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1

Deterministic solutions for 3D Kobayashi benchmarks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present results for the set of three-dimensional radiation transport benchmark problems with void region proposed by Kobayashi. Reference solutions for the pure absorber cases were obtained by direct quadrature. All cases were calculated by the three-dimensional discrete ordinates nodal and characteristics code IDT. The discrete ordinates results for the pure-absorber case suffer strongly from ray effects which remain present

Igor Zmijarevic; Richard Sanchez

2001-01-01

2

Relap5-3d model validation and benchmark exercises for advanced gas cooled reactor application  

E-print Network

abilities of system analysis codes, used to develop an understanding of light water reactor phenomenology, need to be proven for HTGRs. RELAP5-3D v2.3.6 is used to generate two reactor plant models for a code-to-code and a code-to-experiment benchmark...

Moore, Eugene James Thomas

2006-08-16

3

An efficient parallel algorithm for the 3-D FFT NAS parallel benchmark  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose an efficient algorithm to implement the 3D NAS FFT benchmark. The proposed algorithm overlaps the communication with the computation. On parallel machines supporting overlap of communication with computation, the proposed algorithm can outperform the non-overlapping version of this algorithm by a factor close to two

R. C. Agarwal; F. G. Gustavson; M. Zubair

1994-01-01

4

Evaluation of 3D surface scanners for skin documentation in forensic medicine: comparison of benchmark surfaces  

PubMed Central

Background Two 3D surface scanners using collimated light patterns were evaluated in a new application domain: to document details of surfaces similar to the ones encountered in forensic skin pathology. Since these scanners have not been specifically designed for forensic skin pathology, we tested their performance under practical constraints in an application domain that is to be considered new. Methods Two solid benchmark objects containing relevant features were used to compare two 3D surface scanners: the ATOS-II (GOM, Germany) and the QTSculptor (Polygon Technology, Germany). Both scanners were used to capture and process data within a limited amount of time, whereas point-and-click editing was not allowed. We conducted (a) a qualitative appreciation of setup, handling and resulting 3D data, (b) an experimental subjective evaluation of matching 3D data versus photos of benchmark object regions by a number of 12 judges who were forced to state their preference for either of the two scanners, and (c) a quantitative characterization of both 3D data sets comparing 220 single surface areas with the real benchmark objects in order to determine the recognition rate's possible dependency on feature size and geometry. Results The QTSculptor generated significantly better 3D data in both qualitative tests (a, b) that we had conducted, possibly because of a higher lateral point resolution; statistical evaluation (c) showed that the QTSculptor-generated data allowed the discrimination of features as little as 0.3 mm, whereas ATOS-II-generated data allowed for discrimination of features sized not smaller than 1.2 mm. Conclusion It is particularly important to conduct specific benchmark tests if devices are brought into new application domains they were not specifically designed for; using a realistic test featuring forensic skin pathology features, QT Sculptor-generated data quantitatively exceeded manufacturer's specifications, whereas ATOS-II-generated data was within the limits of the manufacturer's specifications. When designing practically constrained specific tests, benchmark objects should be designed to contain features relevant for the application domain. As costs for 3D scanner hardware, software and data analysis can be hundred times as high compared to high-resolution digital photography equipment, independent user driven evaluation of such systems is paramount. Index terms Forensic pathology, Rough surfaces, Surface Scanning, Technology Assessment PMID:17266746

Schweitzer, Wolf; Hšusler, Martin; Bšr, Walter; Schaepman, Michael

2007-01-01

5

Commissioning and benchmarking a 3D dosimetry system for clinical use  

PubMed Central

Purpose: A 3D dosimetry system is described which consists of two parts: a radiochromic plastic dosimeter PRESAGEģ (which responds to absorbed dose with a linear change in optical-density) and the Duke large-field-of-view optical-CT scanner (DLOS). The DLOS?PRESAGE system has recently been commissioned and benchmarked for clinical use and, in particular, for verification and commissioning of complex radiation treatments. Methods: DLOS commissioning involved determining the dynamic range, spatial resolution, noise, temporal, and other characteristics of the light source and imaging components. Benchmarking tests were performed on the combined DLOS?PRESAGE system to establish baseline dosimetric performance. The tests consisted of delivering simple radiation treatments to PRESAGE dosimeters, and comparing the measured 3D relative dose distributions with the known gold standard. The gold standard distribution was obtained from machine beam-data or the treatment planning system (TPS). All studies used standardized procedures to ensure consistency. Results: For commissioning, isotropic spatial resolution was submillimeter (MTF?>?0.5 for frequencies of 1.5 lp?mm) and the dynamic range was ?60 dB. Flood field uniformity was within 10% and stable after 45 min of warm-up. Stray-light is small, due to telecentricity, but even the residual can be removed through deconvolution by a point-spread-function. For benchmarking, the mean 3D passing NDD (normalized dose distribution) rate (3%, 3mm, 5% dose threshold) over the benchmark data sets was 97.3%?Ī?0.6% (range 96%Ė98%), which is on par with other planar dosimeters used in external beam radiation therapy indicating excellent agreement. Noise was low at <2% of maximum dose (4Ė12 Gy) for 2 mm reconstructions. The telecentric design was critical to enabling fast imaging with minimal stray-light artifacts. Conclusions: This work presents the first comprehensive benchmarking of a 3D dosimetry system for clinical use. The DLOS?PRESAGE benchmark tests show consistently good agreement to simple known distributions. The system produces accurate isotropic 2 mm dose data over clinical volumes (e.g., 16 cm diameter phantoms, 12 cm height), in under 15 min. It represents a uniquely useful and versatile new tool for commissioning and verification of complex therapy treatments. PMID:21928656

Thomas, Andrew; Newton, Joseph; Adamovics, John; Oldham, Mark

2011-01-01

6

Performance of BLAS 3, FFTs and NAS Parallel Benchmarks on Cray T3D  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recently, a Cray T3D Emulator has been made available on the Cray Y-MP and C90 computers. The Pittsburgh Supercomputer Center has acquired a CRAY T3D system and many other centers like Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) will have it by the end of 1994. The Cray T3D system is the firstphase system in Cray Research, Inc.'s (CRI) three-phase massively parallel processing (MPP) program. This system features a heterogeneous architecture that closely couples DEC's ALPHA microprocessors and CRI's parallel-vector technology, i.e. the Cray Y-MP and Cray C90. The Cray T3D Emulator will give prospective users a valuable experience in developing high performance applications on the MPP system. This emulator runs programs written in CRI's MPP Fortran programming model (data sharing and work sharing) or Parallel Virtual Machine (PVM) programming model. It will help the users to study data layout, data locality, and data reference patterns thereby providing feedback which will enable one to write more efficient parallel codes. An overview of the Cray T3D hardware, software, and three of its available programming models is presented.The Cray Fortran Programming Model comprising (a) Data Sharing, (b) Worksharing and (c) Message Passing, will be discussed with examples. We have also implemented distributed BLAS 3 (matrix-matrix multiplication) in data parallel model (using only CSHIFT); worksharing model using block distribution and collapsed distribution; and message passing model using PVM. We have also implemented 2D and 3D FFTs for radix-2 using PVM. The performance of NAS Parallel 'Benchmarks (NPB) on CRAY T3D will be compared with other highly parallel systems such as CM-5, Paragon, C90 etc.

Saini, Subhash; Simon, Horst D.; Cooper, D. M. (Technical Monitor)

1994-01-01

7

Domain Decomposition PN Solutions to the 3D Transport Benchmark over a Range in Parameter Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objectives of this contribution are twofold. First, the Domain Decomposition (DD) method used in the parafish parallel transport solver is re-interpreted as a Generalized Schwarz Splitting as defined by Tang [SIAM J Sci Stat Comput, vol.13 (2), pp. 573-595, 1992]. Second, parafish provides spherical harmonic (i.e., PN) solutions to the NEA benchmark suite for 3D transport methods and codes over a range in parameter space. To the best of the author's knowledge, these are the first spherical harmonic solutions provided for this demanding benchmark suite. They have been obtained using 512 CPU cores of the JuRoPa machine installed at the JŁlich Computing Center (Germany).

Van Criekingen, S.

2014-06-01

8

K-FIX (3D). 3D Extension 2Phase Flow Dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This package consists of two programs K-FIX(3D) and K-FIX(3D,FLX) which extend the transient, two-dimensional, two-fluid program K-FIX to perform three-dimensional calculations. The transient dynamics of three-dimensional, two-phase flow with interfacial exchange are calculated at all flow speeds. Each phase is described in terms of its own density, velocity, and temperature. The application is to flow in the annulus between two

W. C. Rivard; M. D. Torrey

1979-01-01

9

Tomo3D 2.0 - Exploitation of Advanced Vector eXtensions (AVX) for 3D reconstruction.  

PubMed

Tomo3D is a program for fast tomographic reconstruction on multicore computers. Its high speed stems from code optimization, vectorization with Streaming SIMD Extensions (SSE), multithreading and optimization of disk access. Recently, Advanced Vector eXtensions (AVX) have been introduced in the x86 processor architecture. Compared to SSE, AVX double the number of simultaneous operations, thus pointing to a potential twofold gain in speed. However, in practice, achieving this potential is extremely difficult. Here, we provide a technical description and an assessment of the optimizations included in Tomo3D to take advantage of AVX instructions. Tomo3D 2.0 allows huge reconstructions to be calculated in standard computers in a matter of minutes. Thus, it will be a valuable tool for electron tomography studies with increasing resolution needs. PMID:25528570

Agulleiro, Jose-Ignacio; Fernandez, Jose-Jesus

2015-02-01

10

3D path planning and extension for endoscopic guidance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physicians use endoscopic procedures to diagnose and treat a variety of medical conditions. For example, bronchoscopy is often performed to diagnose lung cancer. The current practice for planning endoscopic procedures requires the physician to manually scroll through the slices of a three-dimensional (3D) medical image. When doing this scrolling, the physician must perform 3D mental reconstruction of the endoscopic route to reach a specific diagnostic region of interest (ROI). Unfortunately, in the case of complex branching structures such as the airway tree, ROIs are often situated several generations away from the organ's origin. Existing image-analysis methods can help define possible endoscopic navigation paths, but they do not provide specific routes for reaching a given ROI. We have developed an automated method to find a specific route to reach an ROI. Given a 3D medical image, our method takes as inputs: (1) pre-defined ROIs; (2) a segmentation of the branching organ through which the endoscopic device will navigate; and (3) centerlines (paths) through the segmented organ. We use existing methods for branching-organ segmentation and centerline extraction. Our method then (1) identifies the closest paths (routes) to the ROI; and (2) if necessary, performs a directed search for the organ of interest, extending the existing paths to complete a route. Results from human 3D computed tomography chest images illustrate the efficacy of the method.

Gibbs, Jason D.; Higgins, William E.

2007-03-01

11

Practical analytical solutions for benchmarking of 2-D and 3-D geodynamic Stokes problems with variable viscosity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geodynamic modeling often involves challenging computations involving solution of Stokes and continuity equations under condition of highly variable viscosity. Based on new analytical approach we developed generalized analytical solutions for 2-D and 3-D incompressible Stokes flows with both linearly and exponentially variable viscosity. We demonstrated how these generalized solutions can be converted into 2-D and 3-D test problems suitable for benchmarking numerical codes aimed at modeling various mantle convection and lithospheric dynamics problems. Main advantage of this new generalized approach is that large variety of benchmark solutions can be generated including relatively complex cases with open model boundaries, non-vertical gravity and variable gradients of viscosity and density fields, which are not parallel to Cartesian axes. Examples of respective 2-D and 3-D MatLab codes are provided with this paper.

Popov, I. Yu.; Lobanov, I. S.; Popov, S. I.; Popov, A. I.; Gerya, T. V.

2013-12-01

12

Practical analytical solutions for benchmarking of 2-D and 3-D geodynamic Stokes problems with variable viscosity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geodynamic modeling is often related with challenging computations involving solution of the Stokes and continuity equations under the condition of highly variable viscosity. Based on a new analytical approach we have developed particular analytical solutions for 2-D and 3-D incompressible Stokes flows with both linearly and exponentially variable viscosity. We demonstrate how these particular solutions can be converted into 2-D and 3-D test problems suitable for benchmarking numerical codes aimed at modeling various mantle convection and lithospheric dynamics problems. The Main advantage of this new generalized approach is that a large variety of benchmark solutions can be generated, including relatively complex cases with open model boundaries, non-vertical gravity and variable gradients of the viscosity and density fields, which are not parallel to the Cartesian axes. Examples of respective 2-D and 3-D MatLab codes are provided with this paper.

Popov, I. Yu.; Lobanov, I. S.; Popov, S. I.; Popov, A. I.; Gerya, T. V.

2014-06-01

13

Parareal in time 3D numerical solver for the LWR Benchmark neutron diffusion transient model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present a time-parallel algorithm for the 3D neutrons calculation of a transient model in a nuclear reactor core. The neutrons calculation consists in numerically solving the time dependent diffusion approximation equation, which is a simplified transport equation. The numerical resolution is done with finite elements method based on a tetrahedral meshing of the computational domain, representing the reactor core, and time discretization is achieved using a ?-scheme. The transient model presents moving control rods during the time of the reaction. Therefore, cross-sections (piecewise constants) are taken into account by interpolations with respect to the velocity of the control rods. The parallelism across the time is achieved by an adequate use of the parareal in time algorithm to the handled problem. This parallel method is a predictor corrector scheme that iteratively combines the use of two kinds of numerical propagators, one coarse and one fine. Our method is made efficient by means of a coarse solver defined with large time step and fixed position control rods model, while the fine propagator is assumed to be a high order numerical approximation of the full model. The parallel implementation of our method provides a good scalability of the algorithm. Numerical results show the efficiency of the parareal method on large light water reactor transient model corresponding to the Langenbuch-Maurer-Werner benchmark.

Baudron, Anne-Marie; Lautard, Jean-Jacques; Maday, Yvon; Riahi, Mohamed Kamel; Salomon, Julien

2014-12-01

14

A Relational Extension to the Notion of Motifs: An application to the Common 3D Protein  

E-print Network

A Relational Extension to the Notion of Motifs: An application to the Common 3D Protein as approximate relations among them. Then, finding similar com- mon substructures within a set of protein in the important field of protein common 3D substructure searching. The methods implemented have been tested

Soldano, Henry

15

NAS Parallel Conjugate Gradient Benchmark on the Cray T3D  

Microsoft Academic Search

. The NAS Parallel Benchmark [1] kernels were developed to evaluatethe performance of highly-parallel supercomputers. These benchmarks are unstructuredin the sense that they give only an algorithm defining the benchmark; all implementationdetails are left to the programmer. We looked specifically at a kernelto solve an unstructured sparse linear system via the conjugate gradient method,the CG kernel. This kernel was implemented

Tamara L. Gibson

1995-01-01

16

Nonlinear rheology in ASPECT: benchmarking and an application to 3D subduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ASPECT (Advanced Solver for Problems in Earth's ConvecTion) is a promising new code designed for modelling thermal convection in the mantle (Kronbichler et al. 2012). The massively parallel code uses state-of-the-art numerical methods, such as high performance solvers and adaptive mesh refinement. It builds on tried-and-well-tested libraries and works with plug-ins allowing easy extension to fine-tune it to the user's specific needs. We extended the code by implementing a frictional plasticity criterion that can be combined with a viscous creep rheology, allowing for thermo-mechanically coupled visco-plastic flow. This way we can accommodate for the nonlinear behavior of the Earth's materials and incorporate for instance the localization of deformation through plastic yielding. This has been shown to be of great importance for modelling lithosphere deformation. Three well-known benchmarks are used to test and validate our implementation of plasticity: the punch benchmark (e.g. Thieulot et al. 2008), which considers the indentation of a perfectly plastic material and allows for comparison with an analytical solution; the brick benchmark (Kaus 2010), performed in both a compressional and tensional regime with shear band angles bounded by results of other codes and theory; and the sandbox experiment by Buiter et al. (2006) modelling the time evolution of the extension of viscous and plastic layers in the presence of a free surface. We further showcase ASPECT's capabilities with a more geodynamical application: the subduction of an oceanic plate in a three-dimensional thermo-mechanically coupled system. We compare the use of nonlinear rheologies versus that of constant mantle and plate viscosities with an adaptation of the subducting/overriding plate setup of Schellart and Moresi (2013). These models also demonstrate how the adaptive mesh refinement allows for high resolutions locally while the code remains computationally efficient even in the presence of large deformation and large viscosity contrasts. Buiter, S. J. H. et al., "The numerical sandbox: comparison of model results for a shortening and an extension experiment". Analogue and Numerical Modelling of Crustal-Scale Processes, Buiter, S. J. H. and Schreurs, G. (eds). London: Geological Society, 2006. Kaus, B. J. (2010), Factors that control the angle of shear bands in geodynamic numerical models of brittle deformation, Tectonophysics, 484, 36-47. Kronbichler, M., Heister, T. and Bangerth, W. (2012), High Accuracy Mantle Convection Simulation through Modern Numerical Methods, Geophysical Journal International, 191, 12-29. Schellart, W. P. and Moresi, L. (2013), A new driving mechanism for backarc extension and backarc shortening through slab sinking induced toroidal and poloidal mantle flow: Results from dynamic subduction models;with an overriding plate, Journal of Geophysical Research, 118, 1-28. Thieulot, C., Fullsack, P. and Braun, J. (2008), Adaptive octree-based finite element analysis of two-dimensional and three-dimensional indentation problems, Journal of Geophysical Research, 113.

Glerum, Anne; Thieulot, Cedric; Fraters, Menno; Spakman, Wim

2014-05-01

17

Extensible visualization and analysis for multidimensional images using Vaa3D.  

PubMed

Open-Source 3D Visualization-Assisted Analysis (Vaa3D) is a software platform for the visualization and analysis of large-scale multidimensional images. In this protocol we describe how to use several popular features of Vaa3D, including (i) multidimensional image visualization, (ii) 3D image object generation and quantitative measurement, (iii) 3D image comparison, fusion and management, (iv) visualization of heterogeneous images and respective surface objects and (v) extension of Vaa3D functions using its plug-in interface. We also briefly demonstrate how to integrate these functions for complicated applications of microscopic image visualization and quantitative analysis using three exemplar pipelines, including an automated pipeline for image filtering, segmentation and surface generation; an automated pipeline for 3D image stitching; and an automated pipeline for neuron morphology reconstruction, quantification and comparison. Once a user is familiar with Vaa3D, visualization usually runs in real time and analysis takes less than a few minutes for a simple data set. PMID:24385149

Peng, Hanchuan; Bria, Alessandro; Zhou, Zhi; Iannello, Giulio; Long, Fuhui

2014-01-01

18

BEYOND 2D FOR BRAIN-COMPUTER INTERFACES: TWO 3D EXTENSIONS OF THE P300-SPELLER  

E-print Network

BEYOND 2D FOR BRAIN-COMPUTER INTERFACES: TWO 3D EXTENSIONS OF THE P300-SPELLER Saman Noorzadeh ABSTRACT This paper, investigates the use of a 3D setting for Brain- Computer Interface (BCI) by implementing the 3D interface for the P300-Speller device. The 3D configurations were im- plemented using two

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

19

RELAP5-3D Results for Phase I (Exercise 2) of the OECD/NEA MHTGR-350 MW Benchmark  

SciTech Connect

The coupling of the PHISICS code suite to the thermal hydraulics system code RELAP5-3D has recently been initiated at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to provide a fully coupled prismatic Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) system modeling capability as part of the NGNP methods development program. The PHISICS code consists of three modules: INSTANT (performing 3D nodal transport core calculations), MRTAU (depletion and decay heat generation) and a perturbation/mixer module. As part of the verification and validation activities, steady state results have been obtained for Exercise 2 of Phase I of the newly-defined OECD/NEA MHTGR-350 MW Benchmark. This exercise requires participants to calculate a steady-state solution for an End of Equilibrium Cycle 350 MW Modular High Temperature Reactor (MHTGR), using the provided geometry, material, and coolant bypass flow description. The paper provides an overview of the MHTGR Benchmark and presents typical steady state results (e.g. solid and gas temperatures, thermal conductivities) for Phase I Exercise 2. Preliminary results are also provided for the early test phase of Exercise 3 using a two-group cross-section library and the Relap5-3D model developed for Exercise 2.

Gerhard Strydom

2012-06-01

20

RELAP5-3D results for phase I (Exercise 2) of the OECD/NEA MHTGR-350 MW benchmark  

SciTech Connect

The coupling of the PHISICS code suite to the thermal hydraulics system code RELAP5-3D has recently been initiated at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to provide a fully coupled prismatic Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) system modeling capability as part of the NGNP methods development program. The PHISICS code consists of three modules: INSTANT (performing 3D nodal transport core calculations), MRTAU (depletion and decay heat generation) and a perturbation/mixer module. As part of the verification and validation activities, steady state results have been obtained for Exercise 2 of Phase I of the newly-defined OECD/NEA MHTGR-350 MW Benchmark. This exercise requires participants to calculate a steady-state solution for an End of Equilibrium Cycle 350 MW Modular High Temperature Reactor (MHTGR), using the provided geometry, material, and coolant bypass flow description. The paper provides an overview of the MHTGR Benchmark and presents typical steady state results (e.g. solid and gas temperatures, thermal conductivities) for Phase I Exercise 2. Preliminary results are also provided for the early test phase of Exercise 3 using a two-group cross-section library and the Relap5-3D model developed for Exercise 2. (authors)

Strydom, G.; Epiney, A. S. [Idaho National Laboratory INL, 2525 N. Fremont Ave., Idaho Falls, ID 83402 (United States)

2012-07-01

21

New Multi-group Transport Neutronics (PHISICS) Capabilities for RELAP5-3D and its Application to Phase I of the OECD/NEA MHTGR-350 MW Benchmark  

SciTech Connect

PHISICS is a neutronics code system currently under development at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Its goal is to provide state of the art simulation capability to reactor designers. The different modules for PHISICS currently under development are a nodal and semi-structured transport core solver (INSTANT), a depletion module (MRTAU) and a cross section interpolation (MIXER) module. The INSTANT module is the most developed of the mentioned above. Basic functionalities are ready to use, but the code is still in continuous development to extend its capabilities. This paper reports on the effort of coupling the nodal kinetics code package PHISICS (INSTANT/MRTAU/MIXER) to the thermal hydraulics system code RELAP5-3D, to enable full core and system modeling. This will enable the possibility to model coupled (thermal-hydraulics and neutronics) problems with more options for 3D neutron kinetics, compared to the existing diffusion theory neutron kinetics module in RELAP5-3D (NESTLE). In the second part of the paper, an overview of the OECD/NEA MHTGR-350 MW benchmark is given. This benchmark has been approved by the OECD, and is based on the General Atomics 350 MW Modular High Temperature Gas Reactor (MHTGR) design. The benchmark includes coupled neutronics thermal hydraulics exercises that require more capabilities than RELAP5-3D with NESTLE offers. Therefore, the MHTGR benchmark makes extensive use of the new PHISICS/RELAP5-3D coupling capabilities. The paper presents the preliminary results of the three steady state exercises specified in Phase I of the benchmark using PHISICS/RELAP5-3D.

Gerhard Strydom; Cristian Rabiti; Andrea Alfonsi

2012-10-01

22

Improvements to the Pool Critical Assembly Pressure Vessel Benchmark with 3-D Parallel SN PENTRAN  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The internationally circulated Pool Critical Assembly (PCA) Pressure Vessel Benchmark was analyzed using the PENTRAN Parallel SN code system for the geometry, material, and source specifications as described in the PCA Benchmark documentation. Improvements to the benchmark are proposed here through the application of more representative flux and volume weighted homogenized cross sections for the PCA reactor core, which were obtained from a rigorous heterogeneous modeling of all fuel assembly types in the core. A new source term definition is also proposed based on calculated relative power in each core fuel assembly with a spectrum based on the Uranium-235 fission spectra. This research focused on utilizing the BUGLE-96 cross section library and accompanying reaction rates, while also examining PENTRAN's adaptive differencing implemented on a coarse mesh basis, as well as fixed use of Directional Theta-Weighted (DTW) SN differencing scheme in order to compare the calculated PENTRAN results to measured data. The results show good comparison with the measured benchmark data, which suggests PENTRAN is a viable, reliable code system for calculation of light water reactor neutron shielding and pressure vessel dosimetry calculations. Furthermore, the improvements to the benchmark methodology resulting from this work provide a 6 percent increase in accuracy of the calculation (based on the average of all calculation points), when compared with experimentally measured results at the same spatial locations in the PCA pressure vessel simulator.

Edgar, Christopher A.; Sjoden, Glenn E.; Yi, Ce

2014-06-01

23

2D and 3D turbulent reconnection as a benchmark within the SWIFF project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goals of SWIFF (swiff.eu/) are: * Zero-in on the physics of all aspects of space weather and design mathematical models that can address them. * Develop specific computational models that are especially suited to handling the great complexity of space weather events where the range of time evolutions and of spatial variations are so much more challenging than in regular meteorological models. * Develop the software needed to implement such computational models on the modern supercomputers available now in Europe. Within Swiff a rigorous benchmarking acrtivity is taking place that will be reported here. A full description is available at: swiff.eu/wiki/index.php?title=Main_Page#Benchmark_Activities

Lapenta, G.; Markidis, S.; Bettarini, L.

2012-04-01

24

TORT solutions for the 3D radiation transport benchmarks for simple geometries with void region  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the solutions for the set of three-dimensional radiation transport Benchmark problems obtained with the TORT transport code using its three optional methods: Theta Weighted (?W), Linear Nodal (LN), and Linear Characteristic (LC). Only the cases with 50% scattering are presented in this paper since the nonscattering cases are bound to suffer severe ray effects. By solving the problems

Yousry Y. Azmy; Franz X. Gallmeier; Dick A. Lillie

2001-01-01

25

Reconstruction of 3d Objects of Assets and Facilities by Using Benchmark Points  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acquiring and modeling 3D geo-data of building assets and facility objects is one of the challenges. A number of methods and technologies are being utilized for this purpose. Total station, GPS, photogrammetric and terrestrial laser scanning are few of these technologies. In this paper, points commonly shared by potential facades of assets and facilities modeled from point clouds are identified. These points are useful for modeling process to reconstruct 3D models of assets and facilities stored to be used for management purposes. These models are segmented through different planes to produce accurate 2D plans. This novel method improves the efficiency and quality of construction of models of assets and facilities with the aim utilize in 3D management projects such as maintenance of buildings or group of items that need to be replaced, or renovated for new services.

Baig, S. U.; Rahman, A. A.

2013-08-01

26

Performance evaluation of 3D optoelectronic computer architectures based on the FFT and sorting benchmarks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optical interconnections can achieve greater data rates and lower power consumption than electronic. Yet, no computers featuring such interconnections have been demonstrated. It is projected that the first such computers will be composed of a stack of arrays of electronic processing elements, each one connected to its neighbors using free space optics. This architecture is called a 3D optoelectronic computer.

George A. Betzos; Pericles A. Mitkas

1995-01-01

27

A highly heterogeneous 3D PWR core benchmark: deterministic and Monte Carlo method comparison  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physical analyses of the LWR potential performances with regards to the fuel utilization require an important part of the work dedicated to the validation of the deterministic models used for theses analyses. Advances in both codes and computer technology give the opportunity to perform the validation of these models on complex 3D core configurations closed to the physical situations encountered (both steady-state and transient configurations). In this paper, we used the Monte Carlo Transport code TRIPOLI-4ģ; to describe a whole 3D large-scale and highly-heterogeneous LWR core. The aim of this study is to validate the deterministic CRONOS2 code to Monte Carlo code TRIPOLI-4ģ; in a relevant PWR core configuration. As a consequence, a 3D pin by pin model with a consistent number of volumes (4.3 millions) and media (around 23,000) is established to precisely characterize the core at equilibrium cycle, namely using a refined burn-up and moderator density maps. The configuration selected for this analysis is a very heterogeneous PWR high conversion core with fissile (MOX fuel) and fertile zones (depleted uranium). Furthermore, a tight pitch lattice is selcted (to increase conversion of 238U in 239Pu) that leads to harder neutron spectrum compared to standard PWR assembly. In these conditions two main subjects will be discussed: the Monte Carlo variance calculation and the assessment of the diffusion operator with two energy groups for the core calculation.

Jaboulay, J.-C.; Damian, F.; Douce, S.; Lopez, F.; Guenaut, C.; Aggery, A.; Poinot-Salanon, C.

2014-06-01

28

XBX: eXternal Benchmarking eXtension for the SUPERCOP Crypto Benchmarking Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a SUPERCOP [1] is a benchmarking framework for cryptographic algorithms like ciphers and hash functions. It automatically benchmarks\\u000a algorithms across several implementations, compilers, compiler options and input data lengths. Since it is freely available\\u000a for download the results are easily reproducible and benchmark results for virtually every computer that is capable of running\\u000a SUPERCOP are available. However, since SUPERCOP is a

Christian Wenzel-Benner; Jens Gršf

2010-01-01

29

Results of 2007 Ect Benchmark Obtained with Civa at Cea: Prediction of Ect Inspection Over Tubes with 2d or 3d Flaws  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) has developed for years the software CIVA dedicated to the simulation of NDT techniques such as Eddy Current Testing (ECT). ECT modeling is achieved in CIVA using semi-analytical models based on the Volume Integral Method (VIM). This paper presents results obtained with CIVA for the QNDE 2007 ECT benchmark, dedicated to the inspection of tube affected by 2D and 3D flaws. Further configurations are also proposed for future benchmark sessions.

Pichenot, G.; Reboud, C.; Raillon, R.; Mahaut, S.

2008-02-01

30

Toward Verification of USM3D Extensions for Mixed Element Grids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The unstructured tetrahedral grid cell-centered finite volume flow solver USM3D has been recently extended to handle mixed element grids composed of hexahedral, prismatic, pyramidal, and tetrahedral cells. Presently, two turbulence models, namely, baseline Spalart-Allmaras (SA) and Menter Shear Stress Transport (SST), support mixed element grids. This paper provides an overview of the various numerical discretization options available in the newly enhanced USM3D. Using the SA model, the flow solver extensions are verified on three two-dimensional test cases available on the Turbulence Modeling Resource website at the NASA Langley Research Center. The test cases are zero pressure gradient flat plate, planar shear, and bump-inchannel. The effect of cell topologies on the flow solution is also investigated using the planar shear case. Finally, the assessment of various cell and face gradient options is performed on the zero pressure gradient flat plate case.

Pandya, Mohagna J.; Frink, Neal T.; Ding, Ejiang; Parlette, Edward B.

2013-01-01

31

Present Status and Extensions of the Monte Carlo Performance Benchmark  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NEA Monte Carlo Performance benchmark started in 2011 aiming to monitor over the years the abilities to perform a full-size Monte Carlo reactor core calculation with a detailed power production for each fuel pin with axial distribution. This paper gives an overview of the contributed results thus far. It shows that reaching a statistical accuracy of 1 % for most of the small fuel zones requires about 100 billion neutron histories. The efficiency of parallel execution of Monte Carlo codes on a large number of processor cores shows clear limitations for computer clusters with common type computer nodes. However, using true supercomputers the speedup of parallel calculations is increasing up to large numbers of processor cores. More experience is needed from calculations on true supercomputers using large numbers of processors in order to predict if the requested calculations can be done in a short time. As the specifications of the reactor geometry for this benchmark test are well suited for further investigations of full-core Monte Carlo calculations and a need is felt for testing other issues than its computational performance, proposals are presented for extending the benchmark to a suite of benchmark problems for evaluating fission source convergence for a system with a high dominance ratio, for coupling with thermal-hydraulics calculations to evaluate the use of different temperatures and coolant densities and to study the correctness and effectiveness of burnup calculations. Moreover, other contemporary proposals for a full-core calculation with realistic geometry and material composition will be discussed.

Hoogenboom, J. Eduard; Petrovic, Bojan; Martin, William R.

2014-06-01

32

Extensions to SCDAP/RELAP5-3D for Analysis of Advanced Reactors  

SciTech Connect

The SCDAP/RELAP5-3D code was extended to enable the code to perform transient analyses of advanced LWRs (Light Water Reactors) and HTGRs (High Temperature Gas Reactors). The extensions for LWRs included: (1) representation of micro-heterogeneous fuel varying in composition in the radial and axial directions, (2) modeling of two-dimensional radial/axial heat conduction for more accurate calculation of fuel and cladding temperatures during the reflood period of a large break loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA), (3) modeling of fuel-cladding interface pressure and fuel-cladding gap conductance, (4) representation of radial power profiles varying in a discontinuous manner in the axial direction, and (5) addition of material properties for fuel composed of mixtures of ThO2-UO2 and ThO2-PuO2. The extensions for HTGR analyses included: (1) modeling of the transient two-dimensional temperature behavior of graphite moderated reactor cores (pebble bed and block-type), reactor vessel, and reactor containment, (2) modeling of flow losses and convective heat transfer in pebble bed reactor cores, (3) modeling of oxidation of graphite components in reactor cores due to the ingress of air and/or water, and (4) modeling of the affect of oxidation on the composition of gases in the reactor system. The applications of the extended code to LWR analyses showed that advanced fuels intended for proliferation resistance and waste reduction could also be designed to produce calculated peak cladding temperatures during a large break LOCA less than the 1477 K acceptance criterion in 10 CFR 50.46. Fuels composed of ThO2-UO2 and ThO2-PuO2 are examples of such fuels. The applications of the extended code to HTGR analyses showed that: (1) HTGRs can be designed for passive removal of all decay heat, and (2)

Harvego, Edwin Allan; Siefken, Larry James

2003-04-01

33

Comparison of the PHISICS/RELAP5-3D Ring and Block Model Results for Phase I of the OECD MHTGR-350 Benchmark  

SciTech Connect

The INL PHISICS code system consists of three modules providing improved core simulation capability: INSTANT (performing 3D nodal transport core calculations), MRTAU (depletion and decay heat generation) and a perturbation/mixer module. Coupling of the PHISICS code suite to the thermal hydraulics system code RELAP5-3D has recently been finalized, and as part of the code verification and validation program the exercises defined for Phase I of the OECD/NEA MHTGR 350 MW Benchmark were completed. This paper provides an overview of the MHTGR Benchmark, and presents selected results of the three steady state exercises 1-3 defined for Phase I. For Exercise 1, a stand-alone steady-state neutronics solution for an End of Equilibrium Cycle Modular High Temperature Reactor (MHTGR) was calculated with INSTANT, using the provided geometry, material descriptions, and detailed cross-section libraries. Exercise 2 required the modeling of a stand-alone thermal fluids solution. The RELAP5-3D results of four sub-cases are discussed, consisting of various combinations of coolant bypass flows and material thermophysical properties. Exercise 3 combined the first two exercises in a coupled neutronics and thermal fluids solution, and the coupled code suite PHISICS/RELAP5-3D was used to calculate the results of two sub-cases. The main focus of the paper is a comparison of the traditional RELAP5-3D ďringĒ model approach vs. a much more detailed model that include kinetics feedback on individual block level and thermal feedbacks on a triangular sub-mesh. The higher fidelity of the block model is illustrated with comparison results on the temperature, power density and flux distributions, and the typical under-predictions produced by the ring model approach are highlighted.

Gerhard Strydom

2014-04-01

34

2008 Ect Benchmark Results: Modeling with Civa of 3d Flaws Responses in Planar and Cylindrical Work Pieces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The configurations proposed in the 2008 ECT modeling benchmark session are addressed in this paper using the eddy current modeling tool embedded into CIVA, which is a multi-technique simulation platform dedicated to NDT and developed at the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA). The theoretical approach used in CIVA for ECT modeling is based on Volume integral Method (VIM) coupled with the Method of Moments (MoM) and thus leads to fast and accurate calculations in the case of canonical geometries. Symmetries of the configurations considered in this benchmark are moreover exploited by using the Dodd and Deed formalism for the field computations. After a presentation of the semi-analytical model, results obtained in all benchmark cases are discussed and compared with experimental data.

Reboud, C.; Pichenot, G.; Prťmel, D.; Raillon, R.

2009-03-01

35

2008 Ect Benchmark Results: Modeling with Civa of 3d Flaws Responses in Planar and Cylindrical Work Pieces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The configurations proposed in the 2008 ECT modeling benchmark session are addressed in this paper using the eddy current modeling tool embedded into CIVA, which is a multi-technique simulation platform dedicated to NDT and developed at the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA). The theoretical approach used in CIVA for ECT modeling is based on Volume integral Method (VIM) coupled with

C. Reboud; G. Pichenot; D. Prťmel; R. Raillon

2009-01-01

36

Highest performance in 3D metal cutting at smallest footprint: benchmark of a robot based system vs. parameters of gantry systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the automotive industry as well as in other industries ecological aspects regarding energy savings are driving new technologies and materials, e.g. lightweight materials as aluminium or press hardened steels. Processing such parts especially complex 3D shaped parts laser manufacturing has become the key process offering highest efficiency. The most established systems for 3D cutting applications are based on gantry systems. The disadvantage of those systems is their huge footprint to realize the required stability and work envelope. Alternatively a robot based system might be of advantage if accuracy, speed and overall performance would be capable processing automotive parts. With the BIM "beam in motion" system, JENOPTIK Automatisierungstechnik GmbH has developed a modular robot based laser processing machine, which meets all OEM specs processing press hardened steel parts. A benchmark of the BIM versus a gantry system was done regarding all required parameters to fulfil OEM specifications for press hardened steel parts. As a result a highly productive, accurate and efficient system can be described based on one or multiple robot modules working simultaneously together. The paper presents the improvements on the robot machine concept BIM addressed in 2012 [1] leading to an industrial proven system approach for the automotive industry. It further compares the performance and the parameters for 3D cutting applications of the BIM system versus a gantry system by samples of applied parts. Finally an overview of suitable applications for processing complex 3D parts with high productivity at small footprint is given.

Scheller, Torsten; Bastick, Andrť; Michel-Triller, Robert; Manzella, Christon

2014-02-01

37

The impact of laminin on 3D neurite extension in collagen gels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary goal of this research was to characterize the effect of laminin on three-dimensional (3D) neurite growth. Gels were formed using type I collagen at concentrations of 0.4-2.0 mg mL-1 supplemented with laminin at concentrations of 0, 1, 10, or 100 Ķg mL-1. When imaged with confocal microscopy, laminin was shown to follow the collagen fibers; however, the addition of laminin had minimal effect on the stiffness of the scaffolds at any concentration of collagen. Individual neurons dissociated from E9 chick dorsal root ganglia were cultured in the gels for 24 h, and neurite lengths were measured. For collagen gels without laminin, a typical bimodal response of neurite outgrowth was observed, with increased growth at lower concentrations of collagen gel. However, alteration of the chemical nature of the collagen gel by the laminin additive shifted, or completely mitigated, the bimodal neurite growth response seen in gels without laminin. Expression of integrin subunits, ?1, ?3, ?6 and ?1, were confirmed by PCR and immunolabeling in the 3D scaffolds. These results provide insight into the interplay between mechanical and chemical environment to support neurite outgrowth in 3D. Understanding the relative impact of environmental factors on 3D nerve growth may improve biomaterial design for nerve cell regeneration.

Swindle-Reilly, Katelyn E.; Papke, Jason B.; Kutosky, Hannah P.; Throm, Allison; Hammer, Joshua A.; Harkins, Amy B.; Kuntz Willits, Rebecca

2012-08-01

38

Extension of 2D segmentation methods into 3D by means of Coons-patch interpolation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In medical imaging, segmentation is an important step for many visualization tasks and image-guided procedures. Except for very rare cases, automatic segmentation methods cannot guarantee to provide the correct segmentation. Therefore, for clinical usage, physicians insist on full control over the segmentation result, i.e., to verify and interactively correct the segmentation (if necessary). Display and interaction in 2D slices (original or multi-planar reformatted) are more precise than in 3D visualizations and therefore indispensable for segmentation, verification and correction. The usage of slices in more than one orientation (multi-planar reformatted slices) helps to avoid inconsistencies between 2D segmentation results in neighboring slices. For the verification and correction of three-dimensional segmentations as well as for generating a new 3D segmentation, it is therefore desirable to have a method that constructs a new or improved 3D segmentation from 2D segmentation results. The proposed method enables to quickly extend segmentations performed on intersecting slices of arbitrary orientation to a three-dimensional surface model by means of interpolation with specialized Coons patches. It can be used as a segmentation tool of its own as well as for making more sophisticated segmentation methods (that need an initialization close to the boundary to detect) feasible for clinical routine.

Wolf, Ivo; Eid, Amir; Vetter, Marcus; Hassenpflug, Peter; Meinzer, Hans-Peter

2003-05-01

39

Extension of a data-driven gating technique to 3D, whole body PET studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Respiratory gating can be used to separate a PET acquisition into a series of near motion-free bins. This is typically done using additional gating hardware; however, software-based methods can derive the respiratory signal from the acquired data itself. The aim of this work was to extend a data-driven respiratory gating method to acquire gated, 3D, whole body PET images of clinical patients. The existing method, previously demonstrated with 2D, single bed-position data, uses a spectral analysis to find regions in raw PET data which are subject to respiratory motion. The change in counts over time within these regions is then used to estimate the respiratory signal of the patient. In this work, the gating method was adapted to only accept lines of response from a reduced set of axial angles, and the respiratory frequency derived from the lung bed position was used to help identify the respiratory frequency in all other bed positions. As the respiratory signal does not identify the direction of motion, a registration-based technique was developed to align the direction for all bed positions. Data from 11 clinical FDG PET patients were acquired, and an optical respiratory monitor was used to provide a hardware-based signal for comparison. All data were gated using both the data-driven and hardware methods, and reconstructed. The centre of mass of manually defined regions on gated images was calculated, and the overall displacement was defined as the change in the centre of mass between the first and last gates. The mean displacement was 10.3 mm for the data-driven gated images and 9.1 mm for the hardware gated images. No significant difference was found between the two gating methods when comparing the displacement values. The adapted data-driven gating method was demonstrated to successfully produce respiratory gated, 3D, whole body, clinical PET acquisitions.

Schleyer, Paul J.; O'Doherty, Michael J.; Marsden, Paul K.

2011-07-01

40

In situ and real time characterization of interface microstructure in 3D alloy solidification: benchmark microgravity experiments in the DECLIC-Directional Solidification Insert on ISS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamical microstructure formation and selection during solidification processing, which has a major influence on the properties in the use of elaborated materials, occur during the growth process. In situ observation of the solid-liquid interface morphology evolution is thus necessary. On earth, convection effects dominate in bulk samples and may strongly interact with microstructure dynamics and alter pattern characterization. Series of solidification experiments with 3D cylindrical sample geometry were conducted in succinonitrile (SCN) -0.24 wt%camphor (model transparent system), in microgravity environment in the Directional Solidification Insert of the DECLIC facility of CNES (French space agency) on the International Space Station (ISS). Microgravity enabled homogeneous values of control parameters over the whole interface allowing the obtaining of homogeneous patterns suitable to get quantitative benchmark data. First analyses of the characteristics of the pattern (spacing, order, etc.) and of its dynamics in microgravity will be presented.

Ramirez, A.; Chen, L.; Bergeon, N.; Billia, B.; Gu, Jiho; Trivedi, R.

2012-01-01

41

Benchmark of Atucha-2 PHWR RELAP5-3D control rod model by Monte Carlo MCNP5 core calculation  

SciTech Connect

Atucha-2 is a Siemens-designed PHWR reactor under construction in the Republic of Argentina. Its geometrical complexity and peculiarities require the adoption of advanced Monte Carlo codes for performing realistic neutronic simulations. Therefore core models of Atucha-2 PHWR were developed using MCNP5. In this work a methodology was set up to collect the flux in the hexagonal mesh by which the Atucha-2 core is represented. The scope of this activity is to evaluate the effect of obliquely inserted control rod on neutron flux in order to validate the RELAP5-3D{sup C}/NESTLE three dimensional neutron kinetic coupled thermal-hydraulic model, applied by GRNSPG/UNIPI for performing selected transients of Chapter 15 FSAR of Atucha-2. (authors)

Pecchia, M.; D'Auria, F. [San Piero A Grado Nuclear Research Group GRNSPG, Univ. of Pisa, via Diotisalvi, 2, 56122 - Pisa (Italy); Mazzantini, O. [Nucleo-electrica Argentina Societad Anonima NA-SA, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2012-07-01

42

On the development of NURBS-based isogeometric solid shell elements: 2D problems and preliminary extension to 3D  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work deals with the development of 2D solid shell non-uniform rational B-spline elements. We address a static problem, that can be solved with a 2D model, involving a thin slender structure under small perturbations. The plane stress, plane strain and axisymmetric assumption can be made. projection and reduced integration techniques are considered to deal with the locking phenomenon. The use of the approach leads to the implementation of two strategies insensitive to locking: the first strategy is based on a 1D projection of the mean strain across the thickness; the second strategy undertakes to project all the strains onto a suitably chosen 2D space. Conversely, the reduced integration approach based on Gauss points is less expensive, but only alleviates locking and is limited to quadratic approximations. The performance of the various 2D elements developed is assessed through several numerical examples. Simple extensions of these techniques to 3D are finally performed.

Bouclier, R.; Elguedj, T.; Combescure, A.

2013-11-01

43

Evaluation of the HPF\\/JA Extensions on Fujitsu VPP Using the NAS Parallel Benchmarks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have ported 5 codes in APRís HPF implementation of NAS Parallel benchmark, so that it is conformable to HPF 2.0 and HPF\\/JA\\u000a specification. The porting is done with the full usage of HPF 2.0 and HPF\\/JA new features, while the base Fortran codes remain\\u000a almost unmodified. Then we have measured the performance of these benchmark codes on Fujitsu VPP800

Kae Asaoka; Akio Hirano; Yasuo Okabe; Masanori Kanazawa

2002-01-01

44

K-FIX; 3D; three-dimensional extension two-phase flow dynamics. [CDC7600; FORTRAN IV  

Microsoft Academic Search

This package consists of two programs K-FIX(3D) and K-FIX(3D,FLX) which extend the transient, two-dimensional, two-fluid program K-FIX (NESC Abstract 727) to perform three-dimensional calculations. The transient dynamics of three-dimensional, two-phase flow with interfacial exchange are calculated at all flow speeds. Each phase is described in terms of its own density, velocity, and temperature. The application is to flow in the

W. C. Rivard; M. D. Torrey

2008-01-01

45

Finite extension across the South Vietnam basins from 3D gravimetric modelling: relation to South China Sea kinematics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We derive a crustal thickness map over the south Vietnam basins from a 3D inversion of gravity data that takes into account the sedimentary infill and its density variation with depth. This map is used to estimate the total amount of stretching across these basins, that varies from 190 km to the east (at 111įE) to 30 km to the

P Huchon; T. N. H Nguyen; N Chamot-Rooke

1998-01-01

46

Benchmarking of calculated projectile fragmentation cross-sections using the 3-D, MC codes PHITS, FLUKA, HETC-HEDS, MCNPX_HI, and NUCFRG2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particles and heavy ions are used in various fields of nuclear physics, medical physics, and material science, and their interactions with different media, including human tissue and critical organs, have therefore carefully been investigated both experimentally and theoretically since the 1930s. However, heavy-ion transport includes many complex processes and measurements for all possible systems, including critical organs, would be impractical or too expensive; e.g. direct measurements of dose equivalents to critical organs in humans cannot be performed. A reliable and accurate particle and heavy-ion transport code is therefore an essential tool in the design study of accelerator facilities as well as for other various applications. Recently, new applications have also arisen within transmutation and reactor science, space and medicine, especially radiotherapy, and several accelerator facilities are operating or planned for construction. Accurate knowledge of the physics of interaction of particles and heavy ions is also necessary for estimating radiation damage to equipment used on space vehicles, to calculate the transport of the heavy ions in the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) through the interstellar medium, and the evolution of the heavier elements after the Big Bang. Concerns about the biological effect of space radiation and space dosimetry are increasing rapidly due to the perspective of long-duration astronaut missions, both in relation to the International Space Station and to manned interplanetary missions in near future. Radiation protection studies for crews of international flights at high altitude have also received considerable attention in recent years. There is therefore a need to develop accurate and reliable particle and heavy-ion transport codes. To be able to calculate complex geometries, including production and transport of protons, neutrons, and alpha particles, 3-dimensional transport using Monte Carlo (MC) technique must be used. Today several particle and heavy-ion MC transport codes exist, e.g. Particle and Heavy-Ion Transport code System (PHITS), High Energy Transport Code-Human Exploration and Development of Space (HETC-HEDS), SHIELD-HIT, GEANT4, FLUKA, MARS, and MCNPX. In this paper, we present an extensive benchmarking of the calculated projectile fragmentation cross-sections from the reactions of 300-1000MeV/u28Si, 40Ar, and 56Fe on polyethylene, carbon, aluminum, and copper targets (relevant to space radioprotection) using PHITS, FLUKA, HETC-HEDS, and MCNPX, against measurements. The influence of the different models used in the different transport codes on the calculated results is also discussed. Some measured cross-sections are also compared to the calculated cross-sections using NUCFRG2, which are incorporated in the 1-dimensional, deterministic radiation transport code HZETRN.

Sihver, L.; Mancusi, D.; Niita, K.; Sato, T.; Townsend, L.; Farmer, C.; Pinsky, L.; Ferrari, A.; Cerutti, F.; Gomes, I.

47

Results of 2007 Ect Benchmark Obtained with Civa at Cea: Prediction of Ect Inspection Over Tubes with 2d or 3d Flaws  

Microsoft Academic Search

The French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) has developed for years the software CIVA dedicated to the simulation of NDT techniques such as Eddy Current Testing (ECT). ECT modeling is achieved in CIVA using semi-analytical models based on the Volume Integral Method (VIM). This paper presents results obtained with CIVA for the QNDE 2007 ECT benchmark, dedicated to the inspection of

G. Pichenot; C. Reboud; R. Raillon; S. Mahaut

2008-01-01

48

Evolution of crustal stress patterns and fault orientations during oblique extension: Numerical 3D experiments from rift to break-up  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In continental rifts, extension is often oblique to the rift trend. This was the case during formation of the South Atlantic (especially in the Equatorial Segment), and the North Atlantic (Baffin Bay and Fram Strait). Oblique extension formed the Gulf of California, the Gulf of Aden and is presently active in the Ethiopian Rift System, as well as the Dead Sea Fault System. This study addresses the evolution of crustal stress patterns and fault geometries during oblique extension. It presents 3D numerical experiments on lithospheric scale that cover the rift evolution from initial deformation to break-up. Each simulation involves a different direction of extension in order to explore the whole extensional spectrum (i.e. rift-orthogonal extension, low to high obliquity, strike-slip deformation). The applied elasto-visco-plastic numerical model (SLIM3D) is based on the finite element method which allows an efficient implementation of a free surface and involves nonlinear stress- and temperature-dependent viscosity with laboratory-based parameters. Analog experiments have a rich history in studying the fault patterns of oblique rifts, however, reproducing realistic rheologies and temperature-dependent viscosity is problematic. While these issues are overcome in present day numerical models, they are limited by computational power which constrains 3D models to a relatively coarse resolution. In this study, I widen the scope of numerical 3D models by introducing a post-processing method that uses the stress-tensor to evaluate both the stress regime (extensional, strike-slip, compressional) and the preferred fault azimuth at each surface element assuming that faults are formed with optimal orientation in the stress field. Numerical results are validated by comparison to previous analog experiments. The numerical models exhibit a characteristic three-phase rift evolution. Individual phases can be characterised in terms of rift-parallel, extension-orthogonal, and intermediate normal fault directions as well as strike-slip faults with Riedel shear orientations. In experiments with low obliquity, sigmoidal en-echelon patterns emerge that result from the rotation of long-lived shear zones. Strain partitioning occurs in models of intermediate and high obliquity where the rift center and the rift flanks experience strike-slip deformation and normal faulting, respectively.

Brune, Sascha

2013-04-01

49

77 FR 4982 - Solicitation of Input From Stakeholders Regarding the Smith-Lever 3(d) Extension Integrated Pest...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...National Institute of Food and Agriculture, U...Protection, Institute of Food Production and Sustainability...National Institute of Food and Agriculture, U...diversity of subjects, and to aid participants in scheduling...Extension Integrated Pest Management Coordination and...

2012-02-01

50

A Topological View at Observed Flare Features: An Extension of the Standard Flare Model to 3D  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We conduct topology analysis of erupting non-linear force-free field (NLFFF) configurations of eight sigmoidal active regions observed with Hinode/XRT and SDO/AIA. The NLFFF models are computed using the flux rope insertion method and unstable models are utilized to represent the erupting configurations. Topology analysis shows that the quasi-separatrix layers (QSLs) in the chromosphere match well the flare ribbons observed in these regions. In addition, we show that low-lying QSLs associated with the rising flux rope change shape and extent to match the separating flare ribbons as observed by AIA. Post-flare loops are fit well by field lines lying under the generalized X-line at the bottom of the flux rope. We show a correspondence in the evolution of the post-flare loops from a strong-to-weak sheared state and the behavior of the field lines as the flux rope expands in the corona. We show that transient corona holes are associated with the footprints of the flux rope in the low atmosphere. In addition, we compute the reconnected flux in one of the regions and using information from the models constrain how much energy has been released during the event. We use this kind of topology analysis to extend the standard CME/flare model to full 3D and find implications to reconnection in 3D.

Savcheva, Antonia; Pariat, Etienne; McKillop, Sean; Hanson, Elizabeth; Su, Yingna; DeLuca, Edward E.

2014-06-01

51

A benchmark study of 2D and 3D finite element calculations simulating dynamic pulse buckling tests of cylindrical shells under axial impact  

SciTech Connect

A series of tests investigating dynamic pulse buckling of a cylindrical shell under axial impact is compared to several finite element simulations of the event. The purpose of the study is to compare the performance of the various analysis codes and element types with respect to a problem which is applicable to radioactive material transport packages, and ultimately to develop a benchmark problem to qualify finite element analysis codes for the transport package design industry.

Hoffman, E.L.; Ammerman, D.J.

1993-08-01

52

Benchmarking Professional Development Practices across Youth-Serving Organizations: Implications for Extension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examining traditional and contemporary professional development practices of youth-serving organizations can inform practices across Extension, particularly in light of the barriers that have been noted for effectively developing the professional competencies of Extension educators. With professional development systems changing quickly,Ö

Garst, Barry A.; Baughman, Sarah; Franz, Nancy

2014-01-01

53

Higher spin extension of cosmological spacetimes in 3D: asymptotically flat behaviour with chemical potentials and thermodynamics  

E-print Network

A generalized set of asymptotic conditions for higher spin gravity without cosmological constant in three spacetime dimensions is constructed. They include the most general temporal components of the gauge fields that manifestly preserve the original asymptotic higher spin extension of the BMS$_{3}$ algebra, with the same central charge. By virtue of a suitable permissible gauge choice, it is shown that this set can be directly recovered as a limit of the boundary conditions that have been recently constructed in the case of negative cosmological constant, whose asymptotic symmetries are spanned by two copies of the centrally-extended W$_{3}$ algebra. Since the generalized asymptotic conditions allow to incorporate chemical potentials conjugated to the higher spin charges, a higher spin extension of locally flat cosmological spacetimes becomes naturally included within the set. It is shown that their thermodynamic properties can be successfully obtained exclusively in terms of gauge fields and the topology of...

Matulich, Javier; Tempo, David; Troncoso, Ricardo

2014-01-01

54

A stabilized mixed finite element method for shear-rate dependent non-Newtonian fluids: 3D benchmark problems and application to blood flow in bifurcating arteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a stabilized mixed finite element method for shear-rate dependent fluids. The nonlinear viscosity field is a function of the shear-rate and varies uniformly in space and in time. The stabilized form is developed via application of Variational Multiscale (VMS) framework to the underlying generalized Navier-Stokes equation. Linear and quadratic tetrahedral and hexahedral elements are employed with equal-order interpolations for the velocity and pressure fields. A variety of benchmark problems are solved to assess the stability and accuracy properties of the resulting method. The method is then applied to non-Newtonian shear-rate dependent flows in bifurcating artery geometry, and significant non-Newtonian fluid effects are observed. A comparative study of the proposed method shows that the additional computational costs due to the nonlinear shear-rate dependent viscosity are only ten percent more than the computational cost for a Newtonian model.

Kwack, JaeHyuk; Masud, Arif

2014-04-01

55

A New Method to Explore the Spectral Impact of the Piriform Fossae on the Singing Voice: Benchmarking Using MRI-Based 3D-Printed Vocal Tracts  

PubMed Central

The piriform fossae are the 2 pear-shaped cavities lateral to the laryngeal vestibule at the lower end of the vocal tract. They act acoustically as side-branches to the main tract, resulting in a spectral zero in the output of the human voice. This study investigates their spectral role by comparing numerical and experimental results of MRI-based 3D printed Vocal Tracts, for which a new experimental method (based on room acoustics) is introduced. The findings support results in the literature: the piriform fossae create a spectral trough in the region 4Ė5 kHz and act as formants repellents. Moreover, this study extends those results by demonstrating numerically and perceptually the impact of having large piriform fossae on the sung output. PMID:25048199

Delvaux, Bertrand; Howard, David

2014-01-01

56

A new method to explore the spectral impact of the piriform fossae on the singing voice: benchmarking using MRI-based 3D-printed vocal tracts.  

PubMed

The piriform fossae are the 2 pear-shaped cavities lateral to the laryngeal vestibule at the lower end of the vocal tract. They act acoustically as side-branches to the main tract, resulting in a spectral zero in the output of the human voice. This study investigates their spectral role by comparing numerical and experimental results of MRI-based 3D printed Vocal Tracts, for which a new experimental method (based on room acoustics) is introduced. The findings support results in the literature: the piriform fossae create a spectral trough in the region 4-5 kHz and act as formants repellents. Moreover, this study extends those results by demonstrating numerically and perceptually the impact of having large piriform fossae on the sung output. PMID:25048199

Delvaux, Bertrand; Howard, David

2014-01-01

57

Force-Extension for DNA in a Nanoslit: Using an Effective Dimensionality to Map between the 3D and 2D Limits  

E-print Network

The force-extension relation for a semi-flexible polymer such as DNA confined in a nanoslit is investigated and it is found that both the effective persistence length and the form of the force-extension relation change as the chain goes from 3D (very large slit heights) to 2D (very tight confinement). Generalizations of the Marko-Siggia relation appropriate for polymers in nanoconfinement are presented. The forms for both strong and weak confinement regimes are characterized by an \\textit{effective dimensionality}. At low forces, the effective dimensionality is given by the correlations along the polymer in the plane of the confining walls. At high forces, the theoretical force must account for reduced conformation space. Together the interpolations give good agreement for all slit heights at all forces. As DNA and other semi-flexible biopolymers are commonly confined \\textit{in situ} to various degrees, both the idea of an effective dimensionality and the associated generalized Marko-Siggia interpolations are useful for qualitatively understanding and quantitatively modeling polymers in nanoconfinement.

Hendrick W. de Haan; Tyler N. Shendruk

2014-12-08

58

What causes the large extensions of red-supergiant atmospheres? Comparisons of interferometric observations with 1-D hydrostatic, 3-D convection, and 1-D pulsating model atmospheres  

E-print Network

We present the atmospheric structure and the fundamental parameters of three red supergiants, increasing the sample of RSGs observed by near-infrared spectro-interferometry. Additionally, we test possible mechanisms that may explain the large observed atmospheric extensions of RSGs. We carried out spectro-interferometric observations of 3 RSGs in the near-infrared K-band with the VLTI/AMBER instrument at medium spectral resolution. To comprehend the extended atmospheres, we compared our observational results to predictions by available hydrostatic PHOENIX, available 3-D convection, and new 1-D self-excited pulsation models of RSGs. Our near-infrared flux spectra are well reproduced by the PHOENIX model atmospheres. The continuum visibility values are consistent with a limb-darkened disk as predicted by the PHOENIX models, allowing us to determine the angular diameter and the fundamental parameters of our sources. Nonetheless, in the case of V602 Car and HD 95686, the PHOENIX model visibilities do not predict ...

Arroyo-Torres, B; Chiavassa, A; Scholz, M; Freytag, B; Marcaide, J M; Hauschildt, P H; Wood, P R; Abellan, F J

2015-01-01

59

Benchmark Characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

An abstract system of benchmark characteristics that makes it possible, in the beginning of the design stage, to design with benchmark performance in mind is presented. The benchmark characteristics for a set of commonly used benchmarks are then shown. The benchmark set used includes some benchmarks from the Systems Performance Evaluation Cooperative. The SPEC programs are industry-standard applications that use

Thomas M. Conte; Wen-mei W. Hwu

1991-01-01

60

Influence of Implant Position on Stress Distribution in Implant-Assisted Distal Extension Removable Partial Dentures: A 3D Finite Element Analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective: Distal extension removable partial denture is a prosthesis with lack of distal dental support with a 13-fold difference in resiliency between the mucosa and the periodontal ligament, resulting in leverage during compression forces. It may be potentially destructive to the abutments and the surrounding tissues. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of implant location on stress distribution, in distal extension implant assisted removable partial dentures. Materials and Methods: Three-dimensional models of a bilateral distal extension partially edentulous mandible containing anterior teeth and first premolar in both sides of the arch, a partial removable denture and an implant (4◊10mm) were designed. With the aid of the finite element program ANSYS 8.0, the models were meshed and strictly vertical forces of 10 N were applied to each cusp tip. Displacement and von Mises Maps were plotted for visualization of results. Results: When an implant was placed in the second premolar region, the highest stress on implant, abutment tooth and cancellous bone was shown. The lowest stress was shown on implant and bone in the 1st molar area. Conclusion: Implants located in the first molar area showed the least distribution of stresses in the analyzed models. PMID:25628678

Memari, Yeganeh; Geramy, Allahyar; Fayaz, Amir; Rezvani Habib Abadi, Shirin; Mansouri, Yasaman

2014-01-01

61

3D Face Recognition Based on Multiple Keypoint Descriptors and Sparse Representation  

PubMed Central

Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in developing methods for 3D face recognition. However, 3D scans often suffer from the problems of missing parts, large facial expressions, and occlusions. To be useful in real-world applications, a 3D face recognition approach should be able to handle these challenges. In this paper, we propose a novel general approach to deal with the 3D face recognition problem by making use of multiple keypoint descriptors (MKD) and the sparse representation-based classification (SRC). We call the proposed method 3DMKDSRC for short. Specifically, with 3DMKDSRC, each 3D face scan is represented as a set of descriptor vectors extracted from keypoints by meshSIFT. Descriptor vectors of gallery samples form the gallery dictionary. Given a probe 3D face scan, its descriptors are extracted at first and then its identity can be determined by using a multitask SRC. The proposed 3DMKDSRC approach does not require the pre-alignment between two face scans and is quite robust to the problems of missing data, occlusions and expressions. Its superiority over the other leading 3D face recognition schemes has been corroborated by extensive experiments conducted on three benchmark databases, Bosphorus, GavabDB, and FRGC2.0. The Matlab source code for 3DMKDSRC and the related evaluation results are publicly available at http://sse.tongji.edu.cn/linzhang/3dmkdsrcface/3dmkdsrc.htm. PMID:24940876

Zhang, Lin; Ding, Zhixuan; Li, Hongyu; Shen, Ying; Lu, Jianwei

2014-01-01

62

3D face recognition based on multiple keypoint descriptors and sparse representation.  

PubMed

Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in developing methods for 3D face recognition. However, 3D scans often suffer from the problems of missing parts, large facial expressions, and occlusions. To be useful in real-world applications, a 3D face recognition approach should be able to handle these challenges. In this paper, we propose a novel general approach to deal with the 3D face recognition problem by making use of multiple keypoint descriptors (MKD) and the sparse representation-based classification (SRC). We call the proposed method 3DMKDSRC for short. Specifically, with 3DMKDSRC, each 3D face scan is represented as a set of descriptor vectors extracted from keypoints by meshSIFT. Descriptor vectors of gallery samples form the gallery dictionary. Given a probe 3D face scan, its descriptors are extracted at first and then its identity can be determined by using a multitask SRC. The proposed 3DMKDSRC approach does not require the pre-alignment between two face scans and is quite robust to the problems of missing data, occlusions and expressions. Its superiority over the other leading 3D face recognition schemes has been corroborated by extensive experiments conducted on three benchmark databases, Bosphorus, GavabDB, and FRGC2.0. The Matlab source code for 3DMKDSRC and the related evaluation results are publicly available at http://sse.tongji.edu.cn/linzhang/3dmkdsrcface/3dmkdsrc.htm. PMID:24940876

Zhang, Lin; Ding, Zhixuan; Li, Hongyu; Shen, Ying; Lu, Jianwei

2014-01-01

63

Performance of the Cray T3D and emerging architectures on canopy QCD applications  

SciTech Connect

The Cray T3D, an MIMD system with NUMA shared memory capabilities and in principle very low communications latency, can support the Canopy framework for grid-oriented applications. CANOPY has been ported to the T3D, with the intent of making it available to a spectrum of users. The performance of the T3D running Canopy has been benchmarked on five QCD applications extensively run on ACPMAPS at Fermilab, requiring a variety of data access patterns. The net performance and scaling behavior reveals an efficiency relative to peak Gflops almost identical to that achieved on ACPMAPS. Detailed studies of the major factors impacting performance are presented. Generalizations applying this analysis to the newly emerging crop of commercial systems reveal where their limitations will lie. On these applications, efficiencies of above 25% are not to be expected; eliminating overheads due to Canopy will improve matters, but by less than a factor of two.

Fischler, M.; Uchima, M.

1995-11-01

64

BEAMS3D Neutral Beam Injection Model  

SciTech Connect

With the advent of applied 3D fi elds in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully 3D neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS3D, which addresses this need by coupling 3D equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous velocity reduction, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database [1]. Benchmark calculations are presented to validate the collisionless particle orbits, neutral beam injection model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle 3D magnetic fields.

Lazerson, Samuel

2014-04-14

65

Europeana and 3D  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current 3D hype creates a lot of interest in 3D. People go to 3D movies, but are we ready to use 3D in our homes, in our offices, in our communication? Are we ready to deliver real 3D to a general public and use interactive 3D in a meaningful way to enjoy, learn, communicate? The CARARE project is realising this for the moment in the domain of monuments and archaeology, so that real 3D of archaeological sites and European monuments will be available to the general public by 2012. There are several aspects to this endeavour. First of all is the technical aspect of flawlessly delivering 3D content over all platforms and operating systems, without installing software. We have currently a working solution in PDF, but HTML5 will probably be the future. Secondly, there is still little knowledge on how to create 3D learning objects, 3D tourist information or 3D scholarly communication. We are still in a prototype phase when it comes to integrate 3D objects in physical or virtual museums. Nevertheless, Europeana has a tremendous potential as a multi-facetted virtual museum. Finally, 3D has a large potential to act as a hub of information, linking to related 2D imagery, texts, video, sound. We describe how to create such rich, explorable 3D objects that can be used intuitively by the generic Europeana user and what metadata is needed to support the semantic linking.

Pletinckx, D.

2011-09-01

66

3D ear identification based on sparse representation.  

PubMed

Biometrics based personal authentication is an effective way for automatically recognizing, with a high confidence, a person's identity. Recently, 3D ear shape has attracted tremendous interests in research field due to its richness of feature and ease of acquisition. However, the existing ICP (Iterative Closet Point)-based 3D ear matching methods prevalent in the literature are not quite efficient to cope with the one-to-many identification case. In this paper, we aim to fill this gap by proposing a novel effective fully automatic 3D ear identification system. We at first propose an accurate and efficient template-based ear detection method. By utilizing such a method, the extracted ear regions are represented in a common canonical coordinate system determined by the ear contour template, which facilitates much the following stages of feature extraction and classification. For each extracted 3D ear, a feature vector is generated as its representation by making use of a PCA-based local feature descriptor. At the stage of classification, we resort to the sparse representation based classification approach, which actually solves an l1-minimization problem. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work introducing the sparse representation framework into the field of 3D ear identification. Extensive experiments conducted on a benchmark dataset corroborate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed approach. The associated Matlab source code and the evaluation results have been made publicly online available at http://sse.tongji.edu.cn/linzhang/ear/srcear/srcear.htm. PMID:24740247

Zhang, Lin; Ding, Zhixuan; Li, Hongyu; Shen, Ying

2014-01-01

67

LASTRAC.3d: Transition Prediction in 3D Boundary Layers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Langley Stability and Transition Analysis Code (LASTRAC) is a general-purpose, physics-based transition prediction code released by NASA for laminar flow control studies and transition research. This paper describes the LASTRAC extension to general three-dimensional (3D) boundary layers such as finite swept wings, cones, or bodies at an angle of attack. The stability problem is formulated by using a body-fitted nonorthogonal curvilinear coordinate system constructed on the body surface. The nonorthogonal coordinate system offers a variety of marching paths and spanwise waveforms. In the extreme case of an infinite swept wing boundary layer, marching with a nonorthogonal coordinate produces identical solutions to those obtained with an orthogonal coordinate system using the earlier release of LASTRAC. Several methods to formulate the 3D parabolized stability equations (PSE) are discussed. A surface-marching procedure akin to that for 3D boundary layer equations may be used to solve the 3D parabolized disturbance equations. On the other hand, the local line-marching PSE method, formulated as an easy extension from its 2D counterpart and capable of handling the spanwise mean flow and disturbance variation, offers an alternative. A linear stability theory or parabolized stability equations based N-factor analysis carried out along the streamline direction with a fixed wavelength and downstream-varying spanwise direction constitutes an efficient engineering approach to study instability wave evolution in a 3D boundary layer. The surface-marching PSE method enables a consistent treatment of the disturbance evolution along both streamwise and spanwise directions but requires more stringent initial conditions. Both PSE methods and the traditional LST approach are implemented in the LASTRAC.3d code. Several test cases for tapered or finite swept wings and cones at an angle of attack are discussed.

Chang, Chau-Lyan

2004-01-01

68

Java 3D  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Java3D is a low level 3D scene-graph based graphics programming API for the java language. It does not form part of the core APIs required by the Java specification. The class libraries exist under the javax.media.j3d top level package as well as utility classes provided in javax.vecmath.

69

A Simplified HTTR Diffusion Theory Benchmark  

SciTech Connect

The Georgia Institute of Technology (GA-Tech) recently developed a transport theory benchmark based closely on the geometry and the features of the HTTR reactor that is operational in Japan. Though simplified, the benchmark retains all the principal physical features of the reactor and thus provides a realistic and challenging test for the codes. The purpose of this paper is twofold. The first goal is an extension of the benchmark to diffusion theory applications by generating the additional data not provided in the GA-Tech prior work. The second goal is to use the benchmark on the HEXPEDITE code available to the INL. The HEXPEDITE code is a Greenís function-based neutron diffusion code in 3D hexagonal-z geometry. The results showed that the HEXPEDITE code accurately reproduces the effective multiplication factor of the reference HELIOS solution. A secondary, but no less important, conclusion is that in the testing against actual HTTR data of a full sequence of codes that would include HEXPEDITE, in the apportioning of inevitable discrepancies between experiment and models, the portion of error attributable to HEXPEDITE would be expected to be modest. If large discrepancies are observed, they would have to be explained by errors in the data fed into HEXPEDITE. Results based on a fully realistic model of the HTTR reactor are presented in a companion paper. The suite of codes used in that paper also includes HEXPEDITE. The results shown here should help that effort in the decision making process for refining the modeling steps in the full sequence of codes.

Rodolfo M. Ferrer; Abderrafi M. Ougouag; Farzad Rahnema

2010-10-01

70

3D neutron tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 3D Neutron CT facility at FRM Garching is now operating successfully at a new cold beam line. The higher flux, improved motion control and new image processing software have reduced the time from exposure to 3D model down to one working day. For the first time, reverse engineering techniques have been applied to data generated by neutron CT from

Burkhard Schillinger; Wolfgang BlŁmlhuber; Andreas Fent; Marcus Wegner

1999-01-01

71

3D virtual colonoscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present here a method called 3D virtual colonoscopy, which is an alternative method to existing procedures of imaging the mucosal surface of the colon. Using 3D reconstruction of helical CT data and volume visualization techniques, the authors generate images of the inner surface of the colon as if the viewer's eyes were inside the colon. They also create

Lichan Hong; Arie Kaufman; Yi-Chih Wei; Ajay Viswambharan; M. Wax; Zhengrong Liangs

1995-01-01

72

NAS Parallel Benchmarks Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NAS Parallel Benchmarks (NPB) were developed in 1991 at NASA Ames Research Center to study the performance of parallel supercomputers. The eight benchmark problems are specified in a pencil and paper fashion i.e. the complete details of the problem to be solved are given in a technical document, and except for a few restrictions, benchmarkers are free to select the language constructs and implementation techniques best suited for a particular system. In this paper, we present new NPB performance results for the following systems: (a) Parallel-Vector Processors: Cray C90, Cray T'90 and Fujitsu VPP500; (b) Highly Parallel Processors: Cray T3D, IBM SP2 and IBM SP-TN2 (Thin Nodes 2); (c) Symmetric Multiprocessing Processors: Convex Exemplar SPP1000, Cray J90, DEC Alpha Server 8400 5/300, and SGI Power Challenge XL. We also present sustained performance per dollar for Class B LU, SP and BT benchmarks. We also mention NAS future plans of NPB.

Subhash, Saini; Bailey, David H.; Lasinski, T. A. (Technical Monitor)

1995-01-01

73

3D Plasmon Ruler  

SciTech Connect

In this animation of a 3D plasmon ruler, the plasmonic assembly acts as a transducer to deliver optical information about the structural dynamics of an attached protein. (courtesy of Paul Alivisatos group)

None

2011-01-01

74

3D Computer Vision and Video Computing 3D Vision3D Vision  

E-print Network

1 3D Computer Vision and Video Computing 3D Vision3D Vision Topic 1 of Part II Camera Models CSC I6716 Spring2011 Zhigang Zhu, City College of New York zhu@cs.ccny.cuny.edu 3D Computer Vision and Video Computing 3D Vision3D Vision Closely Related Disciplines Image Processing ­ images to mages Computer

Zhu, Zhigang

75

3D Computer Vision and Video Computing 3D Vision3D Vision  

E-print Network

3D Computer Vision and Video Computing 3D Vision3D Vision CSC I6716 Fall 2010 Topic 1 of Part II Camera Models Zhigang Zhu, City College of New York zhu@cs.ccny.cuny.edu #12;3D Computer Vision and Video Computing 3D Vision3D Vision Closely Related Disciplines Image Processing ­ images to mages Computer

Zhu, Zhigang

76

3-D Simulations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Three-dimensional (3-D) rendering and animation technology is not only used for entertainment, but also for research and educational purposes. The technology can be used for purposes of scientific simulation in fields such as physics, biology, or chemistry. For example, Stanford University's Folding@home project (1) uses 3-D simulations and distributed computing to study protein folding, misfolding, aggregation, and related diseases. Three-D simulations can also be used to observe phenomena that would normally be impossible to scrutinize in detail, as is demonstrated on this website on Nanorobotics (2). This next website describes work by the Robotics Research Group (3) in using 3-D simulations to enhance undergraduate and graduate engineering education. The EdCenter (4) makes available several compressed files of 3-D simulations that model earthquake data, Mars, a San Diego Fly Through, and more. On this website (5 ), Martin Baker provides "all you need to know about 3D theory" and this website (6) provides access to a free open-source software package which "makes it easy to build 3-D simulations of decentralized systems and artificial life." This last article from Cyberbotics, Ltd. (7) discusses how mobile robotics simulation programs can be used to design robots.

77

MedX3D: standards enabled desktop medical 3D.  

PubMed

This paper reports on the work of the Web3D Consortium's Medical Working Group to specify and implement MedX3D -- an extension to the X3D standard that will support advanced medical visualization functionality and medical data exchange. This initiative covers volume rendering, ontology support, and data import/export, for standalone applications and web-based plug-ins. It is our hypothesis that such a 3D medical standard will provide better access to data, and enable improvements in medical care. PMID:18391284

John, N W; Aratow, M; Couch, J; Evestedt, D; Hudson, A D; Polys, N; Puk, R F; Ray, A; Victor, K; Wang, Q

2008-01-01

78

3-D seismology in the Arabian Gulf  

SciTech Connect

Since 1977 when Aramco and GSI (Geophysical Services International) pioneered the first 3-D seismic survey in the Arabian Gulf, under the guidance of Aramco`s Chief Geophysicist John Hoke, 3-D seismology has been effectively used to map many complex subsurface geological phenomena. By the mid-1990s extensive 3-D surveys were acquired in Abu Dhabi, Oman, Qatar and Saudi Arabia. Also in the mid-1990`s Bahrain, Kuwait and Dubai were preparing to record surveys over their fields. On the structural side 3-D has refined seismic maps, focused faults and fractures systems, as well as outlined the distribution of facies, porosity and fluid saturation. In field development, 3D has not only reduced drilling costs significantly, but has also improved the understanding of fluid behavior in the reservoir. In Oman, Petroleum Development Oman (PDO) has now acquired the first Gulf 4-D seismic survey (time-lapse 3D survey) over the Yibal Field. The 4-D survey will allow PDO to directly monitor water encroachment in the highly-faulted Cretaceous Shu`aiba reservoir. In exploration, 3-D seismology has resolved complex prospects with structural and stratigraphic complications and reduced the risk in the selection of drilling locations. The many case studies from Saudi Arabia, Oman, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates, which are reviewed in this paper, attest to the effectiveness of 3D seismology in exploration and producing, in clastics and carbonates reservoirs, and in the Mesozoic and Paleozoic.

Al-Husseini, M. [Gulf PetroLink, Manama (Bahrain); Chimblo, R. [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

1995-08-01

79

3D ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in 3D based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32? ◊ ?32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex 3D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the 3D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3D mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intraóand inter-observer variability.

Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Esteban Arango, Juan; Imbault, Marion; Fink, Mathias; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

2014-10-01

80

3D ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo.  

PubMed

Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in 3D based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32? ◊ ?32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex 3D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the 3D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3D mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra--and inter-observer variability. PMID:25207828

Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Arango, Juan Esteban; Imbault, Marion; Fink, Mathias; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

2014-10-01

81

BEAMS3D Neutral Beam Injection Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the advent of applied 3D fields in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully 3D neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS3D, which addresses this need by coupling 3D equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous slowing down, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database. Elementary benchmark calculations are presented to verify the collisionless particle orbits, NBI model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle 3D magnetic fields. Notice: this manuscript has been authored by Princeton University under Contract Number DE-AC02-09CH11466 with the US Department of Energy. The United States Government retains and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes.

McMillan, Matthew; Lazerson, Samuel A.

2014-09-01

82

3-D Seismic Interpretation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This volume is a brief introduction aimed at those who wish to gain a basic and relatively quick understanding of the interpretation of three-dimensional (3-D) seismic reflection data. The book is well written, clearly illustrated, and easy to follow. Enough elementary mathematics are presented for a basic understanding of seismic methods, but more complex mathematical derivations are avoided. References are listed for readers interested in more advanced explanations. After a brief introduction, the book logically begins with a succinct chapter on modern 3-D seismic data acquisition and processing. Standard 3-D acquisition methods are presented, and an appendix expands on more recent acquisition techniques, such as multiple-azimuth and wide-azimuth acquisition. Although this chapter covers the basics of standard time processing quite well, there is only a single sentence about prestack depth imaging, and anisotropic processing is not mentioned at all, even though both techniques are now becoming standard.

Moore, Gregory F.

2009-05-01

83

Radiochromic 3D Detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiochromic materials exhibit a colour change when exposed to ionising radiation. Radiochromic film has been used for clinical dosimetry for many years and increasingly so recently, as films of higher sensitivities have become available. The two principle advantages of radiochromic dosimetry include greater tissue equivalence (radiologically) and the lack of requirement for development of the colour change. In a radiochromic material, the colour change arises direct from ionising interactions affecting dye molecules, without requiring any latent chemical, optical or thermal development, with important implications for increased accuracy and convenience. It is only relatively recently however, that 3D radiochromic dosimetry has become possible. In this article we review recent developments and the current state-of-the-art of 3D radiochromic dosimetry, and the potential for a more comprehensive solution for the verification of complex radiation therapy treatments, and 3D dose measurement in general.

Oldham, Mark

2015-01-01

84

3D Visualization Development of SIUE Campus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has progressed from the traditional map-making to the modern technology where the information can be created, edited, managed and analyzed. Like any other models, maps are simplified representations of real world. Hence visualization plays an essential role in the applications of GIS. The use of sophisticated visualization tools and methods, especially three dimensional (3D) modeling, has been rising considerably due to the advancement of technology. There are currently many off-the-shelf technologies available in the market to build 3D GIS models. One of the objectives of this research was to examine the available ArcGIS and its extensions for 3D modeling and visualization and use them to depict a real world scenario. Furthermore, with the advent of the web, a platform for accessing and sharing spatial information on the Internet, it is possible to generate interactive online maps. Integrating Internet capacity with GIS functionality redefines the process of sharing and processing the spatial information. Enabling a 3D map online requires off-the-shelf GIS software, 3D model builders, web server, web applications and client server technologies. Such environments are either complicated or expensive because of the amount of hardware and software involved. Therefore, the second objective of this research was to investigate and develop simpler yet cost-effective 3D modeling approach that uses available ArcGIS suite products and the free 3D computer graphics software for designing 3D world scenes. Both ArcGIS Explorer and ArcGIS Online will be used to demonstrate the way of sharing and distributing 3D geographic information on the Internet. A case study of the development of 3D campus for the Southern Illinois University Edwardsville is demonstrated.

Nellutla, Shravya

85

3-D Cardboard Busts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides a lesson for a high school art course on three-dimensional design. Based on a portrait bust by Naum Gabo, the project involves the construction of a 3-D portrait bust using railroad board. Describes techniques that students will need to be taught before beginning. (DSK)

Payne, Debra

1998-01-01

86

3D Shape Match  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Flash applet provides a Concentration-type game (called pelmanism in the UK) in which students must discern the properties of three-dimensional solids and their colors in order to match them in pairs. Spheres, cones, prisms and other standard 3-D shapes are hidden face down on cards. Time and number of trials needed to solve are recorded.

Bunker, Dan

2011-01-01

87

Venus in 3D  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stereographic images of the surface of Venus which enable geologists to reconstruct the details of the planet's evolution are discussed. The 120-meter resolution of these 3D images make it possible to construct digital topographic maps from which precise measurements can be made of the heights, depths, slopes, and volumes of geologic structures.

Plaut, J. J.

1993-08-01

88

Aura 3D Textures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new technique, called aura 3D textures, for generating solid textures based on input examples. Our method is fully automatic and requires no user interactions in the process. Given an input texture sample, our method first creates its aura matrix representations and then generates a solid texture by sampling the aura matrices of the input sample constrained

Xuejie Qin; Yee-hong Yang

2007-01-01

89

USM3D Predictions of Supersonic Nozzle Flow  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study focused on the NASA Tetrahedral Unstructured Software System CFD code (USM3D) capability to predict supersonic plume flow. Previous studies, published in 2004 and 2009, investigated USM3D's results versus historical experimental data. This current study continued that comparison however focusing on the use of the volume souring to capture the shear layers and internal shock structure of the plume. This study was conducted using two benchmark axisymmetric supersonic jet experimental data sets. The study showed that with the use of volume sourcing, USM3D was able to capture and model a jet plume's shear layer and internal shock structure.

Carter, Melissa B.; Elmiligui, Alaa A.; Campbell, Richard L.; Nayani, Sudheer N.

2014-01-01

90

3D regularized velocity from 3D Doppler radial velocity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The availability of sequences of 3D Doppler radial velocity datasets provides sufficient information to estimate the 3D velocity of Doppler storms. We present a regularization framework for computing the 3D velocity field of storms from the underlying 3D radial velocities via an intermediate least squares computation. We obtain very realistic Doppler velocities, which can be used to estimate and predict

X. Chen; John L. Barron; Robert E. Mercer; Paul Joe

2001-01-01

91

Integrating web 3D into 3D animation curricula  

Microsoft Academic Search

3D curriculum, once focused on modeling, rendering and animation, now includes web 3D and interactivity. But what options exist for new courses in web 3D? How in-depth are some web 3D tools and their learning curves? Should the curriculum expand to make 3D artists into programmers? What considerations should we give to the end-users' experience in viewing an online web

Mitch Williams

2002-01-01

92

Smithsonian X 3D  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Would you like to explore a wooly mammoth skeleton in great detail? How about some ceremonial masks created by Pacific Northwest Native Americans? The Smithsonian X 3D project makes all of this possible for visitors from all over the world. This site was created by the Smithsonian's Digitization Program Office and currently visitors can examine twelve digitized models, including a fossilized dolphin skull and the gun of noted explorer, David Livingston. The Video Gallery is a great addition as it contains short films that discuss the project's conservation work, along with a great film titled "What is 3D digitization?" Moving on, the Educators area contains a wonderful set of classroom resources that can be used in conjunction with some of the objects. Finally, the Tours area contains dozens of short films demonstrating these objects, including Seeing Around the Remnant of a Supernova, and Carving and Painting the Cosmic Buddha.

93

3D silicon integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three-dimensional (3D) chip integration may provide a path to miniaturization, high bandwidth, low power, high performance and system scaling. Integration options can leverage stacked die and\\/or silicon packages depending on applications. The enabling technology elements include: (i) through-silicon-vias (TSV) with thinned silicon wafers, (ii) fine pitch wiring, (iii) fine pitch interconnection between stacked die, (iv) fine pitch test for known-good

J. U. Knickerbocker; P. S. Andry; B. Dang; R. R. Horton; C. S. Patel; R. J. Polastre; K. Sakuma; E. S. Sprogis; C. K. Tsang; B. C. Webb; S. L. Wright

2008-01-01

94

3D Flyover Movies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of 3D flyover movies depicts geologically interesting localities in the Southwest United States. The selection includes well-known landmarks such as Meteor Crater, Monument Valley, Hopi Buttes, and others. They are available in a number of different formats and file sizes. The movies, the data files used to make them, and the software to view them are all available for free download. There is also a link to a tutorial on how to make Fledermaus scenes and movies.

Simkin, Marvin

2005-01-01

95

Calc3D Pro  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The calculator can do statistics, best fits, function plotting, integration. It handles vectors, matrices, complex numbers, quaternions, coordinates, regular polygons and intersections. For point, line, plane, sphere, circle Calc 3D calculates distances, intersections, and some additional information like volume and area. Cartesian, spherical and cylindrical coordinates can be transformed into each other. Carthesian plot, polar plot, parametric plot, best fit, fast fourier transformation, histogram, smooth, and others.

96

Parallel Cfd Benchmarks on Cray Computers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present benchmark results from the parallel implementation of the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver Prism [1] on the Cray T3D, We compare the single processor performance with other Cray computers, namely the Cray C90, J90 and EL98, as well as Digital Equipment Corporation's DEC 3000\\/500 (which uses the same processor as the T3D) and AlphaServer 8400 5\\/300 (which

Constantinos Evangelinos; GEORGE EM KARNIADAKIS

1996-01-01

97

Analysis of Performance Evaluation of Parallel Katsevich Algorithm for 3-D CT Image Reconstruction  

E-print Network

parallelism. The results based on the analytical model and numerical benchmarks compared in a fare agreement. The analytical model provides a great tool to evaluate high performance computing benchmarks in the parallelAnalysis of Performance Evaluation of Parallel Katsevich Algorithm for 3-D CT Image Reconstruction

Virginia Tech

98

3D Audio System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ames Research Center research into virtual reality led to the development of the Convolvotron, a high speed digital audio processing system that delivers three-dimensional sound over headphones. It consists of a two-card set designed for use with a personal computer. The Convolvotron's primary application is presentation of 3D audio signals over headphones. Four independent sound sources are filtered with large time-varying filters that compensate for motion. The perceived location of the sound remains constant. Possible applications are in air traffic control towers or airplane cockpits, hearing and perception research and virtual reality development.

1992-01-01

99

3D Computer Vision and Video Computing 3D Vision3D Vision  

E-print Network

1 3D Computer Vision and Video Computing 3D Vision3D Vision CSc I6716 Spring 2011 Topic 3 of Part II Stereo Vision p g Zhigang Zhu, City College of New York zhu@cs.ccny.cuny.edu 3D Computer Vision and Video Computing Stereo VisionStereo Vision Problem Infer 3D structure of a scene from two or more images

Zhu, Zhigang

100

3D Computer Vision and Video Computing 3D Vision3D Vision  

E-print Network

1 3D Computer Vision and Video Computing 3D Vision3D Vision CSc I6716 Fall 2010 Topic 3 of Part II Stereo Vision Zhigang Zhu, City College of New York zhu@cs.ccny.cuny.edu 3D Computer Vision and Video Computing Stereo VisionStereo Vision Problem Infer 3D structure of a scene from two or more images taken

Zhu, Zhigang

101

Exploring in 3D: Make your own 3D glasses  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, learners will construct their own 3-D glasses in order to use them on 3-D images, such as images of the Sun from the STEREO spacecraft. This activity requires special materials, such as red and blue acetate paper and can be used with an accompanying activity, titled Create Your Own 3-D Images.

102

3D velocity from 3D Doppler radial velocity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present local least squares and regularization frameworks for computing 3D velocity (3D optical flow) from 3D radial velocity measured by a Doppler radar. We demonstrate the perfor- mance of our algorithms quantitatively on synthetic radial velocity data and qualitatively on real radial velocity data, obtained from the Doppler radar at Kurnell Radar station, Botany Bay, New South Wales, Australia.

J. L. Barron; R. E. Mercer; X. Chen; P. Joe

2005-01-01

103

A Method for Anisotropy Analysis of 3D Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present an extension of anisotropy analysis methods for 3D image volumes. Two approaches based on orientation-sensitive filtering and a 3D version of spatial gray-level difference histograms are compared. The performance of the method is demonstrated on synthetic image volumes and original 3D CT and MRI medical images. The orientation structure of left and right hemispheres of

Vassili A. Kovalev; Yaroslav S. Bondar

1997-01-01

104

3D modeling with silhouettes  

E-print Network

With the increasing power of computers and the spread of dedicated graphics hardware, 3D content has become ubiquitous in every field, from medicine to video games. However, designing 3D models remains a time-consuming and ...

Rivers, Alec (Alec Rothmyer)

2010-01-01

105

Orbiting and Colliding Galaxies 3D Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Orbiting and Colliding Galaxies 3D Model is a three-dimensional extension of the Alar and Juri Toomres' 1972 supercomputer model of colliding galaxies. This model assumes that galactic centers are point masses and the orbiting stars do not interact with each other (the galactic cores interact with each other and the individual stars). Unlike the Toomres' model (and the Colliding Galaxies model by Christian and Lim), both galactic cores begin with a compliment of stars orbiting their respective cores. These stars start in a 3-D circular orbit about the center of each galaxy in one plane. When the two galaxies pass each other they produce the long spiraling tails. The Orbiting and Colliding Galaxies Model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_comp_phys_colliding_galaxies3d.jar file will run the program if Java is installed.

Mitchell, Robbie

2011-06-15

106

3D polarimetric purity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From our previous definition of the indices of polarimetric purity for 3D light beams [J.J. Gil, J.M. Correas, P.A. Melero and C. Ferreira, Monogr. Semin. Mat. G. de Galdeano 31, 161 (2004)], an analysis of their geometric and physical interpretation is presented. It is found that, in agreement with previous results, the first parameter is a measure of the degree of polarization, whereas the second parameter (called the degree of directionality) is a measure of the mean angular aperture of the direction of propagation of the corresponding light beam. This pair of invariant, non-dimensional, indices of polarimetric purity contains complete information about the polarimetric purity of a light beam. The overall degree of polarimetric purity is obtained as a weighted quadratic average of the degree of polarization and the degree of directionality.

Gil, Josť J.; San Josť, Ignacio

2010-11-01

107

XcalableMP implementation and performance of NAS Parallel Benchmarks  

Microsoft Academic Search

XcalableMP is a parallel extension of existing languages, such as C and Fortran, that was proposed as a new programming model to facilitate program parallel applications for distributed memory systems. In order to investigate the performance of parallel programs written in XcalableMP, we have implemented NAS Parallel Benchmarks, specifically, the Embarrassingly Parallel (EP) benchmark, the Integer Sort (IS) benchmark, and

Masahiro Nakao; Jinpil Lee; Taisuke Boku; Mitsuhisa Sato

2010-01-01

108

3D collar design creation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This preliminary research revolute the conventional clothing design process by true designs from three-dimensional (3D) rather than two-dimensional. The aim of the research is to develop a handy 3D clothing design software tool for general garment designers. Work carried out in this paper is the preliminary result of the 3D software infrastructure. In addition, 3D collar design based on a

Jing-Jing Fang

2003-01-01

109

Model-Based Interpretation of 3D Medical Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

The automatic segmentation and labelling of anatomical structures in 3D medical images is a challenging task of practical importance. We describe a model-based approach which allows robust and accurate interpretation using explicit anatomical knowledge. Our method is based on the extension to 3D of Point Distribution Mo- dels (PDMs) and associated image search algorithms. A combination of global, Genetic Algorithm

A. Hill; A. Thornham; C. J. Taylor

1993-01-01

110

CYBERVIEW 3D DOCUMENT GENERATOR  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

THE CYBERVIEW 3D DOCUMENT GENERATOR -- is a new WWW server add-on that makes it easy to create HTML documents with inline, rotatable, hyperlinked 3D images ("3D imagemaps"). The pages generated by Cyberview can be viewed in standard HTML 2.0-compatible Web browsers. Try it at:

111

COLLAPSIBLE 3D GIS VISUALIZATION  

E-print Network

Related Work on 3D GIS Visualization . . . . . . . . . . 3 2.1 Topography ModelingCOLLAPSIBLE 3D GIS VISUALIZATION by Suwen Wang Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements entitled "COLLAPSIBLE 3D GIS VISUALIZATION" by Suwen Wang in partial fulfillment of the requirements

Brooks, Stephen

112

Randomized Benchmarking of Clifford Operators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Randomized benchmarking is an experimental procedure intended to demonstrate control of quantum systems. The procedure extracts the average error introduced by a set of control operations. When the target set of operations is intended to be the set of Clifford operators, the randomized benchmarking algorithm is particularly easy to perform and its results have an important interpretation with respect to quantum computation. The aim of the benchmark is to provide a simple, useful parameter describing the quality of quantum control with an experiment that can be performed in a standard way on any prospective quantum computer. This parameter can be used to fairly compare different experiments or to mark improvement in a single experiment. In this thesis I discuss first the original randomized-benchmarking procedure and the importance of the Clifford operators for its implementation. I develop the statistical analysis of the results and the physical assumptions that are required for the simplest analysis to apply. The original procedure does not extend in an obvious way to benchmarking of more than one qubit, so I introduce a standardized procedure for randomized benchmarking that applies to any number of qubits. This new procedure also enables the benchmarking of an individual control operation. I describe two randomized-benchmarking experiments I helped to design: one involved a single qubit and utilized a variation of the original procedure and the second involved two qubits and demonstrated the new procedure. I conclude with several potential extensions to the original and new procedures that give them reduced experimental overhead, the ability to describe encoded operations, and fairer comparisons between experiments.

Meier, A. M.

113

Uncertainty in 3D gel dosimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three-dimensional (3D) gel dosimetry has a unique role to play in safeguarding conformal radiotherapy treatments as the technique can cover the full treatment chain and provides the radiation oncologist with the integrated dose distribution in 3D. It can also be applied to benchmark new treatment strategies such as image guided and tracking radiotherapy techniques. A major obstacle that has hindered the wider dissemination of gel dosimetry in radiotherapy centres is a lack of confidence in the reliability of the measured dose distribution. Uncertainties in 3D dosimeters are attributed to both dosimeter properties and scanning performance. In polymer gel dosimetry with MRI readout, discrepancies in dose response of large polymer gel dosimeters versus small calibration phantoms have been reported which can lead to significant inaccuracies in the dose maps. The sources of error in polymer gel dosimetry with MRI readout are well understood and it has been demonstrated that with a carefully designed scanning protocol, the overall uncertainty in absolute dose that can currently be obtained falls within 5% on an individual voxel basis, for a minimum voxel size of 5 mm3. However, several research groups have chosen to use polymer gel dosimetry in a relative manner by normalizing the dose distribution towards an internal reference dose within the gel dosimeter phantom. 3D dosimetry with optical scanning has also been mostly applied in a relative way, although in principle absolute calibration is possible. As the optical absorption in 3D dosimeters is less dependent on temperature it can be expected that the achievable accuracy is higher with optical CT. The precision in optical scanning of 3D dosimeters depends to a large extend on the performance of the detector. 3D dosimetry with X-ray CT readout is a low contrast imaging modality for polymer gel dosimetry. Sources of error in x-ray CT polymer gel dosimetry (XCT) are currently under investigation and include inherent limitations in dosimeter homogeneity, imaging performance, and errors induced through post-acquisition processing. This overview highlights a number of aspects relating to uncertainties in polymer gel dosimetry.

De Deene, Yves; Jirasek, Andrew

2015-01-01

114

Intraoral 3D scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here a new set-up of a 3D-scanning system for CAD/CAM in dental industry is proposed. The system is designed for direct scanning of the dental preparations within the mouth. The measuring process is based on phase correlation technique in combination with fast fringe projection in a stereo arrangement. The novelty in the approach is characterized by the following features: A phase correlation between the phase values of the images of two cameras is used for the co-ordinate calculation. This works contrary to the usage of only phase values (phasogrammetry) or classical triangulation (phase values and camera image co-ordinate values) for the determination of the co-ordinates. The main advantage of the method is that the absolute value of the phase at each point does not directly determine the coordinate. Thus errors in the determination of the co-ordinates are prevented. Furthermore, using the epipolar geometry of the stereo-like arrangement the phase unwrapping problem of fringe analysis can be solved. The endoscope like measurement system contains one projection and two camera channels for illumination and observation of the object, respectively. The new system has a measurement field of nearly 25mm ◊ 15mm. The user can measure two or three teeth at one time. So the system can by used for scanning of single tooth up to bridges preparations. In the paper the first realization of the intraoral scanner is described.

KŁhmstedt, Peter; Bršuer-Burchardt, Christian; Munkelt, Christoph; Heinze, Matthias; Palme, Martin; Schmidt, Ingo; Hintersehr, Josef; Notni, Gunther

2007-09-01

115

'Diamond' in 3-D  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This 3-D, microscopic imager mosaic of a target area on a rock called 'Diamond Jenness' was taken after NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity ground into the surface with its rock abrasion tool for a second time.

Opportunity has bored nearly a dozen holes into the inner walls of 'Endurance Crater.' On sols 177 and 178 (July 23 and July 24, 2004), the rover worked double-duty on Diamond Jenness. Surface debris and the bumpy shape of the rock resulted in a shallow and irregular hole, only about 2 millimeters (0.08 inch) deep. The final depth was not enough to remove all the bumps and leave a neat hole with a smooth floor. This extremely shallow depression was then examined by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.

On Sol 178, Opportunity's 'robotic rodent' dined on Diamond Jenness once again, grinding almost an additional 5 millimeters (about 0.2 inch). The rover then applied its Moessbauer spectrometer to the deepened hole. This double dose of Diamond Jenness enabled the science team to examine the rock at varying layers. Results from those grindings are currently being analyzed.

The image mosaic is about 6 centimeters (2.4 inches) across.

2004-01-01

116

Adaptive 3D Web Sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, technological developments have made it possible to build interactive 3D models of objects and 3D Virtual Environments that can be experienced through the Web, using common, low-cost personal computers. As in the case of Web-based hypermedia, adaptivity can play an important role in increasing the usefulness, effectiveness and usability of 3D Web sites, i.e., Web sites distributing

Luca Chittaro; Roberto Ranon

2007-01-01

117

3D World Building System  

ScienceCinema

This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.

None

2014-02-26

118

3D World Building System  

SciTech Connect

This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.

None

2013-10-30

119

Modular 3-D Transport model  

EPA Science Inventory

MT3D was first developed by Chunmiao Zheng in 1990 at S.S. Papadopulos & Associates, Inc. with partial support from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Starting in 1990, MT3D was released as a pubic domain code from the USEPA. Commercial versions with enhanced capab...

120

3-D Drawing and Geometry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A Math Forum Summer 1998 Institute project that uses examples of paintings, architecture, etc. to analyze different types of 3-D drawings, and teaches students how to create them. Careers in 3-D drawing that use these techniques, from architecture to movies, are also illustrated. Types include isometric, oblique, and perspective drawings. A drawing project for students is outlined and submissions are invited.

Math Forum

2001-01-01

121

3D Equilibrium Reconstruction for  

E-print Network

3D Equilibrium Reconstruction for Stellarators and Tokamaks Samuel A. Lazerson1 D. Gates1, N;Accurate modeling of experimental conditions requires 3D equilibrium reconstruction · Three-dimensional equilibrium effects are significant for both stellarators and tokamaks · Internal Helical States · RMP

Columbia University

122

Euro3D Science Conference  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Euro3D RTN is an EU funded Research Training Network to foster the exploitation of 3D spectroscopy in Europe. 3D spectroscopy is a general term for spectroscopy of an area of the sky and derives its name from its two spatial + one spectral dimensions. There are an increasing number of instruments which use integral field devices to achieve spectroscopy of an area of the sky, either using lens arrays, optical fibres or image slicers, to pack spectra of multiple pixels on the sky (``spaxels'') onto a 2D detector. On account of the large volume of data and the special methods required to reduce and analyse 3D data, there are only a few centres of expertise and these are mostly involved with instrument developments. There is a perceived lack of expertise in 3D spectroscopy spread though the astronomical community and its use in the armoury of the observational astronomer is viewed as being highly specialised. For precisely this reason the Euro3D RTN was proposed to train young researchers in this area and develop user tools to widen the experience with this particular type of data in Europe. The Euro3D RTN is coordinated by Martin M. Roth (Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam) and has been running since July 2002. The first Euro3D science conference was held in Cambridge, UK from 22 to 23 May 2003. The main emphasis of the conference was, in keeping with the RTN, to expose the work of the young post-docs who are funded by the RTN. In addition the team members from the eleven European institutes involved in Euro3D also presented instrumental and observational developments. The conference was organized by Andy Bunker and held at the Institute of Astronomy. There were over thirty participants and 26 talks covered the whole range of application of 3D techniques. The science ranged from Galactic planetary nebulae and globular clusters to kinematics of nearby galaxies out to objects at high redshift. Several talks were devoted to reporting recent observations with newly completed 3D instruments - CIRPASS, GMOS, PMAS and SPIFFI. Work on 3D software, being developed as part of the Euro3D RTN, was also described and demonstrated. This proceedings volume, consisting of carefully refereed and edited manuscripts, represents the bulk of the talks at the conference and amply demonstrates that 3D spectroscopy is a lively and burgeoning field of optical observation.

Walsh, J. R.

2004-02-01

123

PLOT3D user's manual  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

PLOT3D is a computer graphics program designed to visualize the grids and solutions of computational fluid dynamics. Seventy-four functions are available. Versions are available for many systems. PLOT3D can handle multiple grids with a million or more grid points, and can produce varieties of model renderings, such as wireframe or flat shaded. Output from PLOT3D can be used in animation programs. The first part of this manual is a tutorial that takes the reader, keystroke by keystroke, through a PLOT3D session. The second part of the manual contains reference chapters, including the helpfile, data file formats, advice on changing PLOT3D, and sample command files.

Walatka, Pamela P.; Buning, Pieter G.; Pierce, Larry; Elson, Patricia A.

1990-01-01

124

The NAS parallel benchmarks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new set of benchmarks has been developed for the performance evaluation of highly parallel supercomputers in the framework of the NASA Ames Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation (NAS) Program. These consist of five 'parallel kernel' benchmarks and three 'simulated application' benchmarks. Together they mimic the computation and data movement characteristics of large-scale computational fluid dynamics applications. The principal distinguishing feature of these benchmarks is their 'pencil and paper' specification-all details of these benchmarks are specified only algorithmically. In this way many of the difficulties associated with conventional benchmarking approaches on highly parallel systems are avoided.

Bailey, D. H.; Barszcz, E.; Barton, J. T.; Carter, R. L.; Lasinski, T. A.; Browning, D. S.; Dagum, L.; Fatoohi, R. A.; Frederickson, P. O.; Schreiber, R. S.

1991-01-01

125

The NAS parallel benchmarks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new set of benchmarks was developed for the performance evaluation of highly parallel supercomputers. These benchmarks consist of a set of kernels, the 'Parallel Kernels,' and a simulated application benchmark. Together they mimic the computation and data movement characteristics of large scale computational fluid dynamics (CFD) applications. The principal distinguishing feature of these benchmarks is their 'pencil and paper' specification - all details of these benchmarks are specified only algorithmically. In this way many of the difficulties associated with conventional benchmarking approaches on highly parallel systems are avoided.

Bailey, David (editor); Barton, John (editor); Lasinski, Thomas (editor); Simon, Horst (editor)

1993-01-01

126

3D or not 3D - that is the question!  

Microsoft Academic Search

Should an introduction to 3D computer graphics and animation be a part of a general core curriculum requirement for all design majors regardless their concentration, track or degree?At ACM-SIGGRAPH it is taken for granted that a working knowledge of 3D computer graphics is a valuable if not necessary part of a versatile skill set to prepare design graduates for future

Gregory P. Garvey

2006-01-01

127

3D Signatures for Fast 3D Face Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a vector representation (called a 3D signature) for 3D face shape in biometrics applications. Elements of the vector\\u000a correspond to fixed surface points in a face-centered coordinate system. Since the elements are registered to the face, comparisons\\u000a of vectors to produce match scores can be performed without a probe to gallery alignment step such as an invocation of

Chris Boehnen; Tanya Peters; Patrick J. Flynn

2009-01-01

128

GRAPHICS PROGRAMMING SECTION D -JAVA 3D  

E-print Network

GRAPHICS PROGRAMMING SECTION D - JAVA 3D 1SECTION D - GRAPHICS 3-D........................................................................................... 2 30 Graphics 3D: Introduction to Java 3D........................................................................................ 78 ©Gary Hill September 2004 Java 3-D 1 of 13 #12;GRAPHICS PROGRAMMING SECTION D - GRAPHICS 3-D 30

Hill, Gary

129

RASMOT-3D PRO: a 3D motif search webserver  

PubMed Central

Detection of structural motif of residues in protein structures allows identification of structural or functional similarity between proteins. In the field of protein engineering, structural motif identification is essential to select protein scaffolds on which a motif of residues can be transferred to design a new protein with a given function. We describe here the RASMOT-3D PRO webserver (http://biodev.extra.cea.fr/rasmot3d/) that performs a systematic search in 3D structures of protein for a set of residues exhibiting a particular topology. Comparison is based on C? and C? atoms in two steps: inter-atomic distances and RMSD. RASMOT-3D PRO takes in input a PDB file containing the 3D coordinates of the searched motif and provides an interactive list of identified protein structures exhibiting residues of similar topology as the motif searched. Each solution can be graphically examined on the website. The topological search can be conducted in structures described in PDB files uploaded by the user or in those deposited in the PDB. This characteristic as well as the possibility to reject scaffolds sterically incompatible with the target, makes RASMOT-3D PRO a unique webtool in the field of protein engineering. PMID:19417073

Debret, GaŽlle; Martel, Arnaud; Cuniasse, Philippe

2009-01-01

130

RASMOT-3D PRO: a 3D motif search webserver.  

PubMed

Detection of structural motif of residues in protein structures allows identification of structural or functional similarity between proteins. In the field of protein engineering, structural motif identification is essential to select protein scaffolds on which a motif of residues can be transferred to design a new protein with a given function. We describe here the RASMOT-3D PRO webserver (http://biodev.extra.cea.fr/rasmot3d/) that performs a systematic search in 3D structures of protein for a set of residues exhibiting a particular topology. Comparison is based on Calpha and Cbeta atoms in two steps: inter-atomic distances and RMSD. RASMOT-3D PRO takes in input a PDB file containing the 3D coordinates of the searched motif and provides an interactive list of identified protein structures exhibiting residues of similar topology as the motif searched. Each solution can be graphically examined on the website. The topological search can be conducted in structures described in PDB files uploaded by the user or in those deposited in the PDB. This characteristic as well as the possibility to reject scaffolds sterically incompatible with the target, makes RASMOT-3D PRO a unique webtool in the field of protein engineering. PMID:19417073

Debret, GaŽlle; Martel, Arnaud; Cuniasse, Philippe

2009-07-01

131

SULEC: Benchmarking a new ALE finite-element code  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a 2-D/3-D arbitrary lagrangian-eulerian (ALE) finite-element code, SULEC, based on known techniques from literature. SULEC is successful in tackling many of the problems faced by numerical models of lithosphere and mantle processes, such as the combination of viscous, elastic, and plastic rheologies, the presence of a free surface, the contrast in viscosity between lithosphere and the underlying asthenosphere, and the occurrence of large deformations including viscous flow and offset on shear zones. The aim of our presentation is (1) to describe SULEC, and (2) to present a set of analytical and numerical benchmarks that we use to continuously test our code. SULEC solves the incompressible momentum equation coupled with the energy equation. It uses a structured mesh that is built of quadrilateral or brick elements that can vary in size in all dimensions, allowing to achieve high resolutions where required. The elements are either linear in velocity with constant pressure, or quadratic in velocity with linear pressure. An accurate pressure field is obtained through an iterative penalty (Uzawa) formulation. Material properties are carried on tracer particles that are advected through the Eulerian mesh. Shear elasticity is implemented following the approach of Moresi et al. [J. Comp. Phys. 184, 2003], brittle materials deform following a Drucker-Prager criterion, and viscous flow is by temperature- and pressure-dependent power-law creep. The top boundary of our models is a true free surface (with free surface stabilisation) on which simple surface processes models may be imposed. We use a set of benchmarks that test viscous, viscoelastic, elastic and plastic deformation, temperature advection and conduction, free surface behaviour, and pressure computation. Part of our benchmark set is automated allowing easy testing of new code versions. Examples include Poiseuille flow, Couette flow, Stokes flow, relaxation of viscous topography, viscous pure shear, viscoelastic pure shear, viscoelastic simple shear, and half-space cooling. More demanding tests include for example the Blankenbach convection benchmark (Geophys. J. Int. 98, 1989), the Schmeling et al. subduction benchmark (Phys. Earth Planet. Int. 171, 2008), and the angle of shear bands in compression and extension. While we do not aim to provide the most complete set of tests for new numerical codes, we do hope that our tests may help future code developers.

Buiter, S.; Ellis, S.

2012-04-01

132

Benchmark On Sensitivity Calculation (Phase III)  

SciTech Connect

The sensitivities of the keff eigenvalue to neutron cross sections have become commonly used in similarity studies and as part of the validation algorithm for criticality safety assessments. To test calculations of the sensitivity coefficients, a benchmark study (Phase III) has been established by the OECD-NEA/WPNCS/EG UACSA (Expert Group on Uncertainty Analysis for Criticality Safety Assessment). This paper presents some sensitivity results generated by the benchmark participants using various computational tools based upon different computational methods: SCALE/TSUNAMI-3D and -1D, MONK, APOLLO2-MORET 5, DRAGON-SUSD3D and MMKKENO. The study demonstrates the performance of the tools. It also illustrates how model simplifications impact the sensitivity results and demonstrates the importance of 'implicit' (self-shielding) sensitivities. This work has been a useful step towards verification of the existing and developed sensitivity analysis methods.

Ivanova, Tatiana [IRSN; Laville, Cedric [IRSN; Dyrda, James [Atomic Weapons Establishment; Mennerdahl, Dennis [E. Mennerdahl Systems; Golovko, Yury [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE), Obninsk, Russia; Raskach, Kirill [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE), Obninsk, Russia; Tsiboulia, Anatoly [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE), Obninsk, Russia; Lee, Gil Soo [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS); Woo, Sweng-Woong [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS); Bidaud, Adrien [Labratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmolo-gie (LPSC); Patel, Amrit [NRC; Bledsoe, Keith C [ORNL; Rearden, Bradley T [ORNL; Gulliford, J. [OECD Nuclear Energy Agency

2012-01-01

133

3D Topographic Map Simulation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive simulation illustrates how topographic maps are created and used to depict landforms and changes in elevation. Students can sculpt mountains and valleys using a 3-D model and see the changes to the corresponding topographic map, or make alterations to the map and see how the 3-D terrain model changes. The display can be tilted, rotated, or enlarged to view changes to the map and/or terrain model.

2011-04-25

134

Benchmarking for Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The chapters in this collection explore the concept of benchmarking as it is being used and developed in higher education (HE). Case studies and reviews show how universities in the United Kingdom are using benchmarking to aid in self-regulation and self-improvement. The chapters are: (1) "Introduction to Benchmarking" (Norman Jackson and HelenÖ

Jackson, Norman, Ed.; Lund, Helen, Ed.

135

NAS Parallel Benchmark Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NAS Parallel Benchmarks have been developed at NASA Ames Research Center to studythe performance of parallel supercomputers. The eight benchmark problems are specified in a"pencil and paper" fashion. In other words, the complete details of the problem to be solved aregiven in a technical document, and except for a few restrictions, benchmarkers are free to selectthe language constructs and

Subhash Saini; David H. Bailey

1995-01-01

136

Designing Virtual Museum Using Web3D Technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

VRT was born to have the potentiality of constructing an effective learning environment due to its 3I characteristics: Interaction, Immersion and Imagination. It is now applied in education in a more profound way along with the development of VRT. Virtual Museum is one of the applications. The Virtual Museum is based on the WEB3D technology and extensibility is the most important factor. Considering the advantage and disadvantage of each WEB3D technology, VRML, CULT3D AND VIEWPOINT technologies are chosen. A web chatroom based on flash and ASP technology is also been created in order to make the Virtual Museum an interactive learning environment.

Zhao, Jianghai

137

Analysis of ANS LWR physics benchmark problems.  

SciTech Connect

Various Monte Carlo and deterministic solutions to the three PWR Lattice Benchmark Problems recently defined by the ANS Ad Hoc Committee on Reactor Physics Benchmarks are presented. These solutions were obtained using the VIM continuous-energy Monte Carlo code and the DIF3D/WIMS-D4M code package implemented at the Argonne National Laboratory. The code results for the K{sub eff} and relative pin power distribution are compared to measured values. Additionally, code results for the three benchmark-prescribed infinite lattice configurations are also intercompared. The results demonstrate that the codes produce very good estimates of both the K{sub eff} and power distribution for the critical core and the lattice parameters of the infinite lattice configuration.

Taiwo, T. A.

1998-07-29

138

DRACO development for 3D simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The DRACO (r-z) lagrangian radiation-hydrodynamics laser fusion simulation code is being extended to model 3D hydrodynamics in (x-y-z) coordinates with hexahedral cells on a structured grid. The equation of motion is solved with a lagrangian update with optional rezoning. The fluid equations are solved using an explicit scheme based on (Schulz, 1964) while the SALE-3D algorithm (Amsden, 1981) is used as a template for computing cell volumes and other quantities. A second order rezoner has been added which uses linear interpolation of the underlying continuous functions to preserve accuracy (Van Leer, 1976). Artificial restoring force terms and smoothing algorithms are used to avoid grid distortion in high aspect ratio cells. These include alternate node couplers along with a rotational restoring force based on the Tensor Code (Maenchen, 1964). Electron and ion thermal conduction is modeled using an extension of Kershaw's method (Kershaw, 1981) to 3D geometry. Test problem simulations will be presented to demonstrate the applicability of this new version of DRACO to the study of fluid instabilities in three dimensions.

Fatenejad, Milad; Moses, Gregory

2006-10-01

139

Benchmarking your benchmarks: a user's perspective  

SciTech Connect

This paper is intended for anyone faced with the responsibility for computer hardware or software selection. The content is biased toward administrative considerations, although some technical issues are presented. The basic goal is to promote a role for benchmarking in the computer acquisition process that is significantly broader than that commonly employed. We attempt to do this by showing how a thorough benchmarking effort (in the usual sense) did not provide sufficient information to accurately predict user satisfaction and productivity. We describe other measures of a system's properties that should be included in benchmarking.

Brice, R.

1982-01-01

140

NoSQL Based 3D City Model Management System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To manage increasingly complicated 3D city models, a framework based on NoSQL database is proposed in this paper. The framework supports import and export of 3D city model according to international standards such as CityGML, KML/COLLADA and X3D. We also suggest and implement 3D model analysis and visualization in the framework. For city model analysis, 3D geometry data and semantic information (such as name, height, area, price and so on) are stored and processed separately. We use a Map-Reduce method to deal with the 3D geometry data since it is more complex, while the semantic analysis is mainly based on database query operation. For visualization, a multiple 3D city representation structure CityTree is implemented within the framework to support dynamic LODs based on user viewpoint. Also, the proposed framework is easily extensible and supports geoindexes to speed up the querying. Our experimental results show that the proposed 3D city management system can efficiently fulfil the analysis and visualization requirements.

Mao, B.; Harrie, L.; Cao, J.; Wu, Z.; Shen, J.

2014-04-01

141

YouDash3D: exploring stereoscopic 3D gaming for 3D movie theaters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Along with the success of the digitally revived stereoscopic cinema, events beyond 3D movies become attractive for movie theater operators, i.e. interactive 3D games. In this paper, we present a case that explores possible challenges and solutions for interactive 3D games to be played by a movie theater audience. We analyze the setting and showcase current issues related to lighting and interaction. Our second focus is to provide gameplay mechanics that make special use of stereoscopy, especially depth-based game design. Based on these results, we present YouDash3D, a game prototype that explores public stereoscopic gameplay in a reduced kiosk setup. It features live 3D HD video stream of a professional stereo camera rig rendered in a real-time game scene. We use the effect to place the stereoscopic effigies of players into the digital game. The game showcases how stereoscopic vision can provide for a novel depth-based game mechanic. Projected trigger zones and distributed clusters of the audience video allow for easy adaptation to larger audiences and 3D movie theater gaming.

Schild, Jonas; Seele, Sven; Masuch, Maic

2012-03-01

142

From 3D view to 3D print  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last few years 3D printing is getting more and more popular and used in many fields going from manufacturing to industrial design, architecture, medical support and aerospace. 3D printing is an evolution of bi-dimensional printing, which allows to obtain a solid object from a 3D model, realized with a 3D modelling software. The final product is obtained using an additive process, in which successive layers of material are laid down one over the other. A 3D printer allows to realize, in a simple way, very complex shapes, which would be quite difficult to be produced with dedicated conventional facilities. Thanks to the fact that the 3D printing is obtained superposing one layer to the others, it doesn't need any particular work flow and it is sufficient to simply draw the model and send it to print. Many different kinds of 3D printers exist based on the technology and material used for layer deposition. A common material used by the toner is ABS plastics, which is a light and rigid thermoplastic polymer, whose peculiar mechanical properties make it diffusely used in several fields, like pipes production and cars interiors manufacturing. I used this technology to create a 1:1 scale model of the telescope which is the hardware core of the space small mission CHEOPS (CHaracterising ExOPlanets Satellite) by ESA, which aims to characterize EXOplanets via transits observations. The telescope has a Ritchey-Chrťtien configuration with a 30cm aperture and the launch is foreseen in 2017. In this paper, I present the different phases for the realization of such a model, focusing onto pros and cons of this kind of technology. For example, because of the finite printable volume (10◊10◊12 inches in the x, y and z directions respectively), it has been necessary to split the largest parts of the instrument in smaller components to be then reassembled and post-processed. A further issue is the resolution of the printed material, which is expressed in terms of layers thickness, in the Z direction, and in drop-per-inch, in X and Y directions. 3D printing is also an easy and quick production technique, which can become useful in the ad-hoc realization of mechanical components for optical setups to be used in a laboratory for new concept studies and validation, reducing the manufacturing time. With this technique, indeed, it is possible to realize in few hours custom-made mechanical parts, without any specific knowledge and expertise in tool machinery, as long as the resolution and size are compliant with the requirements.

Dima, M.; Farisato, G.; Bergomi, M.; Viotto, V.; Magrin, D.; Greggio, D.; Farinato, J.; Marafatto, L.; Ragazzoni, R.; Piazza, D.

2014-08-01

143

Creating graph 3D (S3D) gam  

E-print Network

A C 3 c S in w c u c m to g c c th f A S s A H M IN M v w w li o o w a e n a c P p n b o sp C C is a diff ffect. We pres st of S3D-spec ually comforta nd S3D view. T GUI concepts esults show q f bottom oom use is granted uted for profit or c d the full citation ost on servers or n and/or a fee. 7­May 2

LaViola Jr., Joseph J.

144

Interactive 3d Landscapes on Line  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper describes challenges identified while developing browser embedded 3D landscape rendering applications, our current approach and work-flow and how recent development in browser technologies could affect. All the data, even if processed by optimization and decimation tools, result in very huge databases that require paging, streaming and Level-of-Detail techniques to be implemented to allow remote web based real time fruition. Our approach has been to select an open source scene-graph based visual simulation library with sufficient performance and flexibility and adapt it to the web by providing a browser plug-in. Within the current Montegrotto VR Project, content produced with new pipelines has been integrated. The whole Montegrotto Town has been generated procedurally by CityEngine. We used this procedural approach, based on algorithms and procedures because it is particularly functional to create extensive and credible urban reconstructions. To create the archaeological sites we used optimized mesh acquired with laser scanning and photogrammetry techniques whereas to realize the 3D reconstructions of the main historical buildings we adopted computer-graphic software like blender and 3ds Max. At the final stage, semi-automatic tools have been developed and used up to prepare and clusterise 3D models and scene graph routes for web publishing. Vegetation generators have also been used with the goal of populating the virtual scene to enhance the user perceived realism during the navigation experience. After the description of 3D modelling and optimization techniques, the paper will focus and discuss its results and expectations.

Fanini, B.; Calori, L.; Ferdani, D.; Pescarin, S.

2011-09-01

145

Benchmarking infrastructure for mutation text mining  

PubMed Central

Background Experimental research on the automatic extraction of information about mutations from texts is greatly hindered by the lack of consensus evaluation infrastructure for the testing and benchmarking of mutation text mining systems. Results We propose a community-oriented annotation and benchmarking infrastructure to support development, testing, benchmarking, and comparison of mutation text mining systems. The design is based on semantic standards, where RDF is used to represent annotations, an OWL ontology provides an extensible schema for the data and SPARQL is used to compute various performance metrics, so that in many cases no programming is needed to analyze results from a text mining system. While large benchmark corpora for biological entity and relation extraction are focused mostly on genes, proteins, diseases, and species, our benchmarking infrastructure fills the gap for mutation information. The core infrastructure comprises (1) an ontology for modelling annotations, (2) SPARQL queries for computing performance metrics, and (3) a sizeable collection of manually curated documents, that can support mutation grounding and mutation impact extraction experiments. Conclusion We have developed the principal infrastructure for the benchmarking of mutation text mining tasks. The use of RDF and OWL as the representation for corpora ensures extensibility. The infrastructure is suitable for out-of-the-box use in several important scenarios and is ready, in its current state, for initial community adoption. PMID:24568600

2014-01-01

146

Speaking Volumes About 3-D  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 1999, Genex submitted a proposal to Stennis Space Center for a volumetric 3-D display technique that would provide multiple users with a 360-degree perspective to simultaneously view and analyze 3-D data. The futuristic capabilities of the VolumeViewer(R) have offered tremendous benefits to commercial users in the fields of medicine and surgery, air traffic control, pilot training and education, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing, and military/battlefield management. The technology has also helped NASA to better analyze and assess the various data collected by its satellite and spacecraft sensors. Genex capitalized on its success with Stennis by introducing two separate products to the commercial market that incorporate key elements of the 3-D display technology designed under an SBIR contract. The company Rainbow 3D(R) imaging camera is a novel, three-dimensional surface profile measurement system that can obtain a full-frame 3-D image in less than 1 second. The third product is the 360-degree OmniEye(R) video system. Ideal for intrusion detection, surveillance, and situation management, this unique camera system offers a continuous, panoramic view of a scene in real time.

2002-01-01

147

ALE3D Model Predictions and Materials Characterization for the Cookoff Response of PBXN-109  

Microsoft Academic Search

ALE3D simulations are presented for the thermal explosion of PBXN-109 (RDX, AI, HTPB, DOA) in support of an effort by the U. S. Navy and Department of Energy (DOE) to validate computational models. The U.S. Navy is performing benchmark tests for the slow cookoff of PBXN-109 in a sealed tube. Candidate models are being tested using the ALE3D code, which

M A McClelland; J L Maienschein; A L Nichols; J F Wardell; A I Atwood; P O Curran

2002-01-01

148

WP-3D aircraft parked on ramp  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space Shuttle tiles were mounted on a pylon on the right wing (not shown) of this National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) WP-3D for tests conducted off the eastern coast of Southern Florida and at the Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility NASA conducted extensive in-flight rain damage tests of the Shuttle Thermal Protection System (TPS) tiles on an F-104 at Dryden, while the NOAA conducted the tests on the WP-3D. P-3 testing concentrated on observing the effects of larger drops of moisture at lower speeds on the tiles. Shuttle Thermal Protection tiles were mounted on a pylon underneath the right wing of the aircraft. Tiles were mounted on two movable doors contained within both the left and right sides of the test fixture, for a total of four doors. The WP-3D flew three research flights while at Dryden--on Jan. 30, Feb. 2, and Feb. 5, 1987. The pylon test fixture is mounted on the right wing and thus does not appear in the photograph. Three particle measurement probes mounted on the left wing tip pylon and the pod under the forward fuselage are to measure atmospheric conditions. A National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration Lockheed WP-3D made a series of flights off the eastern coast of Florida and from Edwards Air Force Base in a cooperative program with the Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (now the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California) in 1987 to test in-flight rain damage to the Space Shuttle thermal protection system. Dryden performed its tests with an F-104 aircraft over the facilities at Edwards, California. Both sets of tests were done at the behest of NASA's Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas. These tests revealed that damage can occur to the Shuttle's thermal protection system during flight in rain. This is a concern, since such damage could compromise flight safety for the Space Shuttles and would certainly affect costs of operation and schedules. Sections of the Space Shuttle thermal protection system's 6- by 6-inch tiles were mounted on a pylon under the right wing of the WP-3D aircraft. The aircraft was equipped with raindropsize-measuring instruments and cloud radars. The WP-3D weather research aircraft obtained rain impact data for airspeeds between 180 and 260 knots indicated airspeed. Test samples were mounted on two movable doors contained within the left and right sides of the test fixture (for a total of four doors). The doors could be opened or closed to the free-stream airflow during flight at angles of 0, 15, 30, 45, and 60 degrees. The WP-3D tile testing concentrated on observing the effects of larger drops of moisture at lower speeds. The principle investigator for the tile tests was Robert R. Meyer, Jr., NASA engineer, Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (now Director of Research Engineering, Dryen Flight Research Center.) The Department of Commerce WP-3D aircraft was based at the Miami International Airport. It served as an environmental research platform for oceanographic and atmospheric studies by various government agencies and universities. The WP-3D flown in the Shuttle tile tests was specially instrumented for scientific observation with three radars and an onboard data recording capability. The pylon used for the tile tests could be configured so that specialized equipment could be installed for different users in the scientific community.

1987-01-01

149

ICSBEP Benchmarks For Nuclear Data Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) was initiated in 1992 by the United States Department of Energy. The ICSBEP became an official activity of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) ó Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) in 1995. Representatives from the United States, United Kingdom, France, Japan, the Russian Federation, Hungary, Republic of Korea, Slovenia, Serbia and Montenegro (formerly Yugoslavia), Kazakhstan, Spain, Israel, Brazil, Poland, and the Czech Republic are now participating. South Africa, India, China, and Germany are considering participation. The purpose of the ICSBEP is to identify, evaluate, verify, and formally document a comprehensive and internationally peer-reviewed set of criticality safety benchmark data. The work of the ICSBEP is published as an OECD handbook entitled "International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments." The 2004 Edition of the Handbook contains benchmark specifications for 3331 critical or subcritical configurations that are intended for use in validation efforts and for testing basic nuclear data. New to the 2004 Edition of the Handbook is a draft criticality alarm / shielding type benchmark that should be finalized in 2005 along with two other similar benchmarks. The Handbook is being used extensively for nuclear data testing and is expected to be a valuable resource for code and data validation and improvement efforts for decades to come. Specific benchmarks that are useful for testing structural materials such as iron, chromium, nickel, and manganese; beryllium; lead; thorium; and 238U are highlighted.

Briggs, J. Blair

2005-05-01

150

3D Assisted Face Recognition: A Survey of 3D Imaging, Modelling and Recognition Approachest  

Microsoft Academic Search

3D face recognition has lately been attracting ever increasing attention. In this paper we review the full spectrum of 3D face processing technology, from sensing to recognition. The review covers 3D face modelling, 3D to 3D and 3D to 2D registration, 3D based recognition and 3D assisted 2D based recognition. The fusion of 2D and 3D modalities is also addressed.

J. Kittler; A. Hilton; M. Hamouz; J. Illingworth

2005-01-01

151

Holography of 3d-3d correspondence at Large N  

E-print Network

We study the physics of multiple M5-branes compactified on a hyperbolic 3-manifold. On the one hand, it leads to the 3d-3d correspondence which maps an $\\mathcal{N}=2$ superconformal field theory to a pure Chern-Simons theory on the 3-manifold. On the other hand, it leads to a warped AdS$_4$ geometry in M-theory holographically dual to the superconformal field theory. Combining the holographic duality and the 3d-3d correspondence, we propose a conjecture for the large $N$ limit of the perturbative free energy of a Chern-Simons theory on hyperbolic 3-manifold. The conjecture claims that the tree, one-loop and two-loop terms all share the same $N^3$ scaling behavior and are proportional to the volume of the 3-manifold, while the three-loop and higher terms are suppressed at large $N$. Under mild assumptions, we prove the tree and one-loop parts of the conjecture. For the two-loop part, we test the conjecture numerically in a number of examples and find precise agreement. We also confirm the suppression of highe...

Gang, Dongmin; Lee, Sangmin

2014-01-01

152

Holography of 3d-3d correspondence at Large N  

E-print Network

We study the physics of multiple M5-branes compactified on a hyperbolic 3-manifold. On the one hand, it leads to the 3d-3d correspondence which maps an $\\mathcal{N}=2$ superconformal field theory to a pure Chern-Simons theory on the 3-manifold. On the other hand, it leads to a warped AdS$_4$ geometry in M-theory holographically dual to the superconformal field theory. Combining the holographic duality and the 3d-3d correspondence, we propose a conjecture for the large $N$ limit of the perturbative free energy of a Chern-Simons theory on hyperbolic 3-manifold. The conjecture claims that the tree, one-loop and two-loop terms all share the same $N^3$ scaling behavior and are proportional to the volume of the 3-manifold, while the three-loop and higher terms are suppressed at large $N$. Under mild assumptions, we prove the tree and one-loop parts of the conjecture. For the two-loop part, we test the conjecture numerically in a number of examples and find precise agreement. We also confirm the suppression of higher loop terms in a few examples.

Dongmin Gang; Nakwoo Kim; Sangmin Lee

2014-09-22

153

3D Computations and Experiments  

SciTech Connect

This project is in its first full year after the combining of two previously funded projects: ''3D Code Development'' and ''Dynamic Material Properties''. The motivation behind this move was to emphasize and strengthen the ties between the experimental work and the computational model development in the materials area. The next year's activities will indicate the merging of the two efforts. The current activity is structured in two tasks. Task A, ''Simulations and Measurements'', combines all the material model development and associated numerical work with the materials-oriented experimental activities. Task B, ''ALE3D Development'', is a continuation of the non-materials related activities from the previous project.

Couch, R; Faux, D; Goto, D; Nikkel, D

2003-05-12

154

3D Fire Spread Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These excellent animations overlay animations of fire spread on 3D terrain that incorporates satellite imagery. A timeline shows the animation's current time relative to the fire occurrence, and an inset map provides an overhead view of the fire on a map that shows fuels by location. Animations are available for several wildfires that occurred in California.

Harry D. Johson

155

3D Fractals Dominic Rochon*  

E-print Network

functions ­ A non-differentiable continuous curve! #12;Helge von Koch · Recall: Weierstrass (1875) showed hexagon Koch curve Sierpinski Polygons #12;3D Sierpinski Sierpinski pyramid Menger ­ Sierpinski sponge number of boxes needed, in function of noted N(). ­ Calculate the dimension using the following formula

Rochon, Dominic

156

Benchmarks for target tracking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The term benchmark originates from the chiseled horizontal marks that surveyors made, into which an angle-iron could be placed to bracket ("bench") a leveling rod, thus ensuring that the leveling rod can be repositioned in exactly the same place in the future. A benchmark in computer terms is the result of running a computer program, or a set of programs, in order to assess the relative performance of an object by running a number of standard tests and trials against it. This paper will discuss the history of simulation benchmarks that are being used by multiple branches of the military and agencies of the US government. These benchmarks range from missile defense applications to chemical biological situations. Typically, a benchmark is used with Monte Carlo runs in order to tease out how algorithms deal with variability and the range of possible inputs. We will also describe problems that can be solved by a benchmark.

Dunham, Darin T.; West, Philip D.

2011-09-01

157

NAS Parallel Benchmarks, Multi-Zone Versions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We describe an extension of the NAS Parallel Benchmarks (NPB) suite that involves solving the application benchmarks LU, BT and SP on collections of loosely coupled discretization meshes. The solutions on the meshes are updated independently, but after each time step they exchange boundary value information. This strategy, which is common among structured-mesh production flow solver codes in use at NASA Ames and elsewhere, provides relatively easily exploitable coarse-grain parallelism between meshes. Since the individual application benchmarks also allow fine-grain parallelism themselves, this NPB extension, named NPB Multi-Zone (NPB-MZ), is a good candidate for testing hybrid and multi-level parallelization tools and strategies.

vanderWijngaart, Rob F.; Haopiang, Jin

2003-01-01

158

The 007 Benchmark  

Microsoft Academic Search

The OO7 Benchmark represents a comprehensive test of OODBMS performance. In this paper we describe the benchmark and present performance results from its implementation in three OODBMS systems. It is our hope that the OO7 Benchmark will provide useful insight for end-users evaluating the performance of OODBMS systems; we also hope that the research community will find that OO7 provides

Michael J. Carey; David J. DeWitt; Jeffrey F. Naughton

1993-01-01

159

The oo7 Benchmark  

Microsoft Academic Search

The OO7 Benchmark represents a comprehensive test of OODBMS performance. In thisreport we describe the benchmark and present performance results from its implementationin four OODB systems. It is our hope that the OO7 Benchmark will provide useful insightfor end-users evaluating the performance of OODB systems# we also hope that the researchcommunity will find that OO7 provides a database schema, instance,

Michael J. Carey; David J. Dewitt; Jeffrey F. Naughton

1993-01-01

160

3D Skull Recognition Using 3D Matching Technique  

E-print Network

Biometrics has become a "hot" area. Governments are funding research programs focused on biometrics. In this paper the problem of person recognition and verification based on a different biometric application has been addressed. The system is based on the 3DSkull recognition using 3D matching technique, in fact this paper present several bio-metric approaches in order of assign the weak point in term of used the biometric from the authorize person and insure the person who access the data is the real person. The feature of the simulate system shows the capability of using 3D matching system as an efficient way to identify the person through his or her skull by match it with database, this technique grantee fast processing with optimizing the false positive and negative as well .

Alanazi, Hamdan O; Zaidan, A A

2010-01-01

161

3D Video Rendering Adaptation: A Survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With various types of 3D display, the same 3D content may present different visual experience qualities. To achieve the perfect 3D visual experience, 3D video rendering adaptation is highly desired. This paper surveys the state-of-the-art 3D video rendering adaption technologies and further summarizes the remaining open challenges. First, we explain the basic 3D vision principle which provides 3D video rendering adaptation rules. Second, based on the outline of disparity processing, we survey two categories of 3D video rendering adaptation technologies: (1) video size and depth range adaptation; (2) viewpoint adaptation. For video size and depth range adaptation, the linear scaling based 3D video super-resolution, disparity transform and content-aware 3D video retargeting are specifically overviewed. Finally, we point out the open issues to be investigated in the area of 3D video rendering adaptation.

Liu, Jinxia; Liu, Yanwei; Qi, Honggang; Wang, Zunyi; Zhang, Zengnian

2015-03-01

162

Critical approach to 3D virtual realities for group work  

Microsoft Academic Search

Collaborative virtual environments (CVEs) have been studied extensively during the past few years. In this paper, the concept of virtual reality (VR), and its value for group work are critically examined. To ground the discussions, experiences from a virtual reality project, from 3D chats, and from present CVE applications are analysed in the light of human communication. It is argued

Samuli Pekkola

2002-01-01

163

Perception-based shape retrieval for 3D building models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the help of 3D search engines, a large number of 3D building models can be retrieved freely online. A serious disadvantage of most rotation-insensitive shape descriptors is their inability to distinguish between two 3D building models which are different at their main axes, but appear similar when one of them is rotated. To resolve this problem, we present a novel upright-based normalization method which not only correctly rotates such building models, but also greatly simplifies and accelerates the abstraction and the matching of building models' shape descriptors. Moreover, the abundance of architectural styles significantly hinders the effective shape retrieval of building models. Our research has shown that buildings with different designs are not well distinguished by the widely recognized shape descriptors for general 3D models. Motivated by this observation and to further improve the shape retrieval quality, a new building matching method is introduced and analyzed based on concepts found in the field of perception theory and the well-known Light Field descriptor. The resulting normalized building models are first classified using the qualitative shape descriptors of Shell and Unevenness which outline integral geometrical and topological information. These models are then put in on orderly fashion with the help of an improved quantitative shape descriptor which we will term as Horizontal Light Field Descriptor, since it assembles detailed shape characteristics. To accurately evaluate the proposed methodology, an enlarged building shape database which extends previous well-known shape benchmarks was implemented as well as a model retrieval system supporting inputs from 2D sketches and 3D models. Various experimental performance evaluation results have shown that, as compared to previous methods, retrievals employing the proposed matching methodology are faster and more consistent with human recognition of spatial objects. In addition these performance evaluation results have verified that the proposed methodology does not sacrifice the matching accuracy while significantly improves the efficiency when matching 3D building models.

Zhang, Man; Zhang, Liqiang; Takis Mathiopoulos, P.; Ding, Yusi; Wang, Hao

2013-01-01

164

3D Printing in Space  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

First we thought that 3D printing was just a pipe dream, the stuff of science fiction. Now, we know it to be very real with numerous innovations to follow. This recent report from the National Materials and Manufacturing Board's Division of Engineering and Physical Sciences suggests that 3D printing in space will soon be a reality. Published in July 2014, this 100-page report contains a range of findings on the future of additive manufacturing and its potential in space. The basic idea is that scientists in space could manufacture replacement parts and tools while in-orbit. Visitors are welcome to download and read the entire report, which will be of great interest to scientists, engineers, and others fascinated by the future of technological innovation.

National Research Council (U.S.). Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board; National Research Council (U.S.). Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences.; National Research Council (U.S.). National Materials and Manufacturing Board

2014-07-01

165

3D Printed Robotic Hand  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dexterous robotic hands are changing the way robots and humans interact and use common tools. Unfortunately, the complexity of the joints and actuations drive up the manufacturing cost. Some cutting edge and commercially available rapid prototyping machines now have the ability to print multiple materials and even combine these materials in the same job. A 3D model of a robotic hand was designed using Creo Parametric 2.0. Combining "hard" and "soft" materials, the model was printed on the Object Connex350 3D printer with the purpose of resembling as much as possible the human appearance and mobility of a real hand while needing no assembly. After printing the prototype, strings where installed as actuators to test mobility. Based on printing materials, the manufacturing cost of the hand was $167, significantly lower than other robotic hands without the actuators since they have more complex assembly processes.

Pizarro, Yaritzmar Rosario; Schuler, Jason M.; Lippitt, Thomas C.

2013-01-01

166

Forensic 3D Scene Reconstruction  

SciTech Connect

Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a feasible prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

LITTLE,CHARLES Q.; PETERS,RALPH R.; RIGDON,J. BRIAN; SMALL,DANIEL E.

1999-10-12

167

Forensic 3D scene reconstruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a fieldable prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

Little, Charles Q.; Small, Daniel E.; Peters, Ralph R.; Rigdon, J. B.

2000-05-01

168

3D statistical facial reconstruction  

E-print Network

The aim of craniofacial reconstruction is to produce a likeness of a face from the skull. Few works in computerized assisted facial reconstruction have been done in the past, due to poor machine performances and data availability, and major works are manually reconstructions. In this paper, we present an approach to build 3D statistical models of the skull and the face with soft tissues from the skull of one individual. Results on real data are presented and seem promising.

Berar, M; Bailly, G; Payan, Y; Berar, Maxime; Desvignes, Michel; Payan, Yohan

2005-01-01

169

3-D Magnetostatic Field Simulation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet simulates various magnetic sources, including a line of current, a square loop, a magnetic sphere and a solenoid. Size, number of particles, and field strength are adjustable. Display options include particles in velocity or force fields, field vectors, field lines and potential vectors. The vectors and lines can be displayed in 3D or on a movable 2D slice. Charge can be reversed. Source code and directions are included.

Falstad, Paul

2004-07-13

170

NASA: Exploration in 3D  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NASA's Exploration in 3D website is well executed and is accompanied by music with that classic, creepy, outer space feel. For visitors who prefer silence while looking at images of deep, dark space, there is a mute button near the bottom right side of the homepage. With this website, NASA is allowing the public to see their next major project, which involves creating a transportation system to take astronauts to the moon and then on to Mars. To enable the interested public to watch the progress of their plans for space, NASA will be taking photos of the project and putting them on this website, so they can be downloaded and printed. Once said images are printed, that's where the 3-D pocket viewfinders come in. For visitors interested in getting a viewfinder, click on the link at the bottom of the page that says "Click here to request your own EXN3D Pocket Viewfinder". To view the latest images with your viewfinder that are ready to download and print, visitors can click on "Downloads". Interested parties should check back in the future to see newly added images of the progress of the transportation system.

171

Free Fall 3D Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Ejs Free Fall 3D model displays the three-dimensional dynamics of a ball dropped near the surface of Earth onto a platform. The initial conditions for the ball are zero initial velocities in the x, y, and z directions. The coefficient of restitution for the ball‚s collision with the platform is less than one. The initial height of the ball can be changed by dragging it when the simulation is paused. You can modify this simulation if you have Ejs installed by right-clicking within the plot and selecting ‚Open Ejs Model‚ from the pop-up menu item. Ejs Free Fall 3D model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_newton_FreeFall3D.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. Ejs is a part of the Open Source Physics Project and is designed to make it easier to access, modify, and generate computer models. Additional Ejs models for Newtonian mechanics are available. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or Ejs.

Christian, Wolfgang

2008-06-03

172

[Real time 3D echocardiography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients.

Bauer, F.; Shiota, T.; Thomas, J. D.

2001-01-01

173

NPB-MPJ: NAS Parallel Benchmarks Implementation for Message-Passing in Java  

E-print Network

NPB-MPJ: NAS Parallel Benchmarks Implementation for Message-Passing in Java Dami¬īan A. Mall presents NPB-MPJ, the first extensive implementa- tion of the NAS Parallel Benchmarks (NPB), the standard parallel benchmark suite, for Message-Passing in Java (MPJ) libraries. Together with the design

Touri√Īo, Juan

174

Thermal Performance Benchmarking (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This project will benchmark the thermal characteristics of automotive power electronics and electric motor thermal management systems. Recent vehicle systems will be benchmarked to establish baseline metrics, evaluate advantages and disadvantages of different thermal management systems, and identify areas of improvement to advance the state-of-the-art.

Moreno, G.

2014-11-01

175

A Synthetic Benchmark  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple method of measuring performance is by means of a benchmark pro- gram. Unless such a program is carefully constructed it is unlikely to be typical of the many thousands of programs run at an installation. An example benchmark for measuring the processor power of scientific computers is presented: this is compared with other methods of assessing computer power.

H. J. Curnow; Brian A. Wichmann

1976-01-01

176

USGS Yosemite Benchmark Streamgage  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

In this image, the USGS Hydrologic Benchmark Streamgage on the Merced River in Yosemite Valley can be seen. Hydrologic Benchmark streamgages are those at which no human development exists upstream of the streamgage. This streamgage is a cooperation between the National Park Service, National Oceanic...

177

IU parallel processing benchmark  

Microsoft Academic Search

A benchmark is presented that was designed to evaluate the merits of various parallel architectures as applied to image understanding (IU). This benchmark exercise addresses the issue of system performance on an integrated set of tasks, where the task interactions that are typical of complex vision application are present. The goal of this exercise is to gain a better understanding

Charles Weems; Edward Riseman; Allen Hanson; Azriel Rosenfeld

1988-01-01

178

BENCHMARK DOSE SOFTWARE (BMDS)  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA has announced the latest update to the Benchmark Dose Software (BMDS) tool which is used to facilitate the application of benchmark dose (BMD) methods to EPA hazardous pollutant risk assessments. This latest version (1.4.1b) contains seventeen (17) different models that ar...

179

Method of characteristics - Based sensitivity calculations for international PWR benchmark  

SciTech Connect

Method to calculate sensitivity of fractional-linear neutron flux functionals to transport equation coefficients is proposed. Implementation of the method on the basis of MOC code MCCG3D is developed. Sensitivity calculations for fission intensity for international PWR benchmark are performed. (authors)

Suslov, I. R.; Tormyshev, I. V.; Komlev, O. G. [FSUE SSCRF-IPPE, Kalugadistrict, Bondarenkosq. 1, 249033, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

2013-07-01

180

3D face recognition via conformal representation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we propose a 3D face recognition approach based on the conformal representation of facial surfaces. Firstly, facial surfaces are mapped onto the 2D unit disk by Riemann mapping. Their conformal representation (i.e. the pair of mean curvature (MC) and conformal factor (CF) ) are then computed and encoded to Mean Curvature Images (MCIs) and Conformal Factor Images (CFIs). Considering that different regions of face deform unequally due to expression variation, MCIs and CFIs are divided into five parts. LDA is applied to each part to obtain the feature vector. At last, five parts are fused on the distance level for recognition. Extensive experiments carried out on the BU-3DFE database demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

Han, Junhui; Fang, Chi; Ding, Xiaoqing; Sun, Jian; Gu, Xianfeng D.

2014-03-01

181

Simple proposal for radial 3D needlets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present here a simple construction of a wavelet system for the three-dimensional ball, which we label radial 3D needlets. The construction envisages a data collection environment in which an observer located at the center of the ball is surrounded by concentric spheres with the same pixelization at different radial distances, for any given resolution. The system is then obtained by weighting the projector operator built on the corresponding set of eigenfunctions and performing a discretization step which turns out to be computationally very convenient. The resulting wavelets can be shown to have very good localization properties in the real and harmonic domain; their implementation is computationally very convenient, and they allow for exact reconstruction as they form a tight frame system. Our theoretical results are supported by an extensive numerical analysis.

Durastanti, C.; Fantaye, Y.; Hansen, F.; Marinucci, D.; Pesenson, I. Z.

2014-11-01

182

3D Radiative Transfer in Cloudy Atmospheres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Developments in three-dimensional cloud radiation over the past few decades are assessed and distilled into this contributed volume. Chapters are authored by subject-matter experts who address a broad audience of graduate students, researchers, and anyone interested in cloud-radiation processes in the solar and infrared spectral regions. After two introductory chapters and a section on the fundamental physics and computational techniques, the volume extensively treats two main application areas: the impact of clouds on the Earth's radiation budget, which is an essential aspect of climate modeling; and remote observation of clouds, especially with the advanced sensors on current and future satellite missions. http://www.springeronline.com/alert/article?a=3D1_1fva7w_1j826l_41z_6

Marshak, Alexander; Davis, Anthony

183

Verification and validation benchmarks.  

SciTech Connect

Verification and validation (V&V) are the primary means to assess the accuracy and reliability of computational simulations. V&V methods and procedures have fundamentally improved the credibility of simulations in several high-consequence fields, such as nuclear reactor safety, underground nuclear waste storage, and nuclear weapon safety. Although the terminology is not uniform across engineering disciplines, code verification deals with assessing the reliability of the software coding, and solution verification deals with assessing the numerical accuracy of the solution to a computational model. Validation addresses the physics modeling accuracy of a computational simulation by comparing the computational results with experimental data. Code verification benchmarks and validation benchmarks have been constructed for a number of years in every field of computational simulation. However, no comprehensive guidelines have been proposed for the construction and use of V&V benchmarks. For example, the field of nuclear reactor safety has not focused on code verification benchmarks, but it has placed great emphasis on developing validation benchmarks. Many of these validation benchmarks are closely related to the operations of actual reactors at near-safety-critical conditions, as opposed to being more fundamental-physics benchmarks. This paper presents recommendations for the effective design and use of code verification benchmarks based on manufactured solutions, classical analytical solutions, and highly accurate numerical solutions. In addition, this paper presents recommendations for the design and use of validation benchmarks, highlighting the careful design of building-block experiments, the estimation of experimental measurement uncertainty for both inputs and outputs to the code, validation metrics, and the role of model calibration in validation. It is argued that the understanding of predictive capability of a computational model is built on the level of achievement in V&V activities, how closely related the V&V benchmarks are to the actual application of interest, and the quantification of uncertainties related to the application of interest.

Oberkampf, William Louis; Trucano, Timothy Guy

2007-02-01

184

3D non-Planar Finite Difference Dynamic Rupture: Application to the Landers Earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many aspects of seismic complexity have been explained in the last thirty years thanks to the development of numerical approaches allowing seismologists to simulate the dynamic rupture of earthquakes. Heterogeneities in both the initial stress field and the surrounding medium are extremely important elements. The constitutive law describing the physics of the breakdown process which relates the fault friction to fault kinematics is also determinant. However, given the increasing amount of high quality seismological data, more sophisticated approaches are needed to explain observations so that others important physical factors, such as the real fault geometry, could be integrated into simulations. Bearing in mind these new high quality observations along with the current computational power, a great interest has arisen in the last five years to develop 3D numerical codes to simulate earthquakes with real fault geometries. Recently, Cruz-Atienza and Virieux (2004) have introduced a 2D finite difference (FD) approach for modeling the dynamic rupture of non-planar faults. In this work we analyze the 3D extension of such an approach. On that account, the new 3D code may consider arbitrary heterogeneous media, composite friction laws and non-planar fault geometries. The numerical criteria for rupture boundary conditions to model rupture processes accurately were determined experimentally finding consistency with those determined for the 2D case: the source is discretized by a set of numerical cells. Given a spatial grid step for wave propagation, the number of grid nodes contained in each cell should be adapted accordingly. The smaller the spatial step the greater the number of nodes. We have performed dynamic rupture simulations for different curved 3D faults and compared results with those given by a BIE method (Aochi et al., 2000). Consistency between solutions yielded by different numerical approaches is essential since it is the only way to have confidence in these kinds of complex simulations for which no theoretical solutions are available. This benchmarking exercise has also allowed us to better understand and quantify the effect of fault curvature on near-source seismograms and fault solutions. Finally, we applied our numerical approach to model the 1992 Landers earthquake (Mw=7.3). Several simulations were carried out including a heterogeneous initial stress field, layered elastic medium and the non-planar fault trace geometry. Complexity in near-field seismograms enhances the importance of both a heterogeneous surrounding medium and non-planar fault geometry due to their intimate interaction during rupture process. Aochi, H., E. Fukuyama and M. Matsu'ura, 2000, Pure. Appl. Geophys., 157, 2003-2027. Cruz-Atienza, V.M. and J. Virieux, 2004, Geophys. J. Int., 158, 939-954.

Cruz-Atienza, V. M.; Virieux, J.; Aochi, H.; Peyrat, S.

2004-12-01

185

tomo3d: a new 3-D joint refraction and reflection travel-time tomography code for active-source seismic data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the development state of tomo3d, a code for three-dimensional refraction and reflection travel-time tomography of wide-angle seismic data based on the previous two-dimensional version of the code, tomo2d. The core of both forward and inverse problems is inherited from the 2-D version. The ray tracing is performed by a hybrid method combining the graph and bending methods. The graph method finds an ordered array of discrete model nodes, which satisfies Fermat's principle, that is, whose corresponding travel time is a global minimum within the space of discrete nodal connections. The bending method is then applied to produce a more accurate ray path by using the nodes as support points for an interpolation with beta-splines. Travel time tomography is formulated as an iterative linearized inversion, and each step is solved using an LSQR algorithm. In order to avoid the singularity of the sensitivity kernel and to reduce the instability of inversion, regularization parameters are introduced in the inversion in the form of smoothing and damping constraints. Velocity models are built as 3-D meshes, and velocity values at intermediate locations are obtained by trilinear interpolation within the corresponding pseudo-cubic cell. Meshes are sheared to account for topographic relief. A floating reflector is represented by a 2-D grid, and depths at intermediate locations are calculated by bilinear interpolation within the corresponding square cell. The trade-off between the resolution of the final model and the associated computational cost is controlled by the relation between the selected forward star for the graph method (i.e. the number of nodes that each node considers as its neighbors) and the refinement of the velocity mesh. Including reflected phases is advantageous because it provides a better coverage and allows us to define the geometry of those geological interfaces with velocity contrasts sharp enough to be observed on record sections. The code also offers the possibility of including water-layer multiples in the modeling, which is useful whenever these phases can be followed to greater offsets than the primary ones. This increases the amount of information available from the data, yielding more extensive and better constrained velocity and geometry models. We will present synthetic results from benchmark tests for the forward and inverse problems, as well as from more complex inversion tests for different inversions possibilities such as one with travel times from refracted waves only (i.e. first arrivals) and one with travel-times from both refracted and reflected waves. In addition, we will show some preliminary results for the inversion of real 3-D OBS data acquired off-shore Ecuador and Colombia.

Melťndez, A.; Korenaga, J.; Sallares, V.; Ranero, C. R.

2012-12-01

186

Seeing More Is Knowing More: V3D Enables Real-Time 3D Visualization and Quantitative Analysis of Large-Scale Biological Image Data Sets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Everyone understands seeing more is knowing more. However, for large-scale 3D microscopic image analysis, it has not been an easy task to efficiently visualize, manipulate and understand high-dimensional data in 3D, 4D or 5D spaces. We developed a new 3D+ image visualization and analysis platform, V3D, to meet this need. The V3D system provides 3D visualization of gigabyte-sized microscopy image stacks in real time on current laptops and desktops. V3D streamlines the online analysis, measurement and proofreading of complicated image patterns by combining ergonomic functions for selecting a location in an image directly in 3D space and for displaying biological measurements, such as from fluorescent probes, using the overlaid surface objects. V3D runs on all major computer platforms and can be enhanced by software plug-ins to address specific biological problems. To demonstrate this extensibility, we built a V3Dbased application, V3D-Neuron, to reconstruct complex 3D neuronal structures from high-resolution brain images. V3D-Neuron can precisely digitize the morphology of a single neuron in a fruitfly brain in minutes, with about a 17-fold improvement in reliability and tenfold savings in time compared with other neuron reconstruction tools. Using V3D-Neuron, we demonstrate the feasibility of building a high-resolution 3D digital atlas of neurite tracts in the fruitfly brain. V3D can be easily extended using a simple-to-use and comprehensive plugin interface.

Peng, Hanchuan; Long, Fuhui

187

Low Complexity Mode Decision for 3D-HEVC  

PubMed Central

High efficiency video coding- (HEVC-) based 3D video coding (3D-HEVC) developed by joint collaborative team on 3D video coding (JCT-3V) for multiview video and depth map is an extension of HEVC standard. In the test model of 3D-HEVC, variable coding unit (CU) size decision and disparity estimation (DE) are introduced to achieve the highest coding efficiency with the cost of very high computational complexity. In this paper, a fast mode decision algorithm based on variable size CU and DE is proposed to reduce 3D-HEVC computational complexity. The basic idea of the method is to utilize the correlations between depth map and motion activity in prediction mode where variable size CU and DE are needed, and only in these regions variable size CU and DE are enabled. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can save about 43% average computational complexity of 3D-HEVC while maintaining almost the same rate-distortion (RD) performance. PMID:25254237

Li, Nana; Gan, Yong

2014-01-01

188

NAS Parallel Benchmarks Results 3-95  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NAS Parallel Benchmarks (NPB) were developed in 1991 at NASA Ames Research Center to study the performance of parallel supercomputers. The eight benchmark problems are specified in a "pencil and paper" fashion, i.e., the complete details of the problem are given in a NAS technical document. Except for a few restrictions, benchmark implementors are free to select the language constructs and implementation techniques best suited for a particular system. In this paper, we present new NPB performance results for the following systems: (a) Parallel-Vector Processors: CRAY C90, CRAY T90 and Fujitsu VPP500; (b) Highly Parallel Processors: CRAY T3D, IBM SP2-WN (Wide Nodes), and IBM SP2-TN2 (Thin Nodes 2); and (c) Symmetric Multiprocessors: Convex Exemplar SPPIOOO, CRAY J90, DEC Alpha Server 8400 5/300, and SGI Power Challenge XL (75 MHz). We also present sustained performance per dollar for Class B LU, SP and BT benchmarks. We also mention future NAS plans for the NPB.

Saini, Subhash; Bailey, David H.; Walter, Howard (Technical Monitor)

1995-01-01

189

Molecular phylogeny in 3-D.  

PubMed

Molecular phylogenetic trees are constructed in three dimensions relative to the distribution of MW and pl classes and immunocrossreactivity against polyclonal antibodies to lens crystallins, as well as multiple sequence alignment between amino acid sequences, coding nucleotide sequences and the gene nucleotide sequences for beta-globin. Euclidian distances are estimated to position species in x, y, z space by multidimensional scaling and merged with bootstrap-tested branching pattern of Fitch & Margoliash plots to obtain 3-D phylogenetic tree. Compared to single attributes, phylogenetic trees based on multiple parameters allow significant repositioning of rodents, chiroptera and primates. PMID:15119827

Milner, M; Bansode, A G; Lawrence, A L; Nevagi, S A; Patwardhan, V; Modak, S P

2004-07-01

190

3-D Electrostatic Field Simulation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet simulates the electric field and potential for various charge distributions, including point, line, dipole, spherical and other charges. There is also a simulation, with adjustable speed, of a charge moving close to the speed of light. The field can be displayed as a velocity or force field with particles following field lines, or as field or equipotential lines. The potential and fields can be displayed in 3-D or on a movable 2-D slice. The field strength and number of particles is adjustable, and the charge can be reversed. Source code and directions (also in German) are included.

Falstad, Paul

2004-07-13

191

Stability and electronic properties of 3D covalent organic frameworks.  

PubMed

Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) are a class of covalently linked crystalline nanoporous materials, versatile for nanoelectronic and storage applications. 3D COFs, in particular, have very large pores and low mass densities. Extensive theoretical studies of their energetic and mechanical stability, as well as their electronic properties, have been carried out for all known 3D COFs. COFs are energetically stable and their bulk modulus ranges from 3 to 20†GPa. Electronically, all COFs are semiconductors with band gaps corresponding to the HOMO-LUMO gaps of the building units. PMID:23212235

Lukose, Binit; Kuc, Agnieszka; Heine, Thomas

2013-05-01

192

NAS parallel benchmark results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NAS (Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation) parallel benchmarks have been developed at NASA Ames Research Center to study the performance of parallel supercomputers. The eight benchmark problems are specified in a 'pencil and paper' fashion. The performance results of various systems using the NAS parallel benchmarks are presented. These results represent the best results that have been reported to the authors for the specific systems listed. They represent implementation efforts performed by personnel in both the NAS Applied Research Branch of NASA Ames Research Center and in other organizations.

Bailey, D. H.; Barszcz, E.; Dagum, L.; Simon, H. D.

1992-01-01

193

Benchmarking expert system tools  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of its evaluation of new technologies, the Artificial Intelligence Section of the Mission Planning and Analysis Div. at NASA-Johnson has made timing tests of several expert system building tools. Among the production systems tested were Automated Reasoning Tool, several versions of OPS5, and CLIPS (C Language Integrated Production System), an expert system builder developed by the AI section. Also included in the test were a Zetalisp version of the benchmark along with four versions of the benchmark written in Knowledge Engineering Environment, an object oriented, frame based expert system tool. The benchmarks used for testing are studied.

Riley, Gary

1988-01-01

194

Benchmarking ENDF/B-VII.0  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new major release VII.0 of the ENDF/B nuclear data library has been tested extensively using benchmark calculations. These were based upon MCNP-4C3 continuous-energy Monte Carlo neutronics simulations, together with nuclear data processed using the code NJOY. Three types of benchmarks were used, viz., criticality safety benchmarks, (fusion) shielding benchmarks, and reference systems for which the effective delayed neutron fraction is reported. For criticality safety, more than 700 benchmarks from the International Handbook of Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments were used. Benchmarks from all categories were used, ranging from low-enriched uranium, compound fuel, thermal spectrum ones (LEU-COMP-THERM), to mixed uranium-plutonium, metallic fuel, fast spectrum ones (MIX-MET-FAST). For fusion shielding many benchmarks were based on IAEA specifications for the Oktavian experiments (for Al, Co, Cr, Cu, LiF, Mn, Mo, Si, Ti, W, Zr), Fusion Neutronics Source in Japan (for Be, C, N, O, Fe, Pb), and Pulsed Sphere experiments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (for 6Li, 7Li, Be, C, N, O, Mg, Al, Ti, Fe, Pb, D 2O, H 2O, concrete, polyethylene and teflon). For testing delayed neutron data more than thirty measurements in widely varying systems were used. Among these were measurements in the Tank Critical Assembly (TCA in Japan) and IPEN/MB-01 (Brazil), both with a thermal spectrum, and two cores in Masurca (France) and three cores in the Fast Critical Assembly (FCA, Japan), all with fast spectra. In criticality safety, many benchmarks were chosen from the category with a thermal spectrum, low-enriched uranium, compound fuel (LEU-COMP-THERM), because this is typical of most current-day reactors, and because these benchmarks were previously underpredicted by as much as 0.5% by most nuclear data libraries (such as ENDF/B-VI.8, JEFF-3.0). The calculated results presented here show that this underprediction is no longer there for ENDF/B-VII.0. The average over 257 benchmarks deviates only 0.017% from the measured benchmark value. Moreover, no clear trends (with e.g. enrichment, lattice pitch, or spectrum) have been observed. Also for fast spectrum benchmarks, both for intermediately or highly enriched uranium and for plutonium, clear improvements are apparent from the calculations. The results for bare assemblies have improved, as well as those with a depleted or natural uranium reflector. On the other hand, the results for plutonium solutions (PU-SOL-THERM) are still high, on average (over 120 benchmarks) roughly 0.6%. Furthermore there still is a bias for a range of benchmarks based on cores in the Zero Power Reactor (ANL) with sizable amounts of tungsten in them. The results for the fusion shielding benchmarks have not changed significantly, compared to ENDF/B-VI.8, for most materials. The delayed neutron testing shows that the values for both thermal and fast spectrum cases are now well predicted, which is an improvement when compared with ENDF/B-VI.8.

van der Marck, Steven C.

2006-12-01

195

3D Photography Project An Overview of 3D Photography and  

E-print Network

3D Photography Project An Overview of 3D Photography and The Computational Aspect of Triangle Mesh By Muhammed Santa for 3D photography class, Prof. Ioannis Stamos, CUNY,Fall2003 #12;Project Overview, following topics are covered : 3D Photography overview : 3D photography is the process of using cameras

Stamos, Ioannis

196

3D acoustic atmospheric tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a method for tomographically reconstructing spatially varying 3D atmospheric temperature profiles and wind velocity fields based. Measurements of the acoustic signature measured onboard a small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) are compared to ground-based observations of the same signals. The frequency-shifted signal variations are then used to estimate the acoustic propagation delay between the UAV and the ground microphones, which are also affected by atmospheric temperature and wind speed vectors along each sound ray path. The wind and temperature profiles are modelled as the weighted sum of Radial Basis Functions (RBFs), which also allow local meteorological measurements made at the UAV and ground receivers to supplement any acoustic observations. Tomography is used to provide a full 3D reconstruction/visualisation of the observed atmosphere. The technique offers observational mobility under direct user control and the capacity to monitor hazardous atmospheric environments, otherwise not justifiable on the basis of cost or risk. This paper summarises the tomographic technique and reports on the results of simulations and initial field trials. The technique has practical applications for atmospheric research, sound propagation studies, boundary layer meteorology, air pollution measurements, analysis of wind shear, and wind farm surveys.

Rogers, Kevin; Finn, Anthony

2014-10-01

197

3D printed bionic ears.  

PubMed

The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097

Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C

2013-06-12

198

Positional Awareness Map 3D (PAM3D)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Western Aeronautical Test Range of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Dryden Flight Research Center needed to address the aging software and hardware of its current situational awareness display application, the Global Real-Time Interactive Map (GRIM). GRIM was initially developed in the late 1980s and executes on older PC architectures using a Linux operating system that is no longer supported. Additionally, the software is difficult to maintain due to its complexity and loss of developer knowledge. It was decided that a replacement application must be developed or acquired in the near future. The replacement must provide the functionality of the original system, the ability to monitor test flight vehicles in real-time, and add improvements such as high resolution imagery and true 3-dimensional capability. This paper will discuss the process of determining the best approach to replace GRIM, and the functionality and capabilities of the first release of the Positional Awareness Map 3D.

Hoffman, Monica; Allen, Earl L.; Yount, John W.; Norcross, April Louise

2012-01-01

199

NIF Ignition Target 3D Point Design  

SciTech Connect

We have developed an input file for running 3D NIF hohlraums that is optimized such that it can be run in 1-2 days on parallel computers. We have incorporated increasing levels of automation into the 3D input file: (1) Configuration controlled input files; (2) Common file for 2D and 3D, different types of capsules (symcap, etc.); and (3) Can obtain target dimensions, laser pulse, and diagnostics settings automatically from NIF Campaign Management Tool. Using 3D Hydra calculations to investigate different problems: (1) Intrinsic 3D asymmetry; (2) Tolerance to nonideal 3D effects (e.g. laser power balance, pointing errors); and (3) Synthetic diagnostics.

Jones, O; Marinak, M; Milovich, J; Callahan, D

2008-11-05

200

LOTT RANCH 3D PROJECT  

SciTech Connect

The Lott Ranch 3D seismic prospect located in Garza County, Texas is a project initiated in September of 1991 by the J.M. Huber Corp., a petroleum exploration and production company. By today's standards the 126 square mile project does not seem monumental, however at the time it was conceived it was the most intensive land 3D project ever attempted. Acquisition began in September of 1991 utilizing GEO-SEISMIC, INC., a seismic data contractor. The field parameters were selected by J.M. Huber, and were of a radical design. The recording instruments used were GeoCor IV amplifiers designed by Geosystems Inc., which record the data in signed bit format. It would not have been practical, if not impossible, to have processed the entire raw volume with the tools available at that time. The end result was a dataset that was thought to have little utility due to difficulties in processing the field data. In 1997, Yates Energy Corp. located in Roswell, New Mexico, formed a partnership to further develop the project. Through discussions and meetings with Pinnacle Seismic, it was determined that the original Lott Ranch 3D volume could be vastly improved upon reprocessing. Pinnacle Seismic had shown the viability of improving field-summed signed bit data on smaller 2D and 3D projects. Yates contracted Pinnacle Seismic Ltd. to perform the reprocessing. This project was initiated with high resolution being a priority. Much of the potential resolution was lost through the initial summing of the field data. Modern computers that are now being utilized have tremendous speed and storage capacities that were cost prohibitive when this data was initially processed. Software updates and capabilities offer a variety of quality control and statics resolution, which are pertinent to the Lott Ranch project. The reprocessing effort was very successful. The resulting processed data-set was then interpreted using modern PC-based interpretation and mapping software. Production data, log data, and scout ticket data were integrated with the 3D interpretations to evaluate drilling opportunities resulting in an initial three well drilling program. Thousands of miles of signed bit data exist. Much of this data was processed during a time when software and hardware capabilities were either incapable or cost prohibitive to glean the full potential of the data. In fact in some circles signed bit gained an undeserved reputation for being less than optimum. As a consequence much of the older signed bit data sits on the shelf long forgotten or overlooked. With the high cost of new acquisition and permitting it might behoove other exploration companies to reconsider resurrecting perfectly viable existing volumes and have them reprocessed at a fraction of the cost of new acquisition.

Larry Lawrence; Bruce Miller

2004-09-01

201

A dimensional comparison between embedded 3D-printed and silicon microchannels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The subject of this paper is the dimensional characterization of embedded microchannel arrays created using contemporary 3D-printing fabrication techniques. Conventional microchannel arrays, fabricated using deep reactive ion etching techniques (DRIE) and wet-etching (KOH), are used as a benchmark for comparison. Rectangular and trapezoidal cross-sectional shapes were investigated. The channel arrays were 3D-printed in vertical and horizontal directions, to examine the influence of print orientation on channel characteristics. The 3D-printed channels were benchmarked against Silicon channels in terms of the following dimensional characteristics: cross-sectional area (CSA), perimeter, and surface profiles. The 3D-printed microchannel arrays demonstrated variances in CSA of 6.6-20% with the vertical printing approach yielding greater dimensional conformity than the horizontal approach. The measured CSA and perimeter of the vertical channels were smaller than the nominal dimensions, while the horizontal channels were larger in both CSA and perimeter due to additional side-wall roughness present throughout the channel length. This side-wall roughness caused significant shape distortion. Surface profile measurements revealed that the base wall roughness was approximately the resolution of current 3D-printers. A spatial periodicity was found along the channel length which appeared at different frequencies for each channel array. This paper concludes that vertical 3D-printing is superior to the horizontal printing approach, in terms of both dimensional fidelity and shape conformity and can be applied in microfluidic device applications.

O'Connor, J.; Punch, J.; Jeffers, N.; Stafford, J.

2014-07-01

202

3D J-Integral Capability in Grizzly  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes work done to develop a capability to evaluate fracture contour J-Integrals in 3D in the Grizzly code. In the current fiscal year, a previously-developed 2D implementation of a J-Integral evaluation capability has been extended to work in 3D, and to include terms due both to mechanically-induced strains and due to gradients in thermal strains. This capability has been verified against a benchmark solution on a model of a curved crack front in 3D. The thermal term in this integral has been verified against a benchmark problem with a thermal gradient. These developments are part of a larger effort to develop Grizzly as a tool that can be used to predict the evolution of aging processes in nuclear power plant systems, structures, and components, and assess their capacity after being subjected to those aging processes. The capabilities described here have been developed to enable evaluations of Mode- stress intensity factors on axis-aligned flaws in reactor pressure vessels. These can be compared with the fracture toughness of the material to determine whether a pre-existing flaw would begin to propagate during a pos- tulated pressurized thermal shock accident. This report includes a demonstration calculation to show how Grizzly is used to perform a deterministic assessment of such a flaw propagation in a degraded reactor pressure vessel under pressurized thermal shock conditions. The stress intensity is calculated from J, and the toughness is computed using the fracture master curve and the degraded ductile to brittle transition temperature.

Benjamin Spencer; Marie Backman; Pritam Chakraborty; William Hoffman

2014-09-01

203

Diagnostic Algorithm Benchmarking  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A poster for the NASA Aviation Safety Program Annual Technical Meeting. It describes empirical benchmarking on diagnostic algorithms using data from the ADAPT Electrical Power System testbed and a diagnostic software framework.

Poll, Scott

2011-01-01

204

3-D object-oriented image analysis of geophysical data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geophysical data are the main source of information about the subsurface. Geophysical techniques are, however, highly non-unique in determining specific physical parameters and boundaries of subsurface objects. To obtain actual physical information, an inversion process is often applied, in which measurements at or above the Earth surface are inverted into a 2- or 3-D subsurface spatial distribution of the physical property. Interpreting these models into structural objects, related to physical processes, requires a priori knowledge and expert analysis which is susceptible to subjective choices and is therefore often non-repeatable. In this research, we implemented a recently introduced object-based approach to interpret the 3-D inversion results of a single geophysical technique using the available a priori information and the physical and geometrical characteristics of the interpreted objects. The introduced methodology is semi-automatic and repeatable, and allows the extraction of subsurface structures using 3-D object-oriented image analysis (3-D OOA) in an objective knowledge-based classification scheme. The approach allows for a semi-objective setting of thresholds that can be tested and, if necessary, changed in a very fast and efficient way. These changes require only changing the thresholds used in a so-called ruleset, which is composed of algorithms that extract objects from a 3-D data cube. The approach is tested on a synthetic model, which is based on a priori knowledge on objects present in the study area (Tanzania). Object characteristics and thresholds were well defined in a 3-D histogram of velocity versus depth, and objects were fully retrieved. The real model results showed how 3-D OOA can deal with realistic 3-D subsurface conditions in which the boundaries become fuzzy, the object extensions become unclear and the model characteristics vary with depth due to the different physical conditions. As expected, the 3-D histogram of the real data was substantially more complex. Still, the 3-D OOA-derived objects were extracted based on their velocity and their depth location. Spatially defined boundaries, based on physical variations, can improve the modelling with spatially dependent parameter information. With 3-D OOA, the non-uniqueness on the location of objects and their physical properties can be potentially significantly reduced.

Fadel, I.; Kerle, N.; van der Meijde, M.

2014-07-01

205

Saving lives through early detection: Breaking the PET efficiency barrier with the 3D-CBS  

Microsoft Academic Search

An innovative 3-D Complete-Body-Scan (3D-CBS) medical imaging device, combining the benefits of functional imaging capability of the Positron Emission Tomography (PET) with anatomical imaging capability of the Computed Tomography (CT), is presented. The unique architecture of the 3D-CBS electronics allows for the extension, in a cost-effective manner, of the axial field of view (FOV, which is the length of the

Dario B. Crosetto

206

Toxicological Benchmarks for Wildlife  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecological risks of environmental contaminants are evaluated by using a two-tiered process. In the first tier, a screening assessment is performed where concentrations of contaminants in the environment are compared to no observed adverse effects level (NOAEL)-based toxicological benchmarks. These benchmarks represent concentrations of chemicals (i.e., concentrations presumed to be nonhazardous to the biota) in environmental media (water, sediment, soil,

B. E. Opresko; D. M. Suter

1993-01-01

207

Object operations benchmark  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performance is a major issue in the acceptance of object-oriented and relational database systems aimed at engineering applications such as computer-aided software engineering (CASE) and computer-aided design (CAD). Because traditional database systems benchmarks are inapproriate to measure performance for operations on engineering objects, we designed a new benchmark Object Operations version 1 (OO1) to focus on important characteristics of these

R. G. G. Cattell; J. Skeen

1992-01-01

208

Benchmarking a network storage service  

Microsoft Academic Search

Benchmarking a network file server introduces some unique considerations over traditional benchmarking scenarios. Since the user is executing on a client system interconnected to the file server, the client and network must be provided for during benchmarking. During a recent procurement action, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) was challenged to develop a benchmark suite that would accurately test the network requirements.

Suzanne M. Kelly; Rena A. Haynes; M. J. Ernest

1991-01-01

209

A view-sequential 3D display  

E-print Network

This thesis outlines the various techniques for creating electronic 3D displays and analyzes their commercial potential. The thesis argues for the use of view-sequential techniques in the design of 3D displays based on ...

Cossairt, Oliver S. (Oliver Strider), 1978-

2003-01-01

210

Part removal of 3D printed parts  

E-print Network

An experimental study was performed to understand the correlation between printing parameters in the FDM 3D printing process, and the force required to remove a part from the build platform of a 3D printing using a patent ...

PeŮa Doll, Mateo

2014-01-01

211

Standardized, object-oriented, 3D vision input system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Machine vision has been characterized by a lack of standards, which has resulted in the necessity for expensive customization of systems. Our objective is to investigate the development of a vision system which utilizes or establishes standards. To this end we chose to use laser triangulation, to incorporate television broadcast standards, and to implement the software in an object-oriented class library encapsulating the essential features of the major components of a vision system. A 3D color digitization system was conceived and implemented, based on existing standards, with the flexibility and extensibility provided by object-oriented software design. The system generated data in a standard 3D file format, and was used to digitize and create rendered images of a building. Although the construction of classes needed careful planning, once created they greatly facilitated system modification. Existing standards are suitable for use in a 3D vision system, but there are several limitations which are considered.

Tabor, John; Fahy, Michael

1993-05-01

212

Geological mapping goes 3-D in response to societal needs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The transition to 3-D mapping has been made possible by technological advances in digital cartography, GIS, data storage, analysis, and visualization. Despite various challenges, technological advancements facilitated a gradual transition from 2-D maps to 2.5-D draped maps to 3-D geological mapping, supported by digital spatial and relational databases that can be interrogated horizontally or vertically and viewed interactively. Challenges associated with data collection, human resources, and information management are daunting due to their resource and training requirements. The exchange of strategies at the workshops has highlighted the use of basin analysis to develop a process-based predictive knowledge framework that facilitates data integration. Three-dimensional geological information meets a public demand that fills in the blanks left by conventional 2-D mapping. Two-dimensional mapping will, however, remain the standard method for extensive areas of complex geology, particularly where deformed igneous and metamorphic rocks defy attempts at 3-D depiction.

Thorleifson, H.; Berg, R.C.; Russell, H.A.J.

2010-01-01

213

Conducting Polymer 3D Microelectrodes  

PubMed Central

Conducting polymer 3D microelectrodes have been fabricated for possible future neurological applications. A combination of micro-fabrication techniques and chemical polymerization methods has been used to create pillar electrodes in polyaniline and polypyrrole. The thin polymer films obtained showed uniformity and good adhesion to both horizontal and vertical surfaces. Electrodes in combination with metal/conducting polymer materials have been characterized by cyclic voltammetry and the presence of the conducting polymer film has shown to increase the electrochemical activity when compared with electrodes coated with only metal. An electrochemical characterization of gold/polypyrrole electrodes showed exceptional electrochemical behavior and activity. PC12 cells were finally cultured on the investigated materials as a preliminary biocompatibility assessment. These results show that the described electrodes are possibly suitable for future in-vitro neurological measurements. PMID:22163508

Sasso, Luigi; Vazquez, Patricia; Vedarethinam, Indumathi; Castillo-Leůn, Jaime; Emnťus, Jenny; Svendsen, Winnie E.

2010-01-01

214

3D Elastic Wavefield Tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wavefield tomography, or waveform inversion, aims to extract the maximum information from seismic data by matching trace by trace the response of the solid earth to seismic waves using numerical modelling tools. Its first formulation dates from the early 80's, when Albert Tarantola developed a solid theoretical basis that is still used today with little change. Due to computational limitations, the application of the method to 3D problems has been unaffordable until a few years ago, and then only under the acoustic approximation. Although acoustic wavefield tomography is widely used, a complete solution of the seismic inversion problem requires that we account properly for the physics of wave propagation, and so must include elastic effects. We have developed a 3D tomographic wavefield inversion code that incorporates the full elastic wave equation. The bottle neck of the different implementations is the forward modelling algorithm that generates the synthetic data to be compared with the field seismograms as well as the backpropagation of the residuals needed to form the direction update of the model parameters. Furthermore, one or two extra modelling runs are needed in order to calculate the step-length. Our approach uses a FD scheme explicit time-stepping by finite differences that are 4th order in space and 2nd order in time, which is a 3D version of the one developed by Jean Virieux in 1986. We chose the time domain because an explicit time scheme is much less demanding in terms of memory than its frequency domain analogue, although the discussion of wich domain is more efficient still remains open. We calculate the parameter gradients for Vp and Vs by correlating the normal and shear stress wavefields respectively. A straightforward application would lead to the storage of the wavefield at all grid points at each time-step. We tackled this problem using two different approaches. The first one makes better use of resources for small models of dimension equal or less than 300x300x300 nodes, and it under-samples the wavefield reducing the number of stored time-steps by an order of magnitude. For bigger models the wavefield is stored only at the boundaries of the model and then re-injected while the residuals are backpropagated allowing to compute the correlation 'on the fly'. In terms of computational resource, the elastic code is an order of magnitude more demanding than the equivalent acoustic code. We have combined shared memory with distributed memory parallelisation using OpenMP and MPI respectively. Thus, we take advantage of the increasingly common multi-core architecture processors. We have successfully applied our inversion algorithm to different realistic complex 3D models. The models had non-linear relations between pressure and shear wave velocities. The shorter wavelengths of the shear waves improve the resolution of the images obtained with respect to a purely acoustic approach.

Guasch, L.; Warner, M.; Stekl, I.; Umpleby, A.; Shah, N.

2010-12-01

215

The Princeton Shape Benchmark  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, many shape representations and geomet- ric algorithms have been proposed for matching 3D shapes. Usually, each algorithm is tested on a different (small) database of 3D models, and thus no direct comparison is available for competing methods. In this paper, we describe the Princeton Shape Bench- mark (PSB), a publicly available database of polygonal models collected from

Philip Shilane; Patrick Min; Michael M. Kazhdan; Thomas A. Funkhouser

2004-01-01

216

MODELOSHIDROGEOLOGICOS3D Integracin de la informacin  

E-print Network

MODELOSHIDROGEOLOGICOS3D Integraci√≥n de la informaci√≥n geol√≥gica 3D en modelos hidrogeol√≥gicos Xavier Almolda Cardona #12;MODELOSHIDROGEOLOGICOS3D √ćndice Motivaci√≥n Pasos modelaci√≥n Definici√≥n intercambio de datos Escenario concreto #12;MODELOSHIDROGEOLOGICOS3D Motivaci√≥n Mejor aprovechamiento de la

Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat

217

3-D Source & NWL Update Paul Wilson  

E-print Network

9/26/2006 3-D Source & NWL Update Paul Wilson #12;9/26/2006 Update on ARIES-CS 3-D Source and NWL 2 Fundamental Source Density Note: based on Data from J. Lyon (ORNL) #12;9/26/2006 Update on ARIES-CS 3-D Source on ARIES-CS 3-D Source and NWL 4 Peak source probability lower at 60o Toroidal Angle (=0o) Peak source

218

Embedded 3D printing of strain sensors within highly stretchable elastomers.  

PubMed

A new method, embedded-3D printing (e-3DP), is reported for fabricating strain sensors within highly conformal and extensible elastomeric matrices. e-3DP allows soft sensors to be created in nearly arbitrary planar and 3D motifs in a highly programmable and seamless manner. Several embodiments are demonstrated and sensor performance is characterized. PMID:24934143

Muth, Joseph T; Vogt, Daniel M; Truby, Ryan L; MengŁÁ, Yi?it; Kolesky, David B; Wood, Robert J; Lewis, Jennifer A

2014-09-01

219

3D Object Modeling - Issues and Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter provides an overview of 3D object modeling approaches. It begins by briefly describing the issues in 3D object modeling and their impact on the quality of the resulting model. Then it looks in depth on classical 3D object modeling techniques and what they involve. It discusses advantages and disadvantages and gives possible applications for each described method. The

Ana-Maria Cretu

220

Pathways for Learning from 3D Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to find out if 3D stereoscopic presentation of information in a movie format changes a viewer's experience of the movie content. Four possible pathways from 3D presentation to memory and learning were considered: a direct connection based on cognitive neuroscience research; a connection through "immersion" in that 3DÖ

Carrier, L. Mark; Rab, Saira S.; Rosen, Larry D.; Vasquez, Ludivina; Cheever, Nancy A.

2012-01-01

221

Watermarked 3-D Mesh Quality Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the problem of assessing distortions produced by watermarking 3D meshes. In particular, a new methodology for subjective evaluation of the quality of 3D objects is proposed and implemented. Two objective metrics derived from measures of surface roughness are then proposed and their efficiency to predict perceptual impact of 3D watermarking are assessed and compared with the state

Massimiliano Corsini; Elisa Drelie Gelasca; Touradj Ebrahimi; Mauro Barni

2007-01-01

222

3D Printing Prof. Hank Dietz  

E-print Network

3D Printing Prof. Hank Dietz TCMS, March 14, 2014 University of Kentucky Electrical & Computer #12;3D With Glue Layers of paper: printed with glue & cut Layers of powder: printed with glue Can also be printed in full color #12;3D Extrusion (RepRaps) FDM: Fused Deposition Modeling FFF: Fused

Dietz, Henry G. "Hank"

223

Consistent stylization of stereoscopic 3D images  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of stylization filters to photographs is common, Instagram being a popular recent example. These image manipulation applications work great for 2D images. However, stereoscopic 3D cameras are increasingly available to consumers (Nintendo 3DS, Fuji W3 3D, HTC Evo 3D). How will users apply these same stylizations to stereoscopic images?

Lesley Northam; Paul Asente; Craig S. Kaplan

2012-01-01

224

Optically augmented 3-D computer system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The system design of an optically augmented 3-D computer is presented and evaluated. The system under investigation combines the Hughes 3-D VLSI technology with free-space optoelectronic interconnection modules. The 3-D wafer stacks containing the processing capabilities of the system are assembled with the optoelectronic modules for global communication allowing fast and efficient data routing and\\/or sorting

Philippe J. Marchand; G. Yayla; O. Kibar; L. Hendrick; I. Cokgor; S. C. Esener; A. V. Krishnamoorthy; U. Efron

1994-01-01

225

Quantitative 3D Optical Imaging: Applications in Dosimetry and Biophysics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical-CT has been shown to be a potentially useful imaging tool for the two very different spheres of biologists and radiation therapy physicists, but it has yet to live up to that potential. In radiation therapy, researchers have used optical-CT for the readout of 3D dosimeters, but it is yet to be a clinically relevant tool as the technology is too slow to be considered practical. Biologists have used the technique for structural imaging, but have struggled with emission tomography as the reality of photon attenuation for both excitation and emission have made the images quantitatively irrelevant. Dosimetry. The DLOS (Duke Large field of view Optical-CT Scanner) was designed and constructed to make 3D dosimetry utilizing optical-CT a fast and practical tool while maintaining the accuracy of readout of the previous, slower readout technologies. Upon construction/optimization/implementation of several components including a diffuser, band pass filter, registration mount & fluid filtration system the dosimetry system provides high quality data comparable to or exceeding that of commercial products. In addition, a stray light correction algorithm was tested and implemented. The DLOS in combination with the 3D dosimeter it was designed for, PREAGETM, then underwent rigorous commissioning and benchmarking tests validating its performance against gold standard data including a set of 6 irradiations. DLOS commissioning tests resulted in sub-mm isotropic spatial resolution (MTF >0.5 for frequencies of 1.5lp/mm) and a dynamic range of ė60dB. Flood field uniformity was 10% and stable after 45minutes. Stray light proved to be small, due to telecentricity, but even the residual can be removed through deconvolution. Benchmarking tests showed the mean 3D passing gamma rate (3%, 3mm, 5% dose threshold) over the 6 benchmark data sets was 97.3% +/- 0.6% (range 96%-98%) scans totaling ė10 minutes, indicating excellent ability to perform 3D dosimetry while improving the speed of readout. Noise was low at ė2% for 2mm reconstructions. The DLOS/PRESAGERTM benchmark tests show consistently excellent performance, with very good agreement to simple known distributions. The telecentric design was critical to enabling fast (~15mins) imaging with minimal stray light artifacts. The system produces accurate isotropic 2mm3 dose data over clinical volumes (e.g. 16cm diameter phantoms, 12 cm height), and represents a uniquely useful and versatile new tool for commissioning complex radiotherapy techniques. The system also has wide versatility, and has successfully been used in preliminary tests with protons and with kV irradiations. Biology. Attenuation corrections for optical-emission-CT were done by modeling physical parameters in the imaging setup within the framework of an ordered subset expectation maximum (OSEM) iterative reconstruction algorithm. This process has a well documented history in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), but is inherently simpler due to the lack of excitation photons to account for. Excitation source strength distribution, excitation and emission attenuation were modeled. The accuracy of the correction was investigated by imaging phantoms containing known distributions of attenuation and fluorophores. The correction was validated on a manufactured phantom designed to give uniform emission in a central cuboidal region and later applied to a cleared mouse brain with GFP (green-fluorescentprotein) labeled vasculature and a cleared 4T1 xenograft flank tumor with constitutive RFP (red-fluorescent-protein). Reconstructions were compared to corresponding slices imaged with a fluorescent dissection microscope. Significant optical-ECT attenuation artifacts were observed in the uncorrected phantom images and appeared up to 80% less intense than the verification image in the central region. The corrected phantom images showed excellent agreement with the verification image with only slight variations. The corrected tissue sample reconstructions showed general agreement between the verification images. Comp

Thomas, Andrew Stephen

226

Supernova Remnant in 3-D  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for the movie

For the first time, a multiwavelength three-dimensional reconstruction of a supernova remnant has been created. This stunning visualization of Cassiopeia A, or Cas A, the result of an explosion approximately 330 years ago, uses data from several telescopes: X-ray data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, infrared data from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope and optical data from the National Optical Astronomy Observatory 4-meter telescope at Kitt Peak, Ariz., and the Michigan-Dartmouth-MIT 2.4-meter telescope, also at Kitt Peak. In this visualization, the green region is mostly iron observed in X-rays. The yellow region is a combination of argon and silicon seen in X-rays, optical, and infrared including jets of silicon plus outer debris seen in the optical. The red region is cold debris seen in the infrared. Finally, the blue reveals the outer blast wave, most prominently detected in X-rays.

Most of the material shown in this visualization is debris from the explosion that has been heated by a shock moving inwards. The red material interior to the yellow/orange ring has not yet encountered the inward moving shock and so has not yet been heated. These unshocked debris were known to exist because they absorb background radio light, but they were only recently discovered in infrared emission with Spitzer. The blue region is composed of gas surrounding the explosion that was heated when it was struck by the outgoing blast wave, as clearly seen in Chandra images.

To create this visualization, scientists took advantage of both a previously known phenomenon the Doppler effect and a new technology that bridges astronomy and medicine. When elements created inside a supernova, such as iron, silicon and argon, are heated they emit light at certain wavelengths. Material moving towards the observer will have shorter wavelengths and material moving away will have longer wavelengths. Since the amount of the wavelength shift is related to the speed of motion, one can determine how fast the debris are moving in either direction. Because Cas A is the result of an explosion, the stellar debris is expanding radially outwards from the explosion center. Using simple geometry, the scientists were able to construct a 3-D model using all of this information. A program called 3-D Slicer modified for astronomical use by the Astronomical Medicine Project at Harvard University in Cambridge, Mass. was used to display and manipulate the 3-D model. Commercial software was then used to create the 3-D fly-through.

The blue filaments defining the blast wave were not mapped using the Doppler effect because they emit a different kind of light synchrotron radiation that does not emit light at discrete wavelengths, but rather in a broad continuum. The blue filaments are only a representation of the actual filaments observed at the blast wave.

This visualization shows that there are two main components to this supernova remnant: a spherical component in the outer parts of the remnant and a flattened (disk-like) component in the inner region. The spherical component consists of the outer layer of the star that exploded, probably made of helium and carbon. These layers drove a spherical blast wave into the diffuse gas surrounding the star. The flattened component that astronomers were unable to map into 3-D prior to these Spitzer observations consists of the inner layers of the star. It is made from various heavier elements, not all shown in the visualization, such as oxygen, neon, silicon, sulphur, argon and iron.

High-velocity plumes, or jets, of this material are shooting out from the explosion in the plane of the disk-like component mentioned above. Plumes of silicon appear in the northeast and southwest, while those of iron are seen in the southeast and north. These jets were already known and Doppler velocity measurements have been made for these structures, but their orientation and position with resp

2009-01-01

227

3-D Visualization for Civil Engineering Undergraduate Learning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Civil engineering analysis and modeling frequently reduces 3-D land features and structures to 2-D representations on such media as paper and overhead projection systems. Students often have trouble understanding the 3-D aspect of civil engineering problems because of the limitations of conventional 2-D representations. Many students find it difficult to understand how landforms from a topographic survey will impact a construction project, where a watershed is located, how beams and columns are connected in a building frame, what work will need to be done to excavate a foundation, or how to lay out a roadway. With the advent of new computer technologies, it is possible to take numerical 3-D data and render virtual computer models that are presented in 3-D, enhancing the learning experience in relation to both analysis and design in the civil engineering curriculum [1]. To this end, the College of Engineering at Valparaiso University has established the Scientific Visualization Laboratory to improve the learning experience for students for 3-D concepts that are hard to represent in conventional 2-D space [2-4]. Examples include electromagnetic fields, complex organic molecules, microelectronic circuit fabrications, force vectors, moving machines and their individual parts, terrain models, buildings, and bridges. Furthermore, the time dimension can be incorporated to create a 4-D model that can show the change over time of a 3-D model due to motion, loading, modifications, deterioration, and environmental effects. This paper describes our extension to the existing work done by the Scientific Visualization Laboratory to improve teaching methods in civil engineering by utilizing the 3-D displays of virtual reality hardware.

Leitch, Kenneth R.; Martin, Kristine E.; Will, Jeffrey D.

2009-11-04

228

Key technologies for an advanced 3D TV system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes recent advances in a number of R&D areas that are believed to provide 'key technologies' for the further development of a novel, digital, broadcast 3D-TV system. The provided results are part of the outcome of the European IST project ATTEST (Advanced Three-Dimensional Television System Technologies), a two-year research initiative that was finalized in March 2004. The paper covers some essential parts of the envisaged 3D signal processing chain such as the real-time generation of "virtual" stereoscopic views from monoscopic color video and associated per-pixel depth information as well as the efficient compression and the backwards-compatible transmission of this advanced data representation format using state-of-the-art video coding standards such as MPEG-2 (color data) and MPEG-4 Visual, resp. Advanced Video Coding (depth data). Furthermore, the paper also describes the development of a new, single-user autostereoscopic 3D-TV display (Free2C). This novel, high-quality 3D device utilizes a lenticular lens raster to separate two individual perspective views, which are presented simultaneously on an underlying LC panel. To provide the user with a satisfying 3D reproduction within a sufficiently large viewing area - a major problem for many state-of-the-art autostereoscopic 3D displays - the lenticular is constantly readjusted according to the viewer's actual head position, which is measured by a highly accurate, video-based tracking system. This approach allows for a variation of the viewing distance within a range of 400 mm to 1100 mm as well as horizontal head movements within a range of about +/-30į. The feasibility of the new 3D-TV concept is proved through extensive human factors evaluations of the before-described algorithms and components.

Fehn, Christoph; Hopf, Klaus; Quante, Birgit

2004-10-01

229

RELAP5-3D Code Application for RBMK-1500 Reactor Core Analysis  

SciTech Connect

The paper presents an evaluation of RELAP5-3D code suitability to model specific transients that take place during RBMK-1500 reactor operation, where the neutronic response of the core is important. A successful best estimate RELAP5-3D model of the Ignalina NPP RBMK-1500 reactor has been developed and validated against real plant data. Certain RELAP5-3D transient calculation results were benchmarked against calculation results obtained using the Russian code STEPAN, specially designed for RBMK reactor analysis. Comparison of the results obtained, using the RELAP5-3D and STEPAN codes, showed quite good mutual coincidence of the calculation results and good agreement with real plant data. (authors)

Bubelis, Evaldas; Kaliatka, Algirdas; Uspuras, Eugenijus [Lithuanian Energy Institute, Breslaujos str. 3, LT-44403 Kaunas (Lithuania)

2002-07-01

230

Extra Dimensions: 3D and Time in PDF Documentation  

SciTech Connect

Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide, non-technical audience. We discuss how the field of radiation imaging could benefit from incorporating full 3D information about not only the detectors, but also the results of the experimental analyses, in its electronic publications. In this article, we present examples drawn from high-energy physics, mathematics and molecular biology which take advantage of this functionality. We demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input.

Graf, N.A.; /SLAC

2012-04-11

231

Implementation of 3D Optical Scanning Technology for Automotive Applications  

PubMed Central

Reverse engineering (RE) is a powerful tool for generating a CAD model from the 3D scan data of a physical part that lacks documentation or has changed from the original CAD design of the part. The process of digitizing a part and creating a CAD model from 3D scan data is less time consuming and provides greater accuracy than manually measuring the part and designing the part from scratch in CAD. 3D optical scanning technology is one of the measurement methods which have evolved over the last few years and it is used in a wide range of areas from industrial applications to art and cultural heritage. It is also used extensively in the automotive industry for applications such as part inspections, scanning of tools without CAD definition, scanning the casting for definition of the stock (i.e. the amount of material to be removed from the surface of the castings) model for CAM programs and reverse engineering. In this study two scanning experiments of automotive applications are illustrated. The first one examines the processes from scanning to re-manufacturing the damaged sheet metal cutting die, using a 3D scanning technique and the second study compares the scanned point clouds data to 3D CAD data for inspection purposes. Furthermore, the deviations of the part holes are determined by using different lenses and scanning parameters. PMID:22573995

Ku?, Abdil

2009-01-01

232

Comparative analysis of video processing and 3D rendering for cloud video games using different virtualization technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a comprehensive empirical performance evaluation of 3D video processing employing the physical/virtual architecture implemented in a cloud environment. Different virtualization technologies, virtual video cards and various 3D benchmarks tools have been utilized in order to analyse the optimal performance in the context of 3D online gaming applications. This study highlights 3D video rendering performance under each type of hypervisors, and other factors including network I/O, disk I/O and memory usage. Comparisons of these factors under well-known virtual display technologies such as VNC, Spice and Virtual 3D adaptors reveal the strengths and weaknesses of the various hypervisors with respect to 3D video rendering and streaming.

Bada, Adedayo; Alcaraz-Calero, Jose M.; Wang, Qi; Grecos, Christos

2014-05-01

233

RELAP5-3D code validation in the neutron-dynamic analysis of transient processes taking place in RBMK-1500 reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents an evaluation of RELAP5-3D code suitability to model-specific transients that take place during RBMK-1500 reactor operation, where the neutronic response of the core is important. Certain RELAP5-3D transient calculation results were benchmarked against calculation results obtained using the Russian complex neutronic-thermal-hydraulic code STEPAN\\/KOBRA, specially designed for RBMK reactor analysis. Comparison of the results obtained, using the RELAP5-3D

E. Uspuras; E. Bubelis

2003-01-01

234

ALE3D Rolling Simulations  

SciTech Connect

Hot rolling is a problem involving large deformations during the process of turning an ingot into a thin sheet. As a result of the large deformations inherent in the process, significant amounts of energy are put into the ingot mechanically, most of which results in heat generation. Therefore, in order to predict the results of rolling both the mechanical and the thermal factors must accurately represent the real conditions. The factors which must be properly tuned include interface friction, mass scaling to decrease computation times, heat transfer at the interface, convective heat transfer from the ingot, and convective heat transfer from the roll. Since these parameters are generally not measurable the correct values must be derived by tuning the parameters so that solutions match some other measurable result. The interface friction will be tuned using an ALE3D input deck which has been set up to output the torque applied to the roll during the pass. The friction coefficient will be adjusted so that the computed torque matches the measured value. The various heat transfer coefficients are dependent on each other, and are tuned based on measured roll surface temperatures, ingot exit temperatures, and the energy input through the mechanical deformation of the ingot. The heat transfer coefficient at the interface has been found to be approximately 1.25 x 10{sup 5} W/m{sup 2}K, based on estimates of how much heat can be taken from the roll surface by coolant and matching a roll surface temperature. The convection coefficient on the ingot surface has been assumed to be 100 W/m{sup 2}K, on the high end for convection to air. However, this convection coefficient is low enough that the ingot should cool uniformly through its thickness as it would with a lower convection coefficient. Also necessary in accurate modeling is a good description of material behavior. In order to aid the development of an accurate material model an ALE3D input deck which simulates compression tests with temperature gradients has been developed. The model output engineering stress-strain curves which can be compared to the experimentally collected data. Also, comparisons of the deformed shapes can be made. The model has been tuned using MTS parameters for AA 5182 and will be ready for use when parameters for AA 2024 are experimentally developed. Currently, more work is needed to properly tune all the model parameters. A parameterized three dimensional geometry and mesh has been created so that once the parameters are tuned the transition to three dimensional simulations should be quick.

Riordan, T

2006-07-27

235

RELAP5-3D User Problems  

SciTech Connect

The Reactor Excursion and Leak Analysis Program with 3D capability1 (RELAP5-3D) is a reactor system analysis code that has been developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). The 3D capability in RELAP5-3D includes 3D hydrodynamics2 and 3D neutron kinetics3,4. Assessment, verification, and validation of the 3D capability in RELAP5-3D is discussed in the literature5,6,7,8,9,10. Additional assessment, verification, and validation of the 3D capability of RELAP5-3D will be presented in other papers in this users seminar. As with any software, user problems occur. User problems usually fall into the categories of input processing failure, code execution failure, restart/renodalization failure, unphysical result, and installation. This presentation will discuss some of the more generic user problems that have been reported on RELAP5-3D as well as their resolution.

Riemke, Richard Allan

2002-09-01

236

RELAP5-3D User Problems  

SciTech Connect

The Reactor Excursion and Leak Analysis Program with 3D capability1 (RELAP5-3D) is a reactor system analysis code that has been developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). The 3D capability in RELAP5-3D includes 3D hydrodynamics2 and 3D neutron kinetics3,4. Assessment, verification, and validation of the 3D capability in RELAP5-3D is discussed in the literature5,6,7,8,9. Additional assessment, verification, and validation of the 3D capability of RELAP5-3D will be presented in other papers in this users seminar. As with any software, user problems occur. User problems usually fall into the categories of input processing failure, code execution failure, restart/renodalization failure, unphysical result, and installation. This presentation will discuss some of the more generic user problems that have been reported on RELAP5-3D as well as their resolution.

Riemke, Richard Allan

2001-09-01

237

Case study: Beauty and the Beast 3D: benefits of 3D viewing for 2D to 3D conversion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From the earliest stages of the Beauty and the Beast 3D conversion project, the advantages of accurate desk-side 3D viewing was evident. While designing and testing the 2D to 3D conversion process, the engineering team at Walt Disney Animation Studios proposed a 3D viewing configuration that not only allowed artists to "compose" stereoscopic 3D but also improved efficiency by allowing artists to instantly detect which image features were essential to the stereoscopic appeal of a shot and which features had minimal or even negative impact. At a time when few commercial 3D monitors were available and few software packages provided 3D desk-side output, the team designed their own prototype devices and collaborated with vendors to create a "3D composing" workstation. This paper outlines the display technologies explored, final choices made for Beauty and the Beast 3D, wish-lists for future development and a few rules of thumb for composing compelling 2D to 3D conversions.

Handy Turner, Tara

2010-02-01

238

3D ultrafast laser scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser scanners are essential for scientific research, manufacturing, defense, and medical practice. Unfortunately, often times the speed of conventional laser scanners (e.g., galvanometric mirrors and acousto-optic deflectors) falls short for many applications, resulting in motion blur and failure to capture fast transient information. Here, we present a novel type of laser scanner that offers roughly three orders of magnitude higher scan rates than conventional methods. Our laser scanner, which we refer to as the hybrid dispersion laser scanner, performs inertia-free laser scanning by dispersing a train of broadband pulses both temporally and spatially. More specifically, each broadband pulse is temporally processed by time stretch dispersive Fourier transform and further dispersed into space by one or more diffractive elements such as prisms and gratings. As a proof-of-principle demonstration, we perform 1D line scans at a record high scan rate of 91 MHz and 2D raster scans and 3D volumetric scans at an unprecedented scan rate of 105 kHz. The method holds promise for a broad range of scientific, industrial, and biomedical applications. To show the utility of our method, we demonstrate imaging, nanometer-resolved surface vibrometry, and high-precision flow cytometry with real-time throughput that conventional laser scanners cannot offer due to their low scan rates.

Mahjoubfar, A.; Goda, K.; Wang, C.; Fard, A.; Adam, J.; Gossett, D. R.; Ayazi, A.; Sollier, E.; Malik, O.; Chen, E.; Liu, Y.; Brown, R.; Sarkhosh, N.; Di Carlo, D.; Jalali, B.

2013-03-01

239

3D Velocity from 3D Doppler Radial Velocity J. L. Barron,1  

E-print Network

to compute local 3D velocity (local 3D optical flow). Radial velocity (measured by the Doppler effect3D Velocity from 3D Doppler Radial Velocity J. L. Barron,1 R. E. Mercer,1 X. Chen,1 P. Joe2 1 by a Doppler radar. We demonstrate the perfor- mance of our algorithms quantitatively on synthetic radial

Barron, John

240

The FTIO Benchmark  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We introduce a new benchmark for measuring the performance of parallel input/ouput. This benchmark has flexible initialization. size. and scaling properties that allows it to satisfy seven criteria for practical parallel I/O benchmarks. We obtained performance results while running on the a SGI Origin2OOO computer with various numbers of processors: with 4 processors. the performance was 68.9 Mflop/s with 0.52 of the time spent on I/O, with 8 processors the performance was 139.3 Mflop/s with 0.50 of the time spent on I/O, with 16 processors the performance was 173.6 Mflop/s with 0.43 of the time spent on I/O. and with 32 processors the performance was 259.1 Mflop/s with 0.47 of the time spent on I/O.

Fagerstrom, Frederick C.; Kuszmaul, Christopher L.; Woo, Alex C. (Technical Monitor)

1999-01-01

241

Accelerated randomized benchmarking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum information processing offers promising advances for a wide range of fields and applications, provided that we can efficiently assess the performance of the control applied in candidate systems. That is, we must be able to determine whether we have implemented a desired gate, and refine accordingly. Randomized benchmarking reduces the difficulty of this task by exploiting symmetries in quantum operations. Here, we bound the resources required for benchmarking and show that, with prior information, we can achieve several orders of magnitude better accuracy than in traditional approaches to benchmarking. Moreover, by building on state-of-the-art classical algorithms, we reach these accuracies with near-optimal resources. Our approach requires an order of magnitude less data to achieve the same accuracies and to provide online estimates of the errors in the reported fidelities. We also show that our approach is useful for physical devices by comparing to simulations.

Granade, Christopher; Ferrie, Christopher; Cory, D. G.

2015-01-01

242

3D direct laser writing using a 405??nm diode laser.  

PubMed

Three-dimensional (3D) direct laser writing commonly uses near-infrared femtosecond laser pulses. Here, we use a quasi-cw blue diode laser at a 405†nm wavelength. As prerequisite, we identify photoresist systems that unambiguously show nonlinear multiphoton polymerization at this excitation wavelength. Next, we obtain a diffraction-limited focus with a high-numerical-aperture objective lens (NA=1.4), which is crucial to actually benefit from the wavelength advantage. To evaluate the anticipated reduced linewidths and improved resolution, we fabricate and characterize 2D and 3D benchmark structures. Finally, we also demonstrate dip-in direct laser writing with our setup. PMID:25503012

Mueller, Patrick; Thiel, Michael; Wegener, Martin

2014-12-15

243

Can 3D Point Clouds Replace GCPs?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past decade, large-scale photogrammetric products have been extensively used for the geometric documentation of cultural heritage monuments, as they combine metric information with the qualities of an image document. Additionally, the rising technology of terrestrial laser scanning has enabled the easier and faster production of accurate digital surface models (DSM), which have in turn contributed to the documentation of heavily textured monuments. However, due to the required accuracy of control points, the photogrammetric methods are always applied in combination with surveying measurements and hence are dependent on them. Along this line of thought, this paper explores the possibility of limiting the surveying measurements and the field work necessary for the production of large-scale photogrammetric products and proposes an alternative method on the basis of which the necessary control points instead of being measured with surveying procedures are chosen from a dense and accurate point cloud. Using this point cloud also as a surface model, the only field work necessary is the scanning of the object and image acquisition, which need not be subject to strict planning. To evaluate the proposed method an algorithm and the complementary interface were produced that allow the parallel manipulation of 3D point clouds and images and through which single image procedures take place. The paper concludes by presenting the results of a case study in the ancient temple of Hephaestus in Athens and by providing a set of guidelines for implementing effectively the method.

Stavropoulou, G.; Tzovla, G.; Georgopoulos, A.

2014-05-01

244

Benchmarking the Urology Practice  

PubMed Central

The medical practice today is relentlessly challenged by medical progress, by rising costs, and by the mounting pressures of the managed care environment. It should be the approach of every medical practice manager and practitioner to seek out and measure up to the best standards so as to optimize patient care and business outcomes. This requires the resolute pursuit of good models, brought about by the fostering of key collaborative relationships that are both practical and strategic. Integral to this process is benchmarking: the way by which information is obtained from both internal and external sources to determine and set the standards for performance. Benchmarking is an invaluable strategic tool. PMID:19107215

Brower, Paul A.

2008-01-01

245

tomo3d: a new 3-D joint refraction and reflection travel-time tomography code for active-source seismic data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the development state of tomo3d, a code for three-dimensional refraction and reflection travel-time tomography of wide-angle seismic data based on the previous two-dimensional version of the code, tomo2d. The core of both forward and inverse problems is inherited from the 2-D version. The ray tracing is performed by a hybrid method combining the graph and bending methods. The graph method finds an ordered array of discrete model nodes, which satisfies Fermat's principle, that is, whose corresponding travel time is a global minimum within the space of discrete nodal connections. The bending method is then applied to produce a more accurate ray path by using the nodes as support points for an interpolation with beta-splines. Travel time tomography is formulated as an iterative linearized inversion, and each step is solved using an LSQR algorithm. In order to avoid the singularity of the sensitivity kernel and to reduce the instability of inversion, regularization parameters are introduced in the inversion in the form of smoothing and damping constraints. Velocity models are built as 3-D meshes, and velocity values at intermediate locations are obtained by trilinear interpolation within the corresponding pseudo-cubic cell. Meshes are sheared to account for topographic relief. A floating reflector is represented by a 2-D grid, and depths at intermediate locations are calculated by bilinear interpolation within the corresponding square cell. The trade-off between the resolution of the final model and the associated computational cost is controlled by the relation between the selected forward star for the graph method (i.e. the number of nodes that each node considers as its neighbors) and the refinement of the velocity mesh. Including reflected phases is advantageous because it provides a better coverage and allows us to define the geometry of those geological interfaces with velocity contrasts sharp enough to be observed on record sections. The code also offers the possibility of including water-layer multiples in the modeling, whenever this phase can be followed to greater offsets than the primary phases. This increases the quantity of useful information in the data and yields more extensive and better constrained velocity and geometry models. We will present results from benchmark tests for forward and inverse problems, as well as synthetic tests comparing an inversion with refractions only and another one with both refractions and reflections.

Melťndez, A.; Korenaga, J.; SallarŤs, V.; Ranero, C. R.

2012-04-01

246

FastScript3D - A Companion to Java 3D  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

FastScript3D is a computer program, written in the Java 3D(TM) programming language, that establishes an alternative language that helps users who lack expertise in Java 3D to use Java 3D for constructing three-dimensional (3D)-appearing graphics. The FastScript3D language provides a set of simple, intuitive, one-line text-string commands for creating, controlling, and animating 3D models. The first word in a string is the name of a command; the rest of the string contains the data arguments for the command. The commands can also be used as an aid to learning Java 3D. Developers can extend the language by adding custom text-string commands. The commands can define new 3D objects or load representations of 3D objects from files in formats compatible with such other software systems as X3D. The text strings can be easily integrated into other languages. FastScript3D facilitates communication between scripting languages [which enable programming of hyper-text markup language (HTML) documents to interact with users] and Java 3D. The FastScript3D language can be extended and customized on both the scripting side and the Java 3D side.

Koenig, Patti

2005-01-01

247

Nonlinear Dynamics of the 3D Pendulum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 3D pendulum consists of a rigid body, supported at a fixed pivot, with three rotational degrees of freedom. The pendulum is acted on by a gravitational force. 3D pendulum dynamics have been much studied in integrable cases that arise when certain physical symmetry assumptions are made. This paper treats the non-integrable case of the 3D pendulum dynamics when the rigid body is asymmetric and the center of mass is distinct from the pivot location. 3D pendulum full and reduced models are introduced and used to study important features of the nonlinear dynamics: conserved quantities, equilibria, relative equilibria, invariant manifolds, local dynamics, and presence of chaotic motions. The paper provides a unified treatment of the 3D pendulum dynamics that includes prior results and new results expressed in the framework of geometric mechanics. These results demonstrate the rich and complex dynamics of the 3D pendulum.

Chaturvedi, Nalin A.; Lee, Taeyoung; Leok, Melvin; McClamroch, N. Harris

2011-02-01

248

ATR for 3D medical imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a novel concept of Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) for 3D medical imaging. Such 3D imaging can be obtained from X-ray Computerized Tomography (CT), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Positron Emission Tomography (PET), Ultrasonography (USG), functional MRI, and others. In the case of CT, such 3D imaging can be derived from 3D-mapping of X-ray linear attenuation coefficients, related to 3D Fourier transform of Radon transform, starting from frame segmentation (or contour definition) into an object and background. Then, 3D template matching is provided, based on inertial tensor invariants, adopted from rigid body mechanics, by comparing the mammographic data base with a real object of interest, such as a malignant breast tumor. The method is more general than CAD breast mammography.

Jannson, Tomasz; Kostrzewski, Andrew; Paki Amouzou, P.

2007-09-01

249

Cookoff Response of PBXN-109: Material Characterization and ALE3D Thermal Predictions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Materials properties measurements are made for the RDX-based explosive, PBXN-109, and initial ALE3D model predictions are given for the cookoff temperature in a U.S. Navy test. This work is part of an effort in the U.S. Navy and Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories to understand the thermal explosion behavior of this material. Benchmark cookoff experiments are being performed by the

M A McClelland; T D Tran; B J Cunningham; R K Weese; J L Maienschein

2001-01-01

250

Cookoff response of PBXN-109: material characterization and ALE3D model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Materials properties measurements are made for the RDX-based explosive, PBXN-109, and an initial ALE3D model for cookoff is discussed. A significant effort is underway in the U.S. Navy and Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories to understand the thermal explosion behavior of this material. Benchmark cookoff experiments are being performed by the U.S. Navy to validate DOE materials models and computer

M A McClelland; T D Tran; B J Cunningham; R K Weese; J L Maienschein

2000-01-01

251

Performance of different vector potential formulations in solving multiply connected 3-D eddy current problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors describe their numerical experiences in applying FEM (finite-element method) solution techniques to a 3-D (three-dimensional) eddy-current problem with a coil-driven multiply connected conductor, the benchmark problem No.7 of the International TEAM Workshops. Several formulations have been tried using a magnetic vector and electric scalar potential or an electric vector and a magnetic scalar in the conductor and a

O. Biro; K. Preis; W. Renhart; K. R. Richter; G. Vrisk

1990-01-01

252

BIK-BUS: Biologically Motivated 3D Keypoint based on Bottom-Up Saliency.  

PubMed

One of the major problems found when developing a 3D recognition system involves the choice of keypoint detector and descriptor. To help solve this problem, we present a new method for the detection of 3D keypoints on point clouds and we perform benchmarking between each pair of 3D keypoint detector and 3D descriptor to evaluate their performance on object and category recognition. These evaluations are done in a public database of real 3D objects. Our keypoint detector is inspired by the behavior and neural architecture of the primate visual system. The 3D keypoints are extracted based on a bottomup 3D saliency map, that is, a map that encodes the saliency of objects in the visual environment. The saliency map is determined by computing conspicuity maps (a combination across different modalities) of the orientation, intensity and color information in a bottom-up and in a purely stimulus-driven manner. These three conspicuity maps are fused into a 3D saliency map and, finally, the focus of attention (or "keypoint location") is sequentially directed to the most salient points in this map. Inhibiting this location automatically allows the system to attend to the next most salient location. The main conclusions are: with a similar average number of keypoints, our 3D keypoint detector outperforms the other eight 3D keypoint detectors evaluated by achiving the best result in 32 of the evaluated metrics in the category and object recognition experiments, when the second best detector only obtained the best result in 8 of these metrics. The unique drawback is the computational time, since BIKBUS is slower than the other detectors. Given that there are big differences in terms of recognition performance, size and time requirements, the selection of the keypoint detector and descriptor has to be matched to the desired task and we give some directions to facilitate this choice. PMID:25420258

Filipe, Silvio; Itti, Laurent; Alexandre, Luis

2014-11-20

253

Rubber Impact on 3D Textile Composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

A low velocity impact study of aircraft tire rubber on 3D textile-reinforced composite plates was performed experimentally\\u000a and numerically. In contrast to regular unidirectional composite laminates, no delaminations occur in such a 3D textile composite.\\u000a Yarn decohesions, matrix cracks and yarn ruptures have been identified as the major damage mechanisms under impact load. An\\u000a increase in the number of 3D

Sebastian Heimbs; BjŲrn Van Den Broucke; Yann Duplessis Kergomard; Frederic Dau; Benoit Malherbe

2011-01-01

254

Freehand 3D Ultrasound Calibration: A Review  

E-print Network

) ultrasound imaging is a medical imaging modality that allows the clin- ician to obtain a 3D modelFreehand 3D Ultrasound Calibration: A Review P-W. Hsu, R. W. Prager A. H. Gee and G. M. Treece CUEDPZ United Kingdom Email: pwh24@cam.ac.uk, rwp/ahg/gmt11 @eng.cam.ac.uk #12;Freehand 3D Ultrasound

Drummond, Tom

255

3-D Perspective Pasadena, California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This perspective view shows the western part of the city of Pasadena, California, looking north towards the San Gabriel Mountains. Portions of the cities of Altadena and La Canada, Flintridge are also shown. The image was created from three datasets: the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) supplied the elevation data; Landsat data from November 11, 1986 provided the land surface color (not the sky) and U.S. Geological Survey digital aerial photography provides the image detail. The Rose Bowl, surrounded by a golf course, is the circular feature at the bottom center of the image. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory is the cluster of large buildings north of the Rose Bowl at the base of the mountains. A large landfill, Scholl Canyon, is the smooth area in the lower left corner of the scene. This image shows the power of combining data from different sources to create planning tools to study problems that affect large urban areas. In addition to the well-known earthquake hazards, Southern California is affected by a natural cycle of fire and mudflows. Wildfires strip the mountains of vegetation, increasing the hazards from flooding and mudflows for several years afterwards. Data such as shown on this image can be used to predict both how wildfires will spread over the terrain and also how mudflows will be channeled down the canyons. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission was designed to collect three dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI) space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC. Size: 5.8 km (3.6 miles) x 10 km (6.2 miles) Location: 34.16 deg. North lat., 118.16 deg. West lon. Orientation: Looking North Original Data Resolution: SRTM, 30 meters; Landsat,30 meters; Aerial Photo, 3 meters (no vertical exaggeration)

2000-01-01

256

Benchmarks: WICHE Region 2012  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Benchmarks: WICHE Region 2012 presents information on the West's progress in improving access to, success in, and financing of higher education. The information is updated annually to monitor change over time and encourage its use as a tool for informed discussion in policy and education communities. To establish a general context for theÖ

Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2013

2013-01-01

257

Benchmark Comparisons August 2006  

E-print Network

administered oversamples are not included. Mean The mean is the weighted arithmetic average of student level Comparisons Report Class Mean a Sig b Effect Size c Mean a Sig b Effect Size c Mean a Sig b Effect Size c Benchmark Mean Comparisons NSSE 2006 51.9 NSSEville State compared with: 54.3 Mean a NSSEville State Level

Rainforth, Emma C.

258

Bryce Canyon Benchmark  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A USGS elevation benchmark in Bryce Canyon National Park. Bryce Canyon is a unique sandstone formation in southern Utah. It is home to a large number of hoodoos, which are oddly shaped pillars of rock that formed due to different erosion rates for the dolomite that caps them and the sandstone that ...

259

Cast Bronze Benchmark  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Benchmarks can be divided into two general groups: the "vertical control points" are points that mark a very precise elevation above the standard datum plane (usually referred to as elevation above sea level) and the "horizontal control points" are points with precisely established latitude and long...

2009-07-22

260

Surveys and Benchmarks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveys and benchmarks continue to grow in importance for community colleges in response to several factors. One is the press for accountability, that is, for colleges to report the outcomes of their programs and services to demonstrate their quality and prudent use of resources, primarily to external constituents and governing boards at the stateÖ

Bers, Trudy

2012-01-01

261

Benchmarks Momentum on Increase  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

No longer content with the patchwork quilt of assessments used to measure states' K-12 performance, top policy groups are pushing states toward international benchmarking as a way to better prepare students for a competitive global economy. The National Governors Association, the Council of Chief State School Officers, and the standards-advocacyÖ

McNeil, Michele

2008-01-01

262

Resources for Educational Benchmarks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Resources for Educational Benchmarks connects learning resources to the NSDL Science Literacy Maps. The Science Literacy Maps illustrate connections between science concepts and show how they build upon one another across grade levels. Science Literacy Maps are intended to serve as a browsing interface to NSDL resources, allowing teachers and students to find resources that relate to specific science and math concepts.

2008-04-18

263

Feature-Level and Descriptor-Level Information Fusion for Density-Based 3D Shape Descriptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We address the 3D object retrieval problem using density-based shape descriptors. We explore first and second order local surface features and their multivariate combinations in the density estimation framework. We also experiment with descriptor level information fusion. The results, obtained using two different databases, Princeton Shape Benchmark and Sculpteur, show that, boosted with both feature level and descriptor level information

C. B. Akgul; Bulent Sankur; Yucel Yemez; F. Schmitt

2007-01-01

264

Software for 3D radiotherapy dosimetry. Validation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The subject of this work is polyGeVeroģ software (GeVero Co., Poland), which has been developed to fill the requirements of fast calculations of 3D dosimetry data with the emphasis on polymer gel dosimetry for radiotherapy. This software comprises four workspaces that have been prepared for: (i) calculating calibration curves and calibration equations, (ii) storing the calibration characteristics of the 3D dosimeters, (iii) calculating 3D dose distributions in irradiated 3D dosimeters, and (iv) comparing 3D dose distributions obtained from measurements with the aid of 3D dosimeters and calculated with the aid of treatment planning systems (TPSs). The main features and functions of the software are described in this work. Moreover, the core algorithms were validated and the results are presented. The validation was performed using the data of the new PABIGnx polymer gel dosimeter. The polyGeVeroģ software simplifies and greatly accelerates the calculations of raw 3D dosimetry data. It is an effective tool for fast verification of TPS-generated plans for tumor irradiation when combined with a 3D dosimeter. Consequently, the software may facilitate calculations by the 3D dosimetry community. In this work, the calibration characteristics of the PABIGnx obtained through four calibration methods: multi vial, cross beam, depth dose, and brachytherapy, are discussed as well.

Kozicki, Marek; Maras, Piotr; Karwowski, Andrzej C.

2014-08-01

265

Dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

3D printer applications in the biomedical sciences and medical imaging are expanding and will have an increasing impact on the practice of medicine. Orthopedic and reconstructive surgery has been an obvious area for development of 3D printer applications as the segmentation of bony anatomy to generate printable models is relatively straightforward. There are important issues that should be addressed when using 3D printed models for applications that may affect patient care; in particular the dimensional accuracy of the printed parts needs to be high to avoid poor decisions being made prior to surgery or therapeutic procedures. In this work, the dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebral bodies derived from CT data for a cadaver spine is compared with direct measurements on the ex-vivo vertebra and with measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra using commercial 3D image processing software. The vertebra was printed on a consumer grade 3D printer using an additive print process using PLA (polylactic acid) filament. Measurements were made for 15 different anatomic features of the vertebral body, including vertebral body height, endplate width and depth, pedicle height and width, and spinal canal width and depth, among others. It is shown that for the segmentation and printing process used, the results of measurements made on the 3D printed vertebral body are substantially the same as those produced by direct measurement on the vertebra and measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra.

Ogden, Kent; Ordway, Nathaniel; Diallo, Dalanda; Tillapaugh-Fay, Gwen; Aslan, Can

2014-03-01

266

3-D Hydrogen Atom Probability Densitites  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The 3-D Hydrogen Atom Probability Densitites model simulates the probability density of the first few (n = 1, 2, and 3, and associated l and m values) energy eigenstates for the Hydrogen atom (the Coulomb potential). The main window shows the energy level diagram for the solutions to the Coulomb potential in three dimensions. States may be selected either by using the dropdown menu item or by using the energy level diagram and clicking a dark green level, with specific n, l, and m values) which will turn bright green and change the state shown in the 3d visualization window. The probability is shown with a 3d cloud, with higher probability shown as a darker sphere. The simulation uses either simple 3D or Java 3D (if installed) to render the view the probability densities. If Java 3D is not installed, the simulation defaults to simple 3D using Java. The 3-D Hydrogen Atom Probability Densitites model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_qm_hydrogen3d.jar file will run the program if Java is installed.

Palop, Jose I.

2010-12-12

267

Software for 3D radiotherapy dosimetry. Validation.  

PubMed

The subject of this work is polyGeVero(ģ) software (GeVero Co., Poland), which has been developed to fill the requirements of fast calculations of 3D dosimetry data with the emphasis on polymer gel dosimetry for radiotherapy. This software comprises four workspaces that have been prepared for: (i) calculating calibration curves and calibration equations, (ii) storing the calibration characteristics of the 3D dosimeters, (iii) calculating 3D dose distributions in irradiated 3D dosimeters, and (iv) comparing 3D dose distributions obtained from measurements with the aid of 3D dosimeters and calculated with the aid of treatment planning systems (TPSs). The main features and functions of the software are described in this work. Moreover, the core algorithms were validated and the results are presented. The validation was performed using the data of the new PABIG(nx) polymer gel dosimeter. The polyGeVero(ģ) software simplifies and greatly accelerates the calculations of raw 3D dosimetry data. It is an effective tool for fast verification of TPS-generated plans for tumor irradiation when combined with a 3D dosimeter. Consequently, the software may facilitate calculations by the 3D dosimetry community. In this work, the calibration characteristics of the PABIG(nx) obtained through four calibration methods: multi vial, cross beam, depth dose, and brachytherapy, are discussed as well. PMID:25003788

Kozicki, Marek; Maras, Piotr; Karwowski, Andrzej C

2014-08-01

268

Integration of real-time 3D image acquisition and multiview 3D display  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seamless integration of 3D acquisition and 3D display systems offers enhanced experience in 3D visualization of the real world objects or scenes. The vivid representation of captured 3D objects displayed on a glasses-free 3D display screen could bring the realistic viewing experience to viewers as if they are viewing real-world scene. Although the technologies in 3D acquisition and 3D display have advanced rapidly in recent years, effort is lacking in studying the seamless integration of these two different aspects of 3D technologies. In this paper, we describe our recent progress on integrating a light-field 3D acquisition system and an autostereoscopic multiview 3D display for real-time light field capture and display. This paper focuses on both the architecture design and the implementation of the hardware and the software of this integrated 3D system. A prototype of the integrated 3D system is built to demonstrate the real-time 3D acquisition and 3D display capability of our proposed system.

Zhang, Zhaoxing; Geng, Zheng; Li, Tuotuo; Li, Wei; Wang, Jingyi; Liu, Yongchun

2014-03-01

269

Aeroelasticity Benchmark Assessment: Subsonic Fixed Wing Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fundamental technical challenge in computational aeroelasticity is the accurate prediction of unsteady aerodynamic phenomena and the effect on the aeroelastic response of a vehicle. Currently, a benchmarking standard for use in validating the accuracy of computational aeroelasticity codes does not exist. Many aeroelastic data sets have been obtained in wind-tunnel and flight testing throughout the world; however, none have been globally presented or accepted as an ideal data set. There are numerous reasons for this. One reason is that often, such aeroelastic data sets focus on the aeroelastic phenomena alone (flutter, for example) and do not contain associated information such as unsteady pressures and time-correlated structural dynamic deflections. Other available data sets focus solely on the unsteady pressures and do not address the aeroelastic phenomena. Other discrepancies can include omission of relevant data, such as flutter frequency and / or the acquisition of only qualitative deflection data. In addition to these content deficiencies, all of the available data sets present both experimental and computational technical challenges. Experimental issues include facility influences, nonlinearities beyond those being modeled, and data processing. From the computational perspective, technical challenges include modeling geometric complexities, coupling between the flow and the structure, grid issues, and boundary conditions. The Aeroelasticity Benchmark Assessment task seeks to examine the existing potential experimental data sets and ultimately choose the one that is viewed as the most suitable for computational benchmarking. An initial computational evaluation of that configuration will then be performed using the Langley-developed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software FUN3D1 as part of its code validation process. In addition to the benchmarking activity, this task also includes an examination of future research directions. Researchers within the Aeroelasticity Branch will examine other experimental efforts within the Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) program (such as testing of the NASA Common Research Model (CRM)) and other NASA programs and assess aeroelasticity issues and research topics.

Florance, Jennifer P.; Chwalowski, Pawel; Wieseman, Carol D.

2010-01-01

270

Extra Dimensions: 3D and Time in PDF Documentation  

SciTech Connect

High energy physics is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide audience. In this talk, we present examples of HEP applications which take advantage of this functionality. We demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input. Using this technique, higher dimensional data, such as LEGO plots or time-dependent information can be included in PDF files. In principle, a complete event display, with full interactivity, can be incorporated into a PDF file. This would allow the end user not only to customize the view and representation of the data, but to access the underlying data itself.

Graf, Norman A.; /SLAC

2011-11-10

271

Development of a 3-D Variable-Direction Anisotropy program, VDA-3D, to represent normal and tangential fluxes, in 3-D groundwater flow modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A computer program, VDA-3D, for groundwater flow simulation with a 3-dimensional anisotropic hydraulic conductivity tensor [K] has been developed, which represents normal fluxes with the Kxx, Kyy, Kzz components of [K], and tangential fluxes with the Kxy, Kxz, Kyz components. The need to simulate tangential fluxes occurs when the principal directions of the hydraulic conductivity tensor are not aligned with the model coordinates. Off-diagonal components of the conductivity tensor relate Darcy flux components to head gradient components that do not point in the same direction as the flux components. The program for 3-Dimensional Variable-Direction Anisotropy (VDA-3D) is based on a method developed by Edwards and Rogers (1998) and is an extension to 3 dimensions of the 2-dimensional Layer Variable-Direction Anisotropy (LVDA) package developed by Anderman and others (2002) for the USGS MODFLOW groundwater modeling program. The Edwards method is based on the traditional mass balance of water for a finite-difference-discretization cell of aquifer material, and enforces continuity of water flux across each of the 6 cell faces. VDA-3D is used to apply the Edwards method to a set of 1-D, 2-D, and 3-D test problems, some homogeneous, one with heterogeneity between two zones of the grid, and one with heterogeneity from cell to cell; each problem has boundary conditions of either constant head or constant flux. One test problem with constant head boundaries uses distributions of sources and sinks that are calculated to represent a problem with a given analytic solution. A second program has been written to implement an alternate method to simulate tangential fluxes, developed by Li and others (2010) and referred to as the Lzgh method. Like VDA-3D, the Lzgh method formulates the finite difference discretization of the flow equation for a medium with heterogeneous anisotropic hydraulic conductivity. In the Lzgh method, the conductivity is not required to be uniform over each finite difference cell as it is in VDA-3D, and the head function is required to be continuous across the cell faces, which it is not in VDA-3D. The only data requirement difference between the two methods is that the hydraulic conductivities are provided at cell centroids for VDA-3D and at cell interfaces for Lzgh. Early test results for a 2-D heterogeneous problem with a synthetic conductivity distribution and a dominantly 1-D flow pattern indicate that Lzgh can reproduce the results of VDA-3D, provided the harmonic means of all the components of the cell-centered VDA-3D hydraulic conductivity tensor are used to create the tensor at cell interfaces for Lzgh. Further work is planned to compare the accuracy of the resultant head distributions and the computational costs of the two methods, and to compare additional problems with different flow patterns.

Umari, A. M.; Kipp, K. L.

2013-12-01

272

Amodal volume completion: 3D visual completion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work considers the common problem of completing partially visible artifacts within a 3D scene. Human vision abilities to complete such artifacts are well studied within the realms of perceptual psychology. However, the psychological explanations for completion have received only limited application in the domain of 3D computer vision. Here, we examine pri- or work in this area of computer

Toby P. Breckon; Robert B. Fisher

2005-01-01

273

3D Imaging Of Wet Granular Matter  

E-print Network

3D Imaging Of Wet Granular Matter Leonard Goff Advisor: Dr. Wolfgang Losert With Application to Penetrometer Insertion #12;3D Imaging Of Wet Granular Matter Leonard Goff, Advisor: Dr. Wolfgang Losert Background ·Granular matter: · Interesting Question: How does a stable configuration of granular matter fail

Anlage, Steven

274

Building Three-Dimensional (3D) Structures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners practice drawing 3D structures in two dimensions. Learners draw cube stacks from five different points of view. Use this activity to help learners discern between 2D and 3D as well as explore reflections and perspective.

Exploratorium

2010-01-01

275

3-D inversion of magnetic data  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a method for inverting surface magnetic data to recover 3-D susceptibility models. To allow the maximum flexibility for the model to represent geologi- cally realistic structures, we discretize the 3-D model region into a set of rectangular cells, each having a constant susceptibility. The number of cells is generally far greater than the number of the data available,

Yaoguo Li; Douglas W. Oldenburg

1996-01-01

276

3, 35433588, 2003 3-D air pollution  

E-print Network

ACPD 3, 3543­3588, 2003 3-D air pollution modelling L. M. Frohn et al. Title Page Abstract hemispheric nested air pollution model L. M. Frohn, J. H. Christensen, J. Brandt, C. Geels, and K. M. Hansen 2003 Correspondence to: L. M. Frohn (lmf@dmu.dk) 3543 #12;ACPD 3, 3543­3588, 2003 3-D air pollution

Boyer, Edmond

277

Embedding Pyramids into 3D Meshes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pyramid architecture is a powerful topology in the area of computer vision. On the other hand, the 3D mesh architecture possesses rich topological features which make it suitable for building scalable parallel processor systems. The usefulness of these two architectures has led us to consider the problem of embedding pyramids into 3D meshes, for which we present two solutions.

Cindy K. Y. Ng; Lawrence K. L. Pun; Dixon Man-ching Ip; Mounir Hamdi; Ishfaq Ahmad

1996-01-01

278

Stereo 3-D Vision in Teaching Physics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stereo 3-D vision is a technology used to present images on a flat surface (screen, paper, etc.) and at the same time to create the notion of three-dimensional spatial perception of the viewed scene. A great number of physical processes are much better understood when viewed in stereo 3-D vision compared to standard flat 2-D presentation. TheÖ

Zabunov, Svetoslav

2012-01-01

279

A Multimodal 3D Healthcare Communication System  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a system that integrates gesture recognition and 3D talking head technologies for a patient communication application at a hospital or healthcare setting for supporting patients treated in bed. As a multimodal user interface, we get the input from patients using hand gestures and provide feedback by using a 3D talking avatar.

Cem Keskin; Koray Balci; Oya Aran; BŁlent Sankur; Lale Akarun

2007-01-01

280

Integrated modelling for 3D GIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three dimensional (3D) model facilitates the study of the real world objects it represents. A geoinformation system (GIS) should exploit the 3D model in a digital form as a basis for answering questions pertaining to aspects of the real world. With respect to the earth sciences, different kinds of objects of reality can be realized. These objects are components

M. Pilouk

1996-01-01

281

Watermarked 3D Object Quality Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work concerns the developing of new perceptual metrics for 3D watermarking quality assessment. Any water- marking algorithm, to be efiective, requires that the distortions it inevitably introduces into the watermarked media is imperceptible. This requirements is particularly severe for watermarking of 3D objects where the visual quality of the original model has to be preserved, i.e. the visual aspect

Massimiliano Corsini; Elisa Drelie Gelasca; Touradj Ebrahimi

2004-01-01

282

A Minimalistic 3D Pharmacophore Model  

E-print Network

A Minimalistic 3D Pharmacophore Model for Cyclopentapeptide CXCR4 Antagonists Jon Va¬į ben√ł Gregory, the chemokine receptor CXCR4 is an attractive target for antiretroviral drugs. Despite the large number of CXCR4 inhibitors studied, the 3D phar- macophore for binding to CXCR4 remains elusive, mainly as a result

Marshall, Garland R.

283

NONPLANAR RESLICING FOR FREEHAND 3D ULTRASOUND  

E-print Network

NON­PLANAR RESLICING FOR FREEHAND 3D ULTRASOUND A. H. Gee, R. W. Prager and L. Berman CUED 3D Ultrasound Andrew Gee, Richard Prager and Laurence Berman \\Lambda University of Cambridge's Hospital Cambridge CB2 2QQ Abstract Any­plane slicing is a visualisation technique common to many medical

Drummond, Tom

284

Getting Started With Poly3D  

E-print Network

planar, polygonal-shaped elements of displacement discontinuity. Polygonal elements may have any number, of a fracture or fault surface as long as displacement discontinuity (joint aperature or fault slip) is con. This will make it easier for you to adapt Poly3D to your own problems. CHAPTER 2: Getting Started With Poly3D

Cooke, Michele

285

Scalable 3D video of dynamic scenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a scalable 3D video framework for capturing and rendering dynamic scenes. The acquisition system is based on multiple sparsely placed 3D video bricks, each comprising a projector, two grayscale cameras and a color camera. Relying on structured light with complementary patterns, texture images and pattern- augmented views of the scene are acquired simultaneously by time

Michael WaschbŁsch; Stephan WŁrmlin; Daniel Cotting; Filip Sadlo; Markus H. Gross

2005-01-01

286

3D Dynamic Crack Rupture by a Finite Volume Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamic rupture of a 3D spontaneous crack of arbitrary shape has been investigated using a Finite Volume (FV) approach. The full domain is decomposed in tetrahedra while the surface on which the rupture is supposed to take place is discretized with triangles which are faces of tetrahedra. Because of this meshing strategy, any shape of the rupture surface could be designed and is performed once before simulations start. First of all, the elastodynamic equations are described into a pseudo-conservative form for easy application of the FV discretisation. Explicit boundary conditions are given using criteria based on the conservation of discrete energy through the crack surface. Using a stress-threshold criterion, these conditions specify fluxes through those triangles which have suffered rupture. On these broken surfaces, stress follows A linear slip-weakening law although other friction laws can be implemented as well. Numerical solutions on a planar fault are achieved for the problem version 3 of the SCEC community dynamic-rupture benchmark exercise (Harris and Archuleta, 2004) and compared with those provided by a Finite Difference (FD) technique (Day et al, 2005). Another benchmark problem is also tackled involving a nonplanar curved fault (Cruz-Atienza et al, 2007). Solutions for this difficult exercise are compared with those computed with a Boundary Integral (BI) method (Aochi et al, 2000). In both benchmarck problems, comparisons show that rupture fronts are well modelled with a slight delay in time especially along the antiplane direction related to the low-order interpolation of the FV approach which requires further mesh refinement or/and an higher-order interpolation strategy as for Galerkin Discontinuous approach. Slip-rate and shear stress amplitudes are well modelled as well as stopping phases and stress overshoots. We expect this method, which is well adapted to multi-preocessor parallel computing to be competitive with others for solving large scale dynamic ruptures scenario of seismic sources in the near future. References : Aochi, H., E. Fukuyama and M. Matsuura, 2000. Spontaneous rupture propagation of a non-planar fault in 3D elastic medium, PAGEOPH, 157, 2003-2027. Cruz-Atienza, V.M., J. Virieux, J. and H. Aochi, 3D finite-difference dynamic-rupture modeling along nonplanar faults, Geophysics, 72, SM123-SM137. Day, S. M., L.A. Dalguer, N. Lapusta and Y. Liu, 2005, Comparison of finite difference and boundary integral solutions to three-dimensional spontaneous rupture: Journal of Geophysical Research, 110, B12307, http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2005JB003813. Harris, R. A. and R. J. Archuleta, 2004, Earthquake rupture dynamics: Comparing the numerical simulation methods: EOS, 85, 321.

Ben Jemaa, M.; Glinsky-Olivier, N.; Cruz-Atienza, V. M.; Virieux, J.

2007-12-01

287

Clinical applications of 3-D dosimeters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Both 3-D gels and radiochromic plastic dosimeters, in conjunction with dose image readout systems (MRI or optical-CT), have been employed to measure 3-D dose distributions in many clinical applications. The 3-D dose maps obtained from these systems can provide a useful tool for clinical dose verification for complex treatment techniques such as IMRT, SRS/SBRT, brachytherapy, and proton beam therapy. These complex treatments present high dose gradient regions in the boundaries between the target and surrounding critical organs. Dose accuracy in these areas can be critical, and may affect treatment outcome. In this review, applications of 3-D gels and PRESAGE dosimeter are reviewed and evaluated in terms of their performance in providing information on clinical dose verification as well as commissioning of various treatment modalities. Future interests and clinical needs on studies of 3-D dosimetry are also discussed.

Wuu, Cheng-Shie

2015-01-01

288

The psychology of the 3D experience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With 3D televisions expected to reach 50% home saturation as early as 2016, understanding the psychological mechanisms underlying the user response to 3D technology is critical for content providers, educators and academics. Unfortunately, research examining the effects of 3D technology has not kept pace with the technology's rapid adoption, resulting in large-scale use of a technology about which very little is actually known. Recognizing this need for new research, we conducted a series of studies measuring and comparing many of the variables and processes underlying both 2D and 3D media experiences. In our first study, we found narratives within primetime dramas had the power to shift viewer attitudes in both 2D and 3D settings. However, we found no difference in persuasive power between 2D and 3D content. We contend this lack of effect was the result of poor conversion quality and the unique demands of 3D production. In our second study, we found 3D technology significantly increased enjoyment when viewing sports content, yet offered no added enjoyment when viewing a movie trailer. The enhanced enjoyment of the sports content was shown to be the result of heightened emotional arousal and attention in the 3D condition. We believe the lack of effect found for the movie trailer may be genre-related. In our final study, we found 3D technology significantly enhanced enjoyment of two video games from different genres. The added enjoyment was found to be the result of an increased sense of presence.

Janicke, Sophie H.; Ellis, Andrew

2013-03-01

289

3D harnessing of light with photon cage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on design, simulation and fabrication of ultimate and compact 3D close-geometries optical microcavities. These are based on the extension of the so-called 2.5D nanophotonic approach where a quasi 3D control of the photons has been soon demonstrated by our group. A tight control of photons, spectrally and spatially, in a small air region inside a circular regular pattern of high index material-based nanopillars is demonstrated when adjusting the number of pillars, their diameters and the diameter of the pillar-circle. Bottom-up approach based on InP nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy and top-down approach based on high aspect ratio anisotropic etching have been developed for fabricating these optical microcavities.

Sieutat, C.; Leclercq, J. L.; Letartre, X.; Callard, S.; Gendry, M.; Grenet, G.; Naji, K.; Regreny, P.; Rojo-Romeo, P.; Viktorovitch, P.; Beaudin, G.; Cloutier, M.; Drouin, D.; Aimez, V.

2010-05-01

290

Prototype application for web 3D routing in building  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current routing systems in GIS software mostly provide routes that allow the users to navigate between source and destination points in 2 dimensions. This paper describes the development of a web-based 3D routing system for a university campus using Open Source Software (OSS) and Open Specifications (OS). The system uses the advantages of interoperability and allows the integration and extension of different system components. A data model is described and the process of creating the data model and the migration of the data stored in dxf architectural drawings to the data model are explained. The paper also discusses the architecture and the interaction of the different prototype components such as 3D viewer, database, and programming languages. Furthermore, it describes customized tools that were developed to provide the users a simple interface to interact with the system through a standard internet browser.

Ehlers, Manfred; Hijazi, Ihab

2009-09-01

291

Prototype application for web 3D routing in building  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current routing systems in GIS software mostly provide routes that allow the users to navigate between source and destination points in 2 dimensions. This paper describes the development of a web-based 3D routing system for a university campus using Open Source Software (OSS) and Open Specifications (OS). The system uses the advantages of interoperability and allows the integration and extension of different system components. A data model is described and the process of creating the data model and the migration of the data stored in dxf architectural drawings to the data model are explained. The paper also discusses the architecture and the interaction of the different prototype components such as 3D viewer, database, and programming languages. Furthermore, it describes customized tools that were developed to provide the users a simple interface to interact with the system through a standard internet browser.

Ehlers, Manfred; Hijazi, Ihab

2010-11-01

292

Benchmarking for Steganography  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the increasing number of new steganographic algorithms as well as methods for detecting them, the issue of comparing\\u000a security of steganographic schemes in a fair manner is of the most importance. A fair benchmark for steganography should only\\u000a be dependent on the model chosen to represent cover and stego objects. In particular, it should be independent of any specific

TomŠs Pevnż; Jessica J. Fridrich

2008-01-01

293

Benchmark Comparisons August 2006  

E-print Network

administered oversamples are not included. Mean The mean is the weighted arithmetic average of student level Report Class Mean a Sig b Effect Size c Mean a Sig b Effect Size c Mean a Sig b Effect Size c First-Year 53.0 51.6 52.6 Seniors 57.5 56.0 56.5 Level of Academic Challenge (LAC) Selected Peers Benchmark Mean

Haykin, Simon

294

Estimating with Benchmark Fractions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teachers can use this interactive tool to help students develop fraction sense. After a teacher places a fraction, decimal, or expression on the screen, students determine which given benchmark number it is closest to. An adjustable number line supports conceptual understanding. This page includes a video demonstration of the tool and sample lessons from the Conceptua curriculum. Free registration is required to use the tool. A paid subscription is necessary to access full curriculum and allow full student use.

2011-01-01

295

Benchmarking Corporate Energy Management  

E-print Network

management practices at the corporate to energy manager levels. THE ENERGY TO OUTPUT INDEX It would be nice ifthere were a simple quantitative measure to how well a company managed its energy One measure that is often used is energy use per unit...BENCHMARKING CORPORATE ENERGY MANAGEMENT Dr. Douglas L. Norland Director of Research and Industrial Programs Alliance to Save Energy Washington, DC ABSTRACT There is growing interest among energy managers in finding out how their company...

Norland, D. L.

296

Extending 2-D Smoothed Local Symmetries to 3-D  

E-print Network

3-D Smoothed Local Symmetries (3-D SLS's) are presented as a representation for three-dimensional shapes. 3-D SLS's make explicit the perceptually salient features of 3-D objects and are especially suited to representing ...

Braunegg, David J.

297

Cookoff response of PBXN-109: material characterization and ALE3D model  

SciTech Connect

Materials properties measurements are made for the RDX-based explosive, PBXN-109, and an initial ALE3D model for cookoff is discussed. A significant effort is underway in the U.S. Navy and Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories to understand the thermal explosion behavior of this material. Benchmark cookoff experiments are being performed by the U.S. Navy to validate DOE materials models and computer codes. The ALE3D computer code can model the coupled thermal, mechanical, and chemical behavior of heating and ignition in cookoff tests. In order to provide a predictive capability, materials characterization measurements are being performed to specify parameters in these models. We report on progress in the development of these ALE3D materials models and present measurements as a function of temperature for thermal expansion, heat capacity, shear modulus, bulk modulus, and One-Dimensional-Time-to-Explosion (ODTX).

McClelland, M A; Tran, T D; Cunningham, B J; Weese, R K; Maienschein, J L

2000-10-24

298

Molecular Predictors of 3D Morphogenesis by Breast Cancer Cell Lines in 3D Culture  

E-print Network

Molecular Predictors of 3D Morphogenesis by Breast Cancer Cell Lines in 3D Culture Ju Han1 , Hang to triple-negative pathobiology. PPARc has been validated through two supporting biological assays. Citation by Breast Cancer Cell Lines in 3D Culture. PLoS Comput Biol 6(2): e1000684. doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000684

Kenny, Paraic

299

Localization of 3D Anatomical Point Landmarks in 3D Tomographic Images Using Deformable Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing differential approaches to the localization of 3D anatomical point landmarks in 3D tomographic images are relatively sensitive to noise as well as to small intensity variations, both of which result in false detections as well as affect the localization accuracy. In this paper, we introduce a new approach to 3D landmark localization based on deformable models, which takes into

SŲnke Frantz; Karl Rohr; H. Siegfried Stiehl

2000-01-01

300

3D Whiteboard: Collaborative Sketching with 3D-Tracked Smart Phones  

E-print Network

of the other user's phone. Keywords: Smart Phone, Augmented Reality, Multi-User, Networked 1. INTRODUCTION 3D the paper. Contact e-mail: jschulze@ucsd.edu (J¨urgen Schulze) #12;2. RELATED WORK Mobile virtual reality3D Whiteboard: Collaborative Sketching with 3D-Tracked Smart Phones James Lue and J¨urgen P

Schulze, J√ľrgen P.

301

XML3D and Xflow: combining declarative 3D for the Web with generic data flows.  

PubMed

Researchers have combined XML3D, which provides declarative, interactive 3D scene descriptions based on HTML5, with Xflow, a language for declarative, high-performance data processing. The result lets Web developers combine a 3D scene graph with data flows for dynamic meshes, animations, image processing, and postprocessing. PMID:24808080

Klein, Felix; Sons, Kristian; Rubinstein, Dmitri; Slusallek, Philipp

2013-01-01

302

Sonic Millip3De: A Massively Parallel 3D-Stacked Accelerator for 3D Ultrasound  

E-print Network

Sonic Millip3De: A Massively Parallel 3D-Stacked Accelerator for 3D Ultrasound Richard Sampson of Michigan School of ECEE, Arizona State University Abstract Three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound is becoming common for non-invasive medical imaging because of its high accuracy, safety, and ease of use. Unlike

Kambhampati, Subbarao

303

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING 1 3D-Image Reconstruction in Highly Collimated 3D  

E-print Network

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING 1 3D-Image Reconstruction in Highly Collimated 3D introduces a novel method for image reconstruction in 3D tomography, called Searchlight Computed Tomography, Inverse Problems I. INTRODUCTION Computed Tomography (CT) is a widely used medical imaging method which

Labate, Demetrio

304

Design of 3D eye-safe middle range vibrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser Doppler Vibrometer and Range Meter (3D-MRV) is designed for middle range distances [1-100 meters]. 3D-MRV combines more than one laser in one device for a simultaneous real time measuring the distance and movement of the targets. The first laser has a short pulse (tė30psec) and low energy (Eė200nJ) for distance measurement and the second one is a CW (continuous wave) single frequency laser for the velocity measurement with output power (Pė30mW). Both lasers perform on the eye-safe wavelength 1.5 ?m. 3D-MRV uses the same mono-static optical transmitting and receiving channel for both lasers including an output telescope and a scanning angular system. 3D-MRV has an optical polarization switch to combine linear polarized laser beams from two lasers into one optical channel. The laser beams from both lasers by turns illuminate the target and the scattered laser radiation is collected by the telescope on a photo detector. The electrical signal from photo detector is used for measuring the distance to the target and its movement. For distance measurement the time of flight method is employed. For targets movement the optical heterodyne method is employed. The received CW laser radiation is mixed on a photo detector with the frequency-shifted laser radiation that is taken from CW laser and passed through an acousto-optic cell. The electrical signal from a photo detector on the difference frequency and phase has information about movement of the scattered targets. 3D-MVR may be used for the real time picturing of vibration of the extensive targets like bridges or aircrafts.

Polulyakh, Valeriy; Poutivski, Iouri

2014-05-01

305

3D CAFE simulation of a macrosegregation benchmark T. Carozzani1  

E-print Network

, iii- liquid flow driven by shrinkage and deformation and iv- diffusion of solute in the liquid, Welding and Advanced Solidification Processes, Schladming : Austria (2012)" DOI : 10.1088/1757-899X/33

Boyer, Edmond

306

Relap5-3d model validation and benchmark exercises for advanced gas cooled reactor application.  

E-print Network

??High-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGR) are passively safe, efficient, and economical solutions to the world??s energy crisis. HTGRs are capable of generating high temperatures during normalÖ (more)

Moore, Eugene James Thomas

2006-01-01

307

An Improved Version of TOPAZ 3D  

SciTech Connect

An improved version of the TOPAZ 3D gun code is presented as a powerful tool for beam optics simulation. In contrast to the previous version of TOPAZ 3D, the geometry of the device under test is introduced into TOPAZ 3D directly from a CAD program, such as Solid Edge or AutoCAD. In order to have this new feature, an interface was developed, using the GiD software package as a meshing code. The article describes this method with two models to illustrate the results.

Krasnykh, Anatoly

2003-07-29

308

Sketch Based 3D Character Deformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Most 3D character editing tools are complex and non-intuitive. It takes lot of skill and labor from the artists to create\\u000a even a draft 3D humanoid model. This paper proposes an intuitive 2D sketch-driven drafting tool that allows users to quickly\\u000a shape and proportion existing detailed 3D models. We leverage on our existing vector shape representation to describe character\\u000a body-part

Mo Li; Golam Ashraf

2011-01-01

309

Multiplanar liquid crystal volumetric 3D displays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volumetric 3-D displays proposed and demonstrated in the past have been low in resolution and refresh rate, but not in cost. This paper describes the development of an electro-optic multiplanar volumetric 3-D display (without moving parts) based on unique liquid crystal (LC) switchable light diffusion panels. These LC switchable diffuser panels are produced by our proprietary holographic Light Shaping Diffuser fabrication process. Using a stack of closely spaced LC switchable diffusers, which have shown excellent switching speed, diffusion efficiency, and clarity, a multiplanar volumetric 3- D display was demonstrated, projecting full-color 2-D images from a high speed spatial light modulator.

Aye, Tin M.; Fruehauf, Norbert; Zhao, Mingjun M.; Yu, Kevin; Zou, Yunlu; Savant, Gajendra D.

2000-08-01

310

FUN3D Manual: 12.4  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.4, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixedelement unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

2014-01-01

311

A high capacity 3D steganography algorithm.  

PubMed

In this paper, we present a very high-capacity and low-distortion 3D steganography scheme. Our steganography approach is based on a novel multilayered embedding scheme to hide secret messages in the vertices of 3D polygon models. Experimental results show that the cover model distortion is very small as the number of hiding layers ranges from 7 to 13 layers. To the best of our knowledge, this novel approach can provide much higher hiding capacity than other state-of-the-art approaches, while obeying the low distortion and security basic requirements for steganography on 3D models. PMID:19147891

Chao, Min-Wen; Lin, Chao-hung; Yu, Cheng-Wei; Lee, Tong-Yee

2009-01-01

312

3D packaging for integrated circuit systems  

SciTech Connect

A goal was set for high density, high performance microelectronics pursued through a dense 3D packing of integrated circuits. A {open_quotes}tool set{close_quotes} of assembly processes have been developed that enable 3D system designs: 3D thermal analysis, silicon electrical through vias, IC thinning, mounting wells in silicon, adhesives for silicon stacking, pretesting of IC chips before commitment to stacks, and bond pad bumping. Validation of these process developments occurred through both Sandia prototypes and subsequent commercial examples.

Chu, D.; Palmer, D.W. [eds.

1996-11-01

313

Investigations in massive 3D gravity  

SciTech Connect

Some interesting gravitational properties of the Bergshoeff-Hohm-Townsend model (massive 3D gravity), such as the presence of a short-range gravitational force in the nonrelativistic limit and the existence of an impact-parameter-dependent gravitational deflection angle, are studied. Interestingly enough, these phenomena have no counterpart in the usual Einstein 3D gravity. In order to better understand the two aforementioned gravitational properties, they are also analyzed in the framework of 3D higher-derivative gravity with the Einstein-Hilbert term with the 'wrong sign'.

Accioly, Antonio [Laboratorio de Fisica Experimental (LAFEX), Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud 150, Urca, 22290-180, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Instituto de Fisica Teorica (IFT), Sao Paulo State University (UNESP), Rua Dr. Bento Teobaldo Ferraz 271, Bloco II-Barra Funda, 01140-070, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Helayeel-Neto, Jose; Morais, Jefferson; Turcati, Rodrigo [Laboratorio de Fisica Experimental (LAFEX), Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud 150, Urca, 22290-180, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Scatena, Eslley [Instituto de Fisica Teorica (IFT), Sao Paulo State University (UNESP), Rua Dr. Bento Teobaldo Ferraz 271, Bloco II-Barra Funda, 01140-070, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

2011-05-15

314

3D goes digital: from stereoscopy to modern 3D imaging techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the 19th century, English physicist Charles Wheatstone discovered stereopsis, the basis for 3D perception. His construction of the first stereoscope established the foundation for stereoscopic 3D imaging. Since then, many optical instruments were influenced by these basic ideas. In recent decades, the advent of digital technologies revolutionized 3D imaging. Powerful readily available sensors and displays combined with efficient pre- or post-processing enable new methods for 3D imaging and applications. This paper draws an arc from basic concepts of 3D imaging to modern digital implementations, highlighting instructive examples from its 175 years of history.

Kerwien, N.

2014-11-01

315

3D sound and 3D image interactions: a review of audio-visual depth perception  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There has been much research concerning visual depth perception in 3D stereoscopic displays and, to a lesser extent, auditory depth perception in 3D spatial sound systems. With 3D sound systems now available in a number of different forms, there is increasing interest in the integration of 3D sound systems with 3D displays. It therefore seems timely to review key concepts and results concerning depth perception in such display systems. We first present overviews of both visual and auditory depth perception, before focussing on cross-modal effects in audio-visual depth perception, which may be of direct interest to display and content designers.

Berry, Jonathan S.; Roberts, David A. T.; Holliman, Nicolas S.

2014-02-01

316

Simplified two and three dimensional HTTR benchmark problems  

SciTech Connect

To assess the accuracy of diffusion or transport methods for reactor calculations, it is desirable to create heterogeneous benchmark problems that are typical of whole core configurations. In this paper we have created two and three dimensional numerical benchmark problems typical of high temperature gas cooled prismatic cores. Additionally, a single cell and single block benchmark problems are also included. These problems were derived from the HTTR start-up experiment. Since the primary utility of the benchmark problems is in code-to-code verification, minor details regarding geometry and material specification of the original experiment have been simplified while retaining the heterogeneity and the major physics properties of the core from a neutronics viewpoint. A six-group material (macroscopic) cross section library has been generated for the benchmark problems using the lattice depletion code HELIOS. Using this library, Monte Carlo solutions are presented for three configurations (all-rods-in, partially-controlled and all-rods-out) for both the 2D and 3D problems. These solutions include the core eigenvalues, the block (assembly) averaged fission densities, local peaking factors, the absorption densities in the burnable poison and control rods, and pin fission density distribution for selected blocks. Also included are the solutions for the single cell and single block problems.

Zhan Zhang; Dingkang Zhang; Justin M. Pounders; Abderrafi M. Ougouag

2011-05-01

317

Study of the performance of different subpixel image correlation methods in 3D digital image correlation.  

PubMed

The three-dimensional digital image correlation (3D-DIC) method is rapidly developing and is being widely applied to engineering and manufacturing. Despite its extensive use, the error caused by different image matching algorithms is seldom discussed. An algorithm for 3D speckle image generation is proposed, and the performances of different subpixel correlation algorithms are studied. The advantage is that there is no interpolation bias of texture in the simulation before and after deformation, and the error from the interpolation of speckle can be omitted in this algorithm. An error criterion for 3D reconstruction is proposed. 3D speckle images were simulated, and the performance of four subpixel algorithms is addressed. Based on the research results of different subpixel algorithms, a first-order Newton-Raphson iteration method and gradient-based method are recommended for 3D-DIC measurement. PMID:20648187

Hu, Zhenxing; Xie, Huimin; Lu, Jian; Hua, Tao; Zhu, Jianguo

2010-07-20

318

Fondements de la 3D Frank Nielsen  

E-print Network

INF555 Fondements de la 3D 2008 Frank Nielsen nielsen@lix.polytechnique.fr ProjetsProjets #12;http Texture synthesis http://www.sonycsl.co.jp/person/nielsen/stagesX/hyperbolicvisualizer.pdf Jorg Walter

Nielsen, Frank

319

Mekanismien 3D-visualisointi virtuaalitilassa.  

E-print Network

??Tšmš opinnšytetyŲ tehtiin Seinšjoen ammattikorkeakoulun Tekniikan yksikŲlle. TyŲn tavoitteena oli havainnollistaa erilaisten mekanismien toimintaperiaatteita 3D-visualisoinnin avulla virtuaalitilassa (CAVE). TyŲn aikana visualisoitaviksi mekanismeiksi valikoituivat planeetta-, sykloidi-Ö (more)

Luomanmški, Toni

2011-01-01

320

Instrument Series: Microscopy Quanta 3D FEG  

E-print Network

, making it a superior solution for fast preparation of large samples over a wide range of materials. Quick characterization based on serial sectioning, using Slice and View and 3D EBSD software ê Milling non

321

Eyes on the Earth 3D  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Eyes on the Earth 3D software gives scientists, and the general public, a realtime, 3D interactive means of accurately viewing the real-time locations, speed, and values of recently collected data from several of NASA's Earth Observing Satellites using a standard Web browser (climate.nasa.gov/eyes). Anyone with Web access can use this software to see where the NASA fleet of these satellites is now, or where they will be up to a year in the future. The software also displays several Earth Science Data sets that have been collected on a daily basis. This application uses a third-party, 3D, realtime, interactive game engine called Unity 3D to visualize the satellites and is accessible from a Web browser.

Kulikov, anton I.; Doronila, Paul R.; Nguyen, Viet T.; Jackson, Randal K.; Greene, William M.; Hussey, Kevin J.; Garcia, Christopher M.; Lopez, Christian A.

2013-01-01

322

The Makerbot: Desktop 3D printing  

E-print Network

Approximation of curves into straight lines Like much modern tech, the math is hidden #12;CSG http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki is Lots of maths hidden in something like 3D printing Geometry and Linear algebra ++ Same math used

Roughan, Matthew

323

3D-HST results and prospects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 3D-HST survey is providing a comprehensive census of the distant Universe, combining HST WFC3 imaging and grism spectroscopy with a myriad of other ground- and space-based datasets. This talk constitutes an overview of science results from the survey, with a focus on ongoing work and ways to exploit the rich public release of the 3D-HST data.

Van Dokkum, Pieter G.

2015-01-01

324

3D Modelling for Metamorphosis for Animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a novel 3D B-Spline surface reconstruction technique for 3D metamorphosis for animation and entertainment.\\u000a The approach allows one-to-one mapping between the object space and a parameter space, and therefore automatic correspondence\\u000a between a pair of reconstructed objects. B-Spline-based shape representation also has the advantages of: 1) easy shape editing,\\u000a 2) level of detail control, and

Li Bai; Yi Song; Yangsheng Wang

2008-01-01

325

A Search Engine for 3D Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the number of 3D models available on the Web grows, there is an increasing need for a search engine to help people find them. Unfortunately, traditional text-based search techniques are not always effective for 3D data. In this paper, we investigate new shape-based search methods. The key challenges are to develop query methods simple enough for novice users and

Thomas Funkhouser; Patrick Min; Misha Kazhdan; Joyce Chen; Alex Halderman; David Dobkin; David Jacobs

2002-01-01

326

Tracking and Visualizing Turbulent 3D Features  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visualizing 3D time-varying fluid datasets is difficult because of the immense amount of data to be processed and understood. These datasets contain many evolving amorphous regions, and it is difficult to observe patterns and visually follow regions of interest. In this paper, we present a technique which isolates and tracks full-volume representations of regions of interest from 3D regular and

Deborah Silver; Xin Wang

1997-01-01

327

A search engine for 3D models  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the number of 3D models available on the Web grows, there is an increasing need for a search engine to help people find them. Unfortunately, traditional text-based search techniques are not always effective for 3D data. In this article, we investigate new shape-based search methods. The key challenges are to develop query methods simple enough for novice users and

Thomas A. Funkhouser; Patrick Min; Michael M. Kazhdan; Joyce Chen; Alex Halderman; David P. Dobkin; David Pokrass Jacobs

2003-01-01

328

FUN3D Manual: 12.5  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.5, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational uid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables ecient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status. XXXX This manual is intended to guide an application engineer through con gura- tion, compiling, installing, and executing the Fun3D simulation package. The focus is on the most commonly exercised capabilities. Therefore, some of the immature or rarely exercised capabilities are intentionally omitted in the in- terest of clarity. An accompanying document that provides example cases is under development. Release of the generic gas capability is restricted because of International Trac in Arms Regulations (ITAR), so Fun3D usually distributed with the generic gas capability disabled. See section 1.4 for details. This manual de- scribes Fun3D with and without the generic gas capability, denoted eqn type= 'generic'. Features that are speci c to an eqn type are explicitly indicated. This document is updated and released with each subsequent version of Fun3D. In fact, a signi cant portion is automatically extracted from the Fun3D source code. If you have diculties, nd any errors,

Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, William L.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

2014-01-01

329

Human Perception of 3D Shapes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews main approaches to 3D shape perception in both human and computer vision. The approaches are evaluated\\u000a with respect to their plausibility of generating adequate explanations of human vision. The criterion for plausibility is\\u000a provided by existing psychophysical results. A new theory of 3D shape perception is then outlined. According to this theory,\\u000a human perception of shapes critically

Zygmunt Pizlo

2007-01-01

330

A look at 3D graphics industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this month's Real-time Interactive Graphics column we take a look at the 3D graphics industry through the unique perspective of long-time industry analyst and observer, John Latta. Latta's company, 4th Wave, Inc. publishes a widely read newsletter on 3D and digital media called the Wave Report (http:\\/\\/www.wave-report.com\\/).A ReminderWe are very interested in hearing from our readers. In particular, if

John Latta

1999-01-01

331

Strategies and Benefits of Fusion of 2D and 3D Face Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extension of 2D image-based face recognition methods with respect to 3D shape information and the fusion of both modalities is one of the main topics in the recent development of facial recognition. In this paper we discuss different strategies and their expected benefit for the fusion of 2D and 3D face recognition. The face recognition grand challenge (FRGC) provides

M. Husken; Michael Brauckmann; S. Gehlen; C. Von der Malsburg

2005-01-01

332

Video encoder design for high-definition 3D video communication systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

VLSI realization of video compression is the key to real-time high-definition 3D communication systems. The newly established multiview video coding standard, as an extension profile of H.264\\/AVC, draws more and more attention for its high compression ratio and free-viewpoint support. Besides providing the 3D experience, multiview video can also give users complete scene perception. However, the multiple-viewpoint throughput requirement of

Pei-Kuei Tsung; Li-Fu Ding; Wei-Yin Chen; Tzu-Der Chuang; Yu-Han Chen; Pai-Heng Hsiao; Shao-Yi Chien; Liang-Gee Chen

2010-01-01

333

Shape Descriptors Based on Extended 3D Higher Order Local Autocorrelation Masks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mask patterns based on higher order local autocorrelation (HLAC) have been used for various 2D image recognition and classification systems. Recently, research related to extended 2D HLAC mask patterns has shown that the use of mask patterns improves classification rates for certain 2D textures. We have applied a similar extension approach to 3D HLAC mask patterns which can analyze 3D

Motofumi T. Suzuki; Yoshitomo Yaginuma; Tsuneo Yamada; Yasutaka Shimizu

2006-01-01

334

Focus-distance-controlled 3D TV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a phenomenon that a 3D image appears in proportion to a focus distance when something is watched through a convex lens. An adjustable focus lens which can control the focus distance of the convex lens is contrived and applied to 3D TV. We can watch 3D TV without eyeglasses. The 3D TV image meets the NTSC standard. A parallax data and a focus data about the image can be accommodated at the same time. A continuous image method realizes much wider views. An anti 3D image effect can be avoided by using this method. At present, an analysis of proto-type lens and experiment are being carried out. As a result, a phantom effect and a viewing area can be improved. It is possible to watch the 3D TV at any distance. Distance data are triangulated by two cameras. A plan of AVI photo type using ten thousand lenses is discussed. This method is compared with four major conventional methods. As a result, it is revealed that this method can make the efficient use of Integral Photography and Varifocal type method. In the case of Integral Photography, a miniaturization of this system is possible. But it is difficult to get actual focus. In the case of varifocal type method, there is no problem with focusing, but the miniaturization is impossible. The theory investigated in this paper makes it possible to solve these problems.

Yanagisawa, Nobuaki; Kim, Kyung-tae; Son, Jung-Young; Murata, Tatsuya; Orima, Takatoshi

1996-09-01

335

Focus-distance-controlled 3D TV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a phenomenon that a 3D image appears in proportion to a focus distance when something is watched through a convex lens. An adjustable focus lens which can control the focus distance of the convex lens is contrived and applied to 3D TV. We can watch 3D TV without eyeglasses. The 3D TV image meets the NTSC standard. A parallax data and a focus data about the image can be accommodated at the same time. A continuous image method realizes much wider views. An anti 3D image effect can be avoided by using this method. At present, an analysis of proto-type lens and experiment are being carried out. As a result, a phantom effect and a viewing area can be improved. It is possible to watch the 3D TV at any distance. Distance data are triangulated by two cameras. A plan of AVI proto type using ten thousands lenses is discussed. This method is compared with four major conventional methods. As a result, it is revealed that this method can make the efficient use of integral photography and varifocal type method. In the case of integral photography, a miniaturization of this system is possible. But it is difficult to get actual focus. In the case of varifocal type method, there is no problem with focusing, but the miniaturization is impossible. The theory investigated in this paper makes it possible to solve these problems.

Yanagisawa, Nobuaki; Kim, Kyung-tae; Son, Jung-Young; Murata, Tatsuya; Orima, Takatoshi

1997-05-01

336

Benchmarking, BOMA BESt and BBEER  

E-print Network

?or?worse?than?????? Energy?Use?Intensity?(EUI)?=?? total?energy?consumed?in?one?year?(ekWh)?/?total?floor?space?of? the?building?(ft2) Benchmarking and BBEER 2013 ? reliable?information on?energy?use?and?benefits?of?improvements; ? prioritize poorly...?energy?efficiency?among?building?occupants. BENCHMARKING ? Benefits Source:?NRCan Benchmarking and BBEER 2013 ABOUT BOMA BESt ? Program Description Building?Environmental?Standards?(BESt) ? Environmental?performance?and?management? practices?of?existing?buildings ? Five...

Smiciklas, J.

2013-01-01

337

Discoidin domain receptor 2 regulates the adhesion of fibroblasts to 3D collagen matrices.  

PubMed

The collagen matrix constitutes the primary extracellular matrix (ECM) portion of mammalian connective tissues in which the interaction of the cell and the surrounding collagen fibers has a significant impact on cell and tissue physiology, including morphogenesis, development and motility. Discoidin domain receptors (DDR1 and DDR2) have been identified as the receptor tyrosine kinases that are activated upon collagen binding. However, there is a lack of evidence regarding the effect of DDRs on the mechanical interaction between fibroblasts and ECM. In this study, we demonstrated that one of the major phosphotyrosine proteins in human fibroblasts during 3D collagen matrix polymerization is DDR2. Treatment of fibroblasts in 3D collagen matrices with platelet-derived growth factor (PDFG) has been shown to increase DDR2 phosphorylation. Silencing of DDR2 with siRNA in fibroblasts significantly reduced the number of dendritic extensions regardless of whether cells were cultured in the collagen or fibronectin 3D matrices. Decreasing dendritic extensions in DDR2-silenced cells has also been shown to decrease the ability of fibroblast entanglement to collagen fibrils in 3D collagen matrices. Finally, we also showed that the silencing of DDR2 decreased the cell migration in 3D nested collagen matrices but had no effect on 3D floating matrix contraction. Collectively, these results suggest that DDR2 functioning is required for the membrane dynamics to control the mechanical attachment of fibroblasts to the 3D collagen matrices in an integrin-independent manner. PMID:23546533

Kim, Daehwan; You, Eunae; Min, Na Young; Lee, Kwang-Ho; Kim, Hyoung Kyu; Rhee, Sangmyung

2013-05-01

338

Robust model-based 3d/3D fusion using sparse matching for minimally invasive surgery.  

PubMed

Classical surgery is being disrupted by minimally invasive and transcatheter procedures. As there is no direct view or access to the affected anatomy, advanced imaging techniques such as 3D C-arm CT and C-arm fluoroscopy are routinely used for intra-operative guidance. However, intra-operative modalities have limited image quality of the soft tissue and a reliable assessment of the cardiac anatomy can only be made by injecting contrast agent, which is harmful to the patient and requires complex acquisition protocols. We propose a novel sparse matching approach for fusing high quality pre-operative CT and non-contrasted, non-gated intra-operative C-arm CT by utilizing robust machine learning and numerical optimization techniques. Thus, high-quality patient-specific models can be extracted from the pre-operative CT and mapped to the intra-operative imaging environment to guide minimally invasive procedures. Extensive quantitative experiments demonstrate that our model-based fusion approach has an average execution time of 2.9 s, while the accuracy lies within expert user confidence intervals. PMID:24505663

Neumann, Dominik; Grbic, Sasa; John, Matthias; Navab, Nassir; Hornegger, Joachim; Ionasec, Razvan

2013-01-01

339

CFL3D, FUN3d, and NSU3D Contributions to the Fifth Drag Prediction Workshop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results presented at the Fifth Drag Prediction Workshop using CFL3D, FUN3D, and NSU3D are described. These are calculations on the workshop provided grids and drag adapted grids. The NSU3D results have been updated to reflect an improvement to skin friction calculation on skewed grids. FUN3D results generated after the workshop are included for custom participant generated grids and a grid from a previous workshop. Uniform grid refinement at the design condition shows a tight grouping in calculated drag, where the variation in the pressure component of drag is larger than the skin friction component. At this design condition, A fine-grid drag value was predicted with a smaller drag adjoint adapted grid via tetrahedral adaption to a metric and mixed-element subdivision. The buffet study produced larger variation than the design case, which is attributed to large differences in the predicted side-of-body separation extent. Various modeling and discretization approaches had a strong impact on predicted side-of-body separation. This large wing root separation bubble was not observed in wind tunnel tests indicating that more work is necessary in modeling wing root juncture flows to predict experiments.

Park, Michael A.; Laflin, Kelly R.; Chaffin, Mark S.; Powell, Nicholas; Levy, David W.

2013-01-01

340

3D Visualization for Phoenix Mars Lander Science Operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Planetary surface exploration missions present considerable operational challenges in the form of substantial communication delays, limited communication windows, and limited communication bandwidth. A 3D visualization software was developed and delivered to the 2008 Phoenix Mars Lander (PML) mission. The components of the system include an interactive 3D visualization environment called Mercator, terrain reconstruction software called the Ames Stereo Pipeline, and a server providing distributed access to terrain models. The software was successfully utilized during the mission for science analysis, site understanding, and science operations activity planning. A terrain server was implemented that provided distribution of terrain models from a central repository to clients running the Mercator software. The Ames Stereo Pipeline generates accurate, high-resolution, texture-mapped, 3D terrain models from stereo image pairs. These terrain models can then be visualized within the Mercator environment. The central cross-cutting goal for these tools is to provide an easy-to-use, high-quality, full-featured visualization environment that enhances the mission science team s ability to develop low-risk productive science activity plans. In addition, for the Mercator and Viz visualization environments, extensibility and adaptability to different missions and application areas are key design goals.

Edwards, Laurence; Keely, Leslie; Lees, David; Stoker, Carol

2012-01-01

341

Reactor transient analyses with KIN3D/PARTISN  

SciTech Connect

Efforts are going on at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) to extend the kinetics capability of the PARTISN code in order to run in parallel two- and three-dimensional transient analyses with the quasistatic method, while taking into account delayed neutrons. In the original code version, time-dependent transport problems are solved by employing a semi-implicit direct kinetics option, the delayed neutrons being not taken into account. The PARTISN 5.97 code has been extended and then coupled with KIN3D, a time-dependent model embedded in the ERANOS code system. In the coupled code, PARTISN 5.97 is used as neutron transport solver to perform transient analyses while employing direct and quasi-static kinetics options of KIN3D. The coupled code can be also applied for first-order and exact perturbation theory calculations. In the paper, the PARTISN 5.97 extensions and coupling procedure are described and the performances of the KIN3D/PARTISN coupled code are investigated by analyzing transients induced by a source-jerk in a three-dimensional ADS model driven by an external source. (authors)

Gabrielli, F.; Rineiski, A.; Maschek, W.; Marchetti, M. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

2013-07-01

342

In situ thermal gelling polypeptide for chondrocytes 3D culture.  

PubMed

In the search for a cell-instructive or cell-interactive artificial extracellular matrix, synthetic hydrogels have been extensively investigated to apply three-dimensional (3D) cell culture and tissue engineering. Here, we are reporting a reverse thermal gelling l/dl-polyalanine block copolymer aqueous solution for chondrocyte 3D culture. The polymer aqueous solution undergoes sol-to-gel transition as the temperature increases, thus forming a 3D cell encapsulating scaffold in situ at 37†įC. In particular, the fraction of the ?-sheet structure of the polyalanine dictated the population and thickness of fibrous nanostructure of the hydrogel, which in turn affected the proliferation and protein expression of the encapsulated chondrocytes. As an injectable tissue engineering system of chondrocytes, very promising results were confirmed for nude mice, using the current polypeptide aqueous solution. This paper not only provides important clues in designing an artificial extracellular matrix but also proves the significance of thermal gelling polypeptide as a minimally-invasive tissue engineering scaffold. PMID:20864172

Choi, Bo Gyu; Park, Min Hee; Cho, So-Hye; Joo, Min Kyung; Oh, Hye Jin; Kim, Eun Hye; Park, Kwideok; Han, Dong Keun; Jeong, Byeongmoon

2010-12-01

343

Cancer3D: understanding cancer mutations through protein structures.  

PubMed

The new era of cancer genomics is providing us with extensive knowledge of mutations and other alterations in cancer. The Cancer3D database at http://www.cancer3d.org gives an open and user-friendly way to analyze cancer missense mutations in the context of structures of proteins in which they are found. The database also helps users analyze the distribution patterns of the mutations as well as their relationship to changes in drug activity through two algorithms: e-Driver and e-Drug. These algorithms use knowledge of modular structure of genes and proteins to separately study each region. This approach allows users to find novel candidate driver regions or drug biomarkers that cannot be found when similar analyses are done on the whole-gene level. The Cancer3D database provides access to the results of such analyses based on data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE). In addition, it displays mutations from over 14 700 proteins mapped to more than 24 300 structures from PDB. This helps users visualize the distribution of mutations and identify novel three-dimensional patterns in their distribution. PMID:25392415

Porta-Pardo, Eduard; Hrabe, Thomas; Godzik, Adam

2015-01-28

344

Fast System Level Benchmarks for Multicore Architectures  

E-print Network

% similarity to the real benchmarks. Index Terms--Synthetic benchmarks, SystemC, Parallel pat- ternsFast System Level Benchmarks for Multicore Architectures Alper Sen, Gokcehan Kara Etem Deniz, Smail level synthetic benchmarks from traditional bench- marks. Synthetic benchmarks have similar performance

Sen, Alper

345

PLOT3D Export Tool for Tecplot  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The PLOT3D export tool for Tecplot solves the problem of modified data being impossible to output for use by another computational science solver. The PLOT3D Exporter add-on enables the use of the most commonly available visualization tools to engineers for output of a standard format. The exportation of PLOT3D data from Tecplot has far reaching effects because it allows for grid and solution manipulation within a graphical user interface (GUI) that is easily customized with macro language-based and user-developed GUIs. The add-on also enables the use of Tecplot as an interpolation tool for solution conversion between different grids of different types. This one add-on enhances the functionality of Tecplot so significantly, it offers the ability to incorporate Tecplot into a general suite of tools for computational science applications as a 3D graphics engine for visualization of all data. Within the PLOT3D Export Add-on are several functions that enhance the operations and effectiveness of the add-on. Unlike Tecplot output functions, the PLOT3D Export Add-on enables the use of the zone selection dialog in Tecplot to choose which zones are to be written by offering three distinct options - output of active, inactive, or all zones (grid blocks). As the user modifies the zones to output with the zone selection dialog, the zones to be written are similarly updated. This enables the use of Tecplot to create multiple configurations of a geometry being analyzed. For example, if an aircraft is loaded with multiple deflections of flaps, by activating and deactivating different zones for a specific flap setting, new specific configurations of that aircraft can be easily generated by only writing out specific zones. Thus, if ten flap settings are loaded into Tecplot, the PLOT3D Export software can output ten different configurations, one for each flap setting.

Alter, Stephen

2010-01-01

346

3D Printing in Zero-G ISS Technology Demonstration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has a long term strategy to fabricate components and equipment on-demand for manned missions to the Moon, Mars, and beyond. To support this strategy, NASA and Made in Space, Inc. are developing the 3D Printing In Zero-G payload as a Technology Demonstration for the International Space Station. The 3D Printing In Zero-G experiment will be the first machine to perform 3D printing in space. The greater the distance from Earth and the longer the mission duration, the more difficult resupply becomes; this requires a change from the current spares, maintenance, repair, and hardware design model that has been used on the International Space Station up until now. Given the extension of the ISS Program, which will inevitably result in replacement parts being required, the ISS is an ideal platform to begin changing the current model for resupply and repair to one that is more suitable for all exploration missions. 3D Printing, more formally known as Additive Manufacturing, is the method of building parts/ objects/tools layer-by-layer. The 3D Print experiment will use extrusion-based additive manufacturing, which involves building an object out of plastic deposited by a wire-feed via an extruder head. Parts can be printed from data files loaded on the device at launch, as well as additional files uplinked to the device while on-orbit. The plastic extrusion additive manufacturing process is a low-energy, low-mass solution to many common needs on board the ISS. The 3D Print payload will serve as the ideal first step to proving that process in space. It is unreasonable to expect NASA to launch large blocks of material from which parts or tools can be traditionally machined, and even more unreasonable to fly up specialized manufacturing hardware to perform the entire range of function traditionally machining requires. The technology to produce parts on demand, in space, offers unique design options that are not possible through traditional manufacturing methods while offering cost-effective, high-precision, low-unit on-demand manufacturing. Thus, Additive Manufacturing capabilities are the foundation of an advanced manufacturing in space roadmap.

Johnston, Mallory M.; Werkheiser, Mary J.; Cooper, Kenneth G.; Snyder, Michael P.; Edmunson, Jennifer E.

2014-01-01

347

ICER-3D Hyperspectral Image Compression Software  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Software has been developed to implement the ICER-3D algorithm. ICER-3D effects progressive, three-dimensional (3D), wavelet-based compression of hyperspectral images. If a compressed data stream is truncated, the progressive nature of the algorithm enables reconstruction of hyperspectral data at fidelity commensurate with the given data volume. The ICER-3D software is capable of providing either lossless or lossy compression, and incorporates an error-containment scheme to limit the effects of data loss during transmission. The compression algorithm, which was derived from the ICER image compression algorithm, includes wavelet-transform, context-modeling, and entropy coding subalgorithms. The 3D wavelet decomposition structure used by ICER-3D exploits correlations in all three dimensions of sets of hyperspectral image data, while facilitating elimination of spectral ringing artifacts, using a technique summarized in "Improving 3D Wavelet-Based Compression of Spectral Images" (NPO-41381), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 33, No. 3 (March 2009), page 7a. Correlation is further exploited by a context-modeling subalgorithm, which exploits spectral dependencies in the wavelet-transformed hyperspectral data, using an algorithm that is summarized in "Context Modeler for Wavelet Compression of Hyperspectral Images" (NPO-43239), which follows this article. An important feature of ICER-3D is a scheme for limiting the adverse effects of loss of data during transmission. In this scheme, as in the similar scheme used by ICER, the spatial-frequency domain is partitioned into rectangular error-containment regions. In ICER-3D, the partitions extend through all the wavelength bands. The data in each partition are compressed independently of those in the other partitions, so that loss or corruption of data from any partition does not affect the other partitions. Furthermore, because compression is progressive within each partition, when data are lost, any data from that partition received prior to the loss can be used to reconstruct that partition at lower fidelity. By virtue of the compression improvement it achieves relative to previous means of onboard data compression, this software enables (1) increased return of hyperspectral scientific data in the presence of limits on the rates of transmission of data from spacecraft to Earth via radio communication links and/or (2) reduction in spacecraft radio-communication power and/or cost through reduction in the amounts of data required to be downlinked and stored onboard prior to downlink. The software is also suitable for compressing hyperspectral images for ground storage or archival purposes.

Xie, Hua; Kiely, Aaron; Klimesh, matthew; Aranki, Nazeeh

2010-01-01

348

3D dynamic roadmapping for abdominal catheterizations.  

PubMed

Despite rapid advances in interventional imaging, the navigation of a guide wire through abdominal vasculature remains, not only for novice radiologists, a difficult task. Since this navigation is mostly based on 2D fluoroscopic image sequences from one view, the process is slowed down significantly due to missing depth information and patient motion. We propose a novel approach for 3D dynamic roadmapping in deformable regions by predicting the location of the guide wire tip in a 3D vessel model from the tip's 2D location, respiratory motion analysis, and view geometry. In a first step, the method compensates for the apparent respiratory motion in 2D space before backprojecting the 2D guide wire tip into three dimensional space, using a given projection matrix. To countervail the error connected to the projection parameters and the motion compensation, as well as the ambiguity caused by vessel deformation, we establish a statistical framework, which computes a reliable estimate of the guide wire tip location within the 3D vessel model. With this 2D-to-3D transfer, the navigation can be performed from arbitrary viewing angles, disconnected from the static perspective view of the fluoroscopic sequence. Tests on a realistic breathing phantom and on synthetic data with a known ground truth clearly reveal the superiority of our approach compared to naive methods for 3D roadmapping. The concepts and information presented in this paper are based on research and are not commercially available. PMID:18982662

Bender, Frederik; Groher, Martin; Khamene, Ali; Wein, Wolfgang; Heibel, Tim Hauke; Navab, Nassir

2008-01-01

349

2D/3D facial feature extraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose and compare three different automatic landmarking methods for near-frontal faces. The face information is provided as 480x640 gray-level images in addition to the corresponding 3D scene depth information. All three methods follow a coarse-to-fine suite and use the 3D information in an assist role. The first method employs a combination of principal component analysis (PCA) and independent component analysis (ICA) features to analyze the Gabor feature set. The second method uses a subset of DCT coefficients for template-based matching. These two methods employ SVM classifiers with polynomial kernel functions. The third method uses a mixture of factor analyzers to learn Gabor filter outputs. We contrast the localization performance separately with 2D texture and 3D depth information. Although the 3D depth information per se does not perform as well as texture images in landmark localization, the 3D information has still a beneficial role in eliminating the background and the false alarms.

«inar Akakin, Hatice; Ali Salah, Albert; Akarun, Lale; Sankur, BŁlent

2006-02-01

350

The importance of 3D dosimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiation therapy has been getting progressively more complex for the past 20 years. Early radiation therapy techniques needed only basic dosimetry equipment; motorized water phantoms, ionization chambers, and basic radiographic film techniques. As intensity modulated radiation therapy and image guided therapy came into widespread practice, medical physicists were challenged with developing effective and efficient dose measurement techniques. The complex 3-dimensional (3D) nature of the dose distributions that were being delivered demanded the development of more quantitative and more thorough methods for dose measurement. The quality assurance vendors developed a wide array of multidetector arrays that have been enormously useful for measuring and characterizing dose distributions, and these have been made especially useful with the advent of 3D dose calculation systems based on the array measurements, as well as measurements made using film and portal imagers. Other vendors have been providing 3D calculations based on data from the linear accelerator or the record and verify system, providing thorough evaluation of the dose but lacking quality assurance (QA) of the dose delivery process, including machine calibration. The current state of 3D dosimetry is one of a state of flux. The vendors and professional associations are trying to determine the optimal balance between thorough QA, labor efficiency, and quantitation. This balance will take some time to reach, but a necessary component will be the 3D measurement and independent calculation of delivered radiation therapy dose distributions.

Low, Daniel

2015-01-01

351

3D optical measuring technologies and systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of the R & D activity of TDI SIE SB RAS in the field of the 3D optical measuring technologies and systems for noncontact 3D optical dimensional inspection applied to atomic and railway industry safety problems are presented. This activity includes investigations of diffraction phenomena on some 3D objects, using the original constructive calculation method. The efficient algorithms for precise determining the transverse and longitudinal sizes of 3D objects of constant thickness by diffraction method, peculiarities on formation of the shadow and images of the typical elements of the extended objects were suggested. Ensuring the safety of nuclear reactors and running trains as well as their high exploitation reliability requires a 100% noncontact precise inspection of geometrical parameters of their components. To solve this problem we have developed methods and produced the technical vision measuring systems LMM, CONTROL, PROFIL, and technologies for noncontact 3D dimensional inspection of grid spacers and fuel elements for the nuclear reactor VVER-1000 and VVER-440, as well as automatic laser diagnostic COMPLEX for noncontact inspection of geometric parameters of running freight car wheel pairs. The performances of these systems and the results of industrial testing are presented and discussed. The created devices are in pilot operation at Atomic and Railway Companies.

Chugui, Yuri V.

2005-02-01

352

Full-color holographic 3D printer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A holographic 3D printer is a system that produces a direct hologram with full-parallax information using the 3-dimensional data of a subject from a computer. In this paper, we present a proposal for the reproduction of full-color images with the holographic 3D printer. In order to realize the 3-dimensional color image, we selected the 3 laser wavelength colors of red (?=633nm), green (?=533nm), and blue (?=442nm), and we built a one-step optical system using a projection system and a liquid crystal display. The 3-dimensional color image is obtained by synthesizing in a 2D array the multiple exposure with these 3 wavelengths made on each 250mm elementary hologram, and moving recording medium on a x-y stage. For the natural color reproduction in the holographic 3D printer, we take the approach of the digital processing technique based on the color management technology. The matching between the input and output colors is performed by investigating first, the relation between the gray level transmittance of the LCD and the diffraction efficiency of the hologram and second, by measuring the color displayed by the hologram to establish a correlation. In our first experimental results a non-linear functional relation for single and multiple exposure of the three components were found. These results are the first step in the realization of a natural color 3D image produced by the holographic color 3D printer.

Takano, Masami; Shigeta, Hiroaki; Nishihara, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Takahashi, Susumu; Ohyama, Nagaaki; Kobayashi, Akihiko; Iwata, Fujio

2003-05-01

353

3D surface reconstruction from range slices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research on three-dimensional (3D) surface reconstruction from range slices obtained from range-gated laser imaging system is of significance. 3D surfaces reconstructed based on existing binarization method or centroid method are rough or discontinuous in some circumstances. In this paper we address these problems and develop a 3D surface reconstruction algorithm based on the idea that combining the centroid method with weighted linear interpolation and mean filter. The algorithm consists of three steps. In the first step, interesting regions are extracted from each range slice based on mean filter, and then are merged to derive a single range image. In the second step, the derived range image is denoised and smoothed based on adaptive histogram method, weighted linear interpolation and mean filter method respectively. Finally, nonzero valued pixels in the after processed range image are converted to point cloud according to the range-gated imaging parameters, and then 3D surface meshes are established from the point cloud based on the topological relationship between adjacent pixels in the range image. Experiment is conducted on range slices generated from range-gated laser imaging simulation platform, and the registration result of the reconstructed surface of our method with the original surface of the object shows that the proposed method can reconstruct object surface accurately, so it can be used for the designing of reconstruction and displaying of range-gated laser imaging system, and also can be used for 3D object recognition.

Wang, Mingming; Zhu, Feng; Hao, Ying-ming

2014-11-01

354

3D hydro-mechanically coupled groundwater flow modelling of Pleistocene glaciation effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pleistocene glaciation led to temporal and spatial variations of sub-surface pore fluid pressure. In basins covered by ice sheets, fluid flow and recharge rates are strongly elevated during glaciations as compared to inter-glacial periods. Present-day hydrogeological conditions across formerly glaciated areas are likely to still reflect the impact of glaciations that ended locally more than 10 thousand years before present. 3D hydro-mechanical coupled modelling of glaciation can help to improve the management of groundwater resources in formerly glaciated basins. An open source numerical code for solving linear elasticity, which is based on the finite element method (FEM) in 3D, has been developed. By coupling this code with existing 3D flow codes it is possible to enable hydro-mechanical coupled modelling. Results of two benchmark simulations are compared to existing analytical solutions to demonstrate the performance of the newly developed code. While the result for a fluid-structure coupled case is in reasonable agreement with the analytical model, the result for a classical structure-fluid coupled benchmark showed that the analytical solution only matches the numerical result when the relevant coupling parameter (loading efficiency) is known in advance. This indicates that the applicability of widely applied approaches using an extra term in the groundwater flow equation for vertical stress to simulate hydro-mechanical coupling might have to be re-evaluated. A case study with the commercial groundwater simulator FEFLOW demonstrates the newly developed solution.

RŁhaak, Wolfram; Bense, Victor F.; Sass, Ingo

2014-06-01

355

Development of 3D video and 3D data services for T-DMB  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present motivation, system concept, and implementation details of stereoscopic 3D visual services on T-DMB. We have developed two types of 3D visual service : one is '3D video service', which provides 3D depth feeling for a video program by sending left and right view video streams, and the other is '3D data service', which provides presentation of 3D objects overlaid on top of 2D video program. We have developed several highly efficient and sophisticated transmission schemes for the delivery of 3D visual data in order to meet the system requirements such as (1) minimization of bitrate overhead to comply with the strict constraint of T-DMB channel bandwidth; (2) backward and forward compatibility with existing T-DMB; (3) maximize the eye-catching effect of 3D visual representation while reducing eye fatigue. We found that, in contrast to conventional way of providing a stereo version of a program as a whole, the proposed scheme can lead to variety of efficient and effective 3D visual services which can be adapted to many business models.

Yun, Kugjin; Lee, Hyun; Hur, Namho; Kim, Jinwoong

2008-02-01

356

3D Printing In Zero-G ISS Technology Demonstration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has a long term strategy to fabricate components and equipment on-demand for manned missions to the Moon, Mars, and beyond. To support this strategy, NASA and Made in Space, Inc. are developing the 3D Printing In Zero-G payload as a Technology Demonstration for the International Space Station (ISS). The 3D Printing In Zero-G experiment ('3D Print') will be the first machine to perform 3D printing in space. The greater the distance from Earth and the longer the mission duration, the more difficult resupply becomes; this requires a change from the current spares, maintenance, repair, and hardware design model that has been used on the International Space Station (ISS) up until now. Given the extension of the ISS Program, which will inevitably result in replacement parts being required, the ISS is an ideal platform to begin changing the current model for resupply and repair to one that is more suitable for all exploration missions. 3D Printing, more formally known as Additive Manufacturing, is the method of building parts/objects/tools layer-by-layer. The 3D Print experiment will use extrusion-based additive manufacturing, which involves building an object out of plastic deposited by a wire-feed via an extruder head. Parts can be printed from data files loaded on the device at launch, as well as additional files uplinked to the device while on-orbit. The plastic extrusion additive manufacturing process is a low-energy, low-mass solution to many common needs on board the ISS. The 3D Print payload will serve as the ideal first step to proving that process in space. It is unreasonable to expect NASA to launch large blocks of material from which parts or tools can be traditionally machined, and even more unreasonable to fly up multiple drill bits that would be required to machine parts from aerospace-grade materials such as titanium 6-4 alloy and Inconel. The technology to produce parts on demand, in space, offers unique design options that are not possible through traditional manufacturing methods while offering cost-effective, high-precision, low-unit on-demand manufacturing. Thus, Additive Manufacturing capabilities are the foundation of an advanced manufacturing in space roadmap. The 3D Printing In Zero-G experiment will demonstrate the capability of utilizing Additive Manufacturing technology in space. This will serve as the enabling first step to realizing an additive manufacturing, print-on-demand "machine shop" for long-duration missions and sustaining human exploration of other planets, where there is extremely limited ability and availability of Earth-based logistics support. Simply put, Additive Manufacturing in space is a critical enabling technology for NASA. It will provide the capability to produce hardware on-demand, directly lowering cost and decreasing risk by having the exact part or tool needed in the time it takes to print. This capability will also provide the much-needed solution to the cost, volume, and up-mass constraints that prohibit launching everything needed for long-duration or long-distance missions from Earth, including spare parts and replacement systems. A successful mission for the 3D Printing In Zero-G payload is the first step to demonstrate the capability of printing on orbit. The data gathered and lessons learned from this demonstration will be applied to the next generation of additive manufacturing technology on orbit. It is expected that Additive Manufacturing technology will quickly become a critical part of any mission's infrastructure.

Werkheiser, Niki; Cooper, Kenneth; Edmunson, Jennifer; Dunn, Jason; Snyder, Michael

2014-01-01

357

The SEQUOIA 2000 storage benchmark  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a benchmark that concisely captures the data base requirements of a collection of Earth Scientists working in the SEQUOIA 2000 project on various aspects of global change research. This benchmark has the novel characteristic that it uses real data sets and real queries that are representative of Earth Science tasks. Because it appears that Earth Science problems

Michael Stonebraker; Jim Frew; Kenn Gardels; Jeff Meredith

1993-01-01

358

Benchmarking. A Guide for Educators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book offers strategies for enhancing a school's teaching and learning by using benchmarking, a team-research and data-driven process for increasing school effectiveness. Benchmarking enables professionals to study and know their systems and continually improve their practices. The book is designed to lead a team step by step through theÖ

Tucker, Sue

359

Former Yosemite Hydrologic Benchmark Streamgage  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

In this image, the former USGS Hydrologic Benchmark Streamgage on the Merced River in Yosemite Valley can be seen. Hydrologic Benchmark streamgages are those at which no human development exists upstream of the streamgage. The streamgage station has been in existence since 1915, and was replaced by ...

360

Implementation of an efficient workflow process for gel dosimetry using 3D Slicer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One challenge in gel dosimetry is the manipulation and analysis of complex data sets from different systems. In this paper, we describe a simple and fast gel dosimetry analysis tool for radiation therapy dose deliveries. Using the open source medical imaging software 3D Slicer, an extension was designed and implemented for the purpose of importing treatment planning system dose, CT imaging from simulation and at treatment, and optical CT gel dosimeter data. The extension also allows for calibration of gel dosimeter data, registration, and comparison of 3D dose distributions. The development of an open source gel dosimetry processing environment may help adoption of gels in the clinic.

Alexander, K. M.; Pinter, C.; Andrea, J.; Fichtinger, G.; Schreiner, L. J.

2015-01-01

361

3D Engineered Models for Construction Support & Available Tools  

E-print Network

3D Engineered Models for Construction Support & Available Tools #12;3D Engineered Models for Construction · New web page www.fhwa.dot.gov/3d (search "fhwa 3D") ­ Specs, Standards, Details, Tech Briefs ­ Provides initial response within 24 hours of inquiry National Website and TSSC 2 #12;3D Engineered Models

362

Interactive visual optimization and analysis for RFID benchmarking.  

PubMed

Radio frequency identification (RFID) is a powerful automatic remote identification technique that has wide applications. To facilitate RFID deployment, an RFID benchmarking instrument called aGate has been invented to identify the strengths and weaknesses of different RFID technologies in various environments. However, the data acquired by aGate are usually complex time varying multidimensional 3D volumetric data, which are extremely challenging for engineers to analyze. In this paper, we introduce a set of visualization techniques, namely, parallel coordinate plots, orientation plots, a visual history mechanism, and a 3D spatial viewer, to help RFID engineers analyze benchmark data visually and intuitively. With the techniques, we further introduce two workflow procedures (a visual optimization procedure for finding the optimum reader antenna configuration and a visual analysis procedure for comparing the performance and identifying the flaws of RFID devices) for the RFID benchmarking, with focus on the performance analysis of the aGate system. The usefulness and usability of the system are demonstrated in the user evaluation. PMID:19834206

Wu, Yingcai; Chung, Ka-Kei; Qu, Huamin; Yuan, Xiaoru; Cheung, S C

2009-01-01

363

Improving 3D Spatial Visualization of Stream Channel Morphology: A Geomorphic Application of ArcView 3D Analyst Extension.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This laboratory exercise helps student bridge the gap between fieldwork, data collection, visualization, and interpretation of the data. Using a combination of surveying techniques, spreadsheet modeling, and GIS , students further develop their spatial visualization skills and use these skills to predict geomorphic responses.

John Van Hoesen

364

Benchmarking Parallel Java Master's Project Report  

E-print Network

Benchmarking Parallel Java Master's Project Report Asma'u Sani Mohammed Java API by implementing the OpenMP version of the NAS Parallel Benchmark (NPB in comparison with FORTRAN OpenMP. Benchmarking Parallel Java allows us to understand

Kaminsky, Alan

365

Atomic resolution 3D electron diffraction microscopy  

SciTech Connect

Electron lens aberration is the major barrier limiting the resolution of electron microscopy. Here we describe a novel form of electron microscopy to overcome electron lens aberration. By combining coherent electron diffraction with the oversampling phasing method, we show that the 3D structure of a 2 x 2 x 2 unit cell nano-crystal (framework of LTA [Al12Si12O48]8) can be ab initio determined at the resolution of 1 Angstrom from a series of simulated noisy diffraction pattern projections with rotation angles ranging from -70 degrees to +70 degrees in 5 degrees increments along a single rotation axis. This form of microscopy (which we call 3D electron diffraction microscopy) does not require any reference waves, and can image the 3D structure of nanocrystals, as well as non-crystalline biological and materials science samples, with the resolution limited only by the quality of sample diffraction.

Miao, Jianwei; Ohsuna, Tetsu; Terasaki, Osamu; O'Keefe, Michael A.

2002-03-01

366

3D printing for dielectric elastomers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an analysis on the feasibility of the 3D printing technology known as Stereolithography for adaption to Dielectric Elastomer (DE) Production. We also present a method for 3D printing in two materials using Stereolithography, solving one of the main challenges identified in adapting this technology to DEs. Stereolithography is well suited to DE production because of similarities in the materials used and because of its high achievable resolution. However, DE production requires the use of two separate materials, and of soft materials, both of which are difficult with Stereolithography. Our method makes two material printing with Stereolithography possible by using multiple resin baths and an intermediary cleaning step. If the other challenges can be overcome, automatic 3D production of DEs will be possible.

Creegan, Andrew; Anderson, Iain

2014-03-01

367

3D Simulation: Microgravity Environments and Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Most, if not all, 3-D and Virtual Reality (VR) software programs are designed for one-G gravity applications. Space environments simulations require gravity effects of one one-thousandth to one one-million of that of the Earth's surface (10(exp -3) - 10(exp -6) G), thus one must be able to generate simulations that replicate those microgravity effects upon simulated astronauts. Unfortunately, the software programs utilized by the National Aeronautical and Space Administration does not have the ability to readily neutralize the one-G gravity effect. This pre-programmed situation causes the engineer or analysis difficulty during micro-gravity simulations. Therefore, microgravity simulations require special techniques or additional code in order to apply the power of 3D graphic simulation to space related applications. This paper discusses the problem and possible solutions to allow microgravity 3-D/VR simulations to be completed successfully without program code modifications.

Hunter, Steve L.; Dischinger, Charles; Estes, Samantha; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

368

Benchmarking foreign electronics technologies  

SciTech Connect

This report has been drafted in response to a request from the Japanese Technology Evaluation Center`s (JTEC) Panel on Benchmarking Select Technologies. Since April 1991, the Competitive Semiconductor Manufacturing (CSM) Program at the University of California at Berkeley has been engaged in a detailed study of quality, productivity, and competitiveness in semiconductor manufacturing worldwide. The program is a joint activity of the College of Engineering, the Haas School of Business, and the Berkeley Roundtable on the International Economy, under sponsorship of the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, and with the cooperation of semiconductor producers from Asia, Europe and the United States. Professors David A. Hodges and Robert C. Leachman are the project`s Co-Directors. The present report for JTEC is primarily based on data and analysis drawn from that continuing program. The CSM program is being conducted by faculty, graduate students and research staff from UC Berkeley`s Schools of Engineering and Business, and Department of Economics. Many of the participating firms are represented on the program`s Industry Advisory Board. The Board played an important role in defining the research agenda. A pilot study was conducted in 1991 with the cooperation of three semiconductor plants. The research plan and survey documents were thereby refined. The main phase of the CSM benchmarking study began in mid-1992 and will continue at least through 1997. reports are presented on the manufacture of integrated circuits; data storage; wireless technology; human-machine interfaces; and optoelectronics. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

Bostian, C.W.; Hodges, D.A.; Leachman, R.C.; Sheridan, T.B.; Tsang, W.T.; White, R.M.

1994-12-01

369

Acquisition and applications of 3D images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The moirť fringes method and their analysis up to medical and entertainment applications are discussed in this paper. We describe the procedure of capturing 3D images with an Inspeck Camera that is a real-time 3D shape acquisition system based on structured light techniques. The method is a high-resolution one. After processing the images, using computer, we can use the data for creating laser fashionable objects by engraving them with a Q-switched Nd:YAG. In medical field we mention the plastic surgery and the replacement of X-Ray especially in pediatric use.

Sterian, Paul; Mocanu, Elena

2007-08-01

370

Speed-line for 3D animation  

E-print Network

of Advisory Committee: Dr. Ergun Akleman My thesis describes a tool which creates speed-lines automatically in 3D com- puter animations. Speed-lines are usually used in comic books to express fast motions in a still image. They are also used in 2D animations... make 3D speed-lines which are very difficult to draw by hand. iv ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I am deeply grateful to my thesis committee chair, Dr. Ergun Akleman, for his teaching and caring help throughout the entire process of my thesis. I would also like...

Song, Won Chan

2007-04-25

371

The Local Universe: Galaxies in 3D  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here I present results from individual galaxy studies and galaxy surveys in the Local Universe with particular emphasis on the spatially resolved properties of neutral hydrogen gas. The 3D nature of the data allows detailed studies of the galaxy morphology and kinematics, their relation to local and global star formation as well as galaxy environments. I use new 3D visualisation tools to present multi-wavelength data, aided by tilted-ring models of the warped galaxy disks. Many of the algorithms and tools currently under development are essential for the exploration of upcoming large survey data, but are also highly beneficial for the analysis of current galaxy surveys.

Koribalski, Bšrbel S.

2015-02-01

372

3D Modeling Engine Representation Summary Report  

SciTech Connect

Computers have been used for 3D modeling and simulation, but only recently have computational resources been able to give realistic results in a reasonable time frame for large complex models. This summary report addressed the methods, techniques, and resources used to develop a 3D modeling engine to represent risk analysis simulation for advanced small modular reactor structures and components. The simulations done for this evaluation were focused on external events, specifically tsunami floods, for a hypothetical nuclear power facility on a coastline.

Steven Prescott; Ramprasad Sampath; Curtis Smith; Timothy Yang

2014-09-01

373

Anisotropy effects on 3D waveform inversion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the recent years 3D waveform inversion has become achievable procedure for seismic data processing. A number of datasets has been inverted and presented (Warner el al 2008, Ben Hadj at all, Sirgue et all 2010) using isotropic 3D waveform inversion. However the question arises will the results be affected by isotropic assumption. Full-wavefield inversion techniques seek to match field data, wiggle-for-wiggle, to synthetic data generated by a high-resolution model of the sub-surface. In this endeavour, correctly matching the travel times of the principal arrivals is a necessary minimal requirement. In many, perhaps most, long-offset and wide-azimuth datasets, it is necessary to introduce some form of p-wave velocity anisotropy to match the travel times successfully. If this anisotropy is not also incorporated into the wavefield inversion, then results from the inversion will necessarily be compromised. We have incorporated anisotropy into our 3D wavefield tomography codes, characterised as spatially varying transverse isotropy with a tilted axis of symmetry - TTI anisotropy. This enhancement approximately doubles both the run time and the memory requirements of the code. We show that neglect of anisotropy can lead to significant artefacts in the recovered velocity models. We will present inversion results of inverting anisotropic 3D dataset by assuming isotropic earth and compare them with anisotropic inversion result. As a test case Marmousi model extended to 3D with no velocity variation in third direction and with added spatially varying anisotropy is used. Acquisition geometry is assumed as OBC with sources and receivers everywhere at the surface. We attempted inversion using both 2D and full 3D acquisition for this dataset. Results show that if no anisotropy is taken into account although image looks plausible most features are miss positioned in depth and space, even for relatively low anisotropy, which leads to incorrect result. This may lead to misinterpretation of results. However if correct physics is used results agree with correct model. Our algorithm is relatively affordable and runs on standard pc clusters in acceptable time. Refferences: H. Ben Hadj Ali, S. Operto and J. Virieux. Velocity model building by 3D frequency-domain full-waveform inversion of wide-aperture seismic data, Geophysics (Special issue: Velocity Model Building), 73(6), P. VE101-VE117 (2008). L. Sirgue, O.I. Barkved, J. Dellinger, J. Etgen, U. Albertin, J.H. Kommedal, Full waveform inversion: the next leap forward in imaging at Valhall, First Brake April 2010 - Issue 4 - Volume 28 M. Warner, I. Stekl, A. Umpleby, Efficient and Effective 3D Wavefield Tomography, 70th EAGE Conference & Exhibition (2008)

Stekl, I.; Warner, M.; Umpleby, A.

2010-12-01

374

Effect of viewing distance on 3D fatigue caused by viewing mobile 3D content  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With an advent of autostereoscopic display technique and increased needs for smart phones, there has been a significant growth in mobile TV markets. The rapid growth in technical, economical, and social aspects has encouraged 3D TV manufacturers to apply 3D rendering technology to mobile devices so that people have more opportunities to come into contact with many 3D content anytime and anywhere. Even if the mobile 3D technology leads to the current market growth, there is an important thing to consider for consistent development and growth in the display market. To put it briefly, human factors linked to mobile 3D viewing should be taken into consideration before developing mobile 3D technology. Many studies have investigated whether mobile 3D viewing causes undesirable biomedical effects such as motion sickness and visual fatigue, but few have examined main factors adversely affecting human health. Viewing distance is considered one of the main factors to establish optimized viewing environments from a viewer's point of view. Thus, in an effort to determine human-friendly viewing environments, this study aims to investigate the effect of viewing distance on human visual system when exposing to mobile 3D environments. Recording and analyzing brainwaves before and after watching mobile 3D content, we explore how viewing distance affects viewing experience from physiological and psychological perspectives. Results obtained in this study are expected to provide viewing guidelines for viewers, help ensure viewers against undesirable 3D effects, and lead to make gradual progress towards a human-friendly mobile 3D viewing.

Mun, Sungchul; Lee, Dong-Su; Park, Min-Chul; Yano, Sumio

2013-05-01

375

Comparison of 3D Deformable Models For in vivo Measurements of Mouse Embryo from 3D Ultrasound Images  

E-print Network

Comparison of 3D Deformable Models For in vivo Measurements of Mouse Embryo from 3D Ultrasound in the analysis of the 3D shape of mouse embryo from 3D ultrasound (US) images acquired using an experimental ultrasonic system. Two approaches for the 3D segmentation of mouse embryo are evaluated. The first one

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

376

NAFEMS Finite Element Benchmarks for MDG Code Verification  

SciTech Connect

NAFEMS was originally founded at the United Kingdom's National Engineering Laboratory as the National Agency for Finite Element Methods and Standards. It was subsequently privatized as the not-for-profit organization NAFEMS, Ltd., but retains its mission ''To promote the safe and reliable use of finite element and related technology''. That mission has been pursued in part by sponsoring a series of studies that published benchmarked deemed suitable to assess the basic accuracy of engineering simulation tools. The early studies focused on FEA for linear solid and structural mechanics and then extended to nonlinear solid mechanics, eventually including contact. These benchmarks are complemented by educational materials concerning analysis technologies and approaches. More recently NAFEMS is expanding to consider thermal-fluid problems. Further information is available at www.nafems.org. Essentially all major commercial firms selling FEA for solid mechanics are members of NAFEMS and it seemed clear that Methods Development Group should leverage from this information resource, too. In 2002, W Program ASCI funding purchased a three-year membership in NAFEMS. In the summer of 2003 the first author hosted a summer graduate student to begin modeling some of the benchmark problems. We concentrated on NIKE3D, as the benchmarks are most typically problems most naturally run with implicit FEA. Also, this was viewed as a natural path to generate verification problems that could be subsequently incorporated into the Diablo code's test suite. This report documents and archives our initial efforts. The intent is that this will be a ''living document'' that can be expanded as further benchmarks are generated, run, interpreted and documented. To this end each benchmark, or related grouping, is localized in its own section with its own pagination. Authorship (test engineers) will be listed section by section.

Greer, R; Ferencz, R M

2004-02-24

377

The EISCAT_3D Science Case  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

EISCAT_3D will be a world-leading international research infrastructure using the incoherent scatter technique to study the atmosphere in the Fenno-Scandinavian Arctic and to investigate how the Earth's atmosphere is coupled to space. The EISCAT_3D phased-array multistatic radar system will be operated by EISCAT Scientific Association and thus be an integral part of an organisation that has successfully been running incoherent scatter radars for more than thirty years. The baseline design of the radar system contains a core site with transmitting and receiving capabilities located close to the intersection of the Swedish, Norwegian and Finnish borders and five receiving sites located within 50 to 250 km from the core. The EISCAT_3D project is currently in its Preparatory Phase and can smoothly transit into implementation in 2014, provided sufficient funding. Construction can start 2016 and first operations in 2018. The EISCAT_3D Science Case is prepared as part of the Preparatory Phase. It is regularly updated with annual new releases, and it aims at being a common document for the whole future EISCAT_3D user community. The areas covered by the Science Case are atmospheric physics and global change; space and plasma physics; solar system research; space weather and service applications; and radar techniques, new methods for coding and analysis. Two of the aims for EISCAT_3D are to understand the ways natural variability in the upper atmosphere, imposed by the Sun-Earth system, can influence the middle and lower atmosphere, and to improve the predictivity of atmospheric models by providing higher resolution observations to replace the current parametrised input. Observations by EISCAT_3D will also be used to monitor the direct effects from the Sun on the ionosphere-atmosphere system and those caused by solar wind magnetosphere-ionosphere interaction. In addition, EISCAT_3D will be used for remote sensing the large-scale behaviour of the magnetosphere from its projection in the high-latitude ionosphere. EISCAT_3D can also be used to study solar system properties. Thanks to the high power and great accuracy, mapping of objects like the Moon and asteroids is possible. With the high power and large antenna aperture, incoherent scatter radars can be extraordinarily good monitors of extraterrestrial dust and its interaction with the atmosphere. Although incoherent scatter radars, such as EISCAT_3D, are few in number, the power and versatility of their measurement technique mean that they can measure parameters which are not obtainable otherwise, and thus also be a cornerstone in the international efforts to measure and predict space weather effects. Finally, over the years the EISCAT radars have served as a testbed for new ideas in radar coding and data analysis. EISCAT_3D will be the first of a new generation of "software radars" whose advanced capabilities will be realised not by its hardware but by the flexibility and adaptability of the scheduling, beam-forming, signal processing and analysis software used to control the radar and process its data. Thus, new techniques will be developed into standard observing applications for implementation in the next generation of software radars.

Tjulin, A.; Mann, I.; McCrea, I.; Aikio, A. T.

2013-05-01

378

The COMET method in 3-D hexagonal geometry  

SciTech Connect

The hybrid stochastic-deterministic coarse mesh radiation transport (COMET) method developed at Georgia Tech now solves reactor core problems in 3-D hexagonal geometry. In this paper, the method is used to solve three preliminary test problems designed to challenge the method with steep flux gradients, high leakage, and strong asymmetry and heterogeneity in the core. The test problems are composed of blocks taken from a high temperature test reactor benchmark problem. As the method is still in development, these problems and their results are strictly preliminary. Results are compared to whole core Monte Carlo reference solutions in order to verify the method. Relative errors are on the order of 50 pcm in core eigenvalue, and mean relative error in pin fission density calculations is less than 1% in these difficult test cores. The method requires the one-time pre-computation of a response expansion coefficient library, which may be compiled in a comparable amount of time to a single whole core Monte Carlo calculation. After the library has been computed, COMET may solve any number of core configurations on the order of an hour, representing a significant gain in efficiency over other methods for whole core transport calculations. (authors)

Connolly, K. J.; Rahnema, F. [Nuclear and Radiological Engineering and Medical Physics Programs, George W. Woodruff School, Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

2012-07-01

379

Make3D: learning 3D scene structure from a single still image.  

PubMed

We consider the problem of estimating detailed 3D structure from a single still image of an unstructured environment. Our goal is to create 3D models that are both quantitatively accurate as well as visually pleasing. For each small homogeneous patch in the image, we use a Markov Random Field (MRF) to infer a set of "plane parameters" that capture both the 3D location and 3D orientation of the patch. The MRF, trained via supervised learning, models both image depth cues as well as the relationships between different parts of the image. Other than assuming that the environment is made up of a number of small planes, our model makes no explicit assumptions about the structure of the scene; this enables the algorithm to capture much more detailed 3D structure than does prior art and also give a much richer experience in the 3D flythroughs created using image-based rendering, even for scenes with significant nonvertical structure. Using this approach, we have created qualitatively correct 3D models for 64.9 percent of 588 images downloaded from the Internet. We have also extended our model to produce large-scale 3D models from a few images. PMID:19299858

Saxena, Ashutosh; Sun, Min; Ng, Andrew Y

2009-05-01

380

3D Model Data Generation and Conversion for 3D Printers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, 3D printers have attracted increasing attention due to their popularization and high performance, resulting in expanded application ranges. Popularization implies that people are using 3D equipment when they do not have underlying knowledge about it. High performance can be obtained from several aspects of 3D printing processes such as an efficient way to generate a 3D model from images or drawings. In this paper, two topics are considered: improvement of the precision of 3D models from two-dimensional (2D) images, and their conversion into G-code in a time-efficient way. When making 3D data models using 2D images, there are several issues to consider. In this study, some case studies using standard software are used to obtain data in which adjustments are made. The conversion time strongly depends on the subject size. Although the amount of code and its complexity are high, 3D printers should be able to handle this process in a practical time. A system model is proposed to shorten the essential data conversion time for a high-performance process. A distributed processing algorithm for converting standard template library (STL) files to G-code is proposed as a means to process 3D model data.

Kim, Sungsuk

2015-01-01

381

Liquid crystal lens array for 3D display and 3D air-touch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A low driving voltage with fast response LC-lens by using high resistance material was developed. By implementing the LC-lens as an array structure, it can be adaptively used for multi-function of 3D displays. Furthermore, by combining with coded optical barrier with embedded optical sensors, it can yield 3D air-touch function.

Huang, Yi-Pai; Jen, Tai-Hsieng; Chang, Yu-Cheng; Wang, Guo-Zhen; Shieh, Po-Yuan; Chen, Chi-Wei; Liao, Lin-Yao

2013-12-01

382

3D Slicer as an image computing platform for the Quantitative Imaging Network.  

PubMed

Quantitative analysis has tremendous but mostly unrealized potential in healthcare to support objective and accurate interpretation of the clinical imaging. In 2008, the National Cancer Institute began building the Quantitative Imaging Network (QIN) initiative with the goal of advancing quantitative imaging in the context of personalized therapy and evaluation of treatment response. Computerized analysis is an important component contributing to reproducibility and efficiency of the quantitative imaging techniques. The success of quantitative imaging is contingent on robust analysis methods and software tools to bring these methods from bench to bedside. 3D Slicer is a free open-source software application for medical image computing. As a clinical research tool, 3D Slicer is similar to a radiology workstation that supports versatile visualizations but also provides advanced functionality such as automated segmentation and registration for a variety of application domains. Unlike a typical radiology workstation, 3D Slicer is free and is not tied to specific hardware. As a programming platform, 3D Slicer facilitates translation and evaluation of the new quantitative methods by allowing the biomedical researcher to focus on the implementation of the algorithm and providing abstractions for the common tasks of data communication, visualization and user interface development. Compared to other tools that provide aspects of this functionality, 3D Slicer is fully open source and can be readily extended and redistributed. In addition, 3D Slicer is designed to facilitate the development of new functionality in the form of 3D Slicer extensions. In this paper, we present an overview of 3D Slicer as a platform for prototyping, development and evaluation of image analysis tools for clinical research applications. To illustrate the utility of the platform in the scope of QIN, we discuss several use cases of 3D Slicer by the existing QIN teams, and we elaborate on the future directions that can further facilitate development and validation of imaging biomarkers using 3D Slicer. PMID:22770690

Fedorov, Andriy; Beichel, Reinhard; Kalpathy-Cramer, Jayashree; Finet, Julien; Fillion-Robin, Jean-Christophe; Pujol, Sonia; Bauer, Christian; Jennings, Dominique; Fennessy, Fiona; Sonka, Milan; Buatti, John; Aylward, Stephen; Miller, James V; Pieper, Steve; Kikinis, Ron

2012-11-01

383

3D Slicer as an Image Computing Platform for the Quantitative Imaging Network  

PubMed Central

Quantitative analysis has tremendous but mostly unrealized potential in healthcare to support objective and accurate interpretation of the clinical imaging. In 2008, the National Cancer Institute began building the Quantitative Imaging Network (QIN) initiative with the goal of advancing quantitative imaging in the context of personalized therapy and evaluation of treatment response. Computerized analysis is an important component contributing to reproducibility and efficiency of the quantitative imaging techniques. The success of quantitative imaging is contingent on robust analysis methods and software tools to bring these methods from bench to bedside. 3D Slicer is a free open source software application for medical image computing. As a clinical research tool, 3D Slicer is similar to a radiology workstation that supports versatile visualizations but also provides advanced functionality such as automated segmentation and registration for a variety of application domains. Unlike a typical radiology workstation, 3D Slicer is free and is not tied to specific hardware. As a programming platform, 3D Slicer facilitates translation and evaluation of the new quantitative methods by allowing the biomedical researcher to focus on the implementation of the algorithm, and providing abstractions for the common tasks of data communication, visualization and user interface development. Compared to other tools that provide aspects of this functionality, 3D Slicer is fully open source and can be readily extended and redistributed. In addition, 3D Slicer is designed to facilitate the development of new functionality in the form of 3D Slicer extensions. In this paper, we present an overview of 3D Slicer as a platform for prototyping, development and evaluation of image analysis tools for clinical research applications. To illustrate the utility of the platform in the scope of QIN, we discuss several use cases of 3D Slicer by the existing QIN teams, and we elaborate on the future directions that can further facilitate development and validation of imaging biomarkers using 3D Slicer. PMID:22770690

Fedorov, Andriy; Beichel, Reinhard; Kalpathy-Cramer, Jayashree; Finet, Julien; Fillion-Robin, Jean-Christophe; Pujol, Sonia; Bauer, Christian; Jennings, Dominique; Fennessy, Fiona; Sonka, Milan; Buatti, John; Aylward, Stephen; Miller, James V.; Pieper, Steve; Kikinis, Ron

2012-01-01

384

3-D transient analysis of pebble-bed HTGR by TORT-TD/ATTICA3D  

SciTech Connect

As most of the acceptance criteria are local core parameters, application of transient 3-D fine mesh neutron transport and thermal hydraulics coupled codes is mandatory for best estimate evaluations of safety margins. This also applies to high-temperature gas cooled reactors (HTGR). Application of 3-D fine-mesh transient transport codes using few energy groups coupled with 3-D thermal hydraulics codes becomes feasible in view of increasing computing power. This paper describes the discrete ordinates based coupled code system TORT-TD/ATTICA3D that has recently been extended by a fine-mesh diffusion solver. Based on transient analyses for the PBMR-400 design, the transport/diffusion capabilities are demonstrated and 3-D local flux and power redistribution effects during a partial control rod withdrawal are shown. (authors)

Seubert, A.; Sureda, A. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit GRS MbH, Forschungszentrum, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Lapins, J.; Buck, M. [Institut fuer Kernenergetik und Energiesysteme IKE, Universitaet Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 31, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Bader, J. [Institut fuer Kernenergetik und Energiesysteme IKE, Universitaet Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 31, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); EnBW Kernkraft GmbH, Kernkraftwerk Philippsburg, Rheinschanzinsel, D-76661 Philippsburg (Germany); Laurien, E. [Institut fuer Kernenergetik und Energiesysteme IKE, Universitaet Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 31, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

2012-07-01

385

Recent developments in stereoscopic and holographic 3D display technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently, there is increasing interest in the development of high performance 3D display technologies to support a variety of applications including medical imaging, scientific visualization, gaming, education, entertainment, air traffic control and remote operations in 3D environments. In this paper we will review the attributes of the various 3D display technologies including stereoscopic and holographic 3D, human factors issues of stereoscopic 3D, the challenges in realizing Holographic 3D displays and the recent progress in these technologies.

Sarma, Kalluri

2014-06-01

386

Probabilistic Sparse Matching for Robust 3D/3D Fusion in Minimally Invasive Surgery.  

PubMed

Classical surgery is being overtaken by minimally invasive and transcatheter procedures. As there is no direct view or access to the affected anatomy, advanced imaging techniques such as 3D C-arm computed tomography (CT) and C-arm fluoroscopy are routinely used in clinical practice for intraoperative guidance. However, due to constraints regarding acquisition time and device configuration, intraoperative modalities have limited soft tissue image quality and reliable assessment of the cardiac anatomy typically requires contrast agent, which is harmful to the patient and requires complex acquisition protocols. We propose a probabilistic sparse matching approach to fuse high-quality preoperative CT images and nongated, noncontrast intraoperative C-arm CT images by utilizing robust machine learning and numerical optimization techniques. Thus, high-quality patient-specific models can be extracted from the preoperative CT and mapped to the intraoperative imaging environment to guide minimally invasive procedures. Extensive quantitative experiments on 95 clinical datasets demonstrate that our model-based fusion approach has an average execution time of 1.56 s, while the accuracy of 5.48 mm between the anchor anatomy in both images lies within expert user confidence intervals. In direct comparison with image-to-image registration based on an open-source state-of-the-art medical imaging library and a recently proposed quasi-global, knowledge-driven multi-modal fusion approach for thoracic-abdominal images, our model-based method exhibits superior performance in terms of registration accuracy and robustness with respect to both target anatomy and anchor anatomy alignment errors. PMID:25095250

Neumann, Dominik; Grbic, Sasa; John, Matthias; Navab, Nassir; Hornegger, Joachim; Ionasec, Razvan

2015-01-01

387

Octahedral transforms for 3-D image processing.  

PubMed

The octahedral group is one of the finite subgroups of the rotation group in 3-D Euclidean space and a symmetry group of the cubic grid. Compression and filtering of 3-D volumes are given as application examples of its representation theory. We give an overview over the finite subgroups of the 3-D rotation group and their classification. We summarize properties of the octahedral group and basic results from its representation theory. Wide-sense stationary processes are processes with group theoretical symmetries whose principal components are closely related to the representation theory of their symmetry group. Linear filter systems are defined as projection operators and symmetry-based filter systems are generalizations of the Fourier transforms. The algorithms are implemented in Maple/Matlab functions and worksheets. In the experimental part, we use two publicly available MRI volumes. It is shown that the assumption of wide-sense stationarity is realistic and the true principal components of the correlation matrix are very well approximated by the group theoretically predicted structure. We illustrate the nature of the different types of filter systems, their invariance and transformation properties. Finally, we show how thresholding in the transform domain can be used in 3-D signal processing. PMID:19674954

Lenz, Reiner; Latorre Carmona, Pedro

2009-12-01

388

Frank Nielsen 2011 Fundamentals of 3D  

E-print Network

© Frank Nielsen 2011 INF555 Fundamentals of 3D Lecture 8: Introduction to meshes Les maillages Frank Nielsen nielsen@lix.polytechnique.fr 23 Novembre 2011 #12;© Frank Nielsen 2011 Polygons #12;© Frank Nielsen 2011 Polygons: Star-shaped decomposition #12;© Frank Nielsen 2011 Polygons: Star

Nielsen, Frank

389

2010 Frank Nielsen Fundamentals of 3D  

E-print Network

© 2010 Frank Nielsen INF555 Fundamentals of 3D Lecture 1 Follow-up: Connected Components Lecture 2: Convolutions and Filters Matrix decompositions Frank Nielsen 22 Septembre 2010 #12;© 2010 Frank Nielsen connected component Extracting one component #12;© 2010 Frank Nielsen Useful in computer vision... Image

Nielsen, Frank

390

2011 Frank Nielsen Fundamentals of 3D  

E-print Network

© 2011 Frank Nielsen INF555 Fundamentals of 3D Lecture 1 Follow-up: Connected Components Lecture 2: Convolutions and Filters Matrix decompositions Frank Nielsen 21 Septembre 2011 #12;© 2011 Frank Nielsen connected component Extracting one component #12;© 2011 Frank Nielsen Useful in computer vision... Image

Nielsen, Frank

391

Frank Nielsen 2010 Fundamentals of 3D  

E-print Network

© Frank Nielsen 2010 INF555 Fundamentals of 3D Lecture 9: Laplacian Image pyramids Expectation-Maximization + Overview of computational photography Frank Nielsen nielsen@lix.polytechnique.fr 24 Novembre 2010 #12;© Frank Nielsen 2010 Fourier log power spectrum Stripes of the hat Stripes of the hair Interpreting

Nielsen, Frank

392

2011 Frank Nielsen Fundamentals of 3D  

E-print Network

© 2011 Frank Nielsen INF555 Fundamentals of 3D Lecture 5: Texture synthesis Clustering k-means Voronoi diagrams Frank Nielsen 12 Octobre 2011 nielsen@lix.polytechnique.fr #12;© 2011 Frank Nielsen class;© 2011 Frank Nielsen Stochastic texture synthesis http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Texture_synthesis Source

Nielsen, Frank

393

2011 Frank Nielsen Fundamentals of 3D  

E-print Network

© 2011 Frank Nielsen INF555 Fundamentals of 3D Lecture 3: Debriefing: Lecture 2 Rigid transformations/Quaternions Iterative Closest Point (+Kd-trees) Frank Nielsen nielsen@lix.polytechnique.fr 28 Septembre 2011 #12;© 2011 Frank Nielsen · Depth discontinuity · Surface orientation discontinuity

Nielsen, Frank

394

Frank Nielsen 2011 Fundamentals of 3D  

E-print Network

© Frank Nielsen 2011 INF555 Fundamentals of 3D Lecture 9: Laplacian Image pyramids Expectation-Maximization + Overview of computational photography Frank Nielsen nielsen@lix.polytechnique.fr 30 Novembre 2011 #12;© Frank Nielsen 2011 Télécharger votre projet le 10 Décembre au soir Examen 13 Décembre Venez avec une clé

Nielsen, Frank

395

2009 Frank Nielsen Fundamentals of 3D  

E-print Network

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Nielsen, Frank

396

2011Frank Nielsen Fundamentals of 3D  

E-print Network

© 2011Frank Nielsen INF555 Fundamentals of 3D Lecture 4: Debriefing: ICP (kD-trees) Homography Graphics pipeline Frank Nielsen 5 octobre 2011 nielsen@lix.polytechnique.fr #12;© 2011Frank Nielsen ICP., Vol. 14, No. 2. (February 1992 #12;© 2011Frank Nielsen ICP is a generic method Example for curve

Nielsen, Frank

397

2011 Frank Nielsen Fundamentals of 3D  

E-print Network

© 2011 Frank Nielsen INF555 Fundamentals of 3D Lecture 6: Metric ball trees/Texture synthesis Advanced coordinate pipelines Fourier analysis/interpolation Frank Nielsen nielsen@lix.polytechnique.fr 19th October 2011 #12;© 2011 Frank Nielsen ``Texture Synthesis by Non-parametric Sampling'' Alexei A

Nielsen, Frank

398

2010 Frank Nielsen Fundamentals of 3D  

E-print Network

© 2010 Frank Nielsen INF555 Fundamentals of 3D Lecture 3: Debriefing: Lecture 2 Rigid transformations Quaternions Iterative Closest Point (+Kd-trees) Frank Nielsen nielsen@lix.polytechnique.fr Luca Castelli Aleardi #12;© 2010 Frank Nielsen · Depth discontinuity · Surface orientation discontinuity

Nielsen, Frank

399

2009 Frank Nielsen Fundamentals of 3D  

E-print Network

© 2009 Frank Nielsen INF555 Fundamentals of 3D Lecture 3: Debriefing: Lecture 2 Rigid transformations Quaternions Iterative Closest Point (+Kd-trees) Frank Nielsen nielsen@lix.polytechnique.fr #12;© 2009 Frank Nielsen · Depth discontinuity · Surface orientation discontinuity · Reflectance

Nielsen, Frank

400

2010 Frank Nielsen Fundamentals of 3D  

E-print Network

© 2010 Frank Nielsen INF555 Fundamentals of 3D Lecture 7: Colors Randomized algorithms RANSAC/MINIBALL Frank Nielsen nielsen@lix.polytechnique.fr 3 November 2010 #12;© 2010 Frank Nielsen Supersampling: Averaging Uniform versus non-uniform sampling #12;© 2010 Frank Nielsen Color and perception Commission

Nielsen, Frank

401

2010 Frank Nielsen Fundamentals of 3D  

E-print Network

© 2010 Frank Nielsen INF555 Fundamentals of 3D Lecture 4: Debriefing: ICP (kD-trees) Homography Graphics pipeline Frank Nielsen 6 octobre nielsen@lix.polytechnique.fr #12;© 2010 Frank Nielsen ICP. (February 1992 #12;© 2010 Frank Nielsen ICP: Finding the best rigid transformation Given point

Nielsen, Frank

402

2009 Frank Nielsen Fundamentals of 3D  

E-print Network

© 2009 Frank Nielsen INF555 Fundamentals of 3D Lecture 6: Metric ball trees/Texture synthesis Advanced coordinate pipelines Fourier analysis/interpolation Frank Nielsen nielsen@lix.polytechnique.fr 21st October 2009 #12;© 2009 Frank Nielsen ``Texture Synthesis by Non-parametric Sampling'' Alexei A

Nielsen, Frank

403

Frank Nielsen 2010 Fundamentals of 3D  

E-print Network

© Frank Nielsen 2010 INF555 Fundamentals of 3D Lecture 8: Introduction to meshes Les maillages Frank Nielsen nielsen@lix.polytechnique.fr 10 Novembre 2010 #12;© Frank Nielsen 2010 Polygons #12;© Frank Nielsen 2010 Polygons: Star-shaped decomposition #12;© Frank Nielsen 2010 Polygons: Star

Nielsen, Frank

404

2010Frank Nielsen Fundamentals of 3D  

E-print Network

© 2010Frank Nielsen INF555 Fundamentals of 3D Lecture 6: Metric ball trees/Texture synthesis Advanced coordinate pipelines Fourier analysis/interpolation Frank Nielsen nielsen@lix.polytechnique.fr 20th October 2010 #12;© 2010Frank Nielsen ``Texture Synthesis by Non-parametric Sampling'' Alexei A

Nielsen, Frank

405

2011 Frank Nielsen Fundamentals of 3D  

E-print Network

¬© 2011 Frank Nielsen INF555 Fundamentals of 3D Lecture 7: Colors Randomized algorithms RANSAC/MINIBALL Frank Nielsen nielsen@lix.polytechnique.fr 2nd November 2011 #12;¬© 2011 Frank Nielsen Supersampling: Integration ! #12;¬© 2011 Frank Nielsen Color and perception Commission Internationale de l' ¬ī Eclairage

Nielsen, Frank

406

2010 Frank Nielsen Fundamentals of 3D  

E-print Network

© 2010 Frank Nielsen INF555 Fundamentals of 3D Lecture 5: Clustering k-means Voronoi diagrams Frank Nielsen nielsen@lix.polytechnique.fr #12;© 2010 Frank Nielsen class DemoPPM { public static void main("random.ppm"); } } Randomly colored bitmap (PPM) Nowadays, Motion JPEG 2000 H.264 (MPEG-4) #12;© 2010 Frank Nielsen Stochastic

Nielsen, Frank

407

2009 Frank Nielsen Fundamentals of 3D  

E-print Network

© 2009 Frank Nielsen INF555 Fundamentals of 3D Lecture 1 Follow-up/debriefing Lecture 2: Convolutions and Filters Matrix decompositions #12;© 2009 Frank Nielsen Bentley-Ottman sweep line algorithm Nielsen Labelling connected components (Union-Find) Input: binary image Foreground/Background pixels

Nielsen, Frank

408

Spatial Visualization by Realistic 3D Views  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the popular Purdue Spatial Visualization Test-Visualization by Rotations (PSVT-R) in isometric drawings was recreated with CAD software that allows 3D solid modeling and rendering to provide more realistic pictorial views. Both the original and the modified PSVT-R tests were given to students and their scores on the two tests wereÖ

Yue, Jianping

2008-01-01

409

Research of 3D Landscape Modeling Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virtual reality technology has become a main research field of computer development application gradually in recent years. Virtual campus is a specific application of virtual reality technology in the digital campus. The basic principles and key technologies of building virtual campus model are studied in this paper. According to the requirements of virtual reality, virtual campus 3D models are established,

Yang Tao; Zhou Dingming; Song Ping; Tang Xiaohui

2010-01-01

410

Flexible 3-D seismic survey design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using all available subsurface information in the design of a 3-D seismic survey, we can better adjust the acquisition effort to the demands of illum ination of the target horizon. I present a method that poses the choice of the acquisition parameters as an integer opti- mization problem. Rays are shot from grid points on the target reflector at uniform

Gabriel Alvarez

2003-01-01

411

3D Virtual Reality for Teaching Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are developing 3D virtual learning environments (VLEs) as learning materials for an undergraduate astronomy course, in which will utilize advances both in technologies available and in our understanding of the social nature of learning. These learning materials will be used to test whether such VLEs can indeed augment science learning so that it is more engaging, active, visual and effective. Our project focuses on the challenges and requirements of introductory college astronomy classes. Here we present our virtual world of the Jupiter system and how we plan to implement it to allow students to learn course material - physical laws and concepts in astronomy - while engaging them into exploration of the Jupiter's system, encouraging their imagination, curiosity, and motivation. The VLE can allow students to work individually or collaboratively. The 3D world also provides an opportunity for research in astronomy education to investigate impact of social interaction, gaming features, and use of manipulatives offered by a learning tool on studentsí motivation and learning outcomes. Use of this VLE is also a valuable source for exploration of how the learnersí spatial awareness can be enhanced by working in 3D environment. We will present the Jupiter-system environment along with a preliminary study of the efficacy and usability of our Jupiter 3D VLE.

Speck, Angela; Ruzhitskaya, L.; Laffey, J.; Ding, N.

2012-01-01

412

The New Realm of 3-D Vision  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dimension Technologies Inc., developed a line of 2-D/3-D Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) screens, including a 15-inch model priced at consumer levels. DTI's family of flat panel LCD displays, called the Virtual Window(TM), provide real-time 3-D images without the use of glasses, head trackers, helmets, or other viewing aids. Most of the company initial 3-D display research was funded through NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. The images on DTI's displays appear to leap off the screen and hang in space. The display accepts input from computers or stereo video sources, and can be switched from 3-D to full-resolution 2-D viewing with the push of a button. The Virtual Window displays have applications in data visualization, medicine, architecture, business, real estate, entertainment, and other research, design, military, and consumer applications. Displays are currently used for computer games, protein analysis, and surgical imaging. The technology greatly benefits the medical field, as surgical simulators are helping to increase the skills of surgical residents. Virtual Window(TM) is a trademark of Dimension Technologies Inc.

2002-01-01

413

Collaborative annotation of 3D crystallographic models.  

PubMed

This paper describes the AnnoCryst system-a tool that was designed to enable authenticated collaborators to share online discussions about 3D crystallographic structures through the asynchronous attachment, storage, and retrieval of annotations. Annotations are personal comments, interpretations, questions, assessments, or references that can be attached to files, data, digital objects, or Web pages. The AnnoCryst system enables annotations to be attached to 3D crystallographic models retrieved from either private local repositories (e.g., Fedora) or public online databases (e.g., Protein Data Bank or Inorganic Crystal Structure Database) via a Web browser. The system uses the Jmol plugin for viewing and manipulating the 3D crystal structures but extends Jmol by providing an additional interface through which annotations can be created, attached, stored, searched, browsed, and retrieved. The annotations are stored on a standardized Web annotation server (Annotea), which has been extended to support 3D macromolecular structures. Finally, the system is embedded within a security framework that is capable of authenticating users and restricting access only to trusted colleagues. PMID:17900174

Hunter, J; Henderson, M; Khan, I

2007-01-01

414

Degenerate 3D Tensors Xiaoqiang Zheng1  

E-print Network

. Topological analysis of 3D tensor fields starts with the identification of degeneracies in the tensor field. The topological structures are simple for users to understand the underlying data fields yet sensitive enough and either disappear or turn into lines when noise is introduced into the system. These topological feature

Tricoche, Xavier

415

3D Film Making Cary Kornfeld  

E-print Network

Stereoscopic Films are special. They tickle parts of our brain that are "rarely" stimulated in this way. Making the talk a free screening of ETHZ student 3D films will take place at the School of Film and Animation aaabbbssstttrrraaaccctttsss... #12;Abstract Stereoscopic Films are special. They tickle parts of our brain "rarely" stimulated

Zanibbi, Richard

416

3D FractaL-Tree  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

3D FractaL-Tree allows scientists to collect data from actual specimens in the field or laboratory, insert these measurements into a spatially explicit L-system package, and then visually compare to the computer generated 3D image with such specimens. The measurements are recorded and analyzed in a series of worksheets in Microsoft Excel√¬ģ and the results are entered into the graphics engine in a Java applet. 3D FractaL-Tree produces a rotatable three-dimensional image of the tree which is helpful for examining such characters as self-avoidance (entanglement and breakage), penetration of sunlight, distances that small herbivores (such as caterpillars) would have to traverse to go from one tip to another, and Voronoi polyhedra of volume distribution of biomass on different subsections of a tree. These and other factors have been discussed in the Adaptive Geometry of Trees (Horn, 1971). Three different representations are available in 3D FractaL-Tree images: wire frame, solid, and transparent. Easy options for saving and exporting images are included.

John Jungck (Beloit College;Biology); Jennifer Spangenberg (Beloit College;Biology); Noppadon Khiripet (National Electronics and Computer Technology Center, Thailand;Bioinformatics Unit); Rawin Viruchpinta (National Electronics and Computer Technology Center, Thailand;); Jutarat Maneewattanapluk (National Electronics and Computer Technology Center, Thailand;)

2007-07-18

417

Mobile augmented reality based 3D snapshots  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a mobile augmented reality application that is based on 3D snapshotting using multiple photographs. Optical square mark- ers provide the anchor for reconstructed virtual objects in the scene. A novel approach based on pixel flow highly improves tracking performance. This dual tracking approach also allows for a new single-button user interface metaphor for moving virtual objects in the

Peter KeitlerFrieder; Frieder Pankratz; BjŲrn Schwerdtfeger; Daniel Pustka; Wolf Rodiger; Gudrun Klinker; Christian Rauch; Anup Chathoth; John P. Collomosse; Yi-zhe Song

2009-01-01

418

Visuohaptic discrimination of 3D gross shape.  

PubMed

Human sensitivity to 3D gross shape changes was measured for the visual and haptic sensory channels. Three volume-invariant affine transformations were defined: compressing, shearing and stretching. Participants discriminated a reference 3D object (cube or sphere) from its deformed shape under three experimental conditions: visual only (on a computer monitor), haptic only (through a point-contact force-feedback device) and visuohaptic simulations. The results indicate that vision is more sensitive to gross shape changes than point-based touch, and that vision dominated in the visuohaptic condition. In the haptic alone condition, thresholds were higher for shearing and stretching than for compressing. Thresholds were otherwise similar for the three transformations in the vision only or visuohaptic conditions. These trends were similar for the two shapes tested. A second experiment, conducted under similar conditions but preventing participants from manipulating object orientations, verified that the main conclusion of our research still holds when visual inspection can rely only on a single perspective view of the object. Our earlier studies on 3D visuohaptic watermarking showed that the haptic channel is more sensitive to surface texture and roughness changes than vision. The thresholds from the present and our earlier studies can potentially be used as the upper limits for selecting watermark strengths in order to ensure watermark imperceptibility in a 3D visuohaptic watermarking system. PMID:22472054

Kim, Kwangtaek; Barni, Mauro; Prattichizzo, Domenico; Tan, Hong Z

2012-01-01

419

Second Life 3D Virtual World  

E-print Network

Second Life 3D Virtual World Jim Snell Instructional Technology Services #12;Multi-User Virtual a second life style virtual experience... Gartner, Inc #12;Inworld.....which world? · There · Active Worlds · Second Life · River City · Kaneva · Club Penguin · Barbie Girls · Magic Happy Learning Land.......... #12

420

3D Tracking via Body Radio Reflections  

E-print Network

This paper introduces WiTrack, a system that tracks the 3D motion of a user from the radio signals reflected off her body. It works even if the person is occluded from the WiTrack device or in a different room. WiTrack ...

Adib, Fadel

2013-12-11

421

Bullwinkle: A unique 3-D experiment  

SciTech Connect

In the spring of 1988, Shell Offshore Inc. acquired two orthogonal three-dimensional (3-D) surveys at Prospect Bullwinkle, located in the Green Canyon area of the Gulf of Mexico, to aid the development program which began later that year. Two surveys were acquired because of the complexity of the salt structures in the vicinity of the prospect. The independent acquisition and processing of two surveys shot perpendicular to each other provided a unique data set for checking the quality and accuracy of standard 3-D techniques. The high development cost of this deep water (410m) turbidite field supported the acquisition of two 3-D data sets to provide a valuable redundancy for stratigraphic interpretation. This large scale 3-D experiment has been analyzed in terms of interpretive impact. Detailed comparisons of the seismic images away from the salt complex show good agreement between the two surveys and verify the relative accuracy and repeatability of the acquisition, processing, and interpretation techniques. Structural comparisons between the surveys show that acquisition oriented in a strike direction to the primary salt face yields a superior sediment image, particularly near overhung salt. An examination of the effects of shooting direction on small scale stratigraphic resolution illustrates the importance of fine sampling in the dip direction to the features of interest. Amplitude maps extracted for the main bright spot level show differences in areal continuity that are large enough to affect the geologic model of the prospect.

O'Connell, J.K.; Kohli, M.; Amos, S. (Shell Offshore Inc., New Orleans, LA (United States))

1993-01-01

422

Engineering tumors with 3D scaffolds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microenvironmental conditions control tumorigenesis and biomimetic culture systems that allow for in vitro and in vivo tumor modeling may greatly aid studies of cancer cells' dependency on these conditions. We engineered three-dimensional (3D) human tumor models using carcinoma cells in polymeric scaffolds that recreated microenvironmental characteristics representative of tumors in vivo. Strikingly, the angiogenic characteristics of tumor cells were dramatically

Claudia Fischbach; Ruth Chen; Takuya Matsumoto; Tobias Schmelzle; Joan S Brugge; Peter J Polverini; David J Mooney

2007-01-01

423

3D tracking via body radio reflections  

E-print Network

This thesis presents WiTrack, a system that tracks the 3D motion of a user from the radio signals reflected off her body. It works even if the person is occluded from the WiTrack device or in a different room. WiTrack does ...

Kabelac, Zachary (Zachary E.)

2014-01-01

424

3-D Teaching Models for All  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Allowing a student to "see" through touch what other students see through a microscope can be a challenging task. Therefore, author Joan Bradley created three-dimensional (3-D) models with one student's visual impairment in mind. They are meant to benefit

Farland-Smith, Donna; Bradley, Joan

2010-03-01

425

Multirate 3-D subband coding of video  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract-We propose a full color video compression strategy, based on 3-D subband coding with camera pan compensation, to generate a single embedded bit stream supporting multiple decoder display formats and a wide, finely gradated range of bit rates. An experimental implementation of our algorithm produces a single bit stream, from which suitable subsets are extracted to be compatible with many

David S. Taubman; Avideh Zakhor

1994-01-01

426

A Cray T3D performance study  

SciTech Connect

We carry out a performance study using the Cray T3D parallel supercomputer to illustrate some important features of this machine. Timing experiments show the speed of various basic operations while more complicated operations give some measure of its parallel performance.

Nallana, A. [Interact, Inc., Austin, TX (United States); Kincaid, D.R. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States)

1996-05-01

427

Embedding 3D into multipurpose cadastre  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is no doubt that the cadastral map provides a useful entrance to information in a land parcel based information system. However, such information system could be made more meaningful and useful if it can be extended for multiple usages with multi data layers, and in three-dimensions (3D). Currently, many national mapping and cadastral agencies (NMCAs) and users deal with

A. A. Rahman; T. C. Hua; P. J. M. Van Oosterom

2011-01-01

428

3D Modeling with Silhouettes Alec Rivers  

E-print Network

3D Modeling with Silhouettes Alec Rivers MIT CSAIL Fr¬īedo Durand MIT CSAIL Takeo Igarashi The University of Tokyo Figure 1: Intersecting 2D silhouettes: The silhouettes on the left were used approach in which mod- els are interactively designed by drawing their 2D silhouettes from different views

Igarashi, Takeo

429

Design space exploration for 3D architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

As technology scales, interconnects have become a major performance bottleneck and a major source of power consumption for microprocessors. Increasing interconnect costs make it necessary to consider alternate ways of building modern microprocessors. One promising option is 3D architectures where a stack of multiple device layers with direct vertical tunneling through them are put together on the same chip. As

Yuan Xie; Gabriel H. Loh; Bryan Black; Kerry Bernstein

2006-01-01

430

Mermaid 3D code in ATLAS applications  

E-print Network

The paper describes the new periodic boundary condition model of ATLAS detector and changes in the Mermaid 3D code algorithms necessary to calculate it. The parallel processing modification of the Mermaid code to perform the complete Atlas model calculation is presented in comparison with this 1:10 model of the fine TileCal structure.

Dubrovin, AN; Vorojtsov, S B

2001-01-01

431

3-D Teaching Models for All  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Allowing a student to "see" through touch what other students see through a microscope can be a challenging task. Therefore, author Joan Bradley created three-dimensional (3-D) models with one student's visual impairment in mind. They are meant to benefit all students and can be used to teach common high school biology topics, including theÖ

Bradley, Joan; Farland-Smith, Donna

2010-01-01

432

Advanced materials for the 3D microbattery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Out recent achievements in the development of three-dimensional (3D) thin film microbatteries on silicon and on microchannel plates (MCP) are presented. In such 3D microbatteries, the battery sandwich-like structure, including electrodes, electrolyte and current collectors, is deposited conformally on all available surfaces, thereby utilizing the dead volume of the substrate. Thin-film molybdenum oxysulfide and iron sulfide cathodes were deposited galvanostatically. XRD, XPS and TOF-SIMS characterizations indicated that the submicron thick MoO yS z films were amorphous, with the stoichiometry of the films varying with depth. Electrodeposited FeS x films have an amorphous, network-like porous structure with nanosize particles. A special flow cell for conformal coating of the perforated substrates was designed. A Li/hybrid polymer electrolyte (HPE)/MoO yS z-on-Si 3D half cell ran at id = ich = 10 ?A cm -2 and room temperature for 100 charge/discharge cycles with 0.1%/cycle capacity loss and 100% Faradaic efficiency. A 3D half cell on MCP exhibited 20 times higher capacity than that of a planar half cell with the same footprint.

Golodnitsky, D.; Yufit, V.; Nathan, M.; Shechtman, I.; Ripenbein, T.; Strauss, E.; Menkin, S.; Peled, E.

433

3D simulation of tool machining  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a 3D tool machining simulation system. The initial tool and the grinding wheels are integrated with the machine tool. The application reads and interprets the CNC program code that controls the machine, it computes the positions and the motion of components and it translates the sequence of machining operations into Boolean operations. The machining is computed for

Anna Puig; Llu??s Perez-Vidal; Dani Tost

2003-01-01

434

Spatial and 3D Analysts Introduction  

E-print Network

analyses · Select features within an attribute table · Buffer a shapefile As you proceed through this lab. Start ArcMap and add the fb02_1mneg08 grid to the project. 2. Make sure the Spatial Analyst and the 3D Analyst and click close. To add the Spatial Analyst toolbar to your window, go to View Toolbar

Wright, Dawn Jeannine

435

Fundamentals of 3D Laplacian Image pyramids  

E-print Network

INF555 Fundamentals of 3D Lecture 9: Laplacian Image pyramids Expectation-Maximization + Overview of the hat Stripes of the hair Interpreting Fourier spectra #12;Laplacian image pyramids Used also. Interpolate and estimate Laplacian image pyramids Residual Reconstruction Precursors of wavelets #12;Blurring

Nielsen, Frank

436

NAS Parallel Benchmark Results 11-96. 1.0  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NAS Parallel Benchmarks have been developed at NASA Ames Research Center to study the performance of parallel supercomputers. The eight benchmark problems are specified in a "pencil and paper" fashion. In other words, the complete details of the problem to be solved are given in a technical document, and except for a few restrictions, benchmarkers are free to select the language constructs and implementation techniques best suited for a particular system. These results represent the best results that have been reported to us by the vendors for the specific 3 systems listed. In this report, we present new NPB (Version 1.0) performance results for the following systems: DEC Alpha Server 8400 5/440, Fujitsu VPP Series (VX, VPP300, and VPP700), HP/Convex Exemplar SPP2000, IBM RS/6000 SP P2SC node (120 MHz), NEC SX-4/32, SGI/CRAY T3E, SGI Origin200, and SGI Origin2000. We also report High Performance Fortran (HPF) based NPB results for IBM SP2 Wide Nodes, HP/Convex Exemplar SPP2000, and SGI/CRAY T3D. These results have been submitted by Applied Parallel Research (APR) and Portland Group Inc. (PGI). We also present sustained performance per dollar for Class B LU, SP and BT benchmarks.

Bailey, David H.; Bailey, David; Chancellor, Marisa K. (Technical Monitor)

1997-01-01

437

Quasi 3D dosimetry (EPID, conventional 2D/3D detector matrices)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Patient specific pretreatment measurement for IMRT and VMAT QA should preferably give information with a high resolution in 3D. The ability to distinguish complex treatment plans, i.e. treatment plans with a difference between measured and calculated dose distributions that exceeds a specified tolerance, puts high demands on the dosimetry system used for the pretreatment measurements and the results of the measurement evaluation needs a clinical interpretation. There are a number of commercial dosimetry systems designed for pretreatment IMRT QA measurements. 2D arrays such as MapCHECKģ (Sun Nuclear), MatriXXEvolution (IBA Dosimetry) and OCTAVIOUSģ 1500 (PTW), 3D phantoms such as OCTAVIUSģ 4D (PTW), ArcCHECKģ (Sun Nuclear) and Delta4 (ScandiDos) and software for EPID dosimetry and 3D reconstruction of the dose in the patient geometry such as EPIDoseTM (Sun Nuclear) and Dosimetry CheckTM (Math Resolutions) are available. None of those dosimetry systems can measure the 3D dose distribution with a high resolution (full 3D dose distribution). Those systems can be called quasi 3D dosimetry systems. To be able to estimate the delivered dose in full 3D the user is dependent on a calculation algorithm in the software of the dosimetry system. All the vendors of the dosimetry systems mentioned above provide calculation algorithms to reconstruct a full 3D dose in the patient geometry. This enables analyzes of the difference between measured and calculated dose distributions in DVHs of the structures of clinical interest which facilitates the clinical interpretation and is a promising tool to be used for pretreatment IMRT QA measurements. However, independent validation studies on the accuracy of those algorithms are scarce. Pretreatment IMRT QA using the quasi 3D dosimetry systems mentioned above rely on both measurement uncertainty and accuracy of calculation algorithms. In this article, these quasi 3D dosimetry systems and their use in patient specific pretreatment IMRT/VMAT QA will be discussed.

Bšck, A.

2015-01-01

438

3-D Force-balanced Magnetospheric Configurations  

SciTech Connect

The knowledge of plasma pressure is essential for many physics applications in the magnetosphere, such as computing magnetospheric currents and deriving magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. A thorough knowledge of the 3-D pressure distribution has however eluded the community, as most in-situ pressure observations are either in the ionosphere or the equatorial region of the magnetosphere. With the assumption of pressure isotropy there have been attempts to obtain the pressure at different locations by either (a) mapping observed data (e.g., in the ionosphere) along the field lines of an empirical magnetospheric field model or (b) computing a pressure profile in the equatorial plane (in 2-D) or along the Sun-Earth axis (in 1-D) that is in force balance with the magnetic stresses of an empirical model. However, the pressure distributions obtained through these methods are not in force balance with the empirical magnetic field at all locations. In order to find a global 3-D plasma pressure distribution in force balance with the magnetospheric magnetic field, we have developed the MAG-3D code, that solves the 3-D force balance equation J x B = (upside-down delta) P computationally. Our calculation is performed in a flux coordinate system in which the magnetic field is expressed in terms of Euler potentials as B = (upside-down delta) psi x (upside-down delta) alpha. The pressure distribution, P = P(psi,alpha), is prescribed in the equatorial plane and is based on satellite measurements. In addition, computational boundary conditions for y surfaces are imposed using empirical field models. Our results provide 3-D distributions of magnetic field and plasma pressure as well as parallel and transverse currents for both quiet-time and disturbed magnetospheric conditions.

Sorin Zaharia; C.Z. Cheng; K. Maezawa

2003-02-10

439

3D simulations of pulsar wind nebulae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this presentation I will show results from global 3D RMHD simulations of PWN. Of key interest to our study is the long standing "sigma-problem" that challenges MHD models of Pulsars and their nebulae now for over 3 decades. In contrast to previous 2D simulations, we also consider pulsar winds with much stronger magnetization, up to sigma_0?3. Our 3D models preserve the separation of the post-termination shock flow into the equatorial and polar components. However, the polar jets (excessively strong in 2D) are disrupted by the kink mode of the current driven instability and 'dissolve' into the main body of the nebula after propagation of several shock radii. With the exception of the region near the termination shock, the 3D models do not exhibit the strong z-pinch configuration characteristic of 1D and 2D models. This leads to a resolution of the sigma-problem once also the pulsar's obliqueness (striped wind) is taken into account, since contrary to expectations based on 1D analytical and semi-analytical models, the 3D solutions with highly magnetised pulsar winds still produce termination shocks with radii comparable to those deduced from observations. In addition, I will present synchrotron maps and animations constructed from the 3D simulations, showing a remarkable resemblance with the available observations of Crab nebula. The polarisation and variability of the inner knot is in particularly good agreement and the overall polarisation of the inner nebula is reproduced well. However, the polar jet is not as bright as observed, suggesting that additional particle acceleration, presumably related to magnetic dissipation, has to be invoked.

Porth, Oliver; Komissarov, Serguei; Keppens, Rony

440

Tracking earthquake source evolution in 3-D  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Starting from the hypocentre, the point of initiation of seismic energy, we seek to estimate the subsequent trajectory of the points of emission of high-frequency energy in 3-D, which we term the `evocentres'. We track these evocentres as a function of time by energy stacking for putative points on a 3-D grid around the hypocentre that is expanded as time progresses, selecting the location of maximum energy release as a function of time. The spatial resolution in the neighbourhood of a target point can be simply estimated by spatial mapping using the properties of isochrons from the stations. The mapping of a seismogram segment to space is by inverse slowness, and thus more distant stations have a broader spatial contribution. As in hypocentral estimation, the inclusion of a wide azimuthal distribution of stations significantly enhances 3-D capability. We illustrate this approach to tracking source evolution in 3-D by considering two major earthquakes, the 2007 Mw 8.1 Solomons islands event that ruptured across a plate boundary and the 2013 Mw 8.3 event 610 km beneath the Sea of Okhotsk. In each case we are able to provide estimates of the evolution of high-frequency energy that tally well with alternative schemes, but also to provide information on the 3-D characteristics that is not available from backprojection from distant networks. We are able to demonstrate that the major characteristics of event rupture can be captured using just a few azimuthally distributed stations, which opens the opportunity for the approach to be used in a rapid mode immediately after a major event to provide guidance for, for example tsunami warning for megathrust events.

Kennett, B. L. N.; Gorbatov, A.; Spiliopoulos, S.

2014-08-01

441

Benchmarking in water project analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The with/without principle of cost-benefit analysis is examined for the possible bias that it brings to water resource planning. Theory and examples for this question are established. Because benchmarking against the demonstrably low without-project hurdle can detract from economic welfare and can fail to promote efficient policy, improvement opportunities are investigated. In lieu of the traditional, without-project benchmark, a second-best-based "difference-making benchmark" is proposed. The project authorizations and modified review processes instituted by the U.S. Water Resources Development Act of 2007 may provide for renewed interest in these findings.

Griffin, Ronald C.

2008-11-01

442

California commercial building energy benchmarking  

SciTech Connect

Building energy benchmarking is the comparison of whole-building energy use relative to a set of similar buildings. It provides a useful starting point for individual energy audits and for targeting buildings for energy-saving measures in multiple-site audits. Benchmarking is of interest and practical use to a number of groups. Energy service companies and performance contractors communicate energy savings potential with ''typical'' and ''best-practice'' benchmarks while control companies and utilities can provide direct tracking of energy use and combine data from multiple buildings. Benchmarking is also useful in the design stage of a new building or retrofit to determine if a design is relatively efficient. Energy managers and building owners have an ongoing interest in comparing energy performance to others. Large corporations, schools, and government agencies with numerous facilities also use benchmarking methods to compare their buildings to each other. The primary goal of Task 2.1.1 Web-based Benchmarking was the development of a web-based benchmarking tool, dubbed Cal-Arch, for benchmarking energy use in California commercial buildings. While there were several other benchmarking tools available to California consumers prior to the development of Cal-Arch, there were none that were based solely on California data. Most available benchmarking information, including the Energy Star performance rating, were developed using DOE's Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), which does not provide state-level data. Each database and tool has advantages as well as limitations, such as the number of buildings and the coverage by type, climate regions and end uses. There is considerable commercial interest in benchmarking because it provides an inexpensive method of screening buildings for tune-ups and retrofits. However, private companies who collect and manage consumption data are concerned that the identities of building owners might be revealed and hence are reluctant to share their data. The California Commercial End Use Survey (CEUS), the primary source of data for Cal-Arch, is a unique source of information on commercial buildings in California. It has not been made public; however, it was made available by CEC to LBNL for the purpose of developing a public benchmarking tool.

Kinney, Satkartar; Piette, Mary Ann

2003-07-01

443

BEST3D user's manual: Boundary Element Solution Technology, 3-Dimensional Version 3.0  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The theoretical basis and programming strategy utilized in the construction of the computer program BEST3D (boundary element solution technology - three dimensional) and detailed input instructions are provided for the use of the program. An extensive set of test cases and sample problems is included in the manual and is also available for distribution with the program. The BEST3D program was developed under the 3-D Inelastic Analysis Methods for Hot Section Components contract (NAS3-23697). The overall objective of this program was the development of new computer programs allowing more accurate and efficient three-dimensional thermal and stress analysis of hot section components, i.e., combustor liners, turbine blades, and turbine vanes. The BEST3D program allows both linear and nonlinear analysis of static and quasi-static elastic problems and transient dynamic analysis for elastic problems. Calculation of elastic natural frequencies and mode shapes is also provided.

1991-01-01