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Sample records for 3-5 months treatment

  1. Mature Teratoma of the Temporal Bone in 3.5-Month-Old Baby Girl

    PubMed Central

    Alqurashi, Alshema; Bakry, Essa; Straube, Marta; Rickert, Christian H.; Mir-Salim, Parwis

    2015-01-01

    Mature teratoma is a benign germ cell tumor rarely located in the temporal bone. We are reporting a case of a mature teratoma of the temporal bone in a healthy borne 3.5-month-old baby girl with a 2-day suggestive history of otitis media and polypoidal mass expulsing from the external auditory canal of the left ear. A definitive diagnosis is made after complete excision and histological examination of the tissue. Total surgical excision of the tumor is the treatment of choice. PMID:25945275

  2. A competition model of exogenous orienting in 3.5-month-old infants.

    PubMed

    Dannemiller, J L

    1998-03-01

    Four experiments are reported on exogenous (stimulus-driven) orienting in 3.5-month-old infants. A small moving bar embedded in a field of static bars was used to draw the infant's attention to one side of the display or the other. The bars could be either red or green. In all four of these experiments sensitivity to this small moving bar was affected significantly by how unevenly the red and green bars were distributed across the visual field. Sensitivity to the moving bar was lower when most of the red bars were in the field contralateral to this probe suggesting competition between the motion stimulus and contralaterally placed red but not green bars on a small, but significant proportion of trials. This basic effect replicated in four separate experiments and depended coarsely on how unevenly the red and the green bars were distributed across the field. A competition model of exogenous orienting with a winner-take-all rule captured the most important features of the data. The distribution of color within the visual field can bias attention significantly at 3.5 months making it either more or less likely that an infant will detect a moving stimulus. PMID:9514768

  3. Impact on respiratory tract infections of heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine administered at 3, 5 and 11 months of age

    PubMed Central

    Esposito, Susanna; Lizioli, Alessandro; Lastrico, Annalisa; Begliatti, Enrica; Rognoni, Alessandro; Tagliabue, Claudia; Cesati, Laura; Carreri, Vittorio; Principi, Nicola

    2007-01-01

    Background Medical and public health importance of pneumococcal infections justifies the implementation of measures capable of reducing their incidence and severity, and explains why the recently marketed heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) has been widely studied by pediatricians. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of PCV-7 administered at 3, 5 and 11 months of age on respiratory tract infections in very young children. Methods A total of 1,571 healthy infants (910 males) aged 75–105 days (median 82 days) were enrolled in this prospective cohort trial to receive a hexavalent vaccine (DTaP/IPV/HBV/Hib) and PCV-7 (n = 819) or the hexavalent vaccine alone (n = 752) at 3, 5 and 11 months of age. Morbidity was recorded for the 24 months following the second dose by monthly telephone interviews conducted by investigators blinded to the study treatment assignment using standardised questionnaires. During these interviews, the caregivers and the children's pediatricians were questioned about illnesses and the use of antibiotics since the previous telephone call. All of the data were analysed using SAS Windows v.12. Results Among the 1,555 subjects (98.9%) who completed the study, analysis of the data by the periods of follow-up demonstrated that radiologically confirmed community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) was significantly less frequent in the PCV-7 group during the follow-up as a whole and during the last period of follow-up. Moreover, there were statistically significant between-group differences in the incidence of acute otitis media (AOM) in each half-year period of follow-up except the first, with significantly lower number of episodes in children receiving PCV-7 than in controls. Furthermore, the antibiotic prescription data showed that the probability of receiving an antibiotic course was significantly lower in the PCV-7 group than in the control group. Conclusion Our findings show the effectiveness of the simplified PCV-7 schedule

  4. Face Gender Influences the Looking Preference for Smiling Expressions in 3.5-Month-Old Human Infants

    PubMed Central

    Bayet, Laurie; Quinn, Paul C.; Tanaka, James W.; Lee, Kang; Gentaz, Édouard; Pascalis, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Young infants are typically thought to prefer looking at smiling expressions. Although some accounts suggest that the preference is automatic and universal, we hypothesized that it is not rigid and may be influenced by other face dimensions, most notably the face’s gender. Infants are sensitive to the gender of faces; for example, 3-month-olds raised by female caregivers typically prefer female over male faces. We presented neutral versus smiling pairs of faces from the same female or male individuals to 3.5-month-old infants (n = 25), controlling for low-level cues. Infants looked longer to the smiling face when faces were female but longer to the neutral face when faces were male, i.e., there was an effect of face gender on the looking preference for smiling. The results indicate that a preference for smiling in 3.5-month-olds is limited to female faces, possibly reflective of differential experience with male and female faces. PMID:26068460

  5. Immunological persistence in 5 y olds previously vaccinated with hexavalent DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib at 3, 5, and 11 months of age.

    PubMed

    Silfverdal, Sven A; Assudani, Deepak; Kuriyakose, Sherine; Van Der Meeren, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    The combined diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-hepatitis B-poliomyelitis/Haemophilus influenza vaccine (DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib: Infanrix™ hexa, GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines) is used for primary vaccination of infants in a range of schedules world-wide. Antibody persistence after 4 DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib doses in the first 2 y of life has been documented, but long-term persistence data following the 3, 5, 11-12 months (3-5-11) infant vaccination schedule, employed for example in Nordic countries, are limited. We assessed antibody persistence in 57 5-year-old children who had received either DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib or DTPa-IPV/Hib (Infanrix™-IPV/Hib, GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines) in the 3-5-11 schedule. Among DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib recipients, 7/12 retained seroprotective antibody concentrations for diphtheria, 10/12 for tetanus, 5/12 for hepatitis and 10/12 for Hib. Detectable antibodies were observed for 0/12 children for pertussis toxin (PT), 12/12 for filamentous haemagglutinin (FHA) and 8/12 for pertactin (PRN). Among DTPa-IPV/Hib recipients, 28/45 retained seroprotective anti-diphtheria concentrations, 34/44 for tetanus and 40/45 for Hib. Detectable antibodies were observed for 9/45 children for PT, 41/45 for FHA and 34/45 for PRN. Antibody persistence in DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib and DTPa-IPV/Hib-vaccinees appeared similar in 5 y olds to that previously observed in children of a similar age who had received 4 prior doses of DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib (or DTPa-IPV/Hib). As in subjects primed with 4 prior doses, we observed that antibodies markedly declined by 5 y of age, calling for the administration of a pre-school booster dose in order to ensure continued protection against pertussis. PMID:25483640

  6. Pharmacological and haematological results of rat skin burn injury treatment with Cu(II)2(3,5-diisopropylsalicylate)4.

    PubMed

    Malakyan, Margarita H; Bajinyan, Sergey A; Abrahamyan, Armenuhi K; Petrosyan, Zhasmena H; Harutyunyan, Nektar K; Badiryan, Vardush A; Sorenson, John R J

    2004-01-01

    This research was performed to determine whether or not treatment of burn-injured rats with Cu(II)2(3,5-diisopropylsalicylate)4(Cu(II)2(3,5-DIPS)4) facilitated recovery from burn-injury. Four groups of adult male rats received a standard skin burn 1 h before an initial subcutaneous treatment which was continued daily for three days with either 0, 5, 10 or 20micromol Cu(II)2(3,5-DIPS)4/kg body mass. A fifth group was given no treatment. A sixth group served as a non-burn-injured non-treated normal control group. At 3 h and on days 1, 2, 3, 7 and 14 post-burn-injury blood samples were obtained from rats in all groups for the determination of leukocyte, platelet and erythrocyte counts, clotting times, hemoglobin and hematocrit values. Total protein and middle mass peptides in plasma, as well as plasma lipid and erythrocyte membrane peroxidation products were determined on days 7 and 14. Burn wound healing and body mass were determined daily from day 0 to 6 with a notation of crust rejection by day 14. Treatment with Cu(II)2(3,5-DIPS)4 produced effects consistent with a facilitation of Cu-dependent immune-mediated physiological inflammatory responses to burn injury. It is concluded that treatment of burn injury with Cu(II)2(3,5-DIPS)4 supports Cu-dependent physiological responses involved in overcoming burn injury, which may have been further optimized by continued treatment beyond day 2, the last day of treatment. PMID:15901413

  7. Nutrition effects on the biofilm immobilization and 3,5-DNBA degradation of Comamonas testosteroni A3 during bioaugmentation treatment.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhongqin; Meng, Xiangxun; Xie, Liqun; Xu, Hongqing; Li, Mengying

    2015-01-01

    The survival of inoculated microbes is critical for successful bioaugmentation in wastewater treatment. The influence of readily available nutrients (RANs) on the colonization of two functional bacteria, Pseudomonas putida M9, a strong biofilm-forming strain, and Comamonas testosteroni A3, a 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid (3,5-DNBA)-degrading strain, in biofilms was studied with 3,5-dinitrobenoic acid synthetic wastewater (DCMM) complemented with various ratios of Luria-Bertani broth (LB). With the increase in LB rate, the biofilm biomass was increased, the percentage of gfp-labeled M9 measured in the mixed culture enhanced, and also M9 became dominant. In laboratory-scale sequencing batch biofilm reactors, with the increase in 3,5-DNBA concentration and extension of the running time, the 3,5-DNBA removal in DCMM wastewater complemented with RANs tended to be more efficient and its removal rates increased gradually over the experimental period. Our study demonstrated that supplementing RANs could be a useful strategy for enhancing colonization of degrading bacteria in wastewater treatment systems. PMID:25345550

  8. The Relationship of BMD Increases Between the First 12 Months and the Latter 12 Months by Daily Teriparatide Treatment.

    PubMed

    Niimi, Rui; Kono, Toshibumi; Nishihara, Atsushi; Hasegawa, Masahiro; Kono, Toshihiko; Sudo, Akihiro

    2016-09-01

    The degree of correlation between the first 12 months and the latter 12 months of increased bone mineral density (BMD) with teriparatide treatment is unknown. We retrospectively investigated the correlation between the first 12 months and the latter 12 months of increased BMD owing to teriparatide treatment. We retrospectively analyzed 357 patients (mean age, 78 years) with osteoporosis treated with teriparatide 20 μg/day for 24 months. The primary efficacy measure was the correlation between lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN) BMD increases from baseline to 12 months and from 12 to 24 months. The correlation between the first 12 months and the latter 12 months of increased BMD was evaluated. We investigated the correlation between the increases in BMD and the baseline procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide (PINP) concentration. LS BMD significantly increased by 9.7 ± 8.3 % in the first 12 months and 3.5 ± 4.8 % in the latter 12 months. FN BMD increased by 2.2 ± 8.4 % in the first 12 months and 1.3 ± 4.9 % in the latter 12 months. Increased LS and FN BMD were not significantly correlated between the first 12 months and the latter 12 months. The serum baseline PINP concentration was correlated with the LS BMD in the first 12 months, and similarly, the PINP concentration at 12 months was correlated with the latter 12 months of increased LS BMD. Increased BMD by teriparatide treatment in the first 12 months and the latter 12 months was not significantly correlated. PMID:27206528

  9. Dental Caries and Their Treatment Needs in 3-5 Year Old Preschool Children in a Rural District of India

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Devanand; Momin, Rizwan K; Mathur, Ayush; Srinivas, Kavuri Teja; Jain, Ankita; Dommaraju, Neelima; Dalai, Deepak Ranjan; Gupta, Rajendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dental problems in the preschool children are neglected by their parents as the deciduous teeth are going to shed off, and hence considered to be of no importance and more of economic burden if attended to them. Aims: This study was to determine the caries prevalence in preschool children (3-5-year-old) of rural Moradabad district, to analyze the specific pattern of dental caries experience in this population and to assess the treatment needs among them. Material and Methods: Children within the age group of 3-5 years attending Anganwadi centers of rural Moradabad district were included in the study. Caries diagnosis was based on decayed, extracted, filled surface (defs) and the treatment needs were recorded using World Health Organization (WHO) oral health assessment form 1997. Results: Out of 1,500 children examined, 48.7% males and 52.6% females did not require any treatment. The mean decayed, extracted, filled teeth (deft) value was found to be significantly high in 5-year-old participants when compared to 3-year-old participants (P < 0.01). Majority of the children required one surface filling followed by two surface fillings, caries arresting sealant care, extraction, crown bridge element, pulp care, and space maintainer. Conclusion: The most common pattern was pit and fissure, then maxillary anterior pattern, posterior proximal pattern, and posterior buccal lingual smooth surface pattern. The mean deft value was higher in males as compared to females. There is a greater need for oral health education among parents and teachers. PMID:25973401

  10. Fabrication, Tuning, Treatment and Testing of Two 3.5 Cell Photo-Injector Cavities for the ELBE Linac

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, A.; Murcek, P.; Teichert, J.; Xiang, R.; Eremeev, G. V.; Kneisel, P.; Stirbet, M.; Turlington, L.

    2011-07-01

    As part of a CRADA (Cooperative Research and Development Agreement) between Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) and Thomas Jefferson Lab National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF) we have fabricated and tested two 1.3 GHz 3.5 cell photo-injector cavities from polycrystalline RRR niobium and large grain RRR niobium, respectively. The cavity with the better performance will replace the presently used injector cavity in the ELBE linac. The cavities have been fabricated and pre-tuned at TJNAF, while the more sophisticated final field tuning, the adjustment of the external couplings and the field profile measurement of transverse electric modes for RF focusing was done at HZDR. The following standard surface treatment and the vertical test was carried out at TJNAF's production facilities. A major challenge turned out to be the rinsing of the cathode cell, which has small opening (O-slash10mm) to receive the cathode stalk. Another unexpected problem encountered after etching, since large visible defects appeared in the least accessible cathode cell. This contribution reports about our experiences, initial results and the on-going diagnostic work to understand and fix the problems.

  11. Evaluation of an 18-month commercial multidisciplinary obesity treatment programme.

    PubMed

    Aller, E E J G; van Baak, M A

    2016-02-01

    The treatment of obesity is an often studied subject. Although reductions in weight and improvements in cardiometabolic risk factors are important aims of obesity treatment, improvements in quality of life and eating behaviour are also relevant outcomes. In this practice-based study, we evaluated an 18-month commercial multidisciplinary obesity treatment programme and report on treatment results for weight, cardiometabolic risk factors, eating behaviour and quality of life. From a local commercial obesity treatment centre, 426 subjects (65% female; 45.4 ± 12.2 years; body mass index 40.0 ± 6.6 kg m(-2)) were recruited. Measurements of body weight, height, body composition, waist circumference and blood pressure were scheduled at baseline and every 3 months, whereas fasting blood collections were scheduled at baseline and every 6 months. At the same time points, participants were asked to fill in questionnaires on dietary intake, eating behaviour and quality of life. After 18 months of treatment programme, average weight change [mean (95% confidence interval)] was -10.9 kg (-14.8 to -7.0; P < 0.001) for the completers (n = 181) and -10.8 kg (-14.2 to -7.4; P < 0.001) for the intention-to-treat population (n = 426). Waist circumference (mean ± standard error of the mean) (-0.13 ± 0.01 cm; P < 0.001), fat mass (-7.8 ± 1.3 kg; P < 0.001) systolic (-11.4 ± 2.0; P < 0.001) and diastolic (-7.0 ± 1.3; P < 0.001) blood pressure, triglycerides (-0.4 ± 0.1; P = 0.004) and plasma glucose (-0.6 ± 0.2; P = 0.001) were significantly reduced. The PCS scale of the SF-36 and all three scales of the three-factor eating questionnaire improved significantly over the 18-month treatment period. All collected data in this study provide evidence that a multidisciplinary treatment programme based on lifestyle modification results in significant weight loss and improvements in cardiometabolic

  12. Cost-effectiveness of rifampin for 4 months and isoniazid for 9 months in the treatment of tuberculosis infection.

    PubMed

    Pina, J M; Clotet, L; Ferrer, A; Sala, M R; Garrido, P; Salleras, L; Domínguez, A

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the strategy of controlling the contacts of tuberculosis patients with latent tuberculosis infection by means of treatment with rifampin for 4 months or isoniazid for 9 months. The cost was the sum of the cost of treating latent tuberculosis infection in all contacts plus the cost of treating tuberculosis in whom the disease was not avoided. The effectiveness was expressed as cases avoided. The efficacy adopted was 90 % for rifampin for 4 months and 93 % for isoniazid for 9 months. We carried out a sensitivity analysis for efficacies of rifampin for 4 months of 80 %, 75 %, 69 % and 65 %. Of the 1,002 patients studied, 139 were treated with rifampin for 4 months and 863 were treated with isoniazid for 9 months. The cost-effectiveness was 436,842.83/50 cases avoided with rifampin for 4 months and 692,164.42/40 cases avoided with isoniazid for 9 months. Rifampin for 4 months was dominant. In the sensitivity analysis, rifampin for 4 months was dominant for efficacies of 75 % or greater. The cost-effectiveness analysis favoured the use of rifampin for 4 months when its efficacy was 75 % or greater. PMID:23238684

  13. Low Rates of Treatment Failure in Children Aged 2–59 Months Treated for Severe Pneumonia: A Multisite Pooled Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Matthew P.; Thea, Donald M.; Sadruddin, Salim; Bari, Abdul; Bonawitz, Rachael; Hazir, Tabish; Bin Nisar, Yasir; Qazi, Shamim A.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Despite advances in childhood pneumonia management, it remains a major killer of children worldwide. We sought to estimate global treatment failure rates in children aged 2–59 months with World Health Organization–defined severe pneumonia. Methods. We pooled data from 4 severe pneumonia studies conducted during 1999–2009 using similar methodologies. We defined treatment failure by day 6 as death, danger signs (inability to drink, convulsions, abnormally sleepy), fever (≥38°C) and lower chest indrawing (LCI; days 2–3), LCI (day 6), or antibiotic change. Results. Among 6398 cases of severe pneumonia from 10 countries, 564 (cluster adjusted: 8.5%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.9%–11.5%) failed treatment by day 6. The most common reasons for clinical failure were persistence of fever and LCI or LCI or fever alone (75% of failures). Seventeen (0.3%) children died. Danger signs were uncommon (<1%). Infants 6–11 months and 2–5 months were 2- and 3.5-fold more likely, respectively, to fail treatment (adjusted OR [AOR], 1.8 [95% CI, 1.4–2.3] and AOR, 3.5 [95% CI, 2.8–4.3]) as children aged 12–59 months. Failure was increased 7-fold (AOR, 7.2 [95% CI, 5.0–10.5]) when comparing infants 2–5 months with very fast breathing to children 12–59 months with normal breathing. Conclusions. Our findings demonstrate that severe pneumonia case management with antibiotics at health facilities or in the community is associated with few serious morbidities or deaths across diverse geographic settings and support moves to shift management of severe pneumonia with oral antibiotics to outpatients in the community. PMID:23264361

  14. Biological Activities of 2,3,5,4′-Tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-Glucoside in Antiaging and Antiaging-Related Disease Treatments

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    2,3,5,4′-Tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside (THSG) is active component of the Chinese medicinal plant Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. (THSG). Pharmacological studies have demonstrated that THSG exhibits numerous biological functions in treating atherosclerosis, lipid metabolism, vascular and cardiac remodeling, vascular fibrosis, cardiac-cerebral ischemia, learning and memory disorders, neuroinflammation, Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases, diabetic complications, hair growth problems, and numerous other conditions. This review focuses on the biological effects of THSG in antiaging and antiaging-related disease treatments and discusses its molecular mechanisms. PMID:27413420

  15. Biological Activities of 2,3,5,4'-Tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-Glucoside in Antiaging and Antiaging-Related Disease Treatments.

    PubMed

    Ling, Shuang; Xu, Jin-Wen

    2016-01-01

    2,3,5,4'-Tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside (THSG) is active component of the Chinese medicinal plant Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. (THSG). Pharmacological studies have demonstrated that THSG exhibits numerous biological functions in treating atherosclerosis, lipid metabolism, vascular and cardiac remodeling, vascular fibrosis, cardiac-cerebral ischemia, learning and memory disorders, neuroinflammation, Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases, diabetic complications, hair growth problems, and numerous other conditions. This review focuses on the biological effects of THSG in antiaging and antiaging-related disease treatments and discusses its molecular mechanisms. PMID:27413420

  16. Nine Months of Multicomponent Behavioral Treatment for ADHD and Effectiveness of MTA Fading Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, L. Eugene; Chuang, Shirley; Davies, Mark; Abikoff, Howard B.; Conners, C. Keith; Elliott, Glen R.; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Hechtman, Lily; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Hoza, Betsy; Jensen, Peter S.; Kraemer, Helena C.; Langworthy-Lam, Kristen S.; March, John S.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Pelham, William E.; Severe, Joanne B.; Swanson, James M.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Wells, Karen C.; Wigal, Timothy

    2004-01-01

    We examined 9-month data from the 14-month NIMH Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD (the MTA) as a further check on the relative effect of medication (MedMgt) and behavioral treatment (Beh) for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) while Beh was still being delivered at greater intensity than at 14-month endpoint, and…

  17. Bilingual Children with Primary Language Impairment: 3 Months after Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pham, Giang; Ebert, Kerry Danahy; Kohnert, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Background: Evidence on the treatment effectiveness for bilingual children with primary language impairment (PLI) is needed to advance both theory and clinical practice. Of key interest is whether treatment effects are maintained following the completion of short-term intense treatments. Aims: To investigate change in select language and cognitive…

  18. A multicenter randomized trial indicates initial prednisolone treatment for childhood nephrotic syndrome for two months is not inferior to six-month treatment

    PubMed Central

    Yoshikawa, Norishige; Nakanishi, Koichi; Sako, Mayumi; Oba, Mari S; Mori, Rintaro; Ota, Erika; Ishikura, Kenji; Hataya, Hiroshi; Honda, Masataka; Ito, Shuichi; Shima, Yuko; Kaito, Hiroshi; Nozu, Kandai; Nakamura, Hidefumi; Igarashi, Takashi; Ohashi, Yasuo; Iijima, Kazumoto

    2015-01-01

    In this multicenter, open-label, randomized controlled trial, we determined whether 2-month prednisolone therapy for steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome was inferior or not to 6-month therapy despite significantly less steroid exposure. The primary end point was time from start of initial treatment to start of frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome. The pre-specified non-inferiority margin was a hazard ratio of 1.3 with one-sided significance of 5%. We randomly assigned 255 children with an initial episode of steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome to either 2 - or 6-month treatment of which 246 were eligible for final analysis. The total prednisolone exposure counted both initial and relapse prednisolone treatment administered over 24 months. Median follow-up in months was 36.7 in the 2-month and 38.2 in the 6-month treatment group. Time to frequent relaps was similar in both groups; however, the median was reached only in the 6-month group (799 days). The hazard ratio was 0.86 (90% confidence interval, 0.64–1.16) and met the non-inferior margin. Time to first relapse was also similar in both groups: median day 242 (2-month) and 243 (6-month). Frequency and severity of adverse events were similar in both groups. Most adverse events were transient and occurred during initial or relapse therapy. Thus, 2 months of initial prednisolone therapy for steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome, despite less prednisolone exposure, is not inferior to 6 months of initial therapy in terms of time to onset of frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome. PMID:25054775

  19. Activation of 5-HT3 receptors leads to altered responses 6 months after MDMA treatment.

    PubMed

    Gyongyosi, Norbert; Balogh, Brigitta; Katai, Zita; Molnar, Eszter; Laufer, Rudolf; Tekes, Kornelia; Bagdy, Gyorgy

    2010-03-01

    The recreational drug "Ecstasy" [3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)] has a well-characterised neurotoxic effect on the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) neurons in animals. Despite intensive studies, the long-term functional consequencies of the 5-HT neurodegeneration remains elusive. The aim of this study was to investigate whether any alteration of 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 (5-HT(3)) receptor functions on the sleep-wake cycle, motor activity, and quantitative EEG could be detected 6 months after a single dose of 15 mg/kg of MDMA. The selective 5-HT(3) receptor agonist m-chlorophenylbiguanide (mCPBG; 1 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle was administered to freely moving rats pre-treated with MDMA (15 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle 6 months earlier. Polysomnographic and motor activity recordings were performed. Active wake (AW), passive wake (PW), light slow wave sleep (SWS-1), deep slow wave sleep (SWS-2), and paradoxical sleep were classified. In addition, EEG power spectra were calculated for the second hour after mCPBG treatment for each stage. AW increased and SWS-1 decreased in the second hour after mCPBG treatment in control animals. mCPBG caused significant changes in the EEG power in states with cortical activation (AW, PW, paradoxical sleep). In addition, mCPBG had a biphasic effect on hippocampal theta power in AW with a decrease in 7 Hz and a stage-selective increase in the upper range (8-9 Hz). Effects of mCPBG on the time spent in AW and SWS-1 were eliminated or reduced in MDMA-treated animals. In addition, mCPBG did not increase the upper theta power of AW in rats pre-treated with MDMA. These data suggest long-term changes in 5-HT(3) receptor function after MDMA. PMID:20052506

  20. PBF/BNCT program for cancer treatment: Monthly bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Dorn, R.V. III; Ackermann, A.L.

    1988-11-01

    This PBF/BNCT Program Monthly Bulletin is the primary vehicle for prompt national and international dissemination of research progress and the development status of tools essential for optimum BNCT clinical application. Accordingly, beginning with this issue, PBF neutron-filter design progress and PBF standby task summaries will be added to the subjects previously reported. Highlights of the PBF/BNCT Program during November include progress within several areas. Topics include: gross boron analysis in tissue blood and urine, analytical methodologies development for BSH (sodium borocaptate) purity determination, boron microscopic (subcellular) analytical development, noninvasive boron quantification determination, dosimetry, analytical radiation transport and interaction modeling for BNCT, large animal model studies, and neutron source and facility preparation.

  1. Efficacy of Slimming Cream Containing 3.5% Water-Soluble Caffeine and Xanthenes for the Treatment of Cellulite: Clinical Study and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Byun, Sang-Young; Kwon, Soon-Hyo; Heo, Su-Hak; Shim, Jae-Seong; Du, Mi-Hee

    2015-01-01

    Background Cellulite is a 'cottage cheese-like' cutaneous change caused by subcutaneous fat bulging into the dermis that usually leads to cosmetic problems. Slimming cream containing 3.5% water-soluble caffeine and xanthenes exhibits a lipolytic effect with penetration into the dermis. Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of slimming cream for the treatment of cellulite. Methods Fifteen subjects with cellulite applied slimming cream to the thighs and inner side of the upper arms twice daily for 6 weeks. Efficacy was assessed using a standard visual scale, changes in the circumferences of the thighs and upper arms, and patient satisfaction by a questionnaire at baseline, week 3, and week 6. Safety was assessed by inquiring about adverse events through questionnaires. Results The standard visual scale score improved significantly by 0.49 points (19.8%) at week 6. Thigh and upper-arm circumferences decreased by 0.7 cm (1.7%) and 0.8 cm (2.3%), respectively, at week 6. Slight itching and transient flushing were commonly reported, but no serious adverse event occurred. Conclusion The slimming cream tested appears to be effective for the treatment of cellulitis without serious adverse effects. However, additional large clinical trials are required to confirm the efficacy and safety of slimming cream for the treatment of cellulitis. PMID:26082579

  2. Sub-micrometre holotomographic characterisation of the effects of solution heat treatment on an AlMg7.3Si3.5 alloy

    PubMed Central

    Tolnai, D.; Requena, G.; Cloetens, P.; Lendvai, J.; Degischer, H.P.

    2012-01-01

    A strip cast AlMg7.3Si3.5 alloy is investigated by sub-micrometre holotomographic analysis achieving a voxel size of (60 nm)3 by cone beam magnification of the focused synchrotron beam using Kirkpatrick–Baez mirrors. The three-dimensional microstructure of the same specimen volume in the as-cast state is compared with that after exposure to 540 °C for 30 min resolving microstructural features down to 180 nm. The three-dimensional analysis of the architecture of the eutectic Mg2Si and the Fe-aluminides reveals how the as-cast microstructure changes during the solution treatment. The alloy in the as-cast condition contains a highly interconnected seaweed-like Mg2Si eutectic. The level of three-dimensional interconnectivity of the Mg2Si eutectic phase decreases by only partial disintegration during the heat treatment correcting the two-dimensional metallographic impression of isolated round particles. Statistical analyses of the particle distribution, sphericity, mean curvatures and Gaussian curvatures describe quantitatively the architectural changes of the Mg2Si phase. This explains the decrease of the high temperature strength of the alloy by the solution treatment tested in hot compression. PMID:23483521

  3. Critical appraisal of 3-monthly paliperidone depot injections in the treatment of schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Carpiniello, Bernardo; Pinna, Federica

    2016-01-01

    Aims Three-monthly injections of paliperidone palmitate (PP-3M) represent a new and recently introduced long-acting antipsychotic therapeutic option. This review focuses on available data relating to the efficacy and safety of PP-3M and its position in the current therapeutic scenario. Method An analysis of PubMed, Scopus, and ISI Web of Knowledge databases was conducted, and all available papers on PP-3M, including poster presentations, were selected and considered for the purpose of the present review. Findings: to date, three full papers have been published, the first, a Phase 1 randomized, open label study investigating the pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability of the drug; the second, a Phase 3 double blind study vs placebo focusing on efficacy and tolerability; and the last relating to the practical use of PP-3M. The five posters identified describe data reported in the above-cited papers. Overall, the pharmacokinetic findings obtained in these studies highlight the feasibility of administering PP-3M on a 3-monthly basis, subsequent to the administration of four 1-monthly injections of PP at doses 3.5 times higher than the stabilized dose of 1-monthly injections of PP (ie, 175, 300, 450, and 525 mgs). The published studies highlight a significantly longer time to relapse compared to placebo, and significantly better results compared to placebo for all secondary end-points (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Clinical Global Impression-Severity Scale, Personal and Social Performance Scale scores), in addition to reasonably good safety and tolerability profiles. Conclusion PP-3M emerges as a potential candidate for use as a first-line long-acting agent in the maintenance treatment of patients with schizophrenia. Further studies should however be conducted to confirm this expectation. In view of its efficacy, tolerability, and safety, together with the longer timespan between injections, PP-3M currently represents one of the best available options, and

  4. The effect of ulipristal acetate treatment on symptomatic uterine fibroids within 12-months follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Woźniak, Sławomir; Szkodziak, Piotr; Czuczwar, Piotr; Woźniakowska, Ewa; Paszkowski, Maciej; Milart, Paweł

    2014-01-01

    Aim of the study The purpose of the study was to monitor the effect of ulipristal acetate treatment on symptomatic uterine fibroids within 12-months follow-up. Material and methods Fifty six patients with symptomatic uterine fibroids qualified for surgical treatment were included in the prospective observational study. All patients received preoperative oral UPA treatment for 3 months (1 × 5 mg). Patients that refused surgical treatment after UPA therapy were followed-up for the next 9 months. The volume of the intramural fibroid was estimated by TV-US using and integrated VOCAL 3D imaging program at baseline, after 3 months of UPA treatment and further at 3-months intervals. Results Before UPA mean dominant fibroid volume was estimated to be 216.0 cm3 (38.4-768.2 cm3) and decreased to 117.6 cm3 (12.6-668.0 cm3) after 3 months of UPA therapy. Mean percentage volume reduction was 45.6%. Mean hemoglobin level increased from an initial 10.1 g/dL (6.8-12.9 g/dL) to 12.6 g/dL (10.1-14.8) after 3 months of UPA therapy. At 12 months after initiating UPA treatment mean dominant fibroid volume decreased by 43.9%. In one third of followed-up patients the effect of 3 month UPA therapy persisted for the next 9 months. Conclusions Three month UPA therapy decreases fibroid volume and improves hemoglobin level before planned surgical treatment. In one third of followed-up patients the effect of 3 month UPA therapy persisted for the next 9 months. PMID:26327823

  5. Suicide Attempts within 12 Months of Treatment for Substance Use Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britton, Peter C.; Conner, Kenneth R.

    2010-01-01

    There are limited prospective data on suicide attempts (SA) during the months following treatment for substance use disorders (SUD), a period of high risk. In an analysis of the Drug Abuse Treatment Outcomes Study, a longitudinal naturalistic multisite study of treated SUDs, variables associated with SA in the 12 months following SUD treatment…

  6. 3,3',5-Triiodo-L-thyronine-like activity in effluents from domestic sewage treatment plants detected by in vitro and in vivo bioassays

    SciTech Connect

    Murata, Tomonori; Yamauchi, Kiyoshi

    2008-02-01

    Thyroid system-disrupting activity in effluents from municipal domestic sewage treatment plants was detected using three in vitro assays and one in vivo assay. Contaminants in the effluents were extracted by solid-phase extraction (SPE) and eluted stepwise with different organic solvents. The majority of the thyroid system-disrupting activity was detected in the dichloromethane/methanol (1/1) fraction after SPE in all three in vitro assays: competitive assays of 3,3',5-[{sup 125}I]triiodo-L-thyronine ([{sup 125}I]T{sub 3}) binding to the plasma protein transthyretin (TTR assay) and thyroid hormone receptor (TR assay) and T{sub 3}-dependent luciferase assay (Luc assay). Subsequent reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) of the dichloromethane/methanol (1/1) fraction separated contaminants potent in the TR and Luc assays from those potent in the TTR assay. The contaminants potent in the TR and Luc assays were also potent in an in vivo short-term gene expression assay in Xenopus laevis (Tadpole assay). The present study demonstrated that the effluents from domestic sewage treatment plants contain contaminants with T{sub 3}-like activity of {approx} 10{sup -10} M T{sub 3}-equivalent concentration (T{sub 3}EQ) and that the TR and Luc assays are powerful in vitro bioassays for detecting thyroid system-disrupting activity in effluents. The availability and applicability of these bioassays for screening contaminants with thyroid system-disrupting activity in the water environment are discussed.

  7. Pivotal Response Treatment Parent Training for Autism: Findings from a 3-Month Follow-Up Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gengoux, Grace W.; Berquist, Kari L.; Salzman, Emma; Schapp, Salena; Phillips, Jennifer M.; Frazier, Thomas W.; Minjarez, Mendy B.; Hardan, Antonio Y.

    2015-01-01

    This study's objective was to assess maintenance of treatment effects 3 months after completion of a 12-week Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT) parent education group. Families who completed the active treatment (N = 23) were followed for an additional 12 weeks to measure changes in language and cognitive skills. Results indicated a significant…

  8. Pivotal Response Treatment Parent Training for Autism: Findings from a 3-Month Follow-Up Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Gengoux, Grace W; Berquist, Kari L; Salzman, Emma; Schapp, Salena; Phillips, Jennifer M; Frazier, Thomas W; Minjarez, Mendy B; Hardan, Antonio Y

    2015-09-01

    This study's objective was to assess maintenance of treatment effects 3 months after completion of a 12-week Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT) parent education group. Families who completed the active treatment (N = 23) were followed for an additional 12 weeks to measure changes in language and cognitive skills. Results indicated a significant improvement in frequency of functional utterances, with maintenance at 3-month follow-up [F(2, 21): 5.9, p = .009]. Children also made significant gains on the Vineland Communication Domain Standard Score [F(2, 12):11.74, p = .001] and the Mullen Scales of Early Learning Composite score [F(1, 20) = 5.43, p = .03]. These results suggest that a brief PRT parent group intervention can lead to improvements in language and cognitive functioning that are maintained 12 weeks post treatment. PMID:25911977

  9. A 12-month controlled trial of methadone medical maintenance integrated into an adaptive treatment model.

    PubMed

    King, Van L; Kidorf, Michael S; Stoller, Kenneth B; Schwartz, Robert; Kolodner, Kenneth; Brooner, Robert K

    2006-12-01

    Methadone medical maintenance (MMM) reduces the reporting schedule for stable and well-functioning methadone maintenance patients to once a month, with counseling provided by medical staff. We report on the 12-month outcomes of 92 highly stable methadone maintenance patients randomly assigned to one of three study conditions: routine care, MMM at the methadone maintenance program, and MMM at a physician's office. Methadone medical maintenance patients received a 28-day supply of methadone, whereas routine care patients received five or six take-home methadone doses each week. All patients performed a medication recall once a month and submitted two urine samples each month. An adaptive stepped-care system of treatment intensification was used for patients who failed recall or who had drug-positive urine specimens. Seventy-seven patients completed the 12-month study period. Dropout was caused primarily by problems with handling methadone and disliking the recall frequency. There were low rates of drug use or failed medication recall. Treatment satisfaction was high in all groups, but the MMM patients initiated more new employment or family/social activities than did routine care patients over the study period. The stepped-care approach was well tolerated and matched patients to an appropriate step of service within a continuum of treatment intensity. PMID:17084792

  10. Should routine pelvic osteotomy be added to the treatment of DDH after 18 months?

    PubMed

    Arslan, Hüseyin; Sucu, Ekim; Ozkul, Emin; Gem, Mehmet; Kişin, Biülent

    2014-06-01

    The treatment of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) between ages 1-3 years is controversial. Particularly controversial is the age after which pelvic osteotomy should be added to the treatment. In the present study, the outcomes of DDH patients aged 1-3 years treated with anterior open reduction alone were evaluated, and the relationship between inadequate acetabular development, the need for secondary pelvic osteotomy, and age was investigated. A total of 53 patients (70 hips) who had begun walking, who had undergone open reduction through an anterolateral approach, who had a follow-up period of at least 2 years, and who had Tönnis grade III and IV hip dysplasia were included in the study. They were grouped according to treatment age (pre-18 months: Group I; post-18 months: Group II), and the two groups were compared with regard to radiological and functional outcomes and the need for a secondary acetabular procedure. In Group I there were 29 hips (mean age: 16.09 months) and in group II there were 41 hips (mean age: 23.1 months), and the mean follow-up period was 48.9 months. According to the modified Trevor score, in Group I outcomes were excellent in 23 hips (79.3%) and good in 6 hips (20.7%), while in group II outcomes were excellent in 30 hips (73.2%), good in 10 hips (24.4%), and fair in 1 hip (2.1%). The difference between outcomes was not significant (P > 0.05). Inadequate acetabular development was determined in 11 hips in group I (37.9%) and in 16 hips in group II (39%). There was no difference between groups in terms of inadequate acetabular development or the need for acetabular prodecures (p > 0.05). No significant difference was determined between DDH patients treated before 18 months and those treated after 18 months with regard to unsatisfactory acetabular development or the need for secondary acetabular procedures. According to these results, reduction prior to 18 months does not always achieve satisfactory acetabular development, and

  11. Smoking and 2-month culture conversion during anti-tuberculosis treatment

    PubMed Central

    Maciel, E. L.; Brioschi, A. P.; Peres, R. L.; Guidoni, L. M.; Ribeiro, F. K.; Hadad, D. J.; Vinhas, S. A.; Zandonade, E.; Palaci, M.; Dietze, R.; Johnson, J. L.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY OBJECTIVE To investigate risk factors for delayed sputum culture conversion to negative during anti-tuberculosis treatment, with an emphasis on smoking. DESIGN Nested case-control study of adults with non-cavitary, culture-confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) participating in an anti-tuberculosis treatment trial in Brazil. A case of delayed culture conversion was a patient who remained culture-positive after 2 months of treatment. Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. RESULTS Fifty-three cases and 240 control patients were analyzed. Smokers had three-fold greater odds of remaining culture-positive after 2 months of treatment (P = 0.007) than non-smokers, while smokers and ex-smokers who smoked >20 cigarettes a day had two-fold greater odds of remaining culture-positive after 2 months of treatment (P = 0.045). CONCLUSION Cigarette smoking adversely affects culture conversion during anti-tuberculosis treatment. Support for smoking cessation should be considered to improve outcomes in TB control programs. PMID:23317958

  12. Noninvasive Positive Airway Pressure Treatment in Children Less Than 12 Months of Age

    PubMed Central

    Adeleye, Adetayo; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; Buchhalter, Jeffrey; Kirk, Valerie

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives. We identified the associated conditions of patients less than 12 months of age who were referred for polysomnogram (PSG) studies. We collated PSG findings and physician interpretation. We determined the correlation between the recommended treatment by the PSG interpreting physician and actual prescribed treatment by the referring or subjects' physician. We determined adherence with noninvasive positive airway pressure (PAP) treatment. Methods. This was a retrospective cohort study. Participants included children less than 12 months of age referred for PSG studies between 2007 and 2012. Results. 92 patients under the age of 12 months were included in the study analysis. Mean (standard deviation, SD) age in days at time of the PSG study was 208.5 (101.2). 35 (38%) patients had a diagnosis of Trisomy 21. Seven (8%) patients had no prior diagnosis. Median (Q1, Q3) apnea hypopnea index (AHI) was 22.5 (11.3–37.0). Agreement between the PSG interpreting physician's recommendation and actual prescribed treatment by the referring or subjects' physician was 85.9% [95% CI 77.1–91.6]. Mean (SD) percentage days with PAP therapy usage more than 4 hours was 25.2% (32). Conclusions. In our experience, despite consistent physician messaging to families, adherence with noninvasive PAP treatment is low. PMID:27445563

  13. Biopsychosocial determinants of treatment outcome for mood and anxiety disorders up to 8 months postpartum.

    PubMed

    Misri, Shaila; Albert, Gillian; Abizadeh, Jasmin; Kendrick, Kristin; Carter, Diana; Ryan, Deirdre; Oberlander, Tim F

    2012-08-01

    Little is known about the biopsychosocial determinants that predict postpartum treatment outcome for mood and anxiety disorders. Postpartum mood and anxiety symptoms and psychosocial/biological variables were recorded for 8 months of 22 women treated with antidepressants during pregnancy. Depression scores decreased by 58%, whereas anxiety scores decreased by 35%. Family history of psychiatric illness and prior psychiatric illness unrelated to pregnancy predicted depressive treatment outcome, and sexual abuse history and prior psychiatric illness unrelated to pregnancy predicted anxiety outcome. Biological and psychosocial variables predicted pharmacological treatment outcome in postpartum-depressed and anxious women. PMID:22729759

  14. A patient with agranulocytosis following the discontinuation of methimazole treatment for 4 months: A case report.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xiao-Su; Liu, Jing-Hai; Xiao, Shao-Mei

    2014-09-01

    Agranulocytosis is a rare and serious adverse effect of antithyroid drugs (ATD), in particular methimazole (MMI), and usually develops within 3 months following the start of uninterrupted ATD treatment. Agranulocytosis may also develop for the first time following interruption and subsequent resumption of the same ATD treatment. In this case report, a 27-year-old female, who was treated for thyrotoxicosis with MMI, developed agranulocytosis following the discontinuation of MMI treatment for four months. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report this. The aim of this report is to increase the awareness of physicians of the onset of agranulocytosis when MMI is discontinued, and to demonstrate that MMI should be used with caution. PMID:25120607

  15. Superior virologic and treatment outcomes when viral load is measured at 3 months compared to 6 months on antiretroviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kerschberger, Bernhard; Boulle, Andrew M; Kranzer, Katharina; Hilderbrand, Katherine; Schomaker, Michael; Coetzee, David; Goemaere, Eric; Van Cutsem, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Routine viral load (VL) monitoring is utilized to assess antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and virologic failure, and it is currently scaled-up in many resource-constrained settings. The first routine VL is recommended as late as six months after ART initiation for early detection of sub-optimal adherence. We aimed to assess the optimal timing of first VL measurement after initiation of ART. Methods This was a retrospective, cohort analysis of routine monitoring data of adults enrolled at three primary care clinics in Khayelitsha, Cape Town, between January 2002 and March 2009. Primary outcomes were virologic failure and switch to second-line ART comparing patients in whom first VL done was at three months (VL3M) and six months (VL6M) after ART initiation. Adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) were estimated using Cox proportional hazard models. Results In total, 6264 patients were included for the time to virologic failure and 6269 for the time to switch to second-line ART analysis. Patients in the VL3M group had a 22% risk reduction of virologic failure (aHR 0.78, 95% CI 0.64–0.95; p=0.016) and a 27% risk reduction of switch to second-line ART (aHR 0.73, 95% CI 0.58–0.92; p=0.008) when compared to patients in the VL6M group. For each additional month of delay of the first VL measurement (up to nine months), the risk of virologic failure increased by 9% (aHR 1.09, 95% CI 1.02–1.15; p=0.008) and switch to second-line ART by 13% (aHR 1.13, 95% CI 1.05–1.21; p<0.001). Conclusions A first VL at three months rather than six months with targeted adherence interventions for patients with high VL may improve long-term virologic suppression and reduce switches to costly second-line ART. ART programmes should consider the first VL measurement at three months after ART initiation. PMID:26403636

  16. N-Methylprotoporphyrin IX: chemical synthesis and identification as the green pigment produced by 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz de Montellano, P R; Beilan, H S; Kunze, K L

    1981-01-01

    The hepatic pigment accumulated in 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine-treated rats, which has been reported to inhibit ferrochelatase, has been isolated and purified. The pigment has been resolved into one major, one minor, and two trace components, all of which appear to be isomeric porphyrins. The major fraction has been unambiguously identified by spectroscopic methods as the isomer of N-methylprotoporphyrin IX (isolated as the dimethyl ester) in which vinyl-substituted pyrrole ring A is methylated. The minor product appears to be an isomer of the same porphyrin with the N-methyl group on propionic acid-substituted ring C, and the trace components have the same high-pressure liquid chromatography retention times as the other two possible isomers of the porphyrin. The four isomers of N-methylprotoporphyrin IX have been chemically synthesized, independently characterized, and used to confirm the structures of the biologically products. PMID:6940170

  17. Azoospermia with variable testicular histology after 7 months of treatment with a deslorelin implant in toms.

    PubMed

    Novotny, R; Vitasek, R; Bartoskova, A; Cizek, P; Prinosilova, P; Novakova, K

    2015-04-15

    The main aim of the study was to assess whether the longer use of a GnRH-agonist implant (deslorelin 4.7 mg, Suprelorin) in toms would lead to the suppression of spermatogenesis comparable with histologic appearance in juvenile animals as was previously described in dogs. The other aims were to monitor the progression of the testes size decrease and development of azoospermia 5 to 7 months after treatment with a GnRH-agonist implant. In animals, 5, 6, and 7 months after GnRH-agonist implant insertion, variable histological appearance of germinal epithelium was found, when tubules with elongating spermatids, round spermatids, spermatocytes, and spermatogonia as the most developed germinal cells were found in each group of toms. In all male cats, 5, 6, and 7 months after implant insertion, testosterone concentrations and testes size significantly differed between the first and the last visit. All animals, except one tom castrated 5 months after implant insertion, developed complete azoospermia. However, in this tom, all spermatozoa were immotile. Treatment with the subcutaneous GnRH-agonist implant was well tolerated, and no treatment-related adverse effects were noted. These results reported the efficacy of 4.7-mg deslorelin implant (Suprelorin) during its 7 months of use. The complete azoospermia confirms its contraceptive effect. However, the histologic evaluation revealed a great individual variability in the degree of spermatogenic suppression. The question as to whether spermatogenesis in toms can be suppressed in all males to the level of spermatogonia/primary spermatocytes after prolonged exposure to deslorelin has yet to be answered. PMID:25617987

  18. Paliperidone Palmitate Once-Monthly Injectable Treatment for Acute Exacerbations of Schizoaffective Disorder.

    PubMed

    Fu, Dong-Jing; Turkoz, Ibrahim; Simonson, R Bruce; Walling, David; Schooler, Nina; Lindenmayer, Jean-Pierre; Canuso, Carla; Alphs, Larry

    2016-08-01

    The optimal treatment for schizoaffective disorder (SCA) is not well established. In this initial 6-month open-label treatment period of a large, multiphase, relapse-prevention study, the efficacy and safety of paliperidone palmitate once-monthly (PP1M) injectable were evaluated in subjects with symptomatic SCA. Subjects with acute exacerbation of SCA (ie, with psychotic and either depressive and/or manic symptoms) were enrolled and treated with PP1M either as monotherapy or in combination with antidepressants or mood stabilizers (combination therapy group). After flexible-dose treatment with PP1M for 13 weeks, stabilized subjects continued into a 12-week fixed-dose PP1M treatment period. A total of 667 subjects were enrolled; 320 received monotherapy and 347 received PP1M as combination therapy; 334 subjects completed the entire 25-week treatment. Statistically significant and clinically meaningful improvements from baseline were observed for all efficacy measures in psychosis (per Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale), mood symptoms (per Young Mania Rating Scale and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-21 items), and functioning (per Personal and Social Performance Scale) from week 1 to all time points during the 25-week treatment period (P < 0.001). Similar improvements in efficacy measures were observed between subjects receiving monotherapy or combination therapy. Efficacy benefits persisted throughout the 25-week period. The most common adverse events were akathisia (11.1%), injection-site pain (10.6%), and insomnia (10.0%). Paliperidone palmitate once-monthly administered as monotherapy or in combination with mood stabilizers or antidepressants in patients with an acute exacerbation of SCA provided rapid, broad, and persistent reduction in psychotic, depressive, and manic symptoms, as well as improved functioning. PMID:27322760

  19. Paliperidone Palmitate Once-Monthly Injectable Treatment for Acute Exacerbations of Schizoaffective Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Dong-Jing; Turkoz, Ibrahim; Simonson, R. Bruce; Walling, David; Schooler, Nina; Lindenmayer, Jean-Pierre; Canuso, Carla; Alphs, Larry

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The optimal treatment for schizoaffective disorder (SCA) is not well established. In this initial 6-month open-label treatment period of a large, multiphase, relapse-prevention study, the efficacy and safety of paliperidone palmitate once-monthly (PP1M) injectable were evaluated in subjects with symptomatic SCA. Subjects with acute exacerbation of SCA (ie, with psychotic and either depressive and/or manic symptoms) were enrolled and treated with PP1M either as monotherapy or in combination with antidepressants or mood stabilizers (combination therapy group). After flexible-dose treatment with PP1M for 13 weeks, stabilized subjects continued into a 12-week fixed-dose PP1M treatment period. A total of 667 subjects were enrolled; 320 received monotherapy and 347 received PP1M as combination therapy; 334 subjects completed the entire 25-week treatment. Statistically significant and clinically meaningful improvements from baseline were observed for all efficacy measures in psychosis (per Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale), mood symptoms (per Young Mania Rating Scale and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale—21 items), and functioning (per Personal and Social Performance Scale) from week 1 to all time points during the 25-week treatment period (P < 0.001). Similar improvements in efficacy measures were observed between subjects receiving monotherapy or combination therapy. Efficacy benefits persisted throughout the 25-week period. The most common adverse events were akathisia (11.1%), injection-site pain (10.6%), and insomnia (10.0%). Paliperidone palmitate once-monthly administered as monotherapy or in combination with mood stabilizers or antidepressants in patients with an acute exacerbation of SCA provided rapid, broad, and persistent reduction in psychotic, depressive, and manic symptoms, as well as improved functioning. PMID:27322760

  20. Repairing the Brain by SCF+G-CSF Treatment at 6 Months Postexperimental Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Lili; Wang, Dandan; McGillis, Sandra; Kyle, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Stroke, a leading cause of adult disability in the world, is a severe medical condition with limited treatment. Physical therapy, the only treatment available for stroke rehabilitation, appears to be effective within 6 months post-stroke. Here, we have mechanistically determined the efficacy of combined two hematopoietic growth factors, stem cell factor (SCF) and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF; SCF + G-CSF), in brain repair 6 months after cortical infarct induction in the transgenic mice carrying yellow fluorescent protein in Layer V pyramidal neurons (Thy1-YFP-H). Using a combination of live brain imaging, whole brain imaging, molecular manipulation, synaptic and vascular assessments, and motor function examination, we found that SCF + G-CSF promoted mushroom spine formation, enlarged postsynaptic membrane size, and increased postsynaptic density-95 accumulation and blood vessel density in the peri-infarct cavity cortex; and that SCF + G-CSF treatment improved motor functional recovery. The SCF + G-CSF-enhanced motor functional recovery was dependent on the synaptic and vascular regeneration in the peri-infarct cavity cortex. These data suggest that a stroke-damaged brain is repairable by SCF + G-CSF even 6 months after the lesion occurs. This study provides novel insights into the development of new restorative strategies for stroke recovery. PMID:27511907

  1. INCINERATION AND TREATMENT OF HAZARDOUS WASTE: PROCEEDINGS OF THE ANNUAL RESEARCH SYMPOSIUM (10TH) HELD AT FT. MITCHELL, KENTUCKY ON APRIL 3-5, 1984

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Tenth Annual Research Symposium on Land Disposal, Remedial Action, Incineration and Treatment of Hazardous Waste was held April 3 through 5, 1984. This volume is a compilation of speakers' papers and poster presenters' abstracts for Session B, Hazardous Waste Incineration and...

  2. Effects of Simvastatin and Metformin on Polycystic Ovary Syndrome after Six Months of Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Banaszewska, Beata; Pawelczyk, Leszek; Spaczynski, Robert Z.

    2011-01-01

    Context: A randomized trial on women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) compared simvastatin, metformin, and a combination of these drugs. Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate long-term effects of simvastatin and metformin on PCOS. Design: Women with PCOS (n = 139) were randomized to simvastatin (S), metformin (M), or simvastatin plus metformin (SM) groups. Evaluations were performed at baseline and at 3 and 6 months. Setting: The study was conducted at a university medical center. Primary Outcome: We measured the change of serum total testosterone. Results: Ninety-seven subjects completed the study. Total testosterone decreased significantly and comparably in all groups: by 25.6, 25.6, and 20.1% in the S, M, and SM groups, respectively. Both simvastatin and metformin improved menstrual cyclicity and decreased hirsutism, acne, ovarian volume, body mass index, C-reactive protein, and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate declined significantly only in the S group. Total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol significantly declined only in the S and SM groups. Ongoing reduction of ovarian volume, decreased hirsutism, acne and testosterone were observed between 0 and 3 months as well as between 3 and 6 months. Improvement of lipid profile, C-reactive protein, and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 occurred only during the first 3 months of treatment, with little change thereafter. Treatments were well tolerated, and no significant adverse effects were encountered. Conclusions: Long-term treatment with simvastatin was superior to metformin. Improvement of ovarian hyperandrogenism continued throughout the duration of the study. PMID:21865358

  3. Three-month treatment response and exacerbation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Su; Rhee, Chin Kook; Yoo, Kwang Ha; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Yoon, Ho Il; Kim, Tae-Hyung; Kim, Woo Jin; Lee, JinHwa; Lim, Seong Yong; Park, Tai Sun; Lee, Jae Seung; Lee, Sei Won; Lee, Sang-Do; Oh, Yeon-Mok

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate relationships between acute exacerbation and Forced Expiratory Volume 1 second (FEV1) improvement after treatment with combined long-acting beta-agonist (LABA) and inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A total of 137 COPD patients were classified as responders or nonresponders according to FEV1 improvement after 3 months of LABA/ICS treatment in fourteen referral hospitals in Korea. Exacerbation occurrence in these two subgroups was compared over a period of 1 yr. Eighty of the 137 COPD patients (58.4%) were classified as responders and 57 (41.6%) as nonresponders. Acute exacerbations occurred in 25 patients (31.3%) in the responder group and in 26 patients (45.6%) in the nonresponder group (P=0.086). FEV1 improvement after LABA/ICS treatment was a significant prognostic factor for fewer acute exacerbations in a multivariate Cox proportional hazard model adjusted for age, sex, FEV1, smoking history, 6 min walk distance, body mass index, exacerbation history in the previous year, and dyspnea scale.Three-month treatment response to LABA/ICS might be a prognostic factor for the occurrence of acute exacerbation in COPD patients. PMID:25552883

  4. Perspectives of the Breast Cancer Survivorship Continuum: Diagnosis through 30 Months Post-Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Hulett, Jennifer M.; Armer, Jane M.; Stewart, Bob R.; Wanchai, Ausanee

    2015-01-01

    This study explored breast cancer survivors’ perspectives regarding their experiences of the survivorship continuum from diagnosis through 30 months post-treatment. The sample included women (N = 379) with newly-diagnosed breast cancer undergoing treatment at a Midwestern university-affiliated cancer center. Semi-structured interviews were conducted using the Lymphedema and Breast Cancer Questionnaire at time of diagnosis, post-operatively, quarterly during the first year, and then semi-annually thereafter through 30 months post-treatment. A mixed-methodology was used to analyze participants’ comments. Themes central to long-term survivorship experiences included social support, positive worldviews, breast cancer and lymphedema health literacy, religious/spiritual beliefs, self-empowerment, and recovery expectations. These themes were consistent with a psychoneuroimmunological model of health in which psychosocial variables mediate stress and influence health outcomes. Qualitative data showed that social support and positive worldviews were the two themes with the most significant impact on long-term breast cancer survivorship experiences. Survivors expressed a need to advance their health care literacy in order to share ownership of breast cancer and lymphedema treatment decisions. Since breast cancer is an immune-mediated disease, long-term survivorship planning should address psychosocial factors that influence the long-term psychological distress associated with immune dysfunction. PMID:26030800

  5. Positive aspects of caregiving as a moderator of treatment outcome over 12 months.

    PubMed

    Hilgeman, Michelle M; Allen, Rebecca S; DeCoster, Jamie; Burgio, Louis D

    2007-06-01

    The authors examined the influence of positive aspects of caregiving (PAC) as a moderator of treatment outcome across 12 months in 1 of the original sites of the Resources for Enhancing Alzheimer's Caregiver Health I project. They used multilevel random coefficients regression analysis to predict time-varying PAC, depression, behavioral bother, and daily care burden in Alzheimer's caregivers (N = 243; mean age = 60.89, SD = 14.19). They found that time-varying PAC was predicted by time-varying daily care burden. They also found significant effects of time-varying PAC for depression, behavioral bother, and daily care burden. Notably, a PAC x Phase x Treatment effect was found for daily care burden, such that individuals who endorsed less PAC benefited most from the intervention across 12 months. The tendency to positively appraise the caregiving experience (i.e., PAC) in response to chronic stressors such as Alzheimer's caregiving may affect individuals' responsiveness to, and benefit from, interventions, whereas only daily care burden affected the tendency to find enjoyment in caregiving across 12 months. Future intervention research should assess individual PAC in order to better tailor interventions to caregiving needs. PMID:17563191

  6. Validity of Clinician's Self-Reported Practice Elements on the Monthly Treatment and Progress Summary.

    PubMed

    Borntrager, Cameo F; Chorpita, Bruce F; Orimoto, Trina; Love, Allison; Mueller, Charles W

    2015-07-01

    An increased demand for accountability in community mental health systems has resulted in a need for valid, reliable measures of therapeutic practice. The Monthly Treatment and Progress Summary (MTPS), developed through the Hawaii Child and Adolescent Mental Health Division, is a clinician-report measure that describes therapeutic practices, treatment targets, and progress ratings for each treatment case. The current study evaluated the validity of the therapeutic strategies reported on the MTPS by comparing coder- and clinician-reported use of practices. Using 47 audio recordings from 19 youths' therapy sessions, trained observers reliably coded 12 discrete practices. Four of the 12 practices were found to be valid according to clinician-coder agreement (intraclass correlations ≥0.60). The coding system was revised, utilizing extensiveness and experiential scales, and 100 % of practices were valid according to clinician-coder agreement. Practical use of the MTPS, implications for service systems, and future directions for research on the MTPS are discussed. PMID:24091609

  7. Day Hospital Treatment for Anorexia Nervosa: A 12-Month Follow-up Study.

    PubMed

    Abbate-Daga, Giovanni; Marzola, Enrica; De-Bacco, Carlotta; Buzzichelli, Sara; Brustolin, Annalisa; Campisi, Stefania; Amianto, Federico; Migliaretti, Giuseppe; Fassino, Secondo

    2015-09-01

    Day hospitals (DHs) represent a treatment option for anorexia nervosa (AN), a mental disorder that is difficult to treat and has no evidence-based treatments available. We aimed to determine the effectiveness of a DH treatment that was specifically focused on the emotions of severe AN patients. Body mass index and eating psychopathology were the primary outcome measures. Fifty-six adult patients with AN were assessed upon admission, at the end of treatment (EOT) and at a 12-month follow-up evaluation (T18) using Eating Disorders Inventory-2, Beck Depression Inventory, Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety and Brief Social Phobia Scale. All participants received a multidisciplinary treatment programme that focused on psychodynamic psychotherapy. Seventy-eight per cent of participants reported positive outcomes at EOT and 68% at T18. Moreover, 82.1% and 65.4% of long-standing patients showed positive outcomes at EOT and T18, respectively. All measures of psychopathology were significantly improved at EOT and were maintained at follow-up. Our DH was effective at treating severe AN patients; however, further investigations of the processes of change are warranted. PMID:25974364

  8. Functional Outcome at 6 Months in Surgical Treatment of Spontaneous Supratentorial Intracerebral Haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Ghani, Abdul Rahman Izaini; John, John Tharakan Kalappurakkal; Idris, Zamzuri; Ghazali, Mazira Mohamad; Murshid, Nur-Leem; Musa, Kamarul Imran

    2008-01-01

    A prospective cohort study was done to evaluate the role of surgery in patients with spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral haemorrhage (SICH) and to identify predictors of outcome including the use of invasive regional cortical cerebral blood flow (rCoBF) and microdialysis. Surgery consisted of craniotomy or decompressive craniectomy. The ventriculostomy for intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring and drainage and regional cortical cerebral blood flow (rCoBF) and microdialysis were performed in all subjects. Pre and post operative information on subjects were collected. The study end points was functional outcome at 6 months based on a dichotomised Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS).The selected clinical, radiological, biochemical and treatment factors that may influence the functional outcome were analysed for their significance. A total of 36 patients were recruited with 27(75%) patients had Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) between 5 to 8 on admission and 9(25%) were admitted with GCS of 9. At 6 months, 86 % had a poor or unfavourable outcome (GOS I–III) and 14% had good or favourable outcome (GOS IV–V). The mortality rate at 6 months was 55%. Univariate analysis for the functional outcome identified 2 significant variables, the midline shift (p=0.013) and mean lactate:pyruvate ratio (p=0.038). Multivariate analysis identified midline shift as the single significant independent predictor of functional outcome (p=0.013).Despite aggressive regional cortical cerebral blood flow (rCoBF) and microdialysis study for detection of early ischemia, surgical treatment for spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage only benefited a small number of patients in terms of favourable outcome (14%) and in the majority of patients (86%), the outcome was unfavourable. Patients with midline shift > 5mm has almost 21 times higher chances (adj) OR 20.8 of being associated with poor outcome (GOS I–III). PMID:22589638

  9. Femtosecond-lentotomy treatment: six-month follow-up of in vivo treated rabbit lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumacher, S.; Fromm, M.; Oberheide, U.; Bock, P.; Imbschweiler, I.; Hoffmann, H.; Beineke, A.; Gerten, G.; Wegener, A.; Lubatschowski, H.

    2009-07-01

    Presbyopia is an age related effect which affects every human at the age of about 40 years. So far reading glasses are the conventional treatment. According to Helmholtz' theory of accommodation one of the mayor reasons for the development of presbyopia is the increasing sclerosis of the lens. In contrast to that the ciliary muscle and the lens capsule remain mostly active and elastic the whole life. So a possible treatment could be the increase of the flexibility of the lens by creating gliding planes with fs-laser pulses inside the lens tissue. In former studies it was shown that fs-laser pulses were able to increase the flexibility of ex vivo porcine lenses as well as ex vivo human donor lenses. Our current aim was to evaluate the effect of the fs-laser pulses on the crystalline lens of living rabbit eyes due to the fs-lentotomy treatment. The main focus of the evaluation was the exclusion of possible side effects of the treatment like cataract formation or retina damage. The treated eyes were monitored using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and Scheimpflug imaging for localizing and studying the tissue effects of the incisions. Furthermore histological sections of the lens and retina were prepared. The rabbits were investigated pre operatively and up to six months post operatively. The fs-laser induced micro incisions were successfully applied to the left lens of each rabbit. The micro incisions within the crystalline lens were detectable with OCT and Scheimpflug imaging up to six month. The imaging within the lens showed a progressive fading of the incisional opacities generated by the femtosecond laser during the six months and no indication of cataract formation was found. OCT and Scheimpflug images emphasize themselves as necessary tools to monitor the micro incisions over time. Histopathological sections of the lens tissue support the findings of the non invasive imaging techniques. Also the histopathological sections of the retina show no thermal

  10. Molecular interconversion of cold-sensitive cytosolic 3,3',5-tri-iodo-L-thyronine-binding proteins from human erythrocytes: effect of cold, heat and pH treatments.

    PubMed

    Fanjul, A N; Farías, R N

    1993-03-01

    Cytosolic 3,3',5-tri-iodo-L-thyronine-binding proteins (CTBP I, II and IV species) from human red blood cells undergo rapid loss of activity at low temperatures. Cold treatment of CTBPs was accompanied by dissociation of the polymeric protein to the 60 kDa inactive monomer. Re-activation of the cold-inactivated CTBP IV by warming resulted in association of the monomer to the active polymeric form. A similar association-dissociation phenomenon was also obtained isothermically, though pH changes. We conclude that CTBP I and CTBP II are polymeric forms of CTBP IV. PMID:8452548

  11. Intensive Rehabilitation Treatment in Parkinsonian Patients with Dyskinesias: A Preliminary Study with 6-Month Followup

    PubMed Central

    Frazzitta, Giuseppe; Morelli, Micaela; Bertotti, Gabriella; Felicetti, Guido; Pezzoli, Gianni; Maestri, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    A major adverse effect of levodopa therapy is the development of dyskinesia, which affects 30–40% of chronically treated Parkinsonian patients. We hypothesized that our rehabilitation protocol might allow a reduction in levodopa dosage without worsening motor performances, thus reducing frequency and severity of dyskinesias. Ten Parkinsonian patients underwent a 4-week intensive rehabilitation treatment (IRT). Patients were evaluated at baseline, at the end of the rehabilitation treatment and at 6-month followup. Outcome measures were the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Sections II, III, and IV (UPDRS II, III, IV) and the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS). At the end of the IRT, levodopa dosage was significantly reduced (P = 0.0035), passing from 1016 ± 327 to 777 ± 333 mg/day. All outcome variables improved significantly (P < 0.0005 all) by the end of IRT. At followup, all variables still maintained better values with respect to admission (P < 0.02 all). In particular AIMS score improved passing from 11.90 ± 6.5 at admission to 3.10 ± 2.3 at discharge and to 4.20 ± 2.7 at followup. Our results suggest that it is possible to act on dyskinesias in Parkinsonian patients with properly designed rehabilitation protocols. Intensive rehabilitation treatment, whose acute beneficial effects are maintained over time, might be considered a valid noninvasive therapeutic support for Parkinsonian patients suffering from diskinesia, allowing a reduction in drugs dosage and related adverse effects. PMID:22701812

  12. Comparison of combination pergolide and levodopa to levodopa alone after 63 months of treatment.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, T; Sage, J I

    1991-04-01

    We retrospectively compared the clinical state of 14 patients with Parkinson's disease who took pergolide continuously for 63 +/- 17 months (Group I) to that of 12 similar patients who started pergolide and then stopped it after 60 +/- 5 days (Group II). Disability measured during the "on" state did not worsen during the observations period in Group I patients, whereas disability in Group II showed significant deterioration. There were no significant differences in the progression of motor fluctuations between the two groups. Combination treatment with pergolide and levodopa is effective long-term symptomatic therapy for advanced Parkinson's disease and deserves more rigorous study to determine whether or not it also retards progression of Parkinson's disease. PMID:2015613

  13. 1,3,5-Trinitrobenzene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,3,5 - Trinitrobenzene ; CASRN 99 - 35 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcino

  14. Preparation of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene from 3,5-dichloroanisole

    DOEpatents

    Ott, D.G.; Benziger, T.M.

    1991-03-05

    Preparation of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) from 3,5-dichloroanisole is described. Nitration of 3,5-dichloroanisole under relatively mild conditions gave 3,5-dichloro-2,4,6-trinitroanisole in high yield and purity. Ammonolysis of this latter compound gave the desired TATB. Another route to TATB was through the treatment of the 3,5-dichloro-2,4,6-trinitroanisole with thionyl chloride and dimethylformamide to yield 1,3,5-trichloro-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene. Ammonolysis of this product produced TATB. 8 figures.

  15. Biodegradation of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine

    PubMed Central

    McCormick, N. G.; Cornell, J. H.; Kaplan, A. M.

    1981-01-01

    Biodegradation of the explosive hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) occurs under anaerobic conditions, yielding a number of products, including: hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine, hexahydro-1,3-dinitroso-5-nitro-1,3,5-triazine, hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitroso-1,3,5-triazine, hydrazine, 1,1-dimethyl-hydrazine, 1,2-dimethylhydrazine, formaldehyde, and methanol. A scheme for the biodegradation of RDX is proposed which proceeds via successive reduction of the nitro groups to a point where destabilization and fragmentation of the ring occurs. The noncyclic degradation products arise via subsequent reduction and rearrangement reactions of the fragments. The scheme suggests the presence of several additional compounds, not yet identified. Several of the products are mutagenic or carcinogenic or both. Anaerobic treatment of RDX wastewaters, which also contain high nitrate levels, would permit the denitrification to occur, with concurrent degradation of RDX ultimately to a mixture of hydrazines and methanol. The feasibility of using an aerobic mode in the further degradation of these products is discussed. PMID:16345884

  16. Treatment Outcomes of Primary Molars Direct Pulp Capping after 20 Months: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Fallahinejad Ghajari, Masoud; Asgharian Jeddi, Tahereh; Iri, Sonay; Asgary, Saeed

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to compare the radiographic and clinical success rates of direct pulp capping (DPC) using ProRoot mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) or calcium enriched mixture (CEM). Methods and Materials A total of 42 symptom-free carious vital primary molars (21 pairs) were selected in this split mouth trial and randomly pulpotomized in two experimental groups. Pinpoint pulp exposures were covered by the same blinded operator with MTA or CEM, and then restored by amalgam. Radiographic and clinical successes were evaluated at 20 month follow-up. Data were statistically analyzed using McNemar test. Results Nineteen patients were available for 20-month follow-up; only one failed tooth was extracted in the CEM group. All available teeth were symptom-free, however, the final evaluated success rate was 89% in CEM (CI 95%: 0.82-0.96) and 95% in MTA (CI 95%: 0.85-1) groups without statistical difference (P=0.360). Worst case scenario was applied for missing value analysis; assuming that the 2 lost cases in CEM group had failed and the only lost case in MTA group was due to treatment success, as a result the success of CEM and MTA were 81% (CI 95%: 0.72-0.90) and 95% (CI 95%:0.85-1), respectively, with no statistical difference (P=0.078). In the reverse scenario, the success of MTA and CEM were 86% (CI 95%: 0.78-0.94) and 90% (CI 95%: 0.82-0.98), respectively; again with no statistical difference (P=0.479). Conclusion Effectiveness of MTA and CEM biomaterials for primary molars’ DPC was similar; CEM can be a suitable alternative for MTA. PMID:24171019

  17. Upper Airway Stimulation for Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Durability of the Treatment Effect at 18 Months

    PubMed Central

    Strollo, Patrick J.; Gillespie, M. Boyd; Soose, Ryan J.; Maurer, Joachim T.; de Vries, Nico; Cornelius, Jason; Hanson, Ronald D.; Padhya, Tapan A.; Steward, David L.; Woodson, B. Tucker; Verbraecken, Johan; Vanderveken, Olivier M.; Goetting, Mark G.; Feldman, Neil; Chabolle, Frédéric; Badr, M. Safwan; Randerath, Winfried; Strohl, Kingman P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the stability of improvement in polysomnographic measures of sleep disordered breathing, patient reported outcomes, the durability of hypoglossal nerve recruitment and safety at 18 months in the Stimulation Treatment for Apnea Reduction (STAR) trial participants. Design: Prospective multicenter single group trial with participants serving as their own controls. Setting: Twenty-two community and academic sleep medicine and otolaryngology practices. Measurements: Primary outcome measures were the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and the 4% oxygen desaturation index (ODI). Secondary outcome measures were the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), the Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire (FOSQ), and oxygen saturation percent time < 90% during sleep. Stimulation level for each participant was collected at three predefined thresholds during awake testing. Procedure- and/or device-related adverse events were reviewed and coded by the Clinical Events Committee Results: The median AHI was reduced by 67.4% from the baseline of 29.3 to 9.7/h at 18 mo. The median ODI was reduced by 67.5% from 25.4 to 8.6/h at 18 mo. The FOSQ and ESS improved significantly at 18 mo compared to baseline values. The functional threshold was unchanged from baseline at 18 mo. Two participants experienced a serious device-related adverse event requiring neurostimulator repositioning and fixation. No tongue weakness reported at 18 mo. Conclusion: Upper airway stimulation via the hypoglossal nerve maintained a durable effect of improving airway stability during sleep and improved patient reported outcomes (Epworth Sleepiness Scale and Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire) without an increase of the stimulation thresholds or tongue injury at 18 mo of follow-up. Citation: Strollo PJ, Gillespie MB, Soose RJ, Maurer JT, de Vries N, Cornelius J, Hanson RD, Padhya TA, Steward DL, Woodson BT, Verbraecken J, Vanderveken OM, Goetting MG, Feldman N, Chabolle F, Badr MS, Randerath W

  18. Antiphospholipid antibodies during 6-month treatment with infliximab: A preliminary report

    PubMed Central

    Kolarz, Bogdan; Majdan, Maria; Darmochwał-Kolarz, Dorota A.; Dryglewska, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Background The introduction of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antagonists (adalimumab, infliximab, and etanercept) was a major advance and was highly important and beneficial in most rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. The adverse effects of this treatment are infrequent, but include opportunistic intracellular infection (especially the reactivation of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis); exacerbation of demyelinating disorders; and the production of various types of antibodies such as antinuclear antibodies (ANA) or double-stranded DNA autoantibodies (dsDNA) and antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) such as anti-cardiolipin antibodies (aCL) and anti-B2GP-I antibodies (B2GP-I). The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of aCL and B2GP-I in IgM and IgG classes, using ELISA tests, during 6 months of follow-up in patients with refractory RA successfully treated with infliximab. Material/Methods We determined the prevalence of aCL and B2GP-I in IgM and IgG classes, using ELISA tests, during 6 months of follow-up in patients with refractory RA successfully treated with infliximab. Results We observed a statistically important increase only in the group of B2GP-I IgM (p<0.05). There are contradictory results concerning the ability of infliximab to induce aPL, but most authors confirm this phenomenon. Conclusions Further investigations are needed to determine if the new aPL appears in patients with β2-GPI gene polymorphisms such as leucine-to-valine substitution at position 247, which can lead to a conformational changes in β2-GPI protein, leading to aPL synthesis. The role of aPL in pathogenesis of APS is still unclear, but we should remember the immunogenic aspect of TNF antagonist treatment. Therefore, we recommend early detection of aPL and observation of the patient, paying special attention to signs and symptoms of thromboembolism. PMID:25027437

  19. Delinquent Behavior and Emerging Substance Use in the MTA at 36 Months: Prevalence, Course, and Treatment Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molina, Brooke S. G.; Flory, Kate; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Greiner, Andrew R.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Swanson, James M.; Hechtman, Lily; Jensen, Peter S.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Hoza, Betsy; Pelham, William E.; Elliott, Glen R.; Wells, Karen C.; Abikoff, Howard B.; Gibbons, Robert D.; Marcus, Sue; Conners, C. Keith; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Greenhill, Laurence L.; March, John S.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Severe, Joanne B.; Wigal, Timothy

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To compare delinquent behavior and early substance use between the children in the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children With ADHD (MTA; N = 487) and those in a local normative comparison group (n = 272) at 24 and 36 months postrandomization and to test whether these outcomes were predicted by the randomly assigned treatments and…

  20. Comparison of recurrent rate of gingival pigmentation after treatment by liquid nitrogen and cryoprob in 18 months follows-up

    PubMed Central

    Sedeh, Shirin Amini; Badihi, Saba; Esfahaniyan, Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cryosurgery is one of the simplest, most effective gingival depigmentation methods. Repigmentation may happen after a while in each method. The aim of this study is to compare the recurrence rate after treatment by liquid nitrogen swap and a cryoprob in 18 months. Materials and Methods: A total of 26 patients with physiologic gingival pigmentation were selected. The anterior sextant was divided into left and right segments; each segment was treated randomly by swap technique or cryoprob. Standard photos were evaluated with photoshop software (Red, Green, Blue, Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, Black [RGB, CMYK]) before and at 2 week, 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 months after the treatment. The results were compared, by the independent t-test and repeated measure ANOVA thereafter least significant difference post-hoc. The viewpoints of patients and physicians regarding the treatment outcomes were obtained by a questionnaire and consequently evaluated qualitatively by McNemar test (P < 0.05 was considered as significant level). Results: The statistical analysis showed a significant difference in color change after the treatment during 18 months, in each group (P < 0.001). The mean values of RGB had significantly increased after 2 weeks in both methods (P < 0.001), but the differences from 2 weeks to 18 months after treatment were not significant (P > 0.05). The mean values of CMYK significantly decreased after 2 weeks in both methods (P < 0.001), but the differences from 2 weeks to 18 months after treatment were not significant (P > 0.05). Qualitative evaluation showed the preference of the cryosurgery with swap method (P < 0.001). No significant recurrence was observed during 18 months follow-up. Conclusion: Both methods of cryosurgery are appropriate in treatment of gingival depigmentation because no significant recurrence was observed during 18 months follow-up. PMID:25426152

  1. Early response to inhaled bronchodilators and corticosteroids as a predictor of 12-month treatment responder status and COPD exacerbations

    PubMed Central

    Calverley, Peter M; Postma, Dirkje S; Anzueto, Antonio R; Make, Barry J; Eriksson, Göran; Peterson, Stefan; Jenkins, Christine R

    2016-01-01

    Background Early treatment response markers, for example, improvement in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) total score, may help clinicians to better manage patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We investigated the prevalence of clinically important improvements in FEV1 and SGRQ scores after 2-month budesonide/formoterol or formoterol treatment and whether such improvements predict subsequent improvements and exacerbation rates. Methods This post hoc analysis is based on data from three double-blind, randomized studies in patients with moderate-to-very-severe COPD receiving twice-daily budesonide/formoterol or formoterol alone for 6 or 12 months. Prebronchodilator FEV1 and SGRQ total score were measured before treatment and at 2 and 12 months; COPD exacerbation rates were measured during months 2–12. Responders were defined by ≥100 mL improvement in prebronchodilator FEV1 and ≥4-point decrease in SGRQ total score. Results Overall, 2,331 and 1,799 patients were included in the 0–2- and 0–12-month responder analyses, respectively, and 2,360 patients in the 2–12-month exacerbation rate analysis. At 2 months, 35.1% of patients were FEV1 responders and 44.3% were SGRQ responders. The probability of response was significantly greater with budesonide/formoterol than with formoterol or placebo for both parameters. Two-month responders had a greater chance of 12-month response than 2-month nonresponders for both FEV1 (odds ratio, 5.57; 95% confidence interval, 4.14–7.50) and SGRQ (odds ratio, 3.87; 95% confidence interval, 2.83–5.31). Two-month response in FEV1 (P<0.001), but not SGRQ (P=0.11), was associated with greater reductions in exacerbation risk. Conclusion Early FEV1 and SGRQ treatment responses relate to their changes at 12 months. FEV1 response, but not SGRQ response, at 2 months predicts the risk of a future COPD exacerbation in some, but not all patients. This is

  2. Month 2 Culture Status and Treatment Duration as Predictors of Tuberculosis Relapse Risk in a Meta-Regression Model

    PubMed Central

    Wallis, Robert S.; Wang, Cunshan; Meyer, Daniel; Thomas, Neal

    2013-01-01

    Background New drugs and regimens with the potential to transform tuberculosis treatment are presently in early stage clinical trials. Objective The goal of the present study was to infer the required duration of these treatments. Method A meta-regression model was developed to predict relapse risk using treatment duration and month 2 sputum culture positive rate as predictors, based on published historical data from 24 studies describing 58 regimens in 7793 patients. Regimens in which rifampin was administered for the first 2 months but not subsequently were excluded. The model treated study as a random effect. Results The model predicted that new regimens of 4 or 5 months duration with rates of culture positivity after 2 months of 1% or 3%, would yield relapse rates of 4.0% or 4.1%, respectively. In both cases, the upper limit of the 2-sided 80% prediction interval for relapse for a hypothetical trial with 680 subjects per arm was <10%. Analysis using this model of published month 2 data for moxifloxacin-containing regimens indicated they would result in relapse rates similar to standard therapy only if administered for ≥5 months. Conclusions This model is proposed to inform the required duration of treatment of new TB regimens, potentially hastening their accelerated approval by several years. PMID:23940699

  3. Immunogenicity, safety, and antibody persistence at 3, 5, and 10 years postvaccination in adolescents randomized to booster immunization with a combined tetanus, diphtheria, 5-component acellular pertussis, and inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine administered with a hepatitis B virus vaccine concurrently or 1 month apart.

    PubMed

    Embree, Joanne; Law, Barbara; Voloshen, Tim; Tomovici, Antigona

    2015-03-01

    An understanding of the antibody persistence elicited by a combined tetanus, diphtheria, 5-component acellular pertussis, and inactivated poliovirus vaccine (Tdap-IPV) after adolescent vaccination is important to optimize booster dosing intervals. Our objectives were to compare the safety and immunogenicity of Tdap-IPV coadministered with hepatitis B vaccine (HepB) and sequential administration and evaluate humoral immunity at 3, 5, and 10 years after Tdap-IPV vaccination in adolescents. This phase II randomized, controlled, and open-label study enrolled 280 11- to 14-year-old adolescents with up to 10 years postvaccination follow-up. Group 1 (n = 145) received Tdap-IPV, followed by a HepB dose 1 month later, and group 2 (n = 135) received both vaccines simultaneously. No consistent increases in solicited reactions or unsolicited adverse events occurred with coadministration. All vaccinees attained seroprotective antibody levels at ≥0.01 IU/ml for diphtheria and tetanus, at a ≥1:8 dilution for poliovirus (serotypes 1, 2, and 3), and ≥10 mIU/ml for hepatitis B at 1 month postvaccination. Clinically relevant immunologic interactions did not occur with coadministration. For pertussis, all participants achieved seropositivity levels (at or above the lower limit of quantitation), and 72.7% to 95.8% had 4-fold increases in pertussis antibodies at 1 month postvaccination. At 10 years postvaccination, the remaining participants (62.8% of the original cohort) maintained seroprotective levels of ≥0.01 IU/ml for diphtheria and tetanus, a ≥1:8 dilution for all 3 poliovirus serotypes, and 74.1% to 98.2% maintained pertussis seropositivity levels depending on the antigen tested. There were no differences between the groups. These results support the coadministration of Tdap-IPV and HepB to adolescents and suggest that vaccination with Tdap-IPV can offer protection for 10 years after an adolescent booster vaccination. PMID:25540274

  4. Monthly survey of N-nitrosamine yield in a conventional water treatment plant in North China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chengkun; Liu, Shuming; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Xiaojian; Chen, Chao

    2015-12-01

    A sampling campaign was conducted monthly to investigate the occurrence of N-nitrosamines at a conventional water treatment plant in one city in North China. The yield of N-nitrosamines in the treated water indicated precursors changed greatly after the source water switching. Average concentrations of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), N-nitrosomorpholine (NMOR), and N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR) in the finished water were 6.9, 3.3, and 3.1ng/L, respectively, from June to October when the Luan River water was used as source water, while those of NDMA, N-nitrosomethylethylamine (NMEA), and NPYR in the finished water were 10.1, 4.9, and 4.7ng/L, respectively, from November to next April when the Yellow River was used. NDMA concentration in the finished water was frequently over the 10ng/L, i.e., the notification level of California, USA, which indicated a considerable threat to public health. Weak correlations were observed between N-nitrosamine yield and typical water quality parameters except for the dissolved organic nitrogen. PMID:26702978

  5. PBF/BNCT Program for cancer treatment: Monthly bulletin: Volume 2, No. 9

    SciTech Connect

    Dorn, R.V. III

    1988-09-01

    This month's bulletin summarizes the considerable ongoing progress within the various project arms of the PBF/BNCT Program. Continued progress toward institution of the experimental program at BMRR is represented by further calculations modeling the BMRR filter design and predicted output, as well as initial diagnostic workup of the dogs to be used in initiating these studies. A draft for the canine dosimetry measurement plan in support of this is under review. Work with the canine-model system continues with ongoing plasmapheresis experiments and institution of in-vivo sampling of liver tissue for shipping to Cornell for secondary ion microscopy (SIM) studies. The SIM work at Cornell has also expanded in a cooperative fashion with the University of Rochester, looking at human lung tumor cells and spheroids. Activity in the supporting technology projects includes decreased backlog of Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) analysis, detailed investigation of competing digestion procedures of tissue samples for ICP-AES, and further refinement of QA/QC analytical methodologies. Progress in the development of hardware tools continues with respect to MRI system modification and with expected delivery shortly of the Apollo workstation for use in radiation dosimetry and treatment-planning programs (with potential software collaboration with the University of Utah).

  6. Toxicities associated with 1-month treatment with propylthiouracil (PTU) and methimazole (MMI) in male rats.

    PubMed

    Nambiar, Prashant R; Palanisamy, Gopinath S; Okerberg, Carlin; Wolford, Angela; Walters, Karen; Buckbinder, Leonard; Reagan, William J

    2014-08-01

    Thionamides such as propylthiouracil (PTU) and methimazole (MMI) have been used for more than 50 years to treat the more common causes of thyrotoxicosis/hyperthyroidism such as Graves' disease. Serious adverse effects associated with thionamides in humans include idiosyncratic liver damage, agranulocytosis, aplastic anemia, and vasculitis. Both prospective and retrospective clinical studies with these drugs have failed to identify predictive biomarker for these adverse effects. To assess whether rat is a good model for predicting drug-related adverse events in the liver and in the bone marrow, we conducted a comprehensive study in male rats with multiple doses of PTU and MMI. As expected, euthyroid animals became hypothyroid along with several secondary changes associated with hypothyroidism. There were slight reductions in red blood cell parameters along with some marginal effects on the bone marrow elements. However, there was no evidence of significant neutropenia and liver injury in both PTU-treated and MMI-treated cohorts. MMI-related effects were noted in the seminiferous tubules of the testes. Overall, 1-month daily treatment of euthyroid rats with PTU or MMI resulted in hypothyroidism, minor bone marrow effects, and several secondary effects associated with hypothyroidism, but without any evidence of adverse effects reported in humans including liver injury and agranulocytosis. PMID:24067673

  7. Treatment as Required versus Regular Monthly Treatment in the Management of Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Schmucker, Christine M.; Rücker, Gerta; Sommer, Harriet; Virgili, Gianni; Loke, Yoon K.; Oeller, Patrick; Agostini, Hansjuergen; Ehlken, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Background To investigate whether treatment as required ‘pro re nata’ (PRN) versus regular monthly treatment regimens lead to differences in outcomes in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD). Regular monthly administration of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors is an established gold standard treatment, but this approach is costly. Replacement of monthly by PRN treatment can only be justified if there is no difference in patient relevant outcomes. Methods Systematic review and meta-analysis. The intervention was PRN treatment and the comparator was monthly treatment with VEGF-inhibitors. Four bibliographic databases were searched for randomised controlled trials comparing both treatment regimens directly (head-to-head studies). The last literature search was conducted in December 2014. Risk of bias assessment was performed after the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Findings We included 3 head-to-head studies (6 reports) involving more than 2000 patients. After 2 years, the weighted mean difference in best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 1.9 (95% CI 0.5 to 3.3) ETDRS letters in favour of monthly treatment. Systemic adverse events were higher in PRN treated patients, but these differences were not statistically significant. After 2 years, the total number of intravitreal injections required by the patients in the PRN arms were 8.4 (95% CI 7.9 to 8.9) fewer than those having monthly treatment. The studies were considered to have a moderate risk of bias. Conclusions PRN treatment resulted in minor but statistically significant decrease in mean BCVA which may not be clinically meaningful. There is a small increase in risk of systemic adverse events for PRN treated patients. Overall, the results indicate that an individualized treatment approach with anti-VEGF using visual acuity and OCT-guided re-treatment criteria may be appropriate for most patients with nAMD. PMID:26368921

  8. Extracorporeal photopheresis as second-line treatment for acute graft-versus-host disease: impact on six-month freedom from treatment failure

    PubMed Central

    Das-Gupta, Emma; Greinix, Hildegard; Jacobs, Ryan; Zhou, Li; Savani, Bipin N.; Engelhardt, Brian G.; Kassim, Adetola; Worel, Nina; Knobler, Robert; Russell, Nigel; Jagasia, Madan

    2014-01-01

    Second-line therapy for corticosteroid-refractory or -dependent acute graft-versus-host disease remains ill-defined, due to limited efficacy of drugs and evolving clinical trial endpoints. Six-month freedom from treatment failure has been proposed as a novel clinical trial endpoint and is defined by the absence of death, malignancy relapse/progression, or addition of a next line of systemic immunosuppressive therapy within 6 months of intervention and prior to diagnosis of chronic graft-versus-host disease. We analyzed the 6-month freedom from treatment failure endpoint in 128 patients enrolled from three centers who were treated with extracorporeal photopheresis as second-line therapy for acute graft-versus-host disease. The incidence of 6-month freedom from treatment failure was 77.3% with a 2-year survival rate of 56%. Corticosteroid dose or response status at onset of second-line therapy did not influence outcome. Higher grade of acute graft-versus-host disease (grade 2 versus grades 3–4) at onset of photopheresis predicted for poor outcome as measured by survival (hazard ratio 2.78, P<0.001), non-relapse mortality (hazard ratio 2.78, P=0.001) and 6-month freedom from treatment failure (hazard ratio 3.05, P<0.001). For the 91 patients who achieved 6-month freedom from treatment failure, 1-year, 2-year and 3-year survival rates were 78.9%, 70.8% and 69.5%, respectively. Six-month freedom from treatment failure is a reasonable early surrogate for outcome and should be considered as a clinical trial endpoint. This study demonstrates the durable effect of photopheresis as second-line therapy for corticosteroid-refractory or -dependent acute graft-versus-host disease using 6-month freedom from treatment failure as the primary endpoint. PMID:25150260

  9. Extracorporeal photopheresis as second-line treatment for acute graft-versus-host disease: impact on six-month freedom from treatment failure.

    PubMed

    Das-Gupta, Emma; Greinix, Hildegard; Jacobs, Ryan; Zhou, Li; Savani, Bipin N; Engelhardt, Brian G; Kassim, Adetola; Worel, Nina; Knobler, Robert; Russell, Nigel; Jagasia, Madan

    2014-11-01

    Second-line therapy for corticosteroid-refractory or -dependent acute graft-versus-host disease remains ill-defined, due to limited efficacy of drugs and evolving clinical trial endpoints. Six-month freedom from treatment failure has been proposed as a novel clinical trial endpoint and is defined by the absence of death, malignancy relapse/progression, or addition of a next line of systemic immunosuppressive therapy within 6 months of intervention and prior to diagnosis of chronic graft-versus-host disease. We analyzed the 6-month freedom from treatment failure endpoint in 128 patients enrolled from three centers who were treated with extracorporeal photopheresis as second-line therapy for acute graft-versus-host disease. The incidence of 6-month freedom from treatment failure was 77.3% with a 2-year survival rate of 56%. Corticosteroid dose or response status at onset of second-line therapy did not influence outcome. Higher grade of acute graft-versus-host disease (grade 2 versus grades 3-4) at onset of photopheresis predicted for poor outcome as measured by survival (hazard ratio 2.78, P<0.001), non-relapse mortality (hazard ratio 2.78, P=0.001) and 6-month freedom from treatment failure (hazard ratio 3.05, P<0.001). For the 91 patients who achieved 6-month freedom from treatment failure, 1-year, 2-year and 3-year survival rates were 78.9%, 70.8% and 69.5%, respectively. Six-month freedom from treatment failure is a reasonable early surrogate for outcome and should be considered as a clinical trial endpoint. This study demonstrates the durable effect of photopheresis as second-line therapy for corticosteroid-refractory or -dependent acute graft-versus-host disease using 6-month freedom from treatment failure as the primary endpoint. PMID:25150260

  10. Analysis of correlation between initial alveolar bone density and apical root resorption after 12 months of orthodontic treatment without extraction

    PubMed Central

    Scheibel, Paula Cabrini; Ramos, Adilson Luiz; Iwaki, Lilian Cristina Vessoni; Micheletti, Kelly Regina

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between initial alveolar bone density of upper central incisors (ABD-UI) and external apical root resorption (EARR) after 12 months of orthodontic movement in cases without extraction. METHODS: A total of 47 orthodontic patients 11 years old or older were submitted to periapical radiography of upper incisors prior to treatment (T1) and after 12 months of treatment (T2). ABD-UI and EARR were measured by means of densitometry. RESULTS: No statistically significant correlation was found between initial ABD-UI and EARR at T2 (r = 0.149; p = 0.157). CONCLUSION: Based on the present findings, alveolar density assessed through periapical radiography is not predictive of root resorption after 12 months of orthodontic treatment in cases without extraction. PMID:25715722

  11. Administration of 3,5-diiodothyronine (3,5-T2) causes central hypothyroidism and stimulates thyroid-sensitive tissues

    PubMed Central

    Padron, Alvaro Souto; Neto, Ruy Andrade Louzada; Pantaleão, Thiago Urgal; de Souza dos Santos, Maria Carolina; Araujo, Renata Lopes; de Andrade, Bruno Moulin; da Silva Leandro, Monique; de Castro, João Pedro Saar Werneck; Ferreira, Andrea Claudia Freitas; de Carvalho, Denise Pires

    2014-01-01

    In general, 3,5-diiodothyronine (3,5-T2) increases the resting metabolic rate and oxygen consumption, exerting short-term beneficial metabolic effects on rats subjected to a high-fat diet. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of chronic 3,5-T2 administration on the hypothalamus–pituitary–thyroid axis, body mass gain, adipose tissue mass, and body oxygen consumption in Wistar rats from 3 to 6 months of age. The rats were treated daily with 3,5-T2 (25, 50, or 75 μg/100 g body weight, s.c.) for 90 days between the ages of 3 and 6 months. The administration of 3,5-T2 suppressed thyroid function, reducing not only thyroid iodide uptake but also thyroperoxidase, NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4), and thyroid type 1 iodothyronine deiodinase (D1 (DIO1)) activities and expression levels, whereas the expression of the TSH receptor and dual oxidase (DUOX) were increased. Serum TSH, 3,3′,5-triiodothyronine, and thyroxine were reduced in a 3,5-T2 dose-dependent manner, whereas oxygen consumption increased in these animals, indicating the direct action of 3,5-T2 on this physiological variable. Type 2 deiodinase activity increased in both the hypothalamus and the pituitary, and D1 activities in the liver and kidney were also increased in groups treated with 3,5-T2. Moreover, after 3 months of 3,5-T2 administration, body mass and retroperitoneal fat pad mass were significantly reduced, whereas the heart rate and mass were unchanged. Thus, 3,5-T2 acts as a direct stimulator of energy expenditure and reduces body mass gain; however, TSH suppression may develop secondary to 3,5-T2 administration. PMID:24692290

  12. Effects of Concurrent Topotecan and Radiation on 6-Month Progression-Free Survival in the Primary Treatment of Glioblastoma Multiforme

    SciTech Connect

    Grabenbauer, Gerhard G. Gerber, Klaus-Dieter; Ganslandt, Oliver; Richter, Andrea M.S.; Klautke, Gunther; Birkmann, Josef; Meyer, Martin

    2009-09-01

    Purpose: To report a prospective, randomized, Phase II trial of radiotherapy with and without topotecan for the treatment of glioblastoma. Patients and Methods: Inclusion criteria were histology of glioblastoma, age <60 years, and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group status 0-2. Patients were stratified according to recursive partitioning analysis class, center, and enzyme-inducing antiepileptic medication. Magnetic resonance imaging scans, neurologic examinations, and quality of life assessments were done every 3 months. The primary endpoint was the progression-free survival rate at 6 months (6-m-PFS). This trial was designed as an exploratory, randomized, Phase II trial with an accrual of 140 patients to detect a difference of 15-20% in 6-m-PFS. An interim analysis was scheduled after 60 patients. Median follow-up was 14 months (range, 1-50 months). Results: The 6-m-PFS was 56% and 40% for patients with and without topotecan, respectively. This benefit disappeared within 2 months. Mean (range) progression-free survival time was 8 (5-10.9) months and 6.7 (4-9.5) months for patients with and without topotecan, respectively. The corresponding 2-year-overall survival rates were 28% vs. 22% (nonsignificant difference), and mean (range) survival time was 20.7 (13.9-27.5) months vs. 18.9 (13.5-24.4) months (nonsignificant difference). Conclusions: A slight but measurable increase of 16% was detected in 6-m-PFS for patients receiving topotecan with radiation as compared with patients having radiotherapy alone. These data might support further investigations into topotecan for the treatment of glioblastoma.

  13. Hysteroscopic myomectomy outcomes after 3-month treatment with either Ulipristal Acetate or GnRH analogues: a retrospective comparative study.

    PubMed

    Sancho, Javier Monleón; Delgado, Verónica Serrano de la Cruz; Valero, Maria José Nuñez; Soteras, Marta Gurrea; Amate, Vicente Payá; Carrascosa, Antonio Abad

    2016-03-01

    Ulipristal Acetate (UPA) modifies the endometrium, as well as fibroids, and therefore it might make hysteroscopic surgery more difficult. To confirm that pre-treatment with UPA is as safe and effective an option as pre-treatment with GnRH analogues, considered the gold standard. We present the first series of 26 hysteroscopic myomectomies after 3 months treatment with UPA and we compare the results with a series of 24 cases pretreated with GnRH analogues. This was a retrospective cohort study between July 2013 and May 2015. We analyszed patients with submucous myomas >2.5 in diameter. Hysteroscopic myomectomy was performed after 3 months of treatment with either UPA (5mg daily) or the GnRH agonist (3.75mg/month). Both groups were similar in age, myoma initial size and classification. There were no significant differences between UPA and GnRHa treated groups in terms of percentage of myomas resected (93% vs 98%), duration of surgery (38 vs 37min), fluid deficit (200 vs 350ml) and complications. In the surgeon's subjective opinion, UPA treatment was associated with an easier resection. Based on our experience, previous treatment with UPA does not difficult Hhysteroscopic myomectomy. Endometrial changes have no impact on surgery. Safety and feasibility are comparable to hysteroscopic myomectomies with previous treatment with GnRH analogues. This allows us to take advantage of the reduction in size of fibroids before surgery with less side effects. PMID:26871272

  14. Correlates of Nine-Month Retention following Interim Buprenorphine-Naloxone Treatment in Opioid Dependence: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Håkansson, A.; Widinghoff, C.; Abrahamsson, T.; Gedeon, C.

    2016-01-01

    Interim medication-only treatment has been suggested for the initiation of opioid maintenance treatment (OMT) in opioid-dependent subjects, but this rarely has been studied using buprenorphine instead of methadone. Following a pilot trial assessing interim buprenorphine-naloxone treatment in order to facilitate transfer into OMT, we here aimed to study retention, and potential correlates of retention, in full-scale treatment. Thirty-six patients successfully referred from a waiting list through an interim treatment phase were followed for nine months in OMT. Baseline characteristics, as well as urine analyses during the interim phase and during full-scale OMT, were studied as potential correlates of retention. The nine-month retention in OMT was 83 percent (n = 30). While interim-phase urine samples positive for benzodiazepines did not significantly predict dropout from full-scale OMT (p = 0.09), urine samples positive for benzodiazepines within full-scale OMT were significantly associated with dropout (p < 0.01), in contrast to other substances and baseline characteristics. Retention remained high through nine months in this pilot study sample of patients referred through buprenorphine-naloxone interim treatment, but use of benzodiazepines is problematic, and the present data suggest that it may be associated with treatment dropout. PMID:26904355

  15. Urolastic for the treatment of women with stress urinary incontinence: 24-month follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Zajda, Janusz; Farag, Fawzy

    2015-01-01

    Introduction To evaluate the efficacy and durability of Urolastic, a new urethral bulking agent in women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI), after a follow-up of 24-months. Material and methods A follow-up study of women with SUI who received a Urolastic injection and successfully passed the 12-month follow-up. Assessment included the Stamey Grade, 1-h Pad weight test, and the International quality of life (I-QoL) score. Results Nineteen women who completed the 12-month follow-up were invited for the 24-month follow-up study. One patient did not respond to the correspondence. Four of the 18 patients who responded to the correspondence reported removal of the Urolastic implant at another facility, based on their desire. The explanation for this removal was painful intercourse (n = 1) or less than optimal dryness (n = 3). The overall objective improvement in continence status at 24-months was 66% compared to the 89% at the 12-month follow-up, while in addition the 1-h pad weight test showed >50% reduction in pad weight in 66% of patients compared to 84% at the 12-month follow-up. Adverse events reported were urinary tract infection (n = 1), local genital infection with erosion into the vagina (n = 1), painful intercourse (n = 2), and urgency (n = 4). Conclusions Urolastic is comparable to other bulking agents in terms of durability, efficacy, and complications. PMID:26568877

  16. Month 2 Culture Status and Treatment Duration as Predictors of Recurrence in Pulmonary Tuberculosis: Model Validation and Update

    PubMed Central

    Wallis, Robert S.; Peppard, Thomas; Hermann, David

    2015-01-01

    Background New regimens capable of shortening tuberculosis treatment without increasing the risk of recurrence are urgently needed. A 2013 meta-regression analysis, using data from trials published from 1973 to 1997 involving 7793 patients, identified 2-month sputum culture status and treatment duration as independent predictors of recurrence. The resulting model predicted that if a new 4-month regimen reduced the proportion of patients positive at month 2 to 1%, it would reduce to 10% the risk of a relapse rate >10% in a trial with 680 subjects per arm. The 1% target was far lower than anticipated. Methods Data from the 8 arms of 3 recent unsuccessful phase 3 treatment-shortening trials of fluoroquinolone-substituted regimens (REMox, OFLOTUB, and RIFAQUIN) were used to assess and refine the accuracy of the 2013 meta-regression model. The updated model was then tested using data from a treatment shortening trial reported in 2009 by Johnson et al. Findings The proportions of patients with recurrence as predicted by the 2013 model were highly correlated with observed proportions as reported in the literature (R2 = 0.86). Using the previously proposed threshold of 10% recurrences as the maximum likely considered acceptable by tuberculosis control programs, the original model correctly identified all 4 six-month regimens as satisfactory, and 3 of 4 four-month regimens as unsatisfactory (sensitivity = 100%, specificity = 75%, PPV = 80%, and NPV = 100%). A revision of the regression model based on the full dataset of 66 regimens and 11181 patients resulted in only minimal changes to its predictions. A test of the revised model using data from the treatment shortening trial of Johnson et al found the reported relapse rates in both arms to be consistent with predictions. Interpretation Meta-regression modeling of recurrence based on month 2 culture status and regimen duration can inform the design of future phase 3 tuberculosis clinical trials. PMID:25923700

  17. Effects of a 6-month infliximab treatment on plasma levels of leptin and adiponectin in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Derdemezis, Christos S; Filippatos, Theodosios D; Voulgari, Paraskevi V; Tselepis, Alexandros D; Drosos, Alexandros A; Kiortsis, Dimitrios N

    2009-10-01

    Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) appear to have increased plasma levels of leptin and adiponectin. These adipokines may be implicated in the pathophysiology of RA. Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) is a potential modulator of adipokines. The effects of long-term anti-TNF treatment on plasma levels of leptin and adiponectin are not clear. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of 6-month anti-TNF treatment (infliximab) on leptin and adiponectin plasma levels in RA patients. Thirty women with RA were included in the study. Patients with diabetes mellitus, any endocrine disorder or receiving any hypolipidemic or antidiabetic medication were not included. Thirty healthy age- and body mass index-matched women served as controls. Plasma levels of leptin and adiponectin were measured with enzyme immunoassay methods prior to and after the 6-month treatment with infliximab. Mean age and disease duration of patients were 51.8 +/- 14.4 and 12.2 +/- 6.7 years, respectively. Body weight did not change significantly over the 6-month period. Plasma levels of leptin and adiponectin were higher in patients than controls and did not change significantly after 6-month treatment. Interestingly, in the tertile of patients with the highest baseline adiponectin concentrations, adiponectin levels were significantly reduced (P < 0.05). Infliximab treatment did not change plasma levels of leptin and adiponectin after 6-month treatment in the whole study population. However, a reduction of adiponectin levels was observed in patients with higher baseline adiponectin levels. PMID:19563510

  18. Effectiveness and Predictors of Continuation of Paliperidone Palmitate Long-Acting Injection Treatment: A 12-Month Naturalistic Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Whale, Richard; Pereira, Marco; Cuthbert, Sharon; Fialho, Renata

    2015-10-01

    Antipsychotic long-acting injectable (LAI) medication has an important place as a treatment option in schizophrenia with evolving evidence to support clinical benefit over oral medication. Paliperidone palmitate is recently licensed as an LAI. We studied a naturalistic cohort of all identifiable patients who initiated paliperidone LAI in a specific United Kingdom region (Sussex) from first availability up to January 2013 (n = 179). Favorably, 60% of the cohort continued paliperidone LAI beyond 12 months from initiation. Schizophrenia diagnosis was significantly associated with 12-month continuation on univariate analysis (65% continuation rate at 12 months in this diagnostic subgroup). No baseline variables were identified as independently associated with 12-month continuation. However, fewer inpatient days after initiation (odds ratio [OR], 1.01; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.003-1.011; P = 0.002), dose adjustment up or down (OR, 3.46; 95% CI, 1.26-9.51; P = 0.016), and a higher maintenance dose (OR, 8.31; 95% CI, 1.84-37.51; P = 0.006) during treatment course were all independently associated with continuation on multivariate analysis. Our findings support the importance of a collaborative approach with the LAI recipient in treatment decision making to enhance treatment effectiveness. PMID:26267419

  19. Alcoholics Anonymous and Relapse Prevention as Maintenance Strategies After Conjoint Behavioral Alcohol Treatment for Men: 18-Month Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrady, Barbara S.; Epstein, Elizabeth E.; Kahler, Christopher W.

    2004-01-01

    Ninety men with alcohol problems and their female partners were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 outpatient conjoint treatments: alcohol behavioral couples therapy (ABCT), ABCT with relapse prevention techniques (RP/ABCT), or ABCT with interventions encouraging Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) involvement (AA/ABCT). Couples were followed for 18 months after…

  20. Studies into the Stability of 3-O-Glycosylated and 3,5-O-Diglycosylated Anthocyanins in Differently Purified Liquid and Dried Maqui (Aristotelia chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz) Preparations during Storage and Thermal Treatment.

    PubMed

    Brauch, Johanna E; Kroner, Mareike; Schweiggert, Ralf M; Carle, Reinhold

    2015-10-01

    Anthocyanin stabilities in diluted and differently purified maqui preparations were assessed during storage and thermal treatment at different pH values. By sequentially depleting the matrix, the influence of polar low-molecular-weight matrix constituents and non-anthocyanin phenolics was shown to be negligible. In contrast, pH substantially affected thermal stabilities of differently glycosylated cyanidin and delphinidin derivatives. At pH 3.6, half-lives of 3-O-glycosides were substantially shorter than those of respective 3,5-O-diglycosides. However, at pH 2.2, an inverse stability behavior was observed. Findings were corroborated using isolated pigments. Upon heating, cyanidin derivatives were more stable than their respective delphinidins, but their stability was similar during storage. Anthocyanins in liquid samples were more stable when stored at 4 °C as compared to 20 °C, whereas those in dried powders revealed maximum stability throughout storage. The study contains a detailed discussion and mechanistic hypothesis for the above-mentioned findings, providing insights relevant for food applications of maqui anthocyanins. PMID:26338479

  1. Dental plaque associated with self-ligating brackets during the initial phase of orthodontic treatment: A 3-month preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Al-Anezi, Saud A

    2014-01-01

    Background: To compare changes in the amount and distribution of dental plaque associated with placement of elastomeric modules over a self-ligating bracket during orthodontic treatment and to relate these changes to the periodontal inflammation. Materials and Methods: A cross-arch randomization trial was carried out at Bristol Dental School, United Kingdom. Clinical measurements of periodontal inflammation and plaque accumulation and microbiological test were done on 24 patients aged 11-14 years [Mean (SD) age = 12.6 (1.01) years] wearing fixed appliances (Damon 2 brackets, Ormco, Orange, CA, USA) at the start and 3 months into fixed orthodontic treatment. Results: In the first 3 months of treatment there was no statistically significant difference in bleeding on probing between incisors with and without elastomeric modules (P = 0.125 and 0.508, respectively). The difference in plaque accumulation was not statistically significant (P = 0.78). The difference in probing depths between the incisors was not statistically significant (P = 0.84). The microbiological analysis showed no difference. Conclusions: Based on this preliminary 3 months study, elastomeric modules were not significantly associated with any increased risk during treatment when compared to self-ligating brackets. The longer term studies are needed to further confirm the findings of the present study. PMID:24987657

  2. Completion Rate and Side-Effect Profile of Three-Month Isoniazid and Rifapentine Treatment for Latent Tuberculosis Infection in an Urban County Jail

    PubMed Central

    Juarez-Reyes, Maria; Gallivan, Mark; Chyorny, Alexander; O'Keeffe, Linda; Shah, Neha S.

    2016-01-01

    In an urban jail population, 3 months of isoniazid and rifapentine (3HP) was associated with an 85% latent tuberculosis infection treatment completion rate compared with 18% in a standard 9-month isoniazid treatment group. Among the 91 patients who started 3HP therapy, there were 2 treatment discontinuations from adverse drug reactions. PMID:26885547

  3. Treatment of lupus nephritis with total lymphoid irradiation. Observations during a 12-79-month followup

    SciTech Connect

    Strober, S.; Farinas, M.C.; Field, E.H.; Solovera, J.J.; Kiberd, B.A.; Myers, B.D.; Hoppe, R.T.

    1988-07-01

    Seventeen patients with intractable lupus nephritis and nephrotic syndrome were treated with total lymphoid irradiation. Statistically significant improvement in mean renal disease and serologic activity parameters occurred within 3 months and persisted for at least 3 years. Although there was a marked reduction of T helper cell numbers and function after total lymphoid irradiation, recovery of these parameters was not associated with a return of disease activity. Risks of sterility, severe infections, and hematologic malignancy appeared to be lower than with alkylating agents.

  4. Minodronic acid ameliorates vertebral bone strength by increasing bone mineral density in 9-month treatment of ovariectomized cynomolgus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Makoto; Mori, Hiroshi; Kawabata, Kazuhito; Mashiba, Tasuku

    2016-07-01

    The effect of treatment for 9months with minodronic acid, a nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate, on vertebral mechanical strength was examined in ovariectomized (OVX) cynomolgus monkeys. Forty skeletally mature female monkeys were randomized into four OVX groups and one sham group (n=8) based on lumbar bone mineral density (BMD). OVX animals were treated orally with 15 and 150μg/kg QD of minodronic acid or 500μg/kg QD alendronate as a reference drug. Measurements of bone turnover markers and lumbar BMD were conducted at 0, 4 and 8months. Measurements of bone mechanical strength and minodronic acid concentration in vertebral bodies were also performed. OVX resulted in a decrease in lumbar BMD and an increase in bone turnover markers at 4 and 8months, compared to the sham group, and the ultimate load on the lumbar vertebra was decreased in OVX animals. Minodronic acid and alendronate prevented the OVX-induced increase in bone turnover markers and decrease in lumbar BMD. Minodronic acid at 150μg/kg increased the ultimate load on lumbar vertebra compared to untreated OVX animals. Regression analysis revealed that the ultimate load was correlated with lumbar BMD and bone mineral content (BMC), and most strongly with the increase in lumbar BMD and BMC over 8months. In a separate analysis within the sham-OVX controls and minodronic acid and alendronate treatment groups, the ultimate loads were also correlated with BMD and BMC. The load-BMD (BMC) correlation in the minodronic acid group showed a trend for a shift to a higher load from the basal relationship in the sham-OVX controls. These results indicate that treatment with minodronic acid for 9months increases vertebral mechanical strength in OVX monkeys, mainly by increasing BMD and BMC. PMID:27155564

  5. Neuropsychological impact of Cg25 deep brain stimulation for treatment-resistant depression: preliminary results over 12 months.

    PubMed

    McNeely, Heather E; Mayberg, Helen S; Lozano, Andres M; Kennedy, Sidney H

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate preservation of cognitive function after deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subgenual cingulate (Cg25) for treatment-resistant depression (TRD). We have previously reported on the treatment methods, safety, and 6-month clinical outcome (Mayberg et al., Neuron. 2005;45:651-660). Comprehensive neuropsychological assessments tapping 4 domains of frontal lobe function, and general cognitive abilities, were completed before implantation and at 3, 6, and 12 months postonset of continuous DBS in 6 TRD patients. No adverse neuropsychological effects were noted following surgery, onset and maintenance of DBS with the exception of transient motor slowing noted at 3 and 6 months that improved to normative levels by 12 months. Several areas of cognition that were below average or impaired at baseline improved over follow-up, and these changes were not correlated with improvements in mood. Though the sample size is small, these results support cognitive safety of Cg25 DBS for TRD. PMID:18477883

  6. On the treatment of evapotranspiration, soil moisture accounting, and aquifer recharge in monthly water balance models.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alley, W.M.

    1984-01-01

    Several two- to six-parameter regional water balance models are examined by using 50-year records of monthly streamflow at 10 sites in New Jersey. These models include variants of the Thornthwaite-Mather model, the Palmer model, and the more recent Thomas abcd model. Prediction errors are relatively similar among the models. However, simulated values of state variables such as soil moisture storage differ substantially among the models, and fitted parameter values for different models sometimes indicated an entirely different type of basin response to precipitation.-from Author

  7. Factors influencing sustainable efficacy of smoking cessation treatment with varenicline beyond nine months

    PubMed Central

    Shimadu, Satoko; Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Okada, Yu; Oguri, Tomoyo; Murohara, Toyoaki; Ban, Nobutaro; Sato, Mitsuo; Hasegawa, Yoshinori

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pharmacological therapies play an important role in the success of interventions for smoking cessation; however, long-term follow-up studies with analysis of influencing factors are scarce. We examined the sustainable effects of smoking cessation therapy with varenicline, beyond nine months as well as the factors influencing effectiveness. Our sample consisted of 193 patients (126 men [68.2%], 67 women [31.8%], aged 26 to 85 years) who underwent varenicline therapy at the Nagoya University Hospital between January 2009 and October 2013. We examined their clinical records and also conducted a mail survey and evaluated success rates of smoking cessation therapy beyond nine months. Overall, 95.8% (185/193) of the patients had at least one complication. The response rate of questionnaires at the end of smoking cessation was 61.6% (119/193). The smoking cessation rate continued to decline for one year and leveled off afterwards. Smoking cessation rates tended to correlate with an increasing number of outpatient visits. Logistic regression analysis showed that two factors, young age and high Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) scores, were inversely correlated with success rates of smoking cessation. From the results of this study, aggressive intervention would needed for younger patients or patients with higher BDI-II scores. PMID:27303107

  8. Factors influencing sustainable efficacy of smoking cessation treatment with varenicline beyond nine months.

    PubMed

    Shimadu, Satoko; Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Okada, Yu; Oguri, Tomoyo; Murohara, Toyoaki; Ban, Nobutaro; Sato, Mitsuo; Hasegawa, Yoshinori

    2016-05-01

    Pharmacological therapies play an important role in the success of interventions for smoking cessation; however, long-term follow-up studies with analysis of influencing factors are scarce. We examined the sustainable effects of smoking cessation therapy with varenicline, beyond nine months as well as the factors influencing effectiveness. Our sample consisted of 193 patients (126 men [68.2%], 67 women [31.8%], aged 26 to 85 years) who underwent varenicline therapy at the Nagoya University Hospital between January 2009 and October 2013. We examined their clinical records and also conducted a mail survey and evaluated success rates of smoking cessation therapy beyond nine months. Overall, 95.8% (185/193) of the patients had at least one complication. The response rate of questionnaires at the end of smoking cessation was 61.6% (119/193). The smoking cessation rate continued to decline for one year and leveled off afterwards. Smoking cessation rates tended to correlate with an increasing number of outpatient visits. Logistic regression analysis showed that two factors, young age and high Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) scores, were inversely correlated with success rates of smoking cessation. From the results of this study, aggressive intervention would needed for younger patients or patients with higher BDI-II scores. PMID:27303107

  9. Vitamin E treatment in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: A six-month, open-label study of sixteen patients

    PubMed Central

    Yakaryilmaz, Fahri; Guliter, Sefa; Ozenirler, Seren; Erdem, Ozlem; Akyol, Gulen

    2004-01-01

    Background Free radicals have a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Decreasing oxidative stress might have beneficial effects on the biochemical and histologic progression of this disease. Objective We aimed to determine the therapeutic effect of vitamin E, a potent antioxidant, on liver enzymes and histology in NASH. Methods This 6-month, open-label study was conducted at the Departments of Gastroenterology and Pathology, Gazi University School of Medicine (Ankara, Turkey). Patients aged 18 to 70 years with biopsy-proven NASH were included in the study. All patients received vitamin E 800 U/d in 2 divided doses, orally (capsules) for 6 months. Patients were not advised to change their exercise or dietary habits. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated at months 0 (baseline) and 6. Histologic scoring of steatosis, necroinflammatory grade, and fibrosis stage was performed at 0 and 6 months. Liver enzyme activities (alanine aminotransferase [ALT], aspartate aminotransferase [AST], alkaline phosphatase [ALP], and gamma-glutamyltransferase [GGT]) were monitored monthly. Control biopsy specimens were obtained at the end of the treatment. All of the liver biopsies were read by a single pathologist (G.A.) who was blinded to the clinical, laboratory, and histopathologic data, as well as the sequence of liver biopsies. Assessments of compliance and tolerability of treatment were performed using a pill count and patient interview, respectively, at the end of each month. Results Sixteen patients (12 men, 4 women; mean [SD] age, 45.5 [6.9] years [range, 37–60 years]) were enrolled. All patients completed 6 months of treatment. Mean BMI did not change significantly from baseline. Significant improvements in mean (SD) serum liver enzyme activities were observed at 6 months compared with baseline (ALT: 38.6 [16.3] U/L vs 84.8 [22.1] U/L, respectively, P = 0.001; AST: 29.8 [15.4] U/L vs 46.0 [16.0] U/L, respectively, P = 0.001; ALP: 154.6 [64

  10. TBI Patient, Injury, Therapy, and Ancillary Treatments Associated with Outcomes at Discharge and 9 Months Post-discharge

    PubMed Central

    Horn, Susan D.; Corrigan, John D.; Beaulieu, Cynthia L.; Bogner, Jennifer; Barrett, Ryan S.; Giuffrida, Clare G.; Ryser, David K.; Cooper, Kelli; Carroll, Deborah M.; Deutscher, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine associations of patient and injury characteristics, inpatient rehabilitation therapy activities, and neurotropic medications with outcomes at discharge and 9 months post-discharge for patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) Design Prospective, longitudinal observational study Setting 10 inpatient rehabilitation centers (9 US, 1 Canada) Participants Consecutive patients (n=2130) enrolled between 2008 and 2011, admitted for inpatient rehabilitation after an index TBI injury Interventions Not applicable Main Outcome Measures Rehabilitation length of stay, discharge to home, and Functional Independence Measure (FIM) at discharge and 9 months post-discharge Results The admission FIM Cognitive score was used to create 5 relatively homogeneous subgroups for subsequent analysis of treatment outcomes. Within each subgroup, significant associations were found between outcomes and patient and injury characteristics, time spent in therapy activities, and medications used. Patient and injury characteristics explained on average 35.7% of the variation in discharge outcomes and 22.3% in 9-month outcomes. Adding time spent and level of effort in therapy activities, as well as percent of stay using specific medications, explained approximately 20.0% more variation for discharge outcomes and 12.9% for 9-month outcomes. After patient, injury, and treatment characteristics were used to predict outcomes, center differences added only approximately 1.9% additional variance explained. Conclusions At discharge, greater effort during therapy sessions, time spent in more complex therapy activities, and use of specific medications were associated with better outcomes for patients in all admission FIM Cognitive subgroups. At 9 months post-discharge, similar but less pervasive associations were observed for therapy activities, but not classes of medications. Further research is warranted to examine more specific combinations of therapy activities and medications that

  11. 43 CFR 3.5 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application. 3.5 Section 3.5 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PRESERVATION OF AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES § 3.5 Application. Each application for a permit should be filed with the Secretary having jurisdiction, and must...

  12. 43 CFR 3.5 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application. 3.5 Section 3.5 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PRESERVATION OF AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES § 3.5 Application. Each application for a permit should be filed with the Secretary having jurisdiction, and must...

  13. 43 CFR 3.5 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Application. 3.5 Section 3.5 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PRESERVATION OF AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES § 3.5 Application. Each application for a permit should be filed with the Secretary having jurisdiction, and must...

  14. 43 CFR 3.5 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application. 3.5 Section 3.5 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PRESERVATION OF AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES § 3.5 Application. Each application for a permit should be filed with the Secretary having jurisdiction, and must...

  15. 43 CFR 3.5 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Application. 3.5 Section 3.5 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PRESERVATION OF AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES § 3.5 Application. Each application for a permit should be filed with the Secretary having jurisdiction, and must...

  16. Double-Blind 18-Month Trial of Lithium Versus Divalproex Maintenance Treatment in Pediatric Bipolar Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findling, Robert L.; McNamara, Nora K.; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Stansbrey, Robert; Gracious, Barbara L.; Reed, Michael D.; Calabrese, Joseph R.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether divalproex sodium (DVPX) was superior to lithium carbonate ([Li.sup.+]) in the maintenance monotherapy treatment of youths diagnosed with bipolar disorder who had been previously stabilized on combination [Li.sup.+] and DVPX ([Li.sup.+]/DVPX) pharmacotherapy. Method: Youths ages 5-17 years with bipolar I or II…

  17. Treatment of the Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip with an Abduction Brace in Children up to 6 Months Old

    PubMed Central

    Wahlen, Raphaël; Zambelli, Pierre-Yves

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Use of Pavlik harness for the treatment of DDH can be complicated for parents. Any misuse or failure in the adjustments may lead to significant complications. An abduction brace was introduced in our institution, as it was thought to be easier to use. Aim. We assess the results for the treatment of DDH using our abduction brace in children of 0–6 months old and compare these results with data on treatments using the Pavlik harness. Method. Retrospective analysis of patients with DDH from 0 to 6 months old at diagnosis, performed from 2004 to 2009. Outcomes were rates of reduction of the hip and avascular necrosis of the femoral head (AVN). Follow-up was at one year and up to 4 years old. Results. Hip reduction was successful in 28 of 33 patients (85%), with no AVN. Conclusion. Our results in terms of hip reduction rate and AVN rate are similar to those found in literature assessing Pavlik harness use, with a simpler and comfortable treatment procedure. PMID:25815214

  18. Improved adherence with PTH(1–84) in an extension trial for 24 months results in enhanced BMD gains in the treatment of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Bilezikian, J. P.; Greenspan, S. L.; Wüster, C.; Muñoz-Torres, M.; Bone, H. G.; Rosen, C. J.; Andersen, H. S.; Hanley, D. A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of PTH(1–84) treatment over 24 months followed by 12 months discontinuation on BMD, bone turnover markers, fractures and the impact of adherence on efficacy. Introduction There is limited information about the effect of PTH(1-84) after 18 months and limited data about the impact of compliance on response to anabolic therapy. Methods Seven hundred and eighty-one subjects who received active PTH(1–84) in the Treatment of Osteoporosis with Parathyroid hormone trial for approximately 18 months were entered into a 6-month open-label extension. Thereafter, they were followed for 12 additional months after discontinuation of treatment. Endpoints examined included changes in BMD and biochemical markers. Results PTH(1–84) treatment over 24 months increased BMD at the lumbar spine by 6.8 % above baseline (p < 0.05). The total corresponding BMD increases at the hip and femoral neck were 1.1 and 2.2% above baseline. Larger increases in spine BMD were observed in participants with ≥80 % adherence to daily injections of PTH(1–84) (8.3% in adherent vs 4.9 % in poorly adherent patients). Total hip BMD gains were 1.7 % in adherent vs 0.6 % in poorly adherent participants. Markers of bone turnover (BSAP and NTx) peaked 6 months after starting PTH(1–84) treatment and declined slowly but remained above baseline at 24 months. After discontinuation of PTH(1–84) treatment (at 24 months), bone turnover markers returned to near baseline levels by 30 months. The adherent group sustained significantly fewer fractures than the poorly adherent group. Conclusions PTH(1–84) treatment over 24 months results in continued increases in lumbar spine BMD. Adherence to treatment with PTH(1–84) for up to 24 months is also associated with greater efficacy. PMID:22930240

  19. Internet screening for anxiety disorders: Treatment-seeking outcomes in a three-month follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Van Ameringen, Michael; Simpson, William; Patterson, Beth; Turna, Jasmine

    2015-12-15

    Although many people use the internet to diagnose mental health problems, little is known about the relationship between internet self-diagnosis and treatment-seeking. The MACSCREEN (a validated, self-report screening tool for anxiety and depression) was posted on our clinic homepage and respondents were invited to take an anxiety test. Three months after completing the MACSREEN and a variety of symptom severity scales, respondents were emailed a follow up questionnaire asking about treatment-seeking behaviours. Of the 770 MACSCREEN respondents, 103 completed the follow-up questionnaire. Of these, 100% met criteria for at least one anxiety or mood disorder diagnosis and 51% sought treatment after completing the MACSCREEN. In the 49% who did not seek treatment, fear of medication (57%), discomfort talking to their doctor about anxiety (28%) and the belief that symptoms were not severe enough (28%) were cited as barriers. Compared to non-seekers, treatment-seekers were significantly more likely to meet screening criteria for Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Depression. Higher Sheehan Disability Scale scores and being married (versus single) significantly increased the odds of treatment-seeking, suggesting that functional impairment and disease burden on the family may be stronger predictors of treatment seeking than overall severity of symptoms. PMID:26553144

  20. Six-month freedom from treatment failure is an important end point for acute GVHD clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Sengsayadeth, S; Savani, B N; Jagasia, M; Goodman, S; Greer, J P; Chen, H; Chinratanalab, W; Kassim, A A; Engelhardt, B G

    2014-02-01

    We studied the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (ASBMT) 6-month (m) freedom from treatment failure (FFTF) as a predictor of survival for patients with acute GVHD (aGVHD) requiring treatment. Adult patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) from February 2007 to March 2009 who were enrolled in a prospective biomarker clinical trial and developed aGVHD requiring systemic corticosteroids by day +100 were included (N=44). Six-month FFTF was defined as per the ASBMT guidelines (absence of death, malignancy relapse/progression or systemic immunosuppression change within 6 months of starting steroids and before chronic GVHD development). aGVHD was treated with systemic corticosteroids in 44 patients. Day 28 response after steroid initiation (complete response+very good partial response+partial response) occurred in 38 (87%) patients, but only 28 (64%) HCT recipients met the 6-m FFTF end point. Day 28 response predicted 6-m FFTF. Achieving 6-m FFTF was associated with improved 2-year (y) OS (81% vs 48%; P=0.03) and decreased 2-y non-relapse mortality (8% vs 49%; P=0.01). In multivariate analysis, 6-m FFTF continued to predict improved OS (hazard ratio, 0.27; P=0.03). The 6-m FFTF end point measures fixed outcomes, predicts long-term therapeutic success and could be less prone to measurement error than aGVHD clinical response at day 28. PMID:24096824

  1. Six Month Freedom from Treatment Failure is an Important Endpoint for Acute Graft-Versus-Host Disease Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Sengsayadeth, Salyka; Savani, Bipin N.; Jagasia, Madan; Goodman, Stacey; Greer, John P.; Chen, Heidi; Chinratanalab, Wichai; Kassim, Adetola A.; Engelhardt, Brian G.

    2013-01-01

    We studied the ASBMT 6 month (m) freedom from treatment failure (FFTF) as a predictor of survival for patients with acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) requiring treatment. Adult patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) from February 2007 to March 2009 who were enrolled in a prospective biomarker clinical trial and developed aGVHD requiring systemic corticosteroids by day +100 were included (N=44). Six month FFTF was defined per ASBMT guidelines [absence of death, malignancy relapse/progression, or systemic immunosuppression change within 6 months of starting steroids and before chronic GVHD development]. aGVHD was treated with systemic corticosteroids in 44 patients. Day 28 response after steroid initiation (CR+VGPR+PR) occurred in 38 (87%) patients, but only 28 (64%) HCT recipients met the 6 m FFTF endpoint. Day 28 response predicted 6 m FFTF. Achieving 6 m FFTF was associated with improved 2 year (y) overall survival (OS) [81% vs. 48%, P= 0.03)] and decreased 2 y non-relapse mortality [8% vs. 49% (P= 0.01)]. In multivariate analysis, 6 m FFTF continued to predict improved OS (HR, 0.27; P=0.03). The 6 m FFTF endpoint measures fixed outcomes, predicts long-term therapeutic success, and could be less prone to measurement error than aGVHD clinical response at day 28. PMID:24096824

  2. Comparison of Endodontic Treatment Results Yielded from Using Normal Saline with IKI Final Rinse or NaOCl Irrigation: A 30-Month Follow-up Study

    PubMed Central

    Abbaszadegan, Abbas; Nabavizadeh, Mohammadreza; Hoseini Yekani, Ameneh; Khayat, Akbar

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this clinical trial was to evaluate and compare the endodontic treatment results of teeth with apical periodontitis after thirty-month recall with two different irrigation regimen: normal saline followed by Iodine Potassium Iodide (IKI) or sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) irrigation alone. Materials and Methods Twenty seven patients (30 teeth) who had been included in the first part of our antimicrobial survey were recalled. In previous stage, root canal treatments were performed using either normal saline with IKI final rinse (n = 15) or NaOCl (n = 15) as irrigating solutions. Bacterial samples were taken before and after instrumentation. In this stage, three patients (6 teeth) were excluded from the follow-up schedule since they did not respond to the recall requests. The remaining 24 subjects (12 teeth in each NaOCl and IKI group) were examined clinically and radiologically. Post-operative and follow-up images were coded, blindly evaluated and given a periapical score according to PAI scoring system. The outcome was assessed in two ways; first, the changes in PAI score from base line to the follow-up evaluation in each group were assessed by wilcoxon signed rank test. In addition, Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the differences between the post-operative and follow-up images of treatment groups. Second, the dichotomous variables as “healed” or “not healed” were compared. Results The Median (Min, Max) PAI scores for NaOCl group and IKI group were both 5 (3, 5) for immediate post-operative radiographs and declined to 1 (1, 2) and 2 (1, 2), respectively. A statistically significant decrease in PAI score from the base line to the follow-up evaluation was seen in both groups (P = 0.002). The decrease in NaOCl group was higher significantly in comparison to IKI group (P = 0.036). One hundred percent of the teeth were healed in both groups (PAI ≤ 2) and no teeth showed any abnormal clinical findings. Conclusion Root canal irrigation

  3. Health Effects of Long-Term Rapamycin Treatment: The Impact on Mouse Health of Enteric Rapamycin Treatment from Four Months of Age throughout Life

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Kathleen E.; Gelfond, Jonathan A. L.; Soto, Vanessa Y.; Han, Chul; Someya, Shinichi; Richardson, Arlan; Austad, Steven N.

    2015-01-01

    Rapamycin, an mTOR inhibitor, has been shown to extend lifespan in a range of model organisms. It has been reported to extend lifespan in multiple strains of mice, administered chronically or acutely early or late in life. The ability of rapamycin to extend health (healthspan) as opposed to life is less well documented. To assess the effects chronic rapamycin treatment on healthspan, enteric rapamycin was given to male and female C57BL/6J mice starting at 4 months of age and continued throughout life. Repeated, longitudinal assessments of health in individual animals were made starting at 16 months of age (=12 months of treatment) until death. A number of health parameters were improved (female grip strength, female body mass and reduced sleep fragmentation in both sexes), others showed no significant difference, while at least one (male rotarod performance) was negatively affected. Rapamycin treatment affected many measures of health in a highly sex-specific manner. While sex-specific phenotypic effects of rapamycin treatment have been widely reported, in this study we document sex differences in the direction of phenotypic change. Rapamycin-fed males and females were both significantly different from controls; however the differences were in the opposite direction in measures of body mass, percent fat and resting metabolic rate, a pattern not previously reported. PMID:25978367

  4. Neuropsychologic function in children with brain tumors. III. Interval changes in the six months following treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Mulhern, R.K.; Kun, L.E.

    1985-01-01

    Twenty-six children with primary brain tumors were studied prospectively with regard to their sensorimotor, intellectual, academic, and emotional status. Serial evaluations were conducted after surgery (pre-irradiation) and six months after the completion of radiation therapy. The timing of the second evaluation was chosen so as to antedate the late effects of irradiation. Children over 6 years old displayed significant improvement of intellectual function over time, with only 11% exhibiting deterioration on one or more cognitive parameters. In contrast, 68% of younger children clinically deteriorated in one or more areas of intellectual functioning, with prominent difficulties in memory and selective attention for age. Children under 6 years old with supratentorial tumors were less likely than those with posterior fossa tumors to improve their cognitive performance. At the second evaluation, 23% of the patients were functioning below normal (IQ less than 80) intellectually, with 50% of the younger children and 11% of the older children receiving special educational assistance. Approximately 40-50% of the patients manifested emotional adjustment problems at each evaluation. The results are discussed in terms of the clinical need to follow similar patient populations with formal psychological assessments over time, and in terms of the difficulties involved in defining factors that determine the functional status of children surviving brain tumors.

  5. Brief Report: Six Months Continuation Treatment in Naltrexone-Responsive Children with Autism: An Open-Label Case-Control Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willemsen-Swinkels, Sophie H. N.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina A.; van Engeland, Herman

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports on a six-month continuation treatment with naltrexone of six children with autism, previously found to be responsive to naltrexone in a four-week trial. Results indicated the moderate hyperactivity-reducing effect of naltrexone was maintained during the six-month continuation treatment but no additional gains in the domains of…

  6. Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with marine and botanical oils: an 18-month, randomized, and double-blind trial.

    PubMed

    Reed, George W; Leung, Katherine; Rossetti, Ronald G; Vanbuskirk, Susan; Sharp, John T; Zurier, Robert B

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To determine whether a combination of borage seed oil rich in gamma linolenic acid (GLA) and fish oil rich in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is superior to either oil alone for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods. Patients were randomized into a double-blind, 18-month trial. Mixed effects models compared trends over time in disease activity measures. Results. No significant differences were observed in changes in disease activity among the three randomized groups. Each group exhibited significant reductions in disease activity (DAS28) at 9 months (fish: -1.56[-2.16, -0.96], borage: -1.33[-1.83, -0.84], combined: -1.18[-1.83, -0.54]) and in CDAI (fish: -16.95[-19.91, -13.98], borage: -11.20[-14.21, -8.19], and combined: -10.31[-13.61, -7.01]). There were no significant differences in change of RA medications among the three groups. Reduced disease activity in study patients was similar to matched patients from an RA registry, and reduction in DMARD use was greater (P < 0.03) in study patients. Conclusion. All 3 treatment groups exhibited similar meaningful clinical responses after 9 months, improvements which persisted for 18 months, and a response similar to matched patients from an RA registry. Study patients were able to reduce DMARD therapy given in combination with TNF antagonists to a greater extent than registry patients. This paper is dedicated to the memory of Dr. John T. Sharp, M.D., a pioneer and innovator in the field of musculoskeletal radiology. PMID:24803948

  7. Alpha-lipoic acid as a new treatment option for Alzheimer's disease--a 48 months follow-up analysis.

    PubMed

    Hager, K; Kenklies, M; McAfoose, J; Engel, J; Münch, G

    2007-01-01

    Oxidative stress and neuronal energy depletion are characteristic biochemical hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). It is therefore conceivable that pro-energetic and antioxidant drugs such as alpha-lipoic acid might delay the onset or slow down the progression of the disease. In a previous study, 600mg alpha-lipoic acid was given daily to nine patients with AD (receiving a standard treatment with choline-esterase inhibitors) in an open-label study over an observation period of 12 months. The treatment led to a stabilization of cognitive functions in the study group, demonstrated by constant scores in two neuropsychological tests (the mini mental state exam, MMSE and the Alzheimer's disease assessment score cognitive subscale, ADAScog). In this report, we have extended the analysis to 43 patients over an observation period of up to 48 months. In patients with mild dementia (ADAScog < 15), the disease progressed extremely slowly (ADAScog: +1.2 points/year, MMSE: -0.6 points/year), in patients with moderate dementia at approximately twice the rate. However, the progression appears dramatically lower than data reported for untreated patients or patients on choline-esterase inhibitors in the second year of long-term studies. Despite the fact that this study was not double-blinded, placebo-controlled and randomized, our data suggest that treatment with alpha-lipoic acid might be a successful 'neuroprotective' therapy option for AD. However, a state-of-the-art phase II trial is needed urgently. PMID:17982894

  8. Psychosocial adjustments in patients with prostate cancer from pre-diagnosis to 6 months post-treatment.

    PubMed

    Chien, Ching-Hui; Chuang, Cheng-Keng; Liu, Kuan-Lin; Huang, Xuan-Yi; Liu, Hsueh-Erh

    2016-02-01

    We evaluated changes in psychosocial adjustment over time and its associated factors in prostate cancer patients. A total of 69 patients with prostate cancer were surveyed at pre-diagnosis, 1 month and 6 months post-treatment. The questionnaires distributed to the patients consisted of the Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale and the UCLA Prostate Cancer Index. The generalized estimating equations were used to analyse the collected data. The results of adjustments to psychological distress, the domestic environment and the social environment worsened post-treatment. However, the adjustment to health-care orientation was worst at the time of pre-diagnosis and improved during post-treatment. Patients who perceived an unfavourable health status reported poor adjustment in psychological distress. Patients exhibiting poor urinary function poorly adjusted to the domestic environment. Patients with sexual dysfunction exhibited poor adjustment to the social environment. Patients with low education demonstrated poor adjustment to health-care orientation. Further studies should assess the psychosocial adjustment among prostate cancer patients and provide interventions following pre-diagnosis. PMID:25307968

  9. Parent-assessed quality of life among adolescents undergoing orthodontic treatment: a 12-month follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Abreu, Lucas Guimarães; Melgaço, Camilo Aquino; Abreu, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimaraes; Lages, Elizabeth Maria Bastos; Paiva, Saul Martins

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess parents' and caregivers' view of the first twelve months of adolescents' orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances and to assess the evaluative properties of the Brazilian version of the Parental-Caregiver Perceptions Questionnaire (P-CPQ) in the orthodontic setting. Methods: Data from a sample of 96 parents and caregivers of adolescents undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances were collected by means of P-CPQ. Assessments were performed before banding and bracket bonding (T1) and 12 months after placement of fixed appliances (T2). Statistical analysis included Wilcoxon signed-rank test for the overall P-CPQ score and Bonferroni correction for P-CPQ subscales. The evaluative properties of the P-CPQ were assessed through responsiveness calculation and the minimally clinical important difference (MCID). Results: Among the 96 participants, 76 were mothers of patients, 16 were fathers, and four were other family members. Adolescents' mean age was 11.49 ± 0.50 years. Most families earned equal to or less than three times the Brazilian monthly minimum wage. There was significant improvement in the emotional and social well-being subscales (p < 0.001), which contributed to improve patient's overall quality of life (p< 0.001). Reductions in scores were associated with clinically meaningful moderate changes in the overall score as well as in the emotional and social well-being subscales. The MCID was 6.16 for the P-CPQ overall score. Conclusion: Parents and caregivers reported significant improvement in the quality of life of adolescents undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. PMID:26560827

  10. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome associated with fingolimod treatment in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis three months after childbirth.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, Markus; Weber, Ralph; Herold, Michèle; Berlit, Peter

    2015-10-01

    Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is characterized by acute thunderclap headache, evidence of vasoconstriction in conventional angiography or magnetic resonance angiography and reversibility of these phenomena within 12 weeks. Some triggering factors, for example drugs such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, sumatriptan, tacrolimus, cyclophosphamide and cocaine, or states such as pregnancy, puerperium or migraine have been described. We describe the case of a 29-year-old woman with RCVS associated with fingolimod three months after childbirth. This case represents the first report of RCVS in fingolimod treatment. PMID:26283695

  11. Pseudotumor Cerebri in a Child with Idiopathic Growth Hormone Insufficiency Two Months after Initiation of Recombinant Human Growth Hormone Treatment.

    PubMed

    Loukianou, Eleni; Tasiopoulou, Anastasia; Demosthenous, Constantinos; Brouzas, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To report a rare case of pseudotumor cerebri (PTC) in a child two months after receiving treatment with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) and to emphasize the need of close collaboration between ophthalmologists and pediatric endocrinologists in monitoring children receiving rhGH. Methods. A 12-year-old boy with congenital hypothyroidism started treatment with rhGH on a dose of 1,5 mg/daily IM (4.5 IU daily). Eight weeks later, he was complaining of severe headache without any other accompanying symptoms. The child was further investigated with computed tomography scan and lumbar puncture. Results. Computed tomography scan showed normal ventricular size and lumbar puncture revealed an elevated opening pressure of 360 mm H2O. RhGH was discontinued and acetazolamide 250 mg per os twice daily was initiated. Eight weeks later, the papilledema was resolved. Conclusions. There appears to be a causal relationship between the initiation of treatment with rhGH and the development of PTC. All children receiving rhGH should have a complete ophthalmological examination if they report headache or visual disturbances shortly after the treatment. Discontinuation of rhGH and initiation of treatment with acetazolamide may be needed and regular follow-up examinations by an ophthalmologist should be recommended. PMID:26966604

  12. Pseudotumor Cerebri in a Child with Idiopathic Growth Hormone Insufficiency Two Months after Initiation of Recombinant Human Growth Hormone Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Loukianou, Eleni; Tasiopoulou, Anastasia; Demosthenous, Constantinos; Brouzas, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To report a rare case of pseudotumor cerebri (PTC) in a child two months after receiving treatment with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) and to emphasize the need of close collaboration between ophthalmologists and pediatric endocrinologists in monitoring children receiving rhGH. Methods. A 12-year-old boy with congenital hypothyroidism started treatment with rhGH on a dose of 1,5 mg/daily IM (4.5 IU daily). Eight weeks later, he was complaining of severe headache without any other accompanying symptoms. The child was further investigated with computed tomography scan and lumbar puncture. Results. Computed tomography scan showed normal ventricular size and lumbar puncture revealed an elevated opening pressure of 360 mm H2O. RhGH was discontinued and acetazolamide 250 mg per os twice daily was initiated. Eight weeks later, the papilledema was resolved. Conclusions. There appears to be a causal relationship between the initiation of treatment with rhGH and the development of PTC. All children receiving rhGH should have a complete ophthalmological examination if they report headache or visual disturbances shortly after the treatment. Discontinuation of rhGH and initiation of treatment with acetazolamide may be needed and regular follow-up examinations by an ophthalmologist should be recommended. PMID:26966604

  13. A reinforcement-based therapeutic workplace for the treatment of drug abuse: six-month abstinence outcomes.

    PubMed

    Silverman, K; Svikis, D; Robles, E; Stitzer, M L; Bigelow, G E

    2001-02-01

    This study evaluated a novel drug abuse treatment, the Therapeutic Workplace. In this treatment, patients are paid to perform jobs or to participate in job training. Salary is linked to abstinence by requiring patients to provide drug-free urine samples to gain access to the workplace. Pregnant and postpartum drug abuse patients (N = 40) were randomly assigned to a Therapeutic Workplace or usual care control group. Therapeutic Workplace participants were invited to work 3 hr every weekday for 6 months and could earn up to $4,030 in vouchers for abstinence, workplace attendance, and performance. On average, 45% of participants attended the workplace per day. Relative to controls, the Therapeutic Workplace nearly doubled patients' abstinence from opiates and cocaine (33% vs. 59% of thrice-weekly urine samples drug negative, respectively, p < .05). The Therapeutic Workplace can effectively treat heroin and cocaine abuse in pregnant and postpartum women. PMID:11519628

  14. Evaluation of efficacy of enamel matrix derivative in the treatment of intrabony defects: a 24-month multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Francetti, Luca; Trombelli, Leonardo; Lombardo, Giorgio; Guida, Luigi; Cafiero, Carlo; Roccuzzo, Mario; Carusi, Giorgio; Del Fabbro, Massimo

    2005-10-01

    The aim of this prospective multicenter controlled clinical study was to evaluate the efficacy of Emdogain (Biora), an enamel matrix derivative (EMD), when combined with surgical treatment of periodontal angular defects, as compared to surgery alone, for up to 24 months of follow-up. The study was performed at six Italian universities and 11 private practices. Patients with one-, two-, or three-wall angular defects were enrolled if intrabony defect depth (IBD) was 4 mm or more and probing pocket depth (PPD) was at least 6 mm. They were randomly allocated to either test or control groups. The test group was treated by the simplified papilla preservation (SPP) flap plus Emdogain after root conditioning with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. The control group was treated by SPP alone. Plaque Index, Gingival Index, PPD, and periodontal attachment level (PAL) at surgical sites were assessed at the presurgical examination (baseline). IBD was measured intraoperatively after debridement. IBD was also evaluated with a computer-aided technique, from periapical radiographs. Plaque Index, Gingival Index, PPD, PAL, and IBD were assessed at 12 and 24 months postsurgery. Data were further divided in two subgroups according to baseline IBD (6 mm or less and more than 6 mm). The differences between each follow-up and baseline, and between groups at each follow-up, for the above parameters were evaluated by standard statistical methods. One hundred fifty-three patients were recruited, accounting for 195 intrabony defects: 83 patients (108 defects) and 70 patients (87 defects) were allocated to the test and control groups, respectively. All parameters were improved at both 12 and 24 months, compared to baseline in both groups. In the test group, IBD, PPD, and PAL at 12 months were significantly better than these parameters in the control group. The test subgroup with IBD of more than 6 mm at baseline displayed a better outcome when compared to the 6 mm or less IBD subgroup. No

  15. Percutaneous Stabilization System Osseofix® for Treatment of Osteoporotic Vertebral Compression Fractures - Clinical and Radiological Results after 12 Months

    PubMed Central

    Ender, Stephan Albrecht; Wetterau, Elmar; Ender, Michaela; Kühn, Jens-Peter; Merk, Harry Rudolf; Kayser, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    Study Design A prospective consecutive cohort study (follow-up study). Objective Our study investigated whether implantation of an expandable titanium mesh cage (Osseofix®) is a successful and safe minimally invasive therapy for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (VCF). Our experiences, clinical and radiological findings after 12 months follow-up are presented. Kypho- and vertebroplasty are well-established minimally invasive procedures for the treatment of osteoporotic VCF. The main complications associated with both procedures are uncontrolled bone cement leakage. Therefore a suitable alternative has been investigated. Methods During June 2010 to May 2011 24 patients were included with 32 osteoporotic VCF (T6 to L4). All of them were stabilized with the Osseofix® system. Preinterventionally we performed X-ray, MRI, and bone density measurements (DXA). Clinical and radiological results were evaluated preop., postop. and after 12 months postop. based on the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), X-ray (Beck Index, Cobb-angle) and CT. Results There was a significant improvement in the mean ODI (70,6% to 30,1%) as well as a significant reduction in pain intensity (VAS) (7,7 to 1,4) after 12 month. The mean kyphotic angle according to Cobb showed significant improvements (11,7° to 10,4°) after 12 months. Postinterventional imaging showed only one case of loss of height in a stabilized vertebral body (3.1%). We saw no changes in posterior vertebral wall or adjacent fractures. Except for one pronounced postoperative hematoma we saw no surgical complications including no cement leakage. Conclusions Stabilization of symptomatic osteoporotic VCF with Osseofix® system is a safe and effective procedure, even in fractures with posterior wall involvement. The clinical mid-term results are good at a very low complication rate. The Osseofix® system is an interesting alternative to the established procedures of cement augmentation

  16. Safety and efficacy of levetiracetam for the treatment of partial onset seizures in children from one month of age

    PubMed Central

    Cormier, Justine; Chu, Catherine J

    2013-01-01

    Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder in the pediatric population, affecting up to one percent of children, and for which the mainstay of treatment is anticonvulsant medication. Despite the frequent use of anticonvulsant drugs, remarkably little is known about the safety and efficacy of most of these medications in the pediatric epilepsy population. Of 34 anticonvulsants currently approved for use by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), only 13 have been approved for use in children. Although infants and young children are disproportionately affected by epilepsy, there are currently only three anticonvulsant medications that have been specifically evaluated and approved for use in children younger than 2 years of age. In 2012, the FDA approved levetiracetam as an adjunctive treatment for partial onset seizures in infants and children from one month of age. Here we review the available data on levetiracetam in the pediatric epilepsy population. We first discuss the pharmacological profile of levetiracetam, including its mechanism of action, formulations and dosing, and pharmacokinetics in children. We then review the available efficacy, safety, and tolerability data in children from one month of age with partial onset seizures. We conclude that the current data leading to the approval of levetiracetam for use in infants and children with partial onset seizures is encouraging, although more work needs to be done before definitive conclusions can be drawn about the efficacy of levetiracetam across different pediatric age groups. PMID:23458993

  17. Treatment of grade II furcation involvement using resorbable guided tissue regeneration membrane: A six-month study

    PubMed Central

    Khanna, Deepti; Malhotra, Sumit; Naidu, D. Venugopal

    2012-01-01

    Aims: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of the combination of hydroxyapatite and β-tricalcium phosphate bone alloplast with bioresorbable guided tissue regeneration membrane for the treatment of mandibular grade II furcation defects. Settings and Design: A total of eight patients, four females and four males, in the age group of 18 to 65 years, with bilateral buccal grade II furcation defects in the mandibular molars, participated in the study. Materials and Methods: The following clinical measurements were recorded at baseline as well as three and six months post surgery: The Turesky-Gilmore-Glickman modification of the Quigley Hein plaque index, the Loe and Silness gingival index, Relative Clinical Attachment Level Vertical Probing Depth in the mid-furcation area, and Horizontal Probing Depth in the mid-furcation area. Statistical analysis: Pairwise comparisons within the groups were done by applying the independent student t test. Comparisons were also drawn between the test and the control groups by applying the independent student t test. Results: The mean gain in the relative clinical attachment levels in the test and control groups, at the end of six months, were 2.50 and 1.63 mm, respectively. The mean change in the horizontal probing depth values at the end of six months in the test and control groups were 2.88 and 1.63 mm, respectively. The mean reduction in the vertical probing depth values in the test and control groups were 1.50 and 1.38 mm, respectively. Conclusions: The resorbable GTR membrane with bone material was more effective than open debridement alone, in the treatment of furcation defects. PMID:23162337

  18. 41 CFR 51-3.5 - Fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Fees. 51-3.5 Section 51-3... FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED 3-CENTRAL NONPROFIT AGENCIES § 51-3.5 Fees. A central nonprofit agency may charge fees to nonprofit agencies for facilitating...

  19. A six month randomized controlled trial of long acting injectable risperidone 50 and 100mg in treatment resistant schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Meltzer, H Y; Lindenmayer, J-P; Kwentus, J; Share, D B; Johnson, R; Jayathilake, K

    2014-04-01

    It has been suggested that atypical antipsychotic drugs (A-APDs) other than clozapine may be effective to improve positive symptoms in some patients with treatment resistant schizophrenia (TRS), if both the dose is higher, and the duration of the trial longer, than those which have been ineffective in non-TRS (NTRS) patients. This hypothesis was tested with long acting injectable risperidone (Risperdal Consta®, RLAI). One hundred sixty TRS patients selected for persistent moderate-severe delusions or hallucinations, or both, were randomized to RLAI, 50 or 100mg biweekly, in a six month, outpatient, double-blind, multicenter trial. We hypothesized that RLAI, 100mg, would be more effective than RLAI, 50mg. However, both doses produced clinically significant and equivalent improvement in PANSS Total, Positive, and Negative subscale scores, as well as key cognitive, global and functional measures, with increasing response during the course of the study, confirming the value of longer clinical trial duration for patients with TRS, but not superiority of the higher dose. The overall response rate was comparable to that previously reported for clozapine and high dose olanzapine, another A-APD, in TRS. Both doses of RLAI were equally well tolerated, producing minimal extrapyramidal side effects and few drop outs. Plasma levels of the active moiety, risperidone+9-hydroxyrisperidone, during treatment with RLAI 100mg, were comparable to those for 6-8 mg/day oral risperidone, which have not been effective in TRS. Further study of RLAI, ≥ 50-100mg biweekly, should compare it with clozapine and oral risperidone in TRS, with duration of treatment ≥ six months. PMID:24630262

  20. Exploratory study describing 6 month outcomes for young children with autism who receive treatment as usual in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Muratori, Filippo; Narzisi, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Background In the last few years, the results of different studies have confirmed, in different ways, the importance of early intervention for autism. This study aims to evaluate the role of early “as usual” interventions in the outcome of toddlers diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Method Seventy children with ASD aged between 24 and 48 months were recruited at different centers in Italy. They were evaluated by blind researchers at baseline and after 6 months of using Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic (ADOS-G), Griffiths Mental Developmental Scales, and Vineland Adaptive Behavior scales. Parents filled out the MacArthur Inventory, Social Communication Questionnaire, and Child Behavior Check List. All children were referred to community providers for available interventions. Results At the endpoint, most of the children were still classified as having an ADOS-G classification of ASD. However, 21 (34.2%) passed from autism to autism spectrum, and 3 (4.2%) passed from autism spectrum to no spectrum. Treatment effects were obtained for cognitive functioning, language, adaptive behavior, and child behavior without differences between development-oriented and behavior-oriented interventions. Parent involvement was a mediator for the best clinical outcome. Baseline low impairments of communication, language comprehension, and gesture were predictors of positive outcome. Conclusion Treatment as usual, composed of individual therapy plus school-supported inclusion, may be an effective intervention in ASD. Better initial levels of communication in child and parent involvement during treatment have an important role for a positive outcome. PMID:24748794

  1. Chronic myelogenous leukemia in chronic phase transforming into acute leukemia under treatment with dasatinib 4 months after diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yukitsugu; Tokita, Katsuya; Nagasawa, Fusako; Takahashi, Wataru; Nakamura, Yuko; Sasaki, Ko; Ichikawa, Motoshi; Mitani, Kinuko

    2016-03-01

    We report a 64-year-old woman morphologically diagnosed with chronic myelogenous leukemia in the chronic phase. Despite having achieved a complete hematological response following treatment with dasatinib, she developed lymphoblastic crisis 4 months later. Blastic cells were in a CD45-negative and SSC-low fraction, and positive for CD10, CD19, CD34, and HLA-DR expression and rearrangement in the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene. Chemotherapy using the HyperCVAD/MA regimen led to a complete cytogenetic response, and after cord blood transplantation, she obtained a complete molecular remission. However, the crisis recurred 6 months later. Another salvage therapy using L-AdVP regimen followed by nilotinib led to a complete molecular remission. Retrospective analyses using flow cytometry and polymerase chain reaction revealed a minimal blastic crisis clone present in the initial marrow in chronic phase. This case is informative as it suggests that sudden blastic crisis may occur from an undetectable blastic clone present at initial diagnosis and that leukemic stem cells may survive cytotoxic chemotherapy that eliminates most of the blastic cells. PMID:26662559

  2. A FIELD-TRIAL OF TWO RESTORATIVE MATERIALS USED WITH ATRAUMATIC RESTORATIVE TREATMENT IN RURAL TURKEY: 24-MONTH RESULTS

    PubMed Central

    Ercan, Ertugrul; Dülgergil, Ç. Türksel; Soyman, Mübin; Dalli, Mehmet; Yildirim, Isil

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical performance of high-strength glass ionomer cement (HSGIC) and resin-modified glass ionomer (RMGIC) in single and multiple surface carious cavities in the field conditions. Material and Methods: A split-mouth design, including ninety-one fillings placed on contra lateral molar pairs of 37 children, was used in permanent dentition. As filling materials, a HSGIC (Ketac Molar/3M ESPE) and a RMGIC (Vitremer/ 3M ESPE) were used with the Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART). Baseline and 6, 12 and 24-month evaluations of the fillings were made with standard-ART and USPHS criteria by two examiners with kappa values of 0.92 and 0.87 for both criteria. Results: According to the USPHS criteria, the retention rates of RMGIC and HSGIC restorations were 100% and 80.9% for single surface, and 100% and 41.2% for multiple surface restorations after 24 months, respectively. Irrespective of surface number, RMGIC was significantly superior to HSGIC (p= 0.004), according to both standard-ART and USPHS criteria. Conclusion: The results indicate that RMGIC may be an alternative restorative technique in comparison to high-strength GIC applications in ART-field-trials. However, further clinical and field trials are needed to support this conclusion. PMID:19668990

  3. Efficacy of an unsupervised 8-month rifampicin-containing regimen for the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis in HIV-infected adults

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, J. L.; Okwera, A.; Nsubuga, P.; Nakibali, J. G.; Whalen, C. C.; Hom, D.; Cave, M. D.; Yang, Z. H.; Mugerwa, R. D.; Ellner, J. J.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY SETTING National Tuberculosis Treatment Centre, Mulago Hospital, Kampala, Uganda. OBJECTIVE To assess the efficacy of a daily, self-administered 8-month rifampicin-containing regimen for the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected adults. DESIGN Treatment outcomes in patients with pulmonary TB treated with a single 8-month regimen and followed in a prospective epidemiological study. RESULTS Two hundred and sixty-five HIV-infected and 26 non-HIV-infected adults with initial episodes of pulmonary tuberculosis were treated with 2 months of daily isoniazid (INH), rifampicin (RMP), ethambutol and pyrazinamide followed by 6 months of daily INH + RMP. Median follow-up was 17.8 months. Ninety-five per cent of the HIV-infected and all of the non-HIV-infected patients who had sputum examined were sputum culture negative after 2 months of treatment. Twenty-two HIV-infected and no non-HIV-infected patients died during treatment. Relapse rates were 8.4% (5.9 per 100 person-years of observation [PYO], 95%CI 3.2–8.6) among HIV-infected patients and 4.5% (2.1/100 PYO, 95%CI 0–7.8) for non-HIV-infected patients. Adverse drug reactions occurred in 37% of the HIV-infected patients; most were minor and self-limiting. CONCLUSION An 8-month RMP-containing regimen was well tolerated and effective in the treatment of HIV-infected adults with initial episodes of pulmonary TB. Relapse rates were similar to those reported with 6-month short-course regimens in HIV-infected individuals. Decisions about the duration of anti-tuberculosis treatment for HIV-infected adults must balance programme resources and the likelihood of poor compliance with longer regimens with the potential for a modest decrease in relapses with longer treatment. PMID:11092715

  4. Discovery of 4'-chloromethyl-2'-deoxy-3',5'-di-O-isobutyryl-2'-fluorocytidine (ALS-8176), a first-in-class RSV polymerase inhibitor for treatment of human respiratory syncytial virus infection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guangyi; Deval, Jerome; Hong, Jin; Dyatkina, Natalia; Prhavc, Marija; Taylor, Joshua; Fung, Amy; Jin, Zhinan; Stevens, Sarah K; Serebryany, Vladimir; Liu, Jyanwei; Zhang, Qingling; Tam, Yuen; Chanda, Sushmita M; Smith, David B; Symons, Julian A; Blatt, Lawrence M; Beigelman, Leo

    2015-02-26

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading pathogen of childhood and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. To date, ribavirin is the only approved small molecule drug, which has limited use. The only other RSV drug is palivizumab, a monoclonal antibody, which is used for RSV prophylaxis. Clearly, there is an urgent need for small molecule RSV drugs. This article reports the design, synthesis, anti-RSV activity, metabolism, and pharmacokinetics of a series of 4'-substituted cytidine nucleosides. Among tested compounds 4'-chloromethyl-2'-deoxy-2'-fluorocytidine (2c) exhibited the most promising activity in the RSV replicon assay with an EC50 of 0.15 μM. The 5'-triphosphate of 2c (2c-TP) inhibited RSV polymerase with an IC50 of 0.02 μM without appreciable inhibition of human DNA and RNA polymerases at 100 μM. ALS-8176 (71), the 3',5'-di-O-isobutyryl prodrug of 2c, demonstrated good oral bioavailability and a high level of 2c-TP in vivo. Compound 71 is a first-in-class nucleoside RSV polymerase inhibitor that demonstrated excellent anti-RSV efficacy and safety in a phase 2 clinical RSV challenge study. PMID:25667954

  5. The 'offset effect' of mental health treatment on ambulatory medical care utilization and charges. Month-by-month and grouped-month analyses of a five-year study.

    PubMed

    Borus, J F; Olendzki, M C; Kessler, L; Burns, B J; Brandt, U C; Broverman, C A; Henderson, P R

    1985-06-01

    The five-year ambulatory medical care experience of 400 patients with mental disorders was studied to test the "offset" hypothesis that patients receiving timely mental health specialist treatment have lower subsequent utilization of, and charges for, care than patients not receiving such specialist treatment. Specialist treatment was associated with significant offset savings in utilization and charges for the non-psychiatric medical care of treated patients with either severe or less severe mental disorders. However, the visits and charges for such specialist treatment boosted the overall (nonpsychiatric plus mental health specialist) care utilization and charges of the specialist-treated patients above those of patients treated solely by their nonpsychiatric physicians; this overall increase was especially pronounced for patients with severe mental disorders. The findings suggest the need for randomized prospective offset studies comparing utilization, cost, and clinical outcomes. PMID:4004499

  6. A 12-Month Prospective, Observational Study of Treatment Regimen and Quality of Life Associated with ADHD in Central and Eastern Europe and Eastern Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetz, Michal; Yeh, Chin-Bin; Ondrejka, Igor; Akay, Aynur; Herczeg, Ilona; Dobrescu, Iuliana; Kim, Boong Nyun; Jin, Xingming; Riley, Anne W.; Martenyi, Ferenc; Harrison, Gavan; Treuer, Tamas

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This prospective, observational, non-randomized study aimed to describe the relationship between treatment regimen prescribed and the quality of life (QoL) of ADHD patients in countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and Eastern Asia over 12 months. Methods: 977 Male and female patients aged 6-17 years seeking treatment for…

  7. Impact of repeated four-monthly anthelmintic treatment on Plasmodium infection in preschool children: a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Helminth infections can alter susceptibility to malaria. Studies need to determine whether or not deworming programs can impact on Plasmodium infections in preschool children. Methods A double-blind placebo-controlled randomised trial was conducted to investigate the impact of anthelmintic treatment on Plasmodium infection in children aged 12-59 months. Children were randomly assigned to receive either albendazole or placebo every four months for 12 months with a follow-up at 14 months. Results 320 children (out of 1228, 26.1%) complied with all the follow-up assessments. Plasmodium prevalence and mean Plasmodium parasite density was significantly higher in the treatment group (44.9% and 2319 ± SE 511) compared to the placebo group (33.3% and 1471 ± 341) at baseline. The odds of having Plasmodium infection increased over time for children in both the placebo and treatment groups, however this increase was significantly slower for children in the treatment group (P = 0.002). By month 14, mean Plasmodium density had increased by 156% in the placebo group and 98% in the treatment group but the rate of change in Plasmodium density was not significantly different between the groups. The change from baseline in haemoglobin had a steeper increase among children in the treatment group when compared to the placebo group but this was not statistically significant. Conclusions Repeated four-monthly anthelminthic treatments for 14 months resulted in a significantly lower increase in the prevalence of Plasmodium infection in preschool children which coincided with a reduction in both the prevalence and intensity of A. lumbricoides infections. Trial Registration Current controlled trials ISRCTN44215995 PMID:20858280

  8. Subchronic inhalation toxicity of 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene

    SciTech Connect

    Sasmore, D.P.; Mitoma, C.; Tyson, C.A.; Johnson, J.S.

    1982-10-11

    Male and female rats were exposed to 0, 10, 100 or 1000 ppM of 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene vapors for 6 hours daily, 5 days a week, for up to 13 weeks. After 4 and 13 weeks of exposure, animals were sacrificed and examined for changes in blood, clinical chemistry, internal organs, and tissues resulting from the 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene treatment. No treatment-related effects on the blood and clinical chemistry were evident. The only effects that were considered treatment-related were a squamous metaplasia and hyperplasia in the respiratory epithelium in the nasal passages of high-dose rats and the increased incidence of dried red material on the faces of these rats during exposures compared with other groups.

  9. Patient and program predictors of 12-month outcomes for homeless veterans following discharge from time-limited residential treatment.

    PubMed

    McGuire, James; Rosenheck, Robert A; Kasprow, Wesley J

    2011-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs provides transitional residential treatment to homeless veterans through three types of programs: VA-staffed Domiciliary care, and two types of community-based treatment (one funded through locally managed contracts and the other through national grants). This study compared treatment process and outcomes in these three programs and also sought to identify differences in outcome between dually diagnosed veterans, veterans with substance abuse problems or psychiatric problems alone, and those with no psychiatric diagnoses. Altogether, 1,338 veterans admitted to the 3 types of program were recruited to participate in a prospective naturalistic study which evaluated housing, clinical and community adjustment outcomes during the year following discharge. Data on 1,003 veterans for whom psychiatric diagnostic, social climate and length of stay data were available were used to compare participants in the three program types at baseline. Regression models were used to compare outcomes across program and diagnostic types net of baseline differences between study participants, and of differences in social climate and length of stay. The overall follow-up rate across all time points was 72%. Significant differences across programs were observed on only 2 baseline measures as well as on several baseline values of the outcome measures, length of stay and a measure of social climate. Adjusting for veteran baseline differences alone there were no differences in outcomes by program after correction for multiple comparisons. Dually diagnosed veterans had poorer mental health and overall quality of life outcomes. Longer length of stay and more positive social climate were associated with superior outcomes on several measures. The adjusted mean estimate of the proportion of veterans housed at 12 months follow-up was 78%, similar to published outcomes for supported housing. Length of stay, rather than program funding configuration or

  10. Water Sourcebook. Grades 3-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee Valley Authority, Knoxville.

    The goal of this supplemental activity guide for elementary students in grades 3-5 is to develop awareness, knowledge, and skills for sound water use decisions. Materials developed for the program are compatible with existing curriculum standards established by State Boards of Education throughout the United States and teach concepts included in…

  11. 32 CFR 3.5 - Appropriate use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE ACQUISITION TRANSACTIONS OTHER THAN CONTRACTS, GRANTS, OR COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS FOR PROTOTYPE PROJECTS § 3.5 Appropriate use. In accordance... is participating to a significant extent in the prototype project; or (b) No nontraditional...

  12. 32 CFR 3.5 - Appropriate use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE ACQUISITION TRANSACTIONS OTHER THAN CONTRACTS, GRANTS, OR COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS FOR PROTOTYPE PROJECTS § 3.5 Appropriate use. In accordance... is participating to a significant extent in the prototype project; or (b) No nontraditional...

  13. Antiretroviral treatment and quality of life in Africans living with HIV: 12-month follow-up in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Jaquet, Antoine; Garanet, Franck; Balestre, Eric; Ekouevi, Didier K.; Azani, Jean Claude; Bognounou, René; Dah, Elias; Kondombo, Jean Charlemagne; Dabis, François; Drabo, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The scale-up of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has led to a significant improvement in survival of the HIV-positive patient but its effects on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) are less known and context-dependent. Our aim was to assess the temporal changes and factors associated with HRQOL among HIV-positive adults initiating HAART in Burkina Faso. Methods HIV-positive people initiating HAART were prospectively included and followed over a one-year period in three HIV clinics of Ouagadougou. HRQOL was assessed at baseline and at each follow-up visit using physical (PHS) and mental (MHS) summary scores derived from the Medical Outcome Study 36-Item short-form health survey (MOS SF-36) questionnaire. Toxicity related to HAART modification and self-reported symptoms were recorded during follow-up visits. Determinants associated with baseline and changes in both scores over a one-year period were assessed using a mixed linear model. Results A total of 344 patients were included. Their median age at baseline was 37 years [interquartile range (IQR) 30–44] and their median CD4 count was 181 cells/mm3 (IQR 97–269). The mean [standard deviation (SD)] PHS score increased from 45.4 (11.1) at baseline to 60.0 (3.1) at 12 months (p<10−4) and the mean (SD) MHS score from 42.2 (8.7) to 43.9 (3.4) (p<10−2). After one year of treatment, patients that experienced on average two symptoms during follow-up presented with significantly lower PHS (63.9) and MHS (43.8) scores compared to patients that presented no symptoms with PHS and MHS of 68.2 (p<10−4) and 45.3 (p<10−3), respectively. Discussion The use of HAART was associated with a significant increase in both physical and mental aspects of the HRQOL over a 12-month period in this urban African population. Perceived symptoms experienced during follow-up visits were associated with a significant impairment in HRQOL. The appropriate and timely management of reported symptoms during the

  14. Adherence to Occlusion Therapy in the First Six Months of Follow-Up and Visual Acuity among Participants in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study (IATS)

    PubMed Central

    Drews-Botsch, Carolyn D.; Celano, Marianne; Kruger, Stacey; Hartmann, E. Eugenie

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Achieving good vision in infants born with a unilateral cataract is believed to require early surgery and consistent occlusion of the fellow eye. This article examines the relationship between adherence to patching and grating acuity. Methods. Data came from the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study, a randomized clinical trial of treatment for unilateral congenital cataract. Infants were either left aphakic (n = 53) or had an intraocular lens implanted (n = 55). Patching was prescribed 1 hour per day per month of age until 8 months of age and 50% of waking hours thereafter. Adherence was measured as the mean percentage of prescribed patching reported in a 7-day diary completed 2 months after surgery, and 48-hour recall interviews conducted 3 and 6 months after surgery. Grating visual acuity was measured within 1 month of the infant's first birthday (n = 108) using Teller Acuity Cards by a tester masked to treatment. Nonparametric correlations were used to examine the relationship with grating acuity. Results. On average, caregivers reported patching 84.3% (SD = 31.2%) of prescribed time and adherence did not differ by treatment (t = −1.40, df = 106, p = 0.16). Adherence was associated with grating acuity (rSpearman = −0.27, p < 0.01), but more so among pseudophakic (rSpearman = −0.41, p < 0.01) than aphakic infants (rSpearman = −0.10, p = 0.49). Conclusions. This study empirically has shown that adherence to patching during the first 6 months after surgery is associated with better grating visual acuity at 12 months of age after treatment for unilateral cataract and that implanting an intraocular lens is not associated with adherence. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00212134.) PMID:22491410

  15. Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Hexahydro - 1,3,5 - trinitro - 1,3,5 - triazine ( RDX ) ; CASRN 121 - 82 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health

  16. Octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Octahydro - 1,3,5,7 - tetranitro - 1,3,5,7 - tetr . . . ( HMX ) ; CASRN 2691 - 41 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I

  17. Effect of treatment for 6 months with human parathyroid hormone (1-34) peptide in ovariectomized cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Jerome, C P; Johnson, C S; Vafai, H T; Kaplan, K C; Bailey, J; Capwell, B; Fraser, F; Hansen, L; Ramsay, H; Shadoan, M; Lees, C J; Thomsen, J S; Mosekilde, L

    1999-09-01

    A potential negative side effect of intermittent parathyroid hormone (PTH) therapy to treat osteoporosis is the loss of cortical bone concomitant with increased cancellous bone mass. We addressed this issue by studying the effects of PTH on whole-body, axial, and appendicular bone mass in an animal model with haversian cortical bone remodeling. Ovariectomized, young adult female cynomolgus monkeys were assigned to placebo (n = 9) or PTH groups (n = 10). The PTH group received 10 microg/kg synthetic human PTH(1-34) peptide by subcutaneous injection, 3 days/week for 6 months, and the placebo group received vehicle. Multiple endpoints of bone mass, strength, and turnover in the axial and appendicular skeleton were assessed, including dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), quantitative computed tomography (qCT), analysis of serum (calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase) and urinary (calcium and creatinine) biomarkers, histomorphometry, and biomechanical testing. Compared with placebo-treated animals, PTH-treated monkeys had no change in whole-body bone mass, but a 6.7% increase in spinal areal bone mineral density (aBMD) was observed. Cortical bone mass measured by qCT at appendicular sites was not affected by PTH treatment, but there were significant increases in cancellous bone mass in the proximal tibia, and a similar trend in the distal radius. Small, transient increases in serum and urinary calcium were observed, but there were no treatment-related effects on other biochemical endpoints. Increased bone formation rate (BFR/BV) in the midradius and midfemur was accompanied by a nonsignificant increase in midfemur porosity. Increased vertebral cancellous bone volume (BV/TV) was associated with greater trabecular and interstitial thickness with no effect on wall thickness. Increases in bone strength were observed in both axial (vertebral maximum stress and load at fracture) and appendicular (femoral neck

  18. Clinical significance of smear positivity for acid-fast bacilli after ≥5 months of treatment in patients with drug-susceptible pulmonary tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hyung Koo; Jeong, Byeong-Ho; Lee, Hyun; Park, Hye Yun; Jeon, Kyeongman; Huh, Hee Jae; Ki, Chang-Seok; Lee, Nam Yong; Koh, Won-Jung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) with acid-fast bacilli (AFB)-positive sputum smear at 5 months or later during treatment are considered to be cases of treatment failure according to World Health Organization guidelines. This study evaluated the proportion, clinical characteristics, and significance of positive sputum smears after ≥5 months of standard treatment in patients with drug-susceptible pulmonary TB. This was a retrospective cohort study of 1611 patients with culture-confirmed drug-susceptible pulmonary TB who received standard anti-TB treatment from January 2009 to February 2014. Forty-one patients (2.5%) who were smear-positive after ≥5 months of treatment and 123 age- and sex-matched control patients were evaluated. Among the 41 smear-positive patients, culture of the sputum specimens yielded Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in 1 patient (2.4%), nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in 7 (17.1%), and no growth in the remaining 33 patients (80.5%). Treatment was successfully completed in 40 patients (97.6%) with prolongation of the continuation phase regimens without change to second-line anti-TB treatment. In patients with smear positivity after ≥5 months of treatment compared with controls, cavitation on chest radiographs (53.7% vs. 25.2%, P = 0.001), bilateral involvement (51.2% vs. 30.1%, P = 0.01) and combined pleural effusion (26.8% vs. 10.6%, P = 0.01) were found more frequently at the time of treatment initiation, and paradoxical response occurred more commonly (19.5% vs. 3.3%, P = 0.002) during treatment. Smear-positive sputum after ≥5 months of standard anti-TB treatment was mainly because of nonviable MTB bacilli or NTM in patients with drug-susceptible pulmonary TB. AFB smear alone should not be used to assess treatment failure and careful examination of microbiologic status, including culture and drug susceptibility testing, is needed before making changes to retreatment regimens or empirical second

  19. Clinical significance of smear positivity for acid-fast bacilli after ≥5 months of treatment in patients with drug-susceptible pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyung Koo; Jeong, Byeong-Ho; Lee, Hyun; Park, Hye Yun; Jeon, Kyeongman; Huh, Hee Jae; Ki, Chang-Seok; Lee, Nam Yong; Koh, Won-Jung

    2016-08-01

    Patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) with acid-fast bacilli (AFB)-positive sputum smear at 5 months or later during treatment are considered to be cases of treatment failure according to World Health Organization guidelines. This study evaluated the proportion, clinical characteristics, and significance of positive sputum smears after ≥5 months of standard treatment in patients with drug-susceptible pulmonary TB.This was a retrospective cohort study of 1611 patients with culture-confirmed drug-susceptible pulmonary TB who received standard anti-TB treatment from January 2009 to February 2014. Forty-one patients (2.5%) who were smear-positive after ≥5 months of treatment and 123 age- and sex-matched control patients were evaluated.Among the 41 smear-positive patients, culture of the sputum specimens yielded Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in 1 patient (2.4%), nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in 7 (17.1%), and no growth in the remaining 33 patients (80.5%). Treatment was successfully completed in 40 patients (97.6%) with prolongation of the continuation phase regimens without change to second-line anti-TB treatment. In patients with smear positivity after ≥5 months of treatment compared with controls, cavitation on chest radiographs (53.7% vs. 25.2%, P = 0.001), bilateral involvement (51.2% vs. 30.1%, P = 0.01) and combined pleural effusion (26.8% vs. 10.6%, P = 0.01) were found more frequently at the time of treatment initiation, and paradoxical response occurred more commonly (19.5% vs. 3.3%, P = 0.002) during treatment.Smear-positive sputum after ≥5 months of standard anti-TB treatment was mainly because of nonviable MTB bacilli or NTM in patients with drug-susceptible pulmonary TB. AFB smear alone should not be used to assess treatment failure and careful examination of microbiologic status, including culture and drug susceptibility testing, is needed before making changes to retreatment regimens or empirical second-line anti

  20. The 3.5-meter telescope enclosure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brady, Michael H.

    1994-04-01

    The 3.5-m telescope enclosure is designed to perform two functions as part of the U.S. Air Force's 3.5-m telescope system: (1) to provide weather and temperature protection when the telescope is not in use and (2) to permit open-air operation of the telescope while minimizing atmospheric disturbances in the field of view (FOV). The use of a standard rotating dome is impractical because of the large telescope and its high rotational rate and acceleration. The enclosure is a 40-ft tall cylinder with a diameter of 72 ft. This steel and aluminum structure does not rotate but collapses vertically to fully expose the telescope to the open air and to provide it with an unobscured view of the horizon at all azimuthal angles. To lessen wind disturbances in the FOV, the enclosure has a moderately sloped roof and smooth, vertical walls. To minimize thermal flow, the outer surface has a high-reflectivity, low-emissivity coating and ambient air is forced through the double-skinned walls and roof. These measures make it possible to keep the enclosure surface temperature near that of the ambient air during viewing. With these features, the enclosure adds minimal degradation to the seeing.

  1. The Impact and Cost-Effectiveness of a Four-Month Regimen for First-Line Treatment of Active Tuberculosis in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Gwenan M.; Gomez, Gabriela B.; Dodd, Peter J.; Dowdy, David; Zwerling, Alice; Wells, William A.; Cobelens, Frank; Vassall, Anna; White, Richard G.

    2015-01-01

    Background A 4-month first-line treatment regimen for tuberculosis disease (TB) is expected to have a direct impact on patient outcomes and societal costs, as well as an indirect impact on Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission. We aimed to estimate this combined impact in a high TB-burden country: South Africa. Method An individual based M. tb transmission model was fitted to the TB burden of South Africa using a standard TB natural history framework. We measured the impact on TB burden from 2015–2035 of introduction of a non-inferior 4-month regimen replacing the standard 6-month regimen as first-line therapy. Impact was measured with respect to three separate baselines (Guidelines, Policy and Current), reflecting differences in adherence to TB and HIV treatment guidelines. Further scenario analyses considered the variation in treatment-related parameters and resistance levels. Impact was measured in terms of differences in TB burden and Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) averted. We also examined the highest cost at which the new regimen would be cost-effective for several willingness-to-pay thresholds. Results It was estimated that a 4-month regimen would avert less than 1% of the predicted 6 million person years with TB disease in South Africa between 2015 and 2035. A similarly small impact was seen on deaths and DALYs averted. Despite this small impact, with the health systems and patient cost savings from regimen shortening, the 4-month regimen could be cost-effective at $436 [NA, 5983] (mean [range]) per month at a willingness-to-pay threshold of one GDP per capita ($6,618). Conclusion The introduction of a non-inferior 4-month first-line TB regimen into South Africa would have little impact on the TB burden. However, under several scenarios, it is likely that the averted societal costs would make such a regimen cost-effective in South Africa. PMID:26717007

  2. A preliminary 6-month prospective study examining self-reported religious preference, religiosity/spirituality, and retention at a Jewish residential treatment center for substance-related disorders.

    PubMed

    Parhami, Iman; Davtian, Margarit; Collard, Michael; Lopez, Jean; Fong, Timothy W

    2014-07-01

    Although there is a substantial amount of research suggesting that higher levels of religiosity/spirituality (R/S) are associated with better treatment outcomes of substance-related disorders, no studies have explored this relationship at a faith-based residential treatment center. The objective of this prospective study is to explore the relationship between R/S, self-reported religious preference, and retention at a Jewish residential treatment center for substance-related disorders. Using the Daily Spiritual Experience Scale, R/S levels were assessed for 33 subjects at baseline, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months. Results demonstrated a significant relationship between baseline R/S level and retention at 6 months, while R/S levels were unchanged during the course of treatment. Notably, no relationship was found between self-reported religious affiliation and retention. This study demonstrates that patients' R/S level, rather than religious affiliation, is a possible predictor for better outcome at faith-based residential centers for substance-related disorders. PMID:22460083

  3. A Preliminary 6-Month Prospective Study Examining Self-reported Religious Preference, Religiosity/Spirituality, and Retention at a Jewish Residential Treatment Center for Substance-Related Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Davtian, Margarit; Collard, Michael; Lopez, Jean; Fong, Timothy W.

    2012-01-01

    Although there is a substantial amount of research suggesting that higher levels of religiosity/spirituality (R/S) are associated with better treatment outcomes of substance-related disorders, no studies have explored this relationship at a faith-based residential treatment center. The objective of this prospective study is to explore the relationship between R/S, self-reported religious preference, and retention at a Jewish residential treatment center for substance-related disorders. Using the Daily Spiritual Experience Scale, R/S levels were assessed for 33 subjects at baseline, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months. Results demonstrated a significant relationship between baseline R/S level and retention at 6 months, while R/S levels were unchanged during the course of treatment. Notably, no relationship was found between self-reported religious affiliation and retention. This study demonstrates that patients’ R/S level, rather than religious affiliation, is a possible predictor for better outcome at faith-based residential centers for substance-related disorders. PMID:22460083

  4. Microbial degradation and toxicity of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Imran; Lee, Jaejin; Park, Joonhong

    2012-10-01

    In the present work, current knowledge on the potential fate, microbial degradation, and toxicity of hexahydro- 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) was thoroughly reviewed, focusing on the toxicological assessment of a variety of potential RDX degradation pathways in bacteria and fungi. The present review on microbial degradation pathways and toxicities of degradation intermediates suggests that, among aerobic RDX degradation pathways, the one via denitration may be preferred in a toxicological perspective, and that among anaerobic pathways, those forming 4- nitro-2,4-diazabutanal (NDAB) via ring cleavage of 1-nitroso- 3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazinane (MNX) may be toxicologically advantageous owing to its potential mineralization under partial or complete anoxic conditions. These findings provide important information on RDX-degrading microbial pathways, toxicologically most suitable to be stimulated in contaminated fields. PMID:23075780

  5. Field trial on efficacy of supervised monthly dose of 600 mg rifampin, 400 mg ofloxacin and 100 mg minocycline for the treatment of leprosy; first results.

    PubMed

    Mane, I; Cartel, J L; Grosset, J H

    1997-06-01

    In 1995, a field trial was implemented in Senegal in order to evaluate the efficacy of a regimen based on the monthly supervised intake of rifampin 600 mg, ofloxacin 400 mg and minocycline 100 mg to treat leprosy. During the first year of the trial, 220 patients with active leprosy (newly detected or relapsing after dapsone monotherapy) were recruited: 102 paucibacillary (PB) (60 males and 42 females) and 118 multibacillary (MB) (71 males and 47 females). All of them accepted the new treatment (none requested to be preferably put under standard WHO/MDT), no clinical sign which could be considered as a toxic effect of the drug was noted, and none of the patients refused to continue treatment because of any clinical trouble. The compliance was excellent: the 113 patients (PB and MB) detected during the first 6 months of the trial have taken six monthly doses in 6 months, as planned. The rate of clearance and the progressive decrease of cutaneous lesions was satisfactory. Although it is too soon to give comprehensive results, it should be noted that no treatment failure was observed in the 56 PB patients who have completed treatment and have been followed up for 6 months. The long-term efficacy of the new regimen is to be evaluated on the rate of relapse during the years following the cessation of treatment. If that relapse rate is acceptable (similar to that observed in patients after treatment with current standard WHO/ MDT), the new regimen could be a solution to treat, for instance, patients very irregular and/or living in remote or inaccessible areas since no selection of rifampin-resistant Mycobacterium leprae should be possible (a monthly dose of ofloxacin and minocycline being as effective as a dose of dapsone and clofazimine taken daily for 1 month). Nevertheless, until longer term results of this and other trials become available, there is no justification for any change in the treatment strategy, and all leprosy patients should be put under standard WHO

  6. Substituted pyrazoles as hepatoselective HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors: discovery of (3R,5R)-7-[2-(4-fluoro-phenyl)-4-isopropyl-5-(4-methyl-benzylcarbamoyl)-2H-pyrazol-3-yl]-3,5-dihydroxyheptanoic acid (PF-3052334) as a candidate for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Pfefferkorn, Jeffrey A; Choi, Chulho; Larsen, Scott D; Auerbach, Bruce; Hutchings, Richard; Park, William; Askew, Valerie; Dillon, Lisa; Hanselman, Jeffrey C; Lin, Zhiwu; Lu, Gina H; Robertson, Andrew; Sekerke, Catherine; Harris, Melissa S; Pavlovsky, Alexander; Bainbridge, Graeme; Caspers, Nicole; Kowala, Mark; Tait, Bradley D

    2008-01-10

    In light of accumulating evidence that aggressive LDL-lowering therapy may offer increased protection against coronary heart disease, we undertook the design and synthesis of a novel series of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors based upon a substituted pyrazole template. Optimizing this series using both structure-based design and molecular property considerations afforded a class of highly efficacious and hepatoselective inhibitors resulting in the identification of (3 R,5 R)-7-[2-(4-fluoro-phenyl)-4-isopropyl-5-(4-methyl-benzylcarbamoyl)-2 H-pyrazol-3-yl]-3,5-dihydroxy-heptanoic (PF-3052334) as a candidate for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. PMID:18072721

  7. The effects of dexamethasone treatment in early gestation on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal responses and gene expression at 7 months of postnatal age in sheep.

    PubMed

    Li, Shaofu; Nitsos, Ilias; Polglase, Graeme R; Braun, Thorsten; Moss, Timothy J M; Newnham, John P; Challis, John R G

    2012-03-01

    We determined the effects of prenatal dexamethasone administration in early gestation on development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis up to 7 months of postnatal age with measurements of hormone levels and gene expression. Plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol levels after corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)/arginine vasopressin challenge were lower in treatment females than in control females and treatment males. Calculation of cortisol to adrenocorticotropic hormone ratios indicated however that the adrenals of treatment females were more responsive to adrenocorticotropic hormone than control females or treatment males. Effects of treatment and sex dependence at 7 months of age were observed in levels of hypothalamic CRH messenger RNA (mRNA), hypothalamic arginine vasopressin mRNA, pituitary proopiomelanocortin mRNA, pituitary prohormone convertase 1 and prohormone convertase 2, glucocorticoid receptor and mineralocorticoid receptor in the hypothalamus and hippocampus, adrenal adrenocorticotropic hormone receptor, steroidogenic acute regulatory, 3β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, and 11β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 mRNA. The results indicate that exposure to glucocorticoids in early pregnancy produces persisting and sex-dependent effects on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis at 7 months of age. PMID:22101239

  8. Pretreatment regional brain glucose uptake in the midbrain on PET may predict remission from a major depressive episode after three months of treatment.

    PubMed

    Milak, Matthew S; Parsey, Ramin V; Lee, Leilani; Oquendo, Maria A; Olvet, Doreen M; Eipper, Francoise; Malone, Kevin; Mann, J John

    2009-07-15

    In order to test the hypotheses that pretreatment metabolic activity in the midbrain and the rostral anterior cingulate may predict remission in response to medications enhancing monoaminergic transmission, we compared relative regional cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (rCMRglu) using positron emission tomography (PET) in medication-free patients with major depression who remitted after 3 months of monoaminergic medication, with non-remitters on the same treatment. [(18)F]-FDG PET was conducted in a group of 33 drug-free DSM-IV major depression subjects prior to antidepressant treatment. Patients were prescribed paroxetine initially (61%) unless they had failed paroxetine previously. Treatment was then managed by the subjects' own physician with 91% receiving a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and 78% another non-selective monoamine reuptake inhibitor during the 3 months of treatment. Voxel-based parametric brain maps of remitters were compared with maps of non-remitters using SPM2. Remission was defined as a >50% decrease in and a final score of treatment remitters have lower activity in a single contiguous brain region (with global maxima in the midbrain, cluster level P=0.013, corrected for multiple comparison (CMC)), prior to treatment, compared with non-remitters to 3 months of community-based monoaminergic antidepressant treatment. Degree of improvement correlated with pretreatment midbrain activity. Pretreatment clinical picture and intensity of treatment did not distinguish remitters. No other area of the brain showed a significant difference between remitters and non-remitters even with CMC completely disabled. Lower relative regional brain activity in the region of monoaminergic nuclei prior to treatment predicts remission in response to 3 months of antidepressant treatment, despite no clinical differences at baseline and no difference in treatment intensity. Brain imaging is a

  9. The Effects of Six-Month L-Thyroxine Treatment on Cognitive Functions and Event-Related Brain Potentials in Children with Subclinical Hypothyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Sangün, Özlem; Demirci, Serpil; Dündar, Nihal; Pirgon, Özgür; Koca, Tuğba; Doğan, Melike; Dündar, Bumin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the cognitive status of children with subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) before and after L-thyroxine (L-T4) treatment using event-related potentials (ERPs) and neuropsychological tests. Methods: This prospective study was conducted on a series of 20 children with mild SH (free T4 normal and thyroid-stimulating hormone level within 5-10 µIU/L) who underwent clinical and cognitive assessment before L-T4 treatment and 6 months afterwards. The recordings of ERPs were done at the time of diagnosis and after 6 months of euthyroid state. Neuropsychiatric tests for attention, perception, close and remote memory were performed on all patients and on the control group which consisted of 20 healthy children of normal intelligence. Results: While pretreatment verbal memory (VM) and verbal recall (VR) scores of the SH group were significantly lower than those of the control group (p=0.004 and 0.012, respectively), no significant differences between the post-treatment and control groups were found in these scores after 6 months of L-T4 treatment. Post-treatment VM and VR scores were significantly higher than the pretreatment scores in the SH group (p=0.008 and p=0.0001). There were no significant differences between the pre-and post-treatment values of electrophysiological evaluation in N1, P2, P3 latencies or P3 amplitude (p>0.05), although there was a significant decrease in N2 latency in the post-treatment group (p=0.03). Conclusion: SH affects cognition in children and L-T4 replacement therapy leads to normalization of cognitive functions. Neuropsychological tests can be used as complementary measures in the evaluation of children with SH. Determining the association between ERPs and SH would contribute to the comprehensive evaluation of these children. PMID:26316431

  10. Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine translocation in poplar trees

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, P.L.; Ramer, L.A.; Schnoor, J.L.

    1999-02-01

    This article evaluates the translocation of the explosive hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in hybrid poplar trees (Populus deltoides x nigra, DN34) grown in hydroponic solutions. Mass balances with [U-{sup 14}C]RDX were used to assess RDX translocation. Up to 60% of the RDX uptaken by the tree accumulated in leaf tissues. Analysis of plant extracts by high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with radiochemical detection indicated that RDX was not significantly transformed during exposure periods of up to 7 d. The bioaccumulation of RDX may be an important concern for phytoremediation efforts.

  11. Expectation and Anticipation of Dynamic Visual Events by 3.5-Month-Old Babies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haith, Marshall M.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Findings indicate that infants can detect regularity in spatiotemporal series; will develop expectancies for events in the series; and will act on the basis of those expectancies even when their actions have no effect on the stimulus events. (PCB)

  12. 1,3,5-Hydroxybenzene structures in mosses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, M.A.; Sawyer, J.; Hatcher, P.G.; Lerch, H. E., III

    1989-01-01

    A number of mosses from widely different families have been studied by cross polarization solid state 13C NMR spectroscopy. Although polysaccharide-type materials dominate the NMR spectra, significant amounts of aromatic carbons are observed in some mosses. Some of this material can be removed by ultrasonic bath treatment, and is lignin derived, probably from impurities from fine root material from associated higher plants. However other material is truly moss-derived and appears to be from 1,3,5-hydroxybenzene structures. This is inconsistent with lignin as being a component of mosses, and suggests a tannin or hydroxybenzofuran polymer is responsible for moss rigidity. ?? 1989.

  13. 3.5 D temperature model of a coal stockpile

    SciTech Connect

    Ozdeniz, A.H.; Corumluoglu, O.; Kalayci, I.; Sensogut, C.

    2008-07-01

    Overproduced coal mines that are not sold should remain in coal stock sites. If these coal stockpiles remain at the stock yards over a certain period of time, a spontaneous combustion can be started. Coal stocks under combustion threat can cost too much economically to coal companies. Therefore, it is important to take some precautions for saving the stockpiles from the spontaneous combustion. In this research, a coal stock which was 5 m wide, 10 m long, and 3 m in height, with a weight of 120 tons, was monitored to observe internal temperature changes with respect to time under normal atmospheric conditions. Internal temperature measurements were obtained at 20 points distributed all over the two layers in the stockpile. Temperatures measured by a specially designed mechanism were then stored into a computer every 3 h for a period of 3 months. Afterward, this dataset was used to delineate 3.5 D temporal temperature distribution models for these two levels, and they were used to analyze and interpret what was seen in these models to derive some conclusions. It was openly seen, followed, and analyzed that internal temperature changes in the stockpile went up to 31{sup o}C by 3.5 D models created for this research.

  14. Suicide Behavior Before and After the Start with Antidepressants: A High Persistent Risk in the First Month of Treatment Among the Young

    PubMed Central

    Palmen, Saskia JM; Heerdink, Eibert R

    2016-01-01

    Background: A causal relationship between antidepressants (ADs) and a high risk of suicidal behavior at a young age has been suggested. We analyzed the rates of suicide attempts during treatment with AD in comparison with the rates before treatment initiation for different ages. Methods: Claims of insurance company Achmea were linked to the population registry of Statistics Netherlands. Episodes of AD use were defined for those with their first registered prescription in 2006–2011 (n = 66,196). Rates were analyzed in a Poisson model. Correlates of attempts in the first month of AD use were assessed in a logistic model. Results: Among those aged <25 years, a high rate of suicide attempts during the month before the start of ADs was found (376.3/10 000 person yrs). A non-significant increase in the first month (p = 0.212) was found and a non-significant trend to lower values was determined thereafter (p = 0.3050). Among those ≧25 years, a clear decrease to lower rates immediately after the start was observed (p < 0.025). The highest rates of suicide were found among those >40 years during the first month. Female gender was, but treatment characteristics were not, associated with early attempts at a young age. Conclusions: Among young AD users, a high pre-treatment risk of suicide attempts was present and persisted during the early phases after the start. This contrasted with the clear decrease in risk among those aged ≧25 years, suggesting lower effectiveness of ADs to prevent suicidal behavior at young ages. Caution should be exercised to infer a causal relationship or to use data on attempts to predict risk of suicide during AD use. PMID:26188343

  15. Repairing the Brain by SCF+G-CSF Treatment at 6 Months Postexperimental Stroke: Mechanistic Determination of the Causal Link Between Neurovascular Regeneration and Motor Functional Recovery.

    PubMed

    Cui, Lili; Wang, Dandan; McGillis, Sandra; Kyle, Michele; Zhao, Li-Ru

    2016-06-01

    Stroke, a leading cause of adult disability in the world, is a severe medical condition with limited treatment. Physical therapy, the only treatment available for stroke rehabilitation, appears to be effective within 6 months post-stroke. Here, we have mechanistically determined the efficacy of combined two hematopoietic growth factors, stem cell factor (SCF) and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF; SCF + G-CSF), in brain repair 6 months after cortical infarct induction in the transgenic mice carrying yellow fluorescent protein in Layer V pyramidal neurons (Thy1-YFP-H). Using a combination of live brain imaging, whole brain imaging, molecular manipulation, synaptic and vascular assessments, and motor function examination, we found that SCF + G-CSF promoted mushroom spine formation, enlarged postsynaptic membrane size, and increased postsynaptic density-95 accumulation and blood vessel density in the peri-infarct cavity cortex; and that SCF + G-CSF treatment improved motor functional recovery. The SCF + G-CSF-enhanced motor functional recovery was dependent on the synaptic and vascular regeneration in the peri-infarct cavity cortex. These data suggest that a stroke-damaged brain is repairable by SCF + G-CSF even 6 months after the lesion occurs. This study provides novel insights into the development of new restorative strategies for stroke recovery. PMID:27511907

  16. Clinical evaluation of subepithelial connective tissue graft and guided tissue regeneration for treatment of Miller’s class 1 gingival recession (comparative, split mouth, six months study)

    PubMed Central

    Bhavsar, Neeta-V.; Dulani, Kirti; Trivedi, Rahul

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The present study aims to clinically compare and evaluate subepithelial connective tissue graft and the GTR based root coverage in treatment of Miller’s Class I gingival recession. Study Design: 30 patients with at least one pair of Miller’s Class I gingival recession were treated either with Subepithelial connective tissue graft (Group A) or Guided tissue regeneration (Group B). Clinical parameters monitored included recession RD, width of keratinized gingiva (KG), probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), attached gingiva (AG), residual probing depth (RPD) and % of Root coverage(%RC). Measurements were taken at baseline, three months and six months. A standard surgical procedure was used for both Group A and Group B. Data were recorded and statistical analysis was done for both intergroup and intragroup. Results: At end of six months % RC obtained were 84.47% (Group A) and 81.67% (Group B). Both treatments resulted in statistically significant improvement in clinical parameters. When compared, no statistically significant difference was found between both groups except in RPD, where it was significantly greater in Group A. Conclusions: GTR technique has advantages over subepithelial connective tissue graft for shallow Miller’s Class I defects and this procedure can be used to avoid patient discomfort and reduce treatment time. Key words:Collagen membrane, comparative split mouth study, gingival recession, subepithelial connective tissue graft, guided tissue regeneration (GTR). PMID:25136420

  17. Long-term efficacy and safety results of taliglucerase alfa up to 36 months in adult treatment-naïve patients with Gaucher disease.

    PubMed

    Zimran, Ari; Durán, Gloria; Mehta, Atul; Giraldo, Pilar; Rosenbaum, Hanna; Giona, Fiorina; Amato, Dominick J; Petakov, Milan; Muñoz, Eduardo Terreros; Solorio-Meza, Sergio Eduardo; Cooper, Peter A; Varughese, Sheeba; Chertkoff, Raul; Brill-Almon, Einat

    2016-07-01

    Taliglucerase alfa is an intravenous enzyme replacement therapy approved for treatment of type 1 Gaucher disease (GD), and is the first available plant cell-expressed recombinant therapeutic protein. Herein, we report long-term safety and efficacy results of taliglucerase alfa in treatment-naïve adult patients with GD. Patients were randomized to receive taliglucerase alfa 30 or 60 U/kg every other week, and 23 patients completed 36 months of treatment. Taliglucerase alfa (30 U/kg; 60 U/kg, respectively) resulted in mean decreases in spleen volume (50.1%; 64.6%) and liver volume (25.6%; 24.4%) with mean increases in hemoglobin concentration (16.0%; 35.8%) and platelet count (45.7%; 114.0%), and mean decreases in chitotriosidase activity (71.5%; 82.2%). All treatment-related adverse events were mild to moderate in intensity and transient. The most common adverse events were nasopharyngitis, arthralgia, upper respiratory tract infection, headache, pain in extremity, and hypertension. These 36-month results of taliglucerase alfa in treatment-naïve adult patients with GD demonstrate continued improvement in disease parameters with no new safety concerns. These findings extend the taliglucerase alfa clinical safety and efficacy dataset. www.clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT00705939. Am. J. Hematol. 91:656-660, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27174694

  18. Water Filtration. Grades 3-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushton, Erik; Ryan, Emily; Swift, Charles

    One of our most valuable and often overlooked resources is water. We can survive for a couple of weeks without food but only a few days without water. Having clean water to drink is a luxury. The water that comes out of our faucets does not always start off safe to drink. Most often it has visited a treatment plant prior to reaching our glasses.…

  19. Efficacy of integrated school based de-worming and prompt malaria treatment on helminths -Plasmodium falciparum co-infections: A 33 months follow up study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The geographical congruency in distribution of helminths and Plasmodium falciparum makes polyparasitism a common phenomenon in Sub Saharan Africa. The devastating effects of helminths-Plasmodium co-infections on primary school health have raised global interest for integrated control. However little is known on the feasibility, timing and efficacy of integrated helminths-Plasmodium control strategies. A study was conducted in Zimbabwe to evaluate the efficacy of repeated combined school based antihelminthic and prompt malaria treatment. Methods A cohort of primary schoolchildren (5-17 years) received combined Praziquantel, albendazole treatment at baseline, and again during 6, 12 and 33 months follow up surveys and sustained prompt malaria treatment. Sustained prompt malaria treatment was carried out throughout the study period. Children's infection status with helminths, Plasmodium and helminths-Plasmodium co-infections was determined by parasitological examinations at baseline and at each treatment point. The prevalence of S. haematobium, S. mansoni, STH, malaria, helminths-Plasmodium co-infections and helminths infection intensities before and after treatment were analysed. Results Longitudinal data showed that two rounds of combined Praziquantel and albendazole treatment for schistosomiasis and STHs at 6 monthly intervals and sustained prompt malaria treatment significantly reduced the overall prevalence of S. haematobium, S. mansoni, hookworms and P. falciparum infection in primary schoolchildren by 73.5%, 70.8%, 67.3% and 58.8% respectively (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p < 0.001 respectively). More importantly, the prevalence of STH + schistosomes, P. f + schistosomes, and P. f + STHs + schistosomes co-infections were reduced by 68.0%, 84.2%, and 90.7%, respectively. The absence of anti-helminthic treatment between the 12 mth and 33 mth follow-up surveys resulted in the sharp increase in STHs + schistosomes co-infection from 3.3% at 12 months

  20. Blood lipids and adipokines concentrations during a 6-month nutritional and physical activity intervention for metabolic syndrome treatment

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background To report changes in body weight, total and central fat mass, metabolic, hormonal and inflammatory parameters in overweight people who participated in a six months weight loss intervention associating diet management and exercise. Subjects and Methods Fourteen subjects (10 M, 4 F, mean age 62.9 ± 6.9 years, BMI 30.4+/- 3.8 kg/m2) presenting the characteristics of the Metabolic Syndrome (MS) were included in the survey. They followed a three weeks (D0 to D20) cure in a medical establishment and a six months (D20 to M3 and M6) follow up at home. During the cure, they receive a balanced diet corresponding to 500 Kcal deficit vs their dayly energy expenditure (DEE) and they exercised 2 to 3 hours per day. At D0, D20, M3 and M6, body composition (lean mass, total and central fat mass) was analyzed with DEXA, blood pressure was taken and blood was collected to evaluate glycaemia, triglycerides, total, LDL and HDL cholesterol, insulin, leptin and adiponectin levels, CRP and pro-inflammatory interleukines IL1, IL.6 and TNFalpha. Results All parameters listed above except the cytokine were improved at D20, so that 4 subjects among 14 still presented the MS. After returning to home, these parameters remained stable. Conclusion The efficacy of therapeutic lifestyle modifications with education and exercise and diet was demonstrated, but the compliance to the new healthy lifestyle initiated during the cure was not optimal. PMID:21194421

  1. Association of blood eosinophils and plasma periostin with FEV1 response after 3-month inhaled corticosteroid and long-acting beta2-agonist treatment in stable COPD patients

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hye Yun; Lee, Hyun; Koh, Won-Jung; Kim, Seonwoo; Jeong, Ina; Koo, Hyeon-Kyoung; Kim, Tae-Hyung; Kim, Jin Woo; Kim, Woo Jin; Oh, Yeon-Mok; Sin, Don D; Lim, Seong Yong; Lee, Sang-Do

    2016-01-01

    Background COPD patients with increased airway eosinophilic inflammation show a favorable response to inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) in combination with a long-acting bronchodilator. Recent studies have demonstrated a significant correlation of sputum eosinophilia with blood eosinophils and periostin. We investigated whether high blood eosinophils and plasma periostin were associated with an improvement in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) after 3-month treatment with ICS/long-acting beta2-agonist (LABA) in stable COPD patients. Patients and methods Blood eosinophils and plasma periostin levels were measured in 130 stable COPD subjects selected from the Korean Obstructive Lung Disease cohort. Subjects began a 3-month ICS/LABA treatment after washout period. Results High blood eosinophils (>260/µL, adjusted odds ratio =3.52, P=0.009) and high plasma periostin (>23 ng/mL, adjusted odds ratio =3.52, P=0.013) were significantly associated with FEV1 responders (>12% and 200 mL increase in FEV1 from baseline after treatment). Moreover, the addition of high blood eosinophils to age, baseline positive bronchodilator response, and FEV1 <50% of the predicted value significantly increased the area under the curve for prediction of FEV1 responders (from 0.700 to 0.771; P=0.045). Conclusion High blood eosinophils and high plasma periostin were associated with improved lung function after 3-month ICS/LABA treatment. In particular, high blood eosinophils, in combination with age and baseline lung function parameters, might be a possible biomarker for identification of COPD patients with favorable FEV1 improvement in response to ICS/LABA treatment. PMID:26730185

  2. Comparison of treatment outcomes in severe personality disorder patients with or without substance use disorders: a 36-month prospective pragmatic follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Lana, Fernando; Sánchez-Gil, Carmen; Adroher, Núria D; Pérez, Víctor; Feixas, Guillem; Martí-Bonany, Josep; Torrens, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Background Concurrent personality disorder (PD) and substance use disorder (SUD) are common in clinical practice. However, SUD is the main criterion for study exclusion in most psychotherapeutic studies of PD. As a result, data on treatment outcomes in patients with concurrent PD/SUD are scarce. Methods The study sample consisted of 51 patients diagnosed with severe PD and admitted for psychotherapeutic treatment as a part of routine mental health care. All patients were diagnosed with PD according to the Structured Clinical Interview for PD. Patients were further assessed (DSM-IV diagnostic criteria) to check for the presence of concurrent SUD, with 28 patients diagnosed with both disorders (PD-SUD). These 28 cases were then compared to the 23 patients without SUD (PD-nSUD) in terms of psychiatric hospitalizations and psychiatric emergency room (ER) visits before and during the 6-month therapeutic intervention and every 6 months thereafter for a total of 36 months. Results The baseline clinical characteristics correspond to a sample of PD patients (78% met DSM-IV criteria for borderline PD) with poor general functioning and a high prevalence of suicide attempts and self-harm behaviors. Altogether, the five outcome variables – the proportion and the number of psychiatric inpatient admissions, the number of days hospitalized, and the proportion and the number of psychiatric ER visits – improved significantly during the treatment period, and this improvement was maintained throughout the follow-up period. Although PD-SUD patients had more psychiatric hospitalizations and ER visits than PD-nSUD patients during follow-up, the differences between these two groups remained stable over the study period indicating that the treatment was equally effective in both groups. Conclusion Specialized psychotherapy for severe PD can be effectively applied in patients with concurrent PD-SUD under usual practice conditions. These findings suggest that exclusion of patients with

  3. Maintenance treatment of renal anaemia in haemodialysis patients with methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta versus darbepoetin alfa administered monthly: a randomized comparative trial

    PubMed Central

    Carrera, Fernando; Lok, Charmaine E.; de Francisco, Angel; Locatelli, Francesco; Mann, Johannes F.E.; Canaud, Bernard; Kerr, Peter G.; Macdougall, Iain C.; Besarab, Anatole; Villa, Giuseppe; Kazes, Isabelle; Van Vlem, Bruno; Jolly, Shivinder; Beyer, Ulrich; Dougherty, Frank C.

    2010-01-01

    Background. Several studies with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents claim that maintenance therapy of renal anaemia may be possible at extended dosing intervals; however, few studies were randomized, results varied, and comparisons between agents were absent. We report results of a multi-national, randomized, prospective trial comparing haemoglobin maintenance with methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta and darbepoetin alfa administered once monthly. Methods. Haemodialysis patients (n = 490) on stable once-weekly intravenous darbepoetin alfa were randomized to methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta once monthly or darbepoetin alfa every 2 weeks for 26 weeks, with dose adjustment for individual haemoglobin target (11–13 g/dL; maximum decrease from baseline 1 g/dL). Subsequently, patients entered a second 26-week period of once-monthly methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta and darbepoetin alfa. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients who maintained average haemoglobin ≥10.5 g/dL, with a decrease from baseline ≤1 g/dL, in Weeks 50–53; the secondary endpoint was dose change over time. The trial is registered at www.ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00394953. Results. Baseline characteristics were similar between groups. One hundred and fifty-seven of 245 patients treated with methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta and 99 of 245 patients with darbepoetin alfa met the response definition (64.1% and 40.4%; P < 0.0001). Doses increased by 6.8% with methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta and 58.8% with darbepoetin alfa during once-monthly treatment. Death rates were equal between treatments (5.7%). Most common adverse events included hypertension, procedural hypotension, nasopharyngitis and muscle spasms, with no differences between groups. Conclusions. Methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta maintained target haemoglobin more successfully than darbepoetin alfa at once-monthly dosing intervals despite dose increases with darbepoetin alfa

  4. 14-day prulifloxacin treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis in women with recurrent urinary tract infections: a prospective, open-label, pilot trial with 6-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Cai, T; Mazzoli, S; Nesi, G; Boddi, V; Mondaini, N; Bartoletti, R

    2009-11-01

    Recurrent urinary tract infections (UTI) are very common in otherwise healthy young women, and can have a very negative social and economic impact. In order to evaluate the tolerability and efficacy of a 14-day course of prulifloxacin orally administered once daily, 51 young female patients, attending the same STD center between may and June 2007 for symptoms of cystitis, with a history of recurrent UTI and urine culture positive for uropathogens, were enrolled in this prospective study. Microbiological and clinical efficacy was tested over three follow-up visits at 1, 3 and 6 months. Quality of life (QoL) was measured and the impact of prulifloxacin in modifying the Lactobacillus vaginal flora was also evaluated. At baseline, the pathogens most commonly isolated were Enterococcus faecalis (43.2%) and Escherichia coli (27.5%). 41 of the 51 women, (80.3%) had Lactobacillus spp. in vaginal samples at baseline. microbiological results at follow-up examinations were as follows: after 1 month, 47 patients were recurrence-free and 4 had recurrence; after 3 months, 41 were recurrence-free, while 6 reported recurrence; finally, after 6 months, 36 were recurrence-free and 5 had recurrence. A statistically significant difference was reported between the QoL questionnaire mean scores at baseline (0.63), 1 (0.77), 3 (0.77) and 6 months (0.78) after treatment (all p<0.001). the vaginal swab cultures demonstrated that Lactobacillus spp. flora was maintained in 38 out of the 41 (92.6%) patients who had positive vaginal swab sample at baseline. in conclusion, a 14-day administration of prulifloxacin 600 mg is a safe, well tolerated and effective treatment for the management of UTI in young women. PMID:19933045

  5. Treatment of menopausal symptoms with three low-dose continuous sequential 17β-estradiol/progesterone parenteral monthly formulations using novel non-polymeric microsphere technology

    PubMed Central

    Cortés-Bonilla, Manuel; Bernardo-Escudero, Roberto; Alonso-Campero, Rosalba; Francisco-Doce, María T.; Hernández-Valencia, Marcelino; Celis-González, Cuauhtémoc; Márquez-Oñate, Ricardo; Chedraui, Peter; Uribe, Juan A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To analyze the short-term efficacy and safety over menopausal symptoms of three low-dose continuous sequential 17β-estradiol (E)/progesterone (P) parental monthly formulations using novel non-polymeric microspheres. Methods: This was a multicenter, randomized, single blinded study in which peri- and postmenopausal women were assigned to receive a monthly intramuscular injection of 0.5 mg E + 15 mg P (Group A, n = 34), 1 mg E + 20 mg P (Group B, n = 24) or 1 mg E + 30 mg P (Group C, n = 26) for 6 months. Primary efficacy endpoints included mean change in the frequency and severity of hot flushes and the effect over urogenital atrophy symptoms at 3 and 6 months. Safety variables included changes in the rate of amenorrhea, endometrial thickness and histopathology, and local and systemic adverse events. Results: Compared to baseline at month 6, the three treatment schemes significantly decreased the rate of urogenital atrophy symptoms and the frequency (mean number per day) and severity (mean number graded as moderate and severe per month) of hot flushes. No differences in studied efficacy parameters were observed between studied groups at baseline or at the end of the study. For all groups the most frequent adverse event was pain at the injection site; however they were all rated as mild. At the end of the study peri- and postmenopausal women displayed no significant changes in endometrial thickness or histopathology in all treated groups. The rate of amenorrhea at the end of the study decreased for all studied groups yet was less evident among postmenopausal women as compared to perimenopausal ones. Conclusions: The three low-dose continuous sequential intramuscular monthly treatments of E/P using novel microsphere technology were effective at reducing menopausal symptoms at short-term with a low rate of adverse events. More long-term and comparative research is warranted to support our positive findings

  6. Twelve-Month Follow-up Results of Photoselective Vaporization of the Prostate With a 980-nm Diode Laser for Treatment of Benign Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Youngho; Kim, In Gon; Han, Bo Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study was conducted with the use of 12 months of follow-up data to evaluate the efficacy of photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP) with the 980-nm diode laser for the treatment of symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Materials and Methods The clinical data of 84 men with symptomatic BPH who underwent PVP with the 980-nm K2 diode laser between March 2010 and October 2011 were retrospectively analyzed. Postoperative parameters, including International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), quality of life (QoL) score, maximum urinary flow rate (Qmax), and postvoid residual volume (PVR), were assessed and compared with preoperative baseline values. Results Mean patient age was 72.4±6.5 years, and mean preoperative prostate volume was 47.2±16.3 g. Mean operative time was 23.3±19.1 minutes, and total amount of energy was 128±85 kJ. Mean catheterization time was 23.7±5.9 hours. At 1 month, significant improvements were noted in IPSS (11.5±6.8), QoL score (2.2±1.3), Qmax (12.9±6.5 mL/s), and PVR (41.2±31.3 mL). Three months after surgery, all postoperative follow-up parameters showed significant improvements, and the 6- and 12-month data showed sustained improvement of postoperative follow-up parameters. Bladder neck strictures were observed in 10.7% of the patients and urge incontinence in 16.6%. Conclusions PVP using a K2 diode laser is an effective procedure for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to BPH. PVP leads to an immediate and sustained improvement of subjective and objective voiding parameters. Surgeons should be vigilant for postoperative bladder neck stricture and urge incontinence. PMID:24175041

  7. Comparative clinical evaluation of laterally positioned pedicle graft and subepithelial connective tissue graft in the treatment of Miller's Class I and II gingival recession: A 6 months study

    PubMed Central

    Dulani, Kirti Satish; Bhavsar, Neeta Vijay; Trivedi, Sakshee Rahul; Trivedi, Rahul Anil

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of the study was to compare clinical outcomes of laterally positioned pedicle graft (LPPG) and subepithelial connective tissue graft (SCTG) for treatment of Miller's Class I and II gingival recession defects, at the end of 6 months. Materials and Methods: Sixty Miller's Class I or II gingival recession defects (≥3 mm) (n = 30 each) on the labial aspect of anterior teeth were treated by either of the above techniques. Clinical parameters including recession depth (RD), width of keratinized gingiva (WKG), percentage of root coverage (%RC), and complete RC were recorded at baseline and 6 months postoperatively. Data were recorded and statistical analysis was done for both intergroup and intragroup. Statistical Analysis Used: Paired t-test intragroup and Student's t-test intergroup. Results: In LPPG, RD decreased from 4.9 ± 0.99 mm to 1.1 ± 0.3 mm and WKG increased from 0.7 ± 0.87 to 4.5 ± 0.86 mm at 6 months, while in SCTG, RD decreased from 4.67 ± 1.12 mm to 0.46 ± 0.68 mm and WKG increased from 1.1 ± 0.99 to 5.33 ± 0.72 mm at 6 months postoperatively. The values of the soft tissue coverage remained stable for 6 months. Conclusions: Highly significant and effective soft tissue coverage was obtained by both techniques. LPPG resulted in effective soft tissue coverage for isolated deep narrow defects while SCTG in isolated and multiple, deep narrow and wide defects. PMID:26941517

  8. A 12-month, open-label, comparative study of quetiapine and risperidone in the acute and long-term treatment of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Perez, Victor; Cañas, Fernando; Tafalla, Monica

    2008-05-01

    This multicentre, observational, prospective, nonrandomized study compared the effectiveness and tolerability of quetiapine and risperidone in the acute and long-term treatment of schizophrenia in a clinical setting. Patients admitted to an acute unit with schizophrenia, schizophreniform or schizoaffective disorder (DSM-IV), who were prescribed quetiapine or risperidone (3 : 1 ratio) within the first week of treatment, according to the physician's usual practice, were recruited. In total, 492 patients (quetiapine: 367; risperidone: 125) were followed up at weeks 1 and 2, discharge and 6 and 12 months thereafter. Mean doses at 12 months were: quetiapine 718.5 mg/day and risperidone 7.0 mg/day. Efficacy measures (Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, Clinical Global Impression Severity of Illness and Improvement) indicated similar results for both agents. No difference was found in rehospitalization rate with either drug. In terms of tolerability, orthostatic hypotension was more frequent with quetiapine, but extrapyramidal symptoms and male sexual dysfunction were more frequent with risperidone. In conclusion, quetiapine and risperidone had comparable effectiveness, but there were differences between treatments in their side effect profile. PMID:18408528

  9. Fractional Erbium laser in the treatment of photoaging: randomized comparative, clinical and histopathological study of ablative (2940nm) vs. non-ablative (1540nm) methods after 3 months*

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Juliano; Cuzzi, Tullia; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos Alberto; Manela-Azulay, Mônica

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Fractional non-ablative lasers keep the epidermis intact, while fractional ablative lasers remove it, making them theoretically more effective. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the clinical and histological alterations induced by fractional photothermolysis for treating photoaging, comparing the possible equivalence of multiple sessions of 1540nm Erbium, to one session of 2940nm Erbium. METHODS Eighteen patients (mean age 55.9) completed the treatment with three sessions of 1540nm fractional Erbium laser on one side of the face (50 mJ/mB, 15ms, 2 passes), and one session of 2940nm on the other side (5mJ/mB, 0.25ms, 2 passes). Biopsies were performed before and 3 months after treatment. Clinical, histological and morphometric evaluations were carried out. RESULTS All patients presented clinical improvement with no statistically significant difference (p> 0.05) between the treated sides. Histopathology revealed a new organization of collagen and elastic fibers, accompanied by edema, which was more evident with the 2940nm laser. This finding was confirmed by morphometry, which showed a decrease in collagen density for both treatments, with a statistical significance for the 2940nm laser (p > 0.001). CONCLUSIONS Three 1540nm sessions were clinically equivalent to one 2940nm session. The edema probably contributed to the positive results after three months, togheter with the new collagen and elastic fibers organization. The greater edema after the 2940nm session indicates that dermal remodeling takes longer than with 1540nm. It is possible that this histological superiority relates to a more prolonged effect, but a cohort longer than three months is needed to confirm that supposition. PMID:24770501

  10. Water quality criteria for hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX)

    SciTech Connect

    Etnier, E.L.

    1989-04-01

    The occurrence of the munitions compound hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in groundwater surrounding Army ammunition plants may result in contamination of local drinking water supplies. RDX exerts its primary toxic effect in humans on the central nervous system, but also involves gastrointestinal and renal effects. Symptomatic effects following acute exposure include hyperirritability, nausea, vomiting, generalized epileptiform seizures, and prolonged postictal confusion and amnesia. Health effects data were analyzed for RDX, and although no controlled human studies exist concerning the acute or chronic toxic effects of exposure to RDX, sufficient animal toxicity data are available to derive an ambient water quality criterion for the protection of human health. This paper summarizes the available literature on metabolism of RDX and human and animal toxicity. Based on noncarcinogenic mammalian toxicity data, and following the methodologies of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, an ambient water quality criterion for the protection of human health of 103 micrograms/liter is proposed for ingestion of drinking water and aquatic foodstuffs. A criterion of 105 micrograms/liter is proposed for ingestion of drinking water alone.54 references.

  11. Sonidegib for the treatment of advanced basal cell carcinoma: a comprehensive review of sonidegib and the BOLT trial with 12-month update.

    PubMed

    Chen, Leon; Silapunt, Sirunya; Migden, Michael R

    2016-09-01

    The Hedgehog inhibitors are promising alternative for patients with advanced basal cell carcinoma that are not amenable to radiotherapy or surgery. Sonidegib, also known as LDE225, is an orally available SMO antagonist that was recently approved by the US FDA for the treatment of patients with locally advanced basal cell carcinoma. This article will provide an overview of the pharmacology and pharmacokinetics of sonidegib and in-depth analysis of the BOLT trial with additional data from the 12-month update. The present challenges associated with Hedgehog inhibitors will also be discussed. PMID:27189494

  12. Acute Uncomplicated Febrile Illness in Children Aged 2-59 months in Zanzibar – Aetiologies, Antibiotic Treatment and Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Elfving, Kristina; Shakely, Deler; Andersson, Maria; Baltzell, Kimberly; Ali, Abdullah S.; Bachelard, Marc; Falk, Kerstin I.; Ljung, Annika; Msellem, Mwinyi I.; Omar, Rahila S.; Parola, Philippe; Xu, Weiping; Petzold, Max; Trollfors, Birger; Björkman, Anders; Lindh, Magnus; Mårtensson, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite the fact that a large proportion of children with fever in Africa present at primary health care facilities, few studies have been designed to specifically study the causes of uncomplicated childhood febrile illness at this level of care, especially in areas like Zanzibar that has recently undergone a dramatic change from high to low malaria transmission. Methods We prospectively studied the aetiology of febrile illness in 677 children aged 2–59 months with acute uncomplicated fever managed by IMCI (Integrated Management of Childhood Illness) guidelines in Zanzibar, using point-of-care tests, urine culture, blood-PCR, chest X-ray (CXR) of IMCI-pneumonia classified patients, and multiple quantitative (q)PCR investigations of nasopharyngeal (NPH) (all patients) and rectal (GE) swabs (diarrhoea patients). For comparison, we also performed NPH and GE qPCR analyses in 167 healthy community controls. Final fever diagnoses were retrospectively established based on all clinical and laboratory data. Clinical outcome was assessed during a 14-day follow-up. The utility of IMCI for identifying infections presumed to require antibiotics was evaluated. Findings NPH-qPCR and GE-qPCR detected ≥1 pathogen in 657/672 (98%) and 153/164 (93%) of patients and 158/166 (95%) and 144/165 (87%) of controls, respectively. Overall, 57% (387/677) had IMCI-pneumonia, but only 12% (42/342) had CXR-confirmed pneumonia. Two patients were positive for Plasmodium falciparum. Respiratory syncytial virus (24.5%), influenza A/B (22.3%), rhinovirus (10.5%) and group-A streptococci (6.4%), CXR-confirmed pneumonia (6.2%), Shigella (4.3%) were the most common viral and bacterial fever diagnoses, respectively. Blood-PCR conducted in a sub-group of patients (n = 83) without defined fever diagnosis was negative for rickettsiae, chikungunya, dengue, Rift Valley fever and West Nile viruses. Antibiotics were prescribed to 500 (74%) patients, but only 152 (22%) had an infection

  13. A multicenter, open-label extension study of velaglucerase alfa in Japanese patients with Gaucher disease: Results after a cumulative treatment period of 24months.

    PubMed

    Ida, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Akemi; Matsubayashi, Tomoko; Murayama, Kei; Hongo, Teruaki; Lee, Hak-Myung; Mellgard, Björn

    2016-07-01

    Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with exogenous glucocerebrosidase is indicated to treat symptomatic Gaucher disease (GD), a rare, inherited metabolic disorder. ERT with velaglucerase alfa, which is produced in a human cell line using gene activation technology, was studied in a 12-month phase III trial in Japanese patients with type 1 or 3 GD who were switched from imiglucerase ERT (n=6); the current, open-label, 12-month extension study was designed to assess longer-term safety and efficacy. Two adult and three pediatric patients (aged <18years) were enrolled into the extension study. Every-other-week intravenous infusions were administered for 63-78weeks at average doses between 51.5 and 60.7units/kg. Three non-serious adverse events were considered related to velaglucerase alfa treatment, but no patient discontinued from the study. Six serious but non-drug-related adverse events were reported. No patient tested positive for anti-velaglucerase alfa antibodies. Hemoglobin concentrations, platelet counts, and liver and spleen volumes (normalized to body weight) in these patients were generally stable over a cumulative 24-month period from the baseline of the parent trial. The data suggest that velaglucerase alfa was well tolerated and maintained clinical stability in Japanese GD patients over 2years after switching from imiglucerase. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01842841. PMID:27241455

  14. Treatment of an open book pelvic fracture and bilateral femoral fractures with an external fixator in a 14-month-old: a case report.

    PubMed

    Atherton, Thomas G; Chase, Helen E; Stohr, Kuldeep; Melton, Joel T K

    2016-05-01

    A 14-month-old girl was involved in a road traffic accident that resulted in an open book pelvic fracture and bilateral femoral fractures. Acute treatment involved a novel collar and the cuff pelvic closure technique to tamponade the pelvis and reduce bleeding. The patient was treated surgically with an external fixator, which provided good reduction of the pelvic and femoral fractures. A literature search found no previous information on open book pelvic fractures in infants younger than 2 years. The success of this surgery led us to suggest that the use of an external fixator is a potential treatment method for open book pelvic fractures and bilateral femoral fractures in extremely young infants. PMID:26717190

  15. 29 CFR 5.3-5.4 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 5.3-5.4 Section 5.3-5.4 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor LABOR STANDARDS PROVISIONS APPLICABLE TO CONTRACTS COVERING FEDERALLY FINANCED AND ASSISTED... WORK HOURS AND SAFETY STANDARDS ACT) Davis-Bacon and Related Acts Provisions and Procedures §§ 5.3-5.4...

  16. 29 CFR 5.3-5.4 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false 5.3-5.4 Section 5.3-5.4 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor LABOR STANDARDS PROVISIONS APPLICABLE TO CONTRACTS COVERING FEDERALLY FINANCED AND ASSISTED... WORK HOURS AND SAFETY STANDARDS ACT) Davis-Bacon and Related Acts Provisions and Procedures §§ 5.3-5.4...

  17. 29 CFR 5.3-5.4 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 5.3-5.4 Section 5.3-5.4 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor LABOR STANDARDS PROVISIONS APPLICABLE TO CONTRACTS COVERING FEDERALLY FINANCED AND ASSISTED... WORK HOURS AND SAFETY STANDARDS ACT) Davis-Bacon and Related Acts Provisions and Procedures §§ 5.3-5.4...

  18. 38 CFR 3.5 - Dependency and indemnity compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dependency and indemnity compensation. 3.5 Section 3.5 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3.5 Dependency and indemnity compensation. (a) Dependency...

  19. 38 CFR 3.5 - Dependency and indemnity compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dependency and indemnity compensation. 3.5 Section 3.5 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3.5 Dependency and indemnity compensation. (a) Dependency...

  20. 38 CFR 3.5 - Dependency and indemnity compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dependency and indemnity compensation. 3.5 Section 3.5 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3.5 Dependency and indemnity compensation. (a) Dependency...

  1. 43 CFR 3435.3-5 - Notice of public hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Notice of public hearing. 3435.3-5 Section 3435.3-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND....3-5 Notice of public hearing. After the lessee or lease applicant and the Secretary agree on...

  2. 43 CFR 3435.3-5 - Notice of public hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Notice of public hearing. 3435.3-5 Section 3435.3-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND....3-5 Notice of public hearing. After the lessee or lease applicant and the Secretary agree on...

  3. 43 CFR 3435.3-5 - Notice of public hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Notice of public hearing. 3435.3-5 Section 3435.3-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND....3-5 Notice of public hearing. After the lessee or lease applicant and the Secretary agree on...

  4. 28 CFR 3.5 - Forfeiture of gambling devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Forfeiture of gambling devices. 3.5 Section 3.5 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GAMBLING DEVICES § 3.5 Forfeiture of gambling devices. For purposes of seizure and forfeiture of gambling devices see section 8 of this chapter....

  5. 45 CFR 1210.3-5 - Preparation for appeal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Preparation for appeal. 1210.3-5 Section 1210.3-5 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE VISTA TRAINEE DESELECTION AND VOLUNTEER EARLY TERMINATION PROCEDURES VISTA Volunteer Early Termination § 1210.3-5 Preparation for...

  6. Unaltered Oxytocin and Vasopressin Plasma Levels in Patients with Schizophrenia After 4 Months of Daily Treatment with Intranasal Oxytocin.

    PubMed

    Busnelli, M; Dagani, J; de Girolamo, G; Balestrieri, M; Pini, S; Saviotti, F M; Scocco, P; Sisti, D; Rocchi, M; Chini, B

    2016-04-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) has been proposed as a treatment for a number of neuropsychiatric disorders characterised by impaired social behaviour, including schizophrenia. Although several studies have reported the chronic administration of OXT to be safe and tolerable, its effects on circulating levels of OXT, as well as the related neuropeptide arginine vasopressin (AVP), have not been assessed. In the present study, in a within-subjects cross-over, double-blind, randomised controlled trial, we assayed the plasma levels of OXT and AVP in 31 patients with schizophrenia who were treated daily for 4 months with 40 IU of intranasal OXT or placebo. Our data indicate a mean ± SD baseline OXT concentration of 1.62 ± 0.68 pg/ml, as determined by radioimmunoassay, which did not display any significant variation after chronic treatment with OXT or placebo. Similarly, the mean ± SD baseline AVP value of 2.40 ± 1.26 pg/ml remained unchanged. The present study also assessed cardiovascular and body fluid indicators (osmolality, plasma sodium concentration and systolic blood pressure), as well as a parameter for food intake (body mass index), with all observed to remain stable. By reporting that daily treatment with 40 IU of intranasal OXT or placebo for 4 months does not impact on OXT and AVP plasma levels, nor on cardiovascular, body fluids and food intake parameters, the present study represents an important step towards developing OXT as a safe treatment. PMID:26715485

  7. Six-month healing success rates after endodontic treatment using the novel GentleWave™ System: The pure prospective multi-center clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Le, Khang T.; Woo, Stacey M.; Rassoulian, Shahriar A.; McLachlan, Kimberly; Abbassi, Farah; Garland, Randy W.

    2016-01-01

    Background This prospective multi-center (PURE) clinical study evaluated healing rates for molars after root canal treatment employing the GentleWave® System (Sonendo, Inc., Laguna Hills, CA). Material and Methods Eighty-nine patients met the inclusion criteria and consented for this clinical study after referral for a root canal treatment. All enrolled patients were treated with the GentleWave System. Five endodontists performed the clinical procedures and follow-up evaluations. Pre-operative, intra-operative, and post-operative data were collected from the consented patients. Each patient was evaluated for clinical signs and symptoms. Two trained, blinded, and independent evaluators scored the subject tooth radiographs for apical periodontitis using the periapical index (PAI). The teeth classified as healing or healed were considered as a success and composed of a cumulative success rate of healing. Statistical analysis was performed by using the Fisher’s exact test, Pearson correlation, and multivariate logistic regression analyses of the pre-operative prognostic factors at 0.05 significance level. Results Seventy-seven patients were evaluated at six months with a follow-up rate of 86.5%. The cumulative success rate of healing was 97.4%. Eleven prognostic factors were identified using bivariate analyses. Using logistic analyses, the two prognostic significant variables that were directly correlated to healing were the pre-operative presence of periapical index (p value=0.016), and single treatment visits (p value=0.024). Conclusions In this six-month PURE clinical study, the cumulative success rate of healing was 97.4% when patients were treated with the GentleWave® System. Key words:Healing rate, root canal treatment, molar, GentleWave™, Sonendo®, Multisonic Ultracleaning™ . PMID:27398180

  8. REO Monthly

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Howard Andrew

    2010-12-31

    A spreadsheet written in Microsoft Excel that evaluates combinations of renewable energy technologies at a site and identifies the combination that minimizes life cycle cost. Constraints on the optimization such as percent of energy from renewable, available land area; available investment capital, etc make the optimization more useful. Inputs to the model include building location, number of square feet and floors; monthly energy use and cost for electric and any other fuels. Outputs include size of each RE technology total investment, utility costs, O&M costs; percent renewable; life cycle cost; rate of return; CO2 savings.

  9. REO Monthly

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2010-12-31

    A spreadsheet written in Microsoft Excel that evaluates combinations of renewable energy technologies at a site and identifies the combination that minimizes life cycle cost. Constraints on the optimization such as percent of energy from renewable, available land area; available investment capital, etc make the optimization more useful. Inputs to the model include building location, number of square feet and floors; monthly energy use and cost for electric and any other fuels. Outputs include sizemore » of each RE technology total investment, utility costs, O&M costs; percent renewable; life cycle cost; rate of return; CO2 savings.« less

  10. Removing dentine caries in deciduous teeth with Carisolv: a randomised, controlled, prospective study with six-month follow-up, comparing chemomechanical treatment with drilling.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Jørgen; Leitão, Jorge; Kultje, Christina; Bergmann, Dorte; Clode, Maria João

    2005-01-01

    Dental fear is often associated with experience of pain, unpleasant sounds and uncomfortable vibrations caused by dental drills. Therefore patients welcome alternative, less painful excavating methods such as lasers, sandblasters and chemomechanical systems. The aim of this study was to compare a chemomechanical caries removal system (Carisolv) to traditional drilling with regard to patient acceptance and time consumption as well as the six-month success rate of fillings. Ninety-two primary teeth in 46 children were included in the study. From this study, the following conclusions can be drawn: patient acceptance of Carisolv-treatment compared to drilling is excellent, since 65% would choose Carisolv and no one drilling when treated next time. The dentists rated patients' degree of pain significantly lower in Carisolv situations than in drill situations. Time consumption is significantly higher when excavating with Carisolv (6.7 min.) than with drill (3.3 min.). The durability of fillings six months after treatment is equal in the two groups. PMID:16173387

  11. The effectiveness of endoscopic epidurolysis in treatment of degenerative chronic low back pain: a prospective analysis and follow-up at 48 months.

    PubMed

    Donato, A Di; Fontana, C; Pinto, R; Beltrutti, D; Pinto, G

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the efficacy of endoscopic epidurolysis in the treatment of degenerative chronic low back pain.Two hundred and thirty four patients affected by chronic low back pain, with VAS ≥ 5 and Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Index (ODI) from 0 to 60% (0-20%, group A; 20-40%, group B; 40-60%, group C) were enrolled and treated prospectively with endoscopic epidurolysis by means of a flexible fiberoptic endoscope introduced into the caudal epidural space and by the intermittent instillation of saline solution added with 150 UI hyaluronidase. Targeted application of ozone (8 ml; 38 γ/ml) and 50 mg ciprofloxacin close to the abnormal areas was also performed. Short and long term efficacy (1 week, 3 months, 6, 12, 24, 36 and 48 months) was prospectively evaluated. VAS score <5 and ODI <40% were considered as a positive outcome.The treatment significantly reduced VAS score in all three groups of patients starting from the first week and throughout the entire follow-up period (P < 0.001). Disability Index (ODI) too showed encouraging results (P < 0.001) that was particularly evident at 3 months and maintained up to long-term follow-up intervals.Epiduroscopy by mechanical adhesiolysis and administration on targeted areas of ciprofloxacin and ozone seems to be, in this prospective study, an effective technique to provide a sensible and persisting pain relief and act of improving ODI in chronic low back pain. PMID:21107940

  12. Association between Substance Use Disorder Status and Pain-Related Function Following 12 Months of Treatment in Primary Care Patients with Musculoskeletal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Morasco, Benjamin J.; Corson, Kathryn; Turk, Dennis C.; Dobscha, Steven K.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine relationships between substance use disorder (SUD) history and 12-month outcomes among primary care patients with chronic noncancer pain (CNCP). Patients were enrolled in a randomized trial of collaborative care intervention (CCI) versus treatment-as-usual (TAU) to improve pain-related physical and emotional function. At baseline, 72 of 362 patients (20.0%) had a history of SUD. Compared to CNCP patients without SUD, those with comorbid SUD had poorer pain-related function and were more likely to meet criteria for current major depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (all p-values<0.05). Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine whether SUD status was associated with clinically significant change over 12 months in pain-related function (30% reduction in Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire Score). The overall model was not significant in the CCI group. However, within the TAU group, participants with a SUD history were significantly less likely to show improvements in pain-related function (OR=0.30, 95% CI=0.11–0.82). CNCP patients with comorbid SUD reported greater functional impairment at baseline. Patients with SUD who received usual care were 70% less likely to have clinically significant improvements in pain-related function 12 months post-baseline, and SUD status did not impede improvement for the CCI group. Perspective Chronic non-cancer pain patients with a history of a substance use disorder (SUD) report poorer pain-related functioning and are less likely to experience clinically significant improvements from usual pain treatment. Providers should assess for SUD status and provide more intensive interventions for these patients. PMID:20851057

  13. Characteristics and treatment interests among individuals with substance use disorders and a history of past six-month violence: Findings from an emergency department study

    PubMed Central

    Chermack, Stephen T.; Murray, Regan; Kraus, Shane; Walton, Maureen A.; Cunningham, Rebecca M.; Barry, Kristen L.; Booth, Brenda M.; Blow, Frederic C.

    2014-01-01

    The study examined clinical characteristics and treatment interests of individuals identified to have substance use disorders (SUDs) in an urban emergency department (ED) who reported past six-month history of violence or victimization. Specifically, participants were 1441 ED patients enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of interventions designed to link those with SUDs to treatment. To examine factors related to violence type, four groups based on participants’ reports of violence toward others were created: no violence (46.8%), partner violence only (17.3%), non-partner violence only (20.2%), and both partner and non-partner violence (15.7%). Four groups based on participants’ reports of victimization were also created: no violence (42.1%), victimization from partner only (18.7%), victimization from non-partner only (20.2%), and both partner and non-partner victimization (17.7%). Separate multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine which variables distinguished the violence and victimization groups from those reporting no violence or victimization. For violence toward others, demographic variables, alcohol and cocaine disorders, and rating treatment for psychological problems were higher for violence groups, with some differences depending on type of violence. For victimization, demographic variables, having an alcohol disorder, and rating treatment for family/social problems were higher for violence groups, also with some differences depending on type of violence. Findings from the present study could be useful for designing effective brief interventions and services for ED settings. PMID:24148140

  14. Postural and Balance Disorders in Patients with Parkinson's Disease: A Prospective Open-Label Feasibility Study with Two Months of Action Observation Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Santamato, Andrea; Ranieri, Maurizio; Cinone, Nicoletta; Stuppiello, Lucia Anna; Valeno, Giovanni; De Sanctis, Jula Laura; Fortunato, Francesca; Solfrizzi, Vincenzo; Greco, Antonio; Seripa, Davide; Panza, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Action observation treatment has been proposed as therapeutic option in rehabilitation of patients affected by Parkinson's disease (PD) to improve freezing of gait episodes. The purpose of this prospective open-label feasibility study was to evaluate the impact of 8-week action observation training (video-therapy) for the treatment of postural instability and balance impairment in PD patients. Fifteen PD patients aged under 80 years with scores of 1 to 3 on the Hoehn and Yahr staging and without evidence of freezing of gait were recruited. They underwent 24 sessions of video-therapy training based on carefully watching video clips on motor tasks linked to balance, subsequently performing the same observed movements. No statistically significant differences were observed in the identified outcome measures with the Berg Balance Scale and the Activities-Specific Balance Confidence Scale after two months of follow-up. In the present study, a short course of action observation treatment seems to be not effective in reducing balance impairments and postural instability in patients affected by mild to moderate PD. Further studies with larger samples, longer follow-up period, and standardized protocols of action observation treatment are needed to investigate the effects of this rehabilitation technique in the management of postural and balance disorders of PD patients. PMID:26798551

  15. Phakic anterior chamber intraocular lens (Verisyse™) implantation in children for treatment of severe ansiometropia myopia and amblyopia: Six-month pilot clincial trial and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Pirouzian, Amir; Ip, Kenneth C; O’Halloran, Henry S

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The current study aims to evaluate both safety and efficacy of Verisyse™ (AMO, Irvine, CA) phakic anterior chamber intraocular lens (IOL) in the reduction of clinically significant (>−8 D) myopic anisometropia in children who are noncompliant to traditional medical treatment including spectacle correction or contact lenses. Design: Retrospective interventional case series. Methods: Six anisometropic myopic pediatric patients in one practice were identified through chart-review. None of the patients were compliant with specatacle correction or contact lens wear and as a result had dense amblyopia of less than 20/400 by Snellen or Allen visual acuity (mean <20/400). All patients underwent Verisyse™ phakic IOL implantation in the more myopic eye by one surgeon (AP). Pre- and post-operative visual acuity, anterior/posterior segment examination, stereoacuity, axial biometry measurements, cycloplegic refraction, and endothelial cell counts were performed in all patients whenever feasible. Results: The age of patients ranged from 5–11 years. The mean post-operative follow-up time was six months from the time of IOL insertion. Improvement in visual acuity >6 lines was achieved in four patients (mean visual acuity of 20/70 at six months). Improvement in stereoacuity was noted in all six patients (from total mean zero seconds-arc to six-months post-operative mean of 500 seconds-arc by randot stereoacuity testing). Improvement of >2 lines of visual acuity lines was achieved in the other two patients. No patient lost any lines of visual acuity. Enhanced physical activity, coordination, and improved social interaction were noted in patients and were reported by the parents. No intra/post-operative complications were noted. Discussion: Irreversible or intractable amblyopia secondary to severe anisometropic myopia is a serious medical concern in the pediatric population. Failure of compliance with contact lens therapy consistently leads to visual loss. Anterior

  16. Better or Worse: a Study of Day-to-Day Changes over Five Months of Rosen Method Bodywork Treatment for Chronic Low Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Fogel, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Background Fluctuations of good days and bad days—in physical symptoms and emotional states—are common for individuals with chronic illness. This pilot study examines these fluctuations during bodywork treatment. Purpose We analyzed changes in daily self-reports over a period of five months for five individuals who received weekly treatments of Rosen Method Bodywork (RMB), which uses touch and words to enhance body awareness of physical sensations and emotional states. Subjects and Design Five subjects (aged 31–56) who had chronic low back pain (CLBP) received 16 weekly treatments given by three experienced RMB practitioners. Measures Pre- and posttreatment assessments covered demographics, disability, and pain. Clients also completed daily bedtime assessments of pain, fatigue, emotional state, and sense of control during the entire treatment period. Results All clients reported reductions in pain and/or disability in post- compared to pretreatment. In spite of a high level of day-to-day variability in the daily assessments, there were significant reductions in pain and fatigue, and significant increases in positive emotional state and sense of control across the treatment period. In reaching this end, however, some clients had slow and steady improvements, some improved more rapidly, while others got worse before they got better. Conclusions The natural course of healing—with its inevitable fluctuations in symptoms—is part of a process leading to successful treatment outcomes. Rosen Method Bodywork may be especially helpful in developing and accepting both sensory and emotional body awareness changes that facilitate overall improvement. PMID:24000305

  17. Evaluation of the efficacy of memantine in the treatment of fibromyalgia: study protocol for a doubled-blind randomized controlled trial with six-month follow-up

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Fibromyalgia is a prevalent chronic rheumatic disease of great clinical importance. Recent studies have found raised levels of glutamate in the insula, hippocampus and posterior cingulate cortex regions of the brains of fibromyalgia (FM) patients. This finding has led researchers to speculate about the usefulness of glutamate-blocking drugs such as memantine in the treatment of fibromyalgia. The hypothesis of this study is that the administration of memantine will reduce the glutamate levels, and futhermore, will decrease the perceived pain. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of memantine in the treatment of pain (pain perception). A secondary objective is to evaluate the efficacy of memantine in the treatment of other clinical symptoms of FM, and to evaluate the efficacy of memantine in reducing brain levels of glutamate, and its effects on the central nervous system as a whole. Method/Design A double-blind parallel randomized controlled trial. Participants, Seventy patients diagnosed with FM will be recruited from primary health care centers in Zaragoza, Spain. Intervention. The subjects will be randomized in two groups: A) A treatment group (n = 35), which will receive 20 mg of memantine daily; B) A control group (n = 35), to which will be administered a placebo. There will be a six-month follow-up period (including a titration period of one month). Outcomes. The main efficacy variable of this study is pain (pain perception). The secondary efficacy variables are clinical symptoms (pain threshold, cognitive function, health status, anxiety, depression, clinical impression and quality of life) and glutamate levels in different regions of the brain, which will be assessed by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Randomization and blinding. Randomization has been computer-generated, and the random allocation sequence will be implemented by telephone. Subjects of the study and the research assistants will be blinded to group assignment

  18. Percutaneous left atrial appendage occlusion – treatment outcomes and 6 months of follow-up – a single-center experience

    PubMed Central

    Karczewski, Michał; Skowronek, Radomir; Burysz, Marian; Fischer, Marcin; Anisimowicz, Lech; Demkow, Marcin; Konka, Marek; Ogorzeja, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    Aim To present the results of treatment and evaluate 6 months of follow-up in a group of patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation, who underwent the procedure of percutaneous left atrial appendage occlusion (PLAAO). Material and methods Percutaneous left atrial appendage occlusion was performed in 34 patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation and contraindications for oral anticoagulation therapy. The risk of thromboembolic and bleeding complications was determined based on the CHA2DS2VASc and HAS-BLED scales. The Amplatzer Amulet system from St. Jude Medical was used. On the first postoperative day, all patients were started on double antiplatelet therapy with 75 mg/day of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and 75 mg/day of clopidogrel (CLO). On the 30th postoperative day, the efficacy of the antiplatelet therapy was assessed with impedance aggregometry using a Multiplate analyzer (Roche). Echocardiographic examinations were performed intraoperatively and on the first postoperative day; subsequently, follow-up examinations were conducted 1 and 6 months after the implantation. Results In all patients, proper occluder position was observed throughout the follow-up. No leakage or thrombi around the implants were found. No strokes or bleeding complications associated with the antiplatelet therapy were observed. Multiplate assessment of platelet activity was conducted in 20 out of 34 patients. The efficacy of ASA treatment was demonstrated in all patients; no response to clopidogrel treatment was observed in 5 out of 20 patients. One patient suffered from cardiac tamponade, which required the performance of full sternotomy. Local complications (hematomas of the inguinal region) were observed in 3 patients. One of the patients died for reasons unrelated to the procedure. Conclusions Percutaneous left atrial appendage occlusion is an effective procedure in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation and contraindications for chronic anticoagulation therapy. Further

  19. Oxidative stress and quality of life in elderly patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: are there differences after six months of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure treatment?

    PubMed Central

    Yagihara, Fabiana; Lucchesi, Ligia Mendonça; D'Almeida, Vânia; de Mello, Marco Túlio; Tufik, Sergio; Bittencourt, Lia Rita Azeredo

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the effect of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure treatment on oxidative stress parameters and the quality of life of elderly patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. METHODS: In total, 30 obstructive sleep apnea syndrome patients and 27 subjects without obstructive sleep apnea syndrome were included in this study. Both groups underwent quality of life and oxidative stress evaluations at baseline and after six months. Polysomnography was performed in both groups at baseline and a second time in the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome group after six months of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure treatment. All of the variables were compared between the control and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome groups in this prospective case-control study. RESULTS: The baseline concentrations of the antioxidant enzyme catalase were higher in the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome group than the control group. After Continuous Positive Airway Pressure treatment, the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome group exhibited a reduction in the level of oxidative stress, as indicated by a decrease in the level of lipid peroxidation measured by the malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration [pre: 2.7 nmol malondialdehyde/mL (95% 1.6-3.7) vs. post: 1.3 nmol MDA/mL (0.7-1.9), p<0.01]. Additionally, improvements were observed in two domains covered by the SF-36 questionnaire: functional capacity [pre: 77.4 (69.2-85.5) vs. post: 83.4 (76.9-89.9), p = 0.002] and pain [pre: 65.4 (52.8-78.1) vs. post: 77.8 (67.2-88.3), p = 0.004]. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated that the use of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure to treat obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in elderly patients reduced oxidative stress and improved the quality of life. PMID:22760893

  20. Virological Outcomes and Drug Resistance in Chinese Patients after 12 Months of 3TC-Based First-Line Antiretroviral Treatment, 2011–2012

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaoqin; Liu, Yong; He, Jianmei; Ling, Hua; Ding, Ping; Tong, Yi; Zou, Xiaobai; Zhou, Quanhua; Liao, Lingjie; Wang, Xia; Ruan, Yuhua; Shao, Yiming; Xing, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of virological failure and HIV drug resistance among Chinese patients one year after initiating lamivudine-based first-line antiretroviral treatment. Methods A prospective cohort study with follow-up at 12 months was conducted in four urban sentinel sites in China. Antiretroviral naive patients ≥18 years old were recruited. Blood samples were collected for testing CD4 cell count, viral load, and (for samples with HIV-1 RNA ≥1000 copies/ml) genotyping of drug resistance. Results A total of 513 patients were enrolled in this cohort, of whom 448 (87.3%) were retained at 12 months. The median final CD4 cell count was 313 cells/mm3, which increased from 192 cells/mm3 at baseline (P<0.0001). Of the 448 remaining subjects, 394 (87.9%) had successful virological suppression (HIV RNA <1000 copies/ml). Among 54 samples with viral load ≥1000 copies/ml, 40 were successfully genotyped, and 11 were found with detectable HIV drug resistance mutations. Of these, the proportions of drug resistance to NNRTIs, NRTIs and PIs were 100%, 81.8% and 0%, respectively. Injecting drug use (AOR = 0.40, 95% CI: 0.19,0.84; P = 0.0154), CD4 count at baseline ≥350 cells/mm3 (AOR = 0.32, 95% CI: 0.14,0.72; P = 0.0056), and missed doses in the past month (AOR = 0.30, 95% CI: 0.15,0.60; P = 0.0006) were significantly negatively associated with HIV RNA <1000 copies/ml. Conclusions Our study demonstrates effective virological and immunological outcomes at 12 months among these who initiated first-line ART treatment. However, patients infected through drug injection, who missed doses, or with higher CD4 count at baseline are at increased risk for poor virological response. PMID:24516631

  1. The effectiveness of 4 monthly albendazole treatment in the reduction of soil-transmitted helminth infections in women of reproductive age in Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Mihrshahi, Seema; Casey, Gerard J; Montresor, Antonio; Phuc, Tran Q; Thach, Dang Thi Cam; Tien, Nong T; Biggs, Beverley-Ann

    2009-07-15

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are endemic in northern Viet Nam where the climate and agricultural practices, such as the use of human excreta as fertiliser and the use of wastewater for irrigation, favour transmission. An intervention was conducted in Yen Bai Province, north-west Viet Nam, to measure the effectiveness of single dose albendazole (400mg) administered every 4 months for reducing the prevalence of STH infections in women of reproductive age. Stool samples were collected from women before the intervention and 3 and 12 months post-intervention. Information on a range of demographic and socio-economic variables was also collected to measure the major risk factors for high STH burden in this area. The prevalence of hookworm, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infection in the baseline sample of 366 women were 76.2%, 19.2% and 29.1%, respectively. In the women who were surveyed at baseline and again at 3 and 12 months after the intervention (n=118) cure rates were 71.3% for hookworm, 87.0% for A. lumbricoides and 81.4% for T. trichiura by the end of the 12 month study period (i.e. after three doses of albendazole). The main risk factor for hookworm infection was if women worked outside (odds ratio (OR)=3.2 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.6-6.2), P=0.001) and the major risk factor for A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura infection was a lack of education. Low educational attainment was also the strongest risk factor for co-infection with all three species of STH (OR=7.5 (95% CI 3.4-16.4), P<0.001). The high rates of hookworm infection in this area of Viet Nam and the high cure rates for all three species of STH with 4 monthly albendazole treatment suggest that this programme should be expanded to all endemic areas in Viet Nam. The study also highlights the important contribution of education to women's health. PMID:19324046

  2. Efficacy, tolerability, and safety of aripiprazole once-monthly versus other long-acting injectable antipsychotic therapies in the maintenance treatment of schizophrenia: a mixed treatment comparison of double-blind randomized clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Majer, Istvan M.; Gaughran, Fiona; Sapin, Christophe; Beillat, Maud; Treur, Maarten

    2015-01-01

    Background Treatment with long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotic medication is an important element of relapse prevention in schizophrenia. Recently, the intramuscular once-monthly formulation of aripiprazole received marketing approval in Europe and the United States for schizophrenia. Objective This study aimed to compare aripiprazole once-monthly with other LAI antipsychotics in terms of efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Data sources A systematic literature review was conducted to identify relevant double-blind randomized clinical trials of LAIs conducted in the maintenance treatment of schizophrenia. MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process, Embase, the Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, conference proceedings, clinical trial registries, and the reference lists of key review articles were searched. The literature search covered studies dating from January 2002 to May 2013. Study selection Studies were required to have ≥24 weeks of follow-up. Patients had to be stable at randomization. Studies were not eligible for inclusion if efficacy of acute and maintenance phase treatment was not reported separately. Six trials were identified (0.5% of initially identified studies), allowing comparisons of aripiprazole once-monthly, risperidone LAI, paliperidone palmitate, olanzapine pamoate, haloperidol depot, and placebo. Data extraction Data extracted included study details, study duration, the total number of patients in each treatment arm, efficacy, tolerability, and safety outcomes. The efficacy outcome contained the number of patients that experienced a relapse, tolerability outcomes included the number of patients that discontinued treatment due to treatment-related adverse events (AEs), and that discontinued treatment due to reasons other than AEs (e.g., loss to follow-up). Safety outcomes included the incidence of clinically relevant weight gain and extrapyramidal symptoms. Data synthesis Data were analyzed by applying a mixed treatment comparison competing risks model

  3. Determination of the effective dose of a novel oral formulation of sarolaner (Simparica™) for the treatment and month-long control of fleas and ticks on dogs.

    PubMed

    McTier, Tom L; Six, Robert H; Fourie, Josephus J; Pullins, Aleah; Hedges, Laura; Mahabir, Sean P; Myers, Melanie R

    2016-05-30

    Three laboratory studies were conducted to determine the appropriate dose of sarolaner, a novel isoxazoline, for the treatment and month-long control of infestations of fleas and ticks on dogs. In the first study, dogs were treated orally with sarolaner suspension formulations at 1.25, 2.5 or 5.0mg/kg, and infested with Dermacentor reticulatus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks and with Ctenocephalides felis felis (cat flea) prior to treatment and then weekly for up to 8 weeks. Fleas and ticks were counted 48h after treatment and after each subsequent infestation at 24h for fleas and 48h for ticks. The lowest dose of sarolaner (1.25mg/kg) provided 100% efficacy against fleas from treatment through Day 35 and 98.4% at Day 56. This dose of sarolaner resulted in 99.7-100% control of both species of ticks through Day 28. In Study 2, dogs were dosed orally with placebo or sarolaner suspension formulations at 0.625, 1.25 or 2.5mg/kg and infested with Ixodes scapularis prior to treatment and weekly for 6 weeks, Amblyomma americanum (pretreatment and Day 26), Dermacentor variabilis (Day 33) and A. maculatum (Day 41). Ixodes scapularis was the most susceptible; the lowest dose (0.625mg/kg) providing>95% efficacy through Day 43. Efficacy against D. variabilis on Day 35 was>95% at 1.25 and 2.5mg/kg, whereas the 0.625mg/kg dose gave only 61.4% efficacy. Amblyomma spp. were the least susceptible ticks; efficacy of the 1.25mg/kg dose at Day 28 for A. americanum was markedly lower (88.5%) than achieved for D. reticulatus (100%) at Day 28 and also lower than for D. variabilis at Day 35 (96.2%). In Study 3, dogs were dosed orally with placebo or sarolaner in the proposed commercial tablet (Simparica™) at 1.0, 2.0 or 4.0mg/kg, and infested with A. maculatum, one of the ticks determined to be dose limiting, prior to treatment and then weekly for 5 weeks. All doses gave 100% control of the existing infestation. The two highest dosages resulted in >93% control of subsequent challenges

  4. Observational study: daily treatment with a new compound “tradamixina” plus serenoa repens for two months improved the lower urinary tract symptoms

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are associated with great emotional costs to individuals and substantial economic costs to society. This study seeks to evaluate the effect of a new natural compound “Tradamixina plus Serenoa Repens” in order to improve lower urinary tract symptoms. Methods 100 patients (≥45years) who had had LUTS/BPH for >6 mo at screening and with IPSS -The international Prostate symptom scores- ≥13 and maximum urinary flow rate (Qmax) ≥4 to ≤15 ml/s. were recruited. The compound “Tradamixina plus Serenoa Repens” (80 mg of Alga Ecklonia Bicyclis, 100 mg of Tribulus Terrestris and 100 mg of D-Glucosamine and N-Acetyl-D-Glucosamine plus 320 mg of Serenoa Repens) was administered daily for 2 months. At visit and after 60 days of treatment patients were evaluated by means of detailed medical urological history, clinical examination, laboratory investigations (total PSA), and instrumental examination like urolfowmetry. Efficacy measures included IPSS-International Prostate Sympto, BPH Impact Index (BII), Quality-of-Life (QoL) Index. Measures were assessed at baseline and end point (12 wk or end of therapy) and also at screening, 1 and 4 wk for IPSS, and 4 wk for BII. Statistical significance was interpreted only if the results of the preceding analysis were significant at the 0.05 level. Results After 2 months of treatment the change from baseline to week 12 relative to “Tradamixina plus Seronea Repens” in total IPSS and Qol was statistically significant. Differences from baseline in BII were statistically significant for “Tradamixina plus Seronea Repens” above all differences in BII were also significant at 4 wk (LSmean ± SE: -0.8 ± 0.2). In the distribution of subjects over the PGI-I and CGI-I response categories were significant for”Tradamixina plus Seronea Repens” (PGI-I: p = 0.001; CGI-I). We also observed a decrease of total PSA. Conclusion The daily treatment with a new compound “Tradamixina plus

  5. Improved clinical outcome 3 months after endovascular treatment, including thrombectomy, in patients with acute ischemic stroke: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Falk-Delgado, Anna; Kuntze Söderqvist, Åsa; Fransén, Jian; Falk-Delgado, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose Intravenous thrombolysis with tissue plasminogen activator is standard treatment in acute stroke today. The benefit of endovascular treatment has been questioned. Recently, studies evaluating endovascular treatment and intravenous thrombolysis compared with intravenous thrombolysis alone, have reported improved outcome for the intervention group. The aim of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing endovascular treatment in addition to intravenous thrombolysis with intravenous thrombolysis alone. Methods Databases were searched for eligible randomized controlled trials. The primary outcome was a functional neurological outcome after 90 days. A secondary outcome was severe disability and death. Data were pooled in the control and intervention groups, and OR was calculated on an intention to treat basis with 95% CIs. Outcome heterogeneity was evaluated with Cochrane's Q test (significance level cut-off value at <0.10) and I2 (significance cut-off value >50%) with the Mantel–Haenszel method for dichotomous outcomes. A p value <0.05 was regarded as statistically significant. Results Six studies met the eligibility criteria, and data from 1569 patients were analyzed. A higher probability of a functional neurological outcome after 90 days was found for the intervention group (OR 2, 95% CI 2 to 3). There was a significantly higher probability of death and severe disability in the control group compared with the intervention group. Conclusions Endovascular treatment in addition to intravenous thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke leads to an improved clinical outcome after 3 months, compared with patients receiving intravenous thrombolysis alone. PMID:26138731

  6. Changes in the Peripheral Blood Gene Expression Profile Induced by 3 Months of Valproate Treatment in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Rakitin, Aleksei; Kõks, Sulev; Reimann, Ene; Prans, Ele; Haldre, Sulev

    2015-01-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) is a widely used antiepileptic drug with a broad range of effects and broad clinical efficacy. As a well-known histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, VPA regulates epigenetic programming by altering the expression of many genes. The aim of study was to analyze differences in gene expression profiles before and after the start of VPA treatment in patients with newly diagnosed epilepsy. RNA sequencing was used to compare whole-genome gene expression patterns of peripheral blood from nine patients with epilepsy before and 3 months after the start of treatment with VPA. Of the 23,099 analyzed genes, only 11 showed statistically significant differential expression with false discovery rate-adjusted p-values below 0.1. Functional annotation and network analyses showed activation of only one genetic network (enrichment score = 30), which included genes for cardiovascular system development and function, cell morphology, and hematological system development and function. The finding of such a small number of differently expressed genes between before and after the start of treatment suggests a lack of HDAC inhibition in these patients, which could be explained by the relatively low doses of VPA that were used. In conclusion, VPA at standard therapeutic dosages modulates the expression of a small number of genes. Therefore, to minimize the potential side effects of HDAC inhibition, it is recommended that the lowest effective dose of VPA be used for treating epilepsy. PMID:26379622

  7. [Evaluation of semiannual combined-treatment with fluoride-chlorhexidine varnish and toothbrushing with chlorhexidine toothpaste for 15 days every 3 months in hypercariogenic children].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Miró, M J; Vega Valdés, D

    1988-01-01

    An investigation was carried out in hypercaries-producing children, who had have previously curative treatment. Twenty three children were treated with semestral applications of fluorine-chlorhexidine varnish and daily brushing for 15 days every three months, with dental creme with chlorhexidine, while 21 children were selected as control group. Four analysis of Str. mutants in saliva (Matsukubo technique) were performed to each child in both groups, during a year. It was found that children treated reduced, remarkably, the degree of infection by Str. mutans, while degree of infection did not suffer modification in those children of the control group. The final examination performed after one year showed that 15 children of the control group resulted affected by caries (71.4%) with an incidence of 27 caries (1.29 index), while in the group under treatment only a child resulted affected with a caries. Reduction found in the incidence of caries was 96.9%. Problematic of hypercaries-producing child is analyzed and it is concluded that it is necessary to control and record him, and that investment in a strict treatment, such as that successfully assayed by us, should be rentable, since it should reduce amount of extractions of teeth and to contribute in that way to a real promotion of oral health with the infantile population. PMID:3272435

  8. Adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) during the early months of treatment in rural Zambia: influence of demographic characteristics and social surroundings of patients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Around 70% of those living with HIV in need of treatment accessed antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Zambia by 2009. However, sustaining high levels of adherence to ART is a challenge. This study aimed to identify the predictive factors associated with ART adherence during the early months of treatment in rural Zambia. Methods This is a field based observational longitudinal study in Mumbwa district, which is located 150 km west of Lusaka, the capital of Zambia. Treatment naive patients aged over 15 years, who initiated treatment during September-November 2010, were enrolled. Patients were interviewed at the initiation and six weeks later. The treatment adherence was measured according to self-reporting by the patients. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the predictive factors associated with the adherence. Results Of 157 patients, 59.9% were fully adherent to the treatment six weeks after starting ART. According to the multivariable analysis, full adherence was associated with being female [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR), 3.3; 95% Confidence interval (CI), 1.2-8.9], having a spouse who were also on ART (AOR, 4.4; 95% CI, 1.5-13.1), and experience of food insufficiency in the previous 30 days (AOR, 5.0; 95% CI, 1.8-13.8). Some of the most common reasons for missed doses were long distance to health facilities (n = 21, 53.8%), food insufficiency (n = 20, 51.3%), and being busy with other activities such as work (n = 15, 38.5%). Conclusions The treatment adherence continues to be a significant challenge in rural Zambia. Social supports from spouses and people on ART could facilitate their treatment adherence. This is likely to require attention by ART services in the future, focusing on different social influences on male and female in rural Zambia. In addition, poverty reduction strategies may help to reinforce adherence to ART and could mitigate the influence of HIV infection for poor patients and those who fall into poverty after

  9. 3-Month experience in presbyopic correction with bi-aspheric multifocal central presbyLASIK treatments for hyperopia and myopia with or without astigmatism

    PubMed Central

    Luger, Michiel H.A.; Ewering, Tobias; Arba-Mosquera, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To analyze simultaneous vision (distance and near) 3-month after bi-aspheric multifocal central presbyLASIK treatments for hyperopia and myopia with or without astigmatism. Methods Retrospective study analyzing patients that had been treated for correcting distance ametropiae and alleviating presbyopic symptoms simultaneously. All patients had been treated in Presby Aspheric mode using FemtoLASIK. No eye had previous corneal refractive surgery. Preoperative corneal curvature ranged between 40 D and 48 D, with pachymetry thicker than 500 μm. Preoperative best distance corrected visual acuity (CDVA) was 0.1 LogMAR or better, with best corrected near vision (CNVA) of 0.2 LogRAD or better. Results 66 patients treated using PresbyMAX software (SCHWIND eye-tech-solutions GmbH and Co. KG, Kleinostheim, Germany) were reviewed. For 24 patients, 3-month follow-up was completed. At 3 months, 71% of patients achieved UDVA 0.1 LogMAR or better, 79% patients obtained UNVA 0.1 LogRAD or better, and 83% of eyes were within 0.75 diopters (D) of defocus. Postoperative mean spherical equivalent refraction was −0.15 ± 0.50 D. Stability was achieved from the 6-week follow-up. 92% of patients achieved UDVA 0.2 LogMAR or better and UNVA 0.2 LogRAD or better. No statistical differences between myopes/hyperopes or between males/females were found. Conclusions Patient selection and expectation management are essential to achieve patient satisfaction. Even though optically the results are quite predictable, some patients find it difficult to adapt to the compromise between far and near vision, and others are dissatisfied by the minor loss of distance VA.

  10. Ovine ruminal microbes are capable of biotransforming hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX).

    PubMed

    Eaton, H L; De Lorme, M; Chaney, R L; Craig, A M

    2011-08-01

    Bioremediation is of great interest in the detoxification of soil contaminated with residues from explosives such as hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). Although there are numerous forms of in situ and ex situ bioremediation, ruminants would provide the option of an in situ bioreactor that could be transported to the site of contamination. Bovine rumen fluid has been previously shown to transform 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), a similar compound, in 4 h. In this study, RDX incubated in whole ovine rumen fluid was nearly eliminated within 4 h. Whole ovine rumen fluid was then inoculated into five different types of media to select for archaeal and bacterial organisms capable of RDX biotransformation. Cultures containing 30 μg mL(-1) RDX were transferred each time the RDX concentration decreased to 5 μg mL(-1) or less. Time point samples were analyzed for RDX biotransformation by HPLC. The two fastest transforming enrichments were in methanogenic and low nitrogen basal media. After 21 days, DNA was extracted from all enrichments able to partially or completely transform RDX in 7 days or less. To understand microbial diversity, 16S rRNA-gene-targeted denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprinting was conducted. Cloning and sequencing of partial 16S rRNA fragments were performed on both low nitrogen basal and methanogenic media enrichments. Phylogenetic analysis revealed similar homologies to eight different bacterial and one archaeal genera classified under the phyla Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Euryarchaeota. After continuing enrichment for RDX degraders for 1 year, two consortia remained: one that transformed RDX in 4 days and one which had slowed after 2 months of transfers without RDX. DGGE comparison of the slower transforming consortium to the faster one showed identical banding patterns except one band. Homology matches to clones from the two consortia identified the same uncultured Clostridia genus in both; Sporanaerobacter

  11. Aripiprazole once-monthly 400 mg for long-term maintenance treatment of schizophrenia: a 52-week open-label study

    PubMed Central

    Peters-Strickland, Timothy; Baker, Ross A; McQuade, Robert D; Jin, Na; Eramo, Anna; Perry, Pamela; Johnson, Brian R; Duca, Anna; Sanchez, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Background: Long-term maintenance treatment with an antipsychotic is often required to prevent relapse and mitigate functional deterioration in patients with schizophrenia. Aims: This study assessed the long-term safety, tolerability, and maintenance of the therapeutic effect of aripiprazole once-monthly 400 mg (AOM 400) in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: This 52-week, open-label study included patients previously enrolled in 1 of 2 AOM 400 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and de novo patients. Safety endpoints included adverse events (AEs), suicidality, extrapyramidal symptoms, injection-site pain, and clinically relevant changes in clinical and laboratory values. The primary efficacy endpoint was the percentage of stable patients at baseline who remained stable at the last visit of the AOM 400 maintenance phase. All endpoints were assessed with descriptive statistics; there were no formal planned statistical analyses. Results: Of 1,247 patients screened, 1,178 enrolled in the study (194 de novo and 984 patients from the RCTs) and 1,081 received maintenance treatment with AOM 400. The maintenance phase completion rate was 79.4% at 52 weeks. Treatment-emergent AEs in ⩾5% of patients during open-label AOM 400 treatment were headache (7.6%), nasopharyngitis (7.0%), anxiety (6.8%), and insomnia (6.6%). There were no clinically relevant changes in safety parameters of interest. Ninety-five percent of stable patients at baseline remained stable at their last visit during the AOM 400 maintenance phase. Conclusions: The long-term safety and tolerability profile of AOM 400 was comparable to the RCTs, and the long-term therapeutic effect was maintained. PMID:27336044

  12. In Alzheimer’s Disease, 6-Month Treatment with GLP-1 Analog Prevents Decline of Brain Glucose Metabolism: Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gejl, Michael; Gjedde, Albert; Egefjord, Lærke; Møller, Arne; Hansen, Søren B.; Vang, Kim; Rodell, Anders; Brændgaard, Hans; Gottrup, Hanne; Schacht, Anna; Møller, Niels; Brock, Birgitte; Rungby, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    In animal models, the incretin hormone GLP-1 affects Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We hypothesized that treatment with GLP-1 or an analog of GLP-1 would prevent accumulation of Aβ and raise, or prevent decline of, glucose metabolism (CMRglc) in AD. In this 26-week trial, we randomized 38 patients with AD to treatment with the GLP-1 analog liraglutide (n = 18), or placebo (n = 20). We measured Aβ load in brain with tracer [11C]PIB (PIB), CMRglc with [18F]FDG (FDG), and cognition with the WMS-IV scale (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01469351). The PIB binding increased significantly in temporal lobe in placebo and treatment patients (both P = 0.04), and in occipital lobe in treatment patients (P = 0.04). Regional and global increases of PIB retention did not differ between the groups (P ≥ 0.38). In placebo treated patients CMRglc declined in all regions, significantly so by the following means in precuneus (P = 0.009, 3.2 μmol/hg/min, 95% CI: 5.45; 0.92), and in parietal (P = 0.04, 2.1 μmol/hg/min, 95% CI: 4.21; 0.081), temporal (P = 0.046, 1.54 μmol/hg/min, 95% CI: 3.05; 0.030), and occipital (P = 0.009, 2.10 μmol/hg/min, 95% CI: 3.61; 0.59) lobes, and in cerebellum (P = 0.04, 1.54 μmol/hg/min, 95% CI: 3.01; 0.064). In contrast, the GLP-1 analog treatment caused a numerical but insignificant increase of CMRglc after 6 months. Cognitive scores did not change. We conclude that the GLP-1 analog treatment prevented the decline of CMRglc that signifies cognitive impairment, synaptic dysfunction, and disease evolution. We draw no firm conclusions from the Aβ load or cognition measures, for which the study was underpowered. PMID:27252647

  13. 43 CFR 9269.3-5 - Timber management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Timber management. 9269.3-5 Section 9269.3-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Timber management. (a) Sales of forest products; general. (b) Non-sale disposals;...

  14. 43 CFR 9269.3-5 - Timber management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Timber management. 9269.3-5 Section 9269.3-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Timber management. (a) Sales of forest products; general. (b) Non-sale disposals;...

  15. 43 CFR 9269.3-5 - Timber management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Timber management. 9269.3-5 Section 9269.3-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Timber management. (a) Sales of forest products; general. (b) Non-sale disposals;...

  16. 43 CFR 9269.3-5 - Timber management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Timber management. 9269.3-5 Section 9269.3-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Timber management. (a) Sales of forest products; general. (b) Non-sale disposals;...

  17. Hyperpigmentation mechanism of methyl 3,5-di-caffeoylquinate through activation of p38 and MITF induction of tyrosinase.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyo Jung; Kim, Jin Sook; Woo, Je-Tae; Lee, Ik-Soo; Cha, Byung-Yoon

    2015-07-01

    Methyl 3,5-di-caffeoylquinate (3,5-diCQM) has been used for the treatment of various diseases in oriental medicine, but its effect on melanogenesis has not been reported yet. In this study, the molecular mechanism of 3,5-diCQM-induced melanogenesis was investigated. It was found that 3,5-diCQM induced synthesis of melanin pigments in murine B16F10 melanoma cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Treatment of cells with 3,5-diCQM for 48 h increased extracellular and intracellular melanin production and tyrosinase activity. The expressions of tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TRP1), and TRP2 were up-regulated in a dose-dependent manner 48 h after 3,5-diCQM treatment. Western blot analysis showed that 3,5-diCQM increased the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and cAMP responsive element binding as well as the expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor. In addition, 3,5-diCQM-stimulated cAMP production, and 3,5-diCQM-induced tyrosinase activity and melanin synthesis were attenuated by H89, a protein kinase A inhibitor. These results suggested that 3,5-diCQM-mediated activation of the p38 pathway may represent a novel approach for an effective therapy for vitiligo and hair graying. PMID:26018825

  18. [The German Cartilage Registry (KnorpelRegister DGOU) for evaluation of surgical treatment for cartilage defects: experience after six months including first demographic data].

    PubMed

    Niemeyer, P; Schweigler, K; Grotejohann, B; Maurer, J; Angele, P; Aurich, M; Becher, C; Fay, J; Feil, R; Fickert, S; Fritz, J; Hoburg, A; Kreuz, P; Kolombe, T; Laskowski, J; Lützner, J; Marlovits, S; Müller, P E; Niethammer, T; Pietschmann, M; Ruhnau, K; Spahn, G; Tischer, T; Zinser, W; Albrecht, D

    2015-02-01

    The German Cartilage Registry (KnorpelRegister DGOU) has been introduced in October 2013 and aims on the evaluation of patients who underwent cartilage repair for symptomatic cartilage defects. It represents a nation-wide cohort study which has been introduced by the working group "Tissue Regeneration" of the Germany Society of Orthopaedic Surgery and Traumatology and is technically based upon a web-based remote data entry (RDE) system. The present article describes first experiences with the registry including patient and treatment characteristics. Between October 2013 and April 2014, a total of 230 patients who had undergone surgical cartilage repair for symptomatic full-thickness cartilage defects of the knee has been included in the German Cartilage Registry from 23 cartilage repair centres. Mean age was 37.11 years (SD 13.61) and mean defect size was 3.68 cm(2) (SD 0.23). Since the introduction of the KnorpelRegister DGOU the total number of registered patients has increased steadily up to the most recent figure of 72 patients within one month. Patients were treated mainly according to the recommended therapies. The highest percentage in therapy is represented by the bone marrow stimulation techniques (55.02 %) as well as by the autologous chondrocyte transplantation (34.92 %). Unlike the patient collective in the majority of prospective randomised controlled trials, the patient population within the registry shows a high proportion of patients with accompanying pathologies, with an age of more than 50 years at the time of treatment and with unfavourably assessed accompanying pathologies such as an affection of the opposite cartilage surface or a previously resected meniscus. In summary, the technical platform and forms of documentation of the KnorpelRegister DGOU have proved to be very promising within the first six months. Unlike data from other clinical trials, the previous analysis of the patients' data and therapies reflects successfully the actual

  19. An Evaluation of the Italian Version of the Yale Food Addiction Scale in Obese Adult Inpatients Engaged in a 1-Month-Weight-Loss Treatment.

    PubMed

    Ceccarini, Martina; Manzoni, Gian Mauro; Castelnuovo, Gianluca; Molinari, Enrico

    2015-11-01

    Addiction is a compulsive need for and use of a specific substance leading to a habit, tolerance, and psychophysiological symptoms. Excessive food consumption is similar to that of substance addiction. Some individuals who have trouble losing weight display addictive eating symptoms. To investigate food addiction in a sample of obese adults referred to hospital for a 1-month-weight-loss treatment. The Italian version of the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS-16) was used as a screening tool in 88 obese inpatients. The construct validity of the YFAS-16 was assessed by testing its correlations with measures of binge eating (Binge Eating Scale), impulsiveness (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale), and emotional dysregulation (Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale). 34.1% of our sample was diagnosed with YFAS food addiction. Such diagnosis was also supported by strong associations between FA and psychological and behavioral features, typically descriptive of classic addiction. Patients who endorsed the YFAS-16 criteria for food addiction (FA) had significantly higher binge eating levels, greater emotional dysregulation, and nonacceptance of negative feelings; they lacked goal-oriented behavior, had little impulse control, had difficulty in emotion recognition, and attentional impulsivity; and they were unable to concentrate and lacked inhibitory control behavior, unlike participants who did not meet the FA criteria. Further research is needed to support the reliability of the YFAS-16. This measure has the potential to be applied in epidemiological research, estimating the prevalence of FA within the Italian population and to assess new treatments' efficacy for obese patients with food addiction symptoms seeking weight-loss treatments. PMID:26267366

  20. Ninety-day study of inhaled 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene in rats. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Sasmore, D.P.; Palmer, D.

    1981-09-23

    Male and female rats were exposed to 0, 10, 100 or 1000 ppM of 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene vapors for 6 hours daily, 5 days a week, for up to 13 weeks. After 4 weeks or 13 weeks of exposure, animals were sacrificed and examined for changes in blood, clinical chemistry, internal organs, and tissues resulting from the 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene treatment. No treatment-related effects on the blood and clinical chemistry were evident. Squamous metaplasia and hyperplasia were observed in the respiratory epithelium in the nasal passages of several high-dose rats.

  1. Treatment of rats with an anti-(+)-methamphetamine monoclonal antibody shortens the duration of action of repeated (+)-methamphetamine challenges over a one month period

    PubMed Central

    Hambuchen, Michael D.; Rüedi-Bettschen, Daniela; Williams, D. Keith; Hendrickson, Howard; Owens, S. Michael

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed clinical scenarios of continuing monoclonal antibody (mAb) treatment for (+)-methamphetamine (METH) addiction, and the implications of missing or discontinuing this therapy. We hypothesized that chronic anti-METH mAb7F9 (METH KD = 9 nM) treatment of rats could significantly decrease METH-induced behaviors; even with repeated METH challenges, use of METH doses in excess of mAb binding sites, and after discontinuing mAb treatment which results in a 10-fold reduction in mAb7F9 serum concentrations. Male Sprague Dawley rats (n=6/group) were treated with i.v. saline or a loading dose of mAb7F9 to achieve instant steady-state conditions followed by two weekly (141 mg/kg) doses ending on day 14. METH (0.56 mg/kg) was administered four hours and three days after each saline or mAb7F9 treatment, and on day 21. This produced locomotion and rearing behavior that lasted about 120 min in control rats. In mAb7F9 treated rats, METH-induced distance traveled was significantly reduced from 60–120 min (P<0.05) on days 0–21 and rearing was significantly reduced from 60–120 min on days 0–17. METH serum concentrations determined 5 hrs after METH dosing was significantly increased in mAb7F9-treated rats after all METH challenges. On days 24 and 28 (the final day), the rats were administered a 3-fold higher METH dose (1.68 mg/kg). MAb7F9 treated rats showed a substantially earlier termination of the METH-induced locomotion on both days, even though the METH dose exceeded mAb7F9’s binding capacity. METH brain concentrations determined 5 hrs after METH on day 28 were also significantly decreased in mAb7F9-treated rats. In conclusion, over one month, mAb7F9 significantly and continuously bound METH and reduced METH-induced locomotor effects even after discontinuation of mAb treatment and challenge with higher METH doses. PMID:25252196

  2. Increased Prevalence of Human Polyomavirus JC Viruria in Chronic Inflammatory Rheumatic Diseases Patients in Treatment with Anti-TNF α: A 18 Month Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Rodio, Donatella Maria; Anzivino, Elena; Mischitelli, Monica; Bellizzi, Anna; Scrivo, Rossana; Scribano, Daniela; Conte, Gianlorenzo; Prezioso, Carla; Trancassini, Maria; Valesini, Guido; Palamara, Anna Teresa; Pietropaolo, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    Chronic inflammatory rheumatic diseases (CIRDs) are immune-mediated pathologies involving joints. To date, TNFα-blocking agents administration is the most promising therapy, although these treatments are associated with an increased Polyomavirus JC (JCPyV) reactivation, the etiological agent of the Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML). The aim of this study was the recruitment and the analysis of a CIRDs cohort in order to investigate a possible correlation between JCPyV presence and the influence of anti-TNF-α agents on viral loads. Blood and urine samples were collected from 34 CIRDs subjects prior the first anti-TNF-α infusion (T0) and after 3 (T3), 6 (T6), 12 (T12), and 18 (T18) months. Results showed persistent JC viruria significantly higher than JC viremia throughout the 18 month follow-up study (p = 0.002). In JCPyV positive samples, the non-coding control region (NCCR) was analyzed. Results evidenced archetypal structures (type II-S) in all isolates with the exception of a sequence isolated from a plasma sample, that corresponds to the type II-R found in PML subjects. Finally, the viral protein 1 (VP1) genotyping was performed and results showed the prevalence of the European genotypes 1A, 1B, and 4. Since only few studies have been carried out to understand whether there is a PML risk in CIRDs population infected by JCPyV, this study contributes to enrich literature insight on JCPyV biology in this cluster. Further investigations are necessary in order to recognize the real impact of biologics on JCPyV life cycle and to identify possible and specific viral variants related to increased virulence in CIRDs patients. PMID:27242700

  3. Increased Prevalence of Human Polyomavirus JC Viruria in Chronic Inflammatory Rheumatic Diseases Patients in Treatment with Anti-TNF α: A 18 Month Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Rodio, Donatella Maria; Anzivino, Elena; Mischitelli, Monica; Bellizzi, Anna; Scrivo, Rossana; Scribano, Daniela; Conte, Gianlorenzo; Prezioso, Carla; Trancassini, Maria; Valesini, Guido; Palamara, Anna Teresa; Pietropaolo, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    Chronic inflammatory rheumatic diseases (CIRDs) are immune-mediated pathologies involving joints. To date, TNFα-blocking agents administration is the most promising therapy, although these treatments are associated with an increased Polyomavirus JC (JCPyV) reactivation, the etiological agent of the Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML). The aim of this study was the recruitment and the analysis of a CIRDs cohort in order to investigate a possible correlation between JCPyV presence and the influence of anti-TNF-α agents on viral loads. Blood and urine samples were collected from 34 CIRDs subjects prior the first anti-TNF-α infusion (T0) and after 3 (T3), 6 (T6), 12 (T12), and 18 (T18) months. Results showed persistent JC viruria significantly higher than JC viremia throughout the 18 month follow-up study (p = 0.002). In JCPyV positive samples, the non-coding control region (NCCR) was analyzed. Results evidenced archetypal structures (type II-S) in all isolates with the exception of a sequence isolated from a plasma sample, that corresponds to the type II-R found in PML subjects. Finally, the viral protein 1 (VP1) genotyping was performed and results showed the prevalence of the European genotypes 1A, 1B, and 4. Since only few studies have been carried out to understand whether there is a PML risk in CIRDs population infected by JCPyV, this study contributes to enrich literature insight on JCPyV biology in this cluster. Further investigations are necessary in order to recognize the real impact of biologics on JCPyV life cycle and to identify possible and specific viral variants related to increased virulence in CIRDs patients. PMID:27242700

  4. Depressive symptom trajectories among girls in the juvenile justice system: 24-month outcomes of an RCT of Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care.

    PubMed

    Harold, Gordon T; Kerr, David C R; Van Ryzin, Mark; DeGarmo, David S; Rhoades, Kimberly A; Leve, Leslie D

    2013-10-01

    Youth depression is a significant and growing international public health problem. Youth who engage in high levels of delinquency are at particularly high risk for developing problems with depression. The present study examined the impact of a behavioral intervention designed to reduce delinquency (Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care; MTFC) compared to a group care intervention (GC; i.e., services as usual) on trajectories of depressive symptoms among adolescent girls in the juvenile justice system. MTFC has documented effects on preventing girls' recidivism, but its effects on preventing the normative rise in girls' depressive symptoms across adolescence have not been examined. This indicated prevention sample included 166 girls (13-17 years at T1) who had at least one criminal referral in the past 12 months and who were mandated to out-of-home care; girls were randomized to MTFC or GC. Intent-to-treat analyses examined the main effects of MTFC on depression symptoms and clinical cut-offs, and whether benefits were greatest for girls most at risk. Depressive symptom trajectories were specified in hierarchical linear growth models over a 2 year period using five waves of data at 6 month intervals. Depression clinical cut-off scores were specified as nonlinear probability growth models. Results showed significantly greater rates of deceleration for girls in MTFC versus GC for depressive symptoms and for clinical cut-off scores. The MTFC intervention also showed greater benefits for girls with higher levels of initial depressive symptoms. Possible mechanisms of effect are discussed, given MTFC's effectiveness on targeted and nontargeted outcomes. PMID:23417664

  5. 77 FR 13185 - Women's History Month, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ....) [FR Doc. 2012-5566 Filed 3-5-12; 8:45 am] Billing code 3295-F2-P ...#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8780 of March 1, 2012 Women's History Month, 2012 By the President of the... Women's History Month, we commemorate their struggles, celebrate centuries of progress, and reaffirm...

  6. 78 FR 14433 - Women's History Month, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ... thirty- seventh. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2013-05296 Filed 3-5-13; 8:45 am] Billing code 3295-F3 ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8935 of February 28, 2013 Women's History Month, 2013 By the President of the... your talents will take you. Women's History Month is a time to remember those who fought to make...

  7. 21 CFR 176.230 - 3,5-Dimethyl-1,3,5,2H-tetrahydrothiadiazine-2-thione.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false 3,5-Dimethyl-1,3,5,2H-tetrahydrothiadiazine-2-thione. 176.230 Section 176.230 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: PAPER...

  8. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine (Rdx) (Interagency Science Consultation Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    On March 10, 2016, the public comment draft Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine and the draft charge to external peer reviewers were released for public review and comment. The Toxicological Review and charge were reviewed internally by EPA and by othe...

  9. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine (Rdx) (Public Comment Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is developing an Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) assessment of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and has released the draft assessment for public comment. When final, the assessment will appear on the IRIS database.

  10. Identification of ovine ruminal microbes capable of biotransforming hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioremediation is of great interest in the detoxification of soil contaminated with residues from explosives such as hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). Although there are numerous forms of in situ and ex situ bioremediation, ruminants would provide the option of an in situ bioreactor tha...

  11. Inpatient resource use and costs associated with switching from oral antipsychotics to aripiprazole once-monthly for the treatment of schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Michele; Gutierrez, Benjamin; Offord, Steve J.; Blanchette, Christopher M.; Eramo, Anna; Earnshaw, Stephanie; Kamat, Siddhesh A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Schizophrenia is associated with high direct healthcare costs due to progression of disease and frequent occurrence of relapses. Aripiprazole once-monthly (AOM) has been shown to reduce total psychiatric hospitalizations among patients who switched from oral standard of care (SOC) therapy to AOM in a multicenter, open-label, mirror-image study of patients with schizophrenia. Because of the increasing need to improve patient outcomes while containing costs, it is important to understand the impact of AOM treatment initiation on medical costs associated with psychiatric hospitalizations and antipsychotic pharmacy costs. Methods: In the current study, an economic model was developed using data from the AOM mirror-image study to evaluate the psychiatric hospitalization-related medical costs and antipsychotic pharmacy costs during a 6-month period before (retrospective period) and after (prospective period) the AOM treatment initiation. The economic model evaluated cost-saving potential of AOM among all patients (n=433) as well as a subset of patients with ≥1 prior hospitalization (n=165) who switched from oral SOC to AOM. Unit cost data were obtained from publicly available sources. Results: Both hospitalizations and hospital days were reduced following a switch from oral SOC to AOM. As a result, psychiatric hospitalization-related costs were lower during the prospective period when compared with the retrospective period. Furthermore, the increase in antipsychotic pharmacy costs due to switching from oral SOC to AOM was offset by a reduction in psychiatric hospitalization-related medical costs. Per-patient costs were reduced by $1,046 (USD) in the overall population and by $20,353 in a subset of patients who had at least 1 psychiatric hospitalization during the retrospective period. Results were most sensitive to changes in hospitalization costs. Conclusions: AOM is associated with reducing the risk of relapse among patients with schizophrenia. The

  12. Concurrent Heroin Use and Correlates among Methadone Maintenance Treatment Clients: A 12-Month Follow-up Study in Guangdong Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Peizhen; Gong, Xiao; Zhang, Lei; Tang, Weiming; Zou, Xia; Chen, Wen; Ling, Li

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess concurrent heroin use and correlates among Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT) clients in Guangdong Province, China. Method: Demographic and drug use data were collected with a structured questionnaire, and MMT information was obtained from the MMT clinic registration system in Guangdong. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infected status and urine morphine results were obtained from laboratory tests. Logistic regressions were employed to investigate the factors associated with concurrent heroin use. Results: Among the 6848 participants, 75% continued using heroin more than once during the first 12 months after treatment initiation. Concurrent heroin use was associated with inharmonious family relationship (OR (odds ratio) = 1.49, 95% CI (confidence intervals): 1.24–1.78), HIV positivity (OR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.01–1.55), having multiple sex partners (OR = 1.34, 95% CI: 1.07–1.69), having ever taken intravenous drugs (OR = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.69–0.95), higher maintenance dose (OR = 1.13, 95% CI: 1.01–1.28) and poorer MMT attendance (OR<20% = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.13–1.53; OR20%– = 1.33, 95% CI: 1.14–1.54; OR50%– = 1.69, 95% CI: 1.44–2.00). Among those who used heroin concurrently, the same factors, and additionally being older (OR35– = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.11–1.43; OR≥45 = 1.63, 95% CI: 1.30–2.05) and female (OR = 1.60, 95% CI: 1.28–2.00), contribute to a greater frequency of heroin use. Conclusions: Concurrent heroin use was prevalent among MMT participants in Guangdong, underscoring the urgent needs for tailored interventions and health education programs for this population. PMID:27005649

  13. Degradation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia PB1.

    PubMed Central

    Binks, P R; Nicklin, S; Bruce, N C

    1995-01-01

    A mixed microbial culture capable of metabolizing the explosive RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) was obtained from soil enrichments under aerobic and nitrogen-limiting conditions. A bacterium, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia PB1, isolated from the culture used RDX as a sole source of nitrogen for growth. Three moles of nitrogen was used per mole of RDX, yielding a metabolite identified by mass spectroscopy and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance analysis as methylene-N-(hydroxymethyl)-hydroxylamine-N'-(hydroxymethyl)nitroamin e. The bacterium also used s-triazine as a sole source of nitrogen but not the structurally similar compounds octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine, cyanuric acid, and melamine. An inducible RDX-degrading activity was present in crude cell extracts. PMID:7747953

  14. 21 CFR 176.230 - 3,5-Dimethyl-1,3,5,2H-tetrahydrothiadiazine-2-thione.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true 3,5-Dimethyl-1,3,5,2H-tetrahydrothiadiazine-2-thione. 176.230 Section 176.230 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: PAPER AND PAPERBOARD COMPONENTS Substances for Use Only...

  15. 21 CFR 176.230 - 3,5-Dimethyl-1,3,5,2H-tetrahydrothiadiazine-2-thione.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false 3,5-Dimethyl-1,3,5,2H-tetrahydrothiadiazine-2-thione. 176.230 Section 176.230 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: PAPER AND PAPERBOARD COMPONENTS Substances for Use Only...

  16. 21 CFR 176.230 - 3,5-Dimethyl-1,3,5,2H-tetrahydrothiadiazine-2-thione.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false 3,5-Dimethyl-1,3,5,2H-tetrahydrothiadiazine-2-thione. 176.230 Section 176.230 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: PAPER AND PAPERBOARD COMPONENTS Substances for Use Only...

  17. Changes in HDL-cholesterol and lipoprotein Lp(a) after 6-month treatment with finasteride in males affected by benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).

    PubMed

    Denti, L; Pasolini, G; Cortellini, P; Sanfelici, L; Benedetti, R; Cecchetti, A; Ferretti, S; Bruschieri, L; Ablondi, F; Valenti, G

    2000-09-01

    Androgen effects on lipoproteins, mainly high density lipoprotein (HDL), could be exerted by a direct interaction of testosterone (T) or dihydrotestosterone (DHT) with liver androgen receptors. To assess if T needs to be converted into DHT to affect lipid metabolism, 13 patients were studied, affected with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and treated with an inhibitor of 5 alpha-reductase (finasteride). They were compared with 15 untreated controls. At baseline and after 3 and 6 months of therapy, each patient was evaluated as for lipoprotein and hormone concentrations, as well as for nutritional status. Body composition was assessed by anthropometry and bio-impedance analysis (BIA). Treatment was associated with a significant increase of HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), mainly HDL3 subclass, and lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)), as well as a decline of DHT, whereas no significant changes were apparent for T, estradiol (E2), sex hormone binding hormone (SHBG) and body composition indexes. However, no significant associations between DHT and lipid relative changes were apparent at bivariate correlation analysis. This finding was confirmed by comparing patient subsets identified by cluster analysis, according to HDL subclass individual responses. Rather, a slight association with E2 for HDL2 (positive) and HDL3 (negative) was found. In conclusion, finasteride can modify HDL and Lp(a) concentrations. However, by the data, these effects cannot be definitively attributed to the changes in DHT synthesis induced by finasteride, since a direct and non-specific interference of the drug on liver metabolism cannot be excluded. PMID:10996351

  18. 3,5-Dichlorophenol Removal From Wastewater Using Alternative Adsorbents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobetičová, Hana; Lipovský, Marek; Wachter, Igor; Soldán, Maroš

    2015-06-01

    The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the efficiency of 3,5-dichlorophenol removal from wastewater by using alternative low cost adsorbents. Waste from the production and processing of metals (black nickel mud, red mud) and a biosorbent (Lemna minor) were used for this research. Initial concentration of the contaminant was 4 mmol L-1, the contact time of sorbent and waste water was 0 - 48 hrs and the temperature during experiment was 25 ± 0.2 °C. The results show that the highest removal efficiency of 3,5 - dichlorophenol (58.18 %) was reached by the red mud in 48 hours.

  19. Rearrangement of dypnones to 1,3,5-triarylbenzenes.

    PubMed

    Deng, Kai; Huai, Qi-Yong; Shen, Zhi-Lun; Li, Hui-Jing; Liu, Chen; Wu, Yan-Chao

    2015-03-20

    Rearrangement of dypnones to 1,3,5-triarylbenzenes is described. The reaction is proposed to involve an aldol-type self-condensation of dypnones, followed by an intramolecular [2 + 2] cycloaddition and a retro-[2 + 2] cycloaddition. The reaction goes smoothly under obviously milder conditions in comparison to the cyclotrimerization of acetophenones to 1,3,5-triarylbenzenes (10 mol % of TsOH, 80 °C versus 130-148 °C). This unexpected rearrangement would provide new possible considerations in dypnone-involved organic synthesis. PMID:25740008

  20. Novel reaction of N,N'-bisarylmethanediamines with formaldehyde. Synthesis of some new 1,3,5-triaryl-1,3,5-hexahydrotriazines.

    PubMed

    Ghandi, Mehdi; Salimi, Farshid; Olyaei, Abolfazl

    2006-01-01

    The acid-catalyzed cyclocondensation of N,N'-bisaryl (aryl = 2-pyrimidinyl, 2-pyrazinyl and 4-nitrophenyl) methanediamines 5a-c with aqueous formaldehyde in refluxing acetonitrile leads to the formation of the corresponding 1,3,5-triaryl-1,3,5-hexa-hydrotriazines 6a-c. The stoichiometric reactions of 2-aminopyrimidine and 2-amino-pyrazine with aqueous formaldehyde in acetonitrile under reflux conditions also afforded 6a and 6b, respectively. Treatment of 2-aminopyrimidine with aqueous formaldehyde in a 3:2 ratio yielded N,N',N"-tris(2-pyrimidinyl)dimethylenetriamine (7a) as a sole product, which upon subsequent reaction with formaldehyde also afforded 6a. The reaction of N,N'-biphenylmethanediamine with formaldehyde was also investigated. PMID:17971727

  1. Experimental evaluation of a Mach 3.5 axisymmetric inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Syberg, J.; Koncsek, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    Wind tunnel test results for a large scale inlet model designed for Mach 3.5 are presented and compared with analytical predictions. The inlet is an axisymmetric mixed-compression type with a lip diameter of 49.723 cm. The inlet design was developed using analytical procedures. Data are shown for freestream Mach numbers from 0.6 to 3.5. The test results indicate that boundary layer bleed requirements can be accurately predicted. Good agreement was obtained with analytical predictions of the flowfield structure and boundary layer development in the supersonic diffuser yielding high performance at the design Mach number. The highest engine face total pressure recovery at Mach 3.5 was 85.8%; this was obtained at 0.05 Mach tolerance with only 2.8% total pressure distortion and 13.4% bleed. In the started Mach number range from 1.6 to 3.5, the total pressure recovery in the throat, downstream of the terminal normal shock, ranged between 91% and 95%. Total pressure losses in the subsonic diffuser varied from 3% to 13%. The higher losses occuring between Mach 2.5 and 3.2 were believed to be caused by the rapid rate of increase in the area of the diffuser just downstream of the throat, possibly coupled with inadequate centerbody throat bleed. In the unstarted mode at transonic speeds, the maximum inlet flow was over 99% of the theoretical maximum capture mass-flow.

  2. Practical auxiliary basis implementation of Rung 3.5 functionals.

    PubMed

    Janesko, Benjamin G; Scalmani, Giovanni; Frisch, Michael J

    2014-07-21

    Approximate exchange-correlation functionals for Kohn-Sham density functional theory often benefit from incorporating exact exchange. Exact exchange is constructed from the noninteracting reference system's nonlocal one-particle density matrix γ(r(->), r(->)'). Rung 3.5 functionals attempt to balance the strengths and limitations of exact exchange using a new ingredient, a projection of γ(r(->), r(->)') onto a semilocal model density matrix γ(SL)(ρ(r(->)), ∇ρ(r(->)), r(->) - r(->)'). γSL depends on the electron density ρ(r(->) at reference point r(->), and is closely related to semilocal model exchange holes. We present a practical implementation of Rung 3.5 functionals, expanding the r(->) - r(->)' dependence of γSL in an auxiliary basis set. Energies and energy derivatives are obtained from 3D numerical integration as in standard semilocal functionals. We also present numerical tests of a range of properties, including molecular thermochemistry and kinetics, geometries and vibrational frequencies, and bandgaps and excitation energies. Rung 3.5 functionals typically provide accuracy intermediate between semilocal and hybrid approximations. Nonlocal potential contributions from γSL yield interesting successes and failures for band structures and excitation energies. The results enable and motivate continued exploration of Rung 3.5 functional forms. PMID:25053297

  3. 9 CFR 3.5 - Mobile or traveling housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.5 Mobile or traveling housing facilities. (a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. Mobile or traveling housing facilities for dogs and cats must be sufficiently heated and cooled when necessary to protect the dogs and cats from temperature...

  4. 9 CFR 3.5 - Mobile or traveling housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.5 Mobile or traveling housing facilities. (a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. Mobile or traveling housing facilities for dogs and cats must be sufficiently heated and cooled when necessary to protect the dogs and cats from temperature...

  5. 9 CFR 3.5 - Mobile or traveling housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.5 Mobile or traveling housing facilities. (a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. Mobile or traveling housing facilities for dogs and cats must be sufficiently heated and cooled when necessary to protect the dogs and cats from temperature...

  6. 9 CFR 3.5 - Mobile or traveling housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.5 Mobile or traveling housing facilities. (a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. Mobile or traveling housing facilities for dogs and cats must be sufficiently heated and cooled when necessary to protect the dogs and cats from temperature...

  7. 9 CFR 3.5 - Mobile or traveling housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.5 Mobile or traveling housing facilities. (a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. Mobile or traveling housing facilities for dogs and cats must be sufficiently heated and cooled when necessary to protect the dogs and cats from temperature...

  8. Science in Action Series: AGATE ( pt 3/5 )

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This show was made for the Office of Education at NASA Langley. The objective is to make math and science appealing to a middle school audience. This clip (pt 3/5 ) tells us more about the plane. How much will it cost to run, and how will we learn to fly?

  9. 21 CFR 556.220 - 3,5-Dinitrobenzamide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... temperature. The 3,5-DNBA therefrom is treated a second time with activated carbon and then recrystallized three more times from specially denatured alcohol 3A. The third crystallization is washed with diethyl... be run five different times. Plot equivalent concentration in tissue versus mean absorbance at...

  10. Differentiating Instruction with Menus Grades 3-5: Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westphal, Laurie E.

    2007-01-01

    "Differentiating Instruction With Menus Grades 3-5" offers teachers everything they need to create a student-centered learning environment based on choice. Addressing the four main subject areas (language arts, math, science, and social studies) and the major concepts taught within these areas, these books provide a number of different types of…

  11. Differentiating Instruction with Menus Grades 3-5: Language Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westphal, Laurie E.

    2007-01-01

    "Differentiating Instruction With Menus Grades 3-5" offers teachers everything they need to create a student-centered learning environment based on choice. Addressing the four main subject areas (language arts, math, science, and social studies) and the major concepts taught within these areas, these books provide a number of different types of…

  12. Differentiating Instruction with Menus Grades 3-5: Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westphal, Laurie E.

    2007-01-01

    "Differentiating Instruction With Menus Grades 3-5" offers teachers everything they need to create a student-centered learning environment based on choice. Addressing the four main subject areas (language arts, math, science, and social studies) and the major concepts taught within these areas, these books provide a number of different types of…

  13. Differentiating Instruction with Menus Grades 3-5: Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westphal, Laurie E.

    2007-01-01

    "Differentiating Instruction With Menus Grades 3-5" offers teachers everything they need to create a student-centered learning environment based on choice. Addressing the four main subject areas (language arts, math, science, and social studies) and the major concepts taught within these areas, these books provide a number of different types of…

  14. Lessons for Algebraic Thinking. Grades 3-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickett, Maryann; Kharas, Katharine; Burns, Marilyn

    Algebra is one of the top priorities of mathematics instruction for the elementary and middle grades. This book is designed to help 3-5 teachers meet the challenge of making algebra an integral part of their mathematics instruction and realize both what to teach and how to teach central algebraic concepts. Classroom-tested lessons help teachers…

  15. 39 CFR 3.5 - Delegation of authority by Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE THE BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE BOARD OF GOVERNORS (ARTICLE III) § 3.5 Delegation of authority by Board. As authorized by 39 U.S.C. 402, these bylaws... that this delegation of authority does not conflict with powers reserved to the Governors or to...

  16. [The morphofunctional cellular evaluation of liver and kidney in rats in dynamics of 6-month consumption of water produced with the use of noncontact activation after electrochemical treatment].

    PubMed

    Beliaeva, N N; Rakhmanin, Iu A; Mikhailova, R I; Savostikova, O N; Gasimova, Z M; Kamenetskaia, D B; Alekseeva, A V; Vasina, D A; Ryzhova, I N

    2015-01-01

    There were investigated morphofunctional indices of liver and kidney in male outbred rats in the dynamics of the 6-months consumption of water after its noncontact activation. There were studied 4 experimental groups of animals consumed waters named as "Anolyte" and in dependence on the activation time, 3 types of catholyte water ("Catholyte--5", "Catholyte--25", "Catholyte--40"). Moscow tap water settled for a week served as control. "Anolyte" water was found to increase in the kidney the number of hypertrophied gromeruli only in 6 months, while the consumption of "Catholyte--25" water and especially, "Catholyte--40" in 1 and 6 months caused the damage of liver and kidney, and for the index of alteration of renal glomeruli after 6 months of water consumption there was revealed the dependence on the activation time of "Catalytes". PMID:26031038

  17. 3,5-Diiodo-L-Thyronine (3,5-T2) Exerts Thyromimetic Effects on Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Thyroid Axis, Body Composition, and Energy Metabolism in Male Diet-Induced Obese Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lietzow, Julika; Wohlgemuth, Franziska; Hoefig, Carolin S.; Wiedmer, Petra; Schweizer, Ulrich; Köhrle, Josef; Schürmann, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Effective and safe antiobesity drugs are still needed in face of the obesity pandemic worldwide. Recent interventions in rodents revealed 3,5-diiodo-L-thyronine (3,5-T2) as a metabolically active iodothyronine affecting energy and lipid metabolism without thyromimetic side effects typically associated with T3 administration. Accordingly, 3,5-T2 has been proposed as a potential hypolipidemic agent for treatment of obesity and hepatic steatosis. In contrast to other observations, our experiments revealed dose-dependent thyromimetic effects of 3,5-T2 akin to those of T3 in diet-induced obese male C57BL/6J mice. 3,5-T2 treatment exerted a negative feedback regulation on the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis, similar to T3. This is demonstrated by decreased expression of genes responsive to thyroid hormones (TH) in pituitary resulting in a suppressed thyroid function with lower T4 and T3 concentrations in serum and liver of 3,5-T2-treated mice. Analyses of hepatic TH target genes involved in lipid metabolism revealed T3-like changes in gene expression and increased type I-deiodinase activity after application of 3,5-T2 (2.5 μg/g body weight). Reduced hepatic triglyceride and serum cholesterol concentrations reflected enhanced lipid metabolism. Desired increased metabolic rate and reduction of different fat depots were, however, compromised by increased food intake preventing significant body weight loss. Moreover, enlarged heart weights indicate potential cardiac side effects of 3,5-T2 beyond hepatic thyromimetic actions. Altogether, the observed thyromimetic effects of 3,5-T2 in several mouse TH target tissues raise concern about indiscriminate administration of 3,5-T2 as powerful natural hormone for the treatment of hyperlipidemia and pandemic obesity. PMID:25322465

  18. Biodegradation of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine and Its Mononitroso Derivative Hexahydro-1-Nitroso-3,5-Dinitro-1,3,5-Triazine by Klebsiella pneumoniae Strain SCZ-1 Isolated from an Anaerobic Sludge

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jian-Shen; Halasz, Annamaria; Paquet, Louise; Beaulieu, Chantale; Hawari, Jalal

    2002-01-01

    In previous work, we found that an anaerobic sludge efficiently degraded hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), but the role of isolates in the degradation process was unknown. Recently, we isolated a facultatively anaerobic bacterium, identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae strain SCZ-1, using MIDI and the 16S rRNA method from this sludge and employed it to degrade RDX. Strain SCZ-1 degraded RDX to formaldehyde (HCHO), methanol (CH3OH) (12% of total C), carbon dioxide (CO2) (72% of total C), and nitrous oxide (N2O) (60% of total N) through intermediary formation of methylenedinitramine (O2NNHCH2NHNO2). Likewise, hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX) was degraded to HCHO, CH3OH, and N2O (16.5%) with a removal rate (0.39 μmol · h−1 · g [dry weight] of cells−1) similar to that of RDX (0.41 μmol · h−1 · g [dry weight] of cells−1) (biomass, 0.91 g [dry weight] of cells · liter−1). These findings suggested the possible involvement of a common initial reaction, possibly denitration, followed by ring cleavage and decomposition in water. The trace amounts of MNX detected during RDX degradation and the trace amounts of hexahydro-1,3-dinitroso-5-nitro-1,3,5-triazine detected during MNX degradation suggested that another minor degradation pathway was also present that reduced —NO2 groups to the corresponding —NO groups. PMID:12406722

  19. Chemiluminescence detection of 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane (RDX) and related nitramine explosives.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, David N; Barnett, Neil W; Agg, Kent M; Graham, Duncan; Lenehan, Claire E; Prior, Chad; Lim, Kieran F; Francis, Paul S

    2012-01-15

    A simple controlled chemical reduction of 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane (RDX) and related nitramine compounds with zinc amalgam generates species that elicit intense chemiluminescence with tris(2,2'-bipyridine)ruthenium(III), which extends this widely utilised chemiluminescence reagent to a new class of analyte and presents a sound chemical basis for a screening test for nitramine high explosives. Examination of the chemiluminescence profiles under stopped-flow conditions revealed contributions from multiple transient species formed in the initial reduction step. PMID:22265569

  20. Comparison of the health-related quality of life, CD4 count and viral load of AIDS patients and people with HIV who have been on treatment for 12 months in rural South Africa.

    PubMed

    Igumbor, Jude; Stewart, Aimee; Holzemer, William

    2013-03-01

    This study compared the level of CD4 count, viral load and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) between treatment-naïve AIDS patients and a cohort of people living with HIV who have been on treatment for 12 months. This study is based on a secondary data analysis of the records of 642 people with HIV consisting of 311 treatment-naïve AIDS patients and 331 people with HIV who have been on treatment for 12 months. The study findings are mostly presented in tables and analysed using the t-test to compare HRQOL scores, CD4 count and viral load in the two groups. The study generally noted poor financial capacity and low activity tolerance among the participants. Significant changes were noted in all the domains of HRQOL compared between the treatment-naïve patients and the 12 months treatment cohort. In the same manner, the median CD4 cell count and viral load differed significantly between both groups. The treatment-naïve and the 12 months treatment cohorts consistently reported much lower quality of life scores in the level of dependence domain which includes the measures of mobility, activity of daily living, dependence on medication and work capacity. There were little or no associations between the biomedical markers (CD4 count and viral load) and HRQOL indicators. However, the quality of life tended to increase with increase in the CD4 cell count. The poor to no association between the biomedical markers and HRQOL indicators show that these cannot be direct proxies of each other and that the CD4 cell count and viral load alone may be inadequate eligibility criteria for social support. PMID:23777555

  1. Urolastic—A New Bulking Agent for the Treatment of Women with Stress Urinary Incontinence: Outcome of 12 Months Follow Up

    PubMed Central

    Zajda, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the new injectable implant, Urolastic, in women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI) after 12-month followup. Materials and Methods. A prospective, cohort study included adult women with SUI. Patients were treated with Urolastic periurethral injections under local anaesthesia. The injection procedure was repeated after 6 weeks when indicated. Patients were evaluated for efficacy and safety parameters 6 weeks, 3 months, and 12 months after therapy. Results. Twenty women 56 (33–71) years old were included. Thirteen patients (65%) received one injection each (overall average of 2,1 mL); 7 patients (35%) received a second injection. Nineteen patients complete the 12-month followup. The mean Stamey incontinence grade significantly decreased from 1.9 at baseline to 0.4 at 12 months (visit IV) (P < 0.001). None of the patients were dry at baseline; 68% of them were dry at 12 months. The mean number of incontinence episodes significantly decreased from 6/day at baseline to 1.6/day at visit IV (P < 0.001). Reduction in pad weight went from 20.2 to 7.8 g at one year. The mean I-QoL score significantly increased from 51 at baseline to 76 at visit IV (P < 0.001). Six patients (30%) developed minor complications related to the injection procedure. Conclusions. Urolastic is effective and long-standing urethral bulking agent with moderate adverse events. PMID:24454351

  2. Urolastic-a new bulking agent for the treatment of women with stress urinary incontinence: outcome of 12 months follow up.

    PubMed

    Zajda, Janusz; Farag, Fawzy

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the new injectable implant, Urolastic, in women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI) after 12-month followup. Materials and Methods. A prospective, cohort study included adult women with SUI. Patients were treated with Urolastic periurethral injections under local anaesthesia. The injection procedure was repeated after 6 weeks when indicated. Patients were evaluated for efficacy and safety parameters 6 weeks, 3 months, and 12 months after therapy. Results. Twenty women 56 (33-71) years old were included. Thirteen patients (65%) received one injection each (overall average of 2,1 mL); 7 patients (35%) received a second injection. Nineteen patients complete the 12-month followup. The mean Stamey incontinence grade significantly decreased from 1.9 at baseline to 0.4 at 12 months (visit IV) (P < 0.001). None of the patients were dry at baseline; 68% of them were dry at 12 months. The mean number of incontinence episodes significantly decreased from 6/day at baseline to 1.6/day at visit IV (P < 0.001). Reduction in pad weight went from 20.2 to 7.8 g at one year. The mean I-QoL score significantly increased from 51 at baseline to 76 at visit IV (P < 0.001). Six patients (30%) developed minor complications related to the injection procedure. Conclusions. Urolastic is effective and long-standing urethral bulking agent with moderate adverse events. PMID:24454351

  3. Efficacy and safety of duloxetine for treatment of fibromyalgia in patients with or without major depressive disorder: Results from a 6-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, fixed-dose trial.

    PubMed

    Russell, I Jon; Mease, Philip J; Smith, Timothy R; Kajdasz, Daniel K; Wohlreich, Madelaine M; Detke, Michael J; Walker, Daniel J; Chappell, Amy S; Arnold, Lesley M

    2008-06-01

    The primary objectives of this study were to assess the efficacy and safety of duloxetine for reducing pain severity in fibromyalgia patients with or without current major depressive disorder. This was a 6-month, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. In total, 520 patients meeting American College of Rheumatology criteria for fibromyalgia were randomly assigned to duloxetine (20 mg/day, 60 mg/day, or 120 mg/day) or placebo, administered once daily, for 6 months (after 3 months, the duloxetine 20-mg/day group titrated to 60 mg/day). The co-primary outcome measures were the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) average pain severity score and Patient Global Impressions of Improvement (PGI-I) score. Safety was assessed via treatment-emergent adverse events, and changes in vital sign, laboratory, and ECG measures. Compared with placebo-treated patients, those patients treated with duloxetine 120 mg/day improved significantly more on the co-primary outcome measures at 3 months (change in BPI score [-2.31 vs -1.39, P<0.001] and PGI-I [2.89 vs 3.39, P=0.004]) and at 6 months (change in BPI [-2.26 vs -1.43, P=0.003] and PGI-I [2.93 vs 3.37, P=0.012]). Compared with placebo, treatment with duloxetine 60 mg/day also significantly improved the co-primary measures at 3 months and BPI at 6 months. Duloxetine was efficacious in patients both with and without major depressive disorder. There were no clinically significant differences between treatment groups in changes in vital signs, laboratory measures, or ECG measures. Study results demonstrated that duloxetine at doses of 60 mg/day and 120 mg/day appears to be safe and efficacious in patients with fibromyalgia. PMID:18395345

  4. Surgical Management of Tibial Plateau Fractures With 3.5 mm Simple Plates

    PubMed Central

    Bagherifard, Abolfazl; Jabalameli, Mahmoud; Hadi, Hosseinali; Rahbar, Mohammad; Minator Sajjadi, Mohammadreza; Jahansouz, Ali; Karimi Heris, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Background Tibial plateau fractures can be successfully fixed utilizing 3.5 mm locking plates. However, there are some disadvantages to using these plates. Objectives In the current prospective study, we investigated the outcome of treating different types of tibial plateau fractures with 3.5 mm simple plates which, to our knowledge, has not been evaluated in previous studies. Materials and Methods Between 2011 and 2013, 32 patients aged 40 ± 0.2 years underwent open reduction and internal fixation for tibial plateau fractures with 3.5 mm simple plates. The patients were followed for 16.14 ± 2.1 months. At each patient’s final visit, the articular surface depression, medial proximal tibial angle, and slope angle were measured and compared with measurements taken early after the operation. The functional outcomes were measured with the WOMAC and Lysholm knee scores. Results The mean union time was 13 ± 1.2 weeks. The mean knee range of motion was 116.8° ± 3.3°. The mean WOMAC and Lysholm scores were 83.5 ± 1.8 and 76.8 ± 1.6, respectively. On the early postoperative and final X-rays, 87.5% and 84% of patients, respectively, had acceptable reduction. Medial proximal tibial and slope angles did not change significantly by the last visit. No patient was found to have complications related to the type of plate. Conclusions In this case series study, the fixation of different types of tibial plateau fractures with 3.5 mm simple non-locking and non-precontoured plates was associated with acceptable clinical, functional, and radiographic outcomes. Based on the advantages and costs of these plates, the authors recommend using 3.5 mm simple plates for different types of tibial plateau fractures.

  5. Patterns of soil-transmitted helminth infection and impact of four-monthly albendazole treatments in preschool children from semi-urban communities in Nigeria: a double-blind placebo-controlled randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Children aged between one and five years are particularly vulnerable to disease caused by soil-transmitted helminths (STH). Periodic deworming has been shown to improve growth, micronutrient status (iron and vitamin A), and motor and language development in preschool children and justifies the inclusion of this age group in deworming programmes. Our objectives were to describe the prevalence and intensity of STH infection and to investigate the effectiveness of repeated four-monthly albendazole treatments on STH infection in children aged one to four years. Methods The study was carried out in four semi-urban villages situated near Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria. The study was a double-blind placebo-controlled randomised trial. Children aged one to four years were randomly assigned to receive either albendazole or placebo every four months for 12 months with a follow-up at 14 months. Results The results presented here revealed that 50% of the preschool children in these semi-urban communities were infected by one or more helminths, the most prevalent STH being Ascaris lumbricoides (47.6%). Our study demonstrated that repeated four-monthly anthelminthic treatments with albendazole were successful in reducing prevalence and intensity of A. lumbricoides infections. At the end of the follow-up period, 12% and 43% of the children were infected with A. lumbricoides and mean epg was 117 (S.E. 50) and 1740 (S.E. 291) in the treatment and placebo groups respectively compared to 45% and 45% of the children being infected with Ascaris and mean epg being 1095 (S.E. 237) and 1126 (S.E. 182) in the treatment and placebo group respectively at baseline. Conclusion Results from this study show that the moderate prevalence and low intensity of STH infection in these preschool children necessitates systematic treatment of the children in child health programmes. Trial Registration Current controlled trials ISRCTN44215995. PMID:19228385

  6. Effects of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in zebrafish: General and reproductive toxicity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mukhi, S.; Patino, R.

    2008-01-01

    Mixed-sex populations of young adult zebrafish (???2-month-old) were exposed to measured RDX concentrations of 0, 1 or 9.6 ppm for up to 12 weeks followed by a 15-day rearing period in untreated water. RDX caused high mortality at 9.6 ppm, with most deaths occurring within the first 8 weeks of exposure. RDX at 9.6 ppm caused lower body weights at 4 and 8 weeks of exposure; and at 1 ppm, lower body weight was observed only at 4 weeks. Fish length was not affected by treatment at any time during the exposure period. The bioconcentration factor for RDX seemed to be influenced by time of exposure but not by water RDX concentration; its overall values were 1.01 ?? 0.13, 0.91 ?? 0.06 and 2.23 ?? 0.04 at 4, 8 weeks and 12 weeks, respectively. RDX was not detected in fish collected after the 15-day recovery period. In a separate experiment, adult females and males were separately exposed to RDX at measured concentrations of 0, 0.5 and 3.2 ppm for a period of 6 weeks. Reproductive performance was evaluated by biweekly breeding of the fish and measuring packed-egg volume (PEV) as index of fecundity. At 0.5 ppm, RDX caused elevated PEV levels relative to the control value at 2 weeks but not at 4 or 6 weeks, whereas no significant effects were noted at 3.2 ppm. Egg fertilization and embryo hatching rates were not affected by RDX at any of the concentrations tested. In conclusion, RDX at sublethal concentrations causes short-term negative effects on growth and, at 0.5 ppm, positive effects on fecundity. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Synthetic routes to 3(5)-phosphonylated pyrazoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goulioukina, N. S.; Makukhin, N. N.; Beletskaya, I. P.

    2016-07-01

    This review comprehensively covers the currently available synthetic routes to 3(5)-phosphonylated pyrazoles. There are demonstrated significant advances in this field over the last 10–15 years caused by the use of the Bestmann–Ohira reagent [as well as (diazomethyl)phosphonates and phosphonylated hydrazonoyl halides] in reactions with diverse dipolarophiles. 1,3-Dipolar cycloaddition of diazo compounds to α,β-unsaturated phosphonates as well as intramolecular heterocyclization of (1-diazoallyl)phosphonates and (3--diazo-1-propenyl)phosphonates are discussed. Synthetic potential of cyclocondensation of organophosphorus 1,3-dielectrophilic compounds with hydrazines is shown. Ways to introduce a phosphonate group into the pyrazole ring are considered. Examples of chemical transformations of 3(5)-phosphonylated pyrazoles are reported. The bibliography includes 88 references.

  8. Removing 3,5-Dichlorophenol from Wastewater by Alternative Adsorbents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobetičová, Hana; Galbičková, Blanka; Ševčíková, Janka; Soldán, Maroš

    2014-12-01

    The main objective of this paper is to evaluate an efficiency of 3,5 - dichlorophenol removal from wastewater by using alternative adsorbents. Chlorophenols are organic compounds consisting of a benzene ring, OH groups and also atoms of chlorine. Chlorophenols may have a huge isomere variety that means there are differences in their chemical and physical properties. Due to their toxicity it is necessary to remove them from waste water and in this paper an alternative way of such process is described.

  9. Dendrimers Based on [1,3,5]-Triazines

    PubMed Central

    STEFFENSEN, MACKAY B.; HOLLINK, EMILY; KUSCHEL, FRANK; BAUER, MONIKA; SIMANEK, ERIC E.

    2009-01-01

    A comprehensive and chronological account of dendrimers based on [1,3,5]-triazines is provided. Synthetic strategies to install the triazine through cycloaddition, cyclotrimerization, and nucleophilic aromatic substitution of cyanuric chloride are discussed. Motivations and applications of these architectures are surveyed, including the preparation of supra-molecular assemblies in the solution and solid states and their use in medicines, advanced materials, and separations when anchored to solid supports. PMID:19953202

  10. Delayed myelosuppression with acute exposure to hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and environmental degradation product hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX) in rats.

    PubMed

    Jaligama, Sridhar; Kale, Vijay M; Wilbanks, Mitchell S; Perkins, Edward J; Meyer, Sharon A

    2013-02-01

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), a widely used munitions compound, and hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX), its N-nitroso product of anaerobic microbial nitroreduction, are contaminants of military sites. Previous studies have shown MNX to be the most acutely toxic among the nitroreduced degradation products of RDX and to cause mild anemia at high dose. The present study compares hematotoxicity with acute oral exposure to MNX with parent RDX. Both RDX and MNX caused a modest decrease in blood hemoglobin and ~50% loss of granulocytes (NOAELs=47 mg/kg) in female Sprague-Dawley rats observed 14 days post-exposure. We explored the possibility that blood cell loss observed after 14 days was delayed in onset because of toxicity to bone marrow (BM) progenitors. RDX and MNX decreased granulocyte/macrophage-colony forming cells (GM-CFCs) at 14, but not 7, days (NOAELs=24 mg/kg). The earliest observed time at which MNX decreased GM-CFCs was 10 days post-exposure. RDX and MNX likewise decreased BM burst-forming units-erythroid (BFU-Es) at 14, but not 7, days. Granulocyte-erythrocyte-monocyte-megakaryocyte (GEMM)-CFCs were unaffected by RDX and MNX at 7 days suggesting precursor depletion did not account for GM-CFC and BFU-E loss. MNX added to the culture media was without effect on GM-CFC formation indicating no direct inhibition. Flow cytometry showed no differential loss of BM multilineage progenitors (Thy1.1(+)) or erythroid (CD71(+)) precursors with MNX suggesting myeloid and erythroid lineages were comparably affected. Collectively, these data indicate that acute exposure to both RDX and MNX caused delayed suppression of myelo- and erythropoiesis with subsequent decrease of peripheral granulocytes and erythrocytes. PMID:23219714

  11. Practical auxiliary basis implementation of Rung 3.5 functionals

    SciTech Connect

    Janesko, Benjamin G.; Scalmani, Giovanni; Frisch, Michael J.

    2014-07-21

    Approximate exchange-correlation functionals for Kohn-Sham density functional theory often benefit from incorporating exact exchange. Exact exchange is constructed from the noninteracting reference system's nonlocal one-particle density matrix γ(r{sup -vector},r{sup -vector}′). Rung 3.5 functionals attempt to balance the strengths and limitations of exact exchange using a new ingredient, a projection of γ(r{sup -vector},r{sup -vector} ′) onto a semilocal model density matrix γ{sub SL}(ρ(r{sup -vector}),∇ρ(r{sup -vector}),r{sup -vector}−r{sup -vector} ′). γ{sub SL} depends on the electron density ρ(r{sup -vector}) at reference point r{sup -vector}, and is closely related to semilocal model exchange holes. We present a practical implementation of Rung 3.5 functionals, expanding the r{sup -vector}−r{sup -vector} ′ dependence of γ{sub SL} in an auxiliary basis set. Energies and energy derivatives are obtained from 3D numerical integration as in standard semilocal functionals. We also present numerical tests of a range of properties, including molecular thermochemistry and kinetics, geometries and vibrational frequencies, and bandgaps and excitation energies. Rung 3.5 functionals typically provide accuracy intermediate between semilocal and hybrid approximations. Nonlocal potential contributions from γ{sub SL} yield interesting successes and failures for band structures and excitation energies. The results enable and motivate continued exploration of Rung 3.5 functional forms.

  12. Cusp-related Pc3-5 Wave Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilipenko, V.; Engebretson, M. J.; Kozlovsky, A.; Belakhovsky, V.; Lessard, M.; Yeoman, T. K.

    2009-12-01

    Pc3-5 pulsations were found to be an ubiquitous element of dayside ULF wave activity at the cusp region. We examine observations of Pc3-5 wave activity by search coil and flux-gate magnetometers at three locations on Svalbard, covering geomagnetic latitudes 74o-76o. To identify the ionospheric projections of the cusp, we use the width of the return signal from the SuperDARN Finland radar covering the Svalbard archipelago. The ULF meridional spatial structure is examined using the amplitude-phase gradient technique. This analysis shows no specific mode conversion pattern near the cusp region. The amplitude gradient mainly has the same direction at all frequencies, and only during periods when the cusp is shifted to very high latitudes, the gradient may change sign. The phase delay is chaotic and does not show any consistent pattern. This behavior corresponds to the occurrence of a localized peak in the latitudinal distribution of Pc3-5 power, but not under the cusp proper as was previously thought, but about several degrees southward from the equatorward cusp boundary. We suppose that compressional Pc3 fluctuations leaking from the magnetosheath into the entry layer of the magnetosphere can modulate the precipitating electron fluxes, which produce the ground response.

  13. Fate of the explosive hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in soil and bioaccumulation in bush bean hydroponic plants

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, S.D.; Fellows, R.J.; Cataldo, D.A.; Bean, R.M. )

    1991-01-01

    Soils amended with [[sup 14]C]hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) were sampled over 60 d and subjected to exhaustive Soxhlet extraction followed by HPLC analysis. RDX was the only radiolabeled compound observed in soil extracts. Emission of volatile organics and [sup 14]CO[sub 2] from soil accounted for only 0.31 % of the amended radiolabel. Mass balance for RDX-amended soil was better than 84% throughout the two-month study. The analytical method developed for plants involved acid hydrolysis, solvent extraction, fractionation on Florisil adsorbent and separation by HPLC. The described methodology allowed for RDX recovery of 86 [+-] 3% from fortified bush bean leaf tissue. Further experiments were conducted with bush bean plants maintained on RDX-containing hydroponic solutions. Hydroponic plants did not emit detectable amounts of [sup 14]CO[sub 2] or radiolabeled volatile organics. Analysis of the plant tissue indicated bioaccumulation of RDX in the aerial tissues of hydroponic plants exposed for either 1 or 7 d. Metabolism of RDX to polar metabolites was observed in plants exposed for 7 d.

  14. Lateral Transfer of Genes for Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine (RDX) Degradation▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Andeer, Peter F.; Stahl, David A.; Bruce, Neil C.; Strand, Stuart E.

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrated that degradation of the military explosive hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) by species of Rhodococcus, Gordonia, and Williamsia is mediated by a novel cytochrome P450 with a fused flavodoxin reductase domain (XplA) in conjunction with a flavodoxin reductase (XplB). Pulse field gel analysis was used to localize xplA to extrachromosomal elements in a Rhodococcus sp. and distantly related Microbacterium sp. strain MA1. Comparison of Rhodococcus rhodochrous 11Y and Microbacterium plasmid sequences in the vicinity of xplB and xplA showed near identity (6,710 of 6,721 bp). Sequencing of the associated 52.2-kb region of the Microbacterium plasmid pMA1 revealed flanking insertion sequence elements and additional genes implicated in RDX uptake and degradation. PMID:19270122

  15. Electron shuttle-mediated biotransformation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine adsorbed to granular activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Millerick, Kayleigh; Drew, Scott R; Finneran, Kevin T

    2013-08-01

    Granular activated carbon (GAC) effectively removes hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) from groundwater but generates RDX-laden GAC that must be disposed of or regenerated. Batch reactors containing GAC to which RDX was preadsorbed were used in experiments to test the potential for adsorbed RDX reduction and daughter product formation using (i) chemically reduced anthrahydroquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AH2QDS), (ii) resting Geobacter metallireducens strain GS-15, and (iii) a combined system containing AQDS and GS-15. Approximately 97.0% of the adsorbed RDX was transformed in each of these experimental systems by 90 h. Chemically reduced AQDS (AH2QDS) transformed 99.2% of adsorbed RDX; formaldehyde was produced rapidly and was stoichiometric (3 mol HCHO per mol RDX). Geobacter metallireducens also reduced RDX with and without AQDS present. This is the first study to demonstrate biological transformation of RDX adsorbed to GAC. Formaldehyde increased and then decreased in biological systems, suggesting a previously unreported capacity for G. metallireducens to oxidize formaldehyde, which was confirmed with resting cell suspensions. These data suggest the masses of GAC waste currently produced by activated carbon at RDX remediation sites can be minimized, decreasing the carbon footprint of the treatment technology. Alternatively, this strategy may be used to develop a Bio-GAC system for ex situ RDX treatment. PMID:23837558

  16. Anaerobic transformation of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) by ovine rumen microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Perumbakkam, Sudeep; Craig, A M

    2012-01-01

    Explosives such as octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) provide a challenge in terms of bioremediation. In the present study, sheep rumen was studied for its potential to detoxify HMX using analytical chemistry and molecular microbial ecology tools. Results indicated significant loss (p < 0.05) of HMX at 8 h post-incubation and complete disappearance of the parent molecule after 16 h. Qualitative LC-MS/MS analysis provided evidence for the formation of 1-NO-HMX and MEDINA metabolites. A total of 1006 16S rRNA-V3 clones were sequenced and the Classifier tool of the RDPII database was used to sort the sequences at their phylum level. Most sequences were associated with either the phylum Bacteroidetes or Firmicutes. Significant differences at the phylum level (p < 0.001) were found between 0 h and 8 h HMX treatments. Using LibCompare analysis, 8 h HMX treatment showed enrichment of clones (p < 0.01) belonging to the genus Prevotella. From these results, it could be concluded that members of the genus Prevotella are enriched in the rumen and are capable of detoxifying HMX. PMID:22903090

  17. Delayed myelosuppression with acute exposure to hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and environmental degradation product hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX) in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Jaligama, Sridhar; Kale, Vijay M.; Wilbanks, Mitchell S.; Perkins, Edward J.; Meyer, Sharon A.

    2013-02-01

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), a widely used munitions compound, and hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX), its N-nitroso product of anaerobic microbial nitroreduction, are contaminants of military sites. Previous studies have shown MNX to be the most acutely toxic among the nitroreduced degradation products of RDX and to cause mild anemia at high dose. The present study compares hematotoxicity with acute oral exposure to MNX with parent RDX. Both RDX and MNX caused a modest decrease in blood hemoglobin and ∼ 50% loss of granulocytes (NOAELs = 47 mg/kg) in female Sprague–Dawley rats observed 14 days post-exposure. We explored the possibility that blood cell loss observed after 14 days was delayed in onset because of toxicity to bone marrow (BM) progenitors. RDX and MNX decreased granulocyte/macrophage-colony forming cells (GM-CFCs) at 14, but not 7, days (NOAELs = 24 mg/kg). The earliest observed time at which MNX decreased GM-CFCs was 10 days post-exposure. RDX and MNX likewise decreased BM burst-forming units-erythroid (BFU-Es) at 14, but not 7, days. Granulocyte–erythrocyte–monocyte–megakaryocyte (GEMM)-CFCs were unaffected by RDX and MNX at 7 days suggesting precursor depletion did not account for GM-CFC and BFU-E loss. MNX added to the culture media was without effect on GM-CFC formation indicating no direct inhibition. Flow cytometry showed no differential loss of BM multilineage progenitors (Thy1.1{sup +}) or erythroid (CD71{sup +}) precursors with MNX suggesting myeloid and erythroid lineages were comparably affected. Collectively, these data indicate that acute exposure to both RDX and MNX caused delayed suppression of myelo- and erythropoiesis with subsequent decrease of peripheral granulocytes and erythrocytes. Highlights: ► Acute oral exposure to munitions RDX causes myelosuppression. ► Environmental degradation product MNX is comparable in effect. ► RDX and MNX are cytotoxic to both myeloid and erythroid

  18. Antinociceptive effect of a novel armed spider peptide Tx3-5 in pathological pain models in mice.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Sara M; Silva, Cássia R; Trevisan, Gabriela; Villarinho, Jardel G; Cordeiro, Marta N; Richardson, Michael; Borges, Márcia H; Castro, Célio J; Gomez, Marcus V; Ferreira, Juliano

    2016-05-01

    The venom of the Brazilian armed spider Phoneutria nigriventer is a rich source of biologically active peptides that have potential as analgesic drugs. In this study, we investigated the analgesic and adverse effects of peptide 3-5 (Tx3-5), purified from P. nigriventer venom, in several mouse models of pain. Tx3-5 was administered by intrathecal injection to mice selected as models of postoperative (plantar incision), neuropathic (partial sciatic nerve ligation) and cancer-related pain (inoculation with melanoma cells) in animals that were either sensitive or tolerant to morphine. Intrathecal administration of Tx3-5 (3-300 fmol/site) in mice could either prevent or reverse postoperative nociception, with a 50 % inhibitory dose (ID50) of 16.6 (3.2-87.2) fmol/site and a maximum inhibition of 87 ± 10 % at a dose of 30 fmol/site. Its effect was prevented by the selective activator of L-type calcium channel Bay-K8644 (10 μg/site). Tx3-5 (30 fmol/site) also produced a partial antinociceptive effect in a neuropathic pain model (inhibition of 67 ± 10 %). Additionally, treatment with Tx3-5 (30 fmol/site) nearly abolished cancer-related nociception with similar efficacy in both morphine-sensitive and morphine-tolerant mice (96 ± 7 and 100 % inhibition, respectively). Notably, Tx3-5 did not produce visible adverse effects at doses that produced antinociception and presented a TD50 of 1125 (893-1418) fmol/site. Finally, Tx3-5 did not alter the normal mechanical or thermal sensitivity of the animals or cause immunogenicity. Our results suggest that Tx3-5 is a strong drug candidate for the treatment of painful conditions. PMID:26898377

  19. Uterine Artery Embolization to Treat Uterine Adenomyosis with or without Uterine Leiomyomata: Results of Symptom Control and Health-Related Quality of Life 40 Months after Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Froeling, V. Scheurig-Muenkler, C. Hamm, B. Kroencke, T. J.

    2012-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical outcome for uterine adenomyosis with or without uterine leiomyomata 40 months after uterine artery embolization (UAE). Methods: Forty women aged 39-56 years (median 46 years) with symptomatic uterine adenomyosis and magnetic resonance imaging findings of uterine adenomyosis with or without combined uterine leiomyomata underwent UAE. Self-perceived changes in clinical symptoms were assessed, and residual symptom severity and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) after UAE were evaluated. Clinical failure was defined as no symptomatic improvement or second invasive therapy after UAE. Results were stratified by the extent of uterine adenomyosis at baseline magnetic resonance imaging. Results: Patients were followed for a median of 40 months (range 5-102 months). UAE led to symptomatic control after UAE in 29 (72.5%) of 40 patients while 11 women underwent hysterectomy (n = 10) or dilatation and curettage (n = 1) for therapy failure. No significant difference between women with pure uterine adenoymosis and women with uterine adenomyosis combined with uterine leiomyomata was observed. Best results were shown for UAE in uterine adenomyosis with uterine leiomyomata predominance as opposed to predominant uterine adenomyosis with minor fibroid disease (clinical failure 0% vs. 31.5%, P = 0.058). Throughout the study group, HRQOL score values increased and symptom severity scores decreased after UAE. Least improvement was noted for women with pure adenomyosis. Conclusions: UAE is clinically effective in the long term in most women with uterine adenomyosis. Symptomatic control and HRQOL were highest in patients with combined disease of uterine adenomyosis but leiomyomata predominance.

  20. Microbially Mediated Biodegradation of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5- Triazine by Extracellular Electron Shuttling Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Man Jae; Finneran, Kevin T.

    2006-01-01

    The potential for humic substances to stimulate the reduction of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) was investigated. This study describes a novel approach for the remediation of RDX-contaminated environments using microbially mediated electron shuttling. Incubations without cells demonstrated that reduced AQDS transfers electrons directly to RDX, which was reduced without significant accumulation of the nitroso intermediates. Three times as much reduced AQDS (molar basis) was needed to completely reduce RDX. The rate and extent of RDX reduction differed greatly among electron shuttle/acceptor amendments for resting cell suspensions of Geobacter metallireducens and G. sulfurreducens with acetate as the sole electron donor. AQDS and purified humic substances stimulated the fastest rate of RDX reduction. The nitroso metabolites did not significantly accumulate in the presence of AQDS or humic substances. RDX reduction in the presence of poorly crystalline Fe(III) was relatively slow and metabolites transiently accumulated. However, adding humic substances or AQDS to Fe(III)-containing incubations increased the reduction rates. Cells of G. metallireducens alone reduced RDX; however, the rate of RDX reduction was slow relative to AQDS-amended incubations. These data suggest that extracellular electron shuttle-mediated RDX transformation is not organism specific but rather is catalyzed by multiple Fe(III)- and humic-reducing species. Electron shuttle-mediated RDX reduction may eventually become a rapid and effective cleanup strategy in both Fe(III)-rich and Fe(III)-poor environments. PMID:16957213

  1. Molecular dynamics characterization of void defects in crystalline (1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane).

    PubMed

    Boyd, Sylke; Murray, Jane S; Politzer, Peter

    2009-11-28

    In the context of a continuing investigation of factors that affect the sensitivities of energetic materials to detonation initiation, we have carried out a molecular dynamics characterization of void defects in crystalline (1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclo-hexane). An empirical force field that is capable of handling flexible molecules in a pliable crystal was used. Voids ranging in size from 2 to 30 adjacent vacated sites were created in model lattices of 216 or 512 molecules. Energetic and geometric ground state properties were determined. The void formation energy per molecule removed was found to decrease from 50 kcal/mol for a single vacancy to about 23+/-2 kcal/mol for voids larger than one unit cell (8 molecules). Analysis of the local binding energies in the vicinity of a void reveals not only the expected decrease for molecules directly on the void surface but also a wide spread of values in the first 5-10 A away from the surface; this includes some molecules with local binding energies significantly higher than in the defect-free lattice. Molecular conformational changes and reorientations begin to be found in the vicinities of voids larger than one unit cell. Thermal behavior investigated includes void and molecular diffusion coefficients and fluctuations in void size. PMID:19947705

  2. Alkaline hydrolysis of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine: M06-2X investigation.

    PubMed

    Sviatenko, Liudmyla K; Gorb, Leonid; Hill, Frances C; Leszczynska, Danuta; Okovytyy, Sergiy I; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2015-09-01

    Alkaline hydrolysis mechanism of possible environmental contaminant RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) was investigated computationally at the PCM(Pauling)/M06-2X/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory. Results obtained show that the initial deprotonation of RDX by hydroxide leads to nitrite elimination and formation of a denitrated cyclohexene intermediate. Further nucleophilic attack by hydroxide onto cyclic CN double bond results in ring opening. It was shown that the presence of hydroxide is crucial for this stage of the reaction. The dominant decomposition pathway leading to a ring-opened intermediate was found to be formation of 4-nitro-2,4-diazabutanal. Hydrolytic transformation of its byproduct (methylene nitramine) leads to end products such as formaldehyde and nitrous oxide. Computational results are in a good agreement with experimental data on hydrolysis of RDX, suggesting that 4-nitro-2,4-diazabutanal, nitrite, formaldehyde, and nitrous oxide are main products for early stages of RDX decomposition under alkaline conditions. PMID:25911044

  3. A Clinical Comparison of Cenobone (A Decalcified Freeze-dried Bone Allograft) with Autogenous Bone Graft in the Treatment of Two- and Three-wall Intrabony Periodontal Defects: A Human Study with Six-month Reentry

    PubMed Central

    Abolfazli, Nader; Saleh Saber, Fariba; Lafzi, Ardeshir; Eskandari, Amir; Mehrasbi, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    Background and aims Complete and predictable regeneration of tissue lost as a result of infection or trauma is the ultimate goal of periodontal therapy. Various graft materials have been successfully used in the treatment of intrabony defects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of a decalcified freeze-dried bone allograft (Cerabone) with the autogenous bone graft as a gold standard in the treatment of human two- or three-wall intrabony periodontal defects. Materials and methods This split-mouth study was done on 10 pairs of matched two- or three-wall intrabony periodontal defects with 5 mm or more probing depth and 3 mm or more depth of intrabony component following phase I therapy. In the control sites autogenous bone graft and in the test sites decalcified freeze-dried bone allograft were used. Results At baseline, no significant differences were found in terms of oral hygiene and defect charac-teristics. At six months, analysis showed a significant improvement in soft and hard tissue parameters for both treatment groups as compared to preoperative measurements. There were no statistical differ-ences in clinically-measured parameters between treatment groups after 6 months except for crestal resorption that increased significantly in control group (P = 0.25). Defect resolution and bone fill in the test and control groups were 2.5 ± 0.46 mm versus 2.7 ± 0.73 mm and 2 ± 0.62 mm versus 2.20 ± 0.52 mm, respectively. Conclusion The results of this study demonstrated that both graft materials improved clinical parameters. The comparison of the two treatment groups did not show any significant differences in clinical parameters after six months. However, because of the limited amount of intra-oral donor bone, it is preferable to use decalcified freeze-dried bone allograft. PMID:23285322

  4. The Maintenance Effect of Cognitive-Behavioural Treatment Groups for the Chinese Parents of Children with Intellectual Disabilities in Melbourne, Australia: A 6-Month Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, D. F. K.; Poon, A.; Kwok, Y. C. Lai

    2011-01-01

    Background: Caring for a child with intellectual disability can be stressful. No data on the longer-term effects of cognitive-behavioural treatment (CBT) on parents from a Chinese-speaking background who have children with intellectual disabilities are available in the literature. This study attempted to fill this research gap by examining the…

  5. Mental Health Treatment Barriers among Racial/Ethnic Minority versus White Young Adults 6 Months after Intake at a College Counseling Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Regina; Soffer, Ariella; Polanco-Roman, Lillian; Wheeler, Alyssa; Moore, Alyssa

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study examined mental health treatment barriers following intake at a counseling center among racially/ethnically diverse college students. Methods: College students (N = 122) seen for intake at a college counseling center in 2012-2013 completed self-reports of depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and mental health treatment…

  6. Treatment -Emergent Suicidal Ideation During 4 Months of Acute Management of Unipolar Major Depression with SSRI Pharmacotherapy or Interpersonal Psychotherapy in a Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Rucci, P; Frank, E; Scocco, P.; Calugi, S.; Miniati, M.; Fagiolini, A.; Cassano, G.B.

    2010-01-01

    Background To date, few randomized controlled trials (RCT) of major depression have examined suicidal ideation as an outcome measure. Our aim is to determine the incidence of treatment-emergent suicidal ideation (ESI) and behaviors during the acute phase of treatment with an SSRI antidepressant or interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) in patients with unipolar major depression. Methods In a two-site RCT, 291 adult outpatients with non-psychotic major depression and a Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) score ≥15 were randomly allocated to IPT or SSRI. Participants who did not remit with monotherapy received augmentation with the other treatment. ESI was defined as a post-baseline HDRS suicidality item score ≥2 or a post-baseline Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS) score ≥2 in patients with a baseline score <=1. Results Of the 231 participants who had no suicidal ideation at baseline, 32 (13.8%) subsequently exhibited ESI on at least one post-baseline visit. Time to suicidal ideation was significantly longer in patients allocated to SSRI compared to those allocated to IPT (HR=2.21, 95% CI 1.04-4.66, p=0.038), even after controlling for treatment augmentation, benzodiazepine use and comorbidity with anxiety disorders. Worsening of suicidal ideation occurred in 7/60 patients who had suicidal ideation at baseline. In the large majority of cases, suicidal ideation was successfully managed with the study protocol. Conclusions In the context of careful monitoring and frequent contact, SSRI was associated with a lower risk of ESI that IPT and both SSRI and IPT appeared to be safe treatments for patients with past suicide attempts, none of whom exhibited ESI during the study. PMID:21308882

  7. Elevated root retention of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in coniferous trees.

    PubMed

    Schoenmuth, Bernd; Mueller, Jakob O; Scharnhorst, Tanja; Schenke, Detlef; Büttner, Carmen; Pestemer, Wilfried

    2014-03-01

    For decades, the explosive RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) has been used for military and industrial applications. Residues of RDX pollute soils in large areas globally and the persistence and high soil mobility of these residues can lead to leaching into groundwater. Dendroremediation, i.e. the long-term use of trees to clean up polluted soils, is gaining acceptance as a green and sustainable strategy. Although the coniferous tree species Norway spruce and Scots pine cover large areas of military land in Central Europe, the potential of any coniferous tree for dendroremediation of RDX is still unknown. In this study, uptake experiments with a (14)C-labelled RDX solution (30 mg L(-1)) revealed that RDX was predominantly retained in the roots of 6-year-old coniferous trees. Only 23 % (pine) to 34 % (spruce) of RDX equivalents (RDXeq) taken up by the roots were translocated to aboveground tree compartments. This finding contrasts with the high aerial accumulation of RDXeq (up to 95 %) in the mass balances of all other plant species. Belowground retention of RDXeq is relatively stable in fine root fractions, since water leaching from tissue homogenates was less than 5 %. However, remobilisation from milled coarse roots and tree stubs reached up to 53 %. Leaching from homogenised aerial tree material was found to reach 64 % for needles, 58 % for stems and twigs and 40 % for spring sprouts. Leaching of RDX by precipitation increases the risk for undesired re-entry into the soil. However, it also opens the opportunity for microbial mineralisation in the litter layer or in the rhizosphere of coniferous forests and offers a chance for repeated uptake of RDX by the tree roots. PMID:24281674

  8. Toxicity of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine to larval zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mukhi, S.; Pan, X.; Cobb, G.P.; Patino, R.

    2005-01-01

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine, a cyclonitramine commonly known as RDX, is used in the production of military munitions. Contamination of soil, sediment, and ground and surface waters with RDX has been reported in different places around the world. Acute and subacute toxicities of RDX have been relatively well documented in terrestrial vertebrates, but among aquatic vertebrates the information available is limited. The objective of this study was to characterize the acute toxicity of RDX to larval zebrafish. Mortality (LC50) and incidence of vertebral column deformities (EC50) were two of the end points measured in this study. The 96-h LC50 was estimated at 22.98 and 25.64 mg l-1 in two different tests. The estimated no-observed-effective- concentration (NOEC) values of RDX on lethality were 13.27 ?? 0.05 and 15.32 ?? 0.30 mg l-1; and the lowest-observed-effective- concentration (LOEC) values were 16.52 ?? 0.05 and 19.09 ?? 0.23 mg l-1 in these two tests, respectively. The 96-h EC50 for vertebral deformities on survivors from one of the acute lethality tests was estimated at 20.84 mg l-1, with NOEC and LOEC of 9.75 ?? 0.34 and 12.84 ?? 0.34 mg l-1, respectively. Behavioral aberrations were also noted in this acute toxicity study, including the occurrence of whirling movement and lethargic behavior. The acute effects of RDX on survival, incidence of deformities, and behavior of larval zebrafish occurred at the high end of the most frequently reported concentrations of RDX in aquatic environments. The chronic effects of RDX in aquatic vertebrates need to be determined for an adequate assessment of the ecological risk of environmental RDX. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Histologically Proven Radiation-Induced Brainstem Glioma 93 Months After External Beam Radiotherapy for Pituitary Macroadenoma: Radiation Treatment Dose and Volume Correlation.

    PubMed

    Abboud, Salim E; Wolansky, Leo J; Manjila, Sunil V; Lo, Simon S; Arafah, Baha M; Selman, Warren R; Couce, Marta E; Rogers, Lisa R

    2015-01-01

    Patient is a 29-year-old with a history of recurrent growth hormone-secreting pituitary macroadenoma diagnosed 12 years prior to presentation. Eight years prior to current presentation, the patient underwent re-resection and received 50.4 Gy external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) in 28 fractions of 1.8 Gy each. Serial postradiation MRIs demonstrated regression in pituitary tumor size. Patient presented with new headaches 7.5 years after completing EBRT. Brain MRI demonstrated new FLAIR hyperintensity and contrast enhancement within the pons and medulla, corresponding to the 36 Gy isodose line of each radiation dose fraction. Differential diagnosis included radiation necrosis and radiation-induced glioma (RIG). The patient's neurologic exam worsened over the following 4 months. MRI showed progressive increase in mass effect, extent of FLAIR hyperintensity, and contrast enhancement in the brainstem. Stereotactic-assisted biopsy showed infiltrating astrocytoma with moderate atypia. A PubMed search showed this is the first case of histologically verified brainstem RIG correlated with 3-dimensional conformational radiation therapy dose and volume planning following EBRT for a pituitary adenoma. The rare occurrence of brainstem RIG after radiation therapy for pituitary tumor supports the need for long-term imaging monitoring of such patients. PMID:25345677

  10. Six-Month Follow-Up of a Randomized Controlled Trial Augmenting Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Treatment With Exposure and Ritual Prevention for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Foa, Edna B.; Simpson, Helen Blair; Liebowitz, Michael R.; Powers, Mark B.; Rosenfield, David; Cahill, Shawn P.; Campeas, Raphael; Franklin, Martin; Hahn, Chang-Gyu; Hembree, Elizabeth A.; Huppert, Jonathan D.; Schmidt, Andrew B.; Vermes, Donna; Williams, Monnica T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This article describes the long-term effects of augmenting serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) with exposure and ritual prevention or stress management training in patients with DSM-IV obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Method Between November 2000 and November 2006, 111 OCD patients from 2 academic outpatient centers with partial SRI response were randomized to the addition of exposure and ritual prevention or stress management training, delivered twice weekly for 8 weeks (acute phase); 108 began treatment. Responders (38 of 52 in the exposure and ritual prevention condition, 11 of 52 in the stress management training condition) entered a 24-week maintenance phase. The Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (YBOCS) was the primary outcome measure. Results After 24 weeks, patients randomized to and receiving exposure and ritual prevention versus stress management training had significantly better outcomes (mean YBOCS scores of 14.69 and 21.37, respectively; t = 2.88, P = .005), higher response rates (decrease in YBOCS scores ≥ 25%: 40.7% vs 9.3%, Fisher exact test P < .001), and higher rates of excellent response (YBOCS score ≤ 12: 24.1% vs 5.6%, Fisher exact test P = .01). During the maintenance phase, the slope of change in YBOCS scores was not significant in either condition (all P values ≥ .55), with no difference between exposure and ritual prevention and stress management training (P > .74). Better outcome was associated with baseline variables: lower YBOCS scores, higher quality of life, fewer comorbid Axis I diagnoses, and male sex. Conclusions Augmenting SRIs with exposure and ritual prevention versus stress management training leads to better outcome after acute treatment and 24 weeks later. Maintenance outcome, however, was primarily a function of OCD severity at entrance. Greater improvement during the acute phase influences how well patients maintain their gains, regardless of treatment condition. PMID:23759449

  11. Bioavailability of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine (RDX) to the Praire Vole (Microtus ochrogaster).

    SciTech Connect

    Fellows, Robert J.; Driver, Crystal J.; Cataldo, Dominic A.; Harvey, Scott D.

    2006-07-01

    Estimating risk to wildlife requires that measures of exposure be equivalent to that of the laboratory studies from which toxic responses were observed. Exposure measures are often based on modeled estimates of uptake through the food web. These modeled estimates use largely untested assumptions that can lead to inaccurate, uncertain, and unreliable estimates of exposure. Recently, concerns have been raised over the potential bioavailability and biotransfer of munitions or energetics materials such as hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). RDX is more recalcitrant in the soil, may remain as the parent compound for extended periods of time, and is rapidly taken up by the roots of higher plants and partitioned predominantly into the above ground, herbivore-accessible tissues. This study assessed plant incorporated [14C]-RDX and plant derived [14C]-RDX-metabolites ingestion by a representative hindgut herbivore, the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster). The animals were fed the labeled chow (≤10 g/ day max) for five or seven days followed by a six or four day chase period with the control chow prior to final weighing and sacrifice. Animal excreta including feces, urine, and respired CO2 were collected and measured. Greater than 95% of all label presented to the voles was recovered in the summed excreta. Seventy-four percent of the label in the total excreta was found in the fecal non-absorbed bulk. This means that greater than 20% of the presented 14C-RDX and plant-derived 14C-RDX-metabolites were absorbed by the animal’s digestive tracts over the time course of the experiment and modified prior to release. These materials were either metabolized to 14CO2 (8 to 10% of the total label) or removed as nitrogenous waste through the kidneys (10 to 14%). The feeding regimes were followed by a rapid, 2 to 3 day, clearing of label from the bulk feces with the cessation of exposure. Both 14C-urine and 14CO2 excretion continued after the feces cleared indicating

  12. A proteinuria cut-off level of 0.7 g/day after 12 months of treatment best predicts long-term renal outcome in lupus nephritis: data from the MAINTAIN Nephritis Trial

    PubMed Central

    Tamirou, Farah; Lauwerys, Bernard R; Dall'Era, Maria; Mackay, Meggan; Rovin, Brad; Cervera, Ricard; Houssiau, Frédéric A

    2015-01-01

    Background Although an early decrease in proteinuria has been correlated with good long-term renal outcome in lupus nephritis (LN), studies aimed at defining a cut-off proteinuria value are missing, except a recent analysis performed on patients randomised in the Euro-Lupus Nephritis Trial, demonstrating that a target value of 0.8 g/day at month 12 optimised sensitivity and specificity for the prediction of good renal outcome. The objective of the current work is to validate this target in another LN study, namely the MAINTAIN Nephritis Trial (MNT). Methods Long-term (at least 7 years) renal function data were available for 90 patients randomised in the MNT. Receiver operating characteristic curves were built to test the performance of proteinuria measured within the 1st year as short-term predictor of long-term renal outcome. We calculated the positive and negative predictive values (PPV, NPV). Results After 12 months of treatment, achievement of a proteinuria <0.7 g/day best predicted good renal outcome, with a sensitivity and a specificity of 71% and 75%, respectively. The PPV was high (94%) but the NPV low (29%). Addition of the requirement of urine red blood cells ≤5/hpf as response criteria at month 12 reduced sensitivity from 71% to 41%. Conclusions In this cohort of mainly Caucasian patients suffering from a first episode of LN in most cases, achievement of a proteinuria <0.7 g/day at month 12 best predicts good outcome at 7 years and inclusion of haematuria in the set of criteria at month 12 undermines the sensitivity of early proteinuria decrease for the prediction of good outcome. The robustness of these conclusions stems from the very similar results obtained in two distinct LN cohorts. Trial registration number: NCT00204022. PMID:26629352

  13. Thermal oxidation of 3-5 compound semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteironeto, Othon Derego

    1988-11-01

    Thermal oxidation of 3-5 compound semiconductors has been studied in the temperature range of 300 to 600 C. Two members of this class of materials, namely InP and GaAs, were the object of the experimental work carried out here. The main analytical tools used were transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). TEM was employed to access microstructural changes and SIMS to access the composition redistribution that takes place as a consequence of the oxidation reaction. Below 400 C oxidation of both materials led to the formation of amorphous scales, which consisted of a mixture of gallium and arsenic oxides in the case of GaAs, and indium phosphate and oxide in the case of InP. The oxidation kinetics of InP was found to be slower than that of GaAs. In the high temperature regime, i.e., above 400 C, the oxidation of both materials resulted in crystalline products. Precipitation of the group 5 element at the scale/semiconductor interface took place during oxidation. At the GaAs/Ga2O3interface, As precipitates were formed with a truncated square pyramid shape bound by (111) sub GaAs planes. The precipitates found at the InPO4/InP interface were either a phosphorus rich phase or red phosphorus. Strong vaporization under the electron beam prohibited a more accurate determination. The morphology of those precipitates were very similar to the As ones in GaAs.

  14. Prospective Randomized Study Comparing Combined Phaco-ExPress and Phacotrabeculectomy in Open Angle Glaucoma Treatment: 12-Month Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Konopińska, Joanna; Deniziak, Marta; Saeed, Emil; Bartczak, Agnieszka; Zalewska, Renata; Mariak, Zofia; Rękas, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of the Study. To compare the efficacy and safety of phacotrabeculectomy (P-Trab) and phacoemulsification with the ExPress (P-ExPress) mini glaucoma shunt implantation. Study Plan. Prospective randomized study. Material and Methods. 85 eyes with cataract and unregulated open angle glaucoma. There were 46 eyes in the P-ExPress and 39 the P-Trab group. Intraocular pressure (IOP), the number of antiglaucoma medications, qualified and complete surgical success (defined as IOP ≤ 18.0 mmHg), visual acuity (CDVA), the number of endothelial cells, and postoperative complications and additional procedures were assessed. Results. After 12 months of observation, the average IOP in the P-Express group went from 26.4 ± 9.3 down to 17.1 ± 5 mmHg (P < 0.05) and from 27.9 ± 12.9 down to 15.9 ± 2.7 mmHg in the P-Trab group (P < 0.05). No significant differences in the amount of medications used after surgery and CDVA were discovered between the groups. In the P-ExPress group, greater loss of endothelial cells was noted (CDloss%), compared to the P-Trab group. Conclusions. Both P-ExPress and P-Trab have comparable efficacy and similar early postoperative complication profile. The presence of additional implant (as is the case of the ExPress mini glaucoma shunt implantation) may cause progressive loss of endothelial cells. PMID:26137318

  15. White adipose tissue urea cycle activity is not affected by one-month treatment with a hyperlipidic diet in female rats.

    PubMed

    Arriarán, Sofía; Agnelli, Silvia; Remesar, Xavier; Alemany, Marià; Fernández-López, José Antonio

    2016-03-01

    Under high-energy diets, amino acid N is difficult to dispose of, as a consequence of the availability of alternative substrates. We found, recently, that WAT contains a complete functional urea cycle, we analyzed the possible overall changes in the WAT urea cycle (and other-related amino acid metabolism gene expressions) in rats subjected to a cafeteria diet. Adult female Wistar rats were fed control or simplified cafeteria diets. Samples of WAT sites: mesenteric, periovaric, retroperitoneal and subcutaneous, were used for the estimation of all urea cycle enzyme activities and gene expressions. Other key amino acid metabolism gene expressions, and lactate dehydrogenase were also measured. Subcutaneous WAT showed a differentiated amino acid metabolism profile, since its cumulative (whole site) activity for most enzymes was higher than the activities of the other sites studied. After one month of eating an energy-rich cafeteria diet, and in spite of doubling the size of WAT, the transforming capacity of most amino acid metabolism enzymes remained practically unchanged in the tissue. This was not only due to limited changes in the overall enzyme activity, but also a consequence of a relative decrease in the expression of the corresponding genes. Overall, the results of this study support the consideration of WAT as an organ, disperse but under uniform control. The metabolic peculiarities between its different sites, and their ability to adapt to different energy availability conditions only add to the variable nature of adipose tissue. We have presented additional evidence of the significant role of WAT in amino acid metabolism. PMID:26901686

  16. The HAS-BLED Score Identifies Patients with Acute Venous Thromboembolism at High Risk of Major Bleeding Complications during the First Six Months of Anticoagulant Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Kooiman, Judith; van Hagen, Nadja; Iglesias del Sol, Antonio; Planken, Erwin V.; Lip, Gregory Y. H.; van der Meer, Felix J. M.; Cannegieter, Suzanne C.; Klok, Frederikus A.; Huisman, Menno V.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The HAS-BLED score enables a risk estimate of major bleeds in patients with atrial fibrillation on vitamin K-antagonists (VKA) treatment, but has not been validated for patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE). We analyzed whether the HAS-BLED score accurately identifies patients at high risk of major bleeds during VKA treatment for acute VTE. Methods Medical records of 537 patients with acute VTE (primary diagnosis pulmonary embolism in 223, deep vein thrombosis in 314) starting VKA treatment between 2006-2007 were searched for items on the HAS-BLED score and the occurrence of major bleeds during the first 180 days of follow-up. The hazard ratio (HR) for the occurrence of major bleeds comparing non-high with high-risk patients as defined by a HAS-BLED score ≥ 3 points was calculated using Cox-regression analysis. Results Major bleeds occurred in 11/537 patients (2.0%, 5.2/100 person years, 95% CI 2.8-9.2). Cumulative incidences of major bleeds were 1.3% (95% CI 0.1-2.5) in the non-high (HAS-BLED < 3) and 9.6% (95%CI 2.2-17.0) in the high-risk group (HAS-BLED ≥ 3), (p <0.0001 by Log-Rank test), with a HR of 8.7 (95% CI 2.7-28.4). Of the items in the HAS-BLED score, abnormal renal function (HR 10.8, 95% CI 1.9-61.7) and a history of bleeding events (HR 10.4, 95% CI 2.5-42.5) were independent predictors of major bleeds during follow-up. Conclusion Acute VTE patients with a HAS-BLED score ≥ 3 points are at increased risk of major bleeding. These results warrant for correction of the potentially reversible risk factors for major bleeding and careful International Normalized Ratio monitoring in acute VTE patients with a high HAS-BLED score. PMID:25905638

  17. 77 FR 13181 - American Red Cross Month, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    .... (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2012-5553 Filed 3-5-12; 8:45 am] Billing code 3295-F2-P ... Month, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation After more than 130 years of... hope for a brighter tomorrow. During American Red Cross Month, we pay tribute to all those...

  18. 78 FR 14431 - Irish-American Heritage Month, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    .... (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2013-05293 Filed 3-5-13; 8:45 am] Billing code 3295-F3 ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8934 of February 28, 2013 Irish-American Heritage Month, 2013 By the... month, we celebrate the Irish-American journey, and we reflect on the ways a nation so small...

  19. 78 FR 14429 - American Red Cross Month, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ... thirty- seventh. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2013-05290 Filed 3-5-13; 8:45 am] Billing code 3295-F3 ... Cross Month, 2013 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Since our Nation's.... This month, we honor men and women who deliver relief to communities around the world, and we renew...

  20. Remission Rate and Functional Outcomes During a 6-Month Treatment With Osmotic-Release Oral-System Methylphenidate in Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Su, Yi; Li, Haibo; Chen, Yixin; Fang, Fang; Xu, Tong; Lu, Haiping; Xie, Ling; Zhuo, Jianmin; Qu, Jiazhi; Yang, Li; Wang, Yufeng

    2015-10-01

    Many definitions have been used to evaluate remission in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in different studies resulting with varied remission rates. This open-label, multicenter study investigated the remission rate in Chinese children (n = 239; aged 6-16 years) with a diagnosis of ADHD (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition), treated with osmotic-release oral-system methylphenidate at doses of 18, 36, and 54 mg, once daily. Two definitions of remission were used: (1) (primary end point): average scores of SNAP-IV (Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham, Fourth Edition) items of 1 or less (0-3 rating scale for each item) according to the subtype of ADHD (inattentive [1-9], hyperactive-impulsive [10-18], and combined type [1-18]), and (2) total score of SNAP-IV items 1 to 18 of 18 or less, at week 8. The study consisted of screening/baseline, titration/open-label treatment (8 weeks), and extended observation (up to 24 weeks) phases. Secondary efficacy assessments were Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (clinical efficacy), Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function Scale (BRIEF; executive function behaviors), and Weiss Functional Impairment Rating Scale (social function). Validity of remission was assessed by comparing the function measures (BRIEF and Weiss's) between patients who achieved remission and those who did not. At week 8, 69.3% (151/218) of patients achieved remission by definition 1, and 73.2% (161/220) by definition 2. At weeks 8 and 24, the remission group had significantly lower BRIEF, Weiss's, and Clinical Global Impression-Improvement scores (P < 0.001 for all) compared with the nonremission group. Overall, treatment with osmotic-release oral-system methylphenidate was well tolerated, with increased remission rates in children with ADHD. PMID:26267421

  1. The role of biotransformation and oxidative stress in 3,5-dichloroaniline (3,5-DCA) induced nephrotoxicity in isolated renal cortical cells from male Fischer 344 rats.

    PubMed

    Racine, Christopher R; Ferguson, Travis; Preston, Debbie; Ward, Dakota; Ball, John; Anestis, Dianne; Valentovic, Monica; Rankin, Gary O

    2016-02-01

    Among the mono- and dichloroanilines, 3,5-dichloroaniline (3,5-DCA) is the most potent nephrotoxicant in vivo and in vitro. However, the role of renal biotransformation in 3,5-DCA induced nephrotoxicity is unknown. The current study was designed to determine the in vitro nephrotoxic potential of 3,5-DCA in isolated renal cortical cells (IRCC) obtained from male Fischer 344 rats, and the role of renal bioactivation and oxidative stress in 3,5-DCA nephrotoxicity. IRCC (∼ 4 million cells/ml) from male rats were exposed to 3,5-DCA (0-1.0mM) for up to 120 min. In IRCC, 3,5-DCA was cytotoxic at 1.0mM by 60 min as evidenced by the increased release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), but 120 min was required for 3,5-DCA 0.5mM to increase LDH release. In subsequent studies, IRCC were exposed to a pretreatment (antioxidant or enzyme inhibitor) prior to exposure to 3,5-DCA (1.0mM) for 90 min. Cytotoxicity induced by 3,5-DCA was attenuated by pretreatment with inhibitors of flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO; methimazole, N-octylamine), cytochrome P450 (CYP; piperonyl butoxide, metyrapone), or peroxidase (indomethacin, mercaptosuccinate) enzymes. Use of more selective CYP inhibitors suggested that the CYP 2C family contributed to 3,5-DCA bioactivation. Antioxidants (glutathione, N-acetyl-l-cysteine, α-tocopherol, ascorbate, pyruvate) also attenuated 3,5-DCA nephrotoxicity, but oxidized glutathione levels and the oxidized/reduced glutathione ratios were not increased. These results indicate that 3,5-DCA may be activated via several renal enzyme systems to toxic metabolites, and that free radicals, but not oxidative stress, contribute to 3,5-DCA induced nephrotoxicity in vitro. PMID:26808022

  2. Formation of guanine ribonucleotidyl-(3'-5')-adenosine in a flavinogenic strain of Eremothecium ashbyii.

    PubMed

    Mitsuda, H; Nishikawa, Y; Nakajima, K

    1976-01-01

    The addition of caffeine caused the accumulation of a new nucleotide compound simultaneously with the rigid inhibition of ribofalvin production in non-growing cells of Eremothecium ashbyii. In the present study we tried to identify the structure of the nucleotide compound using non-growing cells of the mold. 1) It became possible to obtain a large amount of mycelia by masscultivation in a reagent tank. 2) A new nucleotide compound, referred to as compound A in the paper, was extracted with perchloric acid solution and purified by the following subsequent procedures: 1) Dowex 1 x 2 (HCOO-) column, 2) charcoal treatment, 3) DEAE-Sephadex A25 (CI-) column, 4) Dowex 1 x 2 (C1-) column, and 5) DEAE-Sephadex A25 (HCO3-) column. 3) The structure of the new nucleotide compound was proved to be guanine ribonucleotidyl-(3'-5')-adenosine (GpA) from the results of the following analyses: 1) alkaline degradation, 2) UV-spectra, IR-spectra and NMR-spectra, and 3) enzymatic treatments with RNase T2 and phosphodiesterase. 4) The roles of caffeine and guanine ribonucleotidyl-(3'-5')-adenosine in connection with flavinogenesis of this mold were discussed. PMID:182940

  3. Evaluation of Biostimulation and Bioaugmentation To Stimulate Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5,-triazine Degradation in an Aerobic Groundwater Aquifer.

    PubMed

    Michalsen, Mandy M; King, Aaron S; Rule, Rebecca A; Fuller, Mark E; Hatzinger, Paul B; Condee, Charles W; Crocker, Fiona H; Indest, Karl J; Jung, Carina M; Istok, Jack D

    2016-07-19

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5,-triazine (RDX) is a toxic and mobile groundwater contaminant common to military sites. This study compared in situ RDX degradation rates following bioaugmentation with Gordonia sp. strain KTR9 (henceforth KTR9) to rates under biostimulation conditions in an RDX-contaminated aquifer in Umatilla, OR. Bioaugmentation was achieved by injecting site groundwater (6000 L) amended with KTR9 cells (10(8) cells mL(-1)) and low carbon substrate concentrations (<1 mM fructose) into site wells. Biostimulation (no added cells) was performed by injecting groundwater amended with low (<1 mM fructose) or high (>15 mM fructose) carbon substrate concentrations in an effort to stimulate aerobic or anaerobic microbial activity, respectively. Single-well push-pull tests were conducted to measure RDX degradation rates for each treatment. Average rate coefficients were 1.2 day(-1) for bioaugmentation and 0.7 day(-1) for high carbon biostimulation; rate coefficients for low carbon biostimulation were not significantly different from zero (p values ≥0.060). Our results suggest that bioaugmentation with KTR9 is a feasible strategy for in situ biodegradation of RDX and, at this site, is capable of achieving RDX concentration reductions comparable to those obtained by high carbon biostimulation while requiring ~97% less fructose. Bioaugmentation has potential to minimize substrate quantities and associated costs, as well as secondary groundwater quality impacts associated with anaerobic biostimulation processes (e.g., hydrogen sulfide, methane production) during full-scale RDX remediation. PMID:27301804

  4. Hispanic Heritage Month

    NASA Video Gallery

    Hispanic-themed music and Salsa dance performances helped kick off the Johnson Space Center celebration of Hispanic Heritage Month, commemorating the histories, cultures and contributions of Hispan...

  5. Adherence to monthly online self-assessments for short-term monitoring: a 1-year study in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients after start of disease modifying treatment

    PubMed Central

    Jongen, Peter Joseph; Sanders, Evert; Zwanikken, Cees; Koeman, Jan; Visser, Leo H; Koopmans, Petra; Lehnick, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Background The participation of neurologists and patients in studies on the effectiveness and safety of newly authorized drugs in multiple sclerosis (MS) is insufficient. Monthly online self-assessments using patient-reported outcomes may help in short-term monitoring of neurological changes and side effects. Objective Investigate in relapsing-remitting (RR) MS patients the adherence to monthly online self-assessments after the start of disease modifying treatment. Methods Observational study in 39 neurological departments in The Netherlands. Patients starting glatiramer acetate treatment were instructed to complete online the Modified Fatigue Impact Scale 5-item version and the 8-item Leeds Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life scale every month during 1 year (T0 toT12). Results Sixty-three investigators included 163 analyzable patients. At T3, 148 (90.8%) patients had completed all questionnaires; at T6, 142 (87.1%); at T9, 133 (81.6%); and at T12, 123 (75.5%). Eight (4.9%) patients did not complete any questionnaire. Median values for inter-assessment intervals ranged from 32 to 34 days (first quartile [Q1] 30 days, third quartile [Q3] 41 days), and the final assessment was at 417 days (median: Q1 385 days, Q3 480 days). Forty-three (26.3%) patients completed the questionnaires at all time points (completion adherent) with their final assessment within 30 days after the scheduled T12 (interval adherent). Eighty (49.1%) patients were completion adherent, but not interval adherent. Forty (24.5%) patients were not completion adherent, as they discontinued assessments prematurely. Men were more interval adherent than women (47.5% vs 20.0%; P = 0.001). Conclusion The observation that three out of four (75.5%) RRMS patients completed two short questionnaires at all monthly time points during 1 year after the start of disease modifying treatment suggests that intensive online monitoring in this patient group is feasible. As only one in five (19.6%) patients adhered to the

  6. Heteroadamantanes and their derivatives. 4. Synthesis of 1,3,5-triazaadamantane

    SciTech Connect

    Kuznetsov, A.I.; Kosmakov, V.A.; Unkovskii, B.V.

    1985-12-01

    Reduction of 7-nitro-1,3,5-triazaadamantane with hydrazine hydrate in the presence of Raney nickel gave 7-hydroxyamino- and 7-amino-1,3,5-triazaadamantane, from which 7-chloro-, 7-bromo-, and 7-thiocyanato-1,3,5-triazaadamantanes were synthesized by substitutive deamination. Desulfurization of 7-thiocyanato-1,3,5-triazaadamantane in the presence of Raney nickel gave 1,3,5-triazaadamantane.

  7. Patients with Persistently Elevated PSA and Negative Results of TRUS-Biopsy: Does 6-Month Treatment with Dutasteride can Indicate Candidates for Re-Biopsy. What is the Best of Saturation Schemes: Transrectal or Transperineal Approach?

    PubMed

    Kravchick, Sergey; Lobik, Leonid; Cytron, Shmuel; Kravchenko, Yakov; Dor, David Ben; Peled, Ronit

    2015-09-01

    To identify patients who actually need a re - biopsy, based on alterations in PSA readings after 6-month treatment with Dutasteride. We also sought to bring out the most beneficial re-biopsy scheme. We have reviewed the records of patients with persistently elevated PSA and at least one set of TRUS biopsies. Patients who were treated with alpha -blockers/Dutasteride combination were considered as the study group, while patients in control received alpha-blockers alone. Patients in both groups underwent re-biopsy 6 months later. The two protocols of re-biopsies were used at that time: 20-24 cores saturation transrectal (ST)) and ≥ 40 cores saturation transperineal template-guided (STT) biopsies. One hundred thirty-three patients were included in this study. In 86.7 % of the patients in the study group mean PSA decreased from 7.4 ± 2.69 to 4.037 ± 1.53 (p-0.001). The overall cancer detection rate was 29 % (n-39: 19 v/s 20, control and study groups, respectively). In the study group PSA decreased to 26.73 ± 11.26 % in patients with cancer, compared with 40.54 ± 13.3 % in patients without. It must be emphasized that STT-biopsies detected significantly more cancers (38.46 v/s 20.59 %, p- 0.005). Mean cores number got to 21 ± 2.45 and 45 ± 5.65 in ST and STT biopsies, respectively. Six-month treatment with Dutasteride decreases PSA readings in 86.7 % of the patients. A PSA decline of less than 40% (cutoff) should be considered as an indicator for re-biopsy. Transperineal template-guided biopsies had a higher cancer detection rate. PMID:25753982

  8. Birth Month Affects Longevity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abel, Ernest L.; Kruger, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined the association between birth month and longevity for major league baseball players. Players born in the month of November had the greatest longevities whereas those born in June had the shortest life spans. These differences remained after controlling for covariates such as birth year, career length, age at debut, height, and…

  9. Double-blind controlled trial of a single dose of the combination ivermectin 400 micrograms/kg plus diethylcarbamazine 6 mg/kg for the treatment of bancroftian filariasis: results at six months.

    PubMed

    Glaziou, P; Moulia-Pelat, J P; Nguyen, L N; Chanteau, S; Martin, P M; Cartel, J L

    1994-01-01

    In 1993, a three-arm double-blind controlled trial was implemented in French Polynesia to compare the tolerance and efficacy of a single dose of the combination ivermectin (IVR) 400 micrograms/kg plus diethylcarbamazine (DEC) 6 mg/kg vs. IVR 400 micrograms/kg alone vs. DEC 6 mg/kg alone, for treatment of Wuchereria bancrofti carriers. Of the 57 treated male patients in whom microfilaria (mf) densities ranged from 22 to 4709 mg/mL, 3 groups of 19 were randomly selected and allocated to one of the 3 treatments. Side effects were experienced by 34 patients (60%), but none suffered a severe reaction. Grade of reaction did not differ between treatment group, but was significantly correlated with the pretreatment mf density. Six months after treatment, 26%, 32% and 53% of patients were amicrofilaraemic in the DEC, IVR and IVR+DEC groups, respectively. Mf levels were 6.3%, and 3.1% and 1.0% of the pretreatment level, respectively, significantly lower in the IVR+DEC group than in both the IVR and DEC comparison groups. The combination IVR+DEC showed promise in term of sustained mf decrease, and could be an effective alternative for lymphatic filariasis control programmes. PMID:7886781

  10. STAT3/5-Dependent IL9 Overexpression Contributes to Neoplastic Cell Survival in Mycosis Fungoides

    PubMed Central

    Vieyra-Garcia, Pablo A.; Wei, Tianling; Naym, David Gram; Fredholm, Simon; Fink-Puches, Regina; Cerroni, Lorenzo; Odum, Niels; O'Malley, John T.; Gniadecki, Robert; Wolf, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Sustained inflammation is a key feature of mycosis fungoides (MF), the most common form of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). Resident IL9–producing T cells have been found in skin infections and certain inflammatory skin diseases, but their role in MF is currently unknown. Experimental Design We analyzed lesional skin from patients with MF for the expression of IL9 and its regulators. To determine which cells were producing IL9, high-throughput sequencing was used to identify malignant clones and Vb-specific antibodies were employed to visualize malignant cells in histologic preparations. To explore the mechanism of IL9 secretion, we knocked down STAT3/5 and IRF4 by siRNA transfection in CTCL cell lines receiving psoralen+UVA (PUVA) ± anti-IL9 antibody. To further examine the role of IL9 in tumor development, the EL-4 T-cell lymphoma model was used in C57BL/6 mice. Results Malignant and reactive T cells produce IL9 in lesional skin. Expression of the Th9 transcription factor IRF4 in malignant cells was heterogeneous, whereas reactive T cells expressed it uniformly. PUVA or UVB phototherapy diminished the frequencies of IL9- and IL9r-positive cells, as well as STAT3/5a and IRF4 expression in lesional skin. IL9 production was regulated by STAT3/5 and silencing of STAT5 or blockade of IL9 with neutralizing antibodies potentiated cell death after PUVA treatment in vitro. IL9-depleted mice exhibited a reduction of tumor growth, higher frequencies of regulatory T cells, and activated CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes. Conclusion Our results suggest that IL9 and its regulators are promising new targets for therapy development in mycosis fungoides. PMID:26851186

  11. Twelve-month prevalence of psychiatric disorders and treatment-seeking among Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders in the United States: Results from the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yang; Okuda, Mayumi; Hser, Yih-Ing; Hasin, Deborah; Liu, Shang-Min; Grant, Bridget F.; Blanco, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    To compare the 12-month prevalence of psychiatric disorders in Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders in contrast to non–Hispanic whites; and further compare persistence and treatment-seeking rates for psychiatric disorders among Asian American/Pacific Islanders and non-Hispanic whites, analyses from the 2001–2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, Wave 1 (n =43,093) were conducted for the subsample of 1,332 Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders (596 men and 736 women) and 24,507 non-Hispanic whites (10,845 men and 13,662 women). The past 12-month prevalence for any psychiatric disorder was significantly lower in Asian American/Pacific Islander males and females than non-Hispanic white males and females. Asian American/Pacific Islander males were less likely than non-Hispanic white males to have any mood, anxiety, substance use, and personality disorders, whereas the prevalence of mood disorders among Asian American/Pacific Islander females did not differ from those of non-Hispanic white females. In some cases, such as drug use disorders, both male and female Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders were more likely to have more persistent disorders than non-Hispanic whites. Compared to non-Hispanic white females, Asian American/Pacific Islander females had lower rates of treatment-seeking for any mood/anxiety disorders. Although less prevalent than among non-Hispanic whites, psychiatric disorders are not uncommon among Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders. The lower treatment seeking rates for mood/anxiety disorders in Asian American/Pacific Islander females underscore the unmet needs for psychiatric service among this population. PMID:21238989

  12. Optical Coherence Tomographic and Visual Results at Six Months after Transitioning to Aflibercept for Patients on Prior Ranibizumab or Bevacizumab Treatment for Exudative Age-Related Macular Degeneration (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis)

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Clement K.; Jain, Atul; Sadda, Srinivas; Varshney, Neeta

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To study optical coherence tomographic (OCT) results and vision at 6 months after transition (post-Tx) from intravitreal bevacizumab and/or ranibizumab to aflibercept for treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD). The null hypothesis was the lack of improvements in OCT metrics and vision outcome in study eyes at 6 months after transitioning from bevacizumab or ranibizumab to aflibercept. Methods: This retrospective study assessed 6 monthly OCT (Cirrus) data after transitioning to aflibercept for eyes on prior Legacy-ranibizumab, Legacy-bevacizumab, or mixed treatment for nAMD. Outcome measures were subretinal fluid (SRF), cystoid macular edema (CME), pigment epithelial detachment (PED) heights and volumes, central 1- and 3-mm subfield, Macular Volume, and best spectacle and pinhole visual acuity (VA). A single masked investigator performed all OCT measurements. Results: One hundred eighty-nine eyes in 172 patients in Legacy-bevacizumab (95 eyes), Legacy-ranibizumab (84 eyes), or Mixed Group(10 eyes) were switched to aflibercept and followed for 6 months. Significant post-Tx reductions were noted in SRF/CME heights and volumes (all P<.001). Similar findings were noted for PED heights (122.8 μm vs 79.4 μm) and PED volumes (all P<.001). Post-Tx VA was better (20/43 vs 20/51, P<.001). There were no differences between Legacy-bevacizumab and Legacy-ranibizumab groups in OCT and VA changes. Post-Tx VA, SRF/CME, and PED heights and volumes were improved for Nonresponders (suboptimal response to bevacizumab/ranibizumab) (P=.001 to <.001), but not Responders (good responses to same). The only adverse event was a retinal pigment epithelial tear in one eye. Conclusions: Significant improvements in vision and OCT metrics developed in Nonresponders but not in Responders. Post-Tx VA and OCT measures were similar for eyes on prior bevacizumab or ranibizumab. Post-Tx adverse events were uncommon. PMID:25646034

  13. A 3.5 year diary study: Remembering and life story importance are predicted by different event characteristics.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Dorthe Kirkegaard; Jensen, Thomas; Holm, Tine; Olesen, Martin Hammershøj; Schnieber, Anette; Tønnesvang, Jan

    2015-11-01

    Forty-five participants described and rated two events each week during their first term at university. After 3.5 years, we examined whether event characteristics rated in the diary predicted remembering, reliving, and life story importance at the follow-up. In addition, we examined whether ratings of life story importance were consistent across a three year interval. Approximately 60% of events were remembered, but only 20% of these were considered above medium importance to life stories. Higher unusualness, rehearsal, and planning predicted whether an event was remembered 3.5 years later. Higher goal-relevance, importance, emotional intensity, and planning predicted life story importance 3.5 years later. There was a moderate correlation between life story importance rated three months after the diary and rated at the 3.5 year follow-up. The results suggest that autobiographical memory and life stories are governed by different mechanisms and that life story memories are characterized by some degree of stability. PMID:26164104

  14. Spectrophotometric analyses of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in water.

    PubMed

    Shi, Cong; Xu, Zhonghou; Smolinski, Benjamin L; Arienti, Per M; O'Connor, Gregory; Meng, Xiaoguang

    2015-07-01

    A simple and accurate spectrophotometric method for on-site analysis of royal demolition explosive (RDX) in water samples was developed based on the Berthelot reaction. The sensitivity and accuracy of an existing spectrophotometric method was improved by: replacing toxic chemicals with more stable and safer reagents; optimizing the reagent dose and reaction time; improving color stability; and eliminating the interference from inorganic nitrogen compounds in water samples. Cation and anion exchange resin cartridges were developed and used for sample pretreatment to eliminate the effect of ammonia and nitrate on RDX analyses. The detection limit of the method was determined to be 100 μg/L. The method was used successfully for analysis of RDX in untreated industrial wastewater samples. It can be used for on-site monitoring of RDX in wastewater for early detection of chemical spills and failure of wastewater treatment systems. PMID:26141876

  15. Natural Gas Monthly

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    Highlights activities, events, and analyses associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer related activities and underground storage data are also reported.

  16. GENE EXPRESSION CHANGES IN ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA SEEDLING ROOTS EXPOSED TO THE MUNITION HEXAHYDRO-1,3,5-TRINITRO-1,3,5-TRIAZINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arabidopsis thaliana root transcriptome responses to the munition, hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), were assessed using serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE). Comparison of the transcriptional profile for the RDX response to a profile previously described for Ar...

  17. Cognitive function during and six months following chemotherapy for front-line treatment of ovarian, primary peritoneal or fallopian tube cancer: An NRG oncology/gynecologic oncology group study☆

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Lisa M.; Huang, Helen Q.; Hanlon, Alexandra L.; Robinson, William R.; Johnson, Rhonda; Chambers, Setsuko K.; Mannel, Robert S.; Puls, Larry; Davidson, Susan A.; Method, Michael; Lele, Shashikant; Havrilesky, Laura; Nelson, Tina; Alberts, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Changes in cognitive function have been identified in and reported by many cancer survivors. These changes have the potential to impact patient quality of life and functional ability. This prospective longitudinal study was designed to quantify the incidence of change in cognitive function in newly diagnosed ovarian cancer patients throughout and following primary chemotherapy. Methods Eligible patients had newly diagnosed, untreated ovarian cancer and had planned to receive chemotherapy. Web-based and patient reported cognitive assessments and quality of life questionnaires were conducted prior to chemotherapy, prior to cycle four, after cycle six, and six months after completion of primary therapy. Results Two-hundred-thirty-one evaluable patients entered this study between May 2010 and October 2011. At the cycle 4 time point, 25.2% (55/218) of patients exhibited cognitive impairment in at least one domain. At the post-cycle 6 and 6-month follow up time points, 21.1% (44/208) and 17.8% (30/169) of patients, respectively, demonstrated impairment in at least one domain of cognitive function. There were statistically significant, but clinically small, improvements in processing speed (p < 0.001) and attention (p < 0.001) but not in motor response time (p = 0.066), from baseline through the six-month follow up time period. Conclusions This was a large, prospective study designed to measure cognitive function in ovarian cancer. A subset of patients had evidence of cognitive decline from baseline during chemotherapy treatment in this study as measured by the web-based assessment; however, changes were generally limited to no more than one domain. PMID:26456812

  18. Photobiological transformation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) using Rhodobacter sphaeroides.

    PubMed

    Millerick, Kayleigh A; Johnston, Juliet T; Finneran, Kevin T

    2016-09-01

    Pump-and-treat strategies for groundwater containing explosives may be necessary when the contaminated water approaches sensitive receptors. This project investigated bacterial photosynthesis as a strategy for ex situ treatment, using light as the primary energy source to facilitate RDX transformation. The objective was to characterize the ability of photosynthetic Rhodobacter sphaeroides (strain ATCC(®) 17023 ™) to transform the high-energy explosive RDX. R. sphaeroides transformed 30 μM RDX within 40 h under light conditions; RDX was not fully transformed in the dark (non-photosynthetic conditions), suggesting that photosynthetic electron transfer was the primary mechanism. Experiments with RDX demonstrated that succinate and malate were the most effective electron donors for photosynthesis, but glycerol was also utilized as a photosynthetic electron donor. RDX was transformed irrespective of the presence of carbon dioxide. The electron shuttling compound anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) increased transformation kinetics in the absence of CO2, when the cells had excess NADPH that needed to be re-oxidized because there was limited CO2 for carbon fixation. When CO2 was added, the cells generated more biomass, and AQDS had no stimulatory effect. End products indicated that RDX carbon became CO2, biomass, and a soluble, uncharacterized aqueous metabolite, determined using (14)C-labeled RDX. These data are the first to suggest that photobiological explosives transformation is possible and will provide a framework for which phototrophy can be used in environmental restoration of explosives contaminated water. PMID:27285383

  19. Dynamic versus Adynamic Graciloplasty in Treatment of End-Stage Fecal Incontinence: Is the Implantation of the Pacemaker Really Necessary? 12-Month Follow-Up in a Clinical, Physiological, and Functional Study

    PubMed Central

    Walega, Piotr; Romaniszyn, Michal; Siarkiewicz, Benita; Zelazny, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of the study is to compare functional results of end-stage fecal incontinence treatment with dynamic graciloplasty and adynamic graciloplasty augmented with transanal conditioning of the transposed muscle. Methods. A total of 20 patients were qualified for graciloplasty procedure due to end-stage fecal incontinence. 7 patients underwent dynamic graciloplasty (DGP), whereas 13 patients were treated with adynamic graciloplasty, with transanal stimulation in the postoperative period (AGP). Clinical, functional, and quality of life assessments were performed 3, 6, and 12 months after the procedures. Results. There were no intraoperative or early postoperative complications. The detachment of gracilis muscle tendon was observed in one patient in DGP group and two in AGP group. There was a significant improvement of Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life (FIQL) and Fecal Incontinence Severity Index (FISI) scores in both groups 12 months after procedure. Anorectal manometry showed improvement regarding basal and squeeze pressures in both groups, with significantly better squeeze pressures in AGP group. Conclusions. The functional effects in the DGP and AGP groups were similar. Significantly lower price of the procedure and avoidance of implant-related complication risk suggest the attractiveness of the AGP method augmented by transanal stimulation. PMID:25861261

  20. Distal third humeri fractures treated using the Synthes™ 3.5-mm extra-articular distal humeral locking compression plate: clinical, radiographic and patient outcome scores

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, James; Rao, Prasad; Parfitt, Dan; Mohanty, Khitish; Ghandour, Adel

    2014-01-01

    Background Conventional management protocols for distal humeral extra-articular fractures (e.g. conservative, double columnar plating) are often associated with complications. We aimed to describe our experience of using the Synthes™ 3.5-mm extra-articular distal humeral locking compression plate for treatment of extra-articular distal humeral fractures. Methods We prospectively studied 23 consecutive patients who underwent fixation, in a tertiary trauma centre, over 2 years. Data, including patient demographics, duration of follow-up, patient satisfaction, visual analogue score (VAS), Oxford Elbow Score, and final outcome on discharge, were collected and analyzed. Results Of the 23 patients (12 males, 11 females; mean age 47.5 years; range 18 years to 89 years), all fractures united radiologically and clinically after the index procedure, with a mean time to fracture union of 15.7 weeks (range 9 weeks to 34 weeks) and a mean time to discharge of 17.8 weeks (range 13 weeks to 34 weeks). Oxford Elbow Score was 36.5 (range 11 to 48) at 4.6 months postoperatively; at 20 months follow-up, it was 40 (range 14 to 48) and the VAS was 8.5 (range 5 to 10). One patient had radial nerve neuropraxia pre-operatively, and one postoperatively, and both recovered uneventfully 3 months postoperatively. Neither superficial, nor deep infections were observed in this cohort. Conclusions The present study reports satisfactory outcome with the usage of the Synthes plate for extra-articular fracture management. It has become the technique of choice in our centre because it provides excellent results.

  1. Aromatic fluorine compounds. I. The synthesis of 2,5- and 3,5-difluorobenzotrifluorides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finger, G.C.; Reed, F.H.

    1944-01-01

    The preparation of 2,5- and 3,5-difluorobenzotrifluoride and some of their intermediates is described. 3,5-Dinitrobenzotrifluoride was prepared from 3-nitrobenzotrifluoride with a fuming nitric-sulfuric acid mixture.

  2. ADATSA Treatment Outcomes: Employment and Cost Avoidance: An Eighteen Month Follow-Up Study of Indigent Persons Served by Washington State's Alcoholism and Drug Addiction Treatment and Support Act. Report No. 4-19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longhi, Dario; And Others

    This report provides a cost-benefit analysis of a program that provides publicly-funded treatment and support for persons who are addicted to alcohol or other drugs and who are judged to be indigent, unemployable, and incapacitated due to their addiction. The study focused on two client outcomes: (1) determine employment outcomes during an 18…

  3. Genotoxicity of 2,6- and 3,5-Dimethylaniline in Cultured Mammalian Cells: The Role of Reactive Oxygen Species

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Ming-Wei; Kim, Min Young; Wogan, Gerald N.

    2012-01-01

    Several alkylanilines with structures more complex than toluidines have been associated epidemiologically with human cancer. Their mechanism of action remains largely undetermined, and there is no reported evidence that it replicates that of multicyclic aromatic amines even though the principal metabolic pathways of P450-mediated hydroxylation and phase II conjugation are very similar. As a means to elucidate their mechanisms of action, lethality and mutagenicity in the adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (aprt +/−) gene induced in several Chinese hamster ovary cell types by 2,6- and 3,5-dimethylaniline (2,6-DMA, 3,5-DMA) and their N- and ring-hydroxyl derivatives (N-OH-2,6-DMA, N-OH-3,5-DMA, 2,6-DMAP, 3,5-DMAP) were assessed. Dose-response relationships were determined in the parental AA8 cell line, its repair-deficient UV5 subclone and other repair-deficient 5P3NAT2 or -proficient 5P3NAT2R9 subclones engineered to express mouse cytochrome P4501A2 (CYP1A2) and human N-acetyltransferase (NAT2), and also in AS52 cells harboring the bacterial guanine-hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (gpt) gene. Mutations in the gpt gene of AS52 cells were characterized and found to be dominated by G:C to A:T and A:T to G:C transitions. Separately, treatment of AS52 cells with N-OH-2,6-DMA, N-OH-3,5-DMA, 2,6-DMAP, 3,5-DMAP, and 3,5-DMAP led to intracellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) for at least 24h after removal of the mutagens in every case. Using the comet assay, DNA strand breaks were observed in a dose-dependent manner in AS52 cells when treated with each of the four N-OH-2,6-DMA, N-OH-3,5-DMA, 2,6-DMAP, and 3,5-DMAP derivatives. Comparative evaluation of the results indicates that the principal mechanism of mutagenic action is likely to be through redox cycling of intracellularly bound aminophenol/quinone imine structures to generate ROS rather than through formation of covalent DNA adducts. PMID:22831970

  4. 21 CFR 3.5 - Procedures for identifying the designated agency component.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedures for identifying the designated agency component. 3.5 Section 3.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PRODUCT JURISDICTION Assignment of Agency Component for Review of Premarket Applications § 3.5 Procedures for identifying...

  5. 40 CFR 721.4265 - Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4265 Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-). (a) Chemical... hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-) (PMN P-97-649; CAS No. 167412-23-9) is subject to reporting under...

  6. 40 CFR 721.4265 - Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4265 Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-). (a) Chemical... hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-) (PMN P-97-649; CAS No. 167412-23-9) is subject to reporting under...

  7. 40 CFR 721.4265 - Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4265 Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-). (a) Chemical... hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-) (PMN P-97-649; CAS No. 167412-23-9) is subject to reporting under...

  8. 40 CFR 721.4265 - Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4265 Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-). (a) Chemical... hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-) (PMN P-97-649; CAS No. 167412-23-9) is subject to reporting under...

  9. 41 CFR 102-3.5 - What does this subpart cover and how does it apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? 102-3.5 Section 102-3.5 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...? § 102-3.5 What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? This subpart provides the policy...

  10. 41 CFR 102-3.5 - What does this subpart cover and how does it apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? 102-3.5 Section 102-3.5 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...? § 102-3.5 What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? This subpart provides the policy...

  11. 41 CFR 102-3.5 - What does this subpart cover and how does it apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? 102-3.5 Section 102-3.5 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...? § 102-3.5 What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? This subpart provides the policy...

  12. 41 CFR 102-3.5 - What does this subpart cover and how does it apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? 102-3.5 Section 102-3.5 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...? § 102-3.5 What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? This subpart provides the policy...

  13. 14 CFR 3.5 - Statements about products, parts, appliances and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Statements about products, parts, appliances and materials. 3.5 Section 3.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION DEFINITIONS GENERAL REQUIREMENTS § 3.5 Statements about products, parts,...

  14. 41 CFR 102-3.5 - What does this subpart cover and how does it apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? 102-3.5 Section 102-3.5 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...? § 102-3.5 What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? This subpart provides the policy...

  15. Developmental milestones record - 9 months

    MedlinePlus

    Growth milestones for children - 9 months; Childhood growth milestones - 9 months; Normal childhood growth milestones - 9 months ... provider. PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND MOTOR SKILLS A 9-month-old has usually reached the following milestones: Gains ...

  16. Developmental milestones record - 12 months

    MedlinePlus

    Normal childhood growth milestones - 12 months; Growth milestones for children - 12 months; Childhood growth milestones - 12 months ... care provider. PHYSICAL AND MOTOR SKILLS A 12-month-old child is expected to: Be 3 times ...

  17. Developmental milestones record - 18 months

    MedlinePlus

    Growth milestones for children - 18 months; Normal childhood growth milestones - 18 months; Childhood growth milestones - 18 months ... PHYSICAL AND MOTOR SKILL MARKERS The typical 18-month-old: Has a closed soft spot on the ...

  18. Developmental milestones record - 4 months

    MedlinePlus

    Normal childhood growth milestones - 4 months; Childhood growth milestones - 4 months; Growth milestones for children - 4 months ... provider. PHYSICAL AND MOTOR SKILLS The typical 4-month-old baby should: Slow in weight gain to ...

  19. Developmental milestones record - 6 months

    MedlinePlus

    Normal childhood growth milestones - 6 months; Childhood growth milestones - 6 months; Growth milestones for children - 6 months ... the weight on hands (often occurs by 4 months) Able to pick up a dropped object Able ...

  20. Dialectical behaviour therapy and an added cognitive behavioural treatment module for eating disorders in women with borderline personality disorder and anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa who failed to respond to previous treatments. An open trial with a 15-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Kröger, Christoph; Schweiger, Ulrich; Sipos, Valerija; Kliem, Sören; Arnold, Ruediger; Schunert, Tanja; Reinecker, Hans

    2010-12-01

    There is evidence from case studies suggesting that adapted dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) for borderline personality disorder (BPD) and eating disorders (ED) might improve disorder related complaints. Twenty-four women with BPD (9 with comorbid anorexia nervosa [AN] and 15 with bulimia nervosa [BN]), who already had failed to respond to previous eating-disorder related inpatient treatments were consecutively admitted to an adapted inpatient DBT program. Assessment points were at pre-treatment, post-treatment, and 15-month follow-up. At follow-up, the remission rate was 54% for BN, and 33% for AN. Yet 44% of women with AN crossed over to BN and one woman additionally met the criteria of AN. For women with AN, the mean weight was not significantly increased at post-treatment, but had improved at follow-up. For women with BN, the frequency of binge-eating episodes was reduced at post-treatment as well as at follow-up. Self-rated eating-related complaints and general psychopathology, as well as ratings on global psychosocial functioning, were significantly improved at post-treatment and at follow-up. Although these findings support the assumption that the adapted DBT inpatient program is a potentially efficacious treatment for those who failed to respond to previous eating-disorder related inpatient treatments, remission rates and maintained eating-related psychopathology also suggest that this treatment needs further improvement. PMID:20444442

  1. LOFT Monthly Progress Report for July 1980

    SciTech Connect

    N. C. Kaufman

    1980-08-01

    During July, the LOFT test sequence underwent careful review which determined that changes would be appropriate. Evaluation of Tests L3-4 and L6-1 indicated they would not add significantly to the information base available from other experiments; therefore, these tests were cancelled. As shown in the Management Summary Schedule included in this report, the next test to be run is L3-5, scheduled for mid-September. Test L3-5 will be a small-break test in the cold leg side of the operating loop of the plant. Work efforts during July concentrated on plant preparation for the mid-September test. Installation of a new small-break path from the cold leg to the blowdown suppression tank, together with the associated new instrumentation installations, were well underway and on schedule at month's end. The Actual spending rate to date is in agreement with current budgets and authorized funding levels.

  2. Isolation of three hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine-degrading species of the family Enterobacteriaceae from nitramine explosive-contaminated soil.

    PubMed Central

    Kitts, C L; Cunningham, D P; Unkefer, P J

    1994-01-01

    Three species of the family Enterobacteriaceae that biochemically reduced hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) were isolated from nitramine explosive-contaminated soil. Two isolates, identified as Morganella morganii and Providencia rettgeri, completely transformed both RDX and the nitroso-RDX reduction intermediates. The third isolate, identified as Citrobacter freundii, partially transformed RDX and generated high concentrations of nitroso-RDX intermediates. All three isolates produced 14CO2 from labeled RDX under O2-depleted culture conditions. While all three isolates transformed HMX, only M. morganii transformed HMX in the presence of RDX. PMID:7811097

  3. Vibrational properties, phonon spectrum and related thermal parameters of β-octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine: a theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Qian, Wen; Zhang, Weibin; Zong, Hehou; Gao, Guofang; Zhou, Yang; Zhang, Chaoyang

    2016-01-01

    The vibrational spectrum, phonon dispersion curve, and phonon density of states (DOS) of β-octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (β-HMX) crystal were obtained by molecular simulation and calculations. As results, it was found that the peaks at low frequency (0-2.5 THz) are comparable with the experimental Terahertz absorption and the molecular vibrational modes are in agreement with previous reports. Thermodynamic properties including Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, and heat capacity as functions of temperature were obtained based on the calculated phonon spectrum. The heat capacity at normal temperature was calculated using linear fitting method, with a result consistent with experiments. Graphical Abstract Phonon spectrum and heat capacity of β-octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine from DFT calculation. PMID:26669878

  4. Special Awareness Month.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granstrom, Jane; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The article reports on the organization and implementation of a "Special Needs Awareness Month" in Quincy, Massachusetts. Noted are the heavy involvement of parents in the multiagency planning committee, and the resulting citywide displays, publications, programs, and publicity on children with special needs. (DB)

  5. Monthly Energy Review

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) is the U.S. Energy Information Administration's primary report of recent energy statistics. Included are total energy production, consumption, and trade; energy prices; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, and international petroleum; carbon dioxide emissions; and data unit conversions.

  6. November 2010 monthly report

    SciTech Connect

    Neff, Warren E

    2010-12-07

    These viewgraphs are to be provided to NNSA to update the status of the B61 Life Extension Project work and activities. The viewgraphs cover such issues as budget, schedule, scope, and the like. They are part of the monthly reporting process.

  7. Electric Power Monthly

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    Provides monthly statistics at the state, Census division, and U.S. levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold.

  8. Monthly energy review

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    This document presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors.

  9. Monthly Energy Review

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-28

    This publication presents an overview of the Energy information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. Two brief ``energy plugs`` (reviews of EIA publications) are included, as well.

  10. Black History Month.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Web Feet K-8, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This annotated subject guide to Web sites and additional resources focuses on Black History month. Specifies age levels for resources that include Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, audios, magazines; includes professional resources; and presents a relevant class activity. (LRW)

  11. Role of Nitrogen Limitation in Transformation of RDX (Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine) by Gordonia sp. Strain KTR9

    PubMed Central

    Hancock, Dawn E.; Jung, Carina M.; Eberly, Jed O.; Mohn, William W.; Eltis, Lindsay D.; Crocker, Fiona H.

    2013-01-01

    The transcriptome of RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine)-degrading strain Gordonia sp. strain KTR9 and its glnR mutant were studied as a function of nitrogen availability to further investigate the observed ammonium-mediated inhibition of RDX degradation. The results indicate that nitrogen availability is a major determinant of RDX degradation and xplA gene expression in KTR9. PMID:23275513

  12. Role of nitrogen limitation in transformation of RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) by Gordonia sp. strain KTR9.

    PubMed

    Indest, Karl J; Hancock, Dawn E; Jung, Carina M; Eberly, Jed O; Mohn, William W; Eltis, Lindsay D; Crocker, Fiona H

    2013-03-01

    The transcriptome of RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine)-degrading strain Gordonia sp. strain KTR9 and its glnR mutant were studied as a function of nitrogen availability to further investigate the observed ammonium-mediated inhibition of RDX degradation. The results indicate that nitrogen availability is a major determinant of RDX degradation and xplA gene expression in KTR9. PMID:23275513

  13. High-frequency oscillatory ventilation compared with conventional intermittent mechanical ventilation in the treatment of respiratory failure in preterm infants: neurodevelopmental status at 16 to 24 months of postterm age. The HIFI Study Group.

    PubMed

    1990-12-01

    The High-Frequency Intervention Trial was a 10-center randomized clinical trial to test the efficacy and safety of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFO) in the treatment of neonates weighing 750 to 2000 gm; 327 infants were assigned to HFO and 346 to conventional intermittent mechanical ventilation (IMV). Survival and lung morbidity rates were the same in the two groups. Bayley psychometric evaluations and CNS examination were performed at 16 to 24 months of postterm age in 77% of the survivors (185 HFO and 201 IMV). There was no difference in growth or respiratory status at follow-up. Cerebral palsy was diagnosed in 19 (10%) HFO-treated infants and 23 (11%) IMV-treated infants. There was no difference in severity between the two groups. A significantly higher incidence of hydrocephalus (12% vs 6%) was present in the HFO group (p less than 0.05). Bayley index scores greater than 83 were scored in 57% of HFO-treated infants compared with 66% of IMV-treated infants. The proportion of children at follow-up with a normal neuro-developmental status (i.e., Bayley score greater than 83 and no major CNS defect) was significantly less in the HFO than in the IMV group (54 vs 65%; p less than 0.05). Both treatment groups showed a strong association between the presence of grade 3 or 4 intraventricular hemorrhage and the development of major CNS or cognitive defects. No significant long-term beneficial or deleterious effects were demonstrated in the use of HFO versus IMV for the treatment of respiratory failure in low birth weight premature infants, except that there were slightly more neurologic deficits in the HFO group related to the higher proportion of survivors with major intraventricular hemorrhage. PMID:1701005

  14. Expression of Porcine Fusion Protein IRF7/3(5D) Efficiently Controls Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Carvajal, Lisbeth; Díaz-San Segundo, Fayna; Hickman, Danielle; Long, Charles R.; Zhu, James; Rodríguez, Luis L.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Several studies have demonstrated that the delivery of type I, II, or III interferons (IFNs) by inoculation of a replication-defective human adenovirus 5 (Ad5) vector expressing IFNs can effectively control foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in cattle and swine during experimental infections. However, relatively high doses are required to achieve protection. In this study, we identified the functional properties of a porcine fusion protein, poIRF7/3(5D), as a biotherapeutic and enhancer of IFN activity against FMD virus (FMDV). We showed that poIRF7/3(5D) is a potent inducer of type I IFNs, including alpha IFN (IFN-α), IFN-β, and IFN-ω but not type III IFN (interleukin-28B), without inducing cytotoxicity. Expression of poIRF7/3(5D) significantly and steadily reduced FMDV titers by up to 6 log10 units in swine and bovine cell lines. Treatment with an IFN receptor inhibitor (B18R) combined with an anti-IFN-α antibody neutralized the antiviral activity in the supernatants of cells transduced with an Ad5 vector expressing poIRF7/3(5D) [Ad5-poIRF7/3(5D)]. However, several transcripts with known antiviral function, including type I IFNs, were still highly upregulated (range of increase, 8-fold to over 500-fold) by poIRF7/3(5D) in the presence of B18R. Furthermore, the sera of mice treated with Ad5-poIRF7/3(5D) showed antiviral activity that was associated with the induction of high levels of IFN-α and resulted in complete protection against FMDV challenge at 6, 24, or 48 h posttreatment. This study highlights for the first time the antiviral potential of Ad5-poIRF7/3(5D) in vitro and in vivo against FMDV. IMPORTANCE FMD remains one of the most devastating diseases that affect livestock worldwide. Effective vaccine formulations are available but are serotype specific and require approximately 7 days before they are able to elicit protective immunity. We have shown that vector-delivered IFN is an option to protect animals against many FMDV serotypes as soon as 24 h

  15. (E)-4-(3-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)allyl)-2-methoxyphenol inhibits growth of colon tumors in mice

    PubMed Central

    Son, Dong Ju; Choi, Min Gi; Choi, Jeong Soon; Nam, Kyung Tak; Kim, Hae Deun; Rodriguez, Kevin; Gann, Benjamin; Ham, Young Wan; Han, Sang Bae; Hong, Jin Tae

    2015-01-01

    In our previous study, we found that (E)-2,4-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butenal showed anti-cancer effect, but it showed lack of stability and drug likeness. We have prepared several (E)-2,4-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butenal analogues by Heck reaction. We selected two compounds which showed significant inhibitory effect of colon cancer cell growth. Thus, we evaluated the anti-cancer effects and possible mechanisms of one compound (E)-4-(3-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)allyl)-2-methoxyphenol in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we found that (E)-4-(3-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)allyl)-2-methoxyphenol induced apoptotic cell death in a dose dependent manner (0-15 μg/ml) through activation of Fas and death receptor (DR) 3 in HCT116 and SW480 colon cancer cell lines. Moreover, the combination treatment with (E)-4-(3-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)allyl)-2-methoxyphenol and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) inhibitor, phenylarsine oxide (0.1 μM) or signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) inhibitor, Stattic (50 μM) increased the expression of Fas and DR3 more significantly. In addition, (E)-4-(3-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)allyl)-2-methoxyphenol suppressed the DNA binding activity of both STAT3 and NF-κB. Knock down of STAT3 or NF-κB p50 subunit by STAT3 small interfering RNA (siRNA) or p50 siRNA magnified (E)-4-(3-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)allyl)-2-methoxyphenol-induced inhibitory effect on colon cancer cell growth. Besides, the expression of Fas and DR3 was increased in STAT3 siRNA or p50 siRNA transfected cells. Moreover, docking model and pull-down assay showed that (E)-4-(3-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)allyl)-2-methoxyphenol directly bound to STAT3 and NF-κB p50 subunit. Furthermore, (E)-4-(3-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)allyl)-2-methoxyphenol inhibited colon tumor growth in a dose dependent manner (2.5 mg/kg-5 mg/kg) in mice. Therefore, these findings indicated that (E)-4-(3-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)allyl)-2-methoxyphenol may be a promising anti-cancer agent for colon cancer with more advanced research. PMID

  16. Control of cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate levels by depolarizing agents in fungi.

    PubMed Central

    Trevillyan, J M; Pall, M L

    1979-01-01

    It has been reported that diverse treatments which depolarize the plasma membrane of Neurospora crassa produce rapid increases in cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cyclic AMP) levels. In the current study, membrane active antibiotics, which are known or putative depolarizing agents, were found to produce similar cyclic AMP increases, not only in N. crassa, but also in the distantly related fungi Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Mucor racemosus. Uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation, which have been found to depolarize Neurospora, also produced cyclic AMP increases in all three fungi. The time course of the cyclic AMP response to these various treatments was similar in all three fungi. The fungal studies and studies on depolarized central nervous tissue suggest that cyclic AMP increases may be produced in response to plasma membrane depolarization in diverse eucaryotic cells. A model is proposed for eucaryotic microorganisms in which membrane depolarization serves as a signal of breakdown of the plasma membrane integrity. The subsequent cyclic AMP increase, in turn, may mediate cellular response to help protect the plasma membrane from chemical and mechanical threats to its integrity. PMID:220213

  17. Many Men Ignore Testicular Cancer Symptoms for Months

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Many Men Ignore Testicular Cancer Symptoms for Months Early diagnosis and treatment are tied to 99 ... something abnormal in a testicle wait a few months before seeing a doctor. But, when diagnosed while ...

  18. Petroleum marketing monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  19. Petroleum marketing monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PPM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o. b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  20. Petroleum marketing monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  1. Electric power monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares the Electric Power Monthly (EPM) for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. This publication provides monthly statistics for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source, consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead.

  2. Electric power monthly

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Sandra R.; Johnson, Melvin; McClevey, Kenneth; Calopedis, Stephen; Bolden, Deborah

    1992-05-01

    The Electric Power Monthly is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fuel are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Additionally, statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, new generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel.

  3. COSMIC monthly progress report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Activities of the Computer Software Management and Information Center (COSMIC) are summarized for the month of January 1994. Tables showing the current inventory of programs available from COSMIC are presented and program processing and evaluation activities are discussed. Marketing and customer service activities in this period are presented as is the progress report of NASTRAN maintenance and support. Tables of disseminations and budget summary conclude the report.

  4. Antiretroviral Drugs Used in the Treatment of HIV Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... 6 months Retrovir zidovudine, azidothymidine, AZT, ZDV 19-Mar-87 3.5 months Trizivir abacavir, zidovudine, and ... months Viramune XR (Extended Release) nevirapine, NVP 25-Mar-11 9.9 months Protease Inhibitors (PIs) Brand ...

  5. Characterization of Metabolites during Biodegradation of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine (RDX) with Municipal Anaerobic Sludge†

    PubMed Central

    Hawari, Jalal; Halasz, Annamaria; Sheremata, Tamara; Beaudet, Sylvie; Groom, Carl; Paquet, Louise; Rhofir, Chakib; Ampleman, Guy; Thiboutot, Sonia

    2000-01-01

    The biodegradation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in liquid cultures with municipal anaerobic sludge showed that at least two degradation routes were involved in the disappearance of the cyclic nitramine. In one route, RDX was reduced to give the familiar nitroso derivatives hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX) and hexahydro-1,3-dinitroso-5-nitro-1,3,5-triazine (DNX). In the second route, two novel metabolites, methylenedinitramine [(O2NNH)2CH2] and bis(hydroxymethyl)nitramine [(HOCH2)2NNO2], formed and were presumed to be ring cleavage products produced by enzymatic hydrolysis of the inner C—N bonds of RDX. None of the above metabolites accumulated in the system, and they disappeared to produce nitrous oxide (N2O) as a nitrogen-containing end product and formaldehyde (HCHO), methanol (MeOH), and formic acid (HCOOH) that in turn disappeared to produce CH4 and CO2 as carbon-containing end products. PMID:10831452

  6. Identification of adducts formed by reaction of N-acetoxy-3,5-dimethylaniline with DNA

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Liang; Sun, Hsiao-Lan; Wishnok, John S.; Tannenbaum, Steven R.; Skipper, Paul L.

    2008-01-01

    Aromatic amines constitute one of the most extensively studied classes of chemical carcinogens. Although monocyclic aromatic amines are generally regarded as weak carcinogens, a recent epidemiologic study of bladder cancer found that the arylamine 3,5-dimethylaniline (3,5-DMA) may play a significant role in the etiology of this disease in man. Investigations using experimental animals also strongly suggested that DNA adducts—of indeterminate structure—formed by 3,5-DMA might account for its presumptive activity. The present study was undertaken to determine the structures of the major DNA adducts formed in vitro by the known, and possibly carcinogenic, N-hydroxylated metabolite. Calf thymus DNA (ct-DNA) was modified by reaction with N-acetoxy-3,5-dimethylaniline (N-AcO-3,5-DMA). After enzymatic hydrolysis of DNA to individual 2'-deoxyribonucleosides, adduct profiles were determined using HPLC/MS. 3,5-DMA formed four major DNA adducts, one to 2’-deoxyguanosine (dG), two to 2’-deoxyadenosine (dA), and one to 2’-deoxycytidine (dC). Reactions of N-AcO-3,5-DMA with dG, dA, and dC produced the same adducts as reaction with ct-DNA with very similar profiles. Adducts were isolated chromatographically and unambiguously characterized as N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-3,5-dimethylaniline (dG-C8−3,5-DMA), 4-(deoxyadenosin-N6-yl)-3,5-dimethylaniline (dA-N6-3,5-DMA), N-(deoxyadenosin-8-yl)-3,5-dimethylaniline (dA-C8−3,5-DMA), and N-(deoxycytidin-5-yl)-3,5-dimethylaniline (dC-C5−3,5-DMA) by high-resolution mass spectra (HR-MS) and NMR spectroscopy including 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and two-dimensional NMR. This report includes the first detailed description of a dC adduct of an aromatic amine. The present results provide chemical support for a carcinogenic mechanism of action by 3,5-DMA based on N-hydroxylation and the intermediacy of a nitrenium ion in the formation of DNA adducts. PMID:18020398

  7. Developmental milestones record - 9 months

    MedlinePlus

    Growth milestones for children - 9 months; Childhood growth milestones - 9 months; Normal childhood growth milestones - 9 months ... pushed to encourage walking. Sing songs together. Avoid television time until age 2. Try using a transition ...

  8. Petroleum marketing monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data.

  9. Biodegradation of the Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine Ring Cleavage Product 4-Nitro-2,4-Diazabutanal by Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    PubMed Central

    Fournier, Diane; Halasz, Annamaria; Spain, Jim; Spanggord, Ronald J.; Bottaro, Jeffrey C.; Hawari, Jalal

    2004-01-01

    Initial denitration of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) by Rhodococcus sp. strain DN22 produces CO2 and the dead-end product 4-nitro-2,4-diazabutanal (NDAB), OHCNHCH2NHNO2, in high yield. Here we describe experiments to determine the biodegradability of NDAB in liquid culture and soils containing Phanerochaete chrysosporium. A soil sample taken from an ammunition plant contained RDX (342 μmol kg−1), HMX (octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine; 3,057 μmol kg−1), MNX (hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine; 155 μmol kg−1), and traces of NDAB (3.8 μmol kg−1). The detection of the last in real soil provided the first experimental evidence for the occurrence of natural attenuation that involved ring cleavage of RDX. When we incubated the soil with strain DN22, both RDX and MNX (but not HMX) degraded and produced NDAB (388 ± 22 μmol kg−1) in 5 days. Subsequent incubation of the soil with the fungus led to the removal of NDAB, with the liberation of nitrous oxide (N2O). In cultures with the fungus alone NDAB degraded to give a stoichiometric amount of N2O. To determine C stoichiometry, we first generated [14C]NDAB in situ by incubating [14C]RDX with strain DN22, followed by incubation with the fungus. The production of 14CO2 increased from 30 (DN22 only) to 76% (fungus). Experiments with pure enzymes revealed that manganese-dependent peroxidase rather than lignin peroxidase was responsible for NDAB degradation. The detection of NDAB in contaminated soil and its effective mineralization by the fungus P. chrysosporium may constitute the basis for the development of bioremediation technologies. PMID:14766596

  10. Biodegradation of the hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine ring cleavage product 4-nitro-2,4-diazabutanal by Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    PubMed

    Fournier, Diane; Halasz, Annamaria; Spain, Jim; Spanggord, Ronald J; Bottaro, Jeffrey C; Hawari, Jalal

    2004-02-01

    Initial denitration of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) by Rhodococcus sp. strain DN22 produces CO2 and the dead-end product 4-nitro-2,4-diazabutanal (NDAB), OHCNHCH2NHNO2, in high yield. Here we describe experiments to determine the biodegradability of NDAB in liquid culture and soils containing Phanerochaete chrysosporium. A soil sample taken from an ammunition plant contained RDX (342 micromol kg(-1)), HMX (octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine; 3,057 micromol kg(-1)), MNX (hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine; 155 micromol kg(-1)), and traces of NDAB (3.8 micromol kg(-1)). The detection of the last in real soil provided the first experimental evidence for the occurrence of natural attenuation that involved ring cleavage of RDX. When we incubated the soil with strain DN22, both RDX and MNX (but not HMX) degraded and produced NDAB (388 +/- 22 micromol kg(-1)) in 5 days. Subsequent incubation of the soil with the fungus led to the removal of NDAB, with the liberation of nitrous oxide (N2O). In cultures with the fungus alone NDAB degraded to give a stoichiometric amount of N2O. To determine C stoichiometry, we first generated [14C]NDAB in situ by incubating [14C]RDX with strain DN22, followed by incubation with the fungus. The production of 14CO2 increased from 30 (DN22 only) to 76% (fungus). Experiments with pure enzymes revealed that manganese-dependent peroxidase rather than lignin peroxidase was responsible for NDAB degradation. The detection of NDAB in contaminated soil and its effective mineralization by the fungus P. chrysosporium may constitute the basis for the development of bioremediation technologies. PMID:14766596

  11. In vitro substrate specificities of 3'-5' polymerases correlate with biological outcomes of tRNA 5'-editing reactions

    PubMed Central

    Long, Yicheng; Jackman, Jane E.

    2015-01-01

    Protozoan mitochondrial tRNAs (mt-tRNAs) are repaired by a process known as 5'-editing. Mt-tRNA sequencing revealed organism-specific patterns of editing G-U base pairs, wherein some species remove G-U base pairs during 5'-editing, while others retain G-U pairs in the edited tRNA. We tested whether 3'-5' polymerases that catalyze the repair step of 5'-editing exhibit organism-specific preferences that explain the treatment of G-U base pairs. Biochemical and kinetic approaches revealed that a 3'-5' polymerase from A. castellanii tolerates G-U wobble pairs in editing substrates much more readily than several other enzymes, consistent with its biological pattern of editing. PMID:26143376

  12. In vitro substrate specificities of 3'-5' polymerases correlate with biological outcomes of tRNA 5'-editing reactions.

    PubMed

    Long, Yicheng; Jackman, Jane E

    2015-07-22

    Protozoan mitochondrial tRNAs (mt-tRNAs) are repaired by a process known as 5'-editing. Mt-tRNA sequencing revealed organism-specific patterns of editing G-U base pairs, wherein some species remove G-U base pairs during 5'-editing, while others retain G-U pairs in the edited tRNA. We tested whether 3'-5' polymerases that catalyze the repair step of 5'-editing exhibit organism-specific preferences that explain the treatment of G-U base pairs. Biochemical and kinetic approaches revealed that a 3'-5' polymerase from Acanthamoeba castellanii tolerates G-U wobble pairs in editing substrates much more readily than several other enzymes, consistent with its biological pattern of editing. PMID:26143376

  13. Bleaching effect of a 405-nm diode laser irradiation used with titanium dioxide and 3.5% hydrogen peroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, K.; Kato, J.; Nakazawa, T.; Hirai, Y.

    2007-09-01

    A 405-nm diode laser has recently been developed for soft tissue problems in dentistry. A new in-office bleaching agent consisting of a titanium dioxide photocatalyst and 3.5% hydrogen peroxide has proven to react well with light irradiated at a wavelength of around 400 nm. In this study, we evaluated the bleaching efficacy of a newly developed 405-nm diode laser on bovine teeth treated with a bleaching agent composed of titanium dioxide and 3.5% hydrogen peroxide. Sixteen bovine incisors were randomly divided into two groups: Group A, irradiated by the 405-nm diode laser at 200 mW; Group B, irradiated by the 405-nm diode laser at 400 mW. The bleaching agent with titanium dioxide and 3.5% hydrogen peroxide was applied to bovine enamel and irradiated for 1 min. The specimens were then washed and dried, and the same procedure was repeated nine more times. After irradiation, we assessed the effects of bleaching on the enamel by measuring the color of the specimens with a spectrophotometer and examining the enamel surfaces with a scanning electron microscope. L* rose to a high score, reaching a significantly higher post-treatment level in comparison to pretreatment. In a comparison of the color difference (Δ E) between Group A and Group B, the specimens in Group B showed significantly higher values after 10 min of irradiation for the post-treatment. No remarkable differences in the enamel surface morphology were found between the unbleached and bleached enamel. The use of a 405-nm diode laser in combination with a bleaching agent of titanium dioxide and 3.5% hydrogen peroxide may be an effective method for bleaching teeth without the risk of tooth damage.

  14. Down-Regulation of Porcine Heart Diaphorase Reactivity by Trimanganese Hexakis(3,5-Diisopropylsalicylate), Mn(3)(3,5-DIPS)6, and Down-Regulation of Nitric Oxide Synthase Reactivity by Mn(3)(3,5-DIPS)(6) and Cu(II)(2)(3,5-DIPS)(4).

    PubMed

    Booth, B L; Pitters, E; Mayer, B; Sorenson, J R

    1999-01-01

    Purposes of this work were to examine the plausible down-regulation of porcine heart diaphorase (PHD) enzyme reactivity and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) enzyme reactivity by trimanganese hexakis(3,5-diisopropylsalicylate), [Mn(3)(3,5-DIPS)(6)] as well as dicopper tetrakis(3,5- diisopropylsalicylate, [Cu(II)(2)(3,5-DIPS)(4)] as a mechanistic accounting for their pharmacological activities.Porcine heart disease was found to oxidize 114 muM reduced nicotinamide-adenine- dinucleotide-'(3)-phosphate (NADPH) with a corresponding reduction of an equivalent concentration of 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol (DCPIP). As reported for Cu(II)(2) (3,5-DIPS)(4), addition of Mn(3)(3,5-DIPS)(6) to this reaction mixture decreased the reduction of DCPIP without significantly affecting the oxidation of NADPH. The concentration of Mn(3)(3,5-DIPS)(6) that produced a 50% decrease in DCPIP reduction (IC(50)) was found to be 5muM. Mechanistically, this inhibition of DCPIP reduction with ongoing NADPH oxidation by PHD was found to be due to the ability of Mn(3)(3,5-DIPS)(6) to serve as a catalytic electron acceptor for reduced PHD as had been reported for Cu(II)(2)(3,5-DIPS)(4). This catalytic decrease in reduction of DCPIP by Mn(3)(3,5-DIPS)(6) was enhanced by the presence of a large concentration of DCPIP and decreased by the presence of a large concentration of NADPH, consistent with what had been observed for the activity of Cu(II)(2)(3,5-DIPS)(4)Oxidation of NADPH by PHD in the presence of Mn(3)(3,5-DIPS)(6) and the absence of DCPIP was linearly related to the concentration of added Mn(3)(3,5-DIPS)(6) through the concentration range of 2.4 muM to 38muM with a 50% recovery of NADPH oxidation by PHD at a concentration of 6 muM Mn(3)(3,5-DIPS)(6)Conversion of [(3)H] L-Arginine to [(3)H] L-Citrulline by purified rat brain nitric oxide synthase (NOS) was decreased in a concentrated related fashion with the addition of Mn(3)(3,5-DIPS)(6) as well as Cu(II)(2)(3,5-DIPS)(4) which is an extention of

  15. 3',5'Di-O-trityluridine inhibits in vitro flavivirus replication.

    PubMed

    De Burghgraeve, Tine; Selisko, Barbara; Kaptein, Suzanne; Chatelain, Grégory; Leyssen, Pieter; Debing, Yannick; Jacobs, Michael; Van Aerschot, Arthur; Canard, Bruno; Neyts, Johan

    2013-05-01

    The dengue fever virus (DENV) and the yellow fever virus (YFV) are members of the genus flavivirus in the family Flaviviridae. An estimated 50-100 million cases of DENV infections occur each year and approximately half a million patients require hospitalization. There is no vaccine or effective antiviral treatment available. There is an urgent need for potent and safe inhibitors of DENV replication; ideally such compounds should have broad-spectrum activity against flaviviruses. We here report on the in vitro activity of 3',5'di-O-trityluridine on flavivirus replication. The compound results in a dose-dependent inhibition of (i) DENV- and YFV-induced cytopathic effect (CPE) (EC₅₀ values in the low micromolar range for the 4 DENV serotypes), (ii) RNA replication (DENV-2 EC₅₀=1.5 μM; YFV-17D EC₅₀=0.83 μM) and (iii) viral antigen production. Antiviral activity was also demonstrated in DENV subgenomic replicons (which do not encode the structural viral proteins) (EC₅₀=2.3 μM), indicating that the compound inhibits intracellular events of the viral replication cycle. Preliminary data indicate that the molecule may inhibit the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. PMID:23470860

  16. 21 CFR 3.5 - Procedures for identifying the designated agency component.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Evaluation and Research, the Center for Devices and Radiological Health, and the Center for Drug Evaluation... for Drug Evaluation and Research and the Center for Devices and Radiological Health;” “Intercenter... component. 3.5 Section 3.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT......

  17. 21 CFR 3.5 - Procedures for identifying the designated agency component.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Evaluation and Research, the Center for Devices and Radiological Health, and the Center for Drug Evaluation... for Drug Evaluation and Research and the Center for Devices and Radiological Health;” “Intercenter... component. 3.5 Section 3.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT......

  18. 21 CFR 3.5 - Procedures for identifying the designated agency component.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Evaluation and Research, the Center for Devices and Radiological Health, and the Center for Drug Evaluation... for Drug Evaluation and Research and the Center for Devices and Radiological Health;” “Intercenter... component. 3.5 Section 3.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT......

  19. AquaSMART: Water & Boating Safety, Grades 3-5. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Dept. of Parks and Wildlife, Austin.

    This teacher's guide accompanies a program designed to teach water and boating safety to students in grades 3-5. The written curriculum accompanies a video, AquaSMART 3-5. The theme of the curriculum is AquaSMART. To become AquaSMART, students must learn 10 basic lessons for water and boating safety. The written curriculum begins with an overview…

  20. 21 CFR 3.5 - Procedures for identifying the designated agency component.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Procedures for identifying the designated agency component. 3.5 Section 3.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PRODUCT JURISDICTION Assignment of Agency Component for Review of Premarket...

  1. Method of refining 2,2-isopropylidenebis-3,5- dibromophenylene-4-oxydiethanol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, T.; Nawata, K.; Hiratsuka, K.

    1982-01-01

    A method of refining 2,2-isopropylidenebis-3,5-dibromophenylene-4-oxydiethanol is described which is characterized by recrystallization of 2,2-isopropylidenebis-3,5-dibromophenylene-4-oxydiethanol using one or more aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene, xylene, toluene, ethylbenzene or pseudocumene.

  2. IMMUNOASSAY METHODS FOR MEASURING ATRAZINE AND 3,5,6-TRICHLORO-2-PYRIDINOL IN FOODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter describes the use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods for the analysis of two potential environmental contaminants in food sample media, atrazine and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (3,5,6-TCP). Two different immunoassay formats are employed: a magnetic...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10158 - 2-Pentanone, 3,5-dichloro-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (organic vapor, acid gas, or substance-specific). (ii) Hazard communication program. Requirements as... Substances § 721.10158 2-Pentanone, 3,5-dichloro-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 2-pentanone, 3,5-dichloro- (PMN P-06-16; CAS No....

  4. 40 CFR 721.10158 - 2-Pentanone, 3,5-dichloro-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (organic vapor, acid gas, or substance-specific). (ii) Hazard communication program. Requirements as... Substances § 721.10158 2-Pentanone, 3,5-dichloro-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 2-pentanone, 3,5-dichloro- (PMN P-06-16; CAS No....

  5. 40 CFR 721.10158 - 2-Pentanone, 3,5-dichloro-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (organic vapor, acid gas, or substance-specific). (ii) Hazard communication program. Requirements as... Substances § 721.10158 2-Pentanone, 3,5-dichloro-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 2-pentanone, 3,5-dichloro- (PMN P-06-16; CAS No....

  6. 40 CFR 721.10158 - 2-Pentanone, 3,5-dichloro-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (organic vapor, acid gas, or substance-specific). (ii) Hazard communication program. Requirements as... Substances § 721.10158 2-Pentanone, 3,5-dichloro-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 2-pentanone, 3,5-dichloro- (PMN P-06-16; CAS No....

  7. 40 CFR 721.10158 - 2-Pentanone, 3,5-dichloro-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (organic vapor, acid gas, or substance-specific). (ii) Hazard communication program. Requirements as... Substances § 721.10158 2-Pentanone, 3,5-dichloro-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 2-pentanone, 3,5-dichloro- (PMN P-06-16; CAS No....

  8. Untemplated nonenzymatic polymerization of 3',5'cGMP: a plausible route to 3',5'-linked oligonucleotides in primordia.

    PubMed

    Šponer, Judit E; Šponer, Jiří; Giorgi, Alessandra; Di Mauro, Ernesto; Pino, Samanta; Costanzo, Giovanna

    2015-02-19

    The high-energy 3',5' phosphodiester linkages conserved in 3',5' cyclic GMPs offer a genuine solution for monomer activation required by the transphosphorylation reactions that could lead to the emergence of the first simple oligonucleotide sequences on the early Earth. In this work we provide an in-depth characterization of the effect of the reaction conditions on the yield of the polymerization reaction of 3',5' cyclic GMPs both in aqueous environment as well as under dehydrating conditions. We show that the threshold temperature of the polymerization is about 30 °C lower under dehydrating conditions than in solution. In addition, we present a plausible exergonic reaction pathway for the polymerization reaction, which involves transient formation of anionic centers at the O3' positions of the participating riboses. We suggest that excess Na(+) cations inhibit the polymerization reaction because they block the anionic mechanism via neutralizing the negatively charged O3'. Our experimental findings are compatible with a prebiotic scenario, where gradual desiccation of the environment could induce polymerization of 3',5' cyclic GMPs synthesized in liquid. PMID:25625780

  9. The 3.5 micron light curves of long period variable stars. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strecker, D. W.

    1973-01-01

    Infrared observations at an effective wavelength of 3.5 microns of a selected group of long period variable (LPV) stars are presented. Mira type and semiregular stars of M, S, and C spectral classifications were monitored throughout the full cycle of variability. Although the variable infrared radiation does not exactly repeat in intensity or time, the regularity is sufficient to produce mean 3.5 micron light curves. The 3.5 micron maximum radiation lags the visual maximum by about one-seventh of a cycle, while the minimum 3.5 micron intensity occurs nearly one-half cycle after infrared maximum. In some stars, there are inflections or humps on the ascending portion of the 3.5 micron light curve which may also be seen in the visual variations.

  10. Hypocrellin B graft on activated carbon and photocatalytic oxidation of 2,3,5-trimethylphenol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Li, Ying; Zhang, Pei; Zhang, Jucheng; Min, Yong; Yi, Zhongzhou; Zhang, Canbang; Wu, Mingzhu; Chen, Rui

    2008-12-01

    Hypocrellin B, a photosensitizer isolated from Hypocrella Bambuase sacc in Yunnan province, has significant anti-tumor and anti-virus character. In this article, hypocrellin B, which was grafted on activated carbon, was used as photocatalysts to catalytic oxidize 2,3,5-trimethylphenol to 2,3,5-trimethylhydrobenzoquinone because of its high photons efficiency. This study realized nearly 100% selectivity for 2,3,5-trimethylhydrobenzoquinone under visible light irradiation (>400nm) at aerobic atmosphere. The photocatalytic oxidation process has been studied by different parameters like the pretreatment of activated carbon, synthetic mehtod of grafted hypocrellin, and photo-assisted oxidation catalysis of 2,3,5-trimethylphenol to 2,3,5-trimethylhdrobenzoquinone. Compared to the conventional methods, this process could be more eco-friendly.

  11. Absorption, distribution, and biotransformation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine in B6C3F1 mice (Mus musculus).

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiaoping; Ochoa, Kelly M; Francisco, Michael J San; Cox, Stephen B; Dixon, Kenneth; Anderson, Todd A; Cobb, George P

    2013-06-01

    Absorption, distribution, and biotransformation are 3 critical aspects affecting toxicant action in animals. In the present study, B6C3F1 mice (Mus musculus) were exposed for 28 d to contaminated feed that contained 1 of 5 different hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) concentrations: 0 mg/kg, 0.5 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg, and 500 mg/kg. The authors quantified RDX and its reductive transformation products hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX), hexahydro-1,3-dinitroso-5-nitro-1,3,5-triazine (DNX), and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitroso-1,3,5-triazine (TNX) in the stomach, intestine, plasma, liver, and brain of these mice. Average RDX concentrations followed a dose-dependent pattern for all matrices tested. No controls had concentrations above limits of detection. Average RDX concentrations in tissues of exposed mice ranged from 11.1 ng/mL to 182 ng/mL, 25.6 ng/g to 3319 ng/g, 123 ng/g to 233 ng/g, 144 ng/g to 35 900 ng/g, and 51.1 ng/g to 2697 ng/g in the plasma, brain, liver, stomach, and intestine, respectively. A considerable amount of RDX was present in the brain, especially in the highest-exposure group. This is consistent with the widely observed central nervous system effects caused by γ-aminobutyric acid inhibition associated with RDX exposure. N-nitroso metabolites of RDX were also present in tested tissues in a dose-dependent pattern. Average MNX concentrations in the stomachs of mice exposed to RDX ranged from nondetectable in control exposures to 490 ng/g in the highest-exposure groups. In the brain, MNX accumulated at a maximum average concentration of 165.1 ng/g, suggesting the potential formation of MNX from RDX within the brain. At higher exposures, DNX and TNX were present in the stomach, plasma, and brain of mice. The presence of RDX metabolites at notable amounts in different tissues suggests that RDX can transform into its N-nitroso metabolites in vivo by an undefined mechanism. PMID:23423972

  12. Fermi at Six Months

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    An overview of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope's first 6 months in operation is provided. The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, formerly called GLAST, is a mission to measure the cosmic gamma-ray flux in the energy rage 20 MeV to more than 300 GeV, with supporting measurements for gamma-ray bursts from 8 keV to 30 MeV. It contains a Large Area Telescope capable of viewing the entire sky every 3 hours and a Gamma-ray Burst Monitor for viewing the entire unocculted sky. Since its launch on June 11, 2008 Fermi has provided information on pulsars, gamma ray bursts, relativistic jets, the active galactic nucleus, and a globular star cluster. This presentation describes Fermi's development, mission, instruments and recent findings.

  13. COSMIC monthly progress report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Activities of the Computer Software Management and Information Center (COSMIC) are summarized for the month of April 1994. Tables showing the current inventory of programs available from COSMIC are presented and program processing and evaluation activities are summarized. Five articles were prepared for publication in the NASA Tech Brief Journal. These articles (included in this report) describe the following software items: GAP 1.0 - Groove Analysis Program, Version 1.0; SUBTRANS - Subband/Transform MATLAB Functions for Image Processing; CSDM - COLD-SAT Dynamic Model; CASRE - Computer Aided Software Reliability Estimation; and XOPPS - OEL Project Planner/Scheduler Tool. Activities in the areas of marketing, customer service, benefits identification, maintenance and support, and disseminations are also described along with a budget summary.

  14. Genetically encoded fluorescent probe to visualize intracellular phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate localization and dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xinran; Wang, Xiang; Zhang, Xiaoli; Zhao, Mingkun; Tsang, Wai Lok; Zhang, Yanling; Yau, Richard Gar Wai; Weisman, Lois S.; Xu, Haoxing

    2013-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate [PI(3,5)P2] is a low-abundance phosphoinositide presumed to be localized to endosomes and lysosomes, where it recruits cytoplasmic peripheral proteins and regulates endolysosome-localized membrane channel activity. Cells lacking PI(3,5)P2 exhibit lysosomal trafficking defects, and human mutations in the PI(3,5)P2-metabolizing enzymes cause lysosome-related diseases. The spatial and temporal dynamics of PI(3,5)P2, however, remain unclear due to the lack of a reliable detection method. Of the seven known phosphoinositides, only PI(3,5)P2 binds, in the low nanomolar range, to a cytoplasmic phosphoinositide-interacting domain (ML1N) to activate late endosome and lysosome (LEL)-localized transient receptor potential Mucolipin 1 (TRPML1) channels. Here, we report the generation and characterization of a PI(3,5)P2-specific probe, generated by the fusion of fluorescence tags to the tandem repeats of ML1N. The probe was mainly localized to the membranes of Lamp1-positive compartments, and the localization pattern was dynamically altered by either mutations in the probe, or by genetically or pharmacologically manipulating the cellular levels of PI(3,5)P2. Through the use of time-lapse live-cell imaging, we found that the localization of the PI(3,5)P2 probe was regulated by serum withdrawal/addition, undergoing rapid changes immediately before membrane fusion of two LELs. Our development of a PI(3,5)P2-specific probe may facilitate studies of both intracellular signal transduction and membrane trafficking in the endosomes and lysosomes. PMID:24324172

  15. Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention Treatment 2003 U.S. Outbreak African Rodent Importation Ban For Clinicians Clinical Recognition Specimen Collection Treatment Smallpox ... Examining Animals with Suspected Monkeypox African Rodent Importation Ban Resources Related Links Poxvirus Molluscum Contagiosum Orf Virus ( ...

  16. Convenient synthesis of 4,6-di-O-benzyl-myo-inositol and myo-inositol 1,3,5-orthoesters.

    PubMed

    Praveen, T; Shashidhar, M S

    2001-02-15

    Convenient high yielding methods for the preparation of 4,6-di-O-benzyl-myo-inositol, myo-inositol 1,3,5-orthoformate and myo-inositol 1,3,5-orthoacetate, without involving chromatography are described. Myo-inositol was converted to racemic 2,4-di-O-benzoyl-myo-inositol 1,3,5-orthoformate by successive treatment with triethyl orthoformate and benzoyl chloride. The dibenzoate obtained on benzylation with benzyl bromide and silver(I) oxide gave 2-O-benzoyl-4,6-di-O-benzyl-myo-inositol 1,3,5-orthoformate. Deprotection of the benzoate and the orthoformate with isobutylamine and aqueous trifluoroacetic acid, respectively gave 4,6-di-O-benzyl-myo-inositol in an overall yield of 67%. Myo-inositol orthoformate and orthoacetate were prepared and isolated as their tribenzoates. The free orthoesters were regenerated by deprotection of the benzoates by aminolysis with isobutylamine. PMID:11270820

  17. In vivo effect of an antilipolytic drug (3,5'-dimethylpyrazole) on autophagic proteolysis and autophagy-related gene expression in rat liver

    SciTech Connect

    Donati, Alessio; Ventruti, Annamaria; Cavallini, Gabriella; Masini, Matilde; Vittorini, Simona; Chantret, Isabelle; Codogno, Patrice; Bergamini, Ettore

    2008-02-15

    Autophagy is an intracellular pathway induced by starvation, inhibited by nutrients, that is responsible for degradation of long-lived proteins and altered cell organelles. This process is involved in cell maintenance could be induced by antilipolytic drugs and may have anti-aging effects [A. Donati, The involvement of macroautophagy in aging and anti-aging interventions, Mol. Aspects Med. 27 (2006) 455-470]. We analyzed the effect of an intraperitoneal injection of an antilipolytic agent (3,5'-dimethylpyrazole, DMP, 12 mg/kg b.w.), that mimics nutrient shortage on autophagy and expression of autophagic genes in the liver of male 3-month-old Sprague-Dawley albino rats. Autophagy was evaluated by observing electron micrographs of the liver autophagosomal compartment and by monitoring protein degradation assessed by the release of valine into the bloodstream. LC3 gene expression, whose product is one of the best known markers of autophagy, was also monitored. As expected, DMP decreased the plasma levels of free fatty acids, glucose, and insulin and increased autophagic vacuoles and proteolysis. DMP treatment caused an increase in the expression of the LC3 gene although this occurred later than the induction of authophagic proteolysis caused by DMP. Glucose treatment rescued the effects caused by DMP on glucose and insulin plasma levels and negatively affected the rate of autophagic proteolysis, but did not suppress the positive regulatory effect on LC3 mRNA levels. In conclusion, antilipolytic drugs may induce both autophagic proteolysis and higher expression of an autophagy-related gene and the effect on autophagy gene expression might not be secondary to the stimulation of autophagic proteolysis.

  18. MiR-509-3-5p causes aberrant mitosis and anti-proliferative effect by suppression of PLK1 in human lung cancer A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xian-Hui; Lu, Yao; Liang, Jing-Jing; Cao, Ji-Xiang; Jin, Ya-Qiong; An, Guo-Shun; Ni, Ju-Hua; Jia, Hong-Ti; Li, Shu-Yan

    2016-09-16

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are potent post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression and play roles in DNA damage response (DDR). PLK1 is identified as a modulator of DNA damage checkpoint. Although down-regulation of PLK1 by certain microRNAs has been reported, little is known about the interplay between PLK1 and miR-509-3-5p in DDR. Here we have demonstrated that miR-509-3-5p repressed PLK1 expression by targeting PLK1 3'-UTR, thereby causing mitotic aberration and growth arrest of human lung cancer A549 cells. Repression of PLK1 by miR-509-3-5p was further evidenced by over-expression of miR-509-3-5p in A549, HepG2 and HCT116p53(-/-) cancer cells, in which PLK1 protein was suppressed. Consistently, miR-509-3-5p was stimulated, while PLK1 protein was down-regulated in A549 cells exposed to CIS and ADR, suggesting that suppression of PLK1 by miR-509-3-5p is a component of CIS/ADR-induced DDR pathway. Flow cytometry and immunofluorescence labeling showed that over-expression of miR-509-3-5p in A549 induced G2/M arrest and aberrant mitosis characterized by abnormal bipolar mitotic spindles, condensed chromosomes, lagging DNA and chromosome bridges. In addition, over-expression of miR-509-3-5p markedly blocked A549 cell proliferation and sensitized the cells to CIS and ADR treatment. Taken together, miR-509-3-5p is a feasible suppressor for cancer by targeting PLK1. Our data may provide aid in potential design of combined chemotherapy and in our better understanding of the roles of microRNAs in response to DNA damage. PMID:27498003

  19. Rapid structural changes and acidification of guard cell vacuoles during stomatal closure require phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate.

    PubMed

    Bak, Gwangbae; Lee, Eun-Jung; Lee, Yuree; Kato, Mariko; Segami, Shoji; Sze, Heven; Maeshima, Masayoshi; Hwang, Jae-Ung; Lee, Youngsook

    2013-06-01

    Rapid stomatal closure is essential for water conservation in plants and is thus critical for survival under water deficiency. To close stomata rapidly, guard cells reduce their volume by converting a large central vacuole into a highly convoluted structure. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this change are poorly understood. In this study, we used pH-indicator dyes to demonstrate that vacuolar convolution is accompanied by acidification of the vacuole in fava bean (Vicia faba) guard cells during abscisic acid (ABA)-induced stomatal closure. Vacuolar acidification is necessary for the rapid stomatal closure induced by ABA, since a double mutant of the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase vha-a2 vha-a3 and vacuolar H(+)-PPase mutant vhp1 showed delayed stomatal closure. Furthermore, we provide evidence for the critical role of phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(3,5)P2] in changes in pH and morphology of the vacuole. Single and double Arabidopsis thaliana null mutants of phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate 5-kinases (PI3P5Ks) exhibited slow stomatal closure upon ABA treatment compared with the wild type. Moreover, an inhibitor of PI3P5K reduced vacuolar acidification and convolution and delayed stomatal closure in response to ABA. Taken together, these results suggest that rapid ABA-induced stomatal closure requires PtdIns(3,5)P2, which is essential for vacuolar acidification and convolution. PMID:23757398

  20. Microstructural examination of V-(3-6%)Cr-(3-5%)Ti irradiated in the ATR-A1 experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Gelles, D.S.

    1998-09-01

    Microstructural examination results are reported for four heats of V-(3-6%)Cr-(3-5%)Ti irradiated in the ATR-A1 experiment to {approximately}4 dpa at {approximately}200 and 300 C to provide an understanding of the microstructural evolution that may be associated with degradation of mechanical properties. Fine precipitates were observed in high density intermixed with small defect clusters for all conditions examined following the irradiation. The irradiation-induced precipitation does not appear to be affected by preirradiation heat treatment or composition.

  1. Synthesis of Substituted 2,3,5,6-tetraarylbenzo(1,2-b:5,4-b')difurans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdul-Aziz, Mahmoud; Auping, Judith V.; Meador, Michael A.

    1995-01-01

    A series of substituted 2,3,5,6-tetraarylbenzo(l,2-b:5,4-b')difurans 1 was synthesized. This synthesis is based upon the photocyclization of 2,5-dibenzoylresorcinol dibenzyl ethers to the corresponding tetrahydrobenzo(1,2-b:5,4-b')difurans. Treatment of the photoproducts with methanesulfonyl chloride in pyridine afforded 1 in overall yields ranging from 30-72%. A number of these compounds have high fluorescence quantum yields (of phi(sub f) = 0.76-0.90), and their fluorescence spectra exhibit large solvatochromic shifts. These compounds may be suitable for use as fluorescent probes.

  2. Petroleum supply monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blends, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  3. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  4. COSMIC monthly progress report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Activities of the Computer Software Management and Information Center (COSMIC) are summarized for the month of August, 1993. Tables showing the current inventory of programs available from COSMIC are presented and program processing and evaluation activities are discussed. Ten articles were prepared for publication in the NASA Tech Brief Journal. These articles (included in this report) describe the following software items: (1) MOM3D - A Method of Moments Code for Electromagnetic Scattering (UNIX Version); (2) EM-Animate - Computer Program for Displaying and Animating the Steady-State Time-Harmonic Electromagnetic Near Field and Surface-Current Solutions; (3) MOM3D - A Method of Moments Code for Electromagnetic Scattering (IBM PC Version); (4) M414 - MIL-STD-414 Variable Sampling Procedures Computer Program; (5) MEDOF - Minimum Euclidean Distance Optimal Filter; (6) CLIPS 6.0 - C Language Integrated Production System, Version 6.0 (Macintosh Version); (7) CLIPS 6.0 - C Language Integrated Production System, Version 6.0 (IBM PC Version); (8) CLIPS 6.0 - C Language Integrated Production System, Version 6.0 (UNIX Version); (9) CLIPS 6.0 - C Language Integrated Production System, Version 6.0 (DEC VAX VMS Version); and (10) TFSSRA - Thick Frequency Selective Surface with Rectangular Apertures. Activities in the areas of marketing, customer service, benefits identification, maintenance and support, and dissemination are also described along with a budget summary.

  5. COSMIC monthly progress report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Activities of the Computer Software Management and Information Center (COSMIC) are summarized for the month of May 1994. Tables showing the current inventory of programs available from COSMIC are presented and program processing and evaluation activities are summarized. Nine articles were prepared for publication in the NASA Tech Brief Journal. These articles (included in this report) describe the following software items: (1) WFI - Windowing System for Test and Simulation; (2) HZETRN - A Free Space Radiation Transport and Shielding Program; (3) COMGEN-BEM - Composite Model Generation-Boundary Element Method; (4) IDDS - Interactive Data Display System; (5) CET93/PC - Chemical Equilibrium with Transport Properties, 1993; (6) SDVIC - Sub-pixel Digital Video Image Correlation; (7) TRASYS - Thermal Radiation Analyzer System (HP9000 Series 700/800 Version without NASADIG); (8) NASADIG - NASA Device Independent Graphics Library, Version 6.0 (VAX VMS Version); and (9) NASADIG - NASA Device Independent Graphics Library, Version 6.0 (UNIX Version). Activities in the areas of marketing, customer service, benefits identification, maintenance and support, and dissemination are also described along with a budget summary.

  6. SUZUKI-MIYAURA COUPLING REACTIONS OF 3,5-DICHLORO-1,2,4-THIADIAZOLE

    PubMed Central

    Farahat, Abdelbasset A.; Boykin, David W.

    2014-01-01

    3,5-Dichloro-1,2,4-thiadiazole was allowed to react with different arylboronic acids under different Suzuki-Miyaura coupling conditions: at room temperature 5-aryl-3-chloro-1,2,4-thiadiazoles were obtained and at toluene reflux temperature the products were 3,5-diaryl-1,2,4-thiadiazoles. Sequential coupling reactions lead to 3,5-diaryl-1,2,4-thiadiazoles with non-identical aryl groups. The structure of 3-methoxy-5-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1,2,4-thiadiazole was established from X-ray crystallographic data. PMID:24644388

  7. Theoretical study of the thermodynamic properties, phase transition wave, and phase transition velocity for octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Yao; Chen, Jun

    2015-09-21

    We develop a phonon-electron free energy model to study the thermodynamic properties and phase transitions of δ-octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine. The bulk modulus, thermal expansion coefficient, specific heat, Hugoniot curve, and phase transition curve are calculated in wide temperature and pressure ranges. The results are in agreement with the available experiments at zero pressure, and are reasonable predictions at high pressure for the lack of experiment. Two kinds of phase transition waves are investigated. We find the velocity of shock-induced phase transition wave is between 3400 m/s and 4700 m/s, and the velocity of self-sustaining phase transition wave is between 1300 m/s and 1900 m/s.

  8. Oligoribonucleotides containing 2',5'-phosphodiester linkages exhibit binding selectivity for 3',5'-RNA over 3',5'-ssDNA.

    PubMed Central

    Giannaris, P A; Damha, M J

    1993-01-01

    Oligoribonucleotides containing 2',5'-phosphodiester linkages have been synthesized on a solid support by the 'silyl-phosphoramidite' method. The stability of complexes formed between these oligonucleotides and complementary 3',5'-RNA strands have been studied using oligoadenylates and a variety of oligonucleotides of mixed base sequences including phosphorothioate backbones. In many cases, particularly for 2',5'-linked adenylates, the UV melting profiles are quite sharp and exhibit large hyperchromic changes. Substituting a few 3',5'-linkages with the 2',5'-linkage within an oligomer lowers the Tm of the complex and the degree of destabilization depends on the neighboring residues and neighboring linkages. The 2',5'-linked oligoribonucleotides prepared in this study exhibited remarkable selectivity for complementary single stranded RNA over DNA. For example, in 0.01 M phosphate buffer--0.10 M NaCl (pH 7.0), no association was observed between 2',5'-r(CCC UCU CCC UUC U) and its Watson-Crick DNA complement 3',5'-d(AGAAGGGAGAGGG). However, 2',5'-r(CCC UCU CCC UUC U) with its RNA complement 3',5'-r(AGAAGGGAGAGGG) forms a duplex which melts at 40 degrees C. The decamer 2',5'-r(Ap)9A forms a complex with both poly dT and poly rU but the complex [2',5'-r(Ap)9A]:[poly dT] is unstable (Tm, -1 degree C) and is seen only at high salt concentrations. In view of their unnatural character and remarkable selectivity for single stranded RNA, 2',5'-oligo-RNAs and their derivatives may find use as selective inhibitors of viral mRNA translation, and as affinity ligands for the purification of cellular RNA. Images PMID:7694233

  9. Dehalogenation of the Herbicides Bromoxynil (3,5-Dibromo-4-Hydroxybenzonitrile) and Ioxynil (3,5-Diiodino-4-Hydroxybenzonitrile) by Desulfitobacterium chlororespirans

    PubMed Central

    Cupples, Alison M.; Sanford, Robert A.; Sims, Gerald K.

    2005-01-01

    Desulfitobacterium chlororespirans has been shown to grow by coupling the oxidation of lactate to the metabolic reductive dehalogenation of ortho chlorines on polysubstituted phenols. Here, we examine the ability of D. chlororespirans to debrominate and deiodinate the polysubstituted herbicides bromoxynil (3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxybenzonitrile), ioxynil (3,5-diiodo-4-hydroxybenzonitrile), and the bromoxynil metabolite 3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxybenzoate (DBHB). Stoichiometric debromination of bromoxynil to 4-cyanophenol and DBHB to 4-hydroxybenzoate occurred. Further, bromoxynil (35 to 75 μM) and DBHB (250 to 260 μM) were used as electron acceptors for growth. Doubling times for growth (means ± standard deviations for triplicate cultures) on bromoxynil (18.4 ± 5.2 h) and DBHB (11.9 ± 1.4 h), determined by rate of [14C]lactate uptake into biomass, were similar to those previously reported for this microorganism during growth on pyruvate (15.4 h). In contrast, ioxynil was not deiodinated when added alone or when added with bromoxynil; however, ioxynil dehalogenation, with stoichiometric conversion to 4-cyanophenol, was observed when the culture was amended with 3-chloro-4-hydroxybenzoate (a previously reported electron acceptor). To our knowledge, this is the first direct report of deiodination by a bacterium in the Desulfitobacterium genus and the first report of an anaerobic pure culture with the ability to transform bromoxynil or ioxynil. This research provides valuable insights into the substrate range of D. chlororespirans. PMID:16000784

  10. Natural gas monthly

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-11-01

    This report presents data on the supply and disposition of natural gas in the USA during July 1982, as well as data on production, storage, imports, exports, and consumption. Selected data are also presented on the activities of the major interstate pipeline companies. Volumes of natural gas in storage continue to run slightly ahead of year-ago levels, especially for interstate operators. Weighted average prices received for gas sold by major interstate pipeline companies during July of 19982 ranged from a low of $2.61 per thousand cubic feet (Mcf) for Kansas-Nebraska to a high of $7.09 per Mcf for Pacific Gas. These variations are attributable to the sources of supply available to the various pipeline companies and the market structures of each. September 1982 applications for determination of a maximum lawful price under the Natural Gas Policy Act (NGPA) increased slightly for new gas (Section 102) and decreased significantly for high-cost gas (Section 107) when compared to August. Natural gas ceiling prices prescribed by the NGPA continued to move upward through the application of prescribed monthly inflation adjustments. In the 3-year period from November 1979 through November 1982, the price ceiling for new gas, for example, increased from $2.314 to $3.249 per million (MM) Btu's. The highest ceiling price permitted under the NGPA is natural gas produced from tight formations set for November 1982 at $5.396 per MMBtu. Market natural gas production during September of 1982 was 1444 billion cubic feet (Bcf) compared to the September 1981 level of 1578 Bcf. Consumption during the same period also declined from 1266 Bcf to 1176 Bcf.

  11. Photochemical carbonylation of adamantanes; simple synthesis of 1,3,5,7-tetranitroadamantane

    SciTech Connect

    Bashir-Hashemi, A.; Li, J.; Gelber, N.

    1995-12-01

    1,3,5,7-Tetranitroadamantane (2) was obtained from the irradiation of a mixture of 1-adamantanecarboxylic acid (1) and oxalylchloride followed by conversion of chlorocarbonyl functions to nitro groups using the method of Eaton et. al.

  12. Progreso con el "Telescopio de Nueva Tecnologia" de 3.5 m (NTT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-09-01

    Desde septiembre de 1980 cuando el primer artlculo sobre el Telescopio ESO de Nueva Tecnologla de 3.5 m fue publicado en "EI Mensajero", el diserio para este instrumento ha hecho progresos satisfactorios.

  13. Binding and degradation of 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine and thyroxine by rat intestinal bacteria.

    PubMed

    DiStefano, J J; de Luze, A; Nguyen, T T

    1993-06-01

    Intestinal bacteria hydrolyze conjugates of thyroxine (T4) and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) secreted in bile, but it is not clear whether they have any other role in metabolism, storage, transport, or action of thyroid hormone in the intestines. We have examined aspects of T3 and T4 binding and degradation processes in fresh feces and cecum contents, obtained from normal control rats and from rats partially decontaminated by treatment with oral antibiotics for 2-3 wk. Samples were homogenized in phosphate buffer, fractionated, and subjected to various test conditions and incubated at 37 degrees C with 125I-labeled T3 (T3*) or T4 (T4*) for 2 or 24 h. Supernatants of high-speed centrifuged incubates were chromatographed to test for degradation products, and percentage binding was measured in the pellets. Substantial binding of T3* and T4* was found in all control rat feces and cecum content samples by 2 h, but binding was absent or significantly reduced in partially decontaminated rat samples. Bacterial binding of T3* and T4* were further shown to be competitive with graded doses of bovine serum albumin. Considerable degradation of T3* and T4* to labeled iodide (I*) only was also observed in feces and cecum content samples and was much greater in control rat than in corresponding partially decontaminated rat samples. Light had no effects in our system and heat reduced I* production. Propylthiouracil and sodium ipodate had little effect or equivocal effects, but dithiothreitol substantially inhibited I* production.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8333521

  14. PI(3,5)P2 biosynthesis regulates oligodendrocyte differentiation by intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Mironova, Yevgeniya A; Lenk, Guy M; Lin, Jing-Ping; Lee, Seung Joon; Twiss, Jeffery L; Vaccari, Ilaria; Bolino, Alessandra; Havton, Leif A; Min, Sang H; Abrams, Charles S; Shrager, Peter; Meisler, Miriam H; Giger, Roman J

    2016-01-01

    Proper development of the CNS axon-glia unit requires bi-directional communication between axons and oligodendrocytes (OLs). We show that the signaling lipid phosphatidylinositol-3,5-bisphosphate [PI(3,5)P2] is required in neurons and in OLs for normal CNS myelination. In mice, mutations of Fig4, Pikfyve or Vac14, encoding key components of the PI(3,5)P2 biosynthetic complex, each lead to impaired OL maturation, severe CNS hypomyelination and delayed propagation of compound action potentials. Primary OLs deficient in Fig4 accumulate large LAMP1+ and Rab7+ vesicular structures and exhibit reduced membrane sheet expansion. PI(3,5)P2 deficiency leads to accumulation of myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) in LAMP1+perinuclear vesicles that fail to migrate to the nascent myelin sheet. Live-cell imaging of OLs after genetic or pharmacological inhibition of PI(3,5)P2 synthesis revealed impaired trafficking of plasma membrane-derived MAG through the endolysosomal system in primary cells and brain tissue. Collectively, our studies identify PI(3,5)P2 as a key regulator of myelin membrane trafficking and myelinogenesis. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13023.001 PMID:27008179

  15. The ML1Nx2 Phosphatidylinositol 3,5-Bisphosphate Probe Shows Poor Selectivity in Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, Gerald R. V.; Takasuga, Shunsuke; Sasaki, Takehiko; Balla, Tamas

    2015-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol (3,5)-bisphosphate (PtdIns(3,5)P2) is a quantitatively minor phospholipid in eukaryotic cells that plays a fundamental role in regulating endocytic membrane traffic. Despite its clear importance for cellular function and organism physiology, mechanistic details of its biology have so far not been fully elucidated. In part, this is due to a lack of experimental tools that specifically probe for PtdIns(3,5)P2 in cells to unambiguously identify its dynamics and site(s) of action. In this study, we have evaluated a recently reported PtdIns(3,5)P2 biosensor, GFP-ML1Nx2, for its veracity as such a probe. We report that, in live cells, the localization of this biosensor to sub-cellular compartments is largely independent of PtdIns(3,5)P2, as assessed after pharmacological, chemical genetic or genomic interventions that block the lipid’s synthesis. We therefore conclude that it is unwise to interpret the localization of ML1Nx2 as a true and unbiased biosensor for PtdIns(3,5)P2. PMID:26460749

  16. PI(3,5)P2 biosynthesis regulates oligodendrocyte differentiation by intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Mironova, Yevgeniya A; Lenk, Guy M; Lin, Jing-Ping; Lee, Seung Joon; Twiss, Jeffery L; Vaccari, Ilaria; Bolino, Alessandra; Havton, Leif A; Min, Sang H; Abrams, Charles S; Shrager, Peter; Meisler, Miriam H; Giger, Roman J

    2016-01-01

    Proper development of the CNS axon-glia unit requires bi-directional communication between axons and oligodendrocytes (OLs). We show that the signaling lipid phosphatidylinositol-3,5-bisphosphate [PI(3,5)P2] is required in neurons and in OLs for normal CNS myelination. In mice, mutations of Fig4, Pikfyve or Vac14, encoding key components of the PI(3,5)P2 biosynthetic complex, each lead to impaired OL maturation, severe CNS hypomyelination and delayed propagation of compound action potentials. Primary OLs deficient in Fig4 accumulate large LAMP1(+) and Rab7(+) vesicular structures and exhibit reduced membrane sheet expansion. PI(3,5)P2 deficiency leads to accumulation of myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) in LAMP1(+)perinuclear vesicles that fail to migrate to the nascent myelin sheet. Live-cell imaging of OLs after genetic or pharmacological inhibition of PI(3,5)P2 synthesis revealed impaired trafficking of plasma membrane-derived MAG through the endolysosomal system in primary cells and brain tissue. Collectively, our studies identify PI(3,5)P2 as a key regulator of myelin membrane trafficking and myelinogenesis. PMID:27008179

  17. Monthly energy review, August 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    The Monthly Energy Review for the month of August 1997, presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors.

  18. Base-mediated transformations of 3,5-dibromoverongiaquinol from the sponge Aplysina sp. to cavernicolins-1, -2 and a subereatensin analogue.

    PubMed

    Santalova, Elena A

    2012-05-01

    Treatment of 3,5-dibromoverongiaquinol (1) with NaHCO3-MeOH at room temperature gave cavernicolin-1 (2), cavernicolin-2 (3), the 4,7-dimethoxy analogue of subereatensin (4) and dimethyl ketal (5). These transformations may clarify the origin of the cavernicolins and subereatensin isolated from the extracts of some verongid sponges. PMID:22799091

  19. Feasibility Study of GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals' GSK2202083A Vaccine in Healthy Infants at 3, 5 and 11 Months of Age.

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-11-16

    Haemophilus Influenzae Type b; Poliomyelitis; Hepatitis B; Serogroup C Meningococcal Diseases; Diphtheria; Pertussis; Diphtheria-Tetanus-aPertussis-Hepatitis B-Poliomyelitis-Haemophilus Influenzae Type b-Neisseria Meningitidis Vaccines; Tetanus

  20. Calibration and Validation of WRF 3.0-CLM3.5 in Snowpack Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, J.; Wen, L.; Subin, Z. M.; Miller, N. L.

    2009-12-01

    The Community Land Model version 3.5 (CLM3.5) developed by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) was coupled into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model version 3.0. The performance of WRF3.0-CLM3.5 in simulating snowpack was extensively evaluated with in-situ observations from a mountainous site called Col de Porte, located in northern Alps region of France, and the Columbia River Basin, located in the northwestern United States. CLM3.5 was configured with a five-layer snow scheme, and includes snow compaction and liquid water transfer processes, and a sophisticated snow albedo scheme. WRF3.0-CLM3.5 was forced with the National Center for Atmospheric Research/National Centers for Environmental Prediction Reanalysis data to simulate for the 1988-1989 snow season for the Col de Porte site and the 2001-2002 season for the Columbia River Basin, with 60km-20km two-way nested domains. The initial simulations show that WRF3.0-CLM3.5 significantly improves snow simulations when compared to those produced with the WRF3.0 coupled to the Noah land surface scheme at the both study sites. However, WRF3.0-CLM3.5 still tends to underestimate the observed snowpack. Calibration with the observed data from the Col de Porte site indicates that the snow water content bias mainly results from stronger, high elevation incoming solar radiation. An adjustment for the radiation scheme in WRF3.0 was made to reduce the incoming radiation to better fit with the observations. This adjustment improves snow simulations at both Col de Porte site and the Columbia River Basin. Additional offline snow simulations with CLM3.5 driven with observed forcing data were performed at the Col de Porte site. These offline simulations are compared to the results produced with the coupled WRF3.0-CLM3.5. Through this comparison, snow-atmosphere interactions are quantitatively indentified. The improved snow simulations in WRF3.0-CLM3.5 will benefit regional hydro-climate research and

  1. LOFT Monthly Progress Report for September 1980

    SciTech Connect

    N. C. Kaufman

    1980-10-01

    The fourth nuclear powered small break test (L3-5/5A) was conducted on September 29, 1980. The test was initiated from a steady state operating condition wherein the core was generating heat at a maximum rate of approximately 52 kW/m. The test consisted of two parts: L3-5 simulated a 4-in. pipe break in a commerical pressurized water reactor; the second part, L3-5A, was intended to investigate natural circulation and steam generator heat transfer modes and also plan recovery using secondary system control in a situation where the pipe break and the ECCS accumulator are isolated from the primary coolant system. Initial test data indicated that all systems functioned as expected. The several hundred measurements of system coolant and reactor core conditions made during the three hour duration of the test will continue to be analyzed over the next several months. Preparations were also underway for conduting three tests in the Anticipated Transient Series. These tests, designated L6-1, L6-2, and L6-3 will provide information on plant control systems and operator response to transients in which the initiating event is not a loss-of-primary coolant. The transient tests to be conducted during September and others scheduled in the future will add greatly to understanding responses necessary to a transient condition. September 1980 marked the successful completion of FY-1980. Final closing values for each of the funding sources are included as part of this report. NRC and foreign funded tasks closed FY-1980 with underruns documented by identifying committed and uncommitted carryovers.

  2. Prospective, longitudinal assessment of quality of life in children from diagnosis to 3 months off treatment for standard risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia: Results of Children's Oncology Group study AALL0331.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Hannah-Rose; Lu, Xiaomin; Myers, Regina M; Sung, Lillian; Balsamo, Lyn M; Carroll, William L; Raetz, Elizabeth; Loh, Mignon L; Mattano, Leonard A; Winick, Naomi J; Devidas, Meenakshi; Hunger, Stephen P; Maloney, Kelly; Kadan-Lottick, Nina S

    2016-01-15

    Standard risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia (SR-ALL) has high cure rates, but requires 2-3 years of therapy. We aimed to (i) prospectively evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQOL) during and after SR-ALL therapy, and (ii) identify associated predictors. Parents of 160 SR-ALL patients enrolled on Children's Oncology Group (COG) therapeutic trial AALL0331 at 31 sites completed the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) 4.0 Generic Core Scales (physical, emotional and social functioning) and Family Assessment Device-General Functioning (FAD-GF) at 1, 6 and 12 months after diagnosis, and 3 months post-therapy. Mean PedsQL scores in physical, emotional and social functioning were impaired 1 month after diagnosis but steadily improved. Three months post-therapy, impaired physical and social functioning was observed in 27.8 and 25.8% of patients, respectively. In repeated-measures analysis, problematic family functioning predicted emotional (OR = 1.85, 95% CI 1.03-3.34) and social (OR = 1.99, 95% CI 1.21-3.27) impairment. Larger household size was associated with social impairment (OR = 1.21, 95% CI 1.02-1.45). Adverse neurological event(s) during therapy predicted post-therapy physical (OR = 5.17, 95% CI 1.61-16.63) and social (OR = 8.17, 95% CI 1.19-56.16) impairment. HRQOL 1 month after diagnosis was not predictive of HRQOL 3 months after therapy completion. In conclusion, children with SR-ALL experience considerable impairment in HRQOL at the end of induction, but rapidly improve. However, many still experience physical and social impairment 3 months post-therapy, suggesting a role for continued family and physical functioning support. Longer follow-up is needed to determine if post-therapy deficits change over time. PMID:26235006

  3. Cleavage of carbon-nitrogen bond in 1,3,5-tri-tert-butyl-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane by copper(I) bromide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatua, Suman; Majumdar, Amit

    2016-09-01

    Reactions of CuCl, CuCl2 and CuBr2 with 1,3,5-tri-tert-butyl-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane (tBu3tach) resulted in the formation of [(tBu3tach-H)+(CuCl2)] (1), [(tBu3tach)(CuCl2)] (2) and [(tBu3tach-H)+(CuBr2)] (3) respectively. Interestingly, CuBr was found to mediate the cleavage of the C-N bonds of tBu3tach in a vast range of solvents, namely, chloroform, dichloromethane, tetrahydrofuran, acetonitrile and methanol to yield [Cu4Br4(tBuNCH2)4] (4) and stands as an example of C-N bond cleavage of 1,3,5-triazacyclohexane rings by copper salts. Compounds 1 and 3 contains amidinium cations and are unstable in solution towards the release of copper. The release of copper from 3 in solution was confirmed by the isolation of the compound, [CuBr(MeCN)] (5). Formation of the amidinium cations [(tBu3tach-H)+] in 1 and 3 may be avoided by the use of PPh3 to yield [(tBu3tach)Cu(PPh3)](PF6) (6), while the coordinated N-tert-butylmethanimine (tBuNCH2) in 4 could be replaced by PPh3 to yield [Cu4Br4(PPh3)4] (7). Complexes 1-7 are characterized by a combination of single crystal X-ray structure determination and/or elemental analysis, NMR, IR, and UV-Vis spectroscopy, and Mass spectrometry.

  4. Complex formation of vanadium(IV) with 1,3,5-triamino-1,3,5-trideoxy-cis-inositol and related ligands.

    PubMed

    Morgenstern, Bernd; Steinhauser, Stefan; Hegetschweiler, Kaspar; Garribba, Eugenio; Micera, Giovanni; Sanna, Daniele; Nagy, László

    2004-05-17

    The complex formation of vanadium(IV) with 1,3,5-triamino-1,3,5-trideoxy-cis-inositol (taci) and 1,3,5-trideoxy-1,3,5-tris(dimethylamino)-cis-inositol (tdci) was studied in aqueous solution and in the solid state. The formation constants of [V(IV)O(taci)](2+), [V(IV)O(tdci)](2+), and [V(IV)(tdci)(2)](4+) and of the deprotonation product [V(IV)(tdci)(2)H(-)(1)](3+) were determined (25 degrees C, 0.1 M KNO(3)). Cyclic voltammetry measurements established a reversible one-electron transfer for the [V(IV)(tdci)(2)H(-)(m)]((4)(-)(m))/[V(III)(tdci)(2)H(-)(n)]((3)(-)(n)) couple (0

  5. Synthesis and Thermal Decomposition Mechanism of the Energetic Compound 3,5-Dinitro-4-nitroxypyrazole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xiao-Qin; Cao, Duan-Lin; Cui, Jian-Lan

    2016-07-01

    A novel energetic material, 3,5-dinitro-4-nitroxypyrazole (DNNP), was synthesized via nitration and nucleophilic substitution reaction using 4-chloropyrazole as raw material. The structure of DNNP was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and elemental analysis. Its detonation properties were calculated and compared with those of other commonly used energetic compounds. The thermal decomposition mechanism of DNNP was studied by means of thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry coupled with a mass spectrometry (DSC-MS). The results show that the detonation properties of DNNP were better than those of TNT and comparable to those of 1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX). In addition, the thermal decomposition mechanism of DNNP was supposed. Initially, the O-NO2 bond was broken, thereby producing a nitropyrazole oxygen radical. Subsequently, the nitropyrazole oxygen radical was decomposed by free radical cleavage of nitro or isomerized to nitritepyrazole and subsequently decomposed by free radical cleavage of the nitroso group. Finally, pyrazole ring fission occurred and produced N2, NO, N2O, and CO2.

  6. Towards ten-watt-level 3-5 µm Raman lasers using tellurite fiber.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Gongwen; Geng, Lixiang; Zhu, Xiushan; Li, Li; Chen, Qian; Norwood, R A; Manzur, T; Peyghambarian, N

    2015-03-23

    Raman lasers based on mid-infrared fibers operating at 3-5 µm atmospheric transparency window are attractive sources for several applications. Compared to fluoride and chalcogenide fibers, tellurite fibers are more advantageous for high power Raman fiber laser sources at 3-5 µm because of their broader Raman gain bandwidth, much larger Raman shift and better physical and chemical properties. Here we report on our simulations for the development of 10-watt-level 3-5 µm Raman lasers using tellurite fibers as the nonlinear gain medium and readily available continuous-wave (cw) and Q-switched erbium-doped fluoride fiber lasers at 2.8 µm as the pump sources. Our results show that a watt-level or even ten-watt-level fiber laser source in the 3-5 µm atmospheric transparency window can be achieved by utilizing the 1st- and 2nd-order Raman scattering in the tellurite fiber. The presented numerical study provides valuable guidance for future 3-5 um Raman fiber laser development. PMID:25837094

  7. Radiofrequency Ablation Combined with Chemoembolization for Intermediate-Sized (3-5 cm) Hepatocellular Carcinomas Under Dual Guidance of Biplane Fluoroscopy and Ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Min, Ji Hye; Cha, Dong Ik; Jeon, Yong Hwan; Shin, Sung Wook; Cho, Sung Ki; Rhim, Hyunchul; Lim, Hyo K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the technical feasibility and local efficacy of percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) combined with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) for an intermediate-sized (3-5 cm in diameter) hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) under the dual guidance of biplane fluoroscopy and ultrasonography (US). Materials and Methods Patients with intermediate-sized HCCs were treated with percutaneous RFA combined with TACE. RFA was performed under the dual guidance of biplane fluoroscopy and US within 14 days after TACE. We evaluated the rate of major complications on immediate post-RFA CT images. Primary technique effectiveness rate was determined on one month follow-up CT images. The cumulative rate of local tumor progression was estimated with the use of Kaplan-Meier method. Results Twenty-one consecutive patients with 21 HCCs (mean size: 3.6 cm; range: 3-4.5 cm) were included. After TACE (mean: 6.7 d; range: 1-14 d), 20 (95.2%) of 21 HCCs were visible on fluoroscopy and were ablated under dual guidance of biplane fluoroscopy and US. The other HCC that was poorly visible by fluoroscopy was ablated under US guidance alone. Major complications were observed in only one patient (pneumothorax). Primary technique effectiveness was achieved for all 21 HCCs in a single RFA session. Cumulative rates of local tumor progression were estimated as 9.5% and 19.0% at one and three years, respectively. Conclusion RFA combined with TACE under dual guidance of biplane fluoroscopy and US is technically feasible and effective for intermediate-sized HCC treatment. PMID:23483753

  8. Ab initio equation of state of the organic molecular crystal: beta-octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine.

    PubMed

    Zerilli, Frank J; Kuklja, Maija M

    2010-04-29

    We apply a simple strategy for calculating from first principles a thermodynamically complete equation of state for molecular crystals using readily available quantum chemistry techniques. The strategy involves a combination of separate methods for the temperature-independent mechanical compression and the thermal vibrational contributions to the free energy. A first principles equation of state for beta-octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (beta-HMX) has been calculated for temperatures between 0 and 400 K and for specific volumes from 0.42 to 0.55 cm(3)/g, corresponding to relative volumes from 0.8 to 1.03. The calculated 300 K isotherm agrees very well with the experimentally measured pressure-volume relation. We also discuss thermodynamic properties of the material such as the volumetric thermal expansion coefficient, the Gruneisen parameter, and the specific heat (1.0 kJ/kg/K at 300 K and atmospheric pressure). The developed computational approach exhibits a reliable predictive power and is easily transferable to other molecular materials. PMID:20364852

  9. Synthesis, structural and computational characterization of 2-amino-3,5-diiodobenzoic acid and 2-amino-3,5-dibromobenzoic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yıldırım, M. Hakkı; Paşaoğlu, Hümeyra; Odabaşoğlu, Hakkı Yasin; Odabaşoğlu, Mustafa; Yıldırım, Arzu Özek

    2015-07-01

    The benzoic acid compounds 2-amino-3,5-dibromobenzoic acid (2A35Br) and 2-amino-3,5-diiodobenzoic (2A35I) acid have been synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, FT-IR spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy and computational methods. Molecular geometry, intra- and inter-molecular interactions have been investigated by using X-ray diffraction technique. Fundamental vibrational bands of the title compounds were founded by FT-IR and UV-Vis method was used to obtain electronic bands. Geometry optimizations and the calculation of IR frequencies were performed both Gaussian type orbitals at Gaussian 09W and Slater type orbitals at ADF2009.01 software. The calculations are compatible with the experiment results. In addition, geometrical parameters, energies, HOMO-LUMO gaps and electrophilicity indexes have been calculated for thirty possible positional isomers of 2A35Br and 2A35I. Calculations show that 2A35Br and 2A35I isomers have the lowest energy, the narrowest HOMO-LUMO gap and the highest electrophilicity index values. Molecular electrostatic potential maps, Fukui indices, natural bond orbital analysis, thermodynamic parameters and non-linear optical properties of the 2A35Br and 2A35I were also investigated by theoretical calculations.

  10. Assessing the non-cancer risk for RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) using physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Lisa M; Gut, Chester P; Gargas, Michael L; Reddy, Gunda; Williams, Larry R; Johnson, Mark S

    2012-02-01

    RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) is an explosive used in military applications. It has been detected in ground water surrounding US military installations and at manufacturing facilities. RDX has been shown to produce hepatotoxicity, testicular, and neurological effects in animals, the latter also in humans. The current chronic oral reference dose (RfD) of 0.003 mg/kg/day was derived based on prostate effects in rats. Here, we provide a reevaluation of the risk associated with RDX exposure by examining old and new data and using physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling approaches. Candidate non-cancer endpoints in rodents were evaluated and the most plausible mode(s) of action were determined. A PBPK model was used to derive appropriate internal doses based on the mode of action, and then a benchmark dose (BMD) and the lower confidence limit on the BMD (BMDL) were determined using these internal doses in animals. Uncertainty factors (UF) were applied to the animal BMDL or no-observed effect level and a human PBPK model was used to determine a human equivalent dose resulting in the candidate RfDs (cRfDs). A proposed chronic RfD of 0.07 mg/kg/day, based on multiple effects observed in rats, was selected from among the cRfDs. PMID:22197625

  11. Towards engineering degradation of the explosive pollutant hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine in the rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Astrid; Rylott, Elizabeth L; Strand, Stuart E; Bruce, Neil C

    2013-03-01

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) is a serious environmental pollutant on military land. This compound is the most widely used explosive and pollution has arisen primarily as the result of military training, along with munition manufacturing and disassembly processes. This toxic explosive is recalcitrant to degradation in the environment and leaches rapidly into groundwater, where accumulation in aquifers is threatening drinking water supplies (Clausen, et al., 2004). While plants have only limited degradative activity towards RDX, microorganisms, including Rhodococcus rhodochrous 11Y, have been isolated from contaminated land. Despite the presence of microbial RDX-metabolising activity in contaminated soils, the persistence of RDX in leachate from contaminated soil indicates that this activity or biomass is insufficient, limiting its use to remediate polluted soils. Bacterial activity in the rhizosphere is of magnitudes greater than in the surrounding soil, and the roots of grass species on training ranges in the United States are known to penetrate deeply into the soil, producing a compact root system and providing an ideal environment to support the capture of RDX by microorganisms in the rhizosphere. Here, we have investigated the ability of the root-colonising bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens, engineered to express XplA, to degrade RDX in the rhizosphere. PMID:23289483

  12. Cancer mode of action, weight of evidence, and proposed cancer reference value for hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX).

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Lisa M; Okolica, Michelle R; Gut, Chester P; Gargas, Michael L

    2012-11-01

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX, CAS No. 121-82-4) is a component of munitions formulations, and has been detected in groundwater samples collected at various US military sites. Clean up target levels for RDX may be derived based on consideration of acceptable cumulative human exposure as expressed in toxicity reference values. Evaluations of the cancer weight of evidence and possible modes of action (MOA) for RDX-induced cancer were conducted. It was concluded that the available data provide suggestive evidence of human carcinogenic potential for RDX. While a mutagenic/genotoxic MOA for RDX is unlikely, no alterative MOA is strongly supported by the available data. A nonlinear (threshold) approach to the assessment of human cancer risk was recommended, and a recommended chronic cancer reference dose of 0.08mg/kg/day was derived. For comparison only, computations using a linear approach were also conducted, yielding a cancer risk specific dose of 0.000235mg/kg/day for 1 in 10(5) risk; this value is 2.6-fold higher the current US EPA risk specific dose for 1 in 10(5) risk. Thus, cleanup standards based on human health risk from RDX exposure could potentially depend on the willingness of risk managers to accept a nonlinear MOA and nonlinear toxicity risk value derivation. PMID:22841928

  13. Structure and mechanical properties of thin films deposited from 1,3,5-trimethyl-1,3,5-trivinylcyclotrisiloxane and water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkey, Daniel D.; Gleason, Karen K.

    2003-05-01

    Pulsed-plasma chemical vapor deposition of 1,3,5-trimethyl-1,3,5-trivinylcyclotrisiloxane (V3D3) and water produced thin films with significant Si-OH content. Subsequent annealing of the films resulted in condensation of proximal Si-OH groups, further generating a Si-O-Si network and strengthening the film. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy analysis showed increasing OH content with increasing plasma duty cycle, and nanoindentation results confirmed increasing hardness with duty cycle, with the 10-40 duty cycle annealed sample having a hardness value of 0.527 GPa. These results were explained within the context of the continuous random network theory and percolation of rigidity arguments. Thermal stability was excellent, with a best-case thickness retention of 99.25% after a 2 h anneal at 400 °C under N2. Dielectric constants for the annealed films ranged between 2.55 and 2.9. The moderate power involved (200 W peak) is amenable to inclusion of a porogen species, opening the possibility of using this methodology to generate a porous thin film with adequate mechanical properties via chemical vapor deposition.

  14. Biotransformation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) by a prospective consortium and its most effective isolate Serratia marcescens

    SciTech Connect

    Young, D.M.; Ogden, K.L.; Unkefer, P.J.

    1997-03-05

    The biotransformation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5 triazine (RDX) has been observed in liquid culture by a consortium of bacteria found in horse manure. Five types of bacteria were found to predominate in the consortium and were isolated. The most effective of these isolates at transforming RDX was Serratia marcescens. The biotransformation of RDX by all of these bacteria was found to occur only in the anoxic stationary phase. The process of bacterial growth and RDX biotransformation was quantified for the purpose of developing a predictive type model. Cell growth was assumed to follow Monod kinetics. All of the aerobic and anoxid growth parameters were determined: {mu}{sub max}, K{sub s}, and Y{sub x/s}. RDX was found to competitively inhibit cell growth in both atmospheres. Degradation of RDX by Serratia marcescens was found to proceed through the stepwise reduction of the three nitro groups to nitroso groups. Each of these reductions was found to be first order in both component and cell concentrations. The degradation rate constant for the first step in this reduction process by the consortium was 0.022 L/g cells {center_dot} h compared to 0.033 L/g cells {center_dot} h for the most efficient isolate.

  15. Human monocyte killing of Staphylococcus aureus: modulation by agonists of cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate and cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate.

    PubMed Central

    O'Dorisio, M S; Vandenbark, G R; LoBuglio, A F

    1979-01-01

    This study was designed to test whether cyclic nucleotides play a role in the regulation of bacterial killing by human monocytes. Agents were tested for their ability to activate monocyte adenylate or guanylate cyclase in cell-free preparations, to increase cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) or cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP) in intact human monocytes, and to modulate monocyte-induced killing of Staphylococcus aureus in vitro. Prostaglandin E1 and cholera toxin activated monocyte adenylate cyclase and inhibited monocyte killing of S. aureus. An adenylate cyclase inhibitor, RMI 12330A, reversed the prostaglandin E1-mediated inhibition of bacterial killing, thus implicating cAMP as the intracellular mediator of this inhibition. In contrast, monocyte cGMP levels were increased 5- and 17-fold by 5-hydroxytryptamine and N-methyl-N' -nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, respectively, but neither agent was effective in modulating monocyte bactericidal activity. Thus, modulation of bactericidal activity in human monocytes did not conform to the yin/yang theory of opposing actions by cAMP and cGMP, for although monocyte-mediated killing of S. aureus was inhibited by cAMP agonists, it was not enhanced by cGMP agonists. PMID:44704

  16. Dissolution and sorption of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) residues from detonated mineral surfaces.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, Ashley M; Douglas, Thomas A; Walsh, Marianne E; Trainor, Thomas P

    2011-08-01

    Composition B (Comp B) is a commonly used military formulation composed of the toxic explosive compounds 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). Numerous studies of the temporal fate of explosive compounds in soils, surface water and laboratory batch reactors have been conducted. However, most of these investigations relied on the application of explosive compounds to the media via aqueous addition and thus these studies do not provide information on the real world loading of explosive residues during detonation events. To address this we investigated the dissolution and sorption of TNT and RDX from Comp B residues loaded to pure mineral phases through controlled detonation. Mineral phases included nontronite, vermiculite, biotite and Ottawa sand (quartz with minor calcite). High Performance Liquid Chromatography and Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy were used to investigate the dissolution and sorption of TNT and RDX residues loaded onto the mineral surfaces. Detonation resulted in heterogeneous loading of TNT and RDX onto the mineral surfaces. Explosive compound residues dissolved rapidly (within 9 h) in all samples but maximum concentrations for TNT and RDX were not consistent over time due to precipitation from solution, sorption onto mineral surfaces, and/or chemical reactions between explosive compounds and mineral surfaces. We provide a conceptual model of the physical and chemical processes governing the fate of explosive compound residues in soil minerals controlled by sorption-desorption processes. PMID:21601233

  17. RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) biodegradation in aquifer sediments under manganese-reducing conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, Paul M.; Dinicola, Richard S.

    2005-01-01

    A shallow, RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine)–contaminated aquifer at Naval Submarine Base Bangor has been characterized as predominantly manganese-reducing, anoxic with local pockets of oxic conditions. The potential contribution of microbial RDX degradation to localized decreases observed in aquifer RDX concentrations was assessed in sediment microcosms amended with [U-14C] RDX. Greater than 85% mineralization of14C-RDX to 14CO2 was observed in aquifer sediment microcosms under native, manganese-reducing, anoxic conditions. Significant increases in the mineralization of 14C-RDX to 14CO2 were observed in anoxic microcosms under NO3-amended or Mn(IV)-amended conditions. No evidence of 14C-RDX biodegradation was observed under oxic conditions. These results indicate that microbial degradation of RDX may contribute to natural attenuation of RDX in manganese-reducing aquifer systems.

  18. Sensitivity of 2,6-Diamino-3, 5-Dinitropyrazine-1-Oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Tarver, C M; Urtiew, P A; Tran, T D

    2005-01-20

    The thermal and shock sensitivities of plastic bonded explosive formations based on 2,6-diamino-3,5-dinitropyrazine-1-oxide (commonly called LLM-105 for Lawrence Livermore Molecule No.105) are reported. The One Dimensional Time to Explosion (ODTX) apparatus was used to generate times to thermal explosion at various initial temperatures. A four-reaction chemical decomposition model was developed to calculate the time to thermal explosion versus inverse temperature curve. Three embedded manganin pressure gauge experiments were fired at different initial pressures to measure the pressure buildup and the distance required for transition to detonation. An Ignition and Growth reactive model was calibrated to this shock initiation data. LLM-105 exhibited thermal and shock sensitivities intermediate between those of triaminotrinitrobenzene (TATB) and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazine (HMX).

  19. Mars - Subsurface properties from observed longitudinal variation of the 3.5-mm brightness temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epstein, E. E.; Andrew, B. H.; Briggs, F. H.; Jakosky, B. M.; Palluconi, F. D.

    1983-01-01

    Extensive 3.5-mm measurements are reported which show a variation in the brightness temperature of Mars, with the Central Meridian Longitude that is generally in phase with the variation at 2.8 cm and is opposite in sign from the variations at 20 microns. It is pointed out that the phase result is not unexpected, since 3.5 mm is longer than the wavelength at which the phase behavior is expected to change. The result that the 3.5-mm rotation curve amplitude is larger than the amplitudes at both 20 microns and 2.8 cm, however, is unexpected. This result, it is noted, can be explained as a consequence of subsurface scattering from rocks smaller than 1.5 cm in radius. A correlation of subsurface scatterers with the location of the high-thermal inertial regions would be consistent with the hypothesis that rock abundance predominates in determining the thermal inertia.

  20. Caries prevention during pregnancy: results of a 30-month study.

    PubMed

    Brambilla, E; Felloni, A; Gagliani, M; Malerba, A; García-Godoy, F; Strohmenger, L

    1998-07-01

    The purpose of this 30-month study was to explore the effectiveness of a caries-preventive regimen in lowering the salivary mutans streptococci level in pregnant women and, subsequently, in inhibiting the growth of these bacteria in their young children. Beginning at the end of the sixth month of pregnancy and continuing until delivery, subjects rinsed daily with 0.05 percent sodium fluoride and 0.12 percent chlorhexidine. The authors monitored the salivary mutans streptococci levels during the last six months of pregnancy and every six months thereafter for 24 months. They also measured bacterial levels in the children every six months until they reached age 24 months. The results show that treatment significantly reduced salivary mutans streptococci levels in mothers and delayed the colonization of bacteria in their children for about four months. PMID:9685762

  1. Hydrostatic supports for telescopes: the experience of 3.5 NTT with a glance at VTL.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreolli, C.; Andreolli, C.

    1988-10-01

    Today's large telescopes use hydrostatic supports to give their axes of motion the highest precision and stiffness. Since their performance of a hydrostatic bearing depend as much on the pad as on the structures directly concerned, certain designing expedients that are peculiar of large machine tools can be adopted profitably with telescopes as well. This was the case with 3.5 m NTT. It may be assumed correctly that the experience made with 3.5 m NTT, may be extended successfully to telescopes of a larger size.

  2. Rat liver microsomal cytochrome P450-dependent oxidation of 3,5-disubstituted analogues of paracetamol.

    PubMed

    Bessems, J G; Te Koppele, J M; Van Dijk, P A; Van Stee, L L; Commandeur, J N; Vermeulen, N P

    1996-06-01

    1. The cytochrome P450-dependent binding of paracetamol and a series of 3,5-disubstituted paracetamol analogues (R = -F, -Cl, -Br, -I, -CH3, -C2H5, -iC3H7) have been determined with beta-naphthoflavone (beta NF)-induced rat liver microsomes and produced reverse type I spectral changes. Ks,app varied from 0.14 mM for 3,5-diiC3H7-paracetamol to 2.8 mM for paracetamol. 2. All seven analogues underwent rat liver microsomal cytochrome P450-dependent oxidation, as reflected by the formation of GSSG in the presence of GSH. The GSSG-formation was increased in all cases upon pretreatment of rats by beta-naphthoflavone (beta NF) and was generally decreased upon pretreatment by phenobarbital (PB). 3. Rat liver microsomal cytochrome P450 as well as horseradish peroxidase catalysed the formation of 3,5-disubstituted NAPQI analogues from the corresponding parent compounds, as identified by UV-spectrophotometry of the NAPQI analogues and by GC/MS detection of the following GSH-conjugates: 2-glutathione-S-yl-3,5-dimethyl-1,4-dihydroxybenzene, 2-glutathione-S-yl-3,5-dichloro-paracetamol, and 2-glutathione-S-yl-3,5-dibromo-paracetamol. 4. In liver microsomal (beta NF-induced) incubations, apparent K(m) values, as determined for the cytochrome P450 catalysis-dependent oxidation of GSH, for seven 3,5-disubstituted paracetamol analogues (R = -F, -Cl, -Br, -I, -CH3, -C2H5, iC3H7) varied from 0.07 to 0.64 mM. Paracetamol exhibited an apparent K(m) of 0.73 mM. Apparent Vmax values for the cytochrome P450 catalysis dependent oxidation of GSH varied from 0.66 nmol min-1 mg-1 protein for paracetamol to 3.0 nmol min-1 mg-1 protein for 3,5-dimethyl-paracetamol. PMID:8810035

  3. Access to Pyrazolidin-3,5-diones through Anodic N-N Bond Formation.

    PubMed

    Gieshoff, Tile; Schollmeyer, Dieter; Waldvogel, Siegfried R

    2016-08-01

    Pyrazolidin-3,5-diones are important motifs in heterocyclic chemistry and are of high interest for pharmaceutical applications. In classic organic synthesis, the hydrazinic moiety is installed through condensation using the corresponding hydrazine building blocks. However, most N,N'-diaryl hydrazines are toxic and require upstream preparation owing to their low commercial availability. We present an alternative and sustainable synthetic approach to pyrazolidin-3,5-diones that employs readily accessible dianilides as precursors, which are anodically converted to furnish the N-N bond. The electroconversion is conducted in a simple undivided cell under constant-current conditions. PMID:27392318

  4. Building a Culture of Literacy Month-by-Month

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Hilarie

    2008-01-01

    This book will help create a culture of literacy at schools, from the classroom, to the lunchroom, to the hallways-a culture that encompasses students, teachers, administrators, families, and communities. This comprehensive and practical book includes: (1) Month-by-month plans for the entire school year; (2) How to build a faculty vision of…

  5. Natural gas monthly, August 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-24

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. This month`s feature article is on US Natural Gas Imports and Exports 1994.

  6. Natural gas monthly, July 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is entitled ``Intricate puzzle of oil and gas reserves growth.`` A special report is included on revisions to monthly natural gas data. 6 figs., 24 tabs.

  7. Natural gas monthly: April 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. This month`s feature article focuses on preliminary highlights from the 1995 natural gas industry. 7 figs., 25 tabs.

  8. Natural Gas Monthly, October 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-10

    The (NGM) Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. This month`s feature articles are: US Production of Natural Gas from Tight Reservoirs: and Expanding Rule of Underground Storage.

  9. Monthly energy review, January 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    This report presents an overview of recent monthly energy statistics. Major activities covered include production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for fossil fuels, electricity, and nuclear energy.

  10. LOFT Monthly Progress Report for February 1980

    SciTech Connect

    N. C. Kaufman

    1980-03-01

    The significant event of February was the on-schedule conduct of Test L3-2 on February 7. This was the second LOFT small break test with nuclear heat. It simulated a break of a one-inch pipe in a large commercial plant, whereas Test L3-1 had simulated a break of a four-inch pipe. For Test L3-2, the reactor plant and emergency core cooling system appeared to function as expected, although preliminary data evaluation indicates a higher break flow than expected, with a correspondingly greater depressurization. As the month ended, data evaluation was continuing. During February, Nuclear Regulatory Commission guidance was received that would require Tests L3-5 and L3-6 to use nuclear heat. Previously these tests, the next planned tests, had been designed as nonnuclear tests with and without operating coolant pumps. This revised guidance will require a replanning of the entire program schedule for better facility use. At the end of the month, replanning was underway. Costs for February are right on budget, although manpower levels are somewhat greater than budget. This latter variance results from an intentional manpower-material interchange.

  11. Protein kinase C (PKC) phosphorylates human platelet inositol trisphosphate 5/sup +/-/-phosphomonoesterase (IP/sub 3/ 5'-p'tase) increasing phosphatase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Connolly, T.M.; Majerus, P.W.

    1986-05-01

    Phosphoinositide breakdown in response to thrombin stimulation of human platelets generates messenger molecules that activate PKC (diglyceride) and mobilize Ca/sup + +/ (inositol tris-phosphates). The water soluble products of phospholipase C-mediated metabolism of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-diphosphate are inositol 1,4,5 P/sub 3/ (IP/sub 3/) and inositol 1:2-cyclic 4,5 P/sub 3/ (cIP/sub 3/). A specific phosphatase, IP/sub 3/ 5'-p'tase, cleaves the 5 phosphate from IP/sub 3/ or cIP/sub 3/ to form IP/sub 2/ or cIP/sub 2/ and P/sub i/, none of which mobilizes Ca/sup + +/. Thus, the IP/sub 3/ 5'-p'tase may regulate cellular responses to IP/sub 3/ or cIP/sub 3/. The authors find that IP/sub 3/ 5'-p'tase isolated from human platelets is phosphorylated by rat brain PKC, resulting in a 4-fold increase in IP/sub 3/ 5'-p'tase activity. The authors phosphorylated IP/sub 3/ 5'-p'tase using ..gamma.. /sup 32/P-ATP and found that the labeled enzyme comigrated on SDS-PAGE with the previously described 40K protein phosphorylated in response to thrombin stimulation of platelets. The similarity of the PKC-phosphorylated IP/sub 3/ 5'-p'tase observed in vitro and the thrombin-stimulated phosphorylated 40K protein known to be phosphorylated by PKC in vivo, suggests that these proteins may be the same. These results suggest that platelet Ca/sup + +/ mobilization maybe regulated by PKC phosphorylation of the IP/sub 3/ 5'-p'tase and can explain the observation that phorbol ester treatment of intact human platelets results in decreased production of IP/sub 3/ and decreased Ca/sup + +/ mobilization upon subsequent thrombin addition.

  12. Accumulation and effects of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) exposure in the green anole (Anolis carolinensis).

    PubMed

    McMurry, S T; Jones, L E; Smith, P N; Cobb, G P; Anderson, T A; Lovern, M B; Cox, S; Pan, X

    2012-03-01

    Environmental contamination by energetic compounds is an increasing international concern, although little is known of their accumulation in and affect on wildlife. Reptiles are often good models for contaminants studies due to natural history traits that increase their potential for exposure. We report a study to assess accumulation and effects of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX, High Melting Explosive) in green anoles (Anolis carolinensis). Acute oral toxicity (LD(50)) was estimated to exceed 2000 mg/kg body weight in adult male and female anoles using a standard up-and-down method. Accumulation of HMX was assessed in adult females via dietary exposure and into eggs by two routes (directly from the soil and via maternal transfer). HMX readily accumulated into adult females in a dose-dependent manner and into eggs following both exposure pathways. However, total HMX in soil-exposed eggs was up to 40-times greater than those exposed via maternal transfer. Although there was a suggestion of an HMX-induced reduction in body weight in adult females, overall there were no effects observed over the 12 week exposure period. The only significant effect on eggs was a 50% reduction in hatching success for eggs exposed to 2000 mg/kg HMX in the soil during incubation. Growth and survival of hatchlings was not affected by HMX exposure. Our results demonstrate that HMX accumulates through the food chain and into eggs from the soil, but likely poses minimal threat to lizards except to hatching success in eggs incubated in soils with HMX levels near maximum environmental concentrations. PMID:21947615

  13. Validation of a novel extraction method for studying hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5 triazine (RDX) biodegradation by ruminal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Giarrizzo, J G; Murty, L; Tanaree, D; Walker, K; Craig, A M

    2013-04-15

    A simple, fast liquid-liquid extraction method was developed for studying hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5 triazine (RDX) biodegradation using small sample volumes. The method was tested in vitro with anaerobic incubations of RDX with whole rumen fluid (WRF) and a commercial Sporanaerobacter acetigenes strain in methanogenic media for RDX. Additionally, validation experiments were conducted in deionized water in order to show applicability toward various aqueous matrices. Conditions for extraction were as follows: 300 μL of sample were mixed with an equal volume of a 0.34 M ammonium hydroxide solution to reach a basic pH, extracted with a hexane/ethyl acetate 1:1 (v/v) solution (1 mL) and shaken vigorously for 10 s. The resulting organic phase was transferred, then dried under a constant flow of N2 and reconstituted with acetonitrile (300 μL) for HPLC-UV and LC-MS/MS analysis. Percent recovery values were obtained (83-101%) in all matrices for RDX. In WRF (n=3 animals), RDX degradation was observed with almost 100% elimination of RDX after 4 h. The five nitroso and ring cleavage metabolites were observed by mass spectrometry. Liquid cultures of S. acetigenes did not show significant RDX biodegradation activity. RDX extractions from deionized water samples indicated acceptable recoveries with low variability, suggesting suitability of the method for aqueous matrices. Overall, the new method demonstrated acceptable efficiency and reproducibility across three matrices, providing an advantageous alternative for studies where complex matrices and small volume samples are in use. PMID:23523880

  14. Analysis of the xplAB-containing gene cluster involved in the bacterial degradation of the explosive hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine.

    PubMed

    Chong, Chun Shiong; Sabir, Dana Khdr; Lorenz, Astrid; Bontemps, Cyril; Andeer, Peter; Stahl, David A; Strand, Stuart E; Rylott, Elizabeth L; Bruce, Neil C

    2014-11-01

    Repeated use of the explosive compound hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) on military land has resulted in significant soil and groundwater pollution. Rates of degradation of RDX in the environment are low, and accumulated RDX, which the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has determined is a possible human carcinogen, is now threatening drinking water supplies. RDX-degrading microorganisms have been isolated from RDX-contaminated land; however, despite the presence of these species in contaminated soils, RDX pollution persists. To further understand this problem, we studied RDX-degrading species belonging to four different genera (Rhodococcus, Microbacterium, Gordonia, and Williamsia) isolated from geographically distinct locations and established that the xplA and xplB (xplAB) genes, which encode a cytochrome P450 and a flavodoxin redox partner, respectively, are nearly identical in all these species. Together, the xplAB system catalyzes the reductive denitration of RDX and subsequent ring cleavage under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. In addition to xplAB, the Rhodococcus species studied here share a 14-kb region flanking xplAB; thus, it appears likely that the RDX-metabolizing ability was transferred as a genomic island within a transposable element. The conservation and transfer of xplAB-flanking genes suggest a role in RDX metabolism. We therefore independently knocked out genes within this cluster in the RDX-degrading species Rhodococcus rhodochrous 11Y. Analysis of the resulting mutants revealed that XplA is essential for RDX degradation and that XplB is not the sole contributor of reducing equivalents to XplA. While XplA expression is induced under nitrogen-limiting conditions and further enhanced by the presence of RDX, MarR is not regulated by RDX. PMID:25128343

  15. Geochemical and microbiological processes contributing to the transformation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in contaminated aquifer material.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Man Jae; O'Loughlin, Edward J; Antonopoulos, Dionysios A; Finneran, Kevin T

    2011-08-01

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) is a potential human carcinogen, and its contamination of subsurface environments is a significant threat to public health. This study investigated abiotic and biological degradation of RDX in contaminated aquifer material. Anoxic batch systems were started with and without pre-aeration of aquifer material to distinguish initial biological RDX reduction from abiotic RDX reduction. Aerating the sediment eliminated chemical reductants in the native aquifer sediment, primarily Fe(II) sorbed to mineral surfaces. RDX (50 μM) was completely reduced and transformed to ring cleavage products when excess concentrations (2mM) of acetate or lactate were provided as the electron donor for aerated sediment. RDX was reduced concurrently with Fe(III) when acetate was provided, while RDX, Fe(III), and sulfate were reduced simultaneously with lactate amendment. Betaproteobacteria were the dominant microorganisms associated with RDX and Fe(III)/sulfate reduction. In particular, Rhodoferax spp. increased from 21% to 35% and from 28% to 60% after biostimulation by acetate and lactate, respectively. Rarefaction analyses demonstrated that microbial diversity decreased in electron-donor-amended systems with active RDX degradation. Although significant amounts of Fe(III) and/or sulfate were reduced after biostimulation, solid-phase reactive minerals such as magnetite or ferrous sulfides were not observed, suggesting that RDX reduction in the aquifer sediment is due to Fe(II) adsorbed to solid surfaces as a result of Fe(III)-reducing microbial activity. These results suggest that both biotic and abiotic processes play an important role in RDX reduction under in situ conditions. PMID:21664641

  16. Analysis of the xplAB-Containing Gene Cluster Involved in the Bacterial Degradation of the Explosive Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Chun Shiong; Sabir, Dana Khdr; Lorenz, Astrid; Bontemps, Cyril; Andeer, Peter; Stahl, David A.; Strand, Stuart E.; Rylott, Elizabeth L.

    2014-01-01

    Repeated use of the explosive compound hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) on military land has resulted in significant soil and groundwater pollution. Rates of degradation of RDX in the environment are low, and accumulated RDX, which the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has determined is a possible human carcinogen, is now threatening drinking water supplies. RDX-degrading microorganisms have been isolated from RDX-contaminated land; however, despite the presence of these species in contaminated soils, RDX pollution persists. To further understand this problem, we studied RDX-degrading species belonging to four different genera (Rhodococcus, Microbacterium, Gordonia, and Williamsia) isolated from geographically distinct locations and established that the xplA and xplB (xplAB) genes, which encode a cytochrome P450 and a flavodoxin redox partner, respectively, are nearly identical in all these species. Together, the xplAB system catalyzes the reductive denitration of RDX and subsequent ring cleavage under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. In addition to xplAB, the Rhodococcus species studied here share a 14-kb region flanking xplAB; thus, it appears likely that the RDX-metabolizing ability was transferred as a genomic island within a transposable element. The conservation and transfer of xplAB-flanking genes suggest a role in RDX metabolism. We therefore independently knocked out genes within this cluster in the RDX-degrading species Rhodococcus rhodochrous 11Y. Analysis of the resulting mutants revealed that XplA is essential for RDX degradation and that XplB is not the sole contributor of reducing equivalents to XplA. While XplA expression is induced under nitrogen-limiting conditions and further enhanced by the presence of RDX, MarR is not regulated by RDX. PMID:25128343

  17. Accumulation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine by the earthworm Eisenia andrei in a sandy loam soil.

    PubMed

    Sarrazin, Manon; Dodard, Sabine G; Savard, Kathleen; Lachance, Bernard; Robidoux, Pierre Y; Kuperman, Roman G; Hawari, Jalal; Ampleman, Guy; Thiboutot, Sonia; Sunahara, Geoffrey I

    2009-10-01

    The heterocyclic polynitramine hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) is a highly energetic compound found as a soil contaminant at some defense installations. Although RDX is not lethal to soil invertebrates at concentrations up to 10,000 mg/kg, it decreases earthworm cocoon formation and juvenile production at environmentally relevant concentrations found at contaminated sites. Very little is known about the uptake of RDX in earthworms and the potential risks for food-chain transfer of RDX in the environment. Toxicokinetic studies were conducted to quantify the bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) using adult earthworms (Eisenia andrei) exposed for up to 14 d to sublethal concentrations of nonlabeled RDX or [14C]RDX in a Sassafras sandy loam soil. High-performance liquid chromatography of acetonitrile extracts of tissue and soil samples indicated that nonlabeled RDX can be accumulated by the earthworm in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The BAF, expressed as the earthworm tissue to soil concentration ratio, decreased from 6.7 to 0.1 when the nominal soil RDX concentrations were increased from 1 to 10,000 mg/kg. Tissue concentrations were comparable in earthworms exposed to nonlabeled RDX or [14C]RDX. The RDX bioaccumulation also was estimated using the kinetically derived model (BAFK), based on the ratio of the uptake to elimination rate constants. The established BAFK of 3.6 for [14C]RDX uptake was consistent with the results for nonlabeled RDX. Radioactivity also was present in the tissue residues of [14C]RDX-exposed earthworms following acetonitrile extraction, suggesting the formation of nonextractable [14C]RDX metabolites associated with tissue macromolecules. These findings demonstrated a net accumulation of RDX in the earthworm and the potential for food-chain transfer of RDX to higher-trophic-level receptors. PMID:19432505

  18. High dynamic range emission measurements of shocked energetic materials: Octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassett, Will P.; Dlott, Dana D.

    2016-06-01

    A new emission apparatus with high time resolution and high dynamic range was used to study shock-induced ignition of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine in the form of ultrafine powder (4 ± 3 μm particle size), over a range of impact velocities (0.8-4.3 km s-1) and impact durations (2.5-16 ns). A graybody model was used to extract graybody emissivities and time-dependent temperatures from a few ns to 100 μs. The emission transients consisted of three parts: a 6700 K nanosecond burst during the shocks, a 4000-4500 K temperature spike near 0.3 μs followed by a ˜3300 K tail extending out to ˜100 μs. These temperatures varied remarkably little with impact velocity and duration, while the emission intensities and emissivities changed by over an order of magnitude. The emissivity changes were interpreted with a hot spot model, where hot spot temperatures reached a maximum of 6700 K and the hot spot volume fractions increased from 5% to 100% as impact velocity increased from 1 to 3 km s-1. Changing shock durations in the 2.5-16 ns range had noticeable effects on the microsecond emission. The 0.3 μs temperature spike was much smaller or absent with 2.5 ns shocks, but prominent with longer durations. An explanation for these effects was put forth that invoked the formation of carbon-rich clusters during the shock. In this view, cluster formation was minimal with 2.5 ns shocks, but longer-duration shocks produced increasingly larger clusters, and the 0.3 μs temperature spikes represented cluster ignition.

  19. Mineralization of the Cyclic Nitramine Explosive Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine by Gordonia and Williamsia spp.

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Karen T.; Crocker, Fiona H.; Fredrickson, Herbert L.

    2005-01-01

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) is a cyclic nitroamine explosive that is a major component in many military high-explosive formulations. In this study, two aerobic bacteria that are capable of using RDX as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen to support their growth were isolated from surface soil. These bacterial strains were identified by their fatty acid profiles and 16S ribosomal gene sequences as Williamsia sp. KTR4 and Gordonia sp. KTR9. The physiology of each strain was characterized with respect to the rates of RDX degradation and [U-14C]RDX mineralization when RDX was supplied as a sole carbon and nitrogen source in the presence and absence of competing carbon and nitrogen sources. Strains KTR4 and KTR9 degraded 180 μM RDX within 72 h when RDX served as the only added carbon and nitrogen source while growing to total protein concentrations of 18.6 and 16.5 μg/ml, respectively. Mineralization of [U-14C]RDX to 14CO2 was 30% by strain KTR4 and 27% by KTR9 when RDX was the only added source of carbon and nitrogen. The addition of (NH4)2SO4 greatly inhibited KTR9's degradation of RDX but had little effect on that of KTR4. These are the first two pure bacterial cultures isolated that are able to use RDX as a sole carbon and nitrogen source. These two genera possess different physiologies with respect to RDX mineralization, and each can serve as a useful microbiological model for the study of RDX biodegradation with regard to physiology, biochemistry, and genetics. PMID:16332812

  20. Adsorption-desorption of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine in soils

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, S.K.; Selim, H.M.; Iskandar, I.K.

    1995-11-01

    This study studied the adsorption-desorption behavior of TNT (2, 4, 6-trinitrotoluene) and RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) in a bentonite/sand reference material (Swy-1 montmorillonite clay mixed with acid-washed sand) and two selected soils (Norwood and Kolin). Release of TNT,RDX, and other compounds from a contaminated soil obtained from the Louisiana Army Ammunition Plant (AAP) site was also investigated. The kinetics of TNT and RDX retention were measured using batch methods for a range of input concentrations. For RDX, the adsorption isotherms were distinctly linear. The TNT adsorption isotherm for bentonite/sand mixture appeared linear and was described equally well using linear, Freundlich, Langmuir, and a modified Langmuir model. For the Norwood and Kolin soils, TNT adsorption isotherms exhibited distinct nonlinearity and the Freundlich model provided the best fit. As indicated by the K{sub d} values, TNT exhibited stronger retention or affinity to all soils and the bentonite/sand mixture than for RDX. The RDX retention data indicated little time-dependent behavior. The TNT retention data indicated a continued decrease in TNT concentration with time in the Norwood and Kolin soils. This was possibly caused by the formation and subsequent adsorption of transformation products because transformation products, such as amino nitro toluene compounds, were identified during batch experiments. For the bentonite/sand mixture, TNT retention was rapid initially and reached apparent equilibrium within 1 day. Unlike Kolin and Norwood soils, there was no hysteretic behavior of TNT adsorption-desorption by the bentonite/sand mixture and a mass balance suggested fully reversible retention mechanisms. 15 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Characterization of polymorphic states in energetic samples of 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) fabricated using drop-on-demand inkjet technology.

    PubMed

    Emmons, Erik D; Farrell, Mikella E; Holthoff, Ellen L; Tripathi, Ashish; Green, Norman; Moon, Raphael P; Guicheteau, Jason A; Christesen, Steven D; Pellegrino, Paul M; Fountain, Augustus W

    2012-06-01

    The United States Army and the first responder community are evaluating optical detection systems for the trace detection of hazardous energetic materials. Fielded detection systems must be evaluated with the appropriate material concentrations to accurately identify the residue in theater. Trace levels of energetic materials have been observed in mutable polymorphic phases and, therefore, the systems being evaluated must be able to detect and accurately identify variant sample phases observed in spectral data. In this work, we report on the novel application of drop-on-demand technology for the fabrication of standardized trace 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) samples. The drop-on-demand sample fabrication technique is compared both visually and spectrally to the more commonly used drop-and-dry technique. As the drop-on-demand technique allows for the fabrication of trace level hazard materials, concerted efforts focused on characterization of the polymorphic phase changes observed with low concentrations of RDX commonly used in drop-on-demand processing. This information is important when evaluating optical detection technologies using samples prepared with a drop-on-demand inkjet system, as the technology may be "trained" to detect the common bulk α phase of the explosive based on its spectral features but fall short in positively detecting a trace quantity of RDX (β-phase). We report the polymorphic shifts observed between α- and β-phases of this energetic material and discuss the conditions leading to the favoring of one phase over the other. PMID:22732532

  2. Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} (5 mol%) with Ag nanoparticles prepared by citrate precursor

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrari, J.L.; Cebim, M.A.; Pires, A.M.; Couto dos Santos, M.A.

    2010-09-15

    Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} (5 mol% Eu{sup 3+}) and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} (5 mol% Eu{sup 3+}) containing 1 mol% of Ag nanoparticles were prepared by heat treatment of a viscous resin obtained via citrate precursor. TEM and EDS analyses showed that Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} (5 mol% Eu{sup 3+}) is formed by nanoparticles with an average size of 12 nm, which increases to 30 nm when Ag is present because the effect of metal induced crystallization occurs. Ag nanoparticles with a size of 9 nm dispersed in Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} (5 mol% Eu{sup 3+}) were obtained and the surface plasmon effect on Ag nanoparticles was observed. The emission around 612 nm assigned to the Eu{sup 3+} ({sup 5}D{sub 0{yields}}{sup 7}F{sub 2}) transition enhanced when the Ag nanoparticles were present in the Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} luminescent material. - Graphical abstract: The presence of Ag nanoparticles together Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} 5 mol% phosphor showed to affect directly the optical and crystallinity of the material. Luminescence spectra show directly the effect observed.

  3. 3-Chlorotyrosine and 3,5-Dichlorotyrosine as biomarkers of respiratory tract exposure to chlorine gas

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modification of tyrosine by reactive chlorine can produce both 3-chlorotyrosine (CY) and 3,5-dichlorotyrosine (dCY). Both of these amino acids have proven to be promising biomarkers for assessing the extent of myeloperoxidase-catalyzed chlorine stress in a number of adverse physi...

  4. FOURTEEN-DAY TOXICITY STUDY OF 1,3,5-TRINITROBENZENE IN FISCHER 344 RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxic effects of 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (TNB) in male and female rats were evaluated by feeding powdered certified laboratory chow diet supplemented with varied concentrations of TNB (0,50,200,400,800 and 1200 mg kg-1 diet) for 14 days. Food intake by female rats in 400,800 and 12...

  5. 45 CFR 3.5 - Lost and found, and abandoned property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Services Administration regulations (41 CFR part 101-48). Abandoned, or other unclaimed property and, in... Office and sold and the proceeds deposited in accordance with 41 CFR 101-45.304 and 101-48.305. ... Section 3.5 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT...

  6. 45 CFR 3.5 - Lost and found, and abandoned property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Services Administration regulations (41 CFR part 101-48). Abandoned, or other unclaimed property and, in... Office and sold and the proceeds deposited in accordance with 41 CFR 101-45.304 and 101-48.305. ... Section 3.5 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT...

  7. 45 CFR 3.5 - Lost and found, and abandoned property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Services Administration regulations (41 CFR part 101-48). Abandoned, or other unclaimed property and, in... Office and sold and the proceeds deposited in accordance with 41 CFR 101-45.304 and 101-48.305. ... Section 3.5 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT...

  8. 45 CFR 3.5 - Lost and found, and abandoned property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Services Administration regulations (41 CFR part 101-48). Abandoned, or other unclaimed property and, in... Office and sold and the proceeds deposited in accordance with 41 CFR 101-45.304 and 101-48.305. ... Section 3.5 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT...

  9. 45 CFR 3.5 - Lost and found, and abandoned property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Services Administration regulations (41 CFR part 101-48). Abandoned, or other unclaimed property and, in... Office and sold and the proceeds deposited in accordance with 41 CFR 101-45.304 and 101-48.305. ... Section 3.5 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT...

  10. CHRONIC TOXICITY OF 1,3,5-TRINITROBENZENE IN FISCHER 344 RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chronic toxicity of 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (TNB) in male and female Fischer 344 (F344) rats was evaluated by feeding a diet containing 0, 5, 60 and 300 ppm of TNB for 2 years. The calculated average TNB intake over 2 years for males and females was 0.22, 2.64, 13.44 and 0.23,...

  11. Synthesis and Structure of Alkylzinc 3,5-Diphenylpyrazolates: Dramatic Influence of Steric and Solvent Effects.

    PubMed

    Komorski, Szymon; Leszczyński, Michał K; Justyniak, Iwona; Lewiński, Janusz

    2016-06-01

    The reaction of R2Zn (R = Et, (t)Bu) with 3,5-diphenylpyrazole results in the formation of three structurally diverse alkylzinc pyrazolates: a novel dinuclear tetrahydrofuran solvate, an unprecedented trimeric structure, and a spiro trinuclear aggregate. Structural analysis of the resulting complexes provides a new look at the aggregation and stabilization of alkylzinc species. PMID:27186891

  12. SUBCHRONIC TOXICITY OF 1,3,5-TRINITROBENZENE IN FISCHER 344 RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The subchronic toxicity of 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (TNB) in male and female Fischer 344 rats was evaluated by feeding a powdered certified laboratory diet containing 0, 66.7, 400 and 800 mg TNB/kg diet for 90 days. The calculated average TNB intake was 4.29, 24.70, and 49.28 mg/kg...

  13. Smart Spending and Saving: Personal Finance Economics 3-5. Teacher Resource Manual. EconomicsAmerica.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskell, Diana C.; Haskell, Douglas A.

    This book is designed to help students in grades 3-5 make better decisions as spenders, savers, borrowers, and managers of money. The learning experiences focus on personal finance and money management. The 10 lessons are divided into 4 units focusing on children making spending decisions, saving decisions, borrowing decisions, and money…

  14. Evaluation of GALAXY Classroom Science for Grades 3-5. Final Report. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guth, Gloria J. A.; Austin, Susan; DeLong, Bo; Pasta, David J.; Block, Clifford

    The GALAXY Classroom is a package of integrated curricular and instructional approaches, supported by the first U.S. interactive satellite communications network designed to facilitate the introduction of innovative curricula to improve student learning in elementary schools. GALAXY Classroom Science for grades 3-5 features the organization of…

  15. Supporting English Language Learners in Math Class, Grades 3-5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bresser, Rusty; Melanese, Kathy; Sphar, Christine

    2009-01-01

    More than 10 percent of the students in our nation's public schools are English language learners, and this number grows each year. Many of these students are falling behind in math. "Supporting English Language Learners in Math Class, Grades 3-5" outlines the challenges ELL students face when learning math and provides a wealth of specific…

  16. 40 CFR 721.4265 - Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-). 721.4265 Section 721.4265 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances §...

  17. Earthwatch: Designing Environmental Education into the Curriculum. Volume I, Grades 3-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Larry, Ed.; Hungerford, Nancy, Ed.

    This environmental education activities package for grades 3-5 contains activities in the following curriculum areas: (1) social science; (2) science; (3) language arts; and (4) mathematics. The activities are divided into seven sections based on seven environmental topics: (1) ecosystems; (2) population; (3) energy and resources; (4) economics,…

  18. FIFTH SYMPOSIUM ON FUGITIVE EMISSIONS: MEASUREMENT AND CONTROL (MAY 3-5, 1982, CHARLESTON, SOUTH CAROLINA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proceedings document presentations at the Fifth Symposium on Fugitive Emissions: Measurement and Control, May 3-5, 1982, in Charleston, SC. The Symposium was sponsored by the U.S. EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory (known then as the Industrial Environmental...

  19. Teacher Implementation of Guided Reading and the Effect on Students in Grades 3-5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huber, Melissa S.

    2011-01-01

    This mixed methods study explored implementing guided reading in grades 3-5 in a suburban school district located in Southeastern Pennsylvania. The purpose of this study was to evaluate how teachers implement guided reading in their classrooms and how the use of guided reading affects student achievement in Text Structure and Vocabulary, Reading…

  20. Chemistry of the pyrazolidines. 26. Alkylation of 4-benzyliden-1-phenyl-3,5-dioxopyrazolidines

    SciTech Connect

    Moldarev, B.L.; Aronzon, M.E.; Adanin, V.M.; Zyakun, A.M.

    1986-08-01

    The reaction of 4-benzyliden-1-phenyl-3,5-dioxopyrazolidines with alkyl halides in the presence of sodium alkoxide gave 1-phenyl-2-alkyl-4-benzyliden- and 1-phenyl-2,4-dialkyl-4-(..cap alpha..-alkoxybenzyl)-3,4-dioxopyrazolines. The structures of these compounds were confirmed by UV, IR, and PMR spectroscopy, and by mass-spectrometry.

  1. No Time for Tea (Grade Level: Elementary Grades, 3-5)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Designed for Grades 3-5, this lesson plan aims to let the students learn how the Constitution of the United States provided the framework for the country's democratic form of government. Students will learn how the Constitution provided for representation within the government. A short story about the Boston Tea Party gives the background related…

  2. Algebraic Reasoning: Professor Arbegla Introduces Variables and Functions. GEMS Teacher's Guide for Grades 3-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopp, Jaine; Bergman, Lincoln

    This teacher guide helps build a solid foundation in algebra for students in grades 3-5 in which students gain essential understanding of properties of numbers, variables, functions, equations, and formulas. Throughout the problem solving activities, students use computational skills and gain a deeper understanding of the number system. Students…

  3. DETERMINATION OF 3,5,6-TRICHLORO-2-PYRIDINOL (TCP) BY ELISA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A sensitive, competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for 3,5,6-trichloro-2pyridinol (TCP) has been developed to quantitate parts per billion (ppb) amounts of the analyte in urine. TCP is a major metabolite and environmental degradation product of the insecticide c...

  4. Russian/English Interdisciplinary Lessons for General Education and Special Education Students. Grades 3-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Office of Bilingual Education.

    The materials consist of four lessons each at grade levels 3-5, designed for use by both Russian bilingual and English-monolingual teachers in general and special education. The lessons are cross-referenced to learning and performance standards established for New York City (New York) public schools. Each unit (group of grade-level lessons)…

  5. Investigation of Unexpected Reaction Intermediates in the Alkaline Hydrolysis of Methyl 3,5-Dinitrobenzoate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Clesia C.; Silva, Ricardo O.; Navarro, Daniela M. A. F.; Navarro, Marcelo

    2009-01-01

    An experimental project aimed at identifying stable reaction intermediates is described. Initially, the studied reaction appears to involve the simple hydrolysis, by aqueous sodium hydroxide, of methyl 3,5-dinitrobenzoate dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide. On mixing the substrates, however, the reaction mixture unexpectedly turns an intense red in…

  6. Developing Essential Understanding of Multiplication and Division for Teaching Mathematics in Grades 3-5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Albert; Caldwell, Janet; Hancock, Sarah Wallus; Zbiek, Rose Mary

    2011-01-01

    This book identifies and examines two big ideas and related essential understandings for teaching multiplication and division in grades 3-5. Big Idea 1 captures the notion that multiplication is usefully defined as a scalar operation. Problem situations modeled by multiplication have an element that represents the scalar and an element that…

  7. Preparation of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene of submicron particle size

    DOEpatents

    Rigdon, Lester P.; Moody, Gordon L.; McGuire, Raymond R.

    2001-01-01

    A method is disclosed for the preparation of very small particle size, relatively pure 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB). Particles of TATB prepared according to the disclosed method are of submicron size and have a surface area in the range from about 3.8 to 27 square meters per gram.

  8. Preparation of 1,3,5-triamo-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene of submicron particle size

    DOEpatents

    Rigdon, Lester P.; Moody, Gordon L.; McGuire, Raymond R.

    2001-05-01

    A method is disclosed for the preparation of very small particle size, relatively pure 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB). Particles of TATB prepared according to the disclosed method are of submicron size and have a surface area in the range from about 3.8 to 27 square meters per gram.

  9. The Self-Assembly Properties of a Benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxamide Derivative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stals, Patrick J. M.; Haveman, Jan F.; Palmans, Anja R. A.; Schenning, Albertus P. H. J.

    2009-01-01

    A series of experiments involving the synthesis and characterization of a benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxamide derivative and its self-assembly properties are reported. These laboratory experiments combine organic synthesis, self-assembly, and physical characterization and are designed for upper-level undergraduate students to introduce the topic of…

  10. Monthly energy review: April 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    This monthly report presents an overview of energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. A section is also included on international energy. The feature paper which is included each month is entitled ``Energy equipment choices: Fuel costs and other determinants.`` 37 figs., 59 tabs.

  11. Natural gas monthly, December 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  12. Monthly energy review, November 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  13. Monthly energy review, May 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-05-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  14. Monthly energy review, July 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs. 73 tabs.

  15. Monthly Energy Review, February 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-26

    This monthly publication presents an overview of EIA`s recent monthly energy statistics, covering the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. Two brief descriptions (`energy plugs`) on two EIA publications are presented at the start.

  16. Monthly energy review, November 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 91 tabs.

  17. Monthly energy review, October 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  18. Monthly energy review, March 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-03-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 74 tabs.

  19. Monthly energy review, November 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 75 tabs.

  20. Haida Months of the Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cogo, Robert

    Students are introduced to Haida vocabulary in this booklet which briefly describes the seasons and traditional seasonal activities of Southeastern Alaska Natives. The first section lists the months in English and Haida; e.g., January is "Taan Kungaay," or "Bear Hunting Month." The second section contains seasonal names in Haida and English as…