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Sample records for 3-5 months treatment

  1. Mature Teratoma of the Temporal Bone in 3.5-Month-Old Baby Girl

    PubMed Central

    Alqurashi, Alshema; Bakry, Essa; Straube, Marta; Rickert, Christian H.; Mir-Salim, Parwis

    2015-01-01

    Mature teratoma is a benign germ cell tumor rarely located in the temporal bone. We are reporting a case of a mature teratoma of the temporal bone in a healthy borne 3.5-month-old baby girl with a 2-day suggestive history of otitis media and polypoidal mass expulsing from the external auditory canal of the left ear. A definitive diagnosis is made after complete excision and histological examination of the tissue. Total surgical excision of the tumor is the treatment of choice. PMID:25945275

  2. A competition model of exogenous orienting in 3.5-month-old infants.

    PubMed

    Dannemiller, J L

    1998-03-01

    Four experiments are reported on exogenous (stimulus-driven) orienting in 3.5-month-old infants. A small moving bar embedded in a field of static bars was used to draw the infant's attention to one side of the display or the other. The bars could be either red or green. In all four of these experiments sensitivity to this small moving bar was affected significantly by how unevenly the red and green bars were distributed across the visual field. Sensitivity to the moving bar was lower when most of the red bars were in the field contralateral to this probe suggesting competition between the motion stimulus and contralaterally placed red but not green bars on a small, but significant proportion of trials. This basic effect replicated in four separate experiments and depended coarsely on how unevenly the red and the green bars were distributed across the field. A competition model of exogenous orienting with a winner-take-all rule captured the most important features of the data. The distribution of color within the visual field can bias attention significantly at 3.5 months making it either more or less likely that an infant will detect a moving stimulus. PMID:9514768

  3. Impact on respiratory tract infections of heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine administered at 3, 5 and 11 months of age

    PubMed Central

    Esposito, Susanna; Lizioli, Alessandro; Lastrico, Annalisa; Begliatti, Enrica; Rognoni, Alessandro; Tagliabue, Claudia; Cesati, Laura; Carreri, Vittorio; Principi, Nicola

    2007-01-01

    Background Medical and public health importance of pneumococcal infections justifies the implementation of measures capable of reducing their incidence and severity, and explains why the recently marketed heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) has been widely studied by pediatricians. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of PCV-7 administered at 3, 5 and 11 months of age on respiratory tract infections in very young children. Methods A total of 1,571 healthy infants (910 males) aged 75–105 days (median 82 days) were enrolled in this prospective cohort trial to receive a hexavalent vaccine (DTaP/IPV/HBV/Hib) and PCV-7 (n = 819) or the hexavalent vaccine alone (n = 752) at 3, 5 and 11 months of age. Morbidity was recorded for the 24 months following the second dose by monthly telephone interviews conducted by investigators blinded to the study treatment assignment using standardised questionnaires. During these interviews, the caregivers and the children's pediatricians were questioned about illnesses and the use of antibiotics since the previous telephone call. All of the data were analysed using SAS Windows v.12. Results Among the 1,555 subjects (98.9%) who completed the study, analysis of the data by the periods of follow-up demonstrated that radiologically confirmed community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) was significantly less frequent in the PCV-7 group during the follow-up as a whole and during the last period of follow-up. Moreover, there were statistically significant between-group differences in the incidence of acute otitis media (AOM) in each half-year period of follow-up except the first, with significantly lower number of episodes in children receiving PCV-7 than in controls. Furthermore, the antibiotic prescription data showed that the probability of receiving an antibiotic course was significantly lower in the PCV-7 group than in the control group. Conclusion Our findings show the effectiveness of the simplified PCV-7 schedule

  4. Face Gender Influences the Looking Preference for Smiling Expressions in 3.5-Month-Old Human Infants

    PubMed Central

    Bayet, Laurie; Quinn, Paul C.; Tanaka, James W.; Lee, Kang; Gentaz, Édouard; Pascalis, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Young infants are typically thought to prefer looking at smiling expressions. Although some accounts suggest that the preference is automatic and universal, we hypothesized that it is not rigid and may be influenced by other face dimensions, most notably the face’s gender. Infants are sensitive to the gender of faces; for example, 3-month-olds raised by female caregivers typically prefer female over male faces. We presented neutral versus smiling pairs of faces from the same female or male individuals to 3.5-month-old infants (n = 25), controlling for low-level cues. Infants looked longer to the smiling face when faces were female but longer to the neutral face when faces were male, i.e., there was an effect of face gender on the looking preference for smiling. The results indicate that a preference for smiling in 3.5-month-olds is limited to female faces, possibly reflective of differential experience with male and female faces. PMID:26068460

  5. Pharmacological and haematological results of rat skin burn injury treatment with Cu(II)2(3,5-diisopropylsalicylate)4.

    PubMed

    Malakyan, Margarita H; Bajinyan, Sergey A; Abrahamyan, Armenuhi K; Petrosyan, Zhasmena H; Harutyunyan, Nektar K; Badiryan, Vardush A; Sorenson, John R J

    2004-01-01

    This research was performed to determine whether or not treatment of burn-injured rats with Cu(II)2(3,5-diisopropylsalicylate)4(Cu(II)2(3,5-DIPS)4) facilitated recovery from burn-injury. Four groups of adult male rats received a standard skin burn 1 h before an initial subcutaneous treatment which was continued daily for three days with either 0, 5, 10 or 20micromol Cu(II)2(3,5-DIPS)4/kg body mass. A fifth group was given no treatment. A sixth group served as a non-burn-injured non-treated normal control group. At 3 h and on days 1, 2, 3, 7 and 14 post-burn-injury blood samples were obtained from rats in all groups for the determination of leukocyte, platelet and erythrocyte counts, clotting times, hemoglobin and hematocrit values. Total protein and middle mass peptides in plasma, as well as plasma lipid and erythrocyte membrane peroxidation products were determined on days 7 and 14. Burn wound healing and body mass were determined daily from day 0 to 6 with a notation of crust rejection by day 14. Treatment with Cu(II)2(3,5-DIPS)4 produced effects consistent with a facilitation of Cu-dependent immune-mediated physiological inflammatory responses to burn injury. It is concluded that treatment of burn injury with Cu(II)2(3,5-DIPS)4 supports Cu-dependent physiological responses involved in overcoming burn injury, which may have been further optimized by continued treatment beyond day 2, the last day of treatment. PMID:15901413

  6. Immunological persistence in 5 y olds previously vaccinated with hexavalent DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib at 3, 5, and 11 months of age.

    PubMed

    Silfverdal, Sven A; Assudani, Deepak; Kuriyakose, Sherine; Van Der Meeren, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    The combined diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-hepatitis B-poliomyelitis/Haemophilus influenza vaccine (DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib: Infanrix™ hexa, GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines) is used for primary vaccination of infants in a range of schedules world-wide. Antibody persistence after 4 DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib doses in the first 2 y of life has been documented, but long-term persistence data following the 3, 5, 11-12 months (3-5-11) infant vaccination schedule, employed for example in Nordic countries, are limited. We assessed antibody persistence in 57 5-year-old children who had received either DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib or DTPa-IPV/Hib (Infanrix™-IPV/Hib, GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines) in the 3-5-11 schedule. Among DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib recipients, 7/12 retained seroprotective antibody concentrations for diphtheria, 10/12 for tetanus, 5/12 for hepatitis and 10/12 for Hib. Detectable antibodies were observed for 0/12 children for pertussis toxin (PT), 12/12 for filamentous haemagglutinin (FHA) and 8/12 for pertactin (PRN). Among DTPa-IPV/Hib recipients, 28/45 retained seroprotective anti-diphtheria concentrations, 34/44 for tetanus and 40/45 for Hib. Detectable antibodies were observed for 9/45 children for PT, 41/45 for FHA and 34/45 for PRN. Antibody persistence in DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib and DTPa-IPV/Hib-vaccinees appeared similar in 5 y olds to that previously observed in children of a similar age who had received 4 prior doses of DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib (or DTPa-IPV/Hib). As in subjects primed with 4 prior doses, we observed that antibodies markedly declined by 5 y of age, calling for the administration of a pre-school booster dose in order to ensure continued protection against pertussis. PMID:25483640

  7. Nutrition effects on the biofilm immobilization and 3,5-DNBA degradation of Comamonas testosteroni A3 during bioaugmentation treatment.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhongqin; Meng, Xiangxun; Xie, Liqun; Xu, Hongqing; Li, Mengying

    2015-01-01

    The survival of inoculated microbes is critical for successful bioaugmentation in wastewater treatment. The influence of readily available nutrients (RANs) on the colonization of two functional bacteria, Pseudomonas putida M9, a strong biofilm-forming strain, and Comamonas testosteroni A3, a 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid (3,5-DNBA)-degrading strain, in biofilms was studied with 3,5-dinitrobenoic acid synthetic wastewater (DCMM) complemented with various ratios of Luria-Bertani broth (LB). With the increase in LB rate, the biofilm biomass was increased, the percentage of gfp-labeled M9 measured in the mixed culture enhanced, and also M9 became dominant. In laboratory-scale sequencing batch biofilm reactors, with the increase in 3,5-DNBA concentration and extension of the running time, the 3,5-DNBA removal in DCMM wastewater complemented with RANs tended to be more efficient and its removal rates increased gradually over the experimental period. Our study demonstrated that supplementing RANs could be a useful strategy for enhancing colonization of degrading bacteria in wastewater treatment systems. PMID:25345550

  8. The Relationship of BMD Increases Between the First 12 Months and the Latter 12 Months by Daily Teriparatide Treatment.

    PubMed

    Niimi, Rui; Kono, Toshibumi; Nishihara, Atsushi; Hasegawa, Masahiro; Kono, Toshihiko; Sudo, Akihiro

    2016-09-01

    The degree of correlation between the first 12 months and the latter 12 months of increased bone mineral density (BMD) with teriparatide treatment is unknown. We retrospectively investigated the correlation between the first 12 months and the latter 12 months of increased BMD owing to teriparatide treatment. We retrospectively analyzed 357 patients (mean age, 78 years) with osteoporosis treated with teriparatide 20 μg/day for 24 months. The primary efficacy measure was the correlation between lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN) BMD increases from baseline to 12 months and from 12 to 24 months. The correlation between the first 12 months and the latter 12 months of increased BMD was evaluated. We investigated the correlation between the increases in BMD and the baseline procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide (PINP) concentration. LS BMD significantly increased by 9.7 ± 8.3 % in the first 12 months and 3.5 ± 4.8 % in the latter 12 months. FN BMD increased by 2.2 ± 8.4 % in the first 12 months and 1.3 ± 4.9 % in the latter 12 months. Increased LS and FN BMD were not significantly correlated between the first 12 months and the latter 12 months. The serum baseline PINP concentration was correlated with the LS BMD in the first 12 months, and similarly, the PINP concentration at 12 months was correlated with the latter 12 months of increased LS BMD. Increased BMD by teriparatide treatment in the first 12 months and the latter 12 months was not significantly correlated. PMID:27206528

  9. Dental Caries and Their Treatment Needs in 3-5 Year Old Preschool Children in a Rural District of India

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Devanand; Momin, Rizwan K; Mathur, Ayush; Srinivas, Kavuri Teja; Jain, Ankita; Dommaraju, Neelima; Dalai, Deepak Ranjan; Gupta, Rajendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dental problems in the preschool children are neglected by their parents as the deciduous teeth are going to shed off, and hence considered to be of no importance and more of economic burden if attended to them. Aims: This study was to determine the caries prevalence in preschool children (3-5-year-old) of rural Moradabad district, to analyze the specific pattern of dental caries experience in this population and to assess the treatment needs among them. Material and Methods: Children within the age group of 3-5 years attending Anganwadi centers of rural Moradabad district were included in the study. Caries diagnosis was based on decayed, extracted, filled surface (defs) and the treatment needs were recorded using World Health Organization (WHO) oral health assessment form 1997. Results: Out of 1,500 children examined, 48.7% males and 52.6% females did not require any treatment. The mean decayed, extracted, filled teeth (deft) value was found to be significantly high in 5-year-old participants when compared to 3-year-old participants (P < 0.01). Majority of the children required one surface filling followed by two surface fillings, caries arresting sealant care, extraction, crown bridge element, pulp care, and space maintainer. Conclusion: The most common pattern was pit and fissure, then maxillary anterior pattern, posterior proximal pattern, and posterior buccal lingual smooth surface pattern. The mean deft value was higher in males as compared to females. There is a greater need for oral health education among parents and teachers. PMID:25973401

  10. Fabrication, Tuning, Treatment and Testing of Two 3.5 Cell Photo-Injector Cavities for the ELBE Linac

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, A.; Murcek, P.; Teichert, J.; Xiang, R.; Eremeev, G. V.; Kneisel, P.; Stirbet, M.; Turlington, L.

    2011-07-01

    As part of a CRADA (Cooperative Research and Development Agreement) between Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) and Thomas Jefferson Lab National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF) we have fabricated and tested two 1.3 GHz 3.5 cell photo-injector cavities from polycrystalline RRR niobium and large grain RRR niobium, respectively. The cavity with the better performance will replace the presently used injector cavity in the ELBE linac. The cavities have been fabricated and pre-tuned at TJNAF, while the more sophisticated final field tuning, the adjustment of the external couplings and the field profile measurement of transverse electric modes for RF focusing was done at HZDR. The following standard surface treatment and the vertical test was carried out at TJNAF's production facilities. A major challenge turned out to be the rinsing of the cathode cell, which has small opening (O-slash10mm) to receive the cathode stalk. Another unexpected problem encountered after etching, since large visible defects appeared in the least accessible cathode cell. This contribution reports about our experiences, initial results and the on-going diagnostic work to understand and fix the problems.

  11. Evaluation of an 18-month commercial multidisciplinary obesity treatment programme.

    PubMed

    Aller, E E J G; van Baak, M A

    2016-02-01

    The treatment of obesity is an often studied subject. Although reductions in weight and improvements in cardiometabolic risk factors are important aims of obesity treatment, improvements in quality of life and eating behaviour are also relevant outcomes. In this practice-based study, we evaluated an 18-month commercial multidisciplinary obesity treatment programme and report on treatment results for weight, cardiometabolic risk factors, eating behaviour and quality of life. From a local commercial obesity treatment centre, 426 subjects (65% female; 45.4 ± 12.2 years; body mass index 40.0 ± 6.6 kg m(-2)) were recruited. Measurements of body weight, height, body composition, waist circumference and blood pressure were scheduled at baseline and every 3 months, whereas fasting blood collections were scheduled at baseline and every 6 months. At the same time points, participants were asked to fill in questionnaires on dietary intake, eating behaviour and quality of life. After 18 months of treatment programme, average weight change [mean (95% confidence interval)] was -10.9 kg (-14.8 to -7.0; P < 0.001) for the completers (n = 181) and -10.8 kg (-14.2 to -7.4; P < 0.001) for the intention-to-treat population (n = 426). Waist circumference (mean ± standard error of the mean) (-0.13 ± 0.01 cm; P < 0.001), fat mass (-7.8 ± 1.3 kg; P < 0.001) systolic (-11.4 ± 2.0; P < 0.001) and diastolic (-7.0 ± 1.3; P < 0.001) blood pressure, triglycerides (-0.4 ± 0.1; P = 0.004) and plasma glucose (-0.6 ± 0.2; P = 0.001) were significantly reduced. The PCS scale of the SF-36 and all three scales of the three-factor eating questionnaire improved significantly over the 18-month treatment period. All collected data in this study provide evidence that a multidisciplinary treatment programme based on lifestyle modification results in significant weight loss and improvements in cardiometabolic

  12. Cost-effectiveness of rifampin for 4 months and isoniazid for 9 months in the treatment of tuberculosis infection.

    PubMed

    Pina, J M; Clotet, L; Ferrer, A; Sala, M R; Garrido, P; Salleras, L; Domínguez, A

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the strategy of controlling the contacts of tuberculosis patients with latent tuberculosis infection by means of treatment with rifampin for 4 months or isoniazid for 9 months. The cost was the sum of the cost of treating latent tuberculosis infection in all contacts plus the cost of treating tuberculosis in whom the disease was not avoided. The effectiveness was expressed as cases avoided. The efficacy adopted was 90 % for rifampin for 4 months and 93 % for isoniazid for 9 months. We carried out a sensitivity analysis for efficacies of rifampin for 4 months of 80 %, 75 %, 69 % and 65 %. Of the 1,002 patients studied, 139 were treated with rifampin for 4 months and 863 were treated with isoniazid for 9 months. The cost-effectiveness was 436,842.83/50 cases avoided with rifampin for 4 months and 692,164.42/40 cases avoided with isoniazid for 9 months. Rifampin for 4 months was dominant. In the sensitivity analysis, rifampin for 4 months was dominant for efficacies of 75 % or greater. The cost-effectiveness analysis favoured the use of rifampin for 4 months when its efficacy was 75 % or greater. PMID:23238684

  13. Low Rates of Treatment Failure in Children Aged 2–59 Months Treated for Severe Pneumonia: A Multisite Pooled Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Matthew P.; Thea, Donald M.; Sadruddin, Salim; Bari, Abdul; Bonawitz, Rachael; Hazir, Tabish; Bin Nisar, Yasir; Qazi, Shamim A.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Despite advances in childhood pneumonia management, it remains a major killer of children worldwide. We sought to estimate global treatment failure rates in children aged 2–59 months with World Health Organization–defined severe pneumonia. Methods. We pooled data from 4 severe pneumonia studies conducted during 1999–2009 using similar methodologies. We defined treatment failure by day 6 as death, danger signs (inability to drink, convulsions, abnormally sleepy), fever (≥38°C) and lower chest indrawing (LCI; days 2–3), LCI (day 6), or antibiotic change. Results. Among 6398 cases of severe pneumonia from 10 countries, 564 (cluster adjusted: 8.5%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.9%–11.5%) failed treatment by day 6. The most common reasons for clinical failure were persistence of fever and LCI or LCI or fever alone (75% of failures). Seventeen (0.3%) children died. Danger signs were uncommon (<1%). Infants 6–11 months and 2–5 months were 2- and 3.5-fold more likely, respectively, to fail treatment (adjusted OR [AOR], 1.8 [95% CI, 1.4–2.3] and AOR, 3.5 [95% CI, 2.8–4.3]) as children aged 12–59 months. Failure was increased 7-fold (AOR, 7.2 [95% CI, 5.0–10.5]) when comparing infants 2–5 months with very fast breathing to children 12–59 months with normal breathing. Conclusions. Our findings demonstrate that severe pneumonia case management with antibiotics at health facilities or in the community is associated with few serious morbidities or deaths across diverse geographic settings and support moves to shift management of severe pneumonia with oral antibiotics to outpatients in the community. PMID:23264361

  14. Biological Activities of 2,3,5,4'-Tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-Glucoside in Antiaging and Antiaging-Related Disease Treatments.

    PubMed

    Ling, Shuang; Xu, Jin-Wen

    2016-01-01

    2,3,5,4'-Tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside (THSG) is active component of the Chinese medicinal plant Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. (THSG). Pharmacological studies have demonstrated that THSG exhibits numerous biological functions in treating atherosclerosis, lipid metabolism, vascular and cardiac remodeling, vascular fibrosis, cardiac-cerebral ischemia, learning and memory disorders, neuroinflammation, Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases, diabetic complications, hair growth problems, and numerous other conditions. This review focuses on the biological effects of THSG in antiaging and antiaging-related disease treatments and discusses its molecular mechanisms. PMID:27413420

  15. Biological Activities of 2,3,5,4′-Tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-Glucoside in Antiaging and Antiaging-Related Disease Treatments

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    2,3,5,4′-Tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside (THSG) is active component of the Chinese medicinal plant Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. (THSG). Pharmacological studies have demonstrated that THSG exhibits numerous biological functions in treating atherosclerosis, lipid metabolism, vascular and cardiac remodeling, vascular fibrosis, cardiac-cerebral ischemia, learning and memory disorders, neuroinflammation, Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases, diabetic complications, hair growth problems, and numerous other conditions. This review focuses on the biological effects of THSG in antiaging and antiaging-related disease treatments and discusses its molecular mechanisms. PMID:27413420

  16. Nine Months of Multicomponent Behavioral Treatment for ADHD and Effectiveness of MTA Fading Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, L. Eugene; Chuang, Shirley; Davies, Mark; Abikoff, Howard B.; Conners, C. Keith; Elliott, Glen R.; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Hechtman, Lily; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Hoza, Betsy; Jensen, Peter S.; Kraemer, Helena C.; Langworthy-Lam, Kristen S.; March, John S.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Pelham, William E.; Severe, Joanne B.; Swanson, James M.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Wells, Karen C.; Wigal, Timothy

    2004-01-01

    We examined 9-month data from the 14-month NIMH Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD (the MTA) as a further check on the relative effect of medication (MedMgt) and behavioral treatment (Beh) for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) while Beh was still being delivered at greater intensity than at 14-month endpoint, and…

  17. Bilingual Children with Primary Language Impairment: 3 Months after Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pham, Giang; Ebert, Kerry Danahy; Kohnert, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Background: Evidence on the treatment effectiveness for bilingual children with primary language impairment (PLI) is needed to advance both theory and clinical practice. Of key interest is whether treatment effects are maintained following the completion of short-term intense treatments. Aims: To investigate change in select language and cognitive…

  18. A multicenter randomized trial indicates initial prednisolone treatment for childhood nephrotic syndrome for two months is not inferior to six-month treatment

    PubMed Central

    Yoshikawa, Norishige; Nakanishi, Koichi; Sako, Mayumi; Oba, Mari S; Mori, Rintaro; Ota, Erika; Ishikura, Kenji; Hataya, Hiroshi; Honda, Masataka; Ito, Shuichi; Shima, Yuko; Kaito, Hiroshi; Nozu, Kandai; Nakamura, Hidefumi; Igarashi, Takashi; Ohashi, Yasuo; Iijima, Kazumoto

    2015-01-01

    In this multicenter, open-label, randomized controlled trial, we determined whether 2-month prednisolone therapy for steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome was inferior or not to 6-month therapy despite significantly less steroid exposure. The primary end point was time from start of initial treatment to start of frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome. The pre-specified non-inferiority margin was a hazard ratio of 1.3 with one-sided significance of 5%. We randomly assigned 255 children with an initial episode of steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome to either 2 - or 6-month treatment of which 246 were eligible for final analysis. The total prednisolone exposure counted both initial and relapse prednisolone treatment administered over 24 months. Median follow-up in months was 36.7 in the 2-month and 38.2 in the 6-month treatment group. Time to frequent relaps was similar in both groups; however, the median was reached only in the 6-month group (799 days). The hazard ratio was 0.86 (90% confidence interval, 0.64–1.16) and met the non-inferior margin. Time to first relapse was also similar in both groups: median day 242 (2-month) and 243 (6-month). Frequency and severity of adverse events were similar in both groups. Most adverse events were transient and occurred during initial or relapse therapy. Thus, 2 months of initial prednisolone therapy for steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome, despite less prednisolone exposure, is not inferior to 6 months of initial therapy in terms of time to onset of frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome. PMID:25054775

  19. Activation of 5-HT3 receptors leads to altered responses 6 months after MDMA treatment.

    PubMed

    Gyongyosi, Norbert; Balogh, Brigitta; Katai, Zita; Molnar, Eszter; Laufer, Rudolf; Tekes, Kornelia; Bagdy, Gyorgy

    2010-03-01

    The recreational drug "Ecstasy" [3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)] has a well-characterised neurotoxic effect on the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) neurons in animals. Despite intensive studies, the long-term functional consequencies of the 5-HT neurodegeneration remains elusive. The aim of this study was to investigate whether any alteration of 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 (5-HT(3)) receptor functions on the sleep-wake cycle, motor activity, and quantitative EEG could be detected 6 months after a single dose of 15 mg/kg of MDMA. The selective 5-HT(3) receptor agonist m-chlorophenylbiguanide (mCPBG; 1 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle was administered to freely moving rats pre-treated with MDMA (15 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle 6 months earlier. Polysomnographic and motor activity recordings were performed. Active wake (AW), passive wake (PW), light slow wave sleep (SWS-1), deep slow wave sleep (SWS-2), and paradoxical sleep were classified. In addition, EEG power spectra were calculated for the second hour after mCPBG treatment for each stage. AW increased and SWS-1 decreased in the second hour after mCPBG treatment in control animals. mCPBG caused significant changes in the EEG power in states with cortical activation (AW, PW, paradoxical sleep). In addition, mCPBG had a biphasic effect on hippocampal theta power in AW with a decrease in 7 Hz and a stage-selective increase in the upper range (8-9 Hz). Effects of mCPBG on the time spent in AW and SWS-1 were eliminated or reduced in MDMA-treated animals. In addition, mCPBG did not increase the upper theta power of AW in rats pre-treated with MDMA. These data suggest long-term changes in 5-HT(3) receptor function after MDMA. PMID:20052506

  20. PBF/BNCT program for cancer treatment: Monthly bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Dorn, R.V. III; Ackermann, A.L.

    1988-11-01

    This PBF/BNCT Program Monthly Bulletin is the primary vehicle for prompt national and international dissemination of research progress and the development status of tools essential for optimum BNCT clinical application. Accordingly, beginning with this issue, PBF neutron-filter design progress and PBF standby task summaries will be added to the subjects previously reported. Highlights of the PBF/BNCT Program during November include progress within several areas. Topics include: gross boron analysis in tissue blood and urine, analytical methodologies development for BSH (sodium borocaptate) purity determination, boron microscopic (subcellular) analytical development, noninvasive boron quantification determination, dosimetry, analytical radiation transport and interaction modeling for BNCT, large animal model studies, and neutron source and facility preparation.

  1. Sub-micrometre holotomographic characterisation of the effects of solution heat treatment on an AlMg7.3Si3.5 alloy

    PubMed Central

    Tolnai, D.; Requena, G.; Cloetens, P.; Lendvai, J.; Degischer, H.P.

    2012-01-01

    A strip cast AlMg7.3Si3.5 alloy is investigated by sub-micrometre holotomographic analysis achieving a voxel size of (60 nm)3 by cone beam magnification of the focused synchrotron beam using Kirkpatrick–Baez mirrors. The three-dimensional microstructure of the same specimen volume in the as-cast state is compared with that after exposure to 540 °C for 30 min resolving microstructural features down to 180 nm. The three-dimensional analysis of the architecture of the eutectic Mg2Si and the Fe-aluminides reveals how the as-cast microstructure changes during the solution treatment. The alloy in the as-cast condition contains a highly interconnected seaweed-like Mg2Si eutectic. The level of three-dimensional interconnectivity of the Mg2Si eutectic phase decreases by only partial disintegration during the heat treatment correcting the two-dimensional metallographic impression of isolated round particles. Statistical analyses of the particle distribution, sphericity, mean curvatures and Gaussian curvatures describe quantitatively the architectural changes of the Mg2Si phase. This explains the decrease of the high temperature strength of the alloy by the solution treatment tested in hot compression. PMID:23483521

  2. Efficacy of Slimming Cream Containing 3.5% Water-Soluble Caffeine and Xanthenes for the Treatment of Cellulite: Clinical Study and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Byun, Sang-Young; Kwon, Soon-Hyo; Heo, Su-Hak; Shim, Jae-Seong; Du, Mi-Hee

    2015-01-01

    Background Cellulite is a 'cottage cheese-like' cutaneous change caused by subcutaneous fat bulging into the dermis that usually leads to cosmetic problems. Slimming cream containing 3.5% water-soluble caffeine and xanthenes exhibits a lipolytic effect with penetration into the dermis. Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of slimming cream for the treatment of cellulite. Methods Fifteen subjects with cellulite applied slimming cream to the thighs and inner side of the upper arms twice daily for 6 weeks. Efficacy was assessed using a standard visual scale, changes in the circumferences of the thighs and upper arms, and patient satisfaction by a questionnaire at baseline, week 3, and week 6. Safety was assessed by inquiring about adverse events through questionnaires. Results The standard visual scale score improved significantly by 0.49 points (19.8%) at week 6. Thigh and upper-arm circumferences decreased by 0.7 cm (1.7%) and 0.8 cm (2.3%), respectively, at week 6. Slight itching and transient flushing were commonly reported, but no serious adverse event occurred. Conclusion The slimming cream tested appears to be effective for the treatment of cellulitis without serious adverse effects. However, additional large clinical trials are required to confirm the efficacy and safety of slimming cream for the treatment of cellulitis. PMID:26082579

  3. The effect of ulipristal acetate treatment on symptomatic uterine fibroids within 12-months follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Woźniak, Sławomir; Szkodziak, Piotr; Czuczwar, Piotr; Woźniakowska, Ewa; Paszkowski, Maciej; Milart, Paweł

    2014-01-01

    Aim of the study The purpose of the study was to monitor the effect of ulipristal acetate treatment on symptomatic uterine fibroids within 12-months follow-up. Material and methods Fifty six patients with symptomatic uterine fibroids qualified for surgical treatment were included in the prospective observational study. All patients received preoperative oral UPA treatment for 3 months (1 × 5 mg). Patients that refused surgical treatment after UPA therapy were followed-up for the next 9 months. The volume of the intramural fibroid was estimated by TV-US using and integrated VOCAL 3D imaging program at baseline, after 3 months of UPA treatment and further at 3-months intervals. Results Before UPA mean dominant fibroid volume was estimated to be 216.0 cm3 (38.4-768.2 cm3) and decreased to 117.6 cm3 (12.6-668.0 cm3) after 3 months of UPA therapy. Mean percentage volume reduction was 45.6%. Mean hemoglobin level increased from an initial 10.1 g/dL (6.8-12.9 g/dL) to 12.6 g/dL (10.1-14.8) after 3 months of UPA therapy. At 12 months after initiating UPA treatment mean dominant fibroid volume decreased by 43.9%. In one third of followed-up patients the effect of 3 month UPA therapy persisted for the next 9 months. Conclusions Three month UPA therapy decreases fibroid volume and improves hemoglobin level before planned surgical treatment. In one third of followed-up patients the effect of 3 month UPA therapy persisted for the next 9 months. PMID:26327823

  4. Critical appraisal of 3-monthly paliperidone depot injections in the treatment of schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Carpiniello, Bernardo; Pinna, Federica

    2016-01-01

    Aims Three-monthly injections of paliperidone palmitate (PP-3M) represent a new and recently introduced long-acting antipsychotic therapeutic option. This review focuses on available data relating to the efficacy and safety of PP-3M and its position in the current therapeutic scenario. Method An analysis of PubMed, Scopus, and ISI Web of Knowledge databases was conducted, and all available papers on PP-3M, including poster presentations, were selected and considered for the purpose of the present review. Findings: to date, three full papers have been published, the first, a Phase 1 randomized, open label study investigating the pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability of the drug; the second, a Phase 3 double blind study vs placebo focusing on efficacy and tolerability; and the last relating to the practical use of PP-3M. The five posters identified describe data reported in the above-cited papers. Overall, the pharmacokinetic findings obtained in these studies highlight the feasibility of administering PP-3M on a 3-monthly basis, subsequent to the administration of four 1-monthly injections of PP at doses 3.5 times higher than the stabilized dose of 1-monthly injections of PP (ie, 175, 300, 450, and 525 mgs). The published studies highlight a significantly longer time to relapse compared to placebo, and significantly better results compared to placebo for all secondary end-points (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Clinical Global Impression-Severity Scale, Personal and Social Performance Scale scores), in addition to reasonably good safety and tolerability profiles. Conclusion PP-3M emerges as a potential candidate for use as a first-line long-acting agent in the maintenance treatment of patients with schizophrenia. Further studies should however be conducted to confirm this expectation. In view of its efficacy, tolerability, and safety, together with the longer timespan between injections, PP-3M currently represents one of the best available options, and

  5. Suicide Attempts within 12 Months of Treatment for Substance Use Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britton, Peter C.; Conner, Kenneth R.

    2010-01-01

    There are limited prospective data on suicide attempts (SA) during the months following treatment for substance use disorders (SUD), a period of high risk. In an analysis of the Drug Abuse Treatment Outcomes Study, a longitudinal naturalistic multisite study of treated SUDs, variables associated with SA in the 12 months following SUD treatment…

  6. 3,3',5-Triiodo-L-thyronine-like activity in effluents from domestic sewage treatment plants detected by in vitro and in vivo bioassays

    SciTech Connect

    Murata, Tomonori; Yamauchi, Kiyoshi

    2008-02-01

    Thyroid system-disrupting activity in effluents from municipal domestic sewage treatment plants was detected using three in vitro assays and one in vivo assay. Contaminants in the effluents were extracted by solid-phase extraction (SPE) and eluted stepwise with different organic solvents. The majority of the thyroid system-disrupting activity was detected in the dichloromethane/methanol (1/1) fraction after SPE in all three in vitro assays: competitive assays of 3,3',5-[{sup 125}I]triiodo-L-thyronine ([{sup 125}I]T{sub 3}) binding to the plasma protein transthyretin (TTR assay) and thyroid hormone receptor (TR assay) and T{sub 3}-dependent luciferase assay (Luc assay). Subsequent reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) of the dichloromethane/methanol (1/1) fraction separated contaminants potent in the TR and Luc assays from those potent in the TTR assay. The contaminants potent in the TR and Luc assays were also potent in an in vivo short-term gene expression assay in Xenopus laevis (Tadpole assay). The present study demonstrated that the effluents from domestic sewage treatment plants contain contaminants with T{sub 3}-like activity of {approx} 10{sup -10} M T{sub 3}-equivalent concentration (T{sub 3}EQ) and that the TR and Luc assays are powerful in vitro bioassays for detecting thyroid system-disrupting activity in effluents. The availability and applicability of these bioassays for screening contaminants with thyroid system-disrupting activity in the water environment are discussed.

  7. Pivotal Response Treatment Parent Training for Autism: Findings from a 3-Month Follow-Up Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gengoux, Grace W.; Berquist, Kari L.; Salzman, Emma; Schapp, Salena; Phillips, Jennifer M.; Frazier, Thomas W.; Minjarez, Mendy B.; Hardan, Antonio Y.

    2015-01-01

    This study's objective was to assess maintenance of treatment effects 3 months after completion of a 12-week Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT) parent education group. Families who completed the active treatment (N = 23) were followed for an additional 12 weeks to measure changes in language and cognitive skills. Results indicated a significant…

  8. Pivotal Response Treatment Parent Training for Autism: Findings from a 3-Month Follow-Up Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Gengoux, Grace W; Berquist, Kari L; Salzman, Emma; Schapp, Salena; Phillips, Jennifer M; Frazier, Thomas W; Minjarez, Mendy B; Hardan, Antonio Y

    2015-09-01

    This study's objective was to assess maintenance of treatment effects 3 months after completion of a 12-week Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT) parent education group. Families who completed the active treatment (N = 23) were followed for an additional 12 weeks to measure changes in language and cognitive skills. Results indicated a significant improvement in frequency of functional utterances, with maintenance at 3-month follow-up [F(2, 21): 5.9, p = .009]. Children also made significant gains on the Vineland Communication Domain Standard Score [F(2, 12):11.74, p = .001] and the Mullen Scales of Early Learning Composite score [F(1, 20) = 5.43, p = .03]. These results suggest that a brief PRT parent group intervention can lead to improvements in language and cognitive functioning that are maintained 12 weeks post treatment. PMID:25911977

  9. A 12-month controlled trial of methadone medical maintenance integrated into an adaptive treatment model.

    PubMed

    King, Van L; Kidorf, Michael S; Stoller, Kenneth B; Schwartz, Robert; Kolodner, Kenneth; Brooner, Robert K

    2006-12-01

    Methadone medical maintenance (MMM) reduces the reporting schedule for stable and well-functioning methadone maintenance patients to once a month, with counseling provided by medical staff. We report on the 12-month outcomes of 92 highly stable methadone maintenance patients randomly assigned to one of three study conditions: routine care, MMM at the methadone maintenance program, and MMM at a physician's office. Methadone medical maintenance patients received a 28-day supply of methadone, whereas routine care patients received five or six take-home methadone doses each week. All patients performed a medication recall once a month and submitted two urine samples each month. An adaptive stepped-care system of treatment intensification was used for patients who failed recall or who had drug-positive urine specimens. Seventy-seven patients completed the 12-month study period. Dropout was caused primarily by problems with handling methadone and disliking the recall frequency. There were low rates of drug use or failed medication recall. Treatment satisfaction was high in all groups, but the MMM patients initiated more new employment or family/social activities than did routine care patients over the study period. The stepped-care approach was well tolerated and matched patients to an appropriate step of service within a continuum of treatment intensity. PMID:17084792

  10. Should routine pelvic osteotomy be added to the treatment of DDH after 18 months?

    PubMed

    Arslan, Hüseyin; Sucu, Ekim; Ozkul, Emin; Gem, Mehmet; Kişin, Biülent

    2014-06-01

    The treatment of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) between ages 1-3 years is controversial. Particularly controversial is the age after which pelvic osteotomy should be added to the treatment. In the present study, the outcomes of DDH patients aged 1-3 years treated with anterior open reduction alone were evaluated, and the relationship between inadequate acetabular development, the need for secondary pelvic osteotomy, and age was investigated. A total of 53 patients (70 hips) who had begun walking, who had undergone open reduction through an anterolateral approach, who had a follow-up period of at least 2 years, and who had Tönnis grade III and IV hip dysplasia were included in the study. They were grouped according to treatment age (pre-18 months: Group I; post-18 months: Group II), and the two groups were compared with regard to radiological and functional outcomes and the need for a secondary acetabular procedure. In Group I there were 29 hips (mean age: 16.09 months) and in group II there were 41 hips (mean age: 23.1 months), and the mean follow-up period was 48.9 months. According to the modified Trevor score, in Group I outcomes were excellent in 23 hips (79.3%) and good in 6 hips (20.7%), while in group II outcomes were excellent in 30 hips (73.2%), good in 10 hips (24.4%), and fair in 1 hip (2.1%). The difference between outcomes was not significant (P > 0.05). Inadequate acetabular development was determined in 11 hips in group I (37.9%) and in 16 hips in group II (39%). There was no difference between groups in terms of inadequate acetabular development or the need for acetabular prodecures (p > 0.05). No significant difference was determined between DDH patients treated before 18 months and those treated after 18 months with regard to unsatisfactory acetabular development or the need for secondary acetabular procedures. According to these results, reduction prior to 18 months does not always achieve satisfactory acetabular development, and

  11. Smoking and 2-month culture conversion during anti-tuberculosis treatment

    PubMed Central

    Maciel, E. L.; Brioschi, A. P.; Peres, R. L.; Guidoni, L. M.; Ribeiro, F. K.; Hadad, D. J.; Vinhas, S. A.; Zandonade, E.; Palaci, M.; Dietze, R.; Johnson, J. L.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY OBJECTIVE To investigate risk factors for delayed sputum culture conversion to negative during anti-tuberculosis treatment, with an emphasis on smoking. DESIGN Nested case-control study of adults with non-cavitary, culture-confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) participating in an anti-tuberculosis treatment trial in Brazil. A case of delayed culture conversion was a patient who remained culture-positive after 2 months of treatment. Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. RESULTS Fifty-three cases and 240 control patients were analyzed. Smokers had three-fold greater odds of remaining culture-positive after 2 months of treatment (P = 0.007) than non-smokers, while smokers and ex-smokers who smoked >20 cigarettes a day had two-fold greater odds of remaining culture-positive after 2 months of treatment (P = 0.045). CONCLUSION Cigarette smoking adversely affects culture conversion during anti-tuberculosis treatment. Support for smoking cessation should be considered to improve outcomes in TB control programs. PMID:23317958

  12. Noninvasive Positive Airway Pressure Treatment in Children Less Than 12 Months of Age

    PubMed Central

    Adeleye, Adetayo; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; Buchhalter, Jeffrey; Kirk, Valerie

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives. We identified the associated conditions of patients less than 12 months of age who were referred for polysomnogram (PSG) studies. We collated PSG findings and physician interpretation. We determined the correlation between the recommended treatment by the PSG interpreting physician and actual prescribed treatment by the referring or subjects' physician. We determined adherence with noninvasive positive airway pressure (PAP) treatment. Methods. This was a retrospective cohort study. Participants included children less than 12 months of age referred for PSG studies between 2007 and 2012. Results. 92 patients under the age of 12 months were included in the study analysis. Mean (standard deviation, SD) age in days at time of the PSG study was 208.5 (101.2). 35 (38%) patients had a diagnosis of Trisomy 21. Seven (8%) patients had no prior diagnosis. Median (Q1, Q3) apnea hypopnea index (AHI) was 22.5 (11.3–37.0). Agreement between the PSG interpreting physician's recommendation and actual prescribed treatment by the referring or subjects' physician was 85.9% [95% CI 77.1–91.6]. Mean (SD) percentage days with PAP therapy usage more than 4 hours was 25.2% (32). Conclusions. In our experience, despite consistent physician messaging to families, adherence with noninvasive PAP treatment is low. PMID:27445563

  13. Biopsychosocial determinants of treatment outcome for mood and anxiety disorders up to 8 months postpartum.

    PubMed

    Misri, Shaila; Albert, Gillian; Abizadeh, Jasmin; Kendrick, Kristin; Carter, Diana; Ryan, Deirdre; Oberlander, Tim F

    2012-08-01

    Little is known about the biopsychosocial determinants that predict postpartum treatment outcome for mood and anxiety disorders. Postpartum mood and anxiety symptoms and psychosocial/biological variables were recorded for 8 months of 22 women treated with antidepressants during pregnancy. Depression scores decreased by 58%, whereas anxiety scores decreased by 35%. Family history of psychiatric illness and prior psychiatric illness unrelated to pregnancy predicted depressive treatment outcome, and sexual abuse history and prior psychiatric illness unrelated to pregnancy predicted anxiety outcome. Biological and psychosocial variables predicted pharmacological treatment outcome in postpartum-depressed and anxious women. PMID:22729759

  14. A patient with agranulocytosis following the discontinuation of methimazole treatment for 4 months: A case report.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xiao-Su; Liu, Jing-Hai; Xiao, Shao-Mei

    2014-09-01

    Agranulocytosis is a rare and serious adverse effect of antithyroid drugs (ATD), in particular methimazole (MMI), and usually develops within 3 months following the start of uninterrupted ATD treatment. Agranulocytosis may also develop for the first time following interruption and subsequent resumption of the same ATD treatment. In this case report, a 27-year-old female, who was treated for thyrotoxicosis with MMI, developed agranulocytosis following the discontinuation of MMI treatment for four months. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report this. The aim of this report is to increase the awareness of physicians of the onset of agranulocytosis when MMI is discontinued, and to demonstrate that MMI should be used with caution. PMID:25120607

  15. N-Methylprotoporphyrin IX: chemical synthesis and identification as the green pigment produced by 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz de Montellano, P R; Beilan, H S; Kunze, K L

    1981-01-01

    The hepatic pigment accumulated in 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine-treated rats, which has been reported to inhibit ferrochelatase, has been isolated and purified. The pigment has been resolved into one major, one minor, and two trace components, all of which appear to be isomeric porphyrins. The major fraction has been unambiguously identified by spectroscopic methods as the isomer of N-methylprotoporphyrin IX (isolated as the dimethyl ester) in which vinyl-substituted pyrrole ring A is methylated. The minor product appears to be an isomer of the same porphyrin with the N-methyl group on propionic acid-substituted ring C, and the trace components have the same high-pressure liquid chromatography retention times as the other two possible isomers of the porphyrin. The four isomers of N-methylprotoporphyrin IX have been chemically synthesized, independently characterized, and used to confirm the structures of the biologically products. PMID:6940170

  16. Superior virologic and treatment outcomes when viral load is measured at 3 months compared to 6 months on antiretroviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kerschberger, Bernhard; Boulle, Andrew M; Kranzer, Katharina; Hilderbrand, Katherine; Schomaker, Michael; Coetzee, David; Goemaere, Eric; Van Cutsem, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Routine viral load (VL) monitoring is utilized to assess antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and virologic failure, and it is currently scaled-up in many resource-constrained settings. The first routine VL is recommended as late as six months after ART initiation for early detection of sub-optimal adherence. We aimed to assess the optimal timing of first VL measurement after initiation of ART. Methods This was a retrospective, cohort analysis of routine monitoring data of adults enrolled at three primary care clinics in Khayelitsha, Cape Town, between January 2002 and March 2009. Primary outcomes were virologic failure and switch to second-line ART comparing patients in whom first VL done was at three months (VL3M) and six months (VL6M) after ART initiation. Adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) were estimated using Cox proportional hazard models. Results In total, 6264 patients were included for the time to virologic failure and 6269 for the time to switch to second-line ART analysis. Patients in the VL3M group had a 22% risk reduction of virologic failure (aHR 0.78, 95% CI 0.64–0.95; p=0.016) and a 27% risk reduction of switch to second-line ART (aHR 0.73, 95% CI 0.58–0.92; p=0.008) when compared to patients in the VL6M group. For each additional month of delay of the first VL measurement (up to nine months), the risk of virologic failure increased by 9% (aHR 1.09, 95% CI 1.02–1.15; p=0.008) and switch to second-line ART by 13% (aHR 1.13, 95% CI 1.05–1.21; p<0.001). Conclusions A first VL at three months rather than six months with targeted adherence interventions for patients with high VL may improve long-term virologic suppression and reduce switches to costly second-line ART. ART programmes should consider the first VL measurement at three months after ART initiation. PMID:26403636

  17. Azoospermia with variable testicular histology after 7 months of treatment with a deslorelin implant in toms.

    PubMed

    Novotny, R; Vitasek, R; Bartoskova, A; Cizek, P; Prinosilova, P; Novakova, K

    2015-04-15

    The main aim of the study was to assess whether the longer use of a GnRH-agonist implant (deslorelin 4.7 mg, Suprelorin) in toms would lead to the suppression of spermatogenesis comparable with histologic appearance in juvenile animals as was previously described in dogs. The other aims were to monitor the progression of the testes size decrease and development of azoospermia 5 to 7 months after treatment with a GnRH-agonist implant. In animals, 5, 6, and 7 months after GnRH-agonist implant insertion, variable histological appearance of germinal epithelium was found, when tubules with elongating spermatids, round spermatids, spermatocytes, and spermatogonia as the most developed germinal cells were found in each group of toms. In all male cats, 5, 6, and 7 months after implant insertion, testosterone concentrations and testes size significantly differed between the first and the last visit. All animals, except one tom castrated 5 months after implant insertion, developed complete azoospermia. However, in this tom, all spermatozoa were immotile. Treatment with the subcutaneous GnRH-agonist implant was well tolerated, and no treatment-related adverse effects were noted. These results reported the efficacy of 4.7-mg deslorelin implant (Suprelorin) during its 7 months of use. The complete azoospermia confirms its contraceptive effect. However, the histologic evaluation revealed a great individual variability in the degree of spermatogenic suppression. The question as to whether spermatogenesis in toms can be suppressed in all males to the level of spermatogonia/primary spermatocytes after prolonged exposure to deslorelin has yet to be answered. PMID:25617987

  18. Paliperidone Palmitate Once-Monthly Injectable Treatment for Acute Exacerbations of Schizoaffective Disorder.

    PubMed

    Fu, Dong-Jing; Turkoz, Ibrahim; Simonson, R Bruce; Walling, David; Schooler, Nina; Lindenmayer, Jean-Pierre; Canuso, Carla; Alphs, Larry

    2016-08-01

    The optimal treatment for schizoaffective disorder (SCA) is not well established. In this initial 6-month open-label treatment period of a large, multiphase, relapse-prevention study, the efficacy and safety of paliperidone palmitate once-monthly (PP1M) injectable were evaluated in subjects with symptomatic SCA. Subjects with acute exacerbation of SCA (ie, with psychotic and either depressive and/or manic symptoms) were enrolled and treated with PP1M either as monotherapy or in combination with antidepressants or mood stabilizers (combination therapy group). After flexible-dose treatment with PP1M for 13 weeks, stabilized subjects continued into a 12-week fixed-dose PP1M treatment period. A total of 667 subjects were enrolled; 320 received monotherapy and 347 received PP1M as combination therapy; 334 subjects completed the entire 25-week treatment. Statistically significant and clinically meaningful improvements from baseline were observed for all efficacy measures in psychosis (per Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale), mood symptoms (per Young Mania Rating Scale and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-21 items), and functioning (per Personal and Social Performance Scale) from week 1 to all time points during the 25-week treatment period (P < 0.001). Similar improvements in efficacy measures were observed between subjects receiving monotherapy or combination therapy. Efficacy benefits persisted throughout the 25-week period. The most common adverse events were akathisia (11.1%), injection-site pain (10.6%), and insomnia (10.0%). Paliperidone palmitate once-monthly administered as monotherapy or in combination with mood stabilizers or antidepressants in patients with an acute exacerbation of SCA provided rapid, broad, and persistent reduction in psychotic, depressive, and manic symptoms, as well as improved functioning. PMID:27322760

  19. Paliperidone Palmitate Once-Monthly Injectable Treatment for Acute Exacerbations of Schizoaffective Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Dong-Jing; Turkoz, Ibrahim; Simonson, R. Bruce; Walling, David; Schooler, Nina; Lindenmayer, Jean-Pierre; Canuso, Carla; Alphs, Larry

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The optimal treatment for schizoaffective disorder (SCA) is not well established. In this initial 6-month open-label treatment period of a large, multiphase, relapse-prevention study, the efficacy and safety of paliperidone palmitate once-monthly (PP1M) injectable were evaluated in subjects with symptomatic SCA. Subjects with acute exacerbation of SCA (ie, with psychotic and either depressive and/or manic symptoms) were enrolled and treated with PP1M either as monotherapy or in combination with antidepressants or mood stabilizers (combination therapy group). After flexible-dose treatment with PP1M for 13 weeks, stabilized subjects continued into a 12-week fixed-dose PP1M treatment period. A total of 667 subjects were enrolled; 320 received monotherapy and 347 received PP1M as combination therapy; 334 subjects completed the entire 25-week treatment. Statistically significant and clinically meaningful improvements from baseline were observed for all efficacy measures in psychosis (per Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale), mood symptoms (per Young Mania Rating Scale and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale—21 items), and functioning (per Personal and Social Performance Scale) from week 1 to all time points during the 25-week treatment period (P < 0.001). Similar improvements in efficacy measures were observed between subjects receiving monotherapy or combination therapy. Efficacy benefits persisted throughout the 25-week period. The most common adverse events were akathisia (11.1%), injection-site pain (10.6%), and insomnia (10.0%). Paliperidone palmitate once-monthly administered as monotherapy or in combination with mood stabilizers or antidepressants in patients with an acute exacerbation of SCA provided rapid, broad, and persistent reduction in psychotic, depressive, and manic symptoms, as well as improved functioning. PMID:27322760

  20. Repairing the Brain by SCF+G-CSF Treatment at 6 Months Postexperimental Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Lili; Wang, Dandan; McGillis, Sandra; Kyle, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Stroke, a leading cause of adult disability in the world, is a severe medical condition with limited treatment. Physical therapy, the only treatment available for stroke rehabilitation, appears to be effective within 6 months post-stroke. Here, we have mechanistically determined the efficacy of combined two hematopoietic growth factors, stem cell factor (SCF) and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF; SCF + G-CSF), in brain repair 6 months after cortical infarct induction in the transgenic mice carrying yellow fluorescent protein in Layer V pyramidal neurons (Thy1-YFP-H). Using a combination of live brain imaging, whole brain imaging, molecular manipulation, synaptic and vascular assessments, and motor function examination, we found that SCF + G-CSF promoted mushroom spine formation, enlarged postsynaptic membrane size, and increased postsynaptic density-95 accumulation and blood vessel density in the peri-infarct cavity cortex; and that SCF + G-CSF treatment improved motor functional recovery. The SCF + G-CSF-enhanced motor functional recovery was dependent on the synaptic and vascular regeneration in the peri-infarct cavity cortex. These data suggest that a stroke-damaged brain is repairable by SCF + G-CSF even 6 months after the lesion occurs. This study provides novel insights into the development of new restorative strategies for stroke recovery. PMID:27511907

  1. INCINERATION AND TREATMENT OF HAZARDOUS WASTE: PROCEEDINGS OF THE ANNUAL RESEARCH SYMPOSIUM (10TH) HELD AT FT. MITCHELL, KENTUCKY ON APRIL 3-5, 1984

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Tenth Annual Research Symposium on Land Disposal, Remedial Action, Incineration and Treatment of Hazardous Waste was held April 3 through 5, 1984. This volume is a compilation of speakers' papers and poster presenters' abstracts for Session B, Hazardous Waste Incineration and...

  2. Effects of Simvastatin and Metformin on Polycystic Ovary Syndrome after Six Months of Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Banaszewska, Beata; Pawelczyk, Leszek; Spaczynski, Robert Z.

    2011-01-01

    Context: A randomized trial on women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) compared simvastatin, metformin, and a combination of these drugs. Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate long-term effects of simvastatin and metformin on PCOS. Design: Women with PCOS (n = 139) were randomized to simvastatin (S), metformin (M), or simvastatin plus metformin (SM) groups. Evaluations were performed at baseline and at 3 and 6 months. Setting: The study was conducted at a university medical center. Primary Outcome: We measured the change of serum total testosterone. Results: Ninety-seven subjects completed the study. Total testosterone decreased significantly and comparably in all groups: by 25.6, 25.6, and 20.1% in the S, M, and SM groups, respectively. Both simvastatin and metformin improved menstrual cyclicity and decreased hirsutism, acne, ovarian volume, body mass index, C-reactive protein, and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate declined significantly only in the S group. Total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol significantly declined only in the S and SM groups. Ongoing reduction of ovarian volume, decreased hirsutism, acne and testosterone were observed between 0 and 3 months as well as between 3 and 6 months. Improvement of lipid profile, C-reactive protein, and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 occurred only during the first 3 months of treatment, with little change thereafter. Treatments were well tolerated, and no significant adverse effects were encountered. Conclusions: Long-term treatment with simvastatin was superior to metformin. Improvement of ovarian hyperandrogenism continued throughout the duration of the study. PMID:21865358

  3. Three-month treatment response and exacerbation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Su; Rhee, Chin Kook; Yoo, Kwang Ha; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Yoon, Ho Il; Kim, Tae-Hyung; Kim, Woo Jin; Lee, JinHwa; Lim, Seong Yong; Park, Tai Sun; Lee, Jae Seung; Lee, Sei Won; Lee, Sang-Do; Oh, Yeon-Mok

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate relationships between acute exacerbation and Forced Expiratory Volume 1 second (FEV1) improvement after treatment with combined long-acting beta-agonist (LABA) and inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A total of 137 COPD patients were classified as responders or nonresponders according to FEV1 improvement after 3 months of LABA/ICS treatment in fourteen referral hospitals in Korea. Exacerbation occurrence in these two subgroups was compared over a period of 1 yr. Eighty of the 137 COPD patients (58.4%) were classified as responders and 57 (41.6%) as nonresponders. Acute exacerbations occurred in 25 patients (31.3%) in the responder group and in 26 patients (45.6%) in the nonresponder group (P=0.086). FEV1 improvement after LABA/ICS treatment was a significant prognostic factor for fewer acute exacerbations in a multivariate Cox proportional hazard model adjusted for age, sex, FEV1, smoking history, 6 min walk distance, body mass index, exacerbation history in the previous year, and dyspnea scale.Three-month treatment response to LABA/ICS might be a prognostic factor for the occurrence of acute exacerbation in COPD patients. PMID:25552883

  4. Perspectives of the Breast Cancer Survivorship Continuum: Diagnosis through 30 Months Post-Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Hulett, Jennifer M.; Armer, Jane M.; Stewart, Bob R.; Wanchai, Ausanee

    2015-01-01

    This study explored breast cancer survivors’ perspectives regarding their experiences of the survivorship continuum from diagnosis through 30 months post-treatment. The sample included women (N = 379) with newly-diagnosed breast cancer undergoing treatment at a Midwestern university-affiliated cancer center. Semi-structured interviews were conducted using the Lymphedema and Breast Cancer Questionnaire at time of diagnosis, post-operatively, quarterly during the first year, and then semi-annually thereafter through 30 months post-treatment. A mixed-methodology was used to analyze participants’ comments. Themes central to long-term survivorship experiences included social support, positive worldviews, breast cancer and lymphedema health literacy, religious/spiritual beliefs, self-empowerment, and recovery expectations. These themes were consistent with a psychoneuroimmunological model of health in which psychosocial variables mediate stress and influence health outcomes. Qualitative data showed that social support and positive worldviews were the two themes with the most significant impact on long-term breast cancer survivorship experiences. Survivors expressed a need to advance their health care literacy in order to share ownership of breast cancer and lymphedema treatment decisions. Since breast cancer is an immune-mediated disease, long-term survivorship planning should address psychosocial factors that influence the long-term psychological distress associated with immune dysfunction. PMID:26030800

  5. Positive aspects of caregiving as a moderator of treatment outcome over 12 months.

    PubMed

    Hilgeman, Michelle M; Allen, Rebecca S; DeCoster, Jamie; Burgio, Louis D

    2007-06-01

    The authors examined the influence of positive aspects of caregiving (PAC) as a moderator of treatment outcome across 12 months in 1 of the original sites of the Resources for Enhancing Alzheimer's Caregiver Health I project. They used multilevel random coefficients regression analysis to predict time-varying PAC, depression, behavioral bother, and daily care burden in Alzheimer's caregivers (N = 243; mean age = 60.89, SD = 14.19). They found that time-varying PAC was predicted by time-varying daily care burden. They also found significant effects of time-varying PAC for depression, behavioral bother, and daily care burden. Notably, a PAC x Phase x Treatment effect was found for daily care burden, such that individuals who endorsed less PAC benefited most from the intervention across 12 months. The tendency to positively appraise the caregiving experience (i.e., PAC) in response to chronic stressors such as Alzheimer's caregiving may affect individuals' responsiveness to, and benefit from, interventions, whereas only daily care burden affected the tendency to find enjoyment in caregiving across 12 months. Future intervention research should assess individual PAC in order to better tailor interventions to caregiving needs. PMID:17563191

  6. Validity of Clinician's Self-Reported Practice Elements on the Monthly Treatment and Progress Summary.

    PubMed

    Borntrager, Cameo F; Chorpita, Bruce F; Orimoto, Trina; Love, Allison; Mueller, Charles W

    2015-07-01

    An increased demand for accountability in community mental health systems has resulted in a need for valid, reliable measures of therapeutic practice. The Monthly Treatment and Progress Summary (MTPS), developed through the Hawaii Child and Adolescent Mental Health Division, is a clinician-report measure that describes therapeutic practices, treatment targets, and progress ratings for each treatment case. The current study evaluated the validity of the therapeutic strategies reported on the MTPS by comparing coder- and clinician-reported use of practices. Using 47 audio recordings from 19 youths' therapy sessions, trained observers reliably coded 12 discrete practices. Four of the 12 practices were found to be valid according to clinician-coder agreement (intraclass correlations ≥0.60). The coding system was revised, utilizing extensiveness and experiential scales, and 100 % of practices were valid according to clinician-coder agreement. Practical use of the MTPS, implications for service systems, and future directions for research on the MTPS are discussed. PMID:24091609

  7. Day Hospital Treatment for Anorexia Nervosa: A 12-Month Follow-up Study.

    PubMed

    Abbate-Daga, Giovanni; Marzola, Enrica; De-Bacco, Carlotta; Buzzichelli, Sara; Brustolin, Annalisa; Campisi, Stefania; Amianto, Federico; Migliaretti, Giuseppe; Fassino, Secondo

    2015-09-01

    Day hospitals (DHs) represent a treatment option for anorexia nervosa (AN), a mental disorder that is difficult to treat and has no evidence-based treatments available. We aimed to determine the effectiveness of a DH treatment that was specifically focused on the emotions of severe AN patients. Body mass index and eating psychopathology were the primary outcome measures. Fifty-six adult patients with AN were assessed upon admission, at the end of treatment (EOT) and at a 12-month follow-up evaluation (T18) using Eating Disorders Inventory-2, Beck Depression Inventory, Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety and Brief Social Phobia Scale. All participants received a multidisciplinary treatment programme that focused on psychodynamic psychotherapy. Seventy-eight per cent of participants reported positive outcomes at EOT and 68% at T18. Moreover, 82.1% and 65.4% of long-standing patients showed positive outcomes at EOT and T18, respectively. All measures of psychopathology were significantly improved at EOT and were maintained at follow-up. Our DH was effective at treating severe AN patients; however, further investigations of the processes of change are warranted. PMID:25974364

  8. Functional Outcome at 6 Months in Surgical Treatment of Spontaneous Supratentorial Intracerebral Haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Ghani, Abdul Rahman Izaini; John, John Tharakan Kalappurakkal; Idris, Zamzuri; Ghazali, Mazira Mohamad; Murshid, Nur-Leem; Musa, Kamarul Imran

    2008-01-01

    A prospective cohort study was done to evaluate the role of surgery in patients with spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral haemorrhage (SICH) and to identify predictors of outcome including the use of invasive regional cortical cerebral blood flow (rCoBF) and microdialysis. Surgery consisted of craniotomy or decompressive craniectomy. The ventriculostomy for intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring and drainage and regional cortical cerebral blood flow (rCoBF) and microdialysis were performed in all subjects. Pre and post operative information on subjects were collected. The study end points was functional outcome at 6 months based on a dichotomised Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS).The selected clinical, radiological, biochemical and treatment factors that may influence the functional outcome were analysed for their significance. A total of 36 patients were recruited with 27(75%) patients had Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) between 5 to 8 on admission and 9(25%) were admitted with GCS of 9. At 6 months, 86 % had a poor or unfavourable outcome (GOS I–III) and 14% had good or favourable outcome (GOS IV–V). The mortality rate at 6 months was 55%. Univariate analysis for the functional outcome identified 2 significant variables, the midline shift (p=0.013) and mean lactate:pyruvate ratio (p=0.038). Multivariate analysis identified midline shift as the single significant independent predictor of functional outcome (p=0.013).Despite aggressive regional cortical cerebral blood flow (rCoBF) and microdialysis study for detection of early ischemia, surgical treatment for spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage only benefited a small number of patients in terms of favourable outcome (14%) and in the majority of patients (86%), the outcome was unfavourable. Patients with midline shift > 5mm has almost 21 times higher chances (adj) OR 20.8 of being associated with poor outcome (GOS I–III). PMID:22589638

  9. Femtosecond-lentotomy treatment: six-month follow-up of in vivo treated rabbit lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumacher, S.; Fromm, M.; Oberheide, U.; Bock, P.; Imbschweiler, I.; Hoffmann, H.; Beineke, A.; Gerten, G.; Wegener, A.; Lubatschowski, H.

    2009-07-01

    Presbyopia is an age related effect which affects every human at the age of about 40 years. So far reading glasses are the conventional treatment. According to Helmholtz' theory of accommodation one of the mayor reasons for the development of presbyopia is the increasing sclerosis of the lens. In contrast to that the ciliary muscle and the lens capsule remain mostly active and elastic the whole life. So a possible treatment could be the increase of the flexibility of the lens by creating gliding planes with fs-laser pulses inside the lens tissue. In former studies it was shown that fs-laser pulses were able to increase the flexibility of ex vivo porcine lenses as well as ex vivo human donor lenses. Our current aim was to evaluate the effect of the fs-laser pulses on the crystalline lens of living rabbit eyes due to the fs-lentotomy treatment. The main focus of the evaluation was the exclusion of possible side effects of the treatment like cataract formation or retina damage. The treated eyes were monitored using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and Scheimpflug imaging for localizing and studying the tissue effects of the incisions. Furthermore histological sections of the lens and retina were prepared. The rabbits were investigated pre operatively and up to six months post operatively. The fs-laser induced micro incisions were successfully applied to the left lens of each rabbit. The micro incisions within the crystalline lens were detectable with OCT and Scheimpflug imaging up to six month. The imaging within the lens showed a progressive fading of the incisional opacities generated by the femtosecond laser during the six months and no indication of cataract formation was found. OCT and Scheimpflug images emphasize themselves as necessary tools to monitor the micro incisions over time. Histopathological sections of the lens tissue support the findings of the non invasive imaging techniques. Also the histopathological sections of the retina show no thermal

  10. Molecular interconversion of cold-sensitive cytosolic 3,3',5-tri-iodo-L-thyronine-binding proteins from human erythrocytes: effect of cold, heat and pH treatments.

    PubMed

    Fanjul, A N; Farías, R N

    1993-03-01

    Cytosolic 3,3',5-tri-iodo-L-thyronine-binding proteins (CTBP I, II and IV species) from human red blood cells undergo rapid loss of activity at low temperatures. Cold treatment of CTBPs was accompanied by dissociation of the polymeric protein to the 60 kDa inactive monomer. Re-activation of the cold-inactivated CTBP IV by warming resulted in association of the monomer to the active polymeric form. A similar association-dissociation phenomenon was also obtained isothermically, though pH changes. We conclude that CTBP I and CTBP II are polymeric forms of CTBP IV. PMID:8452548

  11. Intensive Rehabilitation Treatment in Parkinsonian Patients with Dyskinesias: A Preliminary Study with 6-Month Followup

    PubMed Central

    Frazzitta, Giuseppe; Morelli, Micaela; Bertotti, Gabriella; Felicetti, Guido; Pezzoli, Gianni; Maestri, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    A major adverse effect of levodopa therapy is the development of dyskinesia, which affects 30–40% of chronically treated Parkinsonian patients. We hypothesized that our rehabilitation protocol might allow a reduction in levodopa dosage without worsening motor performances, thus reducing frequency and severity of dyskinesias. Ten Parkinsonian patients underwent a 4-week intensive rehabilitation treatment (IRT). Patients were evaluated at baseline, at the end of the rehabilitation treatment and at 6-month followup. Outcome measures were the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Sections II, III, and IV (UPDRS II, III, IV) and the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS). At the end of the IRT, levodopa dosage was significantly reduced (P = 0.0035), passing from 1016 ± 327 to 777 ± 333 mg/day. All outcome variables improved significantly (P < 0.0005 all) by the end of IRT. At followup, all variables still maintained better values with respect to admission (P < 0.02 all). In particular AIMS score improved passing from 11.90 ± 6.5 at admission to 3.10 ± 2.3 at discharge and to 4.20 ± 2.7 at followup. Our results suggest that it is possible to act on dyskinesias in Parkinsonian patients with properly designed rehabilitation protocols. Intensive rehabilitation treatment, whose acute beneficial effects are maintained over time, might be considered a valid noninvasive therapeutic support for Parkinsonian patients suffering from diskinesia, allowing a reduction in drugs dosage and related adverse effects. PMID:22701812

  12. 1,3,5-Trinitrobenzene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,3,5 - Trinitrobenzene ; CASRN 99 - 35 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcino

  13. Comparison of combination pergolide and levodopa to levodopa alone after 63 months of treatment.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, T; Sage, J I

    1991-04-01

    We retrospectively compared the clinical state of 14 patients with Parkinson's disease who took pergolide continuously for 63 +/- 17 months (Group I) to that of 12 similar patients who started pergolide and then stopped it after 60 +/- 5 days (Group II). Disability measured during the "on" state did not worsen during the observations period in Group I patients, whereas disability in Group II showed significant deterioration. There were no significant differences in the progression of motor fluctuations between the two groups. Combination treatment with pergolide and levodopa is effective long-term symptomatic therapy for advanced Parkinson's disease and deserves more rigorous study to determine whether or not it also retards progression of Parkinson's disease. PMID:2015613

  14. Preparation of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene from 3,5-dichloroanisole

    DOEpatents

    Ott, D.G.; Benziger, T.M.

    1991-03-05

    Preparation of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) from 3,5-dichloroanisole is described. Nitration of 3,5-dichloroanisole under relatively mild conditions gave 3,5-dichloro-2,4,6-trinitroanisole in high yield and purity. Ammonolysis of this latter compound gave the desired TATB. Another route to TATB was through the treatment of the 3,5-dichloro-2,4,6-trinitroanisole with thionyl chloride and dimethylformamide to yield 1,3,5-trichloro-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene. Ammonolysis of this product produced TATB. 8 figures.

  15. Biodegradation of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine

    PubMed Central

    McCormick, N. G.; Cornell, J. H.; Kaplan, A. M.

    1981-01-01

    Biodegradation of the explosive hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) occurs under anaerobic conditions, yielding a number of products, including: hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine, hexahydro-1,3-dinitroso-5-nitro-1,3,5-triazine, hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitroso-1,3,5-triazine, hydrazine, 1,1-dimethyl-hydrazine, 1,2-dimethylhydrazine, formaldehyde, and methanol. A scheme for the biodegradation of RDX is proposed which proceeds via successive reduction of the nitro groups to a point where destabilization and fragmentation of the ring occurs. The noncyclic degradation products arise via subsequent reduction and rearrangement reactions of the fragments. The scheme suggests the presence of several additional compounds, not yet identified. Several of the products are mutagenic or carcinogenic or both. Anaerobic treatment of RDX wastewaters, which also contain high nitrate levels, would permit the denitrification to occur, with concurrent degradation of RDX ultimately to a mixture of hydrazines and methanol. The feasibility of using an aerobic mode in the further degradation of these products is discussed. PMID:16345884

  16. Treatment Outcomes of Primary Molars Direct Pulp Capping after 20 Months: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Fallahinejad Ghajari, Masoud; Asgharian Jeddi, Tahereh; Iri, Sonay; Asgary, Saeed

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to compare the radiographic and clinical success rates of direct pulp capping (DPC) using ProRoot mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) or calcium enriched mixture (CEM). Methods and Materials A total of 42 symptom-free carious vital primary molars (21 pairs) were selected in this split mouth trial and randomly pulpotomized in two experimental groups. Pinpoint pulp exposures were covered by the same blinded operator with MTA or CEM, and then restored by amalgam. Radiographic and clinical successes were evaluated at 20 month follow-up. Data were statistically analyzed using McNemar test. Results Nineteen patients were available for 20-month follow-up; only one failed tooth was extracted in the CEM group. All available teeth were symptom-free, however, the final evaluated success rate was 89% in CEM (CI 95%: 0.82-0.96) and 95% in MTA (CI 95%: 0.85-1) groups without statistical difference (P=0.360). Worst case scenario was applied for missing value analysis; assuming that the 2 lost cases in CEM group had failed and the only lost case in MTA group was due to treatment success, as a result the success of CEM and MTA were 81% (CI 95%: 0.72-0.90) and 95% (CI 95%:0.85-1), respectively, with no statistical difference (P=0.078). In the reverse scenario, the success of MTA and CEM were 86% (CI 95%: 0.78-0.94) and 90% (CI 95%: 0.82-0.98), respectively; again with no statistical difference (P=0.479). Conclusion Effectiveness of MTA and CEM biomaterials for primary molars’ DPC was similar; CEM can be a suitable alternative for MTA. PMID:24171019

  17. Antiphospholipid antibodies during 6-month treatment with infliximab: A preliminary report

    PubMed Central

    Kolarz, Bogdan; Majdan, Maria; Darmochwał-Kolarz, Dorota A.; Dryglewska, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Background The introduction of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antagonists (adalimumab, infliximab, and etanercept) was a major advance and was highly important and beneficial in most rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. The adverse effects of this treatment are infrequent, but include opportunistic intracellular infection (especially the reactivation of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis); exacerbation of demyelinating disorders; and the production of various types of antibodies such as antinuclear antibodies (ANA) or double-stranded DNA autoantibodies (dsDNA) and antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) such as anti-cardiolipin antibodies (aCL) and anti-B2GP-I antibodies (B2GP-I). The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of aCL and B2GP-I in IgM and IgG classes, using ELISA tests, during 6 months of follow-up in patients with refractory RA successfully treated with infliximab. Material/Methods We determined the prevalence of aCL and B2GP-I in IgM and IgG classes, using ELISA tests, during 6 months of follow-up in patients with refractory RA successfully treated with infliximab. Results We observed a statistically important increase only in the group of B2GP-I IgM (p<0.05). There are contradictory results concerning the ability of infliximab to induce aPL, but most authors confirm this phenomenon. Conclusions Further investigations are needed to determine if the new aPL appears in patients with β2-GPI gene polymorphisms such as leucine-to-valine substitution at position 247, which can lead to a conformational changes in β2-GPI protein, leading to aPL synthesis. The role of aPL in pathogenesis of APS is still unclear, but we should remember the immunogenic aspect of TNF antagonist treatment. Therefore, we recommend early detection of aPL and observation of the patient, paying special attention to signs and symptoms of thromboembolism. PMID:25027437

  18. Upper Airway Stimulation for Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Durability of the Treatment Effect at 18 Months

    PubMed Central

    Strollo, Patrick J.; Gillespie, M. Boyd; Soose, Ryan J.; Maurer, Joachim T.; de Vries, Nico; Cornelius, Jason; Hanson, Ronald D.; Padhya, Tapan A.; Steward, David L.; Woodson, B. Tucker; Verbraecken, Johan; Vanderveken, Olivier M.; Goetting, Mark G.; Feldman, Neil; Chabolle, Frédéric; Badr, M. Safwan; Randerath, Winfried; Strohl, Kingman P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the stability of improvement in polysomnographic measures of sleep disordered breathing, patient reported outcomes, the durability of hypoglossal nerve recruitment and safety at 18 months in the Stimulation Treatment for Apnea Reduction (STAR) trial participants. Design: Prospective multicenter single group trial with participants serving as their own controls. Setting: Twenty-two community and academic sleep medicine and otolaryngology practices. Measurements: Primary outcome measures were the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and the 4% oxygen desaturation index (ODI). Secondary outcome measures were the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), the Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire (FOSQ), and oxygen saturation percent time < 90% during sleep. Stimulation level for each participant was collected at three predefined thresholds during awake testing. Procedure- and/or device-related adverse events were reviewed and coded by the Clinical Events Committee Results: The median AHI was reduced by 67.4% from the baseline of 29.3 to 9.7/h at 18 mo. The median ODI was reduced by 67.5% from 25.4 to 8.6/h at 18 mo. The FOSQ and ESS improved significantly at 18 mo compared to baseline values. The functional threshold was unchanged from baseline at 18 mo. Two participants experienced a serious device-related adverse event requiring neurostimulator repositioning and fixation. No tongue weakness reported at 18 mo. Conclusion: Upper airway stimulation via the hypoglossal nerve maintained a durable effect of improving airway stability during sleep and improved patient reported outcomes (Epworth Sleepiness Scale and Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire) without an increase of the stimulation thresholds or tongue injury at 18 mo of follow-up. Citation: Strollo PJ, Gillespie MB, Soose RJ, Maurer JT, de Vries N, Cornelius J, Hanson RD, Padhya TA, Steward DL, Woodson BT, Verbraecken J, Vanderveken OM, Goetting MG, Feldman N, Chabolle F, Badr MS, Randerath W

  19. Delinquent Behavior and Emerging Substance Use in the MTA at 36 Months: Prevalence, Course, and Treatment Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molina, Brooke S. G.; Flory, Kate; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Greiner, Andrew R.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Swanson, James M.; Hechtman, Lily; Jensen, Peter S.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Hoza, Betsy; Pelham, William E.; Elliott, Glen R.; Wells, Karen C.; Abikoff, Howard B.; Gibbons, Robert D.; Marcus, Sue; Conners, C. Keith; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Greenhill, Laurence L.; March, John S.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Severe, Joanne B.; Wigal, Timothy

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To compare delinquent behavior and early substance use between the children in the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children With ADHD (MTA; N = 487) and those in a local normative comparison group (n = 272) at 24 and 36 months postrandomization and to test whether these outcomes were predicted by the randomly assigned treatments and…

  20. Comparison of recurrent rate of gingival pigmentation after treatment by liquid nitrogen and cryoprob in 18 months follows-up

    PubMed Central

    Sedeh, Shirin Amini; Badihi, Saba; Esfahaniyan, Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cryosurgery is one of the simplest, most effective gingival depigmentation methods. Repigmentation may happen after a while in each method. The aim of this study is to compare the recurrence rate after treatment by liquid nitrogen swap and a cryoprob in 18 months. Materials and Methods: A total of 26 patients with physiologic gingival pigmentation were selected. The anterior sextant was divided into left and right segments; each segment was treated randomly by swap technique or cryoprob. Standard photos were evaluated with photoshop software (Red, Green, Blue, Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, Black [RGB, CMYK]) before and at 2 week, 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 months after the treatment. The results were compared, by the independent t-test and repeated measure ANOVA thereafter least significant difference post-hoc. The viewpoints of patients and physicians regarding the treatment outcomes were obtained by a questionnaire and consequently evaluated qualitatively by McNemar test (P < 0.05 was considered as significant level). Results: The statistical analysis showed a significant difference in color change after the treatment during 18 months, in each group (P < 0.001). The mean values of RGB had significantly increased after 2 weeks in both methods (P < 0.001), but the differences from 2 weeks to 18 months after treatment were not significant (P > 0.05). The mean values of CMYK significantly decreased after 2 weeks in both methods (P < 0.001), but the differences from 2 weeks to 18 months after treatment were not significant (P > 0.05). Qualitative evaluation showed the preference of the cryosurgery with swap method (P < 0.001). No significant recurrence was observed during 18 months follow-up. Conclusion: Both methods of cryosurgery are appropriate in treatment of gingival depigmentation because no significant recurrence was observed during 18 months follow-up. PMID:25426152

  1. Early response to inhaled bronchodilators and corticosteroids as a predictor of 12-month treatment responder status and COPD exacerbations

    PubMed Central

    Calverley, Peter M; Postma, Dirkje S; Anzueto, Antonio R; Make, Barry J; Eriksson, Göran; Peterson, Stefan; Jenkins, Christine R

    2016-01-01

    Background Early treatment response markers, for example, improvement in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) total score, may help clinicians to better manage patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We investigated the prevalence of clinically important improvements in FEV1 and SGRQ scores after 2-month budesonide/formoterol or formoterol treatment and whether such improvements predict subsequent improvements and exacerbation rates. Methods This post hoc analysis is based on data from three double-blind, randomized studies in patients with moderate-to-very-severe COPD receiving twice-daily budesonide/formoterol or formoterol alone for 6 or 12 months. Prebronchodilator FEV1 and SGRQ total score were measured before treatment and at 2 and 12 months; COPD exacerbation rates were measured during months 2–12. Responders were defined by ≥100 mL improvement in prebronchodilator FEV1 and ≥4-point decrease in SGRQ total score. Results Overall, 2,331 and 1,799 patients were included in the 0–2- and 0–12-month responder analyses, respectively, and 2,360 patients in the 2–12-month exacerbation rate analysis. At 2 months, 35.1% of patients were FEV1 responders and 44.3% were SGRQ responders. The probability of response was significantly greater with budesonide/formoterol than with formoterol or placebo for both parameters. Two-month responders had a greater chance of 12-month response than 2-month nonresponders for both FEV1 (odds ratio, 5.57; 95% confidence interval, 4.14–7.50) and SGRQ (odds ratio, 3.87; 95% confidence interval, 2.83–5.31). Two-month response in FEV1 (P<0.001), but not SGRQ (P=0.11), was associated with greater reductions in exacerbation risk. Conclusion Early FEV1 and SGRQ treatment responses relate to their changes at 12 months. FEV1 response, but not SGRQ response, at 2 months predicts the risk of a future COPD exacerbation in some, but not all patients. This is

  2. Immunogenicity, safety, and antibody persistence at 3, 5, and 10 years postvaccination in adolescents randomized to booster immunization with a combined tetanus, diphtheria, 5-component acellular pertussis, and inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine administered with a hepatitis B virus vaccine concurrently or 1 month apart.

    PubMed

    Embree, Joanne; Law, Barbara; Voloshen, Tim; Tomovici, Antigona

    2015-03-01

    An understanding of the antibody persistence elicited by a combined tetanus, diphtheria, 5-component acellular pertussis, and inactivated poliovirus vaccine (Tdap-IPV) after adolescent vaccination is important to optimize booster dosing intervals. Our objectives were to compare the safety and immunogenicity of Tdap-IPV coadministered with hepatitis B vaccine (HepB) and sequential administration and evaluate humoral immunity at 3, 5, and 10 years after Tdap-IPV vaccination in adolescents. This phase II randomized, controlled, and open-label study enrolled 280 11- to 14-year-old adolescents with up to 10 years postvaccination follow-up. Group 1 (n = 145) received Tdap-IPV, followed by a HepB dose 1 month later, and group 2 (n = 135) received both vaccines simultaneously. No consistent increases in solicited reactions or unsolicited adverse events occurred with coadministration. All vaccinees attained seroprotective antibody levels at ≥0.01 IU/ml for diphtheria and tetanus, at a ≥1:8 dilution for poliovirus (serotypes 1, 2, and 3), and ≥10 mIU/ml for hepatitis B at 1 month postvaccination. Clinically relevant immunologic interactions did not occur with coadministration. For pertussis, all participants achieved seropositivity levels (at or above the lower limit of quantitation), and 72.7% to 95.8% had 4-fold increases in pertussis antibodies at 1 month postvaccination. At 10 years postvaccination, the remaining participants (62.8% of the original cohort) maintained seroprotective levels of ≥0.01 IU/ml for diphtheria and tetanus, a ≥1:8 dilution for all 3 poliovirus serotypes, and 74.1% to 98.2% maintained pertussis seropositivity levels depending on the antigen tested. There were no differences between the groups. These results support the coadministration of Tdap-IPV and HepB to adolescents and suggest that vaccination with Tdap-IPV can offer protection for 10 years after an adolescent booster vaccination. PMID:25540274

  3. Month 2 Culture Status and Treatment Duration as Predictors of Tuberculosis Relapse Risk in a Meta-Regression Model

    PubMed Central

    Wallis, Robert S.; Wang, Cunshan; Meyer, Daniel; Thomas, Neal

    2013-01-01

    Background New drugs and regimens with the potential to transform tuberculosis treatment are presently in early stage clinical trials. Objective The goal of the present study was to infer the required duration of these treatments. Method A meta-regression model was developed to predict relapse risk using treatment duration and month 2 sputum culture positive rate as predictors, based on published historical data from 24 studies describing 58 regimens in 7793 patients. Regimens in which rifampin was administered for the first 2 months but not subsequently were excluded. The model treated study as a random effect. Results The model predicted that new regimens of 4 or 5 months duration with rates of culture positivity after 2 months of 1% or 3%, would yield relapse rates of 4.0% or 4.1%, respectively. In both cases, the upper limit of the 2-sided 80% prediction interval for relapse for a hypothetical trial with 680 subjects per arm was <10%. Analysis using this model of published month 2 data for moxifloxacin-containing regimens indicated they would result in relapse rates similar to standard therapy only if administered for ≥5 months. Conclusions This model is proposed to inform the required duration of treatment of new TB regimens, potentially hastening their accelerated approval by several years. PMID:23940699

  4. Monthly survey of N-nitrosamine yield in a conventional water treatment plant in North China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chengkun; Liu, Shuming; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Xiaojian; Chen, Chao

    2015-12-01

    A sampling campaign was conducted monthly to investigate the occurrence of N-nitrosamines at a conventional water treatment plant in one city in North China. The yield of N-nitrosamines in the treated water indicated precursors changed greatly after the source water switching. Average concentrations of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), N-nitrosomorpholine (NMOR), and N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR) in the finished water were 6.9, 3.3, and 3.1ng/L, respectively, from June to October when the Luan River water was used as source water, while those of NDMA, N-nitrosomethylethylamine (NMEA), and NPYR in the finished water were 10.1, 4.9, and 4.7ng/L, respectively, from November to next April when the Yellow River was used. NDMA concentration in the finished water was frequently over the 10ng/L, i.e., the notification level of California, USA, which indicated a considerable threat to public health. Weak correlations were observed between N-nitrosamine yield and typical water quality parameters except for the dissolved organic nitrogen. PMID:26702978

  5. Toxicities associated with 1-month treatment with propylthiouracil (PTU) and methimazole (MMI) in male rats.

    PubMed

    Nambiar, Prashant R; Palanisamy, Gopinath S; Okerberg, Carlin; Wolford, Angela; Walters, Karen; Buckbinder, Leonard; Reagan, William J

    2014-08-01

    Thionamides such as propylthiouracil (PTU) and methimazole (MMI) have been used for more than 50 years to treat the more common causes of thyrotoxicosis/hyperthyroidism such as Graves' disease. Serious adverse effects associated with thionamides in humans include idiosyncratic liver damage, agranulocytosis, aplastic anemia, and vasculitis. Both prospective and retrospective clinical studies with these drugs have failed to identify predictive biomarker for these adverse effects. To assess whether rat is a good model for predicting drug-related adverse events in the liver and in the bone marrow, we conducted a comprehensive study in male rats with multiple doses of PTU and MMI. As expected, euthyroid animals became hypothyroid along with several secondary changes associated with hypothyroidism. There were slight reductions in red blood cell parameters along with some marginal effects on the bone marrow elements. However, there was no evidence of significant neutropenia and liver injury in both PTU-treated and MMI-treated cohorts. MMI-related effects were noted in the seminiferous tubules of the testes. Overall, 1-month daily treatment of euthyroid rats with PTU or MMI resulted in hypothyroidism, minor bone marrow effects, and several secondary effects associated with hypothyroidism, but without any evidence of adverse effects reported in humans including liver injury and agranulocytosis. PMID:24067673

  6. PBF/BNCT Program for cancer treatment: Monthly bulletin: Volume 2, No. 9

    SciTech Connect

    Dorn, R.V. III

    1988-09-01

    This month's bulletin summarizes the considerable ongoing progress within the various project arms of the PBF/BNCT Program. Continued progress toward institution of the experimental program at BMRR is represented by further calculations modeling the BMRR filter design and predicted output, as well as initial diagnostic workup of the dogs to be used in initiating these studies. A draft for the canine dosimetry measurement plan in support of this is under review. Work with the canine-model system continues with ongoing plasmapheresis experiments and institution of in-vivo sampling of liver tissue for shipping to Cornell for secondary ion microscopy (SIM) studies. The SIM work at Cornell has also expanded in a cooperative fashion with the University of Rochester, looking at human lung tumor cells and spheroids. Activity in the supporting technology projects includes decreased backlog of Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) analysis, detailed investigation of competing digestion procedures of tissue samples for ICP-AES, and further refinement of QA/QC analytical methodologies. Progress in the development of hardware tools continues with respect to MRI system modification and with expected delivery shortly of the Apollo workstation for use in radiation dosimetry and treatment-planning programs (with potential software collaboration with the University of Utah).

  7. Treatment as Required versus Regular Monthly Treatment in the Management of Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Schmucker, Christine M.; Rücker, Gerta; Sommer, Harriet; Virgili, Gianni; Loke, Yoon K.; Oeller, Patrick; Agostini, Hansjuergen; Ehlken, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Background To investigate whether treatment as required ‘pro re nata’ (PRN) versus regular monthly treatment regimens lead to differences in outcomes in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD). Regular monthly administration of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors is an established gold standard treatment, but this approach is costly. Replacement of monthly by PRN treatment can only be justified if there is no difference in patient relevant outcomes. Methods Systematic review and meta-analysis. The intervention was PRN treatment and the comparator was monthly treatment with VEGF-inhibitors. Four bibliographic databases were searched for randomised controlled trials comparing both treatment regimens directly (head-to-head studies). The last literature search was conducted in December 2014. Risk of bias assessment was performed after the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Findings We included 3 head-to-head studies (6 reports) involving more than 2000 patients. After 2 years, the weighted mean difference in best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 1.9 (95% CI 0.5 to 3.3) ETDRS letters in favour of monthly treatment. Systemic adverse events were higher in PRN treated patients, but these differences were not statistically significant. After 2 years, the total number of intravitreal injections required by the patients in the PRN arms were 8.4 (95% CI 7.9 to 8.9) fewer than those having monthly treatment. The studies were considered to have a moderate risk of bias. Conclusions PRN treatment resulted in minor but statistically significant decrease in mean BCVA which may not be clinically meaningful. There is a small increase in risk of systemic adverse events for PRN treated patients. Overall, the results indicate that an individualized treatment approach with anti-VEGF using visual acuity and OCT-guided re-treatment criteria may be appropriate for most patients with nAMD. PMID:26368921

  8. Extracorporeal photopheresis as second-line treatment for acute graft-versus-host disease: impact on six-month freedom from treatment failure

    PubMed Central

    Das-Gupta, Emma; Greinix, Hildegard; Jacobs, Ryan; Zhou, Li; Savani, Bipin N.; Engelhardt, Brian G.; Kassim, Adetola; Worel, Nina; Knobler, Robert; Russell, Nigel; Jagasia, Madan

    2014-01-01

    Second-line therapy for corticosteroid-refractory or -dependent acute graft-versus-host disease remains ill-defined, due to limited efficacy of drugs and evolving clinical trial endpoints. Six-month freedom from treatment failure has been proposed as a novel clinical trial endpoint and is defined by the absence of death, malignancy relapse/progression, or addition of a next line of systemic immunosuppressive therapy within 6 months of intervention and prior to diagnosis of chronic graft-versus-host disease. We analyzed the 6-month freedom from treatment failure endpoint in 128 patients enrolled from three centers who were treated with extracorporeal photopheresis as second-line therapy for acute graft-versus-host disease. The incidence of 6-month freedom from treatment failure was 77.3% with a 2-year survival rate of 56%. Corticosteroid dose or response status at onset of second-line therapy did not influence outcome. Higher grade of acute graft-versus-host disease (grade 2 versus grades 3–4) at onset of photopheresis predicted for poor outcome as measured by survival (hazard ratio 2.78, P<0.001), non-relapse mortality (hazard ratio 2.78, P=0.001) and 6-month freedom from treatment failure (hazard ratio 3.05, P<0.001). For the 91 patients who achieved 6-month freedom from treatment failure, 1-year, 2-year and 3-year survival rates were 78.9%, 70.8% and 69.5%, respectively. Six-month freedom from treatment failure is a reasonable early surrogate for outcome and should be considered as a clinical trial endpoint. This study demonstrates the durable effect of photopheresis as second-line therapy for corticosteroid-refractory or -dependent acute graft-versus-host disease using 6-month freedom from treatment failure as the primary endpoint. PMID:25150260

  9. Extracorporeal photopheresis as second-line treatment for acute graft-versus-host disease: impact on six-month freedom from treatment failure.

    PubMed

    Das-Gupta, Emma; Greinix, Hildegard; Jacobs, Ryan; Zhou, Li; Savani, Bipin N; Engelhardt, Brian G; Kassim, Adetola; Worel, Nina; Knobler, Robert; Russell, Nigel; Jagasia, Madan

    2014-11-01

    Second-line therapy for corticosteroid-refractory or -dependent acute graft-versus-host disease remains ill-defined, due to limited efficacy of drugs and evolving clinical trial endpoints. Six-month freedom from treatment failure has been proposed as a novel clinical trial endpoint and is defined by the absence of death, malignancy relapse/progression, or addition of a next line of systemic immunosuppressive therapy within 6 months of intervention and prior to diagnosis of chronic graft-versus-host disease. We analyzed the 6-month freedom from treatment failure endpoint in 128 patients enrolled from three centers who were treated with extracorporeal photopheresis as second-line therapy for acute graft-versus-host disease. The incidence of 6-month freedom from treatment failure was 77.3% with a 2-year survival rate of 56%. Corticosteroid dose or response status at onset of second-line therapy did not influence outcome. Higher grade of acute graft-versus-host disease (grade 2 versus grades 3-4) at onset of photopheresis predicted for poor outcome as measured by survival (hazard ratio 2.78, P<0.001), non-relapse mortality (hazard ratio 2.78, P=0.001) and 6-month freedom from treatment failure (hazard ratio 3.05, P<0.001). For the 91 patients who achieved 6-month freedom from treatment failure, 1-year, 2-year and 3-year survival rates were 78.9%, 70.8% and 69.5%, respectively. Six-month freedom from treatment failure is a reasonable early surrogate for outcome and should be considered as a clinical trial endpoint. This study demonstrates the durable effect of photopheresis as second-line therapy for corticosteroid-refractory or -dependent acute graft-versus-host disease using 6-month freedom from treatment failure as the primary endpoint. PMID:25150260

  10. Analysis of correlation between initial alveolar bone density and apical root resorption after 12 months of orthodontic treatment without extraction

    PubMed Central

    Scheibel, Paula Cabrini; Ramos, Adilson Luiz; Iwaki, Lilian Cristina Vessoni; Micheletti, Kelly Regina

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between initial alveolar bone density of upper central incisors (ABD-UI) and external apical root resorption (EARR) after 12 months of orthodontic movement in cases without extraction. METHODS: A total of 47 orthodontic patients 11 years old or older were submitted to periapical radiography of upper incisors prior to treatment (T1) and after 12 months of treatment (T2). ABD-UI and EARR were measured by means of densitometry. RESULTS: No statistically significant correlation was found between initial ABD-UI and EARR at T2 (r = 0.149; p = 0.157). CONCLUSION: Based on the present findings, alveolar density assessed through periapical radiography is not predictive of root resorption after 12 months of orthodontic treatment in cases without extraction. PMID:25715722

  11. Administration of 3,5-diiodothyronine (3,5-T2) causes central hypothyroidism and stimulates thyroid-sensitive tissues

    PubMed Central

    Padron, Alvaro Souto; Neto, Ruy Andrade Louzada; Pantaleão, Thiago Urgal; de Souza dos Santos, Maria Carolina; Araujo, Renata Lopes; de Andrade, Bruno Moulin; da Silva Leandro, Monique; de Castro, João Pedro Saar Werneck; Ferreira, Andrea Claudia Freitas; de Carvalho, Denise Pires

    2014-01-01

    In general, 3,5-diiodothyronine (3,5-T2) increases the resting metabolic rate and oxygen consumption, exerting short-term beneficial metabolic effects on rats subjected to a high-fat diet. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of chronic 3,5-T2 administration on the hypothalamus–pituitary–thyroid axis, body mass gain, adipose tissue mass, and body oxygen consumption in Wistar rats from 3 to 6 months of age. The rats were treated daily with 3,5-T2 (25, 50, or 75 μg/100 g body weight, s.c.) for 90 days between the ages of 3 and 6 months. The administration of 3,5-T2 suppressed thyroid function, reducing not only thyroid iodide uptake but also thyroperoxidase, NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4), and thyroid type 1 iodothyronine deiodinase (D1 (DIO1)) activities and expression levels, whereas the expression of the TSH receptor and dual oxidase (DUOX) were increased. Serum TSH, 3,3′,5-triiodothyronine, and thyroxine were reduced in a 3,5-T2 dose-dependent manner, whereas oxygen consumption increased in these animals, indicating the direct action of 3,5-T2 on this physiological variable. Type 2 deiodinase activity increased in both the hypothalamus and the pituitary, and D1 activities in the liver and kidney were also increased in groups treated with 3,5-T2. Moreover, after 3 months of 3,5-T2 administration, body mass and retroperitoneal fat pad mass were significantly reduced, whereas the heart rate and mass were unchanged. Thus, 3,5-T2 acts as a direct stimulator of energy expenditure and reduces body mass gain; however, TSH suppression may develop secondary to 3,5-T2 administration. PMID:24692290

  12. Effects of Concurrent Topotecan and Radiation on 6-Month Progression-Free Survival in the Primary Treatment of Glioblastoma Multiforme

    SciTech Connect

    Grabenbauer, Gerhard G. Gerber, Klaus-Dieter; Ganslandt, Oliver; Richter, Andrea M.S.; Klautke, Gunther; Birkmann, Josef; Meyer, Martin

    2009-09-01

    Purpose: To report a prospective, randomized, Phase II trial of radiotherapy with and without topotecan for the treatment of glioblastoma. Patients and Methods: Inclusion criteria were histology of glioblastoma, age <60 years, and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group status 0-2. Patients were stratified according to recursive partitioning analysis class, center, and enzyme-inducing antiepileptic medication. Magnetic resonance imaging scans, neurologic examinations, and quality of life assessments were done every 3 months. The primary endpoint was the progression-free survival rate at 6 months (6-m-PFS). This trial was designed as an exploratory, randomized, Phase II trial with an accrual of 140 patients to detect a difference of 15-20% in 6-m-PFS. An interim analysis was scheduled after 60 patients. Median follow-up was 14 months (range, 1-50 months). Results: The 6-m-PFS was 56% and 40% for patients with and without topotecan, respectively. This benefit disappeared within 2 months. Mean (range) progression-free survival time was 8 (5-10.9) months and 6.7 (4-9.5) months for patients with and without topotecan, respectively. The corresponding 2-year-overall survival rates were 28% vs. 22% (nonsignificant difference), and mean (range) survival time was 20.7 (13.9-27.5) months vs. 18.9 (13.5-24.4) months (nonsignificant difference). Conclusions: A slight but measurable increase of 16% was detected in 6-m-PFS for patients receiving topotecan with radiation as compared with patients having radiotherapy alone. These data might support further investigations into topotecan for the treatment of glioblastoma.

  13. Hysteroscopic myomectomy outcomes after 3-month treatment with either Ulipristal Acetate or GnRH analogues: a retrospective comparative study.

    PubMed

    Sancho, Javier Monleón; Delgado, Verónica Serrano de la Cruz; Valero, Maria José Nuñez; Soteras, Marta Gurrea; Amate, Vicente Payá; Carrascosa, Antonio Abad

    2016-03-01

    Ulipristal Acetate (UPA) modifies the endometrium, as well as fibroids, and therefore it might make hysteroscopic surgery more difficult. To confirm that pre-treatment with UPA is as safe and effective an option as pre-treatment with GnRH analogues, considered the gold standard. We present the first series of 26 hysteroscopic myomectomies after 3 months treatment with UPA and we compare the results with a series of 24 cases pretreated with GnRH analogues. This was a retrospective cohort study between July 2013 and May 2015. We analyszed patients with submucous myomas >2.5 in diameter. Hysteroscopic myomectomy was performed after 3 months of treatment with either UPA (5mg daily) or the GnRH agonist (3.75mg/month). Both groups were similar in age, myoma initial size and classification. There were no significant differences between UPA and GnRHa treated groups in terms of percentage of myomas resected (93% vs 98%), duration of surgery (38 vs 37min), fluid deficit (200 vs 350ml) and complications. In the surgeon's subjective opinion, UPA treatment was associated with an easier resection. Based on our experience, previous treatment with UPA does not difficult Hhysteroscopic myomectomy. Endometrial changes have no impact on surgery. Safety and feasibility are comparable to hysteroscopic myomectomies with previous treatment with GnRH analogues. This allows us to take advantage of the reduction in size of fibroids before surgery with less side effects. PMID:26871272

  14. Correlates of Nine-Month Retention following Interim Buprenorphine-Naloxone Treatment in Opioid Dependence: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Håkansson, A.; Widinghoff, C.; Abrahamsson, T.; Gedeon, C.

    2016-01-01

    Interim medication-only treatment has been suggested for the initiation of opioid maintenance treatment (OMT) in opioid-dependent subjects, but this rarely has been studied using buprenorphine instead of methadone. Following a pilot trial assessing interim buprenorphine-naloxone treatment in order to facilitate transfer into OMT, we here aimed to study retention, and potential correlates of retention, in full-scale treatment. Thirty-six patients successfully referred from a waiting list through an interim treatment phase were followed for nine months in OMT. Baseline characteristics, as well as urine analyses during the interim phase and during full-scale OMT, were studied as potential correlates of retention. The nine-month retention in OMT was 83 percent (n = 30). While interim-phase urine samples positive for benzodiazepines did not significantly predict dropout from full-scale OMT (p = 0.09), urine samples positive for benzodiazepines within full-scale OMT were significantly associated with dropout (p < 0.01), in contrast to other substances and baseline characteristics. Retention remained high through nine months in this pilot study sample of patients referred through buprenorphine-naloxone interim treatment, but use of benzodiazepines is problematic, and the present data suggest that it may be associated with treatment dropout. PMID:26904355

  15. Urolastic for the treatment of women with stress urinary incontinence: 24-month follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Zajda, Janusz; Farag, Fawzy

    2015-01-01

    Introduction To evaluate the efficacy and durability of Urolastic, a new urethral bulking agent in women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI), after a follow-up of 24-months. Material and methods A follow-up study of women with SUI who received a Urolastic injection and successfully passed the 12-month follow-up. Assessment included the Stamey Grade, 1-h Pad weight test, and the International quality of life (I-QoL) score. Results Nineteen women who completed the 12-month follow-up were invited for the 24-month follow-up study. One patient did not respond to the correspondence. Four of the 18 patients who responded to the correspondence reported removal of the Urolastic implant at another facility, based on their desire. The explanation for this removal was painful intercourse (n = 1) or less than optimal dryness (n = 3). The overall objective improvement in continence status at 24-months was 66% compared to the 89% at the 12-month follow-up, while in addition the 1-h pad weight test showed >50% reduction in pad weight in 66% of patients compared to 84% at the 12-month follow-up. Adverse events reported were urinary tract infection (n = 1), local genital infection with erosion into the vagina (n = 1), painful intercourse (n = 2), and urgency (n = 4). Conclusions Urolastic is comparable to other bulking agents in terms of durability, efficacy, and complications. PMID:26568877

  16. Month 2 Culture Status and Treatment Duration as Predictors of Recurrence in Pulmonary Tuberculosis: Model Validation and Update

    PubMed Central

    Wallis, Robert S.; Peppard, Thomas; Hermann, David

    2015-01-01

    Background New regimens capable of shortening tuberculosis treatment without increasing the risk of recurrence are urgently needed. A 2013 meta-regression analysis, using data from trials published from 1973 to 1997 involving 7793 patients, identified 2-month sputum culture status and treatment duration as independent predictors of recurrence. The resulting model predicted that if a new 4-month regimen reduced the proportion of patients positive at month 2 to 1%, it would reduce to 10% the risk of a relapse rate >10% in a trial with 680 subjects per arm. The 1% target was far lower than anticipated. Methods Data from the 8 arms of 3 recent unsuccessful phase 3 treatment-shortening trials of fluoroquinolone-substituted regimens (REMox, OFLOTUB, and RIFAQUIN) were used to assess and refine the accuracy of the 2013 meta-regression model. The updated model was then tested using data from a treatment shortening trial reported in 2009 by Johnson et al. Findings The proportions of patients with recurrence as predicted by the 2013 model were highly correlated with observed proportions as reported in the literature (R2 = 0.86). Using the previously proposed threshold of 10% recurrences as the maximum likely considered acceptable by tuberculosis control programs, the original model correctly identified all 4 six-month regimens as satisfactory, and 3 of 4 four-month regimens as unsatisfactory (sensitivity = 100%, specificity = 75%, PPV = 80%, and NPV = 100%). A revision of the regression model based on the full dataset of 66 regimens and 11181 patients resulted in only minimal changes to its predictions. A test of the revised model using data from the treatment shortening trial of Johnson et al found the reported relapse rates in both arms to be consistent with predictions. Interpretation Meta-regression modeling of recurrence based on month 2 culture status and regimen duration can inform the design of future phase 3 tuberculosis clinical trials. PMID:25923700

  17. Effects of a 6-month infliximab treatment on plasma levels of leptin and adiponectin in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Derdemezis, Christos S; Filippatos, Theodosios D; Voulgari, Paraskevi V; Tselepis, Alexandros D; Drosos, Alexandros A; Kiortsis, Dimitrios N

    2009-10-01

    Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) appear to have increased plasma levels of leptin and adiponectin. These adipokines may be implicated in the pathophysiology of RA. Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) is a potential modulator of adipokines. The effects of long-term anti-TNF treatment on plasma levels of leptin and adiponectin are not clear. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of 6-month anti-TNF treatment (infliximab) on leptin and adiponectin plasma levels in RA patients. Thirty women with RA were included in the study. Patients with diabetes mellitus, any endocrine disorder or receiving any hypolipidemic or antidiabetic medication were not included. Thirty healthy age- and body mass index-matched women served as controls. Plasma levels of leptin and adiponectin were measured with enzyme immunoassay methods prior to and after the 6-month treatment with infliximab. Mean age and disease duration of patients were 51.8 +/- 14.4 and 12.2 +/- 6.7 years, respectively. Body weight did not change significantly over the 6-month period. Plasma levels of leptin and adiponectin were higher in patients than controls and did not change significantly after 6-month treatment. Interestingly, in the tertile of patients with the highest baseline adiponectin concentrations, adiponectin levels were significantly reduced (P < 0.05). Infliximab treatment did not change plasma levels of leptin and adiponectin after 6-month treatment in the whole study population. However, a reduction of adiponectin levels was observed in patients with higher baseline adiponectin levels. PMID:19563510

  18. Effectiveness and Predictors of Continuation of Paliperidone Palmitate Long-Acting Injection Treatment: A 12-Month Naturalistic Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Whale, Richard; Pereira, Marco; Cuthbert, Sharon; Fialho, Renata

    2015-10-01

    Antipsychotic long-acting injectable (LAI) medication has an important place as a treatment option in schizophrenia with evolving evidence to support clinical benefit over oral medication. Paliperidone palmitate is recently licensed as an LAI. We studied a naturalistic cohort of all identifiable patients who initiated paliperidone LAI in a specific United Kingdom region (Sussex) from first availability up to January 2013 (n = 179). Favorably, 60% of the cohort continued paliperidone LAI beyond 12 months from initiation. Schizophrenia diagnosis was significantly associated with 12-month continuation on univariate analysis (65% continuation rate at 12 months in this diagnostic subgroup). No baseline variables were identified as independently associated with 12-month continuation. However, fewer inpatient days after initiation (odds ratio [OR], 1.01; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.003-1.011; P = 0.002), dose adjustment up or down (OR, 3.46; 95% CI, 1.26-9.51; P = 0.016), and a higher maintenance dose (OR, 8.31; 95% CI, 1.84-37.51; P = 0.006) during treatment course were all independently associated with continuation on multivariate analysis. Our findings support the importance of a collaborative approach with the LAI recipient in treatment decision making to enhance treatment effectiveness. PMID:26267419

  19. Alcoholics Anonymous and Relapse Prevention as Maintenance Strategies After Conjoint Behavioral Alcohol Treatment for Men: 18-Month Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrady, Barbara S.; Epstein, Elizabeth E.; Kahler, Christopher W.

    2004-01-01

    Ninety men with alcohol problems and their female partners were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 outpatient conjoint treatments: alcohol behavioral couples therapy (ABCT), ABCT with relapse prevention techniques (RP/ABCT), or ABCT with interventions encouraging Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) involvement (AA/ABCT). Couples were followed for 18 months after…

  20. Studies into the Stability of 3-O-Glycosylated and 3,5-O-Diglycosylated Anthocyanins in Differently Purified Liquid and Dried Maqui (Aristotelia chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz) Preparations during Storage and Thermal Treatment.

    PubMed

    Brauch, Johanna E; Kroner, Mareike; Schweiggert, Ralf M; Carle, Reinhold

    2015-10-01

    Anthocyanin stabilities in diluted and differently purified maqui preparations were assessed during storage and thermal treatment at different pH values. By sequentially depleting the matrix, the influence of polar low-molecular-weight matrix constituents and non-anthocyanin phenolics was shown to be negligible. In contrast, pH substantially affected thermal stabilities of differently glycosylated cyanidin and delphinidin derivatives. At pH 3.6, half-lives of 3-O-glycosides were substantially shorter than those of respective 3,5-O-diglycosides. However, at pH 2.2, an inverse stability behavior was observed. Findings were corroborated using isolated pigments. Upon heating, cyanidin derivatives were more stable than their respective delphinidins, but their stability was similar during storage. Anthocyanins in liquid samples were more stable when stored at 4 °C as compared to 20 °C, whereas those in dried powders revealed maximum stability throughout storage. The study contains a detailed discussion and mechanistic hypothesis for the above-mentioned findings, providing insights relevant for food applications of maqui anthocyanins. PMID:26338479

  1. Dental plaque associated with self-ligating brackets during the initial phase of orthodontic treatment: A 3-month preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Al-Anezi, Saud A

    2014-01-01

    Background: To compare changes in the amount and distribution of dental plaque associated with placement of elastomeric modules over a self-ligating bracket during orthodontic treatment and to relate these changes to the periodontal inflammation. Materials and Methods: A cross-arch randomization trial was carried out at Bristol Dental School, United Kingdom. Clinical measurements of periodontal inflammation and plaque accumulation and microbiological test were done on 24 patients aged 11-14 years [Mean (SD) age = 12.6 (1.01) years] wearing fixed appliances (Damon 2 brackets, Ormco, Orange, CA, USA) at the start and 3 months into fixed orthodontic treatment. Results: In the first 3 months of treatment there was no statistically significant difference in bleeding on probing between incisors with and without elastomeric modules (P = 0.125 and 0.508, respectively). The difference in plaque accumulation was not statistically significant (P = 0.78). The difference in probing depths between the incisors was not statistically significant (P = 0.84). The microbiological analysis showed no difference. Conclusions: Based on this preliminary 3 months study, elastomeric modules were not significantly associated with any increased risk during treatment when compared to self-ligating brackets. The longer term studies are needed to further confirm the findings of the present study. PMID:24987657

  2. Completion Rate and Side-Effect Profile of Three-Month Isoniazid and Rifapentine Treatment for Latent Tuberculosis Infection in an Urban County Jail

    PubMed Central

    Juarez-Reyes, Maria; Gallivan, Mark; Chyorny, Alexander; O'Keeffe, Linda; Shah, Neha S.

    2016-01-01

    In an urban jail population, 3 months of isoniazid and rifapentine (3HP) was associated with an 85% latent tuberculosis infection treatment completion rate compared with 18% in a standard 9-month isoniazid treatment group. Among the 91 patients who started 3HP therapy, there were 2 treatment discontinuations from adverse drug reactions. PMID:26885547

  3. Treatment of lupus nephritis with total lymphoid irradiation. Observations during a 12-79-month followup

    SciTech Connect

    Strober, S.; Farinas, M.C.; Field, E.H.; Solovera, J.J.; Kiberd, B.A.; Myers, B.D.; Hoppe, R.T.

    1988-07-01

    Seventeen patients with intractable lupus nephritis and nephrotic syndrome were treated with total lymphoid irradiation. Statistically significant improvement in mean renal disease and serologic activity parameters occurred within 3 months and persisted for at least 3 years. Although there was a marked reduction of T helper cell numbers and function after total lymphoid irradiation, recovery of these parameters was not associated with a return of disease activity. Risks of sterility, severe infections, and hematologic malignancy appeared to be lower than with alkylating agents.

  4. Minodronic acid ameliorates vertebral bone strength by increasing bone mineral density in 9-month treatment of ovariectomized cynomolgus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Makoto; Mori, Hiroshi; Kawabata, Kazuhito; Mashiba, Tasuku

    2016-07-01

    The effect of treatment for 9months with minodronic acid, a nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate, on vertebral mechanical strength was examined in ovariectomized (OVX) cynomolgus monkeys. Forty skeletally mature female monkeys were randomized into four OVX groups and one sham group (n=8) based on lumbar bone mineral density (BMD). OVX animals were treated orally with 15 and 150μg/kg QD of minodronic acid or 500μg/kg QD alendronate as a reference drug. Measurements of bone turnover markers and lumbar BMD were conducted at 0, 4 and 8months. Measurements of bone mechanical strength and minodronic acid concentration in vertebral bodies were also performed. OVX resulted in a decrease in lumbar BMD and an increase in bone turnover markers at 4 and 8months, compared to the sham group, and the ultimate load on the lumbar vertebra was decreased in OVX animals. Minodronic acid and alendronate prevented the OVX-induced increase in bone turnover markers and decrease in lumbar BMD. Minodronic acid at 150μg/kg increased the ultimate load on lumbar vertebra compared to untreated OVX animals. Regression analysis revealed that the ultimate load was correlated with lumbar BMD and bone mineral content (BMC), and most strongly with the increase in lumbar BMD and BMC over 8months. In a separate analysis within the sham-OVX controls and minodronic acid and alendronate treatment groups, the ultimate loads were also correlated with BMD and BMC. The load-BMD (BMC) correlation in the minodronic acid group showed a trend for a shift to a higher load from the basal relationship in the sham-OVX controls. These results indicate that treatment with minodronic acid for 9months increases vertebral mechanical strength in OVX monkeys, mainly by increasing BMD and BMC. PMID:27155564

  5. Neuropsychological impact of Cg25 deep brain stimulation for treatment-resistant depression: preliminary results over 12 months.

    PubMed

    McNeely, Heather E; Mayberg, Helen S; Lozano, Andres M; Kennedy, Sidney H

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate preservation of cognitive function after deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subgenual cingulate (Cg25) for treatment-resistant depression (TRD). We have previously reported on the treatment methods, safety, and 6-month clinical outcome (Mayberg et al., Neuron. 2005;45:651-660). Comprehensive neuropsychological assessments tapping 4 domains of frontal lobe function, and general cognitive abilities, were completed before implantation and at 3, 6, and 12 months postonset of continuous DBS in 6 TRD patients. No adverse neuropsychological effects were noted following surgery, onset and maintenance of DBS with the exception of transient motor slowing noted at 3 and 6 months that improved to normative levels by 12 months. Several areas of cognition that were below average or impaired at baseline improved over follow-up, and these changes were not correlated with improvements in mood. Though the sample size is small, these results support cognitive safety of Cg25 DBS for TRD. PMID:18477883

  6. On the treatment of evapotranspiration, soil moisture accounting, and aquifer recharge in monthly water balance models.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alley, W.M.

    1984-01-01

    Several two- to six-parameter regional water balance models are examined by using 50-year records of monthly streamflow at 10 sites in New Jersey. These models include variants of the Thornthwaite-Mather model, the Palmer model, and the more recent Thomas abcd model. Prediction errors are relatively similar among the models. However, simulated values of state variables such as soil moisture storage differ substantially among the models, and fitted parameter values for different models sometimes indicated an entirely different type of basin response to precipitation.-from Author

  7. 43 CFR 3.5 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application. 3.5 Section 3.5 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PRESERVATION OF AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES § 3.5 Application. Each application for a permit should be filed with the Secretary having jurisdiction, and must...

  8. 43 CFR 3.5 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application. 3.5 Section 3.5 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PRESERVATION OF AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES § 3.5 Application. Each application for a permit should be filed with the Secretary having jurisdiction, and must...

  9. 43 CFR 3.5 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Application. 3.5 Section 3.5 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PRESERVATION OF AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES § 3.5 Application. Each application for a permit should be filed with the Secretary having jurisdiction, and must...

  10. 43 CFR 3.5 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application. 3.5 Section 3.5 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PRESERVATION OF AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES § 3.5 Application. Each application for a permit should be filed with the Secretary having jurisdiction, and must...

  11. 43 CFR 3.5 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Application. 3.5 Section 3.5 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PRESERVATION OF AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES § 3.5 Application. Each application for a permit should be filed with the Secretary having jurisdiction, and must...

  12. Vitamin E treatment in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: A six-month, open-label study of sixteen patients

    PubMed Central

    Yakaryilmaz, Fahri; Guliter, Sefa; Ozenirler, Seren; Erdem, Ozlem; Akyol, Gulen

    2004-01-01

    Background Free radicals have a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Decreasing oxidative stress might have beneficial effects on the biochemical and histologic progression of this disease. Objective We aimed to determine the therapeutic effect of vitamin E, a potent antioxidant, on liver enzymes and histology in NASH. Methods This 6-month, open-label study was conducted at the Departments of Gastroenterology and Pathology, Gazi University School of Medicine (Ankara, Turkey). Patients aged 18 to 70 years with biopsy-proven NASH were included in the study. All patients received vitamin E 800 U/d in 2 divided doses, orally (capsules) for 6 months. Patients were not advised to change their exercise or dietary habits. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated at months 0 (baseline) and 6. Histologic scoring of steatosis, necroinflammatory grade, and fibrosis stage was performed at 0 and 6 months. Liver enzyme activities (alanine aminotransferase [ALT], aspartate aminotransferase [AST], alkaline phosphatase [ALP], and gamma-glutamyltransferase [GGT]) were monitored monthly. Control biopsy specimens were obtained at the end of the treatment. All of the liver biopsies were read by a single pathologist (G.A.) who was blinded to the clinical, laboratory, and histopathologic data, as well as the sequence of liver biopsies. Assessments of compliance and tolerability of treatment were performed using a pill count and patient interview, respectively, at the end of each month. Results Sixteen patients (12 men, 4 women; mean [SD] age, 45.5 [6.9] years [range, 37–60 years]) were enrolled. All patients completed 6 months of treatment. Mean BMI did not change significantly from baseline. Significant improvements in mean (SD) serum liver enzyme activities were observed at 6 months compared with baseline (ALT: 38.6 [16.3] U/L vs 84.8 [22.1] U/L, respectively, P = 0.001; AST: 29.8 [15.4] U/L vs 46.0 [16.0] U/L, respectively, P = 0.001; ALP: 154.6 [64

  13. Factors influencing sustainable efficacy of smoking cessation treatment with varenicline beyond nine months.

    PubMed

    Shimadu, Satoko; Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Okada, Yu; Oguri, Tomoyo; Murohara, Toyoaki; Ban, Nobutaro; Sato, Mitsuo; Hasegawa, Yoshinori

    2016-05-01

    Pharmacological therapies play an important role in the success of interventions for smoking cessation; however, long-term follow-up studies with analysis of influencing factors are scarce. We examined the sustainable effects of smoking cessation therapy with varenicline, beyond nine months as well as the factors influencing effectiveness. Our sample consisted of 193 patients (126 men [68.2%], 67 women [31.8%], aged 26 to 85 years) who underwent varenicline therapy at the Nagoya University Hospital between January 2009 and October 2013. We examined their clinical records and also conducted a mail survey and evaluated success rates of smoking cessation therapy beyond nine months. Overall, 95.8% (185/193) of the patients had at least one complication. The response rate of questionnaires at the end of smoking cessation was 61.6% (119/193). The smoking cessation rate continued to decline for one year and leveled off afterwards. Smoking cessation rates tended to correlate with an increasing number of outpatient visits. Logistic regression analysis showed that two factors, young age and high Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) scores, were inversely correlated with success rates of smoking cessation. From the results of this study, aggressive intervention would needed for younger patients or patients with higher BDI-II scores. PMID:27303107

  14. Factors influencing sustainable efficacy of smoking cessation treatment with varenicline beyond nine months

    PubMed Central

    Shimadu, Satoko; Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Okada, Yu; Oguri, Tomoyo; Murohara, Toyoaki; Ban, Nobutaro; Sato, Mitsuo; Hasegawa, Yoshinori

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pharmacological therapies play an important role in the success of interventions for smoking cessation; however, long-term follow-up studies with analysis of influencing factors are scarce. We examined the sustainable effects of smoking cessation therapy with varenicline, beyond nine months as well as the factors influencing effectiveness. Our sample consisted of 193 patients (126 men [68.2%], 67 women [31.8%], aged 26 to 85 years) who underwent varenicline therapy at the Nagoya University Hospital between January 2009 and October 2013. We examined their clinical records and also conducted a mail survey and evaluated success rates of smoking cessation therapy beyond nine months. Overall, 95.8% (185/193) of the patients had at least one complication. The response rate of questionnaires at the end of smoking cessation was 61.6% (119/193). The smoking cessation rate continued to decline for one year and leveled off afterwards. Smoking cessation rates tended to correlate with an increasing number of outpatient visits. Logistic regression analysis showed that two factors, young age and high Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) scores, were inversely correlated with success rates of smoking cessation. From the results of this study, aggressive intervention would needed for younger patients or patients with higher BDI-II scores. PMID:27303107

  15. TBI Patient, Injury, Therapy, and Ancillary Treatments Associated with Outcomes at Discharge and 9 Months Post-discharge

    PubMed Central

    Horn, Susan D.; Corrigan, John D.; Beaulieu, Cynthia L.; Bogner, Jennifer; Barrett, Ryan S.; Giuffrida, Clare G.; Ryser, David K.; Cooper, Kelli; Carroll, Deborah M.; Deutscher, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine associations of patient and injury characteristics, inpatient rehabilitation therapy activities, and neurotropic medications with outcomes at discharge and 9 months post-discharge for patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) Design Prospective, longitudinal observational study Setting 10 inpatient rehabilitation centers (9 US, 1 Canada) Participants Consecutive patients (n=2130) enrolled between 2008 and 2011, admitted for inpatient rehabilitation after an index TBI injury Interventions Not applicable Main Outcome Measures Rehabilitation length of stay, discharge to home, and Functional Independence Measure (FIM) at discharge and 9 months post-discharge Results The admission FIM Cognitive score was used to create 5 relatively homogeneous subgroups for subsequent analysis of treatment outcomes. Within each subgroup, significant associations were found between outcomes and patient and injury characteristics, time spent in therapy activities, and medications used. Patient and injury characteristics explained on average 35.7% of the variation in discharge outcomes and 22.3% in 9-month outcomes. Adding time spent and level of effort in therapy activities, as well as percent of stay using specific medications, explained approximately 20.0% more variation for discharge outcomes and 12.9% for 9-month outcomes. After patient, injury, and treatment characteristics were used to predict outcomes, center differences added only approximately 1.9% additional variance explained. Conclusions At discharge, greater effort during therapy sessions, time spent in more complex therapy activities, and use of specific medications were associated with better outcomes for patients in all admission FIM Cognitive subgroups. At 9 months post-discharge, similar but less pervasive associations were observed for therapy activities, but not classes of medications. Further research is warranted to examine more specific combinations of therapy activities and medications that

  16. Double-Blind 18-Month Trial of Lithium Versus Divalproex Maintenance Treatment in Pediatric Bipolar Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findling, Robert L.; McNamara, Nora K.; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Stansbrey, Robert; Gracious, Barbara L.; Reed, Michael D.; Calabrese, Joseph R.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether divalproex sodium (DVPX) was superior to lithium carbonate ([Li.sup.+]) in the maintenance monotherapy treatment of youths diagnosed with bipolar disorder who had been previously stabilized on combination [Li.sup.+] and DVPX ([Li.sup.+]/DVPX) pharmacotherapy. Method: Youths ages 5-17 years with bipolar I or II…

  17. Treatment of the Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip with an Abduction Brace in Children up to 6 Months Old

    PubMed Central

    Wahlen, Raphaël; Zambelli, Pierre-Yves

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Use of Pavlik harness for the treatment of DDH can be complicated for parents. Any misuse or failure in the adjustments may lead to significant complications. An abduction brace was introduced in our institution, as it was thought to be easier to use. Aim. We assess the results for the treatment of DDH using our abduction brace in children of 0–6 months old and compare these results with data on treatments using the Pavlik harness. Method. Retrospective analysis of patients with DDH from 0 to 6 months old at diagnosis, performed from 2004 to 2009. Outcomes were rates of reduction of the hip and avascular necrosis of the femoral head (AVN). Follow-up was at one year and up to 4 years old. Results. Hip reduction was successful in 28 of 33 patients (85%), with no AVN. Conclusion. Our results in terms of hip reduction rate and AVN rate are similar to those found in literature assessing Pavlik harness use, with a simpler and comfortable treatment procedure. PMID:25815214

  18. Improved adherence with PTH(1–84) in an extension trial for 24 months results in enhanced BMD gains in the treatment of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Bilezikian, J. P.; Greenspan, S. L.; Wüster, C.; Muñoz-Torres, M.; Bone, H. G.; Rosen, C. J.; Andersen, H. S.; Hanley, D. A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of PTH(1–84) treatment over 24 months followed by 12 months discontinuation on BMD, bone turnover markers, fractures and the impact of adherence on efficacy. Introduction There is limited information about the effect of PTH(1-84) after 18 months and limited data about the impact of compliance on response to anabolic therapy. Methods Seven hundred and eighty-one subjects who received active PTH(1–84) in the Treatment of Osteoporosis with Parathyroid hormone trial for approximately 18 months were entered into a 6-month open-label extension. Thereafter, they were followed for 12 additional months after discontinuation of treatment. Endpoints examined included changes in BMD and biochemical markers. Results PTH(1–84) treatment over 24 months increased BMD at the lumbar spine by 6.8 % above baseline (p < 0.05). The total corresponding BMD increases at the hip and femoral neck were 1.1 and 2.2% above baseline. Larger increases in spine BMD were observed in participants with ≥80 % adherence to daily injections of PTH(1–84) (8.3% in adherent vs 4.9 % in poorly adherent patients). Total hip BMD gains were 1.7 % in adherent vs 0.6 % in poorly adherent participants. Markers of bone turnover (BSAP and NTx) peaked 6 months after starting PTH(1–84) treatment and declined slowly but remained above baseline at 24 months. After discontinuation of PTH(1–84) treatment (at 24 months), bone turnover markers returned to near baseline levels by 30 months. The adherent group sustained significantly fewer fractures than the poorly adherent group. Conclusions PTH(1–84) treatment over 24 months results in continued increases in lumbar spine BMD. Adherence to treatment with PTH(1–84) for up to 24 months is also associated with greater efficacy. PMID:22930240

  19. Internet screening for anxiety disorders: Treatment-seeking outcomes in a three-month follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Van Ameringen, Michael; Simpson, William; Patterson, Beth; Turna, Jasmine

    2015-12-15

    Although many people use the internet to diagnose mental health problems, little is known about the relationship between internet self-diagnosis and treatment-seeking. The MACSCREEN (a validated, self-report screening tool for anxiety and depression) was posted on our clinic homepage and respondents were invited to take an anxiety test. Three months after completing the MACSREEN and a variety of symptom severity scales, respondents were emailed a follow up questionnaire asking about treatment-seeking behaviours. Of the 770 MACSCREEN respondents, 103 completed the follow-up questionnaire. Of these, 100% met criteria for at least one anxiety or mood disorder diagnosis and 51% sought treatment after completing the MACSCREEN. In the 49% who did not seek treatment, fear of medication (57%), discomfort talking to their doctor about anxiety (28%) and the belief that symptoms were not severe enough (28%) were cited as barriers. Compared to non-seekers, treatment-seekers were significantly more likely to meet screening criteria for Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Depression. Higher Sheehan Disability Scale scores and being married (versus single) significantly increased the odds of treatment-seeking, suggesting that functional impairment and disease burden on the family may be stronger predictors of treatment seeking than overall severity of symptoms. PMID:26553144

  20. Six-month freedom from treatment failure is an important end point for acute GVHD clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Sengsayadeth, S; Savani, B N; Jagasia, M; Goodman, S; Greer, J P; Chen, H; Chinratanalab, W; Kassim, A A; Engelhardt, B G

    2014-02-01

    We studied the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (ASBMT) 6-month (m) freedom from treatment failure (FFTF) as a predictor of survival for patients with acute GVHD (aGVHD) requiring treatment. Adult patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) from February 2007 to March 2009 who were enrolled in a prospective biomarker clinical trial and developed aGVHD requiring systemic corticosteroids by day +100 were included (N=44). Six-month FFTF was defined as per the ASBMT guidelines (absence of death, malignancy relapse/progression or systemic immunosuppression change within 6 months of starting steroids and before chronic GVHD development). aGVHD was treated with systemic corticosteroids in 44 patients. Day 28 response after steroid initiation (complete response+very good partial response+partial response) occurred in 38 (87%) patients, but only 28 (64%) HCT recipients met the 6-m FFTF end point. Day 28 response predicted 6-m FFTF. Achieving 6-m FFTF was associated with improved 2-year (y) OS (81% vs 48%; P=0.03) and decreased 2-y non-relapse mortality (8% vs 49%; P=0.01). In multivariate analysis, 6-m FFTF continued to predict improved OS (hazard ratio, 0.27; P=0.03). The 6-m FFTF end point measures fixed outcomes, predicts long-term therapeutic success and could be less prone to measurement error than aGVHD clinical response at day 28. PMID:24096824

  1. Six Month Freedom from Treatment Failure is an Important Endpoint for Acute Graft-Versus-Host Disease Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Sengsayadeth, Salyka; Savani, Bipin N.; Jagasia, Madan; Goodman, Stacey; Greer, John P.; Chen, Heidi; Chinratanalab, Wichai; Kassim, Adetola A.; Engelhardt, Brian G.

    2013-01-01

    We studied the ASBMT 6 month (m) freedom from treatment failure (FFTF) as a predictor of survival for patients with acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) requiring treatment. Adult patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) from February 2007 to March 2009 who were enrolled in a prospective biomarker clinical trial and developed aGVHD requiring systemic corticosteroids by day +100 were included (N=44). Six month FFTF was defined per ASBMT guidelines [absence of death, malignancy relapse/progression, or systemic immunosuppression change within 6 months of starting steroids and before chronic GVHD development]. aGVHD was treated with systemic corticosteroids in 44 patients. Day 28 response after steroid initiation (CR+VGPR+PR) occurred in 38 (87%) patients, but only 28 (64%) HCT recipients met the 6 m FFTF endpoint. Day 28 response predicted 6 m FFTF. Achieving 6 m FFTF was associated with improved 2 year (y) overall survival (OS) [81% vs. 48%, P= 0.03)] and decreased 2 y non-relapse mortality [8% vs. 49% (P= 0.01)]. In multivariate analysis, 6 m FFTF continued to predict improved OS (HR, 0.27; P=0.03). The 6 m FFTF endpoint measures fixed outcomes, predicts long-term therapeutic success, and could be less prone to measurement error than aGVHD clinical response at day 28. PMID:24096824

  2. Comparison of Endodontic Treatment Results Yielded from Using Normal Saline with IKI Final Rinse or NaOCl Irrigation: A 30-Month Follow-up Study

    PubMed Central

    Abbaszadegan, Abbas; Nabavizadeh, Mohammadreza; Hoseini Yekani, Ameneh; Khayat, Akbar

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this clinical trial was to evaluate and compare the endodontic treatment results of teeth with apical periodontitis after thirty-month recall with two different irrigation regimen: normal saline followed by Iodine Potassium Iodide (IKI) or sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) irrigation alone. Materials and Methods Twenty seven patients (30 teeth) who had been included in the first part of our antimicrobial survey were recalled. In previous stage, root canal treatments were performed using either normal saline with IKI final rinse (n = 15) or NaOCl (n = 15) as irrigating solutions. Bacterial samples were taken before and after instrumentation. In this stage, three patients (6 teeth) were excluded from the follow-up schedule since they did not respond to the recall requests. The remaining 24 subjects (12 teeth in each NaOCl and IKI group) were examined clinically and radiologically. Post-operative and follow-up images were coded, blindly evaluated and given a periapical score according to PAI scoring system. The outcome was assessed in two ways; first, the changes in PAI score from base line to the follow-up evaluation in each group were assessed by wilcoxon signed rank test. In addition, Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the differences between the post-operative and follow-up images of treatment groups. Second, the dichotomous variables as “healed” or “not healed” were compared. Results The Median (Min, Max) PAI scores for NaOCl group and IKI group were both 5 (3, 5) for immediate post-operative radiographs and declined to 1 (1, 2) and 2 (1, 2), respectively. A statistically significant decrease in PAI score from the base line to the follow-up evaluation was seen in both groups (P = 0.002). The decrease in NaOCl group was higher significantly in comparison to IKI group (P = 0.036). One hundred percent of the teeth were healed in both groups (PAI ≤ 2) and no teeth showed any abnormal clinical findings. Conclusion Root canal irrigation

  3. Health Effects of Long-Term Rapamycin Treatment: The Impact on Mouse Health of Enteric Rapamycin Treatment from Four Months of Age throughout Life

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Kathleen E.; Gelfond, Jonathan A. L.; Soto, Vanessa Y.; Han, Chul; Someya, Shinichi; Richardson, Arlan; Austad, Steven N.

    2015-01-01

    Rapamycin, an mTOR inhibitor, has been shown to extend lifespan in a range of model organisms. It has been reported to extend lifespan in multiple strains of mice, administered chronically or acutely early or late in life. The ability of rapamycin to extend health (healthspan) as opposed to life is less well documented. To assess the effects chronic rapamycin treatment on healthspan, enteric rapamycin was given to male and female C57BL/6J mice starting at 4 months of age and continued throughout life. Repeated, longitudinal assessments of health in individual animals were made starting at 16 months of age (=12 months of treatment) until death. A number of health parameters were improved (female grip strength, female body mass and reduced sleep fragmentation in both sexes), others showed no significant difference, while at least one (male rotarod performance) was negatively affected. Rapamycin treatment affected many measures of health in a highly sex-specific manner. While sex-specific phenotypic effects of rapamycin treatment have been widely reported, in this study we document sex differences in the direction of phenotypic change. Rapamycin-fed males and females were both significantly different from controls; however the differences were in the opposite direction in measures of body mass, percent fat and resting metabolic rate, a pattern not previously reported. PMID:25978367

  4. Brief Report: Six Months Continuation Treatment in Naltrexone-Responsive Children with Autism: An Open-Label Case-Control Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willemsen-Swinkels, Sophie H. N.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina A.; van Engeland, Herman

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports on a six-month continuation treatment with naltrexone of six children with autism, previously found to be responsive to naltrexone in a four-week trial. Results indicated the moderate hyperactivity-reducing effect of naltrexone was maintained during the six-month continuation treatment but no additional gains in the domains of…

  5. Neuropsychologic function in children with brain tumors. III. Interval changes in the six months following treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Mulhern, R.K.; Kun, L.E.

    1985-01-01

    Twenty-six children with primary brain tumors were studied prospectively with regard to their sensorimotor, intellectual, academic, and emotional status. Serial evaluations were conducted after surgery (pre-irradiation) and six months after the completion of radiation therapy. The timing of the second evaluation was chosen so as to antedate the late effects of irradiation. Children over 6 years old displayed significant improvement of intellectual function over time, with only 11% exhibiting deterioration on one or more cognitive parameters. In contrast, 68% of younger children clinically deteriorated in one or more areas of intellectual functioning, with prominent difficulties in memory and selective attention for age. Children under 6 years old with supratentorial tumors were less likely than those with posterior fossa tumors to improve their cognitive performance. At the second evaluation, 23% of the patients were functioning below normal (IQ less than 80) intellectually, with 50% of the younger children and 11% of the older children receiving special educational assistance. Approximately 40-50% of the patients manifested emotional adjustment problems at each evaluation. The results are discussed in terms of the clinical need to follow similar patient populations with formal psychological assessments over time, and in terms of the difficulties involved in defining factors that determine the functional status of children surviving brain tumors.

  6. Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with marine and botanical oils: an 18-month, randomized, and double-blind trial.

    PubMed

    Reed, George W; Leung, Katherine; Rossetti, Ronald G; Vanbuskirk, Susan; Sharp, John T; Zurier, Robert B

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To determine whether a combination of borage seed oil rich in gamma linolenic acid (GLA) and fish oil rich in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is superior to either oil alone for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods. Patients were randomized into a double-blind, 18-month trial. Mixed effects models compared trends over time in disease activity measures. Results. No significant differences were observed in changes in disease activity among the three randomized groups. Each group exhibited significant reductions in disease activity (DAS28) at 9 months (fish: -1.56[-2.16, -0.96], borage: -1.33[-1.83, -0.84], combined: -1.18[-1.83, -0.54]) and in CDAI (fish: -16.95[-19.91, -13.98], borage: -11.20[-14.21, -8.19], and combined: -10.31[-13.61, -7.01]). There were no significant differences in change of RA medications among the three groups. Reduced disease activity in study patients was similar to matched patients from an RA registry, and reduction in DMARD use was greater (P < 0.03) in study patients. Conclusion. All 3 treatment groups exhibited similar meaningful clinical responses after 9 months, improvements which persisted for 18 months, and a response similar to matched patients from an RA registry. Study patients were able to reduce DMARD therapy given in combination with TNF antagonists to a greater extent than registry patients. This paper is dedicated to the memory of Dr. John T. Sharp, M.D., a pioneer and innovator in the field of musculoskeletal radiology. PMID:24803948

  7. Psychosocial adjustments in patients with prostate cancer from pre-diagnosis to 6 months post-treatment.

    PubMed

    Chien, Ching-Hui; Chuang, Cheng-Keng; Liu, Kuan-Lin; Huang, Xuan-Yi; Liu, Hsueh-Erh

    2016-02-01

    We evaluated changes in psychosocial adjustment over time and its associated factors in prostate cancer patients. A total of 69 patients with prostate cancer were surveyed at pre-diagnosis, 1 month and 6 months post-treatment. The questionnaires distributed to the patients consisted of the Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale and the UCLA Prostate Cancer Index. The generalized estimating equations were used to analyse the collected data. The results of adjustments to psychological distress, the domestic environment and the social environment worsened post-treatment. However, the adjustment to health-care orientation was worst at the time of pre-diagnosis and improved during post-treatment. Patients who perceived an unfavourable health status reported poor adjustment in psychological distress. Patients exhibiting poor urinary function poorly adjusted to the domestic environment. Patients with sexual dysfunction exhibited poor adjustment to the social environment. Patients with low education demonstrated poor adjustment to health-care orientation. Further studies should assess the psychosocial adjustment among prostate cancer patients and provide interventions following pre-diagnosis. PMID:25307968

  8. Alpha-lipoic acid as a new treatment option for Alzheimer's disease--a 48 months follow-up analysis.

    PubMed

    Hager, K; Kenklies, M; McAfoose, J; Engel, J; Münch, G

    2007-01-01

    Oxidative stress and neuronal energy depletion are characteristic biochemical hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). It is therefore conceivable that pro-energetic and antioxidant drugs such as alpha-lipoic acid might delay the onset or slow down the progression of the disease. In a previous study, 600mg alpha-lipoic acid was given daily to nine patients with AD (receiving a standard treatment with choline-esterase inhibitors) in an open-label study over an observation period of 12 months. The treatment led to a stabilization of cognitive functions in the study group, demonstrated by constant scores in two neuropsychological tests (the mini mental state exam, MMSE and the Alzheimer's disease assessment score cognitive subscale, ADAScog). In this report, we have extended the analysis to 43 patients over an observation period of up to 48 months. In patients with mild dementia (ADAScog < 15), the disease progressed extremely slowly (ADAScog: +1.2 points/year, MMSE: -0.6 points/year), in patients with moderate dementia at approximately twice the rate. However, the progression appears dramatically lower than data reported for untreated patients or patients on choline-esterase inhibitors in the second year of long-term studies. Despite the fact that this study was not double-blinded, placebo-controlled and randomized, our data suggest that treatment with alpha-lipoic acid might be a successful 'neuroprotective' therapy option for AD. However, a state-of-the-art phase II trial is needed urgently. PMID:17982894

  9. Parent-assessed quality of life among adolescents undergoing orthodontic treatment: a 12-month follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Abreu, Lucas Guimarães; Melgaço, Camilo Aquino; Abreu, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimaraes; Lages, Elizabeth Maria Bastos; Paiva, Saul Martins

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess parents' and caregivers' view of the first twelve months of adolescents' orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances and to assess the evaluative properties of the Brazilian version of the Parental-Caregiver Perceptions Questionnaire (P-CPQ) in the orthodontic setting. Methods: Data from a sample of 96 parents and caregivers of adolescents undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances were collected by means of P-CPQ. Assessments were performed before banding and bracket bonding (T1) and 12 months after placement of fixed appliances (T2). Statistical analysis included Wilcoxon signed-rank test for the overall P-CPQ score and Bonferroni correction for P-CPQ subscales. The evaluative properties of the P-CPQ were assessed through responsiveness calculation and the minimally clinical important difference (MCID). Results: Among the 96 participants, 76 were mothers of patients, 16 were fathers, and four were other family members. Adolescents' mean age was 11.49 ± 0.50 years. Most families earned equal to or less than three times the Brazilian monthly minimum wage. There was significant improvement in the emotional and social well-being subscales (p < 0.001), which contributed to improve patient's overall quality of life (p< 0.001). Reductions in scores were associated with clinically meaningful moderate changes in the overall score as well as in the emotional and social well-being subscales. The MCID was 6.16 for the P-CPQ overall score. Conclusion: Parents and caregivers reported significant improvement in the quality of life of adolescents undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. PMID:26560827

  10. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome associated with fingolimod treatment in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis three months after childbirth.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, Markus; Weber, Ralph; Herold, Michèle; Berlit, Peter

    2015-10-01

    Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is characterized by acute thunderclap headache, evidence of vasoconstriction in conventional angiography or magnetic resonance angiography and reversibility of these phenomena within 12 weeks. Some triggering factors, for example drugs such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, sumatriptan, tacrolimus, cyclophosphamide and cocaine, or states such as pregnancy, puerperium or migraine have been described. We describe the case of a 29-year-old woman with RCVS associated with fingolimod three months after childbirth. This case represents the first report of RCVS in fingolimod treatment. PMID:26283695

  11. Pseudotumor Cerebri in a Child with Idiopathic Growth Hormone Insufficiency Two Months after Initiation of Recombinant Human Growth Hormone Treatment.

    PubMed

    Loukianou, Eleni; Tasiopoulou, Anastasia; Demosthenous, Constantinos; Brouzas, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To report a rare case of pseudotumor cerebri (PTC) in a child two months after receiving treatment with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) and to emphasize the need of close collaboration between ophthalmologists and pediatric endocrinologists in monitoring children receiving rhGH. Methods. A 12-year-old boy with congenital hypothyroidism started treatment with rhGH on a dose of 1,5 mg/daily IM (4.5 IU daily). Eight weeks later, he was complaining of severe headache without any other accompanying symptoms. The child was further investigated with computed tomography scan and lumbar puncture. Results. Computed tomography scan showed normal ventricular size and lumbar puncture revealed an elevated opening pressure of 360 mm H2O. RhGH was discontinued and acetazolamide 250 mg per os twice daily was initiated. Eight weeks later, the papilledema was resolved. Conclusions. There appears to be a causal relationship between the initiation of treatment with rhGH and the development of PTC. All children receiving rhGH should have a complete ophthalmological examination if they report headache or visual disturbances shortly after the treatment. Discontinuation of rhGH and initiation of treatment with acetazolamide may be needed and regular follow-up examinations by an ophthalmologist should be recommended. PMID:26966604

  12. Pseudotumor Cerebri in a Child with Idiopathic Growth Hormone Insufficiency Two Months after Initiation of Recombinant Human Growth Hormone Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Loukianou, Eleni; Tasiopoulou, Anastasia; Demosthenous, Constantinos; Brouzas, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To report a rare case of pseudotumor cerebri (PTC) in a child two months after receiving treatment with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) and to emphasize the need of close collaboration between ophthalmologists and pediatric endocrinologists in monitoring children receiving rhGH. Methods. A 12-year-old boy with congenital hypothyroidism started treatment with rhGH on a dose of 1,5 mg/daily IM (4.5 IU daily). Eight weeks later, he was complaining of severe headache without any other accompanying symptoms. The child was further investigated with computed tomography scan and lumbar puncture. Results. Computed tomography scan showed normal ventricular size and lumbar puncture revealed an elevated opening pressure of 360 mm H2O. RhGH was discontinued and acetazolamide 250 mg per os twice daily was initiated. Eight weeks later, the papilledema was resolved. Conclusions. There appears to be a causal relationship between the initiation of treatment with rhGH and the development of PTC. All children receiving rhGH should have a complete ophthalmological examination if they report headache or visual disturbances shortly after the treatment. Discontinuation of rhGH and initiation of treatment with acetazolamide may be needed and regular follow-up examinations by an ophthalmologist should be recommended. PMID:26966604

  13. A reinforcement-based therapeutic workplace for the treatment of drug abuse: six-month abstinence outcomes.

    PubMed

    Silverman, K; Svikis, D; Robles, E; Stitzer, M L; Bigelow, G E

    2001-02-01

    This study evaluated a novel drug abuse treatment, the Therapeutic Workplace. In this treatment, patients are paid to perform jobs or to participate in job training. Salary is linked to abstinence by requiring patients to provide drug-free urine samples to gain access to the workplace. Pregnant and postpartum drug abuse patients (N = 40) were randomly assigned to a Therapeutic Workplace or usual care control group. Therapeutic Workplace participants were invited to work 3 hr every weekday for 6 months and could earn up to $4,030 in vouchers for abstinence, workplace attendance, and performance. On average, 45% of participants attended the workplace per day. Relative to controls, the Therapeutic Workplace nearly doubled patients' abstinence from opiates and cocaine (33% vs. 59% of thrice-weekly urine samples drug negative, respectively, p < .05). The Therapeutic Workplace can effectively treat heroin and cocaine abuse in pregnant and postpartum women. PMID:11519628

  14. Evaluation of efficacy of enamel matrix derivative in the treatment of intrabony defects: a 24-month multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Francetti, Luca; Trombelli, Leonardo; Lombardo, Giorgio; Guida, Luigi; Cafiero, Carlo; Roccuzzo, Mario; Carusi, Giorgio; Del Fabbro, Massimo

    2005-10-01

    The aim of this prospective multicenter controlled clinical study was to evaluate the efficacy of Emdogain (Biora), an enamel matrix derivative (EMD), when combined with surgical treatment of periodontal angular defects, as compared to surgery alone, for up to 24 months of follow-up. The study was performed at six Italian universities and 11 private practices. Patients with one-, two-, or three-wall angular defects were enrolled if intrabony defect depth (IBD) was 4 mm or more and probing pocket depth (PPD) was at least 6 mm. They were randomly allocated to either test or control groups. The test group was treated by the simplified papilla preservation (SPP) flap plus Emdogain after root conditioning with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. The control group was treated by SPP alone. Plaque Index, Gingival Index, PPD, and periodontal attachment level (PAL) at surgical sites were assessed at the presurgical examination (baseline). IBD was measured intraoperatively after debridement. IBD was also evaluated with a computer-aided technique, from periapical radiographs. Plaque Index, Gingival Index, PPD, PAL, and IBD were assessed at 12 and 24 months postsurgery. Data were further divided in two subgroups according to baseline IBD (6 mm or less and more than 6 mm). The differences between each follow-up and baseline, and between groups at each follow-up, for the above parameters were evaluated by standard statistical methods. One hundred fifty-three patients were recruited, accounting for 195 intrabony defects: 83 patients (108 defects) and 70 patients (87 defects) were allocated to the test and control groups, respectively. All parameters were improved at both 12 and 24 months, compared to baseline in both groups. In the test group, IBD, PPD, and PAL at 12 months were significantly better than these parameters in the control group. The test subgroup with IBD of more than 6 mm at baseline displayed a better outcome when compared to the 6 mm or less IBD subgroup. No

  15. 41 CFR 51-3.5 - Fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Fees. 51-3.5 Section 51-3... FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED 3-CENTRAL NONPROFIT AGENCIES § 51-3.5 Fees. A central nonprofit agency may charge fees to nonprofit agencies for facilitating...

  16. Percutaneous Stabilization System Osseofix® for Treatment of Osteoporotic Vertebral Compression Fractures - Clinical and Radiological Results after 12 Months

    PubMed Central

    Ender, Stephan Albrecht; Wetterau, Elmar; Ender, Michaela; Kühn, Jens-Peter; Merk, Harry Rudolf; Kayser, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    Study Design A prospective consecutive cohort study (follow-up study). Objective Our study investigated whether implantation of an expandable titanium mesh cage (Osseofix®) is a successful and safe minimally invasive therapy for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (VCF). Our experiences, clinical and radiological findings after 12 months follow-up are presented. Kypho- and vertebroplasty are well-established minimally invasive procedures for the treatment of osteoporotic VCF. The main complications associated with both procedures are uncontrolled bone cement leakage. Therefore a suitable alternative has been investigated. Methods During June 2010 to May 2011 24 patients were included with 32 osteoporotic VCF (T6 to L4). All of them were stabilized with the Osseofix® system. Preinterventionally we performed X-ray, MRI, and bone density measurements (DXA). Clinical and radiological results were evaluated preop., postop. and after 12 months postop. based on the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), X-ray (Beck Index, Cobb-angle) and CT. Results There was a significant improvement in the mean ODI (70,6% to 30,1%) as well as a significant reduction in pain intensity (VAS) (7,7 to 1,4) after 12 month. The mean kyphotic angle according to Cobb showed significant improvements (11,7° to 10,4°) after 12 months. Postinterventional imaging showed only one case of loss of height in a stabilized vertebral body (3.1%). We saw no changes in posterior vertebral wall or adjacent fractures. Except for one pronounced postoperative hematoma we saw no surgical complications including no cement leakage. Conclusions Stabilization of symptomatic osteoporotic VCF with Osseofix® system is a safe and effective procedure, even in fractures with posterior wall involvement. The clinical mid-term results are good at a very low complication rate. The Osseofix® system is an interesting alternative to the established procedures of cement augmentation

  17. Safety and efficacy of levetiracetam for the treatment of partial onset seizures in children from one month of age

    PubMed Central

    Cormier, Justine; Chu, Catherine J

    2013-01-01

    Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder in the pediatric population, affecting up to one percent of children, and for which the mainstay of treatment is anticonvulsant medication. Despite the frequent use of anticonvulsant drugs, remarkably little is known about the safety and efficacy of most of these medications in the pediatric epilepsy population. Of 34 anticonvulsants currently approved for use by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), only 13 have been approved for use in children. Although infants and young children are disproportionately affected by epilepsy, there are currently only three anticonvulsant medications that have been specifically evaluated and approved for use in children younger than 2 years of age. In 2012, the FDA approved levetiracetam as an adjunctive treatment for partial onset seizures in infants and children from one month of age. Here we review the available data on levetiracetam in the pediatric epilepsy population. We first discuss the pharmacological profile of levetiracetam, including its mechanism of action, formulations and dosing, and pharmacokinetics in children. We then review the available efficacy, safety, and tolerability data in children from one month of age with partial onset seizures. We conclude that the current data leading to the approval of levetiracetam for use in infants and children with partial onset seizures is encouraging, although more work needs to be done before definitive conclusions can be drawn about the efficacy of levetiracetam across different pediatric age groups. PMID:23458993

  18. Treatment of grade II furcation involvement using resorbable guided tissue regeneration membrane: A six-month study

    PubMed Central

    Khanna, Deepti; Malhotra, Sumit; Naidu, D. Venugopal

    2012-01-01

    Aims: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of the combination of hydroxyapatite and β-tricalcium phosphate bone alloplast with bioresorbable guided tissue regeneration membrane for the treatment of mandibular grade II furcation defects. Settings and Design: A total of eight patients, four females and four males, in the age group of 18 to 65 years, with bilateral buccal grade II furcation defects in the mandibular molars, participated in the study. Materials and Methods: The following clinical measurements were recorded at baseline as well as three and six months post surgery: The Turesky-Gilmore-Glickman modification of the Quigley Hein plaque index, the Loe and Silness gingival index, Relative Clinical Attachment Level Vertical Probing Depth in the mid-furcation area, and Horizontal Probing Depth in the mid-furcation area. Statistical analysis: Pairwise comparisons within the groups were done by applying the independent student t test. Comparisons were also drawn between the test and the control groups by applying the independent student t test. Results: The mean gain in the relative clinical attachment levels in the test and control groups, at the end of six months, were 2.50 and 1.63 mm, respectively. The mean change in the horizontal probing depth values at the end of six months in the test and control groups were 2.88 and 1.63 mm, respectively. The mean reduction in the vertical probing depth values in the test and control groups were 1.50 and 1.38 mm, respectively. Conclusions: The resorbable GTR membrane with bone material was more effective than open debridement alone, in the treatment of furcation defects. PMID:23162337

  19. A six month randomized controlled trial of long acting injectable risperidone 50 and 100mg in treatment resistant schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Meltzer, H Y; Lindenmayer, J-P; Kwentus, J; Share, D B; Johnson, R; Jayathilake, K

    2014-04-01

    It has been suggested that atypical antipsychotic drugs (A-APDs) other than clozapine may be effective to improve positive symptoms in some patients with treatment resistant schizophrenia (TRS), if both the dose is higher, and the duration of the trial longer, than those which have been ineffective in non-TRS (NTRS) patients. This hypothesis was tested with long acting injectable risperidone (Risperdal Consta®, RLAI). One hundred sixty TRS patients selected for persistent moderate-severe delusions or hallucinations, or both, were randomized to RLAI, 50 or 100mg biweekly, in a six month, outpatient, double-blind, multicenter trial. We hypothesized that RLAI, 100mg, would be more effective than RLAI, 50mg. However, both doses produced clinically significant and equivalent improvement in PANSS Total, Positive, and Negative subscale scores, as well as key cognitive, global and functional measures, with increasing response during the course of the study, confirming the value of longer clinical trial duration for patients with TRS, but not superiority of the higher dose. The overall response rate was comparable to that previously reported for clozapine and high dose olanzapine, another A-APD, in TRS. Both doses of RLAI were equally well tolerated, producing minimal extrapyramidal side effects and few drop outs. Plasma levels of the active moiety, risperidone+9-hydroxyrisperidone, during treatment with RLAI 100mg, were comparable to those for 6-8 mg/day oral risperidone, which have not been effective in TRS. Further study of RLAI, ≥ 50-100mg biweekly, should compare it with clozapine and oral risperidone in TRS, with duration of treatment ≥ six months. PMID:24630262

  20. Exploratory study describing 6 month outcomes for young children with autism who receive treatment as usual in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Muratori, Filippo; Narzisi, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Background In the last few years, the results of different studies have confirmed, in different ways, the importance of early intervention for autism. This study aims to evaluate the role of early “as usual” interventions in the outcome of toddlers diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Method Seventy children with ASD aged between 24 and 48 months were recruited at different centers in Italy. They were evaluated by blind researchers at baseline and after 6 months of using Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic (ADOS-G), Griffiths Mental Developmental Scales, and Vineland Adaptive Behavior scales. Parents filled out the MacArthur Inventory, Social Communication Questionnaire, and Child Behavior Check List. All children were referred to community providers for available interventions. Results At the endpoint, most of the children were still classified as having an ADOS-G classification of ASD. However, 21 (34.2%) passed from autism to autism spectrum, and 3 (4.2%) passed from autism spectrum to no spectrum. Treatment effects were obtained for cognitive functioning, language, adaptive behavior, and child behavior without differences between development-oriented and behavior-oriented interventions. Parent involvement was a mediator for the best clinical outcome. Baseline low impairments of communication, language comprehension, and gesture were predictors of positive outcome. Conclusion Treatment as usual, composed of individual therapy plus school-supported inclusion, may be an effective intervention in ASD. Better initial levels of communication in child and parent involvement during treatment have an important role for a positive outcome. PMID:24748794

  1. Chronic myelogenous leukemia in chronic phase transforming into acute leukemia under treatment with dasatinib 4 months after diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yukitsugu; Tokita, Katsuya; Nagasawa, Fusako; Takahashi, Wataru; Nakamura, Yuko; Sasaki, Ko; Ichikawa, Motoshi; Mitani, Kinuko

    2016-03-01

    We report a 64-year-old woman morphologically diagnosed with chronic myelogenous leukemia in the chronic phase. Despite having achieved a complete hematological response following treatment with dasatinib, she developed lymphoblastic crisis 4 months later. Blastic cells were in a CD45-negative and SSC-low fraction, and positive for CD10, CD19, CD34, and HLA-DR expression and rearrangement in the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene. Chemotherapy using the HyperCVAD/MA regimen led to a complete cytogenetic response, and after cord blood transplantation, she obtained a complete molecular remission. However, the crisis recurred 6 months later. Another salvage therapy using L-AdVP regimen followed by nilotinib led to a complete molecular remission. Retrospective analyses using flow cytometry and polymerase chain reaction revealed a minimal blastic crisis clone present in the initial marrow in chronic phase. This case is informative as it suggests that sudden blastic crisis may occur from an undetectable blastic clone present at initial diagnosis and that leukemic stem cells may survive cytotoxic chemotherapy that eliminates most of the blastic cells. PMID:26662559

  2. A FIELD-TRIAL OF TWO RESTORATIVE MATERIALS USED WITH ATRAUMATIC RESTORATIVE TREATMENT IN RURAL TURKEY: 24-MONTH RESULTS

    PubMed Central

    Ercan, Ertugrul; Dülgergil, Ç. Türksel; Soyman, Mübin; Dalli, Mehmet; Yildirim, Isil

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical performance of high-strength glass ionomer cement (HSGIC) and resin-modified glass ionomer (RMGIC) in single and multiple surface carious cavities in the field conditions. Material and Methods: A split-mouth design, including ninety-one fillings placed on contra lateral molar pairs of 37 children, was used in permanent dentition. As filling materials, a HSGIC (Ketac Molar/3M ESPE) and a RMGIC (Vitremer/ 3M ESPE) were used with the Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART). Baseline and 6, 12 and 24-month evaluations of the fillings were made with standard-ART and USPHS criteria by two examiners with kappa values of 0.92 and 0.87 for both criteria. Results: According to the USPHS criteria, the retention rates of RMGIC and HSGIC restorations were 100% and 80.9% for single surface, and 100% and 41.2% for multiple surface restorations after 24 months, respectively. Irrespective of surface number, RMGIC was significantly superior to HSGIC (p= 0.004), according to both standard-ART and USPHS criteria. Conclusion: The results indicate that RMGIC may be an alternative restorative technique in comparison to high-strength GIC applications in ART-field-trials. However, further clinical and field trials are needed to support this conclusion. PMID:19668990

  3. Efficacy of an unsupervised 8-month rifampicin-containing regimen for the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis in HIV-infected adults

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, J. L.; Okwera, A.; Nsubuga, P.; Nakibali, J. G.; Whalen, C. C.; Hom, D.; Cave, M. D.; Yang, Z. H.; Mugerwa, R. D.; Ellner, J. J.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY SETTING National Tuberculosis Treatment Centre, Mulago Hospital, Kampala, Uganda. OBJECTIVE To assess the efficacy of a daily, self-administered 8-month rifampicin-containing regimen for the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected adults. DESIGN Treatment outcomes in patients with pulmonary TB treated with a single 8-month regimen and followed in a prospective epidemiological study. RESULTS Two hundred and sixty-five HIV-infected and 26 non-HIV-infected adults with initial episodes of pulmonary tuberculosis were treated with 2 months of daily isoniazid (INH), rifampicin (RMP), ethambutol and pyrazinamide followed by 6 months of daily INH + RMP. Median follow-up was 17.8 months. Ninety-five per cent of the HIV-infected and all of the non-HIV-infected patients who had sputum examined were sputum culture negative after 2 months of treatment. Twenty-two HIV-infected and no non-HIV-infected patients died during treatment. Relapse rates were 8.4% (5.9 per 100 person-years of observation [PYO], 95%CI 3.2–8.6) among HIV-infected patients and 4.5% (2.1/100 PYO, 95%CI 0–7.8) for non-HIV-infected patients. Adverse drug reactions occurred in 37% of the HIV-infected patients; most were minor and self-limiting. CONCLUSION An 8-month RMP-containing regimen was well tolerated and effective in the treatment of HIV-infected adults with initial episodes of pulmonary TB. Relapse rates were similar to those reported with 6-month short-course regimens in HIV-infected individuals. Decisions about the duration of anti-tuberculosis treatment for HIV-infected adults must balance programme resources and the likelihood of poor compliance with longer regimens with the potential for a modest decrease in relapses with longer treatment. PMID:11092715

  4. Discovery of 4'-chloromethyl-2'-deoxy-3',5'-di-O-isobutyryl-2'-fluorocytidine (ALS-8176), a first-in-class RSV polymerase inhibitor for treatment of human respiratory syncytial virus infection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guangyi; Deval, Jerome; Hong, Jin; Dyatkina, Natalia; Prhavc, Marija; Taylor, Joshua; Fung, Amy; Jin, Zhinan; Stevens, Sarah K; Serebryany, Vladimir; Liu, Jyanwei; Zhang, Qingling; Tam, Yuen; Chanda, Sushmita M; Smith, David B; Symons, Julian A; Blatt, Lawrence M; Beigelman, Leo

    2015-02-26

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading pathogen of childhood and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. To date, ribavirin is the only approved small molecule drug, which has limited use. The only other RSV drug is palivizumab, a monoclonal antibody, which is used for RSV prophylaxis. Clearly, there is an urgent need for small molecule RSV drugs. This article reports the design, synthesis, anti-RSV activity, metabolism, and pharmacokinetics of a series of 4'-substituted cytidine nucleosides. Among tested compounds 4'-chloromethyl-2'-deoxy-2'-fluorocytidine (2c) exhibited the most promising activity in the RSV replicon assay with an EC50 of 0.15 μM. The 5'-triphosphate of 2c (2c-TP) inhibited RSV polymerase with an IC50 of 0.02 μM without appreciable inhibition of human DNA and RNA polymerases at 100 μM. ALS-8176 (71), the 3',5'-di-O-isobutyryl prodrug of 2c, demonstrated good oral bioavailability and a high level of 2c-TP in vivo. Compound 71 is a first-in-class nucleoside RSV polymerase inhibitor that demonstrated excellent anti-RSV efficacy and safety in a phase 2 clinical RSV challenge study. PMID:25667954

  5. The 'offset effect' of mental health treatment on ambulatory medical care utilization and charges. Month-by-month and grouped-month analyses of a five-year study.

    PubMed

    Borus, J F; Olendzki, M C; Kessler, L; Burns, B J; Brandt, U C; Broverman, C A; Henderson, P R

    1985-06-01

    The five-year ambulatory medical care experience of 400 patients with mental disorders was studied to test the "offset" hypothesis that patients receiving timely mental health specialist treatment have lower subsequent utilization of, and charges for, care than patients not receiving such specialist treatment. Specialist treatment was associated with significant offset savings in utilization and charges for the non-psychiatric medical care of treated patients with either severe or less severe mental disorders. However, the visits and charges for such specialist treatment boosted the overall (nonpsychiatric plus mental health specialist) care utilization and charges of the specialist-treated patients above those of patients treated solely by their nonpsychiatric physicians; this overall increase was especially pronounced for patients with severe mental disorders. The findings suggest the need for randomized prospective offset studies comparing utilization, cost, and clinical outcomes. PMID:4004499

  6. Subchronic inhalation toxicity of 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene

    SciTech Connect

    Sasmore, D.P.; Mitoma, C.; Tyson, C.A.; Johnson, J.S.

    1982-10-11

    Male and female rats were exposed to 0, 10, 100 or 1000 ppM of 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene vapors for 6 hours daily, 5 days a week, for up to 13 weeks. After 4 and 13 weeks of exposure, animals were sacrificed and examined for changes in blood, clinical chemistry, internal organs, and tissues resulting from the 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene treatment. No treatment-related effects on the blood and clinical chemistry were evident. The only effects that were considered treatment-related were a squamous metaplasia and hyperplasia in the respiratory epithelium in the nasal passages of high-dose rats and the increased incidence of dried red material on the faces of these rats during exposures compared with other groups.

  7. A 12-Month Prospective, Observational Study of Treatment Regimen and Quality of Life Associated with ADHD in Central and Eastern Europe and Eastern Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetz, Michal; Yeh, Chin-Bin; Ondrejka, Igor; Akay, Aynur; Herczeg, Ilona; Dobrescu, Iuliana; Kim, Boong Nyun; Jin, Xingming; Riley, Anne W.; Martenyi, Ferenc; Harrison, Gavan; Treuer, Tamas

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This prospective, observational, non-randomized study aimed to describe the relationship between treatment regimen prescribed and the quality of life (QoL) of ADHD patients in countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and Eastern Asia over 12 months. Methods: 977 Male and female patients aged 6-17 years seeking treatment for…

  8. Impact of repeated four-monthly anthelmintic treatment on Plasmodium infection in preschool children: a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Helminth infections can alter susceptibility to malaria. Studies need to determine whether or not deworming programs can impact on Plasmodium infections in preschool children. Methods A double-blind placebo-controlled randomised trial was conducted to investigate the impact of anthelmintic treatment on Plasmodium infection in children aged 12-59 months. Children were randomly assigned to receive either albendazole or placebo every four months for 12 months with a follow-up at 14 months. Results 320 children (out of 1228, 26.1%) complied with all the follow-up assessments. Plasmodium prevalence and mean Plasmodium parasite density was significantly higher in the treatment group (44.9% and 2319 ± SE 511) compared to the placebo group (33.3% and 1471 ± 341) at baseline. The odds of having Plasmodium infection increased over time for children in both the placebo and treatment groups, however this increase was significantly slower for children in the treatment group (P = 0.002). By month 14, mean Plasmodium density had increased by 156% in the placebo group and 98% in the treatment group but the rate of change in Plasmodium density was not significantly different between the groups. The change from baseline in haemoglobin had a steeper increase among children in the treatment group when compared to the placebo group but this was not statistically significant. Conclusions Repeated four-monthly anthelminthic treatments for 14 months resulted in a significantly lower increase in the prevalence of Plasmodium infection in preschool children which coincided with a reduction in both the prevalence and intensity of A. lumbricoides infections. Trial Registration Current controlled trials ISRCTN44215995 PMID:20858280

  9. 32 CFR 3.5 - Appropriate use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE ACQUISITION TRANSACTIONS OTHER THAN CONTRACTS, GRANTS, OR COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS FOR PROTOTYPE PROJECTS § 3.5 Appropriate use. In accordance... is participating to a significant extent in the prototype project; or (b) No nontraditional...

  10. 32 CFR 3.5 - Appropriate use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE ACQUISITION TRANSACTIONS OTHER THAN CONTRACTS, GRANTS, OR COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS FOR PROTOTYPE PROJECTS § 3.5 Appropriate use. In accordance... is participating to a significant extent in the prototype project; or (b) No nontraditional...

  11. Water Sourcebook. Grades 3-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee Valley Authority, Knoxville.

    The goal of this supplemental activity guide for elementary students in grades 3-5 is to develop awareness, knowledge, and skills for sound water use decisions. Materials developed for the program are compatible with existing curriculum standards established by State Boards of Education throughout the United States and teach concepts included in…

  12. Patient and program predictors of 12-month outcomes for homeless veterans following discharge from time-limited residential treatment.

    PubMed

    McGuire, James; Rosenheck, Robert A; Kasprow, Wesley J

    2011-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs provides transitional residential treatment to homeless veterans through three types of programs: VA-staffed Domiciliary care, and two types of community-based treatment (one funded through locally managed contracts and the other through national grants). This study compared treatment process and outcomes in these three programs and also sought to identify differences in outcome between dually diagnosed veterans, veterans with substance abuse problems or psychiatric problems alone, and those with no psychiatric diagnoses. Altogether, 1,338 veterans admitted to the 3 types of program were recruited to participate in a prospective naturalistic study which evaluated housing, clinical and community adjustment outcomes during the year following discharge. Data on 1,003 veterans for whom psychiatric diagnostic, social climate and length of stay data were available were used to compare participants in the three program types at baseline. Regression models were used to compare outcomes across program and diagnostic types net of baseline differences between study participants, and of differences in social climate and length of stay. The overall follow-up rate across all time points was 72%. Significant differences across programs were observed on only 2 baseline measures as well as on several baseline values of the outcome measures, length of stay and a measure of social climate. Adjusting for veteran baseline differences alone there were no differences in outcomes by program after correction for multiple comparisons. Dually diagnosed veterans had poorer mental health and overall quality of life outcomes. Longer length of stay and more positive social climate were associated with superior outcomes on several measures. The adjusted mean estimate of the proportion of veterans housed at 12 months follow-up was 78%, similar to published outcomes for supported housing. Length of stay, rather than program funding configuration or

  13. Antiretroviral treatment and quality of life in Africans living with HIV: 12-month follow-up in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Jaquet, Antoine; Garanet, Franck; Balestre, Eric; Ekouevi, Didier K.; Azani, Jean Claude; Bognounou, René; Dah, Elias; Kondombo, Jean Charlemagne; Dabis, François; Drabo, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The scale-up of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has led to a significant improvement in survival of the HIV-positive patient but its effects on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) are less known and context-dependent. Our aim was to assess the temporal changes and factors associated with HRQOL among HIV-positive adults initiating HAART in Burkina Faso. Methods HIV-positive people initiating HAART were prospectively included and followed over a one-year period in three HIV clinics of Ouagadougou. HRQOL was assessed at baseline and at each follow-up visit using physical (PHS) and mental (MHS) summary scores derived from the Medical Outcome Study 36-Item short-form health survey (MOS SF-36) questionnaire. Toxicity related to HAART modification and self-reported symptoms were recorded during follow-up visits. Determinants associated with baseline and changes in both scores over a one-year period were assessed using a mixed linear model. Results A total of 344 patients were included. Their median age at baseline was 37 years [interquartile range (IQR) 30–44] and their median CD4 count was 181 cells/mm3 (IQR 97–269). The mean [standard deviation (SD)] PHS score increased from 45.4 (11.1) at baseline to 60.0 (3.1) at 12 months (p<10−4) and the mean (SD) MHS score from 42.2 (8.7) to 43.9 (3.4) (p<10−2). After one year of treatment, patients that experienced on average two symptoms during follow-up presented with significantly lower PHS (63.9) and MHS (43.8) scores compared to patients that presented no symptoms with PHS and MHS of 68.2 (p<10−4) and 45.3 (p<10−3), respectively. Discussion The use of HAART was associated with a significant increase in both physical and mental aspects of the HRQOL over a 12-month period in this urban African population. Perceived symptoms experienced during follow-up visits were associated with a significant impairment in HRQOL. The appropriate and timely management of reported symptoms during the

  14. Adherence to Occlusion Therapy in the First Six Months of Follow-Up and Visual Acuity among Participants in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study (IATS)

    PubMed Central

    Drews-Botsch, Carolyn D.; Celano, Marianne; Kruger, Stacey; Hartmann, E. Eugenie

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Achieving good vision in infants born with a unilateral cataract is believed to require early surgery and consistent occlusion of the fellow eye. This article examines the relationship between adherence to patching and grating acuity. Methods. Data came from the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study, a randomized clinical trial of treatment for unilateral congenital cataract. Infants were either left aphakic (n = 53) or had an intraocular lens implanted (n = 55). Patching was prescribed 1 hour per day per month of age until 8 months of age and 50% of waking hours thereafter. Adherence was measured as the mean percentage of prescribed patching reported in a 7-day diary completed 2 months after surgery, and 48-hour recall interviews conducted 3 and 6 months after surgery. Grating visual acuity was measured within 1 month of the infant's first birthday (n = 108) using Teller Acuity Cards by a tester masked to treatment. Nonparametric correlations were used to examine the relationship with grating acuity. Results. On average, caregivers reported patching 84.3% (SD = 31.2%) of prescribed time and adherence did not differ by treatment (t = −1.40, df = 106, p = 0.16). Adherence was associated with grating acuity (rSpearman = −0.27, p < 0.01), but more so among pseudophakic (rSpearman = −0.41, p < 0.01) than aphakic infants (rSpearman = −0.10, p = 0.49). Conclusions. This study empirically has shown that adherence to patching during the first 6 months after surgery is associated with better grating visual acuity at 12 months of age after treatment for unilateral cataract and that implanting an intraocular lens is not associated with adherence. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00212134.) PMID:22491410

  15. Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Hexahydro - 1,3,5 - trinitro - 1,3,5 - triazine ( RDX ) ; CASRN 121 - 82 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health

  16. Octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Octahydro - 1,3,5,7 - tetranitro - 1,3,5,7 - tetr . . . ( HMX ) ; CASRN 2691 - 41 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I

  17. Effect of treatment for 6 months with human parathyroid hormone (1-34) peptide in ovariectomized cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Jerome, C P; Johnson, C S; Vafai, H T; Kaplan, K C; Bailey, J; Capwell, B; Fraser, F; Hansen, L; Ramsay, H; Shadoan, M; Lees, C J; Thomsen, J S; Mosekilde, L

    1999-09-01

    A potential negative side effect of intermittent parathyroid hormone (PTH) therapy to treat osteoporosis is the loss of cortical bone concomitant with increased cancellous bone mass. We addressed this issue by studying the effects of PTH on whole-body, axial, and appendicular bone mass in an animal model with haversian cortical bone remodeling. Ovariectomized, young adult female cynomolgus monkeys were assigned to placebo (n = 9) or PTH groups (n = 10). The PTH group received 10 microg/kg synthetic human PTH(1-34) peptide by subcutaneous injection, 3 days/week for 6 months, and the placebo group received vehicle. Multiple endpoints of bone mass, strength, and turnover in the axial and appendicular skeleton were assessed, including dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), quantitative computed tomography (qCT), analysis of serum (calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase) and urinary (calcium and creatinine) biomarkers, histomorphometry, and biomechanical testing. Compared with placebo-treated animals, PTH-treated monkeys had no change in whole-body bone mass, but a 6.7% increase in spinal areal bone mineral density (aBMD) was observed. Cortical bone mass measured by qCT at appendicular sites was not affected by PTH treatment, but there were significant increases in cancellous bone mass in the proximal tibia, and a similar trend in the distal radius. Small, transient increases in serum and urinary calcium were observed, but there were no treatment-related effects on other biochemical endpoints. Increased bone formation rate (BFR/BV) in the midradius and midfemur was accompanied by a nonsignificant increase in midfemur porosity. Increased vertebral cancellous bone volume (BV/TV) was associated with greater trabecular and interstitial thickness with no effect on wall thickness. Increases in bone strength were observed in both axial (vertebral maximum stress and load at fracture) and appendicular (femoral neck

  18. The 3.5-meter telescope enclosure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brady, Michael H.

    1994-04-01

    The 3.5-m telescope enclosure is designed to perform two functions as part of the U.S. Air Force's 3.5-m telescope system: (1) to provide weather and temperature protection when the telescope is not in use and (2) to permit open-air operation of the telescope while minimizing atmospheric disturbances in the field of view (FOV). The use of a standard rotating dome is impractical because of the large telescope and its high rotational rate and acceleration. The enclosure is a 40-ft tall cylinder with a diameter of 72 ft. This steel and aluminum structure does not rotate but collapses vertically to fully expose the telescope to the open air and to provide it with an unobscured view of the horizon at all azimuthal angles. To lessen wind disturbances in the FOV, the enclosure has a moderately sloped roof and smooth, vertical walls. To minimize thermal flow, the outer surface has a high-reflectivity, low-emissivity coating and ambient air is forced through the double-skinned walls and roof. These measures make it possible to keep the enclosure surface temperature near that of the ambient air during viewing. With these features, the enclosure adds minimal degradation to the seeing.

  19. Clinical significance of smear positivity for acid-fast bacilli after ≥5 months of treatment in patients with drug-susceptible pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyung Koo; Jeong, Byeong-Ho; Lee, Hyun; Park, Hye Yun; Jeon, Kyeongman; Huh, Hee Jae; Ki, Chang-Seok; Lee, Nam Yong; Koh, Won-Jung

    2016-08-01

    Patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) with acid-fast bacilli (AFB)-positive sputum smear at 5 months or later during treatment are considered to be cases of treatment failure according to World Health Organization guidelines. This study evaluated the proportion, clinical characteristics, and significance of positive sputum smears after ≥5 months of standard treatment in patients with drug-susceptible pulmonary TB.This was a retrospective cohort study of 1611 patients with culture-confirmed drug-susceptible pulmonary TB who received standard anti-TB treatment from January 2009 to February 2014. Forty-one patients (2.5%) who were smear-positive after ≥5 months of treatment and 123 age- and sex-matched control patients were evaluated.Among the 41 smear-positive patients, culture of the sputum specimens yielded Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in 1 patient (2.4%), nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in 7 (17.1%), and no growth in the remaining 33 patients (80.5%). Treatment was successfully completed in 40 patients (97.6%) with prolongation of the continuation phase regimens without change to second-line anti-TB treatment. In patients with smear positivity after ≥5 months of treatment compared with controls, cavitation on chest radiographs (53.7% vs. 25.2%, P = 0.001), bilateral involvement (51.2% vs. 30.1%, P = 0.01) and combined pleural effusion (26.8% vs. 10.6%, P = 0.01) were found more frequently at the time of treatment initiation, and paradoxical response occurred more commonly (19.5% vs. 3.3%, P = 0.002) during treatment.Smear-positive sputum after ≥5 months of standard anti-TB treatment was mainly because of nonviable MTB bacilli or NTM in patients with drug-susceptible pulmonary TB. AFB smear alone should not be used to assess treatment failure and careful examination of microbiologic status, including culture and drug susceptibility testing, is needed before making changes to retreatment regimens or empirical second-line anti

  20. Clinical significance of smear positivity for acid-fast bacilli after ≥5 months of treatment in patients with drug-susceptible pulmonary tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hyung Koo; Jeong, Byeong-Ho; Lee, Hyun; Park, Hye Yun; Jeon, Kyeongman; Huh, Hee Jae; Ki, Chang-Seok; Lee, Nam Yong; Koh, Won-Jung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) with acid-fast bacilli (AFB)-positive sputum smear at 5 months or later during treatment are considered to be cases of treatment failure according to World Health Organization guidelines. This study evaluated the proportion, clinical characteristics, and significance of positive sputum smears after ≥5 months of standard treatment in patients with drug-susceptible pulmonary TB. This was a retrospective cohort study of 1611 patients with culture-confirmed drug-susceptible pulmonary TB who received standard anti-TB treatment from January 2009 to February 2014. Forty-one patients (2.5%) who were smear-positive after ≥5 months of treatment and 123 age- and sex-matched control patients were evaluated. Among the 41 smear-positive patients, culture of the sputum specimens yielded Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in 1 patient (2.4%), nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in 7 (17.1%), and no growth in the remaining 33 patients (80.5%). Treatment was successfully completed in 40 patients (97.6%) with prolongation of the continuation phase regimens without change to second-line anti-TB treatment. In patients with smear positivity after ≥5 months of treatment compared with controls, cavitation on chest radiographs (53.7% vs. 25.2%, P = 0.001), bilateral involvement (51.2% vs. 30.1%, P = 0.01) and combined pleural effusion (26.8% vs. 10.6%, P = 0.01) were found more frequently at the time of treatment initiation, and paradoxical response occurred more commonly (19.5% vs. 3.3%, P = 0.002) during treatment. Smear-positive sputum after ≥5 months of standard anti-TB treatment was mainly because of nonviable MTB bacilli or NTM in patients with drug-susceptible pulmonary TB. AFB smear alone should not be used to assess treatment failure and careful examination of microbiologic status, including culture and drug susceptibility testing, is needed before making changes to retreatment regimens or empirical second

  1. Microbial degradation and toxicity of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Imran; Lee, Jaejin; Park, Joonhong

    2012-10-01

    In the present work, current knowledge on the potential fate, microbial degradation, and toxicity of hexahydro- 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) was thoroughly reviewed, focusing on the toxicological assessment of a variety of potential RDX degradation pathways in bacteria and fungi. The present review on microbial degradation pathways and toxicities of degradation intermediates suggests that, among aerobic RDX degradation pathways, the one via denitration may be preferred in a toxicological perspective, and that among anaerobic pathways, those forming 4- nitro-2,4-diazabutanal (NDAB) via ring cleavage of 1-nitroso- 3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazinane (MNX) may be toxicologically advantageous owing to its potential mineralization under partial or complete anoxic conditions. These findings provide important information on RDX-degrading microbial pathways, toxicologically most suitable to be stimulated in contaminated fields. PMID:23075780

  2. The Impact and Cost-Effectiveness of a Four-Month Regimen for First-Line Treatment of Active Tuberculosis in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Gwenan M.; Gomez, Gabriela B.; Dodd, Peter J.; Dowdy, David; Zwerling, Alice; Wells, William A.; Cobelens, Frank; Vassall, Anna; White, Richard G.

    2015-01-01

    Background A 4-month first-line treatment regimen for tuberculosis disease (TB) is expected to have a direct impact on patient outcomes and societal costs, as well as an indirect impact on Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission. We aimed to estimate this combined impact in a high TB-burden country: South Africa. Method An individual based M. tb transmission model was fitted to the TB burden of South Africa using a standard TB natural history framework. We measured the impact on TB burden from 2015–2035 of introduction of a non-inferior 4-month regimen replacing the standard 6-month regimen as first-line therapy. Impact was measured with respect to three separate baselines (Guidelines, Policy and Current), reflecting differences in adherence to TB and HIV treatment guidelines. Further scenario analyses considered the variation in treatment-related parameters and resistance levels. Impact was measured in terms of differences in TB burden and Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) averted. We also examined the highest cost at which the new regimen would be cost-effective for several willingness-to-pay thresholds. Results It was estimated that a 4-month regimen would avert less than 1% of the predicted 6 million person years with TB disease in South Africa between 2015 and 2035. A similarly small impact was seen on deaths and DALYs averted. Despite this small impact, with the health systems and patient cost savings from regimen shortening, the 4-month regimen could be cost-effective at $436 [NA, 5983] (mean [range]) per month at a willingness-to-pay threshold of one GDP per capita ($6,618). Conclusion The introduction of a non-inferior 4-month first-line TB regimen into South Africa would have little impact on the TB burden. However, under several scenarios, it is likely that the averted societal costs would make such a regimen cost-effective in South Africa. PMID:26717007

  3. A preliminary 6-month prospective study examining self-reported religious preference, religiosity/spirituality, and retention at a Jewish residential treatment center for substance-related disorders.

    PubMed

    Parhami, Iman; Davtian, Margarit; Collard, Michael; Lopez, Jean; Fong, Timothy W

    2014-07-01

    Although there is a substantial amount of research suggesting that higher levels of religiosity/spirituality (R/S) are associated with better treatment outcomes of substance-related disorders, no studies have explored this relationship at a faith-based residential treatment center. The objective of this prospective study is to explore the relationship between R/S, self-reported religious preference, and retention at a Jewish residential treatment center for substance-related disorders. Using the Daily Spiritual Experience Scale, R/S levels were assessed for 33 subjects at baseline, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months. Results demonstrated a significant relationship between baseline R/S level and retention at 6 months, while R/S levels were unchanged during the course of treatment. Notably, no relationship was found between self-reported religious affiliation and retention. This study demonstrates that patients' R/S level, rather than religious affiliation, is a possible predictor for better outcome at faith-based residential centers for substance-related disorders. PMID:22460083

  4. A Preliminary 6-Month Prospective Study Examining Self-reported Religious Preference, Religiosity/Spirituality, and Retention at a Jewish Residential Treatment Center for Substance-Related Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Davtian, Margarit; Collard, Michael; Lopez, Jean; Fong, Timothy W.

    2012-01-01

    Although there is a substantial amount of research suggesting that higher levels of religiosity/spirituality (R/S) are associated with better treatment outcomes of substance-related disorders, no studies have explored this relationship at a faith-based residential treatment center. The objective of this prospective study is to explore the relationship between R/S, self-reported religious preference, and retention at a Jewish residential treatment center for substance-related disorders. Using the Daily Spiritual Experience Scale, R/S levels were assessed for 33 subjects at baseline, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months. Results demonstrated a significant relationship between baseline R/S level and retention at 6 months, while R/S levels were unchanged during the course of treatment. Notably, no relationship was found between self-reported religious affiliation and retention. This study demonstrates that patients’ R/S level, rather than religious affiliation, is a possible predictor for better outcome at faith-based residential centers for substance-related disorders. PMID:22460083

  5. Field trial on efficacy of supervised monthly dose of 600 mg rifampin, 400 mg ofloxacin and 100 mg minocycline for the treatment of leprosy; first results.

    PubMed

    Mane, I; Cartel, J L; Grosset, J H

    1997-06-01

    In 1995, a field trial was implemented in Senegal in order to evaluate the efficacy of a regimen based on the monthly supervised intake of rifampin 600 mg, ofloxacin 400 mg and minocycline 100 mg to treat leprosy. During the first year of the trial, 220 patients with active leprosy (newly detected or relapsing after dapsone monotherapy) were recruited: 102 paucibacillary (PB) (60 males and 42 females) and 118 multibacillary (MB) (71 males and 47 females). All of them accepted the new treatment (none requested to be preferably put under standard WHO/MDT), no clinical sign which could be considered as a toxic effect of the drug was noted, and none of the patients refused to continue treatment because of any clinical trouble. The compliance was excellent: the 113 patients (PB and MB) detected during the first 6 months of the trial have taken six monthly doses in 6 months, as planned. The rate of clearance and the progressive decrease of cutaneous lesions was satisfactory. Although it is too soon to give comprehensive results, it should be noted that no treatment failure was observed in the 56 PB patients who have completed treatment and have been followed up for 6 months. The long-term efficacy of the new regimen is to be evaluated on the rate of relapse during the years following the cessation of treatment. If that relapse rate is acceptable (similar to that observed in patients after treatment with current standard WHO/ MDT), the new regimen could be a solution to treat, for instance, patients very irregular and/or living in remote or inaccessible areas since no selection of rifampin-resistant Mycobacterium leprae should be possible (a monthly dose of ofloxacin and minocycline being as effective as a dose of dapsone and clofazimine taken daily for 1 month). Nevertheless, until longer term results of this and other trials become available, there is no justification for any change in the treatment strategy, and all leprosy patients should be put under standard WHO

  6. Substituted pyrazoles as hepatoselective HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors: discovery of (3R,5R)-7-[2-(4-fluoro-phenyl)-4-isopropyl-5-(4-methyl-benzylcarbamoyl)-2H-pyrazol-3-yl]-3,5-dihydroxyheptanoic acid (PF-3052334) as a candidate for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Pfefferkorn, Jeffrey A; Choi, Chulho; Larsen, Scott D; Auerbach, Bruce; Hutchings, Richard; Park, William; Askew, Valerie; Dillon, Lisa; Hanselman, Jeffrey C; Lin, Zhiwu; Lu, Gina H; Robertson, Andrew; Sekerke, Catherine; Harris, Melissa S; Pavlovsky, Alexander; Bainbridge, Graeme; Caspers, Nicole; Kowala, Mark; Tait, Bradley D

    2008-01-10

    In light of accumulating evidence that aggressive LDL-lowering therapy may offer increased protection against coronary heart disease, we undertook the design and synthesis of a novel series of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors based upon a substituted pyrazole template. Optimizing this series using both structure-based design and molecular property considerations afforded a class of highly efficacious and hepatoselective inhibitors resulting in the identification of (3 R,5 R)-7-[2-(4-fluoro-phenyl)-4-isopropyl-5-(4-methyl-benzylcarbamoyl)-2 H-pyrazol-3-yl]-3,5-dihydroxy-heptanoic (PF-3052334) as a candidate for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. PMID:18072721

  7. The effects of dexamethasone treatment in early gestation on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal responses and gene expression at 7 months of postnatal age in sheep.

    PubMed

    Li, Shaofu; Nitsos, Ilias; Polglase, Graeme R; Braun, Thorsten; Moss, Timothy J M; Newnham, John P; Challis, John R G

    2012-03-01

    We determined the effects of prenatal dexamethasone administration in early gestation on development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis up to 7 months of postnatal age with measurements of hormone levels and gene expression. Plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol levels after corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)/arginine vasopressin challenge were lower in treatment females than in control females and treatment males. Calculation of cortisol to adrenocorticotropic hormone ratios indicated however that the adrenals of treatment females were more responsive to adrenocorticotropic hormone than control females or treatment males. Effects of treatment and sex dependence at 7 months of age were observed in levels of hypothalamic CRH messenger RNA (mRNA), hypothalamic arginine vasopressin mRNA, pituitary proopiomelanocortin mRNA, pituitary prohormone convertase 1 and prohormone convertase 2, glucocorticoid receptor and mineralocorticoid receptor in the hypothalamus and hippocampus, adrenal adrenocorticotropic hormone receptor, steroidogenic acute regulatory, 3β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, and 11β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 mRNA. The results indicate that exposure to glucocorticoids in early pregnancy produces persisting and sex-dependent effects on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis at 7 months of age. PMID:22101239

  8. Pretreatment regional brain glucose uptake in the midbrain on PET may predict remission from a major depressive episode after three months of treatment.

    PubMed

    Milak, Matthew S; Parsey, Ramin V; Lee, Leilani; Oquendo, Maria A; Olvet, Doreen M; Eipper, Francoise; Malone, Kevin; Mann, J John

    2009-07-15

    In order to test the hypotheses that pretreatment metabolic activity in the midbrain and the rostral anterior cingulate may predict remission in response to medications enhancing monoaminergic transmission, we compared relative regional cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (rCMRglu) using positron emission tomography (PET) in medication-free patients with major depression who remitted after 3 months of monoaminergic medication, with non-remitters on the same treatment. [(18)F]-FDG PET was conducted in a group of 33 drug-free DSM-IV major depression subjects prior to antidepressant treatment. Patients were prescribed paroxetine initially (61%) unless they had failed paroxetine previously. Treatment was then managed by the subjects' own physician with 91% receiving a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and 78% another non-selective monoamine reuptake inhibitor during the 3 months of treatment. Voxel-based parametric brain maps of remitters were compared with maps of non-remitters using SPM2. Remission was defined as a >50% decrease in and a final score of treatment remitters have lower activity in a single contiguous brain region (with global maxima in the midbrain, cluster level P=0.013, corrected for multiple comparison (CMC)), prior to treatment, compared with non-remitters to 3 months of community-based monoaminergic antidepressant treatment. Degree of improvement correlated with pretreatment midbrain activity. Pretreatment clinical picture and intensity of treatment did not distinguish remitters. No other area of the brain showed a significant difference between remitters and non-remitters even with CMC completely disabled. Lower relative regional brain activity in the region of monoaminergic nuclei prior to treatment predicts remission in response to 3 months of antidepressant treatment, despite no clinical differences at baseline and no difference in treatment intensity. Brain imaging is a

  9. Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine translocation in poplar trees

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, P.L.; Ramer, L.A.; Schnoor, J.L.

    1999-02-01

    This article evaluates the translocation of the explosive hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in hybrid poplar trees (Populus deltoides x nigra, DN34) grown in hydroponic solutions. Mass balances with [U-{sup 14}C]RDX were used to assess RDX translocation. Up to 60% of the RDX uptaken by the tree accumulated in leaf tissues. Analysis of plant extracts by high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with radiochemical detection indicated that RDX was not significantly transformed during exposure periods of up to 7 d. The bioaccumulation of RDX may be an important concern for phytoremediation efforts.

  10. 1,3,5-Hydroxybenzene structures in mosses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, M.A.; Sawyer, J.; Hatcher, P.G.; Lerch, H. E., III

    1989-01-01

    A number of mosses from widely different families have been studied by cross polarization solid state 13C NMR spectroscopy. Although polysaccharide-type materials dominate the NMR spectra, significant amounts of aromatic carbons are observed in some mosses. Some of this material can be removed by ultrasonic bath treatment, and is lignin derived, probably from impurities from fine root material from associated higher plants. However other material is truly moss-derived and appears to be from 1,3,5-hydroxybenzene structures. This is inconsistent with lignin as being a component of mosses, and suggests a tannin or hydroxybenzofuran polymer is responsible for moss rigidity. ?? 1989.

  11. The Effects of Six-Month L-Thyroxine Treatment on Cognitive Functions and Event-Related Brain Potentials in Children with Subclinical Hypothyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Sangün, Özlem; Demirci, Serpil; Dündar, Nihal; Pirgon, Özgür; Koca, Tuğba; Doğan, Melike; Dündar, Bumin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the cognitive status of children with subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) before and after L-thyroxine (L-T4) treatment using event-related potentials (ERPs) and neuropsychological tests. Methods: This prospective study was conducted on a series of 20 children with mild SH (free T4 normal and thyroid-stimulating hormone level within 5-10 µIU/L) who underwent clinical and cognitive assessment before L-T4 treatment and 6 months afterwards. The recordings of ERPs were done at the time of diagnosis and after 6 months of euthyroid state. Neuropsychiatric tests for attention, perception, close and remote memory were performed on all patients and on the control group which consisted of 20 healthy children of normal intelligence. Results: While pretreatment verbal memory (VM) and verbal recall (VR) scores of the SH group were significantly lower than those of the control group (p=0.004 and 0.012, respectively), no significant differences between the post-treatment and control groups were found in these scores after 6 months of L-T4 treatment. Post-treatment VM and VR scores were significantly higher than the pretreatment scores in the SH group (p=0.008 and p=0.0001). There were no significant differences between the pre-and post-treatment values of electrophysiological evaluation in N1, P2, P3 latencies or P3 amplitude (p>0.05), although there was a significant decrease in N2 latency in the post-treatment group (p=0.03). Conclusion: SH affects cognition in children and L-T4 replacement therapy leads to normalization of cognitive functions. Neuropsychological tests can be used as complementary measures in the evaluation of children with SH. Determining the association between ERPs and SH would contribute to the comprehensive evaluation of these children. PMID:26316431

  12. Expectation and Anticipation of Dynamic Visual Events by 3.5-Month-Old Babies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haith, Marshall M.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Findings indicate that infants can detect regularity in spatiotemporal series; will develop expectancies for events in the series; and will act on the basis of those expectancies even when their actions have no effect on the stimulus events. (PCB)

  13. 3.5 D temperature model of a coal stockpile

    SciTech Connect

    Ozdeniz, A.H.; Corumluoglu, O.; Kalayci, I.; Sensogut, C.

    2008-07-01

    Overproduced coal mines that are not sold should remain in coal stock sites. If these coal stockpiles remain at the stock yards over a certain period of time, a spontaneous combustion can be started. Coal stocks under combustion threat can cost too much economically to coal companies. Therefore, it is important to take some precautions for saving the stockpiles from the spontaneous combustion. In this research, a coal stock which was 5 m wide, 10 m long, and 3 m in height, with a weight of 120 tons, was monitored to observe internal temperature changes with respect to time under normal atmospheric conditions. Internal temperature measurements were obtained at 20 points distributed all over the two layers in the stockpile. Temperatures measured by a specially designed mechanism were then stored into a computer every 3 h for a period of 3 months. Afterward, this dataset was used to delineate 3.5 D temporal temperature distribution models for these two levels, and they were used to analyze and interpret what was seen in these models to derive some conclusions. It was openly seen, followed, and analyzed that internal temperature changes in the stockpile went up to 31{sup o}C by 3.5 D models created for this research.

  14. Suicide Behavior Before and After the Start with Antidepressants: A High Persistent Risk in the First Month of Treatment Among the Young

    PubMed Central

    Palmen, Saskia JM; Heerdink, Eibert R

    2016-01-01

    Background: A causal relationship between antidepressants (ADs) and a high risk of suicidal behavior at a young age has been suggested. We analyzed the rates of suicide attempts during treatment with AD in comparison with the rates before treatment initiation for different ages. Methods: Claims of insurance company Achmea were linked to the population registry of Statistics Netherlands. Episodes of AD use were defined for those with their first registered prescription in 2006–2011 (n = 66,196). Rates were analyzed in a Poisson model. Correlates of attempts in the first month of AD use were assessed in a logistic model. Results: Among those aged <25 years, a high rate of suicide attempts during the month before the start of ADs was found (376.3/10 000 person yrs). A non-significant increase in the first month (p = 0.212) was found and a non-significant trend to lower values was determined thereafter (p = 0.3050). Among those ≧25 years, a clear decrease to lower rates immediately after the start was observed (p < 0.025). The highest rates of suicide were found among those >40 years during the first month. Female gender was, but treatment characteristics were not, associated with early attempts at a young age. Conclusions: Among young AD users, a high pre-treatment risk of suicide attempts was present and persisted during the early phases after the start. This contrasted with the clear decrease in risk among those aged ≧25 years, suggesting lower effectiveness of ADs to prevent suicidal behavior at young ages. Caution should be exercised to infer a causal relationship or to use data on attempts to predict risk of suicide during AD use. PMID:26188343

  15. Water Filtration. Grades 3-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushton, Erik; Ryan, Emily; Swift, Charles

    One of our most valuable and often overlooked resources is water. We can survive for a couple of weeks without food but only a few days without water. Having clean water to drink is a luxury. The water that comes out of our faucets does not always start off safe to drink. Most often it has visited a treatment plant prior to reaching our glasses.…

  16. Repairing the Brain by SCF+G-CSF Treatment at 6 Months Postexperimental Stroke: Mechanistic Determination of the Causal Link Between Neurovascular Regeneration and Motor Functional Recovery.

    PubMed

    Cui, Lili; Wang, Dandan; McGillis, Sandra; Kyle, Michele; Zhao, Li-Ru

    2016-06-01

    Stroke, a leading cause of adult disability in the world, is a severe medical condition with limited treatment. Physical therapy, the only treatment available for stroke rehabilitation, appears to be effective within 6 months post-stroke. Here, we have mechanistically determined the efficacy of combined two hematopoietic growth factors, stem cell factor (SCF) and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF; SCF + G-CSF), in brain repair 6 months after cortical infarct induction in the transgenic mice carrying yellow fluorescent protein in Layer V pyramidal neurons (Thy1-YFP-H). Using a combination of live brain imaging, whole brain imaging, molecular manipulation, synaptic and vascular assessments, and motor function examination, we found that SCF + G-CSF promoted mushroom spine formation, enlarged postsynaptic membrane size, and increased postsynaptic density-95 accumulation and blood vessel density in the peri-infarct cavity cortex; and that SCF + G-CSF treatment improved motor functional recovery. The SCF + G-CSF-enhanced motor functional recovery was dependent on the synaptic and vascular regeneration in the peri-infarct cavity cortex. These data suggest that a stroke-damaged brain is repairable by SCF + G-CSF even 6 months after the lesion occurs. This study provides novel insights into the development of new restorative strategies for stroke recovery. PMID:27511907

  17. Clinical evaluation of subepithelial connective tissue graft and guided tissue regeneration for treatment of Miller’s class 1 gingival recession (comparative, split mouth, six months study)

    PubMed Central

    Bhavsar, Neeta-V.; Dulani, Kirti; Trivedi, Rahul

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The present study aims to clinically compare and evaluate subepithelial connective tissue graft and the GTR based root coverage in treatment of Miller’s Class I gingival recession. Study Design: 30 patients with at least one pair of Miller’s Class I gingival recession were treated either with Subepithelial connective tissue graft (Group A) or Guided tissue regeneration (Group B). Clinical parameters monitored included recession RD, width of keratinized gingiva (KG), probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), attached gingiva (AG), residual probing depth (RPD) and % of Root coverage(%RC). Measurements were taken at baseline, three months and six months. A standard surgical procedure was used for both Group A and Group B. Data were recorded and statistical analysis was done for both intergroup and intragroup. Results: At end of six months % RC obtained were 84.47% (Group A) and 81.67% (Group B). Both treatments resulted in statistically significant improvement in clinical parameters. When compared, no statistically significant difference was found between both groups except in RPD, where it was significantly greater in Group A. Conclusions: GTR technique has advantages over subepithelial connective tissue graft for shallow Miller’s Class I defects and this procedure can be used to avoid patient discomfort and reduce treatment time. Key words:Collagen membrane, comparative split mouth study, gingival recession, subepithelial connective tissue graft, guided tissue regeneration (GTR). PMID:25136420

  18. Long-term efficacy and safety results of taliglucerase alfa up to 36 months in adult treatment-naïve patients with Gaucher disease.

    PubMed

    Zimran, Ari; Durán, Gloria; Mehta, Atul; Giraldo, Pilar; Rosenbaum, Hanna; Giona, Fiorina; Amato, Dominick J; Petakov, Milan; Muñoz, Eduardo Terreros; Solorio-Meza, Sergio Eduardo; Cooper, Peter A; Varughese, Sheeba; Chertkoff, Raul; Brill-Almon, Einat

    2016-07-01

    Taliglucerase alfa is an intravenous enzyme replacement therapy approved for treatment of type 1 Gaucher disease (GD), and is the first available plant cell-expressed recombinant therapeutic protein. Herein, we report long-term safety and efficacy results of taliglucerase alfa in treatment-naïve adult patients with GD. Patients were randomized to receive taliglucerase alfa 30 or 60 U/kg every other week, and 23 patients completed 36 months of treatment. Taliglucerase alfa (30 U/kg; 60 U/kg, respectively) resulted in mean decreases in spleen volume (50.1%; 64.6%) and liver volume (25.6%; 24.4%) with mean increases in hemoglobin concentration (16.0%; 35.8%) and platelet count (45.7%; 114.0%), and mean decreases in chitotriosidase activity (71.5%; 82.2%). All treatment-related adverse events were mild to moderate in intensity and transient. The most common adverse events were nasopharyngitis, arthralgia, upper respiratory tract infection, headache, pain in extremity, and hypertension. These 36-month results of taliglucerase alfa in treatment-naïve adult patients with GD demonstrate continued improvement in disease parameters with no new safety concerns. These findings extend the taliglucerase alfa clinical safety and efficacy dataset. www.clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT00705939. Am. J. Hematol. 91:656-660, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27174694

  19. Efficacy of integrated school based de-worming and prompt malaria treatment on helminths -Plasmodium falciparum co-infections: A 33 months follow up study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The geographical congruency in distribution of helminths and Plasmodium falciparum makes polyparasitism a common phenomenon in Sub Saharan Africa. The devastating effects of helminths-Plasmodium co-infections on primary school health have raised global interest for integrated control. However little is known on the feasibility, timing and efficacy of integrated helminths-Plasmodium control strategies. A study was conducted in Zimbabwe to evaluate the efficacy of repeated combined school based antihelminthic and prompt malaria treatment. Methods A cohort of primary schoolchildren (5-17 years) received combined Praziquantel, albendazole treatment at baseline, and again during 6, 12 and 33 months follow up surveys and sustained prompt malaria treatment. Sustained prompt malaria treatment was carried out throughout the study period. Children's infection status with helminths, Plasmodium and helminths-Plasmodium co-infections was determined by parasitological examinations at baseline and at each treatment point. The prevalence of S. haematobium, S. mansoni, STH, malaria, helminths-Plasmodium co-infections and helminths infection intensities before and after treatment were analysed. Results Longitudinal data showed that two rounds of combined Praziquantel and albendazole treatment for schistosomiasis and STHs at 6 monthly intervals and sustained prompt malaria treatment significantly reduced the overall prevalence of S. haematobium, S. mansoni, hookworms and P. falciparum infection in primary schoolchildren by 73.5%, 70.8%, 67.3% and 58.8% respectively (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p < 0.001 respectively). More importantly, the prevalence of STH + schistosomes, P. f + schistosomes, and P. f + STHs + schistosomes co-infections were reduced by 68.0%, 84.2%, and 90.7%, respectively. The absence of anti-helminthic treatment between the 12 mth and 33 mth follow-up surveys resulted in the sharp increase in STHs + schistosomes co-infection from 3.3% at 12 months

  20. Blood lipids and adipokines concentrations during a 6-month nutritional and physical activity intervention for metabolic syndrome treatment

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background To report changes in body weight, total and central fat mass, metabolic, hormonal and inflammatory parameters in overweight people who participated in a six months weight loss intervention associating diet management and exercise. Subjects and Methods Fourteen subjects (10 M, 4 F, mean age 62.9 ± 6.9 years, BMI 30.4+/- 3.8 kg/m2) presenting the characteristics of the Metabolic Syndrome (MS) were included in the survey. They followed a three weeks (D0 to D20) cure in a medical establishment and a six months (D20 to M3 and M6) follow up at home. During the cure, they receive a balanced diet corresponding to 500 Kcal deficit vs their dayly energy expenditure (DEE) and they exercised 2 to 3 hours per day. At D0, D20, M3 and M6, body composition (lean mass, total and central fat mass) was analyzed with DEXA, blood pressure was taken and blood was collected to evaluate glycaemia, triglycerides, total, LDL and HDL cholesterol, insulin, leptin and adiponectin levels, CRP and pro-inflammatory interleukines IL1, IL.6 and TNFalpha. Results All parameters listed above except the cytokine were improved at D20, so that 4 subjects among 14 still presented the MS. After returning to home, these parameters remained stable. Conclusion The efficacy of therapeutic lifestyle modifications with education and exercise and diet was demonstrated, but the compliance to the new healthy lifestyle initiated during the cure was not optimal. PMID:21194421

  1. Comparison of treatment outcomes in severe personality disorder patients with or without substance use disorders: a 36-month prospective pragmatic follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Lana, Fernando; Sánchez-Gil, Carmen; Adroher, Núria D; Pérez, Víctor; Feixas, Guillem; Martí-Bonany, Josep; Torrens, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Background Concurrent personality disorder (PD) and substance use disorder (SUD) are common in clinical practice. However, SUD is the main criterion for study exclusion in most psychotherapeutic studies of PD. As a result, data on treatment outcomes in patients with concurrent PD/SUD are scarce. Methods The study sample consisted of 51 patients diagnosed with severe PD and admitted for psychotherapeutic treatment as a part of routine mental health care. All patients were diagnosed with PD according to the Structured Clinical Interview for PD. Patients were further assessed (DSM-IV diagnostic criteria) to check for the presence of concurrent SUD, with 28 patients diagnosed with both disorders (PD-SUD). These 28 cases were then compared to the 23 patients without SUD (PD-nSUD) in terms of psychiatric hospitalizations and psychiatric emergency room (ER) visits before and during the 6-month therapeutic intervention and every 6 months thereafter for a total of 36 months. Results The baseline clinical characteristics correspond to a sample of PD patients (78% met DSM-IV criteria for borderline PD) with poor general functioning and a high prevalence of suicide attempts and self-harm behaviors. Altogether, the five outcome variables – the proportion and the number of psychiatric inpatient admissions, the number of days hospitalized, and the proportion and the number of psychiatric ER visits – improved significantly during the treatment period, and this improvement was maintained throughout the follow-up period. Although PD-SUD patients had more psychiatric hospitalizations and ER visits than PD-nSUD patients during follow-up, the differences between these two groups remained stable over the study period indicating that the treatment was equally effective in both groups. Conclusion Specialized psychotherapy for severe PD can be effectively applied in patients with concurrent PD-SUD under usual practice conditions. These findings suggest that exclusion of patients with

  2. Association of blood eosinophils and plasma periostin with FEV1 response after 3-month inhaled corticosteroid and long-acting beta2-agonist treatment in stable COPD patients

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hye Yun; Lee, Hyun; Koh, Won-Jung; Kim, Seonwoo; Jeong, Ina; Koo, Hyeon-Kyoung; Kim, Tae-Hyung; Kim, Jin Woo; Kim, Woo Jin; Oh, Yeon-Mok; Sin, Don D; Lim, Seong Yong; Lee, Sang-Do

    2016-01-01

    Background COPD patients with increased airway eosinophilic inflammation show a favorable response to inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) in combination with a long-acting bronchodilator. Recent studies have demonstrated a significant correlation of sputum eosinophilia with blood eosinophils and periostin. We investigated whether high blood eosinophils and plasma periostin were associated with an improvement in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) after 3-month treatment with ICS/long-acting beta2-agonist (LABA) in stable COPD patients. Patients and methods Blood eosinophils and plasma periostin levels were measured in 130 stable COPD subjects selected from the Korean Obstructive Lung Disease cohort. Subjects began a 3-month ICS/LABA treatment after washout period. Results High blood eosinophils (>260/µL, adjusted odds ratio =3.52, P=0.009) and high plasma periostin (>23 ng/mL, adjusted odds ratio =3.52, P=0.013) were significantly associated with FEV1 responders (>12% and 200 mL increase in FEV1 from baseline after treatment). Moreover, the addition of high blood eosinophils to age, baseline positive bronchodilator response, and FEV1 <50% of the predicted value significantly increased the area under the curve for prediction of FEV1 responders (from 0.700 to 0.771; P=0.045). Conclusion High blood eosinophils and high plasma periostin were associated with improved lung function after 3-month ICS/LABA treatment. In particular, high blood eosinophils, in combination with age and baseline lung function parameters, might be a possible biomarker for identification of COPD patients with favorable FEV1 improvement in response to ICS/LABA treatment. PMID:26730185

  3. Maintenance treatment of renal anaemia in haemodialysis patients with methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta versus darbepoetin alfa administered monthly: a randomized comparative trial

    PubMed Central

    Carrera, Fernando; Lok, Charmaine E.; de Francisco, Angel; Locatelli, Francesco; Mann, Johannes F.E.; Canaud, Bernard; Kerr, Peter G.; Macdougall, Iain C.; Besarab, Anatole; Villa, Giuseppe; Kazes, Isabelle; Van Vlem, Bruno; Jolly, Shivinder; Beyer, Ulrich; Dougherty, Frank C.

    2010-01-01

    Background. Several studies with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents claim that maintenance therapy of renal anaemia may be possible at extended dosing intervals; however, few studies were randomized, results varied, and comparisons between agents were absent. We report results of a multi-national, randomized, prospective trial comparing haemoglobin maintenance with methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta and darbepoetin alfa administered once monthly. Methods. Haemodialysis patients (n = 490) on stable once-weekly intravenous darbepoetin alfa were randomized to methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta once monthly or darbepoetin alfa every 2 weeks for 26 weeks, with dose adjustment for individual haemoglobin target (11–13 g/dL; maximum decrease from baseline 1 g/dL). Subsequently, patients entered a second 26-week period of once-monthly methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta and darbepoetin alfa. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients who maintained average haemoglobin ≥10.5 g/dL, with a decrease from baseline ≤1 g/dL, in Weeks 50–53; the secondary endpoint was dose change over time. The trial is registered at www.ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00394953. Results. Baseline characteristics were similar between groups. One hundred and fifty-seven of 245 patients treated with methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta and 99 of 245 patients with darbepoetin alfa met the response definition (64.1% and 40.4%; P < 0.0001). Doses increased by 6.8% with methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta and 58.8% with darbepoetin alfa during once-monthly treatment. Death rates were equal between treatments (5.7%). Most common adverse events included hypertension, procedural hypotension, nasopharyngitis and muscle spasms, with no differences between groups. Conclusions. Methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta maintained target haemoglobin more successfully than darbepoetin alfa at once-monthly dosing intervals despite dose increases with darbepoetin alfa

  4. 14-day prulifloxacin treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis in women with recurrent urinary tract infections: a prospective, open-label, pilot trial with 6-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Cai, T; Mazzoli, S; Nesi, G; Boddi, V; Mondaini, N; Bartoletti, R

    2009-11-01

    Recurrent urinary tract infections (UTI) are very common in otherwise healthy young women, and can have a very negative social and economic impact. In order to evaluate the tolerability and efficacy of a 14-day course of prulifloxacin orally administered once daily, 51 young female patients, attending the same STD center between may and June 2007 for symptoms of cystitis, with a history of recurrent UTI and urine culture positive for uropathogens, were enrolled in this prospective study. Microbiological and clinical efficacy was tested over three follow-up visits at 1, 3 and 6 months. Quality of life (QoL) was measured and the impact of prulifloxacin in modifying the Lactobacillus vaginal flora was also evaluated. At baseline, the pathogens most commonly isolated were Enterococcus faecalis (43.2%) and Escherichia coli (27.5%). 41 of the 51 women, (80.3%) had Lactobacillus spp. in vaginal samples at baseline. microbiological results at follow-up examinations were as follows: after 1 month, 47 patients were recurrence-free and 4 had recurrence; after 3 months, 41 were recurrence-free, while 6 reported recurrence; finally, after 6 months, 36 were recurrence-free and 5 had recurrence. A statistically significant difference was reported between the QoL questionnaire mean scores at baseline (0.63), 1 (0.77), 3 (0.77) and 6 months (0.78) after treatment (all p<0.001). the vaginal swab cultures demonstrated that Lactobacillus spp. flora was maintained in 38 out of the 41 (92.6%) patients who had positive vaginal swab sample at baseline. in conclusion, a 14-day administration of prulifloxacin 600 mg is a safe, well tolerated and effective treatment for the management of UTI in young women. PMID:19933045

  5. Treatment of menopausal symptoms with three low-dose continuous sequential 17β-estradiol/progesterone parenteral monthly formulations using novel non-polymeric microsphere technology

    PubMed Central

    Cortés-Bonilla, Manuel; Bernardo-Escudero, Roberto; Alonso-Campero, Rosalba; Francisco-Doce, María T.; Hernández-Valencia, Marcelino; Celis-González, Cuauhtémoc; Márquez-Oñate, Ricardo; Chedraui, Peter; Uribe, Juan A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To analyze the short-term efficacy and safety over menopausal symptoms of three low-dose continuous sequential 17β-estradiol (E)/progesterone (P) parental monthly formulations using novel non-polymeric microspheres. Methods: This was a multicenter, randomized, single blinded study in which peri- and postmenopausal women were assigned to receive a monthly intramuscular injection of 0.5 mg E + 15 mg P (Group A, n = 34), 1 mg E + 20 mg P (Group B, n = 24) or 1 mg E + 30 mg P (Group C, n = 26) for 6 months. Primary efficacy endpoints included mean change in the frequency and severity of hot flushes and the effect over urogenital atrophy symptoms at 3 and 6 months. Safety variables included changes in the rate of amenorrhea, endometrial thickness and histopathology, and local and systemic adverse events. Results: Compared to baseline at month 6, the three treatment schemes significantly decreased the rate of urogenital atrophy symptoms and the frequency (mean number per day) and severity (mean number graded as moderate and severe per month) of hot flushes. No differences in studied efficacy parameters were observed between studied groups at baseline or at the end of the study. For all groups the most frequent adverse event was pain at the injection site; however they were all rated as mild. At the end of the study peri- and postmenopausal women displayed no significant changes in endometrial thickness or histopathology in all treated groups. The rate of amenorrhea at the end of the study decreased for all studied groups yet was less evident among postmenopausal women as compared to perimenopausal ones. Conclusions: The three low-dose continuous sequential intramuscular monthly treatments of E/P using novel microsphere technology were effective at reducing menopausal symptoms at short-term with a low rate of adverse events. More long-term and comparative research is warranted to support our positive findings

  6. Twelve-Month Follow-up Results of Photoselective Vaporization of the Prostate With a 980-nm Diode Laser for Treatment of Benign Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Youngho; Kim, In Gon; Han, Bo Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study was conducted with the use of 12 months of follow-up data to evaluate the efficacy of photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP) with the 980-nm diode laser for the treatment of symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Materials and Methods The clinical data of 84 men with symptomatic BPH who underwent PVP with the 980-nm K2 diode laser between March 2010 and October 2011 were retrospectively analyzed. Postoperative parameters, including International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), quality of life (QoL) score, maximum urinary flow rate (Qmax), and postvoid residual volume (PVR), were assessed and compared with preoperative baseline values. Results Mean patient age was 72.4±6.5 years, and mean preoperative prostate volume was 47.2±16.3 g. Mean operative time was 23.3±19.1 minutes, and total amount of energy was 128±85 kJ. Mean catheterization time was 23.7±5.9 hours. At 1 month, significant improvements were noted in IPSS (11.5±6.8), QoL score (2.2±1.3), Qmax (12.9±6.5 mL/s), and PVR (41.2±31.3 mL). Three months after surgery, all postoperative follow-up parameters showed significant improvements, and the 6- and 12-month data showed sustained improvement of postoperative follow-up parameters. Bladder neck strictures were observed in 10.7% of the patients and urge incontinence in 16.6%. Conclusions PVP using a K2 diode laser is an effective procedure for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to BPH. PVP leads to an immediate and sustained improvement of subjective and objective voiding parameters. Surgeons should be vigilant for postoperative bladder neck stricture and urge incontinence. PMID:24175041

  7. Comparative clinical evaluation of laterally positioned pedicle graft and subepithelial connective tissue graft in the treatment of Miller's Class I and II gingival recession: A 6 months study

    PubMed Central

    Dulani, Kirti Satish; Bhavsar, Neeta Vijay; Trivedi, Sakshee Rahul; Trivedi, Rahul Anil

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of the study was to compare clinical outcomes of laterally positioned pedicle graft (LPPG) and subepithelial connective tissue graft (SCTG) for treatment of Miller's Class I and II gingival recession defects, at the end of 6 months. Materials and Methods: Sixty Miller's Class I or II gingival recession defects (≥3 mm) (n = 30 each) on the labial aspect of anterior teeth were treated by either of the above techniques. Clinical parameters including recession depth (RD), width of keratinized gingiva (WKG), percentage of root coverage (%RC), and complete RC were recorded at baseline and 6 months postoperatively. Data were recorded and statistical analysis was done for both intergroup and intragroup. Statistical Analysis Used: Paired t-test intragroup and Student's t-test intergroup. Results: In LPPG, RD decreased from 4.9 ± 0.99 mm to 1.1 ± 0.3 mm and WKG increased from 0.7 ± 0.87 to 4.5 ± 0.86 mm at 6 months, while in SCTG, RD decreased from 4.67 ± 1.12 mm to 0.46 ± 0.68 mm and WKG increased from 1.1 ± 0.99 to 5.33 ± 0.72 mm at 6 months postoperatively. The values of the soft tissue coverage remained stable for 6 months. Conclusions: Highly significant and effective soft tissue coverage was obtained by both techniques. LPPG resulted in effective soft tissue coverage for isolated deep narrow defects while SCTG in isolated and multiple, deep narrow and wide defects. PMID:26941517

  8. A 12-month, open-label, comparative study of quetiapine and risperidone in the acute and long-term treatment of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Perez, Victor; Cañas, Fernando; Tafalla, Monica

    2008-05-01

    This multicentre, observational, prospective, nonrandomized study compared the effectiveness and tolerability of quetiapine and risperidone in the acute and long-term treatment of schizophrenia in a clinical setting. Patients admitted to an acute unit with schizophrenia, schizophreniform or schizoaffective disorder (DSM-IV), who were prescribed quetiapine or risperidone (3 : 1 ratio) within the first week of treatment, according to the physician's usual practice, were recruited. In total, 492 patients (quetiapine: 367; risperidone: 125) were followed up at weeks 1 and 2, discharge and 6 and 12 months thereafter. Mean doses at 12 months were: quetiapine 718.5 mg/day and risperidone 7.0 mg/day. Efficacy measures (Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, Clinical Global Impression Severity of Illness and Improvement) indicated similar results for both agents. No difference was found in rehospitalization rate with either drug. In terms of tolerability, orthostatic hypotension was more frequent with quetiapine, but extrapyramidal symptoms and male sexual dysfunction were more frequent with risperidone. In conclusion, quetiapine and risperidone had comparable effectiveness, but there were differences between treatments in their side effect profile. PMID:18408528

  9. Water quality criteria for hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX)

    SciTech Connect

    Etnier, E.L.

    1989-04-01

    The occurrence of the munitions compound hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in groundwater surrounding Army ammunition plants may result in contamination of local drinking water supplies. RDX exerts its primary toxic effect in humans on the central nervous system, but also involves gastrointestinal and renal effects. Symptomatic effects following acute exposure include hyperirritability, nausea, vomiting, generalized epileptiform seizures, and prolonged postictal confusion and amnesia. Health effects data were analyzed for RDX, and although no controlled human studies exist concerning the acute or chronic toxic effects of exposure to RDX, sufficient animal toxicity data are available to derive an ambient water quality criterion for the protection of human health. This paper summarizes the available literature on metabolism of RDX and human and animal toxicity. Based on noncarcinogenic mammalian toxicity data, and following the methodologies of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, an ambient water quality criterion for the protection of human health of 103 micrograms/liter is proposed for ingestion of drinking water and aquatic foodstuffs. A criterion of 105 micrograms/liter is proposed for ingestion of drinking water alone.54 references.

  10. Fractional Erbium laser in the treatment of photoaging: randomized comparative, clinical and histopathological study of ablative (2940nm) vs. non-ablative (1540nm) methods after 3 months*

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Juliano; Cuzzi, Tullia; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos Alberto; Manela-Azulay, Mônica

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Fractional non-ablative lasers keep the epidermis intact, while fractional ablative lasers remove it, making them theoretically more effective. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the clinical and histological alterations induced by fractional photothermolysis for treating photoaging, comparing the possible equivalence of multiple sessions of 1540nm Erbium, to one session of 2940nm Erbium. METHODS Eighteen patients (mean age 55.9) completed the treatment with three sessions of 1540nm fractional Erbium laser on one side of the face (50 mJ/mB, 15ms, 2 passes), and one session of 2940nm on the other side (5mJ/mB, 0.25ms, 2 passes). Biopsies were performed before and 3 months after treatment. Clinical, histological and morphometric evaluations were carried out. RESULTS All patients presented clinical improvement with no statistically significant difference (p> 0.05) between the treated sides. Histopathology revealed a new organization of collagen and elastic fibers, accompanied by edema, which was more evident with the 2940nm laser. This finding was confirmed by morphometry, which showed a decrease in collagen density for both treatments, with a statistical significance for the 2940nm laser (p > 0.001). CONCLUSIONS Three 1540nm sessions were clinically equivalent to one 2940nm session. The edema probably contributed to the positive results after three months, togheter with the new collagen and elastic fibers organization. The greater edema after the 2940nm session indicates that dermal remodeling takes longer than with 1540nm. It is possible that this histological superiority relates to a more prolonged effect, but a cohort longer than three months is needed to confirm that supposition. PMID:24770501

  11. Sonidegib for the treatment of advanced basal cell carcinoma: a comprehensive review of sonidegib and the BOLT trial with 12-month update.

    PubMed

    Chen, Leon; Silapunt, Sirunya; Migden, Michael R

    2016-09-01

    The Hedgehog inhibitors are promising alternative for patients with advanced basal cell carcinoma that are not amenable to radiotherapy or surgery. Sonidegib, also known as LDE225, is an orally available SMO antagonist that was recently approved by the US FDA for the treatment of patients with locally advanced basal cell carcinoma. This article will provide an overview of the pharmacology and pharmacokinetics of sonidegib and in-depth analysis of the BOLT trial with additional data from the 12-month update. The present challenges associated with Hedgehog inhibitors will also be discussed. PMID:27189494

  12. 38 CFR 3.5 - Dependency and indemnity compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dependency and indemnity compensation. 3.5 Section 3.5 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3.5 Dependency and indemnity compensation. (a) Dependency...

  13. 38 CFR 3.5 - Dependency and indemnity compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dependency and indemnity compensation. 3.5 Section 3.5 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3.5 Dependency and indemnity compensation. (a) Dependency...

  14. 38 CFR 3.5 - Dependency and indemnity compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dependency and indemnity compensation. 3.5 Section 3.5 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3.5 Dependency and indemnity compensation. (a) Dependency...

  15. 43 CFR 3435.3-5 - Notice of public hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Notice of public hearing. 3435.3-5 Section 3435.3-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND....3-5 Notice of public hearing. After the lessee or lease applicant and the Secretary agree on...

  16. 43 CFR 3435.3-5 - Notice of public hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Notice of public hearing. 3435.3-5 Section 3435.3-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND....3-5 Notice of public hearing. After the lessee or lease applicant and the Secretary agree on...

  17. 43 CFR 3435.3-5 - Notice of public hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Notice of public hearing. 3435.3-5 Section 3435.3-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND....3-5 Notice of public hearing. After the lessee or lease applicant and the Secretary agree on...

  18. 29 CFR 5.3-5.4 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 5.3-5.4 Section 5.3-5.4 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor LABOR STANDARDS PROVISIONS APPLICABLE TO CONTRACTS COVERING FEDERALLY FINANCED AND ASSISTED... WORK HOURS AND SAFETY STANDARDS ACT) Davis-Bacon and Related Acts Provisions and Procedures §§ 5.3-5.4...

  19. 29 CFR 5.3-5.4 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false 5.3-5.4 Section 5.3-5.4 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor LABOR STANDARDS PROVISIONS APPLICABLE TO CONTRACTS COVERING FEDERALLY FINANCED AND ASSISTED... WORK HOURS AND SAFETY STANDARDS ACT) Davis-Bacon and Related Acts Provisions and Procedures §§ 5.3-5.4...

  20. 29 CFR 5.3-5.4 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 5.3-5.4 Section 5.3-5.4 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor LABOR STANDARDS PROVISIONS APPLICABLE TO CONTRACTS COVERING FEDERALLY FINANCED AND ASSISTED... WORK HOURS AND SAFETY STANDARDS ACT) Davis-Bacon and Related Acts Provisions and Procedures §§ 5.3-5.4...

  1. 45 CFR 1210.3-5 - Preparation for appeal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Preparation for appeal. 1210.3-5 Section 1210.3-5 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE VISTA TRAINEE DESELECTION AND VOLUNTEER EARLY TERMINATION PROCEDURES VISTA Volunteer Early Termination § 1210.3-5 Preparation for...

  2. 28 CFR 3.5 - Forfeiture of gambling devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Forfeiture of gambling devices. 3.5 Section 3.5 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GAMBLING DEVICES § 3.5 Forfeiture of gambling devices. For purposes of seizure and forfeiture of gambling devices see section 8 of this chapter....

  3. Acute Uncomplicated Febrile Illness in Children Aged 2-59 months in Zanzibar – Aetiologies, Antibiotic Treatment and Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Elfving, Kristina; Shakely, Deler; Andersson, Maria; Baltzell, Kimberly; Ali, Abdullah S.; Bachelard, Marc; Falk, Kerstin I.; Ljung, Annika; Msellem, Mwinyi I.; Omar, Rahila S.; Parola, Philippe; Xu, Weiping; Petzold, Max; Trollfors, Birger; Björkman, Anders; Lindh, Magnus; Mårtensson, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite the fact that a large proportion of children with fever in Africa present at primary health care facilities, few studies have been designed to specifically study the causes of uncomplicated childhood febrile illness at this level of care, especially in areas like Zanzibar that has recently undergone a dramatic change from high to low malaria transmission. Methods We prospectively studied the aetiology of febrile illness in 677 children aged 2–59 months with acute uncomplicated fever managed by IMCI (Integrated Management of Childhood Illness) guidelines in Zanzibar, using point-of-care tests, urine culture, blood-PCR, chest X-ray (CXR) of IMCI-pneumonia classified patients, and multiple quantitative (q)PCR investigations of nasopharyngeal (NPH) (all patients) and rectal (GE) swabs (diarrhoea patients). For comparison, we also performed NPH and GE qPCR analyses in 167 healthy community controls. Final fever diagnoses were retrospectively established based on all clinical and laboratory data. Clinical outcome was assessed during a 14-day follow-up. The utility of IMCI for identifying infections presumed to require antibiotics was evaluated. Findings NPH-qPCR and GE-qPCR detected ≥1 pathogen in 657/672 (98%) and 153/164 (93%) of patients and 158/166 (95%) and 144/165 (87%) of controls, respectively. Overall, 57% (387/677) had IMCI-pneumonia, but only 12% (42/342) had CXR-confirmed pneumonia. Two patients were positive for Plasmodium falciparum. Respiratory syncytial virus (24.5%), influenza A/B (22.3%), rhinovirus (10.5%) and group-A streptococci (6.4%), CXR-confirmed pneumonia (6.2%), Shigella (4.3%) were the most common viral and bacterial fever diagnoses, respectively. Blood-PCR conducted in a sub-group of patients (n = 83) without defined fever diagnosis was negative for rickettsiae, chikungunya, dengue, Rift Valley fever and West Nile viruses. Antibiotics were prescribed to 500 (74%) patients, but only 152 (22%) had an infection

  4. A multicenter, open-label extension study of velaglucerase alfa in Japanese patients with Gaucher disease: Results after a cumulative treatment period of 24months.

    PubMed

    Ida, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Akemi; Matsubayashi, Tomoko; Murayama, Kei; Hongo, Teruaki; Lee, Hak-Myung; Mellgard, Björn

    2016-07-01

    Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with exogenous glucocerebrosidase is indicated to treat symptomatic Gaucher disease (GD), a rare, inherited metabolic disorder. ERT with velaglucerase alfa, which is produced in a human cell line using gene activation technology, was studied in a 12-month phase III trial in Japanese patients with type 1 or 3 GD who were switched from imiglucerase ERT (n=6); the current, open-label, 12-month extension study was designed to assess longer-term safety and efficacy. Two adult and three pediatric patients (aged <18years) were enrolled into the extension study. Every-other-week intravenous infusions were administered for 63-78weeks at average doses between 51.5 and 60.7units/kg. Three non-serious adverse events were considered related to velaglucerase alfa treatment, but no patient discontinued from the study. Six serious but non-drug-related adverse events were reported. No patient tested positive for anti-velaglucerase alfa antibodies. Hemoglobin concentrations, platelet counts, and liver and spleen volumes (normalized to body weight) in these patients were generally stable over a cumulative 24-month period from the baseline of the parent trial. The data suggest that velaglucerase alfa was well tolerated and maintained clinical stability in Japanese GD patients over 2years after switching from imiglucerase. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01842841. PMID:27241455

  5. Treatment of an open book pelvic fracture and bilateral femoral fractures with an external fixator in a 14-month-old: a case report.

    PubMed

    Atherton, Thomas G; Chase, Helen E; Stohr, Kuldeep; Melton, Joel T K

    2016-05-01

    A 14-month-old girl was involved in a road traffic accident that resulted in an open book pelvic fracture and bilateral femoral fractures. Acute treatment involved a novel collar and the cuff pelvic closure technique to tamponade the pelvis and reduce bleeding. The patient was treated surgically with an external fixator, which provided good reduction of the pelvic and femoral fractures. A literature search found no previous information on open book pelvic fractures in infants younger than 2 years. The success of this surgery led us to suggest that the use of an external fixator is a potential treatment method for open book pelvic fractures and bilateral femoral fractures in extremely young infants. PMID:26717190

  6. Unaltered Oxytocin and Vasopressin Plasma Levels in Patients with Schizophrenia After 4 Months of Daily Treatment with Intranasal Oxytocin.

    PubMed

    Busnelli, M; Dagani, J; de Girolamo, G; Balestrieri, M; Pini, S; Saviotti, F M; Scocco, P; Sisti, D; Rocchi, M; Chini, B

    2016-04-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) has been proposed as a treatment for a number of neuropsychiatric disorders characterised by impaired social behaviour, including schizophrenia. Although several studies have reported the chronic administration of OXT to be safe and tolerable, its effects on circulating levels of OXT, as well as the related neuropeptide arginine vasopressin (AVP), have not been assessed. In the present study, in a within-subjects cross-over, double-blind, randomised controlled trial, we assayed the plasma levels of OXT and AVP in 31 patients with schizophrenia who were treated daily for 4 months with 40 IU of intranasal OXT or placebo. Our data indicate a mean ± SD baseline OXT concentration of 1.62 ± 0.68 pg/ml, as determined by radioimmunoassay, which did not display any significant variation after chronic treatment with OXT or placebo. Similarly, the mean ± SD baseline AVP value of 2.40 ± 1.26 pg/ml remained unchanged. The present study also assessed cardiovascular and body fluid indicators (osmolality, plasma sodium concentration and systolic blood pressure), as well as a parameter for food intake (body mass index), with all observed to remain stable. By reporting that daily treatment with 40 IU of intranasal OXT or placebo for 4 months does not impact on OXT and AVP plasma levels, nor on cardiovascular, body fluids and food intake parameters, the present study represents an important step towards developing OXT as a safe treatment. PMID:26715485

  7. Six-month healing success rates after endodontic treatment using the novel GentleWave™ System: The pure prospective multi-center clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Le, Khang T.; Woo, Stacey M.; Rassoulian, Shahriar A.; McLachlan, Kimberly; Abbassi, Farah; Garland, Randy W.

    2016-01-01

    Background This prospective multi-center (PURE) clinical study evaluated healing rates for molars after root canal treatment employing the GentleWave® System (Sonendo, Inc., Laguna Hills, CA). Material and Methods Eighty-nine patients met the inclusion criteria and consented for this clinical study after referral for a root canal treatment. All enrolled patients were treated with the GentleWave System. Five endodontists performed the clinical procedures and follow-up evaluations. Pre-operative, intra-operative, and post-operative data were collected from the consented patients. Each patient was evaluated for clinical signs and symptoms. Two trained, blinded, and independent evaluators scored the subject tooth radiographs for apical periodontitis using the periapical index (PAI). The teeth classified as healing or healed were considered as a success and composed of a cumulative success rate of healing. Statistical analysis was performed by using the Fisher’s exact test, Pearson correlation, and multivariate logistic regression analyses of the pre-operative prognostic factors at 0.05 significance level. Results Seventy-seven patients were evaluated at six months with a follow-up rate of 86.5%. The cumulative success rate of healing was 97.4%. Eleven prognostic factors were identified using bivariate analyses. Using logistic analyses, the two prognostic significant variables that were directly correlated to healing were the pre-operative presence of periapical index (p value=0.016), and single treatment visits (p value=0.024). Conclusions In this six-month PURE clinical study, the cumulative success rate of healing was 97.4% when patients were treated with the GentleWave® System. Key words:Healing rate, root canal treatment, molar, GentleWave™, Sonendo®, Multisonic Ultracleaning™ . PMID:27398180

  8. Removing dentine caries in deciduous teeth with Carisolv: a randomised, controlled, prospective study with six-month follow-up, comparing chemomechanical treatment with drilling.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Jørgen; Leitão, Jorge; Kultje, Christina; Bergmann, Dorte; Clode, Maria João

    2005-01-01

    Dental fear is often associated with experience of pain, unpleasant sounds and uncomfortable vibrations caused by dental drills. Therefore patients welcome alternative, less painful excavating methods such as lasers, sandblasters and chemomechanical systems. The aim of this study was to compare a chemomechanical caries removal system (Carisolv) to traditional drilling with regard to patient acceptance and time consumption as well as the six-month success rate of fillings. Ninety-two primary teeth in 46 children were included in the study. From this study, the following conclusions can be drawn: patient acceptance of Carisolv-treatment compared to drilling is excellent, since 65% would choose Carisolv and no one drilling when treated next time. The dentists rated patients' degree of pain significantly lower in Carisolv situations than in drill situations. Time consumption is significantly higher when excavating with Carisolv (6.7 min.) than with drill (3.3 min.). The durability of fillings six months after treatment is equal in the two groups. PMID:16173387

  9. The effectiveness of endoscopic epidurolysis in treatment of degenerative chronic low back pain: a prospective analysis and follow-up at 48 months.

    PubMed

    Donato, A Di; Fontana, C; Pinto, R; Beltrutti, D; Pinto, G

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the efficacy of endoscopic epidurolysis in the treatment of degenerative chronic low back pain.Two hundred and thirty four patients affected by chronic low back pain, with VAS ≥ 5 and Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Index (ODI) from 0 to 60% (0-20%, group A; 20-40%, group B; 40-60%, group C) were enrolled and treated prospectively with endoscopic epidurolysis by means of a flexible fiberoptic endoscope introduced into the caudal epidural space and by the intermittent instillation of saline solution added with 150 UI hyaluronidase. Targeted application of ozone (8 ml; 38 γ/ml) and 50 mg ciprofloxacin close to the abnormal areas was also performed. Short and long term efficacy (1 week, 3 months, 6, 12, 24, 36 and 48 months) was prospectively evaluated. VAS score <5 and ODI <40% were considered as a positive outcome.The treatment significantly reduced VAS score in all three groups of patients starting from the first week and throughout the entire follow-up period (P < 0.001). Disability Index (ODI) too showed encouraging results (P < 0.001) that was particularly evident at 3 months and maintained up to long-term follow-up intervals.Epiduroscopy by mechanical adhesiolysis and administration on targeted areas of ciprofloxacin and ozone seems to be, in this prospective study, an effective technique to provide a sensible and persisting pain relief and act of improving ODI in chronic low back pain. PMID:21107940

  10. Association between Substance Use Disorder Status and Pain-Related Function Following 12 Months of Treatment in Primary Care Patients with Musculoskeletal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Morasco, Benjamin J.; Corson, Kathryn; Turk, Dennis C.; Dobscha, Steven K.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine relationships between substance use disorder (SUD) history and 12-month outcomes among primary care patients with chronic noncancer pain (CNCP). Patients were enrolled in a randomized trial of collaborative care intervention (CCI) versus treatment-as-usual (TAU) to improve pain-related physical and emotional function. At baseline, 72 of 362 patients (20.0%) had a history of SUD. Compared to CNCP patients without SUD, those with comorbid SUD had poorer pain-related function and were more likely to meet criteria for current major depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (all p-values<0.05). Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine whether SUD status was associated with clinically significant change over 12 months in pain-related function (30% reduction in Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire Score). The overall model was not significant in the CCI group. However, within the TAU group, participants with a SUD history were significantly less likely to show improvements in pain-related function (OR=0.30, 95% CI=0.11–0.82). CNCP patients with comorbid SUD reported greater functional impairment at baseline. Patients with SUD who received usual care were 70% less likely to have clinically significant improvements in pain-related function 12 months post-baseline, and SUD status did not impede improvement for the CCI group. Perspective Chronic non-cancer pain patients with a history of a substance use disorder (SUD) report poorer pain-related functioning and are less likely to experience clinically significant improvements from usual pain treatment. Providers should assess for SUD status and provide more intensive interventions for these patients. PMID:20851057

  11. REO Monthly

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2010-12-31

    A spreadsheet written in Microsoft Excel that evaluates combinations of renewable energy technologies at a site and identifies the combination that minimizes life cycle cost. Constraints on the optimization such as percent of energy from renewable, available land area; available investment capital, etc make the optimization more useful. Inputs to the model include building location, number of square feet and floors; monthly energy use and cost for electric and any other fuels. Outputs include sizemore » of each RE technology total investment, utility costs, O&M costs; percent renewable; life cycle cost; rate of return; CO2 savings.« less

  12. REO Monthly

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Howard Andrew

    2010-12-31

    A spreadsheet written in Microsoft Excel that evaluates combinations of renewable energy technologies at a site and identifies the combination that minimizes life cycle cost. Constraints on the optimization such as percent of energy from renewable, available land area; available investment capital, etc make the optimization more useful. Inputs to the model include building location, number of square feet and floors; monthly energy use and cost for electric and any other fuels. Outputs include size of each RE technology total investment, utility costs, O&M costs; percent renewable; life cycle cost; rate of return; CO2 savings.

  13. Characteristics and treatment interests among individuals with substance use disorders and a history of past six-month violence: Findings from an emergency department study

    PubMed Central

    Chermack, Stephen T.; Murray, Regan; Kraus, Shane; Walton, Maureen A.; Cunningham, Rebecca M.; Barry, Kristen L.; Booth, Brenda M.; Blow, Frederic C.

    2014-01-01

    The study examined clinical characteristics and treatment interests of individuals identified to have substance use disorders (SUDs) in an urban emergency department (ED) who reported past six-month history of violence or victimization. Specifically, participants were 1441 ED patients enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of interventions designed to link those with SUDs to treatment. To examine factors related to violence type, four groups based on participants’ reports of violence toward others were created: no violence (46.8%), partner violence only (17.3%), non-partner violence only (20.2%), and both partner and non-partner violence (15.7%). Four groups based on participants’ reports of victimization were also created: no violence (42.1%), victimization from partner only (18.7%), victimization from non-partner only (20.2%), and both partner and non-partner victimization (17.7%). Separate multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine which variables distinguished the violence and victimization groups from those reporting no violence or victimization. For violence toward others, demographic variables, alcohol and cocaine disorders, and rating treatment for psychological problems were higher for violence groups, with some differences depending on type of violence. For victimization, demographic variables, having an alcohol disorder, and rating treatment for family/social problems were higher for violence groups, also with some differences depending on type of violence. Findings from the present study could be useful for designing effective brief interventions and services for ED settings. PMID:24148140

  14. Postural and Balance Disorders in Patients with Parkinson's Disease: A Prospective Open-Label Feasibility Study with Two Months of Action Observation Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Santamato, Andrea; Ranieri, Maurizio; Cinone, Nicoletta; Stuppiello, Lucia Anna; Valeno, Giovanni; De Sanctis, Jula Laura; Fortunato, Francesca; Solfrizzi, Vincenzo; Greco, Antonio; Seripa, Davide; Panza, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Action observation treatment has been proposed as therapeutic option in rehabilitation of patients affected by Parkinson's disease (PD) to improve freezing of gait episodes. The purpose of this prospective open-label feasibility study was to evaluate the impact of 8-week action observation training (video-therapy) for the treatment of postural instability and balance impairment in PD patients. Fifteen PD patients aged under 80 years with scores of 1 to 3 on the Hoehn and Yahr staging and without evidence of freezing of gait were recruited. They underwent 24 sessions of video-therapy training based on carefully watching video clips on motor tasks linked to balance, subsequently performing the same observed movements. No statistically significant differences were observed in the identified outcome measures with the Berg Balance Scale and the Activities-Specific Balance Confidence Scale after two months of follow-up. In the present study, a short course of action observation treatment seems to be not effective in reducing balance impairments and postural instability in patients affected by mild to moderate PD. Further studies with larger samples, longer follow-up period, and standardized protocols of action observation treatment are needed to investigate the effects of this rehabilitation technique in the management of postural and balance disorders of PD patients. PMID:26798551

  15. Phakic anterior chamber intraocular lens (Verisyse™) implantation in children for treatment of severe ansiometropia myopia and amblyopia: Six-month pilot clincial trial and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Pirouzian, Amir; Ip, Kenneth C; O’Halloran, Henry S

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The current study aims to evaluate both safety and efficacy of Verisyse™ (AMO, Irvine, CA) phakic anterior chamber intraocular lens (IOL) in the reduction of clinically significant (>−8 D) myopic anisometropia in children who are noncompliant to traditional medical treatment including spectacle correction or contact lenses. Design: Retrospective interventional case series. Methods: Six anisometropic myopic pediatric patients in one practice were identified through chart-review. None of the patients were compliant with specatacle correction or contact lens wear and as a result had dense amblyopia of less than 20/400 by Snellen or Allen visual acuity (mean <20/400). All patients underwent Verisyse™ phakic IOL implantation in the more myopic eye by one surgeon (AP). Pre- and post-operative visual acuity, anterior/posterior segment examination, stereoacuity, axial biometry measurements, cycloplegic refraction, and endothelial cell counts were performed in all patients whenever feasible. Results: The age of patients ranged from 5–11 years. The mean post-operative follow-up time was six months from the time of IOL insertion. Improvement in visual acuity >6 lines was achieved in four patients (mean visual acuity of 20/70 at six months). Improvement in stereoacuity was noted in all six patients (from total mean zero seconds-arc to six-months post-operative mean of 500 seconds-arc by randot stereoacuity testing). Improvement of >2 lines of visual acuity lines was achieved in the other two patients. No patient lost any lines of visual acuity. Enhanced physical activity, coordination, and improved social interaction were noted in patients and were reported by the parents. No intra/post-operative complications were noted. Discussion: Irreversible or intractable amblyopia secondary to severe anisometropic myopia is a serious medical concern in the pediatric population. Failure of compliance with contact lens therapy consistently leads to visual loss. Anterior

  16. Better or Worse: a Study of Day-to-Day Changes over Five Months of Rosen Method Bodywork Treatment for Chronic Low Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Fogel, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Background Fluctuations of good days and bad days—in physical symptoms and emotional states—are common for individuals with chronic illness. This pilot study examines these fluctuations during bodywork treatment. Purpose We analyzed changes in daily self-reports over a period of five months for five individuals who received weekly treatments of Rosen Method Bodywork (RMB), which uses touch and words to enhance body awareness of physical sensations and emotional states. Subjects and Design Five subjects (aged 31–56) who had chronic low back pain (CLBP) received 16 weekly treatments given by three experienced RMB practitioners. Measures Pre- and posttreatment assessments covered demographics, disability, and pain. Clients also completed daily bedtime assessments of pain, fatigue, emotional state, and sense of control during the entire treatment period. Results All clients reported reductions in pain and/or disability in post- compared to pretreatment. In spite of a high level of day-to-day variability in the daily assessments, there were significant reductions in pain and fatigue, and significant increases in positive emotional state and sense of control across the treatment period. In reaching this end, however, some clients had slow and steady improvements, some improved more rapidly, while others got worse before they got better. Conclusions The natural course of healing—with its inevitable fluctuations in symptoms—is part of a process leading to successful treatment outcomes. Rosen Method Bodywork may be especially helpful in developing and accepting both sensory and emotional body awareness changes that facilitate overall improvement. PMID:24000305

  17. Evaluation of the efficacy of memantine in the treatment of fibromyalgia: study protocol for a doubled-blind randomized controlled trial with six-month follow-up

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Fibromyalgia is a prevalent chronic rheumatic disease of great clinical importance. Recent studies have found raised levels of glutamate in the insula, hippocampus and posterior cingulate cortex regions of the brains of fibromyalgia (FM) patients. This finding has led researchers to speculate about the usefulness of glutamate-blocking drugs such as memantine in the treatment of fibromyalgia. The hypothesis of this study is that the administration of memantine will reduce the glutamate levels, and futhermore, will decrease the perceived pain. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of memantine in the treatment of pain (pain perception). A secondary objective is to evaluate the efficacy of memantine in the treatment of other clinical symptoms of FM, and to evaluate the efficacy of memantine in reducing brain levels of glutamate, and its effects on the central nervous system as a whole. Method/Design A double-blind parallel randomized controlled trial. Participants, Seventy patients diagnosed with FM will be recruited from primary health care centers in Zaragoza, Spain. Intervention. The subjects will be randomized in two groups: A) A treatment group (n = 35), which will receive 20 mg of memantine daily; B) A control group (n = 35), to which will be administered a placebo. There will be a six-month follow-up period (including a titration period of one month). Outcomes. The main efficacy variable of this study is pain (pain perception). The secondary efficacy variables are clinical symptoms (pain threshold, cognitive function, health status, anxiety, depression, clinical impression and quality of life) and glutamate levels in different regions of the brain, which will be assessed by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Randomization and blinding. Randomization has been computer-generated, and the random allocation sequence will be implemented by telephone. Subjects of the study and the research assistants will be blinded to group assignment

  18. Percutaneous left atrial appendage occlusion – treatment outcomes and 6 months of follow-up – a single-center experience

    PubMed Central

    Karczewski, Michał; Skowronek, Radomir; Burysz, Marian; Fischer, Marcin; Anisimowicz, Lech; Demkow, Marcin; Konka, Marek; Ogorzeja, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    Aim To present the results of treatment and evaluate 6 months of follow-up in a group of patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation, who underwent the procedure of percutaneous left atrial appendage occlusion (PLAAO). Material and methods Percutaneous left atrial appendage occlusion was performed in 34 patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation and contraindications for oral anticoagulation therapy. The risk of thromboembolic and bleeding complications was determined based on the CHA2DS2VASc and HAS-BLED scales. The Amplatzer Amulet system from St. Jude Medical was used. On the first postoperative day, all patients were started on double antiplatelet therapy with 75 mg/day of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and 75 mg/day of clopidogrel (CLO). On the 30th postoperative day, the efficacy of the antiplatelet therapy was assessed with impedance aggregometry using a Multiplate analyzer (Roche). Echocardiographic examinations were performed intraoperatively and on the first postoperative day; subsequently, follow-up examinations were conducted 1 and 6 months after the implantation. Results In all patients, proper occluder position was observed throughout the follow-up. No leakage or thrombi around the implants were found. No strokes or bleeding complications associated with the antiplatelet therapy were observed. Multiplate assessment of platelet activity was conducted in 20 out of 34 patients. The efficacy of ASA treatment was demonstrated in all patients; no response to clopidogrel treatment was observed in 5 out of 20 patients. One patient suffered from cardiac tamponade, which required the performance of full sternotomy. Local complications (hematomas of the inguinal region) were observed in 3 patients. One of the patients died for reasons unrelated to the procedure. Conclusions Percutaneous left atrial appendage occlusion is an effective procedure in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation and contraindications for chronic anticoagulation therapy. Further

  19. Oxidative stress and quality of life in elderly patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: are there differences after six months of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure treatment?

    PubMed Central

    Yagihara, Fabiana; Lucchesi, Ligia Mendonça; D'Almeida, Vânia; de Mello, Marco Túlio; Tufik, Sergio; Bittencourt, Lia Rita Azeredo

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the effect of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure treatment on oxidative stress parameters and the quality of life of elderly patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. METHODS: In total, 30 obstructive sleep apnea syndrome patients and 27 subjects without obstructive sleep apnea syndrome were included in this study. Both groups underwent quality of life and oxidative stress evaluations at baseline and after six months. Polysomnography was performed in both groups at baseline and a second time in the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome group after six months of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure treatment. All of the variables were compared between the control and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome groups in this prospective case-control study. RESULTS: The baseline concentrations of the antioxidant enzyme catalase were higher in the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome group than the control group. After Continuous Positive Airway Pressure treatment, the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome group exhibited a reduction in the level of oxidative stress, as indicated by a decrease in the level of lipid peroxidation measured by the malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration [pre: 2.7 nmol malondialdehyde/mL (95% 1.6-3.7) vs. post: 1.3 nmol MDA/mL (0.7-1.9), p<0.01]. Additionally, improvements were observed in two domains covered by the SF-36 questionnaire: functional capacity [pre: 77.4 (69.2-85.5) vs. post: 83.4 (76.9-89.9), p = 0.002] and pain [pre: 65.4 (52.8-78.1) vs. post: 77.8 (67.2-88.3), p = 0.004]. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated that the use of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure to treat obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in elderly patients reduced oxidative stress and improved the quality of life. PMID:22760893

  20. Virological Outcomes and Drug Resistance in Chinese Patients after 12 Months of 3TC-Based First-Line Antiretroviral Treatment, 2011–2012

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaoqin; Liu, Yong; He, Jianmei; Ling, Hua; Ding, Ping; Tong, Yi; Zou, Xiaobai; Zhou, Quanhua; Liao, Lingjie; Wang, Xia; Ruan, Yuhua; Shao, Yiming; Xing, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of virological failure and HIV drug resistance among Chinese patients one year after initiating lamivudine-based first-line antiretroviral treatment. Methods A prospective cohort study with follow-up at 12 months was conducted in four urban sentinel sites in China. Antiretroviral naive patients ≥18 years old were recruited. Blood samples were collected for testing CD4 cell count, viral load, and (for samples with HIV-1 RNA ≥1000 copies/ml) genotyping of drug resistance. Results A total of 513 patients were enrolled in this cohort, of whom 448 (87.3%) were retained at 12 months. The median final CD4 cell count was 313 cells/mm3, which increased from 192 cells/mm3 at baseline (P<0.0001). Of the 448 remaining subjects, 394 (87.9%) had successful virological suppression (HIV RNA <1000 copies/ml). Among 54 samples with viral load ≥1000 copies/ml, 40 were successfully genotyped, and 11 were found with detectable HIV drug resistance mutations. Of these, the proportions of drug resistance to NNRTIs, NRTIs and PIs were 100%, 81.8% and 0%, respectively. Injecting drug use (AOR = 0.40, 95% CI: 0.19,0.84; P = 0.0154), CD4 count at baseline ≥350 cells/mm3 (AOR = 0.32, 95% CI: 0.14,0.72; P = 0.0056), and missed doses in the past month (AOR = 0.30, 95% CI: 0.15,0.60; P = 0.0006) were significantly negatively associated with HIV RNA <1000 copies/ml. Conclusions Our study demonstrates effective virological and immunological outcomes at 12 months among these who initiated first-line ART treatment. However, patients infected through drug injection, who missed doses, or with higher CD4 count at baseline are at increased risk for poor virological response. PMID:24516631

  1. Efficacy, tolerability, and safety of aripiprazole once-monthly versus other long-acting injectable antipsychotic therapies in the maintenance treatment of schizophrenia: a mixed treatment comparison of double-blind randomized clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Majer, Istvan M.; Gaughran, Fiona; Sapin, Christophe; Beillat, Maud; Treur, Maarten

    2015-01-01

    Background Treatment with long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotic medication is an important element of relapse prevention in schizophrenia. Recently, the intramuscular once-monthly formulation of aripiprazole received marketing approval in Europe and the United States for schizophrenia. Objective This study aimed to compare aripiprazole once-monthly with other LAI antipsychotics in terms of efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Data sources A systematic literature review was conducted to identify relevant double-blind randomized clinical trials of LAIs conducted in the maintenance treatment of schizophrenia. MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process, Embase, the Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, conference proceedings, clinical trial registries, and the reference lists of key review articles were searched. The literature search covered studies dating from January 2002 to May 2013. Study selection Studies were required to have ≥24 weeks of follow-up. Patients had to be stable at randomization. Studies were not eligible for inclusion if efficacy of acute and maintenance phase treatment was not reported separately. Six trials were identified (0.5% of initially identified studies), allowing comparisons of aripiprazole once-monthly, risperidone LAI, paliperidone palmitate, olanzapine pamoate, haloperidol depot, and placebo. Data extraction Data extracted included study details, study duration, the total number of patients in each treatment arm, efficacy, tolerability, and safety outcomes. The efficacy outcome contained the number of patients that experienced a relapse, tolerability outcomes included the number of patients that discontinued treatment due to treatment-related adverse events (AEs), and that discontinued treatment due to reasons other than AEs (e.g., loss to follow-up). Safety outcomes included the incidence of clinically relevant weight gain and extrapyramidal symptoms. Data synthesis Data were analyzed by applying a mixed treatment comparison competing risks model

  2. The effectiveness of 4 monthly albendazole treatment in the reduction of soil-transmitted helminth infections in women of reproductive age in Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Mihrshahi, Seema; Casey, Gerard J; Montresor, Antonio; Phuc, Tran Q; Thach, Dang Thi Cam; Tien, Nong T; Biggs, Beverley-Ann

    2009-07-15

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are endemic in northern Viet Nam where the climate and agricultural practices, such as the use of human excreta as fertiliser and the use of wastewater for irrigation, favour transmission. An intervention was conducted in Yen Bai Province, north-west Viet Nam, to measure the effectiveness of single dose albendazole (400mg) administered every 4 months for reducing the prevalence of STH infections in women of reproductive age. Stool samples were collected from women before the intervention and 3 and 12 months post-intervention. Information on a range of demographic and socio-economic variables was also collected to measure the major risk factors for high STH burden in this area. The prevalence of hookworm, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infection in the baseline sample of 366 women were 76.2%, 19.2% and 29.1%, respectively. In the women who were surveyed at baseline and again at 3 and 12 months after the intervention (n=118) cure rates were 71.3% for hookworm, 87.0% for A. lumbricoides and 81.4% for T. trichiura by the end of the 12 month study period (i.e. after three doses of albendazole). The main risk factor for hookworm infection was if women worked outside (odds ratio (OR)=3.2 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.6-6.2), P=0.001) and the major risk factor for A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura infection was a lack of education. Low educational attainment was also the strongest risk factor for co-infection with all three species of STH (OR=7.5 (95% CI 3.4-16.4), P<0.001). The high rates of hookworm infection in this area of Viet Nam and the high cure rates for all three species of STH with 4 monthly albendazole treatment suggest that this programme should be expanded to all endemic areas in Viet Nam. The study also highlights the important contribution of education to women's health. PMID:19324046

  3. Determination of the effective dose of a novel oral formulation of sarolaner (Simparica™) for the treatment and month-long control of fleas and ticks on dogs.

    PubMed

    McTier, Tom L; Six, Robert H; Fourie, Josephus J; Pullins, Aleah; Hedges, Laura; Mahabir, Sean P; Myers, Melanie R

    2016-05-30

    Three laboratory studies were conducted to determine the appropriate dose of sarolaner, a novel isoxazoline, for the treatment and month-long control of infestations of fleas and ticks on dogs. In the first study, dogs were treated orally with sarolaner suspension formulations at 1.25, 2.5 or 5.0mg/kg, and infested with Dermacentor reticulatus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks and with Ctenocephalides felis felis (cat flea) prior to treatment and then weekly for up to 8 weeks. Fleas and ticks were counted 48h after treatment and after each subsequent infestation at 24h for fleas and 48h for ticks. The lowest dose of sarolaner (1.25mg/kg) provided 100% efficacy against fleas from treatment through Day 35 and 98.4% at Day 56. This dose of sarolaner resulted in 99.7-100% control of both species of ticks through Day 28. In Study 2, dogs were dosed orally with placebo or sarolaner suspension formulations at 0.625, 1.25 or 2.5mg/kg and infested with Ixodes scapularis prior to treatment and weekly for 6 weeks, Amblyomma americanum (pretreatment and Day 26), Dermacentor variabilis (Day 33) and A. maculatum (Day 41). Ixodes scapularis was the most susceptible; the lowest dose (0.625mg/kg) providing>95% efficacy through Day 43. Efficacy against D. variabilis on Day 35 was>95% at 1.25 and 2.5mg/kg, whereas the 0.625mg/kg dose gave only 61.4% efficacy. Amblyomma spp. were the least susceptible ticks; efficacy of the 1.25mg/kg dose at Day 28 for A. americanum was markedly lower (88.5%) than achieved for D. reticulatus (100%) at Day 28 and also lower than for D. variabilis at Day 35 (96.2%). In Study 3, dogs were dosed orally with placebo or sarolaner in the proposed commercial tablet (Simparica™) at 1.0, 2.0 or 4.0mg/kg, and infested with A. maculatum, one of the ticks determined to be dose limiting, prior to treatment and then weekly for 5 weeks. All doses gave 100% control of the existing infestation. The two highest dosages resulted in >93% control of subsequent challenges

  4. Observational study: daily treatment with a new compound “tradamixina” plus serenoa repens for two months improved the lower urinary tract symptoms

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are associated with great emotional costs to individuals and substantial economic costs to society. This study seeks to evaluate the effect of a new natural compound “Tradamixina plus Serenoa Repens” in order to improve lower urinary tract symptoms. Methods 100 patients (≥45years) who had had LUTS/BPH for >6 mo at screening and with IPSS -The international Prostate symptom scores- ≥13 and maximum urinary flow rate (Qmax) ≥4 to ≤15 ml/s. were recruited. The compound “Tradamixina plus Serenoa Repens” (80 mg of Alga Ecklonia Bicyclis, 100 mg of Tribulus Terrestris and 100 mg of D-Glucosamine and N-Acetyl-D-Glucosamine plus 320 mg of Serenoa Repens) was administered daily for 2 months. At visit and after 60 days of treatment patients were evaluated by means of detailed medical urological history, clinical examination, laboratory investigations (total PSA), and instrumental examination like urolfowmetry. Efficacy measures included IPSS-International Prostate Sympto, BPH Impact Index (BII), Quality-of-Life (QoL) Index. Measures were assessed at baseline and end point (12 wk or end of therapy) and also at screening, 1 and 4 wk for IPSS, and 4 wk for BII. Statistical significance was interpreted only if the results of the preceding analysis were significant at the 0.05 level. Results After 2 months of treatment the change from baseline to week 12 relative to “Tradamixina plus Seronea Repens” in total IPSS and Qol was statistically significant. Differences from baseline in BII were statistically significant for “Tradamixina plus Seronea Repens” above all differences in BII were also significant at 4 wk (LSmean ± SE: -0.8 ± 0.2). In the distribution of subjects over the PGI-I and CGI-I response categories were significant for”Tradamixina plus Seronea Repens” (PGI-I: p = 0.001; CGI-I). We also observed a decrease of total PSA. Conclusion The daily treatment with a new compound “Tradamixina plus

  5. Improved clinical outcome 3 months after endovascular treatment, including thrombectomy, in patients with acute ischemic stroke: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Falk-Delgado, Anna; Kuntze Söderqvist, Åsa; Fransén, Jian; Falk-Delgado, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose Intravenous thrombolysis with tissue plasminogen activator is standard treatment in acute stroke today. The benefit of endovascular treatment has been questioned. Recently, studies evaluating endovascular treatment and intravenous thrombolysis compared with intravenous thrombolysis alone, have reported improved outcome for the intervention group. The aim of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing endovascular treatment in addition to intravenous thrombolysis with intravenous thrombolysis alone. Methods Databases were searched for eligible randomized controlled trials. The primary outcome was a functional neurological outcome after 90 days. A secondary outcome was severe disability and death. Data were pooled in the control and intervention groups, and OR was calculated on an intention to treat basis with 95% CIs. Outcome heterogeneity was evaluated with Cochrane's Q test (significance level cut-off value at <0.10) and I2 (significance cut-off value >50%) with the Mantel–Haenszel method for dichotomous outcomes. A p value <0.05 was regarded as statistically significant. Results Six studies met the eligibility criteria, and data from 1569 patients were analyzed. A higher probability of a functional neurological outcome after 90 days was found for the intervention group (OR 2, 95% CI 2 to 3). There was a significantly higher probability of death and severe disability in the control group compared with the intervention group. Conclusions Endovascular treatment in addition to intravenous thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke leads to an improved clinical outcome after 3 months, compared with patients receiving intravenous thrombolysis alone. PMID:26138731

  6. [Evaluation of semiannual combined-treatment with fluoride-chlorhexidine varnish and toothbrushing with chlorhexidine toothpaste for 15 days every 3 months in hypercariogenic children].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Miró, M J; Vega Valdés, D

    1988-01-01

    An investigation was carried out in hypercaries-producing children, who had have previously curative treatment. Twenty three children were treated with semestral applications of fluorine-chlorhexidine varnish and daily brushing for 15 days every three months, with dental creme with chlorhexidine, while 21 children were selected as control group. Four analysis of Str. mutants in saliva (Matsukubo technique) were performed to each child in both groups, during a year. It was found that children treated reduced, remarkably, the degree of infection by Str. mutans, while degree of infection did not suffer modification in those children of the control group. The final examination performed after one year showed that 15 children of the control group resulted affected by caries (71.4%) with an incidence of 27 caries (1.29 index), while in the group under treatment only a child resulted affected with a caries. Reduction found in the incidence of caries was 96.9%. Problematic of hypercaries-producing child is analyzed and it is concluded that it is necessary to control and record him, and that investment in a strict treatment, such as that successfully assayed by us, should be rentable, since it should reduce amount of extractions of teeth and to contribute in that way to a real promotion of oral health with the infantile population. PMID:3272435

  7. Changes in the Peripheral Blood Gene Expression Profile Induced by 3 Months of Valproate Treatment in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Rakitin, Aleksei; Kõks, Sulev; Reimann, Ene; Prans, Ele; Haldre, Sulev

    2015-01-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) is a widely used antiepileptic drug with a broad range of effects and broad clinical efficacy. As a well-known histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, VPA regulates epigenetic programming by altering the expression of many genes. The aim of study was to analyze differences in gene expression profiles before and after the start of VPA treatment in patients with newly diagnosed epilepsy. RNA sequencing was used to compare whole-genome gene expression patterns of peripheral blood from nine patients with epilepsy before and 3 months after the start of treatment with VPA. Of the 23,099 analyzed genes, only 11 showed statistically significant differential expression with false discovery rate-adjusted p-values below 0.1. Functional annotation and network analyses showed activation of only one genetic network (enrichment score = 30), which included genes for cardiovascular system development and function, cell morphology, and hematological system development and function. The finding of such a small number of differently expressed genes between before and after the start of treatment suggests a lack of HDAC inhibition in these patients, which could be explained by the relatively low doses of VPA that were used. In conclusion, VPA at standard therapeutic dosages modulates the expression of a small number of genes. Therefore, to minimize the potential side effects of HDAC inhibition, it is recommended that the lowest effective dose of VPA be used for treating epilepsy. PMID:26379622

  8. Adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) during the early months of treatment in rural Zambia: influence of demographic characteristics and social surroundings of patients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Around 70% of those living with HIV in need of treatment accessed antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Zambia by 2009. However, sustaining high levels of adherence to ART is a challenge. This study aimed to identify the predictive factors associated with ART adherence during the early months of treatment in rural Zambia. Methods This is a field based observational longitudinal study in Mumbwa district, which is located 150 km west of Lusaka, the capital of Zambia. Treatment naive patients aged over 15 years, who initiated treatment during September-November 2010, were enrolled. Patients were interviewed at the initiation and six weeks later. The treatment adherence was measured according to self-reporting by the patients. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the predictive factors associated with the adherence. Results Of 157 patients, 59.9% were fully adherent to the treatment six weeks after starting ART. According to the multivariable analysis, full adherence was associated with being female [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR), 3.3; 95% Confidence interval (CI), 1.2-8.9], having a spouse who were also on ART (AOR, 4.4; 95% CI, 1.5-13.1), and experience of food insufficiency in the previous 30 days (AOR, 5.0; 95% CI, 1.8-13.8). Some of the most common reasons for missed doses were long distance to health facilities (n = 21, 53.8%), food insufficiency (n = 20, 51.3%), and being busy with other activities such as work (n = 15, 38.5%). Conclusions The treatment adherence continues to be a significant challenge in rural Zambia. Social supports from spouses and people on ART could facilitate their treatment adherence. This is likely to require attention by ART services in the future, focusing on different social influences on male and female in rural Zambia. In addition, poverty reduction strategies may help to reinforce adherence to ART and could mitigate the influence of HIV infection for poor patients and those who fall into poverty after

  9. 3-Month experience in presbyopic correction with bi-aspheric multifocal central presbyLASIK treatments for hyperopia and myopia with or without astigmatism

    PubMed Central

    Luger, Michiel H.A.; Ewering, Tobias; Arba-Mosquera, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To analyze simultaneous vision (distance and near) 3-month after bi-aspheric multifocal central presbyLASIK treatments for hyperopia and myopia with or without astigmatism. Methods Retrospective study analyzing patients that had been treated for correcting distance ametropiae and alleviating presbyopic symptoms simultaneously. All patients had been treated in Presby Aspheric mode using FemtoLASIK. No eye had previous corneal refractive surgery. Preoperative corneal curvature ranged between 40 D and 48 D, with pachymetry thicker than 500 μm. Preoperative best distance corrected visual acuity (CDVA) was 0.1 LogMAR or better, with best corrected near vision (CNVA) of 0.2 LogRAD or better. Results 66 patients treated using PresbyMAX software (SCHWIND eye-tech-solutions GmbH and Co. KG, Kleinostheim, Germany) were reviewed. For 24 patients, 3-month follow-up was completed. At 3 months, 71% of patients achieved UDVA 0.1 LogMAR or better, 79% patients obtained UNVA 0.1 LogRAD or better, and 83% of eyes were within 0.75 diopters (D) of defocus. Postoperative mean spherical equivalent refraction was −0.15 ± 0.50 D. Stability was achieved from the 6-week follow-up. 92% of patients achieved UDVA 0.2 LogMAR or better and UNVA 0.2 LogRAD or better. No statistical differences between myopes/hyperopes or between males/females were found. Conclusions Patient selection and expectation management are essential to achieve patient satisfaction. Even though optically the results are quite predictable, some patients find it difficult to adapt to the compromise between far and near vision, and others are dissatisfied by the minor loss of distance VA.

  10. Ovine ruminal microbes are capable of biotransforming hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX).

    PubMed

    Eaton, H L; De Lorme, M; Chaney, R L; Craig, A M

    2011-08-01

    Bioremediation is of great interest in the detoxification of soil contaminated with residues from explosives such as hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). Although there are numerous forms of in situ and ex situ bioremediation, ruminants would provide the option of an in situ bioreactor that could be transported to the site of contamination. Bovine rumen fluid has been previously shown to transform 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), a similar compound, in 4 h. In this study, RDX incubated in whole ovine rumen fluid was nearly eliminated within 4 h. Whole ovine rumen fluid was then inoculated into five different types of media to select for archaeal and bacterial organisms capable of RDX biotransformation. Cultures containing 30 μg mL(-1) RDX were transferred each time the RDX concentration decreased to 5 μg mL(-1) or less. Time point samples were analyzed for RDX biotransformation by HPLC. The two fastest transforming enrichments were in methanogenic and low nitrogen basal media. After 21 days, DNA was extracted from all enrichments able to partially or completely transform RDX in 7 days or less. To understand microbial diversity, 16S rRNA-gene-targeted denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprinting was conducted. Cloning and sequencing of partial 16S rRNA fragments were performed on both low nitrogen basal and methanogenic media enrichments. Phylogenetic analysis revealed similar homologies to eight different bacterial and one archaeal genera classified under the phyla Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Euryarchaeota. After continuing enrichment for RDX degraders for 1 year, two consortia remained: one that transformed RDX in 4 days and one which had slowed after 2 months of transfers without RDX. DGGE comparison of the slower transforming consortium to the faster one showed identical banding patterns except one band. Homology matches to clones from the two consortia identified the same uncultured Clostridia genus in both; Sporanaerobacter

  11. Aripiprazole once-monthly 400 mg for long-term maintenance treatment of schizophrenia: a 52-week open-label study

    PubMed Central

    Peters-Strickland, Timothy; Baker, Ross A; McQuade, Robert D; Jin, Na; Eramo, Anna; Perry, Pamela; Johnson, Brian R; Duca, Anna; Sanchez, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Background: Long-term maintenance treatment with an antipsychotic is often required to prevent relapse and mitigate functional deterioration in patients with schizophrenia. Aims: This study assessed the long-term safety, tolerability, and maintenance of the therapeutic effect of aripiprazole once-monthly 400 mg (AOM 400) in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: This 52-week, open-label study included patients previously enrolled in 1 of 2 AOM 400 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and de novo patients. Safety endpoints included adverse events (AEs), suicidality, extrapyramidal symptoms, injection-site pain, and clinically relevant changes in clinical and laboratory values. The primary efficacy endpoint was the percentage of stable patients at baseline who remained stable at the last visit of the AOM 400 maintenance phase. All endpoints were assessed with descriptive statistics; there were no formal planned statistical analyses. Results: Of 1,247 patients screened, 1,178 enrolled in the study (194 de novo and 984 patients from the RCTs) and 1,081 received maintenance treatment with AOM 400. The maintenance phase completion rate was 79.4% at 52 weeks. Treatment-emergent AEs in ⩾5% of patients during open-label AOM 400 treatment were headache (7.6%), nasopharyngitis (7.0%), anxiety (6.8%), and insomnia (6.6%). There were no clinically relevant changes in safety parameters of interest. Ninety-five percent of stable patients at baseline remained stable at their last visit during the AOM 400 maintenance phase. Conclusions: The long-term safety and tolerability profile of AOM 400 was comparable to the RCTs, and the long-term therapeutic effect was maintained. PMID:27336044

  12. Hyperpigmentation mechanism of methyl 3,5-di-caffeoylquinate through activation of p38 and MITF induction of tyrosinase.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyo Jung; Kim, Jin Sook; Woo, Je-Tae; Lee, Ik-Soo; Cha, Byung-Yoon

    2015-07-01

    Methyl 3,5-di-caffeoylquinate (3,5-diCQM) has been used for the treatment of various diseases in oriental medicine, but its effect on melanogenesis has not been reported yet. In this study, the molecular mechanism of 3,5-diCQM-induced melanogenesis was investigated. It was found that 3,5-diCQM induced synthesis of melanin pigments in murine B16F10 melanoma cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Treatment of cells with 3,5-diCQM for 48 h increased extracellular and intracellular melanin production and tyrosinase activity. The expressions of tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TRP1), and TRP2 were up-regulated in a dose-dependent manner 48 h after 3,5-diCQM treatment. Western blot analysis showed that 3,5-diCQM increased the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and cAMP responsive element binding as well as the expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor. In addition, 3,5-diCQM-stimulated cAMP production, and 3,5-diCQM-induced tyrosinase activity and melanin synthesis were attenuated by H89, a protein kinase A inhibitor. These results suggested that 3,5-diCQM-mediated activation of the p38 pathway may represent a novel approach for an effective therapy for vitiligo and hair graying. PMID:26018825

  13. 43 CFR 9269.3-5 - Timber management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Timber management. 9269.3-5 Section 9269.3-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Timber management. (a) Sales of forest products; general. (b) Non-sale disposals;...

  14. 43 CFR 9269.3-5 - Timber management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Timber management. 9269.3-5 Section 9269.3-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Timber management. (a) Sales of forest products; general. (b) Non-sale disposals;...

  15. 43 CFR 9269.3-5 - Timber management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Timber management. 9269.3-5 Section 9269.3-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Timber management. (a) Sales of forest products; general. (b) Non-sale disposals;...

  16. 43 CFR 9269.3-5 - Timber management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Timber management. 9269.3-5 Section 9269.3-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Timber management. (a) Sales of forest products; general. (b) Non-sale disposals;...

  17. In Alzheimer’s Disease, 6-Month Treatment with GLP-1 Analog Prevents Decline of Brain Glucose Metabolism: Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gejl, Michael; Gjedde, Albert; Egefjord, Lærke; Møller, Arne; Hansen, Søren B.; Vang, Kim; Rodell, Anders; Brændgaard, Hans; Gottrup, Hanne; Schacht, Anna; Møller, Niels; Brock, Birgitte; Rungby, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    In animal models, the incretin hormone GLP-1 affects Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We hypothesized that treatment with GLP-1 or an analog of GLP-1 would prevent accumulation of Aβ and raise, or prevent decline of, glucose metabolism (CMRglc) in AD. In this 26-week trial, we randomized 38 patients with AD to treatment with the GLP-1 analog liraglutide (n = 18), or placebo (n = 20). We measured Aβ load in brain with tracer [11C]PIB (PIB), CMRglc with [18F]FDG (FDG), and cognition with the WMS-IV scale (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01469351). The PIB binding increased significantly in temporal lobe in placebo and treatment patients (both P = 0.04), and in occipital lobe in treatment patients (P = 0.04). Regional and global increases of PIB retention did not differ between the groups (P ≥ 0.38). In placebo treated patients CMRglc declined in all regions, significantly so by the following means in precuneus (P = 0.009, 3.2 μmol/hg/min, 95% CI: 5.45; 0.92), and in parietal (P = 0.04, 2.1 μmol/hg/min, 95% CI: 4.21; 0.081), temporal (P = 0.046, 1.54 μmol/hg/min, 95% CI: 3.05; 0.030), and occipital (P = 0.009, 2.10 μmol/hg/min, 95% CI: 3.61; 0.59) lobes, and in cerebellum (P = 0.04, 1.54 μmol/hg/min, 95% CI: 3.01; 0.064). In contrast, the GLP-1 analog treatment caused a numerical but insignificant increase of CMRglc after 6 months. Cognitive scores did not change. We conclude that the GLP-1 analog treatment prevented the decline of CMRglc that signifies cognitive impairment, synaptic dysfunction, and disease evolution. We draw no firm conclusions from the Aβ load or cognition measures, for which the study was underpowered. PMID:27252647

  18. [The German Cartilage Registry (KnorpelRegister DGOU) for evaluation of surgical treatment for cartilage defects: experience after six months including first demographic data].

    PubMed

    Niemeyer, P; Schweigler, K; Grotejohann, B; Maurer, J; Angele, P; Aurich, M; Becher, C; Fay, J; Feil, R; Fickert, S; Fritz, J; Hoburg, A; Kreuz, P; Kolombe, T; Laskowski, J; Lützner, J; Marlovits, S; Müller, P E; Niethammer, T; Pietschmann, M; Ruhnau, K; Spahn, G; Tischer, T; Zinser, W; Albrecht, D

    2015-02-01

    The German Cartilage Registry (KnorpelRegister DGOU) has been introduced in October 2013 and aims on the evaluation of patients who underwent cartilage repair for symptomatic cartilage defects. It represents a nation-wide cohort study which has been introduced by the working group "Tissue Regeneration" of the Germany Society of Orthopaedic Surgery and Traumatology and is technically based upon a web-based remote data entry (RDE) system. The present article describes first experiences with the registry including patient and treatment characteristics. Between October 2013 and April 2014, a total of 230 patients who had undergone surgical cartilage repair for symptomatic full-thickness cartilage defects of the knee has been included in the German Cartilage Registry from 23 cartilage repair centres. Mean age was 37.11 years (SD 13.61) and mean defect size was 3.68 cm(2) (SD 0.23). Since the introduction of the KnorpelRegister DGOU the total number of registered patients has increased steadily up to the most recent figure of 72 patients within one month. Patients were treated mainly according to the recommended therapies. The highest percentage in therapy is represented by the bone marrow stimulation techniques (55.02 %) as well as by the autologous chondrocyte transplantation (34.92 %). Unlike the patient collective in the majority of prospective randomised controlled trials, the patient population within the registry shows a high proportion of patients with accompanying pathologies, with an age of more than 50 years at the time of treatment and with unfavourably assessed accompanying pathologies such as an affection of the opposite cartilage surface or a previously resected meniscus. In summary, the technical platform and forms of documentation of the KnorpelRegister DGOU have proved to be very promising within the first six months. Unlike data from other clinical trials, the previous analysis of the patients' data and therapies reflects successfully the actual

  19. Ninety-day study of inhaled 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene in rats. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Sasmore, D.P.; Palmer, D.

    1981-09-23

    Male and female rats were exposed to 0, 10, 100 or 1000 ppM of 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene vapors for 6 hours daily, 5 days a week, for up to 13 weeks. After 4 weeks or 13 weeks of exposure, animals were sacrificed and examined for changes in blood, clinical chemistry, internal organs, and tissues resulting from the 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene treatment. No treatment-related effects on the blood and clinical chemistry were evident. Squamous metaplasia and hyperplasia were observed in the respiratory epithelium in the nasal passages of several high-dose rats.

  20. An Evaluation of the Italian Version of the Yale Food Addiction Scale in Obese Adult Inpatients Engaged in a 1-Month-Weight-Loss Treatment.

    PubMed

    Ceccarini, Martina; Manzoni, Gian Mauro; Castelnuovo, Gianluca; Molinari, Enrico

    2015-11-01

    Addiction is a compulsive need for and use of a specific substance leading to a habit, tolerance, and psychophysiological symptoms. Excessive food consumption is similar to that of substance addiction. Some individuals who have trouble losing weight display addictive eating symptoms. To investigate food addiction in a sample of obese adults referred to hospital for a 1-month-weight-loss treatment. The Italian version of the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS-16) was used as a screening tool in 88 obese inpatients. The construct validity of the YFAS-16 was assessed by testing its correlations with measures of binge eating (Binge Eating Scale), impulsiveness (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale), and emotional dysregulation (Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale). 34.1% of our sample was diagnosed with YFAS food addiction. Such diagnosis was also supported by strong associations between FA and psychological and behavioral features, typically descriptive of classic addiction. Patients who endorsed the YFAS-16 criteria for food addiction (FA) had significantly higher binge eating levels, greater emotional dysregulation, and nonacceptance of negative feelings; they lacked goal-oriented behavior, had little impulse control, had difficulty in emotion recognition, and attentional impulsivity; and they were unable to concentrate and lacked inhibitory control behavior, unlike participants who did not meet the FA criteria. Further research is needed to support the reliability of the YFAS-16. This measure has the potential to be applied in epidemiological research, estimating the prevalence of FA within the Italian population and to assess new treatments' efficacy for obese patients with food addiction symptoms seeking weight-loss treatments. PMID:26267366

  1. 21 CFR 176.230 - 3,5-Dimethyl-1,3,5,2H-tetrahydrothiadiazine-2-thione.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false 3,5-Dimethyl-1,3,5,2H-tetrahydrothiadiazine-2-thione. 176.230 Section 176.230 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: PAPER...

  2. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine (Rdx) (Interagency Science Consultation Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    On March 10, 2016, the public comment draft Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine and the draft charge to external peer reviewers were released for public review and comment. The Toxicological Review and charge were reviewed internally by EPA and by othe...

  3. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine (Rdx) (Public Comment Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is developing an Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) assessment of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and has released the draft assessment for public comment. When final, the assessment will appear on the IRIS database.

  4. Identification of ovine ruminal microbes capable of biotransforming hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioremediation is of great interest in the detoxification of soil contaminated with residues from explosives such as hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). Although there are numerous forms of in situ and ex situ bioremediation, ruminants would provide the option of an in situ bioreactor tha...

  5. Treatment of rats with an anti-(+)-methamphetamine monoclonal antibody shortens the duration of action of repeated (+)-methamphetamine challenges over a one month period

    PubMed Central

    Hambuchen, Michael D.; Rüedi-Bettschen, Daniela; Williams, D. Keith; Hendrickson, Howard; Owens, S. Michael

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed clinical scenarios of continuing monoclonal antibody (mAb) treatment for (+)-methamphetamine (METH) addiction, and the implications of missing or discontinuing this therapy. We hypothesized that chronic anti-METH mAb7F9 (METH KD = 9 nM) treatment of rats could significantly decrease METH-induced behaviors; even with repeated METH challenges, use of METH doses in excess of mAb binding sites, and after discontinuing mAb treatment which results in a 10-fold reduction in mAb7F9 serum concentrations. Male Sprague Dawley rats (n=6/group) were treated with i.v. saline or a loading dose of mAb7F9 to achieve instant steady-state conditions followed by two weekly (141 mg/kg) doses ending on day 14. METH (0.56 mg/kg) was administered four hours and three days after each saline or mAb7F9 treatment, and on day 21. This produced locomotion and rearing behavior that lasted about 120 min in control rats. In mAb7F9 treated rats, METH-induced distance traveled was significantly reduced from 60–120 min (P<0.05) on days 0–21 and rearing was significantly reduced from 60–120 min on days 0–17. METH serum concentrations determined 5 hrs after METH dosing was significantly increased in mAb7F9-treated rats after all METH challenges. On days 24 and 28 (the final day), the rats were administered a 3-fold higher METH dose (1.68 mg/kg). MAb7F9 treated rats showed a substantially earlier termination of the METH-induced locomotion on both days, even though the METH dose exceeded mAb7F9’s binding capacity. METH brain concentrations determined 5 hrs after METH on day 28 were also significantly decreased in mAb7F9-treated rats. In conclusion, over one month, mAb7F9 significantly and continuously bound METH and reduced METH-induced locomotor effects even after discontinuation of mAb treatment and challenge with higher METH doses. PMID:25252196

  6. Increased Prevalence of Human Polyomavirus JC Viruria in Chronic Inflammatory Rheumatic Diseases Patients in Treatment with Anti-TNF α: A 18 Month Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Rodio, Donatella Maria; Anzivino, Elena; Mischitelli, Monica; Bellizzi, Anna; Scrivo, Rossana; Scribano, Daniela; Conte, Gianlorenzo; Prezioso, Carla; Trancassini, Maria; Valesini, Guido; Palamara, Anna Teresa; Pietropaolo, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    Chronic inflammatory rheumatic diseases (CIRDs) are immune-mediated pathologies involving joints. To date, TNFα-blocking agents administration is the most promising therapy, although these treatments are associated with an increased Polyomavirus JC (JCPyV) reactivation, the etiological agent of the Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML). The aim of this study was the recruitment and the analysis of a CIRDs cohort in order to investigate a possible correlation between JCPyV presence and the influence of anti-TNF-α agents on viral loads. Blood and urine samples were collected from 34 CIRDs subjects prior the first anti-TNF-α infusion (T0) and after 3 (T3), 6 (T6), 12 (T12), and 18 (T18) months. Results showed persistent JC viruria significantly higher than JC viremia throughout the 18 month follow-up study (p = 0.002). In JCPyV positive samples, the non-coding control region (NCCR) was analyzed. Results evidenced archetypal structures (type II-S) in all isolates with the exception of a sequence isolated from a plasma sample, that corresponds to the type II-R found in PML subjects. Finally, the viral protein 1 (VP1) genotyping was performed and results showed the prevalence of the European genotypes 1A, 1B, and 4. Since only few studies have been carried out to understand whether there is a PML risk in CIRDs population infected by JCPyV, this study contributes to enrich literature insight on JCPyV biology in this cluster. Further investigations are necessary in order to recognize the real impact of biologics on JCPyV life cycle and to identify possible and specific viral variants related to increased virulence in CIRDs patients. PMID:27242700

  7. Increased Prevalence of Human Polyomavirus JC Viruria in Chronic Inflammatory Rheumatic Diseases Patients in Treatment with Anti-TNF α: A 18 Month Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Rodio, Donatella Maria; Anzivino, Elena; Mischitelli, Monica; Bellizzi, Anna; Scrivo, Rossana; Scribano, Daniela; Conte, Gianlorenzo; Prezioso, Carla; Trancassini, Maria; Valesini, Guido; Palamara, Anna Teresa; Pietropaolo, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    Chronic inflammatory rheumatic diseases (CIRDs) are immune-mediated pathologies involving joints. To date, TNFα-blocking agents administration is the most promising therapy, although these treatments are associated with an increased Polyomavirus JC (JCPyV) reactivation, the etiological agent of the Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML). The aim of this study was the recruitment and the analysis of a CIRDs cohort in order to investigate a possible correlation between JCPyV presence and the influence of anti-TNF-α agents on viral loads. Blood and urine samples were collected from 34 CIRDs subjects prior the first anti-TNF-α infusion (T0) and after 3 (T3), 6 (T6), 12 (T12), and 18 (T18) months. Results showed persistent JC viruria significantly higher than JC viremia throughout the 18 month follow-up study (p = 0.002). In JCPyV positive samples, the non-coding control region (NCCR) was analyzed. Results evidenced archetypal structures (type II-S) in all isolates with the exception of a sequence isolated from a plasma sample, that corresponds to the type II-R found in PML subjects. Finally, the viral protein 1 (VP1) genotyping was performed and results showed the prevalence of the European genotypes 1A, 1B, and 4. Since only few studies have been carried out to understand whether there is a PML risk in CIRDs population infected by JCPyV, this study contributes to enrich literature insight on JCPyV biology in this cluster. Further investigations are necessary in order to recognize the real impact of biologics on JCPyV life cycle and to identify possible and specific viral variants related to increased virulence in CIRDs patients. PMID:27242700

  8. Depressive symptom trajectories among girls in the juvenile justice system: 24-month outcomes of an RCT of Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care.

    PubMed

    Harold, Gordon T; Kerr, David C R; Van Ryzin, Mark; DeGarmo, David S; Rhoades, Kimberly A; Leve, Leslie D

    2013-10-01

    Youth depression is a significant and growing international public health problem. Youth who engage in high levels of delinquency are at particularly high risk for developing problems with depression. The present study examined the impact of a behavioral intervention designed to reduce delinquency (Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care; MTFC) compared to a group care intervention (GC; i.e., services as usual) on trajectories of depressive symptoms among adolescent girls in the juvenile justice system. MTFC has documented effects on preventing girls' recidivism, but its effects on preventing the normative rise in girls' depressive symptoms across adolescence have not been examined. This indicated prevention sample included 166 girls (13-17 years at T1) who had at least one criminal referral in the past 12 months and who were mandated to out-of-home care; girls were randomized to MTFC or GC. Intent-to-treat analyses examined the main effects of MTFC on depression symptoms and clinical cut-offs, and whether benefits were greatest for girls most at risk. Depressive symptom trajectories were specified in hierarchical linear growth models over a 2 year period using five waves of data at 6 month intervals. Depression clinical cut-off scores were specified as nonlinear probability growth models. Results showed significantly greater rates of deceleration for girls in MTFC versus GC for depressive symptoms and for clinical cut-off scores. The MTFC intervention also showed greater benefits for girls with higher levels of initial depressive symptoms. Possible mechanisms of effect are discussed, given MTFC's effectiveness on targeted and nontargeted outcomes. PMID:23417664

  9. 77 FR 13185 - Women's History Month, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ....) [FR Doc. 2012-5566 Filed 3-5-12; 8:45 am] Billing code 3295-F2-P ...#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8780 of March 1, 2012 Women's History Month, 2012 By the President of the... Women's History Month, we commemorate their struggles, celebrate centuries of progress, and reaffirm...

  10. 78 FR 14433 - Women's History Month, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ... thirty- seventh. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2013-05296 Filed 3-5-13; 8:45 am] Billing code 3295-F3 ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8935 of February 28, 2013 Women's History Month, 2013 By the President of the... your talents will take you. Women's History Month is a time to remember those who fought to make...

  11. Inpatient resource use and costs associated with switching from oral antipsychotics to aripiprazole once-monthly for the treatment of schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Michele; Gutierrez, Benjamin; Offord, Steve J.; Blanchette, Christopher M.; Eramo, Anna; Earnshaw, Stephanie; Kamat, Siddhesh A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Schizophrenia is associated with high direct healthcare costs due to progression of disease and frequent occurrence of relapses. Aripiprazole once-monthly (AOM) has been shown to reduce total psychiatric hospitalizations among patients who switched from oral standard of care (SOC) therapy to AOM in a multicenter, open-label, mirror-image study of patients with schizophrenia. Because of the increasing need to improve patient outcomes while containing costs, it is important to understand the impact of AOM treatment initiation on medical costs associated with psychiatric hospitalizations and antipsychotic pharmacy costs. Methods: In the current study, an economic model was developed using data from the AOM mirror-image study to evaluate the psychiatric hospitalization-related medical costs and antipsychotic pharmacy costs during a 6-month period before (retrospective period) and after (prospective period) the AOM treatment initiation. The economic model evaluated cost-saving potential of AOM among all patients (n=433) as well as a subset of patients with ≥1 prior hospitalization (n=165) who switched from oral SOC to AOM. Unit cost data were obtained from publicly available sources. Results: Both hospitalizations and hospital days were reduced following a switch from oral SOC to AOM. As a result, psychiatric hospitalization-related costs were lower during the prospective period when compared with the retrospective period. Furthermore, the increase in antipsychotic pharmacy costs due to switching from oral SOC to AOM was offset by a reduction in psychiatric hospitalization-related medical costs. Per-patient costs were reduced by $1,046 (USD) in the overall population and by $20,353 in a subset of patients who had at least 1 psychiatric hospitalization during the retrospective period. Results were most sensitive to changes in hospitalization costs. Conclusions: AOM is associated with reducing the risk of relapse among patients with schizophrenia. The

  12. Concurrent Heroin Use and Correlates among Methadone Maintenance Treatment Clients: A 12-Month Follow-up Study in Guangdong Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Peizhen; Gong, Xiao; Zhang, Lei; Tang, Weiming; Zou, Xia; Chen, Wen; Ling, Li

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess concurrent heroin use and correlates among Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT) clients in Guangdong Province, China. Method: Demographic and drug use data were collected with a structured questionnaire, and MMT information was obtained from the MMT clinic registration system in Guangdong. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infected status and urine morphine results were obtained from laboratory tests. Logistic regressions were employed to investigate the factors associated with concurrent heroin use. Results: Among the 6848 participants, 75% continued using heroin more than once during the first 12 months after treatment initiation. Concurrent heroin use was associated with inharmonious family relationship (OR (odds ratio) = 1.49, 95% CI (confidence intervals): 1.24–1.78), HIV positivity (OR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.01–1.55), having multiple sex partners (OR = 1.34, 95% CI: 1.07–1.69), having ever taken intravenous drugs (OR = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.69–0.95), higher maintenance dose (OR = 1.13, 95% CI: 1.01–1.28) and poorer MMT attendance (OR<20% = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.13–1.53; OR20%– = 1.33, 95% CI: 1.14–1.54; OR50%– = 1.69, 95% CI: 1.44–2.00). Among those who used heroin concurrently, the same factors, and additionally being older (OR35– = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.11–1.43; OR≥45 = 1.63, 95% CI: 1.30–2.05) and female (OR = 1.60, 95% CI: 1.28–2.00), contribute to a greater frequency of heroin use. Conclusions: Concurrent heroin use was prevalent among MMT participants in Guangdong, underscoring the urgent needs for tailored interventions and health education programs for this population. PMID:27005649

  13. Degradation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia PB1.

    PubMed Central

    Binks, P R; Nicklin, S; Bruce, N C

    1995-01-01

    A mixed microbial culture capable of metabolizing the explosive RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) was obtained from soil enrichments under aerobic and nitrogen-limiting conditions. A bacterium, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia PB1, isolated from the culture used RDX as a sole source of nitrogen for growth. Three moles of nitrogen was used per mole of RDX, yielding a metabolite identified by mass spectroscopy and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance analysis as methylene-N-(hydroxymethyl)-hydroxylamine-N'-(hydroxymethyl)nitroamin e. The bacterium also used s-triazine as a sole source of nitrogen but not the structurally similar compounds octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine, cyanuric acid, and melamine. An inducible RDX-degrading activity was present in crude cell extracts. PMID:7747953

  14. 21 CFR 176.230 - 3,5-Dimethyl-1,3,5,2H-tetrahydrothiadiazine-2-thione.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false 3,5-Dimethyl-1,3,5,2H-tetrahydrothiadiazine-2-thione. 176.230 Section 176.230 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: PAPER AND PAPERBOARD COMPONENTS Substances for Use Only...

  15. 21 CFR 176.230 - 3,5-Dimethyl-1,3,5,2H-tetrahydrothiadiazine-2-thione.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false 3,5-Dimethyl-1,3,5,2H-tetrahydrothiadiazine-2-thione. 176.230 Section 176.230 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: PAPER AND PAPERBOARD COMPONENTS Substances for Use Only...

  16. 21 CFR 176.230 - 3,5-Dimethyl-1,3,5,2H-tetrahydrothiadiazine-2-thione.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true 3,5-Dimethyl-1,3,5,2H-tetrahydrothiadiazine-2-thione. 176.230 Section 176.230 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: PAPER AND PAPERBOARD COMPONENTS Substances for Use Only...

  17. Changes in HDL-cholesterol and lipoprotein Lp(a) after 6-month treatment with finasteride in males affected by benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).

    PubMed

    Denti, L; Pasolini, G; Cortellini, P; Sanfelici, L; Benedetti, R; Cecchetti, A; Ferretti, S; Bruschieri, L; Ablondi, F; Valenti, G

    2000-09-01

    Androgen effects on lipoproteins, mainly high density lipoprotein (HDL), could be exerted by a direct interaction of testosterone (T) or dihydrotestosterone (DHT) with liver androgen receptors. To assess if T needs to be converted into DHT to affect lipid metabolism, 13 patients were studied, affected with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and treated with an inhibitor of 5 alpha-reductase (finasteride). They were compared with 15 untreated controls. At baseline and after 3 and 6 months of therapy, each patient was evaluated as for lipoprotein and hormone concentrations, as well as for nutritional status. Body composition was assessed by anthropometry and bio-impedance analysis (BIA). Treatment was associated with a significant increase of HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), mainly HDL3 subclass, and lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)), as well as a decline of DHT, whereas no significant changes were apparent for T, estradiol (E2), sex hormone binding hormone (SHBG) and body composition indexes. However, no significant associations between DHT and lipid relative changes were apparent at bivariate correlation analysis. This finding was confirmed by comparing patient subsets identified by cluster analysis, according to HDL subclass individual responses. Rather, a slight association with E2 for HDL2 (positive) and HDL3 (negative) was found. In conclusion, finasteride can modify HDL and Lp(a) concentrations. However, by the data, these effects cannot be definitively attributed to the changes in DHT synthesis induced by finasteride, since a direct and non-specific interference of the drug on liver metabolism cannot be excluded. PMID:10996351

  18. 3,5-Dichlorophenol Removal From Wastewater Using Alternative Adsorbents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobetičová, Hana; Lipovský, Marek; Wachter, Igor; Soldán, Maroš

    2015-06-01

    The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the efficiency of 3,5-dichlorophenol removal from wastewater by using alternative low cost adsorbents. Waste from the production and processing of metals (black nickel mud, red mud) and a biosorbent (Lemna minor) were used for this research. Initial concentration of the contaminant was 4 mmol L-1, the contact time of sorbent and waste water was 0 - 48 hrs and the temperature during experiment was 25 ± 0.2 °C. The results show that the highest removal efficiency of 3,5 - dichlorophenol (58.18 %) was reached by the red mud in 48 hours.

  19. Rearrangement of dypnones to 1,3,5-triarylbenzenes.

    PubMed

    Deng, Kai; Huai, Qi-Yong; Shen, Zhi-Lun; Li, Hui-Jing; Liu, Chen; Wu, Yan-Chao

    2015-03-20

    Rearrangement of dypnones to 1,3,5-triarylbenzenes is described. The reaction is proposed to involve an aldol-type self-condensation of dypnones, followed by an intramolecular [2 + 2] cycloaddition and a retro-[2 + 2] cycloaddition. The reaction goes smoothly under obviously milder conditions in comparison to the cyclotrimerization of acetophenones to 1,3,5-triarylbenzenes (10 mol % of TsOH, 80 °C versus 130-148 °C). This unexpected rearrangement would provide new possible considerations in dypnone-involved organic synthesis. PMID:25740008

  20. Novel reaction of N,N'-bisarylmethanediamines with formaldehyde. Synthesis of some new 1,3,5-triaryl-1,3,5-hexahydrotriazines.

    PubMed

    Ghandi, Mehdi; Salimi, Farshid; Olyaei, Abolfazl

    2006-01-01

    The acid-catalyzed cyclocondensation of N,N'-bisaryl (aryl = 2-pyrimidinyl, 2-pyrazinyl and 4-nitrophenyl) methanediamines 5a-c with aqueous formaldehyde in refluxing acetonitrile leads to the formation of the corresponding 1,3,5-triaryl-1,3,5-hexa-hydrotriazines 6a-c. The stoichiometric reactions of 2-aminopyrimidine and 2-amino-pyrazine with aqueous formaldehyde in acetonitrile under reflux conditions also afforded 6a and 6b, respectively. Treatment of 2-aminopyrimidine with aqueous formaldehyde in a 3:2 ratio yielded N,N',N"-tris(2-pyrimidinyl)dimethylenetriamine (7a) as a sole product, which upon subsequent reaction with formaldehyde also afforded 6a. The reaction of N,N'-biphenylmethanediamine with formaldehyde was also investigated. PMID:17971727

  1. Lessons for Algebraic Thinking. Grades 3-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickett, Maryann; Kharas, Katharine; Burns, Marilyn

    Algebra is one of the top priorities of mathematics instruction for the elementary and middle grades. This book is designed to help 3-5 teachers meet the challenge of making algebra an integral part of their mathematics instruction and realize both what to teach and how to teach central algebraic concepts. Classroom-tested lessons help teachers…

  2. Science in Action Series: AGATE ( pt 3/5 )

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This show was made for the Office of Education at NASA Langley. The objective is to make math and science appealing to a middle school audience. This clip (pt 3/5 ) tells us more about the plane. How much will it cost to run, and how will we learn to fly?

  3. 21 CFR 556.220 - 3,5-Dinitrobenzamide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... temperature. The 3,5-DNBA therefrom is treated a second time with activated carbon and then recrystallized three more times from specially denatured alcohol 3A. The third crystallization is washed with diethyl... be run five different times. Plot equivalent concentration in tissue versus mean absorbance at...

  4. Experimental evaluation of a Mach 3.5 axisymmetric inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Syberg, J.; Koncsek, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    Wind tunnel test results for a large scale inlet model designed for Mach 3.5 are presented and compared with analytical predictions. The inlet is an axisymmetric mixed-compression type with a lip diameter of 49.723 cm. The inlet design was developed using analytical procedures. Data are shown for freestream Mach numbers from 0.6 to 3.5. The test results indicate that boundary layer bleed requirements can be accurately predicted. Good agreement was obtained with analytical predictions of the flowfield structure and boundary layer development in the supersonic diffuser yielding high performance at the design Mach number. The highest engine face total pressure recovery at Mach 3.5 was 85.8%; this was obtained at 0.05 Mach tolerance with only 2.8% total pressure distortion and 13.4% bleed. In the started Mach number range from 1.6 to 3.5, the total pressure recovery in the throat, downstream of the terminal normal shock, ranged between 91% and 95%. Total pressure losses in the subsonic diffuser varied from 3% to 13%. The higher losses occuring between Mach 2.5 and 3.2 were believed to be caused by the rapid rate of increase in the area of the diffuser just downstream of the throat, possibly coupled with inadequate centerbody throat bleed. In the unstarted mode at transonic speeds, the maximum inlet flow was over 99% of the theoretical maximum capture mass-flow.

  5. Practical auxiliary basis implementation of Rung 3.5 functionals.

    PubMed

    Janesko, Benjamin G; Scalmani, Giovanni; Frisch, Michael J

    2014-07-21

    Approximate exchange-correlation functionals for Kohn-Sham density functional theory often benefit from incorporating exact exchange. Exact exchange is constructed from the noninteracting reference system's nonlocal one-particle density matrix γ(r(->), r(->)'). Rung 3.5 functionals attempt to balance the strengths and limitations of exact exchange using a new ingredient, a projection of γ(r(->), r(->)') onto a semilocal model density matrix γ(SL)(ρ(r(->)), ∇ρ(r(->)), r(->) - r(->)'). γSL depends on the electron density ρ(r(->) at reference point r(->), and is closely related to semilocal model exchange holes. We present a practical implementation of Rung 3.5 functionals, expanding the r(->) - r(->)' dependence of γSL in an auxiliary basis set. Energies and energy derivatives are obtained from 3D numerical integration as in standard semilocal functionals. We also present numerical tests of a range of properties, including molecular thermochemistry and kinetics, geometries and vibrational frequencies, and bandgaps and excitation energies. Rung 3.5 functionals typically provide accuracy intermediate between semilocal and hybrid approximations. Nonlocal potential contributions from γSL yield interesting successes and failures for band structures and excitation energies. The results enable and motivate continued exploration of Rung 3.5 functional forms. PMID:25053297

  6. 9 CFR 3.5 - Mobile or traveling housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.5 Mobile or traveling housing facilities. (a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. Mobile or traveling housing facilities for dogs and cats must be sufficiently heated and cooled when necessary to protect the dogs and cats from temperature...

  7. 9 CFR 3.5 - Mobile or traveling housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.5 Mobile or traveling housing facilities. (a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. Mobile or traveling housing facilities for dogs and cats must be sufficiently heated and cooled when necessary to protect the dogs and cats from temperature...

  8. 9 CFR 3.5 - Mobile or traveling housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.5 Mobile or traveling housing facilities. (a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. Mobile or traveling housing facilities for dogs and cats must be sufficiently heated and cooled when necessary to protect the dogs and cats from temperature...

  9. 9 CFR 3.5 - Mobile or traveling housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.5 Mobile or traveling housing facilities. (a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. Mobile or traveling housing facilities for dogs and cats must be sufficiently heated and cooled when necessary to protect the dogs and cats from temperature...

  10. 9 CFR 3.5 - Mobile or traveling housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.5 Mobile or traveling housing facilities. (a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. Mobile or traveling housing facilities for dogs and cats must be sufficiently heated and cooled when necessary to protect the dogs and cats from temperature...