decreasing the lattice spacings while keeping a constant numerical diffusivity, the accuracy and stability of our simulations improve. Finally, in order to show the potential of our approach, a linear scaling law for parallelization with respect to number of CPU cores is demonstrated. Our model represents the first step in using lattice kinetic theory to solve gravitational problems. PMID:26986435
Lattice Boltzmann model for numerical relativity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ilseven, E.; Mendoza, M.
2016-02-01
In the Z4 formulation, Einstein equations are written as a set of flux conservative first-order hyperbolic equations that resemble fluid dynamics equations. Based on this formulation, we construct a lattice Boltzmann model for numerical relativity and validate it with well-established tests, also known as "apples with apples." Furthermore, we find that by increasing the relaxation time, we gain stability at the cost of losing accuracy, and by decreasing the lattice spacings while keeping a constant numerical diffusivity, the accuracy and stability of our simulations improve. Finally, in order to show the potential of our approach, a linear scaling law for parallelization with respect to number of CPU cores is demonstrated. Our model represents the first step in using lattice kinetic theory to solve gravitational problems.
Infrared radiation parameterizations in numerical climate models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chou, Ming-Dah; Kratz, David P.; Ridgway, William
1991-01-01
This study presents various approaches to parameterizing the broadband transmission functions for utilization in numerical climate models. One-parameter scaling is applied to approximate a nonhomogeneous path with an equivalent homogeneous path, and the diffuse transmittances are either interpolated from precomputed tables or fit by analytical functions. Two-parameter scaling is applied to parameterizing the carbon dioxide and ozone transmission functions in both the lower and middle atmosphere. Parameterizations are given for the nitrous oxide and methane diffuse transmission functions.
Numerical modeling of the acoustic guitar
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chaigne, Antoine; Derveaux, Grégoire; Joly, Patrick; Bécache, Eliane
2003-10-01
An interactive DVD has been created, based on a numerical model of the acoustic guitar. In a first chapter, the retained physical model is described and illustrated, from the pluck to the 3D radiation field. The second chapter is devoted to the presentation of the numerical tools used for solving the equations of the model. Numerical simulations of plate vibrations and radiated sound pressure are shown in the third chapter. A number of simulated sounds are presented and analyzed in the fourth chapter. In addition, the DVD includes a discussion between a guitar maker, an acoustician, a guitar player and a mathematician. This discussion is entitled ``towards a common language.'' Its aim is to show the interest of simulations with respect to complementary professional approaches of the instrument. This DVD received the Henri Poincaré Prize from the 8th Research Film Festival of Nancy (June 2003), sponsored by the CNRS, in the category ``Documents for the scientific community and illustrations of the research for teaching purpose.''
Avoiding numerical pitfalls in social force models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Köster, Gerta; Treml, Franz; Gödel, Marion
2013-06-01
The social force model of Helbing and Molnár is one of the best known approaches to simulate pedestrian motion, a collective phenomenon with nonlinear dynamics. It is based on the idea that the Newtonian laws of motion mostly carry over to pedestrian motion so that human trajectories can be computed by solving a set of ordinary differential equations for velocity and acceleration. The beauty and simplicity of this ansatz are strong reasons for its wide spread. However, the numerical implementation is not without pitfalls. Oscillations, collisions, and instabilities occur even for very small step sizes. Classic solution ideas from molecular dynamics do not apply to the problem because the system is not Hamiltonian despite its source of inspiration. Looking at the model through the eyes of a mathematician, however, we realize that the right hand side of the differential equation is nondifferentiable and even discontinuous at critical locations. This produces undesirable behavior in the exact solution and, at best, severe loss of accuracy in efficient numerical schemes even in short range simulations. We suggest a very simple mollified version of the social force model that conserves the desired dynamic properties of the original many-body system but elegantly and cost efficiently resolves several of the issues concerning stability and numerical resolution.
Avoiding numerical pitfalls in social force models.
Köster, Gerta; Treml, Franz; Gödel, Marion
2013-06-01
The social force model of Helbing and Molnár is one of the best known approaches to simulate pedestrian motion, a collective phenomenon with nonlinear dynamics. It is based on the idea that the Newtonian laws of motion mostly carry over to pedestrian motion so that human trajectories can be computed by solving a set of ordinary differential equations for velocity and acceleration. The beauty and simplicity of this ansatz are strong reasons for its wide spread. However, the numerical implementation is not without pitfalls. Oscillations, collisions, and instabilities occur even for very small step sizes. Classic solution ideas from molecular dynamics do not apply to the problem because the system is not Hamiltonian despite its source of inspiration. Looking at the model through the eyes of a mathematician, however, we realize that the right hand side of the differential equation is nondifferentiable and even discontinuous at critical locations. This produces undesirable behavior in the exact solution and, at best, severe loss of accuracy in efficient numerical schemes even in short range simulations. We suggest a very simple mollified version of the social force model that conserves the desired dynamic properties of the original many-body system but elegantly and cost efficiently resolves several of the issues concerning stability and numerical resolution. PMID:23848804
Numerical modeling of explosions for nuclear monitoring
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stevens, J. L.
2014-12-01
Monitoring the Earth for underground nuclear explosions requires a detailed understanding of the explosion source. In this context, "source" refers to the source of seismic waves, and it is generated by the complex nonlinear near-source motion that accompanies the nuclear explosion. In particular, nuclear monitoring requires understanding the transition from the hydrodynamic to elastic regimes, and propagation of waveforms from the source to stations at distances of hundreds to thousands of kilometers. In the transition region, shear strength is critically important, as are changes in shear strength as the shock wave propagates. Numerical modeling using 1D spherically symmetric, 2D axisymmetric and full 3D calculations provides important insights into the seismic source and the waveforms it generates. Important considerations for numerical modeling include emplacement conditions (tamped or in a cavity), source type (chemical or nuclear), material models for strength and strength reduction, and geologic conditions including topography and tectonic stresses in the source region. In addition to calculating the near source ground motion, we propagate the near source solution to regional and teleseismic distances where the observations of seismic signals from nuclear explosions are made. The objectives of nuclear monitoring are detection of seismic events (earthquakes, quarry blasts and other sources in addition to nuclear explosions), accurate location of these events, discrimination of nuclear explosions from other types of sources, and estimation of nuclear explosion yield. Numerical modeling is particularly important for discrimination and yield estimation. Numerical modeling is used to understand unexpected anomalies that occur, such as the large surface waves generated by the three North Korean nuclear tests, which may have been caused by a difference in tectonic stress state between North Korea and other test sites. Another important issue that can be addressed
Advanced Numerical Model for Irradiated Concrete
Giorla, Alain B.
2015-03-01
In this report, we establish a numerical model for concrete exposed to irradiation to address these three critical points. The model accounts for creep in the cement paste and its coupling with damage, temperature and relative humidity. The shift in failure mode with the loading rate is also properly represented. The numerical model for creep has been validated and calibrated against different experiments in the literature [Wittmann, 1970, Le Roy, 1995]. Results from a simplified model are shown to showcase the ability of numerical homogenization to simulate irradiation effects in concrete. In future works, the complete model will be applied to the analysis of the irradiation experiments of Elleuch et al. [1972] and Kelly et al. [1969]. This requires a careful examination of the experimental environmental conditions as in both cases certain critical information are missing, including the relative humidity history. A sensitivity analysis will be conducted to provide lower and upper bounds of the concrete expansion under irradiation, and check if the scatter in the simulated results matches the one found in experiments. The numerical and experimental results will be compared in terms of expansion and loss of mechanical stiffness and strength. Both effects should be captured accordingly by the model to validate it. Once the model has been validated on these two experiments, it can be applied to simulate concrete from nuclear power plants. To do so, the materials used in these concrete must be as well characterized as possible. The main parameters required are the mechanical properties of each constituent in the concrete (aggregates, cement paste), namely the elastic modulus, the creep properties, the tensile and compressive strength, the thermal expansion coefficient, and the drying shrinkage. These can be either measured experimentally, estimated from the initial composition in the case of cement paste, or back-calculated from mechanical tests on concrete. If some
Multiscale numerical modeling of levee breach processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kees, C. E.; Farthing, M. W.; Akkerman, I.; Bazilevs, Y.
2010-12-01
One of the dominant failure modes of levees during flood and storm surge events is erosion-based breach formation due to high velocity flow over the back (land-side) slope. Modeling the breaching process numerically is challenging due to both physical and geometric complexity that develops and evolves during the overtopping event. The surface water flows are aerated and sediment-laden mixtures in the supercritical and turbulent regimes. The air/water free surface may undergo perturbations on the same order as the depth or even topological change (breaking). Likewise the soil/fluid interface is characterized by evolving headcuts, which are essentially moving discontinuities in the soil surface elevation. The most widely used models of levee breaching are nevertheless based on depth-integrated models of flow, sediment transport, and bed morphology. In this work our objective is to explore models with less restrictive modeling assumptions, which have become computationally tractable due to advances in both numerical methods and high-performance computing hardware. In particular, we present formulations of fully three-dimensional flow, transport, and morphological evolution for overtopping and breaching processes and apply recently developed finite element and level set methods to solve the governing equations for relevant test problems.
Numerical simulations and modeling of turbulent combustion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cuenot, B.
Turbulent combustion is the basic physical phenomenon responsible for efficient energy release by any internal combustion engine. However it is accompanied by other undesirable phenomena such as noise, pollutant species emission or damaging instabilities that may even lead to the system desctruction. It is then crucial to control this phenomenon, to understand all its mecanisms and to master it in industrial systems. For long time turbulent combustion has been explored only through theory and experiment. But the rapid increase of computers power during the last years has allowed an important development of numerical simulation, that has become today an essential tool for research and technical design. Direct numerical simulation has then allowed to rapidly progress in the knowledge of turbulent flame structures, leading to new modelisations for steady averaged simulations. Recently large eddy simulation has made a new step forward by refining the description of complex and unsteady flames. The main problem that arises when performing numerical simulation of turbulent combustion is linked to the description of the flame front. Being very thin, it can not however be reduced to a simple interface as it is the location of intense chemical transformation and of strong variations of thermodynamical quantities. Capturing the internal structure of a zone with a thickness of the order of 0.1 mm in a computation with a mesh step 10 times larger being impossible, it is necessary to model the turbulent flame. Models depend on the chemical structure of the flame, on the ambiant turbulence, on the combustion regime (flamelets, distributed combustion, etc.) and on the reactants injection mode (premixed or not). One finds then a large class of models, from the most simple algebraic model with a one-step chemical kinetics, to the most complex model involving probablity density functions, cross-correlations and multiple-step or fully complex chemical kinetics.
Numerical modelling of swirling diffusive flames
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parra-Santos, Teresa; Perez, Ruben; Szasz, Robert Z.; Gutkowski, Artur N.; Castro, Francisco
2016-03-01
Computational Fluid Dynamics has been used to study the mixing and combustion of two confined jets whose setup and operating conditions are those of the benchmark of Roback and Johnson. Numerical model solves 3D transient Navier Stokes for turbulent and reactive flows. Averaged velocity profiles using RNG swirl dominated k-epsilon model have been validated with experimental measurements from other sources for the non reactive case. The combustion model is Probability Density Function. Bearing in mind the annular jet has swirl number over 0.5, a vortex breakdown appears in the axis of the burner. Besides, the sudden expansion with a ratio of 2 in diameter between nozzle exits and the test chamber produces the boundary layer separation with the corresponding torus shape recirculation. Contrasting the mixing and combustion models, the last one produces the reduction of the vortex breakdown.
Numerical modeling of flowing soft materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Toschi, Federico; Benzi, Roberto; Bernaschi, Massimo; Perlekar, Prasad; Sbragaglia, Mauro; Succi, Sauro
2012-11-01
The structural properties of soft-flowing and non-ergodic materials, such as emulsions, foams and gels shares similarities with the three basic states of matter (solid, liquid and gas). The macroscopic properties are characterized by non-standard features such as non-Newtonian rheology, long-time relaxation, caging effects, enhanced viscosity, structural arrest, hysteresis, dynamic disorder, aging and related phenomena. Large scale non-homogeneities can develop, even under simple shear conditions, by means of the formation of macroscopic bands of widely different viscosities (``shear banding'' phenomena). We employ a numerical model based on the Lattice Boltzmann method to perform numerical simulations of soft-matter under flowing conditions. Results of 3d simulations are presented and compared to previous 2d investigations.
Posttraumatic Orbital Emphysema: A Numerical Model
Skorek, Andrzej; Kłosowski, Paweł; Plichta, Łukasz; Zmuda Trzebiatowski, Marcin; Lemski, Paweł
2014-01-01
Orbital emphysema is a common symptom accompanying orbital fracture. The pathomechanism is still not recognized and the usually assumed cause, elevated pressure in the upper airways connected with sneezing or coughing, does not always contribute to the occurrence of this type of fracture. Observations based on the finite model (simulating blowout type fracture) of the deformations of the inferior orbital wall after a strike in its lower rim. Authors created a computer numeric model of the orbit with specified features—thickness and resilience modulus. During simulation an evenly spread 14400 N force was applied to the nodular points in the inferior rim (the maximal value not causing cracking of the outer rim, but only ruptures in the inferior wall). The observation was made from 1 · 10−3 to 1 · 10−2 second after a strike. Right after a strike dislocations of the inferior orbital wall toward the maxillary sinus were observed. Afterwards a retrograde wave of the dislocation of the inferior wall toward the orbit was noticed. Overall dislocation amplitude reached about 6 mm. Based on a numeric model of the orbit submitted to a strike in the inferior wall an existence of a retrograde shock wave causing orbital emphysema has been found. PMID:25309749
Posttraumatic orbital emphysema: a numerical model.
Skorek, Andrzej; Kłosowski, Paweł; Plichta, Lukasz; Raczyńska, Dorota; Zmuda Trzebiatowski, Marcin; Lemski, Paweł
2014-01-01
Orbital emphysema is a common symptom accompanying orbital fracture. The pathomechanism is still not recognized and the usually assumed cause, elevated pressure in the upper airways connected with sneezing or coughing, does not always contribute to the occurrence of this type of fracture. Observations based on the finite model (simulating blowout type fracture) of the deformations of the inferior orbital wall after a strike in its lower rim. Authors created a computer numeric model of the orbit with specified features-thickness and resilience modulus. During simulation an evenly spread 14400 N force was applied to the nodular points in the inferior rim (the maximal value not causing cracking of the outer rim, but only ruptures in the inferior wall). The observation was made from 1 · 10(-3) to 1 · 10(-2) second after a strike. Right after a strike dislocations of the inferior orbital wall toward the maxillary sinus were observed. Afterwards a retrograde wave of the dislocation of the inferior wall toward the orbit was noticed. Overall dislocation amplitude reached about 6 mm. Based on a numeric model of the orbit submitted to a strike in the inferior wall an existence of a retrograde shock wave causing orbital emphysema has been found. PMID:25309749
Numerical modeling of vertical cavity semiconductor lasers
Chow, W.W.; Hadley, G.R.
1996-08-01
A vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) is a diode laser whose optical cavity is formed by growing or depositing DBR mirror stacks that sandwich an active gain region. The resulting short cavity supports lasing into a single longitudinal mode normal to the wafer, making these devices ideal for a multitude of applications, ranging from high-speed communication to high-power sources (from 2D arrays). This report describes the development of a numerical VCSEL model, whose goal is to both further their understanding of these complex devices and provide a tool for accurate design and data analysis.
Numerical modeling for dilute and dense sprays
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, C. P.; Kim, Y. M.; Shang, H. M.; Ziebarth, J. P.; Wang, T. S.
1992-01-01
We have successfully implemented a numerical model for spray-combustion calculations. In this model, the governing gas-phase equations in Eulerian coordinate are solved by a time-marching multiple pressure correction procedure based on the operator-splitting technique. The droplet-phase equations in Lagrangian coordinate are solved by a stochastic discrete particle technique. In order to simplify the calculation procedure for the circulating droplets, the effective conductivity model is utilized. The k-epsilon models are utilized to characterize the time and length scales of the gas phase in conjunction with turbulent modulation by droplets and droplet dispersion by turbulence. This method entails random sampling of instantaneous gas flow properties and the stochastic process requires a large number of computational parcels to produce the satisfactory dispersion distributions even for rather dilute sprays. Two major improvements in spray combustion modelings were made. Firstly, we have developed a probability density function approach in multidimensional space to represent a specific computational particle. Secondly, we incorporate the Taylor Analogy Breakup (TAB) model for handling the dense spray effects. This breakup model is based on the reasonable assumption that atomization and drop breakup are indistinguishable processes within a dense spray near the nozzle exit. Accordingly, atomization is prescribed by injecting drops which have a characteristic size equal to the nozzle exit diameter. Example problems include the nearly homogeneous and inhomogeneous turbulent particle dispersion, and the non-evaporating, evaporating, and burning dense sprays. Comparison with experimental data will be discussed in detail.
Convecting reference frames and invariant numerical models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bihlo, Alexander; Nave, Jean-Christophe
2014-09-01
In the recent paper by Bernardini et al. [1] the discrepancy in the performance of finite difference and spectral models for simulations of flows with a preferential direction of propagation was studied. In a simplified investigation carried out using the viscous Burgers equation the authors attributed the poorer numerical results of finite difference models to a violation of Galilean invariance in the discretization and propose to carry out the computations in a reference frame moving with the bulk velocity of the flow. Here we further discuss this problem and relate it to known results on invariant discretization schemes. Non-invariant and invariant finite difference discretizations of Burgers equation are proposed and compared with the discretization using the remedy proposed by Bernardini et al.
Numerical modelling of morphodynamics—Vilaine Estuary
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vested, Hans Jacob; Tessier, Caroline; Christensen, Bo Brahtz; Goubert, Evelyne
2013-04-01
The main objective of this paper is to develop a method to simulate long-term morphodynamics of estuaries dominated by fine sediments, which are subject to both tidal flow and meteorologically induced variations in freshwater run-off and wave conditions. The method is tested on the Vilaine Estuary located in South Brittany, France. The estuary is subject to a meso-macrotidal regime. The semi-diurnal tidal range varies from around 2.5 to 5 m at neap and spring, respectively. The freshwater input is controlled by a dam located approximately 8 km from the mouth of the estuary. Sediments are characterised as mostly fines, but more sandy areas are also found. The morphology of the estuary is highly influenced by the dam. It is very dynamic and changes in a complicated manner with the run-off from the dam, the tide and the wave forcing at the mouth of the estuary. Extensive hydrodynamic and sediment field data have been collected in the past and provide a solid scientific basis for studying the estuary. Based on a conceptual understanding of the morphodynamics, a numerical morphological model with coupled hydrodynamic, surface wave and sediment transport models is formulated. The numerical models are calibrated to reproduce sediment concentrations, tidal flat altimetry and overall sediment fluxes. Scaling factors are applied to a reference year to form quasi-realistic hydrodynamic forcing and river run-off, which allow for the simulations to be extended to other years. The simulation results are compared with observed bathymetric changes in the estuary during the period 1998-2005. The models and scaling factors are applied to predict the morphological development over a time scale of up to 10 years. The influence of the initial conditions and the sequence of external hydrodynamic forcing, with respect to the morphodynamic response of the estuary, are discussed.
Adaptive Numerical Algorithms in Space Weather Modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Toth, Gabor; vanderHolst, Bart; Sokolov, Igor V.; DeZeeuw, Darren; Gombosi, Tamas I.; Fang, Fang; Manchester, Ward B.; Meng, Xing; Nakib, Dalal; Powell, Kenneth G.; Stout, Quentin F.; Glocer, Alex; Ma, Ying-Juan; Opher, Merav
2010-01-01
Space weather describes the various processes in the Sun-Earth system that present danger to human health and technology. The goal of space weather forecasting is to provide an opportunity to mitigate these negative effects. Physics-based space weather modeling is characterized by disparate temporal and spatial scales as well as by different physics in different domains. A multi-physics system can be modeled by a software framework comprising of several components. Each component corresponds to a physics domain, and each component is represented by one or more numerical models. The publicly available Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF) can execute and couple together several components distributed over a parallel machine in a flexible and efficient manner. The framework also allows resolving disparate spatial and temporal scales with independent spatial and temporal discretizations in the various models. Several of the computationally most expensive domains of the framework are modeled by the Block-Adaptive Tree Solar wind Roe Upwind Scheme (BATS-R-US) code that can solve various forms of the magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equations, including Hall, semi-relativistic, multi-species and multi-fluid MHD, anisotropic pressure, radiative transport and heat conduction. Modeling disparate scales within BATS-R-US is achieved by a block-adaptive mesh both in Cartesian and generalized coordinates. Most recently we have created a new core for BATS-R-US: the Block-Adaptive Tree Library (BATL) that provides a general toolkit for creating, load balancing and message passing in a 1, 2 or 3 dimensional block-adaptive grid. We describe the algorithms of BATL and demonstrate its efficiency and scaling properties for various problems. BATS-R-US uses several time-integration schemes to address multiple time-scales: explicit time stepping with fixed or local time steps, partially steady-state evolution, point-implicit, semi-implicit, explicit/implicit, and fully implicit numerical
Adaptive numerical algorithms in space weather modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tóth, Gábor; van der Holst, Bart; Sokolov, Igor V.; De Zeeuw, Darren L.; Gombosi, Tamas I.; Fang, Fang; Manchester, Ward B.; Meng, Xing; Najib, Dalal; Powell, Kenneth G.; Stout, Quentin F.; Glocer, Alex; Ma, Ying-Juan; Opher, Merav
2012-02-01
Space weather describes the various processes in the Sun-Earth system that present danger to human health and technology. The goal of space weather forecasting is to provide an opportunity to mitigate these negative effects. Physics-based space weather modeling is characterized by disparate temporal and spatial scales as well as by different relevant physics in different domains. A multi-physics system can be modeled by a software framework comprising several components. Each component corresponds to a physics domain, and each component is represented by one or more numerical models. The publicly available Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF) can execute and couple together several components distributed over a parallel machine in a flexible and efficient manner. The framework also allows resolving disparate spatial and temporal scales with independent spatial and temporal discretizations in the various models. Several of the computationally most expensive domains of the framework are modeled by the Block-Adaptive Tree Solarwind Roe-type Upwind Scheme (BATS-R-US) code that can solve various forms of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations, including Hall, semi-relativistic, multi-species and multi-fluid MHD, anisotropic pressure, radiative transport and heat conduction. Modeling disparate scales within BATS-R-US is achieved by a block-adaptive mesh both in Cartesian and generalized coordinates. Most recently we have created a new core for BATS-R-US: the Block-Adaptive Tree Library (BATL) that provides a general toolkit for creating, load balancing and message passing in a 1, 2 or 3 dimensional block-adaptive grid. We describe the algorithms of BATL and demonstrate its efficiency and scaling properties for various problems. BATS-R-US uses several time-integration schemes to address multiple time-scales: explicit time stepping with fixed or local time steps, partially steady-state evolution, point-implicit, semi-implicit, explicit/implicit, and fully implicit
DANA: distributed numerical and adaptive modelling framework.
Rougier, Nicolas P; Fix, Jérémy
2012-01-01
DANA is a python framework ( http://dana.loria.fr ) whose computational paradigm is grounded on the notion of a unit that is essentially a set of time dependent values varying under the influence of other units via adaptive weighted connections. The evolution of a unit's value are defined by a set of differential equations expressed in standard mathematical notation which greatly ease their definition. The units are organized into groups that form a model. Each unit can be connected to any other unit (including itself) using a weighted connection. The DANA framework offers a set of core objects needed to design and run such models. The modeler only has to define the equations of a unit as well as the equations governing the training of the connections. The simulation is completely transparent to the modeler and is handled by DANA. This allows DANA to be used for a wide range of numerical and distributed models as long as they fit the proposed framework (e.g. cellular automata, reaction-diffusion system, decentralized neural networks, recurrent neural networks, kernel-based image processing, etc.). PMID:22994650
Submarine sand volcanos: experiments and numerical modelling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Philippe, P.; Ngoma, J.; Delenne, J.
2012-12-01
Fluid overpressure at the bottom of a soil layer may generate fracturation in preferential paths for a cohesive material. But the case of sandy soils is rather different: a significant internal flow is allowed within the material and can potentially induce hydro-mechanical instabilities whose most common example is fluidization. Many works have been devoted to fluidization but very few have the issue of initiation and development of a fluidized zone inside a granular bed, prior entire fluidization of the medium. In this contribution, we report experimental results and numerical simulations on a model system of immersed sand volcanos generated by a localized upward spring of liquid, injected at constant flow-rate at the bottom of a granular layer. Such a localized state of fluidization is relevant for some industrial processes (spouted bed, maintenance of navigable waterways,…) and for several geological issues (kimberlite volcano conduits, fluid venting, oil recovery in sandy soil, More precisely, what is presented here is a comparison between experiments, carried out by direct visualization throughout the medium, and numerical simulations, based on DEM modelling of the grains coupled to resolution of NS equations in the liquid phase (LBM). There is a very good agreement between the experimental phenomenology and the simulation results. When the flow-rate is increased, three regimes are successively observed: static bed, fluidized cavity that does not extend to the top of the layer, and finally fluidization over the entire height of layer that creates a fluidized chimney. A very strong hysteretic effect is present here with an extended range of stability for fluidized cavities when flow-rate is decreased back. This can be interpreted in terms force chains and arches. The influences of grain diameter, layer height and injection width are studied and interpreted using a model previously developed by Zoueshtiagh [1]. Finally, growing rate of the fluidized zone and
Numerical Modeling of Ocular Dysfunction in Space
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nelson, Emily S.; Mulugeta, Lealem; Vera, J.; Myers, J. G.; Raykin, J.; Feola, A. J.; Gleason, R.; Samuels, B.; Ethier, C. R.
2014-01-01
Upon introduction to microgravity, the near-loss of hydrostatic pressure causes a marked cephalic (headward) shift of fluid in an astronaut's body. The fluid shift, along with other factors of spaceflight, induces a cascade of interdependent physiological responses which occur at varying time scales. Long-duration missions carry an increased risk for the development of the Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome, a spectrum of ophthalmic changes including posterior globe flattening, choroidal folds, distension of the optic nerve sheath, kinking of the optic nerve and potentially permanent degradation of visual function. In the cases of VIIP found to date, the initial onset of symptoms occurred after several weeks to several months of spaceflight, by which time the gross bodily fluid distribution is well established. We are developing a suite of numerical models to simulate the effects of fluid shift on the cardiovascular, central nervous and ocular systems. These models calculate the modified mean volumes, flow rates and pressures that are characteristic of the altered quasi-homeostatic state in microgravity, including intracranial and intraocular pressures. The results of the lumped models provide initial and boundary data to a 3D finite element biomechanics simulation of the globe, optic nerve head and retrobulbar subarachnoid space. The integrated set of models will be used to investigate the evolution of the biomechanical stress state in the ocular tissues due to long-term exposure to microgravity.
Numerical modeling of transport barrier formation
Tokar, Mikhail Z.
2010-04-01
In diverse media the characteristics of mass and heat transfer may undergo spontaneous and abrupt changes in time and space. This can lead to the formation of regions with strongly reduced transport, so called transport barriers (TB). The presence of interfaces between regions with qualitatively and quantitatively different transport characteristics impose severe requirements to methods and numerical schemes used by solving of transport equations. In particular the assumptions made in standard methods about the solution behavior by representing its derivatives fail in points where the transport changes abruptly. The situation is complicated further by the fact that neither the formation time nor the positions of interfaces are known a priori. A numerical approach, operating reliably under such conditions, is proposed. It is based on the introduction of a new dependent variable related to the variation after one time step of the original one integrated over the volume. In the vicinity of any grid knot the resulting differential equation is approximated by a second order ordinary differential equation with constant coefficients. Exact analytical solutions of these equations are conjugated between knots by demanding the continuity of the total solution and its first derivative. As an example the heat transfer in media with heat conductivity decreasing abruptly when the temperature e-folding length exceeds a critical value is considered. The formation of TB both at a heating power above the critical level and caused with radiation energy losses non-linearly dependent on the temperature is modeled.
Transient Numerical Modeling of Catalytic Channels
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Struk, Peter M.; Dietrich, Daniel L.; Miller, Fletcher J.; T'ien, James S.
2007-01-01
This paper presents a transient model of catalytic combustion suitable for isolated channels and monolith reactors. The model is a lumped two-phase (gas and solid) model where the gas phase is quasi-steady relative to the transient solid. Axial diffusion is neglected in the gas phase; lateral diffusion, however, is accounted for using transfer coefficients. The solid phase includes axial heat conduction and external heat loss due to convection and radiation. The combustion process utilizes detailed gas and surface reaction models. The gas-phase model becomes a system of stiff ordinary differential equations while the solid phase reduces, after discretization, into a system of stiff ordinary differential-algebraic equations. The time evolution of the system came from alternating integrations of the quasi-steady gas and transient solid. This work outlines the numerical model and presents some sensitivity studies on important parameters including internal transfer coefficients, catalytic surface site density, and external heat-loss (if applicable). The model is compared to two experiments using CO fuel: (1) steady-state conversion through an isothermal platinum (Pt) tube and (2) transient propagation of a catalytic reaction inside a small Pt tube. The model requires internal mass-transfer resistance to match the experiments at lower residence times. Under mass-transport limited conditions, the model reasonably predicted exit conversion using global mass-transfer coefficients. Near light-off, the model results did not match the experiment precisely even after adjustment of mass-transfer coefficients. Agreement improved for the first case after adjusting the surface kinetics such that the net rate of CO adsorption increased compared to O2. The CO / O2 surface mechanism came from a sub-set of reactions in a popular CH4 / O2 mechanism. For the second case, predictions improved for lean conditions with increased external heat loss or adjustment of the kinetics as in the
Modeling Biodegradation and Reactive Transport: Analytical and Numerical Models
Sun, Y; Glascoe, L
2005-06-09
The computational modeling of the biodegradation of contaminated groundwater systems accounting for biochemical reactions coupled to contaminant transport is a valuable tool for both the field engineer/planner with limited computational resources and the expert computational researcher less constrained by time and computer power. There exists several analytical and numerical computer models that have been and are being developed to cover the practical needs put forth by users to fulfill this spectrum of computational demands. Generally, analytical models provide rapid and convenient screening tools running on very limited computational power, while numerical models can provide more detailed information with consequent requirements of greater computational time and effort. While these analytical and numerical computer models can provide accurate and adequate information to produce defensible remediation strategies, decisions based on inadequate modeling output or on over-analysis can have costly and risky consequences. In this chapter we consider both analytical and numerical modeling approaches to biodegradation and reactive transport. Both approaches are discussed and analyzed in terms of achieving bioremediation goals, recognizing that there is always a tradeoff between computational cost and the resolution of simulated systems.
Numerical linearized MHD model of flapping oscillations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Korovinskiy, D. B.; Ivanov, I. B.; Semenov, V. S.; Erkaev, N. V.; Kiehas, S. A.
2016-06-01
Kink-like magnetotail flapping oscillations in a Harris-like current sheet with earthward growing normal magnetic field component Bz are studied by means of time-dependent 2D linearized MHD numerical simulations. The dispersion relation and two-dimensional eigenfunctions are obtained. The results are compared with analytical estimates of the double-gradient model, which are found to be reliable for configurations with small Bz up to values ˜ 0.05 of the lobe magnetic field. Coupled with previous results, present simulations confirm that the earthward/tailward growth direction of the Bz component acts as a switch between stable/unstable regimes of the flapping mode, while the mode dispersion curve is the same in both cases. It is confirmed that flapping oscillations may be triggered by a simple Gaussian initial perturbation of the Vz velocity.
Two numerical models for landslide dynamic analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hungr, Oldrich; McDougall, Scott
2009-05-01
Two microcomputer-based numerical models (Dynamic ANalysis (DAN) and three-dimensional model DAN (DAN3D)) have been developed and extensively used for analysis of landslide runout, specifically for the purposes of practical landslide hazard and risk assessment. The theoretical basis of both models is a system of depth-averaged governing equations derived from the principles of continuum mechanics. Original features developed specifically during this work include: an open rheological kernel; explicit use of tangential strain to determine the tangential stress state within the flowing sheet, which is both more realistic and beneficial to the stability of the model; orientation of principal tangential stresses parallel with the direction of motion; inclusion of the centripetal forces corresponding to the true curvature of the path in the motion direction and; the use of very simple and highly efficient free surface interpolation methods. Both models yield similar results when applied to the same sets of input data. Both algorithms are designed to work within the semi-empirical framework of the "equivalent fluid" approach. This approach requires selection of material rheology and calibration of input parameters through back-analysis of real events. Although approximate, it facilitates simple and efficient operation while accounting for the most important characteristics of extremely rapid landslides. The two models have been verified against several controlled laboratory experiments with known physical basis. A large number of back-analyses of real landslides of various types have also been carried out. One example is presented. Calibration patterns are emerging, which give a promise of predictive capability.
Numerical modelling of ion transport in flames
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, Jie; Belhi, Memdouh; Bisetti, Fabrizio; Mani Sarathy, S.
2015-11-01
This paper presents a modelling framework to compute the diffusivity and mobility of ions in flames. The (n, 6, 4) interaction potential is adopted to model collisions between neutral and charged species. All required parameters in the potential are related to the polarizability of the species pair via semi-empirical formulas, which are derived using the most recently published data or best estimates. The resulting framework permits computation of the transport coefficients of any ion found in a hydrocarbon flame. The accuracy of the proposed method is evaluated by comparing its predictions with experimental data on the mobility of selected ions in single-component neutral gases. Based on this analysis, the value of a model constant available in the literature is modified in order to improve the model's predictions. The newly determined ion transport coefficients are used as part of a previously developed numerical approach to compute the distribution of charged species in a freely propagating premixed lean CH4/O2 flame. Since a significant scatter of polarizability data exists in the literature, the effects of changes in polarizability on ion transport properties and the spatial distribution of ions in flames are explored. Our analysis shows that changes in polarizability propagate with decreasing effect from binary transport coefficients to species number densities. We conclude that the chosen polarizability value has a limited effect on the ion distribution in freely propagating flames. We expect that the modelling framework proposed here will benefit future efforts in modelling the effect of external voltages on flames. Supplemental data for this article can be accessed at http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13647830.2015.1090018.
Numerical Modeling of Suspension HVOF Spray
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jadidi, M.; Moghtadernejad, S.; Dolatabadi, A.
2016-02-01
A three-dimensional two-way coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian scheme is used to simulate suspension high-velocity oxy-fuel spraying process. The mass, momentum, energy, and species equations are solved together with the realizable k-ɛ turbulence model to simulate the gas phase. Suspension is assumed to be a mixture of solid particles [mullite powder (3Al2O3·2SiO2)], ethanol, and ethylene glycol. The process involves premixed combustion of oxygen-propylene, and non-premixed combustion of oxygen-ethanol and oxygen-ethylene glycol. One-step global reaction is used for each mentioned reaction together with eddy dissipation model to compute the reaction rate. To simulate the droplet breakup, Taylor Analogy Breakup model is applied. After the completion of droplet breakup, and solvent evaporation/combustion, the solid suspended particles are tracked through the domain to determine the characteristics of the coating particles. Numerical simulations are validated against the experimental results in the literature for the same operating conditions. Seven or possibly eight shock diamonds are captured outside the nozzle. In addition, a good agreement between the predicted particle temperature, velocity, and diameter, and the experiment is obtained. It is shown that as the standoff distance increases, the particle temperature and velocity reduce. Furthermore, a correlation is proposed to determine the spray cross-sectional diameter and estimate the particle trajectories as a function of standoff distance.
Foehn wind detection using numerical modelling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Irimescu, A.; Caian, M.
2010-09-01
In Romania, foehn is a short-lived atmospheric phenomenon, of a low to average intensity, not always highlighted by weather station observations. When such situations occur additional data are resorted to, rendering a continuous, aggregate image, in comparison to the punctual information yielded by weather stations. This paper aims to describe how foehn is detected in northern Oltenia (the Inner Carpathian-Balkan Curvature), using numerical modelling. Results generated by the RegCM3 Regional Climatic Model thus represent an undisputed tool, their most important advantage being the 10-km spatial resolution. The presence of foehn in northern Oltenia and its climatic peculiarities have been disclosed through the analysis in time and space of the meteorological elements specific to the phenomenon (air temperature, wind speed and direction etc) over a 40-year interval (1961-2000). The paper presents a new methodology that can be used to estimate the probability of production and the foehn characteristics (intensity, duration etc.). Interpretation of the RegCM3 model results has led to the statistical analysis of foehn occurrences within the studied area during the cold season (December, January and February). The resulted climatology, with fine resolution, can be used in foehn forecast of predictability.
Numerical modeling of bubble dynamics in magmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huber, Christian; Su, Yanqing; Parmigiani, Andrea
2014-05-01
Understanding the complex non-linear physics that governs volcanic eruptions is contingent on our ability to characterize the dynamics of bubbles and its effect on the ascending magma. The exsolution and migration of bubbles has also a great impact on the heat and mass transport in and out of magma bodies stored at shallow depths in the crust. Multiphase systems like magmas are by definition heterogeneous at small scales. Although mixture theory or homogenization methods are convenient to represent multiphase systems as a homogeneous equivalent media, these approaches do not inform us on possible feedbacks at the pore-scale and can be significantly misleading. In this presentation, we discuss the development and application of bubble-scale multiphase flow modeling to address the following questions : How do bubbles impact heat and mass transport in magma chambers ? How efficient are chemical exchanges between the melt and bubbles during magma decompression? What is the role of hydrodynamic interactions on the deformation of bubbles while the magma is sheared? Addressing these questions requires powerful numerical methods that accurately model the balance between viscous, capillary and pressure stresses. We discuss how these bubble-scale models can provide important constraints on the dynamics of magmas stored at shallow depth or ascending to the surface during an eruption.
Benchmarking numerical freeze/thaw models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rühaak, Wolfram; Anbergen, Hauke; Molson, John; Grenier, Christophe; Sass, Ingo
2015-04-01
The modeling of freezing and thawing of water in porous media is of increasing interest, and for which very different application areas exist. For instance, the modeling of permafrost regression with respect to climate change issues is one area, while others include geotechnical applications in tunneling and for borehole heat exchangers which operate at temperatures below the freezing point. The modeling of these processes requires the solution of a coupled non-linear system of partial differential equations for flow and heat transport in space and time. Different code implementations have been developed in the past. Analytical solutions exist only for simple cases. Consequently, an interest has arisen in benchmarking different codes with analytical solutions, experiments and purely numerical results, similar to the long-standing DECOVALEX and the more recent "Geothermal Code Comparison" activities. The name for this freezing/ thawing benchmark consortium is INTERFROST. In addition to the well-known so-called Lunardini solution for a 1D case (case T1), two different 2D problems will be presented, one which represents melting of a frozen inclusion (case TH2) and another which represents the growth or thaw of permafrost around a talik (case TH3). These talik regions are important for controlling groundwater movement within a mainly frozen ground. First results of the different benchmark results will be shown and discussed.
Numerical modeling of polar mesocyclones generation mechanisms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sergeev, Dennis; Stepanenko, Victor
2013-04-01
parameters, lateral boundary conditions are varied in the typically observed range. The approach is fully nonlinear: we use a three-dimensional non-hydrostatic mesoscale model NH3D_MPI [1] coupled with one-dimensional water body model LAKE. A key method used in the present study is the analysis of eddy kinetic and available potential energy budgets. References 1. Mikushin, D.N., and Stepanenko, V.M., The implementation of regional atmospheric model numerical algorithms for CBEA-based clusters. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Parallel Processing and Applied Mathematics, 2010, vol. 6067, p. 525-534. 2. Rasmussen, E., and Turner, J. (eds), Polar Lows: Mesoscale Weather Systems in the Polar Regions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003, 612 pp. 3. Yanase, W., and Niino, H., Dependence of Polar Low Development on Baroclinicity and Physical Processes: An Idealized High-Resolution Experiment, J. Atmos. Sci., 2006, vol. 64, p. 3044-3067.
Numerical geometry of map and model assessment.
Wriggers, Willy; He, Jing
2015-11-01
We are describing best practices and assessment strategies for the atomic interpretation of cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) maps. Multiscale numerical geometry strategies in the Situs package and in secondary structure detection software are currently evolving due to the recent increases in cryo-EM resolution. Criteria that aim to predict the accuracy of fitted atomic models at low (worse than 8Å) and medium (4-8 Å) resolutions remain challenging. However, a high level of confidence in atomic models can be achieved by combining such criteria. The observed errors are due to map-model discrepancies and due to the effect of imperfect global docking strategies. Extending the earlier motion capture approach developed for flexible fitting, we use simulated fiducials (pseudoatoms) at varying levels of coarse-graining to track the local drift of structural features. We compare three tracking approaches: naïve vector quantization, a smoothly deformable model, and a tessellation of the structure into rigid Voronoi cells, which are fitted using a multi-fragment refinement approach. The lowest error is an upper bound for the (small) discrepancy between the crystal structure and the EM map due to different conditions in their structure determination. When internal features such as secondary structures are visible in medium-resolution EM maps, it is possible to extend the idea of point-based fiducials to more complex geometric representations such as helical axes, strands, and skeletons. We propose quantitative strategies to assess map-model pairs when such secondary structure patterns are prominent. PMID:26416532
Numerical Models of Ophiolite Genesis and Obduction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guilmette, C.; Beaumont, C.; Jamieson, R.
2013-12-01
Ophiolites are relics of oceanic lithosphere tectonically emplaced in continental settings. They are diagnostic features of continental suture zones, where they mark past plate boundaries. Even after having been studied for more than 40 years, the mechanisms involved in the genesis and subsequent obduction of ophiolites over continental margins are still debated. We present the results of 2D thermal-mechanical numerical models that successfully reproduce characteristics of natural examples like the Semail, Bay of Islands, Yarlung-Zangbo, and Coast Range ophiolites. The numerical models are upper mantle scale and use pressure-, temperature- and strain-dependent viscous-plastic rheologies. Both divergent and convergent velocity boundary conditions are used and tectonic boundary forces are monitored. The models start with the rifting of a stable continent, followed by development of an ocean ridge and accretion of oceanic lithosphere at a total rate of 3 cm/y. Once a specified ocean size/age is achieved, the velocity boundary conditions are reversed leading to convergence and the spontaneous inception of a suduction zone at the mid-ocean ridge. We present results for models including different ages of oceans (40 to 90 Ma) and different convergence velocities (5 to 15 cm/y). The interaction between the lower plate passive margin and the oceanic upper plate results in 5 different tectonic styles. These differ mainly by the presence or absence of oceanic spreading in the upper plate (back-arc basin), leading to supra-subduction zone ophiolites vs. MORB-type, and by the behaviour of the oceanic slab, e.g., slab rollback vs. breakoff. The evolution of effective slab pull is interpreted to be the major control on the resulting tectonic style. Low effective slab pull models (young oceans and fast convergence rates) fail to obduct an ophiolite. Strong effective slab pull models (old oceans and lower convergence rates) result in subduction zone retreat and spontaneous oceanic
Numerical models of wind-driven circulation in lakes
Cheng, R.T.; Powell, T.M.; Dillon, T.M.
1976-01-01
The state-of-the-art of numerical modelling of large-scale wind-driven circulation in lakes is presented. The governing equations which describe this motion are discussed along with the appropriate numerical techniques necessary to solve them in lakes. The numerical models are categorized into three large primary groups: the layered models, the Ekman-type models, and the other three-dimensional models. Discussions and comparison of models are given and future research directions are suggested. ?? 1976.
Numerical modeling of subaqueous sand dune morphodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doré, Arnaud; Bonneton, Philippe; Marieu, Vincent; Garlan, Thierry
2016-03-01
The morphodynamic evolution of subaqueous sand dunes is investigated, using a 2-D Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes numerical model. A laboratory experiment where dunes are generated under stationary unidirectional flow conditions is used as a reference case. The model reproduces the evolution of the erodible bed until a state of equilibrium is reached. In particular, the simulation exhibits the different stages of the bed evolution, e.g., the incipient ripple generation, the nonlinear bed form growing phase, and the dune field equilibrium phase. The results show good agreement in terms of dune geometrical dimensions and time to equilibrium. After the emergence of the first ripple field, the bed growth is driven by cascading merging sequences between bed forms of different heights. A sequence extracted from the simulation shows how the downstream bed form is first eroded before merging with the upstream bed form. Superimposed bed forms emerge on the dune stoss sides during the simulation. An analysis of the results shows that they emerge downstream of a slight deflection on the dune profile. The deflection arises due to a modification of the sediment flux gradient consecutive to a reduction in the turbulence relaxation length while the upstream bed form height decreases. As they migrate, superimposed bed forms grow on the dune stoss side and eventually provoke the degeneration of the dune crest. Cascading merging sequences and superimposed bed forms dynamics both influence the dune field evolution and size and therefore play a fundamental role in the dune field self-organization process.
Numerical modeling of fluidic flow meters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choudhury, D.; Patel, B. R.
1992-05-01
The transient fluid flow in fluidic flow meters has been modeled using Creare.x's flow modeling computer program FLUENT/BFC that solves the Navier-Stokes equations in general curvilinear coordinates. The numerical predictions of fluid flow in a fluidic flow meter have been compared with the available experimental results for a particular design, termed the PC-4 design. Overall flow structures such as main jet bending, and primary and secondary vortices predicted by FLUENT/BFC are in excellent agreement with flow visualization results. The oscillation frequencies of the PC-4 design have been predicted for a range of flow rates encompassing laminar and turbulent flow and the results are in good agreement with experiments. The details of the flow field predictions reveal that an important factor that determines the onset of oscillations in the fluidic flow meter is the feedback jet momentum relative to the main jet momentum. The insights provided by the analysis of the PC-4 fluidic flow meter design have led to an improved design. The improved design has sustained oscillations at lower flow rates compared with the PC-4 design and has a larger rangeability.
Understanding Etna flank instability through numerical models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Apuani, Tiziana; Corazzato, Claudia; Merri, Andrea; Tibaldi, Alessandro
2013-02-01
As many active volcanoes, Mount Etna shows clear evidence of flank instability, and different mechanisms were suggested to explain this flank dynamics, based on the recorded deformation pattern and character. Shallow and deep deformations, mainly associated with both eruptive and seismic events, are concentrated along recognised fracture and fault systems, mobilising the eastern and south-eastern flank of the volcano. Several interacting causes were postulated to control the phenomenon, including gravity force, magma ascent along the feeding system, and a very complex local and/or regional tectonic activity. Nevertheless, the complexity of such dynamics is still an open subject of research and being the volcano flanks heavily urbanised, the comprehension of the gravitative dynamics is a major issue for public safety and civil protection. The present research explores the effects of the main geological features (in particular the role of the subetnean clays, interposed between the Apennine-Maghrebian flysch and the volcanic products) and the role of weakness zones, identified by fracture and fault systems, on the slope instability process. The effects of magma intrusions are also investigated. The problem is addressed by integrating field data, laboratory tests and numerical modelling. A bi- and tri-dimensional stress-strain analysis was performed by a finite difference numerical code (FLAC and FLAC3D), mainly aimed at evaluating the relationship among geological features, volcano-tectonic structures and magmatic activity in controlling the deformation processes. The analyses are well supported by dedicated structural-mechanical field surveys, which allowed to estimate the rock mass strength and deformability parameters. To take into account the uncertainties which inevitably occur in a so complicated model, many efforts were done in performing a sensitivity analysis along a WNW-ESE section crossing the volcano summit and the Valle del Bove depression. This was
Numerical model of circumpolar Antarctic ice shelves
Johnson, R.C.
1985-01-01
Extensive floating ice shelves in the Antarctic have been proposed to explain the discrepancies between Pleistocene high sea levels shown by dated coral reefs and coeval low sea levels inferred from glacial ice volumes calculated from oxygen isotope ratios in deep sea cores. A numerical model using the floating shelf creep analysis of Weertman (1957) has provided a plausible basis for the acceptance of such shelves. Shelf outer limits were set at 55/sup 0/S in East Antarctica and 58/sup 0/S in West Antarctica, based in part on diatom-deficient deep sea sediments deposited prior to the Holocene. Precipitation varied from 10 gm cm/sup -2/yr/sup -1/ at 75/sup 0/S to 80 gm cm/sup -2/yr/sup -1/ at 55/sup 0/S. Mean air temperatures varied from -35/sup 0/C at the 75/sup 0/S coast to -17/sup 0/C at the outer limits. Isotope ratios were those of present Antarctic precipitation at corresponding model shelf temperatures. In the calculation, a steady state is assumed. Integration begins at the coast with summation over successive years as creep and continental ice discharge move the integration element to the outer limits. The oceanic oxygen isotope ratio change required by the discrepancies in the record is 0.40 to 0.50 ppmil. Using the flow law constant of 4.2 and a creep activation energy of 134 kjoules mol/sup -1/, the resulting change is 0.44 ppmil. Difference results reflect the uncertainties associated with the critical creep constants used in the modeling. Nevertheless, the results suggest that a quantity of Antarctic shelf ice comparable to ice volumes in major Northern glacial areas existed at times during the Pleistocene.
Numerical Modelling of Mesoscale Atmospheric Dispersion.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moran, Michael D.
Mesoscale atmospheric dispersion is more complicated than smaller-scale dispersion because the mean wind field can no longer be considered steady or horizontally homogeneous over mesoscale time and space scales. Wind shear also plays a more important role on the mesoscale, and horizontal dispersion can be enhanced and even dominated by vertical wind shear through either the simultaneous or delayed interaction of horizontal differential advection and vertical mixing over one or two diurnal periods. The CSU mesoscale atmospheric dispersion modelling system has been used in this study to simulate the transport and diffusion of a perfluorocarbon gas for episodic releases made during two North American mesoscale dispersion field experiments, the 1980 Great Plains tracer experiment and the 1983 Cross-Appalachian Tracer Experiment (CAPTEX). Ground -level and elevated tracer concentrations were measured out to distances of 600 km from the source in the first experiment and 1100 km in the second. The physiography of the two experimental domains was quite different, permitting isolation and examination of the roles of terrain forcing and differential advection in mesoscale atmospheric dispersion. Suites of numerical experiments of increasing complexity were carried out for both case studies. The experiments differed in the realism of their representation of both the synoptic-scale flow and the underlying terrain. The Great Plains nocturnal low-level jet played an important role in the first case while temporal changes in the synoptic -scale flow were very significant in the second case. The contributions of differential advection and mesoscale deformation to mesoscale dispersion dominated those of small-scale turbulent diffusion for both cases, and Pasquill's (1962) delayed-shear-enhancement mechanism for lateral dispersion was found to be particularly important. This study was also the first quantitative evaluation of the CSU mesoscale dispersion modelling system with
Precise numerical modeling of next generation multimode fiber based links
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maksymiuk, L.; Stepniak, G.
2015-12-01
In order to numerically model modern multimode fiber based links we are required to take into account modal and chromatic dispersion, profile dispersion and spectral dependent coupling. In this paper we propose a complete numerical model which not only is precise but also versatile. Additionally to the detailed mathematical description of the model we provide also a bunch of numerical calculations performed with the use of the model.
Numerical models for high beta magnetohydrodynamic flow
Brackbill, J.U.
1987-01-01
The fundamentals of numerical magnetohydrodynamics for highly conducting, high-beta plasmas are outlined. The discussions emphasize the physical properties of the flow, and how elementary concepts in numerical analysis can be applied to the construction of finite difference approximations that capture these features. The linear and nonlinear stability of explicit and implicit differencing in time is examined, the origin and effect of numerical diffusion in the calculation of convective transport is described, and a technique for maintaining solenoidality in the magnetic field is developed. Many of the points are illustrated by numerical examples. The techniques described are applicable to the time-dependent, high-beta flows normally encountered in magnetically confined plasmas, plasma switches, and space and astrophysical plasmas. 40 refs.
Large-signal numerical and analytical HBT models
Teeter, D.A.; East, J.R.; Mains, R.K.; Haddad, G.I. )
1993-05-01
Several large-signal HBT models are investigated in this paper to determine their usefulness at millimeter-wave frequencies. The most detailed model involves numerically solving moments of the Boltzmann Transport Equation. A description of the numerical model is given along with several simulated results. The numerical model is then used to evaluate two analytical HBT models, the conventional Gummel-Poon model and a modified Ebers-Moll model. It is found that the commonly used Gummel-Poon model exhibits poor agreement with numerical and experimental data at millimeter-wave frequencies due to neglect of transit-time delays. Improved agreement between measured and modeled data result by including transit-time effects in an Ebers-Moll model. This simple model has direct application to millimeter-wave power amplifier and oscillator design. Several measured results are presented to help verify the simple model.
Validation of Numerical Shallow Water Models for Tidal Lagoons
Eliason, D.; Bourgeois, A.
1999-11-01
An analytical solution is presented for the case of a stratified, tidally forced lagoon. This solution, especially its energetics, is useful for the validation of numerical shallow water models under stratified, tidally forced conditions. The utility of the analytical solution for validation is demonstrated for a simple finite difference numerical model. A comparison is presented of the energetics of the numerical and analytical solutions in terms of the convergence of model results to the analytical solution with increasing spatial and temporal resolution.
Advanced in turbulence physics and modeling by direct numerical simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reynolds, W. C.
1987-01-01
The advent of direct numerical simulations of turbulence has opened avenues for research on turbulence physics and turbulence modeling. Direct numerical simulation provides values for anything that the scientist or modeler would like to know about the flow. An overview of some recent advances in the physical understanding of turbulence and in turbulence modeling obtained through such simulations is presented.
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
When Lagrangian stochastic models for turbulent dispersion are applied to complex flows, some type of ad hoc intervention is almost always necessary to eliminate unphysical behavior in the numerical solution. This paper discusses numerical considerations when solving the Langevin-based particle velo...
Conceptual and Numerical Models for UZ Flow and Transport
H. Liu
2000-03-03
The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document the conceptual and numerical models used for modeling of unsaturated zone (UZ) fluid (water and air) flow and solute transport processes. This is in accordance with ''AMR Development Plan for U0030 Conceptual and Numerical Models for Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Processes, Rev 00''. The conceptual and numerical modeling approaches described in this AMR are used for models of UZ flow and transport in fractured, unsaturated rock under ambient and thermal conditions, which are documented in separate AMRs. This AMR supports the UZ Flow and Transport Process Model Report (PMR), the Near Field Environment PMR, and the following models: Calibrated Properties Model; UZ Flow Models and Submodels; Mountain-Scale Coupled Processes Model; Thermal-Hydrologic-Chemical (THC) Seepage Model; Drift Scale Test (DST) THC Model; Seepage Model for Performance Assessment (PA); and UZ Radionuclide Transport Models.
NUMERICAL MODELING OF FINE SEDIMENT PHYSICAL PROCESSES.
Schoellhamer, David H.
1985-01-01
Fine sediment in channels, rivers, estuaries, and coastal waters undergo several physical processes including flocculation, floc disruption, deposition, bed consolidation, and resuspension. This paper presents a conceptual model and reviews mathematical models of these physical processes. Several general fine sediment models that simulate some of these processes are reviewed. These general models do not directly simulate flocculation and floc disruption, but the conceptual model and existing functions are shown to adequately model these two processes for one set of laboratory data.
Numerical Modeling in Geodynamics: Success, Failure and Perspective
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ismail-Zadeh, A.
2005-12-01
A real success in numerical modeling of dynamics of the Earth can be achieved only by multidisciplinary research teams of experts in geodynamics, applied and pure mathematics, and computer science. The success in numerical modeling is based on the following basic, but simple, rules. (i) People need simplicity most, but they understand intricacies best (B. Pasternak, writer). Start from a simple numerical model, which describes basic physical laws by a set of mathematical equations, and move then to a complex model. Never start from a complex model, because you cannot understand the contribution of each term of the equations to the modeled geophysical phenomenon. (ii) Study the numerical methods behind your computer code. Otherwise it becomes difficult to distinguish true and erroneous solutions to the geodynamic problem, especially when your problem is complex enough. (iii) Test your model versus analytical and asymptotic solutions, simple 2D and 3D model examples. Develop benchmark analysis of different numerical codes and compare numerical results with laboratory experiments. Remember that the numerical tool you employ is not perfect, and there are small bugs in every computer code. Therefore the testing is the most important part of your numerical modeling. (iv) Prove (if possible) or learn relevant statements concerning the existence, uniqueness and stability of the solution to the mathematical and discrete problems. Otherwise you can solve an improperly-posed problem, and the results of the modeling will be far from the true solution of your model problem. (v) Try to analyze numerical models of a geological phenomenon using as less as possible tuning model variables. Already two tuning variables give enough possibilities to constrain your model well enough with respect to observations. The data fitting sometimes is quite attractive and can take you far from a principal aim of your numerical modeling: to understand geophysical phenomena. (vi) If the number of
Numerical bifurcation analysis of immunological models with time delays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luzyanina, Tatyana; Roose, Dirk; Bocharov, Gennady
2005-12-01
In recent years, a large number of mathematical models that are described by delay differential equations (DDEs) have appeared in the life sciences. To analyze the models' dynamics, numerical methods are necessary, since analytical studies can only give limited results. In turn, the availability of efficient numerical methods and software packages encourages the use of time delays in mathematical modelling, which may lead to more realistic models. We outline recently developed numerical methods for bifurcation analysis of DDEs and illustrate the use of these methods in the analysis of a mathematical model of human hepatitis B virus infection.
Numerically Controlled Machining Of Wind-Tunnel Models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kovtun, John B.
1990-01-01
New procedure for dynamic models and parts for wind-tunnel tests or radio-controlled flight tests constructed. Involves use of single-phase numerical control (NC) technique to produce highly-accurate, symmetrical models in less time.
Numerical modeling of waveguide heated microwave plasmas
Venkateswaran, S.; Schwer, D.A.; Merkle, C.L.
1993-12-01
Waveguide-heated microwave plasmas for space propulsion applications are analyzed by a two-dimensional numerical solution of the combined Navier-Stokes and Maxwell equations. Two waveguide configurations -- one purely transmitting and the other with a reflecting end wall -- are considered. Plasma stability and absorption characteristics are studied and contrasted with the characteristic of resonant cavity heated plasmas. In addition, preliminary estimates of the overall efficiency and the thrust and specific impulse of the propulsion system are also made. The computational results are used to explain experimental trends and to better understand the working of these devices.
Software Simplifies the Sharing of Numerical Models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2014-01-01
To ease the sharing of climate models with university students, Goddard Space Flight Center awarded SBIR funding to Reston, Virginia-based Parabon Computation Inc., a company that specializes in cloud computing. The firm developed a software program capable of running climate models over the Internet, and also created an online environment for people to collaborate on developing such models.
Material model library for explicit numerical codes
Hofmann, R.; Dial, B.W.
1982-08-01
A material model logic structure has been developed which is useful for most explicit finite-difference and explicit finite-element Lagrange computer codes. This structure has been implemented and tested in the STEALTH codes to provide an example for researchers who wish to implement it in generically similar codes. In parallel with these models, material parameter libraries have been created for the implemented models for materials which are often needed in DoD applications.
Numerical MHD codes for modeling astrophysical flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koldoba, A. V.; Ustyugova, G. V.; Lii, P. S.; Comins, M. L.; Dyda, S.; Romanova, M. M.; Lovelace, R. V. E.
2016-05-01
We describe a Godunov-type magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code based on the Miyoshi and Kusano (2005) solver which can be used to solve various astrophysical hydrodynamic and MHD problems. The energy equation is in the form of entropy conservation. The code has been implemented on several different coordinate systems: 2.5D axisymmetric cylindrical coordinates, 2D Cartesian coordinates, 2D plane polar coordinates, and fully 3D cylindrical coordinates. Viscosity and diffusivity are implemented in the code to control the accretion rate in the disk and the rate of penetration of the disk matter through the magnetic field lines. The code has been utilized for the numerical investigations of a number of different astrophysical problems, several examples of which are shown.
Cumulus clouds - Numerical models, observations and entrainment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Simpson, J.
1983-01-01
The first computer simulation of the organization phase of a buoyant atmospheric thermal is described. Although crude, it showed the spontaneous development of a rounded tight-gradient 'cap' and internal vortical circulation. The complexities involved in these 'field of motion' models in part motivated the development of entity models, based upon laboratory thermals. These one-dimensional models and their uses with observations are briefly described as well as their limitations. Finally, an application of Schlesinger's three-dimensional model to a GATE cumulus situation clarifies many apparently conflicting observations and postulates, thereby raising further challenging questions to be addressed jointly by the more sophisticated measuring and modeling tools available in the 1980's.
Numerical modeling of laser thermal propulsion flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mccay, T. D.; Thoenes, J.
1984-01-01
An review of the problems associated with modeling laser thermal propulsion flows, a synopsis of the status of such models, and the attributes of a successful model are presented. The continuous gaseous hydrogen laser-supported combustion wave (LSCW) thruster, for which a high-energy laser system (preferably space-based) should exist by the time the propulsion technology is developed, is considered in particular. The model proposed by Raizer (1970) is based on the assumptions of one-dimensional flow at constant pressure with heat conduction as the principal heat transfer mechanism. Consideration is given to subsequent models which account for radiative transfer into the ambient gas; provide a two-dimensional generalization of Raizer's analysis for the subsonic propagation of laser sparks in air; include the effect of forward plasma radiation in a one-dimensional model; and attempt a time-dependent (elliptic) solution of the full Navier-Stokes equations for the flow in a simple axisymmetric thruster. Attention is also given to thruster and nozzle flow models and thermodynamic and transport properties.
Paleoclimate validation of a numerical climate model
Schelling, F.J.; Church, H.W.; Zak, B.D.; Thompson, S.L.
1994-04-01
An analysis planned to validate regional climate model results for a past climate state at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, against paleoclimate evidence for the period is described. This analysis, which will use the GENESIS model of global climate nested with the RegCM2 regional climate model, is part of a larger study for DOE`s Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project that is evaluating the impacts of long term future climate change on performance of the potential high level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The planned analysis and anticipated results are presented.
Numerical modeling of fresh concrete flow through porous medium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kolařík, F.; Patzák, B.; Zeman, J.
2016-06-01
The paper focuses on a numerical modeling of a non-Newtonian fluid flow in a porous domain. It presents combination of a homogenization approach to obtain permeability from the underlying micro-structure with coupling of a Stokes and Darcy flow through the interface on the macro level. As a numerical method we employed the Finite Element method. The results obtained from the homogenization approach are validated against fully resolved solution computed by direct numerical simulation.
Numerical modelling of fracture in human arteries.
Ferrara, A; Pandolfi, A
2008-10-01
We present 3D finite element models of atherosclerotic arteries, used to investigate the influence of the geometry and tissue properties on the plaque rupture caused by overexpansion. We adopted a geometry reconstructed from a contiguous set of in vitro magnetic resonance images of a damaged artery. The artery wall is divided in three layers (adventitia, media and intima) and is discretized into tetrahedral finite elements. The artery material is described with a hyperelastic two-fiber anisotropic model proposed by Holzapfel et al. 2000. A new constitutive framework for arterial wall mechanics and a comparative study of material models. J Elasticity 61(1):1-48, while the plaque is assumed to be transversely isotropic. Cracks induced by mechanical actions are represented through cohesive surfaces, and are allowed to develop along solid elements boundaries only. Fractures are explicitly introduced in the discretized model at the locations where the tensile strength of the material is reached. PMID:19230149
Numerical Calculation of Model Rocket Trajectories.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Keeports, David
1990-01-01
Discussed is the use of model rocketry to teach the principles of Newtonian mechanics. Included are forces involved; calculations for vertical launches; two-dimensional trajectories; and variations in mass, drag, and launch angle. (CW)
On numerical modeling of one-dimensional geothermal histories
Haugerud, R.A.
1989-01-01
Numerical models of one-dimensional geothermal histories are one way of understanding the relations between tectonics and transient thermal structure in the crust. Such models can be powerful tools for interpreting geochronologic and thermobarometric data. A flexible program to calculate these models on a microcomputer is available and examples of its use are presented. Potential problems with this approach include the simplifying assumptions that are made, limitations of the numerical techniques, and the neglect of convective heat transfer. ?? 1989.
Modelling asteroid brightness variations. I - Numerical methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Karttunen, H.
1989-01-01
A method for generating lightcurves of asteroid models is presented. The effects of the shape of the asteroid and the scattering law of a surface element are distinctly separable, being described by chosen functions that can easily be changed. The shape is specified by means of two functions that yield the length of the radius vector and the normal vector of the surface at a given point. The general shape must be convex, but spherical concavities producing macroscopic shadowing can also be modeled.
Mathematical and Numerical Modeling of Turbulent Flows.
Vedovoto, João M; Serfaty, Ricardo; Da Silveira Neto, Aristeu
2015-01-01
The present work is devoted to the development and implementation of a computational framework to perform numerical simulations of low Mach number turbulent flows over complex geometries. The algorithm under consideration is based on a classical predictor-corrector time integration scheme that employs a projection method for the momentum equations. The domain decomposition strategy is adopted for distributed computing, displaying very satisfactory levels of speed-up and efficiency. The Immersed Boundary Methodology is used to characterize the presence of a complex geometry. Such method demands two separate grids: An Eulerian, where the transport equations are solved with a Finite Volume, second order discretization and a Lagrangian domain, represented by a non-structured shell grid representing the immersed geometry. The in-house code developed was fully verified by the Method of Manufactured Solutions, in both Eulerian and Lagrangian domains. The capabilities of the resulting computational framework are illustrated on four distinct cases: a turbulent jet, the Poiseuille flow, as a matter of validation of the implemented Immersed Boundary methodology, the flow over a sphere covering a wide range of Reynolds numbers, and finally, with the intention of demonstrating the applicability of Large Eddy Simulations - LES - in an industrial problem, the turbulent flow inside an industrial fan. PMID:26131642
Saturn's North Polar Hexagon Numerical Modeling Results
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morales-Juberias, R.; Sayanagi, K. M.; Dowling, T. E.
2008-12-01
In 1980, Voyager images revealed the presence of a circumpolar wave at 78 degrees planetographic latitude in the northern hemisphere of Saturn. It was notable for having a dominant planetary wavenumber-six zonal mode, and for being stationary with respect to Saturn's Kilometric Radiation rotation rate measured by Voyager. The center of this hexagonal feature was coincident with the center of a sharp eastward jet with a peak speed of 100 ms-1 and it had a meridional width of about 4 degrees. This hexagonal feature was confirmed in 1991 through ground-based observations, and it was observed again in 2006 with the Cassini VIMS instrument. The latest observations highlight the longevity of the hexagon and suggest that it extends at least several bars deep into the atmosphere. We use the Explicit Planetary Isentropic Code (EPIC) to perform high-resolution numerical simulations of this unique feature. We show that a wavenumber six instability mode arises naturally from initially barotropic jets when seeded with weak random turbulence. We also discuss the properties of the wave activity on the background vertical stability, zonal wind, planetary rotation rate and adjacent vortices. Computational resources were provided by the New Mexico Computing Applications Center and New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology and the Comparative Planetology Laboratory at the University of Louisville.
Numerical model of crater lake eruptions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morrissey, M.; Gisler, G.; Weaver, R.; Gittings, M.
2010-12-01
We present results from a numerical investigation of subaqueous eruptions involving superheated steam released through a lake mimicking the volcanic setting at Mt. Ruapehu. The simulations were conducted using an adaptive mesh, multi-material, hydrodynamics code with thermal conduction SAGE, (Simple Adaptive Grid Eulerian). Parameters investigated include eruption pressure, lake level and mass of superheated vapor. The simulations produced a spectrum of eruption styles from vapor cavities to radial jets that resulted in hazards that ranged from small-scale waves to high amplitude surges that reached and cascaded over the edge of the crater rim. There was an overall tendency for lake surface activity to increase (including wave amplitude) with increasing mass of superheated vapor and eruption pressure. Surface waves were induced by the formation and collapse of a gas cavity. The collapse of the cavity is considered to play a major role in the characteristic features observed during a subaqueous eruption. The additional mass of superheated vapor produced a larger cavity that displaced a larger area of the lake surface resulting in fast moving surges upon the collapse of the cavity. High lake levels (>90 m) appear to suppress the development of explosive jetting activity when eruption pressures are <10 MPa. At very large eruption pressures (>10 MPa), vertical jets and radial ejections of steam and water can occur in water depths >90 m. Less explosive eruption styles can produce hazardous events such as lahars by the outward movement of surface waves over the crater rim.
Evaluation of wave runup predictions from numerical and parametric models
Stockdon, Hilary F.; Thompson, David M.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Long, Joseph W.
2014-01-01
Wave runup during storms is a primary driver of coastal evolution, including shoreline and dune erosion and barrier island overwash. Runup and its components, setup and swash, can be predicted from a parameterized model that was developed by comparing runup observations to offshore wave height, wave period, and local beach slope. Because observations during extreme storms are often unavailable, a numerical model is used to simulate the storm-driven runup to compare to the parameterized model and then develop an approach to improve the accuracy of the parameterization. Numerically simulated and parameterized runup were compared to observations to evaluate model accuracies. The analysis demonstrated that setup was accurately predicted by both the parameterized model and numerical simulations. Infragravity swash heights were most accurately predicted by the parameterized model. The numerical model suffered from bias and gain errors that depended on whether a one-dimensional or two-dimensional spatial domain was used. Nonetheless, all of the predictions were significantly correlated to the observations, implying that the systematic errors can be corrected. The numerical simulations did not resolve the incident-band swash motions, as expected, and the parameterized model performed best at predicting incident-band swash heights. An assimilated prediction using a weighted average of the parameterized model and the numerical simulations resulted in a reduction in prediction error variance. Finally, the numerical simulations were extended to include storm conditions that have not been previously observed. These results indicated that the parameterized predictions of setup may need modification for extreme conditions; numerical simulations can be used to extend the validity of the parameterized predictions of infragravity swash; and numerical simulations systematically underpredict incident swash, which is relatively unimportant under extreme conditions.
Numerical Poisson-Boltzmann Model for Continuum Membrane Systems.
Botello-Smith, Wesley M; Liu, Xingping; Cai, Qin; Li, Zhilin; Zhao, Hongkai; Luo, Ray
2013-01-01
Membrane protein systems are important computational research topics due to their roles in rational drug design. In this study, we developed a continuum membrane model utilizing a level set formulation under the numerical Poisson-Boltzmann framework within the AMBER molecular mechanics suite for applications such as protein-ligand binding affinity and docking pose predictions. Two numerical solvers were adapted for periodic systems to alleviate possible edge effects. Validation on systems ranging from organic molecules to membrane proteins up to 200 residues, demonstrated good numerical properties. This lays foundations for sophisticated models with variable dielectric treatments and second-order accurate modeling of solvation interactions. PMID:23439886
Numerical model for the Programmable Multirole Furnace (PMZF)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kassemi, M.; Panzarella, C. H.; Destro-Sidik, K. E.; Krolikowski, C. R.; Licht, B. W.
1993-01-01
The present account of the Programmable Multizone Furnace numerical model uses various examples to illustrate the ways in which the model serves as an optimization, test, prediction, and visualization tool; a numerical PID-control algorithm obtains the desired sample temperature distributions and allows the model to solve an inverse heat transfer problem where the desired sample temperature profile is the input and the required heater power distribution is the output of numerical simulations. Parametric studies show how the total power consumption of the furnace is affected by such design variables as the conductivity.
Numerical Modeling of Ophthalmic Response to Space
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nelson, E. S.; Myers, J. G.; Mulugeta, L.; Vera, J.; Raykin, J.; Feola, A.; Gleason, R.; Samuels, B.; Ethier, C. R.
2015-01-01
To investigate ophthalmic changes in spaceflight, we would like to predict the impact of blood dysregulation and elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) on Intraocular Pressure (IOP). Unlike other physiological systems, there are very few lumped parameter models of the eye. The eye model described here is novel in its inclusion of the human choroid and retrobulbar subarachnoid space (rSAS), which are key elements in investigating the impact of increased ICP and ocular blood volume. Some ingenuity was required in modeling the blood and rSAS compartments due to the lack of quantitative data on essential hydrodynamic quantities, such as net choroidal volume and blood flowrate, inlet and exit pressures, and material properties, such as compliances between compartments.
Mathematical and Numerical Analyses of Peridynamics for Multiscale Materials Modeling
Gunzburger, Max
2015-02-17
We have treated the modeling, analysis, numerical analysis, and algorithmic development for nonlocal models of diffusion and mechanics. Variational formulations were developed and finite element methods were developed based on those formulations for both steady state and time dependent problems. Obstacle problems and optimization problems for the nonlocal models were also treated and connections made with fractional derivative models.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bailey, Brian N.
2016-07-01
When Lagrangian stochastic models for turbulent dispersion are applied to complex atmospheric flows, some type of ad hoc intervention is almost always necessary to eliminate unphysical behaviour in the numerical solution. Here we discuss numerical strategies for solving the non-linear Langevin-based particle velocity evolution equation that eliminate such unphysical behaviour in both Reynolds-averaged and large-eddy simulation applications. Extremely large or `rogue' particle velocities are caused when the numerical integration scheme becomes unstable. Such instabilities can be eliminated by using a sufficiently small integration timestep, or in cases where the required timestep is unrealistically small, an unconditionally stable implicit integration scheme can be used. When the generalized anisotropic turbulence model is used, it is critical that the input velocity covariance tensor be realizable, otherwise unphysical behaviour can become problematic regardless of the integration scheme or size of the timestep. A method is presented to ensure realizability, and thus eliminate such behaviour. It was also found that the numerical accuracy of the integration scheme determined the degree to which the second law of thermodynamics or `well-mixed condition' was satisfied. Perhaps more importantly, it also determined the degree to which modelled Eulerian particle velocity statistics matched the specified Eulerian distributions (which is the ultimate goal of the numerical solution). It is recommended that future models be verified by not only checking the well-mixed condition, but perhaps more importantly by checking that computed Eulerian statistics match the Eulerian statistics specified as inputs.
Numerical Modeling of Left-Handed Metamaterials
Burke, G J; Champagne, N J; Sharpe, R M
2001-11-06
The EIGER method of moments program with periodic Green's function was used to model a periodic array of strips and split-ring resonators. Left-handed propagation due to negative index of refraction is demonstrated in a frequency band. The effective material parameters versus frequency are extracted from the EIGER solution.
Numerical modelling of instantaneous plate tectonics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Minster, J. B.; Haines, E.; Jordan, T. H.; Molnar, P.
1974-01-01
Assuming lithospheric plates to be rigid, 68 spreading rates, 62 fracture zones trends, and 106 earthquake slip vectors are systematically inverted to obtain a self-consistent model of instantaneous relative motions for eleven major plates. The inverse problem is linearized and solved iteratively by a maximum-likelihood procedure. Because the uncertainties in the data are small, Gaussian statistics are shown to be adequate. The use of a linear theory permits (1) the calculation of the uncertainties in the various angular velocity vectors caused by uncertainties in the data, and (2) quantitative examination of the distribution of information within the data set. The existence of a self-consistent model satisfying all the data is strong justification of the rigid plate assumption. Slow movement between North and South America is shown to be resolvable.
Analytical and numerical modeling for flexible pipes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Wei; Chen, Geng
2011-12-01
The unbonded flexible pipe of eight layers, in which all the layers except the carcass layer are assumed to have isotropic properties, has been analyzed. Specifically, the carcass layer shows the orthotropic characteristics. The effective elastic moduli of the carcass layer have been developed in terms of the influence of deformation to stiffness. With consideration of the effective elastic moduli, the structure can be properly analyzed. Also the relative movements of tendons and relative displacements of wires in helical armour layer have been investigated. A three-dimensional nonlinear finite element model has been presented to predict the response of flexible pipes under axial force and torque. Further, the friction and contact of interlayer have been considered. Comparison between the finite element model and experimental results obtained in literature has been given and discussed, which might provide practical and technical support for the application of unbonded flexible pipes.
Advanced Numerical Modeling of Turbulent Atmospheric Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kühnlein, Christian; Dörnbrack, Andreas; Gerz, Thomas
The present chapter introduces the method of computational simulation to predict and study turbulent atmospheric flows. This includes a description of the fundamental approach to computational simulation and the practical implementation using the technique of large-eddy simulation. In addition, selected contributions from IPA scientists to computational model development and various examples for applications are given. These examples include homogeneous turbulence, convective boundary layers, heated forest canopy, buoyant thermals, and large-scale flows with baroclinic wave instability.
Numerical Modelling of the Mining Induced Horizontal Displacement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tajduś, Krzysztof
2015-12-01
The paper presents results of numerical calculations and modeling of mining-induced surface deformation based on Finite Element Method (FEM). Applying the numerical method discussed to calculations allows us to assume a larger number of factors, such as rock mass structure, fracture network, rock properties, etc., which essentially affect the results obtained. On the basis of an elastic transversely isotropic model, an analysis of horizontal displacement distribution and surface subsidence was carried out for two sample regions of mines. The results of numerical calculations were later compared with the measured values. Such an analysis proved that the applied numerical model properly described distribution and values of subsidence and slope of subsidence trough, though there were serious differences in the values of calculated horizontal displacement, especially in areas of far influence range. In order to improve the matching, the influence of boundary conditions of the model on the value of calculated horizontal displacement was analyzed. The results are presented in graphs.
Numerical Modelling of Embankment on Soft Clay
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nujid, M. M.; Taha, M. R.
2016-07-01
This paper aims to predict deformation of embankment on soft clay of Muar. The prediction performance focusing on displacement at critical fill height of 5.5 m. The study was based on reported result in 1992. With the aid of computer intelligence, the advanced constitutive soil models could be adopted to analyze the soft clay behavior. The COMSOL Multiphysics (v4.4) has been used to simulate the problem with coupled physics available in the software. The vertical displacements are in good agreement close to published result.
Numerical modelling of the TFTR ICRH antennas
Kress, M.; Ho, Y.L.; Grossmann, W.; Drobot, A. ); Batchelor, D.B.; Ryan, P.M.; Carter, M. )
1991-01-01
A general purpose 3D electromagnetic field solver code, ARGUS, is being used to analyze the TFTR Antennas. To date, the vacuum radiation patterns produced by the bay M and L antennas have been obtained and reported. Recent work has concentrated on antenna performance comparison and understanding the role of geometry on performance (e.g., the impact of end-effects on current 2D models). Additional diagnostics such as evaluation of phase velocity and strap inductance are being implemented to enhance our understanding and to better compare with measurements. 6 refs., 2 figs.
Terrane accretion: Insights from numerical modelling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vogt, Katharina; Gerya, Taras
2016-04-01
The oceanic crust is not homogenous, but contains significantly thicker crust than norm, i.e. extinct arcs, spreading ridges, detached continental fragments, volcanic piles or oceanic swells. These (crustal) fragments may collide with continental crust and form accretionary complexes, contributing to its growth. We analyse this process using a thermo-mechanical computer model (i2vis) of an ocean-continent subduction zone. In this model the oceanic plate can bend spontaneously under the control of visco-plastic rheologies. It moreover incorporates effects such as mineralogical phase changes, fluid release and consumption, partial melting and melt extraction. Based on our 2-D experiments we suggest that the lithospheric buoyancy of the downgoing slab and the rheological strength of crustal material may result in a variety of accretionary processes. In addition to terrane subduction, we are able to identify three distinct modes of terrane accretion: frontal accretion, basal accretion and underplating plateaus. We show that crustal fragments may dock onto continental crust and cease subduction, be scrapped off the downgoing plate, or subduct to greater depth prior to slab break off and subsequent exhumation. Direct consequences of these processes include slab break off, subduction zone transference, structural reworking, formation of high-pressure terranes, partial melting and crustal growth.
Numerical modeling of Deep Impact experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sultanov, V. G.; Kim, V. V.; Lomonosov, I. V.; Shutov, A. V.; Fortov, V. E.
2007-06-01
The Deep Impact active space experiment has been done [1,2] to study a hypervelocity collision of a metal impactor with the comet 9P/Temple 1. The modeling of impact on solid or porous ice made it possible to conclude: the form and size of crater depends strongly on the density of comet material; the copper impactor does not melt and remains in the solid state; the temperature of ejecta varies from 5000 K for solid ice to 15000 K for porous ice. The impact on moist water- saturated sand demonstrated different results. In this case, the copper impactor practically does not penetrate the comet surface, melts, destroys and the ricochet process takes place. In the case of moist porous sand the produced crater is stretched in the direction of impact. The analysis of modeling results indicates to the presence of volatile easy-vaporized chemical compounds in the cometary surface. The hypothesis that the cometary surface consists of only ice does not agree with experimental and computational data on the forming and spreading of impact ejecta. [1] http://deepimpact.jpl.nasa.gov/home/index.html [2] M. F. A'Hearn et al, Deep Impact: Excavating Comet Tempel 1 // Science, 2005, v.310, pp. 258-264
Numerical analysis and modeling of atmospheric phenomena
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stone, Peter H.
1994-01-01
For the past 22 years Grant NGR 22-009-727 has been supporting research in the Center for Meteorology and Physical Oceanography (and its predecessors) in a wide variety of diagnostic and modeling studies of atmospheric and ocean phenomena. Professor Jule Charney was the initial Principal Investigator. Professor Peter Stone joined him as co-Principal Investigator in 1975 and became the sole Principal Investigator in 1981. During its lifetime the Grant has supported in whole or in part 11 Master's theses, 14 Ph.D. theses, and 45 papers published in refereed scientific journals. All of these theses and papers (with bibliographic references) are listed below. All but one of the theses were used to fulfill the requirements for MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) degrees and are available from the MIT libraries. The one exception is F. Chen's Ph.D. thesis which was for a Harvard degree and is available from the Harvard libraries. In addition to the work described in the citations listed below, the Grant has supported Research Assistant Amy Solomon during the past two years to carry out a study of how baroclinic adjustment is affected by vertical resolution, vertical temperature structure, and dissipation. Ms. Solomon plans to use this project for her Ph.D. thesis. Support for this project will continue under NASA Grant NAG 5-2490, 'The Factors Controlling Poleward Heat Transport in Climate Models.'
Experimental, Numerical and Observational Models in Geodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lithgow-Bertelloni, Carolina
2015-04-01
Geodynamics, the study of the forces that drives all Earth's processes is a rich field that deeply connects all aspects of geological and geophysical studies, from surface observations of the sedimentary record to knowledge of deep Earth structure from mineral physics and seismology. In the context of the solid Earth geodynamics primarily focuses on lithosphere and mantle dynamics, while core dynamics is the purview of geomagnetism. I will focus this talk on the former, its historical context and future developments. We have known the equations of motion and mechanics for ~200 years, but only relatively recently can they be solved with enough accuracy and resolution to do geology. We have made great strides since Arthur Holmes conceptual models of mantle flow, thanks to computational and experimental advances. We can know model plate boundaries globally with resolutions in the order of a few kms and image temperature and velocity simultaneously in the laboratory in 3D and non-intrusively. We have also learned a great deal about the physics of the Earth, from composition to rheology. New theories on plate boundary rheology are paving the way for self-consistent generation of plates from mantle flow. New computational methods allow for adaptive meshing, fabric development and history, so we can study deformation and compare directly to geological observations in mountain ranges and continental rifts. We can use ever more sophisticated images of mantle structure from seismic and other geophysical data to probe the relationship between melting, flow and dynamical processes. We can reconstruct landscapes and relief, plate motions and sedimentation and ask how much the mantle has contributed to drainage reversal, sedimentation and climate change. The future of the field is ever brighter.
Seismoelectric numerical modeling on a grid
Haines, S.S.; Pride, S.R.
2006-01-01
Our finite-difference algorithm provides a new method for simulating how seismic waves in arbitrarily heterogeneous porous media generate electric fields through an electrokinetic mechanism called seismoelectric coupling. As the first step in our simulations, we calculate relative pore-fluid/grain-matrix displacement by using existing poroelastic theory. We then calculate the electric current resulting from the grain/fluid displacement by using seismoelectric coupling theory. This electrofiltration current acts as a source term in Poisson's equation, which then allows us to calculate the electric potential distribution. We can safely neglect induction effects in our simulations because the model area is within the electrostatic near field for the depth of investigation (tens to hundreds of meters) and the frequency ranges (10 Hz to 1 kHz) of interest for shallow seismoelectric surveys.We can independently calculate the electric-potential distribution for each time step in the poroelastic simulation without loss of accuracy because electro-osmotic feedback (fluid flow that is perturbed by generated electric fields) is at least 105 times smaller than flow that is driven by fluid-pressure gradients and matrix acceleration, and is therefore negligible. Our simulations demonstrate that, distinct from seismic reflections, the seismoelectric interface response from a thin layer (at least as thin as one-twentieth of the seismic wavelength) is considerably stronger than the response from a single interface. We find that the interface response amplitude decreases as the lateral extent of a layer decreases below the width of the first Fresnel zone. We conclude, on the basis of our modeling results and of field results published elsewhere, that downhole and/or crosswell survey geometries and time-lapse applications are particularly well suited to the seismoelectric method. ?? 2006 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.
Theoretical and numerical modelling of shocks in dusty plasmas
Eliasson, B.; Shukla, P.K.
2005-10-31
The formation of dust acoustic (DA) and dust ion-acoustic (DIA) shocks are are studied theoretically and numerically by means of simple-wave solutions and a comparison between fluid and kinetic model for DIA waves. A fluid model admits sharp discontinuities at the shock front while the kinetic model involves Landau-damping of the the shock front.
USER GUIDE FOR THE ENHANCED HYDRODYNAMICAL-NUMERICAL MODEL
This guide provides the documentation required for used of the Enhanced Hydrodynamical-Numerical Model on operational problems. The enhanced model is a multilayer Hansen type model extended to handle near-shore processes by including: Non-linear term extension to facilitate small...
Numerical model for learning concepts of streamflow simulation
DeLong, L.L.
1993-01-01
Numerical models are useful for demonstrating principles of open-channel flow. Such models can allow experimentation with cause-and-effect relations, testing concepts of physics and numerical techniques. Four PT is a numerical model written primarily as a teaching supplement for a course in one-dimensional stream-flow modeling. Four PT options particularly useful in training include selection of governing equations, boundary-value perturbation, and user-programmable constraint equations. The model can simulate non-trivial concepts such as flow in complex interconnected channel networks, meandering channels with variable effective flow lengths, hydraulic structures defined by unique three-parameter relations, and density-driven flow.The model is coded in FORTRAN 77, and data encapsulation is used extensively to simplify maintenance and modification and to enhance the use of Four PT modules by other programs and programmers.
Numerical modeling of elastodynamic radiation and scattering
Savic, M.; Ziolkowski, A.M.
1994-12-31
This paper presents a study on two problems: the two-dimensional distributed surface load problem, and the scattering of elastodynamic waves from fractures. The analysis is done with the aid of the finite-difference technique. If the dimensions of a surface mechanical source (vibrator or piezoelectric transducer) are not small compared to the wavelength, one should not use the point source or plane wave representation when modeling radiation from such sources. Here the authors demonstrate the solution of the uniformly distributed surface load problem using the finite-difference (FD) technique. The scattering of transient elasto-dynamic waves from a fracture whose extent is large compared with the wavelength and whose width is small compared with the wavelength and whose width is small compared with the wavelength is one of the classical problems in seismology and non-destructive testing (NDT). Many researchers have provided analytical solutions based on different approximations for the unknown field (displacement or particle velocity) scattered from an idealized half-plane or the a strip of finite extent. Again, the authors demonstrate the full wavefield solution using the finite-difference technique. The technique presented here is aimed for the interpretation of seismic data from hydraulic fracturing experiments.
Squeal noise in simple numerical brake models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oberst, S.; Lai, J. C. S.
2015-09-01
Since the early 1920s, automotive disc brake squeal has caused warranty issues and customer dissatisfaction. Despite a good deal of progress achieved, predicting brake squeal propensity is as difficult as ever as not all mechanisms and interactions are known owing to their highly fugitive complex nature. In recent years, research has been focused on the prediction of unstable vibration modes by the complex eigenvalue analysis (CEA) for the mode-coupling type of instability. There has been very limited consideration given to the calculation of the acoustic radiation properties due to friction contact between a pad and a rotor. Recent analyses using a forced response analysis with harmonic contact pressure excitation indicates negative dissipated energy at some pad eigenfrequencies predicted to be stable by the CEA. A transient nonlinear time domain analysis with no external excitation indicates that squeal could develop at these eigenfrequencies. Here, the acoustic radiation characteristics of those pad modes are determined by analysing the acoustic power levels and radiation efficiencies of simplified brake models in the form of a pad rubbing on a plate or on a disc using the acoustic boundary element method based on velocities extracted from the forced response analysis. Results show that unstable pad modes trigger unstable disc vibrations resulting in instantaneous mode squeal similar to those observed experimentally. Changes in the radiation efficiency with pressure variations are smaller than those with friction coefficient variations and are caused by the phase difference of the velocities out-of-plane vibration between the pad and the disc.
Quantitative analysis of numerical solvers for oscillatory biomolecular system models
Quo, Chang F; Wang, May D
2008-01-01
Background This article provides guidelines for selecting optimal numerical solvers for biomolecular system models. Because various parameters of the same system could have drastically different ranges from 10-15 to 1010, the ODEs can be stiff and ill-conditioned, resulting in non-unique, non-existing, or non-reproducible modeling solutions. Previous studies have not examined in depth how to best select numerical solvers for biomolecular system models, which makes it difficult to experimentally validate the modeling results. To address this problem, we have chosen one of the well-known stiff initial value problems with limit cycle behavior as a test-bed system model. Solving this model, we have illustrated that different answers may result from different numerical solvers. We use MATLAB numerical solvers because they are optimized and widely used by the modeling community. We have also conducted a systematic study of numerical solver performances by using qualitative and quantitative measures such as convergence, accuracy, and computational cost (i.e. in terms of function evaluation, partial derivative, LU decomposition, and "take-off" points). The results show that the modeling solutions can be drastically different using different numerical solvers. Thus, it is important to intelligently select numerical solvers when solving biomolecular system models. Results The classic Belousov-Zhabotinskii (BZ) reaction is described by the Oregonator model and is used as a case study. We report two guidelines in selecting optimal numerical solver(s) for stiff, complex oscillatory systems: (i) for problems with unknown parameters, ode45 is the optimal choice regardless of the relative error tolerance; (ii) for known stiff problems, both ode113 and ode15s are good choices under strict relative tolerance conditions. Conclusions For any given biomolecular model, by building a library of numerical solvers with quantitative performance assessment metric, we show that it is possible
Nonspinning numerical relativity waveform surrogates: Building the model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Galley, Chad
2015-04-01
Simulating binary black hole coalescences involves solving Einstein's equations with large-scale computing resources that can take months to complete for a single numerical solution. This engenders a computationally intractable problem for multiple-query applications related to parameter space exploration, data analysis for gravitational wave detectors like LIGO, and semi-analytical waveform fits. I discuss how reduced order modeling techniques are used to build accurate surrogates that can be evaluated quickly in place of numerically solving Einstein's equations for generating gravitational waveforms of nonspinning binary black hole coalescences. To within error, the surrogate can model all modes available from a numerical simulation including, for example, troublesome modes such as the (3,2) mode and memory modes. A companion talk will cover quantifying the best surrogate model's errors. The results of this work represent a significant advance by making it possible to use numerical relativity waveforms for multiple-query applications.
Numerical modelling of the solidification of ductile iron
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, J.; Elliott, R.
1998-01-01
Numerical calculations are presented describing the solidification of a ductile iron based on the Stefanescu macroscopic heat transfer-microscopic solidification kinetic model but using a different kinetic model than that used by Stefanescu. The results show that the kinetic model used influences the recalescence behaviour predicted by the modelling. Cooling curves calculated with the present model show reasonable agreement with experimentally measured cooling curves for four different cooling rates.
Numerical simulations of a reduced model for blood coagulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pavlova, Jevgenija; Fasano, Antonio; Sequeira, Adélia
2016-04-01
In this work, the three-dimensional numerical resolution of a complex mathematical model for the blood coagulation process is presented. The model was illustrated in Fasano et al. (Clin Hemorheol Microcirc 51:1-14, 2012), Pavlova et al. (Theor Biol 380:367-379, 2015). It incorporates the action of the biochemical and cellular components of blood as well as the effects of the flow. The model is characterized by a reduction in the biochemical network and considers the impact of the blood slip at the vessel wall. Numerical results showing the capacity of the model to predict different perturbations in the hemostatic system are discussed.
Quantitative comparisons of numerical models of brittle wedge dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buiter, Susanne
2010-05-01
Numerical and laboratory models are often used to investigate the evolution of deformation processes at various scales in crust and lithosphere. In both approaches, the freedom in choice of simulation method, materials and their properties, and deformation laws could affect model outcomes. To assess the role of modelling method and to quantify the variability among models, we have performed a comparison of laboratory and numerical experiments. Here, we present results of 11 numerical codes, which use finite element, finite difference and distinct element techniques. We present three experiments that describe shortening of a sand-like, brittle wedge. The material properties of the numerical ‘sand', the model set-up and the boundary conditions are strictly prescribed and follow the analogue setup as closely as possible. Our first experiment translates a non-accreting wedge with a stable surface slope of 20 degrees. In agreement with critical wedge theory, all models maintain the same surface slope and do not deform. This experiment serves as a reference that allows for testing against analytical solutions for taper angle, root-mean-square velocity and gravitational rate of work. The next two experiments investigate an unstable wedge in a sandbox-like setup, which deforms by inward translation of a mobile wall. The models accommodate shortening by formation of forward and backward shear zones. We compare surface slope, rate of dissipation of energy, root-mean-square velocity, and the location, dip angle and spacing of shear zones. We show that we successfully simulate sandbox-style brittle behaviour using different numerical modelling techniques and that we obtain the same styles of deformation behaviour in numerical and laboratory experiments at similar levels of variability. The GeoMod2008 Numerical Team: Markus Albertz, Michelle Cooke, Tony Crook, David Egholm, Susan Ellis, Taras Gerya, Luke Hodkinson, Boris Kaus, Walter Landry, Bertrand Maillot, Yury Mishin
Numerical modelling in biosciences using delay differential equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bocharov, Gennadii A.; Rihan, Fathalla A.
2000-12-01
Our principal purposes here are (i) to consider, from the perspective of applied mathematics, models of phenomena in the biosciences that are based on delay differential equations and for which numerical approaches are a major tool in understanding their dynamics, (ii) to review the application of numerical techniques to investigate these models. We show that there are prima facie reasons for using such models: (i) they have a richer mathematical framework (compared with ordinary differential equations) for the analysis of biosystem dynamics, (ii) they display better consistency with the nature of certain biological processes and predictive results. We analyze both the qualitative and quantitative role that delays play in basic time-lag models proposed in population dynamics, epidemiology, physiology, immunology, neural networks and cell kinetics. We then indicate suitable computational techniques for the numerical treatment of mathematical problems emerging in the biosciences, comparing them with those implemented by the bio-modellers.
Nonlinear oscillator metamaterial model: numerical and experimental verification.
Poutrina, E; Huang, D; Urzhumov, Y; Smith, D R
2011-04-25
We verify numerically and experimentally the accuracy of an analytical model used to derive the effective nonlinear susceptibilities of a varactor-loaded split ring resonator (VLSRR) magnetic medium. For the numerical validation, a nonlinear oscillator model for the effective magnetization of the metamaterial is applied in conjunction with Maxwell equations and the two sets of equations solved numerically in the time-domain. The computed second harmonic generation (SHG) from a slab of a nonlinear material is then compared with the analytical model. The computed SHG is in excellent agreement with that predicted by the analytical model, both in terms of magnitude and spectral characteristics. Moreover, experimental measurements of the power transmitted through a fabricated VLSRR metamaterial at several power levels are also in agreement with the model, illustrating that the effective medium techniques associated with metamaterials can accurately be transitioned to nonlinear systems. PMID:21643082
Sheet Hydroforming Process Numerical Model Improvement Through Experimental Results Analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gabriele, Papadia; Antonio, Del Prete; Alfredo, Anglani
2010-06-01
The increasing application of numerical simulation in metal forming field has helped engineers to solve problems one after another to manufacture a qualified formed product reducing the required time [1]. Accurate simulation results are fundamental for the tooling and the product designs. The wide application of numerical simulation is encouraging the development of highly accurate simulation procedures to meet industrial requirements. Many factors can influence the final simulation results and many studies have been carried out about materials [2], yield criteria [3] and plastic deformation [4,5], process parameters [6] and their optimization. In order to develop a reliable hydromechanical deep drawing (HDD) numerical model the authors have been worked out specific activities based on the evaluation of the effective stiffness of the blankholder structure [7]. In this paper after an appropriate tuning phase of the blankholder force distribution, the experimental activity has been taken into account to improve the accuracy of the numerical model. In the first phase, the effective capability of the blankholder structure to transfer the applied load given by hydraulic actuators to the blank has been explored. This phase ended with the definition of an appropriate subdivision of the blankholder active surface in order to take into account the effective pressure map obtained for the given loads configuration. In the second phase the numerical results obtained with the developed subdivision have been compared with the experimental data of the studied model. The numerical model has been then improved, finding the best solution for the blankholder force distribution.
Numerical modelling of river morphodynamics: Latest developments and remaining challenges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Siviglia, Annunziato; Crosato, Alessandra
2016-07-01
Numerical morphodynamic models provide scientific frameworks for advancing our understanding of river systems. The research on involved topics is an important and socially relevant undertaking regarding our environment. Nowadays numerical models are used for different purposes, from answering questions about basic morphodynamic research to managing complex river engineering problems. Due to increasing computer power and the development of advanced numerical techniques, morphodynamic models are now more and more used to predict the bed patterns evolution to a broad spectrum of spatial and temporal scales. The development and the success of application of such models are based upon a wide range of disciplines from applied mathematics for the numerical solution of the equations to geomorphology for the physical interpretation of the results. In this light we organized this special issue (SI) soliciting multidisciplinary contributions which encompass any aspect needed for the development and applications of such models. Most of the papers in the SI stem from contributions to session HS9.5/GM7.11 on numerical modelling and experiments in river morphodynamics at the European Geosciences Union (EGU) General Assembly held in Vienna, April 27th to May 2nd 2014.
Nonspinning numerical relativity waveform surrogates: assessing the model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Field, Scott; Blackman, Jonathan; Galley, Chad; Scheel, Mark; Szilagyi, Bela; Tiglio, Manuel
2015-04-01
Recently, multi-modal gravitational waveform surrogate models have been built directly from data numerically generated by the Spectral Einstein Code (SpEC). I will describe ways in which the surrogate model error can be quantified. This task, in turn, requires (i) characterizing differences between waveforms computed by SpEC with those predicted by the surrogate model and (ii) estimating errors associated with the SpEC waveforms from which the surrogate is built. Both pieces can have numerous sources of numerical and systematic errors. We make an attempt to study the most dominant error sources and, ultimately, the surrogate model's fidelity. These investigations yield information about the surrogate model's uncertainty as a function of time (or frequency) and parameter, and could be useful in parameter estimation studies which seek to incorporate model error. Finally, I will conclude by comparing the numerical relativity surrogate model to other inspiral-merger-ringdown models. A companion talk will cover the building of multi-modal surrogate models.
Comparison of two numerical techniques for aerodynamic model identification
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Verhaegen, M. H.
1987-01-01
An algorithm, called the Minimal Residual QR algorithm, is presented to solve subset regression problems. It is shown that this scheme can be used as a numerically reliable implementation of the stepwise regression technique, which is widely used to identify an aerodynamic model from flight test data. This capability as well as the numerical superiority of this scheme over the stepwise regression technique is demonstrated in an experimental simulation study.
Numerical Models of Broad Bandwidth Nanosecond Optical Parametric Oscillators
Bowers, M.S.; Gehr, R.J.; Smith, A.V.
1998-10-14
We describe results from three new methods of numerically modeling broad-bandwidth, nanosecond OPO's in the plane-wave approximate ion. They account for differences in group velocities among the three mixing waves, and also include a qutt~ttun noise model.
A survey of numerical models for wind prediction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schonfeld, D.
1980-01-01
A literature review is presented of the work done in the numerical modeling of wind flows. Pertinent computational techniques are described, as well as the necessary assumptions used to simplify the governing equations. A steady state model is outlined, based on the data obtained at the Deep Space Communications complex at Goldstone, California.
Hydroforming Of Patchwork Blanks — Numerical Modeling And Experimental Validation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lamprecht, Klaus; Merklein, Marion; Geiger, Manfred
2005-08-01
In comparison to the commonly applied technology of tailored blanks the concept of patchwork blanks offers a number of additional advantages. Potential application areas for patchwork blanks in automotive industry are e.g. local reinforcements of automotive closures, structural reinforcements of rails and pillars as well as shock towers. But even if there is a significant application potential for patchwork blanks in automobile production, industrial realization of this innovative technique is decelerated due to a lack of knowledge regarding the forming behavior and the numerical modeling of patchwork blanks. Especially for the numerical simulation of hydroforming processes, where one part of the forming tool is replaced by a fluid under pressure, advanced modeling techniques are required to ensure an accurate prediction of the blanks' forming behavior. The objective of this contribution is to provide an appropriate model for the numerical simulation of patchwork blanks' forming processes. Therefore, different finite element modeling techniques for patchwork blanks are presented. In addition to basic shell element models a combined finite element model consisting of shell and solid elements is defined. Special emphasis is placed on the modeling of the weld seam. For this purpose the local mechanical properties of the weld metal, which have been determined by means of Martens-hardness measurements and uniaxial tensile tests, are integrated in the finite element models. The results obtained from the numerical simulations are compared to experimental data from a hydraulic bulge test. In this context the focus is laid on laser- and spot-welded patchwork blanks.
Experimental, numerical and analytical models of mantle starting plumes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coulliette, D. L.; Loper, D. E.
1995-12-01
The results of a combined experimental, numerical and analytical investigation of starting thermal plumes are described, to obtain a better perspective on plumes within the Earth's mantle. Thermal plumes were generated experimentally in a tank of corn syrup by means of an electrical heater. Viscosity ratios of 400, 30 000, and 10 8 were generated by varying the temperature of the tank. Plumes for the smaller ratios had the traditional 'balloon-on-astring' shape, but that at the highest ratio had a novel morphology. The plume heads in the first two cases were observed to rise at roughly a constant speed, in contrast to most previous studies which found the plume heads to accelerate. Loss of buoyancy from the plume head owing to heat loss is believed to be responsible for this difference. Starting plumes were simulated numerically using an axisymmetric, finite-element code to solve the Boussinesq equations at finite Prandtl numbers. The constant rise speed observed experimentally was confirmed by the numerical simulation for the viscosity ratios of 400 and 30 000, but numerical instability prevented simulation of the case with a viscosity ratio of 10 8. There was very good agreement between the experimental and numerical rise speeds. An analytical model was developed which reduces to previous models in limiting cases. This parameterization gives better agreement with the experimental and numerical results than does any previous model.
Development of a numerical simulation model of the cardiovascular system.
Geertsema, A A; Rakhorst, G; Mihaylov, D; Blanksma, P K; Verkerke, G J
1997-12-01
A numerical simulation model of the cardiovascular system has been developed. It consists of a model of the left atrium, the left ventricle, the coronary vascular system, the aorta, the arterial system, and the venous system. The input of the complete model is the elastance (pressure/volume ratio) developed by the left ventricle. The shape of this elastance is constant in different circumstances. Left ventricular (LV) myocardial oxygen consumption and the amount of oxygen offered to the left ventricle can be calculated with the model. The model has been validated using data from a patient suffering from coronary artery disease. The measured clinical hemodynamical waveforms could be fitted to those generated by the model. With the numerical simulation model, it is possible to predict the functioning of the left ventricle under different circumstances. This makes it possible to study in vitro various pathological clinical situations. PMID:9423983
Rapid installation of numerical models in multiple parent codes
Brannon, R.M.; Wong, M.K.
1996-10-01
A set of``model interface guidelines``, called MIG, is offered as a means to more rapidly install numerical models (such as stress-strain laws) into any parent code (hydrocode, finite element code, etc.) without having to modify the model subroutines. The model developer (who creates the model package in compliance with the guidelines) specifies the model`s input and storage requirements in a standardized way. For portability, database management (such as saving user inputs and field variables) is handled by the parent code. To date, NUG has proved viable in beta installations of several diverse models in vectorized and parallel codes written in different computer languages. A NUG-compliant model can be installed in different codes without modifying the model`s subroutines. By maintaining one model for many codes, MIG facilitates code-to-code comparisons and reduces duplication of effort potentially reducing the cost of installing and sharing models.
Ensemble-type numerical uncertainty information from single model integrations
Rauser, Florian Marotzke, Jochem; Korn, Peter
2015-07-01
We suggest an algorithm that quantifies the discretization error of time-dependent physical quantities of interest (goals) for numerical models of geophysical fluid dynamics. The goal discretization error is estimated using a sum of weighted local discretization errors. The key feature of our algorithm is that these local discretization errors are interpreted as realizations of a random process. The random process is determined by the model and the flow state. From a class of local error random processes we select a suitable specific random process by integrating the model over a short time interval at different resolutions. The weights of the influences of the local discretization errors on the goal are modeled as goal sensitivities, which are calculated via automatic differentiation. The integration of the weighted realizations of local error random processes yields a posterior ensemble of goal approximations from a single run of the numerical model. From the posterior ensemble we derive the uncertainty information of the goal discretization error. This algorithm bypasses the requirement of detailed knowledge about the models discretization to generate numerical error estimates. The algorithm is evaluated for the spherical shallow-water equations. For two standard test cases we successfully estimate the error of regional potential energy, track its evolution, and compare it to standard ensemble techniques. The posterior ensemble shares linear-error-growth properties with ensembles of multiple model integrations when comparably perturbed. The posterior ensemble numerical error estimates are of comparable size as those of a stochastic physics ensemble.
A general numerical model for wave rotor analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Paxson, Daniel W.
1992-01-01
Wave rotors represent one of the promising technologies for achieving very high core temperatures and pressures in future gas turbine engines. Their operation depends upon unsteady gas dynamics and as such, their analysis is quite difficult. This report describes a numerical model which has been developed to perform such an analysis. Following a brief introduction, a summary of the wave rotor concept is given. The governing equations are then presented, along with a summary of the assumptions used to obtain them. Next, the numerical integration technique is described. This is an explicit finite volume technique based on the method of Roe. The discussion then focuses on the implementation of appropriate boundary conditions. Following this, some results are presented which first compare the numerical approximation to the governing differential equations and then compare the overall model to an actual wave rotor experiment. Finally, some concluding remarks are presented concerning the limitations of the simplifying assumptions and areas where the model may be improved.
Numerical models of laser fusion of intestinal tissues.
Pearce, John A
2009-01-01
Numerical models of continuous wave Tm:YAG thermal fusion in rat intestinal tissues were compared to experiment. Optical and thermal FDM models that included tissue damage based on Arrhenius kinetics were used to predict birefringence loss in collagen as the standard of comparison. The models also predicted collagen shrinkage, jellification and water loss. The inclusion of variable optical and thermal properties is essential to achieve favorable agreement between predicted and measured damage boundaries. PMID:19964349
Numerical models for the evaluation of geothermal systems
Bodvarsson, G.S.; Pruess, K.; Lippmann, M.J.
1986-08-01
We have carried out detailed simulations of various fields in the USA (Bada, New Mexico; Heber, California); Mexico (Cerro Prieto); Iceland (Krafla); and Kenya (Olkaria). These simulation studies have illustrated the usefulness of numerical models for the overall evaluation of geothermal systems. The methodology for modeling the behavior of geothermal systems, different approaches to geothermal reservoir modeling and how they can be applied in comprehensive evaluation work are discussed.
Numerical modeling of runback water on ice protected aircraft surfaces
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Al-Khalil, Kamel M.; Keith, Theo G., Jr.; Dewitt, Kenneth J.
1992-01-01
A numerical simulation for 'running wet' aircraft anti-icing systems is developed. The model includes breakup of the water film, which exists in regions of direct impingement, into individual rivulets. The wetness factor distribution resulting from the film breakup and the rivulet configuration on the surface are predicted in the numerical solution procedure. The solid wall is modeled as a multilayer structure and the anti-icing system used is of the thermal type utilizing hot air and/or electrical heating elements embedded with the layers. Details of the calculation procedure and the methods used are presented.
Feedbacks Between Numerical and Analytical Models in Hydrogeology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zlotnik, V. A.; Cardenas, M. B.; Toundykov, D.; Cohn, S.
2012-12-01
Hydrogeology is a relatively young discipline which combines elements of Earth science and engineering. Mature fundamental disciplines (e.g., physics, chemistry, fluid mechanics) have centuries-long history of mathematical modeling even prior to discovery of Darcy's law. Thus, in hydrogeology, relatively few classic analytical models (such those by Theis, Polubarinova-Kochina, Philip, Toth, Henry, Dagan, Neuman) were developed by the early 1970's. The advent of computers and practical demands refocused mathematical models towards numerical techniques. With more diverse but less mathematically-oriented training, most hydrogeologists shifted from analytical methods to use of standardized computational software. Spatial variability in internal properties and external boundary conditions and geometry, and the added complexity of chemical and biological processes will remain major challenges for analytical modeling. Possibly, analytical techniques will play a subordinate role to numerical approaches in many applications. On the other hand, the rise of analytical element modeling of groundwater flow is a strong alternative to numerical models when data demand and computational efficiency is considered. The hallmark of analytical models - transparency and accuracy - will remain indispensable for scientific exploration of complex phenomena and for benchmarking numerical models. Therefore, there will always be feedbacks and complementarities between numerical and analytical techniques, as well as a certain ideological schism among various views to modeling. We illustrate the idea of feedbacks by reviewing evolution of Joszef Toth's analytical model of gravity driven flow systems. Toth's (1963) approach was to reduce the flow domain to a rectangle which allowed for closed-form solution of the governing equations. Succeeding numerical finite-element models by Freeze and Witherspoon (1966-1968) explored the effects of geometry and heterogeneity on regional groundwater flow
Development of Numerical Grids for UZ Flow and Transport Modeling
J. Hinds
2001-12-18
This Analysis/Model Report (AMR) describes the methods used to develop numerical grids of the unsaturated hydrogeologic system beneath Yucca Mountain. Numerical grid generation is an integral part of the development of a complex, three-dimensional (3-D) model, such as the Unsaturated-Zone Flow and Transport Model (UZ Model) of Yucca Mountain. The resulting numerical grids, developed using current geologic, hydrogeologic, and mineralogic data, provide the necessary framework to: (1) develop calibrated hydrogeologic property sets and flow fields, (2) test conceptual hypotheses of flow and transport, and (3) predict flow and transport behavior under a variety of climatic and thermal loading conditions. Revision 00 of the work described herein follows the planning and work direction outlined in the ''Development of Numerical Grids for UZ Flow and Transport Modeling'' (CRWMS M&O 1999c). The technical scope, content, and management of ICN 01 of this AMR is currently controlled by the planning document, ''Technical Work Plan for Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report'' (BSC 2001a). The scope for the TBV resolution actions in this ICN is described in the ''Technical Work Plan for: Integrated Management of Technical Product Input Department'' (BSC 2001 b, Addendum B, Section 4.1). The steps involved in numerical grid development include: (1) defining the location of important calibration features, (2) determining model grid layers and fault geometry based on the Geologic Framework Model (GFM), the Integrated Site Model (ISM), and definition of hydrogeologic units (HGUs), (3) analyzing and extracting GFM and ISM data pertaining to layer contacts and property distributions, (4) discretizing and refining the two-dimensional (2-D), plan-view numerical grid, (5) generating the 3-D grid with finer resolution at the repository horizon and within the Calico Hills nonwelded (CHn) hydrogeologic unit, and (6) formulating the dual-permeability mesh. The products
Numerical Modeling of Shear Bands and Dynamic Fracture in Metals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McAuliffe, Colin James
Understanding the failure of metals at high strain rate is of utmost importance in the design of a broad range of engineering systems. Numerical methods offer the ability to analyze such complex physics and aid the design of structural systems. The objective of this research will be to develop reliable finite element models for high strain rate failure modelling, incorporating shear bands and fracture. Shear band modelling is explored first, and the subsequent developments are extended to incorporate fracture. Mesh sensitivity, the spurious dependence of failure on the discretization, is a well known hurdle in achieving reliable numerical results for shear bands and fracture, or any other strain softening model. Mesh sensitivity is overcome by regularization, and while details of regularization techniques may differ, all are similar in that a length scale is introduced which serves as a localization limiter. This dissertation contains two main contributions, the first of which presents several developments in shear band modeling. The importance of using a monolithic nonlinear solver in combination with a PDE model accounting for thermal diffusion is demonstrated. In contrast, excluding one or both of these components leads to unreliable numerical results. The Pian-Sumihara stress interpolants are also employed in small and finite deformation and shown to significantly improve the computational cost of shear band modelling. This is partly due to the fact that fewer unknowns than an irreducible discretization result from the same mesh, and more significantly, the fact that convergence of numerical results upon mesh refinement is improved drastically. This means coarser meshes are adequate to resolve shear bands, alleviating some of the computational cost of numerical modelling, which are notoriously significant. Since extremely large deformations are present during shear banding, a mesh to mesh transfer algorithm is presented for the Pian Sumihara element and used as
Numerical modelling and verification of Polish ventricular assist device.
Milenin, Andrzej; Kopernik, Magdalena; Jurkojć, Dorota; Gawlikowski, Maciej; Rusin, Tomasz; Darłak, Maciej; Kustosz, Roman
2012-01-01
The developed multiscale model of blood chamber of POLVAD (Polish ventricular assist device) was introduced. The tension test for polymer and digital image correlation (DIC) were performed for verification of the strains and displacements obtained in the numerical model of POLVAD_EXT. The numerical simulations were carried out in conditions given in the experiment to compare the results obtained on external surfaces of blood chamber of the POLVAD_EXT. The examined polymer applied in the POLVADs is sensitive to changes of temperature and this observation is considered in all prepared numerical models. The comparison of experimental and numerical results shows acceptable coincidence. There are some heterogeneous distributions of strains in experiment with respect to analysis of computed parameters. The comparison of two versions of blood chambers (POLVAD and POLVAD_EXT) in numerical analysis shows that POLVAD_EXT construction is better with respect to analysis of strain and stress. The maximum values of computed parameters are located in the regions between connectors on the internal surfaces of blood chambers of POLVAD. PMID:23140381
Uncertainty evaluation in numerical modeling of complex devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, X.; Monebhurrun, V.
2014-10-01
Numerical simulation is an efficient tool for exploring and understanding the physics of complex devices, e.g. mobile phones. For meaningful results, it is important to evaluate the uncertainty of the numerical simulation. Uncertainty quantification in specific absorption rate (SAR) calculation using a full computer-aided design (CAD) mobile phone model is a challenging task. Since a typical SAR numerical simulation is computationally expensive, the traditional Monte Carlo (MC) simulation method proves inadequate. The unscented transformation (UT) is an alternative and numerically efficient method herein investigated to evaluate the uncertainty in the SAR calculation using the realistic models of two commercially available mobile phones. The electromagnetic simulation process is modeled as a nonlinear mapping with the uncertainty in the inputs e.g. the relative permittivity values of the mobile phone material properties, inducing an uncertainty in the output, e.g. the peak spatial-average SAR value.The numerical simulation results demonstrate that UT may be a potential candidate for the uncertainty quantification in SAR calculations since only a few simulations are necessary to obtain results similar to those obtained after hundreds or thousands of MC simulations.
Numerical Model Studies of the Martian Mesoscale Circulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Segal, Moti; Arritt, Raymond W.
1997-01-01
The study objectives were to evaluate by numerical modeling various possible mesoscale circulation on Mars and related atmospheric boundary layer processes. The study was in collaboration with J. Tillman of the University of Washington (who supported the study observationally). Interaction has been made with J. Prusa of Iowa State University in numerical modeling investigation of dynamical effects of topographically-influenced flow. Modeling simulations included evaluations of surface physical characteristics on: (i) the Martian atmospheric boundary layer and (ii) their impact on thermally and dynamically forced mesoscale flows. Special model evaluations were made in support of selection of the Pathfinder landing sites. J. Tillman's finding of VL-2 inter-annual temperature difference was followed by model simulations attempting to point out the forcing for this feature. Publication of the results in the reviewed literature in pending upon completion of the manuscripts in preparation as indicated later.
Numerical characterization and modeling of adiabatic slot film cooling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Voegele, Andrew
Film cooling is a technique used to protect critical surfaces in combustors, thrust chambers, turbines and nozzles from hot, chemically reacting gases. Accurately predicting the film's performance is especially challenging in the vicinity of the wall and the film injection plane due to the complex interactions of two highly turbulent, shearing, boundary layer flows. Properly characterizing the streams at the inlet of a numerical simulation and the choice of turbulence model are crucial to accurately predicting the decay of the film. To address these issues, this study employs a RANS solver that is used to model a film cooled wall. Menter's baseline model, and shear-stress transport model and the Spalart-Allmaras model are employed to determine the effect on film cooling predictions. Several methods for prescribing the inlet planes are explored. These numerical studies are compared with experimental data obtained in a UMD film cooling wind tunnel.
Numerical Simulation and Cold Modeling experiments on Centrifugal Casting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keerthiprasad, Kestur Sadashivaiah; Murali, Mysore Seetharam; Mukunda, Pudukottah Gopaliengar; Majumdar, Sekhar
2011-02-01
In a centrifugal casting process, the fluid flow eventually determines the quality and characteristics of the final product. It is difficult to study the fluid behavior here because of the opaque nature of melt and mold. In the current investigation, numerical simulations of the flow field and visualization experiments on cold models have been carried out for a centrifugal casting system using horizontal molds and fluids of different viscosities to study the effect of different process variables on the flow pattern. The effects of the thickness of the cylindrical fluid annulus formed inside the mold and the effects of fluid viscosity, diameter, and rotational speed of the mold on the hollow fluid cylinder formation process have been investigated. The numerical simulation results are compared with corresponding data obtained from the cold modeling experiments. The influence of rotational speed in a real-life centrifugal casting system has also been studied using an aluminum-silicon alloy. Cylinders of different thicknesses are cast at different rotational speeds, and the flow patterns observed visually in the actual castings are found to be similar to those recorded in the corresponding cold modeling experiments. Reasonable agreement is observed between the results of numerical simulation and the results of cold modeling experiments with different fluids. The visualization study on the hollow cylinders produced in an actual centrifugal casting process also confirm the conclusions arrived at from the cold modeling experiments and numerical simulation in a qualitative sense.
Development, validation and application of numerical space environment models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Honkonen, Ilja
2013-10-01
Currently the majority of space-based assets are located inside the Earth's magnetosphere where they must endure the effects of the near-Earth space environment, i.e. space weather, which is driven by the supersonic flow of plasma from the Sun. Space weather refers to the day-to-day changes in the temperature, magnetic field and other parameters of the near-Earth space, similarly to ordinary weather which refers to changes in the atmosphere above ground level. Space weather can also cause adverse effects on the ground, for example, by inducing large direct currents in power transmission systems. The performance of computers has been growing exponentially for many decades and as a result the importance of numerical modeling in science has also increased rapidly. Numerical modeling is especially important in space plasma physics because there are no in-situ observations of space plasmas outside of the heliosphere and it is not feasible to study all aspects of space plasmas in a terrestrial laboratory. With the increasing number of computational cores in supercomputers, the parallel performance of numerical models on distributed memory hardware is also becoming crucial. This thesis consists of an introduction, four peer reviewed articles and describes the process of developing numerical space environment/weather models and the use of such models to study the near-Earth space. A complete model development chain is presented starting from initial planning and design to distributed memory parallelization and optimization, and finally testing, verification and validation of numerical models. A grid library that provides good parallel scalability on distributed memory hardware and several novel features, the distributed cartesian cell-refinable grid (DCCRG), is designed and developed. DCCRG is presently used in two numerical space weather models being developed at the Finnish Meteorological Institute. The first global magnetospheric test particle simulation based on the
Physical and numerical modeling of Joule-heated melters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eyler, L. L.; Skarda, R. J.; Crowder, R. S., III; Trent, D. S.; Reid, C. R.; Lessor, D. L.
1985-10-01
The Joule-heated ceramic-lined melter is an integral part of the high level waste immobilization process under development by the US Department of Energy. Scaleup and design of this waste glass melting furnace requires an understanding of the relationships between melting cavity design parameters and the furnace performance characteristics such as mixing, heat transfer, and electrical requirements. Developing empirical models of these relationships through actual melter testing with numerous designs would be a very costly and time consuming task. Additionally, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has been developing numerical models that simulate a Joule-heated melter for analyzing melter performance. This report documents the method used and results of this modeling effort. Numerical modeling results are compared with the more conventional, physical modeling results to validate the approach. Also included are the results of numerically simulating an operating research melter at PNL. Physical Joule-heated melters modeling results used for qualiying the simulation capabilities of the melter code included: (1) a melter with a single pair of electrodes and (2) a melter with a dual pair (two pairs) of electrodes. The physical model of the melter having two electrode pairs utilized a configuration with primary and secondary electrodes. The principal melter parameters (the ratio of power applied to each electrode pair, modeling fluid depth, electrode spacing) were varied in nine tests of the physical model during FY85. Code predictions were made for five of these tests. Voltage drops, temperature field data, and electric field data varied in their agreement with the physical modeling results, but in general were judged acceptable.
Physical and numerical modeling of Joule-heated melters
Eyler, L.L.; Skarda, R.J.; Crowder, R.S. III; Trent, D.S.; Reid, C.R.; Lessor, D.L.
1985-10-01
The Joule-heated ceramic-lined melter is an integral part of the high level waste immobilization process under development by the US Department of Energy. Scaleup and design of this waste glass melting furnace requires an understanding of the relationships between melting cavity design parameters and the furnace performance characteristics such as mixing, heat transfer, and electrical requirements. Developing empirical models of these relationships through actual melter testing with numerous designs would be a very costly and time consuming task. Additionally, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has been developing numerical models that simulate a Joule-heated melter for analyzing melter performance. This report documents the method used and results of this modeling effort. Numerical modeling results are compared with the more conventional, physical modeling results to validate the approach. Also included are the results of numerically simulating an operating research melter at PNL. Physical Joule-heated melters modeling results used for qualiying the simulation capabilities of the melter code included: (1) a melter with a single pair of electrodes and (2) a melter with a dual pair (two pairs) of electrodes. The physical model of the melter having two electrode pairs utilized a configuration with primary and secondary electrodes. The principal melter parameters (the ratio of power applied to each electrode pair, modeling fluid depth, electrode spacing) were varied in nine tests of the physical model during FY85. Code predictions were made for five of these tests. Voltage drops, temperature field data, and electric field data varied in their agreement with the physical modeling results, but in general were judged acceptable. 14 refs., 79 figs., 17 tabs.
An improved numerical model for wave rotor design and analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Paxson, Daniel E.; Wilson, Jack
1992-01-01
A numerical model has been developed which can predict both the unsteady flows within a wave rotor and the steady averaged flows in the ports. The model is based on the assumptions of one-dimensional, unsteady, and perfect gas flow. Besides the dominant wave behavior, it is also capable of predicting the effects of finite tube opening time, leakage from the tube ends, and viscosity. The relative simplicity of the model makes it useful for design, optimization, and analysis of wave rotor cycles for any application. This paper discusses some details of the model and presents comparisons between the model and two laboratory wave rotor experiments.
Numerical strategy for model correction using physical constraints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Yanyan; Xiu, Dongbin
2016-05-01
In this paper we present a strategy for correcting model deficiency using observational data. We first present the model correction in a general form, involving both external correction and internal correction. The model correction problem is then parameterized and casted into an optimization problem, from which the parameters are determined. More importantly, we discuss the incorporation of physical constraints from the underlying physical problem. Several representative examples are presented, where the physical constraints take very different forms. Numerical tests demonstrate that the physics constrained model correction is an effective way to address model-form uncertainty.
Integrating Numerical Groundwater Modeling Results With Geographic Information Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Witkowski, M. S.; Robinson, B. A.; Linger, S. P.
2001-12-01
Many different types of data are used to create numerical models of flow and transport of groundwater in the vadose zone. Results from water balance studies, infiltration models, hydrologic properties, and digital elevation models (DEMs) are examples of such data. Because input data comes in a variety of formats, for consistency the data need to be assembled in a coherent fashion on a single platform. Through the use of a geographic information system (GIS), all data sources can effectively be integrated on one platform to store, retrieve, query, and display data. In our vadoze zone modeling studies in support of Los Alamos National Laboratory's Environmental Restoration Project, we employ a GIS comprised of a Raid storage device, an Oracle database, ESRI's spatial database engine (SDE), ArcView GIS, and custom GIS tools for three-dimensional (3D) analysis. We store traditional GIS data, such as, contours, historical building footprints, and study area locations, as points, lines, and polygons with attributes. Numerical flow and transport model results from the Finite Element Heat and Mass Transfer Code (FEHM) are stored as points with attributes, such as fluid saturation, or pressure, or contaminant concentration at a given location. We overlay traditional types of GIS data with numerical model results, thereby allowing us to better build conceptual models and perform spatial analyses. We have also developed specialized analysis tools to assist in the data and model analysis process. This approach provides an integrated framework for performing tasks such as comparing the model to data and understanding the relationship of model predictions to existing contaminant source locations and water supply wells. Our process of integrating GIS and numerical modeling results allows us to answer a wide variety of questions about our conceptual model design: - Which set of locations should be identified as contaminant sources based on known historical building operations
Development of numerical Grids for UZ Flow and Transport Modeling
P. Dobson
2004-08-31
This report describes the methods used to develop numerical grids of the unsaturated hydrogeologic system beneath Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Numerical grid generation is an integral part of the development of the unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport model, a complex, three-dimensional (3-D) model of Yucca Mountain. This revision contains changes made to improve the clarity of the description of grid generation. The numerical grids, developed using current geologic, hydrogeologic, and mineralogic data, provide the necessary framework to: (1) develop calibrated hydrogeologic property sets and flow fields, (2) test conceptual hypotheses of flow and transport, and (3) predict flow and transport behavior under a variety of climatic and thermal-loading conditions. The technical scope, content, and management for the current revision of this report are described in the planning document ''Technical Work Plan for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654], Section 2). Grids generated and documented in this report supersede those documented in Revision 00 of this report, ''Development of Numerical Grids for UZ Flow and Transport Modeling'' (BSC 2001 [DIRS 159356]). The grids presented in this report are the same as those developed in Revision 01 (BSC 2003 [DIRS 160109]); however, the documentation of the development of the grids in Revision 02 has been updated to address technical inconsistencies and achieve greater transparency, readability, and traceability. The constraints, assumptions, and limitations associated with this report are discussed in the appropriate sections that follow.
A SPATIO-TEMPORAL DOWNSCALER FOR OUTPUT FROM NUMERICAL MODELS
Often, in environmental data collection, data arise from two sources: numerical models and monitoring networks. The first source provides predictions at the level of grid cells, while the second source gives measurements at points. The first is characterized by full spatial cove...
ENHANCED HYDRODYNAMICAL-NUMERICAL MODEL FOR NEAR-SHORE PROCESSES
An optimized version of a multilayer Hansen type Hydrodynamical-Numerical (HN) model is presented and discussed here as the basis for the following experimental extensions and enhancements developed to more appropriately handle near-shore processes: Non-linear term extension to f...
Numerical Modeling of Drying Residual RP-1 in Rocket Engines
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Majumdar, Alok; Polsgrove, Robert; Tiller, Bruce; Rodriquez, Pete (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
When a Rocket Engine shuts down under a fuel rich environment, a significant amount of unburned RP-1 is trapped In the engine. It is necessary to clean the residual RP-1 prior to subsequent firing to avoid any explosion due to detonation. The conventional method is to dry RP-1 with inert gas such as Nitrogen or Helium. It is difficult to estimate the drying time unless the engine is adequately equipped with instruments to measure the trace of RP-1 during the drying process. Such instrumentation in flight hardware is often impractical and costly. On the other hand numerical modeling of the drying process can provide a good insight for a satisfactory operation of the process. A numerical model can provide answer to questions such as a) how long it takes to dry, b) which fluid is a better dryer for RP-1, c) how to reduce drying time etc. The purpose of the present paper is to describe a numerical model of drying RP-1 trapped in a cavity with flowing nitrogen or helium. The numerical model assumes one dimensional flow of drying fluid in contact with liquid pool of RP-1. An evaporative mass transfer takes place across the contact surface.
2D numerical modelling of meandering channel formation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
XIAO, Y.; ZHOU, G.; YANG, F. S.
2016-03-01
A 2D depth-averaged model for hydrodynamic sediment transport and river morphological adjustment was established. The sediment transport submodel takes into account the influence of non-uniform sediment with bed surface armoring and considers the impact of secondary flow in the direction of bed-load transport and transverse slope of the river bed. The bank erosion submodel incorporates a simple simulation method for updating bank geometry during either degradational or aggradational bed evolution. Comparison of the results obtained by the extended model with experimental and field data, and numerical predictions validate that the proposed model can simulate grain sorting in river bends and duplicate the characteristics of meandering river and its development. The results illustrate that by using its control factors, the improved numerical model can be applied to simulate channel evolution under different scenarios and improve understanding of patterning processes.
Wind laws for shockless initialization. [numerical forecasting model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ghil, M.; Shkoller, B.
1976-01-01
A system of diagnostic equations for the velocity field, or wind laws, was derived for each of a number of models of large-scale atmospheric flow. The derivation in each case is mathematically exact and does not involve any physical assumptions not already present in the prognostic equations, such as nondivergence or vanishing of derivatives of the divergence. Therefore, initial states computed by solving these diagnostic equations should be compatible with the type of motion described by the prognostic equations of the model and should not generate initialization shocks when inserted into the model. Numerical solutions of the diagnostic system corresponding to a barotropic model are exhibited. Some problems concerning the possibility of implementing such a system in operational numerical weather prediction are discussed.
Assessing Accuracy of Waveform Models against Numerical Relativity Waveforms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pürrer, Michael; LVC Collaboration
2016-03-01
We compare currently available phenomenological and effective-one-body inspiral-merger-ringdown models for gravitational waves (GW) emitted from coalescing black hole binaries against a set of numerical relativity waveforms from the SXS collaboration. Simplifications are used in the construction of some waveform models, such as restriction to spins aligned with the orbital angular momentum, no inclusion of higher harmonics in the GW radiation, no modeling of eccentricity and the use of effective parameters to describe spin precession. In contrast, NR waveforms provide us with a high fidelity representation of the ``true'' waveform modulo small numerical errors. To focus on systematics we inject NR waveforms into zero noise for early advanced LIGO detector sensitivity at a moderately optimistic signal-to-noise ratio. We discuss where in the parameter space the above modeling assumptions lead to noticeable biases in recovered parameters.
Numerical integration of population models satisfying conservation laws: NSFD methods.
Mickens, Ronald E
2007-10-01
Population models arising in ecology, epidemiology and mathematical biology may involve a conservation law, i.e. the total population is constant. In addition to these cases, other situations may occur for which the total population, asymptotically in time, approach a constant value. Since it is rarely the situation that the equations of motion can be analytically solved to obtain exact solutions, it follows that numerical techniques are needed to provide solutions. However, numerical procedures are only valid if they can reproduce fundamental properties of the differential equations modeling the phenomena of interest. We show that for population models, involving a dynamical conservation law the use of nonstandard finite difference (NSFD) methods allows the construction of discretization schemes such that they are dynamically consistent (DC) with the original differential equations. The paper will briefly discuss the NSFD methodology, the concept of DC, and illustrate their application to specific problems for population models. PMID:22876826
Accounting for Errors in Model Analysis Theory: A Numerical Approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sommer, Steven R.; Lindell, Rebecca S.
2004-09-01
By studying the patterns of a group of individuals' responses to a series of multiple-choice questions, researchers can utilize Model Analysis Theory to create a probability distribution of mental models for a student population. The eigenanalysis of this distribution yields information about what mental models the students possess, as well as how consistently they utilize said mental models. Although the theory considers the probabilistic distribution to be fundamental, there exists opportunities for random errors to occur. In this paper we will discuss a numerical approach for mathematically accounting for these random errors. As an example of this methodology, analysis of data obtained from the Lunar Phases Concept Inventory will be presented. Limitations and applicability of this numerical approach will be discussed.
Numerical Detection of Ergodicity Breaking in a Glass Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sasaki, Munetaka; Hukushima, Koji
2016-07-01
We present a numerical method of directly detecting ergodicity breaking in glassy systems. To examine the validity of the proposed method, we applied it to the Biroli-Mézard glass model on a regular random graph. The obtained results clearly indicate that the model exhibits a dynamical transition with ergodicity breaking at an occupation density, that is consistent with the prediction obtained by the cavity method. The present method is applicable to glassy systems in finite dimensions.
A numerical model of combustion in gasless pyrotechnic systems
Boddington, T.; Cottrell, A.; Laye, P.G.
1989-04-01
A simple numerical model has been developed for the propagation of a combustion wave through a gasless pyrotechnic mixture. A pseudo one-dimensional approach has been adopted in which an allowance for heat loss has been made by the inclusion of a simple Newtonian heat transfer term. Implementation requires a knowledge of the thermal and kinetic properties of the pyrotechnic mixture. The model reproduces the observed trends in burning velocity and predicts conditions leading to combustion failure.
Analysis and modeling of subgrid scalar mixing using numerical data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Girimaji, Sharath S.; Zhou, YE
1995-01-01
Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of passive scalar mixing in isotropic turbulence is used to study, analyze and, subsequently, model the role of small (subgrid) scales in the mixing process. In particular, we attempt to model the dissipation of the large scale (supergrid) scalar fluctuations caused by the subgrid scales by decomposing it into two parts: (1) the effect due to the interaction among the subgrid scales; and (2) the effect due to interaction between the supergrid and the subgrid scales. Model comparisons with DNS data show good agreement. This model is expected to be useful in the large eddy simulations of scalar mixing and reaction.
A numerical cloud model for the support of laboratory experimentation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hagen, D. E.
1979-01-01
A numerical cloud model is presented which can describe the evolution of a cloud starting from moist aerosol-laden air through the diffusional growth regime. The model is designed for the direct support of cloud chamber laboratory experimentation, i.e., experiment preparation, real-time control and data analysis. In the model the thermodynamics is uncoupled from the droplet growth processes. Analytic solutions for the cloud droplet growth equations are developed which can be applied in most laboratory situations. The model is applied to a variety of representative experiments.
Numerical and experimental modelling of the radial compressor stage
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Syka, Tomáš; Matas, Richard; LuÅáček, Ondřej
2016-06-01
This article deals with the description of the numerical and experimental model of the new compressor stage designed for process centrifugal compressors. It's the first member of the new stages family developed to achieve the state of the art thermodynamic parameters. This stage (named RTK01) is designed for high flow coefficient with 3D shaped impeller blades. Some interesting findings were gained during its development. The article is focused mainly on some interesting aspects of the development methodology and numerical simulations improvement, not on the specific stage properties. Conditions and experimental equipment, measured results and their comparison with ANSYS CFX and NUMECA FINE/Turbo CFD simulations are described.
Numerical modelling of multimode fibre-optic communication lines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sidelnikov, O. S.; Sygletos, S.; Ferreira, F.; Fedoruk, M. P.
2016-01-01
The results of numerical modelling of nonlinear propagation of an optical signal in multimode fibres with a small differential group delay are presented. It is found that the dependence of the error vector magnitude (EVM) on the differential group delay can be reduced by increasing the number of ADC samples per symbol in the numerical implementation of the differential group delay compensation algorithm in the receiver. The possibility of using multimode fibres with a small differential group delay for data transmission in modern digital communication systems is demonstrated. It is shown that with increasing number of modes the strong coupling regime provides a lower EVM level than the weak coupling one.
Numerical modeling and simulation of flow through porous fabric surface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Zheng; Li, Xiaolin
We designed a numerical scheme to model the permeability of the fabric surface in an incompressible fluid by coupling the projection method with the Ghost Fluid Method in the front tracking framework. The pressure jump condition is obtained by adding a source term to the Poisson's equation in the projection step without modifications on its coefficients. The numerical results suggest that this approach has the ability to reproduce the relationship between pressure drop and relative velocity observed in the experiments. We use this algorithm to study the effects of porosity on the drag force and stability of parachutes during its inflation and deceleration.
Numerical weather prediction model tuning via ensemble prediction system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jarvinen, H.; Laine, M.; Ollinaho, P.; Solonen, A.; Haario, H.
2011-12-01
This paper discusses a novel approach to tune predictive skill of numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. NWP models contain tunable parameters which appear in parameterizations schemes of sub-grid scale physical processes. Currently, numerical values of these parameters are specified manually. In a recent dual manuscript (QJRMS, revised) we developed a new concept and method for on-line estimation of the NWP model parameters. The EPPES ("Ensemble prediction and parameter estimation system") method requires only minimal changes to the existing operational ensemble prediction infra-structure and it seems very cost-effective because practically no new computations are introduced. The approach provides an algorithmic decision making tool for model parameter optimization in operational NWP. In EPPES, statistical inference about the NWP model tunable parameters is made by (i) generating each member of the ensemble of predictions using different model parameter values, drawn from a proposal distribution, and (ii) feeding-back the relative merits of the parameter values to the proposal distribution, based on evaluation of a suitable likelihood function against verifying observations. In the presentation, the method is first illustrated in low-order numerical tests using a stochastic version of the Lorenz-95 model which effectively emulates the principal features of ensemble prediction systems. The EPPES method correctly detects the unknown and wrongly specified parameters values, and leads to an improved forecast skill. Second, results with an atmospheric general circulation model based ensemble prediction system show that the NWP model tuning capacity of EPPES scales up to realistic models and ensemble prediction systems. Finally, a global top-end NWP model tuning exercise with preliminary results is published.
Numerical tests of nucleation theories for the Ising models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ryu, Seunghwa; Cai, Wei
2010-07-01
The classical nucleation theory (CNT) is tested systematically by computer simulations of the two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) Ising models with a Glauber-type spin flip dynamics. While previous studies suggested potential problems with CNT, our numerical results show that the fundamental assumption of CNT is correct. In particular, the Becker-Döring theory accurately predicts the nucleation rate if the correct droplet free energy function is provided as input. This validates the coarse graining of the system into a one dimensional Markov chain with the largest droplet size as the reaction coordinate. Furthermore, in the 2D Ising model, the droplet free energy predicted by CNT matches numerical results very well, after a logarithmic correction term from Langer’s field theory and a constant correction term are added. But significant discrepancies are found between the numerical results and existing theories on the magnitude of the logarithmic correction term in the 3D Ising model. Our analysis underscores the importance of correctly accounting for the temperature dependence of surface energy when comparing numerical results and nucleation theories.
Numerical modeling of magnetic induction tomography using the impedance method.
Ramos, Airton; Wolff, Julia G B
2011-02-01
This article discusses the impedance method in the forward calculation in magnetic induction tomography (MIT). Magnetic field and eddy current distributions were obtained numerically for a sphere in the field of a coil and were compared with an analytical model. Additionally, numerical and experimental results for phase sensitivity in MIT were obtained and compared for a cylindrical object in a planar array of sensors. The results showed that the impedance method provides results that agree very well with reality in the frequency range from 100 kHz to 20 MHz and for low conductivity objects (10 S/m or less). This opens the possibility of using this numerical approach in image reconstruction in MIT. PMID:21229327
Numerical Modeling of Plasmas in which Nanoparticles Nucleate and Grow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agarwal, Pulkit
Dusty plasmas refer to a broad category of plasmas. Plasmas such as argon-silane plasmas in which particles nucleate and grow are widely used in semiconductor processing and nanoparticle manufacturing. In such dusty plasmas, the plasma and the dust particles are strongly coupled to each other. This means that the presence of dust particles significantly affects the plasma properties and vice versa. Therefore such plasmas are highly complex and they involve several interesting phenomena like nucleation, growth, coagulation, charging and transport. Dusty plasma afterglow is equally complex and important. Especially, residual charge on dust particles carries special significance in several industrial and laboratory situations and it has not been well understood. A 1D numerical model was developed of a low-pressure capacitively-coupled plasma in which nanoparticles nucleate and grow. Polydispersity of particle size distributions can be important in such plasmas. Sectional method, which is well known in aerosol literature, was used to model the evolving particle size and charge distribution. The numerical model is transient and one-dimensional and self consistently accounts for nucleation, growth, coagulation, charging and transport of dust particles and their effect on plasma properties. Nucleation and surface growth rates were treated as input parameters. Results were presented in terms of particle size and charge distribution with an emphasis on importance of polydispersity in particle growth and dynamics. Results of numerical model were compared with experimental measurements of light scattering and light emission from plasma. Reasonable qualitative agreement was found with some discrepancies. Pulsed dusty plasma can be important for controlling particle production and/or unwanted particle deposition. In this case, it is important to understand the behavior of the particle cloud during the afterglow following plasma turn-off. Numerical model was modified to self
Modern perspectives on numerical modeling of cardiac pacemaker cell.
Maltsev, Victor A; Yaniv, Yael; Maltsev, Anna V; Stern, Michael D; Lakatta, Edward G
2014-01-01
Cardiac pacemaking is a complex phenomenon that is still not completely understood. Together with experimental studies, numerical modeling has been traditionally used to acquire mechanistic insights in this research area. This review summarizes the present state of numerical modeling of the cardiac pacemaker, including approaches to resolve present paradoxes and controversies. Specifically we discuss the requirement for realistic modeling to consider symmetrical importance of both intracellular and cell membrane processes (within a recent "coupled-clock" theory). Promising future developments of the complex pacemaker system models include the introduction of local calcium control, mitochondria function, and biochemical regulation of protein phosphorylation and cAMP production. Modern numerical and theoretical methods such as multi-parameter sensitivity analyses within extended populations of models and bifurcation analyses are also important for the definition of the most realistic parameters that describe a robust, yet simultaneously flexible operation of the coupled-clock pacemaker cell system. The systems approach to exploring cardiac pacemaker function will guide development of new therapies such as biological pacemakers for treating insufficient cardiac pacemaker function that becomes especially prevalent with advancing age. PMID:24748434
An educational interactive numerical model of the Chesapeake Bay
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crouch, Jessica R.; Shen, Yuzhong; Austin, Jay A.; Dinniman, Michael S.
2008-03-01
Scientists use sophisticated numerical models to study ocean circulation and other physical systems, but the complex nature of such simulation software generally make them inaccessible to non-expert users. In principle, however, numerical models represent an ideal teaching tool, allowing users to model the response of a complex system to changing conditions. We have designed an interactive simulation program that allows a casual user to control the forcing conditions applied to a numerical ocean circulation model using a graphical user interface, and to observe the results in real-time. This program is implemented using the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) applied to the Chesapeake Bay. Portions of ROMS were modified to facilitate user interaction, and the user interface and visualization capabilities represent new software development. The result is an interactive simulation of the Chesapeake Bay environment that allows a user to control wind speed and direction along with the rate of flow from the rivers that feed the bay. The simulation provides a variety of visualizations of the response of the system, including water height, velocity, and salinity across horizontal and vertical planes.
Modern Perspectives on Numerical Modeling of Cardiac Pacemaker Cell
Maltsev, Victor A.; Yaniv, Yael; Maltsev, Anna V.; Stern, Michael D.; Lakatta, Edward G.
2015-01-01
Cardiac pacemaking is a complex phenomenon that is still not completely understood. Together with experimental studies, numerical modeling has been traditionally used to acquire mechanistic insights in this research area. This review summarizes the present state of numerical modeling of the cardiac pacemaker, including approaches to resolve present paradoxes and controversies. Specifically we discuss the requirement for realistic modeling to consider symmetrical importance of both intracellular and cell membrane processes (within a recent “coupled-clock” theory). Promising future developments of the complex pacemaker system models include the introduction of local calcium control, mitochondria function, and biochemical regulation of protein phosphorylation and cAMP production. Modern numerical and theoretical methods such as multi-parameter sensitivity analyses within extended populations of models and bifurcation analyses are also important for the definition of the most realistic parameters that describe a robust, yet simultaneously flexible operation of the coupled-clock pacemaker cell system. The systems approach to exploring cardiac pacemaker function will guide development of new therapies, such as biological pacemakers for treating insufficient cardiac pacemaker function that becomes especially prevalent with advancing age. PMID:24748434
Numerical modeling of pulsatile turbulent flow in stenotic vessels.
Varghese, Sonu S; Frankel, Steven H
2003-08-01
Pulsatile turbulent flow in stenotic vessels has been numerically modeled using the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equation approach. The commercially available computational fluid dynamics code (CFD), FLUENT, has been used for these studies. Two different experiments were modeled involving pulsatile flow through axisymmetric stenoses. Four different turbulence models were employed to study their influence on the results. It was found that the low Reynolds number k-omega turbulence model was in much better agreement with previous experimental measurements than both the low and high Reynolds number versions of the RNG (renormalization-group theory) k-epsilon turbulence model and the standard k-epsilon model, with regard to predicting the mean flow distal to the stenosis including aspects of the vortex shedding process and the turbulent flow field. All models predicted a wall shear stress peak at the throat of the stenosis with minimum values observed distal to the stenosis where flow separation occurred. PMID:12968569
Handling geophysical flows: Numerical modelling using Graphical Processing Units
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garcia-Navarro, Pilar; Lacasta, Asier; Juez, Carmelo; Morales-Hernandez, Mario
2016-04-01
Computational tools may help engineers in the assessment of sediment transport during the decision-making processes. The main requirements are that the numerical results have to be accurate and simulation models must be fast. The present work is based on the 2D shallow water equations in combination with the 2D Exner equation [1]. The resulting numerical model accuracy was already discussed in previous work. Regarding the speed of the computation, the Exner equation slows down the already costly 2D shallow water model as the number of variables to solve is increased and the numerical stability is more restrictive. On the other hand, the movement of poorly sorted material over steep areas constitutes a hazardous environmental problem. Computational tools help in the predictions of such landslides [2]. In order to overcome this problem, this work proposes the use of Graphical Processing Units (GPUs) for decreasing significantly the simulation time [3, 4]. The numerical scheme implemented in GPU is based on a finite volume scheme. The mathematical model and the numerical implementation are compared against experimental and field data. In addition, the computational times obtained with the Graphical Hardware technology are compared against Single-Core (sequential) and Multi-Core (parallel) CPU implementations. References [Juez et al.(2014)] Juez, C., Murillo, J., & Garca-Navarro, P. (2014) A 2D weakly-coupled and efficient numerical model for transient shallow flow and movable bed. Advances in Water Resources. 71 93-109. [Juez et al.(2013)] Juez, C., Murillo, J., & Garca-Navarro, P. (2013) . 2D simulation of granular flow over irregular steep slopes using global and local coordinates. Journal of Computational Physics. 225 166-204. [Lacasta et al.(2014)] Lacasta, A., Morales-Hernndez, M., Murillo, J., & Garca-Navarro, P. (2014) An optimized GPU implementation of a 2D free surface simulation model on unstructured meshes Advances in Engineering Software. 78 1-15. [Lacasta
A Mechanistic Stochastic Ricker Model: Analytical and Numerical Investigations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gadrich, Tamar; Katriel, Guy
The Ricker model is one of the simplest and most widely-used ecological models displaying complex nonlinear dynamics. We study a discrete-time population model, which is derived from simple assumptions concerning individual organisms’ behavior, using the “site-based” approach, developed by Brännström, Broomhead, Johansson and Sumpter. In the large-population limit the model converges to the Ricker model, and can thus be considered a mechanistic version of the Ricker model, derived from basic ecological principles, and taking into account the demographic stochasticity inherent to finite populations. We employ several analytical and precise numerical methods to study the model, showing how each approach contributes to understanding the model’s dynamics. Expressing the model as a Markov chain, we employ the concept of quasi-stationary distributions, which are computed numerically, and used to examine the interaction between complex deterministic dynamics and demographic stochasticity, as well as to calculate mean times to extinction. A Gaussian Markov chain approximation is used to obtain quantitative asymptotic approximations for the size of fluctuations of the stochastic model’s time series around the deterministic trajectory, and for the correlations between successive fluctuations. Results of these approximations are compared to results obtained from quasi-stationary distributions and from direct simulations, and are shown to be in good agreement.
Numerical model for organic light-emitting diodes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tutiš, E.; Bussac, M. N.; Masenelli, B.; Carrard, M.; Zuppiroli, L.
2001-01-01
An extensive numerical model recently developed for the multilayer organic light-emitting diode is described and applied to a set of real devices. The model contains a detailed description of electrical contacts including dipolar layer formation, thermionic and tunneling injection, space charge effects, field dependent mobilities and recombination processes. The model is applied to simulate several single layer devices and the family of bilayer devices made in our group. It provides insight into the energy level shifts, internal electric fields and charge distribution (and consequently recombination) throughout the device. Finally, the analysis is extended to the optimization of bilayer device.
Preliminary numerical analysis of improved gas chromatograph model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Woodrow, P. T.
1973-01-01
A mathematical model for the gas chromatograph was developed which incorporates the heretofore neglected transport mechanisms of intraparticle diffusion and rates of adsorption. Because a closed-form analytical solution to the model does not appear realizable, techniques for the numerical solution of the model equations are being investigated. Criteria were developed for using a finite terminal boundary condition in place of an infinite boundary condition used in analytical solution techniques. The class of weighted residual methods known as orthogonal collocation is presently being investigated and appears promising.
Numerical Modeling of Unsteady Thermofluid Dynamics in Cryogenic Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Majumdar, Alok
2003-01-01
A finite volume based network analysis procedure has been applied to model unsteady flow without and with heat transfer. Liquid has been modeled as compressible fluid where the compressibility factor is computed from the equation of state for a real fluid. The modeling approach recognizes that the pressure oscillation is linked with the variation of the compressibility factor; therefore, the speed of sound does not explicitly appear in the governing equations. The numerical results of chilldown process also suggest that the flow and heat transfer are strongly coupled. This is evident by observing that the mass flow rate during 90-second chilldown process increases by factor of ten.
Comparison between analytical and numerical solution of mathematical drying model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shahari, N.; Rasmani, K.; Jamil, N.
2016-02-01
Drying is often related to the food industry as a process of shifting heat and mass inside food, which helps in preserving food. Previous research using a mass transfer equation showed that the results were mostly concerned with the comparison between the simulation model and the experimental data. In this paper, the finite difference method was used to solve a mass equation during drying using different kinds of boundary condition, which are equilibrium and convective boundary conditions. The results of these two models provide a comparison between the analytical and the numerical solution. The result shows a close match between the two solution curves. It is concluded that the two proposed models produce an accurate solution to describe the moisture distribution content during the drying process. This analysis indicates that we have confidence in the behaviour of moisture in the numerical simulation. This result demonstrated that a combined analytical and numerical approach prove that the system is behaving physically. Based on this assumption, the model of mass transfer was extended to include the temperature transfer, and the result shows a similar trend to those presented in the simpler case.
Temperature sensitivity of a numerical pollen forecast model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scheifinger, Helfried; Meran, Ingrid; Szabo, Barbara; Gallaun, Heinz; Natali, Stefano; Mantovani, Simone
2016-04-01
Allergic rhinitis has become a global health problem especially affecting children and adolescence. Timely and reliable warning before an increase of the atmospheric pollen concentration means a substantial support for physicians and allergy suffers. Recently developed numerical pollen forecast models have become means to support the pollen forecast service, which however still require refinement. One of the problem areas concerns the correct timing of the beginning and end of the flowering period of the species under consideration, which is identical with the period of possible pollen emission. Both are governed essentially by the temperature accumulated before the entry of flowering and during flowering. Phenological models are sensitive to a bias of the temperature. A mean bias of -1°C of the input temperature can shift the entry date of a phenological phase for about a week into the future. A bias of such an order of magnitude is still possible in case of numerical weather forecast models. If the assimilation of additional temperature information (e.g. ground measurements as well as satellite-retrieved air / surface temperature fields) is able to reduce such systematic temperature deviations, the precision of the timing of phenological entry dates might be enhanced. With a number of sensitivity experiments the effect of a possible temperature bias on the modelled phenology and the pollen concentration in the atmosphere is determined. The actual bias of the ECMWF IFS 2 m temperature will also be calculated and its effect on the numerical pollen forecast procedure presented.
Numerical Modeling of Fracture Propagation in Naturally Fractured Formations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, W.; Prodanovic, M.; Olson, J. E.; Schultz, R.
2015-12-01
Hydraulic fracturing consists of injecting fluid at high pressure and high flowrate to the wellbore for the purpose of enhancing production by generating a complex fracture network. Both tensile failure and shear failure occur during the hydraulic fracturing treatment. The shear event can be caused by slip on existing weak planes such as faults or natural fractures. From core observation, partially cemented and fully cemented opening mode natural fractures, often with considerable thickness are widely present. Hydraulic fractures can propagate either within the natural fracture (tensile failure) or along the interface between the natural fracture and the rock matrix (tensile/shear failure), depending on the relative strength of cement and rock matrix materials, the bonding strength of interface, as well as the presence of any heterogeneities. In this study, we evaluate the fracture propagation both experimentally and numerically. We embed one or multiple inclusions of different mechanical properties within synthetic hydrostone samples in order to mimic cemented natural fractures and rock. A semi-circular bending test is performed for each set of properties. A finite element model built with ABAQUS is used to mimic the semi-circular bending test and study the fracture propagation path, as well as the matrix-inclusion bonding interface status. Mechanical properties required for the numerical model are measured experimentally. The results indicate that the match between experiment and modeling fracture path are extremely sensitive to the chosen interface (bonding) model and related parameters. The semi-circular bending test is dry and easily conducted, providing a good platform for validating numerical approaches. A validated numerical model will enable us to add pressurized fluid within the crack and simulate hydraulic fracture-natural fracture interaction in the reservoir conditions, ultimately providing insights into the extent of the fracture network.
Busted Butte: Achieving the Objectives and Numerical Modeling Results
W.E. Soll; M. Kearney; P. Stauffer; P. Tseng; H.J. Turin; Z. Lu
2002-10-07
The Unsaturated Zone Transport Test (UZTT) at Busted Butte is a mesoscale field/laboratory/modeling investigation designed to address uncertainties associated with flow and transport in the UZ site-process models for Yucca Mountain. The UZTT test facility is located approximately 8 km southeast of the potential Yucca Mountain repository area. The UZTT was designed in two phases, to address five specific objectives in the UZ: the effect of heterogeneities, flow and transport (F&T) behavior at permeability contrast boundaries, migration of colloids , transport models of sorbing tracers, and scaling issues in moving from laboratory scale to field scale. Phase 1A was designed to assess the influence of permeability contrast boundaries in the hydrologic Calico Hills. Visualization of fluorescein movement , mineback rock analyses, and comparison with numerical models demonstrated that F&T are capillary dominated with permeability contrast boundaries distorting the capillary flow. Phase 1B was designed to assess the influence of fractures on F&T and colloid movement. The injector in Phase 1B was located at a fracture, while the collector, 30 cm below, was placed at what was assumed to be the same fracture. Numerical simulations of nonreactive (Br) and reactive (Li) tracers show the experimental data are best explained by a combination of molecular diffusion and advective flux. For Phase 2, a numerical model with homogeneous unit descriptions was able to qualitatively capture the general characteristics of the system. Numerical simulations and field observations revealed a capillary dominated flow field. Although the tracers showed heterogeneity in the test block, simulation using heterogeneous fields did not significantly improve the data fit over homogeneous field simulations. In terms of scaling, simulations of field tracer data indicate a hydraulic conductivity two orders of magnitude higher than measured in the laboratory. Simulations of Li, a weakly sorbing tracer
Quantitative comparisons of numerical models of brittle deformation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buiter, S.
2009-04-01
Numerical modelling of brittle deformation in the uppermost crust can be challenging owing to the requirement of an accurate pressure calculation, the ability to achieve post-yield deformation and localisation, and the choice of rheology (plasticity law). One way to approach these issues is to conduct model comparisons that can evaluate the effects of different implementations of brittle behaviour in crustal deformation models. We present a comparison of three brittle shortening experiments for fourteen different numerical codes, which use finite element, finite difference, boundary element and distinct element techniques. Our aim is to constrain and quantify the variability among models in order to improve our understanding of causes leading to differences between model results. Our first experiment of translation of a stable sand-like wedge serves as a reference that allows for testing against analytical solutions (e.g., taper angle, root-mean-square velocity and gravitational rate of work). The next two experiments investigate an unstable wedge in a sandbox-like setup which deforms by inward translation of a mobile wall. All models accommodate shortening by in-sequence formation of forward shear zones. We analyse the location, dip angle and spacing of thrusts in detail as previous comparisons have shown that these can be highly variable in numerical and analogue models of crustal shortening and extension. We find that an accurate implementation of boundary friction is important for our models. Our results are encouraging in the overall agreement in their dynamic evolution, but show at the same time the effort that is needed to understand shear zone evolution. GeoMod2008 Team: Markus Albertz, Michele Cooke, Susan Ellis, Taras Gerya, Luke Hodkinson, Kristin Hughes, Katrin Huhn, Boris Kaus, Walter Landry, Bertrand Maillot, Christophe Pascal, Anton Popov, Guido Schreurs, Christopher Beaumont, Tony Crook, Mario Del Castello and Yves Leroy
Reevaluating the two-representation model of numerical magnitude processing.
Jiang, Ting; Zhang, Wenfeng; Wen, Wen; Zhu, Haiting; Du, Han; Zhu, Xiangru; Gao, Xuefei; Zhang, Hongchuan; Dong, Qi; Chen, Chuansheng
2016-01-01
One debate in mathematical cognition centers on the single-representation model versus the two-representation model. Using an improved number Stroop paradigm (i.e., systematically manipulating physical size distance), in the present study we tested the predictions of the two models for number magnitude processing. The results supported the single-representation model and, more importantly, explained how a design problem (failure to manipulate physical size distance) and an analytical problem (failure to consider the interaction between congruity and task-irrelevant numerical distance) might have contributed to the evidence used to support the two-representation model. This study, therefore, can help settle the debate between the single-representation and two-representation models. PMID:26268066
A Numerical Model of Viscoelastic Flow in Microchannels
Trebotich, D; Colella, P; Miller, G; Liepmann, D
2002-11-14
The authors present a numerical method to model non-Newtonian, viscoelastic flow at the microscale. The equations of motion are the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations coupled with the Oldroyd-B constitutive equation. This constitutive equation is chosen to model a Boger fluid which is representative of complex biological solutions exhibiting elastic behavior due to macromolecules in the solution (e.g., DNA solution). The numerical approach is a projection method to impose the incompressibility constraint and a Lax-Wendroff method to predict velocities and stresses while recovering both viscous and elastic limits. The method is second-order accurate in space and time, free-stream preserving, has a time step constraint determined by the advective CFL condition, and requires the solution of only well-behaved linear systems amenable to the use of fast iterative methods. They demonstrate the method for viscoelastic incompressible flow in simple microchannels (2D) and microducts (3D).
AEETES: A solar reflux receiver thermal performance numerical model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hogan, R. E., Jr.
1991-12-01
Reflux solar receivers for dish-Stirling electric power generation systems are currently being investigated by several companies and laboratories. In support of these efforts, the AEETES thermal performance numerical model has been developed to predict thermal performance of pool-boiler and heat-pipe reflux receivers. The formulation of the AEETES numerical model, which is applicable to axisymmetric geometries with asymmetric incident fluxes, is presented in detail. Thermal efficiency predictions agree to within 4.1 percent with test data from on-sun tests of a pool-boiler reflux receiver. Predicted absorber and sidewall temperatures agree with thermocouple data to within 3.3. percent and 7.3 percent, respectively. The importance of accounting for the asymmetric incident fluxes is demonstrated in comparisons with predictions using azimuthally averaged variables. The predicted receiver heat losses are characterized in terms of convective, solar and infrared radiative, and conductive heat transfer mechanisms.
Numerical modeling of arc plasma generator for chemical laser applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sagar, Vidya; Ravikant, Chhaya; Singhal, Gaurav; Mittal, Alok P.
2012-05-01
The results of the numerical modeling of arc discharge phenomenon relevant to hydrogen fluoride/deuterium fluoride (HF/DF) laser applications are given. The overall mechanics of arc discharge phenomena on the basis of numerical modeling employing the commercial code COMSOL is discussed. The equations for a 2D axisymmetric, weakly compressible, laminar flow with heat transfer and the coupled hydrodynamic and electromagnetic equations are solved using the SIMPLE algorithm. The variations in the material properties, temperature, and velocity due to the generated arc are studied. A comparison of the results obtained with those from the studies available in the literature validates the computational data. Since each designed plasma arc tunnel is unique in itself and specific in application, this would enable one to alter arc discharge parameters to optimize a specific laser.
Numerical Modeling of Pulse Detonation Rocket Engine Gasdynamics and Performance
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2003-01-01
This paper presents viewgraphs on the numerical modeling of pulse detonation rocket engines (PDRE), with an emphasis on the Gasdynamics and performance analysis of these engines. The topics include: 1) Performance Analysis of PDREs; 2) Simplified PDRE Cycle; 3) Comparison of PDRE and Steady-State Rocket Engines (SSRE) Performance; 4) Numerical Modeling of Quasi 1-D Rocket Flows; 5) Specific PDRE Geometries Studied; 6) Time-Accurate Thrust Calculations; 7) PDRE Performance (Geometries A B C and D); 8) PDRE Blowdown Gasdynamics (Geom. A B C and D); 9) PDRE Geometry Performance Comparison; 10) PDRE Blowdown Time (Geom. A B C and D); 11) Specific SSRE Geometry Studied; 12) Effect of F-R Chemistry on SSRE Performance; 13) PDRE/SSRE Performance Comparison; 14) PDRE Performance Study; 15) Grid Resolution Study; and 16) Effect of F-R Chemistry on SSRE Exit Species Mole Fractions.
Optimum employment of satellite indirect soundings as numerical model input
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Horn, L. H.; Derber, J. C.; Koehler, T. L.; Schmidt, B. D.
1981-01-01
The characteristics of satellite-derived temperature soundings that would significantly affect their use as input for numerical weather prediction models were examined. Independent evaluations of satellite soundings were emphasized to better define error characteristics. Results of a Nimbus-6 sounding study reveal an underestimation of the strength of synoptic scale troughs and ridges, and associated gradients in isobaric height and temperature fields. The most significant errors occurred near the Earth's surface and the tropopause. Soundings from the TIROS-N and NOAA-6 satellites were also evaluated. Results again showed an underestimation of upper level trough amplitudes leading to weaker thermal gradient depictions in satellite-only fields. These errors show a definite correlation to the synoptic flow patterns. In a satellite-only analysis used to initialize a numerical model forecast, it was found that these synoptically correlated errors were retained in the forecast sequence.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xia, Daqing; Xu, Youping
1998-06-01
In first paper of articles, the physical and calculating schemes of the water-bearing numerical model are described. The model is developed by bearing all species of hydrometeors in a conventional numerical model in which the dynamic framework of hydrostatic equilibrium is taken. The main contributions are: the mixing ratios of all species of hydrometeors are added as the prognostic variables of model, the prognostic equations of these hydrometeors are introduced, the cloud physical framework is specially designed, some technical measures are used to resolve a series of physical, mathematical and computational problems arising from water-bearing; and so on. The various problems (in such aspects as the designs of physical and calculating schemes and the composition of computational programme) which are exposed in feasibility test, in sensibility test, and especially in operational forecasting experiments are successfully resolved using a lot of technical measures having been developed from researches and tests. Finally, the operational forecasting running of the water-bearing numerical model and its forecasting system is realized stably and reliably, and the fine forecasts are obtained. All of these mentioned above will be described in second paper.
Fast Numerically Based Modeling for Ground Penetrating Radar
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sassen, D. S.; Everett, M. E.
2007-05-01
There is a need for computationally fast GPR numerical modeling. This includes circumstances where real time performance is needed, for example discrimination of landmines or UXO's, and in circumstances that require a high number of successive forward problems, for example inversion or imaging. Traditional numerical techniques such as finite difference or finite element are too slow for these applications, but they provide results from general scenarios such as scattering from very complicated shapes with high contrast. Neural networks may fit in the niche between analytical techniques and traditional numerical techniques. Our concept is training a neural network to associate the model inputs of electromagnetic properties of the background and targets, and the size and shape of the targets, with the output generated by a 3-D finite difference model. Successive examples from various electromagnetic properties and targets are displayed to the neural network, until the neural network has adapted itself though optimization. The trained neural network is now used as the forward model by displaying new input parameters and the neural network then generates the appropriate output. The results from the neural network are then compared to results from finite difference models to see how well the neural networks is performing and at what point it breaks down. Areas of poor fit can be addressed through further training. The neural network GPR model can be adapted by displaying additional finite difference results to the neural network, and can also be adapted to a specific field area by actual field data examples. Because of this adaptation ability the neural network GPR model can be optimized for specific environments and applications.
Numerical modeling of combustion dynamics in a lean premixed combustor
Cannon, S.M.; Smith, C.E.
1998-07-01
The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of a time-accurate, 2-D axi-symmetric CFD model to accurately predict combustion dynamics in a premixed pipe combustor driven by mixture feed variation. Independently measured data, including the magnitude and frequency of combustor pressure, were used to evaluate the model. The Smagorinsky, RGN k-{var{underscore}epsilon}, and molecular viscosity models were used to describe the subgrid turbulence, and a one-step, finite-rate reaction to equilibrium products model was used to describe the subgrid chemistry. Swirl source terms were included within the premix passage's computational domain and allowed the model to retain known boundary conditions at the choked flow inlet and the constant pressure exit. To ensure pressure waves were accurately captured, 1-D numerical analyses were first performed to assess the effects of boundary conditions, temporal and spatial differencing, time step, and grid size. It was found that the selected numerical details produced little numerical dissipation of the pressure waves. Then, 2-D axisymmetric analyses were performed in which the inlet temperature was varied. It was found that increases in the inlet temperature (keeping a constant mass flow rate) had a large effect on the unsteady combustor behavior since reaction and advection rates were increased. The correct trend of decreasing rms pressures with increasing inlet temperature was predicted. This agreement in rms pressure behavior supports the ability of the CFD model to accurately capture unsteady heat release and its coupling with resonant acoustic waves in multi-dimensional combustor systems. The effect of subgrid turbulence model was small for the unstable cases studied here.
Numerical modeling of two-dimensional confined flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Greywall, M. S.
1979-01-01
A numerical model of two-dimensional confined flows is presented. The flow in the duct is partitioned into finite streams. The difference equations are then obtained by applying conservation principles directly to the individual streams. A listing of a computer code based on this approach in FORTRAN 4 language is presented. The code computes two dimensional compressible turbulent flows in ducts when the duct area along the flow is specified and the pressure gradient is unknown.
Numerical modeling of injection experiments at The Geysers
Pruess, Karsten; Enedy, Steve
1993-01-28
Data from injection experiments in the southeast Geysers are presented that show strong interference (both negative and positive) with a neighboring production well. Conceptual and numerical models are developed that explain the negative interference (decline of production rate) in terms of heat transfer limitations and water-vapor relative permeability effects. Recovery and overrecovery following injection shut-in are attributed to boiling of injected fluid, with heat of vaporization provided by the reservoir rocks.
Numerical modeling of injection experiments at The Geysers
Pruess, K. ); Enedy, S. )
1993-01-01
Data from injection experiments in the southeast Geysers are presented that show strong interference (both negative and positive) with a neighboring production well. Conceptual and numerical models are developed that explain the negative interference (decline of production rate) in terms of heat transfer limitations and water-vapor relative permeability effects. Recovery and over-recovery following injection shut-in are attributed to boiling of injected fluid, with heat of vaporization provided by the reservoir rocks.
Numerical bifurcation analysis of the bipedal spring-mass model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Merker, Andreas; Kaiser, Dieter; Hermann, Martin
2015-01-01
The spring-mass model and its numerous extensions are currently one of the best candidates for templates of human and animal locomotion. However, with increasing complexity, their applications can become very time-consuming. In this paper, we present an approach that is based on the calculation of bifurcations in the bipedal spring-mass model for walking. Since the bifurcations limit the region of stable walking, locomotion can be studied by computing the corresponding boundaries. Originally, the model was implemented as a hybrid dynamical system. Our new approach consists of the transformation of the series of initial value problems on different intervals into a single boundary value problem. Using this technique, discontinuities can be avoided and sophisticated numerical methods for studying parametrized nonlinear boundary value problems can be applied. Thus, appropriate extended systems are used to compute transcritical and period-doubling bifurcation points as well as turning points. We show that the resulting boundary value problems can be solved by the simple shooting method with sufficient accuracy, making the application of the more extensive multiple shooting superfluous. The proposed approach is fast, robust to numerical perturbations and allows determining complete manifolds of periodic solutions of the original problem.
Numerical modeling of bubble dynamics in viscoelastic media with relaxation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Warnez, M. T.; Johnsen, E.
2015-06-01
Cavitation occurs in a variety of non-Newtonian fluids and viscoelastic materials. The large-amplitude volumetric oscillations of cavitation bubbles give rise to high temperatures and pressures at collapse, as well as induce large and rapid deformation of the surroundings. In this work, we develop a comprehensive numerical framework for spherical bubble dynamics in isotropic media obeying a wide range of viscoelastic constitutive relationships. Our numerical approach solves the compressible Keller-Miksis equation with full thermal effects (inside and outside the bubble) when coupled to a highly generalized constitutive relationship (which allows Newtonian, Kelvin-Voigt, Zener, linear Maxwell, upper-convected Maxwell, Jeffreys, Oldroyd-B, Giesekus, and Phan-Thien-Tanner models). For the latter two models, partial differential equations (PDEs) must be solved in the surrounding medium; for the remaining models, we show that the PDEs can be reduced to ordinary differential equations. To solve the general constitutive PDEs, we present a Chebyshev spectral collocation method, which is robust even for violent collapse. Combining this numerical approach with theoretical analysis, we simulate bubble dynamics in various viscoelastic media to determine the impact of relaxation time, a constitutive parameter, on the associated physics. Relaxation time is found to increase bubble growth and permit rebounds driven purely by residual stresses in the surroundings. Different regimes of oscillations occur depending on the relaxation time.
Numerical modeling of bubble dynamics in viscoelastic media with relaxation
Warnez, M. T.; Johnsen, E.
2015-01-01
Cavitation occurs in a variety of non-Newtonian fluids and viscoelastic materials. The large-amplitude volumetric oscillations of cavitation bubbles give rise to high temperatures and pressures at collapse, as well as induce large and rapid deformation of the surroundings. In this work, we develop a comprehensive numerical framework for spherical bubble dynamics in isotropic media obeying a wide range of viscoelastic constitutive relationships. Our numerical approach solves the compressible Keller–Miksis equation with full thermal effects (inside and outside the bubble) when coupled to a highly generalized constitutive relationship (which allows Newtonian, Kelvin–Voigt, Zener, linear Maxwell, upper-convected Maxwell, Jeffreys, Oldroyd-B, Giesekus, and Phan-Thien-Tanner models). For the latter two models, partial differential equations (PDEs) must be solved in the surrounding medium; for the remaining models, we show that the PDEs can be reduced to ordinary differential equations. To solve the general constitutive PDEs, we present a Chebyshev spectral collocation method, which is robust even for violent collapse. Combining this numerical approach with theoretical analysis, we simulate bubble dynamics in various viscoelastic media to determine the impact of relaxation time, a constitutive parameter, on the associated physics. Relaxation time is found to increase bubble growth and permit rebounds driven purely by residual stresses in the surroundings. Different regimes of oscillations occur depending on the relaxation time. PMID:26130967
Collision of continental corner from 3-D numerical modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Zhong-Hai; Xu, Zhiqin; Gerya, Taras; Burg, Jean-Pierre
2013-10-01
Continental collision has been extensively investigated with 2-D numerical models assuming infinitely wide plates or insignificant along-strike deformation in the third dimension. However, the corners of natural collision zones normally have structural characteristics that differ from linear parts of mountain belt. We conducted 3-D high-resolution numerical simulations to study the dynamics of a continental corner (lateral continental/oceanic transition zone) during subduction/collision. The results demonstrate different modes between the oceanic subduction side (continuous subduction and retreating trench) and the continental collision side (slab break-off and topography uplift). Slab break-off occurs at a depth (⩽100 km to ˜300 km) that depends on the convergence velocity. The numerical models produce lateral extrusion of the overriding crust from the collisional side to the subduction side, which is also a phenomenon recognized around natural collision of continental corners, for instance around the western corner of the Arabia-Asia collision zone and around the eastern corner of the India-Asia collision zone. Modeling results also indicate that extrusion tectonics may be driven both from above by the topography and gravitational potentials and from below by the trench retreat and asthenospheric mantle return flow, which supports the link between deep mantle dynamics and shallower crustal deformation.
Numerical Modeling of Inclusion Behavior in Liquid Metal Processing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bellot, Jean-Pierre; Descotes, Vincent; Jardy, Alain
2013-09-01
Thermomechanical performance of metallic alloys is directly related to the metal cleanliness that has always been a challenge for metallurgists. During liquid metal processing, particles can grow or decrease in size either by mass transfer with the liquid phase or by agglomeration/fragmentation mechanisms. As a function of numerical density of inclusions and of the hydrodynamics of the reactor, different numerical modeling approaches are proposed; in the case of an isolated particle, the Lagrangian technique coupled with a dissolution model is applied, whereas in the opposite case of large inclusion phase concentration, the population balance equation must be solved. Three examples of numerical modeling studies achieved at Institut Jean Lamour are discussed. They illustrate the application of the Lagrangian technique (for isolated exogenous inclusion in titanium bath) and the Eulerian technique without or with the aggregation process: for precipitation and growing of inclusions at the solidification front of a Maraging steel, and for endogenous inclusions in the molten steel bath of a gas-stirred ladle, respectively.
Oscillation threshold of a clarinet model: a numerical continuation approach.
Karkar, Sami; Vergez, Christophe; Cochelin, Bruno
2012-01-01
This paper focuses on the oscillation threshold of single reed instruments. Several characteristics such as blowing pressure at threshold, regime selection, and playing frequency are known to change radically when taking into account the reed dynamics and the flow induced by the reed motion. Previous works have shown interesting tendencies, using analytical expressions with simplified models. In the present study, a more elaborated physical model is considered. The influence of several parameters, depending on the reed properties, the design of the instrument or the control operated by the player, are studied. Previous results on the influence of the reed resonance frequency are confirmed. New results concerning the simultaneous influence of two model parameters on oscillation threshold, regime selection and playing frequency are presented and discussed. The authors use a numerical continuation approach. Numerical continuation consists in following a given solution of a set of equations when a parameter varies. Considering the instrument as a dynamical system, the oscillation threshold problem is formulated as a path following of Hopf bifurcations, generalizing the usual approach of the characteristic equation, as used in previous works. The proposed numerical approach proves to be useful for the study of musical instruments. It is complementary to analytical analysis and direct time-domain or frequency-domain simulations since it allows to derive information that is hardly reachable through simulation, without the approximations needed for analytical approach. PMID:22280691
Oscillation threshold of a clarinet model: A numerical continuation approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karkar, Sami; Vergez, Christophe; Cochelin, Bruno
This paper focuses on the oscillation threshold of single reed instruments. Several characteristics such as blowing pressure at threshold, regime selection, and playing frequency are known to change radically when taking into account the reed dynamics and the flow induced by the reed motion. Previous works have shown interesting tendencies, using analytical expressions with simplified models. In the present study, a more elaborated physical model is considered. The influence of several parameters, depending on the reed properties, the design of the instrument or the control operated by the player, are studied. Previous results on the influence of the reed resonance frequency are confirmed. New results concerning the simultaneous influence of two model parameters on oscillation threshold, regime selection and playing frequency are presented and discussed. The authors use a numerical continuation approach. Numerical continuation consists in following a given solution of a set of equations when a parameter varies. Considering the instrument as a dynamical system, the oscillation threshold problem is formulated as a path following of Hopf bifurcations, generalizing the usual approach of the characteristic equation, as used in previous works. The proposed numerical approach proves to be useful for the study of musical instruments. It is complementary to analytical analysis and direct time-domain or frequency-domain simulations since it allows to derive information that is hardly reachable through simulation, without the approximations needed for analytical approach.
Optimization methods and silicon solar cell numerical models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Girardini, K.; Jacobsen, S. E.
1986-01-01
An optimization algorithm for use with numerical silicon solar cell models was developed. By coupling an optimization algorithm with a solar cell model, it is possible to simultaneously vary design variables such as impurity concentrations, front junction depth, back junction depth, and cell thickness to maximize the predicted cell efficiency. An optimization algorithm was developed and interfaced with the Solar Cell Analysis Program in 1 Dimension (SCAP1D). SCAP1D uses finite difference methods to solve the differential equations which, along with several relations from the physics of semiconductors, describe mathematically the performance of a solar cell. A major obstacle is that the numerical methods used in SCAP1D require a significant amount of computer time, and during an optimization the model is called iteratively until the design variables converge to the values associated with the maximum efficiency. This problem was alleviated by designing an optimization code specifically for use with numerically intensive simulations, to reduce the number of times the efficiency has to be calculated to achieve convergence to the optimal solution.
Numerical solution of High-kappa model of superconductivity
Karamikhova, R.
1996-12-31
We present formulation and finite element approximations of High-kappa model of superconductivity which is valid in the high {kappa}, high magnetic field setting and accounts for applied magnetic field and current. Major part of this work deals with steady-state and dynamic computational experiments which illustrate our theoretical results numerically. In our experiments we use Galerkin discretization in space along with Backward-Euler and Crank-Nicolson schemes in time. We show that for moderate values of {kappa}, steady states of the model system, computed using the High-kappa model, are virtually identical with results computed using the full Ginzburg-Landau (G-L) equations. We illustrate numerically optimal rates of convergence in space and time for the L{sup 2} and H{sup 1} norms of the error in the High-kappa solution. Finally, our numerical approximations demonstrate some well-known experimentally observed properties of high-temperature superconductors, such as appearance of vortices, effects of increasing the applied magnetic field and the sample size, and the effect of applied constant current.
ASSIMILATION OF DOPPLER RADAR DATA INTO NUMERICAL WEATHER MODELS
Chiswell, S.; Buckley, R.
2009-01-15
During the year 2008, the United States National Weather Service (NWS) completed an eight fold increase in sampling capability for weather radars to 250 m resolution. This increase is expected to improve warning lead times by detecting small scale features sooner with increased reliability; however, current NWS operational model domains utilize grid spacing an order of magnitude larger than the radar data resolution, and therefore the added resolution of radar data is not fully exploited. The assimilation of radar reflectivity and velocity data into high resolution numerical weather model forecasts where grid spacing is comparable to the radar data resolution was investigated under a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) 'quick hit' grant to determine the impact of improved data resolution on model predictions with specific initial proof of concept application to daily Savannah River Site operations and emergency response. Development of software to process NWS radar reflectivity and radial velocity data was undertaken for assimilation of observations into numerical models. Data values within the radar data volume undergo automated quality control (QC) analysis routines developed in support of this project to eliminate empty/missing data points, decrease anomalous propagation values, and determine error thresholds by utilizing the calculated variances among data values. The Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) three dimensional variational data assimilation package (WRF-3DVAR) was used to incorporate the QC'ed radar data into input and boundary conditions. The lack of observational data in the vicinity of SRS available to NWS operational models signifies an important data void where radar observations can provide significant input. These observations greatly enhance the knowledge of storm structures and the environmental conditions which influence their development. As the increase in computational power and availability has made higher
Numerical modelling of the memory effect in wet scrubbers.
Löthgren, Carl-Johan; Andersson, Sven
2008-08-01
Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) can be absorbed in and desorbed from polypropylene (PP) tower packings in wet scrubbers utilized in waste incineration lines. This behaviour, also known as the memory effect, has been modelled using a gas phase-PP surface equilibrium and a numerical solid phase diffusion model describing the transport of PCDD/Fs inside the PP. The diffusivities and gas-PP partition coefficients of TCDD/F to HxCDD/Fs in PP have been estimated using the numerical model. Two incineration lines were modelled. In the first line, the absorption and desorption in PP test rods was followed before and after installation of a fabric filter that was placed before a wet scrubber. In the second incineration line, the accumulation of PCDD/Fs in a wet scrubber during start up periods and the subsequent decline during the following three months was modelled and compared to continuous two-week gas measurements after the scrubber. The obtained diffusivities in PP range from 10(-13) m(2)/s for TCDD to 10(-16) m(2)/s for HxCDD. Lower chlorinated homologues with a distinctive change in concentrations during the desorption period (e.g. TCDF) are easier to model, and show the best agreement between the two incineration lines. PMID:18457859
Numerical photochemical modeling over Madrid (Spain) mesoscale urban area
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
San Jose, Roberto; Ramirez-Montesinos, Arturo; Marcelo, Luis M.; Sanz, Miguel A.; Rodriguez, Luis M.
1995-09-01
Photochemical air quality models provide the most defensible method for relating future air quality to changes in emission, and hence are the foundation for determining the effectiveness of proposed control strategies. In this contribution, we will show results from different photochemical schemes under typical emission conditions for a summer day in the Madrid mesocsale urban area. We will show that complex numerical integrated urban mesoscale models are a powerful tool to predict the ozone levels on this area. The comparison of model simulations at different grid points show an acceptable preliminary behavior. The results presented in this paper are prepared for August 15th, 1991 and the predicted ozone values are compared with those measured at two stations of the Madrid city monitoring network. Results show that the shape is successfully predicted by using the NUFOMO (numerical photochemical model) model. Because of the computer limitations, we have limited the results to this case study. Further investigations will provide additional information to produce a statistical analysis of the results. However, preliminary results show that the NUFOMO model is able to reproduce the measured ozone values.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Motte, Fabrice; Bugler-Lamb, Samuel L.; Falcoz, Quentin
2015-07-01
The attraction of solar energy is greatly enhanced by the possibility of it being used during times of reduced or non-existent solar flux, such as weather induced intermittences or the darkness of the night. Therefore optimizing thermal storage for use in solar energy plants is crucial for the success of this sustainable energy source. Here we present a study of a structured bed filler dedicated to Thermocline type thermal storage, believed to outweigh the financial and thermal benefits of other systems currently in use such as packed bed Thermocline tanks. Several criterions such as Thermocline thickness and Thermocline centering are defined with the purpose of facilitating the assessment of the efficiency of the tank to complement the standard concepts of power output. A numerical model is developed that reduces to two dimensions the modeling of such a tank. The structure within the tank is designed to be built using simple bricks harboring rectangular channels through which the solar heat transfer and storage fluid will flow. The model is scrutinized and tested for physical robustness, and the results are presented in this paper. The consistency of the model is achieved within particular ranges for each physical variable.
Mathematical and Numerical Analyses of Peridynamics for Multiscale Materials Modeling
Du, Qiang
2014-11-12
The rational design of materials, the development of accurate and efficient material simulation algorithms, and the determination of the response of materials to environments and loads occurring in practice all require an understanding of mechanics at disparate spatial and temporal scales. The project addresses mathematical and numerical analyses for material problems for which relevant scales range from those usually treated by molecular dynamics all the way up to those most often treated by classical elasticity. The prevalent approach towards developing a multiscale material model couples two or more well known models, e.g., molecular dynamics and classical elasticity, each of which is useful at a different scale, creating a multiscale multi-model. However, the challenges behind such a coupling are formidable and largely arise because the atomistic and continuum models employ nonlocal and local models of force, respectively. The project focuses on a multiscale analysis of the peridynamics materials model. Peridynamics can be used as a transition between molecular dynamics and classical elasticity so that the difficulties encountered when directly coupling those two models are mitigated. In addition, in some situations, peridynamics can be used all by itself as a material model that accurately and efficiently captures the behavior of materials over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. Peridynamics is well suited to these purposes because it employs a nonlocal model of force, analogous to that of molecular dynamics; furthermore, at sufficiently large length scales and assuming smooth deformation, peridynamics can be approximated by classical elasticity. The project will extend the emerging mathematical and numerical analysis of peridynamics. One goal is to develop a peridynamics-enabled multiscale multi-model that potentially provides a new and more extensive mathematical basis for coupling classical elasticity and molecular dynamics, thus enabling next
Numerical Solution of a Model Equation of Price Formation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chernogorova, T.; Vulkov, L.
2009-10-01
The paper [2] is devoted to the effect of reconciling the classical Black-Sholes theory of option pricing and hedging with various phenomena observed in the markets such as the influence of trading and hedging on the dynamics of an asset. Here we will discuss the numerical solution of initial boundary-value problems to a model equation of the theory. The lack of regularity in the solution as a result from Dirac delta coefficient reduces the accuracy in the numerical computations. First, we apply the finite volume method to discretize the differential problem. Second, we implement a technique of local regularization introduced by A-K. Tornberg and B. Engquist [7] for handling this equation. We derived the numerical regularization process into two steps: the Dirac delta function is regularized and then the regularized differential equation is discretized by difference schemes. Using the discrete maximum principle a priori bounds are obtained for the difference equations that imply stability and convergence of difference schemes for the problem under consideration. Numerical experiments are discussed.
Numerical treatment of a geometrically nonlinear planar Cosserat shell model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sander, Oliver; Neff, Patrizio; Bîrsan, Mircea
2016-05-01
We present a new way to discretize a geometrically nonlinear elastic planar Cosserat shell. The kinematical model is similar to the general six-parameter resultant shell model with drilling rotations. The discretization uses geodesic finite elements (GFEs), which leads to an objective discrete model which naturally allows arbitrarily large rotations. GFEs of any approximation order can be constructed. The resulting algebraic problem is a minimization problem posed on a nonlinear finite-dimensional Riemannian manifold. We solve this problem using a Riemannian trust-region method, which is a generalization of Newton's method that converges globally without intermediate loading steps. We present the continuous model and the discretization, discuss the properties of the discrete model, and show several numerical examples, including wrinkling of thin elastic sheets in shear.
A preliminary numerical model of the Geminid meteoroid stream
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ryabova, G. O.
2016-02-01
A pilot numerical model of the Geminid meteoroid stream is presented. This model implies cometary origin of the stream. Ejection of relatively small amount of particles (90 000 test meteoroids with masses 0.02, 0.003 and 0.0003 g) from the asteroid (3200) Phaethon (the parent body) was simulated, and their evolution was followed till the present time. The particles close to the Earth orbit were considered as the `shower'. It was found that the width of the model shower is at least twice less comparatively the real shower. The maximum activity of the model shower is dislocated and occurs about one day late. The most probable reason for both discrepancies is the drastic transformation of the parent body orbit during rapid release of the volatiles in the process of the stream initial formation. The dispersion of the model stream was evaluated in terms of the Southworth-Hawkins D-criterion.
An Object Model for a Rocket Engine Numerical Simulator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mitra, D.; Bhalla, P. N.; Pratap, V.; Reddy, P.
1998-01-01
Rocket Engine Numerical Simulator (RENS) is a packet of software which numerically simulates the behavior of a rocket engine. Different parameters of the components of an engine is the input to these programs. Depending on these given parameters the programs output the behaviors of those components. These behavioral values are then used to guide the design of or to diagnose a model of a rocket engine "built" by a composition of these programs simulating different components of the engine system. In order to use this software package effectively one needs to have a flexible model of a rocket engine. These programs simulating different components then should be plugged into this modular representation. Our project is to develop an object based model of such an engine system. We are following an iterative and incremental approach in developing the model, as is the standard practice in the area of object oriented design and analysis of softwares. This process involves three stages: object modeling to represent the components and sub-components of a rocket engine, dynamic modeling to capture the temporal and behavioral aspects of the system, and functional modeling to represent the transformational aspects. This article reports on the first phase of our activity under a grant (RENS) from the NASA Lewis Research center. We have utilized Rambaugh's object modeling technique and the tool UML for this purpose. The classes of a rocket engine propulsion system are developed and some of them are presented in this report. The next step, developing a dynamic model for RENS, is also touched upon here. In this paper we will also discuss the advantages of using object-based modeling for developing this type of an integrated simulator over other tools like an expert systems shell or a procedural language, e.g., FORTRAN. Attempts have been made in the past to use such techniques.
A numerical model of acoustic choking. II - Shocked solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Walkington, N. J.; Eversman, W.
1986-01-01
The one dimensional equations of gas dynamics are used to model subsonic acoustic choking. This model can accommodate non-linear distortion of waves and the eventual formation of shock waves. Several finite differencing schemes are adapted to obtain solutions. The results obtained with the various schemes are compared with the asymptotic results available. The results suggest that no one finite differencing scheme gives solutions significantly better than the others and that most of the difference solutions are close to the asymptotic results. If the acoustic shock wave is sufficiently strong it almost annihilates the acoustic wave; in this situation numerical errors may dominate the results. Such solutions involve very large acoustic attenuations.
Numerical Modelling of the Nonlinear ELM Cycle in Tokamaks
Wingen, A; Evans, T E; Lasnier, C J; Spatschek, K H
2009-06-02
A numerical model of the nonlinear evolution of edge localized modes (ELMs) in tokmaks is presented. In the model discussed here it is assumed that thermoelectric currents flow in short connection length flux tubes, initially established by error fields or other non-axisymmetric magnetic perturbations. Magnetic perturbations resulting from the currents are incorporated into the magnetic topology. The predictions are compared to measurements at the DIII-D tokamak. Excellent agreement between the calculated magnetic structures on the vessel wall and camera observations during an ELM cycle is shown. The ELM collapse process is discussed.
A Spatio-Temporal Downscaler for Output From Numerical Models
Berrocal, Veronica J.; Gelfand, Alan E.; Holland, David M.
2010-01-01
Often, in environmental data collection, data arise from two sources: numerical models and monitoring networks. The first source provides predictions at the level of grid cells, while the second source gives measurements at points. The first is characterized by full spatial coverage of the region of interest, high temporal resolution, no missing data but consequential calibration concerns. The second tends to be sparsely collected in space with coarser temporal resolution, often with missing data but, where recorded, provides, essentially, the true value. Accommodating the spatial misalignment between the two types of data is of fundamental importance for both improved predictions of exposure as well as for evaluation and calibration of the numerical model. In this article we propose a simple, fully model-based strategy to downscale the output from numerical models to point level. The static spatial model, specified within a Bayesian framework, regresses the observed data on the numerical model output using spatially-varying coefficients which are specified through a correlated spatial Gaussian process. As an example, we apply our method to ozone concentration data for the eastern U.S. and compare it to Bayesian melding (Fuentes and Raftery 2005) and ordinary kriging (Cressie 1993; Chilès and Delfiner 1999). Our results show that our method outperforms Bayesian melding in terms of computing speed and it is superior to both Bayesian melding and ordinary kriging in terms of predictive performance; predictions obtained with our method are better calibrated and predictive intervals have empirical coverage closer to the nominal values. Moreover, our model can be easily extended to accommodate for the temporal dimension. In this regard, we consider several spatio-temporal versions of the static model. We compare them using out-of-sample predictions of ozone concentration for the eastern U.S. for the period May 1–October 15, 2001. For the best choice, we present a
Thermoinertial bouncing of a relativistic collapsing sphere: A numerical model
Herrera, L.; Di Prisco, A.; Barreto, W.
2006-01-15
We present a numerical model of a collapsing radiating sphere, whose boundary surface undergoes bouncing due to a decreasing of its inertial mass density (and, as expected from the equivalence principle, also of the 'gravitational' force term) produced by the 'inertial' term of the transport equation. This model exhibits for the first time the consequences of such an effect, and shows that under physically reasonable conditions this decreasing of the gravitational term in the dynamic equation may be large enough as to revert the collapse and produce a bouncing of the boundary surface of the sphere.
Development of Numerical Grids for UZ Flow and Transport Modeling
P. Dobson
2003-04-03
This Scientific Analysis report describes the methods used to develop numerical grids of the unsaturated hydrogeologic system beneath Yucca Mountain. Numerical grid generation is an integral part of the development of the Unsaturated Zone Flow and Transport Model (UZ Model), a complex, three-dimensional (3-D) model of Yucca Mountain. This revision incorporates changes made to both the geologic framework model and the proposed repository layout. The resulting numerical grids, developed using current geologic, hydrogeologic, and mineralogic data, provide the necessary framework to: (1) develop calibrated hydrogeologic property sets and flow fields, (2) test conceptual hypotheses of flow and transport, and (3) predict flow and transport behavior under a variety of climatic and thermal-loading conditions. The technical scope, content, and management of this Scientific Analysis report was initially controlled by the planning document, ''Technical Work Plan (TWP) for: Unsaturated Zone Sections of License Application Chapters 8 and 12'' (BSC 2002 [159051], Section 1.6.4). This TWP was later superseded by ''Technical Work Plan for: Performance Assessment Unsaturated Zone'' (BSC 2002 [160819]), which contains the Data Qualification Plan used to qualify the DTN: MO0212GWLSSPAX.000 [161271] (See Attachment IV). Grids generated and documented in this report supersede those documented in previous versions of this report (BSC 2001 [159356]). The constraints, assumptions, and limitations associated with this report are discussed in the appropriate sections that follow. There were no deviations from the TWP scope of work in this report. Two software packages not listed in Table IV-2 of the TWP (BSC 2002 [159051]), ARCINFO V7.2.1 (CRWMS M&O 2000 [157019]; USGS 2000 [148304]) and 2kgrid8.for V1.0 (LBNL 2002 [154787]), were utilized in the development of the numerical grids; the use of additional software is accounted for in the TWP (BSC 2002 [159051], Section 13). The use of these
Standards and Guidelines for Numerical Models for Tsunami Hazard Mitigation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Titov, V.; Gonzalez, F.; Kanoglu, U.; Yalciner, A.; Synolakis, C. E.
2006-12-01
An increased number of nations around the workd need to develop tsunami mitigation plans which invariably involve inundation maps for warning guidance and evacuation planning. There is the risk that inundation maps may be produced with older or untested methodology, as there are currently no standards for modeling tools. In the aftermath of the 2004 megatsunami, some models were used to model inundation for Cascadia events with results much larger than sediment records and existing state-of-the-art studies suggest leading to confusion among emergency management. Incorrectly assessing tsunami impact is hazardous, as recent events in 2006 in Tonga, Kythira, Greece and Central Java have suggested (Synolakis and Bernard, 2006). To calculate tsunami currents, forces and runup on coastal structures, and inundation of coastlines one must calculate the evolution of the tsunami wave from the deep ocean to its target site, numerically. No matter what the numerical model, validation (the process of ensuring that the model solves the parent equations of motion accurately) and verification (the process of ensuring that the model used represents geophysical reality appropriately) both are an essential. Validation ensures that the model performs well in a wide range of circumstances and is accomplished through comparison with analytical solutions. Verification ensures that the computational code performs well over a range of geophysical problems. A few analytic solutions have been validated themselves with laboratory data. Even fewer existing numerical models have been both validated with the analytical solutions and verified with both laboratory measurements and field measurements, thus establishing a gold standard for numerical codes for inundation mapping. While there is in principle no absolute certainty that a numerical code that has performed well in all the benchmark tests will also produce correct inundation predictions with any given source motions, validated codes
Antarctic glacial history from numerical models and continental margin sediments
Barker, P.F.; Barrett, P.J.; Cooper, A. K.; Huybrechts, P.
1999-01-01
The climate record of glacially transported sediments in prograded wedges around the Antarctic outer continental shelf, and their derivatives in continental rise drifts, may be combined to produce an Antarctic ice sheet history, using numerical models of ice sheet response to temperature and sea-level change. Examination of published models suggests several preliminary conclusions about ice sheet history. The ice sheet's present high sensitivity to sea-level change at short (orbital) periods was developed gradually as its size increased, replacing a declining sensitivity to temperature. Models suggest that the ice sheet grew abruptly to 40% (or possibly more) of its present size at the Eocene-Oligocene boundary, mainly as a result of its own temperature sensitivity. A large but more gradual middle Miocene change was externally driven, probably by development of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) and Polar Front, provided that a few million years' delay can be explained. The Oligocene ice sheet varied considerably in size and areal extent, but the late Miocene ice sheet was more stable, though significantly warmer than today's. This difference probably relates to the confining effect of the Antarctic continental margin. Present-day numerical models of ice sheet development are sufficient to guide current sampling plans, but sea-ice formation, polar wander, basal topography and ice streaming can be identified as factors meriting additional modelling effort in the future.
Influence of clearance model on numerical simulation of centrifugal pump
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Z.; Gao, B.; Yang, L.; Du, W. Q.
2016-05-01
Computing models are always simplified to save the computing resources and time. Particularly, the clearance that between impeller and pump casing is always ignored. But the completer model is, the more precise result of numerical simulation is in theory. This paper study the influence of clearance model on numerical simulation of centrifugal pump. We present such influence via comparing performance, flow characteristic and pressure pulsation of two cases that the one of two cases is the model pump with clearance and the other is not. And the results show that the head decreases and power increases so that efficiency decreases after computing with front and back cavities. Then no-leakage model would improve absolute velocity magnitude in order to reach the rated flow rate. Finally, more disturbance induced by front cavity flow and wear-ring flow would change the pressure pulsation of impeller and volute. The performance of clearance flow is important for the whole pump in performance, flow characteristic, pressure pulsation and other respects.
Numerical Modeling of Propellant Boiloff in Cryogenic Storage Tank
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Majumdar, A. K.; Steadman, T. E.; Maroney, J. L.
2007-01-01
This Technical Memorandum (TM) describes the thermal modeling effort undertaken at Marshall Space Flight Center to support the Cryogenic Test Laboratory at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) for a study of insulation materials for cryogenic tanks in order to reduce propellant boiloff during long-term storage. The Generalized Fluid System Simulation program has been used to model boiloff in 1,000-L demonstration tanks built for testing the thermal performance of glass bubbles and perlite insulation. Numerical predictions of boiloff rate and ullage temperature have been compared with the measured data from the testing of demonstration tanks. A satisfactory comparison between measured and predicted data has been observed for both liquid nitrogen and hydrogen tests. Based on the experience gained with the modeling of the demonstration tanks, a numerical model of the liquid hydrogen storage tank at launch complex 39 at KSC was built. The predicted boiloff rate of hydrogen has been found to be in good agreement with observed field data. This TM describes three different models that have been developed during this period of study (March 2005 to June 2006), comparisons with test data, and results of parametric studies.
Numerical modelling of the 28 October 2011 Haida Gwaii tsunami
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fine, I.; Cherniawsky, J. Y.; Thomson, R.
2013-12-01
On October 28, 2012, a strong (Mw=7.7) earthquake occurred offshore of Moresby Island, Haida Gwaii (formerly the Queen Charlotte Islands). The earthquake generated a trans-Pacific tsunami observed from New Zealand to Alaska. We used an updated finite-fault model of the earthquake of Hayes (2013) to estimate the tsunami source. The location of this source was subsequently adjusted using tsunami waveforms recorded by bottom pressure recorders at NOAA DART stations and on the NEPTUNE Canada cabled observatory. The adjusted source was then used in a high-resolution model of tsunami wave propagation towards the bays and inlets of Moresby Island. According to the model, tsunami run-up in some bays would have been higher than 7 m. Subsequent post-surveys at several Moresby Island sites were undertaken in mid-November of 2012 and in June 2013, directed in part by the numerical model results. These surveys showed clear evidence of recent tsunami run-up of more than 8 m above the tide at specific coastal embayments, in good agreement with the numerical model results.
EOS Development and Numerical Modeling of CL-20 Compaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brundage, A. L.
2009-12-01
The response of low-density pressings (64-70% theoretical maximum density) of CL-20 (Hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane) to shock impact has been investigated with numerical simulation using BN (Baer-Nunziato) multiphase modeling. Validation data for the modeling was acquired from wave profiles measured with VISAR from low-velocity impact gas-gun experiments. Previously unreported equation of state (EOS) data for CL-20 was determined to support the numerical modeling. An intergranular stress relationship, which was needed for the multiphase modeling, was determined from the dynamic loading data. Additionally, a Mie-Grüneisen equation of state for crystalline CL-20 was constructed from previously reported diamond anvil cell (DAC) isothermal compression experiments. The predictions of the observed elastic wave precursors and compaction wave profiles were in good agreement with the data over the range of impact velocities reported herein. A multiphase model is needed to describe the deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) in porous CL-20 samples initiated by dynamic compaction.
Numerical modelling of compensation grouting above shallow tunnels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wisser, C.; Augarde, C. E.; Burd, H. J.
2005-04-01
This paper describes the development of a numerical model for compensation grouting which is a useful technique for the protection of surface structures from the potentially damaging movements arising from tunnel construction. Pipes are inserted into the ground between the tunnel and the overlaying structure from an access shaft. Buildings on the surface are instrumented and movements are carefully monitored. Once the deformations exceed a certain Trigger Level, grout is injected into the ground to prevent damage. In the finite element model described here, compensation grouting is modelled by applying an internal pressure to zero-thickness interface elements embedded in the mesh. An observational algorithm is used, where the deformations of the surface are monitored and used to control the injection process. Example analyses of compensation grouting are given for three-dimensional tunnel construction underneath a greenfield site. Different strategies are used to control the injection process and their effectiveness in preventing surface movement is assessed. The numerical model is shown to replicate general behaviour expected in the field and is capable of modelling the control of ground surface movements at a greenfield site.
Constitutive Modeling and Numerical Simulation of Frp Confined Concrete Specimens
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smitha, Gopinath; Ramachandramurthy, Avadhanam; Nagesh, Ranganatha Iyer; Shahulhameed, Eduvammal Kunhimoideen
2014-09-01
Fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites are generally used for the seismic retrofit of concrete members to enhance their strength and ductility. In the present work, the confining effect of Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) composite layers has been investigated by numerical simulation. The numerical simulation has been carried out using nonlinear finite element analysis (FEA) to predict the response behaviour of CFRP-wrapped concrete cylinders. The nonlinear behaviour of concrete in compression and the linear elastic behaviour of CFRP has been modeled using an appropriate constitutive relationship. A cohesive model has been developed for modeling the interface between the concrete and CFRP. The interaction and damage failure criteria between the concrete to the cohesive element and the cohesive element to the CFRP has also been accounted for in the modeling. The response behaviour of the wrapped concrete specimen has been compared with the proposed interface model and with a perfectly bonded condition. The results obtained from the present study showed good agreement with the experimental load-displacement response and the failure pattern in the literature. Further, a sensitivity analysis has been carried out to study the effect of the number of layers of CFRP on the concrete specimens. It has been observed that wrapping with two layers was found to be the optimum, beyond which the response becomes flexible but with a higher load-carrying capacity
Numerical Model for Conduction-Cooled Current Lead Heat Loads
White, M.J.; Wang, X.L.; Brueck, H.D.; /DESY
2011-06-10
Current leads are utilized to deliver electrical power from a room temperature junction mounted on the vacuum vessel to a superconducting magnet located within the vacuum space of a cryostat. There are many types of current leads used at laboratories throughout the world; however, conduction-cooled current leads are often chosen for their simplicity and reliability. Conduction-cooled leads have the advantage of using common materials, have no superconducting/normal state transition, and have no boil-off vapor to collect. This paper presents a numerical model for conduction-cooled current lead heat loads. This model takes into account varying material and fluid thermal properties, varying thicknesses along the length of the lead, heat transfer in the circumferential and longitudinal directions, electrical power dissipation, and the effect of thermal intercepts. The model is validated by comparing the numerical model results to ideal cases where analytical equations are valid. In addition, the XFEL (X-Ray Free Electron Laser) prototype current leads are modeled and compared to the experimental results from testing at DESY's XFEL Magnet Test Stand (XMTS) and Cryomodule Test Bench (CMTB).
Physical and Numerical Modeling of Buoyant Groundwater Plumes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brakefield, L. K.; Abarca, E.; Langevin, C. D.; Clement, T. P.
2007-12-01
In coastal states, the injection of treated wastewater into deep saline aquifers offers a disposal alternative to ocean outfalls and discharge directly into local waterways. The density of treated wastewater is similar to that of freshwater but is often much lower than the ambient density of deep aquifers. This significant density contrast can cause upward buoyant movement of the wastewater plume during and after injection. Since some wastewater treatment plants inject more than 100 MGD of this treated wastewater, it is of the utmost importance to be able to not only determine the fate and transport rates of the plume, but to be able to best determine locations for monitoring wells for early detection of possible problems. In this study, both physical and numerical modeling were undertaken to investigate and understand buoyant plume behavior and transport. Physical models using a 2D cross-sectional Plexiglas tank filled with glass beads were carried out under different ambient density scenarios. The experiments consisted of injection of a freshwater pulse-source bubble into a fully saline tank. The injection occurred in an initially static system with no ambient flow. In the scenarios, the freshwater plume migrated vertically upward until reaching the top of the tank. Fingers developed because of the heterogeneity of the density dependent flow field. The vertical velocities and transport patterns of these plumes were compared to one another to investigate variances due to different ambient water densities. Using the finite-difference numerical code SEAWAT to simulate variable density flow, the experiments were numerically modeled and compared with the physical model results. Due to the sensitivity of this problem to numerical resolution, results from three different grids were compared to determine a reasonable compromise between computer runtimes and numerical accuracy. Furthermore, a comparison of advection solvers was undertaken to identify the best solver to
Numerical simulations and modeling for stochastic biological systems with jumps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zou, Xiaoling; Wang, Ke
2014-05-01
This paper gives a numerical method to simulate sample paths for stochastic differential equations (SDEs) driven by Poisson random measures. It provides us a new approach to simulate systems with jumps from a different angle. The driving Poisson random measures are assumed to be generated by stationary Poisson point processes instead of Lévy processes. Methods provided in this paper can be used to simulate SDEs with Lévy noise approximately. The simulation is divided into two parts: the part of jumping integration is based on definition without approximation while the continuous part is based on some classical approaches. Biological explanations for stochastic integrations with jumps are motivated by several numerical simulations. How to model biological systems with jumps is showed in this paper. Moreover, method of choosing integrands and stationary Poisson point processes in jumping integrations for biological models are obtained. In addition, results are illustrated through some examples and numerical simulations. For some examples, earthquake is chose as a jumping source which causes jumps on the size of biological population.
Comparison of numerical models of a pyrotechnic device
Pierce, K.G.
1986-01-01
The predictions of two numerical models of a hot-wire initiated pyrotechnic device are compared to each other and to experimental results. Both models employ finite difference approximations to the heat diffusion equation in cylindrical coordinates. The temperature dependence of the thermal properties of the pyrotechnic materials and of the bridgewire are modeled. An Arrhenius' model is used to describe the exothermic reaction in the powder. One model employs a single radial coordinate and predicts the radial temperature distribution in the bridgewire and surrounding powder mass. In addition to the radial coordinate, the other model also employs a longitudinal coordinate to predict the temperature distribution parallel to the axis of the bridgewire. The predictions of the two-dimensional model concerning the energy requirements for ignition and the energy losses from the ends of the bridgewire are presented. A comparison of the predictions of the two models and the development of thermal gradients are employed to define the regime where the assumption, in the one-dimensional model, of negligible heat transfer axial to the bridgewire does not lead to significant error. The general problems associated with predicting ignition from a diffusion model are also discussed.
A numerical model for ETC gun interior ballistics applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hsiao, C.-C.; Phillips, G. T.; Su, F. Y.
1993-01-01
A multidimensional, transient, fluid dynamic model, BISON, has been developed to study the interior ballistic processes in an electrothermal chemical (ETC) gun. The model solves the full Navier-Stokes equations and uses a high-order numerical scheme to integrate the governing equations. Most of the important physical processes pertinent to ETC gun interior ballistics, including multiphase flow, chemical reactions, and plasma dynamics, are incorporated. Examples of applications to the study of ETC gun phenomena, such as plasma jet penetration and real gun design component analyses, are discussed. The modeling results not only compare well with experimental data, but also provide a better understanding of interior ballistics physics. The multidimensional BISON model is useful for ETC simulations.
Numerical modeling of shape memory alloy linear actuator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jani, Jaronie Mohd; Huang, Sunan; Leary, Martin; Subic, Aleksandar
2015-09-01
The demand for shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators in high-technology applications is increasing; however, there exist technical challenges to the commercial application of SMA actuator technologies, especially associated with actuation duration. Excessive activation duration results in actuator damage due to overheating while excessive deactivation duration is not practical for high-frequency applications. Analytical and finite difference equation models were developed in this work to predict the activation and deactivation durations and associated SMA thermomechanical behavior under variable environmental and design conditions. Relevant factors, including latent heat effect, induced stress and material property variability are accommodated. An existing constitutive model was integrated into the proposed models to generate custom SMA stress-strain curves. Strong agreement was achieved between the proposed numerical models and experimental results; confirming their applicability for predicting the behavior of SMA actuators with variable thermomechanical conditions.
Numerical and experimental verification of physical blast thermodynamic model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chorowski, Maciej; Iluk, Artur; Grabowski, Maciej; Jędrusyna, Artur
2015-12-01
Helium inventory in big cryogenic systems may be of the order of hundred tons. During the warm up of the machine the helium has to be stored in warm pressurized tanks. A potential rupture of the tank may create a danger to adjacent objects. In order to formulate recommendations concerning storage of compressed gases in close vicinity of nuclear installations, a thermodynamic model of physical blast has been formulated. The model has been experimentally verified in a laboratory scale test rig. To simulate rupture of compressed gas storage tanks, plastic tanks have been used. Scaling of the results to real cases like ITER compressed gas inventory requires good understanding of potential rupture of high volume gas storage tanks. Numerical model of tanks rupture have been elaborated and verified against experimental results. The model allows scaling of thermodynamic simplified description to real gas storage installations.
Two-dimensional numerical modeling of the Rheasilvia impact formation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ivanov, B. A.; Melosh, H. J.
2013-07-01
We numerically modeled the formation of Rheasilvia crater, an enormous impact basin centered on asteroid 4 Vesta's south pole. Using a trial and error method, our models were adjusted to produce the best possible fit to Rheasilvia's size and shape, as observed during the Vesta orbital stage of the Dawn mission. The final model yields estimates of the shock wave decay, escaped material volume, depth of excavation, and other relevant characteristics, to the extent allowed by the two-dimensional (axially symmetric) approximation of the Simplified Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian hydrocode. Our model results permit interpretation of the Dawn data on Vesta's shape, topographic crater profiles, and the origin of the Vestoid asteroid family as escaped ejecta from the Rheasilvia crater.
Numerical modeling of spray combustion with an advanced VOF method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, Yen-Sen; Shang, Huan-Min; Shih, Ming-Hsin; Liaw, Paul
1995-01-01
This paper summarizes the technical development and validation of a multiphase computational fluid dynamics (CFD) numerical method using the volume-of-fluid (VOF) model and a Lagrangian tracking model which can be employed to analyze general multiphase flow problems with free surface mechanism. The gas-liquid interface mass, momentum and energy conservation relationships are modeled by continuum surface mechanisms. A new solution method is developed such that the present VOF model can be applied for all-speed flow regimes. The objectives of the present study are to develop and verify the fractional volume-of-fluid cell partitioning approach into a predictor-corrector algorithm and to demonstrate the effectiveness of the present approach by simulating benchmark problems including laminar impinging jets, shear coaxial jet atomization and shear coaxial spray combustion flows.
Numerical Techniques for Coupled Ring Current - Radiation Belt Modelling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aseev, N.; Shprits, Y.
2015-12-01
The dynamics of electrons in the Earth's radiation belts can be described by the Fokker-Planck equation which includes radial diffusion and local energy and pitch angle diffusion. Versatile Electron Radiation Belt (VERB-3D) code was developed to solve the Fokker-Planck equation. It incorporates a range of numerical techniques which are appropriate for this purpose. The code has been recently extended to include convection and now solves the convection-diffusion problem in 4D. The report is devoted to several numerical algorithms for modeling of the Earth's radiation belts. We concentrate on high-order schemes ( 7th and 9th order) for solution of an advection-diffusion problem in 1D, 2D,3D and 4D. Results of tests performed to study accuracy and speed of these schemes are presented in the report.
The numerical renormalization group and multi-orbital impurity models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weichselbaum, Andreas; Stadler, K. M.; von Delft, J.; Yin, Z. P.; Kotliar, G.; Mitchell, Andrew
The numerical renormalization group (NRG) is a highly versatile and accurate method for the simulation of (effective) fermionic impurity models. Despite that the cost of NRG is exponential in the number of orbitals, by now, symmetric three-band calculations have become available on a routine level. Here we present a recent detailed study on the spin-orbital separation in a three-band Hund metal with relevance for iron-pnictides via the dynamical mean field theory (DMFT). In cases, finally, where the orbital symmetry is broken, we demonstrate that interleaved NRG still offers an accurate alternative approach within the NRG with dramatically improved numerical efficiency at comparable accuracy relative to conventional NRG.
Numerical modeling of electron noise in nanoscale Si devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jungemann, Christoph
2007-06-01
A deterministic solver for the Langevin Boltzmann equation is presented, which is based on a spherical harmonics expansion, box integration, and a maximum entropy dissipation principle. The numerical properties of this method are very similar to the classical approaches (drift-diffusion or hydrodynamic models), and the same numerical methods can be used (ac analysis, adjoint method, harmonic balance, etc). Since the equations can be solved directly in the frequency domain, the full frequency range down to zero frequency is accessible. In addition, rare events can be simulated without excessive CPU times. This is demonstrated for a silicon NPN BJT. Not only the terminal current noise is calculated, but also the spatial origin of noise and the corresponding Green's functions.
On Numerical Considerations for Modeling Reactive Astrophysical Shocks
Papatheodore, Thomas L; Messer, Bronson
2014-01-01
Simulating detonations in astrophysical environments is often complicated by numerical approximations to shock structure. A common prescription to ensure correct detonation speeds (and associated quantities) is to prohibit burning inside the numerically broadened shock (Fryxell et al. 1989). We have performed a series of simulations to verify the efficacy of this approximation and to understand how resolution and dimensionality might affect its use. Our results show that, in one dimension, prohibiting burning in the shock is important wherever the carbon burning length is not resolved, in keeping with the results of Fryxell et al. (1989). In two dimensions, we find that the prohibition of shock burning effectively inhibits the development of cellular structure for all but the most highly-resolved cases. We discuss the possible impacts this outcome may have on sub-grid models and detonation propagation in Type Ia supernovae.
Numerical simulation and modeling of combustion in scramjets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clark, Ryan James
In the last fifteen years the development of a viable scramjet has quickly approached the following long term goals: responsive sub-orbital space access; long-range, prompt global strike; and high-speed transportation. Nonetheless, there are significant challenges that need to be resolved. These challenges include high skin friction drag and high heat transfer rates, inherent to vehicles in sustained, hypersonic flight. Another challenge is sustaining combustion. Numerical simulation and modeling was performed to provide insight into reducing skin friction drag and sustaining combustion. Numerical simulation was used to investigate boundary layer combustion, which has been shown to reduce skin friction drag. The objective of the numerical simulations was to quantify the effect of fuel injection parameters on boundary layer combustion and ultimately on the change in the skin friction coefficient and heat transfer rate. A qualitative analysis of the results suggest that the reduction in the skin friction coefficient depends on multiple parameters and potentially an interaction between parameters. Sustained combustion can be achieved through a stabilized detonation wave. Additionally, stabilizing a detonation wave will yield rapid combustion. This will allow for a shorter and lighter-weight engine system, resulting in less required combustor cooling. A stabilized detonation wave was numerically modeled for various inlet and geometric cases. The effect of fuel concentration, inlet Mach number, and geometric configuration on the stability of a detonation wave was quantified. Correlations were established between fuel concentration, inlet speed, geometric configuration and parameters characterizing the detonation wave. A linear relationship was quantified between the fuel concentration and the parameters characterizing the detonation wave.
Hedging rule for reservoir operations: 2. A numerical model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
You, Jiing-Yun; Cai, Ximing
2008-01-01
Optimization models for reservoir operation analysis usually use a heuristic algorithm to search for the hedging rule. This paper presents a method that derives a hedging rule from theoretical analysis (J.-Y. You and X. Cai, 2008) with an explicit two-period Markov hydrology model, a particular form of nonlinear utility function, and a given inflow probability distribution. The unique procedure is to embed hedging rule derivation based on the marginal utility principle into reservoir operation simulation. The simulation method embedded with the optimization principle for hedging rule derivation will avoid both the inaccuracy problem caused by trail and error with traditional simulation models and the computational difficulty ("curse of dimensionality") with optimization models. Results show utility improvement with the hedging policy compared to the standard operation policy (SOP), considering factors such as reservoir capacity, inflow level and uncertainty, price elasticity and discount rate. Following the theoretical analysis presented in the companion paper, the condition for hedging application, the starting water availability and ending water availability for hedging, is reexamined with the numerical example; the probabilistic performance of hedging and SOP regarding water supply reliability is compared; and some findings from the theoretical analysis are verified numerically.