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Sample records for 3-4 nx m0

  1. Magnetic properties of Sm2(Fe0.95M0.05)17Nx (M=Cr and Mn) anisotropic coarse powders with high coercivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Mikio; Majima, Kazuhiko; Shimuta, Toru; Katsuyama, Shigeru; Nagai, Hiroshi

    2002-09-01

    Sm2(Fe0.95Cr0.05)17Nx and Sm2(Fe0.95Mn0.05)17Nx coarse powders 10-70 mum in size were synthesized by crushing mother alloy ingots into 32-74 mum in particle size and subsequent nitrogenation at 748 K in a flowing mixed gas of 60 vol % H2+40 vol % NH3. The effects of Cr or Mn substitution for Fe on the nitrogenation rate, magnetic properties, and microstructure of the Sm2Fe17Nx hard magnetic material were investigated. Cr and Mn substitution was quite effective for accelerating nitrogenation. When the powders were nitrogenated beyond x=3, amorphous phase formation was observed as the x value increased. The magnetic properties of the nitrogenated powders were significantly improved by Cr and Mn substitution, and these powders also possessed a satisfactory magnetic anisotropy. The maximum coercivity in this study, 0.59 MA/m, was obtained for the Sm2(Fe0.95Mn0.05)17N5.0 powder in spite of its large particle size. The high coercivity of the coarse powders was caused by a cell-like microstructure composed of fine 2-17 crystalline grains 20-30 nm in size surrounded by an amorphous phase.

  2. Emergence and dissemination of clade 2.3.4.4 H5Nx influenza viruses-how is the Asian HPAI H5 lineage maintained.

    PubMed

    Claes, Filip; Morzaria, Subhash P; Donis, Ruben O

    2016-02-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N1) viruses containing the A/goose/Guangdong/96-like (GD/96) HA genes circulated in birds from four continents in the course of 2015 (Jan to Sept). A new HA clade, termed 2.3.4.4, emerged around 2010-2011 in China and revealed a novel propensity to reassort with NA subtypes other than N1, unlike dozens of earlier clades. Two subtypes, H5N6 and H5N8, have spread to countries in Asia (H5N6), Europe and North America (H5N8). Infections by clade 2.3.4.4 viruses are characterized by low virulence in poultry and some wild birds, contributing to wide geographical dissemination of the viruses via poultry trade and wild bird migration. PMID:26991931

  3. Serum NX-DCP as a New Noninvasive Model to Predict Significant Liver Fibrosis in Chronic Hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Masaya; Yano, Yoshihiko; Hirano, Hirotaka; Momose, Kenji; Yoshida, Masaru; Azuma, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Finding a noninvasive method to predict liver fibrosis using inexpensive and easy-to-use markers is important. Objectives: We aimed to clarify whether NX-des-γ-carboxyprothrombin (NX-DCP) could become a new noninvasive model to predict liver fibrosis in hepatitis C virus (HCV) related liver disease. Patients and Methods: We performed a prospective cohort study on a consecutive group of 101 patients who underwent liver biopsy for HCV-related liver disease at Kobe University Hospital. Laboratory measurements were performed on the same day as the biopsy. Factors associated with significant fibrosis (F3-4) were assessed by multivariate analyses. A comparison of predictive ability between multivariate factors and abovementioned noninvasive models was also performed. Results: Increase in serum NX-DCP was significantly related to increase in fibrosis stage (P = 0.006). Moreover, NX-DCP was a multivariate factor associated with the presence of significant fibrosis F 3-4 (median 21 of F0-2 group vs. median 22 of F3-4 group with P = 0.002). The AUC of NX-DCP showed no significant differences compared with those of the AST-to-platelet ratio index (APRI), modified-APRI, the Göteborg University Cirrhosis Index (GUCI), the Lok index, the Hui score, cirrhosis discriminating score (CDS) and the Pohl score (P > 0.05). Conclusions: NX-DCP correlated positively with fibrosis stage and could discriminate well between HCV-related patients with or without significant fibrosis. Moreover, NX-DCP had a similar predictive ability to the abovementioned models, and thereby could be a new noninvasive prediction tool for fibrosis. PMID:25788955

  4. 26 CFR 1.401(m)-0 - Table of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Table of contents. 1.401(m)-0 Section 1.401(m)-0...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.401(m)-0 Table of contents... section in §§ 1.401(m)-1 through 1.401(m)-5. List of Sections § 1.401(m)-1Employee contributions...

  5. Successful Pregnancy Using the NxStage Home Hemodialysis System

    PubMed Central

    Brahmbhatt, Yasmin; Ikeme, Arinze; Bhogal, Navjyot; Berghella, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy in the setting of the uremic milieu of renal disease has a lower success rate than in the normal population and is a rare event. While intensified renal replacement therapy (RRT) during pregnancy can lead to improved outcomes, most studies have focused on nocturnal hemodialysis as the main RRT in pregnancy. Although thousands of patients use the home NxStage System One short daily hemodialysis (SDHD) machine in the United States, pregnancy outcomes with this therapy are unknown. The NxStage System One uses low-volume dialysate and hence small and middle molecule clearance may differ compared to conventional therapies and affect pregnancy outcomes. We report a case of a successful conception and pregnancy using the home NxStage system. The NxStage system may provide an alternative to the more routinely used NHD or standard SDHD therapies for women of childbearing age. PMID:26949554

  6. Rear-Sided Passivation by SiNx:H Dielectric Layer for Improved Si/PEDOT:PSS Hybrid Heterojunction Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yiling; Gao, Pingqi; He, Jian; Zhou, Suqiong; Ying, Zhiqin; Yang, Xi; Xiang, Yong; Ye, Jichun

    2016-06-01

    Silicon/organic hybrid solar cells have recently attracted great attention because they combine the advantages of silicon (Si) and the organic cells. In this study, we added a patterned passivation layer of silicon nitride (SiNx:H) onto the rear surface of the Si substrate in a Si/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) hybrid solar cell, enabling an improvement of 0.6 % in the power conversion efficiency (PCE). The addition of the SiNx:H layer boosted the open circuit voltage ( V oc) from 0.523 to 0.557 V, suggesting the well-passivation property of the patterned SiNx:H thin layer that was created by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition and lithography processes. The passivation properties that stemmed from front PEDOT:PSS, rear-SiNx:H, front PEDOT:PSS/rear-SiNx:H, etc. are thoroughly investigated, in consideration of the process-related variations.

  7. 3,4-Dimethylphenol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    3,4 - Dimethylphenol ; CASRN 95 - 65 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

  8. 3.4 Radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, H.-M.; Selbach, H.-J.; Vatnitsky, S.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Fundamentals and Data in Radiobiology, Radiation Biophysics, Dosimetry and Medical Radiological Protection' of Volume 7 'Medical Radiological Physics' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII 'Advanced Materials and Technologies'. It contains the Section '3.4 Radiotherapy' of the Chapter '3 Dosimetry in Diagnostic Radiology and Radiotherapy' with the contents:

  9. NX-2G : autonomous BBOBS-NX for a highly mobile broadband seismic observation at the seafloor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiobara, Hajime; Sugioka, Hiroko; Ito, Aki; Shinohara, Masanao

    2016-04-01

    We had developed the broadband ocean bottom seismometer (BBOBS) and its new generation system (BBOBS-NX), and, with them, several practical observations have been performed to create and establish a new category of the ocean floor broadband seismology, since 1999. Now, our BBOBS and BBOBS-NX data is proved to be at acceptable level for broadband seismic analyses. Especially, the BBOBS-NX is able to obtain the low noise horizontal data comparable to the land station in periods longer than 10 s, which is adequate for modern analyses of the mantle structure. Moreover, the BBOBS(T)-NX is under practical evaluation for the mobile tilt observation at the seafloor, which will enable dense geodetic monitoring. The BBOBS-NX system must be a powerful tool, although, the current system has intrinsic limitation in opportunity of observations due to the necessary use of the submersible vehicle for the deployment and recovery. If we can use this system with almost any kind of vessels, like as the BBOBS (self pop-up system), it should lead us a true breakthrough of seafloor observations in geodynamics. Hereafter, we call the new autonomous BBOBS-NX as NX-2G in short. There are two main problems to be cleared to realize the NX-2G system. The first one is a tilt of the sensor unit on landing, which is larger than the acceptable limit of the sensor (±8°) in 47 % after our 15 free-fall deployments of the BBOBS-NX. As we had no evidence at which moment the tilt occurred, so it was observed during the BBOBS-NX deployment in the last year by attaching a video camera and an acceleration logger those were originally developed for this purpose. The only one result shows that the tilt on landing seemed determined by the final posture of the BBOBS-NX system just before the penetration into the sediment. The second problem is a required force to extract the sensor unit from the sticky clay sediment, which was about 80 kgf in maximum with the current BBOBS-NX system from in-situ measurements

  10. Structural Analysis Using NX Nastran 9.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rolewicz, Benjamin M.

    2014-01-01

    NX Nastran is a powerful Finite Element Analysis (FEA) software package used to solve linear and non-linear models for structural and thermal systems. The software, which consists of both a solver and user interface, breaks down analysis into four files, each of which are important to the end results of the analysis. The software offers capabilities for a variety of types of analysis, and also contains a respectable modeling program. Over the course of ten weeks, I was trained to effectively implement NX Nastran into structural analysis and refinement for parts of two missions at NASA's Kennedy Space Center, the Restore mission and the Orion mission.

  11. Computation of contour integrals on {{M}}_{0,n}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cachazo, Freddy; Gomez, Humberto

    2016-04-01

    Contour integrals of rational functions over {{M}}_{0,n} , the moduli space of n-punctured spheres, have recently appeared at the core of the tree-level S-matrix of massless particles in arbitrary dimensions. The contour is determined by the critical points of a certain Morse function on {{M}}_{0,n} . The integrand is a general rational function of the puncture locations with poles of arbitrary order as two punctures coincide. In this note we provide an algorithm for the analytic computation of any such integral. The algorithm uses three ingredients: an operation we call general KLT, Petersen's theorem applied to the existence of a 2-factor in any 4-regular graph and Hamiltonian decompositions of certain 4-regular graphs. The procedure is iterative and reduces the computation of a general integral to that of simple building blocks. These are integrals which compute double-color-ordered partial amplitudes in a bi-adjoint cubic scalar theory.

  12. Electron Energization During m=0 Magnetic Bursts in MST plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, W. C.; den Hartog, D. J.; Morton, L. A.; MST Team

    2015-11-01

    MST reversed-field pinch plasmas develop magnetic modes with both a core-resonant poloidal mode m=1 structure and edge-resonant m=0 structure on the reversal surface. The impact of the m=0 modes on electron energization has been observed with Thomson scattering under plasma conditions with suppressed m=1 modes. Under such conditions, the m=0 modes undergo brief (~100 μs) bursts of localized magnetic activity. These bursts show a localized 4% heating of electrons above a 600-900 eV background temperature, associated with a reduction of magnetic energy. An inward propagating cold pulse follows after the heating as a result of reduced confinement. Ensembles of hundreds of bursts are required to measure small relative heating, however single-shot results from MST's high repetition Thomson scattering diagnostic support the ensemble results. Analysis of Thomson scattering data also provides constraints on non-Maxwellian distributions and upcoming upgrades will improve the ability to resolve electron currents associated with the magnetic bursts. This work is supported by the US DOE and NSF.

  13. Alloying of GaNxAs1-x with InNxAs1-x: A simple formula for the band gap parametrization of Ga1-yInyNxAs1-x alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudrawiec, R.

    2007-01-01

    It has been shown that the band gap energy of dilute nitride ternary alloys (Ga1-yInyNxAs1-x in this case) can be predicted by knowing the band gap energy for dilute nitride binary alloys (GaNxAs1-x and InNxAs1-x alloys in this case) and a bowing parameter. The band gap energy for GaNxAs1-x and InNxAs1-x can be calculated after the band anticrossing (BAC) model [W. Shan et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1221 (1999)] or other formula, whereas the bowing parameter can be assumed to be the same as for the GaInAs alloy. This approach does not require the BAC parameters related to Ga1-yInyNxAs1-x and can be applied for other dilute nitride ternary alloys. The obtained band gap predictions are in good agreement with available experimental data for as-grown GaInNAs materials. It means that the proposed energy gap parametrization corresponds to the random environment of N atoms by Ga and In atoms since alloying of GaNxAs1-x with InNxAs1-x also corresponds to alloying of Ga-rich environment of N atoms (which is expected for the as-grown GaInNAs material with low indium content) with In-rich environment of N atoms (which is expected for the as-grown GaInNAs material with high indium content).

  14. Constructing optimal entanglement witnesses. II. Witnessing entanglement in 4Nx4N systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chruscinski, Dariusz; Pytel, Justyna

    2010-11-15

    We provide a class of optimal nondecomposable entanglement witnesses for 4Nx4N composite quantum systems or, equivalently, another construction of nondecomposable positive maps in the algebra of 4Nx4N complex matrices. This construction provides natural generalization of the Robertson map. It is shown that their structural physical approximations give rise to entanglement breaking channels.

  15. Des-γ-Carboxyprothrombin (DCP) and NX-DCP Expressions and Their Relationship with Clinicopathological Features in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sumi, Akiko; Akiba, Jun; Ogasawara, Sachiko; Nakayama, Masamichi; Nomura, Yoriko; Yasumoto, Makiko; Sanada, Sakiko; Nakashima, Osamu; Abe, Toshi; Yano, Hirohisa

    2015-01-01

    Aim Des-γ-carboxyprothrombin (DCP) has been used as a tumor marker for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Recently the DCP/NX-DCP ratio, calculated by dividing DCP by NX-DCP, has been reported useful in detecting HCC. The purpose of this study is to clarify the significance of DCP and NX-DCP expression in HCC tissues. Methods HCC and non-HCC tissue samples were obtained from 157 patients and were immunohistochemically examined for DCP and NX-DCP expression using anti-DCP antibody and anti-NX-DCP antibody. DCP and NX-DCP expression scores were calculated by multiplying staining intensity grade by percentage of stained area. Serum DCP and NX-DCP levels were determined in 89 patients. We evaluated the relationship between tumor expression, serum level, and pathomorphological findings. Results Intrahepatic metastasis (im) was significantly more frequent in cases with high DCP expression than in cases with low DCP expression. High NX-DCP expression was associated with significantly lower histological grade, and less frequent im or portal vein invasion (vp) than low NX-DCP expression. Serum DCP was correlated with DCP expression, but serum NX-DCP was not correlated with NX-DCP expression. DCP-positive (≥40 mAU/L), NX-DCP-positive (≥90 mAU/L), and DCP/NX-DCP ratio-positive (≥1.5) cases were associated with significantly larger tumor size and more frequent vp than negative cases. DCP was rarely expressed, but NX-DCP was frequently expressed in non-cancerous liver tissues. Patients with NX-DCP expression-negative tumors showed a lower survival rate than those with NX-DCP expression-positive tumors (p = 0.04), whereas the survival in serum NX-DCP-positive cases was lower than that of serum negative cases (p = 0.02). Conclusions DCP and NX-DCP were produced in HCC tissues, but differed in expression level and biological properties. DCP expression, serum DCP or NX-DCP level, and DCP/NX-DCP ratio were closely related to malignant properties of HCC. PMID:25739032

  16. The enigma of the apparent disappearance of Eurasian highly pathogenic H5 clade 2.3.4.4 influenza A viruses in North American waterfowl.

    PubMed

    Krauss, Scott; Stallknecht, David E; Slemons, Richard D; Bowman, Andrew S; Poulson, Rebecca L; Nolting, Jacqueline M; Knowles, James P; Webster, Robert G

    2016-08-01

    One of the major unresolved questions in influenza A virus (IAV) ecology is exemplified by the apparent disappearance of highly pathogenic (HP) H5N1, H5N2, and H5N8 (H5Nx) viruses containing the Eurasian hemagglutinin 2.3.4.4 clade from wild bird populations in North America. The introduction of Eurasian lineage HP H5 clade 2.3.4.4 H5N8 IAV and subsequent reassortment with low-pathogenic H?N2 and H?N1 North American wild bird-origin IAVs in late 2014 resulted in widespread HP H5Nx IAV infections and outbreaks in poultry and wild birds across two-thirds of North America starting in November 2014 and continuing through June 2015. Although the stamping out strategies adopted by the poultry industry and animal health authorities in Canada and the United States-which included culling, quarantining, increased biosecurity, and abstention from vaccine use-were successful in eradicating the HP H5Nx viruses from poultry, these activities do not explain the apparent disappearance of these viruses from migratory waterfowl. Here we examine current and historical aquatic bird IAV surveillance and outbreaks of HP H5Nx in poultry in the United States and Canada, providing additional evidence of unresolved mechanisms that restrict the emergence and perpetuation of HP avian influenza viruses in these natural reservoirs. PMID:27457948

  17. IR spectra of ICPCVD SiNx thin films for MEMS structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudakov, G.; Reshetnikov, I.

    2015-11-01

    Optical properties of non-stoichiometric silicon nitride (SiNx) films for thermo sensitive membranes of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and microoptomechanical systems (MOMS) has been studied applying infrared (IR) spectroscopy. For the structures SiNx/Si and (thin metal layer)/SiNx/Si transmission and reflection spectra in the region of wave numbers of 500-7000 cm-1 has been investigated. For the investigated structures analysis of optical properties observed in the IR spectra both in the form of selective absorption bands and interference modulation of a baseline was conducted.

  18. Digital development of products with NX9 for academical areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goanta, A. M.

    2015-11-01

    International competitiveness forced the manufacturing enterprises to look for new ways to accelerate the development of digital products through innovation, global alliances and strategic partnerships. In an environment of global research and development of distributed geographically, all members of the joint teams made up of companies and universities need to access updated and accurate information about products created by any of the type employed, student, teacher. Current design processes involve more complex products consisting of elements of design created by multiple teams, disciplines and suppliers using independent CAD systems. Even when using a 3D CAD mature technology, many companies fail to significantly reduce losses in the process, improve product quality or product type to ensure successful innovations to market arouse interest. These challenges require a radical rethinking of the business model, which belongs to the field of design, which must be based on digital development of products based on integrated files. Through this work, the author has proposed to provide both synthesis and transformations brought news of the integrated NX [1, 2, 3] from Siemens PLM Software 9, following a news results detailed documentary study, and personal results obtained by applying the same version, the digital and integrated development of a product type device test beams. Based on educational license received for NX 9 was made a detailed study of the innovations made by this release, and the application of some of them went to graphical modelling and getting all the documentation of a test device bearing beams. Also, were synthesized in terms of methodology, the steps to take to obtain graphical documentation. The results consist of: 3D models of all parts and assembly 3D model of the three-dimensional constraints of all component parts and not least respectively all drawings and assembly drawing. The most important consequence of the paper is the obtaining of

  19. Research on an AlSiNx bi-material thermal-mechanical uncooled infrared FPA pixel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xia; Zhang, Da-cheng

    2011-08-01

    AlSiNx bi-material thermal strain structure is used in uncooled optic readout infrared focal plane array (UOR IR FPA) pixel based on Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) technology. In this paper, the problems that the AlSiNxstructure prevents FPA pixel scaling down and fill factor improving, and the Au reflection layer of the pixel leads to larger readout light energy loss are analyzed. The feasibility of AlSiNx instead of AlSiNx in the UOR IR FPA fabrication is researched in detail. The theoretical analyzing and simulation results demonstrate that, with optimized thicknesses and their matching designing of SiNx and Al, the thermal-mechanical response of AlSiNx bi-material structure is improved to 1.8 times and the intensity of optic readout signal is improved to about 2 times compared with AuSiNAlSiNx one.

  20. Characterization of a rapid thermal anneal TiNxOy/TiSi2 contact barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, V. Q.

    1989-07-01

    In this paper, the physical and electrical properties of a TiNxOy/TiSi2 dual layer contact barrier are reported. The TiNxOy/TiSi2 barrier was formed by rapidly annealing a Ti thin film on Si in an N2 ambient. During this process, the Ti film surface reacts with N2 to form a TiNxOy skin layer and the bulk of the Ti film reacts with Si to form an underlying TiSi2 layer. The influences of rapid thermal anneal (RTA) conditions on the TiNxOy layer were investigated by varying the RTA temperature from 600 to 1100° C and cycle duration from 30 to 100 s. It is found that the resulting TiNxOy and TiSi2 layer thicknesses are dependent on RTA temperature and the starting Ti thickness. For a starting Ti thickness of 500Å, 150Å thick TiNxOy and 800Å thick TiSi2 are obtained after an RTA at 900° C for 30 s. The TiNxOy thickness is limited by a fast diffusion of Si into Ti to form TiSi2. When a Ti film is deposited on SiO2, Ti starts to react with SiO2 from 600° C and a significant reduction of the SiO2 thickness is observed after an RTA at 900° C. The resulting layer is composed of a surface TiNxOy layer followed by a complex layer of titanium oxide and titanium suicide. In addition, when Ti is depos-ited on TiSi2, thicker TiNxOy and TiSi2 layers are obtained after RTA. This is because the TiSi2 layer retards the diffusion of Si from the underlying substrate into the Ti layer. NMOSFETs were fabricated using the TiNxOy/TiSi2 as a contact barrier formed by RTA at 900° C for 30 s and a significant reduction of contact resistance was obtained. In addition, electromigration test at a high current density indicated that a significant improvement in mean time to failure (MTF) has been obtained with the barrier.

  1. Soft x-ray yield from NX2 plasma focus

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.; Rawat, R. S.; Lee, P.; Saw, S. H.

    2009-07-15

    The Lee model code is used to compute neon soft x-ray yield Y{sub sxr} for the NX2 plasma focus as a function of pressure. Comparison with measured Y{sub sxr} shows reasonable agreement in the Y{sub sxr} versus pressure curve, the absolute maximum yield as well as the optimum pressure. This gives confidence that the code gives a good representation of the neon plasma focus in terms of gross properties including speeds and trajectories and soft x-ray yields, despite its lack of modeling localized regions of higher densities and temperatures. Computed current curves versus pressure are presented and discussed particularly in terms of the dynamic resistance of the axial phase. Computed gross properties of the plasma focus including peak discharge current I{sub peak}, pinch current I{sub pinch}, minimum pinch radius r{sub min}, plasma density at the middle duration of pinch n{sub pinch}, and plasma temperature at middle duration of pinch T{sub pinch} are presented and the trends in variation of these are discussed to explain the peaking of Y{sub sxr} at optimum pressure.

  2. Backbone NxH compounds at high pressures.

    PubMed

    Goncharov, Alexander F; Holtgrewe, Nicholas; Qian, Guangrui; Hu, Chaohao; Oganov, Artem R; Somayazulu, Maddury; Stavrou, Elissaios; Pickard, Chris J; Berlie, Adam; Yen, Fei; Mahmood, Mahmood; Lobanov, Sergey S; Konôpková, Zuzana; Prakapenka, Vitali B

    2015-06-01

    Optical and synchrotron x-ray diffraction diamond anvil cell experiments have been combined with first-principles theoretical structure predictions to investigate mixtures of N2 and H2 up to 55 GPa. Our experiments show the formation of structurally complex van der Waals compounds [see also D. K. Spaulding et al., Nat. Commun. 5, 5739 (2014)] above 10 GPa. However, we found that these NxH (0.5 < x < 1.5) compounds transform abruptly to new oligomeric materials through barochemistry above 47 GPa and photochemistry at pressures as low as 10 GPa. These oligomeric compounds can be recovered to ambient pressure at T < 130 K, whereas at room temperature, they can be metastable on pressure release down to 3.5 GPa. Extensive theoretical calculations show that such oligomeric materials become thermodynamically more stable in comparison to mixtures of N2, H2, and NH3 above approximately 40 GPa. Our results suggest new pathways for synthesis of environmentally benign high energy-density materials. These materials could also exist as alternative planetary ices. PMID:26049497

  3. Behavior of m =0 Modes in DEBS Modeling and MST Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, D.; Hesse, R.; Martin, D.; den Hartog, D. J.; Jacobson, C. M.; McCollam, K. J.; Nornberg, M. D.; Reusch, J. A.

    2015-11-01

    In the reversed field pinch (RFP), poloidal mode number m =0 fluctuations are driven through nonlinear coupling with unstable m =1 tearing modes. Many relaxation processes are strongly linked to the behavior of the m =0 modes and hence understanding and controlling them has high leverage for many physics studies. We explore the dependence of m =0 modes on several key parameters in both MST experiments and visco-resistive MHD simulations using the DEBS code. In both experiment and code, m =0 modes are suppressed by removing their resonant surface from the plasma though the suppression is more complete in the experiment. Reduced m =0 magnetic mode amplitudes are correlated with a reduction in the m =1 mode velocity fluctuations in both experiment and code. The time scale for m =0 mode amplitudes to rise and fall during relaxation events does not depend strongly on the degree of magnetic field reversal in the experiment or in the code. Systematic variation of the Lundquist number and magnetic Prandtl number in the code shows that both resistivity and viscosity affect the temporal evolution of the m =0 modes during relaxation events. The effect of the edge resistivity profile and the electric field boundary condition on m =0 modes is also examined in the code. These observations are discussed in relation to the nonlinearly driven reconnection paradigm for m =0 mode evolution. This work has been supported by the US DOE and NSF.

  4. Novel Sequence-Based Mapping of Recently Emerging H5NX Influenza Viruses Reveals Pandemic Vaccine Candidates

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Christopher S.; DeDiego, Marta L.; Thakar, Juilee; Topham, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, an avian influenza virus, H5NX subclade 2.3.4.4, emerged and spread to North America. This subclade has frequently reassorted, leading to multiple novel viruses capable of human infection. Four cases of human infections, three leading to death, have already occurred. Existing vaccine strains do not protect against these new viruses, raising a need to identify new vaccine candidate strains. We have developed a novel sequence-based mapping (SBM) tool capable of visualizing complex protein sequence data sets using a single intuitive map. We applied SBM on the complete set of avian H5 viruses in order to better understand hemagglutinin protein variance amongst H5 viruses and identify any patterns associated with this variation. The analysis successfully identified the original reassortments that lead to the emergence of this new subclade of H5 viruses, as well as their known unusual ability to re-assort among neuraminidase subtypes. In addition, our analysis revealed distinct clusters of 2.3.4.4 variants that would not be covered by existing strains in the H5 vaccine stockpile. The results suggest that our method may be useful for pandemic candidate vaccine virus selection. PMID:27494186

  5. Novel Sequence-Based Mapping of Recently Emerging H5NX Influenza Viruses Reveals Pandemic Vaccine Candidates.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Christopher S; DeDiego, Marta L; Thakar, Juilee; Topham, David J

    2016-01-01

    Recently, an avian influenza virus, H5NX subclade 2.3.4.4, emerged and spread to North America. This subclade has frequently reassorted, leading to multiple novel viruses capable of human infection. Four cases of human infections, three leading to death, have already occurred. Existing vaccine strains do not protect against these new viruses, raising a need to identify new vaccine candidate strains. We have developed a novel sequence-based mapping (SBM) tool capable of visualizing complex protein sequence data sets using a single intuitive map. We applied SBM on the complete set of avian H5 viruses in order to better understand hemagglutinin protein variance amongst H5 viruses and identify any patterns associated with this variation. The analysis successfully identified the original reassortments that lead to the emergence of this new subclade of H5 viruses, as well as their known unusual ability to re-assort among neuraminidase subtypes. In addition, our analysis revealed distinct clusters of 2.3.4.4 variants that would not be covered by existing strains in the H5 vaccine stockpile. The results suggest that our method may be useful for pandemic candidate vaccine virus selection. PMID:27494186

  6. The geographic distribution and complex evolutionary history of the NX-2 trichothecene chemotype from Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Amy; Proctor, Robert H; Belzile, Francois; Chulze, Sofia N; Clear, Randall M; Cowger, Christina; Elmer, Wade; Lee, Theresa; Obanor, Friday; Waalwijk, Cees; Ward, Todd J

    2016-10-01

    Fusarium graminearum and 21 related species comprising the F. sambucinum species complex lineage 1 (FSAMSC-1) are the most important Fusarium Head Blight pathogens of cereal crops world-wide. FSAMSC-1 species typically produce type B trichothecenes. However, some F. graminearum strains were recently found to produce a novel type A trichothecene (NX-2) resulting from functional variation in the trichothecene biosynthetic enzyme Tri1. We used a PCR-RFLP assay targeting the TRI1 gene to identify the NX-2 allele among a global collection of 2515 F. graminearum. NX-2 isolates were only found in southern Canada and the northern U.S., where they were observed at low frequency (1.8%), but over a broader geographic range and set of cereal hosts than previously recognized. Phylogenetic analyses of TRI1 and adjacent genes produced gene trees that were incongruent with the history of species divergence within FSAMSC-1, indicating trans-species evolution of ancestral polymorphism. In addition, placement of NX-2 strains in the TRI1 gene tree was influenced by the accumulation of nonsynonymous substitutions associated with the evolution of the NX-2 chemotype, and a significant (P<0.001) change in selection pressure was observed along the NX-2 branch (ω=1.16) in comparison to other branches (ω=0.17) in the TRI1 phylogeny. Parameter estimates were consistent with positive selection for specific amino-acid changes during the evolution of NX-2, but direct tests of positive selection were not significant. Phylogenetic analyses of fourfold degenerate sites and intron sequences in TRI1 indicated the NX-2 chemotype had a single evolutionary origin and evolved recently from a type B ancestor. Our results indicate the NX-2 chemotype may be indigenous, and possibly endemic, to southern Canada and the northern U.S. In addition, we demonstrate that the evolution of TRI1 within FSAMSC-1 has been complex, with evidence of trans-species evolution and chemotype-specific shifts in selective

  7. The potential for NX-1207 in benign prostatic hyperplasia: an update for clinicians

    PubMed Central

    Cowan, Barrett

    2011-01-01

    Lower urinary tract symptoms associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) affect many older men and can have a significant impact on health-related quality of life. BPH is a progressive condition that may lead to complications including acute urinary retention. There exists an unmet need for a safe and effective, office-based, catheter-free therapy for BPH patients. NX-1207 is a promising first-in-class drug currently in phase III trials for the treatment of BPH. This review provides an overview of the NX-1207 trial program and considers its potential application for patients with symptoms related to BPH. NX-1207 is administered as an office-based procedure by transrectal intraprostatic injection under ultrasound guidance. NX-1207 has selective pro-apoptotic properties, which induce focal cell loss in prostate tissue, leading to prostate volume reduction with both short- and long-term symptomatic improvement. In four US clinical trials to date, NX-1207 has shown evidence of symptomatic improvement substantially better than currently approved BPH medications with no significant safety issues. Larger phase III trials are ongoing to confirm further the efficacy, safety, and tolerability for this minimally invasive, anesthetic-free, clinic-based treatment for BPH. PMID:23251763

  8. Multiple M0-brane system in an arbitrary eleven-dimensional supergravity background

    SciTech Connect

    Bandos, Igor A.

    2010-11-15

    The equations of motion of multiple M0-brane (multiple M-wave or mM0) systems in an arbitrary D=11 supergravity superspace, which generalize the matrix model equations for the case of interaction with a generic 11-dimensional supergravity background, are obtained in the frame of the superembedding approach. We also derive the Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfeld (BPS) equations for supersymmetric bosonic solutions of these mM0 equations and show that the set of 1/2 BPS solutions contain a fuzzy sphere modeling M2 brane as well as that the Nahm equation appears as a particular case of the 1/4 BPS equations.

  9. NxStage dialysis system-associated thrombocytopenia: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Sekkarie, Mohamed; Waldron, Michelle; Reynolds, Texas

    2016-01-01

    Thrombocytopenia in hemodialysis patients has recently been reported to be commonly caused by electron-beam sterilization of dialysis filters. We report the occurrence of thrombocytopenia in the first two patients of a newly established home hemodialysis program. The 2 patients switched from conventional hemodialysis using polysulfone electron-beam sterilized dialyzers to a NxStage system, which uses gamma sterilized polyehersulfone dialyzers incorporated into a drop-in cartridge. The thrombocytopenia resolved after return to conventional dialysis in both patients and recurred upon rechallenge in the patient who opted to retry NxStage. This is the first report of thrombocytopenia with the NxStage system according to the authors’ knowledge. Dialysis-associated thrombocytopenia pathophysiology and clinical significance are not well understood and warrant additional investigations. PMID:26521886

  10. High performance AlGaN/GaN HEMTs with AlN/SiNx passivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Tan; Yuanjie, Lü; Guodong, Gu; Li, Wang; Shaobo, Dun; Xubo, Song; Hongyu, Guo; Jiayun, Yin; Shujun, Cai; Zhihong, Feng

    2015-07-01

    AlGaN/GaN high electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) with 5 nm AlN passivation by plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) were fabricated, covered by 50 nm SiNx which was grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). With PEALD AlN passivation, current collapse was suppressed more effectively and the devices show better subthreshold characteristics. Moreover, the insertion of AlN increased the RF transconductance, which lead to a higher cut-off frequency. Temperature dependence of DC characteristics demonstrated that the degradations of drain current and maximum transconductance at elevated temperatures for the AlN/SiNx passivated devices were much smaller compared with the devices with SiNx passivation, indicating that PEALD AlN passivation can improve the high temperature operation of the AlGaN/GaN HEMTs. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 60890192).

  11. NxRepair: error correction in de novo sequence assembly using Nextera mate pairs.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Rebecca R; O'Connell, Jared; Cox, Anthony J; Schulz-Trieglaff, Ole

    2015-01-01

    Scaffolding errors and incorrect repeat disambiguation during de novo assembly can result in large scale misassemblies in draft genomes. Nextera mate pair sequencing data provide additional information to resolve assembly ambiguities during scaffolding. Here, we introduce NxRepair, an open source toolkit for error correction in de novo assemblies that uses Nextera mate pair libraries to identify and correct large-scale errors. We show that NxRepair can identify and correct large scaffolding errors, without use of a reference sequence, resulting in quantitative improvements in the assembly quality. NxRepair can be downloaded from GitHub or PyPI, the Python Package Index; a tutorial and user documentation are also available. PMID:26056623

  12. Intel NX to PVM 3.2 message passing conversion library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arthur, Trey; Nelson, Michael L.

    1993-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center has developed a library that allows Intel NX message passing codes to be executed under the more popular and widely supported Parallel Virtual Machine (PVM) message passing library. PVM was developed at Oak Ridge National Labs and has become the defacto standard for message passing. This library will allow the many programs that were developed on the Intel iPSC/860 or Intel Paragon in a Single Program Multiple Data (SPMD) design to be ported to the numerous architectures that PVM (version 3.2) supports. Also, the library adds global operations capability to PVM. A familiarity with Intel NX and PVM message passing is assumed.

  13. Isotropic plasma etching of Ge Si and SiNx films

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Henry, Michael David; Douglas, Erica Ann

    2016-05-01

    This study reports on selective isotropic dry etching of chemically vapor deposited (CVD) Ge thin film, release layers using a Shibaura chemical downstream etcher (CDE) with NF3 and Ar based plasma chemistry. Relative etch rates between Ge, Si and SiNx are described with etch rate reductions achieved by adjusting plasma chemistry with O2. Formation of oxides reducing etch rates were measured for both Ge and Si, but nitrides or oxy-nitrides created using direct injection of NO into the process chamber were measured to increase Si and SiNx etch rates while retarding Ge etching.

  14. Formation and coarsening of near-surface Ga nanoparticles on SiNx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canniff, J. C.; Jeon, S.; Huang, S.; Goldman, R. S.

    2015-06-01

    We have investigated the formation and coarsening of near-surface Ga nanoparticles (NPs) in SiNx using Ga+ focused-ion-beam-irradiation of SiNx, followed by rapid thermal annealing. For surfaces with minimal curvature, diffusive growth is apparent, leading to nearly close packed arrays with NP diameters as small as 3 nm and densities as high as ˜4 × 1012 cm-2. The diffusive flux increases with annealing temperature, leading to NP coarsening by Ostwald ripening. For surfaces with increased curvature, diffusion towards the valleys also increases during annealing, leading to Ga NP coalescence and a bi-modal distribution of NP sizes.

  15. Impurity-Band Model for GaP1-xNx

    SciTech Connect

    Fluegel, B.; Zhang, Y.; Geisz, J. F.; Mascarenhas, A.

    2005-11-01

    Low-temperature absorption studies on free-standing GaP1-xNx films provide direct experimental evidence that the host conduction-band minimum (CBM) near X1C does not plunge downward with increased nitrogen doping, contrary to what has been suggested recently; rather, it remains stationary for x up to 0.1%. This fact, combined with the results of earlier studies of the CBM at ..GAMMA.. and conduction-band edge near L, confirms that the giant bandgap lowering observed in GaP1-xNx results from a CBM that evolves purely from nitrogen impurity bands.

  16. Roles of SiNx layers in light trapping and carrier collection of nanostructured crystalline Si solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Yunae; Kim, Eunah; Gwon, Minji; Kim, Dong-Wook; Park, Hyeong-Ho; Kim, Joondong

    We investigated optical properties and photovoltaic (PV) performance of nanostructured Si solar cells with and without SiNx dielectric layers. The SiNx layer contributed to the enhancement of internal quantum efficiency of the nanostructured cells at both short and long wavelengths. In contrast, the surface passivation of SiNx layers on flat cells helped the carrier collection mainly at short wavelength. The surface nanopatterned array enhanced the optical absorption and also concentrated incoming light near the surface in broad wavelength range, revealed by experimental data and optical simulation results. As a result, the nanostructured cells had high density of photo-generated carriers near the surface. This could lead to significant recombination loss of the cells without SiNx layers. Our work suggested that the SiNx layer played a crucial role in the improved carrier collection of the nanostructured Si PV devices.

  17. Plan Turbines 3 & 4, Side View Turbines ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Plan - Turbines 3 & 4, Side View - Turbines 3 & 4, Section A-A - American Falls Water, Power & Light Company, Island Power Plant, Snake River, below American Falls Dam, American Falls, Power County, ID

  18. 38 CFR 3.4 - Compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compensation. 3.4 Section 3.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3.4 Compensation. (a) Compensation. This term means a monthly payment made by...

  19. Defect termination on crystalline silicon surfaces by hydrogen for improvement in the passivation quality of catalytic chemical vapor-deposited SiNx and SiNx/P catalytic-doped layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cham Thi, Trinh; Koyama, Koichi; Ohdaira, Keisuke; Matsumura, Hideki

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the role of hydrogen (H) in the improvement in the passivation quality of silicon nitride (SiNx) prepared by catalytic chemical vapor deposition (Cat-CVD) and Cat-CVD SiNx/phosphorus (P) Cat-doped layers on crystalline silicon (c-Si) by annealing. Both structures show promising passivation capabilities for c-Si with extremely low surface recombination velocity (SRV) on n-type c-Si. Defect termination by H is evaluated on the basis of defect density (Nd) determined by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy and interface state density (Dit) calculated by the Terman method. The two parameters are found to be drastically decreased by annealing after SiNx deposition. The calculated average Dit at midgap (Dit-average) is 2.2 × 1011 eV-1 cm-2 for the SiNx/P Cat-doped c-Si sample with a SRV of 2 cm/s, which is equivalent to 3.1 × 1011 eV-1 cm-2 for the SiNx/c-Si sample with a SRV of 5 cm/s after annealing. The results indicate that H atoms play a critical role in the reduction in Dit for SiNx/c-Si and SiNx/P Cat-doped c-Si, resulting in a drastic reduction in SRV by annealing.

  20. The Equation R[subscript n]x = b over Rhotrices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aminu, Abdulhadi

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we consider the concept of rhotrices and present one-sided system of the form R[subscript n]x = b, where R[subscript n] is an n-dimensional rhotrix, x the unknown n-dimensional rhotrix vector and b the right-hand-side rhotrix vector.

  1. The geographic distribution and complex evolutionary history of the NX-2 trichothecene chemotype from Fusarium graminearum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    F. graminearum and 21 related species form a species complex (FSAMSC-1) characterized by production of type B trichothecenes. However, some F. graminearum strains were recently found to produce NX-2, a novel type A trichothecene, resulting from variation in the trichothecene biosynthetic enzyme Tri1...

  2. High-frequency electromagnetic properties of soft magnetic Y2Fe17Nx particles with easy-plane anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Guoguo; Zhang, Yongbo; Qiao, Liang; Wang, Tao; Wang, Jianbo; Li, Fashen

    2015-11-01

    The microwave magnetic properties of the soft magnetic Y2Fe17Nx (x≈3) particles with easy-plane anisotropy were reported. The high MS and out-of-plane anisotropy result in the high permeability in GHz frequency band. The complex permeability of the Y2Fe17Nx particles/paraffin composite was further enhanced by inducing the easy magnetization planes of the particles to be parallel to each other through a rotational orientation. The calculated reflection loss (RL) properties of the orientated Y2Fe17Nx composite revealed that this composite can be used as high-performance absorber in S band.

  3. Possibility of tilt observation at the sea floor by using the BBOBST-NX system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiobara, H.; Ito, A.; Sugioka, H.; Shinohara, M.

    2014-12-01

    Since 1999, we had developed the broadband ocean bottom seismometer (BBOBS) and its new generation system (BBOBS-NX), and, with them, performed several practical observations to create a new category of the ocean floor broadband seismology. Now, the BBOBS data is proved to be acceptable for broadband seismic analyses. In these studies, the period range mostly used is about 10 - 200 s, but in longer period range, i.e. geodetic range, is unknown region in the sea floor observation. High mobility of our BBOBS and BBOBS-NX can be a breakthrough to realize the geodetic observation network on the sea floor. Two kinds of attempts to expand observation range toward the geodetic one have been started since 2009, based on our BBOBS technology. One is for detecting vertical displacement by attaching an absolute pressure gauge (APG) in the BBOBS system. The highly stable frequency oscillator within the OBS recorder is adequate for precise pressure measurement of the APG. This BBOBS+APG system has been operated since 2009. In this presentation, we will report results of several test experiments for the tilt observation just beneath the sea floor by using the BBOBS-NX system, as the second one. The tilt is measured by using two horizontal mass position signals of the sensor. The first test observation was performed by using the same sensor of the BBOBS-NX at the land observatory in 2010. The result was comparable with that of the water tube tilt-meter there. After the in situ test for 2 months at the sea floor in the Shikoku Basin in 2012, we started the practical tilt observation at the sea floor off Boso peninsula (KAP3 site) as the feasibility study between April 2013 and April 2014. The deployment and recovery were performed by the ROV. In both observations, a Doppler current profiler was deployed nearby the BBOBST-NX to monitor bottom currents through the observation period. In January 2014, a slow slip event (SSE) occurred near the KAP3 site. The Mw of the SSE is 6.5, and

  4. 43 CFR 3453.3-4 - Extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Extensions. 3453.3-4 Section 3453.3-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MANAGEMENT OF EXISTING LEASES Transfers by...

  5. 43 CFR 3453.3-4 - Extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Extensions. 3453.3-4 Section 3453.3-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MANAGEMENT OF EXISTING LEASES Transfers by...

  6. 43 CFR 3453.3-4 - Extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Extensions. 3453.3-4 Section 3453.3-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MANAGEMENT OF EXISTING LEASES Transfers by...

  7. 43 CFR 3453.3-4 - Extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Extensions. 3453.3-4 Section 3453.3-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MANAGEMENT OF EXISTING LEASES Transfers by...

  8. Hydrogen absorption by Zr-1Nb alloy with TiNx film deposited by filtered cathodic vacuum arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashkarov, E. B.; Nikitenkov, N. N.; Syrtanov, M. S.; Babihina, M. N.

    2016-02-01

    coating for Zr-2.5Nb alloy from hydrogenation. Dense TiNx films were prepared by filtered cathodic vacuum arc (CVA). Hydrogen absorption rate was calculated from the kinetic curves of hydrogen sorption at elevated temperature of the sample (T = 673 K) and pressure (P = 2 atm). Results revealed that TiNx films significantly reduced hydrogen absorption rate of Zr-2.5Nb.

  9. Hard and relaxed a-SiNxHy films prepared by PECVD: Structure analysis and formation mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiangdong; He, Qiong; Fan, Taijun; Jiang, Yadong; Huang, Long; Ao, Tianhong; Ma, Chunqian

    2013-01-01

    Amorphous hydrogenated silicon nitride (a-SiNxHy) films were prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). Their chemical structures and mechanical properties were investigated. Results reveal that there are four kinds of Sisbnd N groups, involving Si3N4, Hsbnd Sisbnd N3, H2sbnd Sisbnd N2, and Si3sbnd Sisbnd N, in the a-SiNxHy films. Deposition at 300 °C and flow ratio of SiH4/NH3 = 30/30 sccm leads to the yield of special a-SiNxHy films, in which per two high-N-coordinated Sisbnd N groups (Si3N4 or Hsbnd Sisbnd N3) are distributed with one inter-buffer group (Si3sbnd Sisbnd N). Such a-SiNxHy films exhibit ultralow residual stress (-0.17 MPa), high elastic modulus (206.9 GPa) and high uniformity, holding great potential for device fabrications. The chemical reactions for the formation of a-SiNxHy films were proposed, and the thermodynamic calculations indicate that the utilization ratio of NH3 reagent in the chemical reactions increases significantly with the increase of SiH4 flow, but the utilization ratio of Sisbnd N bonds in the a-SiNxHy formation decreases inversely. This work discloses valuable information on the chemical reactions and structures for a-SiNxHy films, and suggests a route to the preparation of a-SiNxHy films with high hardness and low stress by conventional PECVD.

  10. Memristor and selector devices fabricated from HfO2-xNx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdoch, B. J.; McCulloch, D. G.; Ganesan, R.; McKenzie, D. R.; Bilek, M. M. M.; Partridge, J. G.

    2016-04-01

    Monoclinic HfO2-xNx has been incorporated into two-terminal devices exhibiting either memristor or selector operation depending on the controlled inclusion/suppression of mobile oxygen vacancies. In HfO2 memristors containing oxygen vacancies, gradual conductance modulation, short-term plasticity, and long-term potentiation were observed using appropriate voltage-spike stimulation, suggesting suitability for artificial neural networks. Passivation of oxygen vacancies, confirmed by X-ray absorption spectroscopy, was achieved in HfO2-xNx films by the addition of nitrogen during growth. Selector devices formed on these films exhibited threshold switching and current controlled negative differential resistance consistent with thermally driven insulator to metal transitions.

  11. Fabrication of Si heterojunction solar cells using P-doped Si nanocrystals embedded in SiNx films as emitters

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Si heterojunction solar cells were fabricated on p-type single-crystal Si (sc-Si) substrates using phosphorus-doped Si nanocrystals (Si-NCs) embedded in SiNx (Si-NCs/SiNx) films as emitters. The Si-NCs were formed by post-annealing of silicon-rich silicon nitride films deposited by electron cyclotron resonance chemical vapor deposition. We investigate the influence of the N/Si ratio in the Si-NCs/SiNx films on their electrical and optical properties, as well as the photovoltaic properties of the fabricated heterojunction devices. Increasing the nitrogen content enhances the optical gap E04 while deteriorating the electrical conductivity of the Si-NCs/SiNx film, leading to an increased short-circuit current density and a decreased fill factor of the heterojunction device. These trends could be interpreted by a bi-phase model which describes the Si-NCs/SiNx film as a mixture of a high-transparency SiNx phase and a low-resistivity Si-NC phase. A preliminary efficiency of 8.6% is achieved for the Si-NCs/sc-Si heterojunction solar cell. PMID:24188725

  12. Efficiency improvement of flexible a-SiGe:H solar cells decorated by SiNx composite nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanyan; Ye, Xiaojun; Zhu, Jian; Zhang, Zhen; Yang, Junkun; Wu, Xuemei; Qiu, Bocang; Zhang, Ruiying

    2015-05-01

    We report on the experimental demonstration of the efficiency improvement of flexible a-SiGe:H solar cells decorated by SiNx composite nanostructures. The structures, which are composed of SiNx nanodome structures and a thin SiNx film that is underneath the nanodome structures, were implemented via sequential processes using inductance-coupled plasma chemical vapor deposition (ICP-CVD), nanosphere lithography (NSL), and reactive ion etching (RIE). Compared with the a-SiGe:H solar cells without the SiNx composite nanostructures, solar cells with SiNx composite nanostructures exhibit that the surface reflectivity reduces down to less than 5% over the spectrum range of 200-700 nm, and the open circuit voltage (Voc) and fill factor (FF) increase up to 0.76 V from 0.70 V and 52.4% from 38.4% respectively, although the short circuit current density (Jsc) reduces down to 11.6 mA/cm2 from 14.7 mA/cm2. The improvement for Voc and FF indicates that a-SiGe:H solar cells were well passivated by using such SiNx composite structures, which results in the overall enhancement of the conversion efficiency from 4.38% to 5.13% finally. If the absorption of the dielectric composite nanostructures decreases, the higher conversion efficiency should be promisingly achieved in these Si-based thin film solar cells decorated by dielectric composite nanostructures.

  13. Magnetotransport in perovskite series La{sub n{minus}nx}Ca{sub 1+nx}Mn{sub n}O{sub 3n+1} ferromagnets

    SciTech Connect

    Asano, H.; Hayakawa, J.; Matsui, M.

    1998-01-01

    The perovskite series La{sub n{minus}nx}Ca{sub 1+nx}Mn{sub n}O{sub 3n+1} (n=2,3, and {infinity}) composed of n layers of MnO{sub 2} is a colossal magnetoresistance (CMR) ferromagnet. Results on the transport properties of epitaxial a-axis thin-film samples with a fixed carrier concentration (x=0.3) have indicated that a reduction in the number of layers results in systematic changes in the various features. These include an increase in resistivity, a decrease in the resistivity peak temperature T{sub c}{sup {rho}} corresponding to the metal-insulator transition, an enhancement of the maximum MR near T{sub c}{sup {rho}}, and an increase in the low-temperature intrinsic MR. In order to explain the variation in these features with the number of MnO{sub 2} layers, it is necessary to take both c-axis transfer interaction and two-dimensional spin fluctuation into account. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  14. Infrared absorption of thin films MoSi2/SiNx micro-bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Bo; Su, Yan; He, Yong; Wang, Kaiying

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we report the infrared absorption and opto-electrical characteristics of multilayered thin films of MoSi2/SiNx with a micro-bridge structure. The thin films of MoSi2 deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering exhibit a relatively smooth surface (RMS roughness <1 nm, ˜0.98 Å/s), on which their square resistance is linearly increased from 340 to 550 Ω/sq. as the thickness decreases from 32 to 16 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis indicates that the thin film MoSi2 with a thickness of ˜24 nm (450 Ω/sq.) presents the maximum infrared absorption on nearly dielectric thin film SiNx. Optical simulation verifies that the resistivity of the nearly dielectric thin film SiNx has an important influence on the infrared absorption of the thin film MoSi2. This work provides the physical understanding regarding the building of micro-bridges with the high infrared absorption.

  15. Linear Analysis of the m=0 Instability for a Visco-resistive Hall MHD Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Oliver, B.V.; Genoni, T.C.; Mehlhorn, T.A.

    2006-01-05

    We present a comprehensive analysis of the linear dispersion relation for the axisymmetric (m=0) compressible interchange instability of Bennett equilibria in a visco-resistive, Hall MHD plasma. The full anisotropic stress tensor with Braginskii viscous coefficients is considered. The eigenvalues are obtained numerically. For small axial mode number, Hall currents enhance the growth rates, whereas in the limit of high mode number the growth rates are suppressed, eventually resulting in wave cutoff, even in the ideal limit. For the visco-resistive plasma the unstable spectra are weakly dependent on the off-diagonal elements of the stress tensor.

  16. Observation of a Topological and Parity-Dependent Phase of m=0 Spin States

    SciTech Connect

    Usami, Koji; Kozuma, Mikio

    2007-10-05

    A Ramsey interrogation scheme was used to measure the phase shift of laser-cooled {sup 87}Rb clock-transition pseudospins arising as a result of a reversal of a bias-magnetic field, i.e., B{yields}-B, during the interrogation. While no phase shift occurred when the reversal was sudden, the Ramsey fringes were shifted by a factor of {pi} when the reversal was adiabatic. We thus verified the prediction that the spin states |F,m=0> acquire a purely topological and parity-dependent phase factor of (-1){sup F} as a result of B{yields}-B.

  17. Comparing Luminex NxTAG-Respiratory Pathogen Panel and RespiFinder-22 for multiplex detection of respiratory pathogens.

    PubMed

    Beckmann, Christiane; Hirsch, Hans H

    2016-08-01

    Respiratory tract infection (RTI) involves a variety of viruses and bacteria, which can be conveniently detected by multiplex nucleic acid amplification testing (NAT). To compare the novel Luminex-based NxTAG-Respiratory Pathogen Panel (NxTAG-RPP) with the routine multiplex-ligation-NAT based RespiFinder-22® (RF-22), 282 respiratory specimens including nasopharyngeal swabs (71%), broncho-alveolar lavage (27%), throat swabs, tracheal secretions, and sputum (2%) from 116 children and 155 adults were extracted using a Corbett CAS1200 (Qiagen), and analyzed in parallel by the routine RF-22 and NxTAG-RPP. Concordant results were obtained in 263 (93.3%) cases consisting of concordant positives in 167 (59.2%) and concordant negatives in 96 (34%). Results were discordant in 19 (6.7%) consisting of 15 positive:negative, and 4 negative:positive results by NxTAG-RPP versus RF-22, respectively. Co-infections were observed in 10.3% with NxTAG-RPP and in 5.9% with RF-22. Most additional viral pathogens identified by the NxTAG-RPP involved dual infections with rhinovirus and RSV. Discordant samples were mainly due to low genome signals of Ct less than 36, when retested by QNAT suggesting a higher sensitivity of the NxTAG-RPP, also when detecting multiple infections. Hands-on time after extraction for 24 and 96 samples was 0.25 and <0.5 hr for the NxTAG-RPP, and 2 and 4 hr for the RF-22, respectively. The median turn-around time was 6 hr (range 5-7 hr) for NxTAG-RPP and 12 hr (range 8-16 hr) for RF-22. The NxTAG-RPP showed comparable detection rates for most respiratory pathogens, while hands-on and turn-around time were considerably shorter. The clinical significance of detecting multiple viruses needs further clinical evaluation. J. Med. Virol. 88:1319-1324, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26856438

  18. Glioblastoma-infiltrated innate immune cells resemble M0 macrophage phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Gabrusiewicz, Konrad; Rodriguez, Benjamin; Wei, Jun; Hashimoto, Yuuri; Healy, Luke M.; Maiti, Sourindra N.; Thomas, Ginu; Zhou, Shouhao; Wang, Qianghu; Elakkad, Ahmed; Liebelt, Brandon D.; Yaghi, Nasser K.; Ezhilarasan, Ravesanker; Huang, Neal; Weinberg, Jeffrey S.; Prabhu, Sujit S.; Rao, Ganesh; Sawaya, Raymond; Langford, Lauren A.; Bruner, Janet M.; Fuller, Gregory N.; Bar-Or, Amit; Li, Wei; Colen, Rivka R.; Curran, Michael A.; Bhat, Krishna P.; Antel, Jack P.; Cooper, Laurence J.; Sulman, Erik P.; Heimberger, Amy B.

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastomas are highly infiltrated by diverse immune cells, including microglia, macrophages, and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). Understanding the mechanisms by which glioblastoma-associated myeloid cells (GAMs) undergo metamorphosis into tumor-supportive cells, characterizing the heterogeneity of immune cell phenotypes within glioblastoma subtypes, and discovering new targets can help the design of new efficient immunotherapies. In this study, we performed a comprehensive battery of immune phenotyping, whole-genome microarray analysis, and microRNA expression profiling of GAMs with matched blood monocytes, healthy donor monocytes, normal brain microglia, nonpolarized M0 macrophages, and polarized M1, M2a, M2c macrophages. Glioblastoma patients had an elevated number of monocytes relative to healthy donors. Among CD11b+ cells, microglia and MDSCs constituted a higher percentage of GAMs than did macrophages. GAM profiling using flow cytometry studies revealed a continuum between the M1- and M2-like phenotype. Contrary to current dogma, GAMs exhibited distinct immunological functions, with the former aligned close to nonpolarized M0 macrophages. PMID:26973881

  19. Characteristics of M=0 Helicon Wave Plasmas in Reactive Gas Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyake, S.; Setsuhara, Y.; Sakawa, Y.; Shoji, T.

    1997-10-01

    Plasma production in various reactive gases are more important in the actual plasma processing of mateirals than those in rare gas environment. Characteristics of high density plasmas produced by the m=0 azimuthal mode helicon wave in reactive gases in a nonuniform magnetic field is studied experimentally. Loop antennas of several turns are wound on a quartz tube of 38mm diameter to excite the m=0 helicon wave with a 3kW rf oscillator of 13.56MHz. Plasma production is performed in various dissociative gases (H_2,N_2,O2 and/or CF_4) in the pressure range around 0.1Pa and the rf wave fields are measured to know the excitation of the helicon wave in these gases. The plasma density jump from the range of 10^11 cm-3 to 10^12-13 cm-3 is observed for each gas at a critical rf power, after which the excitation of helicon wave is verified to propagate. The optical emission measurements indicate an efficient dissociation of molecules after the density jump. As an example of application of this type of discharge, the DC discharge characteristics in N_2+Ar gas on the cylindrical carbon target set for the sputtering process in the down stream region is studied in correlation with the properties of the helicon wave plasmas.

  20. High-rate deposition of a-SiNx:H for photovoltaic applications by the expanding thermal plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessels, W. M. M.; Hong, J.; van Assche, F. J. H.; Moschner, J. D.; Lauinger, T.; Soppe, W. J.; Weeber, A. W.; Schram, D. C.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.

    2002-09-01

    Driven by the need for improvement of the economical competitiveness of photovoltaic energy, the feasibility of high-rate (>1 nm/s) amorphous silicon nitride (a-SiNx):H deposited by the expanding thermal plasma (ETP) technique has been explored with respect to the application of the a-SiNx:H as functional antireflection coating on crystalline silicon solar cells. First, the deposition rate and the a-SiNx:H film properties, such as refractive index, Si, N, and H atomic density, and hydrogen bonding configurations, have been mapped for various operating conditions. From ellipsometry, elastic recoil detection, and infrared spectroscopy, it has been shown that deposition rates up to 20 nm/s can be reached with a fair film homogeneity and that the refractive index and the N/Si ratio can fully be tuned by the plasma composition while the hydrogen content can be controlled by the substrate temperature. Good antireflection coating performance of the a-SiNx:H has therefore been observed for monocrystalline silicon solar cells. These cells with ETP a-SiNx:H yielded only slightly lower conversion efficiencies than high-quality reference cells due to a much lower degree of surface passivation. This lack of surface passivation has also been shown in a separate study on the surface recombination velocity. Furthermore, it has been tested whether the a-SiNx:H films lead to silicon bulk passivation, which is essential for solar cells based on cheaper, defective silicon stock material such as multicrystalline silicon. It has been proven that bulk passivation of the cells is indeed induced by the high-rate ETP deposited a-SiNx:H after a high-temperature step in which the metal contacts of the cells are processed. These results make the ETP technique an interesting candidate for high-throughput processing of competitive silicon solar cells. copyright 2002 American Vacuum Society.

  1. Geomagnetic paleointensity and direct age determination of the ISEA (M0r?) chron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Rixiang; Hoffman, Kenneth A.; Nomade, Sébastien; Renne, Paul R.; Shi, Ruiping; Pan, Yongxin; Shi, Guanghai

    2004-01-01

    A combined paleomagnetic and geochronologic study has been conducted on an andesite lava sequence at Jianguo (Liaoning province, northeastern China). Thermal demagnetization and thermomagnetic analysis revealed that natural remanent magnetization is carried by both magnetite and hematite. Stepwise thermal demagnetization up to 675°C isolated well-defined reverse characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) in three time-independent lava flows with a mean direction of D/ I=179.2°/-59.7° with α95=3.0°. It also showed that a high-temperature component (>585°C) has the same ChRM direction as that of the low- to medium-temperature (ca. 170/300-585°C) components. A modified version of the Thellier-Thellier paleointensity method [Coe, J. Geophys. Res. 72 (1967) 3247-3262] with systematic partial thermoremanent magnetization checks was used for paleointensity determinations. Twelve out of 39 samples yielded reliable results in the temperature interval of 170-550°C. Virtual dipole moment values range from 3.9 to 4.7×10 22 Am 2 with an average of 4.2±0.1×10 22 Am 2. 40Ar/ 39Ar age determination on one lava flow is 116.8±3.0 Myr (2σ error, relative to Fish Canyon sanidine: 28.02±0.28 Myr). The magnetic reversed polarity with well-defined age could correspond to the 'ISEA' within the older part of the Cretaceous normal superchron (CNS), but we cannot rule out the possibility that this reversal interval could also correspond to the M0r due to many ambiguities on previous published ages on ISEA and M0r intervals as well as the new monitor age correction we applied. It also suggests that a weak magnetic field nature already documented before the CNS extended at least into the very beginning of the CNS.

  2. Effect of Duty Cycle on Characteristics of CrNx Thin Films Deposited by Pulsed Direct Current Reactive Magnetron Sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chi-Lung; Wu, Bo-Yi; Chen, Pin-Hung; Chen, Wei-Chih; Ho, Chun-Ta; Wu, Wan-Yu

    2013-11-01

    CrNx thin films have been deposited on silicon wafer, 304 stainless steel, and tungsten carbide substrates using pulsed DC reactive magnetron sputtering. A 10 kHz unipolar mode and a N2/Ar ratio of 17.5% were used. During the deposition, the substrate was not biased and not heated during the entire deposition time of 30 min. The microstructure, crystalline phase, and mechanical properties of the obtained CrNx thin films were examined to investigate the effect of the duty cycle. The results show that the maximum current and power density increase with decreasing duty cycle from 100% (DC) to 5%. Although the thickness of the CrNx thin films decreases with decreasing duty cycle, the ratio of the thickness to the pulse on-time shows a maximum of 273.3 nm/min at the lowest duty cycle of 5%. The obtained CrNx thin films show a mixture of the Cr2N and CrN phases. Moreover, the Cr-N bonding state and the percentages of CrN and Cr2N vary with the duty cycle. The effects of the duty cycle on the hardness, coefficient of friction, and corrosion behavior of the CrNx thin films are also investigated in this study.

  3. Evaluation of crack-healing behavior in SiNx/SiC nanolaminated thin film by microbending test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakatani, M.; Tonoya, Y.; Harada, Y.

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the crack-healing behavior of SiNx/SiC nanolaminated films quantitatively. SiNx/SiC nanolaminated films were fabricated by alternating ion-beam assisted deposition of SiNx and SiC. The fabricated nanolaminated films consisted of four layers with the top layer being SiNx. Smooth and notched microbeam specimens were fabricated using a focused ion beam (FIB) system. The nanosized notch was introduced in form of an imitational crack on the film surface by FIB. Some notched samples were heated at 1000 ºC for 24 to 96 h in air. The fracture strength was evaluated by bending tests using a nanoindentation system. After heating, the notch was filled with reaction products. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis revealed that the reaction products contained oxide compounds, most likely SiO2. The fracture load of the notched specimens recovered with increasing heating time. The filling of the notch with oxidation products caused the recovery of the fracture load. However, the recovery was not complete compared with the strength of a smooth sample. It is concluded that the filling of a notch with oxidation products recovers the mechanical strength of SiNx/SiC nanolaminated films only to a certain extent.

  4. 32 CFR 3.4 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., GRANTS, OR COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS FOR PROTOTYPE PROJECTS § 3.4 Definitions. Agency point of contact (POC). The individual identified by the military department or defense agency as its POC for prototype OTs... of a Defense Agency which has been delegated contracting authority through its agency...

  5. 32 CFR 3.4 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., GRANTS, OR COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS FOR PROTOTYPE PROJECTS § 3.4 Definitions. Agency point of contact (POC). The individual identified by the military department or defense agency as its POC for prototype OTs... of a Defense Agency which has been delegated contracting authority through its agency...

  6. 32 CFR 3.4 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., GRANTS, OR COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS FOR PROTOTYPE PROJECTS § 3.4 Definitions. Agency point of contact (POC). The individual identified by the military department or defense agency as its POC for prototype OTs... of a Defense Agency which has been delegated contracting authority through its agency...

  7. 2,3,4,6-Tetrachlorophenol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,3,4,6 - Tetrachlorophenol ; CASRN 58 - 90 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncar

  8. Career Education Guide: (3-4).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Marla; And Others

    One of a series of guides developed under the K-6 Teacher and Counselor Competencies in Career Education Program, this guide contains a section for each of the Grades 3-4 levels (Third Experience Level and Fourth Experience Level), each encompassing the two career education components: Subject Matter Areas (to reinforce science, language arts,…

  9. The metabolite 3,4,3',4'-tetrachloroazobenzene (TCAB) exerts a higher ecotoxicity than the parent compounds 3,4-dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA) and propanil.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Hongxia; Kuckelkorn, Jochen; Nüßer, Leonie Katharina; Floehr, Tilman; Hennig, Michael Patrick; Roß-Nickoll, Martina; Schäffer, Andreas; Hollert, Henner

    2016-05-01

    3,4,3',4'-tetrachloroazobenzene (TCAB) is not commercially manufactured but formed as an unwanted by-product in the manufacturing of 3,4-dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA) or metabolized from the degradation of chloranilide herbicides, like propanil. While a considerable amount of research has been done concerning the toxicological and ecotoxicological effects of propanil and 3,4-DCA, limited information is available on TCAB. Our study examined the toxicity of TCAB in comparison to its parent compounds propanil and 3,4-DCA, using a battery of bioassays including in vitro with aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mediated activity by the 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) assay and micro-EROD, endocrine-disrupting activity with chemically activated luciferase gene expression (CALUX) as well as in vivo with fish embryo toxicity (FET) assays with Danio rerio. Moreover, the quantitative structure activity response (QSAR) concepts were applied to simulate the binding affinity of TCAB to certain human receptors. It was shown that TCAB has a strong binding affinity to the AhR in EROD and micro-EROD induction assay, with the toxic equivalency factor (TEF) of 8.7×10(-4) and 1.2×10(-5), respectively. TCAB presented to be a weak endocrine disrupting compound with a value of estradiol equivalence factor (EEF) of 6.4×10(-9) and dihydrotestosterone equivalency factor (DEF) of 1.1×10(-10). No acute lethal effects of TCAB were discovered in FET test after 96h of exposure. Major sub-lethal effects detected were heart oedema, yolk malformation, as well as absence of blood flow and tail deformation. QSAR modelling suggested an elevated risk to environment, particularly with respect to binding to the AhR. An adverse effect potentially triggering ERβ, mineralocorticoid, glucocorticoid and progesterone receptor activities might be expected. Altogether, the results obtained suggest that TCAB exerts a higher toxicity than both propanil and 3,4-DCA. This should be considered when assessing the

  10. Teleseismic estimates of radiated seismic energy: The E/M 0 discriminant for tsunami earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, Andrew V.; Okal, Emile A.

    1998-11-01

    We adapt the formalism of Boatwright and Choy for the computation of radiated seismic energy from broadband records at teleseismic distances to the real-time situation when neither the depth nor the focal geometry of the source is known accurately. The analysis of a large data set of more than 500 records from 52 large, recent earthquakes shows that this procedure yields values of the estimated energy, EE, in good agreement with values computed from available source parameters, for example as published by the National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC), the average logarithmic residual being only 0.26 units. We analyze the energy-to-moment ratio by defining Θ = log10(EE/M0). For regular earthquakes, this parameter agrees well with values expected from theoretical models and from the worldwide NEIC catalogue. There is a one-to-one correspondence between values of Θ that are deficient by one full unit or more, and the so-called "tsunami earthquakes", previously identified in the literature as having exceedingly slow sources, and believed due to the presence of sedimentary structures in the fault zone. Our formalism can be applied to single-station measurements, and its coupling to automated real-time measurements of the seismic moment using the mantle magnitude Mm should significantly improve real-time tsunami warning.

  11. Experimental and theoretical investigation of the conduction band edge of GaNxP1-x

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güngerich, M.; Klar, P. J.; Heimbrodt, W.; Weiser, G.; Geisz, J. F.; Harris, C.; Lindsay, A.; O'Reilly, E. P.

    2006-12-01

    We show that a two-level band-anticrossing (BAC) model fails to describe the evolution of N-related states in GaNxP1-x . Band structure calculations prove that a two-level model describes these states in ordered GaNP supercells. Photocurrent measurements support a BAC-related blueshift of the GaP-like direct band gap in disordered GaNP, but calculations and electromodulated absorption and pressure studies show that the wide energy distribution of the lower-lying N-related states leads to the anticrossing interaction involving many N levels in disordered GaNP.

  12. Utilizing NX Advanced Simulation for NASA's New Mobile Launcher for Ares-l

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of NX to simulate the new Mobile Launcher (ML) for the Ares-I. It includes: a comparison of the sizes of the Saturn 5, the Space Shuttle, the Ares I, and the Ares V, with the height, and payload capability; the loads control plan; drawings of the base framing, the underside of the ML, beam arrangement, and the finished base and the origin of the 3D CAD data. It also reviews the modeling approach, meshing. the assembly Finite Element Modeling, the model summary. and beam improvements.

  13. SiNx Coatings Deposited by Reactive High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering: Process Parameters Influencing the Nitrogen Content.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Susann; Hänninen, Tuomas; Goyenola, Cecilia; Wissting, Jonas; Jensen, Jens; Hultman, Lars; Goebbels, Nico; Tobler, Markus; Högberg, Hans

    2016-08-10

    Reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering (rHiPIMS) was used to deposit silicon nitride (SiNx) coatings for biomedical applications. The SiNx growth and plasma characterization were conducted in an industrial coater, using Si targets and N2 as reactive gas. The effects of different N2-to-Ar flow ratios between 0 and 0.3, pulse frequencies, target power settings, and substrate temperatures on the discharge and the N content of SiNx coatings were investigated. Plasma ion mass spectrometry shows high amounts of ionized isotopes during the initial part of the pulse for discharges with low N2-to-Ar flow ratios of <0.16, while signals from ionized molecules rise with the N2-to-Ar flow ratio at the pulse end and during pulse-off times. Langmuir probe measurements show electron temperatures of 2-3 eV for nonreactive discharges and 5.0-6.6 eV for discharges in transition mode. The SiNx coatings were characterized with respect to their composition, chemical bond structure, density, and mechanical properties by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray reflectivity, X-ray diffraction, and nanoindentation, respectively. The SiNx deposition processes and coating properties are mainly influenced by the N2-to-Ar flow ratio and thus by the N content in the SiNx films and to a lower extent by the HiPIMS frequencies and power settings as well as substrate temperatures. Increasing N2-to-Ar flow ratios lead to decreasing growth rates, while the N content, coating densities, residual stresses, and the hardness increase. These experimental findings were corroborated by density functional theory calculations of precursor species present during rHiPIMS. PMID:27414283

  14. Observation of helicon wave with m = 0 antenna in a weakly magnetized inductively coupled plasma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellingboe, Bert; Sirse, Nishant; Moloney, Rachel; McCarthy, John

    2015-09-01

    Bounded whistler wave, called ``helicon wave,'' is known to produce high-density plasmas and has been exploited as a high density plasma source for many applications, including electric propulsion for spacecraft. In a helicon plasma source, an antenna wrapped around the magnetized plasma column launches a low frequency wave, ωce/2 >ωhelicon >ωce/100, in the plasma which is responsible for maintaining high density plasma. Several antenna designs have been proposed in order to match efficiently the wave modes. In our experiment, helicon wave mode is observed using an m = 0 antenna. A floating B dot probe, compensated to the capacitively coupled E field, is employed to measure axial-wave-field-profiles (z, r, and θ components) in the plasma at multiple radial positions as a function of rf power and pressure. The Bθ component of the rf-field is observed to be unaffected as the wave propagates in the axial direction. Power coupling between the antenna and the plasma column is identified and agrees with the E, H, and wave coupling regimes previously seen in M =1 antenna systems. That is, the Bz component of the rf-field is observed at low plasma density as the Bz component from the antenna penetrates the plasma. The Bz component becomes very small at medium density due to shielding at the centre of the plasma column; however, with increasing density, a sudden ``jump'' occurs in the Bz component above which a standing wave under the antenna with a propagating wave away from the antenna are observed.

  15. Oxidation and thermal fatigue of coated and uncoated NX-188 nickel-base alloy in a high velocity gas stream

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, J. R.; Young, S. G.

    1972-01-01

    A cast nickel-base superalloy, NX-188, coated and uncoated, was tested in a high-velocity gas stream for resistance to oxidation and thermal fatigue by cycling between room temperature and 980, 1040, and 1090 C. Contrary to the behavior of more conventional nickel-base alloys, uncoated NX-188 exhibited the greatest weight loss at the lowest test temperature. In general, on the basis of weight change and metallographic observations a coating consisting of vapor-deposited Fe-Cr-Al-Y over a chromized substrate exhibited the best overall performance in resistance to oxidation and thermal fatigue.

  16. Low temperature SiNx:H films deposited by inductively coupled plasma for solar cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, H. P.; Wei, D. Y.; Xu, L. X.; Guo, Y. N.; Xiao, S. Q.; Huang, S. Y.; Xu, S.

    2013-01-01

    Amorphous hydrogenated silicon nitride thin films with different chemical compositions (SiNx:H) have been synthesized by using low frequency inductively coupled plasma of Si + N2 + H2 at a low temperature of 100 °C. The bonding configurations, bond density, hydrogen content, and chemical composition, as well as the refractive index are intensively investigated by a variety of characterization tools. Silicon nitride based antireflection layer on alkaline-textured silicon surface reduces the reflectivity to about 4%. As-deposited silicon nitride films exhibit an excellent passivation effect on p- and n-type Si. The surface recombination velocity is reduced to 36 cm/s on n-type silicon with resistivity of 2-3 Ω cm. The passivation effect originates from the H-related chemical passivation and fixed charge related field passivation. The growth mechanism of SiNx:H from the precursor gas of H2 diluted mixture of silane and nitrogen is also discussed.

  17. Molecular metal-Nx centres in porous carbon for electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Hai-Wei; Brüller, Sebastian; Dong, Renhao; Zhang, Jian; Feng, Xinliang; Müllen, Klaus

    2015-08-01

    Replacement of precious platinum with efficient and low-cost catalysts for electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution at low overpotentials holds tremendous promise for clean energy devices. Here we report a novel type of robust cobalt-nitrogen/carbon catalyst for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) that is prepared by the pyrolysis of cobalt-N4 macrocycles or cobalt/o-phenylenediamine composites and using silica colloids as a hard template. We identify the well-dispersed molecular CoNx sites on the carbon support as the active sites responsible for the HER. The CoNx/C catalyst exhibits extremely high turnover frequencies per cobalt site in acids, for example, 0.39 and 6.5 s-1 at an overpotential of 100 and 200 mV, respectively, which are higher than those reported for other scalable non-precious metal HER catalysts. Our results suggest the great promise of developing new families of non-precious metal HER catalysts based on the controlled conversion of homogeneous metal complexes into solid-state carbon catalysts via economically scalable protocols.

  18. The ML1Nx2 Phosphatidylinositol 3,5-Bisphosphate Probe Shows Poor Selectivity in Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, Gerald R. V.; Takasuga, Shunsuke; Sasaki, Takehiko; Balla, Tamas

    2015-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol (3,5)-bisphosphate (PtdIns(3,5)P2) is a quantitatively minor phospholipid in eukaryotic cells that plays a fundamental role in regulating endocytic membrane traffic. Despite its clear importance for cellular function and organism physiology, mechanistic details of its biology have so far not been fully elucidated. In part, this is due to a lack of experimental tools that specifically probe for PtdIns(3,5)P2 in cells to unambiguously identify its dynamics and site(s) of action. In this study, we have evaluated a recently reported PtdIns(3,5)P2 biosensor, GFP-ML1Nx2, for its veracity as such a probe. We report that, in live cells, the localization of this biosensor to sub-cellular compartments is largely independent of PtdIns(3,5)P2, as assessed after pharmacological, chemical genetic or genomic interventions that block the lipid’s synthesis. We therefore conclude that it is unwise to interpret the localization of ML1Nx2 as a true and unbiased biosensor for PtdIns(3,5)P2. PMID:26460749

  19. CFD Analysis of Thermal Control System Using NX Thermal and Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortier, C. R.; Harris, M. F. (Editor); McConnell, S. (Editor)

    2014-01-01

    The Thermal Control Subsystem (TCS) is a key part of the Advanced Plant Habitat (APH) for the International Space Station (ISS). The purpose of this subsystem is to provide thermal control, mainly cooling, to the other APH subsystems. One of these subsystems, the Environmental Control Subsystem (ECS), controls the temperature and humidity of the growth chamber (GC) air to optimize the growth of plants in the habitat. The TCS provides thermal control to the ECS with three cold plates, which use Thermoelectric Coolers (TECs) to heat or cool water as needed to control the air temperature in the ECS system. In order to optimize the TCS design, pressure drop and heat transfer analyses were needed. The analysis for this system was performed in Siemens NX Thermal/Flow software (Version 8.5). NX Thermal/Flow has the ability to perform 1D or 3D flow solutions. The 1D flow solver can be used to represent simple geometries, such as pipes and tubes. The 1D flow method also has the ability to simulate either fluid only or fluid and wall regions. The 3D flow solver is similar to other Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) software. TCS performance was analyzed using both the 1D and 3D solvers. Each method produced different results, which will be evaluated and discussed.

  20. Molecular metal–Nx centres in porous carbon for electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Hai-Wei; Brüller, Sebastian; Dong, Renhao; Zhang, Jian; Feng, Xinliang; Müllen, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Replacement of precious platinum with efficient and low-cost catalysts for electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution at low overpotentials holds tremendous promise for clean energy devices. Here we report a novel type of robust cobalt–nitrogen/carbon catalyst for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) that is prepared by the pyrolysis of cobalt–N4 macrocycles or cobalt/o-phenylenediamine composites and using silica colloids as a hard template. We identify the well-dispersed molecular CoNx sites on the carbon support as the active sites responsible for the HER. The CoNx/C catalyst exhibits extremely high turnover frequencies per cobalt site in acids, for example, 0.39 and 6.5 s−1 at an overpotential of 100 and 200 mV, respectively, which are higher than those reported for other scalable non-precious metal HER catalysts. Our results suggest the great promise of developing new families of non-precious metal HER catalysts based on the controlled conversion of homogeneous metal complexes into solid-state carbon catalysts via economically scalable protocols. PMID:26250525

  1. CROSS-DISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Large Storage Window in a-SiNx/nc-Si/a-SiNx Sandwiched Structure for Nanocrystalline Silicon Floating Gate Memory Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiang; Huang, Jian; Ding, Hong-Lin; Zhang, Xian-Gao; Yu, Lin-Wei; Huang, Xin-Fan; Li, Wei; Chen, Kun-Ji

    2008-07-01

    An a-SiNx/nanocrystalline silicon [(nc-Si)/a-SiNx] sandwiched structure is fabricated in a plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) system at low temperature (250° C). The nc-Si layer is fabricated from a hydrogen-diluted silane mixture gas by using a layer-by-layer deposition technique. Atom force microscopy measurement shows that the density of nc-Si is about 2 × 1011 cm-2. By the pretreatment of plasma nitridation, low density of interface states and high-quality interface between the Si substrate and a-SiNx insulator layer are obtained. The density of interface state at the midgap is calculated to be 1 × 1010 cm-2eV-1 from the quasistatic and high frequency C - V data. The charging and discharging property of nc-Si quantum dots is studied by capacitance-voltage (C - V) measurement at room temperature. An ultra-large hysteresis is observed in the C - V characteristics, which is attributed to storage of the electrons and holes into the nc-Si dots. The long-term charge-loss process is studied and ascribed to low density of interface states at SiNx/Si substrate.

  2. Draft Genome Sequence of Leuconostoc mesenteroides 213M0, Isolated from Traditional Fermented Mare Milk Airag in Bulgan Aimag, Mongolia

    PubMed Central

    Toh, Hidehiro; Oshima, Kenshiro; Nakano, Akiyo; Hano, Chihiro; Yoshida, Saki; Bolormaa, Tsognemekh; Burenjargal, Sedkhuu; Nguyen, Co Thi Kim; Tashiro, Kosuke; Arakawa, Kensuke; Miyamoto, Taku

    2016-01-01

    Leuconostoc mesenteroides 213M0 was isolated from traditional fermented mare milk airag in Bulgan Aimag, Mongolia. This strain produces a listericidal bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of this organism. PMID:27034488

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of Leuconostoc mesenteroides 213M0, Isolated from Traditional Fermented Mare Milk Airag in Bulgan Aimag, Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Morita, Hidetoshi; Toh, Hidehiro; Oshima, Kenshiro; Nakano, Akiyo; Hano, Chihiro; Yoshida, Saki; Bolormaa, Tsognemekh; Burenjargal, Sedkhuu; Nguyen, Co Thi Kim; Tashiro, Kosuke; Arakawa, Kensuke; Miyamoto, Taku

    2016-01-01

    Leuconostoc mesenteroides213M0 was isolated from traditional fermented mare milk airag in Bulgan Aimag, Mongolia. This strain produces a listericidal bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of this organism. PMID:27034488

  4. Defect reduction of SiNx embedded m-plane GaN grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Seohwi; Kim, Minho; So, Byeongchan; Yoo, Geunho; Jang, Jongjin; Lee, Kyuseung; Nam, Okhyun

    2014-12-01

    Nonpolar (1 0 -1 0) m-plane GaN has been grown on m-plane sapphire substrates by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE). We studied the defect reduction of m-GaN with embedded SiNx interlayers deposited by ex-situ metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The full-width at half-maximum values of the X-ray rocking curves for m-GaN with embedded SiNx along [1 1 -2 0]GaN and [0 0 0 1]GaN were reduced to 528 and 1427 arcs, respectively, as compared with the respective values of 947 and 3170 arcs, of m-GaN without SiNx. Cross-section transmission electron microscopy revealed that the basal stacking fault density was decreased by approximately one order to 5×104 cm-1 due to the defect blocking of the embedded SiNx. As a result, the near band edge emission intensities of the room-temperature and low-temperature photoluminescence showed approximately two-fold and four-fold improvement, respectively.

  5. Thermochromic properties of VO2 thin film on SiNx buffered glass substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Hyun; You, HyunWoo; Ko, Kyeong-Eun; Kwon, O.-Jong; Chang, Se-Hong; Park, Chan

    2013-07-01

    VO2 thin films were deposited on soda lime glass substrates with silicon nitride sodium-diffusion barrier layer as diffusion barrier, in order to investigate the effect of sodium ion diffusion on the formation of VO2. SiNx layers with thicknesses over 30 nm were found to successfully prevent sodium ion diffusion in VO2 thin film and also contribute to the formation of VO2 thin film, which was confirmed by XRD spectra and XPS measurements. The change of infrared transmittance at 2500 nm wavelength with temperature change from room temperature to 80 °C was increased significantly, and the optical hysteresis width of the sample decreased by almost 6 K as well. The results suggest that applying diffusion barrier can improve the thermochromic properties of the VO2 films for energy-saving smart coatings, and silicon nitride can be one of the effective materials to prevent sodium ion diffusion.

  6. Possible interactions between two-level system defects in SiNx films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladchenko, Sergiy; Khalil, Moe; Lobb, C. J.; Wellstood, F. C.; Osborn, Kevin D.

    2011-03-01

    Low-temperature properties of PECVD SiNx dielectric films are measured within the capacitor of superconducting LC resonators. Experiments are made at temperatures from 30 to 300 mK, and at storage energies from 1 to 106 photons in a resonant cavity. While the power and temperature dependence of the loss agrees with two-level system (TLS) theory above 60 mK, below this temperature we observe significant deviations. In this regime we observe a reduction in loss upon lowering dielectric temperature, in direct contrast with the independent TLS model of defects within our film. This new phenomena may indicate interactions between two-level systems. We can also spectroscopically resolve the loss from dominant defects in our capacitors, which have a volume of ~ 2000 μ m 3 .

  7. Evolution of superclusters and delocalized states in GaAs1–xNx

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Fluegel, B.; Alberi, K.; Beaton, D. A.; Crooker, S. A.; Ptak, A. J.; Mascarenhas, A.

    2012-11-21

    The evolution of individual nitrogen cluster bound states into an extended state infinite supercluster in dilute GaAs1–xNx was probed through temperature and intensity-dependent, time-resolved and magnetophotoluminescence (PL) measurements. Samples with compositions less than 0.23% N exhibit PL behavior that is consistent with emission from the extended states of the conduction band. Near a composition of 0.23% N, a discontinuity develops between the extended state PL peak energy and the photoluminescence excitation absorption edge. The existence of dual localized/delocalized state behavior near this composition signals the formation of an N supercluster just below the conduction band edge. The infinite supercluster ismore » fully developed by 0.32% N.« less

  8. Strength analysis of parallel robot components in PLM Siemens NX 8.5 program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ociepka, P.; Herbus, K.

    2015-11-01

    This article presents a series of numerical analyses in order to identify the states of stress in elements, which arise during the operation of the mechanism. The object of the research was parallel robot, which is the basis for the prototype of a driving simulator. To conduct the dynamic analysis was used the Motion Simulation module and the RecurDyn solver. In this module were created the joints which occur in the mechanism of a parallel robot. Next dynamic analyzes were performed to determine the maximal forces that will applied to the analyzed elements. It was also analyzed the platform motion during the simulation a collision of a car with a wall. In the next step, basing on the results obtained in the dynamic analysis, were performed the strength analyzes in the Advanced Simulation module. For calculation the NX Nastran solver was used.

  9. An automation of design and modelling tasks in NX Siemens environment with original software - generator module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zbiciak, M.; Grabowik, C.; Janik, W.

    2015-11-01

    Nowadays the design constructional process is almost exclusively aided with CAD/CAE/CAM systems. It is evaluated that nearly 80% of design activities have a routine nature. These design routine tasks are highly susceptible to automation. Design automation is usually made with API tools which allow building original software responsible for adding different engineering activities. In this paper the original software worked out in order to automate engineering tasks at the stage of a product geometrical shape design is presented. The elaborated software works exclusively in NX Siemens CAD/CAM/CAE environment and was prepared in Microsoft Visual Studio with application of the .NET technology and NX SNAP library. The software functionality allows designing and modelling of spur and helicoidal involute gears. Moreover, it is possible to estimate relative manufacturing costs. With the Generator module it is possible to design and model both standard and non-standard gear wheels. The main advantage of the model generated in such a way is its better representation of an involute curve in comparison to those which are drawn in specialized standard CAD systems tools. It comes from fact that usually in CAD systems an involute curve is drawn by 3 points that respond to points located on the addendum circle, the reference diameter of a gear and the base circle respectively. In the Generator module the involute curve is drawn by 11 involute points which are located on and upper the base and the addendum circles therefore 3D gear wheels models are highly accurate. Application of the Generator module makes the modelling process very rapid so that the gear wheel modelling time is reduced to several seconds. During the conducted research the analysis of differences between standard 3 points and 11 points involutes was made. The results and conclusions drawn upon analysis are shown in details.

  10. Fatal intoxication from 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Poklis, A; Mackell, M A; Drake, W K

    1979-01-01

    The symptoms of MDA intoxication exhibited by the decedent prior to death closely mimic those of acute amphetamine poisoning: profuse sweating, violent and irrational behavior, and stereotypically compulsive behavior. Therefore, if amphetamines are not detected in specimens from a person displaying classic symptoms of amphetamine poisoning, hallucinogenic amphetamine derivatives may be considered. In the case described, a divided dose of 850 mg of MDA ingested within 2 h and 15 min was sufficient to cause the death of a 24-year-old male, 4 h after the final dose. While the methaqualone may have contributed to the demise of the decedent, the authors think that the MDA itself was sufficient to cause death. Results of limited recovery studies of MDA extraction from blood and elution from TLC plates supported the observations of Cimbura [13]. Approximately 85% of MDA is extracted by the method described and its elution from TLC plates is quantitative. This case points out once again the dangers of false advertising in the illicit market. The decedent, himself a dealer in the illicit drug market, and all present at the party believed the ingested white powder to be a mixture of morphine, LSD, and amphetamine, hence MDA. They were totally unfamiliar with 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, MDA. PMID:512617

  11. Study of enhanced photovoltaic behavior in InGaN-based solar cells by using SiNx insertion layer: Influence of dislocations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seunga; Honda, Yoshio; Amano, Hiroshi; Jang, Jongjin; Nam, Okhyun

    2016-03-01

    Using a SiNx insertion layer to reduce dislocations, enhanced photovoltaic properties could be obtained in p-i-n InGaN/GaN heterojunction solar cell. To investigate the influence of the dislocations on the photovoltaic behaviors, a sample grown without SiNx insertion layer was identically prepared for comparison. From optical properties measurements, the reduction in the number of non-radiative centers and a stronger In localization effect was shown in the sample with SiNx insertion layer. However, the quantum confined stark effect was almost negligible in both the samples. Electrical properties measurement showed reduced saturation current and increased shunt resistance in the sample with SiNx insertion layer due to the reduced dislocation density. By comparing these results and using a numerical model, the influence of the dislocation density on the different photovoltaic properties such as open-circuit voltage and fill factor has been confirmed.

  12. 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA): current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Jerrold S

    2013-01-01

    Ecstasy is a widely used recreational drug that usually consists primarily of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Most ecstasy users consume other substances as well, which complicates the interpretation of research in this field. The positively rated effects of MDMA consumption include euphoria, arousal, enhanced mood, increased sociability, and heightened perceptions; some common adverse reactions are nausea, headache, tachycardia, bruxism, and trismus. Lowering of mood is an aftereffect that is sometimes reported from 2 to 5 days after a session of ecstasy use. The acute effects of MDMA in ecstasy users have been attributed primarily to increased release and inhibited reuptake of serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine, along with possible release of the neuropeptide oxytocin. Repeated or high-dose MDMA/ecstasy use has been associated with tolerance, depressive symptomatology, and persisting cognitive deficits, particularly in memory tests. Animal studies have demonstrated that high doses of MDMA can lead to long-term decreases in forebrain 5-HT concentrations, tryptophan hydroxylase activity, serotonin transporter (SERT) expression, and visualization of axons immunoreactive for 5-HT or SERT. These neurotoxic effects may reflect either a drug-induced degeneration of serotonergic fibers or a long-lasting downregulation in 5-HT and SERT biosynthesis. Possible neurotoxicity in heavy ecstasy users has been revealed by neuroimaging studies showing reduced SERT binding and increased 5-HT2A receptor binding in several cortical and/or subcortical areas. MDMA overdose or use with certain other drugs can also cause severe morbidity and even death. Repeated use of MDMA may lead to dose escalation and the development of dependence, although such dependence is usually not as profound as is seen with many other drugs of abuse. MDMA/ecstasy-dependent patients are treated with standard addiction programs, since there are no specific programs for this substance and no proven

  13. Influence of adsorption kinetics on stress evolution in magnetron-sputtered SiO2 and SiNx films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jingping; Fang, Ming; He, Hongbo; Shao, Jianda; Li, Zhaoyang

    2013-07-01

    An in situ multi-beam optical sensor system was used to monitor and analyze the force per unit width (F/w) and stress evolution during several stages in magnetron-sputtered SiO2 and SiNx films. Stress was observed to relieve quickly after interrupt and recover rapidly after growth resumption in both films. Stress relief was reversible in SiO2 film but partial reversible in SiNx film. Stress relief results from both physical and chemical adsorption. Stress recovery is caused by physical desorption. And chemical adsorption results in an irreversible stress relief component. No chemical adsorption occurs in SiO2 film because of the stable chemical structure. The relationship between adsorption kinetics and films' mechanical behavior is revealed.

  14. Effect of SiNx interlayer on structural and electrical properties of nonpolar a-plane (11-20) gallium nitrides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ji Hoon; Hwang, Sung-Min; Seo, Yong Gon; Kim, Doo Soo; Baik, Kwang Hyeon; Park, Jung Ho

    2012-10-01

    We investigated the effects of SiNx interlayers on the structural and electrical properties of nonpolar a-plane (11-20) GaN grown on r-plane (1-102) sapphire substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The Nomarski optical microscope images showed that the deposition conditions of the SiNx layer could strongly affect the a-plane GaN surface morphology due to the different SiNx coverage. Basal-plane stacking faults (BSFs) and threading dislocation (TD) densities were reduced in the a-plane GaN samples with high SiNx coverage and multiple SiNx-treated GaN interlayers. These results indicate that TD reduction is associated with an increase in the 3D growth step and with the blocking of TD propagation. From on-axis (11-20) X-ray rocking curve (XRC) measurements, the anisotropy of full width at half maximum (FWHM) can be attributed to the crystal mosaicity due to insertion of different SiNx interlayers. The anisotropy of sheet resistance between the c-and m-axis was also clearly seen in a-plane GaN samples with a high density of defects, which was attributed to the BSFs as scattering centers.

  15. Difference in linear polarization of biaxially strained I nxG a1 -xN alloys on nonpolar a -plane and m -plane GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Siyuan; Cui, Ying; Griffiths, James T.; Fu, Wai Y.; Freysoldt, Christoph; Neugebauer, Jörg; Humphreys, Colin J.; Oliver, Rachel A.

    2015-12-01

    I nxG a1 -xN structures epitaxially grown on a -plane or m -plane GaN exhibit in-plane optical polarization. Linear elasticity theory treats the two planes equivalently and is hence unable to explain the experimentally observed higher degree of linear polarization for m -plane than a -plane I nxG a1 -xN . Using density functional theory, we study the response of I nxG a1 -xN random alloys to finite biaxial strains on both nonpolar planes. The calculated m -plane I nxG a1 -xN valence band splitting is larger than that of the a plane, due to a greater degree of structural relaxation in a -plane I nxG a1 -xN . We provide a parametrization of the valence band splitting of I nxG a1 -xN strained to a -plane and m -plane GaN for In compositions between 0 and 0.5, which agrees with experimental measurements and qualitatively explains the experimentally observed difference between a -plane and m -plane polarization.

  16. Improved performance of semi-polar (11-22) GaN-based light-emitting diodes grown on SiNx interlayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Joocheol; Jang, Jongjin; Hwang, Jungwhan; Jung, Chilsung; Kim, Jinwan; Lee, Kyungjae; Lim, Hyoungjin; Nam, Okhyun

    2013-05-01

    We report on the effectiveness of the in-situ SiNx nanomask in reducing defects in semipolar (11-22) GaN films grown on m-plane sapphire. The properties of the semipolar InGaN/GaN double quantum well (DQW) LEDs were improved with a high-quality (11-22) GaN epilayer grown on the SiNx interlayer. High resolution X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that there was a great reduction in the full width at half maximum of both on-axis and off-axis planes on SiNx interlayer. The room temperature cathodoluminescence (CL) band-edge emission intensity of (11-22) GaN grown on the SiNx interlayer was approximately 4 times higher than that of GaN without the SiNx interlayer, which suggests reduction in the nonradiative recombination centers. The optical power of LEDs with the SiNx interlayer was 200% and 270% higher at injection currents of 20 mA and 100 mA, respectively, compared to the reference LEDs.

  17. A method of computer aided design with self-generative models in NX Siemens environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabowik, C.; Kalinowski, K.; Kempa, W.; Paprocka, I.

    2015-11-01

    Currently in CAD/CAE/CAM systems it is possible to create 3D design virtual models which are able to capture certain amount of knowledge. These models are especially useful in an automation of routine design tasks. These models are known as self-generative or auto generative and they can behave in an intelligent way. The main difference between the auto generative and fully parametric models consists in the auto generative models ability to self-organizing. In this case design model self-organizing means that aside from the possibility of making of automatic changes of model quantitative features these models possess knowledge how these changes should be made. Moreover they are able to change quality features according to specific knowledge. In spite of undoubted good points of self-generative models they are not so often used in design constructional process which is mainly caused by usually great complexity of these models. This complexity makes the process of self-generative time and labour consuming. It also needs a quite great investment outlays. The creation process of self-generative model consists of the three stages it is knowledge and information acquisition, model type selection and model implementation. In this paper methods of the computer aided design with self-generative models in NX Siemens CAD/CAE/CAM software are presented. There are the five methods of self-generative models preparation in NX with: parametric relations model, part families, GRIP language application, knowledge fusion and OPEN API mechanism. In the paper examples of each type of the self-generative model are presented. These methods make the constructional design process much faster. It is suggested to prepare this kind of self-generative models when there is a need of design variants creation. The conducted research on assessing the usefulness of elaborated models showed that they are highly recommended in case of routine tasks automation. But it is still difficult to distinguish

  18. Structural and electronic properties of InNxP1-x alloy in full range (0 ≤ x ≤1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslan, Metin; Reshak, A. H.; Yalcin, Battal G.; Bagci, Sadik; Ustundag, Mehmet

    2016-04-01

    We have performed first-principles method to investigate structural and electronic properties of InNxP1-x ternary semiconductor alloy in full range (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) using density functional theory. We have used modified Becke-Johnson potential to obtain accurate band gap results. From the electronic band structure calculation we have found that InNxP1-x become metal between 47 and 80% of nitrogen concentration. Additional to our band gap calculations, we have also used the band anticrossing model. The band anticrossing model supplies a simple, analytical expression to calculate the physical properties, such as the electronic and optical properties, of III-NxV1-x alloys. The knowledge of the electron density of states is required to understand and clarify some properties of materials such as the band structures, bonding character and dielectric function. In order to have a deeper understanding of these properties of the studied materials, the total and partial density of states has been calculated. Finally, we have calculated the total bowing parameter b of studied alloys, together with three contributions bVD, bCE, and bSR due to volume deformation, different atomic electron negativities and structural relaxation, respectively.

  19. High frequency electromagnetic properties of interstitial-atom-modified Ce2Fe17NX and its composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L. Z.; Wei, J. Z.; Xia, Y. H.; Wu, R.; Yun, C.; Yang, Y. B.; Yang, W. Y.; Du, H. L.; Han, J. Z.; Liu, S. Q.; Yang, Y. C.; Wang, C. S.; Yang, J. B.

    2014-07-01

    The magnetic and microwave absorption properties of the interstitial atom modified intermetallic compound Ce2Fe17NX have been investigated. The Ce2Fe17NX compound shows a planar anisotropy with saturation magnetization of 1088 kA/m at room temperature. The Ce2Fe17NX paraffin composite with a mass ratio of 1:1 exhibits a permeability of μ ' = 2.7 at low frequency, together with a reflection loss of -26 dB at 6.9 GHz with a thickness of 1.5 mm and -60 dB at 2.2 GHz with a thickness of 4.0 mm. It was found that this composite increases the Snoek limit and exhibits both high working frequency and permeability due to its high saturation magnetization and high ratio of the c-axis anisotropy field to the basal plane anisotropy field. Hence, it is possible that this composite can be used as a high-performance thin layer microwave absorber.

  20. A transparent diode with high rectifying ratio using amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide/SiNx coupled junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Myung-Jea; Kim, Myeong-Ho; Choi, Duck-Kyun

    2015-08-01

    We introduce a transparent diode that shows both high rectifying ratio and low leakage current at process temperature below 250 °C. This device is clearly distinguished from all previous transparent diodes in that the rectifying behavior results from the junction between a semiconductor (amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide (a-IGZO)) and insulator (SiNx). We systematically study the properties of each junction within the device structure and demonstrate that the a-IGZO/SiNx junction is the source of the outstanding rectification. The electrical characteristics of this transparent diode are: 2.8 A/cm2 on-current density measured at -7 V; lower than 7.3 × 10-9 A/cm2 off-current density; 2.53 ideality factor; and high rectifying ratio of 108-109. Furthermore, the diode structure has a transmittance of over 80% across the visible light range. The operating principle of the indium-tin oxide (ITO)/a-IGZO/SiNx/ITO device was examined with an aid of the energy band diagram and we propose a preliminary model for the rectifying behavior. Finally, we suggest further directions for research on this transparent diode.

  1. Si-rich SiNx based Kerr switch enables optical data conversion up to 12 Gbit/s

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Gong-Ru; Su, Sheng-Pin; Wu, Chung-Lun; Lin, Yung-Hsiang; Huang, Bo-Ji; Wang, Huai-Yung; Tsai, Cheng-Ting; Wu, Chih-I; Chi, Yu-Chieh

    2015-01-01

    Silicon photonic interconnection on chip is the emerging issue for next-generation integrated circuits. With the Si-rich SiNx micro-ring based optical Kerr switch, we demonstrate for the first time the wavelength and format conversion of optical on-off-keying data with a bit-rate of 12 Gbit/s. The field-resonant nonlinear Kerr effect enhances the transient refractive index change when coupling the optical data-stream into the micro-ring through the bus waveguide. This effectively red-shifts the notched dip wavelength to cause the format preserved or inversed conversion of data carried by the on-resonant or off-resonant probe, respectively. The Si quantum dots doped Si-rich SiNx strengthens its nonlinear Kerr coefficient by two-orders of magnitude higher than that of bulk Si or Si3N4. The wavelength-converted and cross-amplitude-modulated probe data-stream at up to 12-Gbit/s through the Si-rich SiNx micro-ring with penalty of −7 dB on transmission has shown very promising applicability to all-optical communication networks. PMID:25923653

  2. In-situ SiNx/InN structures for InN field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zervos, Ch.; Adikimenakis, A.; Beleniotis, P.; Kostopoulos, A.; Kayambaki, M.; Tsagaraki, K.; Konstantinidis, G.; Georgakilas, A.

    2016-04-01

    Critical aspects of InN channel field-effect transistors (FETs) have been investigated. SiNx dielectric layers were deposited in-situ, in the molecular beam epitaxy system, on the surface of 2 nm InN layers grown on GaN (0001) buffer layers. Metal-insulator-semiconductor Ni/SiNx/InN capacitors were analyzed by capacitance-voltage (C-V) and current-voltage measurements and were used as gates in InN FET transistors (MISFETs). Comparison of the experimental C-V results with self-consistent Schrödinger-Poisson calculations indicates the presence of a positive charge at the SiNx/InN interface of Qif ≈ 4.4 - 4.8 × 1013 cm-2, assuming complete InN strain relaxation. Operation of InN MISFETs was demonstrated, but their performance was limited by a catastrophic breakdown at drain-source voltages above 2.5-3.0 V, the low electron mobility, and high series resistances of the structures.

  3. Static and unsteady pressure measurements on a 50 degree clipped delta wing at M = 0.9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, R. W.; Wynne, E. C.; Cazier, F. W.

    1982-01-01

    Static and unsteady pressures were measured on a 50.45 degree clipped delta wing in the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel with Freon as the test medium. Data taken at M = 0.9 is presented for static and oscillatory deflections of the trailing edge control surface and for the wing in pitch. Comparisons of the static measured data are made with results computed using the Bailey-Ballhaus small disturbance code.

  4. Stereotactic body radiotherapy for T3 and T4N0M0 non–small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Eriguchi, Takahisa; Takeda, Atsuya; Sanuki, Naoko; Nishimura, Shuichi; Takagawa, Yoshiaki; Enomoto, Tatsuji; Saeki, Noriyuki; Yashiro, Kae; Mizuno, Tomikazu; Aoki, Yousuke; Oku, Yohei; Yokosuka, Tetsuya; Shigematsu, Naoyuki

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the outcomes and feasibility of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for cT3 and cT4N0M0 non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), 25 patients with localized primary NSCLC diagnosed as cT3 or cT4N0M0, given SBRT between May 2005 and July 2013, were analyzed. All patients had inoperable tumors. The major reasons for tumors being unresectable were insufficient respiratory function for curative resection, advanced age (>80 years old) or technically inoperable due to invasion into critical organs. The median patient age was 79 years (range; 60–86). The median follow-up duration was 25 months (range: 5–100 months). The 2-year overall survival rates for T3 and T4 were 57% and 69%, respectively. The 2-year local control rates for T3 and T4 were 91% and 68%, respectively. As for toxicities, Grade 0–1, Grade 2 and Grade 3 radiation pneumonitis occurred in 23, 1 and 1 patient, respectively. No other acute or symptomatic late toxicities were reported. Thirteen patients who had no local, mediastinal or intrapulmonary progression at one year after SBRT underwent pulmonary function testing. The median variation in pre-SBRT and post-SBRT forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) values was –0.1 (–0.8–0.8). This variation was not statistically significant (P = 0.56). Forced vital capacity (FVC), vital capacity (VC), %VC and %FEV1 also showed no significant differences. SBRT for cT3 and cT4N0M0 NSCLC was both effective and feasible. Considering the favorable survival and low morbidity rate, SBRT is a potential treatment option for cT3 and cT4N0M0 NSCLC. PMID:26983978

  5. Stereotactic body radiotherapy for T3 and T4N0M0 non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Eriguchi, Takahisa; Takeda, Atsuya; Sanuki, Naoko; Nishimura, Shuichi; Takagawa, Yoshiaki; Enomoto, Tatsuji; Saeki, Noriyuki; Yashiro, Kae; Mizuno, Tomikazu; Aoki, Yousuke; Oku, Yohei; Yokosuka, Tetsuya; Shigematsu, Naoyuki

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the outcomes and feasibility of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for cT3 and cT4N0M0 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), 25 patients with localized primary NSCLC diagnosed as cT3 or cT4N0M0, given SBRT between May 2005 and July 2013, were analyzed. All patients had inoperable tumors. The major reasons for tumors being unresectable were insufficient respiratory function for curative resection, advanced age (>80 years old) or technically inoperable due to invasion into critical organs. The median patient age was 79 years (range; 60-86). The median follow-up duration was 25 months (range: 5-100 months). The 2-year overall survival rates for T3 and T4 were 57% and 69%, respectively. The 2-year local control rates for T3 and T4 were 91% and 68%, respectively. As for toxicities, Grade 0-1, Grade 2 and Grade 3 radiation pneumonitis occurred in 23, 1 and 1 patient, respectively. No other acute or symptomatic late toxicities were reported. Thirteen patients who had no local, mediastinal or intrapulmonary progression at one year after SBRT underwent pulmonary function testing. The median variation in pre-SBRT and post-SBRT forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) values was -0.1 (-0.8-0.8). This variation was not statistically significant (P = 0.56). Forced vital capacity (FVC), vital capacity (VC), %VC and %FEV1 also showed no significant differences. SBRT for cT3 and cT4N0M0 NSCLC was both effective and feasible. Considering the favorable survival and low morbidity rate, SBRT is a potential treatment option for cT3 and cT4N0M0 NSCLC. PMID:26983978

  6. Electronic structure and magnetic anisotropy of Sm2Fe17Nx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akai, Hisazumi; Ogura, Masako

    2014-03-01

    Electronic structure and magnetic properties of Sm2Fe17Nx are studies on the basis of the first-principles electronic structure calculation in the framework of the density functional theory within the local density and coherent potential approximations. The magnetic anisotropy of the system as a function of nitrogen concentration x is discussed by taking account not only of the crystal field effects but also of the effects of the f-electron transfer from Sm to the neighboring sites. Also discussed is the magnetic transition temperature that is estimated by mapping the system into a Heisenberg model. The results show the crystalline magnetic anisotropy changes its direction from in-plane to uniaxial ones as x increases. It takes the maximum value near x ~ 2 . 8 and then decreases slightly towards x = 3 . The mechanism for these behaviors is discussed in the light of the results of detailed calculations on the bonding properties between Sm and its neighboring N. This work was partly supported by Elements Strategy Initiative Center for Magnetic Materials Project, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan.

  7. Fully dense Sm2Fe17Nx permanent magnets prepared by shock compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashimo, Tsutomu; Tashiro, Suguru; Hirosawa, Satoshi; Makita, Ken

    1996-07-01

    Fully dense Sm2Fe17Nx bulk bodies with porosities less than 5% were prepared by shock compression in a certain low-pressure region, using the magnetically aligned powder pellets with an initial porosity of 46%-52% and without binder. Below a driving shock pressure (single shock wave using a copper standard capsule) of about 10 GPa, the recovered specimens did not consolidate well, and above about 20 GPa they began to decompose to α-Fe and Sm nitride. The consolidated state and porosity depended on the driving shock pressure, the thickness and porosity of the starting powder pellet, and the thickness of the impact plate. It was found that the shock consolidated bulk bodies had a Curie temperature of approximately 475 °C, and that the magnetic properties were sensitive to shock pressure, porosity, alignment, etc. The largest values of coercivity and maximum energy product of the recovered bulk specimens prepared in this study were 7.1 kOe and 16.8 MGOe, respectively.

  8. Combined cryosurgical, chemotherapeutic, and radiotherapeutic management of T1-4N0M0 oral cavity cancers

    SciTech Connect

    Airoldi, M.; Fazio, M.; Gandolfo, S.; Vercellino, V.; Ozzello, F.; Pedani, F.; Camoletto, D.; Negri, L.

    1985-08-01

    Eighty-four previously untreated patients (69 males, 15 females) with squamous carcinoma of the tongue (30 patients), floor of the mouth (30), cheek (16), and retromolar region (8) were treated using a protocol comprising cryosurgery + chemotherapy, followed by external /sup 60/Co radiotherapy. The follow-up period was at least 6 months (median, 50 months). Cryosurgery (1-2 sessions in 49 T1-2 cases; 2-4 in 35 T3-4 cases) was accompanied by a CMF (cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil) schedule (T1-2, two courses; T3-4, three courses). Radiotherapy was given 15 to 20 days after combined cryochemotherapy (T1, 50 Gy on tumor and lymph nodes; T2-3-4, same with an extra dose of 10 to 15 Gy on the primary lesion). Complete remission was reached 4 months after treatment in 76 of 84 patients (90.5%). Survival with no evidence of disease (NED) in the 57 patients (27 T1-2, 30 T3-4) with a follow-up of more than 3 years was 59.6% for the series as a whole, 70.3% for T1-2, and 50.0% for T3-4; 78.2% for the tongue, 52.6% for the floor, 66.6% for the cheek, and 0% for the retromolar region. The picture was much the same after 5 years. Actuarial survival at 6 years was 66% in the series as a whole, 75.5% in T1-2, and 57.5% in T3-4 (tongue 86.9%, floor 56.1%, cheek 68.4%, and retromolar region 0%). It is believed that the results obtained in tumors of the tongue, floor and cheek, coupled with the conservative aspects of the protocol, make it a suitable subject for a controlled trial.

  9. 21 CFR 3.4 - Designated agency component.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Designated agency component. 3.4 Section 3.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PRODUCT JURISDICTION Assignment of Agency Component for Review of Premarket Applications § 3.4 Designated...

  10. 10 CFR 960.3-4 - Environmental impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Environmental impacts. 960.3-4 Section 960.3-4 Energy... REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-4 Environmental impacts. Environmental impacts shall be... process. The DOE shall mitigate significant adverse environmental impacts, to the extent...

  11. 10 CFR 960.3-4 - Environmental impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Environmental impacts. 960.3-4 Section 960.3-4 Energy... REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-4 Environmental impacts. Environmental impacts shall be... process. The DOE shall mitigate significant adverse environmental impacts, to the extent...

  12. 10 CFR 960.3-4 - Environmental impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Environmental impacts. 960.3-4 Section 960.3-4 Energy... REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-4 Environmental impacts. Environmental impacts shall be... process. The DOE shall mitigate significant adverse environmental impacts, to the extent...

  13. 40 CFR 257.3-4 - Ground water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... to sewage sludge that is not used or disposed through a practice regulated in 40 CFR part 503 may... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ground water. 257.3-4 Section 257.3-4... and Practices § 257.3-4 Ground water. (a) A facility or practice shall not contaminate an...

  14. 40 CFR 257.3-4 - Ground water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... to sewage sludge that is not used or disposed through a practice regulated in 40 CFR part 503 may... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Ground water. 257.3-4 Section 257.3-4... and Practices § 257.3-4 Ground water. (a) A facility or practice shall not contaminate an...

  15. 40 CFR 257.3-4 - Ground water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to sewage sludge that is not used or disposed through a practice regulated in 40 CFR part 503 may... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground water. 257.3-4 Section 257.3-4... and Practices § 257.3-4 Ground water. (a) A facility or practice shall not contaminate an...

  16. 40 CFR 257.3-4 - Ground water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... to sewage sludge that is not used or disposed through a practice regulated in 40 CFR part 503 may... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ground water. 257.3-4 Section 257.3-4... and Practices § 257.3-4 Ground water. (a) A facility or practice shall not contaminate an...

  17. 40 CFR 257.3-4 - Ground water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... to sewage sludge that is not used or disposed through a practice regulated in 40 CFR part 503 may... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ground water. 257.3-4 Section 257.3-4... and Practices § 257.3-4 Ground water. (a) A facility or practice shall not contaminate an...

  18. 41 CFR 51-3.4 - Distribution of orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Distribution of orders. 51-3.4 Section 51-3.4 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public... § 51-3.4 Distribution of orders. Central nonprofit agencies shall distribute orders from the...

  19. 43 CFR 3.4 - No exclusive permits granted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false No exclusive permits granted. 3.4 Section 3.4 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PRESERVATION OF AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES § 3.4 No exclusive permits granted. No exclusive permits shall be granted for a larger area...

  20. 43 CFR 3.4 - No exclusive permits granted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false No exclusive permits granted. 3.4 Section 3.4 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PRESERVATION OF AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES § 3.4 No exclusive permits granted. No exclusive permits shall be granted for a larger area...

  1. 43 CFR 3.4 - No exclusive permits granted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false No exclusive permits granted. 3.4 Section 3.4 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PRESERVATION OF AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES § 3.4 No exclusive permits granted. No exclusive permits shall be granted for a larger area...

  2. 43 CFR 3.4 - No exclusive permits granted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true No exclusive permits granted. 3.4 Section 3.4 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PRESERVATION OF AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES § 3.4 No exclusive permits granted. No exclusive permits shall be granted for a larger area...

  3. 43 CFR 3.4 - No exclusive permits granted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false No exclusive permits granted. 3.4 Section 3.4 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PRESERVATION OF AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES § 3.4 No exclusive permits granted. No exclusive permits shall be granted for a larger area...

  4. 34 CFR 3.4 - Use of the seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Use of the seal. 3.4 Section 3.4 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education OFFICIAL SEAL § 3.4 Use of the seal. (a) Use by any person or...) Requests by any person or organization outside of the Department for permission to use the Seal must...

  5. 34 CFR 3.4 - Use of the seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Use of the seal. 3.4 Section 3.4 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education OFFICIAL SEAL § 3.4 Use of the seal. (a) Use by any person or...) Requests by any person or organization outside of the Department for permission to use the Seal must...

  6. 34 CFR 3.4 - Use of the seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Use of the seal. 3.4 Section 3.4 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education OFFICIAL SEAL § 3.4 Use of the seal. (a) Use by any person or...) Requests by any person or organization outside of the Department for permission to use the Seal must...

  7. 34 CFR 3.4 - Use of the seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Use of the seal. 3.4 Section 3.4 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education OFFICIAL SEAL § 3.4 Use of the seal. (a) Use by any person or...) Requests by any person or organization outside of the Department for permission to use the Seal must...

  8. 34 CFR 3.4 - Use of the seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of the seal. 3.4 Section 3.4 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education OFFICIAL SEAL § 3.4 Use of the seal. (a) Use by any person or...) Requests by any person or organization outside of the Department for permission to use the Seal must...

  9. 7 CFR 3.4 - Delegations of authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Delegations of authority. 3.4 Section 3.4 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DEBT MANAGEMENT General § 3.4 Delegations of authority. The head of an agency is authorized to exercise any or all of the functions provided by this part with...

  10. 10 CFR 960.3-4 - Environmental impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Environmental impacts. 960.3-4 Section 960.3-4 Energy... REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-4 Environmental impacts. Environmental impacts shall be... process. The DOE shall mitigate significant adverse environmental impacts, to the extent...

  11. 10 CFR 960.3-4 - Environmental impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental impacts. 960.3-4 Section 960.3-4 Energy... REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-4 Environmental impacts. Environmental impacts shall be... process. The DOE shall mitigate significant adverse environmental impacts, to the extent...

  12. 45 CFR 1210.3-4 - Initiation of termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Initiation of termination. 1210.3-4 Section 1210.3-4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE VISTA TRAINEE DESELECTION AND VOLUNTEER EARLY TERMINATION PROCEDURES VISTA Volunteer Early Termination § 1210.3-4 Initiation...

  13. Investigation of NbNx thin films and nanoparticles grown by pulsed laser deposition and thermal diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan Farha, Ashraf

    Niobium nitride films (NbNx) were grown on Nb and Si (100) substrates using pulsed laser deposition (PLD), laser heating, and thermal diffusion methods. Niobium nitride films were deposited on Nb substrates using PLD with a Q-switched Nd: YAG laser (lambda = 1064 nm, 40 ns pulse width, and 10 Hz repetition rate) at different laser fluences, different nitrogen background pressures and deposition temperatures. The effect of changing PLD parameters for films done by PLD was studied. The seen observations establish guidelines for adjusting the laser parameters to achieve the desired morphology and phase of the grown NbNx films. When the fabrication parameters are fixed, except for laser fluence, surface roughness, deposition rate, nitrogen content, and grain size increases with increasing laser fluence. Increasing nitrogen background pressure leads to change in the phase structure of the NbNx films from mixed -Nb 2N and cubic delta-NbN phases to single hexagonal beta- Nb 2N. A change in substrate temperature led to a pronounced change in the preferred orientation of the crystal structure, the phase transformation, surface roughness, and composition of the films. The structural, electronic, and nanomechanical properties of niobium nitride PLD deposited at different nitrogen pressures (26.7-66.7 Pa) on Si(100) were investigated. The NbNx, films exhibited a cubic delta-NbN with a strong (111) orientation. A correlation between surface morphology, electronic, and superconducting properties was found. The highly-textured delta-NbN films have a Tc up to 15.07 K. The film was deposited at a nitrogen background pressure of 66.7 Pa exhibited improved superconducting properties and showed higher hardness values as compared to films deposited at lower nitrogen pressures. NbN nanoclusters that were deposited on carbon coated Cu-grids using PLD at laser fluence of 8 J/cm2 were observed. Niobium nitride is prepared by heating of Nb sample in a reactive nitrogen atmosphere (133 Pa

  14. Utilization of N-X bonds in the synthesis of N-heterocycles.

    PubMed

    Minakata, Satoshi

    2009-08-18

    Nitrogen-containing heterocycles--such as aziridines, pyrrolidines, piperidines, and oxazolines--frequently show up as substructures in natural products. In addition, some of these species show potent biological activities. Therefore, researchers would like to develop practical and convenient methods for constructing these heterocycles. Among the available methods, the transfer of N(1) units to organic molecules, especially olefins, is a versatile method for the synthesis of N-heterocycles. This Account reviews some of our recent work on the synthesis of N-heterocycles using the N-X bond. A nitrogen-halogen bond bearing an electron-withdrawing group on the nitrogen can be converted to a halonium ion. In the presence of C-C double bonds, these species produce three-membered cyclic halonium intermediates, which can be strong electrophiles and can produce stereocontrolled products. N-Halosuccinimides are representative sources of halonium ions, and the nitrogen of succinimide is rarely used in organic synthesis. If the nitrogen could act as a nucleophile, after releasing halonium ions to C-C double bonds, we expect great advances would be possible in the stereoselective functionalization of olefins. We chose N-chloro-N-sodio-p-toluenesulfonamide (chloramine-T, CT), an inexpensive and commercially available reagent, as our desired reactant. In the presence of a catalytic amount of CuCl or I(2) and AgNO(3), we achieved the direct aziridination of olefins with CT. The reaction catalyzed by I(2) could be carried out in water or silica-water as a green process. The reaction of iodoolefins with CT gave pyrrolidine derivatives under extremely mild conditions with complete stereoselectivity. We also extended the utility of the N-chloro-N-metallo reagent, which is often unstable and difficult to work with. Although CT does not react with electron-deficient olefins without a metal catalyst or an additive, we found that N-chloro-N-sodiocarbamates react with electron

  15. Clinical Evaluation of the New High-Throughput Luminex NxTAG Respiratory Pathogen Panel Assay for Multiplex Respiratory Pathogen Detection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jonathan H K; Lam, Ho-Yin; Yip, Cyril C Y; Wong, Sally C Y; Chan, Jasper F W; Ma, Edmond S K; Cheng, Vincent C C; Tang, Bone S F; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2016-07-01

    A broad range of viral and bacterial pathogens can cause acute respiratory tract infection. For rapid detection of a broad respiratory pathogen spectrum, multiplex real-time PCR is ideal. This study evaluated the performance of the new Luminex NxTAG Respiratory Pathogen Panel (NxTAG-RPP) in comparison with the BioFire FilmArray Respiratory Panel (FA-RP) or singleplex real-time PCR as reference. A total of 284 clinical respiratory specimens and 3 influenza A/H7N9 viral culture samples were tested. All clinical specimens were processed and analyzed in parallel using NxTAG-RPP and the reference standard method. The H7N9 viral culture samples were tested using NxTAG-RPP only. Overall, the NxTAG-RPP demonstrated ≥93% sensitivity and specificity for all respiratory targets except human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43) and HCoV-HKU1. The H7N9 virus was detected by the influenza A virus matrix gene target, while other influenza A virus subtyping gene targets in the panel remained negative. Complete concordance between NxTAG-RPP and FA-RP was observed in 98.8% (318/322) of positive results (kappa = 0.92). Substantial agreement was found for most respiratory targets, but significant differences were observed in human metapneumovirus (P = 0.001) and parainfluenza virus type 3 (P = 0.031). NxTAG-RPP has a higher sample throughput than FA-RP (96 samples versus 1 sample per run) while the turnaround times for NxTAG-RPP and FA-RP were 5 h (up to 96 samples) and 1 h (for one sample), respectively. Overall, NxTAG-RPP demonstrated good diagnostic performance for most respiratory pathogens. The high sample throughput with reasonable turnaround time of this new assay makes it a suitable multiplex platform for routine screening of respiratory specimens in hospital-based laboratories. PMID:27122380

  16. Development of broadband antireflection of high-index substrate using SiNx/SiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Kim Peng; Ng, Doris K. T.; Wang, Qian

    2016-03-01

    Broadband antireflection coatings are commonly required in many silicon or III-V compound semiconductor based optoelectronic devices such as solar cells, photodetectors, and image sensors so as to enhance light conversion efficiency. Conventional approach using a single-layer antireflection coating is simple and commonly used in industry but it has a limited working bandwidth. To achieve broadband or even omni-directional characteristics, structures using thick graded refractive index (GRIN) multilayers or nanostructured surfaces which have equivalent graded refractive index profile have been proposed and demonstrated. In this paper, we will show our development of broadband antireflection for high index substrate using SiNx/SiO2 via inductively coupled plasma chemical vapour deposition (ICPCVD). Global optimization of thin-film broadband antireflection coating using adaptive simulated annealing is presented. Unlike the conventional optical coating design which uses the refractive index of available materials, the optimization approach used here decides the optimal values of the refractive index as well as the thickness of each layer. The first thin-film material optimization is carried out on the ICP-CVD machine operating at low temperature of 250°C by tuning the SiH4/N2 gas ratio. The demonstrated double layer antireflection thin film reduces the average reflectance of Si surface from ~32% to ~3.17% at normal incidence for wavelength range from 400 to 1100 nm. This optical thin-film design and material development can be extended to optical wavelength filters and integrated micro-GRIN devices.

  17. Column Number Density Expressions Through M = 0 and M = 1 Point Source Plumes Along Any Straight Path

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woronowicz, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Analytical expressions for column number density (CND) are developed for optical line of sight paths through a variety of steady free molecule point source models including directionally-constrained effusion (Mach number M = 0) and flow from a sonic orifice (M = 1). Sonic orifice solutions are approximate, developed using a fair simulacrum fitted to the free molecule solution. Expressions are also developed for a spherically-symmetric thermal expansion (M = 0). CND solutions are found for the most general paths relative to these sources and briefly explored. It is determined that the maximum CND from a distant location through directed effusion and sonic orifice cases occurs along the path parallel to the source plane that intersects the plume axis. For the effusive case this value is exactly twice the CND found along the ray originating from that point of intersection and extending to infinity along the plume's axis. For sonic plumes this ratio is reduced to about 4/3. For high Mach number cases the maximum CND will be found along the axial centerline path. Keywords: column number density, plume flows, outgassing, free molecule flow.

  18. Column Number Density Expressions Through M = 0 and M = 1 Point Source Plumes Along Any Straight Path

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woronowicz, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    Analytical expressions for column number density (CND) are developed for optical line of sight paths through a variety of steady free molecule point source models including directionally-constrained effusion (Mach number M = 0) and flow from a sonic orifice (M 1). Sonic orifice solutions are approximate, developed using a fair simulacrum fitted to the free molecule solution. Expressions are also developed for a spherically-symmetric thermal expansion (M = 0). CND solutions are found for the most general paths relative to these sources and briefly explored. It is determined that the maximum CND from a distant location through directed effusion and sonic orifice cases occurs along the path parallel to the source plane that intersects the plume axis. For the effusive case this value is exactly twice the CND found along the ray originating from that point of intersection and extending to infinity along the plumes axis. For sonic plumes this ratio is reduced to about 43. For high Mach number cases the maximum CND will be found along the axial centerline path.

  19. Regulation of Macrophage Motility by the Water Channel Aquaporin-1: Crucial Role of M0/M2 Phenotype Switch

    PubMed Central

    Tyteca, Donatienne; Nishino, Tomoya; Debaix, Huguette; Van Der Smissen, Patrick; N'Kuli, Francisca; Hoffmann, Delia; Cnops, Yvette; Rabolli, Virginie; van Loo, Geert; Beyaert, Rudi; Huaux, François; Devuyst, Olivier; Courtoy, Pierre J.

    2015-01-01

    The water channel aquaporin-1 (AQP1) promotes migration of many cell types. Although AQP1 is expressed in macrophages, its potential role in macrophage motility, particularly in relation with phenotype polarization, remains unknown. We here addressed these issues in peritoneal macrophages isolated from AQP1-deficient mice, either undifferentiated (M0) or stimulated with LPS to orientate towards pro-inflammatory phenotype (classical macrophage activation; M1). In non-stimulated macrophages, ablation of AQP1 (like inhibition by HgCl2) increased by 2–3 fold spontaneous migration in a Src/PI3K/Rac-dependent manner. This correlated with cell elongation and formation of lamellipodia/ruffles, resulting in membrane lipid and F4/80 recruitment to the leading edge. This indicated that AQP1 normally suppresses migration of resting macrophages, as opposed to other cell types. Resting Aqp1-/- macrophages exhibited CD206 redistribution into ruffles and increased arginase activity like IL4/IL13 (alternative macrophage activation; M2), indicating a M0-M2 shift. In contrast, upon M1 orientation by LPS in vitro or peritoneal inflammation in vivo, migration of Aqp1-/- macrophages was reduced. Taken together, these data indicate that AQP1 oppositely regulates macrophage migration, depending on stimulation or not by LPS, and that macrophage phenotypic and migratory changes may be regulated independently of external cues. PMID:25719758

  20. Regulation of macrophage motility by the water channel aquaporin-1: crucial role of M0/M2 phenotype switch.

    PubMed

    Tyteca, Donatienne; Nishino, Tomoya; Debaix, Huguette; Van Der Smissen, Patrick; N'Kuli, Francisca; Hoffmann, Delia; Cnops, Yvette; Rabolli, Virginie; van Loo, Geert; Beyaert, Rudi; Huaux, François; Devuyst, Olivier; Courtoy, Pierre J

    2015-01-01

    The water channel aquaporin-1 (AQP1) promotes migration of many cell types. Although AQP1 is expressed in macrophages, its potential role in macrophage motility, particularly in relation with phenotype polarization, remains unknown. We here addressed these issues in peritoneal macrophages isolated from AQP1-deficient mice, either undifferentiated (M0) or stimulated with LPS to orientate towards pro-inflammatory phenotype (classical macrophage activation; M1). In non-stimulated macrophages, ablation of AQP1 (like inhibition by HgCl2) increased by 2-3 fold spontaneous migration in a Src/PI3K/Rac-dependent manner. This correlated with cell elongation and formation of lamellipodia/ruffles, resulting in membrane lipid and F4/80 recruitment to the leading edge. This indicated that AQP1 normally suppresses migration of resting macrophages, as opposed to other cell types. Resting Aqp1-/- macrophages exhibited CD206 redistribution into ruffles and increased arginase activity like IL4/IL13 (alternative macrophage activation; M2), indicating a M0-M2 shift. In contrast, upon M1 orientation by LPS in vitro or peritoneal inflammation in vivo, migration of Aqp1-/- macrophages was reduced. Taken together, these data indicate that AQP1 oppositely regulates macrophage migration, depending on stimulation or not by LPS, and that macrophage phenotypic and migratory changes may be regulated independently of external cues. PMID:25719758

  1. Structural and electrical anisotropies of Si-doped a-plane (11-20) GaN films with different SiNx interlayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ji Hoon; Hwang, Sung-Min; Seo, Yong Gon; Baik, Kwang Hyeon; Park, Jung Ho

    2013-08-01

    The effects of different SiNx interlayers on the structural and electrical properties of nonpolar Si-doped a-plane (11-20) GaN films grown on r-plane (1-102) sapphire were investigated. The surface roughness depends strongly on the SiNx coverage, deposition temperature and number of SiNx layers. The in-plane anisotropy of on-axis x-ray rocking curves (XRCs) (full width at half-maximum) was significantly decreased by the introduction of multiple SiNx-treated GaN interlayers, indicating coherently scattering domains of uniform size. Off-axis XRC measurements were also employed to investigate the effects on the mosaic twist corresponding to edge dislocation and the I1-type basal-plane stacking fault (BSF) density. Hall effect measurement showed that the electrical conductivity was the highest when multiple SiNx/GaN interlayers were employed. The measured sheet resistances (Rsh) along the c-axis were higher than those along the m-axis. These anisotropic conductivities could be explained by BSFs acting as carrier scattering centers. The ratios of Rsh along the two in-plane orientations also correlated well with the BSF densities.

  2. Saturation effects on Ba 6pnl (l = 0,2) and 6pnk (|M| = 0,1) autoionization spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shi-Ben; Dai, Chang-Jian

    2007-02-01

    Using a three-step laser saturation excitation technique, the saturation effects on the Ba 6pns (J = 1) and 6pnd (J = 1, 3) autoionization spectra are observed systemically in zero field. These saturation spectra are introduced to determine the high n members of 6pnl (l = 0, 2) autoionizing series and are used to analyse the channel interactions among the autoionizing series in zero field. Furthermore, the saturation excitation technique is applied to the electric field case, in which the saturation spectra of Ba 6pnk (|M| = 0, 1) autoionizing Stark states are measured. Most of these saturation spectra are observed for the first time so far as we know, which indicate the mixing of the autoionizing states in the electric fields.

  3. Growth rates of the m=0 mode for Bennett equilibria with varying radial density and temperature profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoltz, P. H.; Oliver, B. V.

    2001-06-01

    The linear growth of axisymmetric (m=0) perturbations for various Bennett pinch equilibria are studied numerically with the ALEGRA-MHD code [A. C. Robinson, C. J. Garasi, T. A. Haill, R. L. Morse, and P. H. Stoltz, Proceedings of the 26th IEEE Conference on Plasma Science (IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, 1999), p. 306]. Growth rates are calculated for both skin and diffuse current profiles with varied density and temperature profiles. A destabilizing effect of radially increasing temperature profiles is presented. A factor of three increase in the growth rate over a constant-temperature equilibrium is noted for an equilibrium which is ten times hotter on the edge than at the core. A qualitative explanation is given in terms of the sound speed in the radial region where the mode resides.

  4. Summary of studies to reduce wing-mounted propfan installation drag on an M = 0.8 transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Ronald C.; Levin, Alan D.; Wood, Richard D.

    1987-01-01

    Powerplant installation losses for an advanced, high-speed, turboprop transport have been investigated in the Ames Research Center Transonic Wind Tunnels as a part of the NASA Advanced Turboprop Program (ATP). Force and pressure tests have been completed at Mach numbers from 0.6 to 0.82 on baseline and modified powered-model configurations to determine the magnitude of the losses and to what extent current design tools could be used to optimize the installed performance of turboprop propulsion systems designed to cruise at M = 0.8. Results of the tests indicate a large reduction in installed drag for the modified configuration. The wing-mounted power plant caused destabilizing pitching moments and a negative shift in the zero-lift pitching moment.

  5. Influence of nitrogen-related defects on optical and electrical behaviour in HfO2-xNx deposited by high-power impulse magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdoch, B. J.; Ganesan, R.; McKenzie, D. R.; Bilek, M. M. M.; McCulloch, D. G.; Partridge, J. G.

    2015-09-01

    HfO2-xNx films have been deposited by high-power impulse magnetron sputtering in an Ar-O2-N2 atmosphere with a series of nitrogen partial pressures. X-ray absorption spectroscopy revealed the optimum deposition conditions required to passivate O vacancies in the HfO2-xNx films by nitrogen. Low-mobility interstitial species prevent crystallisation of nitrogen-incorporated films. These effects combine to remove leakage paths resulting in superior breakdown strengths compared to films deposited without nitrogen. The bandgap was maintained at ˜5.9 eV in the films in which nitrogen passivated the oxygen vacancies. This is essential to provide sufficient band offsets for HfO2-xNx films to be used an effective gate dielectric.

  6. 43 CFR 3435.3-4 - Determination of value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Determination of value. 3435.3-4 Section....3-4 Determination of value. The value of the land to be leased, or added by lease modification, or... applicant and the Secretary, be equal to the estimated fair market value of the lease or lease...

  7. 43 CFR 3435.3-4 - Determination of value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Determination of value. 3435.3-4 Section....3-4 Determination of value. The value of the land to be leased, or added by lease modification, or... applicant and the Secretary, be equal to the estimated fair market value of the lease or lease...

  8. 43 CFR 3435.3-4 - Determination of value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Determination of value. 3435.3-4 Section....3-4 Determination of value. The value of the land to be leased, or added by lease modification, or... applicant and the Secretary, be equal to the estimated fair market value of the lease or lease...

  9. 43 CFR 9269.3-4 - Range management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Range management. 9269.3-4 Section 9269.3-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Range management. (a) Grazing administration—exclusive of Alaska—(1) Unlawful enclosures or...

  10. 43 CFR 9269.3-4 - Range management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Range management. 9269.3-4 Section 9269.3-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Range management. (a) Grazing administration—exclusive of Alaska—(1) Unlawful enclosures or...

  11. 43 CFR 9269.3-4 - Range management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Range management. 9269.3-4 Section 9269.3-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Range management. (a) Grazing administration—exclusive of Alaska—(1) Unlawful enclosures or...

  12. 43 CFR 9269.3-4 - Range management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Range management. 9269.3-4 Section 9269.3-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Range management. (a) Grazing administration—exclusive of Alaska—(1) Unlawful enclosures or...

  13. 41 CFR 60-3.4 - Information on impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Information on impact. 60-3.4 Section 60-3.4 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public... employment practices, (2) where the weight of court decisions or administrative interpretations hold that...

  14. 41 CFR 60-3.4 - Information on impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Information on impact. 60-3.4 Section 60-3.4 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public... employment practices, (2) where the weight of court decisions or administrative interpretations hold that...

  15. 43 CFR 3400.3-4 - Trust protection lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Trust protection lands. 3400.3-4 Section 3400.3-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... development of coal deposits held in trust by the United States for Indians. See 43 CFR...

  16. 43 CFR 3400.3-4 - Trust protection lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Trust protection lands. 3400.3-4 Section 3400.3-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... development of coal deposits held in trust by the United States for Indians. See 43 CFR...

  17. 43 CFR 3400.3-4 - Trust protection lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Trust protection lands. 3400.3-4 Section 3400.3-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... development of coal deposits held in trust by the United States for Indians. See 43 CFR...

  18. 15 CFR Supplement Nos. 3-4 to Part... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nos. Supplement Nos. 3-4 to Part 742 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF... CONTROLS Supplement Nos. 3-4 to Part 742...

  19. 41 CFR 51-3.4 - Distribution of orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Distribution of orders. 51-3.4 Section 51-3.4 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public Contracts COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED 3-CENTRAL NONPROFIT...

  20. 43 CFR 3742.3-4 - Proof of publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Proof of publication. 3742.3-4 Section... DEVELOPMENT Procedures Under the Act § 3742.3-4 Proof of publication. After the period of newspaper publication has expired, the person requesting publication shall obtain from the office of the newspaper...

  1. 43 CFR 3742.3-4 - Proof of publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Proof of publication. 3742.3-4 Section... DEVELOPMENT Procedures Under the Act § 3742.3-4 Proof of publication. After the period of newspaper publication has expired, the person requesting publication shall obtain from the office of the newspaper...

  2. The simultaneous production of sphingan Ss and poly(R-3-hydroxybutyrate) in Sphingomonas sanxanigenens NX02.

    PubMed

    Wu, Mengmeng; Li, Guoqiang; Huang, Haidong; Chen, Sibin; Luo, Ying; Zhang, Wenwen; Li, Keran; Zhou, Jiefang; Ma, Ting

    2016-01-01

    Sphingans and poly(R-3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) are both widely used biopolymers produced by bacteria. In the batch fermentation of Sphingomonas sanxanigenens NX02 in a 5L fermenter using glucose as carbon source, ivory colored sphingan Ss production was a growth-associated process with a maximum purified production of 14.88 ± 0.83 g/L, while 6.08 ± 0.23 g/L PHB was simultaneously produced. Sphingan Ss and PHB were separated by a simple dilution, heating and centrifugation or filtration process, and sphingan Ss can be cost-effectively extracted using a small amount of acid rather than multi-fold volumes of alcohols. From ultrathin sections of S. sanxanigenens NX02, we found that the interior space of the cells was filled with PHB granules, and the outside was surrounded by abundant Ss. The purified sphingan Ss can be used as an excellent gelling and emulsifying agent in biotechnology applications such as food, personal care and production processes. Proposed pathways of Ss and PHB biosynthesis from glucose are also presented. PMID:26434528

  3. Synthesis and single-crystal structure determination of the zinc nitride halides Zn2NX (X=Cl, Br, I)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaohui; Wessel, Claudia; Pan, Fangfang; Dronskowski, Richard

    2013-07-01

    A series of zinc nitride halides, Zn2NX (X=Cl, Br, I), has been synthesized from solid-liquid reactions of zinc nitride with the respective zinc halides under vacuum, and their crystal structures were determined using single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction. While Zn2NCl and Zn2NBr crystallize in the acentric orthorhombic space group Pna21, Zn2NI adopts the centrosymmetric space group Pnma; Zn2NCl and Zn2NBr can be considered to belong to the anti-β-NaFeO2 type, and Zn2NI is closely related. Each N3- is tetrahedrally coordinated by zinc atoms, and the X- anions are located in the vacancies of the framework formed by corner-sharing [NZn4] tetrahedra. According to TGA/DTA analyses, the Zn2NX compounds exhibit good thermal stability. The electronic structure has been analyzed by employing density-functional theory and the HSE06 hybrid functional.

  4. Probing the role of an atomically thin SiNx interlayer on the structure of ultrathin carbon films.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Neeraj; Rismani-Yazdi, Ehsan; Yeo, Reuben J; Goohpattader, Partho S; Satyanarayana, Nalam; Srinivasan, Narasimhan; Druz, Boris; Tripathy, S; Bhatia, C S

    2014-01-01

    Filtered cathodic vacuum arc (FCVA) processed carbon films are being considered as a promising protective media overcoat material for future hard disk drives (HDDs). However, at ultrathin film levels, FCVA-deposited carbon films show a dramatic change in their structure in terms of loss of sp3 bonding, density, wear resistance etc., compared to their bulk counterpart. We report for the first time how an atomically thin (0.4 nm) silicon nitride (SiNx) interlayer helps in maintaining/improving the sp3 carbon bonding, enhancing interfacial strength/bonding, improving oxidation/corrosion resistance, and strengthening the tribological properties of FCVA-deposited carbon films, even at ultrathin levels (1.2 nm). We propose the role of the SiNx interlayer in preventing the catalytic activity of Co and Pt in media, leading to enhanced sp3C bonding (relative enhancement~40%). These findings are extremely important in view of the atomic level understanding of structural modification and the development of high density HDDs. PMID:24846506

  5. Probing the Role of an Atomically Thin SiNx Interlayer on the Structure of Ultrathin Carbon Films

    PubMed Central

    Dwivedi, Neeraj; Rismani-Yazdi, Ehsan; Yeo, Reuben J.; Goohpattader, Partho S.; Satyanarayana, Nalam; Srinivasan, Narasimhan; Druz, Boris; Tripathy, S.; Bhatia, C. S.

    2014-01-01

    Filtered cathodic vacuum arc (FCVA) processed carbon films are being considered as a promising protective media overcoat material for future hard disk drives (HDDs). However, at ultrathin film levels, FCVA-deposited carbon films show a dramatic change in their structure in terms of loss of sp3 bonding, density, wear resistance etc., compared to their bulk counterpart. We report for the first time how an atomically thin (0.4 nm) silicon nitride (SiNx) interlayer helps in maintaining/improving the sp3 carbon bonding, enhancing interfacial strength/bonding, improving oxidation/corrosion resistance, and strengthening the tribological properties of FCVA-deposited carbon films, even at ultrathin levels (1.2 nm). We propose the role of the SiNx interlayer in preventing the catalytic activity of Co and Pt in media, leading to enhanced sp3C bonding (relative enhancement ~40%). These findings are extremely important in view of the atomic level understanding of structural modification and the development of high density HDDs. PMID:24846506

  6. Highly efficient rice straw utilization for poly-(γ-glutamic acid) production by Bacillus subtilis NX-2.

    PubMed

    Tang, Bao; Lei, Peng; Xu, Zongqi; Jiang, Yongxiang; Xu, Zheng; Liang, Jinfeng; Feng, Xiaohai; Xu, Hong

    2015-10-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass has been identified as an economic and environmental feedstock for future biotechnological production. Here, for the first time, poly-(γ-glutamic acid) (PGA) production by Bacillus subtilis NX-2 using rice straw is investigated. Based on two-stage hydrolysis and characteristic consumption of xylose and glucose by B. subtilis NX-2, a co-fermentation strategy was designed to better accumulate PGA in a 7.5L fermentor by two feeding methods. The maximum cumulative respective PGA production and PGA productivity were 73.0 ± 0.5 g L(-1) and 0.81 g L(-1) h(-1) by the continuous feeding method, with carbon source cost was saved by 84.2% and 42.5% compared with glucose and cane molasse, respectively. These results suggest that rice straw, a type of abundant, low-cost, non-food lignocellulosic feedstock, may be feasibly and efficiently utilized for industrial-scale production of PGA. PMID:26143572

  7. Grids of white dwarf evolutionary models with masses from M=0.1 to 1.2 m_solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benvenuto, O. G.; Althaus, L. G.

    1999-02-01

    We present detailed evolutionary calculations for carbon-oxygen- and helium-core white dwarf models with masses ranging from M= 0.1 to 1.2 M_solar and for metallicities Z = 0.001 and 0. The sequences cover a wide range of hydrogen envelopes as well. We have taken finite-temperature effects fully into account by means of a detailed white dwarf evolutionary code, in which updated radiative opacities and equations of state for hydrogen and helium plasmas are considered. The energy transport by convection is treated within the formalism of the full-spectrum turbulence theory, as given by the self-consistent model of Canuto, Goldman & Mazzitelli. Convective mixing, crystallization, hydrogen burning and neutrino energy losses are taken into account as well. The set of models presented here is very detailed and should be valuable, particularly for the interpretation of observational data on low-mass white dwarfs recently discovered in numerous binary configurations, and also for the general problem of determining the theoretical luminosity function for white dwarfs. In this context, we compare our cooling sequences with the observed white dwarf luminosity function recently improved by Leggett, Ruiz & Bergeron and we obtain an age for the Galactic disc of ~ 8 Gyr. Finally, we apply the results of this paper to derive stellar masses of a sample of low-mass white dwarfs.

  8. Spinor moving frame, M0-brane covariant BRST quantization and intrinsic complexity of the pure spinor approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandos, Igor A.

    2008-01-01

    To exhibit the possible origin of the inner complexity of the Berkovits's pure spinor approach, we consider the covariant BRST quantization of the D = 11 massless superparticle (M0-brane) in its spinor moving frame or twistor-like Lorentz harmonics formulation. The presence of additional twistor-like variables (spinor harmonics) allows us to separate covariantly the first and the second class constraints. After taking into account the second class constraints by means of Dirac brackets and after further reducing the first class constraints algebra, the dynamical system is described by the cohomology of a simple BRST charge Qsusy associated to the d = 1, n = 16 supersymmetry algebra. The calculation of the cohomology of this Qsusy requires a regularization which implies the complexification of the bosonic ghost associated to the κ-symmetry and further leads to a complex (non-Hermitian) BRST charge Q˜susy which is essentially the 'pure spinor' BRST charge QB by Berkovits, but with a composite pure spinor.

  9. Comparison of external beam treatment techniques for T1-2, N0, M0 glottic cancers

    SciTech Connect

    Camingue, Pamela; Christian, Rochelle; Ng, Davin; Williams, Preston; Amin, Mayankkumar; Roniger, Dominique L.

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare 4 different external beam radiation therapy treatment techniques for the treatment of T1-2, N0, M0 glottic cancers: traditional lateral beams with wedges (3D), 5-field intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), and proton therapy. Treatment plans in each technique were created for 10 patients using consistent planning parameters. The photon treatment plans were optimized using Philips Pinnacle{sub 3} v.9 and the IMRT and VMAT plans used the Direct Machine Parameter Optimization algorithm. The proton treatment plans were optimized using Varian Eclipse Proton v.8.9. The prescription used for each plan was 63 Gy in 28 fractions. The contours for spinal cord, right carotid artery, left carotid artery, and normal tissue were created with respect to the patient's bony anatomy so that proper comparisons of doses could be made with respect to volume. An example of the different isodose distributions will be shown. The data collection for comparison purposes includes: clinical treatment volume coverage, dose to spinal cord, dose to carotid arteries, and dose to normal tissue. Data comparisons will be displayed graphically showing the maximum, mean, median, and ranges of doses.

  10. Electrical and Optical Properties of Poly(3,4-dialkylthiophene)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshino, Katsumi; Manda, Yasuhisa; Sawada, Keiji; Morita, Shigenori; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Sugimoto, Ryu-ichi; Onoda, Mitsuyoshi

    1989-04-01

    Poly(3,4-dialkylthiophene) films prepared by both electrochemical and chemical methods utilizing FeCl3 as catalyst exhibit much larger band gap compared with non-substituted and 3-substituted polythiophene films. Poly(3,4-dialkylthiophene)s with long alkyl chains are soluble in several solvent. However, thermochromism has not been found contrary to poly(3-alkylthiophene), which are explained in terms of large torsion angle between neighbouring thiophene rings due to the steric hindrance by bulky alkyl group. Poly(3,4-dimethylthiophene) with large band gap also demonstrates drastic spectral, electron spin resonance (ESR) and conductivity changes upon doping due to an insulator-metal transition.

  11. Conductimetric immunosensor based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene).

    PubMed

    Kanungo, Mandakini; Srivastava, Divesh N; Kumar, Anil; Contractor, A Q

    2002-04-01

    A conductimetric reagentless immunosensor using the biospecific binding pair of goat antirabbit IgG and rabbit IgG has been designed and fabricated using poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) as the immobilization matrix-cumtransducer. PMID:12119672

  12. Kv3.4 channel function and dysfunction in nociceptors

    PubMed Central

    Ritter, David M; Zemel, Benjamin M; Lepore, Angelo C; Covarrubias, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Recently, we reported the isolation of the Kv3.4 current in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and described dysregulation of this current in a spinal cord injury (SCI) model of chronic pain. These studies strongly suggest that rat Kv3.4 channels are major regulators of excitability in DRG neurons from pups and adult females, where they help determine action potential (AP) repolarization and spiking properties. Here, we characterized the Kv3.4 current in rat DRG neurons from adult males and show that it transfers 40–70% of the total repolarizing charge during the AP across all ages and sexes. Following SCI, we also found remodeling of the repolarizing currents during the AP. In the light of these studies, homomeric Kv3.4 channels expressed in DRG nociceptors are emerging novel targets that may help develop new approaches to treat neuropathic pain. PMID:26039360

  13. 34. DETAILS OF CAISSON FOR PIERS 2, 3, 4 AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. DETAILS OF CAISSON FOR PIERS 2, 3, 4 AND 5 TO BE BUILT ON SOIL OVERBURDEN - East Bloomsburg Bridge, Spanning Susquehanna River at Pennsylvania Route 487 (Legislative Route 283), Bloomsburg, Columbia County, PA

  14. VIEW OF APALACHICOLA RIVER BRIDGE SPANS 2, 3, 4, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF APALACHICOLA RIVER BRIDGE SPANS 2, 3, 4, AND 5, EAST SIDE, FROM NORTH SHORE OF RIVER (CALHOUN COUNTY SIDE), FACING SOUTH - Apalachicola River Bridge, State Route 20 spanning the Apalachicola River, Blountstown, Calhoun County, FL

  15. VIEW OF APALACHICOLA RIVER BRIDGE SPANS 1, 2, 3, 4, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF APALACHICOLA RIVER BRIDGE SPANS 1, 2, 3, 4, AND 5, EAST SIDE, FROM SOUTH SHORE OF RIVER (LIBERTY COUNTY SIDE), FACING WEST - Apalachicola River Bridge, State Route 20 spanning the Apalachicola River, Blountstown, Calhoun County, FL

  16. VIEW OF APALACHICOLA RIVER BRIDGE SPANS 3, 4, AND 5, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF APALACHICOLA RIVER BRIDGE SPANS 3, 4, AND 5, WEST SIDE, FROM NORTH SHORE OF RIVER (CALHOUN COUNTY SIDE), FACING SOUTHEAST - Apalachicola River Bridge, State Route 20 spanning the Apalachicola River, Blountstown, Calhoun County, FL

  17. ANCHOR SETTING PLAN FOR PIERS 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ANCHOR SETTING PLAN FOR PIERS 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 AND 6, APALACHICOLA RIVER BRIDGE, SHEET 5505 TO 8-M1 - Apalachicola River Bridge, State Route 20 spanning the Apalachicola River, Blountstown, Calhoun County, FL

  18. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). Ωm0 from the galaxy clustering ratio measured at z ~ 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bel, J.; Marinoni, C.; Granett, B. R.; Guzzo, L.; Peacock, J. A.; Branchini, E.; Cucciati, O.; de la Torre, S.; Iovino, A.; Percival, W. J.; Steigerwald, H.; Abbas, U.; Adami, C.; Arnouts, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Bottini, D.; Cappi, A.; Coupon, J.; Davidzon, I.; De Lucia, G.; Fritz, A.; Franzetti, P.; Fumana, M.; Garilli, B.; Ilbert, O.; Krywult, J.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fèvre, O.; Maccagni, D.; Małek, K.; Marulli, F.; McCracken, H. J.; Paioro, L.; Polletta, M.; Pollo, A.; Schlagenhaufer, H.; Scodeggio, M.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Tojeiro, R.; Vergani, D.; Zanichelli, A.; Burden, A.; Di Porto, C.; Marchetti, A.; Mellier, Y.; Moscardini, L.; Nichol, R. C.; Phleps, S.; Wolk, M.; Zamorani, G.

    2014-03-01

    We use a sample of about 22 000 galaxies at 0.65 < z < 1.2 from the VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS) Public Data Release 1 (PDR-1) catalogue, to constrain the cosmological model through a measurement of the galaxy clustering ratio ηg,R. This statistic has favourable properties, which is defined as the ratio of two quantities characterizing the smoothed density field in spheres of a given radius R: the value of its correlation function on a multiple of this scale, ξ(nR), and its variance σ2(R). For sufficiently large values of R, this is a universal number, which captures 2-point clustering information independently of the linear bias and linear redshift-space distortions of the specific galaxy tracers. In this paper, we discuss how to extend the application of ηg,R to quasi-linear scales and how to control and remove observational selection effects, which are typical of redshift surveys as VIPERS, in detail. We verify the accuracy and efficiency of these procedures using mock catalogues that match the survey selection process. These results show the robustness of ηg,R to non-linearities and observational effects, which is related to its very definition as a ratio of quantities that are similarly affected. At an effective redshift z = 0.93, we measured the value ηg,R(15) = 0.141 ± 0.013 at R = 5h-1 Mpc. Within a flat ΛCDM cosmology and by including the best available priors on H0, ns and baryon density, we obtain a matter density parameter at the current epoch Ωm,0 = 0.270-0.025+0.029. In addition to the great precision achieved on our estimation of Ωm using VIPERS PDR-1, this result is remarkable because it appears to be in good agreement with a recent estimate at z ≃ 0.3, which was obtained by applying the same technique to the SDSS-LRG catalogue. It, therefore, supports the robustness of the present analysis. Moreover, the combination of these two measurements at z ~ 0.3 and z ~ 0.9 provides us with a very precise estimate of Ωm,0

  19. Survival benefit of surgery with radiotherapy vs surgery alone to patients with T2-3N0M0 stage esophageal adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Guangzhou; Wang, Wanwei; Sun, Xinchen

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aims This study is designed to analyze survival benefit of (neo-) adjuvant radiotherapy to patients with T2-3N0M0 stage esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). Methods T2-3N0M0 stage EAC patients from 2004 to 2012 were searched from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) data. Clinical factors including age, sex, race were summarized. Univariate, multivariate analysis, and stratified cox analysis based on different T stages were performed to explore the survival effect of (neo-)adjuvant radiotherapy to T2-3N0M0 stage EAC. Results T2-3N0M0 stage EAC patients with surgery were more likely to be white race, T3 stage. Univariate analysis showed sex, age, and T stage were the prognostic factors of survival (P<0.05). Multivariate analysis proved (neo-)adjuvant radiotherapy can prolong survival time of T2-3N0M0 stage EAC (P<0.05). Further analysis based on different T stages showed that both neoadjuvant radiotherapy (HR 0.615; 95% CI 0.475-0.797) and adjuvant radiotherapy (HR 0.597; 95% 0.387-0.921) significantly reduced the risk of death of T3N0M0 stage EAC, but neither of which significantly reduced death risk of T2N0M0 stage EAC (P>0.05). Conclusions sex, age are the independent prognostic factors of T2-3N0M0 EAC. Significant survival benefit of (neo-)adjuvant radiotherapy is only observed in patients with T3N0M0 stage EAC, but not in those with T2N0M0 stage. PMID:26870996

  20. Comparative study of CoFeNx/C catalyst obtained by pyrolysis of hemin and cobalt porphyrin for catalytic oxygen reduction in alkaline and acidic electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Rongzhong; Chu, Deryn

    2014-01-01

    Comparative studies of the oxygen reduction kinetics and mechanisms of CoFeNx/C catalysts have been conducted with rotating disk electrode (RDE) and rotating ring-disk electrode (RRDE) in aqueous acid and alkaline solutions, as well as acidic and alkaline polymer electrolytes. The CoFeNx/C catalysts in this study were obtained by the pyrolysis of hemin and a cobalt porphyrin. In an alkaline electrolyte, a larger electron transfer coefficient (0.63) was obtained in comparison to that in an acidic electrolyte (0.44), signifying a lower free energy barrier for oxygen reduction. The kinetic rate constant (2.69 × 10-2 cm s-1) for catalytic oxygen reduction in alkaline solution at 0.6 V (versus RHE) is almost 4 times larger than that in acidic solution (7.3 × 10-3 cm s-1). A synergetic catalytic mechanism is proposed. The overall reduction is a 4-electron reduction of oxygen. The obtained CoFeNx/C catalyst was further evaluated as a cathode catalyst in single fuel cells with acidic, neutral and alkaline electrolyte membranes. The order of the single cell performances either for power density or for stability is acidic > neutral > alkaline. The different behaviors of the CoFeNx/C catalyst in half cell and single cell are discussed.

  1. Partial comparison of the NxTAG Respiratory Pathogen Panel Assay with the Luminex xTAG Respiratory Panel Fast Assay V2 and singleplex real-time polymerase chain reaction for detection of respiratory pathogens.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Susanna; Scala, Alessia; Bianchini, Sonia; Presicce, Maria Lory; Mori, Alessandro; Sciarrabba, Calogero Sathya; Fior, Giulia; Principi, Nicola

    2016-09-01

    In this study, 185 nasopharyngeal swabs were tested to compare the sensitivity and specificity of the Luminex NxTAG (NxTAG) Respiratory Pathogen Panel (RPP) Assay with those of the Luminex Respiratory Virus Panel (RVP) Fast Assay v2 and singleplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The NxTAG Assay identified at least one infectious agent in 164 (88.7%) of the swabs. In 91 (6.2%) tests with negative results with the RVP Fast Assay v2, a virus was identified by the NxTAG (P < 0.001). With the NxTAG Assay, the detection rates were significantly higher for respiratory syncytial virus (P = 0.003), human metapneumovirus (P < 0.001), human rhinovirus/human enterovirus (P = 0.009) and human adenovirus (P < 0.001). Finally, the NxTAG Assay identified M. pneumoniae in 32 of 44 (72.7%) PCR-positive samples. However, the concordance with real-time PCR results was low for both assays. In conclusion, the results indicate that the NxTAG Assay overcomes some of the limitations of previous Luminex assays, although further studies are needed for a more complete evaluation of the new assay. PMID:27401400

  2. Method for preparation of 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline from 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline

    DOEpatents

    Field, George; Hammond, Peter R.

    1994-01-01

    Methods for the efficient preparation of 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline include a first method in which the acylation of m-aminophenol obtains a lactam which is reduced to give the desired quinoline and a second method in which tetrahydroquinoline is nitrated and hydrogenated and then hydrolyzed to obtain the desire quinoline. 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline is used in the efficient synthesis of four lasing dyes of the rhodamine class.

  3. Method for preparation of 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline from 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline

    DOEpatents

    Field, G.; Hammond, P.R.

    1994-02-01

    Methods for the efficient preparation of 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline include a first method in which the acylation of m-aminophenol obtains a lactam which is reduced to give the desired quinoline and a second method in which tetrahydroquinoline is nitrated and hydrogenated and then hydrolyzed to obtain the desire quinoline. 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline is used in the efficient synthesis of four lasing dyes of the rhodamine class.

  4. Spectroscopic studies of heat-treated FeNxCy/C involved in electrochemical oxygen reduction under acid media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shou-Heng; Wu, Jyun-Ren

    2015-03-01

    Carbon-incorporated FeNx electrocatalysts (FeNC/C-T) have been synthesized by carbonizing a nitrogen-containing specie and iron precursor on carbon blacks at various heat-treated temperatures. The catalyst properties (crystalline structure, surface chemical states, oxidation state and co-ordination geometry) and their formation scheme of FeNC/C-T have been thoroughly examined by X-ray based spectroscopies such as X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The electrochemical performance of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and methanol tolerance were also investigated by rotating disk electrode tests in 0.5 M H2SO4. By combined results from XPS and XAS spectroscopies, the catalysts carbonized at 1073 K possess higher surface Fe/C and N/C atomic ratios with formation of carbons incorporated FeN4 species were found to have the optimal electrocatalytic properties.

  5. Verifying field-effect passivation of a SiNx layer on a silicon nanopillar array using surface photovoltage characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Eunah; Cho, Yunae; Sohn, Ahrum; Kim, Dong-Wook; Park, Hyeong-Ho; Kim, Joondong

    In silicon (Si) wafer based photovoltaic (PV) devices, light-trapping strategies to improve optical absorption are very important due to the indirect bandgap of Si. Surface nano-patterned Si enable omnidirectional broadband antireflection (AR) effects with the help of graded refractive index, multiple scattering, diffraction, and Mie resonance. In this work, the surface photovoltage (SPV) of periodic nanopillar (NP) arrays were investigated using Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM). The SPV characteristics clearly revealed that positive fixed charges in SiNx layers induced downward band bending at the Si surface and increased SPV at the NP top surface. The similar SPV value of NPs and planar counterpart suggests that field effect passivation by the dielectric layer coating could help improve PV performance of nanostructure-based Si solar cells and that KPFM measurements are useful tool for quantitative investigation of surface electrical properties of Si nanostructures.

  6. Self-organized ZnO nanodot arrays: Effective control using SiNx interlayers and low-temperature plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, S. Y.; Cheng, Q. J.; Xu, S.; Wei, D. Y.; Zhou, H. P.; Long, J. D.; Levchenko, I.; Ostrikov, K.

    2012-02-01

    An advanced inductively coupled plasma (ICP)-assisted rf magnetron sputtering deposition method is developed to synthesize regular arrays of pear-shaped ZnO nanodots on a thin SiNx buffer layer pre-deposited onto a silicon substrate. It is shown that the growth of ZnO nanodots obey the cubic root-law behavior. It is also shown that the synthesized ZnO nanodots are highly-uniform, controllable by the experimental parameters, and also feature good structural and photoluminescent properties. These results suggest that this custom-designed ICP-based technique is very effective and highly-promising for the synthesis of property- and size-controllable highly-uniform ZnO nanodots suitable for next-generation light emitting diodes, energy storage, UV nanolasers, and other applications.

  7. Polyimides containing the cyclobutene-3,4-dione moiety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    In the present invention, linear aromatic polyimides containing the cyclobutene-3,4-dione moiety were produced from the reaction of a substituted or unsubstituted 1,2-bis(4-aminoanilino) cyclobutene-3,4-dione (SQDA) with various aromatic dianhydrides. These polymers had high molecular weights and their glass transition temperatures (Tgs) were greater than 500 C. Despite the very high Tg, these polymers exhibited excellent adhesion to glass. In addition, the films of these polyimides increased in flexibility with increasing cure temperatures. The novelty of this invention lies in the linear aromatic polyimide containing the cyclobutene-3,4-dione moiety. The presence of this moiety causes such changes in properties as Tgs greater than 500 C, excellent adhesion to glass, and increased flexibility with increasing cure temperatures.

  8. Copolyimides prepared from ODPA, BTDA and 3,4'-ODA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Alice C. (Inventor); St. Clair, Terry L. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A copolyimide was prepared by reacting 3,4'-oxydianiline (3,4'-ODA) with a dianhydride blend comprising, based on the total amount of the dianhydride blend, about 67 to 80 mole percent of 4,4'-oxydiphthalic anhydride (ODPA) and about 20 to 33 mole percent of 3,3',4,4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride (BTDA). The copolyimide may be endcapped with up to about 10 mole percent of a monofunctional aromatic anhydride and has unbalanced stoichiometry such that a molar deficit in the dianhydride blend is compensated with twice the molar amount of the monofunctional aromatic anhydride. The copolyimide was used to prepare composites, films and adhesives. The film and adhesive properties were significantly better than those of LaRC.TM.-IA.

  9. Taming of 3,4-Di(nitramino)furazan.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yongxing; Zhang, Jiaheng; Mitchell, Lauren A; Parrish, Damon A; Shreeve, Jean'ne M

    2015-12-30

    Highly energetic 3,4-di(nitramino)furazan (1, DNAF) was synthesized and confirmed structurally by using single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Its highly sensitive nature can be attributed to the shortage of hydrogen-bonding interactions and an interactive nitro chain in the crystal structure. In order to stabilize this structure, a series of corresponding nitrogen-rich salts (3-10) has been prepared and fully characterized. Among these energetic materials, dihydrazinium 3,4-dinitraminofurazanate (5) exhibits a very promising detonation performance (νD = 9849 m s(-1); P = 40.9 GPa) and is one of the most powerful explosives to date. To ensure the practical applications of 5, rather than preparing the salts of 1 through acid-base reactions, an alternative route through the nitration of N-ethoxycarbonyl-protected 3,4-diaminofurazan and aqueous alkaline workup was developed. PMID:26669520

  10. 3,4,5-Trinitropyrazole-based energetic salts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanqiang; Guo, Yong; Joo, Young-Hyuk; Parrish, Damon A; Shreeve, Jean'ne M

    2010-09-17

    High-density energetic salts that are comprised of nitrogen-rich cations and the 3,4,5-trinitropyrazolate anion were synthesized in high yield by neutralization or metathesis reactions. The resulting salts were fully characterized by (1)H, (13)C NMR, and IR spectroscopy; differential scanning calorimetry; and elemental analysis. Additionally, the structures of the 3,5-diaminotriazolium and triaminoguanidinium 3,4,5-trinitropyrazolates were confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Based on the measured densities and calculated heats of formation, the detonation performances (pressure: 23.74-31.89 GPa; velocity: 7586-8543 ms(-1); Cheetah 5.0) of the 3,4,5-trinitropyrazolate salts are comparable with 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB; 31.15 GPa and 8114 ms(-1)). Impact sensitivities were determined to be no less than 35 J by hammer tests, which places these salts in the insensitive class. PMID:20661962

  11. 6. GATES 3, 4, AND 5, INTAKE CHANNEL LOOKING EAST; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. GATES 3, 4, AND 5, INTAKE CHANNEL LOOKING EAST; WATER THAT PASSED INTO PIPES ENTERED SETTLING VAULT. - Hondius Water Line, 1.6 miles Northwest of Park headquarters building & 1 mile Northwest of Beaver Meadows entrance station, Estes Park, Larimer County, CO

  12. 9 CFR 3.4 - Outdoor housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.4 Outdoor housing facilities. (a) Restrictions. (1) The following categories of dogs or cats must not be kept in outdoor facilities, unless that practice is specifically approved by the attending veterinarian: (i) Dogs or cats that are not...

  13. 9 CFR 3.4 - Outdoor housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.4 Outdoor housing facilities. (a) Restrictions. (1) The following categories of dogs or cats must not be kept in outdoor facilities, unless that practice is specifically approved by the attending veterinarian: (i) Dogs or cats that are not...

  14. 9 CFR 3.4 - Outdoor housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.4 Outdoor housing facilities. (a) Restrictions. (1) The following categories of dogs or cats must not be kept in outdoor facilities, unless that practice is specifically approved by the attending veterinarian: (i) Dogs or cats that are not...

  15. 9 CFR 3.4 - Outdoor housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.4 Outdoor housing facilities. (a) Restrictions. (1) The following categories of dogs or cats must not be kept in outdoor facilities, unless that practice is specifically approved by the attending veterinarian: (i) Dogs or cats that are not...

  16. 9 CFR 3.4 - Outdoor housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.4 Outdoor housing facilities. (a) Restrictions. (1) The following categories of dogs or cats must not be kept in outdoor facilities, unless that practice is specifically approved by the attending veterinarian: (i) Dogs or cats that are not...

  17. 43 CFR 4120.3-4 - Standards, design and stipulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards, design and stipulations. 4120.3... ALASKA Grazing Management § 4120.3-4 Standards, design and stipulations. Range improvement permits and cooperative range improvement agreements shall specify the standards, design, construction and...

  18. 43 CFR 4120.3-4 - Standards, design and stipulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards, design and stipulations. 4120.3... ALASKA Grazing Management § 4120.3-4 Standards, design and stipulations. Range improvement permits and cooperative range improvement agreements shall specify the standards, design, construction and...

  19. 43 CFR 5511.3-4 - Removal by agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) FREE USE OF TIMBER Free Use Regulations § 5511.3-4 Removal by agent. A free-use permittee may procure the timber by agent. Such agent shall not, however, be paid more than fair compensation for the time, labor and money expended in procuring timber...

  20. 43 CFR 5511.3-4 - Removal by agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) FREE USE OF TIMBER Free Use Regulations § 5511.3-4 Removal by agent. A free-use permittee may procure the timber by agent. Such agent shall not, however, be paid more than fair compensation for the time, labor and money expended in procuring timber...

  1. 43 CFR 5511.3-4 - Removal by agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) FREE USE OF TIMBER Free Use Regulations § 5511.3-4 Removal by agent. A free-use permittee may procure the timber by agent. Such agent shall not, however, be paid more than fair compensation for the time, labor and money expended in procuring timber...

  2. 43 CFR 5511.3-4 - Removal by agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) FREE USE OF TIMBER Free Use Regulations § 5511.3-4 Removal by agent. A free-use permittee may procure the timber by agent. Such agent shall not, however, be paid more than fair compensation for the time, labor and money expended in procuring timber...

  3. Anxiety Self Report (ASR (1,2,3,4,). X

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Jane S.

    The Anxiety Self Report (ASR 1,2,3,4) is provided, followed by information about the report. The ASR is discussed as to its development, description, response bias, scoring procedures, reliability, stability, validity, and correlation between the ASR and the Manifest Anxiety Scale. (For related documents, see TM 002 928, 929.) (DB)

  4. Hepatitis C Virus NS3/4A Protease Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    López-Labrador, Francesc-Xavier

    2008-11-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus infection is a global problem worldwide due to the lack of an effective therapy (the current standard of care treatment is effective in about 40-50% of the cases), and the difficulties in developing a protective vaccine. Chronic infection progresses to end-stage liver disease and liver failure in a considerable number of infected individuals. Once liver function is compromised, the only reliable therapeutic intervention is liver transplantation. Unfortunately, re-infection of the graft is unavoidable, and a new chronic hepatitis is early established in transplant recipients, that can result in graft loss. Thus, there is an urgent need for new, specifically targeted therapies for the treatment of HCV chronic infection. Among the viral proteins, the NS3/4A protease and the NS5b RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase, essential for the virus life cycle, have concentrated the efforts in the development of new antivirals, and some promising ones have already entered clinical trials. In particular, inhibitors of the HCV NS3/4A protease are the most advanced in clinical development. This review summarizes the available data for the most important HCV NS3/4A protease inhibitors in development, the most recent patents of these type of compounds, the envisioned options for future HCV therapies, and the eventual impact of HCV genetic variability on resistance to new NS3/4A protease inhibitors. PMID:18991798

  5. 13. PRATT STREET BULKHEAD: SECTIONS 2, 3, 4, 5, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. PRATT STREET BULKHEAD: SECTIONS 2, 3, 4, 5, AND 6, DRAWER 10, PLAN NO. 1, 1 IN. = 15 FT. AND 1/2 IN. = 1 FT., APRIL 25, 1906, DRAWING SHOWS DESIGN FOR PRATT STREET BULKHEAD BETWEEN PIERS - Baltimore Inner Harbor, Pier 5, South of Pratt Street between Market Place & Concord Street, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  6. 3,4,6-Trimethyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazolo­[3,4-b]pyridine

    PubMed Central

    Hamri, Salha; Hafid, Abderrafia; Zouihri, Hafid; Lazar, Saïd; Khouili, Mostafa

    2010-01-01

    In the title compound, C15H15N3, the 1H-pyrazolo­[3,4-b]pyridine system and the phenyl ring are each individually planar, with r.m.s. deviations of 0.017 (2) and 0.011 (2) Å, respectively; the dihedral angle between the two aromatic systems is 9.33 (10)°. The crystal packing is stabilized by offset π–π stacking between parallel pyrazolo­[3,4-b]pyridine ring systems [face-to-face distance = 3.449 (6) Å]. PMID:21588287

  7. Neurotoxicity of Methamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine

    PubMed Central

    Halpin, Laura E.; Collins, Stuart A.; Yamamoto, Bryan K.

    2013-01-01

    Amphetamines are a class of psychostimulant drugs that are widely abused for their stimulant, euphoric, empathogenic and hallucinogenic properties. Many of these effects result from acute increases in dopamine and serotonin neurotransmission. Subsequent to these acute effects, methamphetamine and 3,4 methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) produce persistent damage to dopamine and serotonin nerve terminals. This review summarizes the numerous interdependent mechanisms including excitotoxicity, mitochondrial damage and oxidative stress that have been demonstrated to contribute to this damage. Emerging non-neuronal mechanisms by which the drugs may contribute to monoaminergic terminal damage, as well as the neuropsychiatric consequences of this terminal damage are also presented. Methamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) have similar chemical structures and pharmacologic properties compared to other abused substances including cathinone (khat), as well as a relatively new class of novel synthetic amphetamines known as ‘bath salts’ that have gained popularity amongst drug abusers. PMID:23892199

  8. Neurotoxicity of methamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Halpin, Laura E; Collins, Stuart A; Yamamoto, Bryan K

    2014-02-27

    Amphetamines are a class of psychostimulant drugs that are widely abused for their stimulant, euphoric, empathogenic and hallucinogenic properties. Many of these effects result from acute increases in dopamine and serotonin neurotransmission. Subsequent to these acute effects, methamphetamine and 3,4 methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) produce persistent damage to dopamine and serotonin nerve terminals. This review summarizes the numerous interdependent mechanisms including excitotoxicity, mitochondrial damage and oxidative stress that have been demonstrated to contribute to this damage. Emerging non-neuronal mechanisms by which the drugs may contribute to monoaminergic terminal damage, as well as the neuropsychiatric consequences of this terminal damage are also presented. Methamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) have similar chemical structures and pharmacologic properties compared to other abused substances including cathinone (khat), as well as a relatively new class of novel synthetic amphetamines known as 'bath salts' that have gained popularity among drug abusers. PMID:23892199

  9. Electrical evaluation of crack generation in SiNx and SiOxNy thin-film encapsulation layers for OLED displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Eun Kil; Kim, Sungmin; Heo, Jaeyeong; Kim, Hyeong Joon

    2016-05-01

    By measuring leakage current density, we detected crack generation in silicon nitride (SiNx) and silicon oxynitride (SiOxNy) thin-film encapsulation layers, and correlated with the films' water vapor permeability characteristics. After repeated bending cycles, both the changes in water vapor transmission rate and leakage current density were directly proportional to the crack density. Thick SiNx films had better water vapor barrier characteristics in their pristine state, but cyclic loading led to fast failure. Varying the atomic concentration of the SiOxNy films affected their bending reliability. We attribute these differences to changes in the shape of the crack tip as the oxygen content varies.

  10. Photoinduced 1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyridine ring conversions.

    PubMed

    Turovska, Baiba; Lund, Henning; Lūsis, Viesturs; Lielpētere, Anna; Liepiņš, Edvards; Beljakovs, Sergejs; Goba, Inguna; Stradiņš, Jānis

    2015-01-01

    Stable heterocyclic hydroperoxide can be easily prepared as a product of fast oxidation of a 1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyridine by (3)O2 if the solution is exposed to sunlight. The driving force for the photoinduced electron transfer is calculated from electrochemical and spectroscopic data. The outcome of the reaction depends on the light intensity and the concentration of O2. In the solid state the heterocyclic hydroperoxide is stable; in solution it is involved in further reactions. PMID:26664638

  11. Photoinduced 1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyridine ring conversions

    PubMed Central

    Lund, Henning; Lūsis, Viesturs; Lielpētere, Anna; Liepiņš, Edvards; Beljakovs, Sergejs; Goba, Inguna; Stradiņš, Jānis

    2015-01-01

    Summary Stable heterocyclic hydroperoxide can be easily prepared as a product of fast oxidation of a 1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyridine by 3O2 if the solution is exposed to sunlight. The driving force for the photoinduced electron transfer is calculated from electrochemical and spectroscopic data. The outcome of the reaction depends on the light intensity and the concentration of O2. In the solid state the heterocyclic hydroperoxide is stable; in solution it is involved in further reactions. PMID:26664638

  12. Electromigration in multilayer metallization: Drift-controlled degradation and the electromigration threshold of Al-Si- Cu/TiNxOy/TiSi2 contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oates, A. S.

    1991-11-01

    Metallizations that incorporate a conductive layer beneath an Al alloy (multilayers) are necessary for the improvement in electromigration performance required by the continued feature size reduction and increased integration of microelectronic devices. Degradation of contact structures that utilize multilayer metallization will result from electromigration-induced voiding of the Al layer. A detailed understanding of the mechanisms of voiding is required for the accurate prediction of contact reliability. We have examined electromigration voiding in Al-Si-Cu/TiNxOy/TiSi2 multilayer contacts. Accelerated testing reveals that a TiNxOy/TiSi2 layer formed by rapid thermal anneal of Ti is an effective Si diffusion barrier at operating temperatures (<125 °C) and eliminates electromigration-induced leakage failures. Contact degradation occurs by increased resistance due to voiding of the Al-Si-Cu layer. Voiding involves drift-controlled edge displacement where the Al-Si-Cu layer migrates out of positively biased contacts, leaving the TiNxOy/TiSi2 layer intact. For 1-μm-diam contacts, the drift velocity has a significant lattice diffusion component and failure times are expected to far exceed operation lifetimes of devices. Additionally, evidence is presented for an electromigation threshold that eliminates voiding degradation for contacts connected by stripes.

  13. a-SiNx:H-based ultra-low power resistive random access memory with tunable Si dangling bond conduction paths

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xiaofan; Ma, Zhongyuan; Xu, Jun; Chen, Kunji; Xu, Ling; Li, Wei; Huang, Xinfan; Feng, Duan

    2015-01-01

    The realization of ultra-low power Si-based resistive switching memory technology will be a milestone in the development of next generation non-volatile memory. Here we show that a high performance and ultra-low power resistive random access memory (RRAM) based on an Al/a-SiNx:H/p+-Si structure can be achieved by tuning the Si dangling bond conduction paths. We reveal the intrinsic relationship between the Si dangling bonds and the N/Si ratio x for the a-SiNx:H films, which ensures that the programming current can be reduced to less than 1 μA by increasing the value of x. Theoretically calculated current-voltage (I–V ) curves combined with the temperature dependence of the I–V characteristics confirm that, for the low-resistance state (LRS), the Si dangling bond conduction paths obey the trap-assisted tunneling model. In the high-resistance state (HRS), conduction is dominated by either hopping or Poole–Frenkel (P–F) processes. Our introduction of hydrogen in the a-SiNx:H layer provides a new way to control the Si dangling bond conduction paths, and thus opens up a research field for ultra-low power Si-based RRAM. PMID:26508086

  14. a-SiNx:H-based ultra-low power resistive random access memory with tunable Si dangling bond conduction paths.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiaofan; Ma, Zhongyuan; Xu, Jun; Chen, Kunji; Xu, Ling; Li, Wei; Huang, Xinfan; Feng, Duan

    2015-01-01

    The realization of ultra-low power Si-based resistive switching memory technology will be a milestone in the development of next generation non-volatile memory. Here we show that a high performance and ultra-low power resistive random access memory (RRAM) based on an Al/a-SiNx:H/p(+)-Si structure can be achieved by tuning the Si dangling bond conduction paths. We reveal the intrinsic relationship between the Si dangling bonds and the N/Si ratio x for the a-SiNx:H films, which ensures that the programming current can be reduced to less than 1 μA by increasing the value of x. Theoretically calculated current-voltage (I-V) curves combined with the temperature dependence of the I-V characteristics confirm that, for the low-resistance state (LRS), the Si dangling bond conduction paths obey the trap-assisted tunneling model. In the high-resistance state (HRS), conduction is dominated by either hopping or Poole-Frenkel (P-F) processes. Our introduction of hydrogen in the a-SiNx:H layer provides a new way to control the Si dangling bond conduction paths, and thus opens up a research field for ultra-low power Si-based RRAM. PMID:26508086

  15. a-SiNx:H-based ultra-low power resistive random access memory with tunable Si dangling bond conduction paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xiaofan; Ma, Zhongyuan; Xu, Jun; Chen, Kunji; Xu, Ling; Li, Wei; Huang, Xinfan; Feng, Duan

    2015-10-01

    The realization of ultra-low power Si-based resistive switching memory technology will be a milestone in the development of next generation non-volatile memory. Here we show that a high performance and ultra-low power resistive random access memory (RRAM) based on an Al/a-SiNx:H/p+-Si structure can be achieved by tuning the Si dangling bond conduction paths. We reveal the intrinsic relationship between the Si dangling bonds and the N/Si ratio x for the a-SiNx:H films, which ensures that the programming current can be reduced to less than 1 μA by increasing the value of x. Theoretically calculated current-voltage (I-V ) curves combined with the temperature dependence of the I-V characteristics confirm that, for the low-resistance state (LRS), the Si dangling bond conduction paths obey the trap-assisted tunneling model. In the high-resistance state (HRS), conduction is dominated by either hopping or Poole-Frenkel (P-F) processes. Our introduction of hydrogen in the a-SiNx:H layer provides a new way to control the Si dangling bond conduction paths, and thus opens up a research field for ultra-low power Si-based RRAM.

  16. Production of a bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance by Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum 213M0 isolated from Mongolian fermented mare milk, airag.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, Kensuke; Yoshida, Saki; Aikawa, Hiroki; Hano, Chihiro; Bolormaa, Tsognemekh; Burenjargal, Sedkhuu; Miyamoto, Taku

    2016-03-01

    Strain 213M0 was selected with productivity of a bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance (BLIS) among 235 strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from Mongolian fermented milk 'airag'. Strain 213M0 was species-identified as Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum by morphological observation, carbohydrate fermentation profiling and sequencing the 16S rRNA gene. Incubation temperature proper to produce the BLIS was 25°C rather than 30 and 37°C, and the production actively proceeded during the exponential growth phase of the producer cells. Antibacterial effect of BLIS 213M0 was limited to all nine strains of Listeria sp. bacteria and seven strains of LAB cocci among 53 tested strains, which corresponds to a typical feature of the class IIa pediocin-like bacteriocins. BLIS 213M0 was not inactivated in every broad pH range solution (pH 2.0-11.0), and was stable against storage at 25°C for 1 week and heating at 121°C for 15 min under pH 4.5. Peptide frame of BLIS 213M0 was confirmed by inactivation with some peptidases, and then its molecular weight was estimated to be 2.6-3.0 kDa using an in situ activity assay following sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The estimated size was different from the other Leuconostoc bacteriocins already reported. These results suggest that BLIS 213M0 would be a novel listericidal bacteriocin. PMID:26388181

  17. Impurities in Illicit Drug Preparations: 3,4-(Methylenedioxy)amphetamine and 3,4-(Methylenedioxy)methylamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Verweij, A M

    1992-12-01

    Attention is given here to the mass spectral data of impurities present in illicit drug preparations of 3,4-(methylenedioxy)amphetamine and 3,4-(methylenedioxy)methylamphetamine. These "designer" drugs, having emphatic properties, were synthesized following well-known procedures such as the reductive amination route, the Leuckart reaction, and the nitropropene and the bromopropane routes. Based on the structure elucidation of impurities - especially those so-called "route specific" ones - present in these illicit drug preparations conclusions can be drawn about the method of preparation of a drug sample. Furthermore, on the basis of this kind of information methods can be developed for the comparison of drug samples, by which questions about the origin of drug samples can be solved (commonly known as the signature method). PMID:26267375

  18. Inactivation of 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)alanine decarboxylase by 2-(fluoromethyl)-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)alanine.

    PubMed

    Maycock, A L; Aster, S D; Patchett, A A

    1980-02-19

    2-(Fluoromethyl)-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)alanine [alpha-FM-Dopa (I)] causes rapid, time-dependent, stereospecific, and irreversible inhibition of hog kidney aromatic amino acid (Dopa) decarboxylase. The inactivation occurs with loss of both the carboxyl carbon and fluoride from I and results in the stoichimetric formation of a covalent enzyme-inhibitor adduct. The data are consistent with I being a suicide inactivator of the enzyme, and a plausible mechanism for the inactivation process is presented. The inactivation is highly efficient in that there is essentially no enzymatic turnover of I to produce the corresponding amine, 1-(fluoromethyl)-2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethylamine [alpha-FM-dopamine (II)]. Amine II is also a potent inactivator of the enzyme. In vivo compound I is found to inactivate both brain and peripheral (liver) Dopa decarboxylase activity. The possible significance of these data with respect to the known antihypertensive effect of I is discussed. PMID:7356954

  19. Estimates of in situ deformability with an NX borehole jack, Spent Fuel Test - Climax, Nevada test site

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick, W.C.; Yow, J.L. Jr.; Axelrod, M.C.

    1985-12-01

    A series of borehole modulus measurements was obtained at the Spent Fuel Test - Climax (SFT-C) facility following removal of heat sources and a subsequent 1-year cooling period. A total of 212 measurements were obtained using a standard hardrock NX borehole (Goodman) jack. The results of 64 measurements made at the site before heating were reanalyzed for comparison with the post-heat data. Modulus values were calculated from the straight-line portion of the pressure vs displacement curves. Although the deformation modulus was observed to be highly variable, models were developed to explain much of this variability. Typically, spacial effects, anisotropy, and heating effects were present. The test results indicate that the deformation modulus tended to increase in the pillars between the underground openings where temperatures increased about 10{sup 0}C above the ambient 24{sup 0}C during the SFT-C. Conversely, a decrease in modulus was observed where temperatures were near 60{sup 0}C for a three-year period. In most cases, we found the modulus values to be slightly higher for vertical than for horizontal loading. There was a tendency for the modulus to be lower near excavated openings. While this effect was not ubiquitous, it was statistically significant.

  20. Improvement of poly-γ-glutamic acid biosynthesis in a moving bed biofilm reactor by Bacillus subtilis NX-2.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yongxiang; Tang, Bao; Xu, Zongqi; Liu, Kun; Xu, Zheng; Feng, Xiaohai; Xu, Hong

    2016-10-01

    The production of poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) by Bacillus subtilis NX-2 using a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) system was tested for the first time in this study. Polypropylene TL-2 was chosen as a suitable carrier, and γ-PGA concentration of 42.7±0.86g/L and productivity of 0.59±0.06g/(Lh) were obtained in batch fermentation. After application of the strategy of dissolved oxygen (DO)-stat feeding, higher γ-PGA concentration and productivity were achieved than with glucose feedback feeding. Finally, the repeated fed-batch cultures implemented in the MBBR system showed high stability, and the maximal γ-PGA concentration and productivity of 74.2g/L and 1.24g/(Lh) were achieved, respectively. In addition, the promotion of oxygen transfer by an MBBR carrier was well explained by a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. These results suggest that an MBBR system could be applied to large-scale γ-PGA production. PMID:27376835

  1. Evolution of N defect states and optical transitions in ordered and disordered GaP1-xNx alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, C.; Lindsay, A.; O'Reilly, E. P.

    2008-07-01

    We show using an sp3s* tight-binding model that the band anti-crossing (BAC) model describes well the evolution of the lowest N-related conduction states in ordered GaP1-xNx alloys, including the evolution of the Γ character with increasing x. We obtain a good description of the lowest conduction states in disordered GaPN structures by explicitly treating the interaction between the GaP host Γ conduction band minimum and defect states associated with a random distribution of N atoms. We find a very similar value for the total Γ character mixed into the N levels in the ordered and disordered cases, but a wider distribution of states with Γ character in the disordered case. We show that the band gap reduction with increasing composition is dominated by the increasing formation of N cluster states. Overall key features of the band structure can be well described using a modified BAC model which explicitly includes the broad distribution of N levels in disordered GaPN alloys.

  2. WISE 3.4 micron Detection of PTF10acbp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutri, R. M.; Hoffman, D.; Masci, F.; Conrow, T.; Kasliwal, M. M.; Helou, G.; Ofek, E. O.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Surace, J.

    2011-01-01

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE; Wright et al. 2010 AJ 140, 1868) scanned the position of PTF10acbp (ATEL #3094), the luminous red nova in the spiral galaxy UGC 11973, 23 times between 2010 June 17 and June 23, and again 30 times between 2010 December 12 and December 16, just five days after the transient's discovery. The June observations were made during the WISE cryogenic survey yielding images at 3.4, 4.6, 12 and 22 microns.

  3. AGR 3/4 Irradiation Test Final As Run Report

    SciTech Connect

    Collin, Blaise P.

    2015-06-01

    Several fuel and material irradiation experiments have been planned for the Idaho National Laboratory Advanced Reactor Technologies Technology Development Office Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification Program (referred to as the INL ART TDO/AGR fuel program hereafter), which supports the development and qualification of tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) coated particle fuel for use in HTGRs. The goals of these experiments are to provide irradiation performance data to support fuel process development, qualify fuel for normal operating conditions, support development and validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes, and provide irradiated fuel and materials for post irradiation examination and safety testing (INL 05/2015). AGR-3/4 combined the third and fourth in this series of planned experiments to test TRISO coated low enriched uranium (LEU) oxycarbide fuel. This combined experiment was intended to support the refinement of fission product transport models and to assess the effects of sweep gas impurities on fuel performance and fission product transport by irradiating designed-to-fail fuel particles and by measuring subsequent fission metal transport in fuel-compact matrix material and fuel-element graphite. The AGR 3/4 fuel test was successful in irradiating the fuel compacts to the burnup and fast fluence target ranges, considering the experiment was terminated short of its initial 400 EFPD target (Collin 2015). Out of the 48 AGR-3/4 compacts, 42 achieved the specified burnup of at least 6% fissions per initial heavy-metal atom (FIMA). Three capsules had a maximum fuel compact average burnup < 10% FIMA, one more than originally specified, and the maximum fuel compact average burnup was <19% FIMA for the remaining capsules, as specified. Fast neutron fluence fell in the expected range of 1.0 to 5.5×1025 n/m2 (E >0.18 MeV) for all compacts. In addition, the AGR-3/4 experiment was globally successful in keeping the

  4. Static and unsteady pressure measurements on a 50 degree clipped delta wing at M = 0.9. [conducted in the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, R. W.; Wynne, E. C.; Cazier, F. W.

    1982-01-01

    Pressures were measured with Freon as the test medium. Data taken at M = 0.9 is presented for static and oscillatory deflections of the trailing edge control surface and for the wing in pitch. Comparisons of the static measured data are made with results computed using the Bailey-Ballhaus small disturbance code.

  5. Functional end-capped conducting poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabatini, V.; Farina, H.; Ortenzi, Marco A.

    2016-05-01

    Methacrylate-terminated Poly(3,4-Ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) polymers with controlled degree of polymerization were successfully prepared by direct oxidative polycondensation between Ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) and a cross-linkable methacrylate end-capper monomer, obtained via Friedel Crafts acylation starting from EDOT and Methacryloyl chloride. The new polymer was synthesized in order to overcome the well-known technical problems of PEDOT, i.e. difficult processability and patterning, due to its poor solubility in common organic and inorganic solvents. The chemical structure and the degree of polymerization of the end-capped polymers were determined by 1H NMR spectra. A new synthesis of Methacrylate end-capped PEDOT with controlled degree of polymerization, soluble in common organic and chlorinated solvents and with improved conductivity, 210 S/cm, was performed. This method includes: direct oxidative polycondensation of 3,4-Ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) in the presence of a cross-linkable end-capper, i.e. Methacrylate end-capped EDOT prepared via Friedel Crafts acylation with Methacryloyl chloride and oxidant species, i.e. ferric sulfate. Furthermore, the oxidative polycondensation of EDOT monomer and Methacrylate end-capped EDOT in the presence of Sulfonated Polyethersulfone (SPES)- characterized by different degree of Sulfonation (DS)- as dopant agent was performed, leading to functional end-capped conducting PEDOT, easy to process and pattern, with conductivity of 210 S/cm, 50 S/cm higher than the one of commercial PEDOT.

  6. Possible identifications of the 3.4 micrometer feature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danks, Anthony C.; Lambert, D. L.

    1988-01-01

    A feature at 3.4 micrometer was first detected in Comet Halley by the IKS spectrometer on board the Vega 1 probe; and subsequently from the ground. The feature has since been reported in Comet Wilson. The presence of the feature is of considerable interest for a number of reasons. First, it may represent the detection of a new parent molecule, and when combined with data from Giotto and Vega yield new information on cometary chemistry and the early solar system composition. Secondly, it may represent a link to the interstellar medium, the feature corresponds in wavelength and shape with an interstellar feature seen in absorption in a luminous star, towards the Galactic center known as GC-IRS7. The feature in turn is thought to be related with a growing family of unidentified infrared emission features seen in stellar objects, planetary nebulae, reflection nebulae, HII regions and extra galactic sources. These features occur at wavelengths 3.3, 3.4, 3.5, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, and 11.25 micrometers. Further identification theory is given.

  7. Outcome of T1N0M0 breast cancer in relation to St. Gallen risk assignment criteria for adjuvant therapy.

    PubMed

    Garassino, I; Gullo, G; Orefice, S; Tondulli, L; Masci, G; Salvini, P; Eboli, M; Di Tommaso, L; Giordano, L; Alloisio, M; Roncalli, M; Santoro, A

    2009-08-01

    T1N0M0 (stage I) breast cancer (BC) has been increasing in recent decades but the optimal adjuvant approach remains controversial. To assess the outcome of BC patients stratified and treated with multimodal therapies according to St. Gallen consensus meeting recommendations, we retrospectively evaluated an unselected cohort of T1N0M0 BC patients, with respect to the St. Gallen criteria. At a median follow-up of 5 years, the recurrence rate, recurrence-free survival and overall survival were 7%, 94% and 96% respectively, and 60% of relapses were locoregional. No statistically significant difference was observed between T1a,b/T1c groups, or among risk categories (high/intermediate/low). The very low rate of distant recurrences even in patients with unfavorable prognostic factors seems to support the use of adjuvant systemic therapies but better prognostic and predictive factors are strongly needed for this subset of patients. PMID:19682903

  8. Preservative effect of food-based fermentate from Lactobacillus acidophilus NX2-6 on chilled pork patties.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qianying; Lu, Yingjian; Liu, Xiaoxi; Bie, Xiaomei; Lv, Fengxia; Lu, Zhaoxin

    2014-03-01

    The food-based fermentate (FBF) from Lactobacillus acidophilus NX2-6 has a broad-spectrum antibacterial activity but has not previously been reported as a food preservative. Experiments were conducted to assess its application as a preservative in pork patties. The effect of freeze-dried FBF on the microbiological parameters, physicochemical changes, and sensory evaluations of chilled pork patties stored for 15 days at 4°C was investigated. The five treatments evaluated included a control (meat only), nisin (meat plus 0.5% nisin), L.1 (meat plus 2% freeze-dried FBF), L.2 (meat plus 4% freeze-dried FBF), and L.3 (meat plus 8% freeze-dried FBF). The results showed that freeze-dried FBF could significantly (P < 0.05) inhibit aerobic bacteria, coliforms, Pseudomonas spp., and lactic acid bacteria, with the lowest microbial counts observed in L.3. The addition of freeze-dried FBF resulted in concentration-dependent decreases in total volatile basic nitrogen values and pH values but increases in lipid oxidation and color instability. Based on the criteria regarding microbiological and physicochemical parameters, the shelf life was 9 to 12 days for L.1, 12 to 15 days for L.2, and over 15 days for L.3, while the shelf-lives of the control and nisin treatments were 3 to 6 days, indicating that freeze-dried FBF could extend the shelf life by more than 3 days. Although the shelf life of L.1 was shorter than those of L.2 and L.3, the appearance of L.1 was much better than those of L.2 and L.3. Overall, treatment with 4 or 8% freeze-dried FBF could be improved if color and lipid oxidation could be improved by appropriate stabilizers, and a lower concentration (2%) of freeze-dried FBF has great potential as a natural and safe preservative in chilled pork patties. PMID:24674438

  9. Effect of SiNx diffusion barrier thickness on the structural properties and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 films obtained by sol–gel dip coating and reactive magnetron sputtering

    PubMed Central

    Aubry, Eric; Chaoui, Nouari; Robert, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Summary We investigate the effect of the thickness of the silicon nitride (SiNx) diffusion barrier on the structural and photocatalytic efficiency of TiO2 films obtained with different processes. We show that the structural and photocatalytic efficiency of TiO2 films produced using soft chemistry (sol–gel) and physical methods (reactive sputtering) are affected differentially by the intercalating SiNx diffusion barrier. Increasing the thickness of the SiNx diffusion barrier induced a gradual decrease of the crystallite size of TiO2 films obtained by the sol–gel process. However, TiO2 obtained using the reactive sputtering method showed no dependence on the thickness of the SiNx barrier diffusion. The SiNx barrier diffusion showed a beneficial effect on the photocatalytic efficiency of TiO2 films regardless of the synthesis method used. The proposed mechanism leading to the improvement in the photocatalytic efficiency of the TiO2 films obtained by each process was discussed. PMID:26665074

  10. Band gap characterization of ternary BBi1-xNx (0≤x≤1) alloys using modified Becke-Johnson (mBJ) potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yalcin, Battal G.

    2015-04-01

    The semi-local Becke-Johnson (BJ) exchange-correlation potential and its modified form proposed by Tran and Blaha have attracted a lot of interest recently because of the surprisingly accurate band gaps they can deliver for many semiconductors and insulators (e.g., sp semiconductors, noble-gas solids, and transition-metal oxides). The structural and electronic properties of ternary alloys BBi1-xNx (0≤x≤1) in zinc-blende phase have been reported in this study. The results of the studied binary compounds (BN and BBi) and ternary alloys BBi1-xNx structures are presented by means of density functional theory. The exchange and correlation effects are taken into account by using the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) functional of Wu and Cohen (WC) which is an improved form of the most popular Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE). For electronic properties the modified Becke-Johnson (mBJ) potential, which is more accurate than standard semi-local LDA and PBE calculations, has been chosen. Geometric optimization has been implemented before the volume optimization calculations for all the studied alloys structure. The obtained equilibrium lattice constants of the studied binary compounds are in coincidence with experimental works. And, the variation of the lattice parameter of ternary alloys BBi1-xNx almost perfectly matches with Vegard's law. The spin-orbit interaction (SOI) has been also considered for structural and electronic calculations and the results are compared to those of non-SOI calculations.

  11. Conformational preferences of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes Jesus, A. J.; Jarmelo, S.; Fausto, R.; Reva, I.

    2015-04-01

    The conformational space of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), an important dopamine metabolite, has been investigated by quantum chemical methods (B3LYP and MP2, with the 6-311++G(d,p) basis set) and matrix-isolation infrared spectroscopy. Detailed analysis of the calculated potential energy surfaces of the molecule led to identification of thirteen unique conformers, all of them showing the acetic acid side chain out of the aromatic ring plane by 60-95°. According to the calculated Gibbs energies, the five lowest energy conformers make up 99.7% of the conformational mixture at 298.15 K, exhibiting individual populations falling between 16% and 24%. The main conformational trends of this molecule were interpreted on the grounds of a thorough analysis of the structural parameters and by the application of the Natural Bond Orbital theory. The role of the intramolecular interactions on the relative stability and structure of the conformers was also investigated. The infrared spectrum of DOPAC was registered after isolation of its monomers in argon and xenon matrices. Only one of DOPAC forms populated in the gas phase could be trapped in both matrix gases. This result is in agreement with the predicted low energy barriers for conformational isomerization and is also supported by annealing experiments. The spectra of matrix-isolated model compounds, phenylacetic acid and catechol, were studied under the same experimental conditions. These data were used as references and assisted in the interpretation of the results obtained for DOPAC.

  12. Developmental effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine: a review.

    PubMed

    Skelton, Matthew R; Williams, Michael T; Vorhees, Charles V

    2008-03-01

    +/-3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a chemical derivative of amphetamine that has become a popular drug of abuse and has been shown to deplete serotonin in the brains of users and animals exposed to it. To date, most studies have investigated the effects of MDMA on adult animals. With a majority of users of MDMA being young adults, the chances of the users becoming pregnant and exposing the fetuses to MDMA are also a concern. Evidence to date has shown that developmental exposure to MDMA results in learning and memory impairments in the Morris water maze, a task known to be sensitive to hippocampal disruption, when the animals are tested as adults. Developmental MDMA exposure leads to hypoactivity in the offspring as adults but does not affect outcome on tests of anxiety. MDMA administration decreases pup weight, increases corticosterone and brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels during treatment while decreasing brain levels of serotonin; a decrease that initially dissipates and then reappears in adulthood. Neonatal MDMA exposure increases the sensitivity of the serotonin 1A receptor, a possible mechanism underlying the learning and memory deficits seen. Taken together, the evidence shows that MDMA exposure has adverse effects on the developing brain and behavior. The animal and human data on developmental MDMA exposure are reviewed and their public health implications discussed. PMID:18332674

  13. Harmonic structure of Pc 3--4 pulsations

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, K.; McPherron, R.L.

    1982-03-01

    Power spectra of magnetic pulsations observed at synchronous orbit by the ATS 6 satellite often show several spectral peaks simultaneously. Such pulsations, which we call harmonic events because of the nearly constant separation between successive peaks, are continuously observed in the dayside in the Pc 3--4 frequency range (6.6--100 mHz). The harmonic events are seen clearly only in the east-west magnetic field component. The spectral peaks are regularly spaced with a typical minimum separation of 14 mHz in the morining gradually decreasing to 10 mHz in the afternoon. In the dynamic spectra of harmonic events, the fundamental mode is usually absent. In addition, the relative amplitudes of the higher harmonics depend on the magnetic latitude. These observed features can be explained by a standing Alfven wave consisting of many discrete harmonic frequencies. A statistical analysis of power spectra demonstrates that at least 10--30% of Pc 3 pulsations can be classified as harmonic events. Using the harmonic events, we are able to estimate the plasma mass density. For a selected event on August 7, 1975, the plasma mass density at the synchronous orbit is estimated to be 3--8 hydrogen mass/cm/sup 3/.

  14. Deposition of 3,4,4'-trichlorocarbanilide on human skin.

    PubMed

    North-Root, H; Demetrulias, J; Wester, R; Maibach, H; Corbin, N

    1984-08-01

    For rinse-off products such as soaps, quantitating the deposition of ingredients left behind on the skin following rinsing may be important particularly if the ingredient is biologically active, e.g. germicides, perfumes. The residue comprises the major portion of material which is available for percutaneous penetration. A method is described for quantitating the deposition of the soap germicide, 3,4,4'-trichlorocarbanilide (TCC) as the result of direct application of bar soap on human skin. A soap pellet containing 1.5% [14C]TCC was gently rubbed on a small area of the volar forearm for 30 s. 90 s after soap application the site was thoroughly rinsed with water. After rinsing, 1.4% of the applied [14C]TCC, or 0.33 micrograms/cm2, remained on the treated site as determined by cellophane tape stripping followed by scintillation counting. The amount of TCC deposited from a simulated wash with a bar soap onto human skin is compared to the amount deposited onto the skin of other species. PMID:6474513

  15. [Monograph for 3-(4-methylbenzylidene)camphor (4-MBC)--HBM values for the sum of metabolites 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor (3-4CBC) and 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)-6-hydroxycamphor (3-4 CBHC) in the urine of adults and children. Statement of the HBM Commission of the German Federal Environment Agency].

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    The substance 3-(4-methylbenzylidene)camphor (4-MBC, CAS-No. 36861-47-9 as well as 38102-62-4) is used as UV-filter in cosmetics, mainly in sunscreen lotions. National as well as European evaluations are available for the substance, especially from the Scientific Committee on Consumer Products (SCCP). The SCCP did not derive a TDI-value, but used for a MoS assessment a NOAEL of 25 mg/(kg bw · d) based on effects on the thyroid gland of rats in a subchronic study with oral administration. Newer studies, however, indicate lower NOAEL values, leading to tolerable daily intakes of 0,01 mg/kg bw. The HBM Commission established for the metabolite 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor (3-4CBC) HBM-I values of 0,09 mg/l urine for adults and 0,06 mg/l urine for children. HBM-I values for the metabolite 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)-6-hydroxycamphor (3-4CBHC) were set at 0,38 mg/l urine for adults and 0,25 mg/l urine for children. The rounded HBM-I value for the sum of metabolites 3-4CBC und 3-4CBHC is accordingly 0,5 mg/l urine for adults and 0,3 mg/l urine for children. PMID:26721474

  16. Localization-delocalization transition of electrons at the percolation threshold of semiconductor GaAs1–xNx alloys: The appearance of a mobility edge

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Alberi, K.; Fluegel, B.; Beaton, D. A.; Ptak, A. J.; Mascarenhas, A.

    2012-07-09

    Electrons in semiconductor alloys have generally been described in terms of Bloch states that evolve from constructive interference of electron waves scattering from perfectly periodic potentials, despite the loss of structural periodicity that occurs on alloying. Using the semiconductor alloy GaAs₁₋xNx as a prototype, we demonstrate a localized to delocalized transition of the electronic states at a percolation threshold, the emergence of a mobility edge, and the onset of an abrupt perturbation to the host GaAs electronic structure, shedding light on the evolution of electronic structure in these abnormal alloys.

  17. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine facilitates fear extinction learning.

    PubMed

    Young, M B; Andero, R; Ressler, K J; Howell, L L

    2015-01-01

    Acutely administered 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'ecstasy') has been proposed to have long-term positive effects on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms when combined with psychotherapy. No preclinical data support a mechanistic basis for these claims. Given the persistent nature of psychotherapeutic gains facilitated by MDMA, we hypothesized that MDMA improves fear extinction learning, a key process in exposure-based therapies for PTSD. In these experiments, mice were first exposed to cued fear conditioning and treated with drug vehicle or MDMA before extinction training 2 days later. MDMA was administered systemically and also directly targeted to brain structures known to contribute to extinction. In addition to behavioral measures of extinction, changes in mRNA levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) and Fos were measured after MDMA treatment and extinction. MDMA (7.8 mg kg(-1)) persistently and robustly enhanced long-term extinction when administered before extinction training. MDMA increased the expression of Fos in the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), whereas increases in Bdnf expression were observed only in the amygdala after extinction training. Extinction enhancements were recapitulated when MDMA (1 μg) was infused directly into the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA), and enhancement was abolished when BDNF signaling was inhibited before extinction. These findings suggest that MDMA enhances fear memory extinction through a BDNF-dependent mechanism, and that MDMA may be a useful adjunct to exposure-based therapies for PTSD and other anxiety disorders characterized by altered fear learning. PMID:26371762

  18. Modulation of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine effects by endocannabinoid system.

    PubMed

    Valverde, Olga; Rodríguez-Árias, Marta

    2013-01-01

    The amphetamine derivative 3, 4 Methylenedioxymethanphetamine (MDMA) is a powerful central nervous system stimulant that displays numerous pharmacological effects, including neurotoxicity. MDMA, or ecstasy, acts by inducing the release of different neurotransmitters depending on the animal species and, in particular, it produces the release of serotonin and dopamine. MDMA induces rewarding and reinforcing effects in rodents, primates and humans, and is currently consumed as an illicit psychostimulant among young people. One of the most reported side effects is the hyperthermic effect and the neurotoxicity on central serotonergic and dopaminergic neurons, depending on the species of animal. It seems that MDMA may also produce neurotoxic effects in humans. To date, the most consistent findings associated to MDMA consumption in humans relate to cognitive deficits in heavy users. MDMA when consumed as an illicit psychostimulant is commonly co-used with other abusers, being frequently associated with cannabinoids. The interaction between MDMA and cannabis effects is complex. Cannabis derivatives act on endocannabinoid system. Thus, at cellular levels, cannabinoids acting through CB1 cannabinoid receptors display opposite effects to those induced by MDMA, and they have been reported to develop neuroprotective actions, including the blockage of MDMA induced neurotoxicity, in laboratory animals. However, cannabis use is a recognized risk factor in the presentation and development of neuropsychiatric disorders, and also contributes to the development of psychological problems and cognitive failures observed in MDMA users. This paper represents a brief overview of the pharmacological interaction between MDMA and cannabis derivatives acting in the endocannabinoid system. We have evaluated recent findings in the literature of the most representative pharmacological effects displayed by both types of drugs. We analyze both, the synergic and opposite effects produced by these

  19. Subtask 3.4 - Fischer - Tropsch Fuels Development

    SciTech Connect

    Strege, Joshua; Snyder, Anthony; Laumb, Jason; Stanislowski, Joshua; Swanson, Michael

    2012-05-01

    Under Subtask 3.4, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) examined the opportunities and challenges facing FischerTropsch (FT) technology in the United States today. Work was completed in two distinct budget periods (BPs). In BP1, the EERC examined the technical feasibility of using modern warm-gas cleanup techniques for FT synthesis. FT synthesis is typically done using more expensive and complex cold-gas sweetening. Warm-gas cleanup could greatly reduce capital and operating costs, making FT synthesis more attractive for domestic fuel production. Syngas was generated from a variety of coal and biomass types; cleaned of sulfur, moisture, and condensables; and then passed over a pilot-scale FT catalyst bed. Laboratory and modeling work done in support of the pilot-scale effort suggested that the catalyst was performing suboptimally with warm-gas cleanup. Long-term trends showed that the catalyst was also quickly deactivating. In BP3, the EERC compared FT catalyst results using warm-gas cleanup to results using cold-gas sweetening. A gas-sweetening absorption system (GSAS) was designed, modeled, and constructed to sweeten syngas between the gasifier and the pilot-scale FT reactor. Results verified that the catalyst performed much better with gas sweetening than it had with warm-gas cleanup. The catalyst also showed no signs of rapid deactivation when the GSAS was running. Laboratory tests in support of this effort verified that the catalyst had deactivated quickly in BP1 because of exposure to syngas, not because of any design flaw with the pilot-scale FT reactor itself. Based on these results, the EERC concludes that the two biggest issues with using syngas treated with warm-gas cleanup for FT synthesis are high concentrations of CO{sub 2} and volatile organic matter. Other catalysts tested by the EERC may be more tolerant of CO{sub 2}, but volatile matter removal is critical to ensuring long-term FT catalyst operation. This subtask was funded through

  20. Ion mobility, conductivity, structure, and phase transitions in K0.7M0.3SbF4 compounds with M=Rb, NH4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavun, V. Ya.; Gerasimenko, A. V.; Uvarov, N. F.; Polyantsev, M. M.; Zemnukhova, L. A.

    2016-09-01

    Ion mobility, phase transitions, structure, and conductivity in the K0.7M0.3SbF4 (M=Rb, NH4) compounds were studied by NMR spectroscopy, DSC, X-ray, and conductivity measurements. The predominant form in the ion motions resulting from the phase transition of high modification was diffusion of fluoride and ammonium ions above 450 K. The high-temperature phases of K0.7M0.3SbF4 (M=Rb, NH4) are superionic, while their conductivity attains the values of ~10-2-10-4 S/cm at 450-500 K. The structures of α- and β-modifications of the K0.7Rb0.3SbF4 are monoclinic (space group P21/m). The main structural units in them are statistically substituting each other K+ and Rb+ cations and complex ∞1[ SbF4]- anions linked into zigzag-like chains by bridge fluorine atoms. The nearest surrounding of each antimony atom contains five fluorine atoms, so that the antimony coordination polyhedron can be described, taking into account the lone electron pair, as a distorted SbF5E octahedron (ψ-octahedron).

  1. Spectroscopic studies of Lix FeP O4 and Lix M0.03 Fe0.97 P O4 (M=Cr,Cu,Al,Ti)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouveia, D. X.; Lemos, V.; de Paiva, J. A. C.; Souza Filho, A. G.; Mendes Filho, J.; Lala, S. M.; Montoro, L. A.; Rosolen, J. M.

    2005-07-01

    Mössbauer and Raman measurements for LixFePO4 and LixM0.03Fe0.97PO4 (M=Cr,Cu,Al,Ti) were performed. The results for the Li0.11FePO4 oxide require an unknown additional contribution, besides the high-spin Fe2+ doublet and the high-spin Fe3+ doublet, for the Mössbauer profile to be properly accounted for. The corresponding Raman scattering suggests a two-phase material and an additional disordered structure present in the mixture. The Mössbauer-transformed patterns indicate the unknown doublet to be due to a disordered phase also. In addition, the observation of a high amount of Fe2+ sites for the low-lithium-content LixM0.03Fe0.97PO4 oxides is analyzed on the basis of the electronic charge configuration of the Li-lacking octahedral units to suffer small changes upon lithium extraction.

  2. Effect of nitrogen on the GaAs0.9-xNxSb0.1 dielectric function from the near-infrared to the ultraviolet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Sedrine, N.; Bouhafs, C.; Harmand, J. C.; Chtourou, R.; Darakchieva, V.

    2010-11-01

    We study the effect of nitrogen on the GaAs0.9-xNxSb0.1 (x=0.00, 0.65%, 1.06%, 1.45%, and 1.90%) alloy dielectric function by spectroscopic ellipsometry in the energy range from 0.73 to 4.75 eV. The compositional dependences of the critical points energies for the GaAs0.9-xNxSb0.1 are obtained. In addition to the GaAs intrinsic transitions E1, E1+Δ1, and E0', the nitrogen-induced Γ-point optical transitions E0 and E+, together with a third transition E#, are identified. We find that with increasing the N content, the E0 transition shifts to lower energies while the E+ and E# transitions shift to higher energies. We suggest that the origin of the E0, E+, and E# transitions may be explained by the double band anticrossing (BAC) model, consisting of a conduction BAC model and a valence BAC model.

  3. Tunable inverse topological heterostructure utilizing (Bi1-xI nx ) 2S e3 and multichannel weak-antilocalization effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brahlek, Matthew J.; Koirala, Nikesh; Liu, Jianpeng; Yusufaly, Tahir I.; Salehi, Maryam; Han, Myung-Geun; Zhu, Yimei; Vanderbilt, David; Oh, Seongshik

    2016-03-01

    In typical topological insulator (TI) systems the TI is bordered by a non-TI insulator, and the surrounding conventional insulators, including vacuum, are not generally treated as part of the TI system. Here, we implement a material system where the roles are reversed, and the topological surface states form around the non-TI (instead of the TI) layers. This is realized by growing a layer of the tunable non-TI (Bi1-xI nx ) 2S e3 in between two layers of the TI B i2S e3 using the atomically precise molecular beam epitaxy technique. On this tunable inverse topological platform, we systematically vary the thickness and the composition of the (Bi1-xI nx ) 2S e3 layer and show that this tunes the coupling between the TI layers from strongly coupled metallic to weakly coupled, and finally to a fully decoupled insulating regime. This system can be used to probe the fundamental nature of coupling in TI materials and provides a tunable insulating layer for TI devices.

  4. Selectivities of an all-wet-processed electrode film on ITO, ZnO, SiNx and doped Si for solar cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Areum; Choi, Hee Soo; Lee, Seon Jea; Choi, Eunmi; Cui, Yinhua; Lee, Ukjae; Kim, Soo-Kil; Yoon, Songhun; Son, Hyung Bin; Pyo, Sung Gyu; Yoon, Sung Pil

    2014-07-01

    We investigated the role of Ni/Cu metallization and the characteristics of selective thin-film deposition on the Indium tin oxide (ITO), ZnO, SiNx and doped Si surfaces of a silicon solarcell electrode. We propose Ni/Cu metallization as an alternative to silver screen-printing. Our method, called the selective electrode formation (SEF) process, utilizes a low-cost, streamlined wet chemical process. Metallization was confirmed to occur on the Si electrode with adhesion through Pd activation. Ni, which hinders Cu diffusion, was then selectively deposited from a NaH2PO2 based nickel solution, and Cu, the main electrode material, was deposited from a HCHObased copper solution. Ni/Cu was deposited on the ZnO, ITO, or SiNx film. The deposition and the heat treatment of Ni and Cu were successfully performed on a substrate consisting of a patterned n+-doped wafer with POCl3 by maintaining the same steady process conditions as in process.

  5. Multi-functional TiO2/Si/Ag(Cr)/TiNx coatings for low-emissivity and hydrophilic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loka, Chadrasekhar; Park, Kyoung Ryeol; Lee, Kee-Sun

    2016-02-01

    Multi-functional (coatings with some additional functional properties such as high transparency, antireflection, hydrophilicity and antifogging) coatings are indispensable for the modern energy saving systems. In this regard, we deposited TiO2/Si/Ag(Cr)/TiNx multilayer thin films on soda-lime glass by using RF and DC magnetron sputtering to achieve a multi-functional thin film stack with the combination low-emissivity (low-e) and hydrophilicity properties in addition to the high transparency. Primary deposition of Ag(Cr)/TiNx was tried for the low-e effect and successfully obtained a very low emissivity value of 0.067, and then Si and TiO2 films with different bandgap were subsequently deposited to provide the hydrophilic properties. X-ray diffraction results revealed the anatase phase formation of TiO2 after annealing the films at 673 K by using the rapid thermal annealing system. Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) was carried out to determine the chemical composition and elemental depth distribution. The multilayer stack exhibited superhydrophilicity with a water contact angle of about 5° after irradiation by UV light. A Heterojunction film with wide and narrow bandgap semiconductor materials was effective to improve the hydrophilicity. The films exhibited a high visible transmittance (∼85.5%, at 550 nm) and low infrared transmittance (7%, at 2000 nm) including low-e and superhydrophilicity.

  6. Effect of interface and bulk traps on the C–V characterization of a LPCVD-SiNx/AlGaN/GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Qilong; Huang, Sen; Wang, Xinhua; Wei, Ke; Zheng, Yingkui; Li, Yankui; Yang, Chengyue; Jiang, Haojie; Li, Junfeng; Hu, Anqi; Yang, Xuelin; Shen, Bo; Liu, Xinyu; Zhao, Chao

    2016-06-01

    Silicon nitride (SiNx) film grown by low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) is utilized as a gate dielectric for AlGaN/GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor high-electron-mobility transistors (MIS-HEMTs). Trap distribution at the gate-dielectric/III-nitrides interface is characterized by a temperature-dependent ac-capacitance technique. The extracted interface state density D it decreases from 2.92 × 1013 to 1.59 × 1012 cm‑2 eV‑1 as the energy level depth (E C-E T) increases from 0.29 to 0.50 eV, and then levels off to E C-E T = 0.80 eV. Capacitance-mode deep level transient spectroscopy (C-DLTS) and energy band diagram simulations reveal that deep levels with E C-E T > 0. 83 eV are responsible for the dispersion of capacitances at high temperature (>125 °C) and low frequencies (<1 kHz). A high-resolution transmission electron microscope (TEM) reveals that re-oxidation of the RCA-treated AlGaN barrier surface may be responsible for the relatively high density of shallow states at the LPCVD-SiNx/III-nitride interface.

  7. Degradation of aqueous 3,4-dichloroaniline by a novel dielectric barrier discharge plasma reactor.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jingwei; Liu, Runlong; Chen, Pei; Yuan, Shoujun; Zhao, Dayong; Zhang, Jibiao; Zheng, Zheng

    2015-03-01

    Degradation of aqueous 3,4-dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA) was conducted in a novel dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma reactor. The factors affecting the degradation efficiency of 3,4-DCA and the degradation mechanism of 3,4-DCA were investigated. The experimental results indicated that the degradation efficiency of 3,4-DCA increased with increasing input power intensity, and the degradation of 3,4-DCA by the novel DBD plasma reactor fitted pseudo-first-order kinetics. Higher degradation efficiency of 3,4-DCA was observed in acidic conditions. The degradation efficiency of 3,4-DCA, the removal rate of total organic carbon (TOC), and the detected Cl(-) increased dramatically with adding Fe(2+) or Fe(3+). Degradation of 3,4-DCA could be accelerated or inhibited in the presence of H2O2 depending on the dosage. Several degradation intermediates of 3,4-DCA such as 1,2-dichlorobenzene, 2-chloro-1,4-benzoquinone, 3,4-dichlorophenyl isocyanate, 2-chlorohydroquinone, 3,4-dichloronitrobenzene, and 3,4-dichlorophenol were identified by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Based on the identification of aromatic intermediates, acetic acid, formic acid, oxalic acid, and Cl(-) released, a possible mineralization pathway of 3,4-DCA was proposed. PMID:25315933

  8. Born-Infeld extension of Lovelock brane gravity in the system of M0-branes and its application for the emergence of Pauli exclusion principle in BIonic superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sepehri, Alireza

    2016-07-01

    Recently, some authors (Cruz and Rojas, 2013 [1]) have constructed a Born-Infeld type action which may be written in terms of the Lovelock brane Lagrangians for a given dimension p. We reconsider their model in M-theory and study the process of birth and growth of nonlinear spinor and bosonic gravity during the construction of Mp-branes. Then, by application of this idea to BIonic system, we construct a BIonic superconductor in the background of nonlinear gravity. In this model, first, M0-branes link to each other and build an M5-brane and an anti-M5-brane connected by an M2-brane. M0-branes are zero dimensional objects that only scalars are attached to them. By constructing higher dimensional branes from M0-branes, gauge fields are produced. Also, if M0-branes don't link to each other completely, the symmetry of system is broken and fermions are created. The curvature produced by fermions has the opposite sign the curvature produced by gauge fields. Fermions on M5-branes and M2 plays the role of bridge between them. By passing time, M2 dissolves in M5's and nonlinear bosonic and spinor gravities are produced. By closing M5-branes towards each other, coupling of two identical fermions on two branes to each other causes that the square mass of their system becomes negative and some tachyonic states are created. For removing these tachyons, M5-branes compact, the sign of gravity between branes reverses, anti-gravity is produced which causes that branes and identical fermions get away from each other. This is the reason for the emergence of Pauli exclusion principle in Bionic system. Also, the spinor gravity vanishes and its energy builds a new M2 between M5-branes. We obtain the resistivity in this system and find that its value decreases by closing M5 branes to each other and shrinks to zero at colliding point of branes. This idea has different applications. For example, in cosmology, universes are located on M5-branes and M2-brane has the role of bridge between

  9. Amplified segment in the 'Down syndrome critical region' on HSA21 shared between Down syndrome and euploid AML-M0 excludes RUNX1, ERG and ETS2.

    PubMed

    Canzonetta, Claudia; Hoischen, Alexander; Giarin, Emanuela; Basso, Guiseppe; Veltman, Joris A; Nacheva, Elisabeth; Nizetic, Dean; Groet, Jürgen

    2012-04-01

    Children with Down syndrome have a 20- to 50-fold increased risk of acute lymphocytic or myeloid leukaemia. Whole or partial gains of chromosome 21 have been described in multiple childhood leukaemias, and have recently been reported as a likely primary event in B-precursor-acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. It is unclear which amplified gene(s) on chromosome 21 play a key role in leukaemia progression. We describe a minimal amplified segment within the so-called 'Down syndrome critical region' shared between two cases of AML-M0; a Down syndrome, and a constitutionally normal individual. Interestingly, the amplified region does not include the oncogenes RUNX1, ETS2 and ERG. PMID:22221250

  10. Greener and rapid access to bio-active heterocycles: one-pot solvent-free synthesis of 1,3,4-oxadiazoles and 1,3,4-thiadiazoles

    EPA Science Inventory

    A novel one-pot solvent free synthesis of 1,3,4-oxadiazoles and 1,3,4-thiadiazoles by condensation of acid hydrazide and triethyl orthoalkanates under microwave irradiations is reported. This green protocol was catalyzed efficiently by solid supported Nafion®NR50 and phosphorus p...

  11. High-voltage GaN-on-Si hetero-junction FETs with reduced leakage and current collapse effects using SiNx surface passivation layer deposited by low pressure CVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Sung-Woon; Lee, Jongsub; Seo, Deokwon; Jung, Sungdal; Choi, Hong Goo; Shim, Heejae; Yim, Jeong Soon; Twynam, John; Roh, Sungwon D.

    2014-08-01

    We have investigated the effects of surface passivation on off-state leakage current and current collapse effects of high-voltage GaN-on-Si hetero-junction field effect transistors (HFETs) by using low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) of silicon nitride (SiNx). In this work, the metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structure-based HFETs are realized on AlGaN/GaN epitaxy grown silicon substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). For a comparative study, we have fabricated two types of HFETs, standard and modified MOS-HFETs. In the modified MOS-HFETs process, the surface passivation layer of SiNx is deposited by LPCVD after the mesa isolation step, while the gate is deposited and self-aligned in the trench etched in LPCVD-SiNx layer using inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching (ICP-RIE). The high temperature deposition of LPCVD-SiNx prevents the degradation caused by the ohmic annealing and other process-induced surface damage. Compared to the standard MOS structure, the modified MOS-HFET devices exhibit 10 times lower off-state leakage currents within high voltage range (0-800 V) and significantly alleviated current collapse effects simultaneously.

  12. MC3T3-E1 Cell Response to Ti1-xAgx and Ag-TiNx Electrodes Deposited on Piezoelectric Poly(vinylidene fluoride) Substrates for Sensor Applications.

    PubMed

    Marques, S M; Rico, P; Carvalho, I; Gómez Ribelles, J L; Fialho, L; Lanceros-Méndez, S; Henriques, M; Carvalho, S

    2016-02-17

    In the sensors field, titanium based coatings are being used for the acquisition/application of electrical signals from/to piezoelectric materials. In this particular case, sensors are used to detect dynamic mechanical loads at early stages after intervention of problems associated with prostheses implantation. The aim of this work is to select an adequate electrode for sensor applications capable, in an initial stage to avoid bone cell adhesion, but at a long stage, permit osteointegration and osteoinduction. This work reports on the evaluation of osteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells behavior in terms of proliferation, adhesion and long-term differentiation of two different systems used as sensor electrodes: Ti1-xAgx and Ag-TiNx deposited by d.c. and pulsed magnetron sputtering at room temperature on poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF). The results indicated an improved effect of Ag-TiNx electrodes compared with Ti1-xAgx and TiN, in terms of diminished cell adhesion and proliferation at an initial cell culture stage. Nevertheless, when cell culture time is longer, cells grown onto Ag-TiNx electrodes are capable to proliferate and also differentiate at proper rates, indicating the suitability of this coating for sensor application in prostheses devices. Thus, the Ag-TiNx system was considered the most promising electrode for tissue engineering applications in the design of sensors for prostheses to detect dynamic mechanical loads. PMID:26840928

  13. Reliable Predictions of the Thermochemistry of Boron-Nitrogen Hydrogen Storage Compounds: BxNxHy, x=2,3

    SciTech Connect

    Matus, Myrna H; Anderson, Kevin; Camaioni, Donald M; Autrey, Thomas; Dixon, David A

    2007-05-24

    Thermochemical data calculated using ab initio molecular orbital theory are reported for 16 BxNxHy compounds with x = 2, 3 and y ≥ 2x. Accurate gas phase heats of formation were obtained using coupled cluster with single and double excitations and perturbative triples (CCSD(T)) valence electron calculations extrapolated to the complete basis set (CBS) limit with additional corrections including core/valence, scalar relativistic, and spin-orbit corrections to predict the atomization energies and scaled harmonic frequencies to correct for zero point and thermal energies and estimate entropies. Computationally cheaper calculations were also performed using the G3MP2 and G3B3 variants of the Gaussian-3 method, as well as density functional theory (DFT) using the B3LYP functional. The G3MP2 heats of formation are too positive by up to ~6 kcal/mol as compared to CCSD(T)/CBS values. The more expensive G3B3 method predicts heats of formation that are too negative as compared to the CCSD(T)/CBS values by up to 3 to 4 kcal/mol. Density functional theory (DFT) using the B3LYP functional and 6-311+G** basis set predict isodesmic reaction energies to within a few kcal/mol compared to the CCSD(T)/CBS method so isodesmic reactions involving BN compounds and the analogous hydrocarbons can be used to estimate heats of formation. Heats of formation of cyclo-B3N3H12 and cyclo-B3N3H6 are, in kcal/mol at 298 K, -95.5 and -115.5, respectively using our best calculated CCSD(T)/CBS approach. The experimental value for cyclo-B3N3H6 appears to be ~7 kcal/mol too negative. Enthalpies, entropies and free energies are calculated for many dehydrocoupling and dehydrogenation reactions that convert BNH6 to alicyclic and cyclic oligomers and H2(g). Generally, the reactions are highly exothermic, and exorgonic as well, due to the release of 1 or more equivalents of H2(g). For cyclo-B3N3H12 and cyclo-B3N3H6, available experimental data for sublimation and vaporization lead to estimates of their

  14. 22 CFR 3.4 - Restriction on acceptance of gifts and decorations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Restriction on acceptance of gifts and decorations. 3.4 Section 3.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL GIFTS AND DECORATIONS FROM FOREIGN GOVERNMENTS § 3.4 Restriction on acceptance of gifts and decorations. (a) An employee is prohibited...

  15. 45 CFR 3.4 - False reports and reports of injury or damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false False reports and reports of injury or damage. 3.4 Section 3.4 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE General § 3.4 False reports...

  16. 45 CFR 3.4 - False reports and reports of injury or damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false False reports and reports of injury or damage. 3.4 Section 3.4 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE General § 3.4 False reports...

  17. 45 CFR 3.4 - False reports and reports of injury or damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false False reports and reports of injury or damage. 3.4 Section 3.4 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE General § 3.4 False reports...

  18. 45 CFR 3.4 - False reports and reports of injury or damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false False reports and reports of injury or damage. 3.4 Section 3.4 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE General § 3.4 False reports...

  19. 45 CFR 3.4 - False reports and reports of injury or damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false False reports and reports of injury or damage. 3.4 Section 3.4 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE General § 3.4 False reports...

  20. 43 CFR 2812.3-4 - Where no road use agreement is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Where no road use agreement is required. 2812.3-4 Section 2812.3-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.3-4 Where no road use agreement...

  1. 43 CFR 2812.3-4 - Where no road use agreement is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Where no road use agreement is required. 2812.3-4 Section 2812.3-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.3-4 Where no road use agreement...

  2. 43 CFR 2812.3-4 - Where no road use agreement is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Where no road use agreement is required. 2812.3-4 Section 2812.3-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.3-4 Where no road use agreement...

  3. 43 CFR 2812.3-4 - Where no road use agreement is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Where no road use agreement is required. 2812.3-4 Section 2812.3-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.3-4 Where no road use agreement...

  4. 28 CFR 3.4 - Registration to be made by letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Registration to be made by letter. 3.4 Section 3.4 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GAMBLING DEVICES § 3.4 Registration to be made by letter. No special forms are prescribed for the purpose of registering under the Act....

  5. Porous Fe-Nx/C hybrid derived from bi-metal organic frameworks as high efficient electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yijin; Zhao, Shenlong; Zhao, Kun; Tu, Tengxiu; Zheng, Jianzhong; Chen, Jie; Zhou, Haifeng; Chen, Dejian; Li, Shunxing

    2016-04-01

    A simple, low-cost and large-scale synthesis method for the carbonized porous cubes (CPCs) containing Fe and N co-doped porous carbon hybrid (Fe-Nx/C) with controlled-morphology, uniform elemental distribution and well-defined pore size is developed by pyrolyzing bimetallic FeIII-modified IRMOF-3 cubes in Argon atmosphere at 800 °C. Furtherly, the CPCs are used as the electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline solution. Impressively, the CPCs hybrid exhibits a superior electrocatalytic activity with high onset potential (0.93 V) and half-wave potential (0.78 V), and excellent stability, which is attributed to the synergistic effect of its high the surface to volume ratio, well-defined pore size, multi-active composition and high exposed catalytic active sites. We believe the materials based on earth-abundant elements have a huge potential to apply in catalysis, energy, and environment.

  6. Research of the relations between monolayer SiNx optical thin film processing techniques and laser-induced damage properties prepared by PECVD technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Peng; Hang, Lingxia; Li, Linjun; Huang, Fabin

    2015-02-01

    The monolayer SiNx optical thin films were prepared by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) technology on the BK7 glass substrate, the laser-induced damage threshold was measured by laser damage testing equipment, and we also investigated the relations between processing techniques and laser-induced damage properties. The study and analysis to orthogonal experiment results show that PECVD processing techniques have an effect on the laser-induced damage properties. Among them,radio frequency has the biggest effection, temperature is the main factor, working pressure is the unimportant factor, and we also achieve the optimal processing parameters (Temperature is 350°; RF power is 250W; Working pressure is 60Pa).

  7. The marine polyketide myriaporone 3/4 stalls translation by targeting the elongation phase.

    PubMed

    Muthukumar, Yazh; Roy, Myriam; Raja, Aruna; Taylor, Richard E; Sasse, Florenz

    2013-01-21

    Myriaporone 3/4, a cytotoxic polyketide, has been reported as an inhibitor of eukaryotic protein synthesis. However, the mechanism by which it inhibits translation was unknown. Here we show that myriaporone 3/4 stalls protein synthesis in the elongation phase by inducing phosphorylation of eukaryotic elongation factor 2. The phosphorylation results from direct binding of myriaporone 3/4 to eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase. Our study also shows that myriaporone 3/4 in the nanomolar range inhibits in vitro tube formation by endothelial cells without being cytotoxic. In general, myriaporone 3/4 was at least 300 times less toxic to primary cells than to tumor cells. PMID:23303710

  8. Association of Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 with Radiotherapy Resistance in Patients with T1N0M0 Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Ah; Kim, Eun-Kyu; Kim, Min-Soo; Yu, Jong-Han; Lee, Mi-Ri; Lee, Hae Kyung; Suh, Young-Jin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Preclinical studies have shown that human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status is associated with resistance to radiotherapy (RT). In this study, we evaluated the overall survival of a T1N0M0 breast cancer cohort in Korea according to the use of RT and the HER2 status. Methods We analyzed data collected from 11,552 patients with invasive breast cancer who were enrolled in the Korean Breast Cancer Society Registration Program between 1999 and 2007. Data on the TNM stage, estrogen receptor status, progesterone receptor status, HER2 status, operation method, and the use of RT were analyzed. Results The median follow-up period was 51 months. A significant improvement in overall survival after RT was observed only in the HER2(-) group. In this group, the 10-year overall survival rate was 95.5% for patients who did not receive RT and 96.3% for patients who received RT (p=0.037). In contrast, in the HER2(+) group, RT was not associated with a survival benefit (p=0.887). Multivariate analysis showed that RT was significantly associated with a reduction in mortality in the HER2(-) group (hazard ratio, 0.738; 95% confidence interval, 0.549-0.993; p=0.045). Conclusion We found that postoperative RT was not associated with a survival benefit in HER2(+) breast cancer patients, suggesting that HER2(+) breast cancers could be RT resistant. PMID:24155755

  9. Structural, mechanical, electrical and wetting properties of ZrNx films deposited by Ar/N2 vacuum arc discharge: Effect of nitrogen partial pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdallah, B.; Naddaf, M.; A-Kharroub, M.

    2013-03-01

    Non-stiochiometric zirconium nitride (ZrNx) thin films have been deposited on silicon substrates by vacuum arc discharge of (N2 + Ar) gas mixtures at different N2 partial pressure ratio. The microstructure, mechanical, electrical and wetting properties of these films are studied by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), micro-Raman spectroscopy, Rutherford back scattering (RBS) technique, conventional micro-hardness testing, electrical resistivity, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and contact angle (CA) measurements. RBS results and analysis show that the (N/Zr) ratio in the film increases with increasing the N2 partial pressure. A ZrNx film with (Zr/N) ratio in the vicinity of stoichiometric ZrN is obtained at N2 partial pressure of 10%. XRD and Raman results indicate that all deposited films have strained cubic crystal phase of ZrN, regardless of the N2 partial pressure. On increasing the N2 partial pressure, the relative intensity of (1 1 1) orientation with respect to (2 0 0) orientation is seen to decrease. The effect of N2 partial pressure on micro-hardness and the resistivity of the deposited film is revealed and correlated to the alteration of grain size, crystallographic texture, stoichiometry and residual stress developed in the film. In particular, it is found that residual stress and nitrogen incorporation in the film play crucial role in the alteration of micro-hardness and resistivity respectively. In addition, CA and AFM results demonstrate that as N2 partial pressure increases, both the surface hydrophobicity and roughness of the deposited film increase, leading to a significant decrease in the film surface free energy (SFE).

  10. Inhibition of dual-specificity phosphatase 26 by ethyl-3,4-dephostatin: Ethyl-3,4-dephostatin as a multiphosphatase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Seo, Huiyun; Cho, Sayeon

    2016-04-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) regulate protein function by dephosphorylating phosphorylated proteins in many signaling cascades and some of them have been targets for drug development against many human diseases. There have been many reports that some chemical inhibitors could regulate particular phosphatases. However, there was no extensive study on specificity of inhibitors towardss phosphatases. We investigated the effects of ethyl-3,4-dephostatin, a potent inhibitor of five PTPs including PTP-1B and Src homology-2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-1 (SHP-1), on thirteen other PTPs using in vitro phosphatase assays. Of them, dual-specificity protein phosphatase 26 (DUSP26), which inhibits mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and p53 tumor suppressor and is known to be overexpressed in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, was inhibited by ethyl-3,4-dephostatin in a concentration-dependent manner. Kinetic studies with ethyl-3,4-dephostatin and DUSP26 revealed competitive inhibition, suggesting that ethyl-3,4-dephostatin binds to the catalytic site of DUSP26 like other substrate PTPs. Moreover, ethyl-3,4-dephostatin protects DUSP26-mediated dephosphorylation of p38, a member of the MAPK family, and p53. Taken together, these results suggest that ethyl-3,4-dephostatin functions as a multiphosphatase inhibitor and is useful as a therapeutic agent for cancers overexpressing DUSP26. PMID:27209699

  11. Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of some novel fused heterocyclic 1,2,4-triazolo [3,4-b][1,3,4] thiadiazine derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, Jagdish K.; Ganguly, Swastika; Kaushik, Atul

    2014-01-01

    In the present investigation, the synthesis and antimicrobial evaluation of 1,2,4-triazolo [3,4-b][1,3,4] thiadiazine including different pharmacophores are aimed at. In this study, a series of 6-aryl-3- (3,4 -dialkoxyphenyl)-7H -[1,2,4]triazolo [3,4-b][1,3,4] thiadiazine (7a-7k) was synthesized by condensing 4-amino-5-(3,4-dialkoxyphenyl)-4H-[1,2,4]- triazole-3-thiol (6) with various aromatic carboxylic acids in the presence of phenacyl bromides through one-pot reaction. Eleven fused heterocyclic derivatives were successfully synthesized. The structures of these newly synthesized compounds were characterized by IR, 1H NMR and mass spectroscopic studies. All the synthesized compounds were screened for their antimicrobial evaluation. Some of the compounds exhibited promising antimicrobial activity. From the present study it may be concluded that synthesized compounds are fruitful in terms of their structural novelty and marked biological activities. These compounds could be further modified to develop potential and safer antifungal agents. PMID:24959418

  12. Impact of 3,4-dideoxyglucosone-3-ene (3,4-DGE) on cytotoxicity of acidic heat-sterilized peritoneal dialysis fluid.

    PubMed

    Tomo, Tadashi; Okabe, Eiji; Yamamoto, Takashi; Namoto, Shinji; Iwashita, Tomohiko; Matsuyama, Kazuhiro; Kadota, Jun-ichi

    2007-01-01

    Of the glucose degradation products (GDPs) in glucose-rich peritoneal dialysate, we investigated the influence of 3,4-dideoxyglucosone-3-ene (3,4-DGE) on the cytotoxicity of acidic heat-sterilized peritoneal dialysis fluid (L-H PDF) using human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMC). We prepared acidified filtration-sterilized PDF (glucose concentration 3.86%) containing eight types of added GDP [3,4-DGE, glyoxal (GO), methylglyoxal (MGO), 3-deoxyglucosone (3-DG), formaldehyde (FA), acetaldehyde (AA), 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (5-HMF), and furfural (FF)] or seven types of GDP (GO, MGO, 3-DG, FA, AA, 5-HMF, and FF). HPMC were exposed to these two types of solution and acidic heat-sterilized PDF (glucose concentration 3.86%, L-H 3.86) for 4 h. Cell viability was determined by 3,(4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl)2,5-diphenyl-terazolium bromide (MTT) assay. MTT viability was decreased significantly compared with the control when treated with L-H 3.86 or acidified neutral filtration-sterilized PDF (glucose concentration 3.86%) containing eight GDPs. However, no significant decrease in MTT viability was observed when HPMC were treated with acidified neutral filtration-sterilized PDF (glucose concentration 3.86%) containing seven GDPs. Thus, 3,4-DGE strongly affects the cytotoxicity of L-H PDF. It is suggested that the cytotoxicity of L-H PDF is based on the presence of 3,4-DGE. PMID:17380297

  13. Thermoelectric Properties of Fe2VAl and Fe2V0.75M0.25Al (M = Mo, Nb, Ta) Alloys: First-Principles Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Yamani, H.; Hamad, B.

    2016-02-01

    Ab initio investigations of the structural, electronic, and thermoelectric properties of stoichiometric Fe2VAl full-Heusler alloy and Fe2V0.75M0.25Al (M = Mo, Nb, Ta) nonstoichiometric alloys have been performed using density functional theory on the basis of the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave method with the generalized gradient approximation. The thermoelectric properties are calculated using semiclassical Boltzmann transport theory within the constant-relaxation-time approximation. Fe2VAl, Fe2V0.75Nb0.25Al, and Fe2V0.75Ta0.25Al alloys are found to exhibit a semimetallic behavior, while Fe2V0.75Mo0.25Al acts as a metal. We found that Fe2VAl has a pseudogap of about -0.13 eV, whereas Fe2V0.75Nb0.25Al and Fe2V0.75Ta0.25Al are characterized by a zero energy gap around the Fermi level. Thermoelectric calculations showed that Fe2VAl has both p- and n-type thermoelectric properties, where the p-type thermopower values are found to be higher than those of n-type. The Seebeck coefficient S has maximum values from 20 μV K-1 to 125 μV K-1 and from 19 μV K-1 to 90 μV K-1 in the temperature range of 100 K to 800 K for p- and n-type, respectively. The maximum thermoelectric properties can be obtained at carrier concentration of the order of 1020 cm-3 for p- or n-type doping. Substitution of Nb and Ta atoms enhanced the thermoelectric properties to 150 μV K-1 at 800 K. The optimum concentrations for the three partially substituted alloys were found to be between 1020 cm-3 and 1021 cm-3.

  14. Radical Prostatectomy versus External Beam Radiotherapy for cT1-4N0M0 Prostate Cancer: Comparison of Patient Outcomes Including Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Taguchi, Satoru; Fukuhara, Hiroshi; Shiraishi, Kenshiro; Nakagawa, Keiichi; Morikawa, Teppei; Kakutani, Shigenori; Takeshima, Yuta; Miyazaki, Hideyo; Fujimura, Tetsuya; Nakagawa, Tohru; Kume, Haruki; Homma, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    Background Although radical prostatectomy (RP) and external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) have been considered as comparable treatments for localized prostate cancer (PC), it is controversial which treatment is better. The present study aimed to compare outcomes, including mortality, of RP and EBRT for localized PC. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 891 patients with cT1-4N0M0 PC who underwent either RP (n = 569) or EBRT (n = 322) with curative intent at our single institution between 2005 and 2012. Of the EBRT patients, 302 (93.8%) underwent intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Primary endpoints were overall survival (OS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS). Related to these, other-cause mortality (OCM) was also calculated. Biochemical recurrence-free survival was assessed as a secondary endpoint. Cox proportional hazards model was used for multivariate analysis. Results Median follow-up durations were 53 and 45 months, and median ages were 66 and 70 years (P <0.0001), in the RP and EBRT groups, respectively. As a whole, significantly better prognoses of the RP group than the EBRT group were observed for both OS and CSS, although OCM was significantly higher in the EBRT group. There was no death from PC in men with low and intermediate D’Amico risks, except one with intermediate-risk in the EBRT group. In high-risk patients, significantly more patients died from PC in the EBRT group than the RP group. Multivariate analysis demonstrated the RP group to be an independent prognostic factor for better CSS. On the other hand, the EBRT group had a significantly longer biochemical recurrence-free survival than the RP group. Conclusions Mortality outcomes of both RP and EBRT were generally favorable in low and intermediate risk patients. Improvement of CSS in high risk patients was seen in patients receiving RP over those receiving EBRT. PMID:26506569

  15. Ineffectiveness of 3,4-diaminopyridine as a therapy for type C botulism.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Siegel, L.S.; Price, J.I.

    1987-01-01

    Clostridium botulinum neurotoxins inhibit acetylcholine release at neuromuscular junctions. Agents stimulating neurotransmitter efflux, such as 3,4-diaminopyridine (3,4-DAP), could be useful for botulism therapy. Treatment with 3,4-DAP (8 mg/kg hourly, beginning 3 hr after toxin injection) failed to increase the survival times of mice receiving 10, 20 or 40 LD50 type C, but did prolong the survival of those receiving 20 LD50 type A. This difference in 3,4-DAP efficacy may reflect variations in the molecular mechanism of action of types A and C botulinum neurotoxins.

  16. Biological and Electrophysiologic Effects of Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) on Regenerating Peripheral Nerve Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Baghmanli, Ziya; Sugg, Kristoffer B.; Wei, Benjamin; Shim, Bong S.; Martin, David C.; Cederna, Paul S.; Urbanchek, Melanie G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Uninjured peripheral nerves in upper-limb amputees represent attractive sites for connectivity with neuroprostheses because their predictable internal topography allows for precise sorting of motor and sensory signals. The inclusion of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) reduces impedance and improves charge transfer at the biotic-abiotic interface. This study evaluates the in vivo performance of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)–coated interpositional decellularized nerve grafts across a critical nerve conduction gap, and examines the long-term effects of two different poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) formulations on regenerating peripheral nerve fibers. Methods In 48 rats, a 15-mm gap in the common peroneal nerve was repaired using a nerve graft of equivalent length, including (1) decellularized nerve chemically polymerized with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (dry); (2) decellularized nerve electrochemically polymerized with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (wet); (3) intact nerve; (4) autogenous nerve graft; (5) decellularized nerve alone; and (6) unrepaired nerve gap controls. All groups underwent electrophysiologic characterization at 3 months, and nerves were harvested for histomorphometric analysis. Results Conduction velocity was significantly faster in the dry poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) group compared with the sham, decellularized nerve, and wet poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) groups. Maximum specific force for the dry poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) group was more similar to sham than were decellularized nerve controls. Evident neural regeneration was demonstrated in both dry and wet poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) groups by the presence of normal regenerating axons on histologic cross-section. Conclusions Both poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) formulations were compatible with peripheral nerve regeneration at 3 months. This study supports poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) as a promising adjunct for peripheral nerve interfaces for

  17. 3,4-DGE is cytotoxic and decreases HSP27/HSPB1 in podocytes.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Niño, Maria Dolores; Poveda, Jonay; Sanz, Ana Belen; Carrasco, Susana; Ruiz-Ortega, Marta; Selgas, Rafael; Egido, Jesus; Ortiz, Alberto

    2014-03-01

    Hyperglycemia is the key driver of diabetic complications and increased concentrations of glucose degradation products. The study of peritoneal dialysis solution biocompatibility has highlighted the adverse biological effects of glucose degradation products. Recently, 3,4-dideoxyglucosone-3-ene (3,4-DGE) was identified as the most toxic glucose degradation product in peritoneal dialysis fluids. In addition, 3,4-DGE is present in high-fructose corn syrup, and its precursor 3-deoxyglucosone is increased in diabetes. The role of 3,4-DGE in glomerular injury had not been addressed. We studied the effects of 3,4-DGE on cultured human podocytes and in vivo in mice. 3,4-DGE induced apoptosis in podocytes in a dose- and time-dependent manner. 3,4-DGE promoted the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria and activation of caspase-3. While high glucose concentrations increased the levels of the podocyte intracellular antiapoptotic protein HSP27/HSPB1, 3,4-DGE decreased the expression of podocyte HSP27/HSPB1. Apoptosis induced by 3,4-DGE was caspase-dependent and could be prevented by the broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor zVAD-fmk. Antagonism of Bax by a Ku-70-derived peptide also prevented apoptosis. Intravenous administration of 3,4-DGE to healthy mice resulted in a decreased expression of HSP27/HSPB1 and caspase-3 activation in whole kidney and in podocytes in vivo. In conclusion, 3,4-DGE induces apoptotic cell death in cultured human podocytes, suggesting a potential role in glomerular injury resulting from metabolic disorders. PMID:24337777

  18. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy for T3-4 and N0-1 nasopharyngeal cancer: Asian multicenter trial of the Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Tatsuya; Wakatsuki, Masaru; Thinh, Dang Huy Quoc; Tung, Ngo Thanh; Erawati, Dyah; Supriana, Nana; Beena Devi, C R; Kato, Shingo; Thephamongkhol, Kullathorn; Chansilpa, Yaowalak; Calaguas, Miriam Joy C; Xiaoting, Xu; Jianping, Cao; Banu, Parvin Akhter; Cho, Chul-Koo; Karasawa, Kumiko; Nakano, Takashi; Tsujii, Hirohiko

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity and efficacy of radiotherapy concurrent with weekly cisplatin for T3-4 and N0-1 nasopharyngeal cancer. Between 2005 and 2010, 70 patients with nasopharyngeal cancer (T3-4 N0-1 M0, World Health Organization Type 2-3) from Vietnam, Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand were registered. Patients were treated with 2D radiotherapy concurrent with weekly cisplatin (30 mg/m(2)). Neither adjuvant nor induction chemotherapy was given. Ninety-three percent of the patients completed at least four cycles of weekly cisplatin during radiotherapy. The median total doses for the primary tumor and positive lymph nodes were 70 and 66 Gy, respectively. The median overall treatment time of concurrent chemoradiotherapy was 52 days. No treatment-related deaths occurred. Grade 3-4 acute toxicities of mucositis, nausea/vomiting and leukopenia were observed in 34%, 4% and 4% of patients, respectively. With a median follow-up time of 52 months for the 40 surviving patients, the 3-year local control, locoregional tumor control, distant metastasis-free survival and overall survival rates were 80%, 75%, 74% and 80%, respectively. In conclusion, the current results illustrate that our concurrent chemoradiotherapy regimen was feasible, but disease control remained insufficient. Further research is encouraged in order to improve clinical outcomes. PMID:26254458

  19. Practical and Efficient Synthesis of α-Aminophosphonic Acids Containing 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydroquinoline or 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydroisoquinoline Heterocycles.

    PubMed

    Ordóñez, Mario; Arizpe, Alicia; Sayago, Fracisco J; Jiménez, Ana I; Cativiela, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    We report here a practical and efficient synthesis of α-aminophosphonic acid incorporated into 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline and 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline heterocycles, which could be considered to be conformationally constrained analogues of pipecolic acid. The principal contribution of this synthesis is the introduction of the phosphonate group in the N-acyliminium ion intermediates, obtained from activation of the quinoline and isoquinoline heterocycles or from the appropriate δ-lactam with benzyl chloroformate. Finally, the hydrolysis of phosphonate moiety with simultaneous cleavage of the carbamate afforded the target compounds. PMID:27589713

  20. TOXICITY, BIOCONCENTRATION, AND METABOLISM OF THE HERBICIDE PROPANIL (3',4'-DICHLOROPROPIONANILIDE) IN FRESHWATER FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were exposed to technical grade propanil (3',4'-dichloropropionanilide) in a flow-through diluter system to determine acute lethality. LC50 values were 11.5, 10.2, 8.6, and 3.4 mg.per L at 24, 48, 96, and 192 hr, respectively. Eggs, newly hat...

  1. REACTION OF CYCLOPENTA[CD]PYRENE-3,4-EPOXIDE WITH DNA AND DEOXYNUCLEOTIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cyclopenta[cd]pyrene (CPP) is a ubiquitous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon with potent mutagenic and carcinogenic activity. he trans isomer of 3,4-dihydro-3,4-dihydroxy-cyclopenta[cd]pyrene has been shown to be the major metabolic product of CPP in rat, mouse, or human microsomal...

  2. The Phenolic, 3,4-Dihydroxybenzoic Acid, is an Endogenous Regulator of Rooting in Protea Cynaroides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioassays indicated the presence of allelochemicals in Protea cynaroides stem cuttings. Analysis of stem extracts identified large quantities of 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid and other simlar phenolics. Phytotoxicity bioassay showed that 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid both stimulated and inhibited root gro...

  3. 43 CFR 3420.3-4 - Regional tract ranking, selection, environmental analysis and scheduling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Regional tract ranking, selection, environmental analysis and scheduling. 3420.3-4 Section 3420.3-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COMPETITIVE LEASING Competitive...

  4. Natural and synthetic diastereoisomeric (−)-3′,4′,7-trihydroxyflavan-3,4-diols

    PubMed Central

    Drewes, S. E.; Roux, D. G.

    1965-01-01

    1. Rhodesian copalwood (Guibourtia coleosperma) contains three diastereo-isomeric leuco-fisetinidins. These consist of the (−)-2,3-cis–3,4-cis (2R,3R,4R) and (−)-2,3-cis–3,4-trans (2R,3R,4S) 3′,4′,7-trihydroxyflavan-3,4-diols, and the third was shown to be a 2,3-trans–3,4-cis isomer by means of paper ionophoresis. 2. There occurrence in similar proportions as tannin precursors also in the tropical hardwoods G. tessmannii and G. demeusii implies a close taxonomic relationship between these, and with G. coleosperma. 3. Epimerization of the natural (−)-3′,4′,7- trihydroxy-2,3-trans-flavan-3,4-trans-diol affords a mixture from which the (−)-2,3-cis–3,4-cis isomer was separated readily, but the (−)-2,3-trans–3,4-cis isomer was obtained with difficulty. These were formed by epimerization of the (−)-2,3-trans–3,4-trans isomer at C-2 and C-4, and at C-4, respectively. PMID:5862407

  5. Synthesis and single-crystal structure determination of the zinc nitride halides Zn{sub 2}NX (X=Cl, Br, I)

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xiaohui; Wessel, Claudia; Pan, Fangfang; Dronskowski, Richard

    2013-07-15

    A series of zinc nitride halides, Zn{sub 2}NX (X=Cl, Br, I), has been synthesized from solid–liquid reactions of zinc nitride with the respective zinc halides under vacuum, and their crystal structures were determined using single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction. While Zn{sub 2}NCl and Zn{sub 2}NBr crystallize in the acentric orthorhombic space group Pna2{sub 1}, Zn{sub 2}NI adopts the centrosymmetric space group Pnma; Zn{sub 2}NCl and Zn{sub 2}NBr can be considered to belong to the anti-β-NaFeO{sub 2} type, and Zn{sub 2}NI is closely related. Each N{sup 3−} is tetrahedrally coordinated by zinc atoms, and the X{sup −} anions are located in the vacancies of the framework formed by corner-sharing [NZn{sub 4}] tetrahedra. According to TGA/DTA analyses, the Zn{sub 2}NX compounds exhibit good thermal stability. The electronic structure has been analyzed by employing density-functional theory and the HSE06 hybrid functional. - Graphical abstract: Zn{sub 2}NCl, Zn{sub 2}NBr, and Zn{sub 2}NI have been synthesized, and their crystal structures (Cl and Br phases: Pna2{sub 1}; I phase: Pnma) have been determined from XRD; the direct band gap of Zn{sub 2}NCl is theoretically (HSE06 hybrid functional) predicted as 3.7 eV. - Highlights: • Zn{sub 2}NCl, Zn{sub 2}NBr, and Zn{sub 2}NI have been synthesized from solid–liquid reactions. • The crystal structures of Zn{sub 2}NCl, Zn{sub 2}NBr, and Zn{sub 2}NI have been determined from single-crystal X-ray diffraction. • Zn{sub 2}NCl and Zn{sub 2}NBr crystallize in the acentric space group Pna2{sub 1} whereas Zn{sub 2}NI adopts the centrosymmetric space group Pnma. • Zn{sub 2}NCl and Zn{sub 2}NBr are stable up to 750 °C whereas Zn{sub 2}NI decays at 600 °C already. • The direct band gap of Zn{sub 2}NCl is theoretically predicted as 3.7 eV using the HSE06 hybrid functional.

  6. Inositol 1,3,4,6-tetrakisphosphate mobilizes calcium in Xenopus oocytes with high potency.

    PubMed Central

    Ivorra, I; Gigg, R; Irvine, R F; Parker, I

    1991-01-01

    Injection of Ins(1,3,4,6)P4 into Xenopus oocytes evoked Ca2(+)-dependent membrane currents with a potency 5-10 times less than Ins(1,4,5)P3, whereas Ins(1,3,4)P3 and Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P5 were almost ineffective. Responses to Ins(1,3,4,6)P4 arose through liberation of intracellular Ca2+ and through entry of extracellular Ca2+. These results, together with the observation that Ins(1,3,4,6)P4 facilitated responses to Ins(1,4,5)P3, suggests that both of these compounds may act on the same intracellular receptors. PMID:1991032

  7. Dysregulation of Kv3.4 channels in dorsal root ganglia following spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Ritter, David M; Zemel, Benjamin M; Hala, Tamara J; O'Leary, Michael E; Lepore, Angelo C; Covarrubias, Manuel

    2015-01-21

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) patients develop chronic pain involving poorly understood central and peripheral mechanisms. Because dysregulation of the voltage-gated Kv3.4 channel has been implicated in the hyperexcitable state of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons following direct injury of sensory nerves, we asked whether such a dysregulation also plays a role in SCI. Kv3.4 channels are expressed in DRG neurons, where they help regulate action potential (AP) repolarization in a manner that depends on the modulation of inactivation by protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent phosphorylation of the channel's inactivation domain. Here, we report that, 2 weeks after cervical hemicontusion SCI, injured rats exhibit contralateral hypersensitivity to stimuli accompanied by accentuated repetitive spiking in putative DRG nociceptors. Also in these neurons at 1 week after laminectomy and SCI, Kv3.4 channel inactivation is impaired compared with naive nonsurgical controls. At 2-6 weeks after laminectomy, however, Kv3.4 channel inactivation returns to naive levels. Conversely, Kv3.4 currents at 2-6 weeks post-SCI are downregulated and remain slow-inactivating. Immunohistochemistry indicated that downregulation mainly resulted from decreased surface expression of the Kv3.4 channel, as whole-DRG-protein and single-cell mRNA transcript levels did not change. Furthermore, consistent with Kv3.4 channel dysregulation, PKC activation failed to shorten the AP duration of small-diameter DRG neurons. Finally, re-expressing synthetic Kv3.4 currents under dynamic clamp conditions dampened repetitive spiking in the neurons from SCI rats. These results suggest a novel peripheral mechanism of post-SCI pain sensitization implicating Kv3.4 channel dysregulation and potential Kv3.4-based therapeutic interventions. PMID:25609640

  8. Dysregulation of Kv3.4 Channels in Dorsal Root Ganglia Following Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ritter, David M.; Zemel, Benjamin M.; Hala, Tamara J.; O'Leary, Michael E.; Lepore, Angelo C.

    2015-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) patients develop chronic pain involving poorly understood central and peripheral mechanisms. Because dysregulation of the voltage-gated Kv3.4 channel has been implicated in the hyperexcitable state of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons following direct injury of sensory nerves, we asked whether such a dysregulation also plays a role in SCI. Kv3.4 channels are expressed in DRG neurons, where they help regulate action potential (AP) repolarization in a manner that depends on the modulation of inactivation by protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent phosphorylation of the channel's inactivation domain. Here, we report that, 2 weeks after cervical hemicontusion SCI, injured rats exhibit contralateral hypersensitivity to stimuli accompanied by accentuated repetitive spiking in putative DRG nociceptors. Also in these neurons at 1 week after laminectomy and SCI, Kv3.4 channel inactivation is impaired compared with naive nonsurgical controls. At 2–6 weeks after laminectomy, however, Kv3.4 channel inactivation returns to naive levels. Conversely, Kv3.4 currents at 2–6 weeks post-SCI are downregulated and remain slow-inactivating. Immunohistochemistry indicated that downregulation mainly resulted from decreased surface expression of the Kv3.4 channel, as whole-DRG-protein and single-cell mRNA transcript levels did not change. Furthermore, consistent with Kv3.4 channel dysregulation, PKC activation failed to shorten the AP duration of small-diameter DRG neurons. Finally, re-expressing synthetic Kv3.4 currents under dynamic clamp conditions dampened repetitive spiking in the neurons from SCI rats. These results suggest a novel peripheral mechanism of post-SCI pain sensitization implicating Kv3.4 channel dysregulation and potential Kv3.4-based therapeutic interventions. PMID:25609640

  9. Aromatic Heterocycle 1,3,4-Oxadiazole-Substituted Thieno[3,4-b]thiophene to Build Low-Bandgap Polymer for Photovoltaic Application.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Dangqiang; Sun, Liang; Liu, Qian; Wen, Shuguang; Han, Liangliang; Bao, Xichang; Yang, Renqiang

    2015-12-01

    Electron-deficient heterocycle 1,3,4-oxadiazole is first introduced to the 2-position of thieno[3,4-b]thiophene (TT) to construct a new building block 2-(thieno[3,4-b]thiophen-2-yl)-5-(alkylthio)-1,3,4-oxadiazole (TTSO) with alkylthio chain. The polymer PBDT-TTSO based on TTSO and benzodithiophene (BDT) exhibits a deep lying highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy level of -5.32 eV and low-bandgap of 1.62 eV. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 5.86% is obtained with a relatively high V OC of 0.74 V, a J SC of 13.1 mA cm(-2), and FF of 60.5%. Furthermore, as S atom in thioether can be oxidized easily, the optoelectronic properties of PBDT-TTSO treated with different oxidants are preliminary investigated. Interestingly, the oxidation products still maintain high PCE with reduction less than 30%. This work demonstrates a new method to regulate HOMO energy levels by introducing electron-deficient aromatic heterocyclic moiety. PMID:26332871

  10. Electronic band structure and optical gain of GaNxBiyAs1-x-y/GaAs pyramidal quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Zhi-Gang; Bose, Sumanta; Fan, Wei-Jun; Li, Shu-Shen

    2016-04-01

    The electronic band structure and optical gain of GaNxBiyAs1-x-y/GaAs pyramidal quantum dots (QDs) are investigated using the 16-band k ṡ p model with constant strain. The optical gain is calculated taking both homogeneous and inhomogeneous broadenings into consideration. The effective band gap falls as we increase the composition of nitrogen (N) and bismuth (Bi) and with an appropriate choice of composition we can tune the emission wavelength to span within 1.3 μm-1.55 μm, for device application in fiber technology. The extent of this red shift is more profound in QDs compared with bulk material due to quantum confinement. Other factors affecting the emission characteristics include virtual crystal, strain profile, band anticrossing (BAC), and valence band anticrossing (VBAC). The strain profile has a profound impact on the electronic structure, specially the valence band of QDs, which can be determined using the composition distribution of wave functions. All these factors eventually affect the optical gain spectrum. With an increase in QD size, we observe a red shift in the emission energy and emergence of secondary peaks owing to transitions or greater energy compared with the fundamental transition.

  11. Tunable Fano quantum-interference dynamics using a topological phase transition in (Bi1-xI nx ) 2S e3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sim, Sangwan; Koirala, Nikesh; Brahlek, Matthew; Sung, Ji Ho; Park, Jun; Cha, Soonyoung; Jo, Moon-Ho; Oh, Seongshik; Choi, Hyunyong

    2015-06-01

    Asymmetric Fano resonance arises from quantum interference between discrete and continuum states. The characteristic asymmetry has attracted strong interests in understanding light-induced optoelectronic responses and corresponding applications. In conventional solids, however, the tunability of Fano resonance is generally limited by a material's intrinsic property. Topological insulators are unique states of matter embodying both conducting Dirac surface and underlying bulk. If it is possible to manipulate the two coexisting states, then it should form an ideal laboratory for realizing a tunable topological Fano system. Here, with the recently discovered topological phase transition in (Bi1-xI nx ) 2S e3 , we report tunable Fano interference phenomena. By engineering the spatial overlap between surface Dirac electrons (continuous terahertz transitions) and bulk phonon (discrete mode at ˜2 terahertz), we continuously tune, abruptly switch, and dynamically modulate the Fano resonance. Eliminating the topological surface via decreasing spin-orbit coupling―that is, across topological and nontopological phases, we find that the asymmetric Fano spectra return to the symmetric profile. Laser-excited ultrafast terahertz spectroscopy reveals that the controlled spatial overlap is responsible for the picosecond tunability of the Fano resonance, suggesting potentials toward optically controllable topological Fano systems.

  12. Magnetization enhancement due to incorporation of non-magnetic nitrogen content in (Co84Zr16)Nx nano-composite films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Jitendra; Shukla, Rishabh; Bagri, Anita; Dhaka, Rajendra S.; Akhtar, Jamil

    2016-01-01

    We report the magnetic, electronic, and structural properties of nano-composite (Co84Zr16)Nx or CZN films prepared by reactive co-sputter deposition method. As-deposited CZN films have shown enhancement in magnetization (Ms) with incorporation of nitrogen content, which is related to the evolution of nano-composite phase. X-ray diffraction study has confirmed poly-crystalline growth of CZN films with fcc(331) and fcc(422) phases. High-resolution transmission electron microscope study reveals that CZN films are composed of ordered and crystalline ferromagnetic Co nano-clusters, which are embedded in the nano-composite matrix. Photoemission measurements show the change in the intensity near the Fermi level most likely due to defects and shift in the core-levels binding energy with nitrogen concentration. Raman spectroscopy data show an increase in the intensity of the Raman lines with nitrogen concentration upto 20%. However, the intensity is significantly lower for 30% sample. This indicates that less nitrogen or defect states are being substituted into the lattice above 20% and is consistent with the observed magnetic behavior. Our studies indicate that defects induced due to the incorporation of non-magnetic nitrogen content play a key role to enhance the magnetization.

  13. Broadband antireflection sub-wavelength structure of InGaP/InGaAs/Ge triple junction solar cell with composition-graded SiNx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Chen-Chen; Lo, Hsiao-Chieh; Lin, Yen-Ku; Yu, Hung-Wei; Tinh Tran, Binh; Lin, Kung-Liang; Chen, Yung Chang; Quan, Nguyen-Hong; Chang, Edward Yi; Tseng, Yuan-Chieh

    2015-05-01

    This work reports a fabrication strategy to improve the antireflective ability of a InGaP/GaAs/Ge triple-junction solar cell, by combining a nano-templating technique and a chemical-synthesis approach. SiH4 and N2 were used as ammonia-free reaction gases in a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) to prepare Si3N4 as an original antireflective coating (ARC) layer with better chemical stability. Composition-graded SiNx was successfully integrated with sub-wavelength structure by modulating SiH4/N2 ratio during PECVD deposition, and followed by a controllable gold-nanoparticle masking technique on top of the solar cell. Finite-difference time-domain solution was employed to simulate and optimize the aspect-ratio of the ARC, under the condition of variable refractive index over a broad wavelength window, and followed by the masking technique to obtain the desired ARC dimension. This enabled a low light reflectance (<10%) over a broad spectral bandwidth (300-1800 nm) for the solar cell with excellent stability, because of the triple advantages of structural optimization, better chemical stability and graded refractive index of the ARC. The solar cell’s performance was tested and showed great competitiveness to those of forefront studies, suggesting the feasibility of the proposed technology.

  14. Nitrogen-doped ZnO thin films by use of laser ablation of ZnO(1-x)Nx targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okato, Takeshi; Osada, Takenori; Obara, Minoru

    2005-04-01

    ZnO is inherently a strong n-type semiconductor due to its intrinsic defects. Among the group V elements (N, As, P, Sb), nitrogen is considered as teh most hopeful dopant for p-type ZnO, because substitute N (N0) is a relatively shallow acceptor. However, technical issues of the low solubility for the desirable defect and compensations from undesirable donor-like defects are imposed on the development of high mobility and low resistivity p-type ZnO. Breaking through these issues is accompanied by the optimization of dopant concentration and reduction of intrinsic defects. In this study, we have investigated the dependence of the nitrogen concentration on its electrical properties. Home-made ZnO1-xNx targets were prepared and used for KrF excimer pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) at precisely controlled growth conditions. Thin films were deposited on c-cut sapphire substrates. The nitrogen concentration was tuned by adjusting the amount of nitrogen in the ablation targets. The film properties were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS). The electrical properties were measured by van der Pauw method. The as-grown ZnO:N films showed n-type conductivity, however, they were converted to p-type upon post-deposition thermal treatment. Further improvement was demonstrated by introducing a ZnO low-temperature buffer layer which realized the lattice mismatch relaxation.

  15. Effects of nitrogen impurities on the microstructure and electronic properties of P-doped Si nanocrystals emebedded in silicon-rich SiNx films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Deng-Hao; Zhang, Wei-Jia; Luo, Rui-Ying; Jiang, Zhao-Yi; Ma, Qiang; Ma, Xiao-Bo; Fan, Zhi-Qiang; Song, Deng-Yuan; Zhang, Lei

    2016-05-01

    Phosphorus doped Si nanocrystals (SNCs) emebedded in silicon-rich SiNx:H films were prepared using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique, and the effects of nitrogen incorporation on the microstructure and electronic properties of the thin films have been systematically studied. Transmission electron microscope and Raman observation revealed that nitrogen incorporation prevents the growth of Si nanocrystals, and that their sizes can be adjusted by varying the flow rate of NH3. The reduction of photoluminescence (PL) intensity in the range of 2.1-2.6 eV of photon energy was observed with increasing nitrogen impurity, and a maximal PL intensity in the range 1.6-2.0 eV was obtained when the incorporation flow ratio NH3/(SiH4+H2+PH3) was 0.02. The conductivity of the films is improved by means of proper nitrogen impurity doping, and proper doping causes the interface charge density of the heterojunction (H-J) device to be lower than the nc-Si:H/c-Si H-J device. As a result, the proper incorporation of nitrogen could not only reduce the silicon banding bond density, but also fill some carrier capture centers, and suppress the nonradiative recombination of electrons.

  16. Refined nano-textured surface coupled with SiNx layer on the improved photovoltaic properties of multi-crystalline silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Jianwei; Xu, Fei; Zhou, Pinghua; Yang, Jie; Yang, Zuobao; Chen, Dongsheng; Yin, Yefei; Chen, Dandan; Ma, Zhongquan

    2013-07-01

    Nano-porous silicon (NP-Si) and nano-inverted-pyramid silicon (NIP-Si) structures have been formed by Ag-catalyzed chemical etching without and with NaOH modification on solar-grade multi-crystalline silicon substrates, respectively. The influence of nano-structured morphology (NSM) and SiNx layer (SL) on effective reflectance (Reff) has been investigated through measurement and simulation. For typical NP-Si and NIP-Si samples, the NSM alone can suppress Reff of NP-Si sample to the lowest degree (5.87%), and the combination of NSM and SL is favorable to gain the lowest optical loss for NIP-Si sample (Reff = 7.31%). Compared with NP-Si solar cell, the fabricated NIP-Si solar cells have hugely improved photovoltaic properties, resulting from reduced reflectance in visible and near-infrared wavelength, enhanced short-wavelength spectral responses and good diode parameters. Finally, an optimum design strategy of NSM and SL has been suggested to gain potentially better properties for nano-structured solar cells.

  17. Conversion of agroindustrial residues for high poly(γ-glutamic acid) production by Bacillus subtilis NX-2 via solid-state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Tang, Bao; Xu, Hong; Xu, Zongqi; Xu, Cen; Xu, Zheng; Lei, Peng; Qiu, Yibin; Liang, Jinfeng; Feng, Xiaohai

    2015-04-01

    Poly(γ-glutamic acid) (γ-PGA) production by Bacillus subtilis NX-2 was carried out through solid-state fermentation with dry mushroom residues (DMR) and monosodium glutamate production residues (MGPR; a substitute of glutamate) for the first time. Dry shiitake mushroom residue (DSMR) was found to be the most suitable solid substrate among these DMRs; the optimal DSMR-to-MGPR ratio was optimized as 12:8. To increase γ-PGA production, industrial waste glycerol was added as a carbon source supplement to the solid-state medium. As a result, γ-PGA production increased by 34.8%. The batch fermentation obtained an outcome of 115.6 g kg(-1) γ-PGA and 39.5×10(8) colony forming units g(-1) cells. Furthermore, a satisfactory yield of 107.7 g kg(-1) γ-PGA was achieved by compost experiment on a scale of 50 kg in open air, indicating that economically large-scale γ-PGA production was feasible. Therefore, this study provided a novel method to produce γ-PGA from abundant and low-cost agroindustrial residues. PMID:25670398

  18. Microbial metabolism of the pyridine ring. The metabolism of pyridine-3,4-diol (3,4-dihydroxypyridine) by Agrobacterium sp

    PubMed Central

    Watson, G. Keith; Houghton, Charles; Cain, Ronald B.

    1974-01-01

    1. Pyridine-3,4-diol (3,4-dihydroxypyridine, 3-hydroxypyrid-4-one), an intermediate in 4-hydroxypyridine metabolism by an Agrobacterium sp (N.C.I.B. 10413), was converted by extracts into 1mol of pyruvate, 2mol of formate and 1mol of NH3 at pH7.0. 2. Formate, but not the alternative likely product formamide, was further oxidized fivefold faster by 4-hydroxypyridine-grown washed cells than by similar organisms grown on succinate. 3. The oxidation of pyridine-3,4-diol by crude extracts at pH8.5 required 1mol of O2/mol of substrate, produced 1mol of acid and led to the formation of formate and a new compound with an extinction maximum of 285nm (Compound I). This step was believed to be mediated by a new labile dioxygenase (t½=4h at pH7.0, 4°C) cleaving the pyridine ring between C-2 and C-3. 4. Many of the properties of this pyridine-3,4-diol dioxygenase paralleled those of the extradiol (`meta') oxygenases of aromatic-ring cleavage. The extreme lability of the enzyme has so far precluded extensive purification. 5. Compound I showed changes in the u.v.-absorption spectrum with pH but after acidification it was converted into a new product, 3-formylpyruvate, with an extinction maximum now at 279nm. 6. Both Compound I and 3-formylpyruvate were metabolized by extracts but at very different rates. The slower rate of metabolism of Compound I was nevertheless consistent with that of pyridine-3,4-diol metabolism. 7. On acidification Compound I released about 0.65mol of NH3 and has been identified as 3-formiminopyruvate. 8. 3-Formylpyruvate was hydrolysed to formate and pyruvate (Km 2μm) by an acylpyruvate hydrolase active against several other dioxo homologues. The activity of this enzyme was much lower in extracts of succinate-grown cells. PMID:4375963

  19. Toxicokinetics and biotransformation of 3-(4-methylbenzylidene)camphor in rats after oral administration

    SciTech Connect

    Voelkel, Wolfgang; Colnot, Thomas; Schauer, Ute M.D.; Broschard, Thomas H.; Dekant, Wolfgang . E-mail: dekant@toxi.uni-wuerzburg.de

    2006-10-15

    3-(4-Methylbenzylidene)camphor (4-MBC) is an UV-filter frequently used in sunscreens and cosmetics. Equivocal findings in some screening tests for hormonal activity initiated a discussion on a possible weak estrogenicity of 4-MBC. In this study, the toxicokinetics and biotransformation of 4-MBC were characterized in rats after oral administration. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 3 per group) were administered single oral doses of 25 or 250 mg/kg bw of 4-MBC in corn oil. Metabolites formed were characterized and the kinetics of elimination for 4-MBC and its metabolites from blood and with urine were determined. Metabolites of 4-MBC were characterized by {sup 1}H NMR and LC-MS/MS as 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor and as four isomers of 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)hydroxycamphor containing the hydroxyl group located in the camphor ring system with 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)-6-hydroxycamphor as the major metabolite. After oral administration of 4-MBC, only very low concentrations of 4-MBC were present in blood and the peak concentrations of 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor were approximately 500-fold above those of 4-MBC; blood concentrations of 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)-6-hydroxycamphor were below the limit of detection. Blood concentration of 4-MBC and 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor peaked within 10 h after 4-MBC administration and then decreased with half-lives of approximately 15 h. No major differences in peak blood levels between male and female rats were seen. In urine, one isomer of 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)hydroxycamphor was the predominant metabolite [3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)-6-hydroxycamphor], the other isomers and 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor were only minor metabolites excreted with urine. However, urinary excretion of 4-MBC-metabolites represents only a minor pathway of elimination for 4-MBC, since most of the applied dose was recovered in feces as 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor and, to a smaller extent, as 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)-6-hydroxycamphor

  20. Toxicokinetics and biotransformation of 3-(4-methylbenzylidene)camphor in rats after oral administration.

    PubMed

    Völkel, Wolfgang; Colnot, Thomas; Schauer, Ute M D; Broschard, Thomas H; Dekant, Wolfgang

    2006-10-15

    3-(4-Methylbenzylidene)camphor (4-MBC) is an UV-filter frequently used in sunscreens and cosmetics. Equivocal findings in some screening tests for hormonal activity initiated a discussion on a possible weak estrogenicity of 4-MBC. In this study, the toxicokinetics and biotransformation of 4-MBC were characterized in rats after oral administration. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 3 per group) were administered single oral doses of 25 or 250 mg/kg bw of 4-MBC in corn oil. Metabolites formed were characterized and the kinetics of elimination for 4-MBC and its metabolites from blood and with urine were determined. Metabolites of 4-MBC were characterized by (1)H NMR and LC-MS/MS as 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor and as four isomers of 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)hydroxycamphor containing the hydroxyl group located in the camphor ring system with 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)-6-hydroxycamphor as the major metabolite. After oral administration of 4-MBC, only very low concentrations of 4-MBC were present in blood and the peak concentrations of 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor were approximately 500-fold above those of 4-MBC; blood concentrations of 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)-6-hydroxycamphor were below the limit of detection. Blood concentration of 4-MBC and 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor peaked within 10 h after 4-MBC administration and then decreased with half-lives of approximately 15 h. No major differences in peak blood levels between male and female rats were seen. In urine, one isomer of 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)hydroxycamphor was the predominant metabolite [3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)-6-hydroxycamphor], the other isomers and 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor were only minor metabolites excreted with urine. However, urinary excretion of 4-MBC-metabolites represents only a minor pathway of elimination for 4-MBC, since most of the applied dose was recovered in feces as 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor and, to a smaller extent, as 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)-6-hydroxycamphor

  1. Enantioselective synthesis and antioxidant activity of 3,4,5-substituted piperidine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Ho; Shyam, Pranab K; Kim, Mi Jeong; Lee, Hwa-Jung; Lee, Jeong Tae; Jang, Hye-Young

    2016-07-01

    In this study, 3,4,5-trisubstituted piperidines were synthesized enantioselectively, and their antioxidant activity was evaluated. The 3,4,5-trisubstituted piperidines containing TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl) and a spatially proximal hydroxy group showed good antioxidant activity. Some of these compounds showed IC50 values in a nanomolar range, comparable to that of TEMPO. Probably the TEMPO generated from the homolysis of the CON bond of 3,4,5-trisubstituted piperidines functions as a radical-scavenging entity, and the hydroxy group of piperidines has a synergistic effect to the antioxidant activity. PMID:27177825

  2. Mutagenicity of 3,4-diphenyl-5-nitrofuran analogs in Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, M; Yamamoto, K; Tanaka, A; Swaminathan, S; Hatcher, J F; Erturk, E; Bryan, G T

    1986-08-01

    A new series of chemicals comprising eight different 3,4-diphenyl-substituted furan analogs, namely, methyl-3,4-diphenyl-2-furoate, methyl-3,4-diphenyl-5-nitro-2-furoate, 3,4-diphenyl-5-nitro-2-furoic acid, 3,4-diphenyl-5-nitro-2-acetylfuran, 3,4-diphenyl-5-nitro-2-bromoacetylfuran, 2-amino-4-(3,4-diphenyl-5-nitro-2-furyl)thiazole, 2-acetyl-amino-4-(3,4-diphenyl-5-nitro-2-furyl)thiazole and 2-formyl-amino-4-(3,4-diphenyl-5-nitro-2-furyl)thiazole were synthesized and their mutagenic activities tested in Salmonella typhimurium. The structure--activity relationship studies revealed that for mutagenic activity the nitro group is essential and that the potency of activity is greatly altered by the nature of the substituent at the 2-position of the furan ring. The mutagenic activities of these chemicals were generally much higher in TA100 compared to TA98. The relative order of activities for 2-substituted, 3,4-diphenyl-5-nitrofurans were COOCH3 greater than COCH2BR greater than COCH3 greater than COOH in S. typhimurium TA100. 3,4-Diphenyl-5-nitro-2-bromoacetylfuran was equally active in nitroreductase-proficient (TA98, TA100) and in nitroreductase-deficient (TA98NR, TA100NR) strains. In contrast, the acetyl and carboxymethyl ester analogs were relatively less active in nitroreductase-deficient strains. Mutagenic activities of 3,4-diphenyl-substituted furylthiazoles in comparison with the unsubstituted analogs of N-[4-(5-nitro-2-furyl)-2-thiazolyl]-formamide, N-[4-(5-nitro-2-furyl)-2-thiazolyl]-acetamide and 2-amino-4-(5-nitro-2-furyl)thiazole revealed that the phenyl groups drastically reduced their mutagenic activities. However, the relative order of activities formylamino greater than or equal to acetylamino greater than amino were the were the same between phenyl-substituted and unsubstituted analogs. PMID:3524891

  3. 3-(2-Fluoro-phen-yl)-6-(phenoxy-meth-yl)-1,2,4-triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]thia-diazole.

    PubMed

    Holm, Melanie; Schollmeyer, Dieter; Laufer, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    The crystal structure of the title compound, C(16)H(11)FN(4)OS, was synthesized in the course of our studies on 1,2,4-triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]thia-diazo-les as inhibitors of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). The three-dimensional data obtained were used to generate a three-dimensional pharmacophore model for in silico database screening. The dihedral angles between the central heterocylic system and the fluoro-phenyl and phenyl rings are 20.21 (3) and 5.43 (1)°, respectively; the dihedral angle between the two benzene rings is 15.80 (4)°. PMID:21202091

  4. [Pd4(μ3-SbMe3)4(SbMe3)4]: A Pd(0) Tetrahedron with μ3-Bridging Trimethylantimony Ligands.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, Sophie L; Krämer, Tobias; Levason, William; Light, Mark E; Macgregor, Stuart A; Reid, Gillian

    2016-06-01

    The palladium(II) chlorostibine complex [PdCl2(SbMe2Cl)2]2 has a dimeric structure in the solid state, stabilized by hyper-coordination at the Lewis amphoteric Sb centers. Reaction with 8 equiv of MeLi forms [Pd4(μ3-SbMe3)4(SbMe3)4], whose structure comprises a tetrahedral Pd(0) core with four terminal SbMe3 ligands and four μ3-SbMe3 ligands, one capping each triangular Pd3 face. Density functional theory calculations, supported by energy decomposition analysis and the natural orbitals for chemical valence scheme, highlight significant donor and acceptor orbital contributions to the bonding between both the terminal and the bridging SbMe3 ligands and the Pd4 core. PMID:27200501

  5. Synthesis of 1,3,4-thiadiazole, 1,3,4-thiadiazine, 1,3,6-thiadiazepane and quinoxaline derivatives from symmetrical dithiobiureas and thioureidoethylthiourea derivatives.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Alaa A; Mourad, Aboul-Fetouh; El-Shaieb, Kamal M; Abou-Zied, Ashraf H

    2005-01-01

    Reactions of N,N;-disubstituted hydrazinecarbothioamides 8a-c and substituted thioureidoethylthioureas 9a-c with 2,3,5,6-tetrachloro-1,4-benzoquinone (chloranil, 10a) and 2,3,5,6-tetrabromo-1,4-benzoquinone (bromanil, 10b) to form N,N;-disubstituted [1,3,4]thiadiazole-2,5-diamines 11a-c, 6,7-dichloro-3-substituted amino-1H-benzo[1,3,4]- thiadiazine-5,8-diones 12a-c, 2,3,7,8-tetrahalothianthrene-1,4,6,9-tetraones 13a,b, 5,6,8- trihalo-7-oxo-3,7-dihydro-2H-quinoxaline-1-carbothioic acid substituted amides 14a-c, 15a-c and 7-substituted imino-[1,3,6]thiadiazepane-3-thiones 16a-c are reported. Rationales for the observed conversions are presented. PMID:18007352

  6. Synthesis and fluorescence properties of 1,2,4-triazolo[3,4-b]-1,3,4-thiadiazol derivatives and their terbium complexes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wu; Chai, Yuchao; Li, Kangyun; Chen, Yanwen; Yan, Dong; Guo, Dongcai

    2014-12-01

    Eight novel 1,2,4-triazolo[3,4-b]-1,3,4-thiadiazol derivatives have been designed and synthesized, and their corresponding Tb(3+) complexes were also prepared successfully. The fluorescence properties and fluorescence quantum yields of the target complexes were investigated, the results showed that the ligands were an efficient sensitizer for Tb(3+) luminescence, and the target complexes exhibited characteristic fluorescence emissions of Tb(3+) ion. The fluorescence intensity of the complex substituted by chlorine was stronger than that of other complexes. The substituents' nature has a great effect upon the electrochemical properties of the target complexes. The results showed that the introduction of the electron-withdrawing groups tended to decrease the oxidation potential and highest occupied molecular orbital energy levels of the target Tb(3+) complexes; however, introduction of the electron-donating groups can increase the corresponding complexes' oxidation potential and highest occupied molecular orbital energy levels. PMID:24846775

  7. Copolyimides Prepared from 3,4'-Oxydianiline and 1,3-Bis(3-Aminophenoxy) Benzene with 3,3', 4,4'-Biphenylcarboxylic Dianhydride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Brian J. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    Polyimide copolymers were prepared by reacting different ratios of 3,4'-oxydianiline (ODA) and 1,3-bis(3- aminophenoxy)benzene (APB) with 3,3',4,4'- biphenylcarboxylic dianhydride (BPDA) and endcappfng with an effective amount of a non-reactive endcapper. Within a narrow ratio of diamines, from -50% ODA/50% APB to -95% ODA/5% APB, the copolyimides prepared with BPDA have a unique combination of properties that make them very attractive for various applications. This unique combination of properties includes low pressure processing (200 psi and below), long term melt stability (several hours at 390 C.), improved toughness, improved solvent resistance, improved adhesive properties, and improved composite mechanical properties.

  8. Thyroid-vitamin A interactions in Chicks exposed to 3,4,3,4-tetrachlorobiphenyl: influence of low dietary vitamin A and iodine

    SciTech Connect

    Spear, P.A.; Moon, T.W.

    1986-06-01

    Poultry chicks receiving a low vitamin A semipurified diet and exposed to 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl became hypothyroid in comparison with unexposed controls. Metabolic rate, total serum thyroxine, total serum triiodothyronine, and food intake decreased significantly while thyroid weight increased. Unexpectedly, growth rate was not affected on this diet. In the case of chicks receiving a low vitamin A-low iodine semipurified diet and exposed to the PCB congener, the hypothyroid response was apparently antagonized. Comparing exposed chicks with unexposed controls, metabolic rate and the proportion of free T/sub 3/ (i.e., %T/sub 3/ resin uptake) increased while total serum thyroxine and thyroid weight were unchanged. In addition, growth rate, food consumption, and serum retinol decreased on this diet. These results are interpreted to mean that (i) growth rate may have been altered by circulating levels of retinol, and (ii) vitamin A insufficiency may predispose birds to the hypothyroid effects of PCBs.

  9. 3/4 VIEW OF PORT SIDE ELEVATION LOOKING AFT. FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3/4 VIEW OF PORT SIDE ELEVATION LOOKING AFT. FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT CAN BE SEEN ON DECK. WATER INTAKE PORTS ARE LOCATED AMIDSHIP UNDER THE WATERLINE. - Fireboat JOHN J. HARVEY, Pier 63, North River, New York County, NY

  10. 3/4 view of exterior looking northeast from street. The church ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3/4 view of exterior looking northeast from street. The church is at the right of the view and the rectory is at the left. - Our Lady of Good Voyage Church, 142 Prospect Street, Gloucester, Essex County, MA

  11. 2. 3/4 view looking SW showing threeroll can mill, reduction ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. 3/4 view looking SW showing three-roll can mill, reduction gear, flywheel with steam engine in background. - Hacienda Azucarera la Igualdad, Sugar Mill Ruins & Steam Engine, PR Route 332, Guanica, Guanica Municipio, PR

  12. Exterior 3/4 view of north and west sides of la ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior 3/4 view of north and west sides of la casa, showing entrance to first story, view towards the south. - Pou Coffee Processing Structure, Casa No. 2, Highway 139, Kilometer 12, Maraguez, Ponce Municipio, PR

  13. Framing detail at stern. 3/4 view looking aft towards stern ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Framing detail at stern. 3/4 view looking aft towards stern logs, lifts, horn timber, framing and ceiling planks. Rudder shaft on horn timber. - Purse Seiner SHENANDOAH, Gig Harbor Peninsula Historical Society and Museum, Gig Harbor, Pierce County, WA

  14. 3/4 view of old rain shed (Building No. 43) showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3/4 view of old rain shed (Building No. 43) showing southwest corner with open bays. - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Water Collection System, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

  15. 3/4 view of old rain shed (Building No. 43) showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3/4 view of old rain shed (Building No. 43) showing northwest corner with corrugated siding. - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Water Collection System, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

  16. 43 CFR 4750.3-4 - Approval or disapproval of applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CONTROL OF WILD FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Private Maintenance § 4750.3-4 Approval or disapproval of... to select the appropriate number, sex, age and species of animals from those available. If...

  17. 43 CFR 4750.3-4 - Approval or disapproval of applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CONTROL OF WILD FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Private Maintenance § 4750.3-4 Approval or disapproval of... to select the appropriate number, sex, age and species of animals from those available. If...

  18. 43 CFR 4750.3-4 - Approval or disapproval of applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CONTROL OF WILD FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Private Maintenance § 4750.3-4 Approval or disapproval of... to select the appropriate number, sex, age and species of animals from those available. If...

  19. 43 CFR 4750.3-4 - Approval or disapproval of applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CONTROL OF WILD FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Private Maintenance § 4750.3-4 Approval or disapproval of... to select the appropriate number, sex, age and species of animals from those available. If...

  20. 1,3,4-Oxadiazole Derivatives. Optical Properties in Pure and Mixed Solvents.

    PubMed

    Homocianu, Mihaela; Airinei, Anton

    2016-09-01

    1,3,4-Oxadiazole derivatives-organic materials are an interesting and continuously developing area of research. This review describes some optical properties and highlights the current applications of these compounds in biomedical and optoelectronic fields. The relationships between polymer structures, environmental factors and optical properties (absorption and fluorescence) of several selected and relevant l,3,4-oxadiazole-containing molecules were presented in this review. These aspects were analyzed in various pure solvents and microheterogeneous media (mixed solvents). Also, the selectivity and sensitivity of some 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives-organic materials for different metal ions were discussed and evaluated by using spectral techniques. Finally, some important photophysical characteristics of 34 series of organic materials containing -1,3,4-oxadiazole rings, were collected in a table. PMID:27324952

  1. 12. Building H9; 3/4 view, looking SE; showing relationship of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Building H-9; 3/4 view, looking SE; showing relationship of blast barricade to building. (Ryan and Harms) - Holston Army Ammunition Plant, RDX-and-Composition-B Manufacturing Line 9, Kingsport, Sullivan County, TN

  2. 14. Building 09; 3/4 view, looking NE; showing relationship of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Building 0-9; 3/4 view, looking NE; showing relationship of blast barricades to building. (Ryan) - Holston Army Ammunition Plant, RDX-and-Composition-B Manufacturing Line 9, Kingsport, Sullivan County, TN

  3. 2. Building D9; 3/4 view, looking NE; showing relationship of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Building D-9; 3/4 view, looking NE; showing relationship of reactor leg to building proper. (Ryan) - Holston Army Ammunition Plant, RDX-and-Composition-B Manufacturing Line 9, Kingsport, Sullivan County, TN

  4. 11. Building H9; 3/4 view, looking NW; showing relationship of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Building H-9; 3/4 view, looking NW; showing relationship of wheeling ramp to building. (Ryan and Harms) - Holston Army Ammunition Plant, RDX-and-Composition-B Manufacturing Line 9, Kingsport, Sullivan County, TN

  5. 3/4 view of elliptical stern looking forward along starboard side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3/4 view of elliptical stern looking forward along starboard side - horizontal composition with Mike Vlahovich working on deck. - Purse Seiner SHENANDOAH, Gig Harbor Peninsula Historical Society and Museum, Gig Harbor, Pierce County, WA

  6. Phosphonic analogues of tyrosine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (dopa) influence mushroom tyrosinase activity.

    PubMed Central

    Lejczak, B; Kafarski, P; Makowiecka, E

    1987-01-01

    A series of phosphonic analogues of tyrosine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (dopa) were synthesized in order to study their interaction with mushroom tyrosinase. 1-Amino-2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethylphosphonic acid and 1-amino-2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)ethylphosphonic acid turned out to be substrates for mushroom tyrosinase with Km values of 3.3 mM and 9.3 mM respectively. Shortening of the alkyl chain by one methylene group gave amino-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)methylphosphonic acid, one of the most powerful known inhibitors of this enzyme. This compound, racemic as well as in its optically active forms, exerts a mixed type of inhibition with an affinity for the enzyme one order of magnitude greater than that of the natural substrate. PMID:3109385

  7. 1. 3/4 view of N & W elevations, showing relationship ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. 3/4 view of N & W elevations, showing relationship to Building 140 at right; looking SE. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 139, Second Street between Ramsey Street & South Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  8. 2. 3/4 view of N & W elevations, W wing; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. 3/4 view of N & W elevations, W wing; North elevation of Building 75 (the kitchen); looking SE. (Ceronie) - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 60, Rodman Avenue between Gillespie Avenue & First Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  9. Four-Component Bicyclization Approaches to Skeletally Diverse Pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A novel four-component bicyclization strategy has been established, allowing a flexible and practical approach to 37 examples of multicyclic pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridines from low-cost and readily accessible arylglyoxals, pyrazol-5-amines, aromatic amines, 4-hydroxy-6-methyl-2H-pyran-2-one, and cyclohexane-1,3-diones. The polysubstituted cyclopenta[d]pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridines were stereoselectively synthesized through a microwave-assisted special [3+2+1]/[3+2] bicyclization with good control of the spatial configuration of exocyclic double bonds. The novel [3+2+1]/[2+2+1] bicyclization resulted in 17 examples of unreported pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyrrolo[4,3,2-de]quinolones. Reasonable mechanisms for forming two new types of multicyclic pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridines are also proposed. PMID:25338160

  10. Process for the preparation of 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid and salts thereof

    DOEpatents

    Hollingsworth, Rawle I.

    1994-01-01

    A process for the preparation of 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid (1) and salts thereof from a glucose source containing 1,4-linked glucose as a substituent is described. The process uses an alkali metal hdyroxide and hydrogen peroxide to convert the glucose source to (1). The compound (1) is useful as a chemical intermediate to naturally occurring fatty acids and is used to prepare 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid-gamma-lactone (2) and furanone (3), particularly stereoisomers of these compounds.

  11. Process For The Preparation Of 3,4-Dihyd Roxybutanoic Acid And Salts Thereof

    DOEpatents

    Hollingsworth, Rawle I.

    1994-06-07

    A process for the preparation of 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid (1) and salts thereof from a glucose source containing 1,4-linked glucose as a substituent is described. The process uses an alkali metal hdyroxide and hydrogen peroxide to convert the glucose source to (1). The compound (1) is useful as a chemical intermediate to naturally occurring fatty acids and is used to prepare 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid-gamma-lactone (2) and furanone (3), particularly stereoisomers of these compounds.

  12. Novel action of 3,4-DAA ameliorating acute liver allograft injury.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qing-Feng; Ding, Ji-Guang; Sheng, Ji-Fang; Zhu, Man-Hua; Li, Jun-Jie; Sheng, Zi-Ke; Tang, Xiao-Feng

    2011-12-01

    The anti-allergic drug, N-(3,4-dimethoxycinnamonyl) anthranilic acid (3,4-DAA), is a synthetic anthranilic acid derivative that has been used therapeutically in Japan for many years. In this study, to investigate the effects of 3,4-DAA in allograft immunorejection model, liver orthotopic transplants were performed using inbred male Dark Agouti donors and Lewis rat recipients (allografts). The levels of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenases (IDO) enzymic activities in five groups, allografts (control), dimethyl sulphoxide-treated group (vehicle control), 200 mg·kg(-1) ·day(-1) of 3,4-DAA-treated group and 200 mg·kg(-1) ·day(-1) of 3,4-DAA + 5 mg·ml(-1) of 1-methyl-D-tryptophan (1-MT)-treated group were confirmed by determination of L-kynurenine (L-Kyn) concentrations. The serum alanine aminotransferase levels in 3,4-DAA-treated rats significantly decreased compared with those in mock and control group, whereas treatment of 1-MT in allografts led to the opposite effect. Administration of 3,4-DAA reduced histological severity of allograft immunorejection, decreased serum levels of cytokines tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), and raised serum levels of interleukin-10 (IL-10), suggesting that 3,4-DAA has both anti-inflammatory and anti-immunorejection properties through IDO in immune regulation and may therefore be useful in filling an unmet need, in the treatment of allograft immunorejection. PMID:21932299

  13. Syntheses, spectral, X-ray and DFT studies of 5-benzyl-N-phenyl-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-amine, 2-(5-phenyl-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl) pyridine and 2-(5-methyl-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-ylthio)-5-methyl-1,3,4-thiadiazole obtained by Mn(II) catalyzed reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dani, R. K.; Bharty, M. K.; Kushawaha, S. K.; Paswan, S.; Prakash, Om; Singh, Ranjan K.; Singh, N. K.

    2013-12-01

    New compounds 5-benzyl-N-phenyl-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-amine (Bptha, 1), 2-(5-phenyl-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl) pyridine (Pthp, 2) and 2-(5-methyl-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-ylthio)-5-methyl-1,3,4-thiadiazole (Mtmth, 3) have been synthesized and characterized with the aid of elemental analyses, IR, NMR and single crystal X-ray data. The structure of compounds 1, 2 and 3 are stabilized via intramolecular as well as intermolecular hydrogen bonding and crystallize in monoclinic system with space group P 1, P21/n and P 1, respectively. During the course of reaction, the substituted thiosemicarbazide/thiohydrazide get cyclized into the corresponding thiadiazole in the presence of manganese(II) nitrate via loss of H2O to yield compounds 1 and 2. However condensation occurred in the case of 5-methyl-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-thiol which yielded 2-(5-methyl-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-ylthio)-5-methyl-1,3,4-thiadiazole (3) by loss of one mole of H2S from two moles of 5-methyl-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-thiol in the presence of manganese(II) acetate. The geometry optimization has been performed using DFT method and geometrical parameters thus obtained for the compounds have been compared with their single crystal X-ray data. The negative values of HOMO and LUMO energies for the molecules indicate that they are stable. The electronic transition from the ground state to the excited state due to a transfer of electrons from the HOMO to LUMO levels is mainly associated with the π⋯π transition.

  14. New 3,4-seco-ent-kaurene dimers from Croton micans.

    PubMed

    Mateu, Elsa; Chavez, Katiuska; Riina, Ricarda; Compagnone, Reinaldo S; Delle Monache, Franco; Suárez, Alírica I

    2012-01-01

    From the stems of Croton micans Sw., five new 3,4-seco-ent-kaurene dimers: micansinoic acid (1), isomicansinoic acid (2), and the dimethyl (3), monomethyl (4) and monoethyl ester (5) of micansinoic acid were isolated. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic data interpretation, mainly 1D and 2D NMR experiments and MS. These compounds are the first 3,4-seco-ent-kaurene dimers from a Croton species. PMID:22428229

  15. Implementation experiences of NASTRAN on CDC CYBER 74 SCOPE 3.4 operating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Go, J. C.; Hill, R. G.

    1973-01-01

    The implementation of the NASTRAN system on the CDC CYBER 74 SCOPE 3.4 Operating System is described. The flexibility of the NASTRAN system made it possible to accomplish the change with no major problems. Various sizes of benchmark and test problems, ranging from two hours to less than one minute CP time were run on the CDC CYBER SCOPE 3.3, Univac EXEC-8, and CDC CYBER SCOPE 3.4. The NASTRAN installation deck is provided.

  16. Novel Variants of Oct-3/4 Gene Expressed in Mouse Somatic Cells*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Mizuno, Nobuhiko; Kosaka, Mitsuko

    2008-01-01

    It has been suggested that Oct-3/4 may regulate self-renewal in somatic stem cells, as it does in embryonic stem cells. However, recent reports raise the possibility that detection of human Oct-3/4 expression by RT-PCR is prone to artifacts generated by pseudogene transcripts and argue against a role for Oct-3/4 in somatic cells. In this study, we clarified Oct-3/4 expression in mouse somatic tissues using designed PCR primers, which can exclude amplification of its pseudogenes. We found that novel alternative transcripts are indeed expressed in somatic tissues, rather than the normal length transcripts in germline and ES cells. The alternative transcripts indicate the expression of two kinds of truncated proteins. Furthermore, we determined novel promoter regions that are sufficient for the expression of Oct-3/4 transcript variants in somatic cells. These findings provide new insights into the postnatal role of Oct-3/4 in somatic tissues. PMID:18765667

  17. Radioluminescence properties of Ce 3+-activated MGd(PO 3) 4 (M = Li, Na, K, Cs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Jiuping; Liang, Hongbin; Su, Qiang; Zhou, Jianying; Khodyuk, Ivan V.; Dorenbos, Pieter

    2009-12-01

    Rare-earth phosphates MGd(PO 3) 4:1.0 mol% Ce 3+ (M = Li, Na, K, Cs) powder samples were prepared by a solid-state reaction technique at high temperature. The radioluminescence spectra and light-yield characteristic of MGd(PO 3) 4:Ce 3+ under X-ray irradiation were determined. It was found that, from LiGd(PO 3) 4:Ce 3+ to CsGd(PO 3) 4:Ce 3+, with the increasing of M + radius, the doublet emission energy of Ce 3+ ions decrease gradually but the light-yield increase significantly. Especially, CsGd(PO 3) 4:1.0 mol% Ce 3+ has the highest X-ray excited light-yield of 24,400 photons/MeV with maximal emission peaks at 337 nm and 358 nm at room temperature. Due to its suitable emission wavelength range, high light-yield, high chemical stability and fast luminescence decay of Ce 3+ emission, CsGd(PO 3) 4:Ce 3+ may be a promising scintillation material.

  18. Novel Highly Pathogenic Avian A(H5N2) and A(H5N8) Influenza Viruses of Clade 2.3.4.4 from North America Have Limited Capacity for Replication and Transmission in Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Bryan S.; Russier, Marion; Jeevan, Trushar; Marathe, Bindumadhav; Govorkova, Elena A.; Russell, Charles J.; Kim-Torchetti, Mia; Choi, Young Ki; Brown, Ian; Saito, Takehiko; Stallknecht, David E.; Krauss, Scott

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Highly pathogenic influenza A(H5N8) viruses from clade 2.3.4.4 were introduced to North America by migratory birds in the fall of 2014. Reassortment of A(H5N8) viruses with avian viruses of North American lineage resulted in the generation of novel A(H5N2) viruses with novel genotypes. Through sequencing of recent avian influenza viruses, we identified PB1 and NP gene segments very similar to those in the viruses isolated from North American waterfowl prior to the introduction of A(H5N8) to North America, highlighting these bird species in the origin of reassortant A(H5N2) viruses. While they were highly virulent and transmissible in poultry, we found A(H5N2) viruses to be low pathogenic in mice and ferrets, and replication was limited in both hosts compared with those of recent highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses. Molecular characterization of the hemagglutinin protein from A(H5N2) viruses showed that the receptor binding preference, cleavage, and pH of activation were highly adapted for replication in avian species and similar to those of other 2.3.4.4 viruses. In addition, North American and Eurasian clade 2.3.4.4 H5NX viruses replicated to significantly lower titers in differentiated normal human bronchial epithelial cells than did seasonal human A(H1N1) and highly pathogenic A(H5N1) viruses isolated from a human case. Thus, despite their having a high impact on poultry, our findings suggest that the recently emerging North American A(H5N2) viruses are not expected to pose a substantial threat to humans and other mammals without further reassortment and/or adaptation and that reassortment with North American viruses has not had a major impact on viral phenotype. IMPORTANCE Highly pathogenic H5 influenza viruses have been introduced into North America from Asia, causing extensive morbidity and mortality in domestic poultry. The introduced viruses have reassorted with North American avian influenza viruses, generating viral genotypes

  19. Novel Highly Pathogenic Avian A(H5N2) and A(H5N8) Influenza Viruses of Clade 2.3.4.4 from North America Have Limited Capacity for Replication and Transmission in Mammals.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Bryan S; Russier, Marion; Jeevan, Trushar; Marathe, Bindumadhav; Govorkova, Elena A; Russell, Charles J; Kim-Torchetti, Mia; Choi, Young Ki; Brown, Ian; Saito, Takehiko; Stallknecht, David E; Krauss, Scott; Webby, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Highly pathogenic influenza A(H5N8) viruses from clade 2.3.4.4 were introduced to North America by migratory birds in the fall of 2014. Reassortment of A(H5N8) viruses with avian viruses of North American lineage resulted in the generation of novel A(H5N2) viruses with novel genotypes. Through sequencing of recent avian influenza viruses, we identified PB1 and NP gene segments very similar to those in the viruses isolated from North American waterfowl prior to the introduction of A(H5N8) to North America, highlighting these bird species in the origin of reassortant A(H5N2) viruses. While they were highly virulent and transmissible in poultry, we found A(H5N2) viruses to be low pathogenic in mice and ferrets, and replication was limited in both hosts compared with those of recent highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses. Molecular characterization of the hemagglutinin protein from A(H5N2) viruses showed that the receptor binding preference, cleavage, and pH of activation were highly adapted for replication in avian species and similar to those of other 2.3.4.4 viruses. In addition, North American and Eurasian clade 2.3.4.4 H5NX viruses replicated to significantly lower titers in differentiated normal human bronchial epithelial cells than did seasonal human A(H1N1) and highly pathogenic A(H5N1) viruses isolated from a human case. Thus, despite their having a high impact on poultry, our findings suggest that the recently emerging North American A(H5N2) viruses are not expected to pose a substantial threat to humans and other mammals without further reassortment and/or adaptation and that reassortment with North American viruses has not had a major impact on viral phenotype. IMPORTANCE Highly pathogenic H5 influenza viruses have been introduced into North America from Asia, causing extensive morbidity and mortality in domestic poultry. The introduced viruses have reassorted with North American avian influenza viruses, generating viral genotypes not seen on

  20. Modeling Li-ion conductivity in LiLa(PO3)4 powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mounir, Ferhi; Karima, Horchani-Naifer; Khaled, Ben Saad; Mokhtar, Férid

    2012-07-01

    Polycrystalline powder and single-crystal of LiLa(PO3)4 are synthesized by solid state reaction and flux technique, respectively. A morphological description of the obtained product was made based on scanning electron microscopy micrographs. The obtained powder was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, FTIR and Raman spectroscopies. Ionic conductivity of the LiLa(PO3)4 powder was measured and evaluated over a temperature range from 553 to 913 K. Single crystals of LiLa(PO3)4 are characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The LiLa(PO3)4 structure was found to be isotypic with LiNd(PO3)4. It crystallizes in the monoclinic system with space group C2/c and cell parameters: a=16.635(6) Å, b=7.130(3) Å, c=9.913(3) Å, β=126.37(4)°, V=946.72(6) Å3 and Z=4. The LiLa(PO3)4 structure was described as an alternation between spiraling chains (PO3)n and (La3+, Li+) cations along the b direction. The small Li+ ions, coordinated to four oxygen atoms, were located in the large connected cavities created between the LaO8 polyhedra and the polyphosphate chains. The jumping of Li+ through tunnels of the crystalline network was investigated using complex impedance spectroscopy. The close value of the activation energies calculated through the analysis of conductivity data and loss spectra indicate that the transport in the investigated system is through hopping mechanism. The correlation between ionic conductivity of LiLa(PO3)4 and its crystallographic structure was investigated and the most probably transport pathway model was determined.

  1. Is inositol (1,3,4,5)-tetrakisphosphate a new second messenger

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, C.A.; Williamson, J.R.

    1986-05-01

    Hormone-stimulated hydrolysis of inositol (Ins) lipids results in the rapid formation of Ins(1,4,5)P/sub 3/, the second messenger for intracellular Ca/sup 2 +/ mobilization. Recently, a more polar inositol phosphate, Ins(1,3,4,5)P/sub 4/ as well as its probable hydrolysis product Ins(1,3,4)P/sub 3/ have been reported to accumulate in carbachol-stimulated brain slices. Vasopressin addition to hepatocytes prelabeled with (/sup 3/H)-Ins also showed a rapid increase of Ins(1,3,4,5)P/sub 4/, which was similar to that of Ins(1,4,5)P/sub 3/, while the accumulation of Ins(1,3,4)P/sub 3/ was slower. In order to examine whether Ins(1,3,4,5)P/sub 4/ has any functional effects on Ca/sup 2 +/ homeostasis, it was synthesized enzymatically from (/sup 3/H)-Ins(1,4,5)P/sub 3/ using a partially purified phosphoinositol kinase activity from rat brain cortex. (/sup 3/H)-labeled inositol phosphates were separated by anion exchange chromatography and analyzed by HPLC using ammonium formate/phosphoric acid gradient elution. Preliminary experiments indicate that Ins(1,3,4,5)P/sub 4/ up to 10 ..mu..M does not release Ca/sup 2 +/ from vesicular pools in saponin-permeabilized hepatocytes. It has a slight inhibitory effect on Ins(1,4,5)P/sub 3/-induced Ca/sup 2 +/ release. The effect of Ins(1,3,4,5)P/sub 4/ on plasma membrane Ca/sup 2 +/ fluxes are presently being investigated.

  2. Platelet activating factor antagonist design. 2. X-ray structure of dimethyl 2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-5 beta-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2-oxo-3 beta-(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoyl)-3 alpha,4 alpha-furandicarboxylate.

    PubMed

    Peterson, J R; Do, H D; Rogers, R D

    1989-07-15

    C25H24O12, Mr = 516.46, triclinic, P-1, a = 8.780 (3), b = 11.298 (4), c = 13.271 (6) A, alpha = 71.77 (4), beta = 70.31 (3), gamma = 72.66 (3) degrees, V = 1189 A3, Z = 2, Dx = 1.44 g cm-3, lambda (Mo K alpha) = 0.71073 A, mu = 0.74 cm-1, F(000) = 540, T = 293 K, final R = 0.046 for 2495 observed [Fo greater than or equal to 5 sigma (Fo)] reflections. The observed structure reveals a trans disposition for the methoxycarbonyl and aryl substituents at positions 4 and 5 of the heterocycle and a cis-3,4-bis(methoxycarbonyl) relationship. There is no crystallographically imposed symmetry. Several intermolecular van der Waals interactions occur in the cell lattice of this compound. PMID:2610989

  3. A comprehensive laboratory study on the immersion freezing behavior of illite NX particles: a comparison of seventeen ice nucleation measurement techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiranuma, N.; Augustin-Bauditz, S.; Bingemer, H.; Budke, C.; Curtius, J.; Danielczok, A.; Diehl, K.; Dreischmeier, K.; Ebert, M.; Frank, F.; Hoffmann, N.; Kandler, K.; Kiselev, A.; Koop, T.; Leisner, T.; Möhler, O.; Nillius, B.; Peckhaus, A.; Rose, D.; Weinbruch, S.; Wex, H.; Boose, Y.; DeMott, P. J.; Hader, J. D.; Hill, T. C. J.; Kanji, Z. A.; Kulkarni, G.; Levin, E. J. T.; McCluskey, C. S.; Murakami, M.; Murray, B. J.; Niedermeier, D.; Petters, M. D.; O'Sullivan, D.; Saito, A.; Schill, G. P.; Tajiri, T.; Tolbert, M. A.; Welti, A.; Whale, T. F.; Wright, T. P.; Yamashita, K.

    2014-08-01

    Immersion freezing is the most relevant heterogeneous ice nucleation mechanism through which ice crystals are formed in mixed-phase clouds. In recent years, an increasing number of laboratory experiments utilizing a variety of instruments have examined immersion freezing activity of atmospherically relevant ice nucleating particles (INPs). However, an inter-comparison of these laboratory results is a difficult task because investigators have used different ice nucleation (IN) measurement methods to produce these results. A remaining challenge is to explore the sensitivity and accuracy of these techniques and to understand how the IN results are potentially influenced or biased by experimental parameters associated with these techniques. Within the framework of INUIT (Ice Nucleation research UnIT), we distributed an illite rich sample (illite NX) as a representative surrogate for atmospheric mineral dust particles to investigators to perform immersion freezing experiments using different IN measurement methods and to obtain IN data as a function of particle concentration, temperature (T), cooling rate and nucleation time. Seventeen measurement methods were involved in the data inter-comparison. Experiments with seven instruments started with the test sample pre-suspended in water before cooling, while ten other instruments employed water vapor condensation onto dry-dispersed particles followed by immersion freezing. The resulting comprehensive immersion freezing dataset was evaluated using the ice nucleation active surface-site density (ns) to develop a representative ns(T) spectrum that spans a wide temperature range (-37 °C < T < -11 °C) and covers nine orders of magnitude in ns. Our inter-comparison results revealed a discrepancy between suspension and dry-dispersed particle measurements for this mineral dust. While the agreement was good below ~ -26 °C, the ice nucleation activity, expressed in ns, was smaller for the wet suspended samples and higher for the

  4. A comprehensive laboratory study on the immersion freezing behavior of illite NX particles: a comparison of 17 ice nucleation measurement techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiranuma, N.; Augustin-Bauditz, S.; Bingemer, H.; Budke, C.; Curtius, J.; Danielczok, A.; Diehl, K.; Dreischmeier, K.; Ebert, M.; Frank, F.; Hoffmann, N.; Kandler, K.; Kiselev, A.; Koop, T.; Leisner, T.; Möhler, O.; Nillius, B.; Peckhaus, A.; Rose, D.; Weinbruch, S.; Wex, H.; Boose, Y.; DeMott, P. J.; Hader, J. D.; Hill, T. C. J.; Kanji, Z. A.; Kulkarni, G.; Levin, E. J. T.; McCluskey, C. S.; Murakami, M.; Murray, B. J.; Niedermeier, D.; Petters, M. D.; O'Sullivan, D.; Saito, A.; Schill, G. P.; Tajiri, T.; Tolbert, M. A.; Welti, A.; Whale, T. F.; Wright, T. P.; Yamashita, K.

    2015-03-01

    Immersion freezing is the most relevant heterogeneous ice nucleation mechanism through which ice crystals are formed in mixed-phase clouds. In recent years, an increasing number of laboratory experiments utilizing a variety of instruments have examined immersion freezing activity of atmospherically relevant ice-nucleating particles. However, an intercomparison of these laboratory results is a difficult task because investigators have used different ice nucleation (IN) measurement methods to produce these results. A remaining challenge is to explore the sensitivity and accuracy of these techniques and to understand how the IN results are potentially influenced or biased by experimental parameters associated with these techniques. Within the framework of INUIT (Ice Nuclei Research Unit), we distributed an illite-rich sample (illite NX) as a representative surrogate for atmospheric mineral dust particles to investigators to perform immersion freezing experiments using different IN measurement methods and to obtain IN data as a function of particle concentration, temperature (T), cooling rate and nucleation time. A total of 17 measurement methods were involved in the data intercomparison. Experiments with seven instruments started with the test sample pre-suspended in water before cooling, while 10 other instruments employed water vapor condensation onto dry-dispersed particles followed by immersion freezing. The resulting comprehensive immersion freezing data set was evaluated using the ice nucleation active surface-site density, ns, to develop a representative ns(T) spectrum that spans a wide temperature range (-37 °C < T < -11 °C) and covers 9 orders of magnitude in ns. In general, the 17 immersion freezing measurement techniques deviate, within a range of about 8 °C in terms of temperature, by 3 orders of magnitude with respect to ns. In addition, we show evidence that the immersion freezing efficiency expressed in ns of illite NX particles is relatively

  5. Prospective Analysis of the Safety and Efficacy of Percutaneous Cryoablation for pT1NxMx Biopsy-Proven Renal Cell Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, Ronald; Cizman, Ziga; Hong, Kelvin; Koliatsos, Alexandra; Georgiades, Christos

    2011-06-15

    Purpose: Our objective was to determine the efficacy and safety of image-guided, percutaneous cryoablation for American Joint Committee on Cancer pT1ANxMx and pT1BNxMx biopsy-proven renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Materials and Methods: Computed tomography (CT)-guided, percutaneous cryoablation was used to treat 117 renal lesions in 113 consecutive patients with pT1NxMx RCC. All 117 ablations were included in the safety analysis, and complications were categorized according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0 (CTCAE v3.0). Eighty-one lesions were biopsy-proven RCC and were included in the efficacy analysis. Technical success was defined as the 'ice-ball' covering the entire lesion plus a minimum 5-mm margin. Efficacy was defined as complete lack of enhancement and continuous decrease in size on subsequent follow-up imaging studies. Results: Technical success was 100%, with 15% of ablations requiring air or saline injection to prevent nontarget ablation. We recorded a 7% rate of clinically significant complications (CTCAE category {>=}2) and 0% mortality. Renal function was not adversely affected. Seventy percent of patients were discharged to home on the same day. Efficacy was 98.7% for a median follow-up of 67 weeks (range 7-172). For the subgroup of patients that reached a median follow-up of 2 (n = 59) and 3 years (n = 13), efficacy was 98.3 and 92.3%, respectively. Cancer specific survival was 100%. Conclusions: CT-guided, percutaneous cryoablation has an excellent safety and efficacy profile for stage T1A and T1B RCC; however, longer follow-up is needed to compare it with other nephron-sparing surgical treatments. It is a great option for nonsurgical patients, those in whom renal function cannot be further sacrificed, and those at risk for metachronous lesions.

  6. Phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-Triphosphate and Cellular Signaling: Implications for Obesity and Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Manna, Prasenjit; Jain, Sushil K.

    2015-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-triphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P3) is one of the most important phosphoinositides and is capable of activating a wide range of proteins through its interaction with their specific binding domains. Localization and activation of these effector proteins regulate a number of cellular functions, including cell survival, proliferation, cytoskeletal rearrangement, intracellular vesicle trafficking, and cell metabolism. Phosphoinositides have been investigated as an important agonist-dependent second messenger in the regulation of diverse physiological events depending upon the phosphorylation status of their inositol group. Dysregulation in formation as well as metabolism of phosphoinositides is associated with various pathophysiological disorders such as inflammation, allergy, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and metabolic diseases. Recent studies have demonstrated that the impaired metabolism of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 is a prime mediator of insulin resistance associated with various metabolic diseases including obesity and diabetes. This review examines the current status of the role of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 signaling in the regulation of various cellular functions and the implications of dysregulated PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 signaling in obesity, diabetes, and their associated complications. PMID:25721445

  7. Synthesis and anticancer evaluation of 1,3,4-oxadiazoles, 1,3,4-thiadiazoles, 1,2,4-triazoles and Mannich bases.

    PubMed

    Megally Abdo, Nadia Youssef; Kamel, Mona Monir

    2015-01-01

    A series of 5-(pyridin-4-yl)-N-substituted-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-amines (3a-d), 5-(pyridin-4-yl)-N-substituted-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-amines (4a-d) and 5-(pyridin-4-yl)-4-substituted-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiones (5a-d) were obtained by the cyclization of hydrazinecarbothioamide derivatives 2a-d derived from isonicotinic acid hydrazide. Aminoalkylation of compounds 5a-d with formaldehyde and various secondary amines furnished the Mannich bases 6a-p. The structures of the newly synthesized compounds were confirmed on the basis of their spectral data and elemental analyses. All the compounds were screened for their in vitro anticancer activity against six human cancer cell lines and normal fibroblast cells. Sixteen of the tested compounds exhibited significant cytotoxicity against most cell lines. Among these derivatives, the Mannich bases 6j, 6m and 6p were found to exhibit the most potent activity. The Mannich base 6m showed more potent cytotoxic activity against gastric cancer NUGC (IC50=0.021 µM) than the standard CHS 828 (IC50=0.025 µM). Normal fibroblast cells WI38 were affected to a much lesser extent (IC50>10 µM). PMID:25948330

  8. Synthesis and antimicrobial evaluation of novel 4-amino-6-(1,3,4-oxadiazolo/1,3,4-thiadiazolo)-pyrimidine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Poornima; Praveen, B M; Raghavendra, M; Manjunath, K; Cheruku, Srinivas

    2016-05-01

    A series of novel 4-amino-6-(1,3,4-oxadiazolo/1,3,4-thiadiazolo)-pyrimidine derivatives of biological interest were prepared by sequential amination, hydrazide formation, and hydrazine carbothioamidination followed by cyclization. All the synthesized compounds (6a-6h and 7a-7f) were screened for antibacterial and antifungal activity. From this group, compound 7f (MIC (μg/mL μg/mL )/Inhibition (mm): 6.25/23-30) showed good antibacterial and antifungal activity. Reagents and conditions: (a) Ethyl acetoacetate, 60% NaH, 1,4-dioxane, 60°C, 6 h; (b) DIPEA, 1,4-dioxane, 100°C, 14 h; (c) NH2NH2 ⋅ H2O, EtOH, reflux, 14 h; (d) Tolyl isothiocyanatobenzene, DMF, RT, 2 h; (e) (if X = O) EDC⋅ HCl, TEA, DMF, RT, 14 h; (f) (if X = S) Conc. H2O4, RT, 14h. PMID:26498121

  9. Homology modeling and QSAR analysis of 1,3,4-thiadiazole and 1,3,4-triazole derivatives as carbonic anhydrase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Akula, N V Murali Krishna; Kumar, Surendra; Singh, Vineet; Tiwari, Meena

    2010-08-01

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitors are very interesting target for designing anticancer (hypoxic) and antiglaucoma drugs. In the present study, a 3D homology modeling of human carbonic anhydrase-IX (hCA-IX) isozyme, based upon the crystal structure of murine CA-XIVA (PDB CODE 1RJ5) was performed, as no experimental 3D structures are available. A homology model of hCA-IX was developed and validated. To explore the responsible physicochemical properties of 1,3,4-thiadiazole and 1,3,4-triazole derivatives for carbonic anhydrase inhibition, a quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) study was performed having hCA-II and hCA-IX inhibitory activity respectively. In hCA-II and hCA-IX inhibitory activities, four significant models with good correlations (> or = 0.945 & > or = 0.926) were obtained; two models (models 1 and 3) were selected based on statistical criterion. The QSAR study revealed that in case of hCA-II, overall increase in size and volume of molecule, introduction of electropositive surfaces might increase the inhibitory activity, whereas in case of hCA-IX, decreasing the hydrophobicity and introduction of electron releasing substituents might increase the hCA-IX inhibitory activity. PMID:21174951

  10. Tin(IV) tetrahalide complexes of 2-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole and 2-ethylamino-1,3,4-thiadiazole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedetti, Adriano; Fabretti, Antonio C.; Peyronel, Giorgio; Zanoli, Aline F.

    The following tin(IV) tetrahalide complexes of 2-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole ( atz, L) and 2-ethylamino-1,3,4-thiadiazole ( eatz, L') have been prepared and investigated by i.r. and Raman spectroscopy: SnCl 4L 1.5, SnBr 4L 1.5, SnBr 4L 4, SnI 4L 3, SnI 4L 6, SnCl 4L' 1.33, SnCl 4L' 2.25·CH 2Cl 2, SnBr 4L' 2, SnBr 4L' 3, SnBr 4L' 5, SnI 4L' 5. The ligands are bonded through the aminic nitrogen atom with ν(SnN) bands in the 555-385 and 520-355 cm -1 regions for the atz and eatz complexes, respectively. In some complexes some bridging ligand molecules may be bonded also through a ring-nitrogen atom. For the first four eatz-complexes a cis-configuration may be established.

  11. Microbial Hydroxylation of 5-Anilino-1,2,3,4-Thiatriazole

    PubMed Central

    Theriault, Robert J.; Longfield, Thomas H.

    1973-01-01

    Two hundred eighty-five fungi, including 100 basidiomycetes and 35 yeasts, 75 actinomycetes, and 40 bacteria were screened for their ability to convert 5-anilino-1,2,3,4-thiatriazole (AT) to 5-(p-hydroxyanilino)-1,2,3,4-thiatriazole (p-HT). Eleven cultures were found that formed p-HT, which was isolated and whose structure was determined. Aspergillus tamarii NRRL 3280 formed 8.6 g of p-HT/liter from 10 g of AT/liter (78.9% conversion) in shaken flasks and 4.57 g of p-HT/liter from 6 g of AT/liter (69.8% conversion) in 30-liter fermentors. Washed cells of A. tamarii NRRL 3280 also carried out this conversion. 5-(o-hydroxyanilino)-1,2,3,4-thiatriazole (o-HT) was identified as a second product formed by Aspergillus terreus NRRL 1960. PMID:4699219

  12. Luminescent lanthanide coordination polymers synthesized via in-situ hydrolysis of dimethyl-3,4-furandicarboxylate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greig, Natalie E.; Einkauf, Jeffrey D.; Clark, Jessica M.; Corcoran, Eric J.; Karram, Joseph P.; Kent, Charles A.; Eugene, Vadine E.; Chan, Benny C.; de Lill, Daniel T.

    2015-05-01

    Dimethyl-3,4-furandicarboxylate undergoes hydrolysis under hydrothermal conditions with lanthanide (Ln) ions to form two-dimensional coordination polymers, [Ln(C6H2O5)(C6H3O5)(H2O)]n (Ln=Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu). The resulting materials exhibit luminescent properties with quantum yields and lifetimes for the Eu(III) and Tb(III) compounds of 1.1±0.3% and 0.387±0.0001 ms, and 3.3±0.8% and 0.769±0.006 ms, respectively. Energy values for the singlet and triplet states were determined for dimethyl-3,4-furandicarboxylate and 3,4-furandicarboxylic acid. Excited state dynamics and structural features are examined to explicate the reported quantum yields. A series of other FDC structures is briefly presented.

  13. Metabolites of 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorobenzene in monkey urine

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, H.; Chu, I.; Villeneuve, D.C.; Viau, A.; Benoit, F.M.

    1985-01-01

    (/sup 14/C(U))-Labeled 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorobenzene was administered orally to squirrel monkeys. Urine was collected from these animals, pooled and analyzed for metabolites by thin-layer chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. N-Acetyl-s(2,3,4,5-tetrachlorophenyl) cysteine was shown to be the major metabolite and accounted for 85% of the radioactivity found in urine. A minor metabolite was identified at 2,3,4,5-tetrachlorophenol. This study demonstrates for the first time that an N-acetyl cysteine conjugate has been isolated and identified as metabolite of a chlorinated benzene. This pattern of chlorobenzene metabolism is significantly different from the one obtained with the rat and rabbit, where tetrachlorophenols constitute the major metabolites.

  14. Molecular control of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 signaling in neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Hongbo R; Mondal, Subhanjan

    2015-01-01

    Neutrophils play critical roles in innate immunity and host defense. However, excessive neutrophil accumulation or hyper-responsiveness of neutrophils can be detrimental to the host system. Thus, the response of neutrophils to inflammatory stimuli needs to be tightly controlled. Many cellular processes in neutrophils are mediated by localized formation of an inositol phospholipid, phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P3), at the plasma membrane. The PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 signaling pathway is negatively regulated by lipid phosphatases and inositol phosphates, which consequently play a critical role in controlling neutrophil function and would be expected to act as ideal therapeutic targets for enhancing or suppressing innate immune responses. Here, we comprehensively review current understanding about the action of lipid phosphatases and inositol phosphates in the control of neutrophil function in infection and inflammation. PMID:25576302

  15. Nitrative DNA damage and Oct3/4 expression in urinary bladder cancer with Schistosomahaematobium infection

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Ning; Thanan, Raynoo; Kobayashi, Hatasu; Hammam, Olfat; Wishahi, Mohamed; Leithy, Tarek El; Hiraku, Yusuke; Amro, EL-Karef; Oikawa, Shinji; Ohnishi, Shiho; Murata, Mariko; Kawanishi, Shosuke

    2011-10-22

    Highlights: {yields} Oct3/4-positive cells increase in Schistosoma haematobium (SH)-associated bladder cancer. {yields} iNOS-dependent DNA lesion, 8-nitroguanine, was formed in Oct3/4-positive cells. {yields} 8-Nitroguanine formed in stem-like cells plays a role in SH-induced carcinogenesis. {yields} Mutant stem cells may participate in inflammation-related carcinogenesis. -- Abstract: To investigate whether mutant stem cells participate in inflammation-related carcinogenesis, we performed immunohistochemical analysis to examine nitrative and oxidative DNA lesions (8-nitroguanine and 8-oxodG) and a stem cell marker Oct3/4 in bladder tissues obtained from cystitis and bladder cancer patients infected with Schistosomahaematobium (S. haematobium). We also detected the expression of nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which lead to 8-nitroguanine formation. The staining intensity of 8-nitroguanine and 8-oxodG was significantly higher in bladder cancer and cystitis tissues than in normal tissues. iNOS expression was colocalized with NF-{kappa}B in 8-nitroguanine-positive tumor cells from bladder cancer patients. Oct3/4 expression was significantly increased in cells from S. haematobium-associated bladder cancer tissues in comparison to normal bladder and cancer tissues without infection. Oct3/4 was also expressed in epithelial cells of cystitis patients. Moreover, 8-nitroguanine was formed in Oct3/4-positive stem cells in S. haematobium-associated cystitis and cancer tissues. In conclusion, inflammation by S.haematobium infection may increase the number of mutant stem cells, in which iNOS-dependent DNA damage occurs via NF-{kappa}B activation, leading to tumor development.

  16. 3.4-Billion-year-old biogenic pyrites from Barberton, South Africa: sulfur isotope evidence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohmoto, H.; Kakegawa, T.; Lowe, D. R.

    1993-01-01

    Laser ablation mass spectroscopy analyses of sulfur isotopic compositions of microscopic-sized grains of pyrite that formed about 3.4 billion years ago in the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa, show that the pyrite formed by bacterial reduction of seawater sulfate. These data imply that by about 3.4 billion years ago sulfate-reducing bacteria had become active, the oceans were rich in sulfate, and the atmosphere contained appreciable amounts (>>10(-13) of the present atmospheric level) of free oxygen.

  17. 3.4-Billion-year-old biogenic pyrites from Barberton, South Africa: sulfur isotope evidence.

    PubMed

    Ohmoto, H; Kakegawa, T; Lowe, D R

    1993-10-22

    Laser ablation mass spectroscopy analyses of sulfur isotopic compositions of microscopic-sized grains of pyrite that formed about 3.4 billion years ago in the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa, show that the pyrite formed by bacterial reduction of seawater sulfate. These data imply that by about 3.4 billion years ago sulfate-reducing bacteria had become active, the oceans were rich in sulfate, and the atmosphere contained appreciable amounts (>10(-13) of the present atmospheric level) of free oxygen. PMID:11539502

  18. 3/4 inch scale sections and details. San Bernardino Valley Union ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3/4 inch scale sections and details. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Auditorium Building. Cornice and corbels; cement exterior grilles; wood interior grilles; ceiling beams; exterior wall section. G. Stanley Wilson, Architect, A.I.A., Riverside, California. Sheet 10, job no. 692. Scale 3/4 inch to the foot. March 27, 1936. Application no. 1446, approved by the State of California, Department of Public Works, Division of Architecture, April 22, 1936. - San Bernardino Valley College, Auditorium, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  19. 3/4 inch scale detail auditorium ceiling. San Bernardino Valley Union ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3/4 inch scale detail auditorium ceiling. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Auditorium Building. Section and plan of center part of ceiling. G. Stanley Wilson, Architect, A.I.A., Riverside California. Sheet 11, job no. 692. Scale 3/4 inch to the foot. March 27, 1936. Application no. 1446, approved by the State of California, Department of Public Works, Division of Architecture, April 22, 1936. - San Bernardino Valley College, Auditorium, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  20. Organocatalytic Doubly Annulative Approach to 3,4-Dihydrocoumarins Bearing a Fused Pyrrolidine Scaffold.

    PubMed

    Kowalczyk, Dorota; Albrecht, Łukasz

    2016-08-01

    A new strategy for the highly enantio- and diastereoselective synthesis of 3,4-dihydrocoumarin derivatives bearing a fused pyrrolidine ring is reported. It is based on a Brønsted base catalyzed cascade reactivity between β,γ-unsaturated-α-ketophosphonates and imines (derived from various salicylaldehydes and diethyl aminomalonate). The approach can be described as a doubly annulative strategy where both the pyrrolidine moiety and the δ-lactone ring of the 3,4-dihydrocoumarin framework are constructed starting from acyclic precursors. PMID:27351069

  1. Microwave-Assisted Piloty-Robinson Synthesis of 3,4-Disubstituted Pyrroles

    PubMed Central

    Milgram, Benjamin C.; Eskildsen, Katrine; Richter, Steven M.; Scheidt, W. Robert; Scheidt, Karl A.

    2007-01-01

    The synthesis of N-acyl 3,4-disubstituted pyrroles can be accomplished directly from hydrazine and an aldehyde via a Piloty-Robinson pyrrole synthesis. The use of microwave radiation for the cyclization and pyrrole formation greatly reduces the time necessary for this process and facilitates moderate to good yields from hydrazine for the corresponding 3,4-disubstituted products (5–12). By simple hydrolysis, the free N–H pyrroles can be accessed after the Piloty-Robinson reaction and then used directly in the synthesis of octaethylporphyrin (H2OEP, 14) and octaethyltetraphenylporphyrin (H2OETPP, 15). PMID:17432915

  2. Process for the preparation of 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid and salts thereof

    DOEpatents

    Hollingsworth, Rawle I.

    1994-01-01

    A process for the preparation of 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid (1) and salts thereof from a glucose source containing 1,4-1inked glucose as a substituent is described. The process uses an alkali metal hdyroxide and hydrogen peroxide to convert the glucose source to (1). The compound (1) is useful as a chemical intermediate to naturally occurring fatty acids and is used to prepare 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid-gamma-lactone (2) and furanone (3), particularly stereoisomers of these compounds.

  3. Discovery of MK-5172, a Macrocyclic Hepatitis C Virus NS3/4a Protease Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A new class of HCV NS3/4a protease inhibitors containing a P2 to P4 macrocyclic constraint was designed using a molecular modeling-derived strategy. Building on the profile of previous clinical compounds and exploring the P2 and linker regions of the series allowed for optimization of broad genotype and mutant enzyme potency, cellular activity, and rat liver exposure following oral dosing. These studies led to the identification of clinical candidate 15 (MK-5172), which is active against genotype 1–3 NS3/4a and clinically relevant mutant enzymes and has good plasma exposure and excellent liver exposure in multiple species. PMID:24900473

  4. Synthesis, characterization, and crystal structure of 2-iodo-3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolev, Iliyan N.; Petrova, Svetlana P.; Nikolova, Rositsa P.; Dimowa, Louiza T.; Shivachev, Boris L.

    2013-02-01

    This work describes the synthesis of 2-iodo-3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic acid. The combination of iodine and silver trifluoroacetate (AgTFA) reagents was used successfully for the iodination of 3,4,5-trimetoxybenzoic acid. To improve the efficiency of the synthetic process a significant modification on the experimental design was also performed. The main structural features of the obtained aryl iodide were investigated by a single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, FTIR, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy.

  5. 3. 4-billion-year-old biogenic pyrites from Barberton, South Africa: Sulfur isotope evidence

    SciTech Connect

    Ohmoto, H.; Kakegawa, T. ); Lowe, D.R. )

    1993-10-22

    Laser ablation mass spectroscopy analysis of sulfur isotopic compositions of microscopic-sized grains of pyrite that formed about 3.4 billion years ago in the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa, show that the pyrite formed by bacterial reduction of seawater sulfate. These data imply that by about 3.4 billion years ago sulfate-reducing bacteria had become active, the oceans were rich in sulfate, and the atmosphere contained appreciable amounts (> > 10[sup [minus]13] of the present atmospheric level) of free oxygen.

  6. Syntheses and Degradations of Fluorinated Heterocyclics. 3; Perfluoroalkyl and Perfluoroalkylether-1,3,4-Oxadiazoles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paciorek, K. J. L.; Kaufman, J.; Nakahara, J. H.; Ito, T. I.; Kratzer, R. H.; Rosser, R. W.; Parker, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    2,5-Bis(perfluoro-n-heptyl)-, 2-perfluoroalkylether-5-perfluoro-n- heptyl- , and 2 , 5-bisperfluoroalkylether-1,3,4-oxadiazoles were synthesized and characterized. 2,5-Bis(perfluoro-n-heptyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole was thermally and hydrolytically stable at 325 C; however, in the presence of air, degradation took place at 235 C. The perfluoroalkylether analogue exhibited thermal and hydrolytic stability at 325 C; it was found to be unaffected by jet-A fuel and air at 235 C. At 325 C in air some degradation occurred as evidenced by volatiles production, oxygen consumption, and 96% starting material recovery.

  7. Breakthrough of the p-type doping bottleneck in ZnO by inserting an ultrathin ZnX (X  =  S, Se and Te) layer doped with NX or AgZn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xin-he; Shi, Jun-jie; Zhang, Min; Zhong, Hong-xia; Huang, Pu; Ding, Yi-min; Cao, Xiong; Wu, Meng; Liao, Zhi-min

    2016-03-01

    The worldwide problem of p-type doping in ZnO is investigated based on first-principles calculations by combining the standard density functional theory and hybrid functional methods. We find that p-type doping can be realized by inserting an ultrathin ZnX (X  =  S, Se and Te) layer, doped with NX or AgZn, into ZnO to form short-period (ZnO) m /(ZnX) n (m  >  n) superlattices. The formation energy is the lowest for NX or AgZn in the ZnX layer. The Zn-rich (Zn-poor) condition is favourable for the formation of the NX (AgZn) defect. Compensation by the native defects can be avoided for the Ag-doped (ZnO) m /(ZnX) n under the Zn-poor condition. The N (Ag) acceptor activation energy can be reduced from 0.45 (0.43) eV in ZnO to 0.33 (0.32) eV in (ZnO)5/(ZnS)1, 0.20 (0.24) eV in (ZnO)5/(ZnSe)1 and 0.12 (0.13) eV in (ZnO)5/(ZnTe)1, which is caused by the ZnX-monolayer modulation to the local structure around the NX or AgZn defect and the high-lying p-derived valence bands. Moreover, the band gaps can be tuned from 3.40 eV of ZnO to 3.21 eV of (ZnO)5/(ZnS)1, 2.41 eV of (ZnO)5/(ZnSe)1 and 2.26 eV of (ZnO)5/(ZnTe)1, which is promising for the integration of ZnO-based white light-emitting diodes.

  8. Tetra-kis(μ-3,4-dimeth-oxy-phenyl-acetato)-bis-[(3,4-dimeth-oxy-phenyl-acetato)(1,10-phenanthroline)holmium(III)].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guo-Liang; Liu, Jia-Lu; Liu, Jian-Feng

    2010-01-01

    In the centrosymmetric title compound, [Ho(2)(C(10)H(11)O(4))(6)(C(12)H(8)N(2))(2)], the Ho(III) atom is nine-coordinated by seven O atoms from the 3,4-dimeth-oxy-phenyl-acetate (L) anions and two N atoms from a 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) mol-ecule. The L ligands are coordinated to the Ho(III) ions in three modes: chelating, bridging and bridging-tridentate. Intra-molecular C-H⋯O inter-actions occur. The crystal packing is stabilized by inter-molecular C-H⋯O inter-actions and weak aromatic π-π inter-actions between phen mol-ecules and the aromatic rings of the L ligands [centroid-centroid distance = 3.821 (2) Å]. PMID:21587417

  9. Spin-Phonon and Electron-Phonon Interactions in Multiferroic GdFe3 (BO3)4 and TbFe3 (BO3)4 Evidenced by IR Reflection Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimin, S. A.; Kashchenko, M. A.; Bezmaternykh, L. N.

    2016-03-01

    We study temperature-dependent polarized reflection spectra of multiferroic GdFe3 (BO3)4 and TbFe3 (BO3)4 single crystals. Signatures of spin-lattice interactions in both compounds and of a formation of the electron-phonon coupled mode in TbFe3 (BO3)4 are discussed.

  10. Methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) induce differential cytotoxic effects in bovine brain microvessel endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Rosas-Hernandez, Hector; Cuevas, Elvis; Lantz, Susan M; Rice, Kenner C; Gannon, Brenda M; Fantegrossi, William E; Gonzalez, Carmen; Paule, Merle G; Ali, Syed F

    2016-08-26

    Designer drugs such as synthetic psychostimulants are indicative of a worldwide problem of drug abuse and addiction. In addition to methamphetamine (METH), these drugs include 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA) and commercial preparations of synthetic cathinones including 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), typically referred to as "bath salts." These psychostimulants exert neurotoxic effects by altering monoamine systems in the brain. Additionally, METH and MDMA adversely affect the integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB): there are no current reports on the effects of MDPV on the BBB. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of METH, MDMA and MDPV on bovine brain microvessel endothelial cells (bBMVECs), an accepted in vitro model of the BBB. Confluent bBMVEC monolayers were treated with METH, MDMA and MDPV (0.5mM-2.5mM) for 24h. METH and MDMA increased lactate dehydrogenase release only at the highest concentration (2.5mM), whereas MDPV induced cytotoxicity at all concentrations. MDMA and METH decreased cellular proliferation only at 2.5mM, with similar effects observed after MDPV exposures starting at 1mM. Only MDPV increased reactive oxygen species production at all concentrations tested whereas all 3 drugs increased nitric oxide production. Morphological analysis revealed different patterns of compound-induced cell damage. METH induced vacuole formation at 1mM and disruption of the monolayer at 2.5mM. MDMA induced disruption of the endothelial monolayer from 1mM without vacuolization. On the other hand, MDPV induced monolayer disruption at doses ≥0.5mM without vacuole formation; at 2.5mM, the few remaining cells lacked endothelial morphology. These data suggest that even though these synthetic psychostimulants alter monoaminergic systems, they each induce BBB toxicity by different mechanisms with MDPV being the most toxic. PMID:27320055

  11. Highly conductive poly(3,4-ethylenedioxypyrrole) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) enwrapped Sb2S3 nanorods for flexible supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Reddy, B Narsimha; Deepa, Melepurath; Joshi, Amish G

    2014-02-01

    Composites of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxypyrrole) or PEDOP and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) or PEDOT enwrapped Sb2S3 nanorods have been synthesized for the first time for use as supercapacitor electrodes. Hydrothermally synthesized Sb2S3 nanorods, several microns in length and 50-150 nm wide, offer high surface area and serve as a scaffold for coating conducting polymers, and are a viable alternative to carbon nanostructures. Fibrillar morphologies are achieved for the PEDOP-Sb2S3 and PEDOT-Sb2S3 films in contrast to the regular granular topologies attained for the neat polymers. The remarkably high nanoscale (∼5 S cm(-1)) conductivity of the Sb2S3 nanorods enables facile electron transport in the composites. We constructed asymmetric supercapacitors using the neat polymer or composite and graphite as electrodes. High specific capacitances of 1008 F g(-1) and 830 F g(-1) (at 1 A g(-1)), enhanced power densities (504 and 415 W kg(-1)) and excellent cycling stability (88 and 85% capacitance retention at the end of 1000 cycles) are delivered by the PEDOP-Sb2S3 and PEDOT-Sb2S3 cells relative to the neat polymer cells. A demonstration of a light emitting diode illumination using a light-weight, flexible, supercapacitor fabricated with PEDOP-Sb2S3 and carbon-fiber cloth shows the applicability of Sb2S3 enwrapped conducting polymers as sustainable electrodes for ultra-thin supercapacitors. PMID:24343566

  12. Contrasting effects of d-methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone, and 4-methylmethcathinone on wheel activity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Pai-Kai; Aarde, Shawn M.; Angrish, Deepshikha; Houseknecht, Karen L.; Dickerson, Tobin J.; Taffe, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Reports from US, UK and European drug policy entities, and ongoing media accounts, show increasing recreational use of 4-methylmethcathinone (4-MMC, mephedrone) and 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV). Severe sympathomimetic symptoms, hallucinations, psychoses, and even deaths have been reported, yet little scientific information is available on the effects of these compounds in laboratory models. Available studies on the neurochemistry of these drugs show that 4-MMC and MDPV enhance DA neurotransmission, while 4-MMC additionally enhances 5-HT neurotransmission- a pattern much like that reported for methamphetamine vs. 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). As is the case for designer amphetamines, these neurochemical distinctions may predict differential potential for repetitive versus episodic abuse and distinct lasting toxicities. METHODS This study determined relative locomotor stimulant effects of 4-MMC (1–10 mg/kg, s.c.) and MDPV (0.5–5.6 mg/kg, s.c.), in comparison with d-methamphetamine (MA; 0.5–5.6 mg/kg, s.c.) and MDMA (1–7.5 mg/kg, s.c.) on a measure of locomotor activity – voluntary wheel running – in male Wistar rats (N=8). RESULTS Compared to counts of wheel rotations after saline, a biphasic change in the pattern of counts was observed after injections of MA and MDPV, with relatively higher counts following lower doses and lower counts following the highest dose. However, monophasic, dose-dependent reductions in counts were observed in response to injections of MDMA and 4-MMC. CONCLUSION Thus, voluntary wheel running yielded the same categorical distinctions for these drugs as did prior experiments testing the effects of these drugs on monoaminergic neurotransmission. These data indicate that MDPV produces prototypical locomotor stimulant effects whereas 4-MMC is more similar to the entactogen MDMA. PMID:22664136

  13. Analysis of the Rotational Spectra of 2,3,4,5,6-PENTAFLUOROTOLUENE and 1-CHLORO-2,3,4,5,6-PENTAFLUOROBENZENE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osthoff, Ashley A.; Peebles, Rebecca A.; Peebles, Sean A.; Grubbs, Garry S. Grubbs, II; Cooke, Stephen A.; Pate, Brooks H.; Neill, Justin L.; Muckle, Matt T.

    2009-06-01

    The microwave spectra of two substituted pentafluorobenzenes have been obtained. 2,3,4,5,6-Pentafluorotoluene was measured using the FTMW spectrometer at Eastern Illinois University and the chirped-pulse FTMW spectrometer at University of North Texas. The heavy atom structure has been obtained from the assigned ^{13}C transitions and is in reasonable agreement with ab initio calculations at the MP2/6-311++G(2d, 2p) level. The ground state rotational constants are A = 1036.61253(10) MHz, B = 1030.94126(10) MHz, and C = 516.92062(9) MHz, and the single dipole moment component is μ_b = 1.98(17) D. Very small splittings for many of the assigned transitions and multiple, as yet unassigned, lines were presumably due to excited torsional states of the methyl group. In a related study, the microwave spectrum of 1-chloro-2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzene was obtained for both the ^{35}Cl and the ^{37}Cl isotopologues using the chirped-pulse microwave spectrometer at University of Virginia. The preliminary ground state rotational constants for this compound are A = 1028.5403(14) MHz, B = 751.8198(3) MHz and C = 434.3533(4) MHz for ^{35}Cl and A = 1028.5435(7) MHz, B = 734.4786(2) MHz and C = 428.5082(2) MHz for ^{37}Cl. Initial fits of the nuclear quadrupole coupling constants give χ_{aa} = -79.512(15) MHz, χ_{bb} = 43.593(8) MHz, χ_{cc} = 35.92(2) MHz for the ^{35}Cl species and χ_{aa} = -62.68(2) MHz, χ_{bb} = 34.38(4) MHz, χ_{cc} = 28.29(17) MHz for the ^{37}Cl species. These results will be compared with pentafluorotoluene to observe the effects on the structure of the benzene ring when substituting a chlorine atom for a methyl group.

  14. High-temperature heat capacity of YFe3(BO3)4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisov, V. M.; Denisova, L. T.; Gudim, I. A.; Temerov, V. L.; Volkov, N. V.; Patrin, G. S.; Chumilina, L. G.

    2014-02-01

    The molar heat capacity of YFe3(BO3)4 has been measured using differential scanning calorimetry in the temperature range 339-1086 K. It has been found that the dependence C p = f( T) exhibits an extremum at a temperature of 401 K due to the structural transition.

  15. Project ACE Activity Sets. Book I: Grades 3, 4, and 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eden City Schools, NC.

    Eleven activity sets suitable for supplementing social studies units in grades 3, 4, and 5 are presented. Each set lists appropriate resources, concepts, general objectives and instructional objectives for each activity within the set. Grade 3 sets are "You Can Help Conserve Our Natural Resources,""Urban Decay and Urban Renewal,""The Use of…

  16. Reversible glutathionylation of Sir2 by monothiol glutaredoxins Grx3/4 regulates stress resistance.

    PubMed

    Vall-Llaura, Núria; Reverter-Branchat, Gemma; Vived, Celia; Weertman, Naomi; Rodríguez-Colman, María José; Cabiscol, Elisa

    2016-07-01

    The regulatory mechanisms of yeast Sir2, the founding member of the sirtuin family involved in oxidative stress and aging, are unknown. Redox signaling controls many cellular functions, especially under stress situations, with dithiol glutaredoxins (Grxs) playing an important role. However, monothiol Grxs are not considered to have major oxidoreductase activity. The present study investigated the redox regulation of yeast Sir2, together with the role and physiological impact of monothiol Grx3/4 as Sir2 thiol-reductases upon stress. S-glutathionylation of Sir2 upon disulfide stress was demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo, and decreased Sir2 deacetylase activity. Physiological levels of nuclear Grx3/4 can reverse the observed post-translational modification. Grx3/4 interacted with Sir2 and reduced it after stress, thereby restoring telomeric silencing activity. Using site-directed mutagenesis, key cysteine residues at the catalytic domain of Sir2 were identified as a target of S-glutathionylation. Mutation of these residues resulted in cells with increased resistance to disulfide stress. We provide new mechanistic insights into Grx3/4 regulation of Sir2 by S-deglutathionylation to increase cell resistance to stress. This finding offers news perspectives on monothiol Grxs in redox signaling, describing Sir2 as a physiological substrate regulated by S-glutathionylation. These results might have a relevant role in understanding aging and age-related diseases. PMID:27085841

  17. 40 CFR 721.10584 - Cyclopentene, 1,3,3,4,4,5,5-heptafluoro-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10584 Cyclopentene, 1,3,3,4,4,5,5-heptafluoro-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10584 - Cyclopentene, 1,3,3,4,4,5,5-heptafluoro-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10584 Cyclopentene, 1,3,3,4,4,5,5-heptafluoro-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10433 - Cyclopentene, 1,2,3,3,4,4,5,5-octafluoro-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....80(f) and (j) (dry etching agent and chemical vapor deposition agent for the production of...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10433 Cyclopentene, 1,2,3,3,4,4,5,5-octafluoro-. (a) Chemical...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10433 - Cyclopentene, 1,2,3,3,4,4,5,5-octafluoro-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....80(f) and (j) (dry etching agent and chemical vapor deposition agent for the production of...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10433 Cyclopentene, 1,2,3,3,4,4,5,5-octafluoro-. (a) Chemical...

  1. QSAR analysis of antitumor activities of 3,4-ethylenedioxythiphene derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastija, Vesna; Bajić, Miroslav; Stolić, Ivana; Krstulović, Luka; Jukić, Marijana; Glavaš-Obrovac, Ljubica

    2015-12-01

    QSAR analysis was performed for the antitumor activity of 27 derivatives of 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene against six carcinoma cell lines. The best models were obtained with surface area (SAG) in combination with lipohilicity (log P) as descriptors. Results have shown that molecules with smaller solvent accessible surface area and higher lipophilicy should have higher biological activity against carcinoma cell.

  2. Dual PDE3/4 inhibitors as therapeutic agents for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Banner, Katharine H; Press, Neil J

    2009-01-01

    Phosphodiesterase (PDE)4, and to a lesser extent, PDE3/4 inhibitors have attracted considerable interest as potential therapeutic agents for diseases including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Indeed, ibudilast and theophylline are utilized clinically, and roflumilast is in late-stage clinical development. Unfortunately, however many PDE4 and dual PDE3/4 inhibitors have failed in early development due to low therapeutic ratios. The majority of these compounds are however orally administered and non-selective for either PDE3(A, B) or PDE4(A, B, C, D) subtypes. Developing an inhaled dual PDE3/4 inhibitor with subtype specificity may represent one strategy to improve the therapeutic index. Indeed combined inhibition of PDE3 and PDE4 inhibitor has additive and synergistic anti-inflammatory and bronchodilatory effects versus inhibition of either PDE3 or PDE4 alone. Given that synergy has been seen in terms of efficacy end points, an obvious concern is that synergy may also be observed in side effects. Interestingly, however, no synergy or additive effects with a combination of a PDE3 and PDE4 inhibitor in a cardiomyocyte assay were observed. This review will summarize the rationale for developing an inhaled dual PDE3/4 inhibitor, as a treatment for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease together with recent advances in trying to understand the pathogenesis of PDE inhibitor-induced mesenteric vasculitis (a key potential dose-limiting side effect of these agents), highlighting potential early and sensitive predictive biomarkers. PMID:19508401

  3. 3/4 view of waterfront facade looking southwest from across the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3/4 view of waterfront facade looking southwest from across the creek. Note the 1965 concrete block addition to the main oyster house. Lifting derrick can be seen at left in front of the building and next to the hoist house. - J.C. Lore Oyster House, 14430 Solomons Island Road, Solomons, Calvert County, MD

  4. The Role of PI(3,4,5)P3 Signaling During Axonal Growth Cone Chemotaxis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henle, Steven J.

    Development of the nervous system is a remarkably complex process that involves the birth of billions of neurons leading to the formation of trillions of synapses. Many biological programs underlie the formation of a functional nervous system. I focused on trying to understand the process by which a newly formed axon navigates a series of signals in the environment that guide it to a synaptic partner. At the tip of the extending neurite is a conical expansion known as the growth cone that primarily is responsible for performing this pathfinding process. In order to do so it senses the environment, and induces a program of intracellular signaling that in turn leads to directed axon extension. My work has focused on understanding this signaling machinery. I have aimed to understand the role the phosphoinositde PI(3,4,5)P3 due to the critical role it plays in amoeboid chemotaxis. I discovered that PI(3,4,5)P3 and its downstream kinase Akt define the leading edge during growth cone chemotaxis and lead to activation of a TRP (Transient Receptor Potential) channel. Furthermore, I found that the PI(3,4,5)P3 phosphatase PTEN appears to be exclusively linked to guiding growth cone migration in response to a gradient of chemorepellent. Taken together my data demonstrate that PI(3,4,5)P3 functions as a key instructive mediator of growth cone chemotaxis.

  5. EFFECTS OF 3,4-METHYLDENDIOXYMETHAMPHETAMINE ON AUTONOMIC THERMOREGULATORY RESPONSES OF THE RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), a substituted amphetamine analogue which stimulates serotonin release in the CNS, has been shown to induce near lethal elevations in core temperature in the rat. o characterize the effects of MDMA on temperature regulation, we measured me...

  6. PHOTOSOLVOLYSIS OF 3,4-DICHLOROANILINE IN WATER: EVIDENCE FOR AN ARYL CATION INTERMEDIATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Irradiation of 3,4-dichloroaniline in water (lambda > 290nm) gave 2-chloro-5-aminophenol with a conversion of 78 plus or minus 5%. The photolysis quantum yield at 313nm of 0.05 plus or minus 0.003 was unaffected by cyanide (0.35M) or pH changes between 4 and 12. A MO calculation ...

  7. Temperature dependence of 35Cl NQR in 3,4-Dichlorophenol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandramani, R.; Devaraj, N.; Indumathy, A.; Ramakrishna, J.

    NQR frequencies in 3,4-dichlorophenol are investigated in the temperature range 77 K to room temperature. Two resonances have been observed throughout the temperature range, corresponding to the two chemically inequivalent chlorine sites. Using Bayer's theory and Brown's method torsional frequencies and their temperature dependence in this range are estimated.

  8. Growth and optical properties of nonlinear LuAl3(BO3)4 crystals.

    PubMed

    Fang, Shenghao; Liu, Hua; Huang, Lingxiong; Ye, Ning

    2013-07-15

    The optical properties of pure LuAl(3)(BO(3))(4) (abbreviated as LuAB) crystals were investigated for the first time. Large UV-transparent LuAl(3)(BO(3))(4) crystals were grown by a high-temperature top-seeding method with Li(2)WO(4)O(7)-B(2)O(3) as the flux. The refractive indices of LuAl(3)(BO(3))(4) at several wavelengths covering ultraviolet-visible and near-infrared regions were measured by the auto-collimation method. The parameters of Sellmeier's dispersion equation were determined from the experimental data. The phase-matching curve of second harmonic generation was measured. The nonlinear optical coefficient d(11) of LuAB crystal was determined to be 1.10 pm/V by a phase-matching method. The UV cut-off wavelength of the LuAl(3)(BO(3))(4) crystal was shorter than 190 nm. PMID:23938492

  9. 3/4 VIEW OF PORT SIDE FROM BOW AFT SHOWING BILGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3/4 VIEW OF PORT SIDE FROM BOW AFT SHOWING BILGE KEEL STABILIZERS ON HULL BOTTOM. - U.S. Coast Guard Buoy Tenders, 180' Class, U.S. Coast Guard Headquarters, 2100 Second Street Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  10. The Use of Psychological State Words by Late Talkers at Ages 3, 4, and 5 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Eliza Carlson; Rescorla, Leslie

    2008-01-01

    The use of four types of psychological state words (physiological, emotional, desire, and cognitive) during mother-child play sessions at ages 3, 4, and 5 years was examined in 30 children diagnosed with delayed expressive language at 24-31 months and 15 age-matched comparison children with typical development. The children's mean length of…

  11. 32. VERTICAL OSCILLATIONS, 3/4 VIEW, 7 NOVEMBER 1940, FROM 16MM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. VERTICAL OSCILLATIONS, 3/4 VIEW, 7 NOVEMBER 1940, FROM 16MM FILM SHOT PROFESSOR F.B. FARQUHARSON, UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON. (LABORATORY STUDIES ON THE TACOMA NARROWS BRIDGE, AT UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON (SEATTLE: UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON, DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING, 1941) - Tacoma Narrows Bridge, Spanning Narrows at State Route 16, Tacoma, Pierce County, WA

  12. 33. VERTICAL AND TORSIONAL OSCILLATIONS, 3/4 VIEW, 7 NOVEMBER 1940, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. VERTICAL AND TORSIONAL OSCILLATIONS, 3/4 VIEW, 7 NOVEMBER 1940, FROM 16MN FILM SHOT BY PROFESSOR F.B. FARQUHARSON, UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON. (LABORATORY STUDIES ON THE TACOMA NARROWS BRIDGE, AT UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON (SEATTLE: UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON, DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING, 1941) - Tacoma Narrows Bridge, Spanning Narrows at State Route 16, Tacoma, Pierce County, WA

  13. Synthesis and antifungal activity of natural product-based 6-alkyl-2 3 4 5-tetrahydropyridines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seven 6-alkyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydropyridines (5a–5g) that mimic the natural products piperideines that were recently identified in the fire ant venom have been synthesized. Compounds 5c–5g with the C-6 alkyl chain lengths from C14 to C18 showed varying degrees of antifungal activities, with 5e (6-hexa...

  14. 5. 3/4 VIEW OF BRIDGE FROM THE WEST BANK OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. 3/4 VIEW OF BRIDGE FROM THE WEST BANK OF THE IOWA RIVER, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. PIERS FROM THE OLD BENTON STREET BRIDGE CAN BE SEEN IN THE WATER TO THE LEFT OF THE BRIDGE Harms - Benton Street Bridge, Spanning Iowa River at Benton Street, Iowa City, Johnson County, IA

  15. 2,2\\',3,3\\',4,4\\',5,5\\',6,6\\'-Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,2 ' , 3,3 ' , 4,4 ' , 5,5 ' , 6,6 ' - Decabromodiphenyl ether ( BDE - 209 ) ; CASRN 1163 - 19 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process

  16. Fuel compositions containing maleic derivatives of 2,5-dimercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole

    SciTech Connect

    Karol, T.J.

    1989-11-14

    This patent describes a diesel fuel composition. It is characterized by improved wear properties. It comprises: a major portion of middle distillates boiling in the range of about 163{degrees}to 400{degrees}C. and a minor wear improving amount of a reaction product of a maleic compound and 2,5-dimercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole.

  17. 3. DETAIL, 3/4 VIEW OF HOT BLAST STOVE ON TOP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. DETAIL, 3/4 VIEW OF HOT BLAST STOVE ON TOP OF FURNACE SHOWING CAST-IRON RETORTS AND TURNED HEAD (WHERE RAW MATERIALS WERE LOADED INTO FURNACE). - Nassawango Iron Furnace, Furnace Road, 1.2 miles west of Maryland Route 12, Snow Hill, Worcester County, MD

  18. Guidelines for Health Assessment and Intervention Techniques for 3, 4, and 5 Year Old Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Judy K.

    These guidelines were developed to help registered nurses identify preschoolers with potential handicaps in the course of health assessments. Contents include guidelines on 3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds. Contents are organized within age levels in terms of functioning levels and anticipatory guidance. Functional areas covered include physical,…

  19. Polyimides from 2,3,3',4'-Biphenyltetracarboxylic Dianhydride and Aromatic Diamines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G. (Inventor); Connell, John W. (Inventor); Watson, Kent A. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention relates generally to polyimides. It relates particularly to novel polyimides prepared from 2,3, 3',4' -biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride and aromatic diamines. These novel polyimides have low color, good solubility, high thermal emissivity, low solar absorptivity and high tensile strength.

  20. Pc3-4 ULF waves observed by the SuperDARN TIGER radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponomarenko, P. V.; Menk, F. W. F. W.; Waters, C. L.; Sciffer, M. D.

    2005-06-01

    Despite extensive research, the mechanisms for propagation of Pc3-4 energy from the generation region at the bow shock to the high-latitude ionosphere remain unresolved. We used high temporal (6-12s) and spatial (45km) resolution data from the SuperDARN TIGER radar (Tasmania) to examine Pc3-4 wave signatures at the F-region heights. We focus on a case study on 28 September 2000, when large-amplitude band-limited Pc3-4 oscillations were observed across 10-20 range gates in beam #4 (which points towards the CGM pole) for about four hours preceding MLT noon. These waves were detected in sea-scatter echoes reflected from the ionospheric footprint of the plasmatrough. Nearby ground magnetometer data from Macquarie Island showed very similar variations in both the north-south and east-west components. The radar data revealed the occasional presence of quasi-FLR (field-line resonance) spatial structures with frequencies much higher than those of the local fundamental FLR modes. Detailed spectral analysis of the ionospheric and ground data shows that these structures most probably correspond to a 3rd-harmonic, poloidal-mode FLR. Such observations suggest that compressional Pc3-4 waves produced in the upstream solar wind travel earthward from the magnetopause in the magnetic equatorial plane depositing energy into the Alfvenic modes, as either forced or 3rd-harmonic FLR that reach ionospheric heights along magnetic field lines.

  1. Synthesis of Some Benzimidazole Derivatives Bearing 1,3,4-Oxadiazole Moiety as Anticancer Agents

    PubMed Central

    MAZZIO, ELIZABETH; GANGAPURUM, MADHAVEI; MATEEVA, NELLY; REDDA, K. K.

    2015-01-01

    In an effort to establish new benzimidazole related structural leads with improved anticancer activity, several new benzimidazole derivatives (5a–i) with 1,3,4-oxadiazole scaffold incorporated were synthesized and studied for their anticancer activity. The anticancer screening against MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines showed that compound (5c) exhibited moderate cytotoxicity. PMID:26451350

  2. Treatment Implications for Young Adult Users of MDMA (3,4-Methylenedyoxymethamphetamine)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dew, Brian J.; Elifson, Kirk W.; Sterk, Claire E.

    2006-01-01

    Young adults' 3,4-methylenedyoxymethamphetamine (MDMA) use is a national public health concern. Although research on the epidemiology of MDMA use has increased, inquiry into intervention and treatment is needed. The authors examine results from an epidemiological investigation from a clinical perspective and provide suggestions for clinicians…

  3. 23. Building N9; 3/4 view, looking NW at loading dock. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Building N-9; 3/4 view, looking NW at loading dock. The view also shows the relationship of the blast barricades to the building. (Ryan) - Holston Army Ammunition Plant, RDX-and-Composition-B Manufacturing Line 9, Kingsport, Sullivan County, TN

  4. 1. Building C9; 3/4 view, looking SE; showing storage tanks ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Building C-9; 3/4 view, looking SE; showing storage tanks on the west side of the building and the railroad tracks in foreground. (Ryan and Harms) - Holston Army Ammunition Plant, RDX-and-Composition-B Manufacturing Line 9, Kingsport, Sullivan County, TN

  5. 7. Building G9; 3/4 view, looking SE. Storage tanks for ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Building G-9; 3/4 view, looking SE. Storage tanks for Building G-9 are in the foreground and the blast barricade for Building H-9 is in the background. (Ryan) - Holston Army Ammunition Plant, RDX-and-Composition-B Manufacturing Line 9, Kingsport, Sullivan County, TN

  6. 3/4-Fractional Superdiffusion in a System of Harmonic Oscillators Perturbed by a Conservative Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardin, Cédric; Gonçalves, Patrícia; Jara, Milton

    2016-05-01

    We consider a harmonic chain perturbed by an energy conserving noise and show that after a space-time rescaling the energy-energy correlation function is given by the solution of a skew-fractional heat equation with exponent 3/4.

  7. 43 CFR 3420.3-4 - Regional tract ranking, selection, environmental analysis and scheduling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 CFR subpart 1821). BLM will publish a notice in the Federal Register of the 60-day comment period... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Regional tract ranking, selection...) COMPETITIVE LEASING Competitive Leasing § 3420.3-4 Regional tract ranking, selection, environmental...

  8. 43 CFR 3420.3-4 - Regional tract ranking, selection, environmental analysis and scheduling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 CFR subpart 1821). BLM will publish a notice in the Federal Register of the 60-day comment period... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Regional tract ranking, selection...) COMPETITIVE LEASING Competitive Leasing § 3420.3-4 Regional tract ranking, selection, environmental...

  9. 2. GENERAL VIEW OF HAWAII MARITIME CENTER WITH PORT 3/4 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. GENERAL VIEW OF HAWAII MARITIME CENTER WITH PORT 3/4 STERN VIEW OF OIL TANKER FALLS OF CLYDE REPLICA POLYNESIAN SAILING CRAFT ARE SEEN ALONGSIDE AND BEHIND HER. - Ship "Falls of Clyde", Hawaii Maritime Center,Pier 7, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  10. Markers for Persistent Specific Expressive Language Delay in 3-4-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everitt, Andrea; Hannaford, Philip; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2013-01-01

    Background: Identifying 3-4-year-olds who are most at risk of persisting language difficulties, and possibly specific language impairment (SLI), is difficult due to the natural variation of language in young children. In older children, markers for SLI have been identified that differentiate between children with and without SLI. It is not known…

  11. Antiviral activity of 3,4'-dihydroxyflavone on influenza a virus.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Mohammed Kawser; Choi, Hye Yeon; Hwang, Jae-Seon; Dayem, Ahmed Abdal; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Kim, Young Bong; Poo, Haryoung; Cho, Ssang-Goo

    2014-06-01

    Influenza virus infection causes thousands of deaths and millions of hospitalizations worldwide every year and the emergence of resistance to anti-influenza drugs has prompted scientists to seek new natural antiviral materials. In this study, we screened 13 different flavonoids from various flavonoid groups to identify the most potent antiviral flavonoid against human influenza A/PR/8/34 (H1N1). The 3-hydroxyl group flavonoids, including 3,2᾿dihydroxyflavone (3,2᾿DHF) and 3,4᾿dihydroxyflavone (3,4᾿DHF), showed potent anti-influenza activity. They inhibited viral neuraminidase activity and viral adsorption onto cells. To confirm the anti-influenza activity of these flavonoids, we used an in vivo mouse model. In mice infected with human influenza, oral administration of 3,4᾿DHF significantly decreased virus titers and pathological changes in the lung and reduced body weight loss and death. Our data suggest that 3-hydroxyl group flavonoids, particularly 3,4᾿DHF, have potent antiviral activity against human influenza A/PR/8/34 (H1N1) in vitro and in vivo. Further clinical studies are needed to investigate the therapeutic and prophylactic potential of the 3-hydroxyl group flavonoids in treating influenza pandemics. PMID:24871979

  12. CLONING IN PSEUDOMONAS CEPACIA: EXPRESSION AND REGULATION OF THE PROTOCATECHUATE 3,4-DIOXYGENASE GENES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Genes for the a and B subunits of the enzyme protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase were cloned from the Pseudomonas cepacia DB01 chromosome on a 9.5 kilobase pair PstI fragment into the broad-host-range cloning vector pR023l7. he resultant clone was able to complement protocatechuate 3...

  13. Conformational Changes in Inositol 1,3,4,5,6-Pentakisphosphate 2-Kinase upon Substrate Binding

    PubMed Central

    Baños-Sanz, José Ignacio; Sanz-Aparicio, Julia; Whitfield, Hayley; Hamilton, Chris; Brearley, Charles A.; González, Beatriz

    2012-01-01

    Inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate 2-kinase (IP5 2-K) catalyzes the synthesis of inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate from ATP and IP5. Inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate is implicated in crucial processes such as mRNA export, DNA editing, and phosphorus storage in plants. We previously solved the first structure of an IP5 2-K, which shed light on aspects of substrate recognition. However, failure of IP5 2-K to crystallize in the absence of inositide prompted us to study putative conformational changes upon substrate binding. We have made mutations to residues on a region of the protein that produces a clasp over the active site. A W129A mutant allowed us to capture IP5 2-K in its different conformations by crystallography. Thus, the IP5 2-K apo-form structure displays an open conformation, whereas the nucleotide-bound form shows a half-closed conformation, in contrast to the inositide-bound form obtained previously in a closed conformation. Both nucleotide and inositide binding produce large conformational changes that can be understood as two rigid domain movements, although local changes were also observed. Changes in intrinsic fluorescence upon nucleotide and inositide binding are in agreement with the crystallographic findings. Our work suggests that the clasp might be involved in enzyme kinetics, with the N-terminal lobe being essential for inositide binding and subsequent conformational changes. We also show how IP5 2-K discriminates between inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate and 3,4,5,6-tetrakisphosphate enantiomers and that substrate preference can be manipulated by Arg130 mutation. Altogether, these results provide a framework for rational design of specific inhibitors with potential applications as biological tools for in vivo studies, which could assist in the identification of novel roles for IP5 2-K in mammals. PMID:22745128

  14. Molecular and Electronic Structure of Re2Br4(PMe3)4.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, Erik V; Poineau, Frederic; Todorova, Tanya K; Forster, Paul M; Sørensen, Lasse K; Fdez Galván, Ignacio; Lindh, Roland; Czerwinski, Kenneth R; Sattelberger, Alfred P

    2016-07-18

    The dinuclear rhenium(II) complex Re2Br4(PMe3)4 was prepared from the reduction of [Re2Br8](2-) with (n-Bu4N)BH4 in the presence of PMe3 in propanol. The complex was characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction (SCXRD) and UV-visible spectroscopy. It crystallizes in the monoclinic C2/c space group and is isostructural with its molybdenum and technetium analogues. The Re-Re distance (2.2521(3) Å) is slightly longer than the one in Re2Cl4(PMe3)4 (2.247(1) Å). The molecular and electronic structure of Re2X4(PMe3)4 (X = Cl, Br) were studied by multiconfigurational quantum chemical methods. The computed ground-state geometry is in excellent agreement with the experimental structure determined by SCXRD. The calculated total bond order (2.75) is consistent with the presence of an electron-rich triple bond and is similar to the one found for Re2Cl4(PMe3)4. The electronic absorption spectrum of Re2Br4(PMe3)4 was recorded in benzene and shows a series of low-intensity bands in the range 10 000-26 000 cm(-1). The absorption bands were assigned based on calculations of the excitation energies with the multireference wave functions followed by second-order perturbation theory using the CASSCF/CASPT2 method. Calculations predict that the lowest energy band corresponds to the δ* → σ* transition, while the next higher energy bands were attributed to the δ* → π*, δ → σ*, and δ → π* transitions. PMID:27387436

  15. 3.4 Micron Emission from Aliphatic Hydrocarbons in Proto-Planetary Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrivnak, B. J.; Kwok, S.; Geballe, T. R.

    2002-12-01

    A family of infrared emission features at 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, 11.3 μ m are seen in a variety of objects with strong uv radiation fields. These features are attributed to stretching and bending modes of aromatic compounds. An aliphatic feature has been detected at 3.4 μ m in some of these same objects. Proto-planetary nebulae (PPNs) are in a short-lived stage of evolution between the asymptotic giant branch and planetary nebula (PN) phases. It is observed that in this transitional stage, the strengths of some of these infrared emission features differ from those seen in PNs. In particular, the 3.4 μ m feature, which is usually much weaker than the 3.3 μ m feature, is of comparable strength in some PPNs. To better understand the properties of these features, we carried out medium-resolution (R ~2000) spectroscopy of a sample of PPNs in the 3 μ m region using the NIRSPEC spectrograph on the Keck II telescope. Eight PPNs were observed. These resulted in the first detection of the 3.4 μ m feature in two objects and possible detections in two others and the first detection of the 3.3 μ m feature in two other objects. We will discuss what has been learned from the observations of the 3.4 μ m feature and review the evidence for a correlation of the ratio of the 3.4 to 3.3 μ m features with spectral type. These observations were carried out in the service observing mode as part of a program of limited access to Keck provided to the Gemini Observatory community. This work was funded in part by grants to BJH from the NSF and to SK by NSERC.

  16. Gliotoxin Suppresses Macrophage Immune Function by Subverting Phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-Trisphosphate Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Schlam, Daniel; Canton, Johnathan; Carreño, Marvin; Kopinski, Hannah; Freeman, Spencer A.; Grinstein, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aspergillus fumigatus, an opportunistic fungal pathogen, spreads in the environment by releasing numerous conidia that are capable of reaching the small alveolar airways of mammalian hosts. In otherwise healthy individuals, macrophages are responsible for rapidly phagocytosing and eliminating these conidia, effectively curbing their germination and consequent invasion of pulmonary tissue. However, under some circumstances, the fungus evades phagocyte-mediated immunity and persists in the respiratory tree. Here, we report that A. fumigatus escapes macrophage recognition by strategically targeting phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate [PtdIns(3,4,5)P3] metabolism through gliotoxin, a potent immunosuppressive mycotoxin. Time-lapse microscopy revealed that, in response to the toxin, macrophages cease to ruffle, undergo abrupt membrane retraction, and fail to phagocytose large targets effectively. Gliotoxin was found to prevent integrin activation and interfere with actin dynamics, both of which are instrumental for phagocytosis; similar effects were noted in immortalized and primary phagocytes. Detailed studies of the underlying molecular mechanisms of toxicity revealed that inhibition of phagocytosis is attributable to impaired accumulation of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 and the associated dysregulation of downstream effectors, including Rac and/or Cdc42. Strikingly, in response to the diacylglycerol mimetic phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, gliotoxin-treated macrophages reactivate beta integrins, reestablish actin dynamics, and regain phagocytic capacity, despite the overt absence of plasmalemmal PtdIns(3,4,5)P3. Together, our findings identify phosphoinositide metabolism as a critical upstream target of gliotoxin and also indicate that increased diacylglycerol levels can bypass the requirement for PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 signaling during membrane ruffling and phagocytosis. PMID:27048806

  17. Synthesis, crystal structure, and biological activity of 4-methyl-1,2,3-thiadiazole-containing 1,2,4-triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]thiadiazoles.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhijin; Yang, Zhikun; Zhang, Haike; Mi, Na; Wang, Huan; Cai, Fei; Zuo, Xiang; Zheng, Qingxiang; Song, Haibin

    2010-03-10

    Heterocyclic compounds play an important role as the main sources of lead molecules of agrochemicals. Synthesis and biological activity of thiadiazole-containing 1,2,4-triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]-thiadiazoles were seldom reported. To find novel lead compounds with various biological activities, a series of 6-substituted-3-(4-methyl-1,2,3-thiadiazolyl)[1,2,4]triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]thiadizoles were rationally designed and synthesized according to the principle of combinations of bioactive substructures by the condensation of 3-(4-methyl-1,2,3-thiadiazolyl)-4-amino-1,2,4-triazole-5-thione with various carboxylic acids and phosphorus oxychloride. All newly synthesized compounds were identified by proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR), infrared spectroscopy (IR), electroionization mass spectrometry (EI/MS), and elementary analysis. The crystal structure of 3-(4-methyl-1,2,3-thiadiazolyl)-6-(4-methylphenyl)[1,2,4]triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]thiadizole was determined by X-ray diffraction crystallography. In this crystal, two intermolecular hydrogen bonds (N2...H-C12 and N3...H-C13), a weak intermolecular interaction (S...S), and the weak ppi-ppi intermolecular interaction were observed. Fungicide screening indicated that all of the target compounds showed certain extent of growth inhibition against fungi tested. 3-(4-Methyl-1,2,3-thiadiazolyl)-6-n-propyl[1,2,4]triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]thiadizole and 3-(4-methyl-1,2,3-thiadiazolyl)-6-trichloromethyl[1,2,4]triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]thiadizole were found to have potential wide spectrum of fungicide activity. The median effective concentrations (EC(50)) detected for 3-(4-methyl-1,2,3-thiadiazolyl)-6-trichloromethyl[1,2,4]triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]thiadizole to six fungi were from 7.28 micromol/L against Pellicularia sasakii (Shirai) to 42.49 micromol/L against Alternaria solani . The results indicated that thiadiazole-containing 1,2,4-triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]-thiadiazoles were potential fungicide lead compounds. PMID:20014761

  18. 43 CFR 3715.3-4 - How will BLM notify me of the outcome of its review process?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... its review process? 3715.3-4 Section 3715.3-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public...) PUBLIC LAW 167; ACT OF JULY 23, 1955 Use and Occupancy Under the Mining Laws § 3715.3-4 How will BLM notify me of the outcome of its review process? At the conclusion of the review, BLM will make a...

  19. 43 CFR 3715.3-4 - How will BLM notify me of the outcome of its review process?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... its review process? 3715.3-4 Section 3715.3-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public...) PUBLIC LAW 167; ACT OF JULY 23, 1955 Use and Occupancy Under the Mining Laws § 3715.3-4 How will BLM notify me of the outcome of its review process? At the conclusion of the review, BLM will make a...

  20. 43 CFR 3715.3-4 - How will BLM notify me of the outcome of its review process?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... its review process? 3715.3-4 Section 3715.3-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public...) PUBLIC LAW 167; ACT OF JULY 23, 1955 Use and Occupancy Under the Mining Laws § 3715.3-4 How will BLM notify me of the outcome of its review process? At the conclusion of the review, BLM will make a...

  1. 29 CFR 3.4 - Submission of weekly statements and the preservation and inspection of weekly payroll records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... inspection of weekly payroll records. 3.4 Section 3.4 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor CONTRACTORS AND... STATES § 3.4 Submission of weekly statements and the preservation and inspection of weekly payroll... subcontractor, within seven days after the regular payment date of the payroll period, to a representative of...

  2. Strain-induced metal-insulator transition in t2 g electron system of perovskite titanate S m0.5C a0.5Ti O3 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimatsu, K.; Okabe, H.; Oshima, T.; Ueda, S.; Ohtomo, A.

    2016-05-01

    We have demonstrated a strain-induced metal-insulator transition for weak Jahn-Teller effects in a t2 g electron system of S m0.5C a0.5Ti O3 , which has metallic ground states in the bulk. A clear variation of electronic properties in S m0.5C a0.5Ti O3 thin films was investigated as a function of epitaxial stain by changing a substrate and the film thickness. Under strong biaxial tensile strain, metallic behaviors were completely eliminated, as evidenced by the temperature dependence of resistivity. The observed metal-insulator transition was consistent with the behavior of the Ti 3 d density of states at the Fermi level seen in valence band hard x-ray photoemission spectra.

  3. Antineuropathic effect of 7-hydroxy-3,4-dihydrocadalin in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rodents

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Painful neuropathy is the most common and debilitating complication of diabetes and results in hyperalgesia and allodynia. Hyperglycemia clearly plays a key role in the development and progression of diabetic neuropathy. Current therapeutic approaches are only partially successful and they are only thought to reduce the pain associated with peripheral neuropathy. Some natural products offer combined antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive properties that may help to treat in a more integrative manner this condition. In this regard, the purpose of this study was to investigate the antineuropathic effect of 7-hydroxy-3,4-dihydrocadalin in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and mice without glucose control as well as the possible mechanism of action involved in this effect. Methods Rats and mice were injected with 50 or 200 mg/kg streptozotocin, respectively, to produce hyperglycemia. The formalin test and von Frey filaments were used to assess the nociceptive activity. Rota-rod was utilized to measure motor activity and malondialdehyde assay to determine anti-oxidative properties. Results After 3 weeks of diabetes induction, chemical hyperalgesia was observed in streptozotocin-injected rats. Oral acute administration of 7-hydroxy-3,4-dihydrocadalin (0.3–30 mg/kg) decreased in a dose-dependent manner formalin-evoked hyperalgesia in diabetic rats. In addition, methiothepin (non-selective 5-HT receptor antagonist, 1 mg/kg, i.p.) and ODQ (guanylyl cyclase inhibitor, 2 mg/kg, i.p.), but not naltrexone (opioid receptor antagonist, 1 mg/kg, s.c.), prevented 7-hydroxy-3,4-dihydrocadalin-induced antihyperalgesic effect. The anti-hyperalgesic effect of 7-hydroxy-3,4-dihydrocadalin was similar to that produced by pregabalin (10 mg/kg, p.o.). Furthermore, oral acute administration of 7-hydroxy-3,4-dihydrocadalin (30 mg/kg) reduced streptozotocin-induced changes in malondialdehyde concentration from plasma samples. Unlike pregabalin, 7-hydroxy-3,4

  4. Uncertainty Quantification of Calculated Temperatures for the AGR 3/4 Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Pham, Binh Thi-Cam

    2015-09-01

    A series of Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) irradiation experiments are being conducted within the Advanced Reactor Technology (ART) Fuel Development and Qualification Program. The main objectives of the fuel experimental campaign are to provide the necessary data on fuel performance to support fuel process development, qualify a fuel design and fabrication process for normal operation and accident conditions, and support development and validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes (PLN 3636, “Technical Program Plan for INL Advanced Reactor Technologies Technology Development Office/Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification Program”). The AGR 3/4 test was inserted in the Northeast Flux Trap position in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) core at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in December 2011 and successfully completed irradiation in mid-April 2014, resulting in irradiation of the tristructural isotropic (TRISO) fuel for 369.1 effective full-power days (EFPDs) during approximately 2.4 calendar years. The AGR 3/4 data, including the irradiation data and calculated results, were qualified and stored in the Nuclear Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS). To support the U.S. TRISO fuel performance assessment and to provide data for validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes, the daily as run thermal analysis has been performed separately on each of twelve AGR 3/4 capsules for the entire irradiation as discussed in ECAR-2807, “AGR 3/4 Daily As Run Thermal Analyses”. The ABAQUS code’s finite element-based thermal model predicts the daily average volume average (VA) fuel temperature (FT), peak FT, and graphite matrix, sleeve, and sink temperature in each capsule. The JMOCUP simulation codes were also created to perform depletion calculations for the AGR 3/4 experiment (ECAR-2753, “JMOCUP As-Run Daily Physics Depletion Calculation for the AGR 3/4 TRISO Particle Experiment in ATR

  5. Evaluation of the oral subchronic toxicity of AHTN (7-Acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene) in the rat.

    PubMed

    Api, Anne Marie; Smith, Robert L; Pipino, Sandra; Marczylo, Timothy; De Matteis, Francesco

    2004-05-01

    7-Acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene (AHTN) is used as a fragrance material in a wide variety of consumer products. Because of its widespread exposure, a 90-day oral feeding study, with 4-week recovery periods for selected rats, was conducted. AHTN was added to the diet of rats at levels calculated to result in mean daily doses of 1.5, 5, 15 or 50 mg AHTN/kg body weight/day. On completion of the treatment period, 3 males and 3 females from each of the high dose groups and controls were maintained for a treatment free period of 4 weeks. There were no adverse effects revealed upon clinical examination or following extensive histopathological examinations. Histopathological examination of the prostate, seminal vesicles, mammary gland and testes of males and ovaries, mammary gland, uterus and vagina of females, undertaken on all animals in all test groups, revealed no evidence of hormonal effects of AHTN. A statistically significant decrease in body weight gain was observed in both sexes in the high dose group only. Statistically significant effects were observed in hematology and blood chemistry, although these effects were all within the range for historical controls and were not proportional to dose. A green to dark brown coloration in the livers and mesenteric lymph nodes was also seen in high dose animals. At the end of the treatment-free period, the color change was almost completely reversed; one high dose male still had green colored lymph nodes, but the liver appeared normal. A green coloration of the lacrimal glands in females, but not males, was also seen in 8/12, 4/15 and in 1 female given 50, 15 and 5 mg/kg body weight/day, respectively. This green color was still present in 2/3 of the high dose females after the treatment-free period. Microscopic examination of unstained sections of frozen livers under UV illumination did not reveal any fluorescence that might have been consistent with porphyrin accumulation. These findings were

  6. Preparation of visible-light-responsive TiO2-xNx photocatalyst by a sol-gel method: analysis of the active center on TiO2 that reacts with NH3.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Yasushige; Mori, Toshinori; Yagi, Kazunori; Makihata, Naoko; Kawahara, Yoichiro; Nagao, Mahiko; Kittaka, Shigeharu

    2005-08-16

    Active reaction centers for ammonia on titanium oxyhydroxide were explored to direct the search for an efficient sol-gel method for the synthesis of a titanium oxynitride (TiO2-xNx) sample with an efficient responsiveness to the visible light constituting a main part of the solar spectrum. The results lead to the conclusion that the site giving IR bands at around 2195 cm(-1) for the adsorbed CO molecules at 300 K is a reactive site and behaves as Lewis acid site in the coordination environment of distorted five-coordinate Ti4+ ions. Ammonia molecules are adsorbed on such a site to form -NH2 and -OH species during the heat treatments at a temperature above 373 K, and they are ultimately incorporated into the TiO2 lattice as nitride through the dehydration at higher temperatures of up to 723 K, resulting in the formation of an anatase type of TiO2-xNx. PMID:16089416

  7. Properties of the c-Si/Al2O3 interface of ultrathin atomic layer deposited Al2O3 layers capped by SiNx for c-Si surface passivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuldis, D.; Richter, A.; Benick, J.; Saint-Cast, P.; Hermle, M.; Glunz, S. W.

    2014-12-01

    This work presents a detailed study of c-Si/Al2O3 interfaces of ultrathin Al2O3 layers deposited with atomic layer deposition (ALD), and capped with SiNx layers deposited with plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. A special focus was the characterization of the fixed charge density of these dielectric stacks and the interface defect density as a function of the Al2O3 layer thickness for different ALD Al2O3 deposition processes (plasma-assisted ALD and thermal ALD) and different thermal post-deposition treatments. Based on theoretical calculations with the extended Shockley-Read-Hall model for surface recombination, these interface properties were found to explain well the experimentally determined surface recombination. Thus, these interface properties provide fundamental insights into to the passivation mechanisms of these Al2O3/SiNx stacks, a stack system highly relevant, particularly for high efficiency silicon solar cells. Based on these findings, it was also possible to improve the surface passivation quality of stacks with thermal ALD Al2O3 by oxidizing the c-Si surface prior to the Al2O3 deposition.

  8. Synthesis of 3,4-diaminobenzoyl derivatives as factor Xa inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiabin; Su, Guoqiang; Ren, Yu; Chen, Yang

    2015-08-28

    The coagulation factor Xa (FXa) plays a central role in the blood coagulation cascade. Recent studies have shown that FXa is a particularly attractive target for the development of oral antithrombotic agents. In view of the excellent pharmaceutical properties of 1,2-phenylenediamine-based FXa inhibitors and the reported structure-activity relationship (SAR) analysis of FXa inhibitors, we designed and synthesized a series of 3,4-diaminobenzoyl-based FXa inhibitors. Intensive SAR studies on this new series led to the discovery of 3,4-dimethoxyl substituted compound 7b. 7b is a highly potent, selective, direct FXa inhibitor with excellent in vivo antithrombotic activity. PMID:26114810

  9. High Temperature Transfer Molding Resins Based on 2,3,3',4'-Biphenyltetracarboxylic Dianhydride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. G., Jr.; Connell, J. W.; Hergenrother, P. M.; Yokota, R.; Criss, J. M.

    2002-01-01

    As part of an ongoing effort to develop materials for resin transfer molding (RTM) processes to fabricate high performance/high temperature composite structures, phenylethynyl containing imides have been under investigation. New phenylethynyl containing imide compositions were prepared using 2,3,3',4'-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride (a-BPDA) and evaluated for cured glass transition temperature (Tg), melt flow behavior, and for processability into flat composite panels via RTM. The a-BPDA imparts a unique combination of properties that are desirable for high temperature transfer molding resins. In comparison to its symmetrical counterpart (i.e. 3,3',4,4'-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride), a-BPDA affords oligomers with lower melt viscosities and when cured, higher Tgs. Several candidates exhibited the appropriate combination of properties such as a low and stable melt viscosity required for RTM processes, high cured Tg, and moderate toughness. The chemistry, physical, and composite properties of select resins will be discussed.

  10. Human cytochrome P450 27C1 catalyzes 3,4-desaturation of retinoids.

    PubMed

    Kramlinger, Valerie M; Nagy, Leslie D; Fujiwara, Rina; Johnson, Kevin M; Phan, Thanh T N; Xiao, Yi; Enright, Jennifer M; Toomey, Matthew B; Corbo, Joseph C; Guengerich, Frederick Peter

    2016-05-01

    In humans, a considerable fraction of the retinoid pool in skin is derived from vitamin A2 (all-trans 3,4-dehydroretinal). Vitamin A2 may be locally generated by keratinocytes, which can convert vitamin A1 (all-trans retinol) into vitamin A2 in cell culture. We report that human cytochrome P450 (hP450) 27C1, a previously 'orphan' enzyme, can catalyze this reaction. Purified recombinant hP450 27C1 bound and desaturated all-trans retinol, retinal, and retinoic acid, as well as 11-cis-retinal. Although the physiological role of 3,4-dehydroretinoids in humans is unclear, we have identified hP450 27C1 as an enzyme capable of efficiently mediating their formation. PMID:27059013

  11. An unusual clandestine laboratory synthesis of 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA).

    PubMed

    Dal Cason, Terry A; Corbett, Charlotte A; Poole, Peter K; de Haseth, James A; Gouldthorpe, David K

    2012-11-30

    An unknown compound from a putative clandestine laboratory was analyzed by GC-MS, GC-IRD, IR (ATR), and NMR and found to be α-methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyphenylpropionamide (MMDPPA), an unusual precursor for the synthesis of 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), a Schedule I controlled substance. A portion of this precursor was subjected to the Hofmann Degradation (i.e., Hofmann Rearrangement) reaction using a sodium hypochlorite solution (bleach) to produce the expected compound, MDA. When excess hypochlorite was used in the reaction, a second, unexpected, compound was formed. Use of the listed instrumentation identified the new material as 2-chloro-4,5-methylenedioxyamphetamine, a compound not previously identified in the forensic literature. PMID:23116634

  12. Energetic oxygen-containing tetrazole salts based on 3,4-diaminotriazole.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jin-Ting; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Yin, Xin; Wu, Kun

    2015-05-01

    Energetic mono- and dicationic 3,4-diaminotriazolium salts have been prepared by combining stoichiometric amounts (1:1 or 2:1 molar ratio) of 3,4-diaminotriazole with various oxygen-containing tetrazoles, and the structures have been confirmed by single-crystal XRD for the first time. All structures are dominated by a strong hydrogen-bond network owing to both amino groups and oxygen in the molecule. All salts, except 7, exhibit excellent thermal stabilities with decomposition temperatures over 200 °C. Based on experimental densities and theoretical calculations carried out by using the Gaussian 03 suite of programs, all salts have calculated detonation pressures (20.3-33.9 GPa) and velocities (7095-8642 m s(-1)). PMID:25712781

  13. Synthesis of 3,4-cis-[3H]leucocyanidin and enzymatic reduction to catechin.

    PubMed

    Tanner, G J; Kristiansen, K N

    1993-03-01

    A novel method is presented for the synthesis and purification of (+)-2,3-trans-3,4-cis-[4-3H]leucocyanidin. Soluble enzyme extracts from developing barley grains and leaves of the forage legume Onobrychis viciifolia (sainfoin) catalyzed the NAD(P)H-dependent reduction of (+)-2,3-trans-3,4-cis-[4-3H]leucocyanidin to (+)-[4-3H]catechin. NADPH was the preferred substrate. With extracts of barley the rate of reaction with 1 mM NADH was 20% of the rate found with NADPH. With extracts from both tissues there was a broad pH optimum around pH 6.6. PMID:8470799

  14. Synthesis, antiproliferative activities, and computational evaluation of novel isocoumarin and 3,4-dihydroisocoumarin derivatives.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Keller G; de Freitas, Rossimiriam P; Ruiz, Ana L T G; Fiorito, Giovanna F; de Carvalho, João E; da Cunha, Elaine F F; Ramalho, Teodorico C; Alves, Rosemeire B

    2016-03-23

    A series of novel isocoumarin derivatives were synthesized using Castro-Stephens cross-coupling. Moreover, novel 3,4-dihydroisocoumarin derivatives were obtained by catalytic hydrogenation of the corresponding isocoumarin precursors. The antiproliferative activity of all compounds was evaluated in vitro in different tumor cells. Furthermore, docking calculations were performed for the kallikrein 5 (KLK5) active site to predict the possible mechanism of action of this series of compounds. Theoretical findings indicate that the 3,4-dihydroisocoumarin derivative 10a forms hydrogen bonds with Ser190 and Gln192 residues of KLK5. This derivative was the most active compound in the series with potent antiproliferative activity and high selectivity index (SI > 378.79) against breast cancer cells (MCF-7, GI50 = 0.66 μg mL(-1)). This compound represents a promising matrix for developing new antiproliferative agents. PMID:26859070

  15. Synthesis and antiproliferative activity of imidazo[2,1-b][1,3,4]thiadiazole derivatives.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sujeet; Gopalakrishnan, Vidya; Hegde, Mahesh; Rana, Vivek; Dhepe, Sharad S; Ramareddy, Sureshbabu A; Leoni, Alberto; Locatelli, Alessandra; Morigi, Rita; Rambaldi, Mirella; Srivastava, Mrinal; Raghavan, Sathees C; Karki, Subhas S

    2014-10-01

    A series of 2,5,6-substituted imidazo[2,1-b][1,3,4]thiadiazole derivatives have been prepared and were tested for antiproliferative activity on cancer cells at the National Cancer Institute. Results showed that molecules with a benzyl group at position 2, exhibited an increase in activity for the introduction of a formyl group at the 5 position. The compound 2-benzyl-5-formyl-6-(4-bromophenyl)imidazo[2,1-b][1,3,4]thiadiazole 22 has been chosen for understanding the mechanism of action by various molecular and cellular biology studies. Results obtained from cell cycle evaluation analysis, analysis of mitochondrial membrane potential and Annexin V-FITC by flow cytometric analysis, ROS production and expression of apoptotic and DNA-repair proteins suggested that compound 22 induced cytotoxicity by activating extrinsic pathway of apoptosis, however, without affecting cell cycle progression. PMID:25205189

  16. Electrically controlled release of benzoic acid from poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/alginate matrix: effect of conductive poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) morphology.

    PubMed

    Paradee, Nophawan; Sirivat, Anuvat

    2014-08-01

    A drug-loaded conductive polymer/hydrogel blend, benzoic acid-loaded poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene/alginate (BA-loaded PEDOT/Alg) hydrogel, was used as a carrier/matrix for an electrical stimuli transdermal drug delivery system (TDDS). The effects of cross-linking ratio, PEDOT particle size, and electric field strength on the release mechanism and the diffusion coefficient (D) of BA were examined by using a modified Franz-diffusion cell. The diffusion scaling exponent value of BA is close to 0.5 which refers to the diffusion controlled mechanism, or the Fickian diffusion as the BA release mechanism. The D increased when there was a decrease in the cross-linking ratio due to the mesh size-hindering effect. When increasing electric field strength, the D of BA-loaded PEDOT/Alg hydrogel increased because the cathode-BA(-) electrorepulsion, electroinduced alginate expansion, and PEDOT electroneutralization simultaneously occurred. The highest D belonged to a blend with the smallest PEDOT particle and highest electrical conductivity. The D of BA was a function of the matrix mesh size except when drug size/mesh size was lower than 2.38 × 10(-3), where D of BA became mesh size independent as the matrix mesh size was extremely large. Thus, the fabricated conductive polymer hydrogel blends have a great potential to be used in TDDS under electrical stimulation. PMID:25059579

  17. A comprehensive laboratory study on the immersion freezing behavior of illite NX particles: a comparison of 17 ice nucleation measurement techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Hiranuma, Naruki; Augustin-Bauditz, Stefanie; Bingemer, Heinz; Budke, Carsten; Curtius, J.; Danielczok, Anja; Diehl, K.; Dreischmeier, Katharina; Ebert, Martin; Frank, F.; Hoffmann, Nadine; Kandler, Kondrad; Kiselev, Alexei; Koop, Thomas; Leisner, Thomas; Mohler, Ottmar; Nillius, Bjorn; Peckhaus, Andreas; Rose, Diana; Weinbruch, Stephan; Wex, Heike; Boose, Yvonne; DeMott, Paul J.; Hader, John D.; Hill, Thomas; Kanji, Zamin; Kulkarni, Gourihar R.; Levin, Ezra; McCluskey, Christina; Murakami, Masataka; Murray, Benjamin J.; Niedermeier, Dennis; Petters, Markus D.; O'Sullivan, Daniel; Saito, Atsushi; Schill, Gregory; Tajiri, Takuya; Tolbert, Margaret A.; Welti, Andre; Whale, Thomas; Wright, Timothy; Yamashita, Katsuya

    2015-01-01

    Immersion freezing is the most relevant heterogeneous ice nucleation mechanism 3 through which ice crystals are formed in mixed-phase clouds. In recent years, an increasing 4 number of laboratory experiments utilizing a variety of instruments have examined immersion 5 freezing activity of atmospherically relevant ice nucleating particles (INPs). However, an 6 inter-comparison of these laboratory results is a difficult task because investigators have used 7 different ice nucleation (IN) measurement methods to produce these results. A remaining 8 challenge is to explore the sensitivity and accuracy of these techniques and to understand how 9 the IN results are potentially influenced or biased by experimental parameters associated with 10 these techniques. 11 Within the framework of INUIT (Ice Nucleation research UnIT), we distributed an 12 illite rich sample (illite NX) as a representative surrogate for atmospheric mineral dust 13 particles to investigators to perform immersion freezing experiments using different IN 14 measurement methods and to obtain IN data as a function of particle concentration, 15 temperature (T), cooling rate and nucleation time. Seventeen measurement methods were 16 involved in the data inter-comparison. Experiments with seven instruments started with the 17 test sample pre-suspended in water before cooling, while ten other instruments employed 18 water vapor condensation onto dry-dispersed particles followed by immersion freezing. The 19 resulting comprehensive immersion freezing dataset was evaluated using the ice nucleation 20 active surface-site density (ns) to develop a representative ns(T) spectrum that spans a wide 21 temperature range (-37 °C < T < -11 °C) and covers nine orders of magnitude in ns. 22 Our inter-comparison results revealed a discrepancy between suspension and dry-23 dispersed particle measurements for this mineral dust. While the agreement was good below ~-24 26 °C, the ice nucleation activity, expressed in ns, was

  18. Transient increase in phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate and phosphatidylinositol trisphosphate during activation of human neutrophils

    SciTech Connect

    Traynor-Kaplan, A.E.; Thompson, B.L.; Harris, A.L.; Taylor, P.; Omann, G.M.; Sklar, L.A. )

    1989-09-15

    We recently showed that phosphatidylinositol trisphosphate (PIP3) was present in a unique lipid fraction generated in neutrophils during activation. Here, we demonstrate that the band containing this fraction isolated from thin layer chromatography consists primarily of PIP3 and that only small amounts of radiolabeled PIP3 exist prior to activation. In addition, high performance liquid chromatography of deacylated phospholipids from stimulated cells reveals an increase in a fraction eluting ahead of glycerophosphoinositol 4,5-P2. After removal of the glycerol we found that it coeluted with inositol 1,3,4-P3 when resubjected to high performance liquid chromatography. Thus, we have detected a second, novel form of phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate in activated neutrophils, PI-(3,4)P2. The elevation of PIP3 through the formyl peptide receptor is blocked by pretreatment with pertussis toxin, implicating mediation of the increase in PIP3 by a guanosine triphosphate-binding (G) protein. The rise in PIP3 is not secondary to calcium elevation. Buffering the rise in intracellular calcium did not diminish the increase in PIP3. The elevation of PIP3 appears to occur during activation with physiological agonists, its level varying with the degree of activation. Leukotriene B4, which elicits many of the same responses as stimulation of the formyl peptide receptor but with minimal oxidant production, stimulates a much attenuated rise in PIP3. Isoproterenol, which inhibits oxidant production also reduces the rise in PIP3. Hence formation of PI(3,4)P2 and PIP3 (presumed to be PI(3,4,5)P3) correlates closely with the early events of neutrophil activation.

  19. New 3,4-seco-Grayanane Diterpenoids from the Flowers of Pieris japonica.

    PubMed

    Cao, Lang; Li, Yanping; Li, Hongmei; Liu, Dan; Li, Rongtao

    2016-01-01

    Three new 3,4-seco-grayanane diterpenoids, neopierisoids D-F (2-4), and a new natural one, neopierisoid C (1), were isolated from the flowers of Pieris japonica. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis, including one and two dimensional (1- and 2D)-NMR, as well as high resolution-electron ionization (HR-EI)-MS. PMID:27477663

  20. New 3,4-seco-cycloartane triterpenes from Gardenia sootepensis.

    PubMed

    Song, Wei-Wu; Wang, Xue-Qin; Li, Bo

    2016-07-01

    Two new 3,4-seco-cycloartane triterpenes, named sootepins H (1) and I (2), were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of the leaves and twigs of Gardenia sootepensis. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of 1D- and 2D-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis, as well as high-resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS), infrared (IR), and ultra violet (UV). PMID:26848635

  1. Analysis of cellular phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate levels and distribution using confocal fluorescent microscopy.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, Michelle; Nowell, Cameron J; Condron, Melanie; Gardiner, James; Holmes, Andrew B; Desai, Jayesh; Burgess, Antony W; Catimel, Bruno

    2010-11-01

    We have developed an immunocytochemistry method for the semiquantitative detection of phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PI(3,4,5)P3) at the cell plasma membrane. This protocol combines the use of a glutathione S-transferase-tagged pleckstrin homology (PH) domain of the general phosphoinositides-1 receptor (GST-GRP1PH) with fluorescence confocal microscopy and image segmentation using cell mask software analysis. This methodology allows the analysis of PI(3,4,5)P3 subcellular distribution in resting and epidermal growth factor (EGF)-stimulated HEK293T cells and in LIM1215 (wild-type phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)) and LIM2550 (H1047R mutation in PI3K catalytic domain) colonic carcinoma cells. Formation of PI(3,4,5)P3 was observed 5min following EGF stimulation and resulted in an increase of the membrane/cytoplasm fluorescence ratio from 1.03 to 1.53 for HEK293T cells and from 2.2 to 3.3 for LIM1215 cells. Resting LIM2550 cells stained with GST-GRP1PH had an elevated membrane/cytoplasm fluorescence ratio of 9.8, suggesting constitutive PI3K activation. The increase in the membrane/cytoplasm fluorescent ratio was inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner by the PI3K inhibitor LY294002. This cellular confocal imaging assay can be used to directly assess the effects of PI3K mutations in cancer cell lines and to determine the potential specificity and effectiveness of PI3K inhibitors in cancer cells. PMID:20599646

  2. In vivo Loads in the Lumbar L3-4 Disc during a Weight Lifting Extension

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shaobai; Park, Won Man; Kim, Yoon Hyuk; Cha, Thomas; Wood, Kirkham; Li, Guoan

    2014-01-01

    Background Knowledge of in vivo human lumbar loading is critical for understanding the lumbar function and for improving surgical treatments of lumbar pathology. Although numerous experimental measurements and computational simulations have been reported, non-invasive determination of in vivo spinal disc loads is still a challenge in biomedical engineering. The object of the study is to investigate the in vivo human lumbar disc loads using a subject-specific and kinematic driven finite element approach. Methods Three dimensional (3D) lumbar spine models of three living subjects were created using MR images. A 3D finite element model of the L3-4 disc, including the annulus fibrosus and nucleus pulposus, was built for each subject. The endplate kinematics of the L3-4 segment of each subject during a dynamic weight lifting extension was determined using a dual fluoroscopic imaging technique. The endplate kinematics was used as displacement boundary conditions of the subject specific finite element model of the L3-4 disc to calculate the in-vivo disc forces and moments during the weight lifting activity. Findings During the weight lifting extension, the L3-4 disc experienced maximum shear load of about 230 N or 0.34 bodyweight at the flexion position and maximum compressive load of 1500 N or 2.28 bodyweight at the upright position. The disc experienced a primary flexion-extension moment during the motion which reached a maximum of 4.2 Nm at upright position with stretched arms holding the weight. Interpretation This study provided quantitative data on in vivo disc loading that could help understand intrinsic biomechanics of the spine and improve surgical treatment of pathological discs using fusion or arthroplasty techniques. PMID:24345591

  3. Metallicity evolution, metallicity gradients, and gas fractions at z ~ 3.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troncoso, P.; Maiolino, R.; Sommariva, V.; Cresci, G.; Mannucci, F.; Marconi, A.; Meneghetti, M.; Grazian, A.; Cimatti, A.; Fontana, A.; Nagao, T.; Pentericci, L.

    2014-03-01

    We used near-infrared integral field spectroscopic observations from the AMAZE and LSD ESO programs to constrain the metallicity in a sample of 40 star-forming galaxies at 3 < z < 5 (most of which are at z ~ 3.4). We measured metallicities by exploiting strong emission-line diagnostics. We found that a significant fraction of star-forming galaxies at z ~ 3.4 deviate from the fundamental metallicity relation (FMR), with a metallicity of up to a factor of ten lower than expected according to the FMR. This deviation does not correlate with the dynamical properties of the galaxy or with the presence of interactions. To investigate the origin of the metallicity deviation in more detail, we also inferred information on the gas content by inverting the Schmidt-Kennicutt relation, assuming that the latter does not evolve out to z ~ 3.4. In agreement with recent CO observational data, we found that in contrast with the steeply rising trend at 0 < z < 2, the gas fraction in massive galaxies remains constant, with an indication of a marginal decline at 2 < z < 3.5. When combined with the metallicity information, we infer that to explain the low metallicity and gas content in z ~ 3.4 galaxies, both prominent outflows and massive pristine gas inflows are needed. In ten galaxies we can also spatially resolve the metallicity distribution. We found that the metallicity generally anticorrelates with the distribution of star formation and with the gas surface density. We discuss these findings in terms of pristine gas inflows toward the center, and outflows of metal-rich gas from the center toward the external regions. Based on data obtained at the VLT through the ESO programs 178.B-0838, 075.A-0300 and 076.A-0711.Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  4. Synthesis, characterization and optical properties of NH4Dy(PO3)4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chemingui, S.; Ferhi, M.; Horchani-Naifer, K.; Férid, M.

    2014-09-01

    Polycrystalline powders of NH4Dy(PO3)4 polyphosphate have been grown by the flux method. This compound was found to be isotopic with NH4Ce(PO3)4 and RbHo(PO3)4. It crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/n with unit cell parameters a=10.474(6) Å, b=9.011(4) Å, c=10.947(7) Å and β=106.64(3)°. The title compound has been transformed to triphosphate Dy(PO3)3 after calcination at 800 °C. Powder X-ray diffraction, infrared and Raman spectroscopies and the differential thermal analysis have been used to identify these materials. The spectroscopic properties have been investigated through absorption, excitation, emission spectra and decay curves of Dy3+ ion in both compounds at room temperature. The emission spectra show the characteristic emission bands of Dy3+ in the two compounds, before and after calcination. The integrated emission intensity ratios of the yellow to blue (IY/IB) transitions and the chromaticity properties have been determined from emission spectra. The decay curves are found to be double-exponential. The non-exponential behavior of the decay rates was related to the resonant energy transfer as well as cross-relaxation between the donor and acceptor Dy3+ ions. The determined properties have been discussed as function of crystal structure of both compounds. They reveal that NH4Dy(PO3)4 is promising for white light generation but Dy(PO3)3 is potential candidates in field emission display (FED) and plasma display panel (PDP) devices.

  5. Transient increase in phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate and phosphatidylinositol trisphosphate during activation of human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Traynor-Kaplan, A E; Thompson, B L; Harris, A L; Taylor, P; Omann, G M; Sklar, L A

    1989-09-15

    We recently showed that phosphatidylinositol trisphosphate (PIP3) was present in a unique lipid fraction generated in neutrophils during activation. Here, we demonstrate that the band containing this fraction isolated from thin layer chromatography consists primarily of PIP3 and that only small amounts of radiolabeled PIP3 exist prior to activation. In addition, high performance liquid chromatography of deacylated phospholipids from stimulated cells reveals an increase in a fraction eluting ahead of glycerophosphoinositol 4,5-P2. After removal of the glycerol we found that it coeluted with inositol 1,3,4-P3 when resubjected to high performance liquid chromatography. Thus, we have detected a second, novel form of phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate in activated neutrophils, PI-(3,4)P2. The elevation of PIP3 through the formyl peptide receptor is blocked by pretreatment with pertussis toxin, implicating mediation of the increase in PIP3 by a guanosine triphosphate-binding (G) protein. The rise in PIP3 is not secondary to calcium elevation. Buffering the rise in intracellular calcium did not diminish the increase in PIP3. The elevation of PIP3 appears to occur during activation with physiological agonists, its level varying with the degree of activation. Leukotriene B4, which elicits many of the same responses as stimulation of the formyl peptide receptor but with minimal oxidant production, stimulates a much attenuated rise in PIP3. Isoproterenol, which inhibits oxidant production also reduces the rise in PIP3. Hence formation of PI(3,4)P2 and PIP3 (presumed to be PI(3,4,5)P3) correlates closely with the early events of neutrophil activation. PMID:2549071

  6. Propagation mechanism of daytime Pc 3-4 pulsations observed at synchronous orbit and multiple ground-based stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yumoto, K.; Saito, T.; Akasofu, S.-I.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Smith, E. J.

    1985-01-01

    Observational data obtained during the last two decades show that the amplitude of daytime Pc 3-4 magnetic pulsations is controlled by the solar wind conditions. The high degree of correlation between the solar wind parameters and Pc 3-4 pulsations in the dayside magnetosphere suggests that the ultimate cause of the daytime Pc 3-4 pulsations must be the interaction of the solar wind with the earth's magnetosphere. The present paper is concerned with details regarding the control of the properties of the Pc 3-4 pulsations by the solar wind parameters, taking into account observations made at multiple ground-based stations. It is attempted to establish the relation between the daytime Pc 3-4 pulsations at the ground stations and the compressional Pc 3-4 waves in the magnetosphere. Attention is given to the most probable propagation mechanism of the daytime Pc 3-4 pulsations in the magnetosphere.

  7. Propagation mechanism of daytime Pc 3-4 pulsations observed at synchronous orbit and multiple ground-based stations

    SciTech Connect

    Yumoto, K.; Saito, T.; Akasofu, S.-I.; Tsurutani, B.T.; Smith, E.J.

    1985-07-01

    Observational data obtained during the last two decades show that the amplitude of daytime Pc 3-4 magnetic pulsations is controlled by the solar wind conditions. The high degree of correlation between the solar wind parameters and Pc 3-4 pulsations in the dayside magnetosphere suggests that the ultimate cause of the daytime Pc 3-4 pulsations must be the interaction of the solar wind with the earth's magnetosphere. The present paper is concerned with details regarding the control of the properties of the Pc 3-4 pulsations by the solar wind parameters, taking into account observations made at multiple ground-based stations. It is attempted to establish the relation between the daytime Pc 3-4 pulsations at the ground stations and the compressional Pc 3-4 waves in the magnetosphere. Attention is given to the most probable propagation mechanism of the daytime Pc 3-4 pulsations in the magnetosphere. 59 references.

  8. Improvement of pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidines pharmacokinetic properties: nanosystem approaches for drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Vignaroli, Giulia; Calandro, Pierpaolo; Zamperini, Claudio; Coniglio, Federica; Iovenitti, Giulia; Tavanti, Matteo; Colecchia, David; Dreassi, Elena; Valoti, Massimo; Schenone, Silvia; Chiariello, Mario; Botta, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidines are a class of compounds with a good activity against several cancer cell lines. Despite the promising anticancer activity, these molecules showed a poor aqueous solubility. This issue could threat the future development of pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidines as clinical drug candidates. With the aim of improving their solubility profile and consequently their pharmacokinetic properties, we have chosen four compounds (1–4) on the base of their anti-neuroblastoma activity and we have developed albumin nanoparticles and liposomes for the selected candidates. Albumin nanoparticles and liposomes were prepared and characterized regarding size and ζ-potential distribution, polidispersity index, entrapment efficiency and activity against SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cell line. The most promising nanosystem, namely LP-2, was chosen to perform further studies: confocal microscopy, stability and drug release in physiological conditions, and biodistribution. Altogether, the obtained data strongly indicate that the encapsulation of pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidines in liposomes represent an effective method to overcome the poor water solubility. PMID:26898318

  9. The spectroscopic and quantum chemical studies of 3,4-difluoroaniline.

    PubMed

    Kose, Etem; Karabacak, Mehmet; Atac, Ahmet

    2015-05-15

    Spectroscopic and structural investigations of 3,4-difluoroaniline molecule are presented by using experimental (FT-IR, FT-Raman, (1)H and (13)C NMR, and UV-Vis) techniques and theoretical (DFT approach) calculations. FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of 3,4-difluoroaniline molecule are recorded in the region 4000-400cm(-1) and 3500-10cm(-1) in the liquid phase, respectively. The NMR chemical shifts ((1)H and (13)C) are recorded in chloroform-d solution. The UV absorption spectra of 3,4-difluoroaniline dissolved in ethanol and water are recorded in the range of 200-400nm. Experimental results are supported with the following theoretical calculations; the optimized geometry and vibrational (FT-IR and FT-Raman) spectra are carried out by DFT (B3LYP)/6-311++G(d,p) basis set calculations. The nuclear magnetic resonance spectra ((1)H and (13)C NMR) are obtained by using the gauge-invariant atomic orbital method. Moreover, electronic characteristics, such as HOMO and LUMO energies, density of state diagrams, and molecular electrostatic potential surface are investigated. Nonlinear optical properties and thermodynamic features are also outlined theoretically. An excellent correlation of theoretical and experimental results provides a detailed description of the structural and physicochemical properties of the molecule. Thus, this work leads to a deep understanding of the characteristics of di-substituted aniline derivatives. PMID:25733254

  10. The spectroscopic and quantum chemical studies of 3,4-difluoroaniline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kose, Etem; Karabacak, Mehmet; Atac, Ahmet

    2015-05-01

    Spectroscopic and structural investigations of 3,4-difluoroaniline molecule are presented by using experimental (FT-IR, FT-Raman, 1H and 13C NMR, and UV-Vis) techniques and theoretical (DFT approach) calculations. FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of 3,4-difluoroaniline molecule are recorded in the region 4000-400 cm-1 and 3500-10 cm-1 in the liquid phase, respectively. The NMR chemical shifts (1H and 13C) are recorded in chloroform-d solution. The UV absorption spectra of 3,4-difluoroaniline dissolved in ethanol and water are recorded in the range of 200-400 nm. Experimental results are supported with the following theoretical calculations; the optimized geometry and vibrational (FT-IR and FT-Raman) spectra are carried out by DFT (B3LYP)/6-311++G(d,p) basis set calculations. The nuclear magnetic resonance spectra (1H and 13C NMR) are obtained by using the gauge-invariant atomic orbital method. Moreover, electronic characteristics, such as HOMO and LUMO energies, density of state diagrams, and molecular electrostatic potential surface are investigated. Nonlinear optical properties and thermodynamic features are also outlined theoretically. An excellent correlation of theoretical and experimental results provides a detailed description of the structural and physicochemical properties of the molecule. Thus, this work leads to a deep understanding of the characteristics of di-substituted aniline derivatives.

  11. Synthesis and photoluminescence properties of Sm3+-doped YAl3(BO3)4 phosphor.

    PubMed

    Kumar, R Satheesh; Ponnusamya, V; Jose, M T

    2014-09-01

    A near ultraviolet excitable phosphor based on Sm3+-doped YAl3(BO3)4 has been synthesized by modified solid-state reaction at 1000°C. The phase purity and photoluminescence (PL) behavior of the phosphor are studied in detail using the powder X-ray diffraction technique and PL measurements. X-ray diffraction reveals that the phase purity of YAl3(BO3)4 critically depends upon the boric acid concentration. The phosphor has strong excitation at 406 nm in the near ultraviolet region (350–420 nm) and its emission peaks were monitored at 564, 599 and 643 nm. Further, detailed PL analysis demonstrates that the substitution of Sm3+ ions at sites of Y3+ and Al3+ ions enhances the PL efficiency of the phosphor appreciably. First, the PL efficiency of YAl3(BO3)4:Sm3+ was compared with commercial (Y,Gd)BO3:Eu3+ red phosphor. The Fourier transform infrared study provides essential information regarding the change in metal–oxygen bond vibrations of the phosphor. The morphology of the phosphor was investigated through scanning electron microscopy, which reveals that the phosphor possessed distorted spherical and rectangular shapes with average grain sizes in the range 0.5–1 μm. PMID:25337617

  12. Toxicity of sodium chromate and 3,4-dichloroaniline to crustaceans

    SciTech Connect

    van der Meer, C.; Teunissen, C.; Boog, T.F.M.

    1988-02-01

    Small adult and larval crustaceans are important components of a number of food webs. Therefore, it is important on the one hand to determine the sensitivity of these crustaceans to environmental contaminants and on the other hand to select the most sensitive species as test organisms to help establish the permissible contamination. In brackish water adults as well as larvae of the species Palaemonetes pugio and Uca pugilator have been most frequently investigated. These species can also be studied in sea water. The marine species Carcinus maenas, Crangon septemspinosa and Homarus americanus have also been studied relatively intensively. The present paper describes the toxicity, at different salinities, of Na/sub 2/, CrO/sub 4/, (chromate) and 3,4-dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA) to a number of relatively small adult and larval crustaceans. Chromate was chosen as a model of a heavy metal since, although its toxicity may be relatively low, it may under certain circumstance have considerable environmental effects. Moreover, bichromate has been recommended as a standard in Daphnia tests. 3,4-dichloroaniline was chosen as a model of a chlorinated hydrocarbon, the handling of which does not need special precautions.

  13. Regioselective reactions of 3,4-pyridynes enabled by the aryne distortion model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goetz, Adam E.; Garg, Neil K.

    2013-01-01

    The pyridine heterocycle continues to play a vital role in the development of human medicines. More than 100 currently marketed drugs contain this privileged unit, which remains highly sought after synthetically. We report an efficient means to access di- and trisubstituted pyridines in an efficient and highly controlled manner using transient 3,4-pyridyne intermediates. Previous efforts to employ 3,4-pyridynes for the construction of substituted pyridines were hampered by a lack of regiocontrol or the inability to later manipulate an adjacent directing group. The strategy relies on the use of proximal halide or sulfamate substituents to perturb pyridyne distortion, which in turn governs regioselectivities in nucleophilic addition and cycloaddition reactions. After trapping of the pyridynes generated in situ, the neighbouring directing groups may be removed or exploited using versatile metal-catalysed cross-coupling reactions. This methodology now renders 3,4-pyridynes as useful synthetic building blocks for the creation of highly decorated derivatives of the medicinally privileged pyridine heterocycle.

  14. Improvement of pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidines pharmacokinetic properties: nanosystem approaches for drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Vignaroli, Giulia; Calandro, Pierpaolo; Zamperini, Claudio; Coniglio, Federica; Iovenitti, Giulia; Tavanti, Matteo; Colecchia, David; Dreassi, Elena; Valoti, Massimo; Schenone, Silvia; Chiariello, Mario; Botta, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidines are a class of compounds with a good activity against several cancer cell lines. Despite the promising anticancer activity, these molecules showed a poor aqueous solubility. This issue could threat the future development of pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidines as clinical drug candidates. With the aim of improving their solubility profile and consequently their pharmacokinetic properties, we have chosen four compounds (1-4) on the base of their anti-neuroblastoma activity and we have developed albumin nanoparticles and liposomes for the selected candidates. Albumin nanoparticles and liposomes were prepared and characterized regarding size and ζ-potential distribution, polidispersity index, entrapment efficiency and activity against SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cell line. The most promising nanosystem, namely LP-2, was chosen to perform further studies: confocal microscopy, stability and drug release in physiological conditions, and biodistribution. Altogether, the obtained data strongly indicate that the encapsulation of pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidines in liposomes represent an effective method to overcome the poor water solubility. PMID:26898318

  15. Measurement of 3,4-MDMA and related amines in diagnostic and forensic laboratories.

    PubMed

    Skrinska, Victor A; Gock, Susan B

    2005-01-01

    The phenylalkylamine derivatives, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy, XTC, Adam), 3,4-methylenedioxyethamphetamine (MDEA, MDE, Eve), and 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), are psychostimulants with hallucinogenic properties. MDA is also a metabolite of both MDMA and MDEA. These drugs are ring-substituted amphetamine derivatives that produce hallucinogenic, entactogenic ('love drug'), and stimulating effects. MDMA was initially developed as an appetite suppressant, however, its use as a therapeutic drug has been very limited. Because of its effects as a hallucinogenic psychostimulant with relatively low toxicity, it has emerged over the last two decades as a common recreational psychostimulant or 'club drug' at 'raves'. MDMA, MDEA, and MDA are often referred to as 'rave' or 'designer' drugs. They are produced in clandestine laboratories and have an increasing presence on the illicit drug market worldwide. Significant adverse health effects have been reported that include: serotonin neurotoxicity, severe psychiatric disorders, renal failure, malignant hyperthermia, hepatitis, rhabdomyolysis, and disseminated intravascular coagulation. A number of fatal outcomes associated with severe MDMA intoxication have been reported. PMID:15916245

  16. Inelastic Neutron Scattering on Multiferroics NdFe3(BO3)4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashida, Shohei; Soda, Minoru; Itoh, Shinichi; Yokoo, Tetsuya; Ohgushi, Kenya; Kawana, Daichi; Masuda, Takatsugu

    Inelastic neutron scattering experiment is performed on single crystals of multiferroics NdFe3(11BO3)4 to explore the magnetic excitations. Fe-centered dispersive excitation with the band width of 5 meV is observed along the crystallographic c∗ direction and that of 3 meV is along the a∗ direction. The energy gap of 0.57 meV due to an axial-type anisotropy is ob- served at the AF zone center. The energy of Nd-centered flat excitation is 1 meV. Furthermore, anticrossing of the Fe- and Nd-centered excitations is observed, meaning the existence of the f -d coupling, i.e., the interaction between the Nd3+ and Fe3+ moments. Spin-wave analysis on the observed neutron spectrum revealed the underlying magnetic Hamiltonian in NdFe3(11BO3)4. Discussion on the axial-type anisotropy in the ab - plane based on the magnetic model leads to the conclusion that the anisotropy of the Nd3+ ion plays a main role in the determination of the structures of both magnetic moment and electric polarization in NdFe3(BO3)4.

  17. Substituent effect on photophysical properties of bi-1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives in solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fangyi; Tian, Taiji; Zhao, Chengxiao; Bai, Binglian; Li, Min; Wang, Haitao

    2016-04-01

    A series of phenyl substituted bi-1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives were designed and synthesized; the effect of substituent on the photophysical properties and molecular electronic structures was fully studied by the combination of experimental techniques and theoretical calculations. Compared to parent compound without any substituent (BOXD), fluoro-substituent shows little effect on the absorption and emission spectra, whilst a little larger spectral red-shift could be observed for methoxy-, nitro-substituted derivatives and thienyl-substituted bi-1,3,4-oxadiazole (TBOXD). These spectral changes can be well explained by theoretically calculated HOMO and LUMO energy level changes. All these molecules show high fluorescence quantum yield except for nitro-substituted derivative in dilute solutions. The quantum yield of BOXD changes with the concentration and exhibits a high value at the concentrated solution. This work revealed the influence of substituent on the photophysical properties of bi-1,3,4-oxadizaole derivatives in dilute solutions and provided guidance for designing molecules with potential application.

  18. Sprague-Dawley rats display sex-linked differences in the pharmacokinetics of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and its metabolite 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA)

    SciTech Connect

    Fonsart, Julien; Menet, Marie-Claude; Debray, Marcel; Hirt, Deborah; Noble, Florence; Scherrmann, Jean-Michel; Decleves, Xavier

    2009-12-15

    The use of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) has increased in recent years; it can lead to life-threatening hyperthermia and serotonin syndrome. Human and rodent males appear to be more sensitive to acute toxicity than are females. MDMA is metabolized to five main metabolites by the enzymes CYP1A2, CYP2D and COMT. Little is presently known about sex-dependent differences in the pharmacokinetics of MDMA and its metabolites. We therefore analyzed MDMA disposition in male and female rats by measuring the plasma and urine concentrations of MDMA and its metabolites using a validated LC-MS method. MDA AUC{sub last} and C{sub max} were 1.6- to 1.7-fold higher in males than in females given MDMA (5 mg/kg sc), while HMMA C{sub max} and AUC{sub last} were 3.2- and 3.5-fold higher, respectively. MDMA renal clearance was 1.26-fold higher in males, and that of MDA was 2.2-fold higher. MDMA AUC{sub last} and t{sub 1/2} were 50% higher in females given MDMA (1 mg/kg iv). MDA C{sub max} and AUC{sub last} were 75-82% higher in males, with a 2.8-fold higher metabolic index. Finally, the AUC{sub last} of MDA was 0.73-fold lower in males given 1 mg/kg iv MDA. The volumes of distribution of MDMA and MDA at steady-state were similar in the two sexes. These data strongly suggest that differences in the N-demethylation of MDMA to MDA are major influences on the MDMA and MDA pharmacokinetics in male and female rats. Hence, males are exposed to significantly more toxic MDA, which could explain previously reported sexual dysmorphism in the acute effects and toxicity of MDMA in rats.

  19. Roles of chemically inequivalent N(CH3)4 ions in phase transition temperatures in [N(CH3)4]2CoCl4 by single-crystal NMR and MAS NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Ae Ran

    2014-06-01

    The temperature dependences of the 1H and 13C spin-lattice relaxation time in the laboratory frame, T1, and in the rotating frame, T1ρ, in [N(CH3)4]2CoCl4 were measured by static nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR. In the ferroelastic phase, 1H T1ρ underwent molecular motion according to the Bloembergen-Purcell-Pound theory. Two inequivalent ions, a-N(CH3)4 and b-N(CH3)4, were identified by 13C cross polarization (CP)/MAS NMR. On the basis of the 13C NMR results, the existence of two chemically inequivalent a-N(CH3)4 and b-N(CH3)4 ions in the ferroelectric phase and the existence of the ferroelastic twin structure of the N(CH3)4 ions in the ferroelastic phase were discussed.

  20. Pseudomonas sp. CL7 from Sludge Removed 2,3,4,6-Tetrachlorophenol in Vivo and in Vitro Condition.

    PubMed

    Karn, Santosh Kumar; Reddy, M Sudhakara; Chakrabarti, Swapan Kumar

    2016-04-01

    The present research focused on 2,3,4,6-Tetrachlorophenol (2,3,4,6-TeCP) mineralizing bacterium from the sludge of pulp and paper industry and identified as Pseudomonas sp. CL7 by 16s rRNA gene sequences analysis. This isolate degraded 2,3,4,6-TeCP as indicated by stoichiometric release of chloride and biomass formation. High pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed that Pseudomonas sp. (CL7) was able to mineralize a higher concentration of 2,3,4,6-TeCP (600 mg/l or 2.5 mM) than any previously reported 2,3,4,6-TeCP degrading bacteria. As the concentration of 2,3,4,6-TeCP increased from 50 (0.21 mM) to 600 mg/l (2.5 mM), the reduction in the cell growth was observed and the 2,3,4,6-TeCP degradation was more than 85% in all the concentrations in the present study. CL7 was able to remove 100% of 2,3,4,6-TeCP from the sludge (in Vitro condition) when supplemented with 100 mg/l (0.42 mM) of 2,3,4,6-TeCP and grown for two weeks. This study showed that CL7 can be used for bioremediation of 2,3,4,6-TeCP. PMID:27131053

  1. Crystal free-ion energy level analysis of Er 3+ (4f 11) in various crystal hosts-oxygen coordinated systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rukmini, E.; Renuka Devi, A.; Jayasankar, C. K.

    1994-02-01

    Comparative analyses of the Er 3+ (4f 11) crystal free-ion energy level structures in the Er 2O 3, Sc 2O 3, Y 2O 3, YAlO 3, GdAlO 3, SrMoO 4, ThGeO 4, CaWO 4, YVO 4, LuPO 4, Er(OH) 3, ErCl 3·6H 2O, Er(C 2H 5SO 4) 3 ·9H 2O, Na 3[Er(Oxydiacetate) 3]2NaClO 4·6H 2O and Er(HCOO) 3·2H 2O systems are reported. These analyses are based on a uniform model Hamiltonian that includes 20 free-ion parameters which are defined as central field ( EAVG), two-body electrostatic repulsion ( F2,4,6), two-body configuration (α, β, γ), three-body configuration ( T2,3,4,6,7,8), spin-orbit (ξ), spin-other-orbit ( M0,2,4) and electrostatically correlated spin-orbit ( P2,4,6) interactions. The systematic theoretical analysis of crystal free-ion levels results in a good correlation between calculated and observed energies. For example, comparison between the observed and calculated crystal free-ion levels of 13(Er:GdAlO 3), 8(Er:YVO 4), 8(Er:LuPO 4) and 11(Er:ErES) yields RMS deviations of 12 cm -1, 2 cm -1, 4 cm -1 and 7 cm -1 respectively. The empirical crystal free-ion energy parameters derived from fitting experimental data with the model Hamiltonian are consistent. The effects of the crystalline hosts on the empirical parameters are examined.

  2. Luminescent lanthanide coordination polymers synthesized via in-situ hydrolysis of dimethyl-3,4-furandicarboxylate

    SciTech Connect

    Greig, Natalie E.; Einkauf, Jeffrey D.; Clark, Jessica M.; Corcoran, Eric J.; Karram, Joseph P.; Kent, Charles A.; Eugene, Vadine E.; Chan, Benny C.; Lill, Daniel T. de

    2015-05-15

    Dimethyl-3,4-furandicarboxylate undergoes hydrolysis under hydrothermal conditions with lanthanide (Ln) ions to form two-dimensional coordination polymers, [Ln(C{sub 6}H{sub 2}O{sub 5})(C{sub 6}H{sub 3}O{sub 5})(H{sub 2}O)]{sub n} (Ln=Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu). The resulting materials exhibit luminescent properties with quantum yields and lifetimes for the Eu(III) and Tb(III) compounds of 1.1±0.3% and 0.387±0.0001 ms, and 3.3±0.8% and 0.769±0.006 ms, respectively. Energy values for the singlet and triplet states were determined for dimethyl-3,4-furandicarboxylate and 3,4-furandicarboxylic acid. Excited state dynamics and structural features are examined to explicate the reported quantum yields. A series of other FDC structures is briefly presented. - Graphical abstract: A new two-dimensional coordination polymer derived from the in-situ hydrolysis of a furan dimethyl ester with lanthanide(III) ions was obtained in order to study its photophysical behavior when constructed from trivalent Eu and Tb. Quantum yields, lifetime measurements, and singlet/triplet state energies values were obtained. The nature of the material's excited state dynamics is examined and correlated to its structure in order to explain the overall luminescent efficiency of the system. - Highlights: • A new lanthanide–furandicarboxylate coordination polymer is presented. • Eu and Tb compounds display luminescent properties, albeit with low quantum yields. • Photophysical behavior explained through the compound's triplet state and structure. • Nonradiative deactivation of luminescence through high-energy oscillators was noted. • Molecular modeling of the organic moiety was conducted.

  3. Periodic Safety Review on Safety Analyses of Kori Nuclear Units 3,4

    SciTech Connect

    Jong Woon Park; Sung Heum Han; Byoung Hwan Bae

    2004-07-01

    In order to maintain the operating plant safety at current safety standards, Periodic Safety Review (PSR) is legislated in 2001 in Korea as a 10-year-basis safety evaluation process. One of the eleven topics addressed in the PSR is safety analysis, in which the compliance of plants' safety analyses with current standards on initiating events and scope, methods and assumptions are evaluated. This paper describes the methods and results of the PSR on safety analysis of the Kori nuclear units 3,4, 3-Loop pressurized water reactors in operation from 1984. The review areas are design-basis, beyond-design basis and severe accidents. Evaluation of design basis accidents (DBA) in the Kori units 3,4 Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) issued a lack of consideration of loss of offsite power (LOOP) in some DBAs. To resolve this, electric power system stability analysis has been performed to show that sufficient time delay of reactor coolant pump trip after LOOP makes the current FSAR DBA analyses still valid with additional assumption of LOOP as an initiating event. Also, to get confidence on defense-in-depth safety, thermal hydraulic analyses are performed for beyond-design basis and severe accidents. A typical high-pressure scenario, total loss of feedwater event, is selected and analyzed by using RELAP5/MOD3 and MAAP4 computer codes for recovered and un-recovered cases, respectively. It is shown that using safety-grade pressurizer relief valves, the two cases meet the criteria that are applied to the new Korean Standard Nuclear Plants (KSNP) in Korea. It is thus concluded that the Kori units 3,4 have good design capabilities to prevent and mitigate broad spectrum of reactor accidents from design basis to severe accidents. (authors)

  4. Possible identification of a cluster of galaxies at redshift z = 3.4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giavalisco, Mauro; Steidel, Charles C.; Szalay, Alexander S.

    1994-01-01

    We report the possible detection of a cluster of 16 radio-quiet galaxies at z = 3.4, identified in the field around the optically thick absorption system toward Q0000-263 at z(sub abs) = 3.390. Two of them, a Lyman alpha emitter at z = 3.428 and the galaxy responsible for the absorption system, have redshifts spectroscopically confirmed. The other 14 galaxies identified using a multicolor imaging technique designed to detect sources in the redshift interval 3 approximately less than z approximately less than 3.5 which are characterized by a Lyman discontinuity in an otherwise flat spectrum, have broad-band spectral energy distributions identical to the two galaxies with known redshift. They are spatially distributed in two apparent clumps, around the damped absorber and the Lyman alpha galaxy, respectively. A clustering analysis excludes with 98.8% confidence that this association is a realization of a Poissonian distribution and confirms that the observed clumps are real. The implications are that the 16 galaxies are members of a cluster at z approximately equals 3.4, by far the most distant ever detected. An estimate of the mass bounded in stars of this cluster is 3 x 10(exp 12) solar mass (q(sub 0) = 0 and H(sub 0) = 50 km/s/Mpc throughout this Letter), while the total mass (baryonic + dark) is 6 x 10(exp 14) solar mass. We also estimate that at z = 3.4 the correlation length is 2.2 Mpc, which, compared to the present value of 11 Mpc, suggests that the clustering evolution is still close to the linear regime.

  5. Crystal structures of three 3,4,5-tri-meth-oxy-benzamide-based derivatives.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Ligia R; Low, John Nicolson; Oliveira, Catarina; Cagide, Fernando; Borges, Fernanda

    2016-05-01

    The crystal structures of three benzamide derivatives, viz. N-(6-hy-droxy-hex-yl)-3,4,5-tri-meth-oxy-benzamide, C16H25NO5, (1), N-(6-anilinohex-yl)-3,4,5-tri-meth-oxy-benzamide, C22H30N2O4, (2), and N-(6,6-di-eth-oxy-hex-yl)-3,4,5-tri-meth-oxy-benzamide, C20H33NO6, (3), are described. These compounds differ only in the substituent at the end of the hexyl chain and the nature of these substituents determines the differences in hydrogen bonding between the mol-ecules. In each mol-ecule, the m-meth-oxy substituents are virtually coplanar with the benzyl ring, while the p-meth-oxy substituent is almost perpendicular. The carbonyl O atom of the amide rotamer is trans related with the amidic H atom. In each structure, the benzamide N-H donor group and O acceptor atoms link the mol-ecules into C(4) chains. In 1, a terminal -OH group links the mol-ecules into a C(3) chain and the combined effect of the C(4) and C(3) chains is a ribbon made up of screw related R 2 (2)(17) rings in which the ⋯O-H⋯ chain lies in the centre of the ribbon and the tri-meth-oxy-benzyl groups forms the edges. In 2, the combination of the benzamide C(4) chain and the hydrogen bond formed by the terminal N-H group to an O atom of the 4-meth-oxy group link the mol-ecules into a chain of R 2 (2)(17) rings. In 3, the mol-ecules are linked only by C(4) chains. PMID:27308017

  6. Nonlinear pharmacokinetics of (+/-)3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and its pharmacodynamic consequences in the rat.

    PubMed

    Concheiro, Marta; Baumann, Michael H; Scheidweiler, Karl B; Rothman, Richard B; Marrone, Gina F; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2014-01-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a widely abused illicit drug that can cause severe and even fatal adverse effects. However, interest remains for its possible clinical applications in posttraumatic stress disorder and anxiety treatment. Preclinical studies to determine MDMA's safety are needed. We evaluated MDMA's pharmacokinetics and metabolism in male rats receiving 2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg s.c. MDMA, and the associated pharmacodynamic consequences. Blood was collected via jugular catheter at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 16, and 24 hours, with simultaneous serotonin (5-HT) behavioral syndrome and core temperature monitoring. Plasma specimens were analyzed for MDMA and the metabolites (±)-3,4-dihydroxymethamphetamine (HHMA), (±)-4-hydroxy-3-methoxymethamphetamine (HMMA), and (±)-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. After 2.5 mg/kg MDMA, mean MDMA Cmax was 164 ± 47.1 ng/ml, HHMA and HMMA were major metabolites, and <20% of MDMA was metabolized to MDA. After 5- and 10-mg/kg doses, MDMA areas under the curve (AUCs) were 3- and 10-fold greater than those after 2.5 mg/kg; HHMA and HMMA AUC values were relatively constant across doses; and MDA AUC values were greater than dose-proportional. Our data provide decisive in vivo evidence that MDMA and MDA display nonlinear accumulation via metabolic autoinhibition in the rat. Importantly, 5-HT syndrome severity correlated with MDMA concentrations (r = 0.8083; P < 0.0001) and core temperature correlated with MDA concentrations (r = 0.7595; P < 0.0001), suggesting that MDMA's behavioral and hyperthermic effects may involve distinct mechanisms. Given key similarities between MDMA pharmacokinetics in rats and humans, data from rats can be useful when provided at clinically relevant doses. PMID:24141857

  7. Nonlinear Pharmacokinetics of (±)3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and Its Pharmacodynamic Consequences in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Concheiro, Marta; Baumann, Michael H.; Scheidweiler, Karl B.; Rothman, Richard B.; Marrone, Gina F.

    2014-01-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a widely abused illicit drug that can cause severe and even fatal adverse effects. However, interest remains for its possible clinical applications in posttraumatic stress disorder and anxiety treatment. Preclinical studies to determine MDMA’s safety are needed. We evaluated MDMA’s pharmacokinetics and metabolism in male rats receiving 2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg s.c. MDMA, and the associated pharmacodynamic consequences. Blood was collected via jugular catheter at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 16, and 24 hours, with simultaneous serotonin (5-HT) behavioral syndrome and core temperature monitoring. Plasma specimens were analyzed for MDMA and the metabolites (±)-3,4-dihydroxymethamphetamine (HHMA), (±)-4-hydroxy-3-methoxymethamphetamine (HMMA), and (±)-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. After 2.5 mg/kg MDMA, mean MDMA Cmax was 164 ± 47.1 ng/ml, HHMA and HMMA were major metabolites, and <20% of MDMA was metabolized to MDA. After 5- and 10-mg/kg doses, MDMA areas under the curve (AUCs) were 3- and 10-fold greater than those after 2.5 mg/kg; HHMA and HMMA AUC values were relatively constant across doses; and MDA AUC values were greater than dose-proportional. Our data provide decisive in vivo evidence that MDMA and MDA display nonlinear accumulation via metabolic autoinhibition in the rat. Importantly, 5-HT syndrome severity correlated with MDMA concentrations (r = 0.8083; P < 0.0001) and core temperature correlated with MDA concentrations (r = 0.7595; P < 0.0001), suggesting that MDMA’s behavioral and hyperthermic effects may involve distinct mechanisms. Given key similarities between MDMA pharmacokinetics in rats and humans, data from rats can be useful when provided at clinically relevant doses. PMID:24141857

  8. NIR-sensitive poly(3,4-ethylenedioxyselenophene) derivatives for transparent photo-thermo-electric converters.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byeonggwan; Shin, Haijin; Park, Teahoon; Lim, Hanwhuy; Kim, Eunkyoung

    2013-10-11

    Electrochromism, photothermal effect, and thermoelectric properties of hexyl-derivatized poly(3,4-ethylenedioxyselenophene) are investigated by precisely controlling the morphology. These properties are clearly demonstrated by controlling the applied electrical potential of the polymer films. Especially, the doped polymer film at -0.1 V reveals the highest photothermal conversion efficiency and a power factor of 42.5% and 354.7 μW m(-1) K(-2) , respectively. Efficient visible to near-infrared absorption, photon to heat, and heat to electric conversion has been realized in one film that could benefit in exploiting multifunctional film displays, invisible NIR sensors, photodynamic theragnosis, and thermoelectric devices. PMID:23857668

  9. Infrared absorption spectra of pure and doped YAl3(BO3)4 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovács, L.; Mazzera, M.; Beregi, E.; Capelletti, R.

    2009-02-01

    Several weak absorption bands have been observed in the optical absorption spectra of pure and rare-earth-doped YAl3(BO3)4 single crystals in the 3350- 3650 cm-1 wave number region. Two of them, peaking at about 3377 cm-1 and 3580 cm-1 in the 8 K spectra, appear in most of the samples. They are tentatively attributed to the stretching mode of OH- ions incorporated in the crystal during the growth. An additional absorption band at about 5250 cm-1 at 8 K has also been detected in almost all samples. The temperature and polarization dependences of these bands, and their possible origin, are discussed.

  10. Enrichment of Oct3/4-positive cells from a human bronchial epithelial cell line.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Jia, Lanling; Jia, Xinshan; Shi, Mumu; Li, Xiaolei; Ye, Xulv; Wang, Ruiyue; Xiong, Yanlei; Wang, Enhua; Li, Fang

    2013-07-01

    Most adult stem cells are in the G0 phase of the cell cycle, accounting for only a small percentage of the cells in the tissue. Thus, isolation of stem cells from tissues for further study represents a major challenge. The anti-tumor drug 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) selectively kills proliferating cells, sparing cells in the G0 phase. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine whether 5-FU can be used to enrich stem cells in a human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cell population in vitro. Side population (SP) cells were isolated from untreated HBE cells or HBE cells treated with 5-FU, and the resulting cells were subjected to colony formation assays, culturing of cell spheres, and tumorigenicity assays. Expression of Oct3/4, Sox2, PCK, and β-catenin were examined by Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence. Treatment with 5-FU increased the percentage of SP cells from 0.3% to 1.5%, and the clonogenic ability of 5-FU-treated cells was more than twofold higher than that of HBE cells. Cells that survived after 5-FU treatment exhibited a higher capacity for sphere formation. Furthermore, spheres formed from 5-FU-treated cells possessed the capacity to generate differentiated progenies. Cells treated with 5-FU also exhibited tumorigenic potential, based on tumor formation assays in nude mice, and Oct3/4-positive cell aggregates were identified in the resulting tumors. In this study, we have shown that 5-FU treatment enriched the population of cells expressing the putative embryonic markers Oct3/4 and Sox2 and exhibiting nuclear accumulation of β-catenin. Furthermore, 5-FU-treated cells expressed low levels of the epithelial differentiation marker PCK. Analysis of epigenetic modifications suggested that Oct3/4-positive cells possessed characteristics of stem cells. These results demonstrate that treatment with 5-FU can enrich the stem cell population present in a human bronchial epithelial cell line, and implicate combined treatment with 5-FU and serum-free medium as

  11. Critical behavior of the q = 3 , 4-Potts model on quasiperiodic decagonal lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraz, Carlos Handrey Araujo

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we performed Monte Carlo simulations of the q = 3 , 4-Potts model on quasiperiodic decagonal lattices (QDL) to assess the critical behavior of these systems. Using the single histogram technique in conjunction with the finite-size scaling analysis, we estimate the infinite lattice critical temperatures and the leading critical exponents for q = 3 and q = 4 states. Our estimates for the critical exponents on QDL are in good agreement with the exact values on 2D periodic lattices, supporting the claim that both the q = 3 and q = 4 Potts model on quasiperiodic lattices belong to the same universality class as those on 2D periodic lattices.

  12. Deformation and thermal histories of chondrules in the Chainpur (LL3. 4) chondrite

    SciTech Connect

    Ruzicka, A. )

    1990-06-01

    The results of optical and TEM studies of chondrules in the Chainpur (LL3.4) chondrite are presented. Results were obtained, using a microprobe, from quantitative microchemical analyses for Mg, Fe, Si, and Ca for the chondrule olivine and pyroxene, showing that chondrules in the Chainpur chondrite experienced varied degrees of annealing and deformation. It is suggested that Chainpur may be an agglomerate of a breccia that experienced little overall deformation or heating during and after the final accumulation and compaction of its constituents. 75 refs.

  13. Kinetics of 3-(4-methylbenzylidene)camphor in rats and humans after dermal application

    SciTech Connect

    Schauer, Ute M.D.; Voelkel, Wolfgang; Heusener, Alexander; Colnot, Thomas; Broschard, Thomas H.; Landenberg, Friedrich von; Dekant, Wolfgang . E-mail: dekant@toxi.uni-wuerzburg.de

    2006-10-15

    The toxicokinetics of 4-MBC after dermal administration were investigated in human subjects and in rats. Humans (3 male and 3 female subjects) were exposed to 4-MBC by topical application of a commercial sunscreen formulation containing 4% 4-MBC (w/w), covering 90% of the body surface and resulting in a mean dermal 4-MBC dose of 22 mg/kg bw. In rats, dermal 4-MBC doses of 400 and 2000 mg/kg bw were applied in a formulation using an occlusive patch for 24 h. Concentrations of 4-MBC and its metabolites were monitored over 96 h in plasma (rats and humans) and urine (humans). In human subjects, plasma levels of 4-MBC peaked at 200 pmol/ml in males and 100 pmol/ml in females 6 h after application and then decreased to reach the limit of detection after 24 h (females), respectively, 36 h (males). After dermal application of 4-MBC, peak plasma concentrations of 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)-6-hydroxycamphor were 50-80 pmol/ml at 12 h and of 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor were 100-200 pmol/ml at 24 h. In male and female rats, peak plasma levels of 4-MBC were 200 (dose of 400 mg/kg bw) and 1 200 pmol/ml (dose of 2000 mg/kg bw). These levels remained constant for up to 24-48 h after dermal application. Peak plasma concentrations of 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)-6-hydroxycamphor were 18,000 pmol/ml (males) and of 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor were 55,000 pmol/ml (females) between 48 and 72 h after application of the high dose of 4-MBC. In human subjects, only a small percentage of the dermally applied dose of 4-MBC was recovered in the form of metabolites in urine, partly as glucuronides. The obtained results suggest a more intensive biotransformation of 4-MBC in rats as compared to humans after dermal application and a poor absorption of 4-MBC through human skin.

  14. Kinetics of 3-(4-methylbenzylidene)camphor in rats and humans after dermal application.

    PubMed

    Schauer, Ute M D; Völkel, Wolfgang; Heusener, Alexander; Colnot, Thomas; Broschard, Thomas H; von Landenberg, Friedrich; Dekant, Wolfgang

    2006-10-15

    The toxicokinetics of 4-MBC after dermal administration were investigated in human subjects and in rats. Humans (3 male and 3 female subjects) were exposed to 4-MBC by topical application of a commercial sunscreen formulation containing 4% 4-MBC (w/w), covering 90% of the body surface and resulting in a mean dermal 4-MBC dose of 22 mg/kg bw. In rats, dermal 4-MBC doses of 400 and 2000 mg/kg bw were applied in a formulation using an occlusive patch for 24 h. Concentrations of 4-MBC and its metabolites were monitored over 96 h in plasma (rats and humans) and urine (humans). In human subjects, plasma levels of 4-MBC peaked at 200 pmol/ml in males and 100 pmol/ml in females 6 h after application and then decreased to reach the limit of detection after 24 h (females), respectively, 36 h (males). After dermal application of 4-MBC, peak plasma concentrations of 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)-6-hydroxycamphor were 50-80 pmol/ml at 12 h and of 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor were 100-200 pmol/ml at 24 h. In male and female rats, peak plasma levels of 4-MBC were 200 (dose of 400 mg/kg bw) and 1 200 pmol/ml (dose of 2000 mg/kg bw). These levels remained constant for up to 24-48 h after dermal application. Peak plasma concentrations of 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)-6-hydroxycamphor were 18,000 pmol/ml (males) and of 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor were 55,000 pmol/ml (females) between 48 and 72 h after application of the high dose of 4-MBC. In human subjects, only a small percentage of the dermally applied dose of 4-MBC was recovered in the form of metabolites in urine, partly as glucuronides. The obtained results suggest a more intensive biotransformation of 4-MBC in rats as compared to humans after dermal application and a poor absorption of 4-MBC through human skin. PMID:16814339

  15. Highly soluble 3,4-(dimethoxyphenylthio) substituted phthalocyanines: synthesis, photophysical and photochemical studies.

    PubMed

    Öztürk, Cansu; Erdoğmuş, Ali; Durmuş, Mahmut; Uğur, Ahmet Lütfi; Kılıçarslan, Fatma Aytan; Erden, Ibrahim

    2012-02-01

    The synthesis of a new 3,4-(dimethoxyphenylthio) substituted phthalonitrile (1) and its soluble metal free (2), zinc (II) (3), oxo-titanium (IV) (4) and nickel (II) (5) phthalocyanine derivatives are reported for the first time. The new compounds have been characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, (1)H NMR, UV-Vis, fluorescence spectroscopies and mass spectra. General trends are described for fluorescence, photodegradation and singlet oxygen quantum yields and fluorescence lifetimes of oxo-titanium (IV) and zinc (II) phthalocyanine compounds in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). The effects of the metal ion on the photophysical and photochemical parameters for these phthalocyanines (3 and 4) are also reported. PMID:22112573

  16. Photophysics of poly(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorostyrene) film

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, D.B.; Scott, G.W. ); Coulter, D.R.; Miskowski, V.M.; Yavrouian, A. )

    1990-08-09

    The temperature-dependent steady-state emission, emission polarization anisotropy, and fluorescence kinetics of poly(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorostyrene) film are reported. Two interconverting excited-state conformations of the chromophore have been identified. The fluorescence of the higher energy conformation results from excitation on the red edge of the polymer absorption band at temperatures below 180 K. The energy barrier for conversion of the higher energy conformer to the lower energy conformer is estimated to be E/hc = 27 {plus minus} 7 cm{sup {minus}1}. Electronic energy migration is not evident in this polymer.

  17. Vibrational spectra of ketamine hydrochloride and 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine in terahertz range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guangqin; Shen, Jingling; Jia, Yan

    2007-07-01

    The terahertz spectrum of ketamine hydrochloride at room temperature, in the range of 0.2-2.6THz, has been measured by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (TDS). Full-geometry optimizations and frequency calculations using the density functional theory (DFT) are also applied to predict the absorption spectra of ketamine hydrochloride and 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). The results of the simulation show qualitative agreement with the experimental data especially for MDMA, and the observed spectra features are assigned based on the DFT calculation. The results suggest that use of the terahertz TDS technique can be an effective method for the detection and inspection of illicit drugs.

  18. 1,3,4-Oxadiazole-containing histone deacetylase inhibitors: anticancer activities in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Valente, Sergio; Trisciuoglio, Daniela; De Luca, Teresa; Nebbioso, Angela; Labella, Donatella; Lenoci, Alessia; Bigogno, Chiara; Dondio, Giulio; Miceli, Marco; Brosch, Gerald; Del Bufalo, Donatella; Altucci, Lucia; Mai, Antonello

    2014-07-24

    We describe 1,3,4-oxadiazole-containing hydroxamates (2) and 2-aminoanilides (3) as histone deacetylase inhibitors. Among them, 2t, 2x, and 3i were the most potent and selective against HDAC1. In U937 leukemia cells, 2t was more potent than SAHA in inducing apoptosis, and 3i displayed cell differentiation with a potency similar to MS-275. In several acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell lines, as well as in U937 cells in combination with doxorubicin, 3i showed higher antiproliferative effects than SAHA. PMID:24972008

  19. Anomalous magnetizations in 3.4 b.y. old Barberton Mountain Land samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cisowski, S. M.

    1981-01-01

    The ratio of natural remanence (NRM) to saturation remanence is exceedingly high for a number of basaltic to ultramafic samples from the 3.4 billion year old Barberton Mountain Land greenstone belt, South Africa. Although conventional paleointensity methods indicate paleofields of several oersteds, demagnetization curves plotted on logarithmic scale clearly show the NRM in these samples to be unlike thermal remanence. It is probable that the observed NRM is a chemical remanence related to the greenschist metamorphic event, and that the intense magnetizations are the result of internally generated, rather than external fields.

  20. Optical properties and laser potential of dysprosium doped YAl3(BO3)(4) (YAB) crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominiak-Dzik, G.; Solarz, P.; Ryba-Romanowski, W.; Beregi, E.; Hartmann, E.; Kovacs, L.

    The absorption and emission spectra were measured at 5 and 300 K. The positions of the selected Dy3+ levels and their Stark components, determined from optical spectra at 5K, are presented. In this work an attempt is made to assess the potential of dysprosium doped YAl3 (BO3 )(4) crystal as a laser active material operating near 570 nm. The emission cross-section of a potential laser line at 570 nm connected with F-4 (9/2) --> H-6(13/2) transition was estimated.

  1. Structure and lattice dynamics of PrFe3(BO3)4: Ab initio calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernyshev, V. A.; Nikiforov, A. E.; Petrov, V. P.

    2016-06-01

    The crystal structure and phonon spectrum of PrFe3(BO3)4 are ab initio calculated in the context of the density functional theory. The ion coordinates in the unit cell of a crystal and the lattice parameters are evaluated from the calculations. The types and frequencies of the fundamental vibrations, as well as the line intensities of the IR spectrum, are determined. The elastic constants of the crystal are calculated. A "seed" frequency of the vibration strongly interacting with the electron excitation on the praseodymium ion is obtained for low-frequency A 2 mode. The calculated results are in agreement with the known experimental data.

  2. Solid-Phase Synthesis of 1,3,4-Thiadiazole Derivatives via Desulfurative Cyclization of Thiosemicarbazide Intermediate Resin.

    PubMed

    Yang, Seung-Ju; Choe, Ji-Hye; Gong, Young-Dae

    2016-08-01

    A 1,3,4-thiadiazole library was constructed by solid-phase organic synthesis. The key step of this solid-phase synthesis involves the preparation of polymer-bound 2-amido-5-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole resin by the cyclization of thiosemicarbazide resin using p-TsCl as the desulfurative agent, followed by the functionalization of the resin by alkylation, acylation, alkylation/acylation, and Suzuki coupling reactions. Both the alkylation and acylation reactions chemoselectively occurred at the 2-amide position of 2-amido-5-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole resin and the 5-amine position of 2-amido-5-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole resin, respectively. Finally, these functionalized 1,3,4-thiadiazole resins were treated with trifluoroacetic acid in dichloromethane, affording diverse 1,3,4-thiadiazole analogs in high yields and purities. The 1,3,4-thiadiazole analogs show a different distribution of physicochemical and biological properties compared with our previously constructed 1,3,4-oxadiazole and 1,3,4-thiadiazole libraries in a range of orally available drug properties. PMID:27362292

  3. An algorithm for nonrelativistic quantum-mechanical finite-nuclear-mass variational calculations of nitrogen atom in L = 0, M = 0 states using all-electrons explicitly correlated Gaussian basis functions.

    PubMed

    Sharkey, Keeper L; Adamowicz, Ludwik

    2014-05-01

    An algorithm for quantum-mechanical nonrelativistic variational calculations of L = 0 and M = 0 states of atoms with an arbitrary number of s electrons and with three p electrons have been implemented and tested in the calculations of the ground (4)S state of the nitrogen atom. The spatial part of the wave function is expanded in terms of all-electrons explicitly correlated Gaussian functions with the appropriate pre-exponential Cartesian angular factors for states with the L = 0 and M = 0 symmetry. The algorithm includes formulas for calculating the Hamiltonian and overlap matrix elements, as well as formulas for calculating the analytic energy gradient determined with respect to the Gaussian exponential parameters. The gradient is used in the variational optimization of these parameters. The Hamiltonian used in the approach is obtained by rigorously separating the center-of-mass motion from the laboratory-frame all-particle Hamiltonian, and thus it explicitly depends on the finite mass of the nucleus. With that, the mass effect on the total ground-state energy is determined. PMID:24811630

  4. Crystal structure of 3,4-dihydroxy-2-butanone 4-phosphate synthase of riboflavin biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, D.-I.; Calabrese, J.C.; Wawrzak, Z.; Viitanen, P.V.; Jordan, D.B.

    2010-03-05

    3,4-Dihydroxy-2-butanone-4-phosphate synthase catalyzes a commitment step in the biosynthesis of riboflavin. On the enzyme, ribulose 5-phosphate is converted to 3,4-dihydroxy-2-butanone 4-phosphate and formate in steps involving enolization, ketonization, dehydration, skeleton rearrangement, and formate elimination. The enzyme is absent in humans and an attractive target for the discovery of antimicrobials for pathogens incapable of acquiring sufficient riboflavin from their hosts. The homodimer of 23 kDa subunits requires Mg{sup 2+} for activity. The first three-dimensional structure of the enzyme was determined at 1.4 {angstrom} resolution using the multiwavelength anomalous diffraction (MAD) method on Escherichia coli protein crystals containing gold. The protein consists of an {alpha} + {beta} fold having a complex linkage of {beta} strands. Intersubunit contacts are mediated by numerous hydrophobic interactions and three hydrogen bond networks. A proposed active site was identified on the basis of amino acid residues that are conserved among the enzyme from 19 species. There are two well-separated active sites per dimer, each of which comprise residues from both subunits. In addition to three arginines and two threonines, which may be used for recognizing the phosphate group of the substrate, the active site consists of three glutamates, two aspartates, two histidines, and a cysteine which may provide the means for general acid and base catalysis and for coordinating the Mg{sup 2+} cofactor within the active site.

  5. Beyond paraquats: dialkyl 3,3'- and 3,4'-bipyridinium amphiphiles as antibacterial agents.

    PubMed

    Ator, Laura E; Jennings, Megan C; McGettigan, Amanda R; Paul, Jared J; Wuest, William M; Minbiole, Kevin P C

    2014-08-15

    Dialkyl 4,4'-bipyridinium compounds, known as 'paraquats' (PQs), have a long history of use as herbicides, as redox indicators, and more recently as potent antibacterial agents. However, due to their ability to form reactive oxygen species (ROS) in vivo, PQs are also known to be toxic. We proposed that altering the electrochemical properties of PQ, specifically by preparing isomeric bipyridinium structures with 3,3'- and 3,4'-substitution of the nitrogen heteroatoms on the biaryl core, would maintain antibacterial activity, yet decrease toxicity. We have thus prepared a series of 17 amphiphiles, dubbed 'metaquat' (MQ) and 'parametaquat' (PMQ), respectively, and investigated their antibacterial and electrochemical properties. Optimal inhibition of bacterial growth was observed in symmetric, biscationic structures; minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values measured as low as 0.5 μM against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria for the compound PMQ-11,11. Electrochemical analysis demonstrated the redox properties of the dialkyl 3,3'- and 3,4'-bipyridinium amphiphiles to be distinct from those of the 4,4'-bipyridinium isomer. Thus MQ and PMQ amphiphiles maintain the strong antibacterial activity of the PQ isomers, but show promise for reduced ROS toxicity. PMID:25082127

  6. Improving the Thermoelectric Properties of Polyaniline by Introducing Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao Yang; Liu, Cheng Yan; Miao, Lei; Gao, Jie; Chen, Yu

    2016-03-01

    By using the parent monomers, 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene and aniline, a series of nanocomposites consisting of different mass ratios of polyaniline (PANI) to poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) have been successfully prepared in hydrochloric acid solution through oxidative polymerization, then redoped with p-toluenesulfonic acid ( p-TSA). Firstly, PEDOT nanoparticles were fabricated via chemical oxidation polymerization in reverse (water-in-oil) microemulsions. Then, PANI-doped PEDOT nanoparticles were formed by oxidative polymerization of aniline to form PANI/PEDOT nanofibers. The resulting nanostructured components were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and a series of spectroscopic methods. The presence of PEDOT increased the room-temperature electrical conductivity of the PANI/PEDOT nanocomposites by more than two orders of magnitude in comparison with the parent PANI. Moreover, the PANI/PEDOT nanocomposites showed better thermoelectric properties than PANI. Different concentrations of p-TSA also affected the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient of the nanocomposites. With increasing temperature, both the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient increased.

  7. Highly Aligned Poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene) (PEDOT) Nano- and Microscale Fibers and Tubes

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jinghang; Cho, Whirang; Martin, David C.; Feng, Zhang-Qi; Leach, Michelle K.; Franz, Eric W.; Naim, Youssef I.; Gu, Zhong-Ze; Corey, Joseph M.

    2015-01-01

    This study reports a facile method for the fabrication of aligned Poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene) (PEDOT) fibers and tubes based on electrospinning and oxidative chemical polymerization. Discrete PEDOT nano- and microfibers and nano- and microtubes are difficult to fabricate quickly and reproducibly. We employed poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) polymers that were loaded with polymerizable 3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene (EDOT) monomer to create aligned nanofiber assemblies using a rotating glass mandrel during electrospinning. The EDOT monomer/PLGA polymer blends were then polymerized by exposure to an oxidative catalyst (FeCl3). PEDOT was polymerized by continuously dripping a FeCl3 solution onto the glass rod during electrospinning. The resulting PEDOT fibers were conductive, aligned and discrete. Fiber bundles could be easily produced in lengths of several centimeters. The PEDOT sheath/PLGA core fibers were immersed in chloroform to remove the PLGA and any residual EDOT resulting in hollow PEDOT tubes. This approach made it possible to easily generate large areas of aligned PEDOT fibers/tubes. The structure and properties of the aligned assemblies were measured using optical microscopy, electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis, and DC conductivity measurements. We also demonstrated that the aligned PEDOT sheath/PLGA core fiber assemblies could be used in supporting and directing the extension of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons in vitro. PMID:25678719

  8. Structurally-driven Enhancement of Thermoelectric Properties within Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petsagkourakis, Ioannis; Pavlopoulou, Eleni; Portale, Giuseppe; Kuropatwa, Bryan A.; Dilhaire, Stefan; Fleury, Guillaume; Hadziioannou, Georges

    2016-07-01

    Due to the rising need for clean energy, thermoelectricity has raised as a potential alternative to reduce dependence on fossil fuels. Specifically, thermoelectric devices based on polymers could offer an efficient path for near-room temperature energy harvesters. Thus, control over thermoelectric properties of conducting polymers is crucial and, herein, the structural, electrical and thermoelectric properties of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) thin films doped with p-toluenesulfonate (Tos) molecules were investigated with regards to thin film processing. PEDOT:Tos thin films were prepared by in-situ polymerization of (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) monomers in presence of iron(III) p-toluenesulfonate with different co-solvents in order to tune the film structure. While the Seebeck coefficient remained constant, a large improvement in the electrical conductivity was observed for thin films processed with high boiling point additives. The increase of electrical conductivity was found to be solely in-plane mobility-driven. Probing the thin film structure by Grazing Incidence Wide Angle X-ray Scattering has shown that this behavior is dictated by the structural properties of the PEDOT:Tos films; specifically by the thin film crystallinity combined to the preferential edge-on orientation of the PEDOT crystallites. Consequentially enhancement of the power factor from 25 to 78.5 μW/mK2 has been readily obtained for PEDOT:Tos thin films following this methodology.

  9. Conceptual design of a high-Q, 3.4-GHz thin film quartz resonator.

    PubMed

    Patel, Mihir S; Yong, Yook-Kong

    2009-05-01

    Theoretical analyses and designs of high-Q, quartz thin film resonators are presented. The resonators operate at an ultra-high frequency of 3.4 GHz for application to high-frequency timing devices such as cesium chip-scale atomic clocks. The frequency spectra for the 3.4-GHz thin film quartz resonators, which serve as design aids in selecting the resonator dimensions/configurations for simple electrodes, and ring electrode mesa designs are presented here for the first time. The thin film aluminum electrodes are found to play a major role in the resonators because the electrodes are only one third the thickness and mass of the active areas of the plate resonator. Hence, in addition to the material properties of quartz, the elastic, viscoelastic, and thermal properties of the electrodes are included in the models. The frequency-temperature behavior is obtained for the best resonator designs. To improve the frequency-temperature behavior of the resonators, new quartz cuts are proposed to compensate for the thermal stresses caused by the aluminum electrodes and the mounting supports. Frequency response analyses are performed to determine the Q-factor, motional resistance, capacitance ratio, and other figures of merit. The resonators have Q's of about 3800, resistance of about 1300 to 1400 ohms, and capacitance ratios of 1100 to 2800. PMID:19473909

  10. DFT calculation of the electronic properties of fluorene-1,3,4-thiadiazole oligomers.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Bojorge, Nora Aydeé; Rodríguez-Valdez, Luz María; Flores-Holguín, Norma

    2013-09-01

    Thiadiazole derivatives have been widely employed in the areas of pharmaceutical, agricultural, industrial, and polymer chemistry. The electronic and molecular structures of thiadiazoles are of interest because they have an equal number of valence electrons and similar molecular structures to thiophenes, which are currently used in the construction of organic solar cells due to their relatively high hole mobilities and good light-harvesting properties. For this reason, the electronic properties of fluorene-1,3,4-thiadiazole oligomers warrant investigation. In the present work, the structure of fluorene-1,3,4-thiadiazole with one thiadiazole unit in the structure was analyzed. This molecule was then expanded until there were 10 thiadiazole units in the structure. The band gap, HOMO and LUMO distributions, and absorption spectrum were analyzed for each molecule. All calculations were performed by applying the B3LYP/6-31G(d) chemical model in the Gaussian 03W and GaussView software packages. The electronic properties were observed to significantly enhance as the number of monomeric units increased, which also caused the gap energy to decrease from 3.51 eV in the oligomer with just one thiadiazole ring to 2.33 eV in the oligomer with 10 units. The HOMO and LUMO regions were well defined and separated for oligomers with at least 5 monomer units of thiadiazole. PMID:23722558

  11. Functional analysis of {alpha}1,3/4-fucosyltransferase VI in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Qiya; Guo, Bin; Wang, Yingming; Wu, Jun; Jiang, Wenjun; Zhao, Shenan; Qiao, Shouyi; Wu, Yanhua

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Human FUT6 is up-regulated in HCC tissues. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of FUT6 promotes G0/G1-S transition and cell growth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FUT6 confers a growth advantage in vivo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FUT6 suppresses p21 expression through modulating PI3K/Akt signaling. -- Abstract: The {alpha}1,3/4-fucosyltransferases (FUT) subfamily are key enzymes in cell surface antigen synthesis during various biological processes. A novel role of FUTs in tumorigenesis has been discovered recently, however, the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. Here, we characterized FUT6, a member of {alpha}1,3/4-FUT subfamily, in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In HCC tissues, the expression levels of FUT6 and its catalytic product SLe{sup x} were significantly up-regulated. Overexpression of FUT6 in HCC cells enhanced S-phase cell population, promoted cell growth and colony formation ability. Moreover, subcutaneously injection of FUT6-overexpressing cells in nude mice promoted cell growth in vivo. In addition, elevating FUT6 expression markedly induced intracellular Akt phosphorylation, and suppressed the expression of the cyclin-dependent kinases inhibitor p21. Bath application of the PI3K inhibitor blocked FUT6-induced Akt phosphorylation, p21 suppression and cell proliferation. Our results suggest that FUT6 plays an important role in HCC growth by regulating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

  12. Antinociceptive properties of new coumarin derivatives bearing substituted 3,4-dihydro-2H-benzothiazines

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Coumarins are an important class of widely distributed heterocyclic natural products exhibiting a broad pharmacological profile. In this work, a new series of coumarins bearing substituted 3,4-dihydro-2H-benzothiazines were described as potential analgesic agents. The clinical use of NSAIDs as traditional analgesics is associated with side effects such as gastrointestinal lesions and nephrotoxicity. Therefore, the discovery of new safer drugs represents a challenging goal for such a research area. Results The target compounds 3-(3-methyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-benzo[b][1,4]thiazin-3-yl)-2H-chromen-2-ones 2a-u were synthesized and characterized by spectral data. The antinociceptive properties of target compounds were determined by formalin-induced test and acetic acid-induced writhing test in mice. Among the tested compounds, compound 2u bearing 2-(4-(methylsulfonyl)benzoyl)- moiety on benzothiazine ring and 4-(methylsulfonyl)phenacyloxy- group on the 7 position of coumarin nucleus showed better profile of antinocecieption in both models. It was more effective than mefenamic acid during the late phase of formalin-induced test as well as in the acetic acid-induced writhing test. Conclusion Considering the significant antinoceciptive action of phenacyloxycoumarin derivatives, compound 2u prototype might be further used as model to obtain new more potent analgesic drugs. PMID:24398032

  13. Crystal Structure and Substrate Specificity of Drosophila 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine Decarboxylase

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Q.; Ding, H; Robinson, H; Christensen, B; Li, J

    2010-01-01

    3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine decarboxylase (DDC), also known as aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase, catalyzes the decarboxylation of a number of aromatic L-amino acids. Physiologically, DDC is responsible for the production of dopamine and serotonin through the decarboxylation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine and 5-hydroxytryptophan, respectively. In insects, both dopamine and serotonin serve as classical neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, or neurohormones, and dopamine is also involved in insect cuticle formation, eggshell hardening, and immune responses. In this study, we expressed a typical DDC enzyme from Drosophila melanogaster, critically analyzed its substrate specificity and biochemical properties, determined its crystal structure at 1.75 Angstrom resolution, and evaluated the roles residues T82 and H192 play in substrate binding and enzyme catalysis through site-directed mutagenesis of the enzyme. Our results establish that this DDC functions exclusively on the production of dopamine and serotonin, with no activity to tyrosine or tryptophan and catalyzes the formation of serotonin more efficiently than dopamine. The crystal structure of Drosophila DDC and the site-directed mutagenesis study of the enzyme demonstrate that T82 is involved in substrate binding and that H192 is used not only for substrate interaction, but for cofactor binding of drDDC as well. Through comparative analysis, the results also provide insight into the structure-function relationship of other insect DDC-like proteins.

  14. Crystal Structure and Substrate Specificity of Drosophila 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine Decarboxylase

    PubMed Central

    Han, Qian; Ding, Haizhen; Robinson, Howard; Christensen, Bruce M.; Li, Jianyong

    2010-01-01

    Background 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine decarboxylase (DDC), also known as aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase, catalyzes the decarboxylation of a number of aromatic L-amino acids. Physiologically, DDC is responsible for the production of dopamine and serotonin through the decarboxylation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine and 5-hydroxytryptophan, respectively. In insects, both dopamine and serotonin serve as classical neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, or neurohormones, and dopamine is also involved in insect cuticle formation, eggshell hardening, and immune responses. Principal Findings In this study, we expressed a typical DDC enzyme from Drosophila melanogaster, critically analyzed its substrate specificity and biochemical properties, determined its crystal structure at 1.75 Angstrom resolution, and evaluated the roles residues T82 and H192 play in substrate binding and enzyme catalysis through site-directed mutagenesis of the enzyme. Our results establish that this DDC functions exclusively on the production of dopamine and serotonin, with no activity to tyrosine or tryptophan and catalyzes the formation of serotonin more efficiently than dopamine. Conclusions The crystal structure of Drosophila DDC and the site-directed mutagenesis study of the enzyme demonstrate that T82 is involved in substrate binding and that H192 is used not only for substrate interaction, but for cofactor binding of drDDC as well. Through comparative analysis, the results also provide insight into the structure-function relationship of other insect DDC-like proteins. PMID:20098687

  15. Interpretation of the N2 LBH glow observed on the S3-4 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torr, D. G.; Torr, M. R.

    1987-01-01

    Emissions in the vacuum ultraviolet Lyman-Birge-Hopfield (LBH) bands of N2 were observed at night from the S3-4 spacecraft and from the Space Shuttle. No atmospheric source of this emission was identified. Conway et al. have reported that the intensity of the S3-4 LBH emission varied as the cube power of the N2 or N2O concentration. A vehicle-atmosphere interaction was suggested as the source but it was found that the needed excitation cross section would have to be unacceptably large. Recent models of the gas concentration build-up around large space vehicles predict concentrations that may be consistent with the observe LBH intensity variation with altitude. The emission in the model is generated primarily by secondary collisional excitation by ambient N2 and/or O of desorbed metastable molecular constituents. A Chapman-like production function in the induced gaseous environment results in the observed cube power of the N2 concentration altitude variation. A cross section of approximately 2.5 x 10(-18) sq cm is required for excitation of desorbed metastable N2(A) to the N2 (a 1 Pi g) state to account for the observed intensities.

  16. Thermodynamic properties of 9-methylcarbazole and 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-9-methylcarbazole

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, W.V.; Knipmeyer, S.E.; Nguyen, A.; Chirico, R.D.

    1991-04-01

    Removal of carbazole and its derivatives from heavy petroleum has proved to be particularly difficult using present technology. Studies have shown carbazole and its alkyl-homologs are the dominant nitrogen-containing components in clarified slurry oils, thereby indicating their low reactivity and/or formation during cat-cracking processes. The results reported here will point the way to the development of new methods of nitrogen removal from carbazole and its derivatives. Measurements leading to the calculation of the ideal-gas thermodynamic properties are reported for 9-methylcarbazole and 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-9-methylcarbazole. For studies on 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-9-methylcarbazole experimental methods included combustion calorimetry, adiabatic heat-capacity calorimetry, vibrating-tube densitometry, comparative ebulliometry, inclined-piston gauge manometry, and differential-scanning calorimetry (d.s.c.). Adiabatic heat-capacity and combustion calorimetric studies were reported previously for 9-methylcarbazole. Vapor pressures by comparative ebulliometry and inclined-piston gauge manometry, and heat-capacities for the liquid phase by d.s.c. are reported here. Entropies, enthalpies, and Gibbs energies of formation were derived for the ideal gas for both compounds for selected temperatures between 298.15 K and near 700 K. The Gibbs energies of formation will be used in a subsequent report in thermodynamic calculations to study the reaction pathway of the initial hydrogenation step in the carbazole/H{sub 2} hydrodenitrogenation network. 52 refs., 9 figs., 15 tabs.

  17. Structurally-driven Enhancement of Thermoelectric Properties within Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) thin Films

    PubMed Central

    Petsagkourakis, Ioannis; Pavlopoulou, Eleni; Portale, Giuseppe; Kuropatwa, Bryan A.; Dilhaire, Stefan; Fleury, Guillaume; Hadziioannou, Georges

    2016-01-01

    Due to the rising need for clean energy, thermoelectricity has raised as a potential alternative to reduce dependence on fossil fuels. Specifically, thermoelectric devices based on polymers could offer an efficient path for near-room temperature energy harvesters. Thus, control over thermoelectric properties of conducting polymers is crucial and, herein, the structural, electrical and thermoelectric properties of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) thin films doped with p-toluenesulfonate (Tos) molecules were investigated with regards to thin film processing. PEDOT:Tos thin films were prepared by in-situ polymerization of (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) monomers in presence of iron(III) p-toluenesulfonate with different co-solvents in order to tune the film structure. While the Seebeck coefficient remained constant, a large improvement in the electrical conductivity was observed for thin films processed with high boiling point additives. The increase of electrical conductivity was found to be solely in-plane mobility-driven. Probing the thin film structure by Grazing Incidence Wide Angle X-ray Scattering has shown that this behavior is dictated by the structural properties of the PEDOT:Tos films; specifically by the thin film crystallinity combined to the preferential edge-on orientation of the PEDOT crystallites. Consequentially enhancement of the power factor from 25 to 78.5 μW/mK2 has been readily obtained for PEDOT:Tos thin films following this methodology. PMID:27470637

  18. Neural and cardiac toxicities associated with 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA).

    PubMed

    Baumann, Michael H; Rothman, Richard B

    2009-01-01

    (+/-)-3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a commonly abused illicit drug which affects multiple organ systems. In animals, high-dose administration of MDMA produces deficits in serotonin (5-HT) neurons (e.g., depletion of forebrain 5-HT) that have been viewed as neurotoxicity. Recent data implicate MDMA in the development of valvular heart disease (VHD). The present paper reviews several issues related to MDMA-associated neural and cardiac toxicities. The hypothesis of MDMA neurotoxicity in rats is evaluated in terms of the effects of MDMA on monoamine neurons, the use of scaling methods to extrapolate MDMA doses across species, and functional consequences of MDMA exposure. A potential treatment regimen (l-5-hydroxytryptophan plus carbidopa) for MDMA-associated neural deficits is discussed. The pathogenesis of MDMA-associated VHD is reviewed with specific reference to the role of valvular 5-HT(2B) receptors. We conclude that pharmacological effects of MDMA occur at the same doses in rats and humans. High doses of MDMA that produce 5-HT depletions in rats are associated with tolerance and impaired 5-HT release. Doses of MDMA that fail to deplete 5-HT in rats can cause persistent behavioral dysfunction, suggesting even moderate doses may pose risks. Finally, the MDMA metabolite, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), is a potent 5-HT(2B) agonist which could contribute to the increased risk of VHD observed in heavy MDMA users. PMID:19897081

  19. In Vitro Metabolism of 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine in Human Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Ramaley, Corinne; Leonard, Susan C.; Miller, Jeffrey D.; Wilson, Denita Takesha-Mashia; Chang, Sai Y.; Chen, Qingyu; Li, Feng; Du, Chengan

    2014-01-01

    Users of the illicit drug, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), show signs of neurotoxicity. However, the precise mechanism of neurotoxicity caused by use of MDMA has not yet been elucidated. Synthetic glutathione (GSH) conjugates of MDMA are transported into the brain by the GSH transporter and subsequently produce neurotoxicity. The objective of this research is to show direct evidence of the formation of GSH adducts of MDMA in human hepatocytes. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry was utilized to examine in vitro incubations of MDMA with cryopreserved human hepatocytes. The use of hydrophilic liquid chromatography in combination with linear ion trap mass spectrometry permitted the identification of two possible GSH metabolites. Enhanced product ion scans of m/z = 499 and 487 amu of extracts from hepatocytes treated with 1.0 mM MDMA show a distinct fragmentation pattern (m/z 194.2, 163, 135, 105), suggesting the formation of MDMA–GSH conjugate, MDMA-SG and 3,4-dihydroxymethamphetamine-SG. The formation of an MDMA–GSH conjugate was further supported by the apparent lack of the same fragmentation pattern from hepatocyte samples without MDMA treatment. The results generated from this study yield valuable qualitative and quantitative information about the neurotoxic thioether metabolites formed from MDMA in humans. PMID:24682111

  20. Influence of SSTs over Nino-3.4 Region on the Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, S. S.; Gleixner, S.; K, M.

    2014-12-01

    Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall (ISMR) is sensitive to SST variations in the Pacific Ocean. In this study, the correlation coefficients between the SST in the Nino-3.4 region of season (June-August) and ISMR are evaluated using the datasets ERSST v3b and ISMR data (www.tropmet.res.in). An analysis of the mean monthly data of 64 years (1955-2013) reveals that the relationship between the SST in the Nino-3.4 region in June-August and the ISMR is changed after 1983. Seven drought years were reported between 1955 and 1983 and the warmest SST is in the equatorial eastern Pacific. After 1983, the warmest SST is shifted towards the central Pacific region during drought years. The coldest region in the central Pacific during wet years is shifted towards the eastern Pacific after 1983. The position of the sensitive area in the Pacific Ocean thus influences the drought/wet which is found to be changed in the recent epoch.