Science.gov

Sample records for 2nd generation bioethanol-impacts

  1. 2nd Generation ELT Performance Specification Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stimson, Chad M.

    2015-01-01

    NASA Search And Rescue is supporting RTCA SC-229 with research and recommendations for performance specifications for the 2nd generation of emergency locator transmitters. Areas for improvement and methods for collecting data will be presented.

  2. 2nd & 3rd Generation Vehicle Subsystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This paper contains viewgraph presentation on the "2nd & 3rd Generation Vehicle Subsystems" project. The objective behind this project is to design, develop and test advanced avionics, power systems, power control and distribution components and subsystems for insertion into a highly reliable and low-cost system for a Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLV). The project is divided into two sections: 3rd Generation Vehicle Subsystems and 2nd Generation Vehicle Subsystems. The following topics are discussed under the first section, 3rd Generation Vehicle Subsystems: supporting the NASA RLV program; high-performance guidance & control adaptation for future RLVs; Evolvable Hardware (EHW) for 3rd generation avionics description; Scaleable, Fault-tolerant Intelligent Network or X(trans)ducers (SFINIX); advance electric actuation devices and subsystem technology; hybrid power sources and regeneration technology for electric actuators; and intelligent internal thermal control. Topics discussed in the 2nd Generation Vehicle Subsystems program include: design, development and test of a robust, low-maintenance avionics with no active cooling requirements and autonomous rendezvous and docking systems; design and development of a low maintenance, high reliability, intelligent power systems (fuel cells and battery); and design of a low cost, low maintenance high horsepower actuation systems (actuators).

  3. 2nd Generation RLV Risk Definition Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Robert M.; Stucker, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The 2nd Generation RLV Risk Reduction Mid-Term Report summarizes the status of Kelly Space & Technology's activities during the first two and one half months of the program. This report was presented to the cognoscente Contracting Officer's Technical Representative (COTR) and selected Marshall Space Flight Center staff members on 26 September 2000. The report has been approved and is distributed on CD-ROM (as a PowerPoint file) in accordance with the terms of the subject contract, and contains information and data addressing the following: (1) Launch services demand and requirements; (2) Architecture, alternatives, and requirements; (3) Costs, pricing, and business cases analysis; (4) Commercial financing requirements, plans, and strategy; (5) System engineering processes and derived requirements; and (6) RLV system trade studies and design analysis.

  4. 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle NASA Led Propulsion Tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, Steve

    2000-01-01

    Design, development and test of a 2nd generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) is presented. This current paper discusses the following: 2nd Generation RLV Propulsion Project, Overview of NASA Led Tasks in Propulsion, Gen2 Turbo Machinery Technology Demonstrator, and Combustion Devices Test Bed, GRCop-84 Sheet For Combustion Chambers, Nozzles and Large Actively Cooled Structures

  5. 2nd Generation RLV: Program Goals and Acquisition Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, J. Bart; Dumbacher, D. L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The risk to loss of life for Space Shuttle crewmembers is approximately one in 245 missions. U.S. launch service providers captured nearly 100%, of the commercial launch market revenues in the mid 1980s. Today, the U.S. captures less than 50% of that market. A launch system architecture is needed that will dramatically increase the safety of space flight while significantly reducing the cost. NASA's Space Launch Initiative, which is implemented by the 2nd Generation RLV Program Office at Marshall Space Flight Center, seeks to develop technology and reusable launch vehicle concepts which satisfy the commercial launch market needs and the unique needs of NASA. Presented in this paper are the five primary elements of NASA's Integrated Space Transportation Plan along with the highest level goals and the acquisition strategy of the 2nd Generation RLV Program. Approval of the Space Launch Initiative FY01 budget of $290M is seen as a major commitment by the Agency and the Nation to realize the commercial potential that space offers and to move forward in the exploration of space.

  6. Philips' 2nd generation Novallure LED candle lamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yun; Pei, Zhigang; Yuan, Chuan; Jiang, Tan; Lu, Zhengsong; Wang, Yuqian; Duan, Xiaoqing; Xiong, Yan; Zhong, Hong; Liu, Ye

    2010-08-01

    Finding an energy efficient replacement of incandescent candle lamp has been a technical challenge. Compact fluorescent lamps, for example, can be miniaturized to fit the form factor of a candle lamp but they fail to reproduce its "sparkle" effect. Empowered by solid state lighting technology along with original optical design, Philips has successfully developed LED-powered candle lamps "Novallure" with great energy savings (2W power consumption with lumen output of 55 lumen) and the "butterfly" radiation pattern that mimics the sparkle effect from an incandescent candle lamp. With new high performance LED packages, novel under-cut prismatic optics and state-of-the-art electronic driver solution and thermal solution, we have developed a 2nd generation Novallure with breakthrough performance: a dimmable 2700K 136 lumen LED candle lamp with CRI 90.

  7. Super Boiler 2nd Generation Technology for Watertube Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Mr. David Cygan; Dr. Joseph Rabovitser

    2012-03-31

    This report describes Phase I of a proposed two phase project to develop and demonstrate an advanced industrial watertube boiler system with the capability of reaching 94% (HHV) fuel-to-steam efficiency and emissions below 2 ppmv NOx, 2 ppmv CO, and 1 ppmv VOC on natural gas fuel. The boiler design would have the capability to produce >1500 F, >1500 psig superheated steam, burn multiple fuels, and will be 50% smaller/lighter than currently available watertube boilers of similar capacity. This project is built upon the successful Super Boiler project at GTI. In that project that employed a unique two-staged intercooled combustion system and an innovative heat recovery system to reduce NOx to below 5 ppmv and demonstrated fuel-to-steam efficiency of 94% (HHV). This project was carried out under the leadership of GTI with project partners Cleaver-Brooks, Inc., Nebraska Boiler, a Division of Cleaver-Brooks, and Media and Process Technology Inc., and project advisors Georgia Institute of Technology, Alstom Power Inc., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Phase I of efforts focused on developing 2nd generation boiler concepts and performance modeling; incorporating multi-fuel (natural gas and oil) capabilities; assessing heat recovery, heat transfer and steam superheating approaches; and developing the overall conceptual engineering boiler design. Based on our analysis, the 2nd generation Industrial Watertube Boiler when developed and commercialized, could potentially save 265 trillion Btu and $1.6 billion in fuel costs across U.S. industry through increased efficiency. Its ultra-clean combustion could eliminate 57,000 tons of NOx, 460,000 tons of CO, and 8.8 million tons of CO2 annually from the atmosphere. Reduction in boiler size will bring cost-effective package boilers into a size range previously dominated by more expensive field-erected boilers, benefiting manufacturers and end users through lower capital costs.

  8. Aging Studies of 2nd Generation BaBar RPCs

    SciTech Connect

    Band, H.R.; /SLAC

    2007-09-25

    The BaBar detector, operating at the PEPII B factory of the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), installed over 200 2nd generation Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) in 2002. The streamer rates produced by backgrounds and signals from normal BaBar running vary considerably (0.1- >20 Hz/cm2) depending on the layer and position of the chambers, thus providing a broad spectrum test of RPC performance and aging. The lowest rate chambers have performed very well with stable efficiencies averaging 95%. Other chambers had rate-dependant inefficiencies due to Bakelite drying which were reversed by the introduction of humidified gases. RPC inefficiencies in the highest rate regions of the higher rate chambers have been observed and also found to be rate dependant. The inefficient regions grow with time and have not yet been reduced by operation with humidified input gas. Three of these chambers were converted to avalanche mode operation and display significantly improved efficiencies. The rate of production of HF in the RPC exhaust gases was measured in avalanche and streamer mode RPCs and found to be comparable despite the lower current of the avalanche mode RPCs.

  9. The 2nd Generation Real Time Mission Monitor (RTMM) Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blakeslee, Richard; Goodman, Michael; Meyer, Paul; Hardin, Danny; Hall, John; He, Yubin; Regner, Kathryn; Conover, Helen; Smith, Tammy; Lu, Jessica; Garrett, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Real Time Mission Monitor (RTMM) is a visualization and information system that fuses multiple Earth science data sources, to enable real time decisionmaking for airborne and ground validation experiments. Developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center, RTMM is a situational awareness, decision-support system that integrates satellite imagery and orbit data, radar and other surface observations (e.g., lightning location network data), airborne navigation and instrument data sets, model output parameters, and other applicable Earth science data sets. The integration and delivery of this information is made possible using data acquisition systems, network communication links, network server resources, and visualizations through the Google Earth virtual globe application. In order to improve the usefulness and efficiency of the RTMM system, capabilities are being developed to allow the end-user to easily configure RTMM applications based on their mission-specific requirements and objectives. This second generation RTMM is being redesigned to take advantage of the Google plug-in capabilities to run multiple applications in a web browser rather than the original single application Google Earth approach. Currently RTMM employs a limited Service Oriented Architecture approach to enable discovery of mission specific resources. We are expanding the RTMM architecture such that it will more effectively utilize the Open Geospatial Consortium Sensor Web Enablement services and other new technology software tools and components. These modifications and extensions will result in a robust, versatile RTMM system that will greatly increase flexibility of the user to choose which science data sets and support applications to view and/or use. The improvements brought about by RTMM 2nd generation system will provide mission planners and airborne scientists with enhanced decision-making tools and capabilities to more

  10. The 2nd Generation Real Time Mission Monitor (RTMM) Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blakeslee, R. J.; Goodman, M.; Hardin, D. M.; Hall, J.; Yubin He, M.; Regner, K.; Conover, H.; Smith, T.; Meyer, P.; Lu, J.; Garrett, M.

    2009-12-01

    The NASA Real Time Mission Monitor (RTMM) is a visualization and information system that fuses multiple Earth science data sources, to enable real time decision-making for airborne and ground validation experiments. Developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center, RTMM is a situational awareness, decision-support system that integrates satellite imagery and orbit data, radar and other surface observations (e.g., lightning location network data), airborne navigation and instrument data sets, model output parameters, and other applicable Earth science data sets. The integration and delivery of this information is made possible using data acquisition systems, network communication links, network server resources, and visualizations through the Google Earth virtual globe application. In order to improve the usefulness and efficiency of the RTMM system, capabilities are being developed to allow the end-user to easily configure RTMM applications based on their mission-specific requirements and objectives. This second generation RTMM is being redesigned to take advantage of the Google plug-in capabilities to run multiple applications in a web browser rather than the original single application Google Earth approach. Currently RTMM employs a limited Service Oriented Architecture approach to enable discovery of mission specific resources. We are expanding the RTMM architecture such that it will more effectively utilize the Open Geospatial Consortium Sensor Web Enablement services and other new technology software tools and components. These modifications and extensions will result in a robust, versatile RTMM system that will greatly increase flexibility of the user to choose which science data sets and support applications to view and/or use. The improvements brought about by RTMM 2nd generation system will provide mission planners and airborne scientists with enhanced decision-making tools and capabilities to more

  11. Coal-fired generation staging a comeback. 2nd ed.

    SciTech Connect

    2007-07-01

    The report is an overview of the renewed U.S. market interest in coal-fired power generation. It provides a concise look at what is driving interest in coal-fired generation, the challenges faced in implementing coal-fired generation projects, and the current and future state of coal-fired generation. Topics covered in the report include: An overview of coal-fired generation including its history, the current market environment, and its future prospects; An analysis of the key business factors that are driving renewed interest in coal-fired generation; An analysis of the challenges that are hindering the implementation of coal-fired generation projects; A description of coal-fired generation technologies; A review of the economic drivers of coal-fired generation project success; An evaluation of coal-fired generation versus other generation technologies; A discussion of the key government initiatives supporting new coal-fired generation; and A listing of planned coal-fired generation projects. 13 figs., 12 tabs., 1 app.

  12. 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle Potential Commercial Development Scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Stephen D.; Rogacki, John R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The presentation will discuss potential commercial development scenarios for a Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle. The analysis of potential scenarios will include commercial rates of return, government return on investment, and market considerations. The presentation will include policy considerations in addition to analysis of Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle economics. The data discussed is being developed as a part of NASA's Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle Program, for consideration as potential scenarios for enabling a next generation system. Material will include potential scenarios not previously considered by NASA or presented at other conferences. Candidate paper has not been presented at a previous meeting, and conference attendance of the author has been approved by NASA.

  13. Coal gasification for power generation. 2nd ed.

    SciTech Connect

    2006-10-15

    The report gives an overview of the opportunities for coal gasification in the power generation industry. It provides a concise look at the challenges faced by coal-fired generation, the ability of coal gasification to address these challenges, and the current state of IGCC power generation. Topics covered in the report include: An overview of coal generation including its history, the current market environment, and the status of coal gasification; A description of gasification technology including processes and systems; An analysis of the key business factors that are driving increased interest in coal gasification; An analysis of the barriers that are hindering the implementation of coal gasification projects; A discussion of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology; An evaluation of IGCC versus other generation technologies; A discussion of IGCC project development options; A discussion of the key government initiatives supporting IGCC development; Profiles of the key gasification technology companies participating in the IGCC market; and A description of existing and planned coal IGCC projects.

  14. Support to 2nd Generation RLV Propulsion Project Office

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Thomas J.

    2002-01-01

    In this final report regarding support to the second generation RLV (Reusable Launch Vehicle) propulsion project office, a list of tasks accomplished is presented. During this period, Lee & Associates, LLC participated in numerous Systems Requirements Reviews (SRR) related to the Cobra development program.

  15. Operations Analysis of the 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noneman, Steven R.; Smith, C. A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Space Launch Initiative (SLI) program is developing a second-generation reusable launch vehicle. The program goals include lowering the risk of loss of crew to 1 in 10,000 and reducing annual operations cost to one third of the cost of the Space Shuttle. The SLI missions include NASA, military and commercial satellite launches and crew and cargo launches to the space station. The SLI operations analyses provide an assessment of the operational support and infrastructure needed to operate candidate system architectures. Measures of the operability are estimated (i.e. system dependability, responsiveness, and efficiency). Operations analysis is used to determine the impact of specific technologies on operations. A conceptual path to reducing annual operations costs by two thirds is based on key design characteristics, such as reusability, and improved processes lowering labor costs. New operations risks can be expected to emerge. They can be mitigated with effective risk management with careful identification, assignment, tracking, and closure. SLI design characteristics such as nearly full reusability, high reliability, advanced automation, and lowered maintenance and servicing coupled with improved processes are contributors to operability and large operating cost reductions.

  16. Automated CFD Database Generation for a 2nd Generation Glide-Back-Booster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaderjian, Neal M.; Rogers, Stuart E.; Aftosmis, Michael J.; Pandya, Shishir A.; Ahmad, Jasim U.; Tejmil, Edward

    2003-01-01

    A new software tool, AeroDB, is used to compute thousands of Euler and Navier-Stokes solutions for a 2nd generation glide-back booster in one week. The solution process exploits a common job-submission grid environment using 13 computers located at 4 different geographical sites. Process automation and web-based access to the database greatly reduces the user workload, removing much of the tedium and tendency for user input errors. The database consists of forces, moments, and solution files obtained by varying the Mach number, angle of attack, and sideslip angle. The forces and moments compare well with experimental data. Stability derivatives are also computed using a monotone cubic spline procedure. Flow visualization and three-dimensional surface plots are used to interpret and characterize the nature of computed flow fields.

  17. NASA 2nd Generation RLV Program Introduction, Status and Future Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumbacher, Dan L.; Smith, Dennis E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Space Launch Initiative (SLI), managed by the Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (2ndGen RLV) Program, was established to examine the possibility of revolutionizing space launch capabilities, define conceptual architectures, and concurrently identify the advanced technologies required to support a next-generation system. Initial Program funds have been allocated to design, evaluate, and formulate realistic plans leading to a 2nd Gen RLV full-scale development (FSD) decision by 2006. Program goals are to reduce both risk and cost for accessing the limitless opportunities afforded outside Earth's atmosphere fo civil, defense, and commercial enterprises. A 2nd Gen RLV architecture includes a reusable Earth-to-orbit launch vehicle, an on-orbit transport and return vehicle, ground and flight operations, mission planning, and both on-orbit and on-the-ground support infrastructures All segments of the architecture must advance in step with development of the RLV if a next-generation system is to be fully operational early next decade. However, experience shows that propulsion is the single largest contributor to unreliability during ascent, requires the largest expenditure of time for maintenance, and takes a long time to develop; therefore, propulsion is the key to meeting safety, reliability, and cost goals. For these reasons, propulsion is SLI's top technology investment area.

  18. Systems Engineering Approach to Technology Integration for NASA's 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Dale; Smith, Charles; Thomas, Leann; Kittredge, Sheryl

    2002-01-01

    The overall goal of the 2nd Generation RLV Program is to substantially reduce technical and business risks associated with developing a new class of reusable launch vehicles. NASA's specific goals are to improve the safety of a 2nd generation system by 2 orders of magnitude - equivalent to a crew risk of 1-in-10,000 missions - and decrease the cost tenfold, to approximately $1,000 per pound of payload launched. Architecture definition is being conducted in parallel with the maturating of key technologies specifically identified to improve safety and reliability, while reducing operational costs. An architecture broadly includes an Earth-to-orbit reusable launch vehicle, on-orbit transfer vehicles and upper stages, mission planning, ground and flight operations, and support infrastructure, both on the ground and in orbit. The systems engineering approach ensures that the technologies developed - such as lightweight structures, long-life rocket engines, reliable crew escape, and robust thermal protection systems - will synergistically integrate into the optimum vehicle. To best direct technology development decisions, analytical models are employed to accurately predict the benefits of each technology toward potential space transportation architectures as well as the risks associated with each technology. Rigorous systems analysis provides the foundation for assessing progress toward safety and cost goals. The systems engineering review process factors in comprehensive budget estimates, detailed project schedules, and business and performance plans, against the goals of safety, reliability, and cost, in addition to overall technical feasibility. This approach forms the basis for investment decisions in the 2nd Generation RLV Program's risk-reduction activities. Through this process, NASA will continually refine its specialized needs and identify where Defense and commercial requirements overlap those of civil missions.

  19. Life Cycle Systems Engineering Approach to NASA's 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Dale; Smith, Charles; Safie, Fayssal; Kittredge, Sheryl

    2002-01-01

    The overall goal of the 2nd Generation RLV Program is to substantially reduce technical and business risks associated with developing a new class of reusable launch vehicles. NASA's specific goals are to improve the safety of a 2nd- generation system by 2 orders of magnitude - equivalent to a crew risk of 1 -in- 10,000 missions - and decrease the cost tenfold, to approximately $1,000 per pound of payload launched. Architecture definition is being conducted in parallel with the maturating of key technologies specifically identified to improve safety and reliability, while reducing operational costs. An architecture broadly includes an Earth-to-orbit reusable launch vehicle, on-orbit transfer vehicles and upper stages, mission planning, ground and flight operations, and support infrastructure, both on the ground and in orbit. The systems engineering approach ensures that the technologies developed - such as lightweight structures, long-life rocket engines, reliable crew escape, and robust thermal protection systems - will synergistically integrate into the optimum vehicle. Given a candidate architecture that possesses credible physical processes and realistic technology assumptions, the next set of analyses address the system's functionality across the spread of operational scenarios characterized by the design reference missions. The safety/reliability and cost/economics associated with operating the system will also be modeled and analyzed to answer the questions "How safe is it?" and "How much will it cost to acquire and operate?" The systems engineering review process factors in comprehensive budget estimates, detailed project schedules, and business and performance plans, against the goals of safety, reliability, and cost, in addition to overall technical feasibility. This approach forms the basis for investment decisions in the 2nd Generation RLV Program's risk-reduction activities. Through this process, NASA will continually refine its specialized needs and

  20. Systems Engineering Approach to Technology Integration for NASA's 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Dale; Smith, Charles; Thomas, Leann; Kittredge, Sheryl

    2002-01-01

    The overall goal of the 2nd Generation RLV Program is to substantially reduce technical and business risks associated with developing a new class of reusable launch vehicles. NASA's specific goals are to improve the safety of a 2nd-generation system by 2 orders of magnitude - equivalent to a crew risk of 1-in-10,000 missions - and decrease the cost tenfold, to approximately $1,000 per pound of payload launched. Architecture definition is being conducted in parallel with the maturating of key technologies specifically identified to improve safety and reliability, while reducing operational costs. An architecture broadly includes an Earth-to-orbit reusable launch vehicle, on-orbit transfer vehicles and upper stages, mission planning, ground and flight operations, and support infrastructure, both on the ground and in orbit. The systems engineering approach ensures that the technologies developed - such as lightweight structures, long-life rocket engines, reliable crew escape, and robust thermal protection systems - will synergistically integrate into the optimum vehicle. To best direct technology development decisions, analytical models are employed to accurately predict the benefits of each technology toward potential space transportation architectures as well as the risks associated with each technology. Rigorous systems analysis provides the foundation for assessing progress toward safety and cost goals. The systems engineering review process factors in comprehensive budget estimates, detailed project schedules, and business and performance plans, against the goals of safety, reliability, and cost, in addition to overall technical feasibility. This approach forms the basis for investment decisions in the 2nd Generation RLV Program's risk-reduction activities. Through this process, NASA will continually refine its specialized needs and identify where Defense and commercial requirements overlap those of civil missions.

  1. Advanced Electron Beam Ion Sources (EBIS) for 2-nd generation carbon radiotherapy facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shornikov, A.; Wenander, F.

    2016-04-01

    In this work we analyze how advanced Electron Beam Ion Sources (EBIS) can facilitate the progress of carbon therapy facilities. We will demonstrate that advanced ion sources enable operation of 2-nd generation ion beam therapy (IBT) accelerators. These new accelerator concepts with designs dedicated to IBT provide beams better suited for therapy and, are more cost efficient than contemporary IBT facilities. We will give a sort overview of the existing new IBT concepts and focus on those where ion source technology is the limiting factor. We will analyse whether this limitation can be overcome in the near future thanks to ongoing EBIS development.

  2. Effects of Thermal Cycling on Control and Irradiated EPC 2nd Generation GaN FETs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Scheick, Leif; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Casey, Megan; Hammoud, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    The power systems for use in NASA space missions must work reliably under harsh conditions including radiation, thermal cycling, and exposure to extreme temperatures. Gallium nitride semiconductors show great promise, but information pertaining to their performance is scarce. Gallium nitride N-channel enhancement-mode field effect transistors made by EPC Corporation in a 2nd generation of manufacturing were exposed to radiation followed by long-term thermal cycling in order to address their reliability for use in space missions. Results of the experimental work are presented and discussed.

  3. Emotional and Behavioral Disorders in 1.5th Generation, 2nd Generation Immigrant Children, and Foreign Adoptees.

    PubMed

    Tan, Tony Xing

    2016-10-01

    Existing theories (e.g., acculturative stress theory) cannot adequately explain why mental disorders in immigrants are less prevalent than in non-immigrants. In this paper, the culture-gene co-evolutionary theory of mental disorders was utilized to generate a novel hypothesis that connection to heritage culture reduces the risk for mental disorders in immigrant children. Four groups of children aged 2-17 years were identified from the 2007 United States National Survey of Children's Health: 1.5th generation immigrant children (n = 1378), 2nd generation immigrant children (n = 4194), foreign adoptees (n = 270), and non-immigrant children (n = 54,877). The 1.5th generation immigrant children's connection to their heritage culture is stronger than or similar to the 2nd generation immigrants, while the foreign adoptees have little connection to their birth culture. Controlling for age, sex, family type and SES, the odds for having ADD/ADHD, Conduct Disorder, Anxiety Disorder, and Depression diagnosis were the lowest for the 1.5th generation immigrant children, followed by the 2nd generation immigrant children and the foreign adoptees. The foreign adoptees and non-adopted children were similar in the odds of having these disorders. Connection to heritage culture might be the underlying mechanism that explained recent immigrants' lower rates of mental disorders. PMID:26972324

  4. The planar optics phase sensor: a study for the VLTI 2nd generation fringe tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blind, Nicolas; Le Bouquin, Jean-Baptiste; Absil, Olivier; Alamir, Mazen; Berger, Jean-Philippe; Defrère, Denis; Feautrier, Philippe; Hénault, François; Jocou, Laurent; Kern, Pierre; Laurent, Thomas; Malbet, Fabien; Mourard, Denis; Rousselet-Perraut, Karine; Sarlette, Alain; Surdej, Jean; Tarmoul, Nassima; Tatulli, Eric; Vincent, Lionel

    2010-07-01

    In a few years, the second generation instruments of the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) will routinely provide observations with 4 to 6 telescopes simultaneously. To reach their ultimate performance, they will need a fringe sensor capable to measure in real time the randomly varying optical paths differences. A collaboration between LAOG (PI institute), IAGL, OCA and GIPSA-Lab has proposed the Planar Optics Phase Sensor concept to ESO for the 2nd Generation Fringe Tracker. This concept is based on the integrated optics technologies, enabling the conception of extremely compact interferometric instruments naturally providing single-mode spatial filtering. It allows operations with 4 and 6 telescopes by measuring the fringes position thanks to a spectrally dispersed ABCD method. We present here the main analysis which led to the current concept as well as the expected on-sky performance and the proposed design.

  5. Enabling the 2nd Generation in Space: Building Blocks for Large Scale Space Endeavours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnhardt, D.; Garretson, P.; Will, P.

    Today the world operates within a "first generation" space industrial enterprise, i.e. all industry is on Earth, all value from space is from bits (data essentially), and the focus is Earth-centric, with very limited parts of our population and industry participating in space. We are limited in access, manoeuvring, on-orbit servicing, in-space power, in-space manufacturing and assembly. The transition to a "Starship culture" requires the Earth to progress to a "second generation" space industrial base, which implies the need to expand the economic sphere of activity of mankind outside of an Earth-centric zone and into CIS-lunar space and beyond, with an equal ability to tap the indigenous resources in space (energy, location, materials) that will contribute to an expanding space economy. Right now, there is no comfortable place for space applications that are not discovery science, exploration, military, or established earth bound services. For the most part, space applications leave out -- or at least leave nebulous, unconsolidated, and without a critical mass -- programs and development efforts for infrastructure, industrialization, space resources (survey and process maturation), non-traditional and persistent security situational awareness, and global utilities -- all of which, to a far greater extent than a discovery and exploration program, may help determine the elements of a 2nd generation space capability. We propose a focus to seed the pre-competitive research that will enable global industry to develop the necessary competencies that we currently lack to build large scale space structures on-orbit, that in turn would lay the foundation for long duration spacecraft travel (i.e. key technologies in access, manoeuvrability, etc.). This paper will posit a vision-to-reality for a step wise approach to the types of activities the US and global space providers could embark upon to lay the foundation for the 2nd generation of Earth in space.

  6. The New 2nd-Generation SRF R&D Facility at Jefferson Lab: TEDF

    SciTech Connect

    Reece, Charles E.; Reilly, Anthony V.

    2012-09-01

    The US Department of Energy has funded a near-complete renovation of the SRF-based accelerator research and development facilities at Jefferson Lab. The project to accomplish this, the Technical and Engineering Development Facility (TEDF) Project has completed the first of two phases. An entirely new 3,100 m{sup 2} purpose-built SRF technical work facility has been constructed and was occupied in summer of 2012. All SRF work processes with the exception of cryogenic testing have been relocated into the new building. All cavity fabrication, processing, thermal treatment, chemistry, cleaning, and assembly work is collected conveniently into a new LEED-certified building. An innovatively designed 800 m2 cleanroom/chemroom suite provides long-term flexibility for support of multiple R&D and construction projects as well as continued process evolution. The characteristics of this first 2nd-generation SRF facility are described.

  7. Computer Generation of Subduction Frequencies for 2ND Order Phase Transitions in Two-Dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deonarine, Samaroo

    The Landau theory of 2nd order phase transitions and Group theory Criteria are used to predict which subgroups G (L-HOOK EQ) G(,0) can occur in transitions for 2-D systems (plane-group to plane-group and diperiodic to diperiodic). Previous work 1 on the 17 plane space groups has been based on the tables of Coxeter & Moser 2 and the International Tables of X-ray Crystallography (ITXRC, 1965) 3 . These tables do not exhaust all the possible subgroups of a space group 4 . Since such explicit tables are non-existent for other families of space groups we have developed algorithms that make a systematic search of the parent unit cell of G(,0) to locate the origin and orientation of all its subgroups G, G (L-HOOK EQ) G(,0). We have written a RATFOR/FORTRAN program for the VAX 11-780 which will generate the subduction frequencies. (DIAGRAM, TABLE OR GRAPHIC OMITTED...PLEASE SEE DAI). for allowed second order phase transitions in 2-dimensional systems that are describable by the 80 diperiodic Groups G(,0) and G 5 . Our program gives a complete tabulation (Origin, new Translation Sublattice, Subduction Frequency, Subgroup and its Generators) of the allowed continuous or second order phase transitions from a parent diperiodic group G(,0) to another diperiodic subgroup G.

  8. Improved beam spot measurements in the 2nd generation proton beam writing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yong; van Mourik, Martin W.; Santhana Raman, P.; van Kan, Jeroen A.

    2013-07-01

    Nanosized ion beams (especially proton and helium) play a pivotal role in the field of ion beam lithography and ion beam analysis. Proton beam writing has shown lithographic details down to the 20 nm level, limited by the proton beam spot size. Introducing a smaller spot size will allow smaller lithographic features. Smaller probe sizes, will also drastically improve the spatial resolution for ion beam analysis techniques. Among many other requirements, having an ideal resolution standard, used for beam focusing and a reliable focusing method, is an important pre-requisite for sub-10 nm beam spot focusing. In this paper we present the fabrication processes of a free-standing resolution standard with reduced side-wall projection and high side-wall verticality. The resulting grid is orthogonal (90.0° ± 0.1), has smooth edges with better than 6 nm side-wall projection. The new resolution standard has been used in focusing a 2 MeV H2+ beam in the 2nd generation PBW system at Center for Ion Beam Applications, NUS. The beam size has been characterized using on- and off-axis scanning transmission ion microscopy (STIM) and ion induced secondary electron detection, carried out with a newly installed micro channel plate electron detector. The latter has been shown to be a realistic alternative to STIM measurements, as the drawback of PIN diode detector damage is alleviated. With these improvements we show reproducible beam focusing down to 14 nm.

  9. BMI differences in 1st and 2nd generation immigrants of Asian and European origin to Australia.

    PubMed

    Hauck, Katharina; Hollingsworth, Bruce; Morgan, Lawrie

    2011-01-01

    We estimate assimilation of immigrants' body mass index (BMI) to the host population of Australia over one generation, conducting separate analyses for immigrants from 7 regions of Europe and Asia. We use quantile regressions to allow for differing impact of generational status across 19 quantiles of BMI from under-weight to morbidly obese individuals. We find that 1st generation South European immigrants have higher, and South and East Asian immigrants have lower BMI than Australians, but have assimilated to the BMI of their hosts in the 2nd generation. There are no or only small BMI differences between Australians and 1st and 2nd generation immigrants from East Europe, North-West Europe, Middle East and Pacific regions. We conclude that both upward and downward assimilation in some immigrant groups is most likely caused by factors which can change over one generation (such as acculturation), and not factors which would take longer to change (such as genetics). Our results suggest that public health policies targeting the lifestyles of well educated Asian immigrants may be effective in preventing BMI increase in this subgroup. PMID:20869292

  10. Time resolved 2nd harmonic generation at LaAlO3/SrTiO3 Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, Sanjay; Eom, Chang-Beom; Ryu, Sangwoo; Cen, Cheng

    2014-03-01

    Ultrafast spectroscopy can produce information of carrier/lattice dynamics, which is especially valuable for understanding phase transitions at LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interfaces. LaAlO3 (LAO) and SrTiO3 (STO) are both associated with wide band gap, which allows deep penetration of commonly used laser wavelengths and therefore usually leads to overwhelming bulk signal background. Here we report a time resolved study of a 2nd harmonic generation (SHG) signal resulting from impulsive below-the-band-gap optical pumping. The nonlinear nature of the signal enables us to probe the interface directly. Output of a home built Ti:Sapphire laser and BBO crystal were used to generate 30fs pulses of two colors (405nm and 810nm). The 405nm pulse was used to pump the LAO/STO interfaces, while 2nd harmonics of the 810nm pulse generated at the interfaces was probed as a function of the time delay. Signals from samples with varying LAO thicknesses clearly correlates to the metal-insulator transition. Distinct time dependent signals were observed at LAO/STO interfaces grown on different substrates. Experiments performed at different optical polarization geometries, interface electric fields and temperatures allow us to paint a clearer picture of the novel oxide heterostructures under investigation.

  11. Impact of Insulin Resistance on Neointimal Tissue Proliferation after 2nd-Generation Drug-Eluting Stent Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Yaguchi, Isao; Komatsu, Sachiko; Nakahara, Shiro; Kobayashi, Sayuki; Sakai, Yoshihiko; Taguchi, Isao

    2015-01-01

    Percutaneous coronary intervention is established as an effective treatment for patients with ischemic heart disease; in particular, drug-eluting stent implantation is known to suppress in-stent restenosis. Diabetes mellitus is an independent risk factor for restenosis, so reducing insulin resistance is being studied as a new treatment approach. In this prospective study, we sought to clarify the factors associated with in-stent restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention, and we evaluated the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index as a predictor of restenosis. We enrolled 136 consecutive patients who underwent elective percutaneous coronary intervention at our hospital from February 2010 through April 2013. All were implanted with a 2nd-generation drug-eluting stent. We distributed the patients in accordance with their HOMA-IR index values into insulin-resistant Group P (HOMA-IR, ≥2.5; n=77) and noninsulin-resistant Group N (HOMA-IR, <2.5; n=59). Before and immediately after stenting, we measured reference diameter, minimal lumen diameter, and percentage of stenosis, and after 8 months we measured the last 2 factors and late lumen loss, all by means of quantitative coronary angiography. After 8 months, the mean minimal lumen diameter was smaller in Group P than that in Group N (1.85 ± 1.02 vs 2.37 ± 0.66 mm; P=0.037), and the mean late lumen loss was larger (0.4 ± 0.48 vs 0.16 ± 0.21 mm; P=0.025). These results suggest that insulin resistance affects neointimal tissue proliferation after 2nd-generation drug-eluting stent implantation. PMID:26413014

  12. STARS 2.0: 2nd-generation open-source archiving and query software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winegar, Tom

    2008-07-01

    The Subaru Telescope is in process of developing an open-source alternative to the 1st-generation software and databases (STARS 1) used for archiving and query. For STARS 2, we have chosen PHP and Python for scripting and MySQL as the database software. We have collected feedback from staff and observers, and used this feedback to significantly improve the design and functionality of our future archiving and query software. Archiving - We identified two weaknesses in 1st-generation STARS archiving software: a complex and inflexible table structure and uncoordinated system administration for our business model: taking pictures from the summit and archiving them in both Hawaii and Japan. We adopted a simplified and normalized table structure with passive keyword collection, and we are designing an archive-to-archive file transfer system that automatically reports real-time status and error conditions and permits error recovery. Query - We identified several weaknesses in 1st-generation STARS query software: inflexible query tools, poor sharing of calibration data, and no automatic file transfer mechanisms to observers. We are developing improved query tools and sharing of calibration data, and multi-protocol unassisted file transfer mechanisms for observers. In the process, we have redefined a 'query': from an invisible search result that can only transfer once in-house right now, with little status and error reporting and no error recovery - to a stored search result that can be monitored, transferred to different locations with multiple protocols, reporting status and error conditions and permitting recovery from errors.

  13. A Plan for Advanced Guidance and Control Technology for 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, John M.; Fogle, Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Advanced guidance and control (AG&C) technologies are critical for meeting safety/reliability and cost requirements for the next generation of reusable launch vehicle (RLV). This becomes clear upon examining the number of expendable launch vehicle failures in the recent past where AG&C technologies would have saved a RLV with the same failure mode, the additional vehicle problems where this technology applies, and the costs associated with mission design with or without all these failure issues. The state-of-the-art in guidance and control technology, as well as in computing technology, is at the point where we can took to the possibility of being able to safely return a RLV in any situation where it can physically be recovered. This paper outlines reasons for AG&C, current technology efforts, and the additional work needed for making this goal a reality.

  14. Outcome of Treatment of CML with 2nd Generation Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors After Imatinib Failure

    PubMed Central

    Cornelison, A. Megan; Kantarjian, Hagop; Cortes, Jorge; Jabbour, Elias

    2015-01-01

    Although imatinib revolutionized the management of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), recent data indicate a transformation in the treatment approach likely in the near future. For patients who fail with standard-dose imatinib therapy, imatinib dose escalation is a second-line option. However, high-dose imatinib is not an appropriate approach for patients experiencing drug toxicity, and there remain questions over the durability of responses achieved with this strategy. Alternative second-line options include the newer tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) like dasatinib and nilotinib. A substantial amount of long-term data for these agents is available. Although both are potent and specific BCR-ABL TKIs, dasatinib and nilotinib exhibit unique pharmacological profiles and response patterns relative to different patient characteristics, such as disease stage and BCR-ABL mutational status. The superiority of second generation TKIs over imatinib in newly diagnosed disease has been recognized as well. They induce high and rapid rates of cytogenetic and molecular response, with less progression to advanced forms of disease in comparison with imatinib. Several investigational agents specific for those patients with the T315I mutation remain under evaluation. The future of CML therapy may include early use of these potent agents to help more patients achieve molecular remission and potentially be a path to a CML cure. PMID:22035738

  15. InAs/GaSb type II superlattices for advanced 2nd and 3rd generation detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walther, Martin; Rehm, Robert; Schmitz, Johannes; Fleissner, Joachim; Rutz, Frank; Kirste, Lutz; Scheibner, Ralf; Wendler, Joachim; Ziegler, Johann

    2010-01-01

    InAs/GaSb short-period superlattices (SL) based on GaSb, InAs and AlSb have proven their great potential for high performance infrared detectors. Lots of interest is currently focused on the development of short-period InAs/GaSb SLs for advanced 2nd and 3rd generation infrared detectors between 3 - 30 μm. For the fabrication of mono- and bispectral thermal imaging systems in the mid-wavelength infrared region (MWIR) a manufacturable technology for high responsivity thermal imaging systems has been developed. InAs/GaSb short-period superlattices can be fabricated with up to 1000 periods in the intrinsic region without revealing diffusion limited behavior. This enables the fabrication of InAs/GaSb SL camera systems with high responsivity comparable to state of the art CdHgTe and InSb detectors. The material system is also ideally suited for the fabrication of dual-color MWIR/MWIR InAs/GaSb SL camera systems with high quantum efficiency for missile approach warning systems with simultaneous and spatially coincident detection in both spectral channels.

  16. Immobilized High Level Waste (HLW) Interim Storage Alternative Generation and analysis and Decision Report 2nd Generation Implementing Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    CALMUS, R.B.

    2000-09-14

    Two alternative approaches were previously identified to provide second-generation interim storage of Immobilized High-Level Waste (IHLW). One approach was retrofit modification of the Fuel and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF) to accommodate IHLW. The results of the evaluation of the FMEF as the second-generation IHLW interim storage facility and subsequent decision process are provided in this document.

  17. [Modalities of use of ceritinib (Zykadia™), a 2nd generation ALK inhibitor, in advanced stage non-small cell lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Giroux Leprieur, Etienne; Fallet, Vincent; Wislez, Marie

    2015-12-01

    Around 4% of advanced non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) harbor a ALK rearrangement, with high sensitivity to ALK inhibitor as crizotinib. However, the vast majority of these tumors end with a tumor progression after several months of treatment with crizotinib. Ceritinib is a 2nd generation ALK inhibitor, which showed high efficiency in NSCLC with ALK rearrangement. Results from phase I trial showed a response rate at 58% in these tumors, with a similar rate for previously crizotinib-treated patients or crizotinib-naïve patients. Moreover, cerebral responses were observed with ceritinib. Preliminary date from a phase 2 trial confirmed these results. These promising results allowed a European marketing authorization (autorisation de mise sur le marché [AMM]) since May 2015 for the treatment of advanced NSCLC with ALK rearrangement and resistance or intolerance to crizotinib. PMID:26597476

  18. Efficient 2(nd) and 4(th) harmonic generation of a single-frequency, continuous-wave fiber amplifier.

    PubMed

    Sudmeyer, Thomas; Imai, Yutaka; Masuda, Hisashi; Eguchi, Naoya; Saito, Masaki; Kubota, Shigeo

    2008-02-01

    We demonstrate efficient cavity-enhanced second and fourth harmonic generation of an air-cooled, continuous-wave (cw), single-frequency 1064 nm fiber-amplifier system. The second harmonic generator achieves up to 88% total external conversion efficiency, generating more than 20-W power at 532 nm wavelength in a diffraction-limited beam (M(2) < 1.05). The nonlinear medium is a critically phase-matched, 20-mm long, anti-reflection (AR) coated LBO crystal operated at 25 degrees C. The fourth harmonic generator is based on an AR-coated, Czochralski-grown beta-BaB(2)O(4) (BBO) crystal optimized for low loss and high damage threshold. Up to 12.2 W of 266-nm deep-UV (DUV) output is obtained using a 6-mm long critically phase-matched BBO operated at 40 degrees C. This power level is more than two times higher than previously reported for cw 266-nm generation. The total external conversion efficiency from the fundamental at 1064 nm to the fourth harmonic at 266 nm is >50%. PMID:18542230

  19. Performance Evaluation of Electrochem's PEM Fuel Cell Power Plant for NASA's 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimble, Michael C.; Hoberecht, Mark

    2003-01-01

    NASA's Next Generation Launch Technology (NGLT) program is being developed to meet national needs for civil and commercial space access with goals of reducing the launch costs, increasing the reliability, and reducing the maintenance and operating costs. To this end, NASA is considering an all- electric capability for NGLT vehicles requiring advanced electrical power generation technology at a nominal 20 kW level with peak power capabilities six times the nominal power. The proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell has been identified as a viable candidate to supply this electrical power; however, several technology aspects need to be assessed. Electrochem, Inc., under contract to NASA, has developed a breadboard power generator to address these technical issues with the goal of maximizing the system reliability while minimizing the cost and system complexity. This breadboard generator operates with dry hydrogen and oxygen gas using eductors to recirculate the gases eliminating gas humidification and blowers from the system. Except for a coolant pump, the system design incorporates passive components allowing the fuel cell to readily follow a duty cycle profile and that may operate at high 6:1 peak power levels for 30 second durations. Performance data of the fuel cell stack along with system performance is presented to highlight the benefits of the fuel cell stack design and system design for NGLT vehicles.

  20. Advances with the new AIMS fab 193 2nd generation: a system for the 65 nm node including immersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zibold, Axel M.; Poortinga, E.; Doornmalen, H. v.; Schmid, R.; Scherubl, T.; Harnisch, W.

    2005-06-01

    The Aerial Image Measurement System, AIMS, for 193nm lithography emulation is established as a standard for the rapid prediction of wafer printability for critical structures including dense patterns and defects or repairs on masks. The main benefit of AIMS is to save expensive image qualification consisting of test wafer exposures followed by wafer CD-SEM resist or wafer analysis. By adjustment of numerical aperture (NA), illumination type and partial coherence (σ) to match any given stepper/ scanner, AIMS predicts the printability of 193nm reticles such as binary with, or without OPC and phase shifting. A new AIMS fab 193 second generation system with a maximum NA of 0.93 is now available. Improvements in field uniformity, stability over time, measurement automation and higher throughput meet the challenging requirements of the 65nm node. A new function, "Global CD Map" can be applied to automatically measure and analyse the global CD uniformity of repeating structures across a reticle. With the options of extended depth-of-focus (EDOF) software and the upcoming linear polarisation capability in the illumination the new AIMS fab 193 second generation system is able to cover both dry and immersion requirements for NA < 1. Rigorous simulations have been performed to study the effects of polarisation for imaging by comparing the aerial image of the AIMS to the resist image of the scanner.

  1. Autocommander: A Supervisory Controller for Integrated Guidance and Control for the 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, J. E.; Lawrence, D. A.; Zhu, J. J.; Jackson, Scott (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a hierarchical architecture for integrated guidance and control that achieves risk and cost reduction for NASA's 2d generation reusable launch vehicle (RLV). Guidance, attitude control, and control allocation subsystems that heretofore operated independently will now work cooperatively under the coordination of a top-level autocommander. In addition to delivering improved performance from a flight mechanics perspective, the autocommander is intended to provide an autonomous supervisory control capability for traditional mission management under nominal conditions, G&C reconfiguration in response to effector saturation, and abort mode decision-making upon vehicle malfunction. This high-level functionality is to be implemented through the development of a relational database that is populated with the broad range of vehicle and mission specific data and translated into a discrete event system model for analysis, simulation, and onboard implementation. A Stateflow Autocoder software tool that translates the database into the Stateflow component of a Matlab/Simulink simulation is also presented.

  2. Contribution of ion beam analysis methods to the development of 2nd generation high temperature superconducting (HTS) wires

    SciTech Connect

    Usov, Igor O; Arendt, Paul N; Stan, Liliana; Holesinger, Terry G; Foltyn, Steven R; Depaula, Raymond F

    2009-01-01

    One of the crucial steps in the second generation high temperature superconducting wire program was development of the buffer layer architecture. The architecture designed at the Superconductivity Technology Center at Los Alamos National Laboratory consists of several oxide layers wherein each layer plays a specific role, namely: nucleation layer, diffusion barrier, biaxially textured template, and an intermediate layer with a good match to the lattice parameter of superconducting Y{sub 1}Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} (YBCO) compound. This report demonstrates how a wide range of ion beam analysis techniques (SIMS, RBS, channeling, PIXE, PIGE, NRA, ERD) was employed for analysis of each buffer layer and the YBCO films. These results assisted in understanding of a variety of physical processes occurring during the buffet layer fabrication and helped to optimize the buffer layer architecture as a whole.

  3. Study of recovery characteristics of 2nd generation HTS tapes with different stabilizers for resistive type superconducting fault current limiters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Jie; Zeng, Weina; Ma, Jun; Yao, Zhihao; Li, Zhuyong; Jin, Zhijian; Hong, Zhiyong

    2016-02-01

    The resistive type superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) is one of the most important superconducting power applications nowadays. As known, this type of SFCL is settled directly in the power transmission line. When a short fault happens, the temperature of the superconductors in the SFCL will increase sharply due to the huge generated heat. This means the superconductors need time to recover the superconducting properties and be ready for the next short fault. So the recovery characteristics become one of the most crucial features of the resistive type SFCL. In this paper, several different kinds of measuring methods are presented to calculate the recovery time of the HTS tapes, and comparison of these methods is also carried out by a standard test. On basis of this, samples with different kinds of stabilizers are used to explore the influence of stabilizer on their recovery characteristics. In addition, the influence of the encapsulation technology is also discussed in this paper.

  4. Comparison of Five 2nd-Generation Supraglottic Airway Devices for Airway Management Performed by Novice Military Operators

    PubMed Central

    Henlin, Tomas; Sotak, Michal; Kovaricek, Petr; Tyll, Tomas; Balcarek, Lukas; Michalek, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Five different second-generation supraglottic airway devices, ProSeal LMA, Supreme LMA, i-gel, SLIPA, and Laryngeal Tube Suction-D, were studied. Operators were inexperienced users with a military background, combat lifesavers, nurses, and physicians. Methods. This was a prospective, randomized, single-blinded study. Devices were inserted in the operating room in low light conditions after induction of general anesthesia. Primary outcome was successful insertion on the first attempt while secondary aims were insertion time, number of attempts, oropharyngeal seal pressure, ease of insertion, fibre optic position of device, efficacy of ventilation, and intraoperative trauma or regurgitation of gastric contents. Results. In total, 505 patients were studied. First-attempt insertion success rate was higher in the Supreme LMA (96%), i-gel (87.9%), and ProSeal LMA (85.9%) groups than in the Laryngeal Tube Suction-D (80.6%) and SLIPA (69.4%) groups. Insertion time was shortest in the Supreme LMA (70.4 ± 32.5 s) and i-gel (74.4 ± 41.1 s) groups (p < 0.001). Oropharyngeal seal pressures were higher in the Laryngeal Tube Suction-D and ProSeal LMA groups than in other three devices. Conclusions. Most study parameters for the Supreme LMA and i-gel were found to be superior to the other three tested supraglottic airway devices when inserted by novice military operators. PMID:26495289

  5. New approaches for improving the production of the 1st and 2nd generation ethanol by yeast.

    PubMed

    Kurylenko, Olena; Semkiv, Marta; Ruchala, Justyna; Hryniv, Orest; Kshanovska, Barbara; Abbas, Charles; Dmytruk, Kostyantyn; Sibirny, Andriy

    2016-01-01

    Increase in the production of 1st generation ethanol from glucose is possible by the reduction in the production of ethanol co-products, especially biomass. We have developed a method to reduce biomass accumulation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by the manipulation of the intracellular ATP level due to overexpression of genes of alkaline phosphatase, apyrase or enzymes involved in futile cycles. The strains constructed accumulated up to 10% more ethanol on a cornmeal hydrolysate medium. Similar increase in ethanol accumulation was observed in the mutants resistant to the toxic inhibitors of glycolysis like 3-bromopyruvate and others. Substantial increase in fuel ethanol production will be obtained by the development of new strains of yeasts that ferment sugars of the abundant lignocellulosic feedstocks, especially xylose, a pentose sugar. We have found that xylose can be fermented under elevated temperatures by the thermotolerant yeast, Hansenula polymorpha. We combined protein engineering of the gene coding for xylose reductase (XYL1) along with overexpression of the other two genes responsible for xylose metabolism in yeast (XYL2, XYL3) and the deletion of the global transcriptional activator CAT8, with the selection of mutants defective in utilizing ethanol as a carbon source using the anticancer drug, 3-bromopyruvate. Resulted strains accumulated 20-25 times more ethanol from xylose at the elevated temperature of 45°C with up to 12.5 g L(-1) produced. Increase in ethanol yield and productivity from xylose was also achieved by overexpression of genes coding for the peroxisomal enzymes: transketolase (DAS1) and transaldolase (TAL2), and deletion of the ATG13 gene. PMID:26619255

  6. Optical coherence tomography analysis of the stent strut and prediction of resolved strut malapposition at 3 months after 2nd-generation drug-eluting stent implantation.

    PubMed

    Izumi, Daisuke; Miyahara, Masatoshi; Fujimoto, Naoki; Fukuoka, Shusuke; Sakai, Masataka; Dohi, Kaoru; Ito, Masaaki

    2016-08-01

    Our objective was to clarify whether thrombogenic problems with stent struts are resolved at 3 months after 2nd-generation drug-eluting stent implantation. Twenty-one patients with stable angina pectoris having 28 (22 zotarolimus-eluting, 6 everolimus-eluting) stents with optical coherence tomography (OCT)-guided percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were evaluated. Stent strut coverage and malapposition were evaluated by OCT immediately after PCI and at 3-month follow-up. Acute strut malapposition was observed in 26 out of 28 analyzed stents (92.9 %). At 3-month follow-up, 7 (26.9 %) of those 26 stents with strut malapposition were completely resolved, and the mean percentages of uncovered struts and malapposed struts were 8.3 and 2.0 % when analyzed by each individual stent. When analyzing a total of 30,060 struts, 807 struts (2.7 %) demonstrated acute strut malapposition. Among these, 219 struts (27.1 %) demonstrated persistent strut malapposition. On the basis of receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis, a strut-to-vessel (S-V) distance ≤160 µm on post-stenting OCT images was the corresponding cutoff point for resolved malapposed struts (sensitivity 78.1 %, specificity 62.8 %, area under the curve 0.758). The S-V distance of persistent malapposed struts on post-stenting OCT images was longer than that of resolved malapposed struts (235 ± 112 vs. 176 ± 93 µm, p < 0.01). At 3 months after PCI, the prevalence rates of uncovered and malapposed struts were relatively low in 2nd-generation drug-eluting stent. Our results suggest that OCT-guide PCI with an S-V distance ≤160 µm may be recommended especially in patients with planed short-term DAPT. PMID:26334709

  7. Space Ops 2002: Bringing Space Operations into the 21st Century. Track 3: Operations, Mission Planning and Control. 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle-Concepts for Flight Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagopian, Jeff

    2002-01-01

    With the successful implementation of the International Space Station (ISS), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) enters a new era of opportunity for scientific research. The ISS provides a working laboratory in space, with tremendous capabilities for scientific research. Utilization of these capabilities requires a launch system capable of routinely transporting crew and logistics to/from the ISS, as well as supporting ISS assembly and maintenance tasks. The Space Shuttle serves as NASA's launch system for performing these functions. The Space Shuttle also serves as NASA's launch system for supporting other science and servicing missions that require a human presence in space. The Space Shuttle provides proof that reusable launch vehicles are technically and physically implementable. However, a couple of problems faced by NASA are the prohibitive cost of operating and maintaining the Space Shuttle and its relative inability to support high launch rates. The 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (2nd Gen RLV) is NASA's solution to this problem. The 2nd Gen RLV will provide a robust launch system with increased safety, improved reliability and performance, and less cost. The improved performance and reduced costs of the 2nd Gen RLV will free up resources currently spent on launch services. These resource savings can then be applied to scientific research, which in turn can be supported by the higher launch rate capability of the 2nd Gen RLV. The result is a win - win situation for science and NASA. While meeting NASA's needs, the 2nd Gen RLV also provides the United States aerospace industry with a commercially viable launch capability. One of the keys to achieving the goals of the 2nd Gen RLV is to develop and implement new technologies and processes in the area of flight operations. NASA's experience in operating the Space Shuttle and the ISS has brought to light several areas where automation can be used to augment or eliminate functions

  8. New efficient artemisinin derived agents against human leukemia cells, human cytomegalovirus and Plasmodium falciparum: 2nd generation 1,2,4-trioxane-ferrocene hybrids.

    PubMed

    Reiter, Christoph; Fröhlich, Tony; Zeino, Maen; Marschall, Manfred; Bahsi, Hanife; Leidenberger, Maria; Friedrich, Oliver; Kappes, Barbara; Hampel, Frank; Efferth, Thomas; Tsogoeva, Svetlana B

    2015-06-01

    In our ongoing search for highly active hybrid molecules exceeding their parent compounds in anticancer, antimalaria as well as antiviral activity and being an alternative to the standard drugs, we present the synthesis and biological investigations of 2nd generation 1,2,4-trioxane-ferrocene hybrids. In vitro tests against the CCRF-CEM leukemia cell line revealed di-1,2,4-trioxane-ferrocene hybrid 7 as the most active compound (IC50 of 0.01 μM). Regarding the activity against the multidrug resistant subline CEM/ADR5000, 1,2,4-trioxane-ferrocene hybrid 5 showed a remarkable activity (IC50 of 0.53 μM). Contrary to the antimalaria activity of hybrids 4-8 against Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 strain with slightly higher IC50 values (between 7.2 and 30.2 nM) than that of their parent compound DHA, hybrids 5-7 possessed very promising activity (IC50 values lower than 0.5 μM) against human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). The application of 1,2,4-trioxane-ferrocene hybrids against HCMV is unprecedented and demonstrated here for the first time. PMID:25965779

  9. Direct and non-destructive proof of authenticity for the 2nd generation of Brazilian real banknotes via easy ambient sonic spray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Eduardo Morgado; Franco, Marcos Fernando; Regino, Karen Gomes; Lehmann, Eraldo Luiz; Arruda, Marco Aurélio Zezzi; de Carvalho Rocha, Werickson Fortunato; Borges, Rodrigo; de Souza, Wanderley; Eberlin, Marcos Nogueira; Correa, Deleon Nascimento

    2014-12-01

    Using a desorption/ionization technique, easy ambient sonic-spray ionization coupled to mass spectrometry (EASI-MS), documents related to the 2nd generation of Brazilian Real currency (R$) were screened in the positive ion mode for authenticity based on chemical profiles obtained directly from the banknote surface. Characteristic profiles were observed for authentic, seized suspect counterfeit and counterfeited homemade banknotes from inkjet and laserjet printers. The chemicals in the authentic banknotes' surface were detected via a few minor sets of ions, namely from the plasticizers bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP), most likely related to the official offset printing process, and other common quaternary ammonium cations, presenting a similar chemical profile to 1st-generation R$. The seized suspect counterfeit banknotes, however, displayed abundant diagnostic ions in the m/z 400-800 range due to the presence of oligomers. High-accuracy FT-ICR MS analysis enabled molecular formula assignment for each ion. The ions were separated by 44 m/z, which enabled their characterization as Surfynol® 4XX (S4XX, XX=40, 65, and 85), wherein increasing XX values indicate increasing amounts of ethoxylation on a backbone of 2,4,7,9-tetramethyl-5-decyne-4,7-diol (Surfynol® 104). Sodiated triethylene glycol monobutyl ether (TBG) of m/z 229 (C10H22O4Na) was also identified in the seized counterfeit banknotes via EASI(+) FT-ICR MS. Surfynol® and TBG are constituents of inks used for inkjet printing. PMID:25498934

  10. Early onset hypercholesterolemia induced by the 2nd-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor nilotinib in patients with chronic phase-chronic myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Rea, Delphine; Mirault, Tristan; Cluzeau, Thomas; Gautier, Jean-François; Guilhot, François; Dombret, Hervé; Messas, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Despite a well-recognized clinical benefit of the 2nd-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor nilotinib in patients with imatinib-resistant/-intolerant or newly diagnosed chronic myeloid leukemia, recent evidence suggests that nilotinib has a propensity to increase the risk of occlusive arterial events, especially in patients with pre-existing cardiovascular risk factors. Given the key role of lipids in cardiovascular diseases, we studied the plasma lipid profile and global cardiovascular risk prior to and during nilotinib therapy in a series of 27 patients in the setting of a prospective single center study. Data from a minimum 1-year follow up showed that nilotinib significantly increased total, low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol within three months. Consequently, the proportion of patients with non-optimal low-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased from 48.1% to 88.9% by 12 months, leading to cholesterol-lowering drug intervention in 22.2% of patients. The proportion of patients with low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased from 40.7% to 7.4% by 12 months. In contrast, a significant decrease in triglycerides was observed. Global cardiovascular risk worsened in 11.1% of patients due to diabetes or occlusive arterial events. Whether hypercholesterolemia was the main driver of occlusive arterial events was uncertain: a longer follow up is necessary to ask whether nilotinib-induced hypercholesterolemia increases long-term risk of atherosclerotic diseases. Nevertheless, given key atherogenic properties of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, we conclude that when prescribing nilotinib, commitment to detect lipid disorders at baseline and during follow up is mandatory given their frequency, requirement for changes in lifestyle or drug intervention, and potential for long-term cardiovascular complications. PMID:24658819

  11. Gasification. 2nd. ed.

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher Higman; Maarten van der Burgt

    2008-02-15

    This book covers gasification as a comprehensive topic, covering its many uses, from refining, to natural gas, to coal. It provides an overview of commercial processes and covers applications relevant to today's demands. The new edition is expanded and provides more detail on the integration issues for current generation, state-of-the-art Integrated Gasification Combined Cycles (IGCC); CO{sub 2} capture in the IGCC context addressing the issues of pre-investment and retrofitting as well as defining what the term 'CO{sub 2} capture ready' might mean in practice; issues of plant reliability, availability and maintainability (RAM) including as evaluation of feedback from existing plants; implementation of fuel cell technology in IGCC concepts. Contents are: Introduction; The Thermodynamics of Gasification; The Kinetics of Gasification and Reactor Theory; Feedstocks and Feedstock Characteristics; Gasification Processes; Practical Issues; Applications; Auxiliary Technologies; Economics, environmental, and Safety Issues; Gasification and the Future. 5 apps.

  12. Enhanced animal productivity and health with improved manure management in 2nd Generation Environmentally Superior Technology in North Carolina: II. Air quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of improved manure management on air quality and the beneficial effect of a cleaner environment on animal productivity and health using a second generation of Environmentally Superior Technology. The second generation system combines solid-liquid sep...

  13. Enhanced animal productivity and health with improved manure management in 2nd Generation Environmentally Superior Technology in North Carolina: I. Water quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New legislation in North Carolina promotes the replacement of old lagoon technology with new Environmentally Superior Technology. Scientists at ARS Florence Center and industry cooperators completed design and demonstration of a second generation treatment system for swine waste that can achieve hig...

  14. Integration of health management and support systems is key to achieving cost reduction and operational concept goals of the 2nd generation reusable launch vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koon, Phillip L.; Greene, Scott

    2002-07-01

    Our aerospace customers are demanding that we drastically reduce the cost of operating and supporting our products. Our space customer in particular is looking for the next generation of reusable launch vehicle systems to support more aircraft like operation. To achieve this goal requires more than an evolution in materials, processes and systems, what is required is a paradigm shift in the design of the launch vehicles and the processing systems that support the launch vehicles. This paper describes the Automated Informed Maintenance System (AIM) we are developing for NASA's Space Launch Initiative (SLI) Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV). Our system includes an Integrated Health Management (IHM) system for the launch vehicles and ground support systems, which features model based diagnostics and prognostics. Health Management data is used by our AIM decision support and process aids to automatically plan maintenance, generate work orders and schedule maintenance activities along with the resources required to execute these processes. Our system will automate the ground processing for a spaceport handling multiple RLVs executing multiple missions. To accomplish this task we are applying the latest web based distributed computing technologies and application development techniques.

  15. Control system for the 2nd generation Berkeley AutoMounters (BAM2) at GM/CA CAT macromolecular crystallography beamlines

    PubMed Central

    Makarov, O.; Hilgart, M.; Ogata, C.; Pothineni, S.; Cork, C.

    2011-01-01

    GM/CA CAT at Sector 23 of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) is an NIH funded facility for crystallographic structure determination of biological macromolecules by X-ray diffraction. A second generation Berkeley automounter is being integrated into the beamline control system at the 23-BM experimental station. This new device replaces the previous all-pneumatic gripper motions with a combination of pneumatics and XYZ motorized linear stages. The latter adds a higher degree of flexibility to the robot including auto-alignment capability, accommodation of a larger capacity sample Dewar of arbitrary shape, and support for advanced operations such as crystal washing, while preserving the overall simplicity and efficiency of the Berkeley automounter design. PMID:21822343

  16. Techno-economic evaluation of 2nd generation bioethanol production from sugar cane bagasse and leaves integrated with the sugar-based ethanol process

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Bioethanol produced from the lignocellulosic fractions of sugar cane (bagasse and leaves), i.e. second generation (2G) bioethanol, has a promising market potential as an automotive fuel; however, the process is still under investigation on pilot/demonstration scale. From a process perspective, improvements in plant design can lower the production cost, providing better profitability and competitiveness if the conversion of the whole sugar cane is considered. Simulations have been performed with AspenPlus to investigate how process integration can affect the minimum ethanol selling price of this 2G process (MESP-2G), as well as improve the plant energy efficiency. This is achieved by integrating the well-established sucrose-to-bioethanol process with the enzymatic process for lignocellulosic materials. Bagasse and leaves were steam pretreated using H3PO4 as catalyst and separately hydrolysed and fermented. Results The addition of a steam dryer, doubling of the enzyme dosage in enzymatic hydrolysis, including leaves as raw material in the 2G process, heat integration and the use of more energy-efficient equipment led to a 37 % reduction in MESP-2G compared to the Base case. Modelling showed that the MESP for 2G ethanol was 0.97 US$/L, while in the future it could be reduced to 0.78 US$/L. In this case the overall production cost of 1G + 2G ethanol would be about 0.40 US$/L with an output of 102 L/ton dry sugar cane including 50 % leaves. Sensitivity analysis of the future scenario showed that a 50 % decrease in the cost of enzymes, electricity or leaves would lower the MESP-2G by about 20%, 10% and 4.5%, respectively. Conclusions According to the simulations, the production of 2G bioethanol from sugar cane bagasse and leaves in Brazil is already competitive (without subsidies) with 1G starch-based bioethanol production in Europe. Moreover 2G bioethanol could be produced at a lower cost if subsidies were used to compensate for the opportunity cost from the

  17. [Implications of TCGA Network Data on 2nd Generation Immunotherapy Concepts Based on PD-L1 and PD-1 Target Structures].

    PubMed

    Peters, I; Tezval, H; Kramer, M W; Wolters, M; Grünwald, V; Kuczyk, M A; Serth, J

    2015-11-01

    The era of cytokines, given to patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) as part of an unspecific immunomodulatory treatment concept, seems to have ended with the introduction of targeted therapies. However, preliminary data from studies on treatment with checkpoint inhibitors (e. g. anti-PD-1 and anti-PD-L1) may point the way to second-generation immunotherapy. The rationale of such immunomodulatory treatment is to stop or interrupt the tumour from "escaping" the body's immune defence. Thompson et al. report that increased protein expression of PD-L1 (CD274/ B7-H1) in tumour cells and tumour-infiltrating immune cells (TILs; lymphocytes and histiocytes) is associated with unfavourable clinical pathological parameters as well as poor survival. In small pilot groups of mRCC patients it was found that increased PD-L1 protein expression in tumours and TILs may be correlated with the objective response to anti-PD-1 treatment. Sometimes, however, a very wide variety of response rates was observed, which raises the question if this can be explained by individual expression levels of PD-L1 (CD 274) or PD-1 (PDCD1).Recently published data from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Kidney Renal Clear Cell Carcinoma (KIRC) Network now provide a genome-wide data base that allows us to review or validate the molecular results obtained in clear cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCC) to date.In this study, we analysed the TCGA KIRC mRNA expression data for PD-L1 and PD-1 for a possible association with clinical pathological parameters and the survival of 417 ccRCC patients.The mRNA expression of PD-L1 in primary nephrectomy specimens revealed no significant association with unfavourable clinical parameters. Interestingly, though, a positive correlation with patient survival was found (HR=0,59, p=0,006).These results, which partly contradict the concept applied to date, point out the necessity to ascertain the characteristics of PD-L1 and PD-1 expression at mRNA and protein

  18. 2nd Generation QUATARA Flight Computer Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falker, Jay; Keys, Andrew; Fraticelli, Jose Molina; Capo-Iugo, Pedro; Peeples, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Single core flight computer boards have been designed, developed, and tested (DD&T) to be flown in small satellites for the last few years. In this project, a prototype flight computer will be designed as a distributed multi-core system containing four microprocessors running code in parallel. This flight computer will be capable of performing multiple computationally intensive tasks such as processing digital and/or analog data, controlling actuator systems, managing cameras, operating robotic manipulators and transmitting/receiving from/to a ground station. In addition, this flight computer will be designed to be fault tolerant by creating both a robust physical hardware connection and by using a software voting scheme to determine the processor's performance. This voting scheme will leverage on the work done for the Space Launch System (SLS) flight software. The prototype flight computer will be constructed with Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) components which are estimated to survive for two years in a low-Earth orbit.

  19. PIRLS 2016 Assessment Framework. 2nd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullis, Ina V. S., Ed.; Martin, Michael O., Ed.

    2015-01-01

    The "PIRLS 2016 Assessment Framework, 2nd Edition" provides the foundation for the three international assessments planned as part of the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement's Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2016: PIRLS, PIRLS Literacy, and ePIRLS. PIRLS represents the…

  20. 2nd International Planetary Probe Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Martinez, Ed; Arcadi, Marla

    2005-01-01

    Included are presentations from the 2nd International Planetary Probe Workshop. The purpose of the second workshop was to continue to unite the community of planetary scientists, spacecraft engineers and mission designers and planners; whose expertise, experience and interests are in the areas of entry probe trajectory and attitude determination, and the aerodynamics/aerothermodynamics of planetary entry vehicles. Mars lander missions and the first probe mission to Titan made 2004 an exciting year for planetary exploration. The Workshop addressed entry probe science, engineering challenges, mission design and instruments, along with the challenges of reconstruction of the entry, descent and landing or the aerocapture phases. Topics addressed included methods, technologies, and algorithms currently employed; techniques and results from the rich history of entry probe science such as PAET, Venera/Vega, Pioneer Venus, Viking, Galileo, Mars Pathfinder and Mars MER; upcoming missions such as the imminent entry of Huygens and future Mars entry probes; and new and novel instrumentation and methodologies.

  1. Exogenous attention enhances 2nd-order contrast sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Barbot, Antoine; Landy, Michael S; Carrasco, Marisa

    2011-05-11

    Natural scenes contain a rich variety of contours that the visual system extracts to segregate the retinal image into perceptually coherent regions. Covert spatial attention helps extract contours by enhancing contrast sensitivity for 1st-order, luminance-defined patterns at attended locations, while reducing sensitivity at unattended locations, relative to neutral attention allocation. However, humans are also sensitive to 2nd-order patterns such as spatial variations of texture, which are predominant in natural scenes and cannot be detected by linear mechanisms. We assess whether and how exogenous attention--the involuntary and transient capture of spatial attention--affects the contrast sensitivity of channels sensitive to 2nd-order, texture-defined patterns. Using 2nd-order, texture-defined stimuli, we demonstrate that exogenous attention increases 2nd-order contrast sensitivity at the attended location, while decreasing it at unattended locations, relative to a neutral condition. By manipulating both 1st- and 2nd-order spatial frequency, we find that the effects of attention depend both on 2nd-order spatial frequency of the stimulus and the observer's 2nd-order spatial resolution at the target location. At parafoveal locations, attention enhances 2nd-order contrast sensitivity to high, but not to low 2nd-order spatial frequencies; at peripheral locations attention also enhances sensitivity to low 2nd-order spatial frequencies. Control experiments rule out the possibility that these effects might be due to an increase in contrast sensitivity at the 1st-order stage of visual processing. Thus, exogenous attention affects 2nd-order contrast sensitivity at both attended and unattended locations. PMID:21356228

  2. Exogenous attention enhances 2nd-order contrast sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Barbot, Antoine; Landy, Michael S.; Carrasco, Marisa

    2011-01-01

    Natural scenes contain a rich variety of contours that the visual system extracts to segregrate the retinal image into perceptually coherent regions. Covert spatial attention helps extract contours by enhancing contrast sensitivity for 1st-order, luminance-defined patterns at attended locations, while reducing sensitivity at unattended locations, relative to neutral attention allocation. However, humans are also sensitive to 2nd-order patterns such as spatial variations of texture, which are predominant in natural scenes and cannot be detected by linear mechanisms. We assess whether and how exogenous attention—the involuntary and transient capture of spatial attention—affects the contrast sensitivity of channels sensitive to 2nd-order, texture-defined patterns. Using 2nd-order, texture-defined stimuli, we demonstrate that exogenous attention increases 2nd-order contrast sensitivity at the attended location, while decreasing it at unattended locations, relative to a neutral condition. By manipulating both 1st- and 2nd-order spatial frequency, we find that the effects of attention depend both on 2nd-order spatial frequency of the stimulus and the observer’s 2nd-order spatial resolution at the target location. At parafoveal locations, attention enhances 2nd-order contrast sensitivity to high, but not to low 2nd-order spatial frequencies; at peripheral locations attention also enhances sensitivity to low 2nd-order spatial frequencies. Control experiments rule out the possibility that these effects might be due to an increase in contrast sensitivity at the 1st-order stage of visual processing. Thus, exogenous attention affects 2nd-order contrast sensitivity at both attended and unattended locations. PMID:21356228

  3. Elements of the Next Generation Science Standards' (NGSS) New Framework for K-12 Science Education aligned with STEM designed projects created by Kindergarten, 1st and 2nd grade students in a Reggio Emilio project approach setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Facchini, Nicole

    This paper examines how elements of the Next Generation Science Standards' (NGSS) New Framework for K-12 Science Education standards (National Research Council 2011)---specifically the cross-cutting concept "cause and effect" are aligned with early childhood students' creation of projects of their choice. The study took place in a Reggio Emilio-inspired, K-12 school, in a multi-aged kindergarten, first and second grade classroom with 14 students. Students worked on their projects independently with the assistance of their peers and teachers. The students' projects and the alignment with the Next Generation Science Standards' New Framework were analyzed by using pre and post assessments, student interviews, and discourse analysis. Results indicate that elements of the New Framework for K-12 Science Education emerged through students' project presentation, particularly regarding the notion of "cause and effect". More specifically, results show that initially students perceived the relationship between "cause and effect" to be negative.

  4. Florida Investigates 2nd Possible Local Transmission of Zika Virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Florida Investigates 2nd Possible Local Transmission of Zika Virus If confirmed, cases would be first instances ... investigating a second possible case of locally transmitted Zika infection. On Tuesday, the first possible case of ...

  5. Molecular motors and the 2nd law of thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhisong

    2014-03-01

    Molecular motors from biology and nanotechnology often operate on chemical energy of fuel molecules in an isothermal environment, unlike macroscopic heat engines that draw energy from a heat flow between two temperatures. Nevertheless, isothermal molecular motors are still subject to the 2nd law of thermodynamics in a fundamental way: their directional motion must cost a finite amount of energy other than the environmental heat even though no work is done; otherwise the 2nd law would be violated. Hence the 2nd law requires a finite energy price for pure direction of molecular motors. But what is the lowest price of direction allowed by the 2nd law? And how does the 2nd law-decreed price of direction limit performance of molecular motors? In the talk, I shall present our theoretical study of the 2nd law-molecular motor link on basis of the accumulated biomotor phenomenology, and also introduce our experimental effort to develop biomimetic DNA bipedal nanomotors following the mechanistic guidelines out of the theoretical study. [Main contents of this talk are from references:] This work is partially supported by FRC grants R-144-000-259-112, R-144-000-290-112 and R-144-000-320-112.

  6. 2nd PEGS Annual Symposium on Antibodies for Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Mitchell; Royston, Ivor; Beck, Alain

    2012-01-01

    The 2nd Annual Antibodies for Cancer Therapy symposium, organized again by Cambridge Healthtech Institute as part of the Protein Engineering Summit, was held in Boston, USA from April 30th to May 1st, 2012. Since the approval of the first cancer antibody therapeutic, rituximab, fifteen years ago, eleven have been approved for cancer therapy, although one, gemtuzumab ozogamicin, was withdrawn from the market.  The first day of the symposium started with a historical review of early work for lymphomas and leukemias and the evolution from murine to human antibodies. The symposium discussed the current status and future perspectives of therapeutic antibodies in the biology of immunoglobulin, emerging research on biosimilars and biobetters, and engineering bispecific antibodies and antibody-drug conjugates. The tumor penetration session was focused on the understanding of antibody therapy using ex vivo tumor spheroids and the development of novel agents targeting epithelial junctions in solid tumors. The second day of the symposium discussed the development of new generation recombinant immunotoxins with low immunogenicity, construction of chimeric antigen receptors, and the proof-of-concept of ‘photoimmunotherapy’. The preclinical and clinical session presented antibodies targeting Notch signaling and chemokine receptors.  Finally, the symposium discussed emerging technologies and platforms for therapeutic antibody discovery. PMID:22864478

  7. 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (2G RLV). Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matlock, Steve; Sides, Steve; Kmiec, Tom; Arbogast, Tim; Mayers, Tom; Doehnert, Bill

    2001-01-01

    This is a revised final report and addresses all of the work performed on this program. Specifically, it covers vehicle architecture background, definition of six baseline engine cycles, reliability baseline (space shuttle main engine QRAS), and component level reliability/performance/cost for the six baseline cycles, and selection of 3 cycles for further study. This report further addresses technology improvement selection and component level reliability/performance/cost for the three cycles selected for further study, as well as risk reduction plans, and recommendation for future studies.

  8. 2nd Quarter Transportation Report FY 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, L.

    2014-07-30

    This report satisfies the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) commitment to prepare a quarterly summary report of radioactive waste shipments to the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at Area 5. There were no shipments sent for offsite treatment and returned to the NNSS this quarter. This report summarizes the second quarter of fiscal year (FY) 2014 low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW) shipments. This report also includes annual summaries for FY 2014 in Tables 4 and 5. Tabular summaries are provided which include the following: Sources of and carriers for LLW and MLLW shipments to and from the NNSS; Number and external volume of LLW and MLLW shipments; Highway routes used by carriers; and Incident/accident data applicable to LLW and MLLW shipments. In this report shipments are accounted for upon arrival at the NNSS, while disposal volumes are accounted for upon waste burial. The disposal volumes presented in this report do not include minor volumes of non-radioactive materials that were approved for disposal. Volume reports showing cubic feet (ft3) generated using the Low-Level Waste Information System may vary slightly due to differing rounding conventions.

  9. Book Review: Bioassays with Arthropods: 2nd Edition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The technical book "Bioassays with Arthropods: 2nd Edition" (2007. Jacqueline L. Robertson, Robert M. Russell, Haiganoush K, Preisler and N. E. Nevin, Eds. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 224 pp.) was reviewed for the scientific readership of the peer-reviewed publication Journal of Economic Entomology. ...

  10. A Handbook for Classroom Instruction That Works, 2nd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Perfect for self-help and professional learning communities, this handbook makes it much easier to apply the teaching practices from the ASCD-McREL best-seller "Classroom Instruction That Works: Research-Based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement, 2nd Edition." The authors take you through the refined Instructional Planning Guide, so you…

  11. Test Review: The Profile of Mood States 2nd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Shuqiong; Hsiao, Yu-Yu; Wang, Miao

    2014-01-01

    The "Profile of Mood States 2nd Edition" (POMS 2) was published in 2012 by Multi-Health Systems (MHS) to assess transient feelings and mood among individuals aged 13 years and above. Evolving from the original POMS (McNair, Lorr, & Droppleman, 1971, 1992), the POMS 2 was designed for youth (13-17 years old) and adults (18 years old…

  12. Technical Issues Map for the NHI System Interface and Support Systems Area: 2nd Quarter FY07

    SciTech Connect

    Steven R. Sherman

    2007-03-01

    This document provides a mapping of technical issues associated with development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) intermediate heat transport loop and nuclear hydrogen plant support systems to the work that has been accomplished or is currently underway in the 2nd quarter of FY07.

  13. The transient nature of 2nd-order stereopsis.

    PubMed

    Hess, Robert F; Wilcox, Laurie M

    2008-05-01

    There are currently two competing dichotomies used to describe how local stereoscopic information is processed by the human visual system. The first is in terms of the type of the spatial filtering operations used to extract relevant image features prior to stereoscopic analysis (i.e. 1st- vs 2nd-order stereo; [Hess, R. F., & Wilcox, L. M. (1994). Linear and non-linear filtering in stereopsis. Vision Research, 34, 2431-2438]). The second is in terms of the temporal properties of the mechanisms used to process stereoscopic information (i.e. sustained vs transient stereo; [Schor, C. M., Edwards, M., & Pope, D. R. (1998). Spatial-frequency and contrast tuning of the transient-stereopsis system. Vision Research, 38(20), 3057-3068]). Here we compare the dynamics of 1st- and 2nd-order stereopsis using several types of stimuli and find a clear dissociation in which 1st-order stimuli exhibit sustained properties while 2nd-order patterns show more transient properties. Our results and analyses unify and simplify two complimentary bodies of work. PMID:18407312

  14. Two 2nd Circuit decisions represent mixed bag on insurance.

    PubMed

    2000-01-21

    The 2nd U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals in New York issued two important rulings within a week on the extent to which the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) regulates insurance practices. [Name removed] v. Allstate Life Insurance Co. was a plaintiff-friendly decision, finding that the insurance company illegally refused to sell life insurance to a married couple because of their mental disability, major depression. [Name removed]. v. Israel Discount Bank of New York was more defendant friendly and tackled the issue of whether the ADA permits different benefit caps for mental and physical disabilities. PMID:11367226

  15. The crystal structure of ^7Li2ND

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsubota, Masami; Sorby, Magnus H.; Hino, Satoshi; Ichikawa, Takayuki; Hauback, Bjorn C.; Kojima, Yoshitsugu

    2008-03-01

    Recently much attention has been given to reversible hydrogen storage materials possessing high gravimetric capacity. Lithium amide/imide systems are promising candidates. Chen et al.[1] found that a mixture of lithium amide and lithium hydride can reversibly store hydrogen up to 6.5 mass% forming lithium imide (Li2NH). Among them, the crystal structure of Li2NH is still controversial. Balogh et al.[2] have reported a cubic structure model. However, this model differs significantly from theoretical structure models. In this work, the crystal structure of the isotopically substituted ^7Li2ND has been investigated by powder neutron and synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiments. In our data some peaks, which should be a single peak for cubic symmetry, were obviously split indicating a lower symmetry than cubic for lithium imide. The structure of ^7Li2ND will be described. [1] P. Chen et al., J. Phys. Chem. B 107 (2003) 10967. [2] M.P. Balogh et al., J. Alloys Compd. 420 (2006) 326.

  16. Scoping analysis of the Advanced Test Reactor using SN2ND

    SciTech Connect

    Wolters, E.; Smith, M.

    2012-07-26

    A detailed set of calculations was carried out for the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) using the SN2ND solver of the UNIC code which is part of the SHARP multi-physics code being developed under the Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) program in DOE-NE. The primary motivation of this work is to assess whether high fidelity deterministic transport codes can tackle coupled dynamics simulations of the ATR. The successful use of such codes in a coupled dynamics simulation can impact what experiments are performed and what power levels are permitted during those experiments at the ATR. The advantages of the SN2ND solver over comparable neutronics tools are its superior parallel performance and demonstrated accuracy on large scale homogeneous and heterogeneous reactor geometries. However, it should be noted that virtually no effort from this project was spent constructing a proper cross section generation methodology for the ATR usable in the SN2ND solver. While attempts were made to use cross section data derived from SCALE, the minimal number of compositional cross section sets were generated to be consistent with the reference Monte Carlo input specification. The accuracy of any deterministic transport solver is impacted by such an approach and clearly it causes substantial errors in this work. The reasoning behind this decision is justified given the overall funding dedicated to the task (two months) and the real focus of the work: can modern deterministic tools actually treat complex facilities like the ATR with heterogeneous geometry modeling. SN2ND has been demonstrated to solve problems with upwards of one trillion degrees of freedom which translates to tens of millions of finite elements, hundreds of angles, and hundreds of energy groups, resulting in a very high-fidelity model of the system unachievable by most deterministic transport codes today. A space-angle convergence study was conducted to determine the meshing and angular cubature

  17. The Second Stellar Spectrum and the non-LTE Problem of the 2nd Kind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trujillo Bueno, Javier

    2009-09-01

    This paper presents an overview of the radiative transfer problem of calculating the spectral line intensity and polarization that emerges from a (generally magnetized) astrophysical plasma composed of atoms and molecules whose excitation state is significantly influenced by radiative transitions produced by an anisotropic radiation field. The numerical solution of this non-LTE problem of the 2nd kind is facilitating the physical understanding of the second solar spectrum and the exploration of the complex magnetism of the extended solar atmosphere, but much more could be learned if high-sensitivity polarimeters were developed also for the present generation of night-time telescopes. Interestingly, I find that the population ratio between the levels of some resonance line transitions can be efficiently modulated by the inclination of a weak magnetic field when the anisotropy of the incident radiation is significant, something that could provide a new diagnostic tool in astrophysics.

  18. Improvement of a plasma uniformity of the 2nd ion source of KSTAR neutral beam injector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, S. H.; Kim, T. S.; Lee, K. W.; Chang, D. H.; In, S. R.; Bae, Y. S.

    2014-02-01

    The 2nd ion source of KSTAR (Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research) NBI (Neutral Beam Injector) had been developed and operated since last year. A calorimetric analysis revealed that the heat load of the back plate of the ion source is relatively higher than that of the 1st ion source of KSTAR NBI. The spatial plasma uniformity of the ion source is not good. Therefore, we intended to identify factors affecting the uniformity of a plasma density and improve it. We estimated the effects of a direction of filament current and a magnetic field configuration of the plasma generator on the plasma uniformity. We also verified that the operation conditions of an ion source could change a uniformity of the plasma density of an ion source.

  19. Improvement of a plasma uniformity of the 2nd ion source of KSTAR neutral beam injector.

    PubMed

    Jeong, S H; Kim, T S; Lee, K W; Chang, D H; In, S R; Bae, Y S

    2014-02-01

    The 2nd ion source of KSTAR (Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research) NBI (Neutral Beam Injector) had been developed and operated since last year. A calorimetric analysis revealed that the heat load of the back plate of the ion source is relatively higher than that of the 1st ion source of KSTAR NBI. The spatial plasma uniformity of the ion source is not good. Therefore, we intended to identify factors affecting the uniformity of a plasma density and improve it. We estimated the effects of a direction of filament current and a magnetic field configuration of the plasma generator on the plasma uniformity. We also verified that the operation conditions of an ion source could change a uniformity of the plasma density of an ion source. PMID:24593593

  20. [Microsurgical 2nd toe transfer for catastrophic hand reconstruction].

    PubMed

    Placer, A; Lozano, Ja

    2007-01-01

    The correct reconstruction of the catastrophic hand requires complex surgical techniques. The microsurgical transference of a toe is indicated when all other reconstructive options are shown to be useless for the reconstruction of the required clamp function. In this clinical note we set out the case of a 32 year old man, who came to our accident and emergency department after suffering a traffic accident. After exploration the diagnosis was that of catastrophic left hand, among other policontusions. Urgent surgery was carried out, saving the maximum possible viable structures. The immediate result of this surgery was a hand with 1st, 4th and 5th functional fingers. As the essential clamp function between the 1st and 4th or 5th fingers was not totally satisfactory, we decided to reconstruct the 3rd finger of his hand with his ipsilateral 2nd toe. All pertinent studies to determine vascularisation of the flap were carried out in planning the surgery, and the microsurgical transfer was then realized, which was successful. Today, after a suitable rehabilitation, the patient has recovered a satisfactory function of heavy and fine clamp in the operated hand. Toe to hand transfer is a good option for finger reconstruction and its function. Rehabilitation is the key to functional recovery. PMID:18227902

  1. PREFACE: 2nd International Symposium "Optics and its Applications"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvo, Maria L.; Dolganova, Irina N.; Gevorgyan, Narine; Guzman, Angela; Papoyan, Aram; Sarkisyan, Hayk; Yurchenko, Stanislav

    2016-01-01

    The ICTP smr2633: 2nd International Symposium "Optics and its Applications" (OPTICS-2014) http://indico.ictp.it/event/a13253/ was held in Yerevan and Ashtarak, Armenia, on 1-5 September 2014. The Symposium was organized by the Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) with the collaboration of the SPIE Armenian Student Chapter, the Armenian TC of ICO, the Russian-Armenian University (RAU), the Institute for Physical Research of the National Academy of Sciences of Armenia (IPR of NAS), the Greek-Armenian industrial company LT-Pyrkal, and the Yerevan State University (YSU). The Symposium was co-organized by the BMSTU SPIE & OSA student chapters. The International Symposium OPTICS-2014 was dedicated to the 50th anniversary of the Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics. This symposium "Optics and its Applications" was the First Official ICTP Scientific Event in Armenia. The presentations at OPTICS-2014 were centered on these topics: optical properties of nanostructures; quantum optics & information; singular optics and its applications; laser spectroscopy; strong field optics; nonlinear & ultrafast optics; photonics & fiber optics; optics of liquid crystals; and mathematical methods in optics.

  2. APTWG: 2nd Asia-Pacific Transport Working Group Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, J. Q.; Shi, Y. J.; Tamura, N.; Jhang, Hogun; Watanabe, T.-H.; Ding, X. T.

    2013-02-01

    This conference report summarizes the contributions to and discussions at the 2nd Asia-Pacific Transport Working Group Meeting held in Chengdu, China, from 15 to 18 May 2012. The topics of the meeting were organized under five main headings: momentum transport, non-locality in transport, edge turbulence and L-H transition, three-dimensional effects on transport physics, and particle, momentum and heat pinches. It is found that lower hybrid wave and ion cyclotron wave induce co-current rotation while electron cyclotron wave induces counter-current rotation. A four-stage imaging for low (L) to high (H) confinement transition gradually emerges and a more detailed verification is urgently expected. The new edge-localized modes mitigation technique with supersonic molecular beam injection was approved to be effective to some extent on HL-2A and KSTAR. It is also found that low collisionality, trapped electron mode to ion temperature gradient transition (or transition of higher to lower density and temperature gradients), fuelling and lithium coating are in favour of inward pinch of particles in tokamak plasmas.

  3. Highlights of the 2 nd Bioinformatics Student Symposium by ISCB RSG-UK

    PubMed Central

    White, Benjamen; Fatima, Vayani; Fatima, Nazeefa; Das, Sayoni; Rahman, Farzana; Hassan, Mehedi

    2016-01-01

    Following the success of the 1 st Student Symposium by ISCB RSG-UK, a 2 nd Student Symposium took place on 7 th October 2015 at The Genome Analysis Centre, Norwich, UK. This short report summarizes the main highlights from the 2 nd Bioinformatics Student Symposium. PMID:27239284

  4. Development of a Hydrologic Characterization Technology for Fault Zones Phase II 2nd Report

    SciTech Connect

    Karasaki, Kenzi; Doughty, Christine; Gasperikova, Erika; Peterson, John; Conrad, Mark; Cook, Paul; Tiemi, Onishi

    2011-03-31

    This is the 2nd report on the three-year program of the 2nd phase of the NUMO-LBNL collaborative project: Development of Hydrologic Characterization Technology for Fault Zones under NUMO-DOE/LBNL collaboration agreement. As such, this report is a compendium of the results by Kiho et al. (2011) and those by LBNL.

  5. Examples to Accompany "Descriptive Cataloging of Rare Books, 2nd Edition."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Coll. and Research Libraries, Chicago, IL.

    This book is intended to be used with "Descriptive Cataloging of Rare Books," 2nd edition (DCRB) as an illustrative aid to catalogers and others interested in or needing to interpret rare book cataloging. As such, it is to be used in conjunction with the rules it illustrates, both in DCRB and in "Anglo-American Cataloging Rules," 2nd edition…

  6. PREFACE: 2nd National Conference on Nanotechnology 'NANO 2008'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czuba, P.; Kolodziej, J. J.; Konior, J.; Szymonski, M.

    2009-03-01

    This issue of Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains selected papers presented at the 2nd National Conference on Nanotechnology 'NANO2008', that was held in Kraków, Poland, 25-28 June 2008. It was organized jointly by the Polish Chemical Society, Polish Physical Society, Polish Vacuum Society, and the Centre for Nanometer-scale Science and Advanced Materials (NANOSAM) of the Jagiellonian University. The meeting presentations were categorized into the following topics: 1. Nanomechanics and nanotribology 2. Characterization and manipulation in nanoscale 3. Quantum effects in nanostructures 4. Nanostructures on surfaces 5. Applications of nanotechnology in biology and medicine 6. Nanotechnology in education 7. Industrial applications of nanotechnology, presentations of the companies 8. Nanoengineering and nanomaterials (international sessions shared with the fellows of Maria-Curie Host Fellowships within the 6th FP of the European Community Project 'Nano-Engineering for Expertise and Development, NEED') 9. Nanopowders 10. Carbon nanostructures and nanosystems 11. Nanoelectronics and nanophotonics 12. Nanomaterials in catalysis 13. Nanospintronics 14. Ethical, social, and environmental aspects of nanotechnology The Conference was attended by 334 participants. The presentations were delivered as 7 invited plenary lectures, 25 invited topical lectures, 78 oral and 108 poster contributions. Only 1/6 of the contributions presented during the Conference were submitted for publication in this Proceedings volume. From the submitted material, this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains 37 articles that were positively evaluated by independent referees. The Organizing Committee gratefully acknowledges all these contributions. We also thank all the referees of the papers submitted for the Proceedings for their timely and thorough work. We would like to thank all members of the National Program Committee for their work in the selection process of

  7. 2nd interface between ecology and land development in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeley, Jon E.; Baer-Keeley, Melanie; Fortheringham, C.J.

    2000-01-01

    The 2nd Interface Between Ecology and Land Development Conference was held in association with Earth Day 1997, five years after the first Interface Conference. Rapid population growth in California has intensified the inevitable conflict between land development and preservation of natural ecosystems. Sustainable development requires wise use of diminishing natural resources and, where possible, restoration of damaged landscapes. These Earth Week Celebrations brought together resource managers, scientists, politicians, environmental consultants, and concerned citizens in an effort to improve the communication necessary to maintain our natural biodiversity, ecosystem processes and general quality of life. As discussed by our keynote speaker, Michael Soule, the best predictor of habitat loss is population growth and nowhere is this better illustrated than in California. As urban perimeters expand, the interface between wildlands and urban areas increases. Few problems are more vexing than how to manage the fire prone ecosystems indigenous to California at this urban interface. Today resource managers face increasing challenges of dealing with this problem and the lead-off section of the proceedings considers both the theoretical basis for making decisions related to prescribed burning and the practical application. Habitat fragmentation is an inevitable consequence of development patterns with significant impacts on animal and plant populations. Managers must be increasingly resourceful in dealing with problems of fragmentation and the often inevitable consequences, including susceptibility to invasive oganisms. One approach to dealing with fragmentation problems is through careful landplanning. California is the national leader in the integration of conservation and economics. On Earth Day 1991, Governor Pete Wilson presented an environmental agenda that promised to create between land owners and environmentalists, agreements that would guarantee the protection of

  8. 1st- and 2nd-order motion and texture resolution in central and peripheral vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, J. A.; Sperling, G.

    1995-01-01

    STIMULI. The 1st-order stimuli are moving sine gratings. The 2nd-order stimuli are fields of static visual texture, whose contrasts are modulated by moving sine gratings. Neither the spatial slant (orientation) nor the direction of motion of these 2nd-order (microbalanced) stimuli can be detected by a Fourier analysis; they are invisible to Reichardt and motion-energy detectors. METHOD. For these dynamic stimuli, when presented both centrally and in an annular window extending from 8 to 10 deg in eccentricity, we measured the highest spatial frequency for which discrimination between +/- 45 deg texture slants and discrimination between opposite directions of motion were each possible. RESULTS. For sufficiently low spatial frequencies, slant and direction can be discriminated in both central and peripheral vision, for both 1st- and for 2nd-order stimuli. For both 1st- and 2nd-order stimuli, at both retinal locations, slant discrimination is possible at higher spatial frequencies than direction discrimination. For both 1st- and 2nd-order stimuli, motion resolution decreases 2-3 times more rapidly with eccentricity than does texture resolution. CONCLUSIONS. (1) 1st- and 2nd-order motion scale similarly with eccentricity. (2) 1st- and 2nd-order texture scale similarly with eccentricity. (3) The central/peripheral resolution fall-off is 2-3 times greater for motion than for texture.

  9. PREFACE: 2nd Workshop on Germanium Detectors and Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abt, I.; Majorovits, B.; Keller, C.; Mei, D.; Wang, G.; Wei, W.

    2015-05-01

    The 2nd workshop on Germanium (Ge) detectors and technology was held at the University of South Dakota on September 14-17th 2014, with more than 113 participants from 8 countries, 22 institutions, 15 national laboratories, and 8 companies. The participants represented the following big projects: (1) GERDA and Majorana for the search of neutrinoless double-beta decay (0νββ) (2) SuperCDMS, EDELWEISS, CDEX, and CoGeNT for search of dark matter; (3) TEXONO for sub-keV neutrino physics; (4) AGATA and GRETINA for gamma tracking; (5) AARM and others for low background radiation counting; (5) as well as PNNL and LBNL for applications of Ge detectors in homeland security. All participants have expressed a strong desire on having better understanding of Ge detector performance and advancing Ge technology for large-scale applications. The purpose of this workshop was to leverage the unique aspects of the underground laboratories in the world and the germanium (Ge) crystal growing infrastructure at the University of South Dakota (USD) by brining researchers from several institutions taking part in the Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (EPSCoR) together with key leaders from international laboratories and prestigious universities, working on the forefront of the intensity to advance underground physics focusing on the searches for dark matter, neutrinoless double-beta decay (0νββ), and neutrino properties. The goal of the workshop was to develop opportunities for EPSCoR institutions to play key roles in the planned world-class research experiments. The workshop was to integrate individual talents and existing research capabilities, from multiple disciplines and multiple institutions, to develop research collaborations, which includes EPSCor institutions from South Dakota, North Dakota, Alabama, Iowa, and South Carolina to support multi-ton scale experiments for future. The topic areas covered in the workshop were: 1) science related to Ge

  10. Front elevation of Rostrum with 2nd Division American Expeditionary Force ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Front elevation of Rostrum with 2nd Division American Expeditionary Force Monument in foreground, view to northwest - Cypress Hills National Cemetery, Jamaica Avenue Unit, 625 Jamaica Avenue, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

  11. 37. MILL NO. 2, 2nd FLOOR, CLOSE SHOT OF 2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. MILL NO. 2, 2nd FLOOR, CLOSE SHOT OF 2 CREEL MACHINES, WHICH FEED YARN INTO KNITTING MACHINES. - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

  12. 73. VIEW OF NORTHWEST SIDE OF 2ND TEE, LOOKING NORTHWEST, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    73. VIEW OF NORTHWEST SIDE OF 2ND TEE, LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING STEPPED PLATFORM, BENCHES, AND LIGHT STANDARDS - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  13. VIEW SOUTH/SOUTHEAST LOOKING DOWN ON 2ND AQUEDUCT AND 1ST AQUEDUCT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW SOUTH/SOUTHEAST LOOKING DOWN ON 2ND AQUEDUCT AND 1ST AQUEDUCT CASCADES TOWARDS FILTRATION PLANT AND LOS ANGELES RESERVOIR - Los Angeles Aqueduct, Cascades Structures, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  14. MAGAZINE E30. VIEW FROM BETWEEN 1ST AND 2ND BLAST WALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MAGAZINE E-30. VIEW FROM BETWEEN 1ST AND 2ND BLAST WALL LOOKING TO THE REAR OF THE MAGAZINE. - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Waikele Branch, Tunnel Magazine Type, Waikakalaua & Kipapa Gulches, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  15. 22. MILL NO. 1, 2nd FLOOR, LIGHT TABLES AND KNITTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. MILL NO. 1, 2nd FLOOR, LIGHT TABLES AND KNITTING MACHINE. LIGHT TABLE USED TO CHECK FOR CLOTH DEFECTS. - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

  16. 12. Bldg #13, 2nd floor, interior stone walls w/windows and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Bldg #13, 2nd floor, interior stone walls w/windows and bent pipe thru wall L and light bulbs in ceiling, to NE - Lawrence Machine Shop, Building No. 13, Union & Canal Streets, Lawrence, Essex County, MA

  17. 4. VIEW WEST, WEST SIDE, SHOWING CHANNELS 1ST AND 2ND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW WEST, WEST SIDE, SHOWING CHANNELS 1ST AND 2ND VERTICAL BRACED DOUBLE ANGLES, DIAGONAL BRACING AND CROSS BRACED RAILING - Thirty-Sixth Street Bridge, Spanning Rabbit River, Hamilton, Allegan County, MI

  18. 2nd U.S. Case of Bacteria Resistant to Last-Resort Antibiotic

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_159807.html 2nd U.S. Case of Bacteria Resistant to Last-Resort Antibiotic Scientists concerned it ... the United States who was infected with a bacteria that is resistant to an antibiotic of last ...

  19. 21. VIEW FROM INTERIOR OF 2ND FLOOR ARCHED WINDOW WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. VIEW FROM INTERIOR OF 2ND FLOOR ARCHED WINDOW WITH HOLLOW STEEL SASH AND POLISHED PLATE WIRE GLASS. THIS WINDOW IS AT THE FRONT OF THE BUILDING. - Pacific Telephone & Telegraph Company Building, 1519 Franklin Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  20. The 2nd-order Post-Newtonian Orbit Equation of Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Yu; Fei, Bao-Jun; Sun, Wei-Jin; Ji, Cheng-Xiang

    2008-10-01

    Based on the 2nd-order post-Newtonian approximation under the DSX frame of the general relativity theory, the 2nd-order post-Newtonian orbital equation of light in the axis-symmetrical stationary spacetime is derived, and from this, the angle of deflection of light propagating in the equatorial plane is derived. The obtained results are consistent with those of the Schwarzchild and Kerr metrics within the limits of measuring precision.

  1. Severe weather phenomena: SQUALL LINES The case of July 2nd 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paraschivescu, Mihnea; Tanase, Adrian

    2010-05-01

    The wind intensity plays an important role, among the dangerous meteorological phenomena, to produce negative effects on the economy and the social activities, particularly when the wind is about to turn into a storm. During the past years one can notice an increase of wind frequency and intensity due to climate changes and, consequently, as a result of the extreme meteorological phenomena not only on a planetary level but also on a regional one. Although dangerous meteorological phenomena cannot be avoided, since they are natural, nevertheless they can be anticipated and decision making institutions and mass media can be informed. This is the reason why, in this paper, we set out to identify the synoptic conditions that led to the occurrence of the severe storm case in Bucharest on July 2nd, 2009, as well as the matrices that generate such cases. At the same time we sought to identify some indications evidence especially from radar data so as to lead to the improvement of the time interval between the nowcasting warning and the actual occurrence of the phenomenon.

  2. 11 Years of Cloud Characteristics from SEVIRI: 2nd Edition of the CLAAS Dataset by CMSAF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finkensieper, Stephan; Stengel, Martin; Fokke Meirink, Jan; van Zadelhoff, Gerd-Jan; Kniffka, Anke

    2016-04-01

    Spatiotemporal variability of clouds is an important aspect of the climate system. Therefore climate data records of cloud properties are valuable to many researchers in the climate community. The passive SEVIRI imager onboard the geostationary Meteosat Second Generation satellites is well suited for the needs of cloud retrievals as it provides measurements in 12 spectral channels every 15 minutes and thus allows for capturing both the spatial and the temporal variability of clouds. However, requirements on climate data records are high in terms of record length and homogeneity, so that intercalibration and homogenization among the available SEVIRI instruments becomes a crucial factor. We present the 2nd edition of the CLoud Property DAtAset using SEVIRI (CLAAS-2) generated within the EUMETSAT Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring (CMSAF), that is temporally extended and qualitatively improved compared to the 1st edition. CLAAS-2 covers the time period 2004-2014 and features cloud mask, cloud top properties, cloud phase, cloud type, and microphysical cloud properties on the complete SEVIRI disc in 15-minute temporal resolution. Temporally and spatially averaged quantities, mean diurnal cycles and monthly histograms are included as well. CLAAS-2 was derived from a homogenized data basis, obtained by intercalibrating visible and infrared SEVIRI radiances (of Meteosat 8, 9 and 10) with MODIS, using state-of-the-art retrieval schemes. In addition to the dataset characteristics, we will present validation results using CALIPSO as reference observations. The CLAAS-2 dataset will allow for a large variety of applications of which some will be indicated in our presentation, with focus on determining diurnal to seasonal cycles, spatially resolved frequencies of cloud properties as well as showing the potential for using CLAAS-2 data for model process studies.

  3. Handbook of industrial and hazardous wastes treatment. 2nd ed.

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence Wang; Yung-Tse Hung; Howard Lo; Constantine Yapijakis

    2004-06-15

    This expanded Second Edition offers 32 chapters of industry- and waste-specific analyses and treatment methods for industrial and hazardous waste materials - from explosive wastes to landfill leachate to wastes produced by the pharmaceutical and food industries. Key additional chapters cover means of monitoring waste on site, pollution prevention, and site remediation. Including a timely evaluation of the role of biotechnology in contemporary industrial waste management, the Handbook reveals sound approaches and sophisticated technologies for treating: textile, rubber, and timber wastes; dairy, meat, and seafood industry wastes; bakery and soft drink wastes; palm and olive oil wastes; pesticide and livestock wastes; pulp and paper wastes; phosphate wastes; detergent wastes; photographic wastes; refinery and metal plating wastes; and power industry wastes. This final chapter, entitled 'Treatment of power industry wastes' by Lawrence K. Wang, analyses the stream electric power generation industry, where combustion of fossil fuels coal, oil, gas, supplies heat to produce stream, used then to generate mechanical energy in turbines, subsequently converted to electricity. Wastes include waste waters from cooling water systems, ash handling systems, wet-scrubber air pollution control systems, and boiler blowdown. Wastewaters are characterized and waste treatment by physical and chemical systems to remove pollutants is presented. Plant-specific examples are provided.

  4. Physics design of the DARHT 2nd axis accelerator cell

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y J; Houck, T L; Reginato, L J; Shang, C C; Yu, S S

    1999-08-19

    The next generation of radiographic machines based on induction accelerators require very high brightness electron beams to realize the desired x-ray spot size and intensity. This high brightness must be maintained throughout the beam transport, from source to x-ray converter target. The accelerator for the second-axis of the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) facility is being designed to accelerate a 4-kA, 2-{micro}s pulse of electrons to 20 MeV. After acceleration, the 2-{micro}s pulse will be chopped into a train of four 50-ns pulses with variable temporal spacing by rapidly deflecting the beam between a beam stop and the final transport section. The short beam pulses will be focused onto an x-ray converter target generating four radiographic pulses within the 2-{micro}s window. Beam instability due to interaction with the accelerator cells can very adversely effect the beam brightness and radiographic pulse quality. This paper describes the various issues considered in the design of the accelerator cell with emphasis on transverse impedance and minimizing beam instabilities.

  5. Four-dimensional investigation of the 2nd order volume autocorrelation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faucher, O.; Tzallas, P.; Benis, E. P.; Kruse, J.; Peralta Conde, A.; Kalpouzos, C.; Charalambidis, D.

    2009-10-01

    The 2nd order volume autocorrelation technique, widely utilized in directly measuring ultra-short light pulses durations, is examined in detail via model calculations that include three-dimensional integration over a large ionization volume, temporal delay and spatial displacement of the two beams of the autocorrelator at the focus. The effects of the inherent displacement to the 2nd order autocorrelation technique are demonstrated for short and long pulses, elucidating the appropriate implementation of the technique in tight focusing conditions. Based on the above investigations, a high accuracy 2nd order volume autocorrelation measurement of the duration of the 5th harmonic of a 50 fs long laser pulse, including the measurement of the carrier wavelength oscillation, is presented.

  6. Regional Observations of North Korea Explosions: 1st and 2nd Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Heon Cheol; Shin, Jin Soo; Lee, Hee-Il; Park, Jung Ho; Sheen, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Geunyoung; Kim, Tea Sung; Che, Il-Young; Lim, In-Seub

    2010-05-01

    Through data exchanging with China, Russia and Japan, KIGAM could monitor North Korea explosion tests in near real time with azimuthally full coverage from the test site. Except for the East Sea (Japan Sea) side, the seismic stations are distributed uniformly along the boundaries of North Korea and adjacent countries. The error ellipses of epicentral determination of test site for 1st and 2nd tests showed almost identical pattern if they were separately calculated with the same configuration of stations. But the combined use of the 1st and the 2nd test data showed that the 2nd test site was moved approximately 2 Km westward from 1st site. The Pn/Lg spectral ratio clearly discriminate these events from two nearby natural earthquakes above 4 Hz. Full moment tensor inversion also indicate the 2nd test had a very large isotropic component. But mb-Ms discrimination, which has been considered one of the most reliable discriminants for separating explosions and earthquakes, did not show apparently the known pattern of explosion for both tests. Body wave magnitude, mb(Pn) of the 2nd test, which was evaluated as 4.5 by KIGAM, varies with directional location of stations widely from 4.1 to 5.2. The magnitude obtained from Lg, mb(Lg), showed narrow variation between 4.3 to 4.7 with the average of 4.5. In the case of both 1st and 2nd tests, both mb(Pn) and mb(Lg) showed equivalently large variation with directional station location. These variations are mainly due to lateral variation of crustal structures surrounding the test site. Remarkably mb(Lg) showed very linear relationship with mb(Pn). By considering attenuation characteristics according to the propagation path, the variations could be effectively reduced. The cut-off frequencies of P wave of both tests showed no or negligible difference even though the estimated yield of the 2nd test were much larger than that of the 1st one. The ratio of P-wave amplitudes of two tests showed from 2 to 3.1 times. Correspondingly the

  7. Monitoring North Korea Explosions: Status and Result of 1st and 2nd Tests (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, H.; Lee, H.; Shin, J.; Park, J.; Sheen, D.; Kim, G.; Che, I.; Lim, I.; Kim, T.

    2009-12-01

    Through data exchanging with China, Russia and Japan, KIGAM could monitor North Korea explosion tests in near real time with azimuthal full coverage from the test site. Except for the East Sea (Japan Sea) side, the seismic stations are distributed uniformly along the boundaries of North Korea and adjacent countries, and only stations with the distance of 200 to 550 Km from the test site were considered. Irrespective of azimuthal directions of stations from the test site, the conventional discrimination, Pn/Lg spectral ratio clearly showed that both tests were explosion. But mb-Ms discrimination did not show apparently the known pattern of explosion for both tests. Body wave magnitude, mb(Pn) of 2nd test, which was evaluated as 4.5 by KIGAM, varies with directional location of stations widely from 4.1 to 5.2. The magnitude obtained from Lg, mb(Lg), showed narrow variation between 4.3 to 4.7 with the average of 4.5. In the case of 1st test, both mb(Pn) and mb(Lg) showed equivalently large variation with directional station location. The error ellipses of epicentral determination of test site for 1st and 2nd tests showed almost identical pattern if they were separately calculated with the same configuration of stations. But the combined use of 1st and 2nd test data showed that 2nd test site was moved approximately 2 Km westward from 1st site. The cut-off frequencies of P wave of 1st and 2nd tests showed no or negligible difference even though the estimated yield of 2nd test were much larger than that of 1st one. The ratio of 1st and 2nd P-wave amplitudes showed from 2 to 3.1 times. Correspondingly the estimated energy or yield were ranged from 4 to roughly 10 times. KIGAM evaluated the yield of 2nd test were 8 times in the average larger than that of 1st one.

  8. DOE performance indicators for 2nd quarter CY 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has established a Department-wide Performance Indicator (PI) Program for trending and analysis of operational data as directed by DOE Order 5480.26. The PI Program was established to provide a means for monitoring the environment, safety, and health (ES&H) performance of the DOE at the Secretary and other management levels. This is the tenth in a series of quarterly reports generated for the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) by EG&G Idaho, Inc. to meet the requirements of the PI Program as directed by the DOE Standard (DOE-STD-1048-92). The information in this tenth quarterly report, while contributing to a historical database for supporting future trending analysis, does not at this time provide a sound basis for developing trend-related conclusions. In the future, it is expected that trending and analysis of operational data will enhance the safety culture in both DOE and contractor organizations by providing an early warning of deteriorating environment, safety, and health conditions. DOE-STD-1048-92 identifies four general areas of PIs. They are: Personnel Safety, Operational Incidents, Environment, and Management. These four areas have been subdivided into 26 performance indicators. Approximately 115 performance indicator control and distribution charts comprise the body of this report. A brief summary of PIs contained in each of these general areas is provided. The four EG&G facilities whose performance is charted herein are as follows: (1) The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), (2) The Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC), (3) The Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF), and (4) The Test Reactor Area (TRA) Hot Cells.

  9. Evaluation of a Hand Washing Program for 2nd-Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tousman, Stuart; Arnold, Dani; Helland, Wealtha; Roth, Ruth; Heshelman, Nannatte; Castaneda, Oralia; Fischer, Emily; O'Neil, Kristen; Bileto, Stephanie

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to determine if a multiple-week learner-centered hand washing program could improve hand hygiene behaviors of 2nd-graders in a northern Illinois public school system. Volunteers from the Rockford Hand Washing Coalition went into 19 different classrooms for 4 consecutive weeks and taught a learner-centered program.…

  10. The Effect of Using Computer Edutainment on Developing 2nd Primary Graders' Writing Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammed Abdel Raheem, Azza Ashraf

    2011-01-01

    The present study attempted to examine the effect of using computer edutainment on developing 2nd graders' writing skills. The study comprised thirty-second year primary stage enrolled in Bani Hamad primary governmental school, Minia governorate. The study adopted the quasi-experimental design. Thirty participants were randomly assigned to one…

  11. 70. VIEW OF LIFEGUARD TOWER ON SOUTHEAST SIDE OF 2ND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    70. VIEW OF LIFEGUARD TOWER ON SOUTHEAST SIDE OF 2ND TEE (LEFT) AND NORTHWEST SIDE OF TEE (RIGHT), WITH VIEW OF PILINGS, LOOKING SOUTH-SOUTHWEST - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  12. 71. VIEW OF NORTHWEST SIDE OF 2ND TEE (LEFT), SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    71. VIEW OF NORTHWEST SIDE OF 2ND TEE (LEFT), SHOWING VIEW OF PILINGS, LIFEGURD TOWER ON SOUTHEAST SIDE OF TEE (RIGHT), LOOKING EAST-NORTHEAST - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  13. Proceedings of the 2nd symposium on valves for coal conversion and utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Maxfield, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    The 2nd symposium on valves for coal conversion and utilization was held October 15 to 17, 1980. It was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center, in cooperation with the Valve Manufacturers Association. Seventeen papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  14. Stem cells and cancer immunotherapy: Arrowhead’s 2nd annual cancer immunotherapy conference

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Investigators from academia and industry gathered on April 4 and 5, 2013, in Washington DC at the Arrowhead’s 2nd Annual Cancer Immunotherapy Conference. Two complementary concepts were discussed: cancer “stem cells” as targets and therapeutic platforms based on stem cells.

  15. Technical Adequacy of the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale-2nd Edition--Self-Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erford, Bradley T.; Miller, Emily M.; Isbister, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    This study provides preliminary analysis of the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale-2nd Edition--Self-Report, which was designed to screen individuals aged 10 years and older for anxiety and behavior symptoms. Score reliability and internal and external facets of validity were good for a screening-level test.

  16. Methods for the Determination of Chemical Substances in Marine and Estuarine Environmental Matrices - 2nd Edition

    EPA Science Inventory

    This NERL-Cincinnati publication, “Methods for the Determination of Chemical Substances in Marine and Estuarine Environmental Matrices - 2nd Edition” was prepared as the continuation of an initiative to gather together under a single cover a compendium of standardized laborato...

  17. 2nd International Forum for Surveillance and Control of Mosquitoes and Mosquito-borne Diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Entomological Society of China (ESC) and Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology (BIME) hosted the 2nd International Forum for Surveillance and Control of Mosquitoes and Mosquito-borne Diseases in Beijing, China, May 23-27, 2011. The theme of the Forum was “Impact of global climate ch...

  18. Individual Differences In The School Performance of 2nd-Grade Children Born to Low-Income Adolescent Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apiwattanalunggarn, Kunlakarn Lekskul; Luster, Tom

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate factors that contribute to individual differences in the school performance of 2nd-grade children born to adolescent mothers. The sample of this study was 90 low-income adolescent mothers and their children. Data were collected from the adolescent mothers and their first-born children, now in 2nd grade,…

  19. Performance of 2nd Generation BaBar Resistive Plate Chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Anulli, F.; Baldini, R.; Calcaterra, A.; de Sangro, R.; Finocchiaro, G.; Patteri, P.; Piccolo, M.; Zallo, A.; Cheng, C.H.; Lange, D.J.; Wright, D.M.; Messner, R.; Wisniewski, William J.; Pappagallo, M.; Andreotti, M.; Bettoni, D.; Calabrese, R.; Cibinetto, G.; Luppi, E.; Negrini, M.; Capra, R.; /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Naples U. /INFN, Naples /Perugia U. /INFN, Perugia /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Oregon U. /UC, Riverside /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2005-07-12

    The BaBar detector has operated nearly 200 Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs), constructed as part of an upgrade of the forward endcap muon detector, for the past two years. The RPCs experience widely different background and luminosity-driven singles rates (0.01-10 Hz/cm{sup 2}) depending on position within the endcap. Some regions have integrated over 0.3 C/cm{sup 2}. RPC efficiency measured with cosmic rays is high and stable. The average efficiency measured with beam is also high. However, a few of the highest rate RPCs have suffered efficiency losses of 5-15%. Although constructed with improved techniques and minimal use of linseed oil, many of the RPCs, which are operated in streamer mode, have shown increased dark currents and noise rates that are correlated with the direction of the gas flow and the integrated current. Studies of the above aging effects are presented and correlated with detector operating conditions.

  20. Utilisation of 2nd Generation Web Technologies in Master Level Vocational Teacher Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tóth, Péter

    2009-01-01

    The Masters level Opportunities and Technological Innovation in Vocational Teacher Education project (project site: http://motivate.tmpk.bmf.hu/) aims to develop the use and management of virtual learning environments in the area of vocational teacher training, drawing on a well established international partnership of institutions providing both…

  1. Integrated vehicle test bed for IVHM systems on 2nd generation RLV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, M. L.; Baroth, E.; Mellinger, L.; Park, H.; Stough, T.; Brown, S. A.; Meyer, C. M.

    2003-01-01

    The IVTB concept is to validate spacecraft system designs and evaluate new technologies; its focus is to identify and resolve problems at the early stages of development and facilitate new technology transfer.

  2. Reed canary grass as a feedstock for 2nd generation bioethanol production.

    PubMed

    Kallioinen, Anne; Uusitalo, Jaana; Pahkala, Katri; Kontturi, Markku; Viikari, Liisa; Weymarn, Niklas von; Siika-Aho, Matti

    2012-11-01

    The enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of reed canary grass, harvested in the spring or autumn, and barley straw were studied. Steam pretreated materials were efficiently hydrolysed by commercial enzymes with a dosage of 10-20FPU/g d.m. Reed canary grass harvested in the spring was hydrolysed more efficiently than the autumn-harvested reed canary grass. Additional β-glucosidase improved the release of glucose and xylose during the hydrolysis reaction. The hydrolysis rate and level of reed canary grass with a commercial Trichoderma reesei cellulase could be improved by supplementation of purified enzymes. The addition of CBH II improved the hydrolysis level by 10% in 48hours' hydrolysis. Efficient mixing was shown to be important for hydrolysis already at 10% dry matter consistency. The highest ethanol concentration (20g/l) and yield (82%) was obtained with reed canary grass at 10% d.m. consistency. PMID:22939601

  3. Validation of the 2nd Generation Proteasome Inhibitor Oprozomib for Local Therapy of Pulmonary Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Semren, Nora; Habel-Ungewitter, Nunja C.; Fernandez, Isis E.; Königshoff, Melanie; Eickelberg, Oliver; Stöger, Tobias; Meiners, Silke

    2015-01-01

    Proteasome inhibition has been shown to prevent development of fibrosis in several organs including the lung. However, effects of proteasome inhibitors on lung fibrosis are controversial and cytotoxic side effects of the overall inhibition of proteasomal protein degradation cannot be excluded. Therefore, we hypothesized that local lung-specific application of a novel, selective proteasome inhibitor, oprozomib (OZ), provides antifibrotic effects without systemic toxicity in a mouse model of lung fibrosis. Oprozomib was first tested on the human alveolar epithelial cancer cell line A549 and in primary mouse alveolar epithelial type II cells regarding its cytotoxic effects on alveolar epithelial cells and compared to the FDA approved proteasome inhibitor bortezomib (BZ). OZ was less toxic than BZ and provided high selectivity for the chymotrypsin-like active site of the proteasome. In primary mouse lung fibroblasts, OZ showed significant anti-fibrotic effects, i.e. reduction of collagen I and α smooth muscle actin expression, in the absence of cytotoxicity. When applied locally into the lungs of healthy mice via instillation, OZ was well tolerated and effectively reduced proteasome activity in the lungs. In bleomycin challenged mice, however, locally applied OZ resulted in accelerated weight loss and increased mortality of treated mice. Further, OZ failed to reduce fibrosis in these mice. While upon systemic application OZ was well tolerated in healthy mice, it rather augmented instead of attenuated fibrotic remodelling of the lung in bleomycin challenged mice. To conclude, low toxicity and antifibrotic effects of OZ in pulmonary fibroblasts could not be confirmed for pulmonary fibrosis of bleomycin-treated mice. In light of these data, the use of proteasome inhibitors as therapeutic agents for the treatment of fibrotic lung diseases should thus be considered with caution. PMID:26340365

  4. The new 2nd-generation laser station at Santiago de Cuba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masevich, A. G.; Chepurnov, B. D.; Fundora, M.; del Pino, J.; Kautzleben, H.

    The new laser-radar station at Santiago de Cuba was equipped in cooperation between the Academies of Sciences of the USSR, Cuba and the G.D.R. The system is based on a modified satellite-tracking camera (SBG). Its basic concept and the technical performance are similar to the laser-radar station of the Central Institute for Physics of the Earth, Potsdam. During a first 6-weeks-observation campaign (Dec. 1985 - Jan. 1986), 70 satellite passes (including 40 passes of the geodynamical satellite LAGEOS) were obtained.

  5. Validation of the 2nd Generation Proteasome Inhibitor Oprozomib for Local Therapy of Pulmonary Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Semren, Nora; Habel-Ungewitter, Nunja C; Fernandez, Isis E; Königshoff, Melanie; Eickelberg, Oliver; Stöger, Tobias; Meiners, Silke

    2015-01-01

    Proteasome inhibition has been shown to prevent development of fibrosis in several organs including the lung. However, effects of proteasome inhibitors on lung fibrosis are controversial and cytotoxic side effects of the overall inhibition of proteasomal protein degradation cannot be excluded. Therefore, we hypothesized that local lung-specific application of a novel, selective proteasome inhibitor, oprozomib (OZ), provides antifibrotic effects without systemic toxicity in a mouse model of lung fibrosis. Oprozomib was first tested on the human alveolar epithelial cancer cell line A549 and in primary mouse alveolar epithelial type II cells regarding its cytotoxic effects on alveolar epithelial cells and compared to the FDA approved proteasome inhibitor bortezomib (BZ). OZ was less toxic than BZ and provided high selectivity for the chymotrypsin-like active site of the proteasome. In primary mouse lung fibroblasts, OZ showed significant anti-fibrotic effects, i.e. reduction of collagen I and α smooth muscle actin expression, in the absence of cytotoxicity. When applied locally into the lungs of healthy mice via instillation, OZ was well tolerated and effectively reduced proteasome activity in the lungs. In bleomycin challenged mice, however, locally applied OZ resulted in accelerated weight loss and increased mortality of treated mice. Further, OZ failed to reduce fibrosis in these mice. While upon systemic application OZ was well tolerated in healthy mice, it rather augmented instead of attenuated fibrotic remodelling of the lung in bleomycin challenged mice. To conclude, low toxicity and antifibrotic effects of OZ in pulmonary fibroblasts could not be confirmed for pulmonary fibrosis of bleomycin-treated mice. In light of these data, the use of proteasome inhibitors as therapeutic agents for the treatment of fibrotic lung diseases should thus be considered with caution. PMID:26340365

  6. 2nd-Order CESE Results For C1.4: Vortex Transport by Uniform Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedlander, David J.

    2015-01-01

    The Conservation Element and Solution Element (CESE) method was used as implemented in the NASA research code ez4d. The CESE method is a time accurate formulation with flux-conservation in both space and time. The method treats the discretized derivatives of space and time identically and while the 2nd-order accurate version was used, high-order versions exist, the 2nd-order accurate version was used. In regards to the ez4d code, it is an unstructured Navier-Stokes solver coded in C++ with serial and parallel versions available. As part of its architecture, ez4d has the capability to utilize multi-thread and Messaging Passage Interface (MPI) for parallel runs.

  7. Idaho National Laboratory Quarterly Performance Analysis for the 2nd Quarter FY 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Lisbeth A.

    2015-04-01

    This report is published quarterly by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Quality and Performance Management Organization. The Department of Energy (DOE) Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS), as prescribed in DOE Order 232.2, “Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information,” requires a quarterly analysis of events, both reportable and not reportable, for the previous 12 months. This report is the analysis of events for the 2nd Qtr FY-15.

  8. 2nd-Order CESE Results For C1.1: Transonic Ringleb Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedlander, David J.

    2015-01-01

    The Conservation Element and Solution Element (CESE) method was used as implemented in the NASA research code ez4d (an unstructured Navier-Stokes solver coded in C++ with serial and parallel versions available.) The CESE method is a time-accurate formulation with flux-conservation in both space and time. The method treats the discretized derivatives of space and time identically and while the 2nd-order accurate version was used, high-order versions exist.

  9. Very large millimeter/submillimeter array toward search for 2nd Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iguchi, Satoru; Saito, Masao

    2012-09-01

    ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array) is a revolutionary radio telescope and its early scientific operation has just started. It is expected that ALMA will resolve several cosmic questions and will give us a new cosmic view. Our passion for astronomy naturally goes beyond ALMA because we believe that the 21st-century astronomy should pursue the new scientific frontier. In this conference, we propose a project of the future radio telescope to search for habitable planets and finally detect 2nd Earth as a migratable planet. Detection of 2nd Earth is one of the ultimate dreams not only for astronomers but also for every human being. To directly detect 2nd Earth, we have to carefully design the sensitivity and angular resolution of the telescope by conducting trade-off analysis between the confusion limit and the minimum detectable temperature. The result of the sensitivity analysis is derived assuming an array that has sixty-four (64) 50-m antennas with 25-μm surface accuracy mainly located within the area of 300 km (up to 3000 km), dual-polarization SSB receivers with the best noise temperature performance achieved by ALMA or better, and IF bandwidth of 128 or 256 GHz.. We temporarily name this telescope "Very Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (VLMSA)". Since this sensitivity is extremely high, we can have a lot of chances to study the galaxy, star formation, cosmology and of course the new scientific frontier.

  10. Application research on enhancing near-infrared micro-imaging quality by 2nd derivative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong; Ma, Zhi-hong; Zhao, Liu; Wang, Bei-hong; Han, Ping; Pan, Li-gang; Wang, Ji-hua

    2013-08-01

    Near-infrared micro-imaging will not only provide the sample's spatial distribution information, but also the spectroscopic information of each pixel. In this thesis, it took the artificial sample of wheat flour and formaldehyde sodium sulfoxylate distribution given for example to research the data processing method for enhancing the quality of near-infrared micro-imaging. Near-infrared spectroscopic feature of wheat flour and formaldehyde sodium sulfoxylate being studied on, compare correlation imaging and 2nd derivative imaging were applied in the imaging processing of the near-infrared micro-image of the artificial sample. Furthermore, the two methods were combined, i.e. 2nd derivative compare correlation imaging was acquired. The result indicated that the difference of the correlation coefficients between the two substances, i.e. wheat flour and formaldehyde sodium sulfoxylate, and the reference spectrum has been increased from 0.001 in compare correlation image to 0.796 in 2nd derivative compare correlation image respectively, which enhances the imaging quality efficiently. This study will, to some extent, be of important reference significance to near-infrared micro-imaging method research of agricultural products and foods.

  11. [Employment and education in the 2nd economic and social development plan of Togo].

    PubMed

    Dovi-sodemekou, F B

    1985-01-01

    Togo is a developing country whose population is increasing at the rapid rate of 2.7%/year. Economic development is therefore a necessity to ensure at least an average standard of living. Plans of development include objectives of structural societal changes, including improvements in education and employment. This study analyzes the evolution of population activities. It identifies obstacles to the improvement of education and employment. The investigation examines the employment and education situation before adoption of the 2nd plan of Togo and predicts the probable evolution of the situation. Despite the priority accorded to agriculture, the 2nd plan appears to give greater importance to industry. The industrial and commercial sector has witnessed a 65.2% investment increase, whereas the rural sector had an investment increase of 11.8%. The 2nd plan, in view of its relation to the evolution of economic activities, took into account the demand for manual labor. In the private sector, industries should occupy an important position. The dualism of a modern and a traditional sector is considered a cause of underdevelopment. The modern sector should be developed in order to suppress the traditional sector and allow progress in society. As a result of this approach, agriculture is given a 2ndary role. PMID:12267415

  12. Carbon dioxide emissions and the overshoot ratio change resulting from the implementation of 2nd Energy Master Plan in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeo, M. J.; Kim, Y. P.

    2015-12-01

    The direction of the energy policies of the country is important in the projection of environmental impacts of the country. The greenhouse gases (GHGs) emission of the energy sector in South Korea is very huge, about 600 MtCO2e in 2011. Also the carbon footprint due to the energy consumption contributes to the ecological footprint is also large, more than 60%. Based on the official plans (the national greenhouse gases emission reduction target for 2030 (GHG target for 2030) and the 2nd Energy Master Plan (2nd EMP)), several scenarios were proposed and the sensitivity of the GHG emission amount and 'overshoot ratio' which is the ratio of ecological footprint to biocapacity were estimated. It was found that to meet the GHG target for 2030 the ratio of non-emission energy for power generation should be over 71% which would be very difficult. We also found that the overshoot ratio would increase from 5.9 in 2009 to 7.6 in 2035. Thus, additional efforts are required to reduce the environmental burdens in addition to optimize the power mix configuration. One example is the conversion efficiency in power generation. If the conversion efficiency in power generation rises up 50% from the current level, 40%, the energy demand and resultant carbon dioxide emissions would decrease about 10%. Also the influence on the environment through changes in consumption behavior, for example, the diet choice is expected to be meaningful.

  13. PREFACE: 2nd International Conference on Innovative Materials, Structures and Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ručevskis, Sandris

    2015-11-01

    The 2nd International Conference on Innovative Materials, Structures and Technologies (IMST 2015) took place in Riga, Latvia from 30th September - 2nd October, 2015. The first event of the conference series, dedicated to the 150th anniversary of the Faculty of Civil Engineering of Riga Technical University, was held in 2013. Following the established tradition, the aim of the conference was to promote and discuss the latest results of industrial and academic research carried out in the following engineering fields: analysis and design of advanced structures and buildings; innovative, ecological and energy efficient building materials; maintenance, inspection and monitoring methods; construction technologies; structural management; sustainable and safe transport infrastructure; and geomatics and geotechnics. The conference provided an excellent opportunity for leading researchers, representatives of the industrial community, engineers, managers and students to share the latest achievements, discuss recent advances and highlight the current challenges. IMST 2015 attracted over 120 scientists from 24 countries. After rigorous reviewing, over 80 technical papers were accepted for publication in the conference proceedings. On behalf of the organizing committee I would like to thank all the speakers, authors, session chairs and reviewers for their efficient and timely effort. The 2nd International Conference on Innovative Materials, Structures and Technologies was organized by the Faculty of Civil Engineering of Riga Technical University with the support of the Latvia State Research Programme under the grant agreement "INNOVATIVE MATERIALS AND SMART TECHNOLOGIES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY, IMATEH". I would like to express sincere gratitude to Juris Smirnovs, Dean of the Faculty of Civil Engineering, and Andris Chate, manager of the Latvia State Research Programme. Finally, I would like to thank all those who helped to make this event happen. Special thanks go to Diana

  14. [Model and enlightenment from rescue of August 2nd Kunshan explosion casualty].

    PubMed

    Tan, Q; Qiu, H B; Sun, B W; Shen, Y M; Nie, L J; Zhang, H W

    2016-01-01

    On August 2nd, 2014, a massive dust explosion occurred in a factory of Kunshan, resulting in a mass casualty involving 185 burn patients. They were transported to 20 medical institutions in Jiangsu province and Shanghai. More than one thousand of medical personnel of our country participated in this emergency rescue, and satisfactory results were achieved. In this paper, the characteristics of this accident were analyzed, the positive effects of interdisciplinary cooperation were affirmed, and the contingency plan, rescue process and pattern, and reserve, organization and management of talents during this rescue process were reviewed retrospectively. PMID:27426066

  15. Easy Glide in a Coarse-Grained Mg-2Zn-2Nd Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tong; Jonas, John J.; Yue, Stephen

    2016-08-01

    Compression tests were performed at 673 K (400 °C) on a Mg-2Zn-2Nd alloy at the strain rates of 0.1, 0.01, and 0.001/s. The 0.1 and 0.01/s flow curves displayed work hardening to a peak stress at around 0.2 true strain. However, testing at 0.001/s led to steady-state flow at about 22 MPa from 0.03 true strain onwards. Such a steady-state flow is attributed to the predominance of basal slip under these conditions.

  16. PREFACE: 2nd International Meeting for Researchers in Materials and Plasma Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niño, Ely Dannier V.

    2013-11-01

    These proceedings present the written contributions of the participants of the 2nd International Meeting for Researchers in Materials and Plasma Technology, 2nd IMRMPT, which was held from February 27 to March 2, 2013 at the Pontificia Bolivariana Bucaramanga-UPB and Santander and Industrial - UIS Universities, Bucaramanga, Colombia, organized by research groups from GINTEP-UPB, FITEK-UIS. The IMRMPT, was the second version of biennial meetings that began in 2011. The three-day scientific program of the 2nd IMRMPT consisted in 14 Magisterial Conferences, 42 Oral Presentations and 48 Poster Presentations, with the participation of undergraduate and graduate students, professors, researchers and entrepreneurs from Colombia, Russia, France, Venezuela, Brazil, Uruguay, Argentina, Peru, Mexico, United States, among others. Moreover, the objective of IMRMPT was to bring together national and international researchers in order to establish scientific cooperation in the field of materials science and plasma technology; introduce new techniques of surface treatment of materials to improve properties of metals in terms of the deterioration due to corrosion, hydrogen embrittlement, abrasion, hardness, among others; and establish cooperation agreements between universities and industry. The topics covered in the 2nd IMRMPT include New Materials, Surface Physics, Laser and Hybrid Processes, Characterization of Materials, Thin Films and Nanomaterials, Surface Hardening Processes, Wear and Corrosion / Oxidation, Modeling, Simulation and Diagnostics, Plasma Applications and Technologies, Biomedical Coatings and Surface Treatments, Non Destructive Evaluation and Online Process Control, Surface Modification (Ion Implantation, Ion Nitriding, PVD, CVD). The editors hope that those interested in the are of materials science and plasma technology, enjoy the reading that reflect a wide range of topics. It is a pleasure to thank the sponsors and all the participants and contributors for

  17. [Infected chorionic hematoma as a cause of infection in the 2nd trimester].

    PubMed

    Weigel, M; Friese, K; Schmitt, W; Strittmatter, H J; Melchert, F

    1992-12-01

    Superinfected subchorionic haematomas are a rare septic focus in the 2nd trimenon. Symptoms being unspecific, the diagnosis has to be made by exclusion, in most cases. As the changes of a successful treatment of the manifest infection is poor, antibiotic prophylaxis as well as close laboratory controls and early antibiotic therapy should be discussed after sonographic diagnosis of an intrauterine haematoma. Two of our three patients reported on having suffered a miscarriage; only one pregnancy could be maintained after spontaneous depletion of the infected haemorrhage. PMID:1490559

  18. The ratio of 2nd to 4th digit length: a new predictor of disease predisposition?

    PubMed

    Manning, J T; Bundred, P E

    2000-05-01

    The ratio between the length of the 2nd and 4th digits is: (a) fixed in utero; (b) lower in men than in women; (c) negatively related to testosterone and sperm counts; and (d) positively related to oestrogen concentrations. Prenatal levels of testosterone and oestrogen have been implicated in infertility, autism, dyslexia, migraine, stammering, immune dysfunction, myocardial infarction and breast cancer. We suggest that 2D:4D ratio is predictive of these diseases and may be used in diagnosis, prognosis and in early life-style interventions which may delay the onset of disease or facilitate its early detection. PMID:10859702

  19. Efficacy and Safety of rAAV2-ND4 Treatment for Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Wan, Xing; Pei, Han; Zhao, Min-Jian; Yang, Shuo; Hu, Wei-Kun; He, Heng; Ma, Si-Qi; Zhang, Ge; Dong, Xiao-Yan; Chen, Chen; Wang, Dao-Wen; Li, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a mitochondrially inherited disease leading to blindness. A mitochondrial DNA point mutation at the 11778 nucleotide site of the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4) gene is the most common cause. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a recombinant adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) carrying ND4 (rAAV2-ND4) in LHON patients carrying the G11778A mutation. Nine patients were administered rAAV2-ND4 by intravitreal injection to one eye and then followed for 9 months. Ophthalmologic examinations of visual acuity, visual field, and optical coherence tomography were performed. Physical examinations included routine blood and urine. The visual acuity of the injected eyes of six patients improved by at least 0.3 log MAR after 9 months of follow-up. In these six patients, the visual field was enlarged but the retinal nerve fibre layer remained relatively stable. No other outcome measure was significantly changed. None of the nine patients had local or systemic adverse events related to the vector during the 9-month follow-up period. These findings support the feasible use of gene therapy for LHON. PMID:26892229

  20. The relation between 1st grade grey matter volume and 2nd grade math competence.

    PubMed

    Price, Gavin R; Wilkey, Eric D; Yeo, Darren J; Cutting, Laurie E

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical and numerical competence is a critical foundation for individual success in modern society yet the neurobiological sources of individual differences in math competence are poorly understood. Neuroimaging research over the last decade suggests that neural mechanisms in the parietal lobe, particularly the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) are structurally aberrant in individuals with mathematical learning disabilities. However, whether those same brain regions underlie individual differences in math performance across the full range of math abilities is unknown. Furthermore, previous studies have been exclusively cross-sectional, making it unclear whether variations in the structure of the IPS are caused by or consequences of the development of math skills. The present study investigates the relation between grey matter volume across the whole brain and math competence longitudinally in a representative sample of 50 elementary school children. Results show that grey matter volume in the left IPS at the end of 1st grade relates to math competence a year later at the end of 2nd grade. Grey matter volume in this region did not change over that year, and was still correlated with math competence at the end of 2nd grade. These findings support the hypothesis that the IPS and its associated functions represent a critical foundation for the acquisition of mathematical competence. PMID:26334946

  1. Editorial: 2nd Special Issue on behavior change, health, and health disparities.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Stephen T

    2015-11-01

    This Special Issue of Preventive Medicine (PM) is the 2nd that we have organized on behavior change, health, and health disparities. This is a topic of fundamental importance to improving population health in the U.S. and other industrialized countries that are trying to more effectively manage chronic health conditions. There is broad scientific consensus that personal behavior patterns such as cigarette smoking, other substance abuse, and physical inactivity/obesity are among the most important modifiable causes of chronic disease and its adverse impacts on population health. As such behavior change needs to be a key component of improving population health. There is also broad agreement that while these problems extend across socioeconomic strata, they are overrepresented among more economically disadvantaged populations and contribute directly to the growing problem of health disparities. Hence, behavior change represents an essential step in curtailing that unsettling problem as well. In this 2nd Special Issue, we devote considerable space to the current U.S. prescription opioid addiction epidemic, a crisis that was not addressed in the prior Special Issue. We also continue to devote attention to the two largest contributors to preventable disease and premature death, cigarette smoking and physical inactivity/obesity as well as risks of co-occurrence of these unhealthy behavior patterns. Across each of these topics we included contributions from highly accomplished policy makers and scientists to acquaint readers with recent accomplishments as well as remaining knowledge gaps and challenges to effectively managing these important chronic health problems. PMID:26257372

  2. Editorial: 2nd Special Issue on behavior change, health, and health disparities

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Stephen T.

    2016-01-01

    This Special Issue of Preventive Medicine (PM) is the 2nd that we have organized on behavior change, health, and health disparities. This is a topic of fundamental importance to improving population health in the U.S. and other industrialized countries that are trying to more effectively manage chronic health conditions. There is broad scientific consensus that personal behavior patterns such as cigarette smoking, other substance abuse, and physical inactivity/obesity are among the most important modifiable causes of chronic disease and its adverse impacts on population health. As such behavior change needs to be a key component of improving population health. There is also broad agreement that while these problems extend across socioeconomic strata, they are overrepresented among more economically disadvantaged populations and contribute directly to the growing problem of health disparities. Hence, behavior change represents an essential step in curtailing that unsettling problem as well. In this 2nd Special Issue, we devote considerable space to the current U.S. prescription opioid addiction epidemic, a crisis that was not addressed in the prior Special Issue. We also continue to devote attention to the two largest contributors to preventable disease and premature death, cigarette smoking and physical inactivity/obesity as well as risks of co-occurrence of these unhealthy behavior patterns. Across each of these topics we included contributions from highly accomplished policymakers and scientists to acquaint readers with recent accomplishments as well as remaining knowledge gaps and challenges to effectively managing these important chronic health problems. PMID:26257372

  3. Glass fiber laser at 1. 36. mu. m from SiO sub 2 :Nd

    SciTech Connect

    Hakimi, F.; Po, H.; Tumminelli, R.; McCollum, B.C.; Zenteno, L.; Cho, N.M.; Snitzer, E. )

    1989-10-01

    By adding 14 mol % P{sub 2}O{sub 5} to the core of a SiO{sub 2}:Nd fiber, laser emission was obtained at 1.36 {mu}m. From the fluorescent spectra and laser thresholds for the {sup 4}{ital F}{sub 3/2} to {sup 4}{ital I}{sub 11/2} and {sup 4}{ital F}{sub 3/2} to {sup 4}{ital I}{sub 3/2} transitions, the net gain at 1.36 {mu}m is 0.024 dB/mW, and the ratio of excited-state absorption (the {sup 4}{ital F}{sub 3/2} to {sup 4}{ital G}{sub 1/2} transition) to stimulated emission is estimated to be 0.78.

  4. Tetragonal ZrO2:Nd3+ nanosphere: Combustion synthesis, luminescence and photoacoustic spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Santosh K.; Chandrasekhar, D.; Kadam, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    Nanocrystalline ZrO2:Nd3+ was synthesised using gel-combustion method and characterized systematically using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Through this route we can stabilize metastable tetragonal phase at 500 °C through addition of 1 mol % Nd3+ which is technologically more important. Optical characterization of the sample was done using photoluminescence (PL) and photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS). PL studies shows an intense and optimum stimulated emission cross section of 1065 nm peak corresponding to 4F3/2 → 4I11/2 which and thus it can be a probable laser material. PAS is used to investigate electronic absorption of Nd3 in zirconia. Various covalency parameters like nephelauxetic ratio (β), covalency factor (b1/2) and Sinha parameter (δ) were evaluated for pure oxide powder and as well as for Nd3+ doped zirconia.

  5. International symposium on peripheral nerve repair and regeneration and 2nd club Brunelli meeting

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The International Symposium "Peripheral Nerve Repair and Regeneration and 2nd Club Brunelli Meeting" was held on December 4-5, 2009 in Turin, Italy (Organizers: Bruno Battiston, Stefano Geuna, Isabelle Perroteau, Pierluigi Tos). Interest in the study of peripheral nerve regeneration is very much alive because complete recovery of nerve function almost never occurs after nerve reconstruction and, often, the clinical outcome is rather poor. Therefore, there is a need for defining innovative strategies for improving the success of recovery after nerve lesion and repair and this meeting was intended to discuss, from a multidisciplinary point of view, some of today's most important issues in this scientific field, arising from both basic and clinical neurosciences. PMID:20214775

  6. International symposium on peripheral nerve repair and regeneration and 2nd club Brunelli meeting.

    PubMed

    Turgut, Mehmet; Geuna, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    The International Symposium "Peripheral Nerve Repair and Regeneration and 2nd Club Brunelli Meeting" was held on December 4-5, 2009 in Turin, Italy (Organizers: Bruno Battiston, Stefano Geuna, Isabelle Perroteau, Pierluigi Tos). Interest in the study of peripheral nerve regeneration is very much alive because complete recovery of nerve function almost never occurs after nerve reconstruction and, often, the clinical outcome is rather poor. Therefore, there is a need for defining innovative strategies for improving the success of recovery after nerve lesion and repair and this meeting was intended to discuss, from a multidisciplinary point of view, some of today's most important issues in this scientific field, arising from both basic and clinical neurosciences. PMID:20214775

  7. A Perpendicular Biased 2nd Harmonic Cavity for the Fermilab Booster

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, C. Y.; Dey, J.; Madrak, R. L.; Pellico, W.; Romanov, G.; Sun, D.; Terechkine, I.

    2015-07-13

    A perpendicular biased 2nd harmonic cavity is currently being designed for the Fermilab Booster. Its purpose cavity is to flatten the bucket at injection and thus change the longitudinal beam distribution so that space charge effects are decreased. It can also with transition crossing. The reason for the choice of perpendicular biasing over parallel biasing is that the Q of the cavity is much higher and thus allows the accelerating voltage to be a factor of two higher than a similar parallel biased cavity. This cavity will also provide a higher accelerating voltage per meter than the present folded transmission line cavity. However, this type of cavity presents technical challenges that need to be addressed. The two major issues are cooling of the garnet material from the effects of the RF and the cavity itself from eddy current heating because of the 15 Hz bias field ramp. This paper will address the technical challenge of preventing the garnet from overheating.

  8. Preliminary GPS orbit combination results of the IGS 2nd reprocessing campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Kevin

    2015-04-01

    International GNSS Service (IGS) has contributed to the International Terrestrial Reference Frame by reprocessing historic GPS network data and submitting Terrestrial Reference Frame solutions and Earth Rotation Parameters. For the 2nd reprocessing campaign, Analysis Centers (ACs) used up to 21 years of GPS observation data with daily integrations. IERS2010 conventions are applied to model the physical effects of the Earth. Total eight ACs have participated (7 Global solutions, and 2 Tide Gauge solutions) by reprocessing entire time series in a consistent way using the latest models and methodology. IGS combined daily SINEX TRF and EOP combinations have already been submitted to the IERS for ITRF2013. This presentation mainly focuses on the preliminary quality assessment of the reprocessed AC orbits. Quality of the orbit products are examined by examining the repeatability between daily AC satellite ephemeris. Power spectral analysis shows the background noise characteristics of each AC products, and its periodic behaviors.

  9. [Measurement report on the horizontal position relationship between the umbilicus and the 2nd lum- bar spinal process in adults].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jingyi; Fu, Liyuan; Wang, Yueqi; Qiu, Wenqi; Yao, Miaojie; Zhao, Baixiao; Guo, Changqing

    2016-04-01

    The impact factors were explored to determine the horizontal positional relationship between the umbilicus and the 2nd lumbar spinal process in adults and to verify the accuracy of the localization of Shenshu (BL 23) via the umbilicus. The position of the umbilicus and the 2nd lumbar spinal process was measured in 100 participants and the data were analyzed through SPSS 20.0 software. It was found that the umbilicus and the 2nd lumbar process were not positioned horizontally. The positional relationship of these two sites was not apparently correlated with gender, age, body weight, body height, BMI, waistline and discomfort of lumbar region. The umbilicus was commonly and posteriorly projected on the site between the 4th and 5th lumbar vertebra. It is explained that the localization of Shenshu (BL23) via the umbilicus is not accurate. PMID:27352498

  10. Brain order disorder 2nd group report of f-EEG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lalonde, Francois; Gogtay, Nitin; Giedd, Jay; Vydelingum, Nadarajen; Brown, David; Tran, Binh Q.; Hsu, Charles; Hsu, Ming-Kai; Cha, Jae; Jenkins, Jeffrey; Ma, Lien; Willey, Jefferson; Wu, Jerry; Oh, Kenneth; Landa, Joseph; Lin, C. T.; Jung, T. P.; Makeig, Scott; Morabito, Carlo Francesco; Moon, Qyu; Yamakawa, Takeshi; Lee, Soo-Young; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Szu, Harold H.; Kaur, Balvinder; Byrd, Kenneth; Dang, Karen; Krzywicki, Alan; Familoni, Babajide O.; Larson, Louis; Harkrider, Susan; Krapels, Keith A.; Dai, Liyi

    2014-05-01

    Since the Brain Order Disorder (BOD) group reported on a high density Electroencephalogram (EEG) to capture the neuronal information using EEG to wirelessly interface with a Smartphone [1,2], a larger BOD group has been assembled, including the Obama BRAIN program, CUA Brain Computer Interface Lab and the UCSD Swartz Computational Neuroscience Center. We can implement the pair-electrodes correlation functions in order to operate in a real time daily environment, which is of the computation complexity of O(N3) for N=102~3 known as functional f-EEG. The daily monitoring requires two areas of focus. Area #(1) to quantify the neuronal information flow under arbitrary daily stimuli-response sources. Approach to #1: (i) We have asserted that the sources contained in the EEG signals may be discovered by an unsupervised learning neural network called blind sources separation (BSS) of independent entropy components, based on the irreversible Boltzmann cellular thermodynamics(ΔS < 0), where the entropy is a degree of uniformity. What is the entropy? Loosely speaking, sand on the beach is more uniform at a higher entropy value than the rocks composing a mountain - the internal binding energy tells the paleontologists the existence of information. To a politician, landside voting results has only the winning information but more entropy, while a non-uniform voting distribution record has more information. For the human's effortless brain at constant temperature, we can solve the minimum of Helmholtz free energy (H = E - TS) by computing BSS, and then their pairwise-entropy source correlation function. (i) Although the entropy itself is not the information per se, but the concurrence of the entropy sources is the information flow as a functional-EEG, sketched in this 2nd BOD report. Area #(2) applying EEG bio-feedback will improve collective decision making (TBD). Approach to #2: We introduce a novel performance quality metrics, in terms of the throughput rate of faster (

  11. The Hyphen as a Syllabification Cue in Reading Bisyllabic and Multisyllabic Words among Finnish 1st and 2nd Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Häikiö, Tuomo; Bertram, Raymond; Hyönä, Jukka

    2016-01-01

    Finnish ABC books present words with hyphens inserted at syllable boundaries. Syllabification by hyphens is abandoned in the 2nd grade for bisyllabic words, but continues for words with three or more syllables. The current eye movement study investigated how and to what extent syllable hyphens in bisyllabic ("kah-vi" "cof-fee")…

  12. Give It a Shot! Toolkit for Nurses and Other Immunization Champions Working with Secondary Schools. 2nd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer-Chu, Lynda; Wooley, Susan F.

    2008-01-01

    Adolescent immunization saves lives--but promoting immunization takes time and thought, and today's nurses and other health advocates are faced with a host of ever-expanding responsibilities in a time of reduced budgets and staff. This toolkit is thus structured as an easy and reliable resource. This 2nd edition contains: (1) a 64-page manual;…

  13. Observation in a School without Walls: Peer Observation of Teaching in a 2nd-12th Grade Independent School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salvador, Josephine

    2012-01-01

    What happens when teachers start to observe each other's classes? How do teachers make meaning of observing and being observed? What effects, if any, does requiring peer observation have on the teaching community? This research explores these questions in a qualitative study of peer observation of teaching (POT) in the 2nd-12th grades of an…

  14. The Influence of Neighborhood Density and Word Frequency on Phoneme Awareness in 2nd and 4th Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Tiffany P.; Bowles, Ryan P.; Catts, Hugh W.; Storkel, Holly L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that two lexical characteristics--neighborhood density and word frequency--interact to influence performance on phoneme awareness tasks. Methods: Phoneme awareness was examined in a large, longitudinal dataset of 2nd and 4th grade children. Using linear logistic test model, the relation…

  15. Iron metabolism in African American women during the 2nd and 3rd trimester of a high-risk pregnancy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To examine iron metabolism during the 2nd and 3rd trimester in African American women classified as a high-risk pregnancy. Design: Longitudinal. Setting: Large, university-based, urban Midwestern medical center. Participants: Convenience sample of 47 African American women classified a...

  16. Curriculum on the Edge of Survival: How Schools Fail to Prepare Students for Membership in a Democracy. 2nd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Typically, school curriculum has been viewed through the lens of preparation for the workplace or higher education, both worthy objectives. However, this is not the only lens, and perhaps not even the most powerful one to use, if the goal is to optimize the educational system. "Curriculum on the Edge of Survival, 2nd Edition," attempts to define…

  17. Conference Proceedings: 2nd European Conference of Rehabilitation International; Disability in the Family. (Brighton, England, September 18-21, 1978)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royal Association for Disability and Rehabilitation, London (England).

    The conference proceedings of the 2nd European Conference of Rehabilitation International (1978) on the theme disability in the family contains the agenda and approximately 80 papers. National presentations consider the theme in papers by representatives of Finland, Hungary, Belgium, The Netherlands, Portugal, Hong Kong, India, The German…

  18. Phase Relations of the CaO-SiO2-Nd2O3 System and the Implication for Rare Earths Recycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Thu Hoai; Malfliet, Annelies; Blanpain, Bart; Guo, Muxing

    2016-03-01

    CaO-SiO2-Nd2O3 slags were equilibrated at 1773 K and 1873 K (1500 °C and 1600 °C) for 24 hours in Ar, and quenched in water to determine the operative phase relations. The composition and crystallinity of the phases in equilibrium were determined by EPMA-WDS and EBSD, respectively. Based on these analyses, the liquid stability region was accurately determined, and a large part of the isothermal section of the phase diagram was constructed. Data resulting from this work can be used to generate a thermodynamic database for rare-earth oxide-containing systems and to support further investigation on separation of rare earths from metallurgical slags or other residues through high-temperature processing.

  19. Phase Relations of the CaO-SiO2-Nd2O3 System and the Implication for Rare Earths Recycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Thu Hoai; Malfliet, Annelies; Blanpain, Bart; Guo, Muxing

    2016-06-01

    CaO-SiO2-Nd2O3 slags were equilibrated at 1773 K and 1873 K (1500 °C and 1600 °C) for 24 hours in Ar, and quenched in water to determine the operative phase relations. The composition and crystallinity of the phases in equilibrium were determined by EPMA-WDS and EBSD, respectively. Based on these analyses, the liquid stability region was accurately determined, and a large part of the isothermal section of the phase diagram was constructed. Data resulting from this work can be used to generate a thermodynamic database for rare-earth oxide-containing systems and to support further investigation on separation of rare earths from metallurgical slags or other residues through high-temperature processing.

  20. Minimal Clinically Important Difference on Parkinson's Disease Sleep Scale 2nd Version

    PubMed Central

    Horváth, Krisztina; Aschermann, Zsuzsanna; Ács, Péter; Deli, Gabriella; Janszky, József; Komoly, Sámuel; Karádi, Kázmér; Kovács, Márton; Makkos, Attila; Faludi, Béla; Kovács, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims. The aim of the present study was to determine the estimates of minimal clinically important difference for Parkinson's Disease Sleep Scale 2nd version (PDSS-2) total score and dimensions. Methods. The subject population consisted of 413 PD patients. At baseline, MDS-UPDRS, Hoehn-Yahr Scale, Mattis Dementia Rating Scale, and PDSS-2 were assessed. Nine months later the PDSS-2 was reevaluated with the Patient-Reported Global Impression Improvement Scale. Both anchor-based techniques (within patients' score change method and sensitivity- and specificity-based method by receiver operating characteristic analysis) and distribution-based approaches (effect size calculations) were utilized to determine the magnitude of minimal clinically important difference. Results. According to our results, any improvements larger than −3.44 points or worsening larger than 2.07 points can represent clinically important changes for the patients. These thresholds have the effect size of 0.21 and −0.21, respectively. Conclusions. Minimal clinically important differences are the smallest change of scores that are subjectively meaningful to patients. Studies using the PDSS-2 as outcome measure should utilize the threshold of −3.44 points for detecting improvement or the threshold of 2.07 points for observing worsening. PMID:26539303

  1. Efficient Simulation of Wing Modal Response: Application of 2nd Order Shape Sensitivities and Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kapania, Rakesh K.; Liu, Youhua

    2000-01-01

    At the preliminary design stage of a wing structure, an efficient simulation, one needing little computation but yielding adequately accurate results for various response quantities, is essential in the search of optimal design in a vast design space. In the present paper, methods of using sensitivities up to 2nd order, and direct application of neural networks are explored. The example problem is how to decide the natural frequencies of a wing given the shape variables of the structure. It is shown that when sensitivities cannot be obtained analytically, the finite difference approach is usually more reliable than a semi-analytical approach provided an appropriate step size is used. The use of second order sensitivities is proved of being able to yield much better results than the case where only the first order sensitivities are used. When neural networks are trained to relate the wing natural frequencies to the shape variables, a negligible computation effort is needed to accurately determine the natural frequencies of a new design.

  2. Transient 2(nd) Degree Av Block Mobitz Type II: A Rare Finding in Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever.

    PubMed

    Nigam, Ashwini Kumar; Singh, Omkar; Agarwal, Ayush; Singh, Amit K; Yadav, Subhash

    2015-05-01

    Dengue has been a major problem as endemic occurs almost every year and causes a state of panic due to lack of proper diagnostic methods and facilities for proper management. Patients presenting with classical symptoms are easy to diagnose, however as a large number of cases occur every year, a number of cases diagnosed with dengue fever on occasion presents with atypical manifestations, which cause extensive evaluation of the patients, unnecessary referral to higher centre irrespective of the severity and therefore a rough idea of these manifestations must be present in the backdrop in order to prevent these problems. Involvement of cardiovascular system in dengue has been reported in previous studies, and they are usually benign and self-limited. The importance of study of conduction abnormalities is important as sometimes conduction blocks are the first sign of acute myocarditis in patients of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever in shock. We present here a case of 2(nd) Degree Mobitz Type II atrioventricular AV block in a case of Dengue Hemorrhagic fever reverting to the normal rhythm in recovery phase and no signs thereafter on follow up. PMID:26155512

  3. Wind-US Results for the AIAA 2nd Propulsion Aerodynamics Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dippold, Vance III; Foster, Lancert; Mankbadi, Mina

    2014-01-01

    This presentation contains Wind-US results presented at the 2nd Propulsion Aerodynamics Workshop. The workshop was organized by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Air Breathing Propulsion Systems Integration Technical Committee with the purpose of assessing the accuracy of computational fluid dynamics for air breathing propulsion applications. Attendees included representatives from government, industry, academia, and commercial software companies. Participants were encouraged to explore and discuss all aspects of the simulation process including the effects of mesh type and refinement, solver numerical schemes, and turbulence modeling. The first set of challenge cases involved computing the thrust and discharge coefficients for a 25deg conical nozzle for a range of nozzle pressure ratios between 1.4 and 7.0. Participants were also asked to simulate two cases in which the 25deg conical nozzle was bifurcated by a solid plate, resulting in vortex shedding (NPR=1.6) and shifted plume shock (NPR=4.0). A second set of nozzle cases involved computing the discharge and thrust coefficients for a convergent dual stream nozzle for a range of subsonic nozzle pressure ratios. The workshop committee also compared the plume mixing of these cases across various codes and models. The final test case was a serpentine inlet diffuser with an outlet to inlet area ratio of 1.52 and an offset of 1.34 times the inlet diameter. Boundary layer profiles, wall static pressure, and total pressure at downstream rake locations were examined.

  4. Introduction of the 2nd Phase of the Integrated Hydrologic Model Intercomparison Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollet, Stefan; Maxwell, Reed; Dages, Cecile; Mouche, Emmanuel; Mugler, Claude; Paniconi, Claudio; Park, Young-Jin; Putti, Mario; Shen, Chaopeng; Stisen, Simon; Sudicky, Edward; Sulis, Mauro; Ji, Xinye

    2015-04-01

    The 2nd Phase of the Integrated Hydrologic Model Intercomparison Project commenced in June 2013 with a workshop at Bonn University funded by the German Science Foundation and US National Science Foundation. Three test cases were defined and compared that are available online at www.hpsc-terrsys.de including a tilted v-catchment case; a case called superslab based on multiple slab-heterogeneities in the hydraulic conductivity along a hillslope; and the Borden site case, based on a published field experiment. The goal of this phase is to further interrogate the coupling of surface-subsurface flow implemented in various integrated hydrologic models; and to understand and quantify the impact of differences in the conceptual and technical implementations on the simulation results, which may constitute an additional source of uncertainty. The focus has been broadened considerably including e.g. saturated and unsaturated subsurface storages, saturated surface area, ponded surface storage in addition to discharge, and pressure/saturation profiles and cross-sections. Here, first results are presented and discussed demonstrating the conceptual and technical challenges in implementing essentially the same governing equations describing highly non-linear moisture redistribution processes and surface-groundwater interactions.

  5. The Influence of Instructional Climates on Time Spent in Management Tasks and Physical Activity of 2nd-Grade Students during Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Samuel W.; Robinson, Leah E.; Webster, E. Kipling; Rudisill, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of two physical education (PE) instructional climates (mastery, performance) on the percentage of time students spent in a) moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and b) management tasks during PE in 2nd-grade students. Forty-eight 2nd graders (mastery, n = 23; performance, n = 25)…

  6. Madeira Extreme Floods: 2009/2010 Winter. Case study - 2nd and 20th of February

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires, V.; Marques, J.; Silva, A.

    2010-09-01

    Floods are at world scale the natural disaster that affects a larger fraction of the population. It is a phenomenon that extends it's effects to the surrounding areas of the hydrographic network (basins, rivers, dams) and the coast line. Accordingly to USA FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency) flood can be defined as:"A general and temporary condition of partial or complete inundation of two or more acres of normally dry land area or of two or more properties from: Overflow of inland or tidal waters; Unusual and rapid accumulation or runoff of surface waters from any source; Mudflow; Collapse or subsidence of land along the shore of a lake or similar body of water as a result of erosion or undermining caused by waves or currents of water exceeding anticipated cyclical levels that result in a flood as defined above." A flash flood is the result of intense and long duration of continuous precipitation and can result in dead casualties (i.e. floods in mainland Portugal in 1967, 1983 and 1997). The speed and strength of the floods either localized or over large areas, results in enormous social impacts either by the loss of human lives and or the devastating damage to the landscape and human infrastructures. The winter of 2009/2010 in Madeira Island was characterized by several episodes of very intense precipitation (specially in December 2009 and February 2010) adding to a new record of accumulated precipitation since there are records in the island. In February two days are especially rainy with absolute records for the month of February (daily records since 1949): 111mm and 97mm on the 2nd and 20th respectively. The accumulated precipitation ended up with the terrible floods on the 20th of February causing the lost of dozens of human lives and hundreds of millions of Euros of losses The large precipitation occurrences either more intense precipitation in a short period or less intense precipitation during a larger period are sometimes the precursor of

  7. A convective divertor utilizing a 2nd-order magnetic field null

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rognlien, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    New results motivate a detailed study of a magnetic divertor concept characterized by strong plasma convection near a poloidal magnetic field (Bp) null region. The configuration is that of a near-2nd-order Bp null (Bp ~ Δ r2) , as in a snowflake divertor. The concept has 2 key features: (A) Convection spreads the heat flux between multiple divertor legs and further broadens the heat-flux profile within each leg, thereby greatly reducing target-plate heat loads. (B) The heat flux is further reduced by line radiation in each leg in detachment-like ionization zones. Theory indicates that convective turbulence arises when the poloidal plasma beta, βp = 2μ0nT/B p 2 >> 1 . Measurements in TCV now more fully quantify earlier NSTX and TCV observations of plasma mixing, and related modeling of TCV indicates that strongly enhanced null-region transport is present. Convective mixing provides a stabilizing mechanism to prevent the ionization fronts (hydrogenic and impurity) from collapsing to a highly radiating core MARFE. Also, the radiating zone maps to a very small region at the midplane owing to the very weak Bp in the convective region, thus minimizing its impact on the core plasma. Detailed calculations are reported that combine features A and B noted above. The plasma mixing mechanisms are described together with the corresponding transport model implemented in the 2D UEDGE edge transport code. UEDGE calculations are presented that quantify the roles of mixing, impurity radiation, and detachment stability for a realistic snowflake configuration. Work in collaboration with D.D. Ryutov, S.I. Krasheninnikov, and M.V. Umansky. Performed for the U.S. DoE by LLNS, LLC, LLNL, under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  8. Mechanosensitivity of the 2nd Kind: TGF-β Mechanism of Cell Sensing the Substrate Stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Cockerill, Max; Rigozzi, Michelle K.; Terentjev, Eugene M.

    2015-01-01

    Cells can sense forces applied to them, but also the stiffness of their environment. These are two different phenomena, and here we investigate the mechanosensitivity of the 2nd kind: how the cell can measure an elastic modulus at a single point of adhesion—and how the cell can receive and interpret the chemical signal released from the sensor. Our model uses the example of large latent complex of TGF-β as a sensor. Stochastic theory gives the rate of breaking of latent complex, which initiates the signaling feedback loop after the active TGF-β release and leads to a change of cell phenotype driven by the α-smooth muscle actin. We investigate the dynamic and steady-state behaviors of the model, comparing them with experiments. In particular, we analyse the timescale of approach to the steady state, the stability of the non-linear dynamical system, and how the steady-state concentrations of the key markers vary depending on the elasticity of the substrate. We discover a crossover region for values of substrate elasticity closely corresponding to that of the fibroblast to myofibroblast transition. We suggest that the cell could actively vary the parameters of its dynamic feedback loop to ‘choose’ the position of the transition region and the range of substrate elasticity that it can detect. In this way, the theory offers the unifying mechanism for a variety of phenomena, such as the myofibroblast conversion in fibrosis of wounds and lungs and smooth muscle cell dysfunction in cardiac disease. PMID:26448620

  9. PREFACE: 2nd International Conference on Competitive Materials and Technological Processes (IC-CMTP2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László, Gömze A.

    2013-12-01

    Competitiveness is one of the most important factors in our life and it plays a key role in the efficiency both of organizations and societies. The more scientifically supported and prepared organizations develop more competitive materials with better physical, chemical and biological properties and the leading companies apply more competitive equipment and technology processes. The aims of the 2nd International Conference on Competitive Materials and Technology Processes (ic-cmtp2) are the following: Promote new methods and results of scientific research in the fields of material, biological, environmental and technology sciences; Change information between the theoretical and applied sciences as well as technical and technological implantations. Promote the communication between the scientist of different nations, countries and continents. Among the major fields of interest are materials with extreme physical, chemical, biological, medical, thermal, mechanical properties and dynamic strength; including their crystalline and nano-structures, phase transformations as well as methods of their technological processes, tests and measurements. Multidisciplinary applications of materials science and technological problems encountered in sectors like ceramics, glasses, thin films, aerospace, automotive and marine industry, electronics, energy, construction materials, medicine, biosciences and environmental sciences are of particular interest. In accordance to the program of the conference ic-cmtp2, more than 250 inquiries and registrations from different organizations were received. Researchers from 36 countries in Asia, Europe, Africa, North and South America arrived at the venue of conference. Including co-authors, the research work of more than 500 scientists are presented in this volume. Professor Dr Gömze A László Chair, ic-cmtp2 The PDF also contains lists of the boards, session chairs and sponsors.

  10. The Ratio of 2nd to 4th Digit Length in Korean Alcohol-dependent Patients

    PubMed Central

    Han, Changwoo; Bae, Hwallip; Lee, Yu-Sang; Won, Sung-Doo; Kim, Dai Jin

    2016-01-01

    Objective The ratio of 2nd to 4th digit length (2D:4D) is a sexually dimorphic trait. Men have a relatively shorter second digit than fourth digit. This ratio is thought to be influenced by higher prenatal testosterone level or greater sensitivity to androgen. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between alcohol dependence and 2D:4D in a Korean sample and whether 2D:4D can be a biologic marker in alcohol dependence. Methods In this study, we recruited 87 male patients with alcohol dependence from the alcohol center of one psychiatric hospital and 52 healthy male volunteers who were all employees in the same hospital as controls. We captured images of the right and left hands of patients and controls using a scanner and extracted data with a graphics program. We measured the 2D:4D of each hand and compared the alcohol dependence group with the control group. We analyzed these ratios using an independent-samples t-test. Results The mean 2D:4D of patients was 0.934 (right hand) and 0.942 (left hand), while the mean 2D:4D of controls was 0.956 (right hand) and 0.958 (left hand). Values for both hands were significantly lower for patients than controls (p<0.001, right hand; p=0.004, left hand). Conclusion Patients who are alcohol dependent have a significantly lower 2D:4D than controls, similar to the results of previous studies, which suggest that a higher prenatal testosterone level in the gonadal period is related to alcoholism. Furthermore, 2D:4D is a possible predictive marker of alcohol dependence. PMID:27121425

  11. Differential contribution of specific working memory components to mathematics achievement in 2nd and 3rd graders.

    PubMed

    Meyer, M L; Salimpoor, V N; Wu, S S; Geary, D C; Menon, V

    2010-04-01

    The contribution of the three core components of working memory (WM) to the development of mathematical skills in young children is poorly understood. The relation between specific WM components and Numerical Operations, which emphasize computation and fact retrieval, and Mathematical Reasoning, which emphasizes verbal problem solving abilities in 48 2nd and 50 3rd graders was assessed using standardized WM and mathematical achievement measures. For 2nd graders, the central executive and phonological components predicted Mathematical Reasoning skills; whereas the visuo-spatial component predicted both Mathematical Reasoning and Numerical Operations skills in 3rd graders. This pattern suggests that the central executive and phonological loop facilitate performance during early stages of mathematical learning whereas visuo-spatial representations play an increasingly important role during later stages. We propose that these changes reflect a shift from prefrontal to parietal cortical functions during mathematical skill acquisition. Implications for learning and individual differences are discussed. PMID:21660238

  12. Neurobehavioral Evaluation System (NES): comparative performance of 2nd-, 4th-, and 8th-grade Czech children.

    PubMed

    Otto, D A; Skalik, I; House, D E; Hudnell, H K

    1996-01-01

    The Neurobehavioral Evaluation System was designed for field studies of workers, but many NES tests can be performed satisfactorily by children as young as 7 or 8 years old and a few tests, such as simple reaction time, can be performed by preschool children. However, little comparative data from children of different ages or grade levels are available. Studies of school children in the Czech Republic indicate that 2nd-grade children could perform the following NES tests satisfactorily: Finger Tapping, Visual Digit Span. Continuous Performance, Symbol-Digit Substitution, Pattern Comparison, and simpler conditions of Switching Attention. Comparative scores of boys and girls from the 2nd, 4th, and 8th grades and power analyses to estimate appropriate sample size were presented. Performance varied systematically with grade level and gender. Larger samples were needed with younger children to achieve comparable levels of statistical power. Gender comparisons indicated that boys responded faster, but made more errors than girls. PMID:8866533

  13. Physical properties of double perovskite-type barium neodymium osmate Ba{sub 2}NdOsO{sub 6}

    SciTech Connect

    Wakeshima, Makoto; Hinatsu, Yukio; Ohoyama, Kenji

    2013-01-15

    The crystal, magnetic structures and physical properties of the double perovskite-type barium neodymium osmate Ba{sub 2}NdOsO{sub 6} are investigated through powder X-ray and neutron diffraction, electrical conductivity, magnetic susceptibility, and specific heat measurements. The Rietveld analysis reveals that the Nd and Os ions are arranged with regularity over the six-coordinate B sites in a distorted perovskite ABO{sub 3} framework. The monoclinic crystal structure described by space group P2{sub 1}/n (tilt system a{sup -}a{sup -}c{sup +}) becomes more distorted with decreasing temperature from 300 K down to 2.5 K. This compound shows a long-range antiferromagnetic ordering of Os{sup 5+} below 65 K. An antiferromagnetic ordering of Nd{sup 3+} also occurs at lower temperatures ({approx}20 K). The magnetic structure is of Type I and the magnetic moments of Nd{sup 3+} and Os{sup 5+} ions are in the same direction in the ab-plane. - Graphical Abstract: The Magnetic structure of Ba{sub 2}NdOsO{sub 6} is of Type I, and the magnetic moments of the Nd{sup 3+} and Os{sup 5+} ions are in the same direction in the ab-plane. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Crystal structures of Ba{sub 2}NdOsO{sub 6} are determined to be monoclinic below 300 K. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Its electrical resistivity shows a Mott variable-range hopping behavior with localized carriers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An antiferromagnetic ordering of the Os{sup 5+}moment occurs at 65 K. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The magnetic structure of Ba{sub 2}NdOsO{sub 6} is determined to be of Type I.

  14. Teachers' Spatial Anxiety Relates to 1st-and 2nd-Graders' Spatial Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunderson, Elizabeth A.; Ramirez, Gerardo; Beilock, Sian L.; Levine, Susan C.

    2013-01-01

    Teachers' anxiety about an academic domain, such as math, can impact students' learning in that domain. We asked whether this relation held in the domain of spatial skill, given the importance of spatial skill for success in math and science and its malleability at a young age. We measured 1st-and 2nd-grade teachers' spatial anxiety…

  15. PREFACE: 1st-2nd Young Researchers Meetings in Rome - Proceedings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    YRMR Organizing Committee; Cannuccia, E.; Mazzaferro, L.; Migliaccio, M.; Pietrobon, D.; Stellato, F.; Veneziani, M.

    2011-03-01

    Students in science, particularly in physics, face a fascinating and challenging future. Scientists have proposed very interesting theories, which describe the microscopic and macroscopic world fairly well, trying to match the quantum regime with cosmological scales. Between the extremes of this scenario, biological phenomena in all their complexity take place, challenging the laws we observe in the atomic and sub-atomic world. More and more accurate and complex experiments have been devised and these are now going to test the paradigms of physics. Notable experiments include: the Large Hadronic Collider (LHC), which is going to shed light on the physics of the Standard Model of Particles and its extensions; the Planck-Herschel satellites, which target a very precise measurement of the properties of our Universe; and the Free Electron Lasers facilities, which produce high-brilliance, ultrafast X-ray pulses, allowing the investigation of the fundamental processes of solid state physics, chemistry, and biology. These projects are the result of huge collaborations spread across the world, involving scientists belonging to different and complementary research fields: physicists, chemists, biologists and others, keen to make the best of these extraordinary laboratories. Even though each branch of science is experiencing a process of growing specialization, it is very important to keep an eye on the global picture, remaining aware of the deep interconnections between inherent fields. This is even more crucial for students who are beginning their research careers. These considerations motivated PhD students and young post-docs connected to the Roman scientific research area to organize a conference, to establish the background and the network for interactions and collaborations. This resulted in the 1st and 2nd Young Researchers Meetings in Rome (http://ryrm.roma2.infn.it), one day conferences aimed primarily at graduate students and post-docs, working in physics in Italy

  16. White Paper Summary of 2nd ASTM International Workshop on Hydrides in Zirconium Alloy Cladding

    SciTech Connect

    Sindelar, R.; Louthan, M.; PNNL, B.

    2015-05-29

    This white paper recommends that ASTM International develop standards to address the potential impact of hydrides on the long term performance of irradiated zirconium alloys. The need for such standards was apparent during the 2nd ASTM International Workshop on Hydrides in Zirconium Alloy Cladding and Assembly Components, sponsored by ASTM International Committee C26.13 and held on June 10-12, 2014, in Jackson, Wyoming. The potentially adverse impacts of hydrogen and hydrides on the long term performance of irradiated zirconium-alloy cladding on used fuel were shown to depend on multiple factors such as alloy chemistry and processing, irradiation and post irradiation history, residual and applied stresses and stress states, and the service environment. These factors determine the hydrogen content and hydride morphology in the alloy, which, in turn, influence the response of the alloy to the thermo-mechanical conditions imposed (and anticipated) during storage, transport and disposal of used nuclear fuel. Workshop presentations and discussions showed that although hydrogen/hydride induced degradation of zirconium alloys may be of concern, the potential for occurrence and the extent of anticipated degradation vary throughout the nuclear industry because of the variations in hydrogen content, hydride morphology, alloy chemistry and irradiation conditions. The tools and techniques used to characterize hydrides and hydride morphologies and their impacts on material performance also vary. Such variations make site-to-site comparisons of test results and observations difficult. There is no consensus that a single material or system characteristic (e.g., reactor type, burnup, hydrogen content, end-of life stress, alloy type, drying temperature, etc.) is an effective predictor of material response during long term storage or of performance after long term storage. Multi-variable correlations made for one alloy may not represent the behavior of another alloy exposed to

  17. FOREWORD: 2nd International Workshop on New Computational Methods for Inverse Problems (NCMIP 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanc-Féraud, Laure; Joubert, Pierre-Yves

    2012-09-01

    Conference logo This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series is dedicated to the scientific contributions presented during the 2nd International Workshop on New Computational Methods for Inverse Problems, (NCMIP 2012). This workshop took place at Ecole Normale Supérieure de Cachan, in Cachan, France, on 15 May 2012, at the initiative of Institut Farman. The first edition of NCMIP also took place in Cachan, France, within the scope of the ValueTools Conference, in May 2011 (http://www.ncmip.org/2011/). The NCMIP Workshop focused on recent advances in the resolution of inverse problems. Indeed inverse problems appear in numerous scientific areas such as geophysics, biological and medical imaging, material and structure characterization, electrical, mechanical and civil engineering, and finance. The resolution of inverse problems consists of estimating the parameters of the observed system or structure from data collected by an instrumental sensing or imaging device. Its success firstly requires the collection of relevant observation data. It also requires accurate models describing the physical interactions between the instrumental device and the observed system, as well as the intrinsic properties of the solution itself. Finally, it requires the design of robust, accurate and efficient inversion algorithms. Advanced sensor arrays and imaging devices provide high rate and high volume data; in this context, the efficient resolution of the inverse problem requires the joint development of new models and inversion methods, taking computational and implementation aspects into account. During this one-day workshop, researchers had the opportunity to bring to light and share new techniques and results in the field of inverse problems. The topics of the workshop were: algorithms and computational aspects of inversion, Bayesian estimation, kernel methods, learning methods, convex optimization, free discontinuity problems, metamodels, proper orthogonal decomposition

  18. 2nd Radio and Antenna Days of the Indian Ocean (RADIO 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-10-01

    It was an honor and a great pleasure for all those involved in its organization to welcome the participants to the ''Radio and Antenna Days of the Indian Ocean'' (RADIO 2014) international conference that was held from 7th to 10th April 2014 at the Sugar Beach Resort, Wolmar, Flic-en-Flac, Mauritius. RADIO 2014 is the second of a series of conferences organized in the Indian Ocean region. The aim of the conference is to discuss recent developments, theories and practical applications covering the whole scope of radio-frequency engineering, including radio waves, antennas, propagation, and electromagnetic compatibility. The RADIO international conference emerged following discussions with engineers and scientists from the countries of the Indian Ocean as well as from other parts of the world and a need was felt for the organization of such an event in this region. Following numerous requests, the Island of Mauritius, worldwide known for its white sandy beaches and pleasant tropical atmosphere, was again chosen for the organization of the 2nd RADIO international conference. The conference was organized by the Radio Society, Mauritius and the Local Organizing Committee consisted of scientists from SUPELEC, France, the University of Mauritius, and the University of Technology, Mauritius. We would like to take the opportunity to thank all people, institutions and companies that made the event such a success. We are grateful to our gold sponsors CST and FEKO as well as URSI for their generous support which enabled us to partially support one PhD student and two scientists to attend the conference. We would also like to thank IEEE-APS and URSI for providing technical co-sponsorship. More than hundred and thirty abstracts were submitted to the conference. They were peer-reviewed by an international scientific committee and, based on the reviews, either accepted, eventually after revision, or rejected. RADIO 2014 brought together participants from twenty countries spanning

  19. Development of Hydrologic Characterization Technology of Fault Zones -- Phase I, 2nd Report

    SciTech Connect

    Karasaki, Kenzi; Onishi, Tiemi; Black, Bill; Biraud, Sebastien

    2009-03-31

    This is the year-end report of the 2nd year of the NUMO-LBNL collaborative project: Development of Hydrologic Characterization Technology of Fault Zones under NUMO-DOE/LBNL collaboration agreement, the task description of which can be found in the Appendix 3. Literature survey of published information on the relationship between geologic and hydrologic characteristics of faults was conducted. The survey concluded that it may be possible to classify faults by indicators based on various geometric and geologic attributes that may indirectly relate to the hydrologic property of faults. Analysis of existing information on the Wildcat Fault and its surrounding geology was performed. The Wildcat Fault is thought to be a strike-slip fault with a thrust component that runs along the eastern boundary of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. It is believed to be part of the Hayward Fault system but is considered inactive. Three trenches were excavated at carefully selected locations mainly based on the information from the past investigative work inside the LBNL property. At least one fault was encountered in all three trenches. Detailed trench mapping was conducted by CRIEPI (Central Research Institute for Electric Power Industries) and LBNL scientists. Some intriguing and puzzling discoveries were made that may contradict with the published work in the past. Predictions are made regarding the hydrologic property of the Wildcat Fault based on the analysis of fault structure. Preliminary conceptual models of the Wildcat Fault were proposed. The Wildcat Fault appears to have multiple splays and some low angled faults may be part of the flower structure. In parallel, surface geophysical investigations were conducted using electrical resistivity survey and seismic reflection profiling along three lines on the north and south of the LBNL site. Because of the steep terrain, it was difficult to find optimum locations for survey lines as it is desirable for them to be as

  20. 2nd Generation RLV Risk Reduction Definition Program: Pratt & Whitney Propulsion Risk Reduction Requirements Program (TA-3 & TA-4)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matlock, Steve

    2001-01-01

    This is the final report and addresses all of the work performed on this program. Specifically, it covers vehicle architecture background, definition of six baseline engine cycles, reliability baseline (space shuttle main engine QRAS), and component level reliability/performance/cost for the six baseline cycles, and selection of 3 cycles for further study. This report further addresses technology improvement selection and component level reliability/performance/cost for the three cycles selected for further study, as well as risk reduction plans, and recommendation for future studies.

  1. Research at the CEA in the field of safety in 2nd and 3rd generation light water reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billot, Philippe

    2012-05-01

    The research programs at the CEA in the field of safety in nuclear reactors are carried out in a framework of international partnerships. Their purpose is to develop studies on: The methods allowing for the determination of earthquake hazards and their consequences; The behaviour of fuel in an accident situation; The comprehension of deflagration and detonation phenomena of hydrogen and the search for effective prevention methods involving an explosion risk; The cooling of corium in order to stop its progression in and outside the vessel thereby reducing the risk of perforating the basemat; The behaviour of the different fission product families according to their volatility for the UO2 and MOX fuels.

  2. Development of a 2nd Generation Decision Support Tool to Optimize Resource and Energy Recovery for Municipal Solid Waste

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2012, EPA’s Office of Research and Development released the MSW decision support tool (MSW-DST) to help identify strategies for more sustainable MSW management. Depending upon local infrastructure, energy grid mix, population density, and waste composition and quantity,...

  3. Explaining the Success of High-Achieving 2nd-Generation Latino Students at Elite Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kula, Stacy M.

    2013-01-01

    Latinos represent the largest minority population in the US, yet are one of the most underserved groups in the educational system. As such, they have been the focus of much attention by educational researchers. However, there is little work enabling researchers to understand how many factors might interactively support achievement. Moreover, the…

  4. Order and disorder in Ca 2ND 0.90H 0.10-A structural and thermal study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbraeken, Maarten C.; Suard, Emmanuelle; Irvine, John T. S.

    2011-08-01

    The structure of calcium nitride hydride and its deuterided form has been re-examined at room temperature and studied at high temperature using neutron powder diffraction and thermal analysis. When synthesised at 600 °C, a mixture of both ordered and disordered Ca 2ND 0.90H 0.10 phases results. The disordered phase is the minor component and has a primitive rocksalt structure (spacegroup Fm3 m) with no ordering of D/N on the anion sites and the ordered phase is best described using the rhombohedral spacegroup R-3 m with D and N arranged in alternate layers in (111) planes. This mixture of ordered and disordered phases exists up to 580 °C, at which the loss of deuterium yields Ca 2ND 0.85 with the disappearance of the disordered phase. In the new ordered phase there exists a similar content of vacancies on both anion sites; to achieve this balance, a little N transfers onto the D site, whereas there is no indication of D transferring onto the N-sites. These observations are thought to indicate that the D/N ordering is difficult to achieve with fully occupied anion sites. It has previously been reported that Ca 2ND has an ordered cubic cell with alternating D and N sites in the [100] directions [1]; however, for the samples studied herein, there were clearly two coexisting phases with apparent broadening/splitting of the primitive peaks but not for the ordered peaks. The rhombohedral phase was in fact metrically cubic; however, all the observed peaks were consistent with the rhombohedral unit cell with no peaks requiring the larger ordered cubic unit cell to be utilised. Furthermore this rhombohedral cell displays the same form of N-D ordering as the Sr and Ba analogues, which are metrically rhombohedral.

  5. 2nd International Salzburg Conference on Neurorecovery (ISCN 2013) Salzburg/ Austria | November 28th - 29th, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Brainin, M; Muresanu, D; Slavoaca, D

    2014-01-01

    The 2nd International Salzburg Conference on Neurorecovery was held on the 28th and 29th of November, 2013, in Salzburg, one of the most beautiful cities in Austria, which is well known for its rich cultural heritage, world-famous music and beautiful surrounding landscapes. The aim of the conference was to discuss the progress in the field of neurorecovery. The conference brought together internationally renowned scientists and clinicians, who described the clinical and therapeutic relevance of translational research and its applications in neurorehabilitation. PMID:25713602

  6. [Combined Anterior and Posterior Surgical Approaches for Resection of a 2nd-rib Chondrosarcoma Occupying the Superior Sulcus].

    PubMed

    Shinohara, Yoshikazu; Anraku, Masaki; Saito, Noriyuki; Fukumoto, Kento; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Shinoda, Yusuke; Chikuda, Hirotaka; Nakajima, Jun

    2016-06-01

    A 77-year-old man with right chest wall chondrosarcoma invading vertebral bodies underwent resection. Computed tomography (CT) showed that the tumor occupied the right superior sulcus, and was close to mediastinal organs including the trachea and esophagus. We adopted a combined anterior and posterior approaches that made safe and curative resection possible. In the anterior approach, we dissected and mobilized the neurovascular structures and neighboring organs from the tumor. A-4 cm gutter on the ventral side of the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd thoracic vertebral bodies was created for safe resection. By the subsequent posterior approach, successful resection was achieved without violating tumor margins. PMID:27246126

  7. THE 2nd SCHIZOPHRENIA INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH SOCIETY CONFERENCE, 10–14 APRIL 2010, FLORENCE, ITALY: SUMMARIES OF ORAL SESSIONS

    PubMed Central

    Baharnoori, Moogeh; Bartholomeusz, Cali; Boucher, Aurelie A.; Buchy, Lisa; Chaddock, Christopher; Chiliza, Bonga; Föcking, Melanie; Fornito, Alex; Gallego, Juan A.; Hori, Hiroaki; Huf, Gisele; Jabbar, Gul A.; Kang, Shi Hyun; El Kissi, Yousri; Merchán-Naranjo, Jessica; Modinos, Gemma; Abdel-Fadeel, Nashaat A.M.; Neubeck, Anna-Karin; Ng, Hsiao Piau; Novak, Gabriela; Owolabi, Olasunmbo.O.; Prata, Diana P.; Rao, Naren P.; Riecansky, Igor; Smith, Darryl C.; Souza, Renan P.; Thienel, Renate; Trotman, Hanan D.; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Woodberry, Kristen A.; O'Shea, Anne; DeLisi, Lynn E.

    2014-01-01

    The 2nd Schizophrenia International Research Society Conference, was held in Florence, Italy, April 10–15, 2010. Student travel awardees served as rapporteurs of each oral session and focused their summaries on the most significant findings that emerged from each session and the discussions that followed. The following report is a composite of these reviews. It is hoped that it will provide an overview for those who were present, but could not participate in all sessions, and those who did not have the opportunity to attend, but who would be interested in an update on current investigations ongoing in the field of schizophrenia research. PMID:20934307

  8. Quantitative metabolic profiles of 2nd and 3rd trimester human amniotic fluid using 1H HR-MAS spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Cohn, Brad R.; Zhao, Shoujun; Kornak, John; Zhang, Vickie Y.; Iman, Rahwa; Kurhanewicz, John; Vahidi, Kiarash; Yu, Jingwei; Caughey, Aaron B.; Swanson, Mark G.

    2016-01-01

    Object To establish and compare normative metabolite concentrations in 2nd and 3rd trimester human amniotic fluid samples in an effort to reveal metabolic biomarkers of fetal health and development. Materials and methods Twenty-one metabolite concentrations were compared between 2nd (15–27 weeks gestation, N = 23) and 3rd (29–39 weeks gestation, N = 27) trimester amniotic fluid samples using 1H high resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) spectroscopy. Data were acquired using the electronic reference to access in vivo concentrations method and quantified using a modified semi-parametric quantum estimation algorithm modified for high-resolution ex vivo data. Results Sixteen of 21 metabolite concentrations differed significantly between 2nd and 3rd trimester groups. Betaine (0.00846±0.00206 mmol/kg vs. 0.0133±0.0058 mmol/kg, P <0.002) and creatinine (0.0124±0.0058 mmol/kg vs. 0.247±0.011 mmol/kg, P <0.001) concentrations increased significantly, while glucose (5.96±1.66 mmol/kg vs. 2.41±1.69 mmol/kg, P <0.001), citrate (0.740±0.217 mmol/kg vs. 0.399±0.137 mmol/kg, P <0.001), pyruvate (0.0659±0.0103 mmol/kg vs. 0.0299±0.286 mmol/kg, P <0.001), and numerous amino acid (e.g. alanine, glutamate, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, and valine) concentrations decreased significantly with advancing gestation. A stepwise multiple linear regression model applied to 50 samples showed that gestational age can be accurately predicted using combinations of alanine, glucose and creatinine concentrations. Conclusion These results provide key normative data for 2nd and 3rd trimester amniotic fluid metabolite concentrations and provide the foundation for future development of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) biomarkers to evaluate fetal health and development. PMID:19779747

  9. FOREWORD: 2nd International Workshop on New Computational Methods for Inverse Problems (NCMIP 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanc-Féraud, Laure; Joubert, Pierre-Yves

    2012-09-01

    Conference logo This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series is dedicated to the scientific contributions presented during the 2nd International Workshop on New Computational Methods for Inverse Problems, (NCMIP 2012). This workshop took place at Ecole Normale Supérieure de Cachan, in Cachan, France, on 15 May 2012, at the initiative of Institut Farman. The first edition of NCMIP also took place in Cachan, France, within the scope of the ValueTools Conference, in May 2011 (http://www.ncmip.org/2011/). The NCMIP Workshop focused on recent advances in the resolution of inverse problems. Indeed inverse problems appear in numerous scientific areas such as geophysics, biological and medical imaging, material and structure characterization, electrical, mechanical and civil engineering, and finance. The resolution of inverse problems consists of estimating the parameters of the observed system or structure from data collected by an instrumental sensing or imaging device. Its success firstly requires the collection of relevant observation data. It also requires accurate models describing the physical interactions between the instrumental device and the observed system, as well as the intrinsic properties of the solution itself. Finally, it requires the design of robust, accurate and efficient inversion algorithms. Advanced sensor arrays and imaging devices provide high rate and high volume data; in this context, the efficient resolution of the inverse problem requires the joint development of new models and inversion methods, taking computational and implementation aspects into account. During this one-day workshop, researchers had the opportunity to bring to light and share new techniques and results in the field of inverse problems. The topics of the workshop were: algorithms and computational aspects of inversion, Bayesian estimation, kernel methods, learning methods, convex optimization, free discontinuity problems, metamodels, proper orthogonal decomposition

  10. Brain order disorder 2nd group report of f-EEG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lalonde, Francois; Gogtay, Nitin; Giedd, Jay; Vydelingum, Nadarajen; Brown, David; Tran, Binh Q.; Hsu, Charles; Hsu, Ming-Kai; Cha, Jae; Jenkins, Jeffrey; Ma, Lien; Willey, Jefferson; Wu, Jerry; Oh, Kenneth; Landa, Joseph; Lin, C. T.; Jung, T. P.; Makeig, Scott; Morabito, Carlo Francesco; Moon, Qyu; Yamakawa, Takeshi; Lee, Soo-Young; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Szu, Harold H.; Kaur, Balvinder; Byrd, Kenneth; Dang, Karen; Krzywicki, Alan; Familoni, Babajide O.; Larson, Louis; Harkrider, Susan; Krapels, Keith A.; Dai, Liyi

    2014-05-01

    Since the Brain Order Disorder (BOD) group reported on a high density Electroencephalogram (EEG) to capture the neuronal information using EEG to wirelessly interface with a Smartphone [1,2], a larger BOD group has been assembled, including the Obama BRAIN program, CUA Brain Computer Interface Lab and the UCSD Swartz Computational Neuroscience Center. We can implement the pair-electrodes correlation functions in order to operate in a real time daily environment, which is of the computation complexity of O(N3) for N=102~3 known as functional f-EEG. The daily monitoring requires two areas of focus. Area #(1) to quantify the neuronal information flow under arbitrary daily stimuli-response sources. Approach to #1: (i) We have asserted that the sources contained in the EEG signals may be discovered by an unsupervised learning neural network called blind sources separation (BSS) of independent entropy components, based on the irreversible Boltzmann cellular thermodynamics(ΔS < 0), where the entropy is a degree of uniformity. What is the entropy? Loosely speaking, sand on the beach is more uniform at a higher entropy value than the rocks composing a mountain - the internal binding energy tells the paleontologists the existence of information. To a politician, landside voting results has only the winning information but more entropy, while a non-uniform voting distribution record has more information. For the human's effortless brain at constant temperature, we can solve the minimum of Helmholtz free energy (H = E - TS) by computing BSS, and then their pairwise-entropy source correlation function. (i) Although the entropy itself is not the information per se, but the concurrence of the entropy sources is the information flow as a functional-EEG, sketched in this 2nd BOD report. Area #(2) applying EEG bio-feedback will improve collective decision making (TBD). Approach to #2: We introduce a novel performance quality metrics, in terms of the throughput rate of faster (

  11. Density functional theory calculations on the active site of biotin synthase: mechanism of S transfer from the Fe(2)S(2) cluster and the role of 1st and 2nd sphere residues.

    PubMed

    Rana, Atanu; Dey, Subal; Agrawal, Amita; Dey, Abhishek

    2015-10-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations are performed on the active site of biotin synthase (BS) to investigate the sulfur transfer from the Fe(2)S(2) cluster to dethiobiotin (DTB). The active site is modeled to include both the 1st and 2nd sphere residues. Molecular orbital theory considerations and calculation on smaller models indicate that only an S atom (not S²⁻) transfer from an oxidized Fe(2)S(2) cluster leads to the formation of biotin from the DTB using two adenosyl radicals generated from S-adenosyl-L-methionine. The calculations on larger protein active site model indicate that a 9-monothiobiotin bound reduced cluster should be an intermediate during the S atom insertion from the Fe(2)S(2) cluster consistent with experimental data. The Arg260 bound to Fe1, being a weaker donor than cysteine bound to Fe(2), determines the geometry and the electronic structure of this intermediate. The formation of this intermediate containing the C9-S bond is estimated to have a ΔG(≠) of 17.1 kcal/mol while its decay by the formation of the 2nd C6-S bond is calculated to have a ΔG(≠) of 29.8 kcal/mol, i.e. the 2nd C-S bond formation is calculated to be the rate determining step in the cycle and it leads to the decay of the Fe(2)S(2) cluster. Significant configuration interaction (CI), present in these transition states, helps lower the barrier of these reactions by ~30-25 kcal/mol relative to a hypothetical outer-sphere reaction. The conserved Phe285 residue near the Fe(2)S(2) active site determines the stereo selectivity at the C6 center of this radical coupling reaction. Reaction mechanism of BS investigated using DFT calculations. Strong CI and the Phe285 residue control the kinetic rate and stereochemistry of the product. PMID:26369537

  12. Efficacy and Safety of rAAV2-ND4 Treatment for Leber’s Hereditary Optic Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Xing; Pei, Han; Zhao, Min-jian; Yang, Shuo; Hu, Wei-kun; He, Heng; Ma, Si-qi; Zhang, Ge; Dong, Xiao-yan; Chen, Chen; Wang, Dao-wen; Li, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a mitochondrially inherited disease leading to blindness. A mitochondrial DNA point mutation at the 11778 nucleotide site of the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4) gene is the most common cause. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a recombinant adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) carrying ND4 (rAAV2-ND4) in LHON patients carrying the G11778A mutation. Nine patients were administered rAAV2-ND4 by intravitreal injection to one eye and then followed for 9 months. Ophthalmologic examinations of visual acuity, visual field, and optical coherence tomography were performed. Physical examinations included routine blood and urine. The visual acuity of the injected eyes of six patients improved by at least 0.3 log MAR after 9 months of follow-up. In these six patients, the visual field was enlarged but the retinal nerve fibre layer remained relatively stable. No other outcome measure was significantly changed. None of the nine patients had local or systemic adverse events related to the vector during the 9-month follow-up period. These findings support the feasible use of gene therapy for LHON. PMID:26892229

  13. Influence of Nd dopant amount on microstructure and photoluminescence of TiO2:Nd thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojcieszak, Damian; Mazur, Michal; Kaczmarek, Danuta; Morgiel, Jerzy; Zatryb, Grzegorz; Domaradzki, Jaroslaw; Misiewicz, Jan

    2015-10-01

    TiO2 and TiO2:Nd thin films were deposited using reactive magnetron sputtering process from mosaic Ti-Nd targets with various Nd concentration. The thin films were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and spectroscopic techniques. Photoluminescence (PL) in the near infrared obtained upon 514.5 nm excitation was also examined. The relationship between the Nd concentration, structural, optical and photoluminescence properties of prepared thin films was investigated and discussed. XRD and TEM measurements showed that an increase in the Nd concentration in the thin films hinders the crystal growth in the deposited coatings. Depending on the Nd amount in the thin films, TiO2 with the rutile, mixed rutile-amorphous or amorphous phase was obtained. Transmittance measurements revealed that addition of Nd dopant to titania matrix did not deteriorate optical transparency of the coatings, however it influenced on the position of the fundamental absorption edge and therefore on the width of optical band gap energy. All TiO2:Nd thin films exhibited PL emission that occurred at ca. 0.91, 1.09 and 1.38 μm. Finally, results obtained for deposited coatings showed that titania with the rutile structure and 1.0 at.% of Nd was the most efficient in VIS to NIR photon conversion.

  14. Surface-emitting quantum cascade laser with 2nd-order metal-semiconductor gratings for single-lobe emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyle, C.; Sigler, C.; Kirch, J. D.; Lindberg, D.; Earles, T.; Botez, D.; Mawst, L. J.

    2016-03-01

    Grating-coupled, surface-emitting (GCSE) quantum-cascade lasers (QCLs) are demonstrated with high-power, single-lobe surface emission. A 2nd-order Au-semiconductor distributed-feedback (DFB)/ distributed-Bragg-reflector (DBR) grating is used for feedback and out-coupling. The DFB and DBR grating regions are 2.55 mm- and 1.28 mm-long, respectively, for a total grating length of 5.1 mm. The lasers are designed to operate in a symmetric longitudinal mode by causing resonant coupling of the guided optical mode to the antisymmetric surface-plasmon modes of the 2nd-order metal/semiconductor grating. In turn, the antisymmetric longitudinal modes are strongly absorbed by the metal in the grating, causing the symmetric longitudinal mode to be favored to lase, which produces a single lobe beam over a grating duty-cycle range of 36-41 %. Simulations indicate that the symmetric mode is always favored to lase, independent of the random phase of residual reflections from the device's cleaved ends. Peak pulsed output powers of ~ 0.4 W were measured with single-lobe, single-mode operation near 4.75 μm.

  15. XUV spectra of 2nd transition row elements: identification of 3d-4p and 3d-4f transition arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lokasani, Ragava; Long, Elaine; Maguire, Oisin; Sheridan, Paul; Hayden, Patrick; O'Reilly, Fergal; Dunne, Padraig; Sokell, Emma; Endo, Akira; Limpouch, Jiri; O'Sullivan, Gerry

    2015-12-01

    The use of laser produced plasmas (LPPs) in extreme ultraviolet/soft x-ray lithography and metrology at 13.5 nm has been widely reported and recent research efforts have focused on developing next generation sources for lithography, surface morphology, patterning and microscopy at shorter wavelengths. In this paper, the spectra emitted from LPPs of the 2nd transition row elements from yttrium (Z = 39) to palladium (Z = 46), with the exception of zirconium (Z = 40) and technetium (Z = 43), produced by two Nd:YAG lasers which delivered up to 600 mJ in 7 ns and 230 mJ in 170 ps, respectively, are reported. Intense emission was observed in the 2-8 nm spectral region resulting from unresolved transition arrays (UTAs) due to 3d-4p, 3d-4f and 3p-3d transitions. These transitions in a number of ion stages of yttrium, niobium, ruthenium and rhodium were identified by comparison with results from Cowan code calculations and previous studies. The theoretical data were parameterized using the UTA formalism and the mean wavelength and widths were calculated and compared with experimental results.

  16. Literacy: The Key to Success. A Literacy Handbook, 2nd Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mid-York Library System, Utica, NY.

    Designed to provide a comprehensive literacy reference for public libraries, this handbook presents a glossary of terms, background information on functional literacy, and brief reviews of 14 additional topics: (1) literacy statistics; (2) adult performance levels; (3) the problem of adult education; (4) illiteracy generates itself; (5) about…

  17. Conceptual design and optimization of a 1-1/2 generation PFBC plant task 14. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.S.; Witman, P.M.; Harbaugh, L.; Rubow, L.N.; Horazak, D.A.

    1994-12-01

    The economics and performance of advanced pressurized fluidized bed (PFBC) cycles developed for utility applications during the last 10 years (especially the 2nd-Generation PFBC cycle) are projected to be favorable compared to conventional pulverized coal power plants. However, the improved economics of 2nd-Generation PFBC cycles are accompanied by the perception of increased technological risk related to the pressurized carbonizer and its associated gas cleanup systems. A PFBC cycle that removed the uncertainties of the carbonizer while retaining the high efficiency and low cost of a 2nd-Generation PFBC cycle could improve the prospects for early commercialization and pave the way for the introduction of the complete 2nd-Generation PFBC cycle at some later date. One such arrangement is a PFBC cycle with natural gas topping combustion, referred to as the 1.5-Generation PFBC cycle. This cycle combines the advantages of the 2nd-Generation PFBC plant with the reduced risk associated with a gas turbine burning natural gas, and can potentially be part of a phased approach leading to the commercialization of utility 2nd-Generation PFBC cycles. The 1.5-Generation PFBC may also introduce other advantages over the more complicated 2nd-Generation PFBC system. This report describes the technical and economic evaluation of 1.5-Generation PFBC cycles for utility or industrial power generation.

  18. Project DEEP STEAM 2nd and 3rd quarter reports, April 1-September 30, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno, J.B.; Aeschliman, D.P.; Clay, R.G.; Lee, D.O.; Marshall, B.W.; Muir, J.F.

    1982-03-01

    The objective of Project DEEP STEAM is to develop the technology required to economically produce heavy oil from deep reservoirs. The tasks included in this project are development of thermally efficient delivery systems and downhole steam-generation systems. During the period April 1-September 30, 1981, activity was completed on the development of a low-pressure-combustion, indirect-contact downhole generator (Rocketdyne), and effort continued on two high-pressure, direct-contact designs (Foster-Miller Associates, Sandia National Laboratories). Field testing of the Sandia design began in the Wilmington Field at Long Beach, California. This was the first test of a high-pressure, direct-contact downhole steam generator in a deep well. Development of a second Sandia design, using pure oxygen as the oxidizer, was initiated. Progress continued on the Min-Stress II packer concept at L'Garde, Inc., and on the extruded metal packer at Foster-Miller. A new insulant test series was begun at the Tacoma test tower. The instrumented bare-string steam injection test in Canada, initiated in cooperation with Husky Oil in the last report period, was successfully completed in early May. A redesigned test program to allow simultaneous testing of several different insulated tubulars is scheduled for October 1981.

  19. Post-flight BET products for the 2nd discovery entry, STS-19 (51-A)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, G. M.; Mcconnell, J. G.; Heck, M. L.; Troutman, P. A.; Waters, L. A.; Findlay, J. T.

    1985-01-01

    The post-flight products for the second Discovery flight, STS-19 (51-A), are summarized. The inertial best estimate trajectory (BET), BT19D19/UN=169750N, was developed using spacecraft dynamic measurements from Inertial Measurement Unit 2 (IMU2) in conjunction with the best tracking coverage available for any of the earlier Shuttle entries. As a consequence of the latter, an anchor epoch was selected which conforms to an initial altitude of greater than a million feet. The Extended BET, ST19BET/UN=274885C, incorporated the previously mentioned inertial reconstructed state information and the Langley Atmospheric Information Retrieval System (LAIRS) atmosphere, ST19MET/UN=712662N, with some minor exceptions. Primary and back-up AEROBET reels are NK0165 and NK0201, respectively. This product was only developed over the lowermost 360 kft altitude range due to atmosphere problems but this relates to altitudes well above meaningful signal in the IMUs. Summary results generated from the AEROBET for this flight are presented with meaningful configuration and statistical comparisons from the previous thirteen flights. Modified maximum likelihood estimation (MMLE) files were generated based on IMU2 and the Rate Gyro Assembly/Accelerometer Assembly (RGA/AA), respectively. Appendices attached define spacecraft and physical constants utilized, show plots of the final tracking data residuals from the post-flight fit, list relevant parameters from the BET at a two second spacing, and retain for archival purpose all relevant input and output tapes and files generated.

  20. Morgenröthe or business as usual: a personal account of the 2nd Annual EULAR Congress, Prague

    PubMed Central

    Wollheim, Frank A

    2001-01-01

    The 2nd Annual European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) Congress, held in Prague, 13–16 June 2001, was an impressive event with a record turnout of 8300 delegates. It offered a large variety of first-class state of the art lectures by some 180 invited worldwide speakers. Several new and ongoing therapeutic developments were discussed. The aim to attract the young scientific community was only partly achieved, and the dependence on industry posed some problems. The organization, however, was a big improvement compared with the previous congress in this series. The number of submitted abstracts was relatively low (1200) compared with the number of delegates. Accommodation of satellite symposia and organization of poster sessions remain problem areas of this meeting. The Annual EULAR Congress emerges as one of the two most important annual congresses of rheumatology, the other being the American College of Rheumatology meeting.

  1. Use of 2nd and 3rd Level Correlation Analysis for Studying Degradation in Polycrystalline Thin-Film Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Albin, D. S.; del Cueto, J. A.; Demtsu, S. H.; Bansal, S.

    2011-03-01

    The correlation of stress-induced changes in the performance of laboratory-made CdTe solar cells with various 2nd and 3rd level metrics is discussed. The overall behavior of aggregated data showing how cell efficiency changes as a function of open-circuit voltage (Voc), short-circuit current density (Jsc), and fill factor (FF) is explained using a two-diode, PSpice model in which degradation is simulated by systematically changing model parameters. FF shows the highest correlation with performance during stress, and is subsequently shown to be most affected by shunt resistance, recombination and in some cases voltage-dependent collection. Large decreases in Jsc as well as increasing rates of Voc degradation are related to voltage-dependent collection effects and catastrophic shunting respectively. Large decreases in Voc in the absence of catastrophic shunting are attributed to increased recombination. The relevance of capacitance-derived data correlated with both Voc and FF is discussed.

  2. CRACking ion channel targets: 2nd annual Ion Channel Targets Conference. 12-13 September 2006, Boston, MA, USA.

    PubMed

    Mathes, Chris

    2007-01-01

    The 2nd Annual Ion Channel Targets (ICT) Conference (by Select Bioscience LLC) was held in Boston on 12-13 September 2006. A healthy mixture of scientists from pharma, biotech and academic sectors attended the meeting. The speaker list reflected this mixture. In general, the conference focused on new ion channel targets and the methods for studying them in detail. Keynote lectures from Professors David Clapham (Harvard Medical School, USA) and Reinhold Penner (University of Hawaii, USA) set the tone by highlighting recent findings with a voltage-gated proton channel (Clapham), cation channel in sperm (Clapham) and the calcium-release-activated calcium channel (Penner). Also described at ICT were voltage-gated sodium, potassium, transmembrane-receptor-potential channels, as well as ligand-gated nicotinic acetylcholine (nAChR) and GABA type A receptors. PMID:17150038

  3. Effect of the nanocrystalline structure type on the optical properties of TiO2:Nd (1 at.%) thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazur, Michal; Wojcieszak, Damian; Kaczmarek, Danuta; Domaradzki, Jaroslaw; Zatryb, Grzegorz; Misiewicz, Jan; Morgiel, Jerzy

    2015-04-01

    Titanium dioxide thin films, each doped with the same amount of neodymium (1 at.%) were deposited by Low Pressure Hot Target Reactive Sputtering and High Energy Reactive Magnetron Sputtering processes in order to obtain anatase and rutile thin film structures respectively. The microstructure and phase composition were analyzed using the transmission electron microscopy method including high resolution electron microscopy imaging. The measurements of the optical properties showed, that both prepared thin films were transparent in the visible light range and had a low extinction coefficient of ca. 3 ṡ 10-3. The thin film with the anatase structure had a lower cut-off wavelength and refractive index and a higher value of optical energy band gap as-compared to the TiO2:Nd coating with the rutile structure. Simultaneously, more efficient photoluminescence emission was observed for the rutile thin films.

  4. International collaborative study for establishment of the 2nd WHO International Standard for Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Mawas, Fatme; Burkin, Karena; Dougall, Thomas; Saydam, Manolya; Rigsby, Peter; Bolgiano, Barbara

    2015-11-01

    In this report we present the results of a collaborative study for the preparation and calibration of a replacement International Standard (IS) for Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide (polyribosyl ribitol phosphate; 5-d-ribitol-(1 → 1)-β-d-ribose-3-phosphate; PRP). Two candidate preparations were evaluated. Thirteen laboratories from 9 different countries participated in the collaborative study to assess the suitability and determine the PRP content of two candidate standards. On the basis of the results from this study, Candidate 2 (NIBSC code 12/306) has been established as the 2nd WHO IS for PRP by the Expert Committee of Biological Standards of the World Health Organisation with a content of 4.904 ± 0.185mg/ampoule, as determined by the ribose assays carried out by 11 of the participating laboratories. PMID:26298195

  5. The influence of neighborhood density and word frequency on phoneme awareness in 2nd and 4th grades

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, Tiffany P.; Bowles, Ryan P.; Catts, Hugh W.; Storkel, Holly L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that two lexical characteristics – neighborhood density and word frequency – interact to influence performance on phoneme awareness tasks. Methods Phoneme awareness was examined in a large, longitudinal dataset of 2nd and 4th grade children. Using linear logistic test model, the relation between words' neighborhood density, word frequency, and phoneme awareness performance was examined across grades while covarying type and place of deletion. Results A predicted interaction was revealed: words from dense neighborhoods or those with high frequency were more likely to yield correct phoneme awareness responses across grades. Conclusions Findings support an expansion to the lexical restructuring model to include interactions between neighborhood density and word frequency to account for phoneme awareness. PMID:20691979

  6. Numerical Simulation of the Francis Turbine and CAD used to Optimized the Runner Design (2nd).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutikno, Priyono

    2010-06-01

    Hydro Power is the most important renewable energy source on earth. The water is free of charge and with the generation of electric energy in a Hydroelectric Power station the production of green house gases (mainly CO2) is negligible. Hydro Power Generation Stations are long term installations and can be used for 50 years and more, care must be taken to guarantee a smooth and safe operation over the years. Maintenance is necessary and critical parts of the machines have to be replaced if necessary. Within modern engineering the numerical flow simulation plays an important role in order to optimize the hydraulic turbine in conjunction with connected components of the plant. Especially for rehabilitation and upgrading existing Power Plants important point of concern are to predict the power output of turbine, to achieve maximum hydraulic efficiency, to avoid or to minimize cavitations, to avoid or to minimized vibrations in whole range operation. Flow simulation can help to solve operational problems and to optimize the turbo machinery for hydro electric generating stations or their component through, intuitive optimization, mathematical optimization, parametric design, the reduction of cavitations through design, prediction of draft tube vortex, trouble shooting by using the simulation. The classic design through graphic-analytical method is cumbersome and can't give in evidence the positive or negative aspects of the designing options. So it was obvious to have imposed as necessity the classical design methods to an adequate design method using the CAD software. There are many option chose during design calculus in a specific step of designing may be verified in ensemble and detail form a point of view. The final graphic post processing would be realized only for the optimal solution, through a 3 D representation of the runner as a whole for the final approval geometric shape. In this article it was investigated the redesign of the hydraulic turbine's runner

  7. Laparoscopic hepatectomy is theoretically better than open hepatectomy: preparing for the 2nd International Consensus Conference on Laparoscopic Liver Resection.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Go; Cherqui, Daniel; Geller, David A; Han, Ho-Seong; Kaneko, Hironori; Buell, Joseph F

    2014-10-01

    Six years have passed since the first International Consensus Conference on Laparoscopic Liver Resection was held. This comparatively new surgical technique has evolved since then and is rapidly being adopted worldwide. We compared the theoretical differences between open and laparoscopic liver resection, using right hepatectomy as an example. We also searched the Cochrane Library using the keyword "laparoscopic liver resection." The papers retrieved through the search were reviewed, categorized, and applied to the clinical questions that will be discussed at the 2nd Consensus Conference. The laparoscopic hepatectomy procedure is more difficult to master than the open hepatectomy procedure because of the movement restrictions imposed upon us when we operate from outside the body cavity. However, good visibility of the operative field around the liver, which is located beneath the costal arch, and the magnifying provide for neat transection of the hepatic parenchyma. Another theoretical advantage is that pneumoperitoneum pressure reduces hemorrhage from the hepatic vein. The literature search turned up 67 papers, 23 of which we excluded, leaving only 44. Two randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are underway, but their results are yet to be published. Most of the studies (n = 15) concerned short-term results, with some addressing long-term results (n = 7), cost (n = 6), energy devices (n = 4), and so on. Laparoscopic hepatectomy is theoretically superior to open hepatectomy in terms of good visibility of the operative field due to the magnifying effect and reduced hemorrhage from the hepatic vein due to pneumoperitoneum pressure. However, there is as yet no evidence from previous studies to back this up in terms of short-term and long-term results. The 2nd International Consensus Conference on Laparoscopic Liver Resection will arrive at a consensus on the basis of the best available evidence, with video presentations focusing on surgical techniques and the publication

  8. Rocketdyne - J-2 Saturn V 2nd and 3rd Stage Engine. Chapter 2, Appendix D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffman, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The J-2 engine was unique in many respects. Technology was not nearly as well-developed in oxygen/hydrogen engines at the start of the J-2 project. As a result, it experienced a number of "teething" problems. It was used in two stages on the Saturn V vehicle in the Apollo Program, as well as on the later Skylab and Apollo/Soyuz programs. In the Apollo Program, it was used on the S-II stage, which was the second stage of the Saturn V vehicle. There were five J-2 engines at the back end of the S-II Stage. In the S-IV-B stage, it was a single engine, but that single engine had to restart. The Apollo mission called for the entire vehicle to reach orbital velocity in low Earth orbit after the first firing of the Saturn-IV-B stage and, subsequently, to fire a second time to go on to the moon. The engine had to be man-rated (worthy of transporting humans). It had to have a high thrust rate and performance associated with oxygen/hydrogen engines, although there were some compromises there. It had to gimbal for thrust vector control. It was an open-cycle gas generator engine delivering up to 230,000 pounds of thrust.

  9. Dynamics of the properties of steppe paleosols of the Sarmatian time (2nd century BC-4th century AD) in relation to secular variations in climatic humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demkin, V. A.; Zolotareva, B. N.; Demkina, T. S.; Khomutova, T. E.; Kashirskaya, N. N.; El'Tsov, M. V.; Udal'Tsov, S. N.

    2012-02-01

    Paleosols buried under kurgans of the Early (2nd-1st centuries BC), Middle (1st-2nd centuries AD) and Late (2nd-IV centuries AD) Sarmatian epochs were studied in dry steppes and desert steppes of the Lower Volga region (the Privolzhskaya and Ergeni Uplands and the Caspian Lowland). It was found that temporal variations in the morphological, chemical, microbiological, and magnetic properties of the paleosols in the interval of 2200-1600 BP were characterized by the cyclic pattern related to secular dynamics of climatic humidity with changes in the mean annual precipitation of ±30-50 mm. These climate changes did not transform chestnut paleosols and paleosolonetzes at the type or subtype taxonomic levels. However, they led to certain changes in the humus, carbonate, and salt profiles of the soils; in the character of solonetzic horizon B1; and in the state of microbial communities. According to these data, the Sarmatian time was characterized by alternation of micropluvial and microarid stages lasting fro about 100-200 years. In particular, the stages of humidization were observed in the 1st century BC-1st century AD and in the 4th century AD; the most arid conditions were observed in the second half of the 2nd and the first half of the 3rd century AD.

  10. Workshop report on the 2nd Joint ENCCA/EuroSARC European bone sarcoma network meeting: integration of clinical trials with tumour biology

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This is the report of the 2nd Joint ENCCA/EuroSARC European Bone Sarcoma Network Meeting held in Leiden, The Netherlands, on 26-27 September 2013, bringing together preclinical and clinical investigators on bone sarcoma. The purpose of this workshop was to present the achievements of biological research and clinical trials in bone sarcomas and to stimulate crosstalk.

  11. Research and Prediction of the Application of Multimedia Teaching Aid in Teaching Technical Education on the 2nd Level of Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stebila, Ján

    2011-01-01

    The purpose and the main aim of the pedagogic experiment were to practically verify the success of Multimedia Teaching Aid (MTA) in conditions of primary schools. We assumed that the use of our multimedia teaching aid in teaching technical education on the 2nd level of primary schools would significantly affect the level of knowledge of pupils…

  12. Growth, structure, and optical properties of a self-activated crystal: Na2Nd2O(BO3)2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Faxian; Zhang, Guochun; Yao, Jiyong; Xu, Tianxiang; Zhang, Xinyuan; Fu, Ying; Wu, Yicheng

    2015-08-01

    A self-activated crystal Na2Nd2O(BO3)2 has been grown from the Na2O-Nd2O3-B2O3-NaF system. Its structure was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction, and verified by infrared spectrum and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Na2Nd2O(BO3)2 crystallizes in the monoclinic crystal system, space group P21/c with unit-cell parameters a = 10.804 Å, b = 6.421 Å, c = 10.450 Å, β = 117.95°, Z = 4, and V = 640.4 Å3. Its absorption and emission spectra were measured at room temperature. Based on the absorption spectrum, the spontaneous transition probabilities, fluorescence branch ratio, and the radiation lifetime of 4F3/2 state were calculated. The emission properties under the 355 nm excitation were also evaluated. The electronic structure of Na2Nd2O(BO3)2 was calculated by the first-principles method. The obtained results show that Na2Nd2O(BO3)2 may be a promising microchip laser material.

  13. A neutron powder diffraction study of ND 3 intercalated titanium disulfide, 3 R-TiS 2ND 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouwmeester, H. J. M.; Wiegers, G. A.

    1988-10-01

    Neutron powder diffraction of rhombohedral 3 R-TiS 2ND 3 ( a = 3.419 Å, c = 27.03 Å at 300 K, space group R overline3m ) has shown that ND 3 molecules and ND +4 ions, present in a ratio of about 5 to 1 from chemical and physical evidence, occupy statistically the trigonal-prismatic holes between TiS 2 sandwiches. One cannot distinguish between ND 3 and ND +4. Powder intensities calculated for a model with spherically symmetric ND 3 molecules (corresponding to isotropically rotating ND 3 and ND +4) in the trigonal-prismatic holes were in reasonable agreement with the observed intensities. Attempts to obtain information on the precise orientation of ND 3 and ND +4 in the TiS 2 lattice using refinements with structure factors were not successful; the reliability R factor was 0.093 for spherical symmetric ND 3 molecules with nitrogen in the center of the trigonal-prismatic holes.

  14. Study on microstructure and properties of extruded Mg-2Nd-0.2Zn alloy as potential biodegradable implant material.

    PubMed

    Li, Junlei; Tan, Lili; Wan, Peng; Yu, Xiaoming; Yang, Ke

    2015-04-01

    Mg-2Nd-0.2Zn (NZ20) alloy was prepared for the application as biodegradable implant material in this study. The effects of the extrusion process on microstructure, mechanical and corrosion properties of the alloy were investigated. The as-cast alloy was composed of α-Mg matrix and Mg12Nd eutectic compound. The solution treatment could lead to the Mg12Nd phase dissolution and the grain coarsening. The alloy (E1) preheated at 380°C for 1h and extruded at 390°C presents fine grains with amounts of tiny Mg12Nd particles uniformly dispersed throughout the boundaries and the interior of the grains. The alloy (E2) preheated at 480°C for 1h and extruded at 500°C exhibits relatively larger grains with few nano-scale Mg12Nd phase particles dispersed. The alloy of E1, compared with E2, showed relatively lower corrosion rate, higher yield strength and slightly lower elongation. PMID:25686968

  15. [JAN JĘDRZEJEWICZ AND EUROPEAN ASTRONOMY OF THE 2ND HALF OF THE 19TH CENTURY].

    PubMed

    Siuda-Bochenek, Magda

    2015-01-01

    Jan Jędrzejewicz was an amateur astronomer who in the 2nd half of the 19th century created an observation centre, which considering the level of research was comparable to the European ones. Jędrzejewicz settled down in Plonsk in 1862 and worked as a doctor ever since but his greatest passion was astronomy, to which he dedicated all his free time. In 1875 Jędrzejewicz finished the construction of his observatory. He equipped it with basic astronomical and meteorological instruments, then began his observations and with time he became quite skilled in it. Jędrzejewicz focused mainly on binary stars but he also pointed his telescopes at the planets of the solar system, the comets, the Sun, as well as all the phenomena appearing in the sky at that time. Thanks to the variety of the objects observed and the number of observations he stood out from other observers in Poland and took a very good position in the mainstream of the 19th-century astronomy in Europe. Micrometer observations of binary stars made in Płońsk gained recognition in the West and were included in the catalogues of binary stars. Interest in Jędrzejewicz and his observatory was confirmed by numerous references in the English "Nature" magazine. PMID:26455002

  16. Explicit formulas for 2nd-order driving terms due to sextupoles and chromatic effects of quadrupoles.

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C-X. )

    2012-04-25

    Optimization of nonlinear driving terms have become a useful tool for designing storage rings, especially modern light sources where the strong nonlinearity is dominated by the large chromatic effects of quadrupoles and strong sextupoles for chromaticity control. The Lie algebraic method is well known for computing such driving terms. However, it appears that there was a lack of explicit formulas in the public domain for such computation, resulting in uncertainty and/or inconsistency in widely used codes. This note presents explicit formulas for driving terms due to sextupoles and chromatic effects of quadrupoles, which can be considered as thin elements. The computation is accurate to the 4th-order Hamiltonian and 2nd-order in terms of magnet parameters. The results given here are the same as the APS internal note AOP-TN-2009-020. This internal nte has been revised and published here as a Light Source Note in order to get this information into the public domain, since both ELEGANT and OPA are using these formulas.

  17. Summary of the 2nd International Symposium on Arthrogryposis, St. Petersburg, Russia, September 17-19, 2014.

    PubMed

    Hall, Judith G; Agranovich, Olga; Ogranovich, Alga; Pontén, Eva; Pontén, Ava; van Bosse, Harold J P

    2015-06-01

    Enormous progress has been made in understanding the etiology and therapies for arthrogryposis (multiple congenital contractures). A 2nd International Symposium on Arthrogryposis was sponsored by the Turner Institute in St. Petersburg, Russia. Olga Agranovich, Head of the Arthrogryposis Department of the Turner Institute, organized this special meeting. Care providers from multiple disciplines from all over the world representing 18 nations attended. Participants included: Pediatric orthopedic specialists, rehabilitation physicians, occupational therapists, physical therapists, medical geneticists, neurologists, craniofacial physicians, psychologists, developmental biologists, as well as representatives from parent support groups. The 1st symposium established the need for a collaborative and interdisciplinary approach to the treatment of arthrogryposis, engagement of parent support organizations, and the aim for more research. The Second Symposium highlighted the continuing need for more research on various therapies, identification of different types of arthrogryposis, standardized descriptions of severity, development of new orthotics, improved prenatal diagnosis, and studying adult outcome. Major progress has been made on both upper and lower limb treatments. PMID:25847824

  18. Long-term monitoring of the human intestinal microbiota from the 2nd week to 13 years of age.

    PubMed

    Endo, Akihito; Pӓrtty, Anna; Kalliomӓki, Marko; Isolauri, Erika; Salminen, Seppo

    2014-08-01

    Microbial contact begins prior to birth and continues rapidly thereafter. Few long term follow-up studies have been reported and we therefore characterized the development of intestinal microbiota of ten subjects from the 2nd week of life to 13 years of age. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis combined with several bacterial group-specific primer sets demonstrated the colonization steps of defined bacterial groups in the microbiota. Bifidobacterium species were seen throughout the test period in all subjects. Bacteroides fragilis group and Blautia coccoides-Eubacterium rectale group species were not detected in several subjects during the first 6 months of life but were commonly seen after 12 months of life. Streptococcus group appeared during early life but was not seen in several subjects at the age of 13 years. Although a few species were linked with the increasing age, major bacterial species in the groups did not change dramatically. Rather considerable changes were found in the relative abundances of each bacterial species. Clustering analysis of total bacterial flora indicated that the microbiota changed considerably between 6 months and 12 months of life, and, at the age of 12 months, the intestinal microbiota was already converted toward a profile characteristic of an adult microbiota. Probiotic supplementation in the beginning of life did not have major impacts on later microbiota development. PMID:24933584

  19. Increasing the water temperature of a 2nd order stream reach: Hydraulic aspects of a whole-stream manipulative experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lima, João L. M. P.; Canhoto, Cristina

    2015-04-01

    What will happen when water temperatures of streams increases, due to climate changes or in connection with rapidly changing human systems? Trying to answer to this question a whole-stream manipulative experiment was undertaken, where an increase in water temperature was artificially induced on a 2nd order stream reach. The main objective of this poster is to describe this experiment focusing on the design of the hydraulic system. The system maintained a steady flow while allowing natural variation in abiotic factors and was successfully used to evaluate the effects of warming on a stream ecosystem at several levels of biological organization. A constant flow of stream water was controlled by a hydraulic setup (~22m long; ~1.5m width) subdivided into two independent channels. One channel of the study reach received heated water (~3°C above the other), while the other received water at stream ambient temperature. The warming system maintained a steady gravity controlled flow making use of weirs and valves.

  20. Enhanced Deficits in Long-Term Potentiation in the Adult Dentate Gyrus with 2nd Trimester Ethanol Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Helfer, Jennifer L.; White, Emily R.; Christie, Brian R.

    2012-01-01

    Ethanol exposure during pregnancy can cause structural and functional changes in the brain that can impair cognitive capacity. The hippocampal formation, an area of the brain strongly linked with learning and memory, is particularly vulnerable to the teratogenic effects of ethanol. In the present experiments we sought to determine if the functional effects of developmental ethanol exposure could be linked to ethanol exposure during any single trimester-equivalent. Ethanol exposure during the 1st or 3rd trimester-equivalent produced only minor changes in synaptic plasticity in adult offspring. In contrast, ethanol exposure during the 2nd trimester equivalent resulted in a pronounced decrease in long-term potentiation, indicating that the timing of exposure influences the severity of the deficit. Together, the results from these experiments demonstrate long-lasting alterations in synaptic plasticity as the result of developmental ethanol exposure and dependent on the timing of exposure. Furthermore, these results allude to neural circuit malfunction within the hippocampal formation, perhaps relating to the learning and memory deficits observed in individuals with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. PMID:23227262

  1. Near infrared emission and energy transfer in Eu2+ - Nd3+ co-doped Ca2BO3Cl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talewar, R. A.; Joshi, C. P.; Moharil, S. V.

    2016-05-01

    Novel near infrared (NIR) emitting phosphor, Ca2BO3Cl:Eu2+, Nd3+ was synthesized by conventional solid-state reaction and characterized with X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence emission, photoluminescence excitation spectra and fluorescence decay measurements. When excited with 400 nm, the phosphor gives broadband emission at 560 nm, which corresponds to the allowed 5d → 4f transition of Eu2+ and an intense NIR emissions in the range 800-1400 nm, which are assigned to the characteristic 4I9/2,11/2,13/2 transitions of Nd3+ ions. The dependence of visible and NIR emissions, decay lifetime and the energy transfer efficiency (ηETE) were investigated in detail. The luminescence spectra, both in visible (VIS) and NIR regions, and decay lifetime curves of Eu2+ have been measured to prove energy transfer (ET) from Eu2+ to Nd3+. These results demonstrate the possibility for enhancing the photovoltaic conversion efficiency of silicon solar cell by modifying the absorption and utilizing the UV to blue part of the solar spectrum where the efficiency of c-Silicon solar cell is low.

  2. Universe (2nd edition)

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufmann, W.J. III

    1988-01-01

    A general text on astronomy is presented. The foundations of the science are reviewed, including descriptions of naked-eye observatons of eclipses and planetary motions and such basic tools as Kepler's laws, the fundamental properties of light, and the optics of telescopes. The formation of the solar system is addressed, and the planets and their satellites are discussed individually. Solar science is treated in detail. Stellar evolution is described chronologically from birth to death. Molecular clouds, star clusters, nebulae, neutron stars, black holes, and various other phenomena that occur in the life of a star are examined in the sequence in which they naturally occur. A survey of the Milky Way introduces galactic astronomy. Quasars and cosmology are addressed, including the most recent developments in research. 156 references.

  3. ENABLE -- A systolic 2nd level trigger processor for track finding and e/[pi] discrimination for ATLAS/LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Klefenz, F.; Noffz, K.H.; Zoz, R. . Lehrstuhl fuer Informatik V); Maenner, R. . Interdisziplinaeres Zentrum fuer Wissenschaftliches Rechnen)

    1994-08-01

    The Enable Machine is a systolic 2nd level trigger processor for the transition radiation detector (TRD) of ATLAS/LHC. It is developed within the EAST/RD-11 collaboration at CERN. The task of the processor is to find electron tracks and to reject pion tracks according to the EAST benchmark algorithm in less than 10[mu]s. Track are identified by template matching in a ([psi],z) region of interest (RoI) selected by a 1st level trigger. In the ([psi],z) plane tracks of constant curvature are straight lines. The relevant lines form mask templates. Track identification is done by histogramming the coincidences of the templates and the RoI data for each possible track. The Enable Machine is an array processor that handles tracks of the same slope in parallel, and tracks of different slope in a pipeline. It is composed of two units, the Enable histogrammer unit and the Enable z/[psi]-board. The interface daughter board is equipped with a HIPPI-interface developed at JINR/-Dubna, and Xilinx 'corner turning' data converter chips. Enable uses programmable gate arrays (XILINX) for histogramming and synchronous SRAMs for pattern storage. With a clock rate of 40 MHz the trigger decision time is 6.5 [mu]s and the latency 7.0 [mu]s. The Enable machine is scalable in the RoI size as well as in the number of tracks processed. It can be adapted to different recognition tasks and detector setups. The prototype of the Enable Machine has been tested in a beam time of the RD6 collaboration at CERN in October 1993.

  4. Electrocradiographic Qrs Axis, Q Wave and T-wave Changes in 2nd and 3rd Trimester of Normal Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    S., Chandrasekharappa; Brid, S.V

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pregnancy although a physiological phenomena affects all the functions of the maternal body and brings about remarkable changes in the cardiovascular system. The cardiovascular changes and many of the physiological adaptations of normal pregnancy alter the physical findings thus, sometimes misleading the diagnosis of heart disease. Pregnancy also brings about various changes in the electrocardiogram, further confusing with that of heart disease. This study is undertaken to highlight the effect of normal pregnancy on the QRS axis, Q wave and T-wave of the Electrocardiogram and thereby helps us to distinguish it from that of pathological changes. Objectives: To study the effect of normal pregnancy on the QRS axis, Q wave and T-wave in the electrocardiogram and to compare with that of normal non pregnant women. Materials and Methods: Fifty normal pregnant women in 2nd and 3rd trimester each between 20– 35 y of age and 50 normal non pregnant women of the same age group were selected for the study. A 12 lead ECG was recorded by using ECG machine with special emphasis on QRS axis, Q wave and T-wave changes and all the parameters were analysed. Results: The ECG changes observed in our study include, deviation of QRS axis towards left as pregnancy advanced, significant increased incidence of occurrence of prominent Q waves in lead II, III and avF in pregnant group (p < 0.05 ) and, T-wave abnormalities like flat and inverted T-waves in lead III, V1 – V3 were more frequent in pregnant group ( p<0.05 ) than in non pregnant group. Conclusion:Normal pregnancy brings about various changes in ECG. These changes during pregnancy should be interpretated with caution by the physicians. It is necessary to understand the normal physiological changes which in turn help us in better management of those with cardiac disease. PMID:25386425

  5. Studies of Nondefective Adenovirus 2-Simian Virus 40 Hybrid Viruses III. Base Composition, Molecular Weight, and Conformation of the Ad2+ND1 Genome

    PubMed Central

    Crumpacker, Clyde S.; Henry, Patrick H.; Kakefuda, Tuyoski; Rowe, Wallace P.; Levin, Myron J.; Lewis, Andrew M.

    1971-01-01

    The nondefective adenovirus 2 (Ad2)-simian virus 40 (SV40) hybrid virus, Ad2+ND1, differs from the defective Ad-SV40 hybrid populations previously described, in that this hybrid virus can replicate without the aid of nonhybrid adenovirus helper. Consequently, the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) from this virus, which can be obtained free of nonhybrid adenovirus DNA, is well suited for biophysical studies on Ad-SV40 hybrid DNA. Such studies have been performed and demonstrate Ad2+ND1 DNA to have a buoyant density (1.715 g/cm3) and thermal denaturation profile (Tm = 75.1 C) almost identical with nonhybrid Ad2 DNA. Furthermore, its molecular weight, as determined by analytical zone sedimentation and electron microscopy, was 22 × 106 to 25 × 106 daltons, which is also very similar to that determined for Ad2. Electron micrographs showed all of the hybrid molecules to be double-stranded and linear. By using this determination of the molecular weight of Ad2+ND1 DNA and assuming that 1% of this molecule consists of covalently linked SV40 DNA (see companion paper), we calculate that the hybrid DNA molecule contains 220 × 103 to 250 × 103 daltons of SV40 DNA, or the equivalent of one-tenth of the SV40 genome. PMID:4323710

  6. Generations.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2005-01-01

    Groups naturally promote their strengths and prefer values and rules that give them an identity and an advantage. This shows up as generational tensions across cohorts who share common experiences, including common elders. Dramatic cultural events in America since 1925 can help create an understanding of the differing value structures of the Silents, the Boomers, Gen Xers, and the Millennials. Differences in how these generations see motivation and values, fundamental reality, relations with others, and work are presented, as are some applications of these differences to the dental profession. PMID:16623137

  7. Thermochemistry of glasses along the 2NdAlO3 3SiO2 join

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yahong; Navrotsky, Alexandra; Tangeman, Jean A.; Weber, J. K. Richard

    2003-08-01

    Five Nd-aluminosilicate glasses along the 2NdAlO3-3SiO2 join were synthesized using conventional drop-quench techniques. A sixth glass, with the end-member NdAlO3 composition, required synthesis by containerless liquid-phase processing methods to avoid crystallization. Enthalpies of drop solution (DeltaHds) and formation (DeltaHf) for the Nd-aluminosilicate glasses and the NdAlO3-composition end-member glass were measured in molten 2PbO-B2O3 at 1078 K in a twin Calvet type calorimeter. Values for DeltaHds for the Nd-aluminosilicate glasses increase with decreasing silica content from 130.7 +/- 1.5 to 149.6 +/- 0.6 kJ mol-1. Similarly, values of DeltaHf increase with decreasing silica content from 41.0 +/- 2.0 to 59.0 +/- 1.6 kJ mol-1. Values of DeltaHds and DeltaHf for NdAlO3-composition glass were measured as 99.3 +/- 0.9 and 139.2 +/- 2.1 kJ mol-1, respectively. Using transposed temperature drop calorimetry, the enthalpy of vitrification for NdAlO3-composition glass was measured as 69.5 +/- 0.9 kJ mol-1 relative to the stable crystalline neodymium aluminium perovskite (NdAlO3) phase. Enthalpies of mixing were calculated based on amorphous end members; the strongly negative values support the absence of immiscibility in this system. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to determine glass transition (Tg) and crystallization (Tx) temperatures, as well as values for the configurational heat capacity (DeltaCP(Tg)) and the temperature range of the supercooled liquid interval (DeltaT(SCL)). The NdAlO3-composition glass showed no evidence of a glass transition prior to crystallization; only a single exotherm was observed, the onset of which occurred at 1045 K. For the Nd-aluminosilicates, values of Tg and DeltaT(SCL) increase with increasing silica content, from 1128 to 1139 K and from ~95 to ~175 K, respectively. Values of (DeltaCP(Tg)) increase with decreasing silica content, from ~27 to ~75 J/g fw lowastK, reflecting the increasing fragility and decreasing

  8. EDITORIAL: Selected Papers from OMS'07, the 2nd Topical Meeting of the European Optical Society on Optical Microsystems (OMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rendina, Ivo; Fazio, Eugenio; Ferraro, Pietro

    2008-06-01

    OMS'07 was the 2nd Topical Meeting of the European Optical Society (EOS) on Optical Microsystems (OMS). It was organized by the EOS in the frame of its international topical meeting activity, and after the success of the inaugural meeting was once again held in Italy, 30 September to 3 October 2007, amidst the wonderful scenery of the Island of Capri. The local organizing committee was composed of researchers from `La Sapienza' University in Rome and the National Council of Research (CNR) in Naples, Italy. A selected group of leading scientists in the field formed the international scientific committee. The conference was fully dedicated to the most recent advancements carried out in the field of optical microsystems. More then 150 scientists coming from five continents attended the conference and more than 100 papers were presented, organized into the following sessions: Photonic cystals and metamaterials Optofluidic microsystems and devices Optical microsystems and devices New characterization methods for materials and devices Application of optical systems Optical sources and photodetectors Optical resonators Nonlinear optic devices Micro-optical devices. Four keynote lecturers were invited for the Plenary sessions: Federico Capasso, Harvard University, USA; Bahram Javidi, University of Connecticut, USA (Distinguished Lecturer, Emeritus of LEOS--IEEE Society); Demetri Psaltis, EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland; Ammon Yariv, California Institute of Technology, USA. Furthermore, 21 invited speakers opened each session of the conference with their talks. In addition a special session was organized to celebrate eighty years of the Isituto Nazionale di Ottica Applicata (INOA) of CNR. The special invited speaker for this session was Professor Theodor W Hänsch (Nobel Prize in Physics, 2005), who gave a lecture entitled `What can we do with optical frequency combs?' In this special issue of Journal of Optics A: Pure and Applied Optics, a selection of the most interesting

  9. PREFACE: The 2nd International Conference on Geological, Geographical, Aerospace and Earth Sciences 2014 (AeroEarth 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumban Gaol, Ford; Soewito, Benfano

    2015-01-01

    The 2nd International Conference on Geological, Geographical, Aerospace and Earth Sciences 2014 (AeroEarth 2014), was held at Discovery Kartika Plaza Hotel, Kuta, Bali, Indonesia during 11 - 12 October 2014. The AeroEarth 2014 conference aims to bring together researchers and engineers from around the world. Through research and development, earth scientists have the power to preserve the planet's different resource domains by providing expert opinion and information about the forces which make life possible on Earth. Earth provides resources and the exact conditions to make life possible. However, with the advent of technology and industrialization, the Earth's resources are being pushed to the brink of depletion. Non-sustainable industrial practices are not only endangering the supply of the Earth's natural resources, but are also putting burden on life itself by bringing about pollution and climate change. A major role of earth science scholars is to examine the delicate balance between the Earth's resources and the growing demands of industrialization. Through research and development, earth scientists have the power to preserve the planet's different resource domains by providing expert opinion and information about the forces which make life possible on Earth. We would like to express our sincere gratitude to all in the Technical Program Committee who have reviewed the papers and developed a very interesting Conference Program as well as the invited and plenary speakers. This year, we received 98 papers and after rigorous review, 17 papers were accepted. The participants come from eight countries. There are four Parallel Sessions and two invited Speakers. It is an honour to present this volume of IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science (EES) and we deeply thank the authors for their enthusiastic and high-grade contributions. Finally, we would like to thank the conference chairmen, the members of the steering committee, the organizing committee

  10. [Influence of hypocaloric diet with addition of a vitamin-mineral complex on status of patients with obesity 1st and 2nd degrees].

    PubMed

    Sharafetdinov, Kh Kh; Plotnikova, O A; Zykina, V V; Mal'tsev, G Iu; Sokol'nikov, A A; Kaganov, B S

    2011-01-01

    Addition of a vitamin-mineral complex (VMC) to a standard hypocaloric diet leads to a positive dynamics of antropometric characteristics in patients with obesity 1st and 2nd degrees which is comparable to effectiveness of standard dietotherapy (dietary treatment) traditionally used in complex treatment of obesity. Addition of 1,8 mg of vitamin B2 as part of VMC to a hypocaloric diet is shown to be inadequate in eradication of marginal provision of riboflavin when using diets reduced in calories. PMID:22232885

  11. PREFACE: 2nd International Conference on Particle Physics in memoriam Engin Arık and her Colleagues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çetin, Serkant Ali; Jenni, Peter; Erkcan Özcan, Veysi; Nefer Şenoğuz, Vedat

    2012-02-01

    The 2nd International Conference on Particle Physics in memoriam Engin Arık and her Colleagues: Fatma Şenel Boydağ, İskender Hikmet, Mustafa Fidan, Berkol Doğan and Engin Abat was held at Doğuş University, İstanbul, Turkey on 20-25 June 2011. The conference was organized jointly by the Doğuş and Boğaziçi Universities, with support from CERN and the Turkish Academy of Sciences. This was the second International Conference on Particle Physics (ICPP) organized in memory of Engin Arık and her Colleagues who lost their lives in the tragic plane accident on November 30 2007, on their way to the workshop of the Turkish Accelerator Center (TAC) Project. The first of this conference series was held on 27-31 October 2008 at Boğaziçi University, İstanbul, Turkey. The conference is intended to be repeated every two years in Istanbul as a Conference Series under the name 'ICPP-Istanbul'. Professor Engin Arık had a pioneering role in experimental particle physics in Turkey, and was an inspiring teacher to many colleagues. She led the Turkish participation in experiments at CERN such as CHARMII, SMC, CHORUS, ATLAS and CAST. One of her latest involvements was in the national project to design the Turkish Accelerator Center with the collaboration of 10 Turkish universities including Doğuş and Boğaziçi. Our dear colleagues not only participated in the TAC project but also collaborated on the ATLAS (E Arık, E Abat and B Doğan) and CAST (E Arık, F Şenel Boydağ, İ Hikmet and B Doğan) experiments. We believe that the ICPP-Istanbul conference series has been, and will always be, a way to commemorate them in a most appropriate context. The topics covered in ICPP-Istanbul-II were 'LHC Physics and Tevatron Results', 'Neutrinos and Dark Matter', 'Particle Factories' and 'Accelerator Physics and Future TeV Scale Colliders'. The main emphasis was on the recent experimental results in high-energy physics with discussions on expectations from existing or future

  12. Hyperfine structure and lifetime measurements in the 4s2nd 2D3/2 Rydberg sequence of Ga I by time-resolved laser spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chunqing; Tian, Yanshan; Yu, Qi; Bai, Wanshuang; Wang, Xinghao; Wang, Chong; Dai, Zhenwen

    2016-05-01

    The hyperfine structure (HFS) constants of the 4s2nd 2D3/2 (n=6-18) Rydberg sequence and the 4s26p 2P3/2 level for two isotopes of 69Ga and 71Ga atoms were measured by means of the time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence (TR-LIF) technique and the quantum beat method. The observed hyperfine quantum beat spectra were analyzed and the magnetic-dipole HFS constants A as well as the electric-quadrupole HFS constants B of these levels were obtained by Fourier transform and a program for multiple regression analysis. Also using TR-LIF method radiative lifetimes of the above sequence states were determined at room temperature. The measured lifetime values range from 69 to 2279 ns with uncertainties no more than 10%. To our knowledge, the HFS constants of this Rydberg sequence and the lifetimes of the 4s2nd 2D3/2 (n=10-18) levels are reported for the first time. Good agreement between our results and the previous is achieved.

  13. 1st, 2nd and 3rd Generation Implementations of an eLearning Design: Re-Use from Postgraduate Law to Block/Online Engineering Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Sarah; Brewer, Chris

    2007-01-01

    In order to meet the demands of postgraduate students who were time poor and unable to regularly attend face-to-face classes, one lecturer in the Faculty Law at the University of Wollongong (UOW) sought the assistance of a Learning Designer to redesign the Postgraduate Practical Legal Training (PLT) program into a flexible blended learning format,…

  14. PF-06463922, an ALK/ROS1 inhibitor, overcomes resistance to 1st and 2nd generation ALK inhibitors in pre-clinical models

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Helen Y.; Friboulet, Luc; Kodack, David P.; Engstrom, Lars D.; Li, Qiuhua; West, Melissa; Tang, Ruth W.; Wang, Hui; Tsaparikos, Konstantinos; Wang, Jinwei; Timofeevski, Sergei; Katayama, Ryohei; Dinh, Dac M.; Lam, Hieu; Lam, Justine L.; Yamazaki, Shinji; Hu, Wenyue; Patel, Bhushankumar; Bezwada, Divya; Frias, Rosa L.; Lifshits, Eugene; Mahmood, Sidra; Gainor, Justin F.; Affolter, Timothy; Lappin, Patrick B.; Gukasyan, Hovhannes; Lee, Nathan; Deng, Shibing; Jain, Rakesh K; Johnson, Ted W.; Shaw, Alice T.; Fantin, Valeria R.; Smeal, Tod

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY We report the preclinical evaluation of PF-06463922, a potent and brain penetrant ALK/ROS1 inhibitor. Compared to other clinically available ALK inhibitors, PF-06463922 displayed superior potency against all known clinically acquired ALK mutations, including the highly resistant G1202R mutant. Furthermore, PF-06463922 treatment led to regression of EML4-ALK driven brain metastases, leading to prolonged mouse survival, in a superior manner. Finally, PF-06463922 demonstrated high selectivity and safety margins in a variety of preclinical studies. These results suggest that PF-06463922 will be highly effective for the treatment of patients with ALK-driven lung cancers, including those who relapsed on clinically available ALK inhibitors due to secondary ALK kinase domain mutations and/or due to the failed control of brain metastases. PMID:26144315

  15. Identification and characterization of 2nd generation Invader Locked Nucleic Acids (LNAs) for mixed-sequence recognition of double-stranded DNA

    PubMed Central

    Sau, Sujay P.; Madsen, Andreas S.; Podbevsek, Peter; Andersen, Nicolai K.; Kumar, T. Santhosh; Andersen, Sanne; Rathje, Rie L.; Anderson, Brooke A.; Guenther, Dale C.; Karmakar, Saswata; Kumar, Pawan; Plavec, Janez; Wengel, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    Development of synthetic agents that recognize double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) is a long-standing goal that is inspired by the promise for tools that detect, regulate and modify genes. Progress has been made with triplex-forming oligonucleotides, PNAs, and polyamides, but substantial efforts are currently devoted to the development of alternative strategies that overcome limitations observed with the classic approaches. In 2005, we introduced Invader Locked Nucleic Acids (LNAs), i.e., double-stranded probes that are activated for mixed-sequence recognition of dsDNA through modification with ‘+1 interstrand zippers’ of 2’-N-(pyren-1-yl)methyl-2’-amino-α-L-LNA monomers. Despite promising preliminary results, progress has been slow due to the synthetic complexity of the building blocks. Here, we describe a study that led to the identification of two simpler classes of Invader monomers. We compare thermal denaturation characteristics of double-stranded probes featuring different interstrand zippers of pyrene-functionalized monomers based on 2’-amino-α-L-LNA, 2’-N-methyl-2’-amino-DNA, and RNA scaffolds. Insights from fluorescence spectroscopy, molecular modeling and NMR spectroscopy are used to elucidate the structural factors that govern probe activation. We demonstrate that probes with +1 zippers of 2’-O-(pyren-1-yl)methyl-RNA or 2’-N-methyl-2’-N-(pyren-1-yl)methyl-2’-amino-DNA monomers recognize DNA hairpins with similar efficiency as original Invader LNAs. Access to synthetically simple monomers will accelerate the use of Invader-mediated dsDNA-recognition for applications in molecular biology and nucleic acid diagnostics. PMID:24032477

  16. SHARK (System for coronagraphy with High order Adaptive optics from R to K band): a proposal for the LBT 2nd generation instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farinato, Jacopo; Pedichini, Fernando; Pinna, Enrico; Baciotti, Francesca; Baffa, Carlo; Baruffolo, Andrea; Bergomi, Maria; Bruno, Pietro; Cappellaro, Enrico; Carbonaro, Luca; Carlotti, Alexis; Centrone, Mauro; Close, Laird; Codona, Johanan; Desidera, Silvano; Dima, Marco; Esposito, Simone; Fantinel, Daniela; Farisato, Giancarlo; Fontana, Adriano; Gaessler, Wolfgang; Giallongo, Emanuele; Gratton, Raffaele; Greggio, Davide; Guerra, Juan Carlos; Guyon, Olivier; Hinz, Philip; Leone, Francesco; Lisi, Franco; Magrin, Demetrio; Marafatto, Luca; Munari, Matteo; Pagano, Isabella; Puglisi, Alfio; Ragazzoni, Roberto; Salasnich, Bernardo; Sani, Eleonora; Scuderi, Salvo; Stangalini, Marco; Testa, Vincenzo; Verinaud, Christophe; Viotto, Valentina

    2014-08-01

    This article presents a proposal aimed at investigating the technical feasibility and the scientific capabilities of high contrast cameras to be implemented at LBT. Such an instrument will fully exploit the unique LBT capabilities in Adaptive Optics (AO) as demonstrated by the First Light Adaptive Optics (FLAO) system, which is obtaining excellent results in terms of performance and reliability. The aim of this proposal is to show the scientific interest of such a project, together with a conceptual opto-mechanical study which shows its technical feasibility, taking advantage of the already existing AO systems, which are delivering the highest Strehl experienced in nowadays existing telescopes. Two channels are foreseen for SHARK, a near infrared channel (2.5-0.9 um) and a visible one (0.9 - 0.6 um), both providing imaging and coronagraphic modes. The visible channel is equipped with a very fast and low noise detector running at 1.0 kfps and an IFU spectroscopic port to provide low and medium resolution spectra of 1.5 x 1.5 arcsec fields. The search of extra solar giant planets is the main science case and the driver for the technical choices of SHARK, but leaving room for several other interesting scientific topics, which will be briefly depicted here.

  17. Recent Observations of Clouds and Precipitation by the Airborne Precipitation Radar 2nd Generation in Support of the GPM and ACE Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durden, Stephen L.; Tanelli, Simone; Im, Eastwood

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we illustrate the unique dataset collected during the Global Precipitation Measurement Cold-season Precipitation Experiment (GCPEx, US/Canada Jan/Feb 2012). We will focus on the significance of these observations for the development of algorithms for GPM and ACE, with particular attention to classification and retrievals of frozen and mixed phase hydrometeors.

  18. Molten carbonate fuel cell product design & improvement - 2nd quarter, 1996. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The main objective of this project is to establish the commercial readiness of a molten carbonate fuel cell power plant for distributed power generation, cogeneration, and compressor station applications. This effort includes marketing, systems design and analysis, packaging and assembly, test facility development, and technology development, improvement, and verification.

  19. PREFACE: 2nd Russia-Japan-USA Symposium on the Fundamental and Applied Problems of Terahertz Devices and Technologies (RJUS TeraTech - 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karasik, Valeriy; Ryzhii, Viktor; Yurchenko, Stanislav

    2014-03-01

    The 2nd Russia-Japan-USA Symposium 'The Fundamental & Applied Problems of Terahertz Devices & Technologies' (RJUS TeraTech - 2013) Bauman Moscow State Technical University Moscow, Russia, 3-6 June, 2013 The 2nd Russia-Japan-USA Symposium 'The Fundamental & Applied Problems of Terahertz Devices & Technologies' (RJUS TeraTech - 2013) was held in Bauman Moscow State Technical University on 3-6 June 2013 and was devoted to modern problems of terahertz optical technologies. RJUS TeraTech 2013 was organized by Bauman Moscow State Technical University in cooperation with Tohoku University (Sendai, Japan) and University of Buffalo (The State University of New York, USA). The Symposium was supported by Bauman Moscow State Technical University (Moscow, Russia) and Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grant number 13-08-06100-g). RJUS TeraTech - 2013 became a foundation for sharing and discussing modern and promising achievements in fundamental and applied problems of terahertz optical technologies, devices based on grapheme and grapheme strictures, condensed matter of different nature. Among participants of RJUS TeraTech - 2013, there were more than 100 researchers and students from different countries. This volume contains proceedings of the 2nd Russia-Japan-USA Symposium 'The Fundamental & Applied Problems of Terahertz Devices & Technologies'. Valeriy Karasik, Viktor Ryzhii and Stanislav Yurchenko Bauman Moscow State Technical University Symposium chair Anatoliy A Aleksandrov, Rector of BMSTU Symposium co-chair Valeriy E Karasik, Head of the Research and Educational Center 'PHOTONICS AND INFRARED TECHNOLOGY' (Russia) Invited Speakers Taiichi Otsuji, Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan Akira Satou, Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan Michael Shur, Electrical, Computer and System Engineering and Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, NY, USA Natasha

  20. Structural and magnetic study of order-disorder behavior in the double perovskites Ba2Nd1-xMnxMoO6.

    PubMed

    Coomer, Fiona C; Cussen, Edmund J

    2014-01-21

    The synthesis and structural and magnetic characterization of the site-ordered double perovskites, Ba2Nd1-xMnxMoO6, 0 < x ≤ 1, are reported in order to show the effect of doping Jahn-Teller active, S = 1/2, Mo(5+) into the structure of Ba2MnMoO6, which exhibits anomalous long-range antiferromagnetic order. Rietveld refinements against room temperature neutron powder diffraction data indicate that the tetragonal distortion present in the Ba2NdMoO6 end member persists to x ≤ 0.3. This is predominantly manifested as a tilting of the MO6 octahedra, and there is no evidence of any structural phase transitions on cooling to 1.5 K. For x > 0.3, no deviation from the ideal cubic Fm3̅m symmetry is observed. Furthermore, dc-susceptibility measurements confirm that Mn(2+) is being doped onto the Nd(3+) site, and the associated oxidation of Mo(5+) to Mo(6+). For all compositions, the Curie-Weiss paramagnetic behavior above 150 K indicates negative Weiss constants that range from -24(2) and -85(2) K. This net antiferromagnetic interaction is weakest when x ≈ 0.5, where the disorder in cation site occupancy and competition with ferromagnetic interactions is the greatest. Despite these strong antiferromagnetic interactions, there is no evidence in the dc-susceptibility of a bulk cancellation of spins for x > 0.05. Low-temperature neutron diffraction measurements indicate that there is no long-range magnetic order for 0.1 ≤ x < 0.9. Ba2Nd0.10Mn0.90MoO6 exhibits additional Bragg scattering at 2 K, indicative of long-range antiferromagnetic ordering of the Mn(2+) cations, with a propagation vector k = (1/2, 1/2, 1/2). The scattering intensities can be modeled using a noncollinear magnetic structure with the Mn(2+) moments orientated antiferromagnetically along the four different ⟨111⟩ directions. PMID:24392887

  1. What's new with the flu? Reflections regarding the management and prevention of influenza from the 2nd New Zealand Influenza Symposium, November 2015.

    PubMed

    Charania, Nadia A; Mansoor, Osman D; Murfitt, Diana; Turner, Nikki M

    2016-01-01

    Influenza is a common respiratory viral infection. Seasonal outbreaks of influenza cause substantial morbidity and mortality that burdens healthcare services every year. The influenza virus constantly evolves by antigenic drift and occasionally by antigenic shift, making this disease particularly challenging to manage and prevent. As influenza viruses cause seasonal outbreaks and also have the ability to cause pandemics leading to widespread social and economic losses, focused discussions on improving management and prevention efforts is warranted. The Immunisation Advisory Centre (IMAC) hosted the 2nd New Zealand Influenza Symposium (NZiS) in November 2015. International and national participants discussed current issues in influenza management and prevention. Experts in the field presented data from recent studies and discussed the ecology of influenza viruses, epidemiology of influenza, methods of prevention and minimisation, and experiences from the 2015 seasonal influenza immunisation campaign. The symposium concluded that although much progress in this field has been made, many areas for future research remain. PMID:27607085

  2. Simulating a Measurement of the 2nd Knee in the Cosmic Ray Spectrum with an Atmospheric Fluorescence Telescope Tower Array

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiali; Yang, Qunyu; Bai, Yunxiang; Cao, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    A fluorescence telescope tower array has been designed to measure cosmic rays in the energy range of 1017–1018 eV. A full Monte Carlo simulation, including air shower production, light generation and propagation, detector response, electronics, and trigger system, has been developed for that purpose. Using such a simulation tool, the detector configuration, which includes one main tower array and two side-trigger arrays, 24 telescopes in total, has been optimized. The aperture and the event rate have been estimated. Furthermore, the performance of the Xmax⁡ technique in measuring composition has also been studied. PMID:24737964

  3. Simulating a measurement of the 2nd knee in the cosmic ray spectrum with an atmospheric fluorescence telescope tower array.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiali; Yang, Qunyu; Bai, Yunxiang; Cao, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    A fluorescence telescope tower array has been designed to measure cosmic rays in the energy range of 10(17)-10(18) eV. A full Monte Carlo simulation, including air shower production, light generation and propagation, detector response, electronics, and trigger system, has been developed for that purpose. Using such a simulation tool, the detector configuration, which includes one main tower array and two side-trigger arrays, 24 telescopes in total, has been optimized. The aperture and the event rate have been estimated. Furthermore, the performance of the X max technique in measuring composition has also been studied. PMID:24737964

  4. Computer-Generated Geometry Instruction: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Helen W.; Zentall, Sydney S.

    2011-01-01

    This study hypothesized that increased intensity of graphic information, presented in computer-generated instruction, could be differentially beneficial for students with hyperactivity and inattention by improving their ability to sustain attention and hold information in-mind. To this purpose, 18 2nd-4th grade students, recruited from general…

  5. International Conference on Small and Special Electrical Machines, 2nd, London, England, September 22-24, 1981, Proceedings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papers are presented on recent research concerning small and special electrical machines, including machine selection and environmental aspects; induction motors; stepping motors and drives; actuators, torque motors, and couplers; hysteresis and reluctance motors; synchronous motors and generators (including permanent magnet); control schemes and servo machines; and dc motors (including permanent magnet and brushless). Topics examined include the reliability of small ironless rotor dc motors, a new form of induction motor for fan drives, a study of the components of interbar voltage and magnetic field at the surface of small skewed diecast aluminum rotors, the microprocessor control of a step motor with various inertia loads, the synchronization of reluctance motor without pole-slipping, and the normal force in linear stepping motors. Also discussed are a direct simulation method using magnetic equivalent circuits for converter-fed reluctance machines, the synchronous performance of a single-phase machine with induced excitation, the application of design and analysis in small machines for aircraft, the microprocessor control of an inverter-driven reluctance motor, an electric main propulsion drive for a remotely piloted vehicle, and small dc motors with controllable electronic commutators. No individual items are abstracted in this volume

  6. D Modeling of Headstones of the 2ND and 3RD Century by Low Cost Photogrammetric Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landes, T.; Waton, M.-D.; Alby, E.; Gourvez, S.; Lopes, B.

    2013-07-01

    As a dozen headstones have been discovered during excavations in south Alsace, archaeologists stored them in the Regional Directorate of Cultural Affairs in Strasbourg. In order to complete the survey they are used to practice by hand on the steles, they asked the INSA Strasbourg to reconstruct at least the 7 figured sandstones in 3D. The high accuracy required by the archaeologists can be reached by an expensive technique using laserscanning system. Aim of the current work is to look for an alternative method and (if appropriate) low cost software allowing to provide a similar quality and a sufficient level of details. The 3D reconstruction of the headstones based exclusively on multiple images processing is presented. The step of point cloud generation is detailed because it determines the final product quality. Therefore, an assessment of the produced point cloud has been performed through comparison to a reference point cloud obtained by laser scanning technique. The steps leading to the photo-realistic textured 3D models of the headstones are presented and the software used for that are evaluated. The final product respects the accuracy requirement of 1 mm desired by the archaeologists.

  7. Microgravimetric and magnetometric three-dimensional analysis in the 2nd section of the Bosque de Chapultepec

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escobedo-Zenil, D.; Sanchez-Gonzalez, J.; García-Serrano, A.

    2013-05-01

    The Bosque de Chapultepec is the most important recreational area in Mexico City. In the early 20th century construction material in this region was exploited illegally generating a clandestine system of mines without any registration or census. Later in the early 50's it was planned the creation of a park in the area, nonetheless many mines were blocked by debris or vegetation and only a few mines were filled to build the infrastructure of the park. In June 2006, the collapse of the foundation slab of the Lago Mayor emptied 5000 cubic meters of water, which made clear the need of near surface geophysics studies to locate instabilities due to underground cavities. This work describes the progress of microgravimetry and magnetometry studies located in a forest region where the collapse of a mine entrance occurred. This mine has 4 known branches, but the full extent or if these branches are connected to the entrance of another filled mine located approximately to 100 meters is unknown. The results of this work, in correlation with the geological model and preliminary results of seismic and electrical methods, show lateral variations that may be associated with cavities and possible structural faults, which represent hazards to the Bosque de Chapultepec.

  8. Extraction-Separation Performance and Dynamic Modeling of Orion Test Vehicles with Adams Simulation: 2nd Edition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraire, Usbaldo, Jr.; Anderson, Keith; Varela, Jose G.; Bernatovich, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Orion Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) project has advanced into the third generation of its parachute test campaign and requires technically comprehensive modeling capabilities to simulate multi-body dynamics (MBD) of test articles released from a C-17. Safely extracting a 30,000 lbm mated test article from a C-17 and performing stable mid-air separation maneuvers requires an understanding of the interaction between elements in the test configuration and how they are influenced by extraction parachute performance, aircraft dynamics, aerodynamics, separation dynamics, and kinetic energy experienced by the system. During the real-time extraction and deployment sequences, these influences can be highly unsteady and difficult to bound. An avionics logic window based on time, pitch, and pitch rate is used to account for these effects and target a favorable separation state in real time. The Adams simulation has been employed to fine-tune this window, as well as predict and reconstruct the coupled dynamics of the Parachute Test Vehicle (PTV) and Cradle Platform Separation System (CPSS) from aircraft extraction through the mid-air separation event. The test-technique for the extraction of CPAS test articles has evolved with increased complexity and requires new modeling concepts to ensure the test article is delivered to a stable test condition for the programmer phase. Prompted by unexpected dynamics and hardware malfunctions in drop tests, these modeling improvements provide a more accurate loads prediction by incorporating a spring-damper line-model derived from the material properties. The qualification phase of CPAS testing is on the horizon and modeling increasingly complex test-techniques with Adams is vital to successfully qualify the Orion parachute system for human spaceflight.

  9. Excellence and evidence in staffing: a data-driven model for excellence in staffing (2nd edition).

    PubMed

    Baggett, Margarita; Batcheller, Joyce; Blouin, Ann Scott; Behrens, Elizabeth; Bradley, Carol; Brown, Mary J; Brown, Diane Storer; Bolton, Linda Burnes; Borromeo, Annabelle R; Burtson, Paige; Caramanica, Laura; Caspers, Barbara A; Chow, Marilyn; Christopher, Mary Ann; Clarke, Sean P; Delucas, Christine; Dent, Robert L; Disser, Tony; Eliopoulos, Charlotte; Everett, Linda Q; Garcia, Amy; Glassman, Kimberly; Goodwin, Susan; Haagenson, Deb; Harper, Ellen; Harris, Kathy; Hoying, Cheryl L; Hughes-Rease, Marsha; Kelly, Lesly; Kiger, Anna J; Kobs-Abbott, Ann; Krueger, Janelle; Larson, Jackie; March, Connie; Martin, Deborah Maust; Mazyck, Donna; Meenan, Penny; McGaffigan, Patricia; Myers, Karen K; Nell, Kate; Newcomer, Britta; Cathy, Rick; O'Rourke, Maria; Rosa, Billy; Rose, Robert; Rudisill, Pamela; Sanford, Kathy; Simpson, Roy L; Snowden, Tami; Strickland, Bob; Strohecker, Sharon; Weems, Roger B; Welton, John; Weston, Marla; Valentine, Nancy M; Vento, Laura; Yendro, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA, 2010) and the Institute of Medicine's (IOM, 2011) Future of Nursing report have prompted changes in the U.S. health care system. This has also stimulated a new direction of thinking for the profession of nursing. New payment and priority structures, where value is placed ahead of volume in care, will start to define our health system in new and unknown ways for years. One thing we all know for sure: we cannot afford the same inefficient models and systems of care of yesterday any longer. The Data-Driven Model for Excellence in Staffing was created as the organizing framework to lead the development of best practices for nurse staffing across the continuum through research and innovation. Regardless of the setting, nurses must integrate multiple concepts with the value of professional nursing to create new care and staffing models. Traditional models demonstrate that nurses are a commodity. If the profession is to make any significant changes in nurse staffing, it is through the articulation of the value of our professional practice within the overall health care environment. This position paper is organized around the concepts from the Data-Driven Model for Excellence in Staffing. The main concepts are: Core Concept 1: Users and Patients of Health Care, Core Concept 2: Providers of Health Care, Core Concept 3: Environment of Care, Core Concept 4: Delivery of Care, Core Concept 5: Quality, Safety, and Outcomes of Care. This position paper provides a comprehensive view of those concepts and components, why those concepts and components are important in this new era of nurse staffing, and a 3-year challenge that will push the nursing profession forward in all settings across the care continuum. There are decades of research supporting various changes to nurse staffing. Yet little has been done to move that research into practice and operations. While the primary goal of this position paper is to generate research

  10. Mutation of a Cuticle Protein Gene, BmCPG10, Is Responsible for Silkworm Non-Moulting in the 2nd Instar Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qiaoling; Kang, Lequn; Xia, Dingguo; Qiu, Zhiyong; Tang, Shunming; Li, Muwang; Shen, Xingjia; Zhang, Guozheng

    2016-01-01

    In the silkworm, metamorphosis and moulting are regulated by ecdysone hormone and juvenile hormone. The subject in the present study is a silkworm mutant that does not moult in the 2nd instar (nm2). Genetic analysis indicated that the nm2 mutation is controlled by a recessive gene and is homozygous lethal. Based on positional cloning, nm2 was located in a region approximately 275 kb on the 5th linkage group by eleven SSR polymorphism markers. In this specific range, according to the transcriptional expression of thirteen genes and cloning, the relative expression level of the BmCPG10 gene that encodes a cuticle protein was lower than the expression level of the wild-type gene. Moreover, this gene’s structure differs from that of the wild-type gene: there is a deletion of 217 bp in its open reading frame, which resulted in a change in the protein it encoded. The BmCPG10 mRNA was detectable throughout silkworm development from the egg to the moth. This mRNA was low in the pre-moulting and moulting stages of each instar but was high in the gluttonous stage and in newly exuviated larvae. The BmCPG10 mRNA showed high expression levels in the epidermis, head and trachea, while the expression levels were low in the midgut, Malpighian tubule, prothoracic gland, haemolymph and ventral nerve cord. The ecdysone titre was determined by ELISA, and the results demonstrated that the ecdysone titre of nm2 larvae was lower than that of the wild-type larvae. The nm2 mutant could be rescued by feeding 20-hydroxyecdysone, cholesterol and 7—dehydrocholesterol (7dC), but the rescued nm2 only developed to the 4th instar and subsequently died. The moulting time of silkworms could be delayed by BmCPG10 RNAi. Thus, we speculated that the mutation of BmCPG10 was responsible for the silkworm mutant that did not moult in the 2nd instar. PMID:27096617