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Sample records for 2nd generation pfbc

  1. Conceptual design and optimization of a 1-1/2 generation PFBC plant task 14. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.S.; Witman, P.M.; Harbaugh, L.; Rubow, L.N.; Horazak, D.A.

    1994-12-01

    The economics and performance of advanced pressurized fluidized bed (PFBC) cycles developed for utility applications during the last 10 years (especially the 2nd-Generation PFBC cycle) are projected to be favorable compared to conventional pulverized coal power plants. However, the improved economics of 2nd-Generation PFBC cycles are accompanied by the perception of increased technological risk related to the pressurized carbonizer and its associated gas cleanup systems. A PFBC cycle that removed the uncertainties of the carbonizer while retaining the high efficiency and low cost of a 2nd-Generation PFBC cycle could improve the prospects for early commercialization and pave the way for the introduction of the complete 2nd-Generation PFBC cycle at some later date. One such arrangement is a PFBC cycle with natural gas topping combustion, referred to as the 1.5-Generation PFBC cycle. This cycle combines the advantages of the 2nd-Generation PFBC plant with the reduced risk associated with a gas turbine burning natural gas, and can potentially be part of a phased approach leading to the commercialization of utility 2nd-Generation PFBC cycles. The 1.5-Generation PFBC may also introduce other advantages over the more complicated 2nd-Generation PFBC system. This report describes the technical and economic evaluation of 1.5-Generation PFBC cycles for utility or industrial power generation.

  2. 2nd Generation ELT Performance Specification Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stimson, Chad M.

    2015-01-01

    NASA Search And Rescue is supporting RTCA SC-229 with research and recommendations for performance specifications for the 2nd generation of emergency locator transmitters. Areas for improvement and methods for collecting data will be presented.

  3. 2nd & 3rd Generation Vehicle Subsystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This paper contains viewgraph presentation on the "2nd & 3rd Generation Vehicle Subsystems" project. The objective behind this project is to design, develop and test advanced avionics, power systems, power control and distribution components and subsystems for insertion into a highly reliable and low-cost system for a Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLV). The project is divided into two sections: 3rd Generation Vehicle Subsystems and 2nd Generation Vehicle Subsystems. The following topics are discussed under the first section, 3rd Generation Vehicle Subsystems: supporting the NASA RLV program; high-performance guidance & control adaptation for future RLVs; Evolvable Hardware (EHW) for 3rd generation avionics description; Scaleable, Fault-tolerant Intelligent Network or X(trans)ducers (SFINIX); advance electric actuation devices and subsystem technology; hybrid power sources and regeneration technology for electric actuators; and intelligent internal thermal control. Topics discussed in the 2nd Generation Vehicle Subsystems program include: design, development and test of a robust, low-maintenance avionics with no active cooling requirements and autonomous rendezvous and docking systems; design and development of a low maintenance, high reliability, intelligent power systems (fuel cells and battery); and design of a low cost, low maintenance high horsepower actuation systems (actuators).

  4. 2nd Generation RLV Risk Definition Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Robert M.; Stucker, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The 2nd Generation RLV Risk Reduction Mid-Term Report summarizes the status of Kelly Space & Technology's activities during the first two and one half months of the program. This report was presented to the cognoscente Contracting Officer's Technical Representative (COTR) and selected Marshall Space Flight Center staff members on 26 September 2000. The report has been approved and is distributed on CD-ROM (as a PowerPoint file) in accordance with the terms of the subject contract, and contains information and data addressing the following: (1) Launch services demand and requirements; (2) Architecture, alternatives, and requirements; (3) Costs, pricing, and business cases analysis; (4) Commercial financing requirements, plans, and strategy; (5) System engineering processes and derived requirements; and (6) RLV system trade studies and design analysis.

  5. 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle NASA Led Propulsion Tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, Steve

    2000-01-01

    Design, development and test of a 2nd generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) is presented. This current paper discusses the following: 2nd Generation RLV Propulsion Project, Overview of NASA Led Tasks in Propulsion, Gen2 Turbo Machinery Technology Demonstrator, and Combustion Devices Test Bed, GRCop-84 Sheet For Combustion Chambers, Nozzles and Large Actively Cooled Structures

  6. Second generation PFBC systems research and development: Phase 2, Topping combustor testing at UTSI

    SciTech Connect

    Johanson, N.R.; Foote, J.P.

    1992-12-01

    This report describes a second generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) power plant. The topping combustor testing is briefly described. The topping combustor burns low BTU gas produced from substoichiometric combustion of coal in a pressurized carbonizer. Char produced is burned in a PFBC.

  7. 2nd Generation RLV: Program Goals and Acquisition Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, J. Bart; Dumbacher, D. L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The risk to loss of life for Space Shuttle crewmembers is approximately one in 245 missions. U.S. launch service providers captured nearly 100%, of the commercial launch market revenues in the mid 1980s. Today, the U.S. captures less than 50% of that market. A launch system architecture is needed that will dramatically increase the safety of space flight while significantly reducing the cost. NASA's Space Launch Initiative, which is implemented by the 2nd Generation RLV Program Office at Marshall Space Flight Center, seeks to develop technology and reusable launch vehicle concepts which satisfy the commercial launch market needs and the unique needs of NASA. Presented in this paper are the five primary elements of NASA's Integrated Space Transportation Plan along with the highest level goals and the acquisition strategy of the 2nd Generation RLV Program. Approval of the Space Launch Initiative FY01 budget of $290M is seen as a major commitment by the Agency and the Nation to realize the commercial potential that space offers and to move forward in the exploration of space.

  8. Philips' 2nd generation Novallure LED candle lamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yun; Pei, Zhigang; Yuan, Chuan; Jiang, Tan; Lu, Zhengsong; Wang, Yuqian; Duan, Xiaoqing; Xiong, Yan; Zhong, Hong; Liu, Ye

    2010-08-01

    Finding an energy efficient replacement of incandescent candle lamp has been a technical challenge. Compact fluorescent lamps, for example, can be miniaturized to fit the form factor of a candle lamp but they fail to reproduce its "sparkle" effect. Empowered by solid state lighting technology along with original optical design, Philips has successfully developed LED-powered candle lamps "Novallure" with great energy savings (2W power consumption with lumen output of 55 lumen) and the "butterfly" radiation pattern that mimics the sparkle effect from an incandescent candle lamp. With new high performance LED packages, novel under-cut prismatic optics and state-of-the-art electronic driver solution and thermal solution, we have developed a 2nd generation Novallure with breakthrough performance: a dimmable 2700K 136 lumen LED candle lamp with CRI 90.

  9. Super Boiler 2nd Generation Technology for Watertube Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Mr. David Cygan; Dr. Joseph Rabovitser

    2012-03-31

    This report describes Phase I of a proposed two phase project to develop and demonstrate an advanced industrial watertube boiler system with the capability of reaching 94% (HHV) fuel-to-steam efficiency and emissions below 2 ppmv NOx, 2 ppmv CO, and 1 ppmv VOC on natural gas fuel. The boiler design would have the capability to produce >1500 F, >1500 psig superheated steam, burn multiple fuels, and will be 50% smaller/lighter than currently available watertube boilers of similar capacity. This project is built upon the successful Super Boiler project at GTI. In that project that employed a unique two-staged intercooled combustion system and an innovative heat recovery system to reduce NOx to below 5 ppmv and demonstrated fuel-to-steam efficiency of 94% (HHV). This project was carried out under the leadership of GTI with project partners Cleaver-Brooks, Inc., Nebraska Boiler, a Division of Cleaver-Brooks, and Media and Process Technology Inc., and project advisors Georgia Institute of Technology, Alstom Power Inc., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Phase I of efforts focused on developing 2nd generation boiler concepts and performance modeling; incorporating multi-fuel (natural gas and oil) capabilities; assessing heat recovery, heat transfer and steam superheating approaches; and developing the overall conceptual engineering boiler design. Based on our analysis, the 2nd generation Industrial Watertube Boiler when developed and commercialized, could potentially save 265 trillion Btu and $1.6 billion in fuel costs across U.S. industry through increased efficiency. Its ultra-clean combustion could eliminate 57,000 tons of NOx, 460,000 tons of CO, and 8.8 million tons of CO2 annually from the atmosphere. Reduction in boiler size will bring cost-effective package boilers into a size range previously dominated by more expensive field-erected boilers, benefiting manufacturers and end users through lower capital costs.

  10. Commercial second-generation PFBC plant transient model: Task 15

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.S.; Getty, R.T.; Torpey, M.R.

    1995-04-01

    The advanced pressurized fluidized bed combustor (APFBC) power plant combines an efficient gas-fired combined cycle, a low-emission PFB combustor, and a coal pyrolysis unit (carbonizer) that converts coal, America`s most plentiful fuel, into the gas turbine fuel. From an operation standpoint, the APFBC plant is similar to an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant, except that the PFBC and fluid bed heat exchanger (FBHE) allow a considerable fraction of coal energy to be shunted around the gas turbine and sent directly to the steam turbine. By contrast, the fuel energy in IGCC plants and most other combined cycles is primarily delivered to the gas turbine and then to the steam turbine. Another characteristic of the APFBC plant is the interaction among three large thermal inertias--carbonizer, PFBC, and FBHE--that presents unique operational challenges for modeling and operation of this type of plant. This report describes the operating characteristics and dynamic responses of the APFBC plant and discusses the advantages and shortcomings of several alternative control strategies for the plant. In particular, interactions between PFBC, FBHE, and steam bottoming cycle are analyzed and the effect of their interactions on plant operation is discussed. The technical approach used in the study is described in Section 2. The dynamic model is introduced in Section 3 and described is detail in the appendices. Steady-state calibration and transient simulations are presented in Sections 4 and 5. The development of the operating philosophy is discussed in Section 6. Potential design changes to the dynamic model and trial control schemes are listed in Sections 7 and 8. Conclusions derived from the study are presented in Section 9.

  11. Aging Studies of 2nd Generation BaBar RPCs

    SciTech Connect

    Band, H.R.; /SLAC

    2007-09-25

    The BaBar detector, operating at the PEPII B factory of the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), installed over 200 2nd generation Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) in 2002. The streamer rates produced by backgrounds and signals from normal BaBar running vary considerably (0.1- >20 Hz/cm2) depending on the layer and position of the chambers, thus providing a broad spectrum test of RPC performance and aging. The lowest rate chambers have performed very well with stable efficiencies averaging 95%. Other chambers had rate-dependant inefficiencies due to Bakelite drying which were reversed by the introduction of humidified gases. RPC inefficiencies in the highest rate regions of the higher rate chambers have been observed and also found to be rate dependant. The inefficient regions grow with time and have not yet been reduced by operation with humidified input gas. Three of these chambers were converted to avalanche mode operation and display significantly improved efficiencies. The rate of production of HF in the RPC exhaust gases was measured in avalanche and streamer mode RPCs and found to be comparable despite the lower current of the avalanche mode RPCs.

  12. The 2nd Generation Real Time Mission Monitor (RTMM) Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blakeslee, Richard; Goodman, Michael; Meyer, Paul; Hardin, Danny; Hall, John; He, Yubin; Regner, Kathryn; Conover, Helen; Smith, Tammy; Lu, Jessica; Garrett, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Real Time Mission Monitor (RTMM) is a visualization and information system that fuses multiple Earth science data sources, to enable real time decisionmaking for airborne and ground validation experiments. Developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center, RTMM is a situational awareness, decision-support system that integrates satellite imagery and orbit data, radar and other surface observations (e.g., lightning location network data), airborne navigation and instrument data sets, model output parameters, and other applicable Earth science data sets. The integration and delivery of this information is made possible using data acquisition systems, network communication links, network server resources, and visualizations through the Google Earth virtual globe application. In order to improve the usefulness and efficiency of the RTMM system, capabilities are being developed to allow the end-user to easily configure RTMM applications based on their mission-specific requirements and objectives. This second generation RTMM is being redesigned to take advantage of the Google plug-in capabilities to run multiple applications in a web browser rather than the original single application Google Earth approach. Currently RTMM employs a limited Service Oriented Architecture approach to enable discovery of mission specific resources. We are expanding the RTMM architecture such that it will more effectively utilize the Open Geospatial Consortium Sensor Web Enablement services and other new technology software tools and components. These modifications and extensions will result in a robust, versatile RTMM system that will greatly increase flexibility of the user to choose which science data sets and support applications to view and/or use. The improvements brought about by RTMM 2nd generation system will provide mission planners and airborne scientists with enhanced decision-making tools and capabilities to more

  13. The 2nd Generation Real Time Mission Monitor (RTMM) Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blakeslee, R. J.; Goodman, M.; Hardin, D. M.; Hall, J.; Yubin He, M.; Regner, K.; Conover, H.; Smith, T.; Meyer, P.; Lu, J.; Garrett, M.

    2009-12-01

    The NASA Real Time Mission Monitor (RTMM) is a visualization and information system that fuses multiple Earth science data sources, to enable real time decision-making for airborne and ground validation experiments. Developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center, RTMM is a situational awareness, decision-support system that integrates satellite imagery and orbit data, radar and other surface observations (e.g., lightning location network data), airborne navigation and instrument data sets, model output parameters, and other applicable Earth science data sets. The integration and delivery of this information is made possible using data acquisition systems, network communication links, network server resources, and visualizations through the Google Earth virtual globe application. In order to improve the usefulness and efficiency of the RTMM system, capabilities are being developed to allow the end-user to easily configure RTMM applications based on their mission-specific requirements and objectives. This second generation RTMM is being redesigned to take advantage of the Google plug-in capabilities to run multiple applications in a web browser rather than the original single application Google Earth approach. Currently RTMM employs a limited Service Oriented Architecture approach to enable discovery of mission specific resources. We are expanding the RTMM architecture such that it will more effectively utilize the Open Geospatial Consortium Sensor Web Enablement services and other new technology software tools and components. These modifications and extensions will result in a robust, versatile RTMM system that will greatly increase flexibility of the user to choose which science data sets and support applications to view and/or use. The improvements brought about by RTMM 2nd generation system will provide mission planners and airborne scientists with enhanced decision-making tools and capabilities to more

  14. Coal-fired generation staging a comeback. 2nd ed.

    SciTech Connect

    2007-07-01

    The report is an overview of the renewed U.S. market interest in coal-fired power generation. It provides a concise look at what is driving interest in coal-fired generation, the challenges faced in implementing coal-fired generation projects, and the current and future state of coal-fired generation. Topics covered in the report include: An overview of coal-fired generation including its history, the current market environment, and its future prospects; An analysis of the key business factors that are driving renewed interest in coal-fired generation; An analysis of the challenges that are hindering the implementation of coal-fired generation projects; A description of coal-fired generation technologies; A review of the economic drivers of coal-fired generation project success; An evaluation of coal-fired generation versus other generation technologies; A discussion of the key government initiatives supporting new coal-fired generation; and A listing of planned coal-fired generation projects. 13 figs., 12 tabs., 1 app.

  15. 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle Potential Commercial Development Scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Stephen D.; Rogacki, John R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The presentation will discuss potential commercial development scenarios for a Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle. The analysis of potential scenarios will include commercial rates of return, government return on investment, and market considerations. The presentation will include policy considerations in addition to analysis of Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle economics. The data discussed is being developed as a part of NASA's Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle Program, for consideration as potential scenarios for enabling a next generation system. Material will include potential scenarios not previously considered by NASA or presented at other conferences. Candidate paper has not been presented at a previous meeting, and conference attendance of the author has been approved by NASA.

  16. Coal gasification for power generation. 2nd ed.

    SciTech Connect

    2006-10-15

    The report gives an overview of the opportunities for coal gasification in the power generation industry. It provides a concise look at the challenges faced by coal-fired generation, the ability of coal gasification to address these challenges, and the current state of IGCC power generation. Topics covered in the report include: An overview of coal generation including its history, the current market environment, and the status of coal gasification; A description of gasification technology including processes and systems; An analysis of the key business factors that are driving increased interest in coal gasification; An analysis of the barriers that are hindering the implementation of coal gasification projects; A discussion of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology; An evaluation of IGCC versus other generation technologies; A discussion of IGCC project development options; A discussion of the key government initiatives supporting IGCC development; Profiles of the key gasification technology companies participating in the IGCC market; and A description of existing and planned coal IGCC projects.

  17. Support to 2nd Generation RLV Propulsion Project Office

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Thomas J.

    2002-01-01

    In this final report regarding support to the second generation RLV (Reusable Launch Vehicle) propulsion project office, a list of tasks accomplished is presented. During this period, Lee & Associates, LLC participated in numerous Systems Requirements Reviews (SRR) related to the Cobra development program.

  18. Operations Analysis of the 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noneman, Steven R.; Smith, C. A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Space Launch Initiative (SLI) program is developing a second-generation reusable launch vehicle. The program goals include lowering the risk of loss of crew to 1 in 10,000 and reducing annual operations cost to one third of the cost of the Space Shuttle. The SLI missions include NASA, military and commercial satellite launches and crew and cargo launches to the space station. The SLI operations analyses provide an assessment of the operational support and infrastructure needed to operate candidate system architectures. Measures of the operability are estimated (i.e. system dependability, responsiveness, and efficiency). Operations analysis is used to determine the impact of specific technologies on operations. A conceptual path to reducing annual operations costs by two thirds is based on key design characteristics, such as reusability, and improved processes lowering labor costs. New operations risks can be expected to emerge. They can be mitigated with effective risk management with careful identification, assignment, tracking, and closure. SLI design characteristics such as nearly full reusability, high reliability, advanced automation, and lowered maintenance and servicing coupled with improved processes are contributors to operability and large operating cost reductions.

  19. Automated CFD Database Generation for a 2nd Generation Glide-Back-Booster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaderjian, Neal M.; Rogers, Stuart E.; Aftosmis, Michael J.; Pandya, Shishir A.; Ahmad, Jasim U.; Tejmil, Edward

    2003-01-01

    A new software tool, AeroDB, is used to compute thousands of Euler and Navier-Stokes solutions for a 2nd generation glide-back booster in one week. The solution process exploits a common job-submission grid environment using 13 computers located at 4 different geographical sites. Process automation and web-based access to the database greatly reduces the user workload, removing much of the tedium and tendency for user input errors. The database consists of forces, moments, and solution files obtained by varying the Mach number, angle of attack, and sideslip angle. The forces and moments compare well with experimental data. Stability derivatives are also computed using a monotone cubic spline procedure. Flow visualization and three-dimensional surface plots are used to interpret and characterize the nature of computed flow fields.

  20. NASA 2nd Generation RLV Program Introduction, Status and Future Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumbacher, Dan L.; Smith, Dennis E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Space Launch Initiative (SLI), managed by the Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (2ndGen RLV) Program, was established to examine the possibility of revolutionizing space launch capabilities, define conceptual architectures, and concurrently identify the advanced technologies required to support a next-generation system. Initial Program funds have been allocated to design, evaluate, and formulate realistic plans leading to a 2nd Gen RLV full-scale development (FSD) decision by 2006. Program goals are to reduce both risk and cost for accessing the limitless opportunities afforded outside Earth's atmosphere fo civil, defense, and commercial enterprises. A 2nd Gen RLV architecture includes a reusable Earth-to-orbit launch vehicle, an on-orbit transport and return vehicle, ground and flight operations, mission planning, and both on-orbit and on-the-ground support infrastructures All segments of the architecture must advance in step with development of the RLV if a next-generation system is to be fully operational early next decade. However, experience shows that propulsion is the single largest contributor to unreliability during ascent, requires the largest expenditure of time for maintenance, and takes a long time to develop; therefore, propulsion is the key to meeting safety, reliability, and cost goals. For these reasons, propulsion is SLI's top technology investment area.

  1. Systems Engineering Approach to Technology Integration for NASA's 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Dale; Smith, Charles; Thomas, Leann; Kittredge, Sheryl

    2002-01-01

    The overall goal of the 2nd Generation RLV Program is to substantially reduce technical and business risks associated with developing a new class of reusable launch vehicles. NASA's specific goals are to improve the safety of a 2nd generation system by 2 orders of magnitude - equivalent to a crew risk of 1-in-10,000 missions - and decrease the cost tenfold, to approximately $1,000 per pound of payload launched. Architecture definition is being conducted in parallel with the maturating of key technologies specifically identified to improve safety and reliability, while reducing operational costs. An architecture broadly includes an Earth-to-orbit reusable launch vehicle, on-orbit transfer vehicles and upper stages, mission planning, ground and flight operations, and support infrastructure, both on the ground and in orbit. The systems engineering approach ensures that the technologies developed - such as lightweight structures, long-life rocket engines, reliable crew escape, and robust thermal protection systems - will synergistically integrate into the optimum vehicle. To best direct technology development decisions, analytical models are employed to accurately predict the benefits of each technology toward potential space transportation architectures as well as the risks associated with each technology. Rigorous systems analysis provides the foundation for assessing progress toward safety and cost goals. The systems engineering review process factors in comprehensive budget estimates, detailed project schedules, and business and performance plans, against the goals of safety, reliability, and cost, in addition to overall technical feasibility. This approach forms the basis for investment decisions in the 2nd Generation RLV Program's risk-reduction activities. Through this process, NASA will continually refine its specialized needs and identify where Defense and commercial requirements overlap those of civil missions.

  2. Life Cycle Systems Engineering Approach to NASA's 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Dale; Smith, Charles; Safie, Fayssal; Kittredge, Sheryl

    2002-01-01

    The overall goal of the 2nd Generation RLV Program is to substantially reduce technical and business risks associated with developing a new class of reusable launch vehicles. NASA's specific goals are to improve the safety of a 2nd- generation system by 2 orders of magnitude - equivalent to a crew risk of 1 -in- 10,000 missions - and decrease the cost tenfold, to approximately $1,000 per pound of payload launched. Architecture definition is being conducted in parallel with the maturating of key technologies specifically identified to improve safety and reliability, while reducing operational costs. An architecture broadly includes an Earth-to-orbit reusable launch vehicle, on-orbit transfer vehicles and upper stages, mission planning, ground and flight operations, and support infrastructure, both on the ground and in orbit. The systems engineering approach ensures that the technologies developed - such as lightweight structures, long-life rocket engines, reliable crew escape, and robust thermal protection systems - will synergistically integrate into the optimum vehicle. Given a candidate architecture that possesses credible physical processes and realistic technology assumptions, the next set of analyses address the system's functionality across the spread of operational scenarios characterized by the design reference missions. The safety/reliability and cost/economics associated with operating the system will also be modeled and analyzed to answer the questions "How safe is it?" and "How much will it cost to acquire and operate?" The systems engineering review process factors in comprehensive budget estimates, detailed project schedules, and business and performance plans, against the goals of safety, reliability, and cost, in addition to overall technical feasibility. This approach forms the basis for investment decisions in the 2nd Generation RLV Program's risk-reduction activities. Through this process, NASA will continually refine its specialized needs and

  3. Systems Engineering Approach to Technology Integration for NASA's 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Dale; Smith, Charles; Thomas, Leann; Kittredge, Sheryl

    2002-01-01

    The overall goal of the 2nd Generation RLV Program is to substantially reduce technical and business risks associated with developing a new class of reusable launch vehicles. NASA's specific goals are to improve the safety of a 2nd-generation system by 2 orders of magnitude - equivalent to a crew risk of 1-in-10,000 missions - and decrease the cost tenfold, to approximately $1,000 per pound of payload launched. Architecture definition is being conducted in parallel with the maturating of key technologies specifically identified to improve safety and reliability, while reducing operational costs. An architecture broadly includes an Earth-to-orbit reusable launch vehicle, on-orbit transfer vehicles and upper stages, mission planning, ground and flight operations, and support infrastructure, both on the ground and in orbit. The systems engineering approach ensures that the technologies developed - such as lightweight structures, long-life rocket engines, reliable crew escape, and robust thermal protection systems - will synergistically integrate into the optimum vehicle. To best direct technology development decisions, analytical models are employed to accurately predict the benefits of each technology toward potential space transportation architectures as well as the risks associated with each technology. Rigorous systems analysis provides the foundation for assessing progress toward safety and cost goals. The systems engineering review process factors in comprehensive budget estimates, detailed project schedules, and business and performance plans, against the goals of safety, reliability, and cost, in addition to overall technical feasibility. This approach forms the basis for investment decisions in the 2nd Generation RLV Program's risk-reduction activities. Through this process, NASA will continually refine its specialized needs and identify where Defense and commercial requirements overlap those of civil missions.

  4. Advanced Electron Beam Ion Sources (EBIS) for 2-nd generation carbon radiotherapy facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shornikov, A.; Wenander, F.

    2016-04-01

    In this work we analyze how advanced Electron Beam Ion Sources (EBIS) can facilitate the progress of carbon therapy facilities. We will demonstrate that advanced ion sources enable operation of 2-nd generation ion beam therapy (IBT) accelerators. These new accelerator concepts with designs dedicated to IBT provide beams better suited for therapy and, are more cost efficient than contemporary IBT facilities. We will give a sort overview of the existing new IBT concepts and focus on those where ion source technology is the limiting factor. We will analyse whether this limitation can be overcome in the near future thanks to ongoing EBIS development.

  5. Effects of Thermal Cycling on Control and Irradiated EPC 2nd Generation GaN FETs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Scheick, Leif; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Casey, Megan; Hammoud, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    The power systems for use in NASA space missions must work reliably under harsh conditions including radiation, thermal cycling, and exposure to extreme temperatures. Gallium nitride semiconductors show great promise, but information pertaining to their performance is scarce. Gallium nitride N-channel enhancement-mode field effect transistors made by EPC Corporation in a 2nd generation of manufacturing were exposed to radiation followed by long-term thermal cycling in order to address their reliability for use in space missions. Results of the experimental work are presented and discussed.

  6. Emotional and Behavioral Disorders in 1.5th Generation, 2nd Generation Immigrant Children, and Foreign Adoptees.

    PubMed

    Tan, Tony Xing

    2016-10-01

    Existing theories (e.g., acculturative stress theory) cannot adequately explain why mental disorders in immigrants are less prevalent than in non-immigrants. In this paper, the culture-gene co-evolutionary theory of mental disorders was utilized to generate a novel hypothesis that connection to heritage culture reduces the risk for mental disorders in immigrant children. Four groups of children aged 2-17 years were identified from the 2007 United States National Survey of Children's Health: 1.5th generation immigrant children (n = 1378), 2nd generation immigrant children (n = 4194), foreign adoptees (n = 270), and non-immigrant children (n = 54,877). The 1.5th generation immigrant children's connection to their heritage culture is stronger than or similar to the 2nd generation immigrants, while the foreign adoptees have little connection to their birth culture. Controlling for age, sex, family type and SES, the odds for having ADD/ADHD, Conduct Disorder, Anxiety Disorder, and Depression diagnosis were the lowest for the 1.5th generation immigrant children, followed by the 2nd generation immigrant children and the foreign adoptees. The foreign adoptees and non-adopted children were similar in the odds of having these disorders. Connection to heritage culture might be the underlying mechanism that explained recent immigrants' lower rates of mental disorders. PMID:26972324

  7. The planar optics phase sensor: a study for the VLTI 2nd generation fringe tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blind, Nicolas; Le Bouquin, Jean-Baptiste; Absil, Olivier; Alamir, Mazen; Berger, Jean-Philippe; Defrère, Denis; Feautrier, Philippe; Hénault, François; Jocou, Laurent; Kern, Pierre; Laurent, Thomas; Malbet, Fabien; Mourard, Denis; Rousselet-Perraut, Karine; Sarlette, Alain; Surdej, Jean; Tarmoul, Nassima; Tatulli, Eric; Vincent, Lionel

    2010-07-01

    In a few years, the second generation instruments of the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) will routinely provide observations with 4 to 6 telescopes simultaneously. To reach their ultimate performance, they will need a fringe sensor capable to measure in real time the randomly varying optical paths differences. A collaboration between LAOG (PI institute), IAGL, OCA and GIPSA-Lab has proposed the Planar Optics Phase Sensor concept to ESO for the 2nd Generation Fringe Tracker. This concept is based on the integrated optics technologies, enabling the conception of extremely compact interferometric instruments naturally providing single-mode spatial filtering. It allows operations with 4 and 6 telescopes by measuring the fringes position thanks to a spectrally dispersed ABCD method. We present here the main analysis which led to the current concept as well as the expected on-sky performance and the proposed design.

  8. Enabling the 2nd Generation in Space: Building Blocks for Large Scale Space Endeavours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnhardt, D.; Garretson, P.; Will, P.

    Today the world operates within a "first generation" space industrial enterprise, i.e. all industry is on Earth, all value from space is from bits (data essentially), and the focus is Earth-centric, with very limited parts of our population and industry participating in space. We are limited in access, manoeuvring, on-orbit servicing, in-space power, in-space manufacturing and assembly. The transition to a "Starship culture" requires the Earth to progress to a "second generation" space industrial base, which implies the need to expand the economic sphere of activity of mankind outside of an Earth-centric zone and into CIS-lunar space and beyond, with an equal ability to tap the indigenous resources in space (energy, location, materials) that will contribute to an expanding space economy. Right now, there is no comfortable place for space applications that are not discovery science, exploration, military, or established earth bound services. For the most part, space applications leave out -- or at least leave nebulous, unconsolidated, and without a critical mass -- programs and development efforts for infrastructure, industrialization, space resources (survey and process maturation), non-traditional and persistent security situational awareness, and global utilities -- all of which, to a far greater extent than a discovery and exploration program, may help determine the elements of a 2nd generation space capability. We propose a focus to seed the pre-competitive research that will enable global industry to develop the necessary competencies that we currently lack to build large scale space structures on-orbit, that in turn would lay the foundation for long duration spacecraft travel (i.e. key technologies in access, manoeuvrability, etc.). This paper will posit a vision-to-reality for a step wise approach to the types of activities the US and global space providers could embark upon to lay the foundation for the 2nd generation of Earth in space.

  9. The New 2nd-Generation SRF R&D Facility at Jefferson Lab: TEDF

    SciTech Connect

    Reece, Charles E.; Reilly, Anthony V.

    2012-09-01

    The US Department of Energy has funded a near-complete renovation of the SRF-based accelerator research and development facilities at Jefferson Lab. The project to accomplish this, the Technical and Engineering Development Facility (TEDF) Project has completed the first of two phases. An entirely new 3,100 m{sup 2} purpose-built SRF technical work facility has been constructed and was occupied in summer of 2012. All SRF work processes with the exception of cryogenic testing have been relocated into the new building. All cavity fabrication, processing, thermal treatment, chemistry, cleaning, and assembly work is collected conveniently into a new LEED-certified building. An innovatively designed 800 m2 cleanroom/chemroom suite provides long-term flexibility for support of multiple R&D and construction projects as well as continued process evolution. The characteristics of this first 2nd-generation SRF facility are described.

  10. IGCC and PFBC By-Products: Generation, Characteristics, and Management Practices

    SciTech Connect

    Pflughoeft-Hassett, D.F.

    1997-09-01

    The following report is a compilation of data on by-products/wastes from clean coal technologies, specifically integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC). DOE had two objectives in providing this information to EPA: (1) to familiarize EPA with the DOE CCT program, CCT by-products, and the associated efforts by DOE contractors in the area of CCT by-product management and (2) to provide information that will facilitate EPA's effort by complementing similar reports from industry groups, including CIBO (Council of Industrial Boiler Owners) and EEI USWAG (Edison Electric Institute Utility Solid Waste Activities Group). The EERC cooperated and coordinated with DOE CCT contractors and industry groups to provide the most accurate and complete data on IGCC and PFBC by-products, although these technologies are only now being demonstrated on the commercial scale through the DOE CCT program.

  11. Specific filter designs for PFBC

    SciTech Connect

    Lippert, T.E.; Bruck, G.J.; Newby, R.A.; Smeltzer, E.E.

    1993-09-01

    Bubbling bed PFBC technology is currently being demonstrated at commercial scale. Economic and performance improvements in these first generation type PFBC plants can be realized with the application of hot gas particulate filters. Both the secondary cyclone(s) and stack gas ESP(s) could be eliminated saving costs and providing lower system pressure losses. The cleaner gas (basically ash free) provided with the hot gas filter, also permits a wider selection of gas turbines with potentially higher performance. For these bubbling bed PFBC applications, the hot gas filter must operate at temperatures of 1580{degree}F and system pressures of 175 psia (conditions typical of the Tidd PFBC plant). Inlet dust loadings to the filter are estimated to be about 500 to 1000 ppm with mass mean particle diameters ranging from 1.5 to 3 {mu}m. For commercial applications typical of the 70 MW{sub e} Tidd PFBC demonstration unit, the filter must treat up to 56,600 acfm of gas flow. Scaleup of this design to about 320 MW{sub e} would require filtering over 160,000 acfm gas flow. For these commercial scale systems, multiple filter vessels are required. Thus, the filter design should be modular for scaling. An alternative to the bubbling bed PFBC is the circulating bed concept. In this process the hot gas filter will in general be exposed to higher operating temperatures (1650{degree}F) and significantly higher (factor of 10 or more) particle loading.

  12. PFBC dust cake studies

    SciTech Connect

    Lippert, T.E.; Newby, R.A.; Alvin, M.A.; Bachovchin, D.M.; Smeltzer, E.E.

    1994-10-01

    The Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Science and Technology Center is developing an Integrated Low Emissions Cleanup (ILEC) concept for high-temperature gas cleaning to meet environmental standards, as well as to provide economical gas turbine life. The ILEC concept simultaneously controls particulate, sulfur, alkali, and other contaminants in high-pressure fuel gases, or combustion gases, at temperatures up to about 1700 degrees Fahrenheit in advanced, coal-fired, power generation systems. The overall objective of this program is to demonstrate, at a bench scale, the conceptual, technical feasibility of the ILEC concept for multi-contaminant control, and to provide test data applicable to the design of subsequent field tests. The current program objective is to conduct ceramic barrier filter testing under simulated PFBC conditions to deal with filter cake permeability and pulse cleaning issues that have been identified in recent PFBC filter field testing.

  13. Advanced PFBC transient analysis

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.S.; Bonk, D.L.

    1997-05-01

    Transient modeling and analysis of advanced Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) systems is a research area that is currently under investigation by the US Department of Energy`s Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC). The object of the effort is to identify key operating parameters that affect plant performance and then quantify the basic response of major sub-systems to changes in operating conditions. PC-TRAX{trademark}, a commercially available dynamic software program, was chosen and applied in this modeling and analysis effort. This paper describes the development of a series of TRAX-based transient models of advanced PFBC power plants. These power plants burn coal or other suitable fuel in a PFBC, and the high temperature flue gas supports low-Btu fuel gas or natural gas combustion in a gas turbine topping combustor. When it is utilized, the low-Btu fuel gas is produced in a bubbling bed carbonizer. High temperature, high pressure combustion products exiting the topping combustor are expanded in a modified gas turbine to generate electrical power. Waste heat from the system is used to raise and superheat steam for a reheat steam turbine bottoming cycle that generates additional electrical power. Basic control/instrumentation models were developed and modeled in PC-TRAX and used to investigate off-design plant performance. System performance for various transient conditions and control philosophies was studied.

  14. Computer Generation of Subduction Frequencies for 2ND Order Phase Transitions in Two-Dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deonarine, Samaroo

    The Landau theory of 2nd order phase transitions and Group theory Criteria are used to predict which subgroups G (L-HOOK EQ) G(,0) can occur in transitions for 2-D systems (plane-group to plane-group and diperiodic to diperiodic). Previous work 1 on the 17 plane space groups has been based on the tables of Coxeter & Moser 2 and the International Tables of X-ray Crystallography (ITXRC, 1965) 3 . These tables do not exhaust all the possible subgroups of a space group 4 . Since such explicit tables are non-existent for other families of space groups we have developed algorithms that make a systematic search of the parent unit cell of G(,0) to locate the origin and orientation of all its subgroups G, G (L-HOOK EQ) G(,0). We have written a RATFOR/FORTRAN program for the VAX 11-780 which will generate the subduction frequencies. (DIAGRAM, TABLE OR GRAPHIC OMITTED...PLEASE SEE DAI). for allowed second order phase transitions in 2-dimensional systems that are describable by the 80 diperiodic Groups G(,0) and G 5 . Our program gives a complete tabulation (Origin, new Translation Sublattice, Subduction Frequency, Subgroup and its Generators) of the allowed continuous or second order phase transitions from a parent diperiodic group G(,0) to another diperiodic subgroup G.

  15. Improved beam spot measurements in the 2nd generation proton beam writing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yong; van Mourik, Martin W.; Santhana Raman, P.; van Kan, Jeroen A.

    2013-07-01

    Nanosized ion beams (especially proton and helium) play a pivotal role in the field of ion beam lithography and ion beam analysis. Proton beam writing has shown lithographic details down to the 20 nm level, limited by the proton beam spot size. Introducing a smaller spot size will allow smaller lithographic features. Smaller probe sizes, will also drastically improve the spatial resolution for ion beam analysis techniques. Among many other requirements, having an ideal resolution standard, used for beam focusing and a reliable focusing method, is an important pre-requisite for sub-10 nm beam spot focusing. In this paper we present the fabrication processes of a free-standing resolution standard with reduced side-wall projection and high side-wall verticality. The resulting grid is orthogonal (90.0° ± 0.1), has smooth edges with better than 6 nm side-wall projection. The new resolution standard has been used in focusing a 2 MeV H2+ beam in the 2nd generation PBW system at Center for Ion Beam Applications, NUS. The beam size has been characterized using on- and off-axis scanning transmission ion microscopy (STIM) and ion induced secondary electron detection, carried out with a newly installed micro channel plate electron detector. The latter has been shown to be a realistic alternative to STIM measurements, as the drawback of PIN diode detector damage is alleviated. With these improvements we show reproducible beam focusing down to 14 nm.

  16. BMI differences in 1st and 2nd generation immigrants of Asian and European origin to Australia.

    PubMed

    Hauck, Katharina; Hollingsworth, Bruce; Morgan, Lawrie

    2011-01-01

    We estimate assimilation of immigrants' body mass index (BMI) to the host population of Australia over one generation, conducting separate analyses for immigrants from 7 regions of Europe and Asia. We use quantile regressions to allow for differing impact of generational status across 19 quantiles of BMI from under-weight to morbidly obese individuals. We find that 1st generation South European immigrants have higher, and South and East Asian immigrants have lower BMI than Australians, but have assimilated to the BMI of their hosts in the 2nd generation. There are no or only small BMI differences between Australians and 1st and 2nd generation immigrants from East Europe, North-West Europe, Middle East and Pacific regions. We conclude that both upward and downward assimilation in some immigrant groups is most likely caused by factors which can change over one generation (such as acculturation), and not factors which would take longer to change (such as genetics). Our results suggest that public health policies targeting the lifestyles of well educated Asian immigrants may be effective in preventing BMI increase in this subgroup. PMID:20869292

  17. Time resolved 2nd harmonic generation at LaAlO3/SrTiO3 Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, Sanjay; Eom, Chang-Beom; Ryu, Sangwoo; Cen, Cheng

    2014-03-01

    Ultrafast spectroscopy can produce information of carrier/lattice dynamics, which is especially valuable for understanding phase transitions at LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interfaces. LaAlO3 (LAO) and SrTiO3 (STO) are both associated with wide band gap, which allows deep penetration of commonly used laser wavelengths and therefore usually leads to overwhelming bulk signal background. Here we report a time resolved study of a 2nd harmonic generation (SHG) signal resulting from impulsive below-the-band-gap optical pumping. The nonlinear nature of the signal enables us to probe the interface directly. Output of a home built Ti:Sapphire laser and BBO crystal were used to generate 30fs pulses of two colors (405nm and 810nm). The 405nm pulse was used to pump the LAO/STO interfaces, while 2nd harmonics of the 810nm pulse generated at the interfaces was probed as a function of the time delay. Signals from samples with varying LAO thicknesses clearly correlates to the metal-insulator transition. Distinct time dependent signals were observed at LAO/STO interfaces grown on different substrates. Experiments performed at different optical polarization geometries, interface electric fields and temperatures allow us to paint a clearer picture of the novel oxide heterostructures under investigation.

  18. Impact of Insulin Resistance on Neointimal Tissue Proliferation after 2nd-Generation Drug-Eluting Stent Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Yaguchi, Isao; Komatsu, Sachiko; Nakahara, Shiro; Kobayashi, Sayuki; Sakai, Yoshihiko; Taguchi, Isao

    2015-01-01

    Percutaneous coronary intervention is established as an effective treatment for patients with ischemic heart disease; in particular, drug-eluting stent implantation is known to suppress in-stent restenosis. Diabetes mellitus is an independent risk factor for restenosis, so reducing insulin resistance is being studied as a new treatment approach. In this prospective study, we sought to clarify the factors associated with in-stent restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention, and we evaluated the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index as a predictor of restenosis. We enrolled 136 consecutive patients who underwent elective percutaneous coronary intervention at our hospital from February 2010 through April 2013. All were implanted with a 2nd-generation drug-eluting stent. We distributed the patients in accordance with their HOMA-IR index values into insulin-resistant Group P (HOMA-IR, ≥2.5; n=77) and noninsulin-resistant Group N (HOMA-IR, <2.5; n=59). Before and immediately after stenting, we measured reference diameter, minimal lumen diameter, and percentage of stenosis, and after 8 months we measured the last 2 factors and late lumen loss, all by means of quantitative coronary angiography. After 8 months, the mean minimal lumen diameter was smaller in Group P than that in Group N (1.85 ± 1.02 vs 2.37 ± 0.66 mm; P=0.037), and the mean late lumen loss was larger (0.4 ± 0.48 vs 0.16 ± 0.21 mm; P=0.025). These results suggest that insulin resistance affects neointimal tissue proliferation after 2nd-generation drug-eluting stent implantation. PMID:26413014

  19. Second generation PFBC systems research & development, Phase 2 topping combustor development

    SciTech Connect

    Dowdy, T.E.; Bachovchin, D.; Foote, J.; Pillsbury, P.W.; Bouvier, B.U.; Muller, K.F.

    1993-06-01

    Over the past several years, Westinghouse has been part of a US Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored project on a second generation PFB. Led by Foster Wheeler Development Corporation, a team of contractors is developing the second generation PFB technology (Robertson, et al., 1988). Westinghouse`s participation relates to gas cleanup - the use of the ceramic cross-flow filter, topping combustor, and the turbomachinery - the steam and gas turbines. The cycle has been described in detail in previous papers (Garland, et al., 1991).

  20. Market assessment and technical feasibility study of PFBC ash use

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, V.E.; Bland, A.E.; Brown, T.H.; Georgiou, D.N.; Wheeldon, J.

    1994-10-01

    The overall objectives of this study are to determine the market potential and the technical feasibility of using PFBC ash in high volume ash use applications. The information will be of direct use to the utility industry in assessing the economics of PFBC power generation in light of ash disposal avoidance through ash marketing. In addition, the research is expected to result in the generation of generic data on the use of PFBC ash that could lead to novel processing options and procedures. The specific objectives of the proposed research and demonstration effort are: Define resent and future market potential of PFBC ash for a range of applications (Phase I); assess the technical feasibility of PFBC ash use in construction, civil engineering and agricultural applications (Phase II); and demonstrate the most promising of the market and ash use options in full-scale field demonstrations (Phase III).

  1. Conceptual design of a gas turbine for PFBC applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bannister, R.L.; McGuigan, A.W.; Risley, T.P.; Smith, O.J.

    1992-12-31

    First generation pressurized fluidized bed (PFBC) technology has potential advantages which include: lower capital cost, Unproved environmental performance, shorter lead times, higher efficiency and enhanced fuel flexibility. Coal firing with combustion turbines experiments have been conducted for over forty years. These efforts have evolved to the point where commercial demonstrations are now feasible. The PFBC is one of these technologies. It will be demonstrated as part of the Clean Coal III initiative. PFBC technology is applicable for new installations, replacement of existing equipment as well as repower and retrofit. Included with these options is the opportunity to reduce dependency on fuel oil and well as enhancing environmental performance and increasing efficiency. The turbo-machinery will require design changes to meet the requirements for PFBC application. The major change to the combustion turbine take place in the center section. This section will include provisions to supply compressed air to the PFBC as well as receive vitiated air from the PFBC. These efforts also have the objective of reducing the degree of change from a standard unit. Under a clean coal program a first generation PFBC demonstration win take place at the Des Moines Energy Center. For this demonstration it will be necessary to remove two stages from the 251B12 compressor. This will make the air supplied by the compressor suitable for the PFBC system. The results from this program will be applicable to the DMEC-1 program.

  2. Conceptual design of a gas turbine for PFBC applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bannister, R.L.; McGuigan, A.W.; Risley, T.P.; Smith, O.J.

    1992-01-01

    First generation pressurized fluidized bed (PFBC) technology has potential advantages which include: lower capital cost, Unproved environmental performance, shorter lead times, higher efficiency and enhanced fuel flexibility. Coal firing with combustion turbines experiments have been conducted for over forty years. These efforts have evolved to the point where commercial demonstrations are now feasible. The PFBC is one of these technologies. It will be demonstrated as part of the Clean Coal III initiative. PFBC technology is applicable for new installations, replacement of existing equipment as well as repower and retrofit. Included with these options is the opportunity to reduce dependency on fuel oil and well as enhancing environmental performance and increasing efficiency. The turbo-machinery will require design changes to meet the requirements for PFBC application. The major change to the combustion turbine take place in the center section. This section will include provisions to supply compressed air to the PFBC as well as receive vitiated air from the PFBC. These efforts also have the objective of reducing the degree of change from a standard unit. Under a clean coal program a first generation PFBC demonstration win take place at the Des Moines Energy Center. For this demonstration it will be necessary to remove two stages from the 251B12 compressor. This will make the air supplied by the compressor suitable for the PFBC system. The results from this program will be applicable to the DMEC-1 program.

  3. The systems and the developmental targets for PFBC

    SciTech Connect

    Dellefield, R.J.

    1993-09-01

    First generation PFBC technology is nearing commercial deployment the ongoing demonstrations, as part of DOE`s Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program, will enable the technology to be a low-risk, environmentally acceptable option for utilities. Further improvements in environmental and thermal performance will be required to maintain PFBC technology as a competitive option to gasification-based power systems in the 2000s. The cost of electricity, capital costs, emissions, and thermal efficiency of PFBC systems compared to alternatives are covered. The vendors of PFBC systems seem to be responding to these market requirements. Significant progress has been made to increase the efficiency of first generation PFBCs and in reducing the capital cost of first-generation PFBC systems, which should positively influence the number of total sales of new units. The potential for first-generation PFBC systems to be used to retrofit existing utility sites and add a modest increment of power is gaining wide acceptance. Further development of PFBC systems into more efficient, environmentally benign power generation options is continuing. A snapshot of the development activities planned for Advanced PFBC systems, which the DOE considers necessary to develop utility-sized plants, are discussed. The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) is interested in making sure that PFBC systems continue to remain a viable system for the next century, in a climate of continuing pressure, to make power systems cleaner and more efficient. Therefore, METC is initiating an effort to investigate the technical issues associated with PFBC systems that can get to over 50 percent efficiencies and have very low emissions. The goals and development targets for this effort are discussed.

  4. STARS 2.0: 2nd-generation open-source archiving and query software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winegar, Tom

    2008-07-01

    The Subaru Telescope is in process of developing an open-source alternative to the 1st-generation software and databases (STARS 1) used for archiving and query. For STARS 2, we have chosen PHP and Python for scripting and MySQL as the database software. We have collected feedback from staff and observers, and used this feedback to significantly improve the design and functionality of our future archiving and query software. Archiving - We identified two weaknesses in 1st-generation STARS archiving software: a complex and inflexible table structure and uncoordinated system administration for our business model: taking pictures from the summit and archiving them in both Hawaii and Japan. We adopted a simplified and normalized table structure with passive keyword collection, and we are designing an archive-to-archive file transfer system that automatically reports real-time status and error conditions and permits error recovery. Query - We identified several weaknesses in 1st-generation STARS query software: inflexible query tools, poor sharing of calibration data, and no automatic file transfer mechanisms to observers. We are developing improved query tools and sharing of calibration data, and multi-protocol unassisted file transfer mechanisms for observers. In the process, we have redefined a 'query': from an invisible search result that can only transfer once in-house right now, with little status and error reporting and no error recovery - to a stored search result that can be monitored, transferred to different locations with multiple protocols, reporting status and error conditions and permitting recovery from errors.

  5. A Plan for Advanced Guidance and Control Technology for 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, John M.; Fogle, Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Advanced guidance and control (AG&C) technologies are critical for meeting safety/reliability and cost requirements for the next generation of reusable launch vehicle (RLV). This becomes clear upon examining the number of expendable launch vehicle failures in the recent past where AG&C technologies would have saved a RLV with the same failure mode, the additional vehicle problems where this technology applies, and the costs associated with mission design with or without all these failure issues. The state-of-the-art in guidance and control technology, as well as in computing technology, is at the point where we can took to the possibility of being able to safely return a RLV in any situation where it can physically be recovered. This paper outlines reasons for AG&C, current technology efforts, and the additional work needed for making this goal a reality.

  6. Outcome of Treatment of CML with 2nd Generation Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors After Imatinib Failure

    PubMed Central

    Cornelison, A. Megan; Kantarjian, Hagop; Cortes, Jorge; Jabbour, Elias

    2015-01-01

    Although imatinib revolutionized the management of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), recent data indicate a transformation in the treatment approach likely in the near future. For patients who fail with standard-dose imatinib therapy, imatinib dose escalation is a second-line option. However, high-dose imatinib is not an appropriate approach for patients experiencing drug toxicity, and there remain questions over the durability of responses achieved with this strategy. Alternative second-line options include the newer tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) like dasatinib and nilotinib. A substantial amount of long-term data for these agents is available. Although both are potent and specific BCR-ABL TKIs, dasatinib and nilotinib exhibit unique pharmacological profiles and response patterns relative to different patient characteristics, such as disease stage and BCR-ABL mutational status. The superiority of second generation TKIs over imatinib in newly diagnosed disease has been recognized as well. They induce high and rapid rates of cytogenetic and molecular response, with less progression to advanced forms of disease in comparison with imatinib. Several investigational agents specific for those patients with the T315I mutation remain under evaluation. The future of CML therapy may include early use of these potent agents to help more patients achieve molecular remission and potentially be a path to a CML cure. PMID:22035738

  7. InAs/GaSb type II superlattices for advanced 2nd and 3rd generation detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walther, Martin; Rehm, Robert; Schmitz, Johannes; Fleissner, Joachim; Rutz, Frank; Kirste, Lutz; Scheibner, Ralf; Wendler, Joachim; Ziegler, Johann

    2010-01-01

    InAs/GaSb short-period superlattices (SL) based on GaSb, InAs and AlSb have proven their great potential for high performance infrared detectors. Lots of interest is currently focused on the development of short-period InAs/GaSb SLs for advanced 2nd and 3rd generation infrared detectors between 3 - 30 μm. For the fabrication of mono- and bispectral thermal imaging systems in the mid-wavelength infrared region (MWIR) a manufacturable technology for high responsivity thermal imaging systems has been developed. InAs/GaSb short-period superlattices can be fabricated with up to 1000 periods in the intrinsic region without revealing diffusion limited behavior. This enables the fabrication of InAs/GaSb SL camera systems with high responsivity comparable to state of the art CdHgTe and InSb detectors. The material system is also ideally suited for the fabrication of dual-color MWIR/MWIR InAs/GaSb SL camera systems with high quantum efficiency for missile approach warning systems with simultaneous and spatially coincident detection in both spectral channels.

  8. The US Department of Energy PFBC perspective, 1994 update

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, L.K.; Dellefield, R.J.

    1994-08-01

    Significant progress in the development and commercialization of pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) technology has occurred since the 1992 Fluidized-Bed Combustion (FBC) Conference. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has been and continues to be an active partner in most of these activities. This paper presents the 1994 status of DOE activities and a discussion of the importance DOE places on the development and commercialization of PFBC systems. Specifically, this paper discusses the status and focus of DOE activities. Currently, first-generation PFBC systems are on the brink of commercial deployment. The DOE Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program is assisting in this process by funding demonstration programs to validate that PFBC technologies are a low-risk, environmentally-attractive, cost-competitive option for utility and industrial users. A brief discussion of the scope and the status of major demonstrations are presented. This paper also presents a snapshot of the PFBC development activities that are part of the DOE Research and Development (R&D) Program, i.e., hot gas particulate removal systems and pilot-plant facilities in support of advanced PFBC combined-cycle systems. The R&D pilot plant activities discussed include advanced component development tests at the Foster Wheeler Development Facility and the status of the fully integrated advanced PFBC being built as part of the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) at Wilsonville, Alabama. Finally, a brief perspective is provided as to how PFBC systems will need to further evolve in order to continue to remain viable. As we look into the next century, there will be continual pressure to make power systems cleaner and more efficient. By increasing cycle efficiencies to over 50 percent and further reducing emissions, it is possible for PFBC systems to meet these challenges. Suggested goals and development targets for advanced, super-clean PFBC systems are briefly discussed.

  9. PFBC plant operations

    SciTech Connect

    Kinsinger, F.L. )

    1992-01-01

    By operating a fluidized bed at elevated pressures, known as pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC), advantages can be gained over atmospheric fluidized bed technology. Operating the process at elevated pressures allows electrical production from both the steam and the gas cycles which results in higher plant efficiencies. Additional benefits of operating at elevated pressures include the further reduction of emissions and the reduction in the physical size of the power plant. This paper describes the operation of a PFBC plant and its application at the Tidd clean coal demonstration project. Actual operating experience will be presented.

  10. PFBC Utility Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    This report provides a summary of activities by American Electric Power Service Corporation during the first budget period of the PFBC Utility Demonstration Project. In April 1990, AEP signed a Cooperative Agreement with the US Department of Energy to repower the Philip Sporn Plant, Units 3 4 in New Haven, West Virginia, with a 330 KW PFBC plant. The purpose of the program was to demonstrate and verify PFBC in a full-scale commercial plant. The technical and cost baselines of the Cooperative Agreement were based on a preliminary engineering and design and a cost estimate developed by AEP subsequent to AEP's proposal submittal in May 1988, and prior to the signing of the Cooperative Agreement. The Statement of Work in the first budget period of the Cooperative Agreement included a task to develop a preliminary design and cost estimate for erecting a Greenfield plant and to conduct a comparison with the repowering option. The comparative assessment of the options concluded that erecting a Greenfield plant rather than repowering the existing Sporn Plant could be the technically and economically superior alternative. The Greenfield plant would have a capacity of 340 MW. The ten additional MW output is due to the ability to better match the steam cycle to the PFBC system with a new balance of plant design. In addition to this study, the conceptual design of the Sporn Repowering led to several items which warranted optimization studies with the goal to develop a more cost effective design.

  11. A case study of PFBC for low rank coals

    SciTech Connect

    Jansson, S.A.

    1995-12-01

    Pressurized Fluidized Combined-Cycle (PFBC) technology allows the efficient and environmentally friendly utilization of solid fuels for power and combined heat and power generation. With current PFBC technology, thermal efficiencies near 46%, on an LHV basis and with low condenser pressures, can be reached in condensing power plants. Further efficiency improvements to 50% or more are possible. PFBC plants are characterized by high thermal efficiency, compactness, and extremely good environmental performance. The PFBC plants which are now in operation in Sweden, the U.S. and Japan burn medium-ash, bituminous coal with sulfur contents ranging from 0.7 to 4%. A sub- bituminous {open_quotes}black lignite{close_quotes} with high levels of sulfur, ash and humidity, is used as fuel in a demonstration PFBC plant in Spain. Project discussions are underway, among others in Central and Eastern Europe, for the construction of PFBC plants which will burn lignite, oil-shale and also mixtures of coal and biomass with high efficiency and extremely low emissions. This paper will provide information about the performance data for PFBC plants when operating on a range of low grade coals and other solid fuels, and will summarize other advantages of this leading new clean coal technology.

  12. Immobilized High Level Waste (HLW) Interim Storage Alternative Generation and analysis and Decision Report 2nd Generation Implementing Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    CALMUS, R.B.

    2000-09-14

    Two alternative approaches were previously identified to provide second-generation interim storage of Immobilized High-Level Waste (IHLW). One approach was retrofit modification of the Fuel and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF) to accommodate IHLW. The results of the evaluation of the FMEF as the second-generation IHLW interim storage facility and subsequent decision process are provided in this document.

  13. Commercial development of advanced PFBC technology

    SciTech Connect

    McClung, J.D.

    1995-12-31

    In the 1970s, the coal-fired power generation industry recognized that the declining price of electricity over the previous five decades was coming to an end. Maximum use had been made of existing cycle efficiencies and scale-up. As researchers looked for a new approach, the focus shifted from the fully developed Rankine cycle to a new array of coal-fired plants using combined-cycle technology. Now, coal-fired combined-cycle plants are being introduced that shift power production to the Brayton cycle. Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) are two technologies at the forefront of this approach. The PFBC approach burns coal in a fluidized bed combustor at elevated pressure. The plant generates electricity from a gas turbine (expanding the hot, pressurized products of combustion) in addition to the conventional steam (bottoming) cycle. Such a plant can achieve thermal efficiencies of about 40 percent and have a levelized busbar cost below any competing coal-based technology. In addition to the economic benefits, the {open_quotes}built-in{close_quotes} feature of environmental control (SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}) in the combustion process eliminates the need for external gas cleanup such as scrubbers. A PFBC can burn a wider range of coals than a pulverized-coal-fired (PCF) boiler and is simpler to operate and maintain than an IGCC power plant.

  14. PFBC HGCU Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This is the ninth technical progress report submitted to the Department of Energy in connection with the Cooperative Agreement between DOE and Ohio Power Company for the Tidd PFBC Hot Gas Clean Up Test Facility. This report covers the period of work completed during the Fourth Quarter of CY 1991. During the reporting period, work focused on completing Task 2, Hot Gas Clean Up (HGCU) Detailed Design and Task 4, Procurement Activities to support the installation of the Westinghouse advanced particle filter (APE). The following significant events occurred during this report period: The mechanical/structural contractor (Pullman Power Products) mobilized at the Tidd site in December and began erecting steel framing for the APF. A contract modification was issued to Babcock Wilcox Co. for the supply of piping materials required for the combustor internal modifications. A contract was awarded to ANARAD, Inc. for a gas analysis system. A contract was prepared and is being processed for electrical erection.

  15. [Modalities of use of ceritinib (Zykadia™), a 2nd generation ALK inhibitor, in advanced stage non-small cell lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Giroux Leprieur, Etienne; Fallet, Vincent; Wislez, Marie

    2015-12-01

    Around 4% of advanced non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) harbor a ALK rearrangement, with high sensitivity to ALK inhibitor as crizotinib. However, the vast majority of these tumors end with a tumor progression after several months of treatment with crizotinib. Ceritinib is a 2nd generation ALK inhibitor, which showed high efficiency in NSCLC with ALK rearrangement. Results from phase I trial showed a response rate at 58% in these tumors, with a similar rate for previously crizotinib-treated patients or crizotinib-naïve patients. Moreover, cerebral responses were observed with ceritinib. Preliminary date from a phase 2 trial confirmed these results. These promising results allowed a European marketing authorization (autorisation de mise sur le marché [AMM]) since May 2015 for the treatment of advanced NSCLC with ALK rearrangement and resistance or intolerance to crizotinib. PMID:26597476

  16. Filter system cost comparison for IGCC and PFBC power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, R.A.; McDaniel, H.M.; Buchanan, T.

    1995-12-01

    A cost comparison was conducted between the filter systems for two advanced coal-based power plants. The results from this study are presented. The filter system is based on a Westinghouse advanced particulate filter concept, which is designed to operate with ceramic candle filters. The Foster Wheeler second-generation 453 MWe (net) pressurized fluidized-bed combustor (PFBC) and the KRW 458 MWe (net) integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants are used for the comparison. The comparison presents the general differences of the two power plants and the process-related filtration conditions for PFBC and IGCC systems. The results present the conceptual designs for the PFBC and IGCC filter systems as well as a cost summary comparison. The cost summary comparison includes the total plant cost, the fixed operating and maintenance cost, the variable operating and maintenance cost, and the effect on the cost of electricity (COE) for the two filter systems.

  17. PFBC HGCU Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    This is the thirteenth Technical Progress Report submitted to the Department of Energy (DOE) in connection with the cooperative agreement between the DOE and Ohio Power Company for the Tidd PFBC Hot Gas Clean Up Test Facility. This report covers the period of work completed during the Fourth Quarter of CY 1992. The following are highlights of the activities that occurred during this report period: Initial operation of the Advanced Particle Filter (APF) occurred during this quarter. The following table summarizes the operating dates and times. HGCU ash lockhopper valve plugged with ash. Primary cyclone ash pluggage. Problems with the coal water paste. Unit restarted warm 13 hours later. HGCU expansion joint No. 7 leak in internal ply of bellows. Problems encountered during these initial tests included hot spots on the APP, backup cyclone and instrumentation spools, two breakdowns of the backpulse air compressor, pluggage of the APF hopper and ash removal system, failure (breakage) of 21 filter candles, leakage of the inner ply of one (1) expansion joint bellows, and numerous other smaller problems. These operating problems are discussed in detail in a subsequent section of this report. Following shutdown and equipment inspection in December, design modifications were initiated to correct the problems noted above. The system is scheduled to resume operation in March, 1993.

  18. TIDD PFBC Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    In fluidized bed combustion, coal and sorbent (dolomite or limestone) are fed into a boiler in which air, entering from the bottom, maintains the bed material in a highly turbulent suspended state called fluidization. This turbulence creates good contact between the air and fuel, allowing for high combustion efficiency and excellent adsorption of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) during the combustion process. In PFBC applications, pressurized air is supplied to the combustor. Pressurizing the air concentrates a larger quantity of oxygen per unit volume. This results in a lower velocity of air through the fuel bed. The lower velocity reduces the total height required for the bed and freeboard above the bed. Also, a smaller plan area is required for the bed area as compared to an atmospheric fluidized bed. This has the advantage of requiring a much smaller pressure vessel to contain the boiler enclosure. The mean bed temperature of a pressurized fluidized bed combustor is typically maintained in the range 1540 to 1580 F. This is well below the ash fusion temperature of coal, yet above the ignition temperature of the coal. Advantages of the low bed temperature are no slag formation and a reduction of NO{sub x} emissions to less than half that of a conventional boiler. The Tidd Plant is a combined cycle pressurized fluidized bed combustion system with a topping gas cycle and a bottoming steam cycle.

  19. Efficient 2(nd) and 4(th) harmonic generation of a single-frequency, continuous-wave fiber amplifier.

    PubMed

    Sudmeyer, Thomas; Imai, Yutaka; Masuda, Hisashi; Eguchi, Naoya; Saito, Masaki; Kubota, Shigeo

    2008-02-01

    We demonstrate efficient cavity-enhanced second and fourth harmonic generation of an air-cooled, continuous-wave (cw), single-frequency 1064 nm fiber-amplifier system. The second harmonic generator achieves up to 88% total external conversion efficiency, generating more than 20-W power at 532 nm wavelength in a diffraction-limited beam (M(2) < 1.05). The nonlinear medium is a critically phase-matched, 20-mm long, anti-reflection (AR) coated LBO crystal operated at 25 degrees C. The fourth harmonic generator is based on an AR-coated, Czochralski-grown beta-BaB(2)O(4) (BBO) crystal optimized for low loss and high damage threshold. Up to 12.2 W of 266-nm deep-UV (DUV) output is obtained using a 6-mm long critically phase-matched BBO operated at 40 degrees C. This power level is more than two times higher than previously reported for cw 266-nm generation. The total external conversion efficiency from the fundamental at 1064 nm to the fourth harmonic at 266 nm is >50%. PMID:18542230

  20. Performance Evaluation of Electrochem's PEM Fuel Cell Power Plant for NASA's 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimble, Michael C.; Hoberecht, Mark

    2003-01-01

    NASA's Next Generation Launch Technology (NGLT) program is being developed to meet national needs for civil and commercial space access with goals of reducing the launch costs, increasing the reliability, and reducing the maintenance and operating costs. To this end, NASA is considering an all- electric capability for NGLT vehicles requiring advanced electrical power generation technology at a nominal 20 kW level with peak power capabilities six times the nominal power. The proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell has been identified as a viable candidate to supply this electrical power; however, several technology aspects need to be assessed. Electrochem, Inc., under contract to NASA, has developed a breadboard power generator to address these technical issues with the goal of maximizing the system reliability while minimizing the cost and system complexity. This breadboard generator operates with dry hydrogen and oxygen gas using eductors to recirculate the gases eliminating gas humidification and blowers from the system. Except for a coolant pump, the system design incorporates passive components allowing the fuel cell to readily follow a duty cycle profile and that may operate at high 6:1 peak power levels for 30 second durations. Performance data of the fuel cell stack along with system performance is presented to highlight the benefits of the fuel cell stack design and system design for NGLT vehicles.

  1. Advances with the new AIMS fab 193 2nd generation: a system for the 65 nm node including immersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zibold, Axel M.; Poortinga, E.; Doornmalen, H. v.; Schmid, R.; Scherubl, T.; Harnisch, W.

    2005-06-01

    The Aerial Image Measurement System, AIMS, for 193nm lithography emulation is established as a standard for the rapid prediction of wafer printability for critical structures including dense patterns and defects or repairs on masks. The main benefit of AIMS is to save expensive image qualification consisting of test wafer exposures followed by wafer CD-SEM resist or wafer analysis. By adjustment of numerical aperture (NA), illumination type and partial coherence (σ) to match any given stepper/ scanner, AIMS predicts the printability of 193nm reticles such as binary with, or without OPC and phase shifting. A new AIMS fab 193 second generation system with a maximum NA of 0.93 is now available. Improvements in field uniformity, stability over time, measurement automation and higher throughput meet the challenging requirements of the 65nm node. A new function, "Global CD Map" can be applied to automatically measure and analyse the global CD uniformity of repeating structures across a reticle. With the options of extended depth-of-focus (EDOF) software and the upcoming linear polarisation capability in the illumination the new AIMS fab 193 second generation system is able to cover both dry and immersion requirements for NA < 1. Rigorous simulations have been performed to study the effects of polarisation for imaging by comparing the aerial image of the AIMS to the resist image of the scanner.

  2. Autocommander: A Supervisory Controller for Integrated Guidance and Control for the 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, J. E.; Lawrence, D. A.; Zhu, J. J.; Jackson, Scott (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a hierarchical architecture for integrated guidance and control that achieves risk and cost reduction for NASA's 2d generation reusable launch vehicle (RLV). Guidance, attitude control, and control allocation subsystems that heretofore operated independently will now work cooperatively under the coordination of a top-level autocommander. In addition to delivering improved performance from a flight mechanics perspective, the autocommander is intended to provide an autonomous supervisory control capability for traditional mission management under nominal conditions, G&C reconfiguration in response to effector saturation, and abort mode decision-making upon vehicle malfunction. This high-level functionality is to be implemented through the development of a relational database that is populated with the broad range of vehicle and mission specific data and translated into a discrete event system model for analysis, simulation, and onboard implementation. A Stateflow Autocoder software tool that translates the database into the Stateflow component of a Matlab/Simulink simulation is also presented.

  3. Contribution of ion beam analysis methods to the development of 2nd generation high temperature superconducting (HTS) wires

    SciTech Connect

    Usov, Igor O; Arendt, Paul N; Stan, Liliana; Holesinger, Terry G; Foltyn, Steven R; Depaula, Raymond F

    2009-01-01

    One of the crucial steps in the second generation high temperature superconducting wire program was development of the buffer layer architecture. The architecture designed at the Superconductivity Technology Center at Los Alamos National Laboratory consists of several oxide layers wherein each layer plays a specific role, namely: nucleation layer, diffusion barrier, biaxially textured template, and an intermediate layer with a good match to the lattice parameter of superconducting Y{sub 1}Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} (YBCO) compound. This report demonstrates how a wide range of ion beam analysis techniques (SIMS, RBS, channeling, PIXE, PIGE, NRA, ERD) was employed for analysis of each buffer layer and the YBCO films. These results assisted in understanding of a variety of physical processes occurring during the buffet layer fabrication and helped to optimize the buffer layer architecture as a whole.

  4. Study of recovery characteristics of 2nd generation HTS tapes with different stabilizers for resistive type superconducting fault current limiters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Jie; Zeng, Weina; Ma, Jun; Yao, Zhihao; Li, Zhuyong; Jin, Zhijian; Hong, Zhiyong

    2016-02-01

    The resistive type superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) is one of the most important superconducting power applications nowadays. As known, this type of SFCL is settled directly in the power transmission line. When a short fault happens, the temperature of the superconductors in the SFCL will increase sharply due to the huge generated heat. This means the superconductors need time to recover the superconducting properties and be ready for the next short fault. So the recovery characteristics become one of the most crucial features of the resistive type SFCL. In this paper, several different kinds of measuring methods are presented to calculate the recovery time of the HTS tapes, and comparison of these methods is also carried out by a standard test. On basis of this, samples with different kinds of stabilizers are used to explore the influence of stabilizer on their recovery characteristics. In addition, the influence of the encapsulation technology is also discussed in this paper.

  5. Comparison of Five 2nd-Generation Supraglottic Airway Devices for Airway Management Performed by Novice Military Operators

    PubMed Central

    Henlin, Tomas; Sotak, Michal; Kovaricek, Petr; Tyll, Tomas; Balcarek, Lukas; Michalek, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Five different second-generation supraglottic airway devices, ProSeal LMA, Supreme LMA, i-gel, SLIPA, and Laryngeal Tube Suction-D, were studied. Operators were inexperienced users with a military background, combat lifesavers, nurses, and physicians. Methods. This was a prospective, randomized, single-blinded study. Devices were inserted in the operating room in low light conditions after induction of general anesthesia. Primary outcome was successful insertion on the first attempt while secondary aims were insertion time, number of attempts, oropharyngeal seal pressure, ease of insertion, fibre optic position of device, efficacy of ventilation, and intraoperative trauma or regurgitation of gastric contents. Results. In total, 505 patients were studied. First-attempt insertion success rate was higher in the Supreme LMA (96%), i-gel (87.9%), and ProSeal LMA (85.9%) groups than in the Laryngeal Tube Suction-D (80.6%) and SLIPA (69.4%) groups. Insertion time was shortest in the Supreme LMA (70.4 ± 32.5 s) and i-gel (74.4 ± 41.1 s) groups (p < 0.001). Oropharyngeal seal pressures were higher in the Laryngeal Tube Suction-D and ProSeal LMA groups than in other three devices. Conclusions. Most study parameters for the Supreme LMA and i-gel were found to be superior to the other three tested supraglottic airway devices when inserted by novice military operators. PMID:26495289

  6. New approaches for improving the production of the 1st and 2nd generation ethanol by yeast.

    PubMed

    Kurylenko, Olena; Semkiv, Marta; Ruchala, Justyna; Hryniv, Orest; Kshanovska, Barbara; Abbas, Charles; Dmytruk, Kostyantyn; Sibirny, Andriy

    2016-01-01

    Increase in the production of 1st generation ethanol from glucose is possible by the reduction in the production of ethanol co-products, especially biomass. We have developed a method to reduce biomass accumulation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by the manipulation of the intracellular ATP level due to overexpression of genes of alkaline phosphatase, apyrase or enzymes involved in futile cycles. The strains constructed accumulated up to 10% more ethanol on a cornmeal hydrolysate medium. Similar increase in ethanol accumulation was observed in the mutants resistant to the toxic inhibitors of glycolysis like 3-bromopyruvate and others. Substantial increase in fuel ethanol production will be obtained by the development of new strains of yeasts that ferment sugars of the abundant lignocellulosic feedstocks, especially xylose, a pentose sugar. We have found that xylose can be fermented under elevated temperatures by the thermotolerant yeast, Hansenula polymorpha. We combined protein engineering of the gene coding for xylose reductase (XYL1) along with overexpression of the other two genes responsible for xylose metabolism in yeast (XYL2, XYL3) and the deletion of the global transcriptional activator CAT8, with the selection of mutants defective in utilizing ethanol as a carbon source using the anticancer drug, 3-bromopyruvate. Resulted strains accumulated 20-25 times more ethanol from xylose at the elevated temperature of 45°C with up to 12.5 g L(-1) produced. Increase in ethanol yield and productivity from xylose was also achieved by overexpression of genes coding for the peroxisomal enzymes: transketolase (DAS1) and transaldolase (TAL2), and deletion of the ATG13 gene. PMID:26619255

  7. Optical coherence tomography analysis of the stent strut and prediction of resolved strut malapposition at 3 months after 2nd-generation drug-eluting stent implantation.

    PubMed

    Izumi, Daisuke; Miyahara, Masatoshi; Fujimoto, Naoki; Fukuoka, Shusuke; Sakai, Masataka; Dohi, Kaoru; Ito, Masaaki

    2016-08-01

    Our objective was to clarify whether thrombogenic problems with stent struts are resolved at 3 months after 2nd-generation drug-eluting stent implantation. Twenty-one patients with stable angina pectoris having 28 (22 zotarolimus-eluting, 6 everolimus-eluting) stents with optical coherence tomography (OCT)-guided percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were evaluated. Stent strut coverage and malapposition were evaluated by OCT immediately after PCI and at 3-month follow-up. Acute strut malapposition was observed in 26 out of 28 analyzed stents (92.9 %). At 3-month follow-up, 7 (26.9 %) of those 26 stents with strut malapposition were completely resolved, and the mean percentages of uncovered struts and malapposed struts were 8.3 and 2.0 % when analyzed by each individual stent. When analyzing a total of 30,060 struts, 807 struts (2.7 %) demonstrated acute strut malapposition. Among these, 219 struts (27.1 %) demonstrated persistent strut malapposition. On the basis of receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis, a strut-to-vessel (S-V) distance ≤160 µm on post-stenting OCT images was the corresponding cutoff point for resolved malapposed struts (sensitivity 78.1 %, specificity 62.8 %, area under the curve 0.758). The S-V distance of persistent malapposed struts on post-stenting OCT images was longer than that of resolved malapposed struts (235 ± 112 vs. 176 ± 93 µm, p < 0.01). At 3 months after PCI, the prevalence rates of uncovered and malapposed struts were relatively low in 2nd-generation drug-eluting stent. Our results suggest that OCT-guide PCI with an S-V distance ≤160 µm may be recommended especially in patients with planed short-term DAPT. PMID:26334709

  8. Space Ops 2002: Bringing Space Operations into the 21st Century. Track 3: Operations, Mission Planning and Control. 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle-Concepts for Flight Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagopian, Jeff

    2002-01-01

    With the successful implementation of the International Space Station (ISS), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) enters a new era of opportunity for scientific research. The ISS provides a working laboratory in space, with tremendous capabilities for scientific research. Utilization of these capabilities requires a launch system capable of routinely transporting crew and logistics to/from the ISS, as well as supporting ISS assembly and maintenance tasks. The Space Shuttle serves as NASA's launch system for performing these functions. The Space Shuttle also serves as NASA's launch system for supporting other science and servicing missions that require a human presence in space. The Space Shuttle provides proof that reusable launch vehicles are technically and physically implementable. However, a couple of problems faced by NASA are the prohibitive cost of operating and maintaining the Space Shuttle and its relative inability to support high launch rates. The 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (2nd Gen RLV) is NASA's solution to this problem. The 2nd Gen RLV will provide a robust launch system with increased safety, improved reliability and performance, and less cost. The improved performance and reduced costs of the 2nd Gen RLV will free up resources currently spent on launch services. These resource savings can then be applied to scientific research, which in turn can be supported by the higher launch rate capability of the 2nd Gen RLV. The result is a win - win situation for science and NASA. While meeting NASA's needs, the 2nd Gen RLV also provides the United States aerospace industry with a commercially viable launch capability. One of the keys to achieving the goals of the 2nd Gen RLV is to develop and implement new technologies and processes in the area of flight operations. NASA's experience in operating the Space Shuttle and the ISS has brought to light several areas where automation can be used to augment or eliminate functions

  9. New efficient artemisinin derived agents against human leukemia cells, human cytomegalovirus and Plasmodium falciparum: 2nd generation 1,2,4-trioxane-ferrocene hybrids.

    PubMed

    Reiter, Christoph; Fröhlich, Tony; Zeino, Maen; Marschall, Manfred; Bahsi, Hanife; Leidenberger, Maria; Friedrich, Oliver; Kappes, Barbara; Hampel, Frank; Efferth, Thomas; Tsogoeva, Svetlana B

    2015-06-01

    In our ongoing search for highly active hybrid molecules exceeding their parent compounds in anticancer, antimalaria as well as antiviral activity and being an alternative to the standard drugs, we present the synthesis and biological investigations of 2nd generation 1,2,4-trioxane-ferrocene hybrids. In vitro tests against the CCRF-CEM leukemia cell line revealed di-1,2,4-trioxane-ferrocene hybrid 7 as the most active compound (IC50 of 0.01 μM). Regarding the activity against the multidrug resistant subline CEM/ADR5000, 1,2,4-trioxane-ferrocene hybrid 5 showed a remarkable activity (IC50 of 0.53 μM). Contrary to the antimalaria activity of hybrids 4-8 against Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 strain with slightly higher IC50 values (between 7.2 and 30.2 nM) than that of their parent compound DHA, hybrids 5-7 possessed very promising activity (IC50 values lower than 0.5 μM) against human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). The application of 1,2,4-trioxane-ferrocene hybrids against HCMV is unprecedented and demonstrated here for the first time. PMID:25965779

  10. Direct and non-destructive proof of authenticity for the 2nd generation of Brazilian real banknotes via easy ambient sonic spray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Eduardo Morgado; Franco, Marcos Fernando; Regino, Karen Gomes; Lehmann, Eraldo Luiz; Arruda, Marco Aurélio Zezzi; de Carvalho Rocha, Werickson Fortunato; Borges, Rodrigo; de Souza, Wanderley; Eberlin, Marcos Nogueira; Correa, Deleon Nascimento

    2014-12-01

    Using a desorption/ionization technique, easy ambient sonic-spray ionization coupled to mass spectrometry (EASI-MS), documents related to the 2nd generation of Brazilian Real currency (R$) were screened in the positive ion mode for authenticity based on chemical profiles obtained directly from the banknote surface. Characteristic profiles were observed for authentic, seized suspect counterfeit and counterfeited homemade banknotes from inkjet and laserjet printers. The chemicals in the authentic banknotes' surface were detected via a few minor sets of ions, namely from the plasticizers bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP), most likely related to the official offset printing process, and other common quaternary ammonium cations, presenting a similar chemical profile to 1st-generation R$. The seized suspect counterfeit banknotes, however, displayed abundant diagnostic ions in the m/z 400-800 range due to the presence of oligomers. High-accuracy FT-ICR MS analysis enabled molecular formula assignment for each ion. The ions were separated by 44 m/z, which enabled their characterization as Surfynol® 4XX (S4XX, XX=40, 65, and 85), wherein increasing XX values indicate increasing amounts of ethoxylation on a backbone of 2,4,7,9-tetramethyl-5-decyne-4,7-diol (Surfynol® 104). Sodiated triethylene glycol monobutyl ether (TBG) of m/z 229 (C10H22O4Na) was also identified in the seized counterfeit banknotes via EASI(+) FT-ICR MS. Surfynol® and TBG are constituents of inks used for inkjet printing. PMID:25498934

  11. Early onset hypercholesterolemia induced by the 2nd-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor nilotinib in patients with chronic phase-chronic myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Rea, Delphine; Mirault, Tristan; Cluzeau, Thomas; Gautier, Jean-François; Guilhot, François; Dombret, Hervé; Messas, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Despite a well-recognized clinical benefit of the 2nd-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor nilotinib in patients with imatinib-resistant/-intolerant or newly diagnosed chronic myeloid leukemia, recent evidence suggests that nilotinib has a propensity to increase the risk of occlusive arterial events, especially in patients with pre-existing cardiovascular risk factors. Given the key role of lipids in cardiovascular diseases, we studied the plasma lipid profile and global cardiovascular risk prior to and during nilotinib therapy in a series of 27 patients in the setting of a prospective single center study. Data from a minimum 1-year follow up showed that nilotinib significantly increased total, low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol within three months. Consequently, the proportion of patients with non-optimal low-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased from 48.1% to 88.9% by 12 months, leading to cholesterol-lowering drug intervention in 22.2% of patients. The proportion of patients with low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased from 40.7% to 7.4% by 12 months. In contrast, a significant decrease in triglycerides was observed. Global cardiovascular risk worsened in 11.1% of patients due to diabetes or occlusive arterial events. Whether hypercholesterolemia was the main driver of occlusive arterial events was uncertain: a longer follow up is necessary to ask whether nilotinib-induced hypercholesterolemia increases long-term risk of atherosclerotic diseases. Nevertheless, given key atherogenic properties of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, we conclude that when prescribing nilotinib, commitment to detect lipid disorders at baseline and during follow up is mandatory given their frequency, requirement for changes in lifestyle or drug intervention, and potential for long-term cardiovascular complications. PMID:24658819

  12. Tidd PFBC Demonstration Project. Final report, March 1, 1994--March 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, D.A.; Hoffman, J.D.; Marrocco, M.; Mudd, M.J.; Reinhart, W.P.; Stogran, H.K.

    1995-08-01

    The Tidd Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) Demonstration Plant was the first utility-scale pressurized fluidized bed combustor to operate in combined-cycle mode in the US. The 45-year old pulverized coal plant was repowered with PFBC components in order to demonstrate that PFBC combined-cycle technology is an economic, reliable, and environmentally superior alternative to conventional technology in using high-sulfur coal to generate electricity. The three-year demonstration period started on February 28, 1991 and terminated on February 28, 1994. The fourth year of testing started on March 1, 1994 and terminated on March 30, 1995. This report reviews the experience of the 70-MW(e), Tidd PFBC Demonstration Plant during the fourth year of operation.

  13. Market assessment of PFBC ash use

    SciTech Connect

    Bland, A. E.; Brown, T. H., Western Research Institute

    1998-01-01

    Pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) of coal is undergoing demonstration in the United States, as well as throughout the world. American Electric Power`s (AEP`s) bubbling PFBC 70 MWe Tidd demonstration program in Ohio and pilot-scale development at Foster Wheeler Energia Oy 10 MWth circulating PFBC at Karhula, Finland, have demonstrated the advantages of PFBC technology. Further technology development in the US is planned with the deployment of the technology at the MacIntosh Clean Coal project in Lakeland, Florida. Development of uses for solid wastes from PFBC coal-fired power systems is being actively pursued as part of the demonstration of PFBC technologies. Ashes collected from Foster Wheeler Energia Oy pilot circulating PFBC tests in Karhula, Finland, operating on (1) low sulfur subbituminous and (2) high sulfur bituminous coal; and ash from the AEP`s high-sulfur bituminous coal-fired bubbling PFBC in Brilliant, Ohio, were evaluated in laboratory and pilot-scale ash use testing at Western Research Institute (WRI).

  14. METAL FILTERS FOR PRESSURIZED FLUID BED COMBUSTION (PFBC) APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. Alvin

    2004-01-02

    Advanced coal and biomass-based gas turbine power generation technologies (IGCC, PFBC, PCFBC, and Hipps) are currently under development and demonstration. Efforts at the Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (SWPC) have been focused on the development and demonstration of hot gas filter systems as an enabling technology for power generation. As part of the demonstration effort, SWPC has been actively involved in the development of advanced filter materials and component configuration, has participated in numerous surveillance programs characterizing the material properties and microstructure of field-tested filter elements, and has undertaken extended, accelerated filter life testing programs. This report reviews SWPC's material and component assessment efforts, identifying the performance, stability, and life of porous commercial metal, advanced alloy, and intermetallic filters under simulated, pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) conditions.

  15. Tidd PFBC demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    Marrocco, M.

    1997-12-31

    The Tidd project was one of the first joint government-industry ventures to be approved by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in its Clean Coal Technology Program. In March 1987, DOE signed an agreement with the Ohio Power Company, a subsidiary of American Electric Power, to refurbish the then-idle Tidd plant on the banks of the Ohio River with advanced pressurized fluidized bed technology. Testing ended after 49 months of operation, 100 individual tests, and the generation of more than 500,000 megawatt-hours of electricity. The demonstration plant has met its objectives. The project showed that more than 95 percent of sulfur dioxide pollutants could be removed inside the advanced boiler using the advanced combustion technology, giving future power plants an attractive alternative to expensive, add-on scrubber technology. In addition to its sulfur removal effectiveness, the plant`s sustained periods of steady-state operation boosted its availability significantly above design projections, heightening confidence that pressurized fluidized bed technology will be a reliable, baseload technology for future power plants. The technology also controlled the release of nitrogen oxides to levels well below the allowable limits set by federal air quality standards. It also produced a dry waste product that is much easier to handle than wastes from conventional power plants and will likely have commercial value when produced by future power plants.

  16. Gasification. 2nd. ed.

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher Higman; Maarten van der Burgt

    2008-02-15

    This book covers gasification as a comprehensive topic, covering its many uses, from refining, to natural gas, to coal. It provides an overview of commercial processes and covers applications relevant to today's demands. The new edition is expanded and provides more detail on the integration issues for current generation, state-of-the-art Integrated Gasification Combined Cycles (IGCC); CO{sub 2} capture in the IGCC context addressing the issues of pre-investment and retrofitting as well as defining what the term 'CO{sub 2} capture ready' might mean in practice; issues of plant reliability, availability and maintainability (RAM) including as evaluation of feedback from existing plants; implementation of fuel cell technology in IGCC concepts. Contents are: Introduction; The Thermodynamics of Gasification; The Kinetics of Gasification and Reactor Theory; Feedstocks and Feedstock Characteristics; Gasification Processes; Practical Issues; Applications; Auxiliary Technologies; Economics, environmental, and Safety Issues; Gasification and the Future. 5 apps.

  17. Tidd PFBC Demonstration Project: Public final design report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This Public Final Design Report describes the 70 MW(e) Tidd PFBC Demonstration Plant under construction in Brilliant, Ohio. This project is receiving cost-sharing from the US Department of Energy (DOE), and is being administered by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center in accordance with DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC21-87 MC24132.000. The project is also receiving costsharing from the State of Ohio. This award is being administered by the Ohio Coal Development Office. The Tidd PFBC Demonstration Project is the first utility-scale demonstration project in the US. Its objective is to demonstrate that the Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) combined-cycle technology is an economic, reliable, and environmentally superior alternative to conventional technology in using high-sulfur coal to generate electricity. Detailed design of the plant began in May 1987, leading to the start of construction in April 1988. First coal fire occurred in November 1990, and the three-year test program began in February 1991.

  18. Influence of various operating conditions on advanced PFBC with staged combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Moersch, O.; Nagel, H.; Spliethoff, H.; Hein, K.R.G.

    1999-07-01

    The development of PFBC towards advanced or second generation PFBC focuses on an increase of temperature at the gas turbine inlet to bring forth a substantial improvement of the turbine itself and the overall system performance. Most of such advanced systems described in literature include a carbonizer for partial conversion of coal producing a low calorific pressurized syngas and a PFBC burning the remaining char. After hot gas clean-up the syngas and the O{sub 2}-rich fuel gas from the PFBC are led to the combustion chamber of the gas turbine. In the proposed staged combustion concept (PFBC-SC), which also aims at raising the temperatures at the gas turbine inlet, coal is burned substoichiometrically in a pressurized fluidized bed producing a low calorific gas. After hot gas clean-up the gas undergoes post-combustion with pressurized air and enters the gas turbine at approximately 1,450 K. The advantages of PFBC-SC over APFBC as described above are the lower investment costs and the simpler process, because no separate gasifier including hot gas cleaning device is needed. At the IVD's 50 kWth PFBC test facility, experimental investigations were done into substoichiometrical combustion with regard to composition of the produced gas, carbon-conversion and afterburner temperature. The results of the experiments which were carried out at various temperatures (1,073--1,200 K), pressures (1--13 bar), air ratios (0.5--0.9) and with different coals were compared with chemical equilibrium calculations. In contrast to the operating pressure the heating value of the syngas ({ge}CO, H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}) could be increased significantly with increasing temperatures. Due to the better gasification behavior of subbituminous coal compared with bituminous coal almost equilibrium conditions were achieved. At high pressures and temperatures (13 bar/1,173 K) the carbon conversion rate 97.5% at all air ratios.

  19. Hot gas cleanup and gas turbine aspects of an advanced PFBC power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, A. ); Newby, R.A.; Alvin, M.A.; Bachovchin, D.M.; Bruck, G.J.; Smeltzer, E.E. . Science and Technology Center)

    1992-01-01

    The overall objective of the second-generation PFBC development program is to advance this concept to a commercial status. Three major objectives of the current Phase 2 program activities are to: Separately test key components of the second-generation PFBC power plant at sub-scale to ascertain their performance characteristics, Revise the commercial plant performance and economic predictions where necessary, Prepare for a 1.6 MWe equivalent Phase 3 integrated subsystem test of the key components. The key components of the plant, with respect to development risk, are the carbonizer, the circulating PFBC unit, the ceramic barrier filter, and the topping combustor. This paper reports on the development and testing of one key component -- the ceramic barrier filter for the carbonizer fuel gas. The objective of the Phase 2 carbonizer ceramic barrier filter testing has been to confirm filter performance and operability in the carbonizer fuel gas environment.

  20. Tidd PFBC Demonstration Project, A DOE Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2001-08-31

    The Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Demonstration Program is a government and industry co-funded technology development effort to demonstrate a new generation of innovative coal utilization processes. One goal of the program is to furnish the energy marketplace with a variety of energy efficient, environmentally superior coal-based technologies. Demonstration projects seek to establish the commercial feasibility of the most promising coal technologies that have proceeded beyond the proof-of-concept stage. This report is a post-project assessment of the DOE CCT Demonstration Program, the Tidd PFBC Demonstration Project. A major objective of the CCT Program is to provide the technical data necessary for the private sector to proceed confidently with the commercial replication of the demonstrated technologies. An essential element of meeting this goal is the dissemination of results from the demonstration projects. This post-project assessment (PPA) report is an independent DOE appraisal of the successes that the completed project had in achieving its objectives and aiding in the commercialization of the demonstrated technology. The report also provides an assessment of the expected technical, environmental, and economic performance of the commercial version of the technology, as well as an analysis of the commercial market.

  1. PFBC perspectives at the Power Systems Development Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, D.L.; Vimalchand, P.; Haq, Z.U.; McClung, J.D.; Quandt, M.T.

    1994-06-01

    The use of coal for power generation has come under increasing environmental scrutiny over the past five years. Advances in coal-based power generation technology will develop systems that have high efficiency, environmental superiority and lower cost of electricity compared to current coal-based technology. Advanced pressurized-fluidized-bed combustion (APFBC) is one `of the promising emerging power generation technologies striving to achieve these goals. One method of improving the efficiency and lowering the capital cost further for advanced power plants utilizing coal is by employing hot gas cleanup. Although hot gas cleanup has the potential for improving the viability of coal-based power generation, the removal of hot particulates from the gas stream has proven to be a challenging task. The demonstration of APFBC technology and the particulate control devices (PCDs) under realistic conditions for advanced power generation remain important areas for development. The Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) is being designed to be a flexible facility that will address the development of the PCDs and an advanced second-generation PFBC technology. With the progress made in the last decade, the basic concepts of PFBC technology can be achieved through a number of different flowsheets and reactor configurations. The choices made in developing the flowsheets and the choices made in designing the equipment in order to improve the reliability of operation may well dictate, along with the actual data from operation, the process efficiencies and the capital costs that can be achieved.

  2. PFBC Utility Demonstration Project. Annual report, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    This report provides a summary of activities by American Electric Power Service Corporation during the first budget period of the PFBC Utility Demonstration Project. In April 1990, AEP signed a Cooperative Agreement with the US Department of Energy to repower the Philip Sporn Plant, Units 3 & 4 in New Haven, West Virginia, with a 330 KW PFBC plant. The purpose of the program was to demonstrate and verify PFBC in a full-scale commercial plant. The technical and cost baselines of the Cooperative Agreement were based on a preliminary engineering and design and a cost estimate developed by AEP subsequent to AEP`s proposal submittal in May 1988, and prior to the signing of the Cooperative Agreement. The Statement of Work in the first budget period of the Cooperative Agreement included a task to develop a preliminary design and cost estimate for erecting a Greenfield plant and to conduct a comparison with the repowering option. The comparative assessment of the options concluded that erecting a Greenfield plant rather than repowering the existing Sporn Plant could be the technically and economically superior alternative. The Greenfield plant would have a capacity of 340 MW. The ten additional MW output is due to the ability to better match the steam cycle to the PFBC system with a new balance of plant design. In addition to this study, the conceptual design of the Sporn Repowering led to several items which warranted optimization studies with the goal to develop a more cost effective design.

  3. Enhanced animal productivity and health with improved manure management in 2nd Generation Environmentally Superior Technology in North Carolina: II. Air quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of improved manure management on air quality and the beneficial effect of a cleaner environment on animal productivity and health using a second generation of Environmentally Superior Technology. The second generation system combines solid-liquid sep...

  4. Enhanced animal productivity and health with improved manure management in 2nd Generation Environmentally Superior Technology in North Carolina: I. Water quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New legislation in North Carolina promotes the replacement of old lagoon technology with new Environmentally Superior Technology. Scientists at ARS Florence Center and industry cooperators completed design and demonstration of a second generation treatment system for swine waste that can achieve hig...

  5. Integration of health management and support systems is key to achieving cost reduction and operational concept goals of the 2nd generation reusable launch vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koon, Phillip L.; Greene, Scott

    2002-07-01

    Our aerospace customers are demanding that we drastically reduce the cost of operating and supporting our products. Our space customer in particular is looking for the next generation of reusable launch vehicle systems to support more aircraft like operation. To achieve this goal requires more than an evolution in materials, processes and systems, what is required is a paradigm shift in the design of the launch vehicles and the processing systems that support the launch vehicles. This paper describes the Automated Informed Maintenance System (AIM) we are developing for NASA's Space Launch Initiative (SLI) Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV). Our system includes an Integrated Health Management (IHM) system for the launch vehicles and ground support systems, which features model based diagnostics and prognostics. Health Management data is used by our AIM decision support and process aids to automatically plan maintenance, generate work orders and schedule maintenance activities along with the resources required to execute these processes. Our system will automate the ground processing for a spaceport handling multiple RLVs executing multiple missions. To accomplish this task we are applying the latest web based distributed computing technologies and application development techniques.

  6. Control system for the 2nd generation Berkeley AutoMounters (BAM2) at GM/CA CAT macromolecular crystallography beamlines

    PubMed Central

    Makarov, O.; Hilgart, M.; Ogata, C.; Pothineni, S.; Cork, C.

    2011-01-01

    GM/CA CAT at Sector 23 of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) is an NIH funded facility for crystallographic structure determination of biological macromolecules by X-ray diffraction. A second generation Berkeley automounter is being integrated into the beamline control system at the 23-BM experimental station. This new device replaces the previous all-pneumatic gripper motions with a combination of pneumatics and XYZ motorized linear stages. The latter adds a higher degree of flexibility to the robot including auto-alignment capability, accommodation of a larger capacity sample Dewar of arbitrary shape, and support for advanced operations such as crystal washing, while preserving the overall simplicity and efficiency of the Berkeley automounter design. PMID:21822343

  7. Results from Grimethorpe PFBC turbine cascade tests

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-12-01

    The test program at the Grimethorpe Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustion (PFBC) facility included an assessment of the potential for deposition, corrosion, and erosion of gas turbine blade materials when exposed to PFBC off gases. Flue gas from the combustor was fed through three stages of cyclones before entering the cascade. The impulse foils were approximately the size and shape of the first stage blades in the GE MS-1002 gas turbine. The cascade operated through three test series, accumulating a total of 649 hours. The conditions experienced are summarized. The paper lists the alloys tested, and discusses the efficiency of the cyclones, the particle size distribution of the dusts not removed by the cyclones, and corrosion of the turbine blades. 4 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  8. Techno-economic evaluation of 2nd generation bioethanol production from sugar cane bagasse and leaves integrated with the sugar-based ethanol process

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Bioethanol produced from the lignocellulosic fractions of sugar cane (bagasse and leaves), i.e. second generation (2G) bioethanol, has a promising market potential as an automotive fuel; however, the process is still under investigation on pilot/demonstration scale. From a process perspective, improvements in plant design can lower the production cost, providing better profitability and competitiveness if the conversion of the whole sugar cane is considered. Simulations have been performed with AspenPlus to investigate how process integration can affect the minimum ethanol selling price of this 2G process (MESP-2G), as well as improve the plant energy efficiency. This is achieved by integrating the well-established sucrose-to-bioethanol process with the enzymatic process for lignocellulosic materials. Bagasse and leaves were steam pretreated using H3PO4 as catalyst and separately hydrolysed and fermented. Results The addition of a steam dryer, doubling of the enzyme dosage in enzymatic hydrolysis, including leaves as raw material in the 2G process, heat integration and the use of more energy-efficient equipment led to a 37 % reduction in MESP-2G compared to the Base case. Modelling showed that the MESP for 2G ethanol was 0.97 US$/L, while in the future it could be reduced to 0.78 US$/L. In this case the overall production cost of 1G + 2G ethanol would be about 0.40 US$/L with an output of 102 L/ton dry sugar cane including 50 % leaves. Sensitivity analysis of the future scenario showed that a 50 % decrease in the cost of enzymes, electricity or leaves would lower the MESP-2G by about 20%, 10% and 4.5%, respectively. Conclusions According to the simulations, the production of 2G bioethanol from sugar cane bagasse and leaves in Brazil is already competitive (without subsidies) with 1G starch-based bioethanol production in Europe. Moreover 2G bioethanol could be produced at a lower cost if subsidies were used to compensate for the opportunity cost from the

  9. [Implications of TCGA Network Data on 2nd Generation Immunotherapy Concepts Based on PD-L1 and PD-1 Target Structures].

    PubMed

    Peters, I; Tezval, H; Kramer, M W; Wolters, M; Grünwald, V; Kuczyk, M A; Serth, J

    2015-11-01

    The era of cytokines, given to patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) as part of an unspecific immunomodulatory treatment concept, seems to have ended with the introduction of targeted therapies. However, preliminary data from studies on treatment with checkpoint inhibitors (e. g. anti-PD-1 and anti-PD-L1) may point the way to second-generation immunotherapy. The rationale of such immunomodulatory treatment is to stop or interrupt the tumour from "escaping" the body's immune defence. Thompson et al. report that increased protein expression of PD-L1 (CD274/ B7-H1) in tumour cells and tumour-infiltrating immune cells (TILs; lymphocytes and histiocytes) is associated with unfavourable clinical pathological parameters as well as poor survival. In small pilot groups of mRCC patients it was found that increased PD-L1 protein expression in tumours and TILs may be correlated with the objective response to anti-PD-1 treatment. Sometimes, however, a very wide variety of response rates was observed, which raises the question if this can be explained by individual expression levels of PD-L1 (CD 274) or PD-1 (PDCD1).Recently published data from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Kidney Renal Clear Cell Carcinoma (KIRC) Network now provide a genome-wide data base that allows us to review or validate the molecular results obtained in clear cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCC) to date.In this study, we analysed the TCGA KIRC mRNA expression data for PD-L1 and PD-1 for a possible association with clinical pathological parameters and the survival of 417 ccRCC patients.The mRNA expression of PD-L1 in primary nephrectomy specimens revealed no significant association with unfavourable clinical parameters. Interestingly, though, a positive correlation with patient survival was found (HR=0,59, p=0,006).These results, which partly contradict the concept applied to date, point out the necessity to ascertain the characteristics of PD-L1 and PD-1 expression at mRNA and protein

  10. 2nd Generation QUATARA Flight Computer Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falker, Jay; Keys, Andrew; Fraticelli, Jose Molina; Capo-Iugo, Pedro; Peeples, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Single core flight computer boards have been designed, developed, and tested (DD&T) to be flown in small satellites for the last few years. In this project, a prototype flight computer will be designed as a distributed multi-core system containing four microprocessors running code in parallel. This flight computer will be capable of performing multiple computationally intensive tasks such as processing digital and/or analog data, controlling actuator systems, managing cameras, operating robotic manipulators and transmitting/receiving from/to a ground station. In addition, this flight computer will be designed to be fault tolerant by creating both a robust physical hardware connection and by using a software voting scheme to determine the processor's performance. This voting scheme will leverage on the work done for the Space Launch System (SLS) flight software. The prototype flight computer will be constructed with Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) components which are estimated to survive for two years in a low-Earth orbit.

  11. Preliminary assessment of alternative PFBC power plant systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wysocki, J.; Rogali, R.

    1980-07-01

    Design and economic comparisons of the following nominal 1000 MWe pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) power plants are presented for both eastern and western coal: Curtiss-Wright PFBC power plants with an air-cooled design; General Electric RFBC power plants with a steam-cooled design; and AEP/Stal-Laval PFBC power plants with a steam-cooled design. In addition, reference pulverized coal-fired (PCF) power plants are included for comparison purposes. The results of the analysis indicate: (1) the steam-cooled PFBC designs show potential savings of 10% and 11% over PCF plants for eastern and western coal, respectively, in terms of busbar power cost; (2) the air-cooled PFBC designs show potential savings of 1% and 2% over PCF plants for eastern and western coal, respectively, in terms of busbar power cost.

  12. Preliminary assessment of alternative PFBC power plant systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wysocki, J.; Rogali, R.

    1980-07-01

    This report presents the design and and economic comparisons of the following nominal 1000 MWe PFBC power plants for both eastern and western coal: Curtiss-Wright PFBC power plants with an air-cooled design; General Electric RFBC power plants with a steam-cooled design; and AEP/Stal-Laval PFBC power plants with a steam-cooled design. In addition, reference pulverized coal-fired (PCF) power plants are included for comparison purposes. The results of the analysis indicate: (1) The steam-cooled PFBC designs show potential savings of 10% and 11% over PCF plants for eastern and western coal, respectively, in terms of busbar power cost; (2) the air-cooled PFBC designs show potential savings of 1% and 2% over PCF plants for eastern and western coal, respectively, in terms of busbar power cost.

  13. PFBC design and arrangement improvements due to application of ceramic tube filters

    SciTech Connect

    Weitzel, P.S.; McDonald, D.K.

    1999-07-01

    The favorable operating performance of two large ceramic tube filters at the 71 MW{sub e} Wakamatsu PFBC unit in Japan builds confidence toward commercial application of PFBC. The Asahi Glass Company, Ltd., ceramic tube filters offer unique improvements to the process design and plant arrangement. Several components in the current + first generation PFBC plant design can be eliminated or their function can be incorporated into the function of the ceramic filter vessels leading to operational and economic advantages. The reduction of combustor vessel size, quantity of ash removal points, ash handling systems, and elimination of cyclones and cyclone ash coolers will provide significant economic and reliability improvements. The plant footprint and building volume are reduced and the access and cooling time for maintenance can be improved. Although hot gas piping protection complications and concerns must be addressed by double wall jacket systems, the majority of systems maintain the principle of cold high-pressure boundary separate from the hot temperature boundary. The impact on performance, operation and maintenance expense and cost of electricity are presented.

  14. Midwest Power`s perspective of circulating PFBC

    SciTech Connect

    Licht, P.

    1994-04-01

    Midwest Power is involved with a Clean Coal III project to repower an existing facility using a circulating PFBC boiler with a high temperature high pressure gas filter system. This facility must meet least cost planning criteria as well as be a commercial power plant. This paper will address the processes involved, the technical areas of concern, and the financial feasibility of the PFBC technology.

  15. PIRLS 2016 Assessment Framework. 2nd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullis, Ina V. S., Ed.; Martin, Michael O., Ed.

    2015-01-01

    The "PIRLS 2016 Assessment Framework, 2nd Edition" provides the foundation for the three international assessments planned as part of the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement's Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2016: PIRLS, PIRLS Literacy, and ePIRLS. PIRLS represents the…

  16. Tidd PFBC Demonstration Project. Quarterly report, January--March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    This is the 28th Technical Progress Report submitted to the Department of Energy in connection with the Cooperative Agreement between the DOE and the Ohio Power Company for the Tidd PFBC Demonstration Plant. This report covers the period of January 1, 1994 to March 31, 1994. Major activities during this period include: (1) The unit operated for 850 hours on coal, bringing the grand total for coal fire through the end of the quarter to 6318 hours. (2) The unit availability for the first quarter was 40.1%. (3) There were twelve gas turbine starts, eight bed preheater starts, and six operating periods on coal. (4) During this quarter, total gross generation was 40,721 MWH, the peak unit output for one hour was 62 MWH, and the coal consumption was 19,370 tons. (5) Three performance tests were conducted during this quarter; and (6) the plant was able to remain in service during the sub-zero weather in January, providing power to the critically short grid.

  17. A study of hazardous air pollutants at the Tidd PFBC Demonstration Plant

    SciTech Connect

    1994-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology (CCD Program is a joint effort between government and industry to develop a new generation of coal utilization processes. In 1986, the Ohio Power Company, a subsidiary of American Electric Power (AEP), was awarded cofunding through the CCT program for the Tidd Pressure Fluidized Bed Combustor (PFBC) Demonstration Plant located in Brilliant, Ohio. The Tidd PFBC unit began operation in 1990 and was later selected as a test site for an advanced particle filtration (APF) system designed for hot gas particulate removal. The APF system was sponsored by the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) through their Hot Gas Cleanup Research and Development Program. A complementary goal of the DOE CCT and METC R&D programs has always been to demonstrate the environmental acceptability of these emerging technologies. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) have focused that commitment toward evaluating the fate of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) associated with advanced coal-based and hot gas cleanup technologies. Radian Corporation was contacted by AEP to perform this assessment of HAPs at the Tidd PFBC demonstration plant. The objective of this study is to assess the major input, process, and emission streams at Plant Tidd for the HAPs identified in Title III of the CAAA. Four flue gas stream locations were tested: ESP inlet, ESP outlet, APF inlet, and APF outlet. Other process streams sampled were raw coal, coal paste, sorbent, bed ash, cyclone ash, individual ESP hopper ash, APF ash, and service water. Samples were analyzed for trace elements, minor and major elements, anions, volatile organic compounds, dioxin/furan compounds, ammonia, cyanide, formaldehyde, and semivolatile organic compounds. The particle size distribution in the ESP inlet and outlet gas streams and collected ash from individual ESP hoppers was also determined.

  18. 2nd International Planetary Probe Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Martinez, Ed; Arcadi, Marla

    2005-01-01

    Included are presentations from the 2nd International Planetary Probe Workshop. The purpose of the second workshop was to continue to unite the community of planetary scientists, spacecraft engineers and mission designers and planners; whose expertise, experience and interests are in the areas of entry probe trajectory and attitude determination, and the aerodynamics/aerothermodynamics of planetary entry vehicles. Mars lander missions and the first probe mission to Titan made 2004 an exciting year for planetary exploration. The Workshop addressed entry probe science, engineering challenges, mission design and instruments, along with the challenges of reconstruction of the entry, descent and landing or the aerocapture phases. Topics addressed included methods, technologies, and algorithms currently employed; techniques and results from the rich history of entry probe science such as PAET, Venera/Vega, Pioneer Venus, Viking, Galileo, Mars Pathfinder and Mars MER; upcoming missions such as the imminent entry of Huygens and future Mars entry probes; and new and novel instrumentation and methodologies.

  19. Exogenous attention enhances 2nd-order contrast sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Barbot, Antoine; Landy, Michael S; Carrasco, Marisa

    2011-05-11

    Natural scenes contain a rich variety of contours that the visual system extracts to segregate the retinal image into perceptually coherent regions. Covert spatial attention helps extract contours by enhancing contrast sensitivity for 1st-order, luminance-defined patterns at attended locations, while reducing sensitivity at unattended locations, relative to neutral attention allocation. However, humans are also sensitive to 2nd-order patterns such as spatial variations of texture, which are predominant in natural scenes and cannot be detected by linear mechanisms. We assess whether and how exogenous attention--the involuntary and transient capture of spatial attention--affects the contrast sensitivity of channels sensitive to 2nd-order, texture-defined patterns. Using 2nd-order, texture-defined stimuli, we demonstrate that exogenous attention increases 2nd-order contrast sensitivity at the attended location, while decreasing it at unattended locations, relative to a neutral condition. By manipulating both 1st- and 2nd-order spatial frequency, we find that the effects of attention depend both on 2nd-order spatial frequency of the stimulus and the observer's 2nd-order spatial resolution at the target location. At parafoveal locations, attention enhances 2nd-order contrast sensitivity to high, but not to low 2nd-order spatial frequencies; at peripheral locations attention also enhances sensitivity to low 2nd-order spatial frequencies. Control experiments rule out the possibility that these effects might be due to an increase in contrast sensitivity at the 1st-order stage of visual processing. Thus, exogenous attention affects 2nd-order contrast sensitivity at both attended and unattended locations. PMID:21356228

  20. Exogenous attention enhances 2nd-order contrast sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Barbot, Antoine; Landy, Michael S.; Carrasco, Marisa

    2011-01-01

    Natural scenes contain a rich variety of contours that the visual system extracts to segregrate the retinal image into perceptually coherent regions. Covert spatial attention helps extract contours by enhancing contrast sensitivity for 1st-order, luminance-defined patterns at attended locations, while reducing sensitivity at unattended locations, relative to neutral attention allocation. However, humans are also sensitive to 2nd-order patterns such as spatial variations of texture, which are predominant in natural scenes and cannot be detected by linear mechanisms. We assess whether and how exogenous attention—the involuntary and transient capture of spatial attention—affects the contrast sensitivity of channels sensitive to 2nd-order, texture-defined patterns. Using 2nd-order, texture-defined stimuli, we demonstrate that exogenous attention increases 2nd-order contrast sensitivity at the attended location, while decreasing it at unattended locations, relative to a neutral condition. By manipulating both 1st- and 2nd-order spatial frequency, we find that the effects of attention depend both on 2nd-order spatial frequency of the stimulus and the observer’s 2nd-order spatial resolution at the target location. At parafoveal locations, attention enhances 2nd-order contrast sensitivity to high, but not to low 2nd-order spatial frequencies; at peripheral locations attention also enhances sensitivity to low 2nd-order spatial frequencies. Control experiments rule out the possibility that these effects might be due to an increase in contrast sensitivity at the 1st-order stage of visual processing. Thus, exogenous attention affects 2nd-order contrast sensitivity at both attended and unattended locations. PMID:21356228

  1. Improving hot gas filtration behavior in PFBC power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Romeo, L.M.; Gil, A.; Cortes, C.

    1999-07-01

    According to a previous paper, a laboratory-scale cold flow model of the hot gas filtration system in Escatron PFBC power plant has been built. The main objectives were to establish the validity of the scaling laws for cyclone separator systems (cyclone and dipleg) and to perform detailed room temperature studies in a rapid and cost effective manner. In Escatron PFBC power plant, the hot gas filtration equipment is a two-stage process performed in nine streams between the fluidized bed and the gas turbine. Due to the unsteadiness in the dipleg and the suction nozzle, and the effect of sintered deposit, the cyclone performance is modified. The performances of cyclone separator system and suction nozzle diplegs are scarcely reported in the open literature. This paper presents the results of a detailed research in which some important conclusions of well known studies about cyclones are verified. Also remarkable is the increase in cyclone efficiency and decrease in pressure drop when the solid load to the cyclone is increased. The possibility to check the fouling by means of pressure drop has not been previously addressed. Finally, the influences of gas input velocity to the cyclone, the transport gas to the ash conveying lines, the solid load and the cyclone fouling have been analyzed. This study has allowed characterizing the performance of the full-scale ash removal system, establishing safe limits of operation and testing design improvements as the two suction nozzle dipleg, pointing out important conclusions for the filtration process in PFBC power plants.

  2. Land application uses of pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) ash

    SciTech Connect

    Dick, W.A.; Wolfe, W.

    1993-06-01

    Dry alkaline flue gas desulfurization by-products (dry lime and limestone FGD scrubber ashes) including the American Electric Power (AEP) Tidd PFBC bed and cyclone ash, are being evaluated for beneficial uses via land application for agriculture, mine reclamation, and soil stabilization in a 5 year study that began December, 1990. A 1989 Battelle Memorial Institute report had recommended that the highest priority in stimulating reuse of FGD by-products was the sponsoring of in-field research of coal combustion products generated from high sulfur midwestern coals to (a) better understand and quantify the leach rate, fate and transport of sulfates and trace metals and (b) demonstrate the level of protection necessary to build public acceptance of land-based reuses.

  3. Elements of the Next Generation Science Standards' (NGSS) New Framework for K-12 Science Education aligned with STEM designed projects created by Kindergarten, 1st and 2nd grade students in a Reggio Emilio project approach setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Facchini, Nicole

    This paper examines how elements of the Next Generation Science Standards' (NGSS) New Framework for K-12 Science Education standards (National Research Council 2011)---specifically the cross-cutting concept "cause and effect" are aligned with early childhood students' creation of projects of their choice. The study took place in a Reggio Emilio-inspired, K-12 school, in a multi-aged kindergarten, first and second grade classroom with 14 students. Students worked on their projects independently with the assistance of their peers and teachers. The students' projects and the alignment with the Next Generation Science Standards' New Framework were analyzed by using pre and post assessments, student interviews, and discourse analysis. Results indicate that elements of the New Framework for K-12 Science Education emerged through students' project presentation, particularly regarding the notion of "cause and effect". More specifically, results show that initially students perceived the relationship between "cause and effect" to be negative.

  4. PFBC freeboard firing under part load conditions development of a CFD based design tool

    SciTech Connect

    Edens, T.; Werther, J.; Hartge, E.U.; Jansson, S.A.; Bergqvist, S.

    1999-07-01

    ABB is currently building a second generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combined-Cycle (PFBC) plant in Cottbus, Germany. It will generate heat and electricity for the city of Cottbus, burning locally mined brown coal. In this plant, which is based on ABB's P200 PFBC module, a freeboard firing system operated with light oil will for the first time ever be used to maintain a high inlet temperature to the GT35P machine also at part load. This promotes oxidation of CO and makes selective non-catalytic NO{sub x} reduction effective also in this load range. In the present work a modeling tool is being developed in support of the design of the freeboard firing system and to help evaluate the performance of this system during operation. Another purpose of this tool is to check the sensitivity of the temperature distribution in the freeboard against a maldistribution of the fuel. For these purposes a model based on the full set of mass, momentum and energy balances was established. A commercially available computational fluid dynamics (CFD) program package was used to implement and solve the model. For the solution a stepwise approach has been chosen: in a first step the penetration of the oil jet into the freeboard, its dispersion, gasification and combustion has been modeled for a single jet. For these calculations a locally very fine grid was used. In a second step the freeboard with multiple oil jets will be described. In this latter step it will be necessary to reduce the spatial resolution significantly due to the limitation of computational resources. In the present paper the approach will be described in detail and some first computational results concerning the combustion of an oil spray will be presented.

  5. Florida Investigates 2nd Possible Local Transmission of Zika Virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Florida Investigates 2nd Possible Local Transmission of Zika Virus If confirmed, cases would be first instances ... investigating a second possible case of locally transmitted Zika infection. On Tuesday, the first possible case of ...

  6. Chemistry, mineralogy, and artifical weathering of PFBC by-products

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, R.K.; Soto, U.I.; Bigham, J.M.

    1995-11-01

    Chemical and mineralogical analyses were performed on spent bed residues and cyclone ashes acquired from the TIDD pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) demonstration plant operated by American Electric Power in Brilliant, OH. The cyclone ashes were composed of fly ash, dolomite, anhydrite, periclase, and calcite in decreasing order of abundance. By comparison, bed residues contained less dolomite and fly ash but more anhydrite, calcite and periclase. All samples were highly alkaline with paste pH values ranging from 9.9 to 12.3. The major element chemistry of the by-products was dominated by Ca, Mg, S, Fe, Al and Si. All materials met the criteria for ceiling concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Mo, Ni, Se and Zn as defined for land application of sewage sludges. Arsenic exceeded the ceiling level in one of six samples. An artificial weathering study was conducted to evaluate the impact of PFBC by-products on water quality in mined land reclamation. The study was performed using two mine spoils (pH 3.8 and 5.6) mixed with cyclone ash at rates of 0, 10, 20 and 40 wt % by-product. The composition of leachates from the mixtures was mostly a function of rate of by-product application and equilibration time. In general, the addition of PFBC by-product increased pH, conductivity, and the concentrations of dissolved Ca, K, Mg, Mo, Na, S, and Sr whereas the concentrations of Al, Fe, and Mn decreased. Six metals (Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Cr, and Pb) regulated by the Resource Conservation Recovery Act were below concentration levels defined for drinking water standards. No significant alteration of native spoil minerals was observed over the course of the study; however, hydration/precipitation reactions resulted in the rapid formation of gypsum. No evidence of ettringite crystallization was available after 132 days of periodic leaching.

  7. Molecular motors and the 2nd law of thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhisong

    2014-03-01

    Molecular motors from biology and nanotechnology often operate on chemical energy of fuel molecules in an isothermal environment, unlike macroscopic heat engines that draw energy from a heat flow between two temperatures. Nevertheless, isothermal molecular motors are still subject to the 2nd law of thermodynamics in a fundamental way: their directional motion must cost a finite amount of energy other than the environmental heat even though no work is done; otherwise the 2nd law would be violated. Hence the 2nd law requires a finite energy price for pure direction of molecular motors. But what is the lowest price of direction allowed by the 2nd law? And how does the 2nd law-decreed price of direction limit performance of molecular motors? In the talk, I shall present our theoretical study of the 2nd law-molecular motor link on basis of the accumulated biomotor phenomenology, and also introduce our experimental effort to develop biomimetic DNA bipedal nanomotors following the mechanistic guidelines out of the theoretical study. [Main contents of this talk are from references:] This work is partially supported by FRC grants R-144-000-259-112, R-144-000-290-112 and R-144-000-320-112.

  8. PFBC HGCU Test facility. Technical progress report, Fourth quarter, CY 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    During this quarter, the Tidd Hot Gas Clean Up System completed a 691-hour test run which began during the third quarter. Table 1 summarizes all test runs since initial operation. Following this test run the system was shut down and the filter opened for inspection and recandling. The system remained out of service during the remainder of the quarter. In addition to monitoring and evaluating the performance of the HGCU system during testing, engineering effort was devoted to posttest inspection of the APF (Advanced Particle Filter) and evaluation of the effects of totally spoiling the primary cyclone. In addition, the authors worked with Westinghouse in the selection of replacement candles that were installed during the fourth quarter. During the unit outage this quarter, the primary cyclone upstream of the APF was modified to force all of the ash to pass through the cyclone and enter the APF without using spoiling air. Appendices to this report describe the dust shroud support strap design; an analysis of the effect of support-transferred vibrations on the failure of ceramic candle filters; the Tidd APF operation; the Tidd APF boroscope inspection; a general inspection of Tidd filter internals; tally of Tidd filters; ash formations in the W-APF-October 1994 post-test inspection; characterization of the as-manufactured and PFBC-exposed 3M CVI-SiC composite filter matrix; strength characterization of the first and second generation candle filters after 1,705 hours of PFBC operation at Tidd; and filters used in the December 1994 recandling effort at Tidd.

  9. 2nd PEGS Annual Symposium on Antibodies for Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Mitchell; Royston, Ivor; Beck, Alain

    2012-01-01

    The 2nd Annual Antibodies for Cancer Therapy symposium, organized again by Cambridge Healthtech Institute as part of the Protein Engineering Summit, was held in Boston, USA from April 30th to May 1st, 2012. Since the approval of the first cancer antibody therapeutic, rituximab, fifteen years ago, eleven have been approved for cancer therapy, although one, gemtuzumab ozogamicin, was withdrawn from the market.  The first day of the symposium started with a historical review of early work for lymphomas and leukemias and the evolution from murine to human antibodies. The symposium discussed the current status and future perspectives of therapeutic antibodies in the biology of immunoglobulin, emerging research on biosimilars and biobetters, and engineering bispecific antibodies and antibody-drug conjugates. The tumor penetration session was focused on the understanding of antibody therapy using ex vivo tumor spheroids and the development of novel agents targeting epithelial junctions in solid tumors. The second day of the symposium discussed the development of new generation recombinant immunotoxins with low immunogenicity, construction of chimeric antigen receptors, and the proof-of-concept of ‘photoimmunotherapy’. The preclinical and clinical session presented antibodies targeting Notch signaling and chemokine receptors.  Finally, the symposium discussed emerging technologies and platforms for therapeutic antibody discovery. PMID:22864478

  10. 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (2G RLV). Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matlock, Steve; Sides, Steve; Kmiec, Tom; Arbogast, Tim; Mayers, Tom; Doehnert, Bill

    2001-01-01

    This is a revised final report and addresses all of the work performed on this program. Specifically, it covers vehicle architecture background, definition of six baseline engine cycles, reliability baseline (space shuttle main engine QRAS), and component level reliability/performance/cost for the six baseline cycles, and selection of 3 cycles for further study. This report further addresses technology improvement selection and component level reliability/performance/cost for the three cycles selected for further study, as well as risk reduction plans, and recommendation for future studies.

  11. Liming efficacy and transport in soil of a dry PFBC by-product

    SciTech Connect

    Dick, W.A.

    1995-12-01

    The by-products of pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) systems are mixtures of coal ash, anhydrite (CaSO{sub 4}), and unspent alkaline sorbent. Because PFBC by-products are alkaline and contain large concentrations of readily soluble bases (Ca and in some cases Mg) and other essential plant nutrients such as S and K, they have potential use as soil amendments, especially in acidic soils. PFBC by-products (particularly those with large Mg contents) may cause excessively high soluble salt concentrations when applied to soil. This could be detrimental to plant growth and might also impact the release of trace elements from the coal ash component of the by-product. In field experiments on three acidic soils, the liming effectiveness of a PFBC by-product, its effects on corn and alfalfa growth, and its impacts on crop, soil, and water quality were investigated.

  12. 2nd Quarter Transportation Report FY 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, L.

    2014-07-30

    This report satisfies the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) commitment to prepare a quarterly summary report of radioactive waste shipments to the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at Area 5. There were no shipments sent for offsite treatment and returned to the NNSS this quarter. This report summarizes the second quarter of fiscal year (FY) 2014 low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW) shipments. This report also includes annual summaries for FY 2014 in Tables 4 and 5. Tabular summaries are provided which include the following: Sources of and carriers for LLW and MLLW shipments to and from the NNSS; Number and external volume of LLW and MLLW shipments; Highway routes used by carriers; and Incident/accident data applicable to LLW and MLLW shipments. In this report shipments are accounted for upon arrival at the NNSS, while disposal volumes are accounted for upon waste burial. The disposal volumes presented in this report do not include minor volumes of non-radioactive materials that were approved for disposal. Volume reports showing cubic feet (ft3) generated using the Low-Level Waste Information System may vary slightly due to differing rounding conventions.

  13. Initial operation of the Tidd PFBC hot gas clean up filter

    SciTech Connect

    Mudd, M.J.; Hoffman, J.D.

    1993-09-01

    The objective of this program is to evaluate the design and obtain operating experience for up to two Advanced Particle Filter (APF) systems through long-term testing on a slipstream at Ohio Power Company`s Tidd PFBC Demonstration Plant. Performance and reliability of commercial-scale filter modules will be monitored to aid in an assessment of the readiness and economic viability of this technology for commercial PFBC applications.

  14. Studies on coal devolatilization and char reactivity under PFBC conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    A fundamental combustion study was performed at Babcock and Wilcox's Alliance Research Center to characterize the combustion properties of Pittsburgh No. 8 and Texas lignite coals under conditions simulating pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) using a bench-scale reactor. Over 400 combustion tests were performed at temperatures ranging from 1425{degree} to 1,725{degree}F, a maximum pressure of 280 psig, maximum superficial gas velocities of approximately 5 ft/sec to 20 ft/sec, and several oxygen concentrations using six coal particle sizes. A database of combustion profiles at PFBC conditions was obtained. A fundamental model of the chemical kinetics of the coal combustion at elevated pressures was developed based on this database. The kinetic models were used to derive the rate constants and activation energies of coal combustion for the two coals. For coal devolatilization, the effects of each test variable on the rate of reaction, the volatile yield, and the reaction order were evaluated. The apparent orders of coal devolatilization for Pittsburgh No. 8 and Texas lignite coals were determined to be less than one and vary with coal properties and test conditions. For char oxidation, the rates were reported as apparent kinetic rates and were derived based on the information which was obtained at the early stage of char oxidation. The kinetic rate constant of Pittsburgh No. 8 coal was found to be insensitive to the tested particle sizes. Increasing temperature, pressure, and superficial gas velocity increased the kinetic rate constant. The kinetic rate constant of Texas lignite coal was found to be approximately 2.5 times that of Pittsburgh No. 8 coal. The kinetic data obtained from this study in the low-temperature range was comparable to those reported by others in the literature. 40 refs., 37 figs., 15 tabs.

  15. Book Review: Bioassays with Arthropods: 2nd Edition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The technical book "Bioassays with Arthropods: 2nd Edition" (2007. Jacqueline L. Robertson, Robert M. Russell, Haiganoush K, Preisler and N. E. Nevin, Eds. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 224 pp.) was reviewed for the scientific readership of the peer-reviewed publication Journal of Economic Entomology. ...

  16. A Handbook for Classroom Instruction That Works, 2nd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Perfect for self-help and professional learning communities, this handbook makes it much easier to apply the teaching practices from the ASCD-McREL best-seller "Classroom Instruction That Works: Research-Based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement, 2nd Edition." The authors take you through the refined Instructional Planning Guide, so you…

  17. Test Review: The Profile of Mood States 2nd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Shuqiong; Hsiao, Yu-Yu; Wang, Miao

    2014-01-01

    The "Profile of Mood States 2nd Edition" (POMS 2) was published in 2012 by Multi-Health Systems (MHS) to assess transient feelings and mood among individuals aged 13 years and above. Evolving from the original POMS (McNair, Lorr, & Droppleman, 1971, 1992), the POMS 2 was designed for youth (13-17 years old) and adults (18 years old…

  18. Land application uses of pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) ash

    SciTech Connect

    Beeghly, J.H.; Dick, W.A.; Wolfe, W.

    1993-09-01

    Dry alkaline flue gas desulfurization by-products (dry lime and limestone FGD scrubber ashes) including the American Electric Power (AEP) Tidd PFBC bed and cyclone ash, are being evaluated for beneficial uses via land application for agriculture, mine reclamation, and soil stabilization in a 5 year study that began December, 1990. A 1989 Battelle Memorial Institute report had recommended that the highest priority in stimulating reuse of FGD by-products was the sponsoring of in-field research of coal combustion products generated from high sulfur midwestern coals to (a) better understand and quantify the leach rate, fate and transport of sulfates and trace metals and (b) demonstrate the level of protection necessary to build public acceptance of land-based reuses (1). The specific objectives of the demonstration project are as follows: To characterize the material generated from dry FGD processes; to demonstrate the utilization of dry FGD by-products as an soil amendment material on agricultural lands and on abandoned and active surface coal mines in Ohio; to demonstrate the use of dry FGD by-product as an engineering material for soil stabilization; to determine the quantities of dry FGD material than can be utilized in each of these applications; to determine the environmental and economic impact of utilizing the material.

  19. Technical Issues Map for the NHI System Interface and Support Systems Area: 2nd Quarter FY07

    SciTech Connect

    Steven R. Sherman

    2007-03-01

    This document provides a mapping of technical issues associated with development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) intermediate heat transport loop and nuclear hydrogen plant support systems to the work that has been accomplished or is currently underway in the 2nd quarter of FY07.

  20. The transient nature of 2nd-order stereopsis.

    PubMed

    Hess, Robert F; Wilcox, Laurie M

    2008-05-01

    There are currently two competing dichotomies used to describe how local stereoscopic information is processed by the human visual system. The first is in terms of the type of the spatial filtering operations used to extract relevant image features prior to stereoscopic analysis (i.e. 1st- vs 2nd-order stereo; [Hess, R. F., & Wilcox, L. M. (1994). Linear and non-linear filtering in stereopsis. Vision Research, 34, 2431-2438]). The second is in terms of the temporal properties of the mechanisms used to process stereoscopic information (i.e. sustained vs transient stereo; [Schor, C. M., Edwards, M., & Pope, D. R. (1998). Spatial-frequency and contrast tuning of the transient-stereopsis system. Vision Research, 38(20), 3057-3068]). Here we compare the dynamics of 1st- and 2nd-order stereopsis using several types of stimuli and find a clear dissociation in which 1st-order stimuli exhibit sustained properties while 2nd-order patterns show more transient properties. Our results and analyses unify and simplify two complimentary bodies of work. PMID:18407312

  1. Tidd PFBC Demonstration Project: Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    This is the 25th Technical Progress Report submitted to the Department of Energy in connection with the cooperative agreement between the DOE and the Ohio Power Company for the Tidd PFBC Demonstration Plant. This report covers the period from April 1, 1993 to June 30, 1993. Major activities during this period involve: (1) The unit has been out of service since early February due to the failure of the gas turbine. The gas turbine was repaired during this quarter and unit was started on June 29, 1993. (2) The unit was operated for a total of 32 hours (including gas turbine air prewarming). There were three gas turbine starts, two bed preheater starts, and one operating period with coal fire. The peak gross output of 13 MWH was achieved for the period of 2200 to 2300 hours on June 30, 1993. (3) During the quarter, total gross generation was 75 MWH, and coal consumption was 107 tons. (4) New individual ash lines from cyclones to the economizer were installed. (5) New sparge ducts were installed along with sparge duct end fluidization piping and valves. (6) Expansion joint heaters and insulation for hot gas clean-up system were installed. Major items planned for the next period include: installation of SO{sub 2} analyzer equipment, and continuation with the operation and testing of the unit after all the current GT problems are resolved.

  2. Tidd PFBC Demonstration Project fourth quarterly technical progress report, CY 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    This is the 23rd technical progress report submitted to the Department of Energy in connection with the cooperative agreement between the DOE and the Ohio Power Company for the Tidd PFBC Demonstration Plant. This report covers the period from October 1, 1992 to December 31, 1992. Major activities during this period involve: (1) The unit was operated for a total of 714 hours (including gas turbine air prewarming). There were seven gas turbine starts, seven bed preheater starts, and seven operating periods with coal fire. The peak gross output of 64 MWH was achieved for the period of 1000 to 1100 hours on November 23, 1992. The longest coal fire was 285 hours beginning at 1211 hours on November 25, 1992. (2) Total gross generation was 24,643, and coal consumption was 11,900 tons. (3) The hot gas clean up system was commissioned. (4) Active end fluidization system to address sparge duct cracking and deformation problem was jointly initiated by ABB carbon, B&W and AEPSC. (5) All testing continued using Plum Run dolomite. This approach was taken as a conservative means to avoid sintering and unit trips which were encountered during the previous two start-ups in September using limestone and (6) monitoring of solid, liquid and gaseous waste streams, as detailed in the operations phase monitoring requirements in the EMP, were performed.

  3. Performance of PRD-66 hot gas candle filters in the AEP/TIDD PFBC facility

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, J.A.

    1996-12-31

    The performance of PRD-66 hot gas filters in American Electric Power`s TIDD PFBC facility is described. PRD-66 hot gas filters are made of an all-oxide composition with a unique layered microstructure which lends corrosion resistance, high temperature stability and excellent resistance to thermal shock damage. The development of the PRD-66 material into a hot gas candle filter is recounted. Testing which guided filter development prior to exposure in the AEP/TIDD PFBC system is discussed. Future plans for testing in coal combustion and other industrial applications are described.

  4. Two 2nd Circuit decisions represent mixed bag on insurance.

    PubMed

    2000-01-21

    The 2nd U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals in New York issued two important rulings within a week on the extent to which the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) regulates insurance practices. [Name removed] v. Allstate Life Insurance Co. was a plaintiff-friendly decision, finding that the insurance company illegally refused to sell life insurance to a married couple because of their mental disability, major depression. [Name removed]. v. Israel Discount Bank of New York was more defendant friendly and tackled the issue of whether the ADA permits different benefit caps for mental and physical disabilities. PMID:11367226

  5. The crystal structure of ^7Li2ND

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsubota, Masami; Sorby, Magnus H.; Hino, Satoshi; Ichikawa, Takayuki; Hauback, Bjorn C.; Kojima, Yoshitsugu

    2008-03-01

    Recently much attention has been given to reversible hydrogen storage materials possessing high gravimetric capacity. Lithium amide/imide systems are promising candidates. Chen et al.[1] found that a mixture of lithium amide and lithium hydride can reversibly store hydrogen up to 6.5 mass% forming lithium imide (Li2NH). Among them, the crystal structure of Li2NH is still controversial. Balogh et al.[2] have reported a cubic structure model. However, this model differs significantly from theoretical structure models. In this work, the crystal structure of the isotopically substituted ^7Li2ND has been investigated by powder neutron and synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiments. In our data some peaks, which should be a single peak for cubic symmetry, were obviously split indicating a lower symmetry than cubic for lithium imide. The structure of ^7Li2ND will be described. [1] P. Chen et al., J. Phys. Chem. B 107 (2003) 10967. [2] M.P. Balogh et al., J. Alloys Compd. 420 (2006) 326.

  6. Velocity measurements in PFBC cyclone separator systems dip legs with thermal anemometry

    SciTech Connect

    Romeo, L.M.; Velilla, J.

    1999-07-01

    In order to improve the operational behavior (efficiency and stability) of the cyclone separator system in Escatron PFBC power plant, a laboratory-scale cold model has been built. Scaling laws have been applied to simulate the hydrodynamics and performance of the systems, in order to obtain valuable and relevant results for commercial PFBC technology. It has been demonstrated that the filtration effect of the cyclones in a PFBC power plant is extended down to the dipleg. Previous studies in a laboratory-scale cold model have pointed out the importance of the vortex inside the dipleg and its influence in the separation efficiency. It is due to the fact that the cyclone effect is still active in the dipleg. These studies are based in pressure drop dipleg measurements. Thermal anemometry has been used to measure the gas velocity and turbulence of several installations. In this case it has been used in order to check the vortex activity in the upper section of the dipleg of a cyclone separator system for a PFBC power plant. This paper deals with the results and conclusions of the research about the velocity field inside the dipleg. The possibility of improving cyclone efficiency by means of extending the vortex, the study of the variables affecting the vortex (and also the cyclone efficiency) and the establishment of a flow-pattern in the dipleg are the main objectives of the research and the paper.

  7. Operation results of the first commercial PFBC plant with high temperature ceramic filters

    SciTech Connect

    Kaneko, S.; Suga, N.

    1998-07-01

    Trial operation is now successfully underway at Tomato-Atsuma Unit No. 3 of Hokkaido Electric Power Co. (HEPCO) in Japan. This newly built 85 MWe unit is an innovative PFBC plant, which is the first commercial PFBC in Japan, and equipped with full capacity ceramic filters operated at 850 C. The high temperature ceramic filter effectively removes dusts in the hot gas and the dust loading at gas turbine inlet is much less than that of two-stage cyclones, minimizing the cost and time of gas turbine maintenance. The PFBC plant is composed of a pressurized fluidized-bed boiler, cyclones, ceramic filters, a gas turbine, a steam turbine, etc. and all of the equipment were manufactured and supplied by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. (MHI). Joint R and D program between HEPCO and MHI started 7 years ago, based on their own private funding and without any financial supports from public sectors, studying the optimum design of the first commercial PFBC aiming at environmental and economical advantages. And now fruitful results have been achieved. The commercial operation will start in March 1998 or earlier. Several troubles had been experienced during initial trial operation stage including pressure drop increase in ceramic filters. All these problems were solved one by one by the joint efforts of HEPCO and MHO. Load rejection tests, load swing tests, and automatic power control tests were successfully done in the spring of 1997. And tests with various kinds of coals are scheduled before the commercial operation.

  8. CERAMIC FILTER TESTS AT THE EPA/EXXON PFBC (PRESSURIZED FLUIDIZED BED COAL COMBUSTION) MINIPLANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes the performance of the Acurex ceramic bag filter operating at temperatures up to 880C and pressures up to 930 kPa on particulate-laden flue gas from a pressurized fluidized-bed coal combustion (PFBC) unit on a slipstream of gas taken after the second stage cyc...

  9. Scoping analysis of the Advanced Test Reactor using SN2ND

    SciTech Connect

    Wolters, E.; Smith, M.

    2012-07-26

    A detailed set of calculations was carried out for the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) using the SN2ND solver of the UNIC code which is part of the SHARP multi-physics code being developed under the Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) program in DOE-NE. The primary motivation of this work is to assess whether high fidelity deterministic transport codes can tackle coupled dynamics simulations of the ATR. The successful use of such codes in a coupled dynamics simulation can impact what experiments are performed and what power levels are permitted during those experiments at the ATR. The advantages of the SN2ND solver over comparable neutronics tools are its superior parallel performance and demonstrated accuracy on large scale homogeneous and heterogeneous reactor geometries. However, it should be noted that virtually no effort from this project was spent constructing a proper cross section generation methodology for the ATR usable in the SN2ND solver. While attempts were made to use cross section data derived from SCALE, the minimal number of compositional cross section sets were generated to be consistent with the reference Monte Carlo input specification. The accuracy of any deterministic transport solver is impacted by such an approach and clearly it causes substantial errors in this work. The reasoning behind this decision is justified given the overall funding dedicated to the task (two months) and the real focus of the work: can modern deterministic tools actually treat complex facilities like the ATR with heterogeneous geometry modeling. SN2ND has been demonstrated to solve problems with upwards of one trillion degrees of freedom which translates to tens of millions of finite elements, hundreds of angles, and hundreds of energy groups, resulting in a very high-fidelity model of the system unachievable by most deterministic transport codes today. A space-angle convergence study was conducted to determine the meshing and angular cubature

  10. The Second Stellar Spectrum and the non-LTE Problem of the 2nd Kind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trujillo Bueno, Javier

    2009-09-01

    This paper presents an overview of the radiative transfer problem of calculating the spectral line intensity and polarization that emerges from a (generally magnetized) astrophysical plasma composed of atoms and molecules whose excitation state is significantly influenced by radiative transitions produced by an anisotropic radiation field. The numerical solution of this non-LTE problem of the 2nd kind is facilitating the physical understanding of the second solar spectrum and the exploration of the complex magnetism of the extended solar atmosphere, but much more could be learned if high-sensitivity polarimeters were developed also for the present generation of night-time telescopes. Interestingly, I find that the population ratio between the levels of some resonance line transitions can be efficiently modulated by the inclination of a weak magnetic field when the anisotropy of the incident radiation is significant, something that could provide a new diagnostic tool in astrophysics.

  11. Improvement of a plasma uniformity of the 2nd ion source of KSTAR neutral beam injector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, S. H.; Kim, T. S.; Lee, K. W.; Chang, D. H.; In, S. R.; Bae, Y. S.

    2014-02-01

    The 2nd ion source of KSTAR (Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research) NBI (Neutral Beam Injector) had been developed and operated since last year. A calorimetric analysis revealed that the heat load of the back plate of the ion source is relatively higher than that of the 1st ion source of KSTAR NBI. The spatial plasma uniformity of the ion source is not good. Therefore, we intended to identify factors affecting the uniformity of a plasma density and improve it. We estimated the effects of a direction of filament current and a magnetic field configuration of the plasma generator on the plasma uniformity. We also verified that the operation conditions of an ion source could change a uniformity of the plasma density of an ion source.

  12. Improvement of a plasma uniformity of the 2nd ion source of KSTAR neutral beam injector.

    PubMed

    Jeong, S H; Kim, T S; Lee, K W; Chang, D H; In, S R; Bae, Y S

    2014-02-01

    The 2nd ion source of KSTAR (Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research) NBI (Neutral Beam Injector) had been developed and operated since last year. A calorimetric analysis revealed that the heat load of the back plate of the ion source is relatively higher than that of the 1st ion source of KSTAR NBI. The spatial plasma uniformity of the ion source is not good. Therefore, we intended to identify factors affecting the uniformity of a plasma density and improve it. We estimated the effects of a direction of filament current and a magnetic field configuration of the plasma generator on the plasma uniformity. We also verified that the operation conditions of an ion source could change a uniformity of the plasma density of an ion source. PMID:24593593

  13. [Microsurgical 2nd toe transfer for catastrophic hand reconstruction].

    PubMed

    Placer, A; Lozano, Ja

    2007-01-01

    The correct reconstruction of the catastrophic hand requires complex surgical techniques. The microsurgical transference of a toe is indicated when all other reconstructive options are shown to be useless for the reconstruction of the required clamp function. In this clinical note we set out the case of a 32 year old man, who came to our accident and emergency department after suffering a traffic accident. After exploration the diagnosis was that of catastrophic left hand, among other policontusions. Urgent surgery was carried out, saving the maximum possible viable structures. The immediate result of this surgery was a hand with 1st, 4th and 5th functional fingers. As the essential clamp function between the 1st and 4th or 5th fingers was not totally satisfactory, we decided to reconstruct the 3rd finger of his hand with his ipsilateral 2nd toe. All pertinent studies to determine vascularisation of the flap were carried out in planning the surgery, and the microsurgical transfer was then realized, which was successful. Today, after a suitable rehabilitation, the patient has recovered a satisfactory function of heavy and fine clamp in the operated hand. Toe to hand transfer is a good option for finger reconstruction and its function. Rehabilitation is the key to functional recovery. PMID:18227902

  14. PREFACE: 2nd International Symposium "Optics and its Applications"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvo, Maria L.; Dolganova, Irina N.; Gevorgyan, Narine; Guzman, Angela; Papoyan, Aram; Sarkisyan, Hayk; Yurchenko, Stanislav

    2016-01-01

    The ICTP smr2633: 2nd International Symposium "Optics and its Applications" (OPTICS-2014) http://indico.ictp.it/event/a13253/ was held in Yerevan and Ashtarak, Armenia, on 1-5 September 2014. The Symposium was organized by the Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) with the collaboration of the SPIE Armenian Student Chapter, the Armenian TC of ICO, the Russian-Armenian University (RAU), the Institute for Physical Research of the National Academy of Sciences of Armenia (IPR of NAS), the Greek-Armenian industrial company LT-Pyrkal, and the Yerevan State University (YSU). The Symposium was co-organized by the BMSTU SPIE & OSA student chapters. The International Symposium OPTICS-2014 was dedicated to the 50th anniversary of the Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics. This symposium "Optics and its Applications" was the First Official ICTP Scientific Event in Armenia. The presentations at OPTICS-2014 were centered on these topics: optical properties of nanostructures; quantum optics & information; singular optics and its applications; laser spectroscopy; strong field optics; nonlinear & ultrafast optics; photonics & fiber optics; optics of liquid crystals; and mathematical methods in optics.

  15. APTWG: 2nd Asia-Pacific Transport Working Group Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, J. Q.; Shi, Y. J.; Tamura, N.; Jhang, Hogun; Watanabe, T.-H.; Ding, X. T.

    2013-02-01

    This conference report summarizes the contributions to and discussions at the 2nd Asia-Pacific Transport Working Group Meeting held in Chengdu, China, from 15 to 18 May 2012. The topics of the meeting were organized under five main headings: momentum transport, non-locality in transport, edge turbulence and L-H transition, three-dimensional effects on transport physics, and particle, momentum and heat pinches. It is found that lower hybrid wave and ion cyclotron wave induce co-current rotation while electron cyclotron wave induces counter-current rotation. A four-stage imaging for low (L) to high (H) confinement transition gradually emerges and a more detailed verification is urgently expected. The new edge-localized modes mitigation technique with supersonic molecular beam injection was approved to be effective to some extent on HL-2A and KSTAR. It is also found that low collisionality, trapped electron mode to ion temperature gradient transition (or transition of higher to lower density and temperature gradients), fuelling and lithium coating are in favour of inward pinch of particles in tokamak plasmas.

  16. Characterization of hot-gas filter ash under PFBC operating conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, A.K.; Swanson, M.L.; Hurley, J.P.; Watne, T.M.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this program was to perform bench scale dynamic tests of ash formation and long-term ash cake formation in pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) systems to help in the development of methods to predict possible filter bridging problems and suggest possible strategies for mitigating these problems. During the program, four ash formation tests using a washed coal from the Consol Enlow Fork mine, with two size distributions of Plum Run dolomite at two different temperatures, were completed under conditions simulating the operation of the American Electric Power (AEP) Tidd PFBC. In addition, the same test matrix, plus two tests using no sorbent, was completed with the Belle Ayr Powder River Basin sub-bituminous coal, which will be used at the Southern Company Services (SCS) Wilsonville, Alabama, power systems development facility (PSDF).

  17. Characterization of hot-gas filter ash under PFBC operating conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, A.K.; Swanson, M.L.; Hurley, J.P.; Watne, E.M.

    1997-12-31

    The objective of this program was to perform bench-scale dynamic tests of ash formation and long-term ash cake formation in pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) systems to help in the development of methods to predict possible filter bridging problems and suggest possible strategies for mitigating these problems. During the program, four ash formation tests using a washed coal from the Consol Enlow Fork mine, with two size distributions of Plum Run dolomite at two different temperatures, were completed under conditions simulating the operation of the American Electric Power (AEP) Tidd PFBC. In addition, the same test matrix, plus two tests using no sorbent, was completed with the Belle Ayr Powder River Basin subbituminous coal, which will be used at the Southern Company Services (SCS) Wilsonville, Alabama, power systems development facility (PSDF).

  18. Safety analysis of the waterwall in one PFBC boiler by dynamic model.

    PubMed

    Jinrong, Zhu; Mingyao, Zhang

    2003-10-01

    With the help of a dynamic mathematical model, the differential pressure across the waterwall in a PFBC (pressurized fluidized bed combustion) boiler is analyzed under abnormal conditions. The simulation tests have shown that the differential pressure will exceed design specification when the bursting diaphragm at the outlet pipe of the freeboard is ruptured and its capacity is larger than 50% of the flue gas flow rate of the boiler. PMID:14582889

  19. Highlights of the 2 nd Bioinformatics Student Symposium by ISCB RSG-UK

    PubMed Central

    White, Benjamen; Fatima, Vayani; Fatima, Nazeefa; Das, Sayoni; Rahman, Farzana; Hassan, Mehedi

    2016-01-01

    Following the success of the 1 st Student Symposium by ISCB RSG-UK, a 2 nd Student Symposium took place on 7 th October 2015 at The Genome Analysis Centre, Norwich, UK. This short report summarizes the main highlights from the 2 nd Bioinformatics Student Symposium. PMID:27239284

  20. Development of a Hydrologic Characterization Technology for Fault Zones Phase II 2nd Report

    SciTech Connect

    Karasaki, Kenzi; Doughty, Christine; Gasperikova, Erika; Peterson, John; Conrad, Mark; Cook, Paul; Tiemi, Onishi

    2011-03-31

    This is the 2nd report on the three-year program of the 2nd phase of the NUMO-LBNL collaborative project: Development of Hydrologic Characterization Technology for Fault Zones under NUMO-DOE/LBNL collaboration agreement. As such, this report is a compendium of the results by Kiho et al. (2011) and those by LBNL.

  1. Examples to Accompany "Descriptive Cataloging of Rare Books, 2nd Edition."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Coll. and Research Libraries, Chicago, IL.

    This book is intended to be used with "Descriptive Cataloging of Rare Books," 2nd edition (DCRB) as an illustrative aid to catalogers and others interested in or needing to interpret rare book cataloging. As such, it is to be used in conjunction with the rules it illustrates, both in DCRB and in "Anglo-American Cataloging Rules," 2nd edition…

  2. Preliminary evaluation of FIBROSIC{trademark} candle filter for particulate control in PFBC

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.H.D.; Eggersedt, P.; Zievers, J.F.; Honea, F.I.

    1994-07-01

    The FIBROSIC{trademark} candle filter is made by vacuum-forming a select blend of aluminosilicate fibers with silica and alumina binders and is potentially useful as a hot-gas cleanup device for particulate control in pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC). It has the advantages of lighter weight, lower cost, and lower tendency for thermal shock breakage over the more widely studied SiC candle filter. Both filter types were tested with Illinois No. 6 high-sulfur coal in a laboratory-scale PFBC/alkali sorber facility for (1) particulate collection efficiency, (2) permeability characteristics, and (3) physical and mechanical strength and integrity. Tests were conducted at 800--825{degrees}C and a system pressure of 9.2 atm. Filter face velocities were 5.1 and 10.2 cm/s (10 and 20 ft/min) during test periods of 8 and 9.5 h for SiC and FIBROSIC{trademark} candle filters, respectively. The filters were periodically cleaned by a reverse jet pulse of N{sub 2} gas. Both filter types achieved particulate collection efficiencies >99.9% and exhibited comparable permeability characteristics. Although the FIBROSIC{trademark} candle filter has inherently lower bursting strength than the SiC, its physical and mechanical strengths were demonstrated to be sufficient to maintain the integrity of the filter element under PFBC conditions.

  3. Developing technologies for high volume land application uses of pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) ash

    SciTech Connect

    Beeghly, J.H.; Dick, W.A.; Wolfe, W.E.

    1995-12-31

    Dry alkaline flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products, including Tidd PFBC bed and cyclone ash are being evaluated for beneficial uses via land application for agriculture, mine spoil reclamation, soil stabilization, and road embankment construction in a 5 year, $4.4 million research program based in Ohio. The beneficial use for agriculture and mine reclamation as a soil amendment material is primarily due to its high acid neutralizing capacity and gypsum content. Concentrations of leachate RCRA heavy metals approached primary drinking water quality standards and are well within the criteria for classification as non-toxic fly ash according to Ohio EPA policy. Characterization tests of compressive strength, permeability, and compressibility indicate the by-products are practical materials for use in high volume engineered fills or embankments, base courses, and for soil reinforcement. Large field demonstrations of technical, economic, and environmental feasibility have been completed using Tidd PFBC ash: (1) to reclaim abandoned coal mineland spoil, (2) as an agricultural lime substitute, (3) in stabilized base construction for a cattle feedlot, and (4) for reconstruction of two state highway embankments. An important factor to understand the behavior of this Tidd PFBC residue is that dolomite was the sorbent.

  4. AEP`s program for enhanced environmental performance of PFBC plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hafer, D.R.; Bauer, D.A.

    1993-09-01

    While Tidd has achieved many of its original performance and test objectives, current emission standards and the projected performance of competing technologies have caused a reassessment of the goals of AEP`s PFBC program, particularly with regard to sulfur removal and sorbent utilization. The original goal of 90 percent sulfur removal at a Ca/S molar ratio of 1.6 (using Plum Run dolomite) has now been revised to 95 percent removal at a ratio of less than 1.8. While 95 percent sulfur capture is within the capability of today`s PFBC units, the desired Ca/S molar ratio is not presently possible. Therefore, the test program has been redirected to attain this goal. The remainder of the three-year demonstration period will focus on achieving better sorbent utilization, conducting feedstock testing, and performing process evaluations. In addition, a significant part of the remaining test effort at Tidd will focus on establishing and validating the design basis for future commercial PFBC plants. Items being considered to improve sorbent utilization include better sorbent distribution in the bed, optimization of sorbent sizing, ash recycling or recirculation, and selection of sorbent.

  5. PREFACE: 2nd National Conference on Nanotechnology 'NANO 2008'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czuba, P.; Kolodziej, J. J.; Konior, J.; Szymonski, M.

    2009-03-01

    This issue of Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains selected papers presented at the 2nd National Conference on Nanotechnology 'NANO2008', that was held in Kraków, Poland, 25-28 June 2008. It was organized jointly by the Polish Chemical Society, Polish Physical Society, Polish Vacuum Society, and the Centre for Nanometer-scale Science and Advanced Materials (NANOSAM) of the Jagiellonian University. The meeting presentations were categorized into the following topics: 1. Nanomechanics and nanotribology 2. Characterization and manipulation in nanoscale 3. Quantum effects in nanostructures 4. Nanostructures on surfaces 5. Applications of nanotechnology in biology and medicine 6. Nanotechnology in education 7. Industrial applications of nanotechnology, presentations of the companies 8. Nanoengineering and nanomaterials (international sessions shared with the fellows of Maria-Curie Host Fellowships within the 6th FP of the European Community Project 'Nano-Engineering for Expertise and Development, NEED') 9. Nanopowders 10. Carbon nanostructures and nanosystems 11. Nanoelectronics and nanophotonics 12. Nanomaterials in catalysis 13. Nanospintronics 14. Ethical, social, and environmental aspects of nanotechnology The Conference was attended by 334 participants. The presentations were delivered as 7 invited plenary lectures, 25 invited topical lectures, 78 oral and 108 poster contributions. Only 1/6 of the contributions presented during the Conference were submitted for publication in this Proceedings volume. From the submitted material, this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains 37 articles that were positively evaluated by independent referees. The Organizing Committee gratefully acknowledges all these contributions. We also thank all the referees of the papers submitted for the Proceedings for their timely and thorough work. We would like to thank all members of the National Program Committee for their work in the selection process of

  6. 2nd interface between ecology and land development in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeley, Jon E.; Baer-Keeley, Melanie; Fortheringham, C.J.

    2000-01-01

    The 2nd Interface Between Ecology and Land Development Conference was held in association with Earth Day 1997, five years after the first Interface Conference. Rapid population growth in California has intensified the inevitable conflict between land development and preservation of natural ecosystems. Sustainable development requires wise use of diminishing natural resources and, where possible, restoration of damaged landscapes. These Earth Week Celebrations brought together resource managers, scientists, politicians, environmental consultants, and concerned citizens in an effort to improve the communication necessary to maintain our natural biodiversity, ecosystem processes and general quality of life. As discussed by our keynote speaker, Michael Soule, the best predictor of habitat loss is population growth and nowhere is this better illustrated than in California. As urban perimeters expand, the interface between wildlands and urban areas increases. Few problems are more vexing than how to manage the fire prone ecosystems indigenous to California at this urban interface. Today resource managers face increasing challenges of dealing with this problem and the lead-off section of the proceedings considers both the theoretical basis for making decisions related to prescribed burning and the practical application. Habitat fragmentation is an inevitable consequence of development patterns with significant impacts on animal and plant populations. Managers must be increasingly resourceful in dealing with problems of fragmentation and the often inevitable consequences, including susceptibility to invasive oganisms. One approach to dealing with fragmentation problems is through careful landplanning. California is the national leader in the integration of conservation and economics. On Earth Day 1991, Governor Pete Wilson presented an environmental agenda that promised to create between land owners and environmentalists, agreements that would guarantee the protection of

  7. 1st- and 2nd-order motion and texture resolution in central and peripheral vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, J. A.; Sperling, G.

    1995-01-01

    STIMULI. The 1st-order stimuli are moving sine gratings. The 2nd-order stimuli are fields of static visual texture, whose contrasts are modulated by moving sine gratings. Neither the spatial slant (orientation) nor the direction of motion of these 2nd-order (microbalanced) stimuli can be detected by a Fourier analysis; they are invisible to Reichardt and motion-energy detectors. METHOD. For these dynamic stimuli, when presented both centrally and in an annular window extending from 8 to 10 deg in eccentricity, we measured the highest spatial frequency for which discrimination between +/- 45 deg texture slants and discrimination between opposite directions of motion were each possible. RESULTS. For sufficiently low spatial frequencies, slant and direction can be discriminated in both central and peripheral vision, for both 1st- and for 2nd-order stimuli. For both 1st- and 2nd-order stimuli, at both retinal locations, slant discrimination is possible at higher spatial frequencies than direction discrimination. For both 1st- and 2nd-order stimuli, motion resolution decreases 2-3 times more rapidly with eccentricity than does texture resolution. CONCLUSIONS. (1) 1st- and 2nd-order motion scale similarly with eccentricity. (2) 1st- and 2nd-order texture scale similarly with eccentricity. (3) The central/peripheral resolution fall-off is 2-3 times greater for motion than for texture.

  8. PREFACE: 2nd Workshop on Germanium Detectors and Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abt, I.; Majorovits, B.; Keller, C.; Mei, D.; Wang, G.; Wei, W.

    2015-05-01

    The 2nd workshop on Germanium (Ge) detectors and technology was held at the University of South Dakota on September 14-17th 2014, with more than 113 participants from 8 countries, 22 institutions, 15 national laboratories, and 8 companies. The participants represented the following big projects: (1) GERDA and Majorana for the search of neutrinoless double-beta decay (0νββ) (2) SuperCDMS, EDELWEISS, CDEX, and CoGeNT for search of dark matter; (3) TEXONO for sub-keV neutrino physics; (4) AGATA and GRETINA for gamma tracking; (5) AARM and others for low background radiation counting; (5) as well as PNNL and LBNL for applications of Ge detectors in homeland security. All participants have expressed a strong desire on having better understanding of Ge detector performance and advancing Ge technology for large-scale applications. The purpose of this workshop was to leverage the unique aspects of the underground laboratories in the world and the germanium (Ge) crystal growing infrastructure at the University of South Dakota (USD) by brining researchers from several institutions taking part in the Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (EPSCoR) together with key leaders from international laboratories and prestigious universities, working on the forefront of the intensity to advance underground physics focusing on the searches for dark matter, neutrinoless double-beta decay (0νββ), and neutrino properties. The goal of the workshop was to develop opportunities for EPSCoR institutions to play key roles in the planned world-class research experiments. The workshop was to integrate individual talents and existing research capabilities, from multiple disciplines and multiple institutions, to develop research collaborations, which includes EPSCor institutions from South Dakota, North Dakota, Alabama, Iowa, and South Carolina to support multi-ton scale experiments for future. The topic areas covered in the workshop were: 1) science related to Ge

  9. Hot Gas Particulate Cleaning Technology Applied for PFBC/IGFC -The Ceramic Tube Filter (CTF) and Metal Filter-

    SciTech Connect

    Sasatsu, H; Misawa, N; Kobori, K; Iritani, J

    2002-09-18

    Coal is a fossil fuel abundant and widespread all over world. It is a vital resource for energy security, because the supply is stable. However, its CO2 emission per unit calorific value is greater than that of other fossil fuels. It is necessary to develop more efficient coal utilization technologies to expand the coal utilization that meets the social demand for better environment. The Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) combined cycle has become a subject of world attention in terms of better plant operation, improved plant efficiency, lower flue gas emission and fuel flexibility. The gas turbine, one of the most important components in the PFBC, is eager for a hot gas (approximately 650-850C) cleaning system in order to eliminate the severe erosion problem with the less thermal loss. The cyclone is most popular system for a hot gas cleaning, however, the severe damage for gas turbine blades by highly concentrated fine fly ash from PFBC boiler is reported.

  10. Front elevation of Rostrum with 2nd Division American Expeditionary Force ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Front elevation of Rostrum with 2nd Division American Expeditionary Force Monument in foreground, view to northwest - Cypress Hills National Cemetery, Jamaica Avenue Unit, 625 Jamaica Avenue, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

  11. 37. MILL NO. 2, 2nd FLOOR, CLOSE SHOT OF 2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. MILL NO. 2, 2nd FLOOR, CLOSE SHOT OF 2 CREEL MACHINES, WHICH FEED YARN INTO KNITTING MACHINES. - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

  12. 73. VIEW OF NORTHWEST SIDE OF 2ND TEE, LOOKING NORTHWEST, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    73. VIEW OF NORTHWEST SIDE OF 2ND TEE, LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING STEPPED PLATFORM, BENCHES, AND LIGHT STANDARDS - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  13. VIEW SOUTH/SOUTHEAST LOOKING DOWN ON 2ND AQUEDUCT AND 1ST AQUEDUCT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW SOUTH/SOUTHEAST LOOKING DOWN ON 2ND AQUEDUCT AND 1ST AQUEDUCT CASCADES TOWARDS FILTRATION PLANT AND LOS ANGELES RESERVOIR - Los Angeles Aqueduct, Cascades Structures, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  14. MAGAZINE E30. VIEW FROM BETWEEN 1ST AND 2ND BLAST WALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MAGAZINE E-30. VIEW FROM BETWEEN 1ST AND 2ND BLAST WALL LOOKING TO THE REAR OF THE MAGAZINE. - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Waikele Branch, Tunnel Magazine Type, Waikakalaua & Kipapa Gulches, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  15. 22. MILL NO. 1, 2nd FLOOR, LIGHT TABLES AND KNITTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. MILL NO. 1, 2nd FLOOR, LIGHT TABLES AND KNITTING MACHINE. LIGHT TABLE USED TO CHECK FOR CLOTH DEFECTS. - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

  16. 12. Bldg #13, 2nd floor, interior stone walls w/windows and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Bldg #13, 2nd floor, interior stone walls w/windows and bent pipe thru wall L and light bulbs in ceiling, to NE - Lawrence Machine Shop, Building No. 13, Union & Canal Streets, Lawrence, Essex County, MA

  17. 4. VIEW WEST, WEST SIDE, SHOWING CHANNELS 1ST AND 2ND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW WEST, WEST SIDE, SHOWING CHANNELS 1ST AND 2ND VERTICAL BRACED DOUBLE ANGLES, DIAGONAL BRACING AND CROSS BRACED RAILING - Thirty-Sixth Street Bridge, Spanning Rabbit River, Hamilton, Allegan County, MI

  18. 2nd U.S. Case of Bacteria Resistant to Last-Resort Antibiotic

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_159807.html 2nd U.S. Case of Bacteria Resistant to Last-Resort Antibiotic Scientists concerned it ... the United States who was infected with a bacteria that is resistant to an antibiotic of last ...

  19. 21. VIEW FROM INTERIOR OF 2ND FLOOR ARCHED WINDOW WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. VIEW FROM INTERIOR OF 2ND FLOOR ARCHED WINDOW WITH HOLLOW STEEL SASH AND POLISHED PLATE WIRE GLASS. THIS WINDOW IS AT THE FRONT OF THE BUILDING. - Pacific Telephone & Telegraph Company Building, 1519 Franklin Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  20. The 2nd-order Post-Newtonian Orbit Equation of Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Yu; Fei, Bao-Jun; Sun, Wei-Jin; Ji, Cheng-Xiang

    2008-10-01

    Based on the 2nd-order post-Newtonian approximation under the DSX frame of the general relativity theory, the 2nd-order post-Newtonian orbital equation of light in the axis-symmetrical stationary spacetime is derived, and from this, the angle of deflection of light propagating in the equatorial plane is derived. The obtained results are consistent with those of the Schwarzchild and Kerr metrics within the limits of measuring precision.

  1. Severe weather phenomena: SQUALL LINES The case of July 2nd 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paraschivescu, Mihnea; Tanase, Adrian

    2010-05-01

    The wind intensity plays an important role, among the dangerous meteorological phenomena, to produce negative effects on the economy and the social activities, particularly when the wind is about to turn into a storm. During the past years one can notice an increase of wind frequency and intensity due to climate changes and, consequently, as a result of the extreme meteorological phenomena not only on a planetary level but also on a regional one. Although dangerous meteorological phenomena cannot be avoided, since they are natural, nevertheless they can be anticipated and decision making institutions and mass media can be informed. This is the reason why, in this paper, we set out to identify the synoptic conditions that led to the occurrence of the severe storm case in Bucharest on July 2nd, 2009, as well as the matrices that generate such cases. At the same time we sought to identify some indications evidence especially from radar data so as to lead to the improvement of the time interval between the nowcasting warning and the actual occurrence of the phenomenon.

  2. A fixed granular-bed sorber for measurement and control of alkali vapors in PFBC (pressurized fluidized-bed combustion)

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.H.D.; Swift, W.M.

    1990-01-01

    Alkali vapors (Na and K) in the hot flue gas from the pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) of coal could cause corrosion problems with the gas turbine blades. In a laboratory-scale PFBC test with Beulah lignite, a fixed granular bed of activated bauxite sorbent was used to demonstrate its capability for measuring and controlling alkali vapors in the PFBC flue gas. The Beulah lignite was combusted in a bed of Tymochtee dolomite at bed temperatures ranging from 850 to 875{degrees}C and a system pressure of 9.2 atm absolute. The time-averaged concentration of sodium vapor in the PFBC flue gas was determined from the analysis of two identical beds of activated bauxite and found to be 1.42 and 1.50 ppmW. The potassium vapor concentration was determined to be 0.10 ppmW. The sodium material balance showed that only 0.24% of the total sodium in the lignite was released as vapor species in the PFBC flue gas. This results in an average of 1.56 ppmW alkali vapors in the PFBC flue gas. This average is more than 1.5 orders of magnitude greater than the currently suggested alkali specification limit of 0.024 ppm for an industrial gas turbine. The adsorption data obtained with the activated bauxite beds were also analyzed mathematically by use of a LUB (length of unused bed)/equilibrium section concept. Analytical results showed that the length of the bed, L{sub o} in centimeters, relates to the break through time, {theta}{sub b} in hours, for the alkali vapor to break through the bed as follows: L{sub o} = 33.02 + 1.99 {theta}{sub b}. This formula provides useful information for the engineering design of fixed-bed activated bauxite sorbers for the measurement and control of alkali vapors in PFBC flue gas. 26 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. 11 Years of Cloud Characteristics from SEVIRI: 2nd Edition of the CLAAS Dataset by CMSAF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finkensieper, Stephan; Stengel, Martin; Fokke Meirink, Jan; van Zadelhoff, Gerd-Jan; Kniffka, Anke

    2016-04-01

    Spatiotemporal variability of clouds is an important aspect of the climate system. Therefore climate data records of cloud properties are valuable to many researchers in the climate community. The passive SEVIRI imager onboard the geostationary Meteosat Second Generation satellites is well suited for the needs of cloud retrievals as it provides measurements in 12 spectral channels every 15 minutes and thus allows for capturing both the spatial and the temporal variability of clouds. However, requirements on climate data records are high in terms of record length and homogeneity, so that intercalibration and homogenization among the available SEVIRI instruments becomes a crucial factor. We present the 2nd edition of the CLoud Property DAtAset using SEVIRI (CLAAS-2) generated within the EUMETSAT Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring (CMSAF), that is temporally extended and qualitatively improved compared to the 1st edition. CLAAS-2 covers the time period 2004-2014 and features cloud mask, cloud top properties, cloud phase, cloud type, and microphysical cloud properties on the complete SEVIRI disc in 15-minute temporal resolution. Temporally and spatially averaged quantities, mean diurnal cycles and monthly histograms are included as well. CLAAS-2 was derived from a homogenized data basis, obtained by intercalibrating visible and infrared SEVIRI radiances (of Meteosat 8, 9 and 10) with MODIS, using state-of-the-art retrieval schemes. In addition to the dataset characteristics, we will present validation results using CALIPSO as reference observations. The CLAAS-2 dataset will allow for a large variety of applications of which some will be indicated in our presentation, with focus on determining diurnal to seasonal cycles, spatially resolved frequencies of cloud properties as well as showing the potential for using CLAAS-2 data for model process studies.

  4. Handbook of industrial and hazardous wastes treatment. 2nd ed.

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence Wang; Yung-Tse Hung; Howard Lo; Constantine Yapijakis

    2004-06-15

    This expanded Second Edition offers 32 chapters of industry- and waste-specific analyses and treatment methods for industrial and hazardous waste materials - from explosive wastes to landfill leachate to wastes produced by the pharmaceutical and food industries. Key additional chapters cover means of monitoring waste on site, pollution prevention, and site remediation. Including a timely evaluation of the role of biotechnology in contemporary industrial waste management, the Handbook reveals sound approaches and sophisticated technologies for treating: textile, rubber, and timber wastes; dairy, meat, and seafood industry wastes; bakery and soft drink wastes; palm and olive oil wastes; pesticide and livestock wastes; pulp and paper wastes; phosphate wastes; detergent wastes; photographic wastes; refinery and metal plating wastes; and power industry wastes. This final chapter, entitled 'Treatment of power industry wastes' by Lawrence K. Wang, analyses the stream electric power generation industry, where combustion of fossil fuels coal, oil, gas, supplies heat to produce stream, used then to generate mechanical energy in turbines, subsequently converted to electricity. Wastes include waste waters from cooling water systems, ash handling systems, wet-scrubber air pollution control systems, and boiler blowdown. Wastewaters are characterized and waste treatment by physical and chemical systems to remove pollutants is presented. Plant-specific examples are provided.

  5. Physics design of the DARHT 2nd axis accelerator cell

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y J; Houck, T L; Reginato, L J; Shang, C C; Yu, S S

    1999-08-19

    The next generation of radiographic machines based on induction accelerators require very high brightness electron beams to realize the desired x-ray spot size and intensity. This high brightness must be maintained throughout the beam transport, from source to x-ray converter target. The accelerator for the second-axis of the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) facility is being designed to accelerate a 4-kA, 2-{micro}s pulse of electrons to 20 MeV. After acceleration, the 2-{micro}s pulse will be chopped into a train of four 50-ns pulses with variable temporal spacing by rapidly deflecting the beam between a beam stop and the final transport section. The short beam pulses will be focused onto an x-ray converter target generating four radiographic pulses within the 2-{micro}s window. Beam instability due to interaction with the accelerator cells can very adversely effect the beam brightness and radiographic pulse quality. This paper describes the various issues considered in the design of the accelerator cell with emphasis on transverse impedance and minimizing beam instabilities.

  6. Four-dimensional investigation of the 2nd order volume autocorrelation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faucher, O.; Tzallas, P.; Benis, E. P.; Kruse, J.; Peralta Conde, A.; Kalpouzos, C.; Charalambidis, D.

    2009-10-01

    The 2nd order volume autocorrelation technique, widely utilized in directly measuring ultra-short light pulses durations, is examined in detail via model calculations that include three-dimensional integration over a large ionization volume, temporal delay and spatial displacement of the two beams of the autocorrelator at the focus. The effects of the inherent displacement to the 2nd order autocorrelation technique are demonstrated for short and long pulses, elucidating the appropriate implementation of the technique in tight focusing conditions. Based on the above investigations, a high accuracy 2nd order volume autocorrelation measurement of the duration of the 5th harmonic of a 50 fs long laser pulse, including the measurement of the carrier wavelength oscillation, is presented.

  7. TIDD PFBC Demonstration Project. Second quarterly report, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    Major activities during this period include: (1) The unit operated for 1529 hours on coal, bringing the grand total for coal fire through the end of the quarter to 7847 hours. (2) During the quarter, the Tidd Plant set a new record for its longest continuous run on coal; 1079 hours, surpassing its previous record of 740 hours set in June-July of 1992. (3) The unit availability for the first half of 1994 was 54.7%. (4) There were four gas turbine starts, eight bed preheater starts, and six operating periods on coal. (5) During this quarter, total gross generation was 71,115 MWH, the peak unit output for one hour was 59 MWH, and the coal consumption was 35,696 tons. (6) Fifteen performance tests have been conducted since the start of the fourth year of operation. Eleven of the tests were conducted during the record run during May and June. (7) Agreements were finalized with the DOE, Ohio Coal Development Office, and technology vendors for funding of the fourth year of operation of the plant.

  8. Regional Observations of North Korea Explosions: 1st and 2nd Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Heon Cheol; Shin, Jin Soo; Lee, Hee-Il; Park, Jung Ho; Sheen, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Geunyoung; Kim, Tea Sung; Che, Il-Young; Lim, In-Seub

    2010-05-01

    Through data exchanging with China, Russia and Japan, KIGAM could monitor North Korea explosion tests in near real time with azimuthally full coverage from the test site. Except for the East Sea (Japan Sea) side, the seismic stations are distributed uniformly along the boundaries of North Korea and adjacent countries. The error ellipses of epicentral determination of test site for 1st and 2nd tests showed almost identical pattern if they were separately calculated with the same configuration of stations. But the combined use of the 1st and the 2nd test data showed that the 2nd test site was moved approximately 2 Km westward from 1st site. The Pn/Lg spectral ratio clearly discriminate these events from two nearby natural earthquakes above 4 Hz. Full moment tensor inversion also indicate the 2nd test had a very large isotropic component. But mb-Ms discrimination, which has been considered one of the most reliable discriminants for separating explosions and earthquakes, did not show apparently the known pattern of explosion for both tests. Body wave magnitude, mb(Pn) of the 2nd test, which was evaluated as 4.5 by KIGAM, varies with directional location of stations widely from 4.1 to 5.2. The magnitude obtained from Lg, mb(Lg), showed narrow variation between 4.3 to 4.7 with the average of 4.5. In the case of both 1st and 2nd tests, both mb(Pn) and mb(Lg) showed equivalently large variation with directional station location. These variations are mainly due to lateral variation of crustal structures surrounding the test site. Remarkably mb(Lg) showed very linear relationship with mb(Pn). By considering attenuation characteristics according to the propagation path, the variations could be effectively reduced. The cut-off frequencies of P wave of both tests showed no or negligible difference even though the estimated yield of the 2nd test were much larger than that of the 1st one. The ratio of P-wave amplitudes of two tests showed from 2 to 3.1 times. Correspondingly the

  9. Monitoring North Korea Explosions: Status and Result of 1st and 2nd Tests (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, H.; Lee, H.; Shin, J.; Park, J.; Sheen, D.; Kim, G.; Che, I.; Lim, I.; Kim, T.

    2009-12-01

    Through data exchanging with China, Russia and Japan, KIGAM could monitor North Korea explosion tests in near real time with azimuthal full coverage from the test site. Except for the East Sea (Japan Sea) side, the seismic stations are distributed uniformly along the boundaries of North Korea and adjacent countries, and only stations with the distance of 200 to 550 Km from the test site were considered. Irrespective of azimuthal directions of stations from the test site, the conventional discrimination, Pn/Lg spectral ratio clearly showed that both tests were explosion. But mb-Ms discrimination did not show apparently the known pattern of explosion for both tests. Body wave magnitude, mb(Pn) of 2nd test, which was evaluated as 4.5 by KIGAM, varies with directional location of stations widely from 4.1 to 5.2. The magnitude obtained from Lg, mb(Lg), showed narrow variation between 4.3 to 4.7 with the average of 4.5. In the case of 1st test, both mb(Pn) and mb(Lg) showed equivalently large variation with directional station location. The error ellipses of epicentral determination of test site for 1st and 2nd tests showed almost identical pattern if they were separately calculated with the same configuration of stations. But the combined use of 1st and 2nd test data showed that 2nd test site was moved approximately 2 Km westward from 1st site. The cut-off frequencies of P wave of 1st and 2nd tests showed no or negligible difference even though the estimated yield of 2nd test were much larger than that of 1st one. The ratio of 1st and 2nd P-wave amplitudes showed from 2 to 3.1 times. Correspondingly the estimated energy or yield were ranged from 4 to roughly 10 times. KIGAM evaluated the yield of 2nd test were 8 times in the average larger than that of 1st one.

  10. DOE performance indicators for 2nd quarter CY 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has established a Department-wide Performance Indicator (PI) Program for trending and analysis of operational data as directed by DOE Order 5480.26. The PI Program was established to provide a means for monitoring the environment, safety, and health (ES&H) performance of the DOE at the Secretary and other management levels. This is the tenth in a series of quarterly reports generated for the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) by EG&G Idaho, Inc. to meet the requirements of the PI Program as directed by the DOE Standard (DOE-STD-1048-92). The information in this tenth quarterly report, while contributing to a historical database for supporting future trending analysis, does not at this time provide a sound basis for developing trend-related conclusions. In the future, it is expected that trending and analysis of operational data will enhance the safety culture in both DOE and contractor organizations by providing an early warning of deteriorating environment, safety, and health conditions. DOE-STD-1048-92 identifies four general areas of PIs. They are: Personnel Safety, Operational Incidents, Environment, and Management. These four areas have been subdivided into 26 performance indicators. Approximately 115 performance indicator control and distribution charts comprise the body of this report. A brief summary of PIs contained in each of these general areas is provided. The four EG&G facilities whose performance is charted herein are as follows: (1) The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), (2) The Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC), (3) The Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF), and (4) The Test Reactor Area (TRA) Hot Cells.

  11. PFBC HGCU Test Facility. Fourth quarterly technical progress report, CY 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This is the ninth technical progress report submitted to the Department of Energy in connection with the Cooperative Agreement between DOE and Ohio Power Company for the Tidd PFBC Hot Gas Clean Up Test Facility. This report covers the period of work completed during the Fourth Quarter of CY 1991. During the reporting period, work focused on completing Task 2, Hot Gas Clean Up (HGCU) Detailed Design and Task 4, Procurement Activities to support the installation of the Westinghouse advanced particle filter (APE). The following significant events occurred during this report period: The mechanical/structural contractor (Pullman Power Products) mobilized at the Tidd site in December and began erecting steel framing for the APF. A contract modification was issued to Babcock & Wilcox Co. for the supply of piping materials required for the combustor internal modifications. A contract was awarded to ANARAD, Inc. for a gas analysis system. A contract was prepared and is being processed for electrical erection.

  12. PFBC HGCU Test Facility. Technical progress report: Third Quarter, CY 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This is the sixteenth Technical Progress Report submitted to the Department of Energy (DOE) in connection with the cooperative agreement between the DOE and Ohio Power Company for the Tidd PFBC (pressurized fluidized-bed combustion) Hot Gas Clean Up Test Facility (HGCU). This report covers the period of work completed during the Third Quarter of CY 1993. During this quarter, the Advanced Particle Filter (APF) was operated for a total of 1295 hours. This represents 58% availability during July, August, September, and including June 30 of the previous quarter. The operating dates and times since initial operation are summarized. The APF operating temperatures and differential pressures are provided. Details of the APF runs during this quarter are included in this report.

  13. Performance of heat exchanger materials in Curtiss-Wright PFBC tests

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-12-01

    Integration of a pressurized fluidized bed (PFB) coal combustor with a gas turbine/steam turbine combined cycle is an economic and environmentally attractive alternative to pulverized coal steam boilers and flue gas desulfurization for utility power plants burning high sulfur coal. A process by which a coal-fired, air-cooled PFBC may be integrated into a combined cycle system is presented. The process can provide a coal pile-to-busbar efficiency of approximately 40%. About one-third of the air from the gas turbine's compressor is used to fluidize the bed and support combustion, and the remaining air is indirectly heated - essentially to bed temperature - by flowing through an in-bed tubular heat exchanger. In this system, 60% of the total plant power is produced by the gas turbine and 40% is produced by the steam system.

  14. Evaluation of a Hand Washing Program for 2nd-Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tousman, Stuart; Arnold, Dani; Helland, Wealtha; Roth, Ruth; Heshelman, Nannatte; Castaneda, Oralia; Fischer, Emily; O'Neil, Kristen; Bileto, Stephanie

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to determine if a multiple-week learner-centered hand washing program could improve hand hygiene behaviors of 2nd-graders in a northern Illinois public school system. Volunteers from the Rockford Hand Washing Coalition went into 19 different classrooms for 4 consecutive weeks and taught a learner-centered program.…

  15. The Effect of Using Computer Edutainment on Developing 2nd Primary Graders' Writing Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammed Abdel Raheem, Azza Ashraf

    2011-01-01

    The present study attempted to examine the effect of using computer edutainment on developing 2nd graders' writing skills. The study comprised thirty-second year primary stage enrolled in Bani Hamad primary governmental school, Minia governorate. The study adopted the quasi-experimental design. Thirty participants were randomly assigned to one…

  16. 70. VIEW OF LIFEGUARD TOWER ON SOUTHEAST SIDE OF 2ND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    70. VIEW OF LIFEGUARD TOWER ON SOUTHEAST SIDE OF 2ND TEE (LEFT) AND NORTHWEST SIDE OF TEE (RIGHT), WITH VIEW OF PILINGS, LOOKING SOUTH-SOUTHWEST - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  17. 71. VIEW OF NORTHWEST SIDE OF 2ND TEE (LEFT), SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    71. VIEW OF NORTHWEST SIDE OF 2ND TEE (LEFT), SHOWING VIEW OF PILINGS, LIFEGURD TOWER ON SOUTHEAST SIDE OF TEE (RIGHT), LOOKING EAST-NORTHEAST - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  18. Proceedings of the 2nd symposium on valves for coal conversion and utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Maxfield, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    The 2nd symposium on valves for coal conversion and utilization was held October 15 to 17, 1980. It was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center, in cooperation with the Valve Manufacturers Association. Seventeen papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  19. Stem cells and cancer immunotherapy: Arrowhead’s 2nd annual cancer immunotherapy conference

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Investigators from academia and industry gathered on April 4 and 5, 2013, in Washington DC at the Arrowhead’s 2nd Annual Cancer Immunotherapy Conference. Two complementary concepts were discussed: cancer “stem cells” as targets and therapeutic platforms based on stem cells.

  20. Technical Adequacy of the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale-2nd Edition--Self-Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erford, Bradley T.; Miller, Emily M.; Isbister, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    This study provides preliminary analysis of the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale-2nd Edition--Self-Report, which was designed to screen individuals aged 10 years and older for anxiety and behavior symptoms. Score reliability and internal and external facets of validity were good for a screening-level test.

  1. Methods for the Determination of Chemical Substances in Marine and Estuarine Environmental Matrices - 2nd Edition

    EPA Science Inventory

    This NERL-Cincinnati publication, “Methods for the Determination of Chemical Substances in Marine and Estuarine Environmental Matrices - 2nd Edition” was prepared as the continuation of an initiative to gather together under a single cover a compendium of standardized laborato...

  2. 2nd International Forum for Surveillance and Control of Mosquitoes and Mosquito-borne Diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Entomological Society of China (ESC) and Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology (BIME) hosted the 2nd International Forum for Surveillance and Control of Mosquitoes and Mosquito-borne Diseases in Beijing, China, May 23-27, 2011. The theme of the Forum was “Impact of global climate ch...

  3. Individual Differences In The School Performance of 2nd-Grade Children Born to Low-Income Adolescent Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apiwattanalunggarn, Kunlakarn Lekskul; Luster, Tom

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate factors that contribute to individual differences in the school performance of 2nd-grade children born to adolescent mothers. The sample of this study was 90 low-income adolescent mothers and their children. Data were collected from the adolescent mothers and their first-born children, now in 2nd grade,…

  4. Proceedings of the coal-fired power systems 94: Advances in IGCC and PFBC review meeting. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    McDaniel, H.M.; Staubly, R.K.; Venkataraman, V.K.

    1994-06-01

    The Coal-Fired Power Systems 94 -- Advances in IGCC and PFBC Review Meeting was held June 21--23, 1994, at the Morgantown Energy Center (METC) in Morgantown, West Virginia. This Meeting was sponsored and hosted by METC, the Office of Fossil Energy, and the US Department of Energy (DOE). METC annually sponsors this conference for energy executives, engineers, scientists, and other interested parties to review the results of research and development projects; to discuss the status of advanced coal-fired power systems and future plans with the industrial contractors; and to discuss cooperative industrial-government research opportunities with METC`s in-house engineers and scientists. Presentations included industrial contractor and METC in-house technology developments related to the production of power via coal-fired Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) systems, the summary status of clean coal technologies, and developments and advancements in advanced technology subsystems, such as hot gas cleanup. A keynote speaker and other representatives from the electric power industry also gave their assessment of advanced power systems. This meeting contained 11 formal sessions and one poster session, and included 52 presentations and 24 poster presentations. Volume I contains papers presented at the following sessions: opening commentaries; changes in the market and technology drivers; advanced IGCC systems; advanced PFBC systems; advanced filter systems; desulfurization system; turbine systems; and poster session. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  5. Developing technologies for high-volume land application uses of pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) ash

    SciTech Connect

    Beeghly, J.H.; Dick, W.A.; Wolfe, W.

    1995-04-01

    Dry alkaline flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products, including Tidd PFBC bed and cyclone ash are being evaluated for beneficial uses via land application for agriculture, mine spoil reclamation, soil stabilization, and road embankment construction in a 5 year, $4.4 million research program based in Ohio. The beneficial use for agriculture and mine reclamation as a soil amendment material is primarily due to its high acid neutralizing capacity and gypsum content. Concentrations of leachate RCRA heavy metals approached primary drinking water quality standards and are well within the criteria for classification as non-toxic fly ash according to Ohio EPA policy. Characterization tests of compressive strength, permeability, and compressibility indicate the by-products are practical materials for use in high volume engineered fills or embankments, base courses, and for soil reinforcement. Large field demonstrations of technical, economic, and environmental feasibility have been completed using Tidd PFBC ash (1) to reclaim abandoned coal mineland spoil, (2) as an agricultural lime substitute, (3) in stabilized base construction for a cattle feedlot, and (4) for reconstruction of two state highway embankments. An important factor to understand the behavior of this Tidd PFBC residue is that dolomite was the sorbent.

  6. Second-generation PFBC systems research and development, Phase 2 topping combustor development

    SciTech Connect

    Domeracki, W.F.; Dowdy, T.E.; Bachovchin, D.; Foote, J.; Pillsbury, P.W.; Bouvier, B.U.; Muller, K.F.

    1993-09-01

    The use of a Circulating Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustor (CPFBC) as the primary combustion system for a combustion turbine requires transporting compressor air to the CPFBC and vitiated air/fuel gas back to the turbine. In addition, the topping combustion system must be located in the returning vitiated airflow path. The conventional fuel system and turbine center section require major changes for the applications. The combustion zone of the Westinghouse 501F turbine currently in production cannot contain the topping combustion system within the main structural pressure shell. Although the pressure casing can be enlarged both radially and longitudinally to accommodate the topping combustor system, the integrity and rigidity of the main shell would be significantly affected and, it could introduce rotor dynamics problems and preclude shipping the unit assembled. The currently favored configuration, which utilizes two topping combustor assemblies, one on each side of the unit, is shown in Figure 1. Half of the vitiated air from the CPFBC enters each of the internal plenum chambers in which the topping combustors are mounted. Fuel gas enters the assembly via the fuel nozzles at the head end of the combustor. Combustion occurs, and the products of combustion are ducted into the main shell for distribution to the first-stage turbine vanes. Compressor discharge air leaves the main shell, flowing around the annular duct into adjacent combustion shells. The air flows around the vitiated air plenums and leaves each combustion assembly via nozzles and is ducted to the CPFBC and carbonizer.

  7. Development and commercialization of hot gas filters for power generation applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lippert, T.E.; Bruck, G.J.; Alvin, M.A.; Bachovchin, D.M.; Newby, R.A.

    1995-12-31

    Westinghouse is conducting a broad development program under US Department of Energy (DOE) and corporate program initiatives to commercialize hot gas filtration (HGF) for power generation. Coal and biomass gasification combined cycles (GCC), and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) are advanced power generation cycles that will use HGF to achieve maximum performance. Westinghouse, in conjunction with DOE are participating in several pilot and demonstration test programs in which hot gas filter systems are integrated and operated in coal derived gas streams. This paper reports on HGF testing conducted over the past year in the following pilot plant facilities: At the PFBC Hot Gas Clean Slipstream facility installed at the Tidd 70-MWe bubbling-PFBC Clean Coal Demonstration Plant; at the Ahlstrom 10 Mwt Circulating-PFBC facility located in Karhula, Finland; at the Advanced-PFBC subpilot facility located at the Foster Wheeler Development Corporation Livingston, NJ site; at the Biomass subpilot gasification facility located at the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT). Test results include operating experience on both conventional and advanced candle filter elements.

  8. Performance of 2nd Generation BaBar Resistive Plate Chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Anulli, F.; Baldini, R.; Calcaterra, A.; de Sangro, R.; Finocchiaro, G.; Patteri, P.; Piccolo, M.; Zallo, A.; Cheng, C.H.; Lange, D.J.; Wright, D.M.; Messner, R.; Wisniewski, William J.; Pappagallo, M.; Andreotti, M.; Bettoni, D.; Calabrese, R.; Cibinetto, G.; Luppi, E.; Negrini, M.; Capra, R.; /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Naples U. /INFN, Naples /Perugia U. /INFN, Perugia /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Oregon U. /UC, Riverside /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2005-07-12

    The BaBar detector has operated nearly 200 Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs), constructed as part of an upgrade of the forward endcap muon detector, for the past two years. The RPCs experience widely different background and luminosity-driven singles rates (0.01-10 Hz/cm{sup 2}) depending on position within the endcap. Some regions have integrated over 0.3 C/cm{sup 2}. RPC efficiency measured with cosmic rays is high and stable. The average efficiency measured with beam is also high. However, a few of the highest rate RPCs have suffered efficiency losses of 5-15%. Although constructed with improved techniques and minimal use of linseed oil, many of the RPCs, which are operated in streamer mode, have shown increased dark currents and noise rates that are correlated with the direction of the gas flow and the integrated current. Studies of the above aging effects are presented and correlated with detector operating conditions.

  9. Utilisation of 2nd Generation Web Technologies in Master Level Vocational Teacher Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tóth, Péter

    2009-01-01

    The Masters level Opportunities and Technological Innovation in Vocational Teacher Education project (project site: http://motivate.tmpk.bmf.hu/) aims to develop the use and management of virtual learning environments in the area of vocational teacher training, drawing on a well established international partnership of institutions providing both…

  10. Integrated vehicle test bed for IVHM systems on 2nd generation RLV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, M. L.; Baroth, E.; Mellinger, L.; Park, H.; Stough, T.; Brown, S. A.; Meyer, C. M.

    2003-01-01

    The IVTB concept is to validate spacecraft system designs and evaluate new technologies; its focus is to identify and resolve problems at the early stages of development and facilitate new technology transfer.

  11. Reed canary grass as a feedstock for 2nd generation bioethanol production.

    PubMed

    Kallioinen, Anne; Uusitalo, Jaana; Pahkala, Katri; Kontturi, Markku; Viikari, Liisa; Weymarn, Niklas von; Siika-Aho, Matti

    2012-11-01

    The enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of reed canary grass, harvested in the spring or autumn, and barley straw were studied. Steam pretreated materials were efficiently hydrolysed by commercial enzymes with a dosage of 10-20FPU/g d.m. Reed canary grass harvested in the spring was hydrolysed more efficiently than the autumn-harvested reed canary grass. Additional β-glucosidase improved the release of glucose and xylose during the hydrolysis reaction. The hydrolysis rate and level of reed canary grass with a commercial Trichoderma reesei cellulase could be improved by supplementation of purified enzymes. The addition of CBH II improved the hydrolysis level by 10% in 48hours' hydrolysis. Efficient mixing was shown to be important for hydrolysis already at 10% dry matter consistency. The highest ethanol concentration (20g/l) and yield (82%) was obtained with reed canary grass at 10% d.m. consistency. PMID:22939601

  12. Validation of the 2nd Generation Proteasome Inhibitor Oprozomib for Local Therapy of Pulmonary Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Semren, Nora; Habel-Ungewitter, Nunja C.; Fernandez, Isis E.; Königshoff, Melanie; Eickelberg, Oliver; Stöger, Tobias; Meiners, Silke

    2015-01-01

    Proteasome inhibition has been shown to prevent development of fibrosis in several organs including the lung. However, effects of proteasome inhibitors on lung fibrosis are controversial and cytotoxic side effects of the overall inhibition of proteasomal protein degradation cannot be excluded. Therefore, we hypothesized that local lung-specific application of a novel, selective proteasome inhibitor, oprozomib (OZ), provides antifibrotic effects without systemic toxicity in a mouse model of lung fibrosis. Oprozomib was first tested on the human alveolar epithelial cancer cell line A549 and in primary mouse alveolar epithelial type II cells regarding its cytotoxic effects on alveolar epithelial cells and compared to the FDA approved proteasome inhibitor bortezomib (BZ). OZ was less toxic than BZ and provided high selectivity for the chymotrypsin-like active site of the proteasome. In primary mouse lung fibroblasts, OZ showed significant anti-fibrotic effects, i.e. reduction of collagen I and α smooth muscle actin expression, in the absence of cytotoxicity. When applied locally into the lungs of healthy mice via instillation, OZ was well tolerated and effectively reduced proteasome activity in the lungs. In bleomycin challenged mice, however, locally applied OZ resulted in accelerated weight loss and increased mortality of treated mice. Further, OZ failed to reduce fibrosis in these mice. While upon systemic application OZ was well tolerated in healthy mice, it rather augmented instead of attenuated fibrotic remodelling of the lung in bleomycin challenged mice. To conclude, low toxicity and antifibrotic effects of OZ in pulmonary fibroblasts could not be confirmed for pulmonary fibrosis of bleomycin-treated mice. In light of these data, the use of proteasome inhibitors as therapeutic agents for the treatment of fibrotic lung diseases should thus be considered with caution. PMID:26340365

  13. The new 2nd-generation laser station at Santiago de Cuba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masevich, A. G.; Chepurnov, B. D.; Fundora, M.; del Pino, J.; Kautzleben, H.

    The new laser-radar station at Santiago de Cuba was equipped in cooperation between the Academies of Sciences of the USSR, Cuba and the G.D.R. The system is based on a modified satellite-tracking camera (SBG). Its basic concept and the technical performance are similar to the laser-radar station of the Central Institute for Physics of the Earth, Potsdam. During a first 6-weeks-observation campaign (Dec. 1985 - Jan. 1986), 70 satellite passes (including 40 passes of the geodynamical satellite LAGEOS) were obtained.

  14. Validation of the 2nd Generation Proteasome Inhibitor Oprozomib for Local Therapy of Pulmonary Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Semren, Nora; Habel-Ungewitter, Nunja C; Fernandez, Isis E; Königshoff, Melanie; Eickelberg, Oliver; Stöger, Tobias; Meiners, Silke

    2015-01-01

    Proteasome inhibition has been shown to prevent development of fibrosis in several organs including the lung. However, effects of proteasome inhibitors on lung fibrosis are controversial and cytotoxic side effects of the overall inhibition of proteasomal protein degradation cannot be excluded. Therefore, we hypothesized that local lung-specific application of a novel, selective proteasome inhibitor, oprozomib (OZ), provides antifibrotic effects without systemic toxicity in a mouse model of lung fibrosis. Oprozomib was first tested on the human alveolar epithelial cancer cell line A549 and in primary mouse alveolar epithelial type II cells regarding its cytotoxic effects on alveolar epithelial cells and compared to the FDA approved proteasome inhibitor bortezomib (BZ). OZ was less toxic than BZ and provided high selectivity for the chymotrypsin-like active site of the proteasome. In primary mouse lung fibroblasts, OZ showed significant anti-fibrotic effects, i.e. reduction of collagen I and α smooth muscle actin expression, in the absence of cytotoxicity. When applied locally into the lungs of healthy mice via instillation, OZ was well tolerated and effectively reduced proteasome activity in the lungs. In bleomycin challenged mice, however, locally applied OZ resulted in accelerated weight loss and increased mortality of treated mice. Further, OZ failed to reduce fibrosis in these mice. While upon systemic application OZ was well tolerated in healthy mice, it rather augmented instead of attenuated fibrotic remodelling of the lung in bleomycin challenged mice. To conclude, low toxicity and antifibrotic effects of OZ in pulmonary fibroblasts could not be confirmed for pulmonary fibrosis of bleomycin-treated mice. In light of these data, the use of proteasome inhibitors as therapeutic agents for the treatment of fibrotic lung diseases should thus be considered with caution. PMID:26340365

  15. 2nd-Order CESE Results For C1.4: Vortex Transport by Uniform Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedlander, David J.

    2015-01-01

    The Conservation Element and Solution Element (CESE) method was used as implemented in the NASA research code ez4d. The CESE method is a time accurate formulation with flux-conservation in both space and time. The method treats the discretized derivatives of space and time identically and while the 2nd-order accurate version was used, high-order versions exist, the 2nd-order accurate version was used. In regards to the ez4d code, it is an unstructured Navier-Stokes solver coded in C++ with serial and parallel versions available. As part of its architecture, ez4d has the capability to utilize multi-thread and Messaging Passage Interface (MPI) for parallel runs.

  16. Idaho National Laboratory Quarterly Performance Analysis for the 2nd Quarter FY 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Lisbeth A.

    2015-04-01

    This report is published quarterly by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Quality and Performance Management Organization. The Department of Energy (DOE) Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS), as prescribed in DOE Order 232.2, “Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information,” requires a quarterly analysis of events, both reportable and not reportable, for the previous 12 months. This report is the analysis of events for the 2nd Qtr FY-15.

  17. 2nd-Order CESE Results For C1.1: Transonic Ringleb Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedlander, David J.

    2015-01-01

    The Conservation Element and Solution Element (CESE) method was used as implemented in the NASA research code ez4d (an unstructured Navier-Stokes solver coded in C++ with serial and parallel versions available.) The CESE method is a time-accurate formulation with flux-conservation in both space and time. The method treats the discretized derivatives of space and time identically and while the 2nd-order accurate version was used, high-order versions exist.

  18. Very large millimeter/submillimeter array toward search for 2nd Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iguchi, Satoru; Saito, Masao

    2012-09-01

    ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array) is a revolutionary radio telescope and its early scientific operation has just started. It is expected that ALMA will resolve several cosmic questions and will give us a new cosmic view. Our passion for astronomy naturally goes beyond ALMA because we believe that the 21st-century astronomy should pursue the new scientific frontier. In this conference, we propose a project of the future radio telescope to search for habitable planets and finally detect 2nd Earth as a migratable planet. Detection of 2nd Earth is one of the ultimate dreams not only for astronomers but also for every human being. To directly detect 2nd Earth, we have to carefully design the sensitivity and angular resolution of the telescope by conducting trade-off analysis between the confusion limit and the minimum detectable temperature. The result of the sensitivity analysis is derived assuming an array that has sixty-four (64) 50-m antennas with 25-μm surface accuracy mainly located within the area of 300 km (up to 3000 km), dual-polarization SSB receivers with the best noise temperature performance achieved by ALMA or better, and IF bandwidth of 128 or 256 GHz.. We temporarily name this telescope "Very Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (VLMSA)". Since this sensitivity is extremely high, we can have a lot of chances to study the galaxy, star formation, cosmology and of course the new scientific frontier.

  19. Application research on enhancing near-infrared micro-imaging quality by 2nd derivative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong; Ma, Zhi-hong; Zhao, Liu; Wang, Bei-hong; Han, Ping; Pan, Li-gang; Wang, Ji-hua

    2013-08-01

    Near-infrared micro-imaging will not only provide the sample's spatial distribution information, but also the spectroscopic information of each pixel. In this thesis, it took the artificial sample of wheat flour and formaldehyde sodium sulfoxylate distribution given for example to research the data processing method for enhancing the quality of near-infrared micro-imaging. Near-infrared spectroscopic feature of wheat flour and formaldehyde sodium sulfoxylate being studied on, compare correlation imaging and 2nd derivative imaging were applied in the imaging processing of the near-infrared micro-image of the artificial sample. Furthermore, the two methods were combined, i.e. 2nd derivative compare correlation imaging was acquired. The result indicated that the difference of the correlation coefficients between the two substances, i.e. wheat flour and formaldehyde sodium sulfoxylate, and the reference spectrum has been increased from 0.001 in compare correlation image to 0.796 in 2nd derivative compare correlation image respectively, which enhances the imaging quality efficiently. This study will, to some extent, be of important reference significance to near-infrared micro-imaging method research of agricultural products and foods.

  20. [Employment and education in the 2nd economic and social development plan of Togo].

    PubMed

    Dovi-sodemekou, F B

    1985-01-01

    Togo is a developing country whose population is increasing at the rapid rate of 2.7%/year. Economic development is therefore a necessity to ensure at least an average standard of living. Plans of development include objectives of structural societal changes, including improvements in education and employment. This study analyzes the evolution of population activities. It identifies obstacles to the improvement of education and employment. The investigation examines the employment and education situation before adoption of the 2nd plan of Togo and predicts the probable evolution of the situation. Despite the priority accorded to agriculture, the 2nd plan appears to give greater importance to industry. The industrial and commercial sector has witnessed a 65.2% investment increase, whereas the rural sector had an investment increase of 11.8%. The 2nd plan, in view of its relation to the evolution of economic activities, took into account the demand for manual labor. In the private sector, industries should occupy an important position. The dualism of a modern and a traditional sector is considered a cause of underdevelopment. The modern sector should be developed in order to suppress the traditional sector and allow progress in society. As a result of this approach, agriculture is given a 2ndary role. PMID:12267415

  1. PFBC HGCU Test Facility. Fourth quarterly technical progress report, CY 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    This is the thirteenth Technical Progress Report submitted to the Department of Energy (DOE) in connection with the cooperative agreement between the DOE and Ohio Power Company for the Tidd PFBC Hot Gas Clean Up Test Facility. This report covers the period of work completed during the Fourth Quarter of CY 1992. The following are highlights of the activities that occurred during this report period: Initial operation of the Advanced Particle Filter (APF) occurred during this quarter. The following table summarizes the operating dates and times. HGCU ash lockhopper valve plugged with ash. Primary cyclone ash pluggage. Problems with the coal water paste. Unit restarted warm 13 hours later. HGCU expansion joint No. 7 leak in internal ply of bellows. Problems encountered during these initial tests included hot spots on the APP, backup cyclone and instrumentation spools, two breakdowns of the backpulse air compressor, pluggage of the APF hopper and ash removal system, failure (breakage) of 21 filter candles, leakage of the inner ply of one (1) expansion joint bellows, and numerous other smaller problems. These operating problems are discussed in detail in a subsequent section of this report. Following shutdown and equipment inspection in December, design modifications were initiated to correct the problems noted above. The system is scheduled to resume operation in March, 1993.

  2. PFBC HGCU Test Facility. Second quarterly technical progress report, CY 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    This is the eleventh technical progress report submitted to the Department of Energy (DOE) in connection with the Cooperative Agreement between DOE and Ohio Power company for the Tidd Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) Hot Gas Clean Up Test Facility. This report covers the period of work completed during the Second Quarter of CY 1992. Activities included: The Tidd combustor internals were modified to connect the hot gas system for slipstream operation; Various pre-operational activities were completed, including pneumatic leak testing of the HGCU system, operation of the closed cycle cooling water system, operation of the back pulse compressor and air preheater, and checkout of the back pulse skid. Initial operation of the system using the bypass cyclone occurred during May 21--23, 1992; On May 23, 1992, an expansion joint ruptured, forcing the unit to be shut down. The failure was later determined to be due to stress corrosion. Following the expansion joint failure, a complete engineering review of the system was undertaken and is continuing; Contract Modification No. 6 was issued to Westinghouse during this quarter. This modification is for APF surveillance testing services; A purchase order was issued to Battelle for ash sampling hardware and testing services.

  3. PFBC HGCU Test Facility. Technical progress report No. 24, Third quarter, CY 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This is the twenty-fourth and final Technical Progress Report submitted to the Department of Energy (DOE) in connection with the cooperative agreement between the DOE and Ohio Power Company for the Tidd PFBC Hot Gas Clean Up Test Facility. This report covers the work completed during the Third Quarter of CY 1995. All activity this quarter was directed toward the completion of the program final report. A draft copy of the final report was forwarded to DOE during this quarter, and DOE submitted their comments on the report to AEPSC. DOE requested that Westinghouse write an appendix to the report covering the performance of the fail-safe regenerator devices during Tad operation, and Westinghouse subsequently prepared the appendix. Additional DOE comments were incorporated into the report, and it will be issued in camera-ready form by the end of October, 1995, which is the program end date. Appendix 1 presents the results of filter candle posttest examination by Westinghouse performed on selected filter candles following final shutdown of the system.

  4. Carbon dioxide emissions and the overshoot ratio change resulting from the implementation of 2nd Energy Master Plan in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeo, M. J.; Kim, Y. P.

    2015-12-01

    The direction of the energy policies of the country is important in the projection of environmental impacts of the country. The greenhouse gases (GHGs) emission of the energy sector in South Korea is very huge, about 600 MtCO2e in 2011. Also the carbon footprint due to the energy consumption contributes to the ecological footprint is also large, more than 60%. Based on the official plans (the national greenhouse gases emission reduction target for 2030 (GHG target for 2030) and the 2nd Energy Master Plan (2nd EMP)), several scenarios were proposed and the sensitivity of the GHG emission amount and 'overshoot ratio' which is the ratio of ecological footprint to biocapacity were estimated. It was found that to meet the GHG target for 2030 the ratio of non-emission energy for power generation should be over 71% which would be very difficult. We also found that the overshoot ratio would increase from 5.9 in 2009 to 7.6 in 2035. Thus, additional efforts are required to reduce the environmental burdens in addition to optimize the power mix configuration. One example is the conversion efficiency in power generation. If the conversion efficiency in power generation rises up 50% from the current level, 40%, the energy demand and resultant carbon dioxide emissions would decrease about 10%. Also the influence on the environment through changes in consumption behavior, for example, the diet choice is expected to be meaningful.

  5. PREFACE: 2nd International Conference on Innovative Materials, Structures and Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ručevskis, Sandris

    2015-11-01

    The 2nd International Conference on Innovative Materials, Structures and Technologies (IMST 2015) took place in Riga, Latvia from 30th September - 2nd October, 2015. The first event of the conference series, dedicated to the 150th anniversary of the Faculty of Civil Engineering of Riga Technical University, was held in 2013. Following the established tradition, the aim of the conference was to promote and discuss the latest results of industrial and academic research carried out in the following engineering fields: analysis and design of advanced structures and buildings; innovative, ecological and energy efficient building materials; maintenance, inspection and monitoring methods; construction technologies; structural management; sustainable and safe transport infrastructure; and geomatics and geotechnics. The conference provided an excellent opportunity for leading researchers, representatives of the industrial community, engineers, managers and students to share the latest achievements, discuss recent advances and highlight the current challenges. IMST 2015 attracted over 120 scientists from 24 countries. After rigorous reviewing, over 80 technical papers were accepted for publication in the conference proceedings. On behalf of the organizing committee I would like to thank all the speakers, authors, session chairs and reviewers for their efficient and timely effort. The 2nd International Conference on Innovative Materials, Structures and Technologies was organized by the Faculty of Civil Engineering of Riga Technical University with the support of the Latvia State Research Programme under the grant agreement "INNOVATIVE MATERIALS AND SMART TECHNOLOGIES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY, IMATEH". I would like to express sincere gratitude to Juris Smirnovs, Dean of the Faculty of Civil Engineering, and Andris Chate, manager of the Latvia State Research Programme. Finally, I would like to thank all those who helped to make this event happen. Special thanks go to Diana

  6. [Model and enlightenment from rescue of August 2nd Kunshan explosion casualty].

    PubMed

    Tan, Q; Qiu, H B; Sun, B W; Shen, Y M; Nie, L J; Zhang, H W

    2016-01-01

    On August 2nd, 2014, a massive dust explosion occurred in a factory of Kunshan, resulting in a mass casualty involving 185 burn patients. They were transported to 20 medical institutions in Jiangsu province and Shanghai. More than one thousand of medical personnel of our country participated in this emergency rescue, and satisfactory results were achieved. In this paper, the characteristics of this accident were analyzed, the positive effects of interdisciplinary cooperation were affirmed, and the contingency plan, rescue process and pattern, and reserve, organization and management of talents during this rescue process were reviewed retrospectively. PMID:27426066

  7. Easy Glide in a Coarse-Grained Mg-2Zn-2Nd Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tong; Jonas, John J.; Yue, Stephen

    2016-08-01

    Compression tests were performed at 673 K (400 °C) on a Mg-2Zn-2Nd alloy at the strain rates of 0.1, 0.01, and 0.001/s. The 0.1 and 0.01/s flow curves displayed work hardening to a peak stress at around 0.2 true strain. However, testing at 0.001/s led to steady-state flow at about 22 MPa from 0.03 true strain onwards. Such a steady-state flow is attributed to the predominance of basal slip under these conditions.

  8. PREFACE: 2nd International Meeting for Researchers in Materials and Plasma Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niño, Ely Dannier V.

    2013-11-01

    These proceedings present the written contributions of the participants of the 2nd International Meeting for Researchers in Materials and Plasma Technology, 2nd IMRMPT, which was held from February 27 to March 2, 2013 at the Pontificia Bolivariana Bucaramanga-UPB and Santander and Industrial - UIS Universities, Bucaramanga, Colombia, organized by research groups from GINTEP-UPB, FITEK-UIS. The IMRMPT, was the second version of biennial meetings that began in 2011. The three-day scientific program of the 2nd IMRMPT consisted in 14 Magisterial Conferences, 42 Oral Presentations and 48 Poster Presentations, with the participation of undergraduate and graduate students, professors, researchers and entrepreneurs from Colombia, Russia, France, Venezuela, Brazil, Uruguay, Argentina, Peru, Mexico, United States, among others. Moreover, the objective of IMRMPT was to bring together national and international researchers in order to establish scientific cooperation in the field of materials science and plasma technology; introduce new techniques of surface treatment of materials to improve properties of metals in terms of the deterioration due to corrosion, hydrogen embrittlement, abrasion, hardness, among others; and establish cooperation agreements between universities and industry. The topics covered in the 2nd IMRMPT include New Materials, Surface Physics, Laser and Hybrid Processes, Characterization of Materials, Thin Films and Nanomaterials, Surface Hardening Processes, Wear and Corrosion / Oxidation, Modeling, Simulation and Diagnostics, Plasma Applications and Technologies, Biomedical Coatings and Surface Treatments, Non Destructive Evaluation and Online Process Control, Surface Modification (Ion Implantation, Ion Nitriding, PVD, CVD). The editors hope that those interested in the are of materials science and plasma technology, enjoy the reading that reflect a wide range of topics. It is a pleasure to thank the sponsors and all the participants and contributors for

  9. [Infected chorionic hematoma as a cause of infection in the 2nd trimester].

    PubMed

    Weigel, M; Friese, K; Schmitt, W; Strittmatter, H J; Melchert, F

    1992-12-01

    Superinfected subchorionic haematomas are a rare septic focus in the 2nd trimenon. Symptoms being unspecific, the diagnosis has to be made by exclusion, in most cases. As the changes of a successful treatment of the manifest infection is poor, antibiotic prophylaxis as well as close laboratory controls and early antibiotic therapy should be discussed after sonographic diagnosis of an intrauterine haematoma. Two of our three patients reported on having suffered a miscarriage; only one pregnancy could be maintained after spontaneous depletion of the infected haemorrhage. PMID:1490559

  10. The ratio of 2nd to 4th digit length: a new predictor of disease predisposition?

    PubMed

    Manning, J T; Bundred, P E

    2000-05-01

    The ratio between the length of the 2nd and 4th digits is: (a) fixed in utero; (b) lower in men than in women; (c) negatively related to testosterone and sperm counts; and (d) positively related to oestrogen concentrations. Prenatal levels of testosterone and oestrogen have been implicated in infertility, autism, dyslexia, migraine, stammering, immune dysfunction, myocardial infarction and breast cancer. We suggest that 2D:4D ratio is predictive of these diseases and may be used in diagnosis, prognosis and in early life-style interventions which may delay the onset of disease or facilitate its early detection. PMID:10859702

  11. Second-Generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion: Small gas turbine industrial plant study

    SciTech Connect

    Shenker, J.; Garland, R.; Horazak, D.; Seifert, F.; Wenglarz, R.

    1992-07-01

    Second-Generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) plants provide a coal-fired, high-efficiency, combined-cycle system for the generation of electricity and steam. The plants use lime-based sorbents in PFB combustors to meet environmental air standards without back-end gas desulfurization equipment. The second-generation system is an improvement over earlier PFBC concepts because it can achieve gas temperatures of 2100{degrees}F and higher for improved cycle efficiency while maintaining the fluidized beds at 1600{degrees}F for enhanced sulfur capture and minimum alkali release. Second-generation PFBC systems are capable of supplying the electric and steam process needs of industrial plants. The basic second-generation system can be applied in different ways to meet a variety of process steam and electrical requirements. To evaluate the potential of these systems in the industrial market, conceptual designs have been developed for six second-generation PFBC plants. These plants cover a range of electrical outputs from 6.3 to 41.5 MWe and steam flows from 46,067 to 442,337 lb/h. Capital and operating costs have been estimated for these six plants and for equivalent (in size) conventional, coal-fired atmospheric fluidized bed combustion cogeneration plants. Economic analyses were conducted to compare the cost of steam for both the second-generation plants and the conventional plants.

  12. Second-Generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion: Small gas turbine induustrial plant study

    SciTech Connect

    Shenker, J.; Garland, R.; Horazak, D.; Seifert, F.; Wenglarz, R.

    1992-07-01

    Second-Generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) plants provide a coal-fired, high-efficiency, combined-cycle system for the generation of electricity and steam. The plants use lime-based sorbents in PFB combustors to meet environmental air standards without back-end gas desulfurization equipment. The second-generation system is an improvement over earlier PFBC concepts because it can achieve gas temperatures of 2100[degrees]F and higher for improved cycle efficiency while maintaining the fluidized beds at 1600[degrees]F for enhanced sulfur capture and minimum alkali release. Second-generation PFBC systems are capable of supplying the electric and steam process needs of industrial plants. The basic second-generation system can be applied in different ways to meet a variety of process steam and electrical requirements. To evaluate the potential of these systems in the industrial market, conceptual designs have been developed for six second-generation PFBC plants. These plants cover a range of electrical outputs from 6.3 to 41.5 MWe and steam flows from 46,067 to 442,337 lb/h. Capital and operating costs have been estimated for these six plants and for equivalent (in size) conventional, coal-fired atmospheric fluidized bed combustion cogeneration plants. Economic analyses were conducted to compare the cost of steam for both the second-generation plants and the conventional plants.

  13. Testing of candidate materials for their resistance to alkali-vapor adsorption in PFBC and gasification environments. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.H.D.; Natesan, K.; Swift, W.M.

    1995-08-01

    Laboratory-scale studies were performed to identify metallic material(s) having no, or limited, affinity for alkali vapors in an environment of either the off-gas from pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) or the fuel gas from coal gasification. Such materials would be potential candidates for use as components in advanced coal-utilization systems. The following materials were tested for adsorption of NaCl vapor at 870--875 C and atmospheric pressure in a simulated PFBC off-gas (oxidizing) doped with 80 ppmW NaCl vapor: iron-based Type 304 stainless steel (304 SS), nickel-based Hastelloy C-276 and Hastelloy X alloys, cobalt-based Haynes No. 188 alloy, noble-metal-coated 304 SS, aluminized 304 SS, and ZrO{sub 2}-coated 304 SS. The Haynes No. 188 alloy and the aluminized 304 SS were also tested for their NaCl-vapor adsorption in a simulated gasification fuel gas (reducing) under the same test conditions as in the PFBC off-gas test. After 100 h of testing, the specimens were analyzed with a SEM equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray analyzer, and by an AES. The aluminized 304 SS had the least tendency to adsorb NaCl vapor, as well as an excellent resistance to corrosion as a result of the formation of a protective layer of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} on its surface. In the reducing environment, however, the aluminized 304 SS was badly corroded by H{sub 2}S attack. The Haynes No. 188 showed virtually no NaCl-vapor adsorption and only limited H{sub 2}S attack. The authors recommend further long-term parametric studies to quantitate alkali-vapor adsorption as a function of operating variables for (1) the aluminized 304 SS in the PFBC off-gas environment and (2) the Haynes No. 188 in the gasification fuel gas environment.

  14. PFBC HGCU test facility technical progress report. First Quarter, CY 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    This is the eighteenth Technical Progress Report submitted in connection with the cooperative agreement between the DOE and Ohio Power Company for the Tidd PFBC Hot Gas Clean Up Test Facility. During this quarter, the Tidd Hot Gas Clean Up System operated for 835 hours during six separate test runs. The system was starting into a seventh run at the end of the quarter. Highlights of this period are summarized below: the longest run during the quarter was approximately 333 hours; filter pressure drop was stable during all test runs this quarter using spoiling air to the primary cyclone upstream of the Advanced Particle Filter (APF); the tempering air system was commissioned this quarter which enabled the unit to operate at full load conditions while limiting the gas temperature in the APF to 1,400 F; during a portion of the one run, the tempering air was removed and the filter operated without problems up to 1,450 F; ash sampling was performed by Battelle personnel upstream and downstream of the APF and ash loading and particle size distribution data were obtained, a summary report is included; a hot area on the APF head was successfully repaired in service; a hot spot on the top of an expansion joint was successfully repaired by drilling holes from the inside of the pipe and pumping in refractory insulation; a corrosion inspection program for the HGCU system was issued giving recommendations for points to inspect; filter internal inspections following test runs 13 and 17 revealed a light coating (up to 1/4 inch thick) of residual ash on the candles and some ash bridging between the dust sheds and inner rows of candles. Data from these inspections are included with this report.

  15. Efficacy and Safety of rAAV2-ND4 Treatment for Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Wan, Xing; Pei, Han; Zhao, Min-Jian; Yang, Shuo; Hu, Wei-Kun; He, Heng; Ma, Si-Qi; Zhang, Ge; Dong, Xiao-Yan; Chen, Chen; Wang, Dao-Wen; Li, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a mitochondrially inherited disease leading to blindness. A mitochondrial DNA point mutation at the 11778 nucleotide site of the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4) gene is the most common cause. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a recombinant adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) carrying ND4 (rAAV2-ND4) in LHON patients carrying the G11778A mutation. Nine patients were administered rAAV2-ND4 by intravitreal injection to one eye and then followed for 9 months. Ophthalmologic examinations of visual acuity, visual field, and optical coherence tomography were performed. Physical examinations included routine blood and urine. The visual acuity of the injected eyes of six patients improved by at least 0.3 log MAR after 9 months of follow-up. In these six patients, the visual field was enlarged but the retinal nerve fibre layer remained relatively stable. No other outcome measure was significantly changed. None of the nine patients had local or systemic adverse events related to the vector during the 9-month follow-up period. These findings support the feasible use of gene therapy for LHON. PMID:26892229

  16. The relation between 1st grade grey matter volume and 2nd grade math competence.

    PubMed

    Price, Gavin R; Wilkey, Eric D; Yeo, Darren J; Cutting, Laurie E

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical and numerical competence is a critical foundation for individual success in modern society yet the neurobiological sources of individual differences in math competence are poorly understood. Neuroimaging research over the last decade suggests that neural mechanisms in the parietal lobe, particularly the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) are structurally aberrant in individuals with mathematical learning disabilities. However, whether those same brain regions underlie individual differences in math performance across the full range of math abilities is unknown. Furthermore, previous studies have been exclusively cross-sectional, making it unclear whether variations in the structure of the IPS are caused by or consequences of the development of math skills. The present study investigates the relation between grey matter volume across the whole brain and math competence longitudinally in a representative sample of 50 elementary school children. Results show that grey matter volume in the left IPS at the end of 1st grade relates to math competence a year later at the end of 2nd grade. Grey matter volume in this region did not change over that year, and was still correlated with math competence at the end of 2nd grade. These findings support the hypothesis that the IPS and its associated functions represent a critical foundation for the acquisition of mathematical competence. PMID:26334946

  17. Editorial: 2nd Special Issue on behavior change, health, and health disparities.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Stephen T

    2015-11-01

    This Special Issue of Preventive Medicine (PM) is the 2nd that we have organized on behavior change, health, and health disparities. This is a topic of fundamental importance to improving population health in the U.S. and other industrialized countries that are trying to more effectively manage chronic health conditions. There is broad scientific consensus that personal behavior patterns such as cigarette smoking, other substance abuse, and physical inactivity/obesity are among the most important modifiable causes of chronic disease and its adverse impacts on population health. As such behavior change needs to be a key component of improving population health. There is also broad agreement that while these problems extend across socioeconomic strata, they are overrepresented among more economically disadvantaged populations and contribute directly to the growing problem of health disparities. Hence, behavior change represents an essential step in curtailing that unsettling problem as well. In this 2nd Special Issue, we devote considerable space to the current U.S. prescription opioid addiction epidemic, a crisis that was not addressed in the prior Special Issue. We also continue to devote attention to the two largest contributors to preventable disease and premature death, cigarette smoking and physical inactivity/obesity as well as risks of co-occurrence of these unhealthy behavior patterns. Across each of these topics we included contributions from highly accomplished policy makers and scientists to acquaint readers with recent accomplishments as well as remaining knowledge gaps and challenges to effectively managing these important chronic health problems. PMID:26257372

  18. Editorial: 2nd Special Issue on behavior change, health, and health disparities

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Stephen T.

    2016-01-01

    This Special Issue of Preventive Medicine (PM) is the 2nd that we have organized on behavior change, health, and health disparities. This is a topic of fundamental importance to improving population health in the U.S. and other industrialized countries that are trying to more effectively manage chronic health conditions. There is broad scientific consensus that personal behavior patterns such as cigarette smoking, other substance abuse, and physical inactivity/obesity are among the most important modifiable causes of chronic disease and its adverse impacts on population health. As such behavior change needs to be a key component of improving population health. There is also broad agreement that while these problems extend across socioeconomic strata, they are overrepresented among more economically disadvantaged populations and contribute directly to the growing problem of health disparities. Hence, behavior change represents an essential step in curtailing that unsettling problem as well. In this 2nd Special Issue, we devote considerable space to the current U.S. prescription opioid addiction epidemic, a crisis that was not addressed in the prior Special Issue. We also continue to devote attention to the two largest contributors to preventable disease and premature death, cigarette smoking and physical inactivity/obesity as well as risks of co-occurrence of these unhealthy behavior patterns. Across each of these topics we included contributions from highly accomplished policymakers and scientists to acquaint readers with recent accomplishments as well as remaining knowledge gaps and challenges to effectively managing these important chronic health problems. PMID:26257372

  19. Proceedings of the coal-fired power systems 94: Advances in IGCC and PFBC review meeting. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    McDaniel, H.M.; Staubly, R.K.; Venkataraman, V.K.

    1994-06-01

    The Coal-Fired Power Systems 94 -- Advances in IGCC and PFBC Review Meeting was held June 21--23, 1994, at the Morgantown Energy Center (METC) in Morgantown, West Virginia. This Meeting was sponsored and hosted by METC, the Office of Fossil Energy, and the US Department of Energy (DOE). METC annually sponsors this conference for energy executives, engineers, scientists, and other interested parties to review the results of research and development projects; to discuss the status of advanced coal-fired power systems and future plans with the industrial contractors; and to discuss cooperative industrial-government research opportunities with METC`s in-house engineers and scientists. Presentations included industrial contractor and METC in-house technology developments related to the production of power via coal-fired Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) systems, the summary status of clean coal technologies, and developments and advancements in advanced technology subsystems, such as hot gas cleanup. A keynote speaker and other representatives from the electric power industry also gave their assessment of advanced power systems. This meeting contained 11 formal sessions and one poster session, and included 52 presentations and 24 poster presentations. Volume II contains papers presented at the following sessions: filter technology issues; hazardous air pollutants; sorbents and solid wastes; and membranes. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  20. Glass fiber laser at 1. 36. mu. m from SiO sub 2 :Nd

    SciTech Connect

    Hakimi, F.; Po, H.; Tumminelli, R.; McCollum, B.C.; Zenteno, L.; Cho, N.M.; Snitzer, E. )

    1989-10-01

    By adding 14 mol % P{sub 2}O{sub 5} to the core of a SiO{sub 2}:Nd fiber, laser emission was obtained at 1.36 {mu}m. From the fluorescent spectra and laser thresholds for the {sup 4}{ital F}{sub 3/2} to {sup 4}{ital I}{sub 11/2} and {sup 4}{ital F}{sub 3/2} to {sup 4}{ital I}{sub 3/2} transitions, the net gain at 1.36 {mu}m is 0.024 dB/mW, and the ratio of excited-state absorption (the {sup 4}{ital F}{sub 3/2} to {sup 4}{ital G}{sub 1/2} transition) to stimulated emission is estimated to be 0.78.

  1. Tetragonal ZrO2:Nd3+ nanosphere: Combustion synthesis, luminescence and photoacoustic spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Santosh K.; Chandrasekhar, D.; Kadam, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    Nanocrystalline ZrO2:Nd3+ was synthesised using gel-combustion method and characterized systematically using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Through this route we can stabilize metastable tetragonal phase at 500 °C through addition of 1 mol % Nd3+ which is technologically more important. Optical characterization of the sample was done using photoluminescence (PL) and photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS). PL studies shows an intense and optimum stimulated emission cross section of 1065 nm peak corresponding to 4F3/2 → 4I11/2 which and thus it can be a probable laser material. PAS is used to investigate electronic absorption of Nd3 in zirconia. Various covalency parameters like nephelauxetic ratio (β), covalency factor (b1/2) and Sinha parameter (δ) were evaluated for pure oxide powder and as well as for Nd3+ doped zirconia.

  2. International symposium on peripheral nerve repair and regeneration and 2nd club Brunelli meeting

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The International Symposium "Peripheral Nerve Repair and Regeneration and 2nd Club Brunelli Meeting" was held on December 4-5, 2009 in Turin, Italy (Organizers: Bruno Battiston, Stefano Geuna, Isabelle Perroteau, Pierluigi Tos). Interest in the study of peripheral nerve regeneration is very much alive because complete recovery of nerve function almost never occurs after nerve reconstruction and, often, the clinical outcome is rather poor. Therefore, there is a need for defining innovative strategies for improving the success of recovery after nerve lesion and repair and this meeting was intended to discuss, from a multidisciplinary point of view, some of today's most important issues in this scientific field, arising from both basic and clinical neurosciences. PMID:20214775

  3. International symposium on peripheral nerve repair and regeneration and 2nd club Brunelli meeting.

    PubMed

    Turgut, Mehmet; Geuna, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    The International Symposium "Peripheral Nerve Repair and Regeneration and 2nd Club Brunelli Meeting" was held on December 4-5, 2009 in Turin, Italy (Organizers: Bruno Battiston, Stefano Geuna, Isabelle Perroteau, Pierluigi Tos). Interest in the study of peripheral nerve regeneration is very much alive because complete recovery of nerve function almost never occurs after nerve reconstruction and, often, the clinical outcome is rather poor. Therefore, there is a need for defining innovative strategies for improving the success of recovery after nerve lesion and repair and this meeting was intended to discuss, from a multidisciplinary point of view, some of today's most important issues in this scientific field, arising from both basic and clinical neurosciences. PMID:20214775

  4. A Perpendicular Biased 2nd Harmonic Cavity for the Fermilab Booster

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, C. Y.; Dey, J.; Madrak, R. L.; Pellico, W.; Romanov, G.; Sun, D.; Terechkine, I.

    2015-07-13

    A perpendicular biased 2nd harmonic cavity is currently being designed for the Fermilab Booster. Its purpose cavity is to flatten the bucket at injection and thus change the longitudinal beam distribution so that space charge effects are decreased. It can also with transition crossing. The reason for the choice of perpendicular biasing over parallel biasing is that the Q of the cavity is much higher and thus allows the accelerating voltage to be a factor of two higher than a similar parallel biased cavity. This cavity will also provide a higher accelerating voltage per meter than the present folded transmission line cavity. However, this type of cavity presents technical challenges that need to be addressed. The two major issues are cooling of the garnet material from the effects of the RF and the cavity itself from eddy current heating because of the 15 Hz bias field ramp. This paper will address the technical challenge of preventing the garnet from overheating.

  5. Preliminary GPS orbit combination results of the IGS 2nd reprocessing campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Kevin

    2015-04-01

    International GNSS Service (IGS) has contributed to the International Terrestrial Reference Frame by reprocessing historic GPS network data and submitting Terrestrial Reference Frame solutions and Earth Rotation Parameters. For the 2nd reprocessing campaign, Analysis Centers (ACs) used up to 21 years of GPS observation data with daily integrations. IERS2010 conventions are applied to model the physical effects of the Earth. Total eight ACs have participated (7 Global solutions, and 2 Tide Gauge solutions) by reprocessing entire time series in a consistent way using the latest models and methodology. IGS combined daily SINEX TRF and EOP combinations have already been submitted to the IERS for ITRF2013. This presentation mainly focuses on the preliminary quality assessment of the reprocessed AC orbits. Quality of the orbit products are examined by examining the repeatability between daily AC satellite ephemeris. Power spectral analysis shows the background noise characteristics of each AC products, and its periodic behaviors.

  6. [Measurement report on the horizontal position relationship between the umbilicus and the 2nd lum- bar spinal process in adults].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jingyi; Fu, Liyuan; Wang, Yueqi; Qiu, Wenqi; Yao, Miaojie; Zhao, Baixiao; Guo, Changqing

    2016-04-01

    The impact factors were explored to determine the horizontal positional relationship between the umbilicus and the 2nd lumbar spinal process in adults and to verify the accuracy of the localization of Shenshu (BL 23) via the umbilicus. The position of the umbilicus and the 2nd lumbar spinal process was measured in 100 participants and the data were analyzed through SPSS 20.0 software. It was found that the umbilicus and the 2nd lumbar process were not positioned horizontally. The positional relationship of these two sites was not apparently correlated with gender, age, body weight, body height, BMI, waistline and discomfort of lumbar region. The umbilicus was commonly and posteriorly projected on the site between the 4th and 5th lumbar vertebra. It is explained that the localization of Shenshu (BL23) via the umbilicus is not accurate. PMID:27352498

  7. Brain order disorder 2nd group report of f-EEG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lalonde, Francois; Gogtay, Nitin; Giedd, Jay; Vydelingum, Nadarajen; Brown, David; Tran, Binh Q.; Hsu, Charles; Hsu, Ming-Kai; Cha, Jae; Jenkins, Jeffrey; Ma, Lien; Willey, Jefferson; Wu, Jerry; Oh, Kenneth; Landa, Joseph; Lin, C. T.; Jung, T. P.; Makeig, Scott; Morabito, Carlo Francesco; Moon, Qyu; Yamakawa, Takeshi; Lee, Soo-Young; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Szu, Harold H.; Kaur, Balvinder; Byrd, Kenneth; Dang, Karen; Krzywicki, Alan; Familoni, Babajide O.; Larson, Louis; Harkrider, Susan; Krapels, Keith A.; Dai, Liyi

    2014-05-01

    Since the Brain Order Disorder (BOD) group reported on a high density Electroencephalogram (EEG) to capture the neuronal information using EEG to wirelessly interface with a Smartphone [1,2], a larger BOD group has been assembled, including the Obama BRAIN program, CUA Brain Computer Interface Lab and the UCSD Swartz Computational Neuroscience Center. We can implement the pair-electrodes correlation functions in order to operate in a real time daily environment, which is of the computation complexity of O(N3) for N=102~3 known as functional f-EEG. The daily monitoring requires two areas of focus. Area #(1) to quantify the neuronal information flow under arbitrary daily stimuli-response sources. Approach to #1: (i) We have asserted that the sources contained in the EEG signals may be discovered by an unsupervised learning neural network called blind sources separation (BSS) of independent entropy components, based on the irreversible Boltzmann cellular thermodynamics(ΔS < 0), where the entropy is a degree of uniformity. What is the entropy? Loosely speaking, sand on the beach is more uniform at a higher entropy value than the rocks composing a mountain - the internal binding energy tells the paleontologists the existence of information. To a politician, landside voting results has only the winning information but more entropy, while a non-uniform voting distribution record has more information. For the human's effortless brain at constant temperature, we can solve the minimum of Helmholtz free energy (H = E - TS) by computing BSS, and then their pairwise-entropy source correlation function. (i) Although the entropy itself is not the information per se, but the concurrence of the entropy sources is the information flow as a functional-EEG, sketched in this 2nd BOD report. Area #(2) applying EEG bio-feedback will improve collective decision making (TBD). Approach to #2: We introduce a novel performance quality metrics, in terms of the throughput rate of faster (

  8. The Hyphen as a Syllabification Cue in Reading Bisyllabic and Multisyllabic Words among Finnish 1st and 2nd Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Häikiö, Tuomo; Bertram, Raymond; Hyönä, Jukka

    2016-01-01

    Finnish ABC books present words with hyphens inserted at syllable boundaries. Syllabification by hyphens is abandoned in the 2nd grade for bisyllabic words, but continues for words with three or more syllables. The current eye movement study investigated how and to what extent syllable hyphens in bisyllabic ("kah-vi" "cof-fee")…

  9. Give It a Shot! Toolkit for Nurses and Other Immunization Champions Working with Secondary Schools. 2nd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer-Chu, Lynda; Wooley, Susan F.

    2008-01-01

    Adolescent immunization saves lives--but promoting immunization takes time and thought, and today's nurses and other health advocates are faced with a host of ever-expanding responsibilities in a time of reduced budgets and staff. This toolkit is thus structured as an easy and reliable resource. This 2nd edition contains: (1) a 64-page manual;…

  10. Observation in a School without Walls: Peer Observation of Teaching in a 2nd-12th Grade Independent School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salvador, Josephine

    2012-01-01

    What happens when teachers start to observe each other's classes? How do teachers make meaning of observing and being observed? What effects, if any, does requiring peer observation have on the teaching community? This research explores these questions in a qualitative study of peer observation of teaching (POT) in the 2nd-12th grades of an…

  11. The Influence of Neighborhood Density and Word Frequency on Phoneme Awareness in 2nd and 4th Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Tiffany P.; Bowles, Ryan P.; Catts, Hugh W.; Storkel, Holly L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that two lexical characteristics--neighborhood density and word frequency--interact to influence performance on phoneme awareness tasks. Methods: Phoneme awareness was examined in a large, longitudinal dataset of 2nd and 4th grade children. Using linear logistic test model, the relation…

  12. Iron metabolism in African American women during the 2nd and 3rd trimester of a high-risk pregnancy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To examine iron metabolism during the 2nd and 3rd trimester in African American women classified as a high-risk pregnancy. Design: Longitudinal. Setting: Large, university-based, urban Midwestern medical center. Participants: Convenience sample of 47 African American women classified a...

  13. Curriculum on the Edge of Survival: How Schools Fail to Prepare Students for Membership in a Democracy. 2nd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Typically, school curriculum has been viewed through the lens of preparation for the workplace or higher education, both worthy objectives. However, this is not the only lens, and perhaps not even the most powerful one to use, if the goal is to optimize the educational system. "Curriculum on the Edge of Survival, 2nd Edition," attempts to define…

  14. Conference Proceedings: 2nd European Conference of Rehabilitation International; Disability in the Family. (Brighton, England, September 18-21, 1978)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royal Association for Disability and Rehabilitation, London (England).

    The conference proceedings of the 2nd European Conference of Rehabilitation International (1978) on the theme disability in the family contains the agenda and approximately 80 papers. National presentations consider the theme in papers by representatives of Finland, Hungary, Belgium, The Netherlands, Portugal, Hong Kong, India, The German…

  15. Phase Relations of the CaO-SiO2-Nd2O3 System and the Implication for Rare Earths Recycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Thu Hoai; Malfliet, Annelies; Blanpain, Bart; Guo, Muxing

    2016-03-01

    CaO-SiO2-Nd2O3 slags were equilibrated at 1773 K and 1873 K (1500 °C and 1600 °C) for 24 hours in Ar, and quenched in water to determine the operative phase relations. The composition and crystallinity of the phases in equilibrium were determined by EPMA-WDS and EBSD, respectively. Based on these analyses, the liquid stability region was accurately determined, and a large part of the isothermal section of the phase diagram was constructed. Data resulting from this work can be used to generate a thermodynamic database for rare-earth oxide-containing systems and to support further investigation on separation of rare earths from metallurgical slags or other residues through high-temperature processing.

  16. Phase Relations of the CaO-SiO2-Nd2O3 System and the Implication for Rare Earths Recycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Thu Hoai; Malfliet, Annelies; Blanpain, Bart; Guo, Muxing

    2016-06-01

    CaO-SiO2-Nd2O3 slags were equilibrated at 1773 K and 1873 K (1500 °C and 1600 °C) for 24 hours in Ar, and quenched in water to determine the operative phase relations. The composition and crystallinity of the phases in equilibrium were determined by EPMA-WDS and EBSD, respectively. Based on these analyses, the liquid stability region was accurately determined, and a large part of the isothermal section of the phase diagram was constructed. Data resulting from this work can be used to generate a thermodynamic database for rare-earth oxide-containing systems and to support further investigation on separation of rare earths from metallurgical slags or other residues through high-temperature processing.

  17. Minimal Clinically Important Difference on Parkinson's Disease Sleep Scale 2nd Version

    PubMed Central

    Horváth, Krisztina; Aschermann, Zsuzsanna; Ács, Péter; Deli, Gabriella; Janszky, József; Komoly, Sámuel; Karádi, Kázmér; Kovács, Márton; Makkos, Attila; Faludi, Béla; Kovács, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims. The aim of the present study was to determine the estimates of minimal clinically important difference for Parkinson's Disease Sleep Scale 2nd version (PDSS-2) total score and dimensions. Methods. The subject population consisted of 413 PD patients. At baseline, MDS-UPDRS, Hoehn-Yahr Scale, Mattis Dementia Rating Scale, and PDSS-2 were assessed. Nine months later the PDSS-2 was reevaluated with the Patient-Reported Global Impression Improvement Scale. Both anchor-based techniques (within patients' score change method and sensitivity- and specificity-based method by receiver operating characteristic analysis) and distribution-based approaches (effect size calculations) were utilized to determine the magnitude of minimal clinically important difference. Results. According to our results, any improvements larger than −3.44 points or worsening larger than 2.07 points can represent clinically important changes for the patients. These thresholds have the effect size of 0.21 and −0.21, respectively. Conclusions. Minimal clinically important differences are the smallest change of scores that are subjectively meaningful to patients. Studies using the PDSS-2 as outcome measure should utilize the threshold of −3.44 points for detecting improvement or the threshold of 2.07 points for observing worsening. PMID:26539303

  18. Efficient Simulation of Wing Modal Response: Application of 2nd Order Shape Sensitivities and Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kapania, Rakesh K.; Liu, Youhua

    2000-01-01

    At the preliminary design stage of a wing structure, an efficient simulation, one needing little computation but yielding adequately accurate results for various response quantities, is essential in the search of optimal design in a vast design space. In the present paper, methods of using sensitivities up to 2nd order, and direct application of neural networks are explored. The example problem is how to decide the natural frequencies of a wing given the shape variables of the structure. It is shown that when sensitivities cannot be obtained analytically, the finite difference approach is usually more reliable than a semi-analytical approach provided an appropriate step size is used. The use of second order sensitivities is proved of being able to yield much better results than the case where only the first order sensitivities are used. When neural networks are trained to relate the wing natural frequencies to the shape variables, a negligible computation effort is needed to accurately determine the natural frequencies of a new design.

  19. Transient 2(nd) Degree Av Block Mobitz Type II: A Rare Finding in Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever.

    PubMed

    Nigam, Ashwini Kumar; Singh, Omkar; Agarwal, Ayush; Singh, Amit K; Yadav, Subhash

    2015-05-01

    Dengue has been a major problem as endemic occurs almost every year and causes a state of panic due to lack of proper diagnostic methods and facilities for proper management. Patients presenting with classical symptoms are easy to diagnose, however as a large number of cases occur every year, a number of cases diagnosed with dengue fever on occasion presents with atypical manifestations, which cause extensive evaluation of the patients, unnecessary referral to higher centre irrespective of the severity and therefore a rough idea of these manifestations must be present in the backdrop in order to prevent these problems. Involvement of cardiovascular system in dengue has been reported in previous studies, and they are usually benign and self-limited. The importance of study of conduction abnormalities is important as sometimes conduction blocks are the first sign of acute myocarditis in patients of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever in shock. We present here a case of 2(nd) Degree Mobitz Type II atrioventricular AV block in a case of Dengue Hemorrhagic fever reverting to the normal rhythm in recovery phase and no signs thereafter on follow up. PMID:26155512

  20. Wind-US Results for the AIAA 2nd Propulsion Aerodynamics Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dippold, Vance III; Foster, Lancert; Mankbadi, Mina

    2014-01-01

    This presentation contains Wind-US results presented at the 2nd Propulsion Aerodynamics Workshop. The workshop was organized by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Air Breathing Propulsion Systems Integration Technical Committee with the purpose of assessing the accuracy of computational fluid dynamics for air breathing propulsion applications. Attendees included representatives from government, industry, academia, and commercial software companies. Participants were encouraged to explore and discuss all aspects of the simulation process including the effects of mesh type and refinement, solver numerical schemes, and turbulence modeling. The first set of challenge cases involved computing the thrust and discharge coefficients for a 25deg conical nozzle for a range of nozzle pressure ratios between 1.4 and 7.0. Participants were also asked to simulate two cases in which the 25deg conical nozzle was bifurcated by a solid plate, resulting in vortex shedding (NPR=1.6) and shifted plume shock (NPR=4.0). A second set of nozzle cases involved computing the discharge and thrust coefficients for a convergent dual stream nozzle for a range of subsonic nozzle pressure ratios. The workshop committee also compared the plume mixing of these cases across various codes and models. The final test case was a serpentine inlet diffuser with an outlet to inlet area ratio of 1.52 and an offset of 1.34 times the inlet diameter. Boundary layer profiles, wall static pressure, and total pressure at downstream rake locations were examined.

  1. Introduction of the 2nd Phase of the Integrated Hydrologic Model Intercomparison Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollet, Stefan; Maxwell, Reed; Dages, Cecile; Mouche, Emmanuel; Mugler, Claude; Paniconi, Claudio; Park, Young-Jin; Putti, Mario; Shen, Chaopeng; Stisen, Simon; Sudicky, Edward; Sulis, Mauro; Ji, Xinye

    2015-04-01

    The 2nd Phase of the Integrated Hydrologic Model Intercomparison Project commenced in June 2013 with a workshop at Bonn University funded by the German Science Foundation and US National Science Foundation. Three test cases were defined and compared that are available online at www.hpsc-terrsys.de including a tilted v-catchment case; a case called superslab based on multiple slab-heterogeneities in the hydraulic conductivity along a hillslope; and the Borden site case, based on a published field experiment. The goal of this phase is to further interrogate the coupling of surface-subsurface flow implemented in various integrated hydrologic models; and to understand and quantify the impact of differences in the conceptual and technical implementations on the simulation results, which may constitute an additional source of uncertainty. The focus has been broadened considerably including e.g. saturated and unsaturated subsurface storages, saturated surface area, ponded surface storage in addition to discharge, and pressure/saturation profiles and cross-sections. Here, first results are presented and discussed demonstrating the conceptual and technical challenges in implementing essentially the same governing equations describing highly non-linear moisture redistribution processes and surface-groundwater interactions.

  2. The Influence of Instructional Climates on Time Spent in Management Tasks and Physical Activity of 2nd-Grade Students during Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Samuel W.; Robinson, Leah E.; Webster, E. Kipling; Rudisill, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of two physical education (PE) instructional climates (mastery, performance) on the percentage of time students spent in a) moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and b) management tasks during PE in 2nd-grade students. Forty-eight 2nd graders (mastery, n = 23; performance, n = 25)…

  3. Madeira Extreme Floods: 2009/2010 Winter. Case study - 2nd and 20th of February

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires, V.; Marques, J.; Silva, A.

    2010-09-01

    Floods are at world scale the natural disaster that affects a larger fraction of the population. It is a phenomenon that extends it's effects to the surrounding areas of the hydrographic network (basins, rivers, dams) and the coast line. Accordingly to USA FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency) flood can be defined as:"A general and temporary condition of partial or complete inundation of two or more acres of normally dry land area or of two or more properties from: Overflow of inland or tidal waters; Unusual and rapid accumulation or runoff of surface waters from any source; Mudflow; Collapse or subsidence of land along the shore of a lake or similar body of water as a result of erosion or undermining caused by waves or currents of water exceeding anticipated cyclical levels that result in a flood as defined above." A flash flood is the result of intense and long duration of continuous precipitation and can result in dead casualties (i.e. floods in mainland Portugal in 1967, 1983 and 1997). The speed and strength of the floods either localized or over large areas, results in enormous social impacts either by the loss of human lives and or the devastating damage to the landscape and human infrastructures. The winter of 2009/2010 in Madeira Island was characterized by several episodes of very intense precipitation (specially in December 2009 and February 2010) adding to a new record of accumulated precipitation since there are records in the island. In February two days are especially rainy with absolute records for the month of February (daily records since 1949): 111mm and 97mm on the 2nd and 20th respectively. The accumulated precipitation ended up with the terrible floods on the 20th of February causing the lost of dozens of human lives and hundreds of millions of Euros of losses The large precipitation occurrences either more intense precipitation in a short period or less intense precipitation during a larger period are sometimes the precursor of

  4. A convective divertor utilizing a 2nd-order magnetic field null

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rognlien, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    New results motivate a detailed study of a magnetic divertor concept characterized by strong plasma convection near a poloidal magnetic field (Bp) null region. The configuration is that of a near-2nd-order Bp null (Bp ~ Δ r2) , as in a snowflake divertor. The concept has 2 key features: (A) Convection spreads the heat flux between multiple divertor legs and further broadens the heat-flux profile within each leg, thereby greatly reducing target-plate heat loads. (B) The heat flux is further reduced by line radiation in each leg in detachment-like ionization zones. Theory indicates that convective turbulence arises when the poloidal plasma beta, βp = 2μ0nT/B p 2 >> 1 . Measurements in TCV now more fully quantify earlier NSTX and TCV observations of plasma mixing, and related modeling of TCV indicates that strongly enhanced null-region transport is present. Convective mixing provides a stabilizing mechanism to prevent the ionization fronts (hydrogenic and impurity) from collapsing to a highly radiating core MARFE. Also, the radiating zone maps to a very small region at the midplane owing to the very weak Bp in the convective region, thus minimizing its impact on the core plasma. Detailed calculations are reported that combine features A and B noted above. The plasma mixing mechanisms are described together with the corresponding transport model implemented in the 2D UEDGE edge transport code. UEDGE calculations are presented that quantify the roles of mixing, impurity radiation, and detachment stability for a realistic snowflake configuration. Work in collaboration with D.D. Ryutov, S.I. Krasheninnikov, and M.V. Umansky. Performed for the U.S. DoE by LLNS, LLC, LLNL, under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  5. Mechanosensitivity of the 2nd Kind: TGF-β Mechanism of Cell Sensing the Substrate Stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Cockerill, Max; Rigozzi, Michelle K.; Terentjev, Eugene M.

    2015-01-01

    Cells can sense forces applied to them, but also the stiffness of their environment. These are two different phenomena, and here we investigate the mechanosensitivity of the 2nd kind: how the cell can measure an elastic modulus at a single point of adhesion—and how the cell can receive and interpret the chemical signal released from the sensor. Our model uses the example of large latent complex of TGF-β as a sensor. Stochastic theory gives the rate of breaking of latent complex, which initiates the signaling feedback loop after the active TGF-β release and leads to a change of cell phenotype driven by the α-smooth muscle actin. We investigate the dynamic and steady-state behaviors of the model, comparing them with experiments. In particular, we analyse the timescale of approach to the steady state, the stability of the non-linear dynamical system, and how the steady-state concentrations of the key markers vary depending on the elasticity of the substrate. We discover a crossover region for values of substrate elasticity closely corresponding to that of the fibroblast to myofibroblast transition. We suggest that the cell could actively vary the parameters of its dynamic feedback loop to ‘choose’ the position of the transition region and the range of substrate elasticity that it can detect. In this way, the theory offers the unifying mechanism for a variety of phenomena, such as the myofibroblast conversion in fibrosis of wounds and lungs and smooth muscle cell dysfunction in cardiac disease. PMID:26448620

  6. PREFACE: 2nd International Conference on Competitive Materials and Technological Processes (IC-CMTP2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László, Gömze A.

    2013-12-01

    Competitiveness is one of the most important factors in our life and it plays a key role in the efficiency both of organizations and societies. The more scientifically supported and prepared organizations develop more competitive materials with better physical, chemical and biological properties and the leading companies apply more competitive equipment and technology processes. The aims of the 2nd International Conference on Competitive Materials and Technology Processes (ic-cmtp2) are the following: Promote new methods and results of scientific research in the fields of material, biological, environmental and technology sciences; Change information between the theoretical and applied sciences as well as technical and technological implantations. Promote the communication between the scientist of different nations, countries and continents. Among the major fields of interest are materials with extreme physical, chemical, biological, medical, thermal, mechanical properties and dynamic strength; including their crystalline and nano-structures, phase transformations as well as methods of their technological processes, tests and measurements. Multidisciplinary applications of materials science and technological problems encountered in sectors like ceramics, glasses, thin films, aerospace, automotive and marine industry, electronics, energy, construction materials, medicine, biosciences and environmental sciences are of particular interest. In accordance to the program of the conference ic-cmtp2, more than 250 inquiries and registrations from different organizations were received. Researchers from 36 countries in Asia, Europe, Africa, North and South America arrived at the venue of conference. Including co-authors, the research work of more than 500 scientists are presented in this volume. Professor Dr Gömze A László Chair, ic-cmtp2 The PDF also contains lists of the boards, session chairs and sponsors.

  7. The Ratio of 2nd to 4th Digit Length in Korean Alcohol-dependent Patients

    PubMed Central

    Han, Changwoo; Bae, Hwallip; Lee, Yu-Sang; Won, Sung-Doo; Kim, Dai Jin

    2016-01-01

    Objective The ratio of 2nd to 4th digit length (2D:4D) is a sexually dimorphic trait. Men have a relatively shorter second digit than fourth digit. This ratio is thought to be influenced by higher prenatal testosterone level or greater sensitivity to androgen. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between alcohol dependence and 2D:4D in a Korean sample and whether 2D:4D can be a biologic marker in alcohol dependence. Methods In this study, we recruited 87 male patients with alcohol dependence from the alcohol center of one psychiatric hospital and 52 healthy male volunteers who were all employees in the same hospital as controls. We captured images of the right and left hands of patients and controls using a scanner and extracted data with a graphics program. We measured the 2D:4D of each hand and compared the alcohol dependence group with the control group. We analyzed these ratios using an independent-samples t-test. Results The mean 2D:4D of patients was 0.934 (right hand) and 0.942 (left hand), while the mean 2D:4D of controls was 0.956 (right hand) and 0.958 (left hand). Values for both hands were significantly lower for patients than controls (p<0.001, right hand; p=0.004, left hand). Conclusion Patients who are alcohol dependent have a significantly lower 2D:4D than controls, similar to the results of previous studies, which suggest that a higher prenatal testosterone level in the gonadal period is related to alcoholism. Furthermore, 2D:4D is a possible predictive marker of alcohol dependence. PMID:27121425

  8. Differential contribution of specific working memory components to mathematics achievement in 2nd and 3rd graders.

    PubMed

    Meyer, M L; Salimpoor, V N; Wu, S S; Geary, D C; Menon, V

    2010-04-01

    The contribution of the three core components of working memory (WM) to the development of mathematical skills in young children is poorly understood. The relation between specific WM components and Numerical Operations, which emphasize computation and fact retrieval, and Mathematical Reasoning, which emphasizes verbal problem solving abilities in 48 2nd and 50 3rd graders was assessed using standardized WM and mathematical achievement measures. For 2nd graders, the central executive and phonological components predicted Mathematical Reasoning skills; whereas the visuo-spatial component predicted both Mathematical Reasoning and Numerical Operations skills in 3rd graders. This pattern suggests that the central executive and phonological loop facilitate performance during early stages of mathematical learning whereas visuo-spatial representations play an increasingly important role during later stages. We propose that these changes reflect a shift from prefrontal to parietal cortical functions during mathematical skill acquisition. Implications for learning and individual differences are discussed. PMID:21660238

  9. Neurobehavioral Evaluation System (NES): comparative performance of 2nd-, 4th-, and 8th-grade Czech children.

    PubMed

    Otto, D A; Skalik, I; House, D E; Hudnell, H K

    1996-01-01

    The Neurobehavioral Evaluation System was designed for field studies of workers, but many NES tests can be performed satisfactorily by children as young as 7 or 8 years old and a few tests, such as simple reaction time, can be performed by preschool children. However, little comparative data from children of different ages or grade levels are available. Studies of school children in the Czech Republic indicate that 2nd-grade children could perform the following NES tests satisfactorily: Finger Tapping, Visual Digit Span. Continuous Performance, Symbol-Digit Substitution, Pattern Comparison, and simpler conditions of Switching Attention. Comparative scores of boys and girls from the 2nd, 4th, and 8th grades and power analyses to estimate appropriate sample size were presented. Performance varied systematically with grade level and gender. Larger samples were needed with younger children to achieve comparable levels of statistical power. Gender comparisons indicated that boys responded faster, but made more errors than girls. PMID:8866533

  10. Physical properties of double perovskite-type barium neodymium osmate Ba{sub 2}NdOsO{sub 6}

    SciTech Connect

    Wakeshima, Makoto; Hinatsu, Yukio; Ohoyama, Kenji

    2013-01-15

    The crystal, magnetic structures and physical properties of the double perovskite-type barium neodymium osmate Ba{sub 2}NdOsO{sub 6} are investigated through powder X-ray and neutron diffraction, electrical conductivity, magnetic susceptibility, and specific heat measurements. The Rietveld analysis reveals that the Nd and Os ions are arranged with regularity over the six-coordinate B sites in a distorted perovskite ABO{sub 3} framework. The monoclinic crystal structure described by space group P2{sub 1}/n (tilt system a{sup -}a{sup -}c{sup +}) becomes more distorted with decreasing temperature from 300 K down to 2.5 K. This compound shows a long-range antiferromagnetic ordering of Os{sup 5+} below 65 K. An antiferromagnetic ordering of Nd{sup 3+} also occurs at lower temperatures ({approx}20 K). The magnetic structure is of Type I and the magnetic moments of Nd{sup 3+} and Os{sup 5+} ions are in the same direction in the ab-plane. - Graphical Abstract: The Magnetic structure of Ba{sub 2}NdOsO{sub 6} is of Type I, and the magnetic moments of the Nd{sup 3+} and Os{sup 5+} ions are in the same direction in the ab-plane. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Crystal structures of Ba{sub 2}NdOsO{sub 6} are determined to be monoclinic below 300 K. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Its electrical resistivity shows a Mott variable-range hopping behavior with localized carriers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An antiferromagnetic ordering of the Os{sup 5+}moment occurs at 65 K. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The magnetic structure of Ba{sub 2}NdOsO{sub 6} is determined to be of Type I.