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1

On 3D object retrieval benchmarking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The continuous evolution of 3D computer graphics and the progress of 3D digitization systems resulted in a continuous increase in the available 3D content. The widespread use of 3D objects in diverse domains contributed on forming 3D object retrieval as an active research field. In order to objectively evaluate the performance of retrieval methodologies there is a need for objective benchmarking schemes. In this work, we provide a comprehensive overview of the state-of-the-art evaluation methodologies including not only the performance measures but also the corresponding benchmark datasets. Meaningful benchmark datasets are discussed while a detailed list of publicly available 3D model repositories is given organized in terms of application domains, content magnitude and data types. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

Koutsoudis, Anestis; Pratikakis, Ioannis; Chamzas, Christodoulos

2013-12-01

2

Indoor Modelling Benchmark for 3D Geometry Extraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A combination of faster, cheaper and more accurate hardware, more sophisticated software, and greater industry acceptance have all laid the foundations for an increased desire for accurate 3D parametric models of buildings. Pointclouds are the data source of choice currently with static terrestrial laser scanning the predominant tool for large, dense volume measurement. The current importance of pointclouds as the primary source of real world representation is endorsed by CAD software vendor acquisitions of pointcloud engines in 2011. Both the capture and modelling of indoor environments require great effort in time by the operator (and therefore cost). Automation is seen as a way to aid this by reducing the workload of the user and some commercial packages have appeared that provide automation to some degree. In the data capture phase, advances in indoor mobile mapping systems are speeding up the process, albeit currently with a reduction in accuracy. As a result this paper presents freely accessible pointcloud datasets of two typical areas of a building each captured with two different capture methods and each with an accurate wholly manually created model. These datasets are provided as a benchmark for the research community to gauge the performance and improvements of various techniques for indoor geometry extraction. With this in mind, non-proprietary, interoperable formats are provided such as E57 for the scans and IFC for the reference model. The datasets can be found at: http://indoor-bench.github.io/indoor-bench.

Thomson, C.; Boehm, J.

2014-06-01

3

Simulation of underwater explosion benchmark experiments with ALE3D  

SciTech Connect

Some code improvements have been made during the course of this study. One immediately obvious need was for more flexibility in the constitutive representation for materials in shell elements. To remedy this situation, a model with a tabular representation of stress versus strain and rate dependent effects was implemented. This was required in order to obtain reasonable results in the IED cylinder simulation. Another deficiency was in the ability to extract and plot variables associated with shell elements. The pipe whip analysis required the development of a scheme to tally and plot time dependent shell quantities such as stresses and strains. This capability had previously existed only for solid elements. Work was initiated to provide the same range of plotting capability for structural elements that exist with the DYNA3D/TAURUS tools. One of the characteristics of these problems is the disparity in zoning required in the vicinity of the charge and bubble compared to that needed in the far field. This disparity can cause the equipotential relaxation logic to provide a less than optimal solution. Various approaches were utilized to bias the relaxation to obtain more optimal meshing during relaxation. Extensions of these techniques have been developed to provide more powerful options, but more work still needs to be done. The results presented here are representative of what can be produced with an ALE code structured like ALE3D. They are not necessarily the best results that could have been obtained. More experience in assessing sensitivities to meshing and boundary conditions would be very useful. A number of code deficiencies discovered in the course of this work have been corrected and are available for any future investigations.

Couch, R.; Faux, D.

1997-05-19

4

Spherical harmonic results for the 3D Kobayashi Benchmark suite  

SciTech Connect

Spherical harmonic solutions are presented for the Kobayashi benchmark suite. The results were obtained with Ardra, a scalable, parallel neutron transport code developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The calculations were performed on the IBM ASCI Blue-Pacific computer at LLNL.

Brown, P N; Chang, B; Hanebutte, U R

1999-03-02

5

Synthetic benchmark for modeling flow in 3D fractured media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intensity and localization of flows in fractured media have promoted the development of a large range of different modeling approaches including Discrete Fracture Networks, pipe networks and equivalent continuous media. While benchmarked usually within site studies, we propose an alternative numerical benchmark based on highly-resolved Discrete Fracture Networks (DFNs) and on a stochastic approach. Test cases are built on fractures of different lengths, orientations, aspect ratios and hydraulic apertures, issuing the broad ranges of topological structures and hydraulic properties classically observed. We present 18 DFN cases, with 10 random simulations by case. These 180 DFN structures are provided and fully documented. They display a representative variety of the configurations that challenge the numerical methods at the different stages of discretization, mesh generation and system solving. Using a previously assessed mixed hybrid finite element method (Erhel et al., 2009a), we systematically provide reference flow and head solutions. Because CPU and memory requirements stem mainly from system solving, we study direct and iterative sparse linear solvers. We show that the most cpu-time efficient method is a direct multifrontal method for small systems, while conjugate gradient preconditioned by algebraic multrigrid is more relevant at larger sizes. Available results can be used further as references for building up alternative numerical and physical models in both directions of improving accuracy and efficiency.

de Dreuzy, Jean-Raynald; Pichot, Géraldine; Poirriez, Baptiste; Erhel, Jocelyne

2013-01-01

6

Evaluation of 3D surface scanners for skin documentation in forensic medicine: comparison of benchmark surfaces  

PubMed Central

Background Two 3D surface scanners using collimated light patterns were evaluated in a new application domain: to document details of surfaces similar to the ones encountered in forensic skin pathology. Since these scanners have not been specifically designed for forensic skin pathology, we tested their performance under practical constraints in an application domain that is to be considered new. Methods Two solid benchmark objects containing relevant features were used to compare two 3D surface scanners: the ATOS-II (GOM, Germany) and the QTSculptor (Polygon Technology, Germany). Both scanners were used to capture and process data within a limited amount of time, whereas point-and-click editing was not allowed. We conducted (a) a qualitative appreciation of setup, handling and resulting 3D data, (b) an experimental subjective evaluation of matching 3D data versus photos of benchmark object regions by a number of 12 judges who were forced to state their preference for either of the two scanners, and (c) a quantitative characterization of both 3D data sets comparing 220 single surface areas with the real benchmark objects in order to determine the recognition rate's possible dependency on feature size and geometry. Results The QTSculptor generated significantly better 3D data in both qualitative tests (a, b) that we had conducted, possibly because of a higher lateral point resolution; statistical evaluation (c) showed that the QTSculptor-generated data allowed the discrimination of features as little as 0.3 mm, whereas ATOS-II-generated data allowed for discrimination of features sized not smaller than 1.2 mm. Conclusion It is particularly important to conduct specific benchmark tests if devices are brought into new application domains they were not specifically designed for; using a realistic test featuring forensic skin pathology features, QT Sculptor-generated data quantitatively exceeded manufacturer's specifications, whereas ATOS-II-generated data was within the limits of the manufacturer's specifications. When designing practically constrained specific tests, benchmark objects should be designed to contain features relevant for the application domain. As costs for 3D scanner hardware, software and data analysis can be hundred times as high compared to high-resolution digital photography equipment, independent user driven evaluation of such systems is paramount. Index terms Forensic pathology, Rough surfaces, Surface Scanning, Technology Assessment PMID:17266746

Schweitzer, Wolf; Häusler, Martin; Bär, Walter; Schaepman, Michael

2007-01-01

7

Paris-rue-Madame database: a 3D mobile laser scanner dataset for benchmarking urban detection, segmentation and classification methods  

E-print Network

Parisian district. Data have been acquired by the Mobile Laser Scanning (MLS) system L3D2 and correspondParis-rue-Madame database: a 3D mobile laser scanner dataset for benchmarking urban detection.serna morales, beatriz.marcotegui, francois.goulette, jean-emmanuel.deschaud}@mines-paristech.fr Keywords: 3D

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

8

Commissioning and benchmarking a 3D dosimetry system for clinical use  

PubMed Central

Purpose: A 3D dosimetry system is described which consists of two parts: a radiochromic plastic dosimeter PRESAGE® (which responds to absorbed dose with a linear change in optical-density) and the Duke large-field-of-view optical-CT scanner (DLOS). The DLOS?PRESAGE system has recently been commissioned and benchmarked for clinical use and, in particular, for verification and commissioning of complex radiation treatments. Methods: DLOS commissioning involved determining the dynamic range, spatial resolution, noise, temporal, and other characteristics of the light source and imaging components. Benchmarking tests were performed on the combined DLOS?PRESAGE system to establish baseline dosimetric performance. The tests consisted of delivering simple radiation treatments to PRESAGE dosimeters, and comparing the measured 3D relative dose distributions with the known gold standard. The gold standard distribution was obtained from machine beam-data or the treatment planning system (TPS). All studies used standardized procedures to ensure consistency. Results: For commissioning, isotropic spatial resolution was submillimeter (MTF?>?0.5 for frequencies of 1.5 lp?mm) and the dynamic range was ?60 dB. Flood field uniformity was within 10% and stable after 45 min of warm-up. Stray-light is small, due to telecentricity, but even the residual can be removed through deconvolution by a point-spread-function. For benchmarking, the mean 3D passing NDD (normalized dose distribution) rate (3%, 3mm, 5% dose threshold) over the benchmark data sets was 97.3%?±?0.6% (range 96%–98%), which is on par with other planar dosimeters used in external beam radiation therapy indicating excellent agreement. Noise was low at <2% of maximum dose (4–12 Gy) for 2 mm reconstructions. The telecentric design was critical to enabling fast imaging with minimal stray-light artifacts. Conclusions: This work presents the first comprehensive benchmarking of a 3D dosimetry system for clinical use. The DLOS?PRESAGE benchmark tests show consistently good agreement to simple known distributions. The system produces accurate isotropic 2 mm dose data over clinical volumes (e.g., 16 cm diameter phantoms, 12 cm height), in under 15 min. It represents a uniquely useful and versatile new tool for commissioning and verification of complex therapy treatments. PMID:21928656

Thomas, Andrew; Newton, Joseph; Adamovics, John; Oldham, Mark

2011-01-01

9

Performance of BLAS 3, FFTs and NAS Parallel Benchmarks on Cray T3D  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recently, a Cray T3D Emulator has been made available on the Cray Y-MP and C90 computers. The Pittsburgh Supercomputer Center has acquired a CRAY T3D system and many other centers like Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) will have it by the end of 1994. The Cray T3D system is the firstphase system in Cray Research, Inc.'s (CRI) three-phase massively parallel processing (MPP) program. This system features a heterogeneous architecture that closely couples DEC's ALPHA microprocessors and CRI's parallel-vector technology, i.e. the Cray Y-MP and Cray C90. The Cray T3D Emulator will give prospective users a valuable experience in developing high performance applications on the MPP system. This emulator runs programs written in CRI's MPP Fortran programming model (data sharing and work sharing) or Parallel Virtual Machine (PVM) programming model. It will help the users to study data layout, data locality, and data reference patterns thereby providing feedback which will enable one to write more efficient parallel codes. An overview of the Cray T3D hardware, software, and three of its available programming models is presented.The Cray Fortran Programming Model comprising (a) Data Sharing, (b) Worksharing and (c) Message Passing, will be discussed with examples. We have also implemented distributed BLAS 3 (matrix-matrix multiplication) in data parallel model (using only CSHIFT); worksharing model using block distribution and collapsed distribution; and message passing model using PVM. We have also implemented 2D and 3D FFTs for radix-2 using PVM. The performance of NAS Parallel 'Benchmarks (NPB) on CRAY T3D will be compared with other highly parallel systems such as CM-5, Paragon, C90 etc.

Saini, Subhash; Simon, Horst D.; Cooper, D. M. (Technical Monitor)

1994-01-01

10

Domain Decomposition PN Solutions to the 3D Transport Benchmark over a Range in Parameter Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objectives of this contribution are twofold. First, the Domain Decomposition (DD) method used in the parafish parallel transport solver is re-interpreted as a Generalized Schwarz Splitting as defined by Tang [SIAM J Sci Stat Comput, vol.13 (2), pp. 573-595, 1992]. Second, parafish provides spherical harmonic (i.e., PN) solutions to the NEA benchmark suite for 3D transport methods and codes over a range in parameter space. To the best of the author's knowledge, these are the first spherical harmonic solutions provided for this demanding benchmark suite. They have been obtained using 512 CPU cores of the JuRoPa machine installed at the Jülich Computing Center (Germany).

Van Criekingen, S.

2014-06-01

11

Benchmarking study of 3D mask modeling for 2X and 1X nodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With ever shrinking critical dimensions, half nm OPC errors are a primary focus for process improvement in computational lithography. Among many error sources for 2x and 1x nodes, 3D mask modeling has caught the attention of engineers and scientists as a method to reduce errors at these nodes. While the benefits of 3D mask modeling are well known, there will be a runtime penalty of 30-40% that needs to be weighed against the benefit of optical model accuracy improvements. The economically beneficial node to adopt 3D mask modeling has to be determined by balancing these factors. In this paper, a benchmarking study has been conducted on a 20nm cut mask, metal and via layers with two different computational lithography approaches as compared with standard thin-mask approximation modeling. Besides basic RMS error metrics for model calibration and verification, through pitch and through size optical proximity behavior, through focus model predictability, best focus prediction and common DOF prediction are thoroughly evaluated. Runtime impact and OPC accuracy are also studied.

Wang, ChangAn; Liang, Chao-Chun; Liu, Huikan; Kallingal, Chidam; Dunn, Derren; Oberschmidt, James; Tirapu Azpiroz, Jaione

2013-04-01

12

Parareal in time 3D numerical solver for the LWR Benchmark neutron diffusion transient model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present a time-parallel algorithm for the 3D neutrons calculation of a transient model in a nuclear reactor core. The neutrons calculation consists in numerically solving the time dependent diffusion approximation equation, which is a simplified transport equation. The numerical resolution is done with finite elements method based on a tetrahedral meshing of the computational domain, representing the reactor core, and time discretization is achieved using a ?-scheme. The transient model presents moving control rods during the time of the reaction. Therefore, cross-sections (piecewise constants) are taken into account by interpolations with respect to the velocity of the control rods. The parallelism across the time is achieved by an adequate use of the parareal in time algorithm to the handled problem. This parallel method is a predictor corrector scheme that iteratively combines the use of two kinds of numerical propagators, one coarse and one fine. Our method is made efficient by means of a coarse solver defined with large time step and fixed position control rods model, while the fine propagator is assumed to be a high order numerical approximation of the full model. The parallel implementation of our method provides a good scalability of the algorithm. Numerical results show the efficiency of the parareal method on large light water reactor transient model corresponding to the Langenbuch-Maurer-Werner benchmark.

Baudron, Anne-Marie; Lautard, Jean-Jacques; Maday, Yvon; Riahi, Mohamed Kamel; Salomon, Julien

2014-12-01

13

Efficient Extensible Path Planning on 3D Terrain Using Behavior Modules  

E-print Network

Efficient Extensible Path Planning on 3D Terrain Using Behavior Modules Andreas Hertle Christian Dornhege Abstract-- We present a search-based path planning system for ground robots on three dimensional be customized to a robot's abilities. We explicitly plan using a full 3d representation, not requiring any

Nebel, Bernhard

14

RELAP5-3D Results for Phase I (Exercise 2) of the OECD/NEA MHTGR-350 MW Benchmark  

SciTech Connect

The coupling of the PHISICS code suite to the thermal hydraulics system code RELAP5-3D has recently been initiated at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to provide a fully coupled prismatic Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) system modeling capability as part of the NGNP methods development program. The PHISICS code consists of three modules: INSTANT (performing 3D nodal transport core calculations), MRTAU (depletion and decay heat generation) and a perturbation/mixer module. As part of the verification and validation activities, steady state results have been obtained for Exercise 2 of Phase I of the newly-defined OECD/NEA MHTGR-350 MW Benchmark. This exercise requires participants to calculate a steady-state solution for an End of Equilibrium Cycle 350 MW Modular High Temperature Reactor (MHTGR), using the provided geometry, material, and coolant bypass flow description. The paper provides an overview of the MHTGR Benchmark and presents typical steady state results (e.g. solid and gas temperatures, thermal conductivities) for Phase I Exercise 2. Preliminary results are also provided for the early test phase of Exercise 3 using a two-group cross-section library and the Relap5-3D model developed for Exercise 2.

Gerhard Strydom

2012-06-01

15

RELAP5-3D results for phase I (Exercise 2) of the OECD/NEA MHTGR-350 MW benchmark  

SciTech Connect

The coupling of the PHISICS code suite to the thermal hydraulics system code RELAP5-3D has recently been initiated at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to provide a fully coupled prismatic Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) system modeling capability as part of the NGNP methods development program. The PHISICS code consists of three modules: INSTANT (performing 3D nodal transport core calculations), MRTAU (depletion and decay heat generation) and a perturbation/mixer module. As part of the verification and validation activities, steady state results have been obtained for Exercise 2 of Phase I of the newly-defined OECD/NEA MHTGR-350 MW Benchmark. This exercise requires participants to calculate a steady-state solution for an End of Equilibrium Cycle 350 MW Modular High Temperature Reactor (MHTGR), using the provided geometry, material, and coolant bypass flow description. The paper provides an overview of the MHTGR Benchmark and presents typical steady state results (e.g. solid and gas temperatures, thermal conductivities) for Phase I Exercise 2. Preliminary results are also provided for the early test phase of Exercise 3 using a two-group cross-section library and the Relap5-3D model developed for Exercise 2. (authors)

Strydom, G.; Epiney, A. S. [Idaho National Laboratory INL, 2525 N. Fremont Ave., Idaho Falls, ID 83402 (United States)

2012-07-01

16

Improvements to the Pool Critical Assembly Pressure Vessel Benchmark with 3-D Parallel SN PENTRAN  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The internationally circulated Pool Critical Assembly (PCA) Pressure Vessel Benchmark was analyzed using the PENTRAN Parallel SN code system for the geometry, material, and source specifications as described in the PCA Benchmark documentation. Improvements to the benchmark are proposed here through the application of more representative flux and volume weighted homogenized cross sections for the PCA reactor core, which were obtained from a rigorous heterogeneous modeling of all fuel assembly types in the core. A new source term definition is also proposed based on calculated relative power in each core fuel assembly with a spectrum based on the Uranium-235 fission spectra. This research focused on utilizing the BUGLE-96 cross section library and accompanying reaction rates, while also examining PENTRAN's adaptive differencing implemented on a coarse mesh basis, as well as fixed use of Directional Theta-Weighted (DTW) SN differencing scheme in order to compare the calculated PENTRAN results to measured data. The results show good comparison with the measured benchmark data, which suggests PENTRAN is a viable, reliable code system for calculation of light water reactor neutron shielding and pressure vessel dosimetry calculations. Furthermore, the improvements to the benchmark methodology resulting from this work provide a 6 percent increase in accuracy of the calculation (based on the average of all calculation points), when compared with experimentally measured results at the same spatial locations in the PCA pressure vessel simulator.

Edgar, Christopher A.; Sjoden, Glenn E.; Yi, Ce

2014-06-01

17

New Multi-group Transport Neutronics (PHISICS) Capabilities for RELAP5-3D and its Application to Phase I of the OECD/NEA MHTGR-350 MW Benchmark  

SciTech Connect

PHISICS is a neutronics code system currently under development at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Its goal is to provide state of the art simulation capability to reactor designers. The different modules for PHISICS currently under development are a nodal and semi-structured transport core solver (INSTANT), a depletion module (MRTAU) and a cross section interpolation (MIXER) module. The INSTANT module is the most developed of the mentioned above. Basic functionalities are ready to use, but the code is still in continuous development to extend its capabilities. This paper reports on the effort of coupling the nodal kinetics code package PHISICS (INSTANT/MRTAU/MIXER) to the thermal hydraulics system code RELAP5-3D, to enable full core and system modeling. This will enable the possibility to model coupled (thermal-hydraulics and neutronics) problems with more options for 3D neutron kinetics, compared to the existing diffusion theory neutron kinetics module in RELAP5-3D (NESTLE). In the second part of the paper, an overview of the OECD/NEA MHTGR-350 MW benchmark is given. This benchmark has been approved by the OECD, and is based on the General Atomics 350 MW Modular High Temperature Gas Reactor (MHTGR) design. The benchmark includes coupled neutronics thermal hydraulics exercises that require more capabilities than RELAP5-3D with NESTLE offers. Therefore, the MHTGR benchmark makes extensive use of the new PHISICS/RELAP5-3D coupling capabilities. The paper presents the preliminary results of the three steady state exercises specified in Phase I of the benchmark using PHISICS/RELAP5-3D.

Gerhard Strydom; Cristian Rabiti; Andrea Alfonsi

2012-10-01

18

The influence of physical structure and charge on neurite extension in a 3D hydrogel scaffold.  

PubMed

Understanding neural cell differentiation and neurite extension in three-dimensional scaffolds is critical for neural tissue engineering. This study explores the structure-function relationship between a 3D hydrogel scaffold and neural cell process extension and examines the role of ambient charge on neurite extension in 3D scaffolds. A range of agarose hydrogel concentrations was used to generate varied gel physical structures and the corresponding neurite extension was examined. Agarose gel concentration and the corresponding pore radius are important physical properties that influence neural cell function. The average pore radii of the gels were determined while the gel was in the hydrated state and in two different dehydrated states. As the gel concentration was increased, the average pore radius decreased exponentially. Similarly, the length of neurites extended by E9 chick DRGs cultured in agarose gels depends on gel concentration. The polycationic polysaccharide chitosan and the polyanionic polysaccharide alginate were used to incorporate charge into the 3D hydrogel scaffold, and neural cell response to charge was studied. Chitosan and alginate were covalently bound to the agarose hydrogel backbone using the bi-functional coupling agent 1,1'-carbonyldiimidazole. DRGs cultured in chitosan-coupled agarose gel exhibited a significant increase in neurite length compared to the unmodified agarose control. Conversely, the alginate-coupled agarose gels significantly inhibited neurite extension. This study demonstrates a strong, correlation between the ability of sensory ganglia to extend neurites in 3D gels and the hydrogel pore radius. In addition, our results demonstrate that charged biopolymers influence neurite extension in a polarity dependent manner. PMID:9806445

Dillon, G P; Yu, X; Sridharan, A; Ranieri, J P; Bellamkonda, R V

1998-01-01

19

3D Incompressible Two-Phase Flow Benchmark Computations for Rising Droplets  

E-print Network

we compare the flow solvers DROPS, NaSt3DGPF and OpenFOAM. All codes adopt different numerical with two test cases is formulated in which we compare the flow solvers DROPS [2], NaSt3DGPF [3] and OpenFOAM¨uttgers DROPS NaSt3D OpenFOAM developer IGPM, RWTH Aachen INS, University of Bonn open source space

20

3D Incompressible TwoPhase Flow Benchmark Computations for Rising Droplets  

E-print Network

cases is formulated in which we compare the flow solvers DROPS, NaSt3DGPF and OpenFOAM. All codes adopt] and OpenFOAM [4]. All codes adopt di#erent numerical techniques. We list the main features of each code and Alexander RË?uttgers DROPS NaSt3D OpenFOAM developer IGPM, RWTH Aachen INS, University of Bonn open source

21

A highly heterogeneous 3D PWR core benchmark: deterministic and Monte Carlo method comparison  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physical analyses of the LWR potential performances with regards to the fuel utilization require an important part of the work dedicated to the validation of the deterministic models used for theses analyses. Advances in both codes and computer technology give the opportunity to perform the validation of these models on complex 3D core configurations closed to the physical situations encountered (both steady-state and transient configurations). In this paper, we used the Monte Carlo Transport code TRIPOLI-4®; to describe a whole 3D large-scale and highly-heterogeneous LWR core. The aim of this study is to validate the deterministic CRONOS2 code to Monte Carlo code TRIPOLI-4®; in a relevant PWR core configuration. As a consequence, a 3D pin by pin model with a consistent number of volumes (4.3 millions) and media (around 23,000) is established to precisely characterize the core at equilibrium cycle, namely using a refined burn-up and moderator density maps. The configuration selected for this analysis is a very heterogeneous PWR high conversion core with fissile (MOX fuel) and fertile zones (depleted uranium). Furthermore, a tight pitch lattice is selcted (to increase conversion of 238U in 239Pu) that leads to harder neutron spectrum compared to standard PWR assembly. In these conditions two main subjects will be discussed: the Monte Carlo variance calculation and the assessment of the diffusion operator with two energy groups for the core calculation.

Jaboulay, J.-C.; Damian, F.; Douce, S.; Lopez, F.; Guenaut, C.; Aggery, A.; Poinot-Salanon, C.

2014-06-01

22

Extensions to SCDAP\\/RELAP5-3D for Analysis of Advanced Reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SCDAP\\/RELAP5-3D code was extended to enable the code to perform transient analyses of advanced LWRs (Light Water Reactors) and HTGRs (High Temperature Gas Reactors). The extensions for LWRs included: (1) representation of micro-heterogeneous fuel varying in composition in the radial and axial directions, (2) modeling of two-dimensional radial\\/axial heat conduction for more accurate calculation of fuel and cladding temperatures

Edwin Allan Harvego; Larry James Siefken

2003-01-01

23

Toward Verification of USM3D Extensions for Mixed Element Grids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The unstructured tetrahedral grid cell-centered finite volume flow solver USM3D has been recently extended to handle mixed element grids composed of hexahedral, prismatic, pyramidal, and tetrahedral cells. Presently, two turbulence models, namely, baseline Spalart-Allmaras (SA) and Menter Shear Stress Transport (SST), support mixed element grids. This paper provides an overview of the various numerical discretization options available in the newly enhanced USM3D. Using the SA model, the flow solver extensions are verified on three two-dimensional test cases available on the Turbulence Modeling Resource website at the NASA Langley Research Center. The test cases are zero pressure gradient flat plate, planar shear, and bump-inchannel. The effect of cell topologies on the flow solution is also investigated using the planar shear case. Finally, the assessment of various cell and face gradient options is performed on the zero pressure gradient flat plate case.

Pandya, Mohagna J.; Frink, Neal T.; Ding, Ejiang; Parlette, Edward B.

2013-01-01

24

Present Status and Extensions of the Monte Carlo Performance Benchmark  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NEA Monte Carlo Performance benchmark started in 2011 aiming to monitor over the years the abilities to perform a full-size Monte Carlo reactor core calculation with a detailed power production for each fuel pin with axial distribution. This paper gives an overview of the contributed results thus far. It shows that reaching a statistical accuracy of 1 % for most of the small fuel zones requires about 100 billion neutron histories. The efficiency of parallel execution of Monte Carlo codes on a large number of processor cores shows clear limitations for computer clusters with common type computer nodes. However, using true supercomputers the speedup of parallel calculations is increasing up to large numbers of processor cores. More experience is needed from calculations on true supercomputers using large numbers of processors in order to predict if the requested calculations can be done in a short time. As the specifications of the reactor geometry for this benchmark test are well suited for further investigations of full-core Monte Carlo calculations and a need is felt for testing other issues than its computational performance, proposals are presented for extending the benchmark to a suite of benchmark problems for evaluating fission source convergence for a system with a high dominance ratio, for coupling with thermal-hydraulics calculations to evaluate the use of different temperatures and coolant densities and to study the correctness and effectiveness of burnup calculations. Moreover, other contemporary proposals for a full-core calculation with realistic geometry and material composition will be discussed.

Hoogenboom, J. Eduard; Petrovic, Bojan; Martin, William R.

2014-06-01

25

Extension of the ABC-Procrustes algorithm for 3D affine coordinate transformation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Procrustes method is a very effective method for determining the Helmert's datum transformation parameters since it requires neither initial starting values nor iteration. Due to these attractive attributes, the ABC-Procrustes algorithm is extended to solve the 3D affine transformation problem where scale factors are different in the 3 principal directions X,Y,Z. In this study, it is shown that such a direct extension is restricted to cases of mild anisotropy in scaling. For strong anisotropy, however, the procedure fails. The PZ-method is proposed as an extension of the ABC algorithm for this special case. The procedures are applied to determine transformation parameters for; (i) transforming the Australian Geodetic Datum (AGD 84) to the Geocentric Datum Australia (GDA 94), i.e., mild anisotropy and (ii) synthetic data for strong anisotropy. The results indicate that the PZ-algorithm leads to a local multivariate minimization as opposed to the ABC-algorithm, thus requiring slightly longer computational time. However, the ABC-method is found to be useful for computing proper initial values for the PZ-method, thereby increasing its efficiency.

Paláncz, B.; Zaletnyik, P.; Awange, J. L.; Heck, B.

2010-11-01

26

Extensions to SCDAP/RELAP5-3D for Analysis of Advanced Reactors  

SciTech Connect

The SCDAP/RELAP5-3D code was extended to enable the code to perform transient analyses of advanced LWRs (Light Water Reactors) and HTGRs (High Temperature Gas Reactors). The extensions for LWRs included: (1) representation of micro-heterogeneous fuel varying in composition in the radial and axial directions, (2) modeling of two-dimensional radial/axial heat conduction for more accurate calculation of fuel and cladding temperatures during the reflood period of a large break loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA), (3) modeling of fuel-cladding interface pressure and fuel-cladding gap conductance, (4) representation of radial power profiles varying in a discontinuous manner in the axial direction, and (5) addition of material properties for fuel composed of mixtures of ThO2-UO2 and ThO2-PuO2. The extensions for HTGR analyses included: (1) modeling of the transient two-dimensional temperature behavior of graphite moderated reactor cores (pebble bed and block-type), reactor vessel, and reactor containment, (2) modeling of flow losses and convective heat transfer in pebble bed reactor cores, (3) modeling of oxidation of graphite components in reactor cores due to the ingress of air and/or water, and (4) modeling of the affect of oxidation on the composition of gases in the reactor system. The applications of the extended code to LWR analyses showed that advanced fuels intended for proliferation resistance and waste reduction could also be designed to produce calculated peak cladding temperatures during a large break LOCA less than the 1477 K acceptance criterion in 10 CFR 50.46. Fuels composed of ThO2-UO2 and ThO2-PuO2 are examples of such fuels. The applications of the extended code to HTGR analyses showed that: (1) HTGRs can be designed for passive removal of all decay heat, and (2)

Harvego, Edwin Allan; Siefken, Larry James

2003-04-01

27

Comparison of the PHISICS/RELAP5-3D Ring and Block Model Results for Phase I of the OECD MHTGR-350 Benchmark  

SciTech Connect

The INL PHISICS code system consists of three modules providing improved core simulation capability: INSTANT (performing 3D nodal transport core calculations), MRTAU (depletion and decay heat generation) and a perturbation/mixer module. Coupling of the PHISICS code suite to the thermal hydraulics system code RELAP5-3D has recently been finalized, and as part of the code verification and validation program the exercises defined for Phase I of the OECD/NEA MHTGR 350 MW Benchmark were completed. This paper provides an overview of the MHTGR Benchmark, and presents selected results of the three steady state exercises 1-3 defined for Phase I. For Exercise 1, a stand-alone steady-state neutronics solution for an End of Equilibrium Cycle Modular High Temperature Reactor (MHTGR) was calculated with INSTANT, using the provided geometry, material descriptions, and detailed cross-section libraries. Exercise 2 required the modeling of a stand-alone thermal fluids solution. The RELAP5-3D results of four sub-cases are discussed, consisting of various combinations of coolant bypass flows and material thermophysical properties. Exercise 3 combined the first two exercises in a coupled neutronics and thermal fluids solution, and the coupled code suite PHISICS/RELAP5-3D was used to calculate the results of two sub-cases. The main focus of the paper is a comparison of the traditional RELAP5-3D “ring” model approach vs. a much more detailed model that include kinetics feedback on individual block level and thermal feedbacks on a triangular sub-mesh. The higher fidelity of the block model is illustrated with comparison results on the temperature, power density and flux distributions, and the typical under-predictions produced by the ring model approach are highlighted.

Gerhard Strydom

2014-04-01

28

RELAP5-3D Results for Phase I (Exercise 2) of the OECD\\/NEA MHTGR-350 MW Benchmark  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coupling of the PHISICS code suite to the thermal hydraulics system code RELAP5-3D has recently been initiated at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to provide a fully coupled prismatic Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) system modeling capability as part of the NGNP methods development program. The PHISICS code consists of three modules: INSTANT (performing 3D nodal transport core calculations),

Gerhard Strydom

2012-01-01

29

Reducing 3D Fast Wavelet Transform Execution Time Using Blocking and the Streaming SIMD Extensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The video compression algorithms based on the 3D wavelet transform obtain excellent compression rates at the expense of huge memory requirements, that drastically affects the execution time of such applications. Its objective is to allow the real-time video compression based on the 3D fast wavelet transform. We show the hardware and software interaction for this multimedia application on a general-purpose

Gregorio Bernabé; José M. García; José González

2005-01-01

30

Highest performance in 3D metal cutting at smallest footprint: benchmark of a robot based system vs. parameters of gantry systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the automotive industry as well as in other industries ecological aspects regarding energy savings are driving new technologies and materials, e.g. lightweight materials as aluminium or press hardened steels. Processing such parts especially complex 3D shaped parts laser manufacturing has become the key process offering highest efficiency. The most established systems for 3D cutting applications are based on gantry systems. The disadvantage of those systems is their huge footprint to realize the required stability and work envelope. Alternatively a robot based system might be of advantage if accuracy, speed and overall performance would be capable processing automotive parts. With the BIM "beam in motion" system, JENOPTIK Automatisierungstechnik GmbH has developed a modular robot based laser processing machine, which meets all OEM specs processing press hardened steel parts. A benchmark of the BIM versus a gantry system was done regarding all required parameters to fulfil OEM specifications for press hardened steel parts. As a result a highly productive, accurate and efficient system can be described based on one or multiple robot modules working simultaneously together. The paper presents the improvements on the robot machine concept BIM addressed in 2012 [1] leading to an industrial proven system approach for the automotive industry. It further compares the performance and the parameters for 3D cutting applications of the BIM system versus a gantry system by samples of applied parts. Finally an overview of suitable applications for processing complex 3D parts with high productivity at small footprint is given.

Scheller, Torsten; Bastick, André; Michel-Triller, Robert; Manzella, Christon

2014-02-01

31

The impact of laminin on 3D neurite extension in collagen gels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary goal of this research was to characterize the effect of laminin on three-dimensional (3D) neurite growth. Gels were formed using type I collagen at concentrations of 0.4-2.0 mg mL-1 supplemented with laminin at concentrations of 0, 1, 10, or 100 µg mL-1. When imaged with confocal microscopy, laminin was shown to follow the collagen fibers; however, the addition of laminin had minimal effect on the stiffness of the scaffolds at any concentration of collagen. Individual neurons dissociated from E9 chick dorsal root ganglia were cultured in the gels for 24 h, and neurite lengths were measured. For collagen gels without laminin, a typical bimodal response of neurite outgrowth was observed, with increased growth at lower concentrations of collagen gel. However, alteration of the chemical nature of the collagen gel by the laminin additive shifted, or completely mitigated, the bimodal neurite growth response seen in gels without laminin. Expression of integrin subunits, ?1, ?3, ?6 and ?1, were confirmed by PCR and immunolabeling in the 3D scaffolds. These results provide insight into the interplay between mechanical and chemical environment to support neurite outgrowth in 3D. Understanding the relative impact of environmental factors on 3D nerve growth may improve biomaterial design for nerve cell regeneration.

Swindle-Reilly, Katelyn E.; Papke, Jason B.; Kutosky, Hannah P.; Throm, Allison; Hammer, Joshua A.; Harkins, Amy B.; Kuntz Willits, Rebecca

2012-08-01

32

Kinematic MHD Models of Collapsing Magnetic Traps: Extension to 3D  

SciTech Connect

We show how fully 3D kinematic MHD models of collapsing magnetic traps (CMTs) can be constructed, thus extending previous work on 2D trap models. CMTs are thought to form in the relaxing magnetic field lines in solar flares and it has been proposed that they play an important role in the acceleration of high-energy particles. This work is a first step to understanding the physics of CMTs better.

Grady, Keith J.; Neukirch, Thomas [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)

2009-02-16

33

Dynamic pulse buckling of cylindrical shells under axial impact: A benchmark study of 2D and 3D finite element calculations  

SciTech Connect

A series of tests investigating dynamic pulse buckling of a cylindrical shell under axial impact is compared to several 2D and 3D finite element simulations of the event. The purpose of the work is to investigate the performance of various analysis codes and element types on a problem which is applicable to radioactive material transport packages, and ultimately to develop a benchmark problem to qualify finite element analysis codes for the transport package design industry. During the pulse buckling tests, a buckle formed at each end of the cylinder, and one of the two buckles became unstable and collapsed. Numerical simulations of the test were performed using PRONTO, a Sandia developed transient dynamics analysis code, and ABAQUS/Explicit with both shell and continuum elements. The calculations are compared to the tests with respect to deformed shape and impact load history.

Hoffman, E.L.; Ammerman, D.J.

1995-04-01

34

Extension of a data-driven gating technique to 3D, whole body PET studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Respiratory gating can be used to separate a PET acquisition into a series of near motion-free bins. This is typically done using additional gating hardware; however, software-based methods can derive the respiratory signal from the acquired data itself. The aim of this work was to extend a data-driven respiratory gating method to acquire gated, 3D, whole body PET images of clinical patients. The existing method, previously demonstrated with 2D, single bed-position data, uses a spectral analysis to find regions in raw PET data which are subject to respiratory motion. The change in counts over time within these regions is then used to estimate the respiratory signal of the patient. In this work, the gating method was adapted to only accept lines of response from a reduced set of axial angles, and the respiratory frequency derived from the lung bed position was used to help identify the respiratory frequency in all other bed positions. As the respiratory signal does not identify the direction of motion, a registration-based technique was developed to align the direction for all bed positions. Data from 11 clinical FDG PET patients were acquired, and an optical respiratory monitor was used to provide a hardware-based signal for comparison. All data were gated using both the data-driven and hardware methods, and reconstructed. The centre of mass of manually defined regions on gated images was calculated, and the overall displacement was defined as the change in the centre of mass between the first and last gates. The mean displacement was 10.3 mm for the data-driven gated images and 9.1 mm for the hardware gated images. No significant difference was found between the two gating methods when comparing the displacement values. The adapted data-driven gating method was demonstrated to successfully produce respiratory gated, 3D, whole body, clinical PET acquisitions.

Schleyer, Paul J.; O'Doherty, Michael J.; Marsden, Paul K.

2011-07-01

35

Extension of PENELOPE to protons: Simulation of nuclear reactions and benchmark with Geant4  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Describing the implementation of nuclear reactions in the extension of the Monte Carlo code (MC) PENELOPE to protons (PENH) and benchmarking with Geant4.Methods: PENH is based on mixed-simulation mechanics for both elastic and inelastic electromagnetic collisions (EM). The adopted differential cross sections for EM elastic collisions are calculated using the eikonal approximation with the Dirac–Hartree–Fock–Slater atomic potential. Cross sections for EM inelastic collisions are computed within the relativistic Born approximation, using the Sternheimer–Liljequist model of the generalized oscillator strength. Nuclear elastic and inelastic collisions were simulated using explicitly the scattering analysis interactive dialin database for {sup 1}H and ICRU 63 data for {sup 12}C, {sup 14}N, {sup 16}O, {sup 31}P, and {sup 40}Ca. Secondary protons, alphas, and deuterons were all simulated as protons, with the energy adapted to ensure consistent range. Prompt gamma emission can also be simulated upon user request. Simulations were performed in a water phantom with nuclear interactions switched off or on and integral depth–dose distributions were compared. Binary-cascade and precompound models were used for Geant4. Initial energies of 100 and 250 MeV were considered. For cases with no nuclear interactions simulated, additional simulations in a water phantom with tight resolution (1 mm in all directions) were performed with FLUKA. Finally, integral depth–dose distributions for a 250 MeV energy were computed with Geant4 and PENH in a homogeneous phantom with, first, ICRU striated muscle and, second, ICRU compact bone.Results: For simulations with EM collisions only, integral depth–dose distributions were within 1%/1 mm for doses higher than 10% of the Bragg-peak dose. For central-axis depth–dose and lateral profiles in a phantom with tight resolution, there are significant deviations between Geant4 and PENH (up to 60%/1 cm for depth–dose distributions). The agreement is much better with FLUKA, with deviations within 3%/3 mm. When nuclear interactions were turned on, agreement (within 6% before the Bragg-peak) between PENH and Geant4 was consistent with uncertainties on nuclear models and cross sections, whatever the material simulated (water, muscle, or bone).Conclusions: A detailed and flexible description of nuclear reactions has been implemented in the PENH extension of PENELOPE to protons, which utilizes a mixed-simulation scheme for both elastic and inelastic EM collisions, analogous to the well-established algorithm for electrons/positrons. PENH is compatible with all current main programs that use PENELOPE as the MC engine. The nuclear model of PENH is realistic enough to give dose distributions in fair agreement with those computed by Geant4.

Sterpin, E. [Center of Molecular Imaging, Radiotherapy and Oncology, Institut de recherche expérimentale et clinique, Université catholique de Louvain, Avenue Hippocrate 54, 1200 Brussels (Belgium)] [Center of Molecular Imaging, Radiotherapy and Oncology, Institut de recherche expérimentale et clinique, Université catholique de Louvain, Avenue Hippocrate 54, 1200 Brussels (Belgium); Sorriaux, J. [Center of Molecular Imaging, Radiotherapy and Oncology, Institut de recherche expérimentale et clinique, Université catholique de Louvain, Avenue Hippocrate 54, 1200 Brussels, Belgium and ICTEAM Institute, Université catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)] [Center of Molecular Imaging, Radiotherapy and Oncology, Institut de recherche expérimentale et clinique, Université catholique de Louvain, Avenue Hippocrate 54, 1200 Brussels, Belgium and ICTEAM Institute, Université catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Vynckier, S. [Center of Molecular Imaging, Radiotherapy and Oncology, Institut de recherche expérimentale et clinique, Université catholique de Louvain, Avenue Hippocrate 54, 1200 Brussels, Belgium and Département de radiothérapie, Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, Avenue Hippocrate 10, 1200 Brussels (Belgium)] [Center of Molecular Imaging, Radiotherapy and Oncology, Institut de recherche expérimentale et clinique, Université catholique de Louvain, Avenue Hippocrate 54, 1200 Brussels, Belgium and Département de radiothérapie, Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, Avenue Hippocrate 10, 1200 Brussels (Belgium)

2013-11-15

36

A demonstration of the validity of a 3-D video motion analysis method for measuring finger flexion and extension  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study demonstrates the validity of using 3-D video motion analysis to measure hand motion. Several researchers have devised ingenious methods to study normal and abnormal hand movements. Although very helpful, these earlier studies are static representations of a dynamic phenomenon. Despite the many studies of hand motion using scientifically impeccable techniques, little is known about digital motion, and there

Gregory S Rash; P. P Belliappa; Mark P Wachowiak; Naveen N Somia; Amit Gupta

1999-01-01

37

Extension of basic geometric analysis of 3-D chip forms in metal cutting to chips with obstacle-induced deformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In machining, chips are known to break mainly because of obstacle-induced deformation. Recently, the present authors had reported on a new and basic geometric analysis of 3-D chips in the absence of deformation after separation from the tool rake face. This paper continues the analysis to cover the full lifecycle of chips subjected to obstacle-induced deformation. The main contributions of

A. G. Kharkevich; Patri K. Venuvinod

2002-01-01

38

A benchmark study of 2D and 3D finite element calculations simulating dynamic pulse buckling tests of cylindrical shells under axial impact  

SciTech Connect

A series of tests investigating dynamic pulse buckling of a cylindrical shell under axial impact is compared to several finite element simulations of the event. The purpose of the study is to compare the performance of the various analysis codes and element types with respect to a problem which is applicable to radioactive material transport packages, and ultimately to develop a benchmark problem to qualify finite element analysis codes for the transport package design industry.

Hoffman, E.L.; Ammerman, D.J.

1993-08-01

39

Benchmarking Professional Development Practices across Youth-Serving Organizations: Implications for Extension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examining traditional and contemporary professional development practices of youth-serving organizations can inform practices across Extension, particularly in light of the barriers that have been noted for effectively developing the professional competencies of Extension educators. With professional development systems changing quickly,…

Garst, Barry A.; Baughman, Sarah; Franz, Nancy

2014-01-01

40

What causes the large extensions of red supergiant atmospheres?. Comparisons of interferometric observations with 1D hydrostatic, 3D convection, and 1D pulsating model atmospheres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: This research has two main goals. First, we present the atmospheric structure and the fundamental parameters of three red supergiants (RSGs), increasing the sample of RSGs observed by near-infrared spectro-interferometry. Additionally, we test possible mechanisms that may explain the large observed atmospheric extensions of RSGs. Methods: We carried out spectro-interferometric observations of the RSGs V602 Car, HD 95687, and HD 183589 in the near-infrared K-band (1.92-2.47 ?m) with the VLTI/AMBER instrument at medium spectral resolution (R ~ 1500). To categorize and comprehend the extended atmospheres, we compared our observational results to predictions by available hydrostatic PHOENIX, available 3D convection, and new 1D self-excited pulsation models of RSGs. Results: Our near-infrared flux spectra of V602 Car, HD 95687, and HD 183589 are well reproduced by the PHOENIX model atmospheres. The continuum visibility values are consistent with a limb-darkened disk as predicted by the PHOENIX models, allowing us to determine the angular diameter and the fundamental parameters of our sources. Nonetheless, in the case of V602 Car and HD 95686, the PHOENIX model visibilities do not predict the large observed extensions of molecular layers, most remarkably in the CO bands. Likewise, the 3D convection models and the 1D pulsation models with typical parameters of RSGs lead to compact atmospheric structures as well, which are similar to the structure of the hydrostatic PHOENIX models. They can also not explain the observed decreases in the visibilities and thus the large atmospheric molecular extensions. The full sample of our RSGs indicates increasing observed atmospheric extensions with increasing luminosity and decreasing surface gravity, and no correlation with effective temperature or variability amplitude. Conclusions: The location of our RSG sources in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram is confirmed to be consistent with the red limits of recent evolutionary tracks. The observed extensions of the atmospheric layers of our sample of RSGs are comparable to those of Mira stars. This phenomenon is not predicted by any of the considered model atmospheres including available 3D convection and new 1D pulsation models of RSGs. This confirms that neither convection nor pulsation alone can levitate the molecular atmospheres of RSGs. Our observed correlation of atmospheric extension with luminosity supports a scenario of radiative acceleration on Doppler-shifted molecular lines. Based on observations made with the VLT Interferometer (VLTI) at Paranal Observatory under programme ID 091.D-0275.Figures 2-6 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

Arroyo-Torres, B.; Wittkowski, M.; Chiavassa, A.; Scholz, M.; Freytag, B.; Marcaide, J. M.; Hauschildt, P. H.; Wood, P. R.; Abellan, F. J.

2015-03-01

41

Force distribution on implants supporting overdentures: the effect of distal bar extensions. A 3-D in vivo study.  

PubMed

Force distribution on mandibular implants supporting overdentures was registered in vivo by means of piezo-electric transducers that allow for simultaneous force measurements in 3 dimensions. The anchorage device for connecting the overdenture to the implants was a U-shaped bar to which distal extensions were soldered bilaterally. Force patterns were analyzed under different test conditions such as maximum force when biting in centric occlusion, maximum biting with the unilateral use of a bite plate, parafunction and chewing bread. Maximum force measured in centric occlusion and on the ipsilateral implant with the use of bite plate was increased in the vertical dimension, compared to transverse dimensions. On the contralateral implant, equally low values were found, in all 3 dimensions. Transverse force components reached 5 to 35% of the vertical magnitudes. With the use of the bite plate on the ipsilateral implant, force magnitudes in the vertical direction and in the backward-forward direction were significantly higher (P < 0.01, P < 0.00) compared to measurements in centric occlusion. Chewing and grinding resulted in lower vertical forces compared to maximum biting, while transverse forces in the backward forward direction reached force magnitudes that resembled the vertical component (50 to 100%). The prevalent (> 95%) or exclusive force direction in the vertical dimension, registered on both implants was downward. However, with the unilateral use of the bite plate, upward directions were found on the contralateral implant as an effect of distal bar extensions. This was in contrast to previous results where upward force directions were not found. In transverse dimensions, the specific influence of bar extensions was recognised in backward directions on the contralateral implant. In comparison with previous results, it was concluded that, in vivo, the effect of distal bar extensions was of much lesser influence regarding force magnitudes and force directions than was expected. PMID:9758965

Mericske-Stern, R

1997-04-01

42

Continuous-scanning laser Doppler vibrometry: Extensions to arbitrary areas, multi-frequency and 3D capture  

SciTech Connect

To date, differing implementations of continuous scan laser Doppler vibrometry have been demonstrated by various academic institutions, but since the scan paths were defined using step or sine functions from function generators, the paths were typically limited to 1D line scans or 2D areas such as raster paths or Lissajous trajectories. The excitation was previously often limited to a single frequency due to the specific signal processing performed to convert the scan data into an ODS. In this paper, a configuration of continuous-scan laser Doppler vibrometry is demonstrated which permits scanning of arbitrary areas, with the benefit of allowing multi-frequency/broadband excitation. Various means of generating scan paths to inspect arbitrary areas are discussed and demonstrated. Further, full 3D vibration capture is demonstrated by the addition of a range-finding facility to the described configuration, and iteratively relocating a single scanning laser head. Here, the range-finding facility was provided by a Microsoft Kinect, an inexpensive piece of consumer electronics.

Weekes, B.; Ewins, D. [University of Bristol, Queen's Building, University Walk, Bristol, BS8 1TR (United Kingdom); Acciavatti, F. [Universita' Politecnica Delle Marche, Via Brecce Bianche 12, 60131 Ancona (Italy)

2014-05-27

43

Comparison Between Laser Scanning and Automated 3d Modelling Techniques to Reconstruct Complex and Extensive Cultural Heritage Areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Cultural Heritage field, the necessity to survey objects in a fast manner, with the ability to repeat the measurements several times for deformation or degradation monitoring purposes, is increasing. In this paper, two significant cases, an architectonical one and an archaeological one, are presented. Due to different reasons and emergency situations, the finding of the optimal solution to enable quick and well-timed survey for a complete digital reconstruction of the object is required. In both cases, two survey methods have been tested and used: a laser scanning approach that allows to obtain high-resolution and complete scans within a short time and a photogrammetric one that allows the three-dimensional reconstruction of the object from images. In the last months, several methodologies, including free or low cost techniques, have arisen. These kinds of software allow the fully automatically three-dimensional reconstruction of objects from images, giving back a dense point cloud and, in some case, a surfaced mesh model. In this paper some comparisons between the two methodologies above mentioned are presented, using the example of some real cases of study. The surveys have been performed by employing both photogrammetry and laser scanner techniques. The methodological operational choices, depending on the required goal, the difficulties encountered during the survey with these methods, the execution time (that is the key parameter), and finally the obtained results, are fully described and examinated. On the final 3D model, an analytical comparison has been made, to analyse the differences, the tolerances, the possibility of accuracy improvement and the future developments.

Fassi, F.; Fregonese, L.; Ackermann, S.; De Troia, V.

2013-02-01

44

A New Method to Explore the Spectral Impact of the Piriform Fossae on the Singing Voice: Benchmarking Using MRI-Based 3D-Printed Vocal Tracts  

PubMed Central

The piriform fossae are the 2 pear-shaped cavities lateral to the laryngeal vestibule at the lower end of the vocal tract. They act acoustically as side-branches to the main tract, resulting in a spectral zero in the output of the human voice. This study investigates their spectral role by comparing numerical and experimental results of MRI-based 3D printed Vocal Tracts, for which a new experimental method (based on room acoustics) is introduced. The findings support results in the literature: the piriform fossae create a spectral trough in the region 4–5 kHz and act as formants repellents. Moreover, this study extends those results by demonstrating numerically and perceptually the impact of having large piriform fossae on the sung output. PMID:25048199

Delvaux, Bertrand; Howard, David

2014-01-01

45

Benchmark Your Farm to Improve Your Profitability and Financial Position By Don Nitchie, Extension Educator, Agricultural Business Management  

E-print Network

Educator, Agricultural Business Management Introduction Benchmarking is the practice of measuring farm financial benchmarks indicate the profitability, financial efficiency and risk-bearing ability Required There are two types of data or benchmarks to compare to. Each type first requires sound financial

Blanchette, Robert A.

46

MRML: an extensible communication protocol for interoperability and benchmarking of multimedia information retrieval systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While in the area of relational databases interoperability is ensured by common communication protocols (e.g. ODBC/JDBC using SQL), Content Based Image Retrieval Systems (CBIRS) and other multimedia retrieval systems are lacking both a common query language and a common communication protocol. Besides its obvious short term convenience, interoperability of systems is crucial for the exchange and analysis of user data. In this paper, we present and describe an extensible XML-based query markup language, called MRML (Multimedia Retrieval markup Language). MRML is primarily designed so as to ensure interoperability between different content-based multimedia retrieval systems. Further, MRML allows researchers to preserve their freedom in extending their system as needed. MRML encapsulates multimedia queries in a way that enable multimedia (MM) query languages, MM content descriptions, MM query engines, and MM user interfaces to grow independently from each other, reaching a maximum of interoperability while ensuring a maximum of freedom for the developer. For benefitting from this, only a few simple design principles have to be respected when extending MRML for one's fprivate needs. The design of extensions withing the MRML framework will be described in detail in the paper. MRML has been implemented and tested for the CBIRS Viper, using the user interface Snake Charmer. Both are part of the GNU project and can be downloaded at our site.

Mueller, Wolfgang; Mueller, Henning; Marchand-Maillet, Stephane; Pun, Thierry; Squire, David M.; Pecenovic, Zoran; Giess, Christoph; de Vries, Arjen P.

2000-10-01

47

Force-Extension for DNA in a Nanoslit: Using an Effective Dimensionality to Map between the 3D and 2D Limits  

E-print Network

The force-extension relation for a semi-flexible polymer such as DNA confined in a nanoslit is investigated and it is found that both the effective persistence length and the form of the force-extension relation change as the chain goes from 3D (very large slit heights) to 2D (very tight confinement). Generalizations of the Marko-Siggia relation appropriate for polymers in nanoconfinement are presented. The forms for both strong and weak confinement regimes are characterized by an \\textit{effective dimensionality}. At low forces, the effective dimensionality is given by the correlations along the polymer in the plane of the confining walls. At high forces, the theoretical force must account for reduced conformation space. Together the interpolations give good agreement for all slit heights at all forces. As DNA and other semi-flexible biopolymers are commonly confined \\textit{in situ} to various degrees, both the idea of an effective dimensionality and the associated generalized Marko-Siggia interpolations are useful for qualitatively understanding and quantitatively modeling polymers in nanoconfinement.

Hendrick W. de Haan; Tyler N. Shendruk

2014-12-08

48

Extension axes in the Kumano forearc basin from inversion of fault populations mapped in a 3D seismic volume, Nankai Trough, SE Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of a 3D seismic volume across the Nankai Trough off Kii Peninsula defines a population of normal faults that indicate subhorizontal extension within the recent (0-3.8 Ma) forearc basin strata. IODP drilling (as part of the Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment, or NanTroSEIZE) within the seismic survey area documented an abrupt change in the orientation of the maximum horizontal stress across a major out-of-sequence-thrust fault (OOST). This fault, termed the “megasplay,” extends >120 km along strike and forms the seaward boundary of the Kumano forearc basin. Borehole breakouts indicate that the orientation of maximum horizontal stress changes from 150/330 degrees in the prism to 134/314 degrees in the forearc basin across the megasplay, just 10 km landward. A borehole 15 km further landward in the forearc basin indicates that the orientation of the maximum horizontal stress is 150/330 degrees. These orientations are hypothesized to reflect the mechanical behavior of the plate boundary fault systems at depth. The 3D seismic dataset is the link between the point data at boreholes and the surrounding three-dimensional rock volume. In the Kumano Basin, normal faults are generally restricted to the gently dipping cover sequence that unconformably overlies the older (late Miocene) accretionary prism. From a population of more than 400 normal faults we used 240 that cut the seafloor to infer strains associated with ongoing deformation. Four sub-populations strike between 45/225 and 100/280 degrees. Two sub-populations strike between 140/320 and 170/350 degrees. All populations include conjugate sets with a preferred NNW (ENE in the case of NW striking) dip direction, and fault dips are between 45 and 75 degrees, most >55. We used the method of Marrett and Allmendinger (1990) to invert the populations for the orientations of principle strains and the Molnar (1983) method to calculate the kinematic moment tensors, assuming that 1) motion along faults is purely dip-slip, and 2) all faults are weighted equally. A displacement-weighted calculation of moment tensors is in progress. Our preliminary inversion indicates a maximum extension direction oriented ~161/341 degrees, nearly parallel to the direction of plate convergence, and also approximately parallel to the shortening direction inferred for the outer accretionary wedge near the trench. Separating the total population into geographic sub-groups reveals a systematic change in the orientation of maximum extension, from NNW/SSE (parallel to plate convergence) at the forearc high to ENE/WSW in the landward portion of the basin. The strains determined from our inversion are consistent with stresses inferred from borehole breakouts at the two IODP boreholes in the basin. Several mechanisms have been proposed to drive the extension observed in forearc wedges, including localized underplating and coseismic deformation. In the Nankai subduction zone, this extension may be attributed to prevailing stress conditions within the accretionary wedge, a response to gravitational stresses within the shallow sediments, or tilting of the basin related to slip on the megasplay fault.

Sacks, A.; Saffer, D. M.; Fisher, D. M.

2010-12-01

49

What causes the large extensions of red-supergiant atmospheres? Comparisons of interferometric observations with 1-D hydrostatic, 3-D convection, and 1-D pulsating model atmospheres  

E-print Network

We present the atmospheric structure and the fundamental parameters of three red supergiants, increasing the sample of RSGs observed by near-infrared spectro-interferometry. Additionally, we test possible mechanisms that may explain the large observed atmospheric extensions of RSGs. We carried out spectro-interferometric observations of 3 RSGs in the near-infrared K-band with the VLTI/AMBER instrument at medium spectral resolution. To comprehend the extended atmospheres, we compared our observational results to predictions by available hydrostatic PHOENIX, available 3-D convection, and new 1-D self-excited pulsation models of RSGs. Our near-infrared flux spectra are well reproduced by the PHOENIX model atmospheres. The continuum visibility values are consistent with a limb-darkened disk as predicted by the PHOENIX models, allowing us to determine the angular diameter and the fundamental parameters of our sources. Nonetheless, in the case of V602 Car and HD 95686, the PHOENIX model visibilities do not predict ...

Arroyo-Torres, B; Chiavassa, A; Scholz, M; Freytag, B; Marcaide, J M; Hauschildt, P H; Wood, P R; Abellan, F J

2015-01-01

50

ForceExtension: Extending Isotonic Position-controlled Multi-touch Gestures with Rate-controlled Force Sensing for 3D Manipulation  

E-print Network

ForceExtension: Extending Isotonic Position-controlled Multi-touch Gestures with Rate-controlled range of position controlled multi-touch gestures. Both ForceExtension approaches are only activated extension, tracks the most recent position-control movement as the context and combines it with the force

Lindeman, Robert W.

51

Communication: Accurate hydration free energies at a wide range of temperatures from 3D-RISM.  

PubMed

We present a new model for computing hydration free energies by 3D reference interaction site model (3D-RISM) that uses an appropriate initial state of the system (as suggested by Sergiievskyi et al.). The new adjustment to 3D-RISM theory significantly improves hydration free energy predictions for various classes of organic molecules at both ambient and non-ambient temperatures. An extensive benchmarking against experimental data shows that the accuracy of the model is comparable to (much more computationally expensive) molecular dynamics simulations. The calculations can be readily performed with a standard 3D-RISM algorithm. In our work, we used an open source package AmberTools; a script to automate the whole procedure is available on the web (https://github.com/MTS-Strathclyde/ISc). PMID:25747054

Misin, Maksim; Fedorov, Maxim V; Palmer, David S

2015-03-01

52

Communication: Accurate hydration free energies at a wide range of temperatures from 3D-RISM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new model for computing hydration free energies by 3D reference interaction site model (3D-RISM) that uses an appropriate initial state of the system (as suggested by Sergiievskyi et al.). The new adjustment to 3D-RISM theory significantly improves hydration free energy predictions for various classes of organic molecules at both ambient and non-ambient temperatures. An extensive benchmarking against experimental data shows that the accuracy of the model is comparable to (much more computationally expensive) molecular dynamics simulations. The calculations can be readily performed with a standard 3D-RISM algorithm. In our work, we used an open source package AmberTools; a script to automate the whole procedure is available on the web (https://github.com/MTS-Strathclyde/ISc).

Misin, Maksim; Fedorov, Maxim V.; Palmer, David S.

2015-03-01

53

Deep Learning Representation using Autoencoder for 3D Shape Retrieval  

E-print Network

benchmarks. I. INTRODUCTION With the fast development of 3D printer, Microsoft Kinect sensor and laserDeep Learning Representation using Autoencoder for 3D Shape Retrieval Zhuotun Zhu, Xinggang Wang@hust.edu.cn Abstract--We study the problem of how to build a deep learning representation for 3D shape. Deep learning

54

Form finding and analysis of extensible membranes attached to 2-D and 3-D frames intended for micro air vehicles via experimentally validated finite element methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work is concerned with a new method to apply consistent and known pretension to silicone rubber membranes intended for micro air vehicles as well as an understanding in the science of developed pre-tension in membranes constrained by 2- D and 3-D frames and structures. Pre-tension has a marked effect on the static and dynamic response of membrane wings and controls the overall deflections, as such control and measurement of the membrane pre-tension is important. Two different 2-D frame geometries were fabricated to evaluate the technique. For open-cell frames, the pretension was not uniform, whereas it was for closed-cell frames. Results show developed full-field stress and strain fields as a function of membrane attachment temperature and frame geometry along with experimental iterations to prove repeatability. The membranes can be stretched to a specific pretension according to the temperature at which it adheres to frames. Strain fields in membranes attached to 3-D frames at various temperatures are modeled through FEA utilizing Abaqus to be able to predict the developed membrane deformations, stresses, and strains. Rigid frames with various curvatures are built via appropriate molds and then adhered to silicone rubber membranes and elevated to various temperatures to achieve different pre-strains for experimental validation. Additional experiments are conducted for more complex frame geometries involving both convex and concave topologies embedded within frames. Results are then compared with the Abaqus outputs to validate the accuracy of the FEA model. Highly compliant wings have been used for MAV platforms, where the wing structure is determined by some combination of carbon fiber composites and a membrane skin, adhered in between the layers of composite material. Another new technique of attaching membranes firmly on wing structures is introduced, which involves the application of a technology known as corona treatment coupled with another method of tensioning silicone membranes on any given frame geometry. Corona treatment provided a means of increasing adhesion of silicone on carbon fiber through the use of a high-frequency high-voltage air plasma discharge. The silicone membrane is co-cured with carbon fiber under vacuum pressure at an elevated temperature. After cool down, the membrane is tensioned.

Abudaram, Yaakov Jack

55

3D Face Recognition Based on Multiple Keypoint Descriptors and Sparse Representation  

PubMed Central

Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in developing methods for 3D face recognition. However, 3D scans often suffer from the problems of missing parts, large facial expressions, and occlusions. To be useful in real-world applications, a 3D face recognition approach should be able to handle these challenges. In this paper, we propose a novel general approach to deal with the 3D face recognition problem by making use of multiple keypoint descriptors (MKD) and the sparse representation-based classification (SRC). We call the proposed method 3DMKDSRC for short. Specifically, with 3DMKDSRC, each 3D face scan is represented as a set of descriptor vectors extracted from keypoints by meshSIFT. Descriptor vectors of gallery samples form the gallery dictionary. Given a probe 3D face scan, its descriptors are extracted at first and then its identity can be determined by using a multitask SRC. The proposed 3DMKDSRC approach does not require the pre-alignment between two face scans and is quite robust to the problems of missing data, occlusions and expressions. Its superiority over the other leading 3D face recognition schemes has been corroborated by extensive experiments conducted on three benchmark databases, Bosphorus, GavabDB, and FRGC2.0. The Matlab source code for 3DMKDSRC and the related evaluation results are publicly available at http://sse.tongji.edu.cn/linzhang/3dmkdsrcface/3dmkdsrc.htm. PMID:24940876

Zhang, Lin; Ding, Zhixuan; Li, Hongyu; Shen, Ying; Lu, Jianwei

2014-01-01

56

Translational benchmark risk analysis  

PubMed Central

Translational development – in the sense of translating a mature methodology from one area of application to another, evolving area – is discussed for the use of benchmark doses in quantitative risk assessment. Illustrations are presented with traditional applications of the benchmark paradigm in biology and toxicology, and also with risk endpoints that differ from traditional toxicological archetypes. It is seen that the benchmark approach can apply to a diverse spectrum of risk management settings. This suggests a promising future for this important risk-analytic tool. Extensions of the method to a wider variety of applications represent a significant opportunity for enhancing environmental, biomedical, industrial, and socio-economic risk assessments. PMID:20953283

Piegorsch, Walter W.

2010-01-01

57

BEAMS3D Neutral Beam Injection Model  

SciTech Connect

With the advent of applied 3D fi elds in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully 3D neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS3D, which addresses this need by coupling 3D equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous velocity reduction, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database [1]. Benchmark calculations are presented to validate the collisionless particle orbits, neutral beam injection model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle 3D magnetic fields.

Lazerson, Samuel

2014-04-14

58

Performance of the Cray T3D and Emerging Architectures on Canopy QCD Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cray T3D, an MIMD system with NUMA shared memory capabilities and in principle very low communications latency, can support the Canopy framework for grid-oriented applications. CANOPY has been ported to the T3D, with the intent of making it available to a spectrum of users. The performance of the T3D running Canopy has been benchmarked on five QCD applications extensively run on ACPMAPS at Fermilab, requiring a variety of data access patterns. The net performance and scaling behavior reveals an efficiency relative to peak Gflops almost identical to that achieved on ACPMAPS. Detailed studies of the major factors impacting performance are presented. Generalizations applying this analysis to the newly emerging crop of commercial systems reveal where their limitations will lie. On these applications, efficiencies of above 25% are not to be expected; eliminating overheads due to Canopy will improve matters, but by less than a factor of two.

Fischler, Mark; Uchima, Mike

1996-03-01

59

Europeana and 3D  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current 3D hype creates a lot of interest in 3D. People go to 3D movies, but are we ready to use 3D in our homes, in our offices, in our communication? Are we ready to deliver real 3D to a general public and use interactive 3D in a meaningful way to enjoy, learn, communicate? The CARARE project is realising this for the moment in the domain of monuments and archaeology, so that real 3D of archaeological sites and European monuments will be available to the general public by 2012. There are several aspects to this endeavour. First of all is the technical aspect of flawlessly delivering 3D content over all platforms and operating systems, without installing software. We have currently a working solution in PDF, but HTML5 will probably be the future. Secondly, there is still little knowledge on how to create 3D learning objects, 3D tourist information or 3D scholarly communication. We are still in a prototype phase when it comes to integrate 3D objects in physical or virtual museums. Nevertheless, Europeana has a tremendous potential as a multi-facetted virtual museum. Finally, 3D has a large potential to act as a hub of information, linking to related 2D imagery, texts, video, sound. We describe how to create such rich, explorable 3D objects that can be used intuitively by the generic Europeana user and what metadata is needed to support the semantic linking.

Pletinckx, D.

2011-09-01

60

3D Ear Identification Based on Sparse Representation  

PubMed Central

Biometrics based personal authentication is an effective way for automatically recognizing, with a high confidence, a person’s identity. Recently, 3D ear shape has attracted tremendous interests in research field due to its richness of feature and ease of acquisition. However, the existing ICP (Iterative Closet Point)-based 3D ear matching methods prevalent in the literature are not quite efficient to cope with the one-to-many identification case. In this paper, we aim to fill this gap by proposing a novel effective fully automatic 3D ear identification system. We at first propose an accurate and efficient template-based ear detection method. By utilizing such a method, the extracted ear regions are represented in a common canonical coordinate system determined by the ear contour template, which facilitates much the following stages of feature extraction and classification. For each extracted 3D ear, a feature vector is generated as its representation by making use of a PCA-based local feature descriptor. At the stage of classification, we resort to the sparse representation based classification approach, which actually solves an l1-minimization problem. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work introducing the sparse representation framework into the field of 3D ear identification. Extensive experiments conducted on a benchmark dataset corroborate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed approach. The associated Matlab source code and the evaluation results have been made publicly online available at http://sse.tongji.edu.cn/linzhang/ear/srcear/srcear.htm. PMID:24740247

Zhang, Lin; Ding, Zhixuan; Li, Hongyu; Shen, Ying

2014-01-01

61

Neutron Fluence, Dosimetry and Damage Response Determination in In-Core/Ex-Core Components of the VENUS CEN/SCK LWR Using 3-D Monte Carlo Simulations: NEA's VENUS-3 Benchmark  

SciTech Connect

Validating state-of-the-art methods used to predict fluence exposure to reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) has become an important issue in identifying the sources of uncertainty in the estimated RPV fluence for pressurized water reactors. This is a very important aspect in evaluating irradiation damage leading to the hardening and embrittlement of such structural components. One of the major benchmark experiments carried out to test three-dimensional methodologies is the VENUS-3 Benchmark Experiment in which three-dimensional Monte Carlo and S{sub n} codes have proved more efficient than synthesis methods. At the Instituto de Fusion Nuclear (DENIM) at the Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, a detailed full three-dimensional model of the Venus Critical Facility has been developed making use of the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP4B. The problem geometry and source modeling are described, and results, including calculated versus experimental (C/E) ratios as well as additional studies, are presented. Evidence was found that the great majority of C/E values fell within the 10% tolerance and most within 5%. Tolerance limits are discussed on the basis of evaluated data library and fission spectra sensitivity, where a value ranging between 10 to 15% should be accepted. Also, a calculation of the atomic displacement rate has been carried out in various locations throughout the reactor, finding that values of 0.0001 displacements per atom in external components such as the core barrel are representative of this type of reactor during a 30-yr time span.

Perlado, J. Manuel; Marian, Jaime; Sanz, Jesus Garcia

2000-03-15

62

Calcific extension towards the mitral valve causes non-rheumatic mitral stenosis in degenerative aortic stenosis: real-time 3D transoesophageal echocardiography study  

PubMed Central

Objective Mitral annular/leaflet calcification (MALC) is frequently observed in patients with degenerative aortic stenosis (AS). However, the impact of MALC on mitral valve function has not been established. We aimed to investigate whether MALC reduces mitral annular area and restricts leaflet opening, resulting in non-rheumatic mitral stenosis. Methods Real-time three-dimensional transoesophageal images of the mitral valve were acquired in 101 patients with degenerative AS and 26 control participants. The outer and inner borders of the mitral annular area (MAA) and the maximal leaflet opening angle were measured at early diastole. The mitral valve area (MVA) was calculated as the left ventricular stroke volume divided by the velocity time integral of the transmitral flow velocity. Results Although the outer MAA was significantly larger in patients with AS compared to control participants (8.2±1.3 vs 7.3±0.9?cm2, p<0.001), the inner MAA was significantly smaller (4.5±1.1 vs 5.9±0.9?cm2, p<0.001), resulting in an average decrease of 45% in the effective MAA. The maximal anterior and posterior leaflet opening angle was also significantly smaller in patients with AS (64±10 vs 72±8°, p<0.001, 71±12 vs 87±7°, p<0.001). Thus, MVA was significantly smaller in patients with AS (2.5±1.0 vs 3.8±0.8?cm2, p<0.001). Twenty-four (24%) patients with AS showed MVA <1.5?cm2. Multivariate regression analysis including parameters for mitral valve geometry revealed that a decrease in effective MAA and a reduced posterior leaflet opening angle were independent predictors for MVA. Conclusions Calcific extension to the mitral valve in patients with AS reduced effective MAA and the leaflet opening, resulting in a significant non-rheumatic mitral stenosis in one-fourth of the patients. PMID:25332828

Iwataki, Mai; Takeuchi, Masaaki; Otani, Kyoko; Kuwaki, Hiroshi; Yoshitani, Hidetoshi; Abe, Haruhiko; Lang, Roberto M; Levine, Robert A; Otsuji, Yutaka

2014-01-01

63

LASTRAC.3d: Transition Prediction in 3D Boundary Layers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Langley Stability and Transition Analysis Code (LASTRAC) is a general-purpose, physics-based transition prediction code released by NASA for laminar flow control studies and transition research. This paper describes the LASTRAC extension to general three-dimensional (3D) boundary layers such as finite swept wings, cones, or bodies at an angle of attack. The stability problem is formulated by using a body-fitted nonorthogonal curvilinear coordinate system constructed on the body surface. The nonorthogonal coordinate system offers a variety of marching paths and spanwise waveforms. In the extreme case of an infinite swept wing boundary layer, marching with a nonorthogonal coordinate produces identical solutions to those obtained with an orthogonal coordinate system using the earlier release of LASTRAC. Several methods to formulate the 3D parabolized stability equations (PSE) are discussed. A surface-marching procedure akin to that for 3D boundary layer equations may be used to solve the 3D parabolized disturbance equations. On the other hand, the local line-marching PSE method, formulated as an easy extension from its 2D counterpart and capable of handling the spanwise mean flow and disturbance variation, offers an alternative. A linear stability theory or parabolized stability equations based N-factor analysis carried out along the streamline direction with a fixed wavelength and downstream-varying spanwise direction constitutes an efficient engineering approach to study instability wave evolution in a 3D boundary layer. The surface-marching PSE method enables a consistent treatment of the disturbance evolution along both streamwise and spanwise directions but requires more stringent initial conditions. Both PSE methods and the traditional LST approach are implemented in the LASTRAC.3d code. Several test cases for tapered or finite swept wings and cones at an angle of attack are discussed.

Chang, Chau-Lyan

2004-01-01

64

3D Freehand Canvas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a 3D freehand sketching system. Replacing the traditional 3D cartoon process, which contains modeling,\\u000a texture mapping, it uses 2D input for generating projective strokes on a user-definable 3D canvas, which makes it possible\\u000a that artist can sketch freehand in 3D space with no limitation. The freehand style animation could be created, which is nearly\\u000a impossible for modern

Miao Wang; Guangzheng Fei; Zijun Xin; Yi Zheng; Xin Li

2008-01-01

65

Java 3D  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Java3D is a low level 3D scene-graph based graphics programming API for the java language. It does not form part of the core APIs required by the Java specification. The class libraries exist under the javax.media.j3d top level package as well as utility classes provided in javax.vecmath.

66

CSY3019 -Graphics Programming Assignment 2: Development of 2D/3D graphics software: Java 3D (50%)  

E-print Network

CSY3019 - Graphics Programming Assignment 2: Development of 2D/3D graphics software: Java 3D (50:00 - 15:00)). Brief: Produce a technical report and accompanying application using Java 3D. The application is to be a Java 3D environment in the form of the MY extension floor (corridor and rooms

Hill, Gary

67

3D discrete curvelet transform  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present the first 3D discrete curvelet transform. This transform is an extension to the 2D transform described in Candes et al..1 The resulting curvelet frame preserves the important properties, such as parabolic scaling, tightness and sparse representation for singularities of codimension one. We describe three different implementations: in-core, out-of-core and MPI-based parallel implementations. Numerical results verify

Lexing Ying; Laurent Demanet; Emmanuel Candes

2005-01-01

68

3D and Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today the industry offers a chain of 3D products. Learning to "read" and to "create in 3D" becomes an issue of education of primary importance. 25 years professional experience in France, the United States and Germany, Odile Meulien set up a personal method of initiation to 3D creation that entails the spatial/temporal experience of the holographic visual. She will present some different tools and techniques used for this learning, their advantages and disadvantages, programs and issues of educational policies, constraints and expectations related to the development of new techniques for 3D imaging. Although the creation of display holograms is very much reduced compared to the creation of the 90ies, the holographic concept is spreading in all scientific, social, and artistic activities of our present time. She will also raise many questions: What means 3D? Is it communication? Is it perception? How the seeing and none seeing is interferes? What else has to be taken in consideration to communicate in 3D? How to handle the non visible relations of moving objects with subjects? Does this transform our model of exchange with others? What kind of interaction this has with our everyday life? Then come more practical questions: How to learn creating 3D visualization, to learn 3D grammar, 3D language, 3D thinking? What for? At what level? In which matter? for whom?

Meulien Ohlmann, Odile

2013-02-01

69

COG validation: SINBAD Benchmark Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We validated COG, a 3D Monte Carlo radiation transport code, against experimental data and MNCP4C simulations from the Shielding Integral Benchmark Archive Database (SINBAD) compiled by RSICC. We modeled three experiments: the Osaka Nickel and Aluminum sphere experiments conducted at the OKTAVIAN facility, and the liquid oxygen experiment conducted at the FNS facility. COG results are in good agreement with

E M Lent; K E Sale; R M Buck; M Descalle

2004-01-01

70

Massively parallel implementation of 3D-RISM calculation with volumetric 3D-FFT.  

PubMed

A new three-dimensional reference interaction site model (3D-RISM) program for massively parallel machines combined with the volumetric 3D fast Fourier transform (3D-FFT) was developed, and tested on the RIKEN K supercomputer. The ordinary parallel 3D-RISM program has a limitation on the number of parallelizations because of the limitations of the slab-type 3D-FFT. The volumetric 3D-FFT relieves this limitation drastically. We tested the 3D-RISM calculation on the large and fine calculation cell (2048(3) grid points) on 16,384 nodes, each having eight CPU cores. The new 3D-RISM program achieved excellent scalability to the parallelization, running on the RIKEN K supercomputer. As a benchmark application, we employed the program, combined with molecular dynamics simulation, to analyze the oligomerization process of chymotrypsin Inhibitor 2 mutant. The results demonstrate that the massive parallel 3D-RISM program is effective to analyze the hydration properties of the large biomolecular systems. PMID:24771232

Maruyama, Yutaka; Yoshida, Norio; Tadano, Hiroto; Takahashi, Daisuke; Sato, Mitsuhisa; Hirata, Fumio

2014-07-01

71

A Simplified HTTR Diffusion Theory Benchmark  

SciTech Connect

The Georgia Institute of Technology (GA-Tech) recently developed a transport theory benchmark based closely on the geometry and the features of the HTTR reactor that is operational in Japan. Though simplified, the benchmark retains all the principal physical features of the reactor and thus provides a realistic and challenging test for the codes. The purpose of this paper is twofold. The first goal is an extension of the benchmark to diffusion theory applications by generating the additional data not provided in the GA-Tech prior work. The second goal is to use the benchmark on the HEXPEDITE code available to the INL. The HEXPEDITE code is a Green’s function-based neutron diffusion code in 3D hexagonal-z geometry. The results showed that the HEXPEDITE code accurately reproduces the effective multiplication factor of the reference HELIOS solution. A secondary, but no less important, conclusion is that in the testing against actual HTTR data of a full sequence of codes that would include HEXPEDITE, in the apportioning of inevitable discrepancies between experiment and models, the portion of error attributable to HEXPEDITE would be expected to be modest. If large discrepancies are observed, they would have to be explained by errors in the data fed into HEXPEDITE. Results based on a fully realistic model of the HTTR reactor are presented in a companion paper. The suite of codes used in that paper also includes HEXPEDITE. The results shown here should help that effort in the decision making process for refining the modeling steps in the full sequence of codes.

Rodolfo M. Ferrer; Abderrafi M. Ougouag; Farzad Rahnema

2010-10-01

72

NAS Parallel Benchmarks Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NAS Parallel Benchmarks (NPB) were developed in 1991 at NASA Ames Research Center to study the performance of parallel supercomputers. The eight benchmark problems are specified in a pencil and paper fashion i.e. the complete details of the problem to be solved are given in a technical document, and except for a few restrictions, benchmarkers are free to select the language constructs and implementation techniques best suited for a particular system. In this paper, we present new NPB performance results for the following systems: (a) Parallel-Vector Processors: Cray C90, Cray T'90 and Fujitsu VPP500; (b) Highly Parallel Processors: Cray T3D, IBM SP2 and IBM SP-TN2 (Thin Nodes 2); (c) Symmetric Multiprocessing Processors: Convex Exemplar SPP1000, Cray J90, DEC Alpha Server 8400 5/300, and SGI Power Challenge XL. We also present sustained performance per dollar for Class B LU, SP and BT benchmarks. We also mention NAS future plans of NPB.

Subhash, Saini; Bailey, David H.; Lasinski, T. A. (Technical Monitor)

1995-01-01

73

Contextual Classification of Point Cloud Data by Exploiting Individual 3d Neigbourhoods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fully automated analysis of 3D point clouds is of great importance in photogrammetry, remote sensing and computer vision. For reliably extracting objects such as buildings, road inventory or vegetation, many approaches rely on the results of a point cloud classification, where each 3D point is assigned a respective semantic class label. Such an assignment, in turn, typically involves statistical methods for feature extraction and machine learning. Whereas the different components in the processing workflow have extensively, but separately been investigated in recent years, the respective connection by sharing the results of crucial tasks across all components has not yet been addressed. This connection not only encapsulates the interrelated issues of neighborhood selection and feature extraction, but also the issue of how to involve spatial context in the classification step. In this paper, we present a novel and generic approach for 3D scene analysis which relies on (i) individually optimized 3D neighborhoods for (ii) the extraction of distinctive geometric features and (iii) the contextual classification of point cloud data. For a labeled benchmark dataset, we demonstrate the beneficial impact of involving contextual information in the classification process and that using individual 3D neighborhoods of optimal size significantly increases the quality of the results for both pointwise and contextual classification.

Weinmann, M.; Schmidt, A.; Mallet, C.; Hinz, S.; Rottensteiner, F.; Jutzi, B.

2015-03-01

74

A simple, yet robust, 3D resistive MHD code for simulations of laboratory and astrophysical plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Details are presented of the 3D resistive MHD code Gorgon. The code performs explicit hydrodynamics on a regular, Cartesian, Eulerian grid. Both the thermal and the magnetic field diffusion equations are backwards differenced and solved implicitly by iterative matrix solution. In the magnetic case, all three components of the field are diffused simultaneously, which results in a 3n x 3n matrix with 29 non-zero diagonals. The divergence of B is intrinsically conserved by the finite difference schemes used in both the diffusion and advection routines. Additional modules which simulate the effects of multiple temperatures, LTE ionisation, different equations of state, and radiation loss are described. Data is presented from separate 3D benchmark tests of the thermal and magnetic field diffusion routines and from 3D MHD instability benchmark tests of the entire code. Different variants of this code have used extensively in the study of wire array Z-pinches for inertial confinement fusion, to model the generation of hypersonic, radiatively cooled, laboratory plasma jets and for the study of magnetically collimated jets from Active Galactic Nuclei. Results from each research topic will be presented.

Chittenden, Jeremy P.

2002-03-01

75

Cyberchase 3D Builder  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Cyberchase iOS geometry app ($) enables students to use 2D nets to create 3D shapes. The app includes eight levels which increase in difficulty; increasing the complexity of the nets and combining different 3D shapes together.

PBS Kids

2014-01-21

76

3D Shapes Video  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This upbeat music video reviews 3D shapes including the sphere, cylinder, cube, and cone. As each 3D shape is presented, examples of things we see every day that have the same shape are also shown for reinforcement. (Length: 3:18)

Harry Kindergarten

2011-06-17

77

The ATLAS3D project - XV. Benchmark for early-type galaxies scaling relations from 260 dynamical models: mass-to-light ratio, dark matter, Fundamental Plane and Mass Plane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the volume-limited and nearly mass-selected (stellar mass Mstars ? 6 × 109 M?) ATLAS3D sample of 260 early-type galaxies (ETGs, ellipticals Es and lenticulars S0s). We construct detailed axisymmetric dynamical models (Jeans Anisotropic MGE), which allow for orbital anisotropy, include a dark matter halo and reproduce in detail both the galaxy images and the high-quality integral-field stellar kinematics out to about 1Re, the projected half-light radius. We derive accurate total mass-to-light ratios (M/L)e and dark matter fractions fDM, within a sphere of radius r={R_e} centred on the galaxies. We also measure the stellar (M/L)stars and derive a median dark matter fraction fDM = 13 per cent in our sample. We infer masses MJAM ? L × (M/L)e ? 2 × M1/2, where M1/2 is the total mass within a sphere enclosing half of the galaxy light. We find that the thin two-dimensional subset spanned by galaxies in the (M_JAM,? _e,R_e^maj) coordinates system, which we call the Mass Plane (MP) has an observed rms scatter of 19 per cent, which implies an intrinsic one of 11 per cent. Here, R_e^maj is the major axis of an isophote enclosing half of the observed galaxy light, while ?e is measured within that isophote. The MP satisfies the scalar virial relation M_JAM? ? _e^2 R_e^maj within our tight errors. This show that the larger scatter in the Fundamental Plane (FP) (L, ?e, Re) is due to stellar population effects [including trends in the stellar initial mass function (IMF)]. It confirms that the FP deviation from the virial exponents is due to a genuine (M/L)e variation. However, the details of how both Re and ?e are determined are critical in defining the precise deviation from the virial exponents. The main uncertainty in masses or M/L estimates using the scalar virial relation is in the measurement of Re. This problem is already relevant for nearby galaxies and may cause significant biases in virial mass and size determinations at high redshift. Dynamical models can eliminate these problems. We revisit the (M/L)e-?e relation, which describes most of the deviations between the MP and the FP. The best-fitting relation is (M/L)_e? ? _e^{0.72} (r band). It provides an upper limit to any systematic increase of the IMF mass normalization with ?e. The correlation is more shallow and has smaller scatter for slow rotating systems or for galaxies in Virgo. For the latter, when using the best distance estimates, we observe a scatter in (M/L)e of 11 per cent, and infer an intrinsic one of 8 per cent. We perform an accurate empirical study of the link between ?e and the galaxies circular velocity Vcirc within 1Re (where stars dominate) and find the relation max (Vcirc) ? 1.76 × ?e, which has an observed scatter of 7 per cent. The accurate parameters described in this paper are used in the companion Paper XX (Cappellari et al.) of this series to explore the variation of global galaxy properties, including the IMF, on the projections of the MP.

Cappellari, Michele; Scott, Nicholas; Alatalo, Katherine; Blitz, Leo; Bois, Maxime; Bournaud, Frédéric; Bureau, M.; Crocker, Alison F.; Davies, Roger L.; Davis, Timothy A.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Emsellem, Eric; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnovi?, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; McDermid, Richard M.; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Sarzi, Marc; Serra, Paolo; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Young, Lisa M.

2013-07-01

78

TACO3D. 3-D Finite Element Heat Transfer Code  

SciTech Connect

TACO3D is a three-dimensional, finite-element program for heat transfer analysis. An extension of the two-dimensional TACO program, it can perform linear and nonlinear analyses and can be used to solve either transient or steady-state problems. The program accepts time-dependent or temperature-dependent material properties, and materials may be isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time-dependent and temperature-dependent boundary conditions and loadings are available including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation boundary conditions and internal heat generation. Additional specialized features treat enclosure radiation, bulk nodes, and master/slave internal surface conditions (e.g., contact resistance). Data input via a free-field format is provided. A user subprogram feature allows for any type of functional representation of any independent variable. A profile (bandwidth) minimization option is available. The code is limited to implicit time integration for transient solutions. TACO3D has no general mesh generation capability. Rows of evenly-spaced nodes and rows of sequential elements may be generated, but the program relies on separate mesh generators for complex zoning. TACO3D does not have the ability to calculate view factors internally. Graphical representation of data in the form of time history and spatial plots is provided through links to the POSTACO and GRAPE postprocessor codes.

Mason, W.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1992-03-04

79

3D Plasmon Ruler  

SciTech Connect

In this animation of a 3D plasmon ruler, the plasmonic assembly acts as a transducer to deliver optical information about the structural dynamics of an attached protein. (courtesy of Paul Alivisatos group)

None

2011-01-01

80

Google Maps 3D  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Several major companies, including Google, are working on getting elaborate 3D maps online. This latest iteration of Google maps for Android-powered devices allows users to browse select cities in a 3D fashion. Utilizing aerial imagery, the buildings appear in a three-dimensional format, which can aid people navigating their way around an unfamiliar urban environment. Visitors can customize their own views with the "tilt" and "compass" mode features, which makes things a bit more fun.

2012-07-20

81

3-D Simulations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Three-dimensional (3-D) rendering and animation technology is not only used for entertainment, but also for research and educational purposes. The technology can be used for purposes of scientific simulation in fields such as physics, biology, or chemistry. For example, Stanford University's Folding@home project (1) uses 3-D simulations and distributed computing to study protein folding, misfolding, aggregation, and related diseases. Three-D simulations can also be used to observe phenomena that would normally be impossible to scrutinize in detail, as is demonstrated on this website on Nanorobotics (2). This next website describes work by the Robotics Research Group (3) in using 3-D simulations to enhance undergraduate and graduate engineering education. The EdCenter (4) makes available several compressed files of 3-D simulations that model earthquake data, Mars, a San Diego Fly Through, and more. On this website (5 ), Martin Baker provides "all you need to know about 3D theory" and this website (6) provides access to a free open-source software package which "makes it easy to build 3-D simulations of decentralized systems and artificial life." This last article from Cyberbotics, Ltd. (7) discusses how mobile robotics simulation programs can be used to design robots.

82

Massive 3D gravity Big Bounce  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The properties of an extension of the new massive 3D gravity by scalar matter with Higgs-like self-interaction are investigated. Its perturbative unitarity consistency is verified for a family of cosmological bounce solutions found by the superpotential method. They correspond to the lower bound ?=-1 of the BHT unitarity window and describe eternally accelerated 3D Universe between two initial/final stable dS vacua states.

Louzada, H. L. C.; Camara Ds, U.; Sotkov, G. M.

2010-03-01

83

BEAMS3D Neutral Beam Injection Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the advent of applied 3D fields in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully 3D neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS3D, which addresses this need by coupling 3D equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous slowing down, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database. Elementary benchmark calculations are presented to verify the collisionless particle orbits, NBI model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle 3D magnetic fields. Notice: this manuscript has been authored by Princeton University under Contract Number DE-AC02-09CH11466 with the US Department of Energy. The United States Government retains and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes.

McMillan, Matthew; Lazerson, Samuel A.

2014-09-01

84

3D ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in 3D based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32? × ?32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex 3D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the 3D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3D mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra—and inter-observer variability.

Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Esteban Arango, Juan; Imbault, Marion; Fink, Mathias; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

2014-10-01

85

3D printing technique applied to rapid casting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to verify the feasibility and evaluate the dimensional accuracy of two rapid casting (RC) solutions based on 3D printing technology: investment casting starting from 3D-printed starch patterns and the ZCast process for the production of cavities for light-alloys castings. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Starting from the identification and design of a benchmark, technological prototypes

Elena Bassoli; Andrea Gatto; Luca Iuliano; Maria Grazia Violante

2007-01-01

86

Radiochromic 3D Detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiochromic materials exhibit a colour change when exposed to ionising radiation. Radiochromic film has been used for clinical dosimetry for many years and increasingly so recently, as films of higher sensitivities have become available. The two principle advantages of radiochromic dosimetry include greater tissue equivalence (radiologically) and the lack of requirement for development of the colour change. In a radiochromic material, the colour change arises direct from ionising interactions affecting dye molecules, without requiring any latent chemical, optical or thermal development, with important implications for increased accuracy and convenience. It is only relatively recently however, that 3D radiochromic dosimetry has become possible. In this article we review recent developments and the current state-of-the-art of 3D radiochromic dosimetry, and the potential for a more comprehensive solution for the verification of complex radiation therapy treatments, and 3D dose measurement in general.

Oldham, Mark

2015-01-01

87

First 3D Printout  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a I didn’t want to keep you waiting for too long, so in this chapter you’ll print your first 3D model using the Shapeways Creator\\u000a and Co-Creator. “What? I thought this book was about using SketchUp to develop models for 3D printing!” Well, you aren’t done\\u000a with SketchUp yet. You’ll be learning how to develop custom models using SketchUp starting in

Sandeep Singh

88

Design and Implementation of 3D Resources Management System for SMMEs Based on Ajax and Web3D  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three-dimensional (3D) files are very important resources for Small & Middle-sized Manufacturing Enterprises (SMMEs). In this\\u000a paper we present a system for management and exhibition of product in 3D form. Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) and\\u000a extension 3D (X3D) in our system are used to achieve the visualization of model on the internet. Users could view these models\\u000a only through

Ming Zu; Tiemeng Li; Xiaowei Liu; Wenjun Hou

2007-01-01

89

3D Shape Match  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Flash applet provides a Concentration-type game (called pelmanism in the UK) in which students must discern the properties of three-dimensional solids and their colors in order to match them in pairs. Spheres, cones, prisms and other standard 3-D shapes are hidden face down on cards. Time and number of trials needed to solve are recorded.

Dan Bunker

2011-01-01

90

3-D Cardboard Busts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides a lesson for a high school art course on three-dimensional design. Based on a portrait bust by Naum Gabo, the project involves the construction of a 3-D portrait bust using railroad board. Describes techniques that students will need to be taught before beginning. (DSK)

Payne, Debra

1998-01-01

91

3D Visualization Development of SIUE Campus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has progressed from the traditional map-making to the modern technology where the information can be created, edited, managed and analyzed. Like any other models, maps are simplified representations of real world. Hence visualization plays an essential role in the applications of GIS. The use of sophisticated visualization tools and methods, especially three dimensional (3D) modeling, has been rising considerably due to the advancement of technology. There are currently many off-the-shelf technologies available in the market to build 3D GIS models. One of the objectives of this research was to examine the available ArcGIS and its extensions for 3D modeling and visualization and use them to depict a real world scenario. Furthermore, with the advent of the web, a platform for accessing and sharing spatial information on the Internet, it is possible to generate interactive online maps. Integrating Internet capacity with GIS functionality redefines the process of sharing and processing the spatial information. Enabling a 3D map online requires off-the-shelf GIS software, 3D model builders, web server, web applications and client server technologies. Such environments are either complicated or expensive because of the amount of hardware and software involved. Therefore, the second objective of this research was to investigate and develop simpler yet cost-effective 3D modeling approach that uses available ArcGIS suite products and the free 3D computer graphics software for designing 3D world scenes. Both ArcGIS Explorer and ArcGIS Online will be used to demonstrate the way of sharing and distributing 3D geographic information on the Internet. A case study of the development of 3D campus for the Southern Illinois University Edwardsville is demonstrated.

Nellutla, Shravya

92

USM3D Predictions of Supersonic Nozzle Flow  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study focused on the NASA Tetrahedral Unstructured Software System CFD code (USM3D) capability to predict supersonic plume flow. Previous studies, published in 2004 and 2009, investigated USM3D's results versus historical experimental data. This current study continued that comparison however focusing on the use of the volume souring to capture the shear layers and internal shock structure of the plume. This study was conducted using two benchmark axisymmetric supersonic jet experimental data sets. The study showed that with the use of volume sourcing, USM3D was able to capture and model a jet plume's shear layer and internal shock structure.

Carter, Melissa B.; Elmiligui, Alaa A.; Campbell, Richard L.; Nayani, Sudheer N.

2014-01-01

93

Interactives: 3D Shapes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How much liquid can that glass hold? What are the dimensions of that package that's heading off to a friend overseas? Answers to both of those questions (and many more) can be found in this lovely interactive feature on 3D shapes created by experts at the Annenberg Media group. Visitors to this site will learn about three-dimensional geometric shapes by examining a number of objects through a number of interactive exercises and games. The materials are divided into four sections, which include "3D Shapes", "Surface Area & Volume", and "Platonic Solids". The "Platonic Solids" area is quite a bit of fun, as visitors will get the opportunity to print out foldable shapes such as a tetrahedron. A short fifteen question quiz that tests the materials covered by these various activities rounds out the site.

94

Smithsonian X 3D  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Would you like to explore a wooly mammoth skeleton in great detail? How about some ceremonial masks created by Pacific Northwest Native Americans? The Smithsonian X 3D project makes all of this possible for visitors from all over the world. This site was created by the Smithsonian's Digitization Program Office and currently visitors can examine twelve digitized models, including a fossilized dolphin skull and the gun of noted explorer, David Livingston. The Video Gallery is a great addition as it contains short films that discuss the project's conservation work, along with a great film titled "What is 3D digitization?" Moving on, the Educators area contains a wonderful set of classroom resources that can be used in conjunction with some of the objects. Finally, the Tours area contains dozens of short films demonstrating these objects, including Seeing Around the Remnant of a Supernova, and Carving and Painting the Cosmic Buddha.

95

3D Flyover Movies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of 3D flyover movies depicts geologically interesting localities in the Southwest United States. The selection includes well-known landmarks such as Meteor Crater, Monument Valley, Hopi Buttes, and others. They are available in a number of different formats and file sizes. The movies, the data files used to make them, and the software to view them are all available for free download. There is also a link to a tutorial on how to make Fledermaus scenes and movies.

Marvin Simkin

2005-01-01

96

Calc3D Pro  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The calculator can do statistics, best fits, function plotting, integration. It handles vectors, matrices, complex numbers, quaternions, coordinates, regular polygons and intersections. For point, line, plane, sphere, circle Calc 3D calculates distances, intersections, and some additional information like volume and area. Cartesian, spherical and cylindrical coordinates can be transformed into each other. Carthesian plot, polar plot, parametric plot, best fit, fast fourier transformation, histogram, smooth, and others.

97

Extra Dimensions: 3D in PDF Documentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) and the ISO PRC file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. Until recently, Adobe's Acrobat software was also capable of incorporating 3D content into PDF files from a variety of 3D file formats, including proprietary CAD formats. However, this functionality is no longer available in Acrobat X, having been spun off to a separate company. Incorporating 3D content now requires the additional purchase of a separate plug-in. In this talk we present alternatives based on open source libraries which allow the programmatic creation of 3D content in PDF format. While not providing the same level of access to CAD files as the commercial software, it does provide physicists with an alternative path to incorporate 3D content into PDF files from such disparate applications as detector geometries from Geant4, 3D data sets, mathematical surfaces or tesselated volumes.

Graf, Norman A.

2012-12-01

98

Efficient multiscale and multidirectional representation of 3D data using the 3D discrete shearlet transform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, there has been a lot of interest in multiresolution representations that also perform a multidirectional analysis. These representations often yield very sparse representation for multidimensional data. The shearlet representation, which has been derived within the framework of composite wavelets, can be extended quite trivially from 2D to 3D. However, the extension to 3D is not unique and consequently there are different implementations possible for the discrete transform. In this paper, we investigate the properties of two relevant designs having different 3D frequency tilings. We show that the first design has a redundancy factor of around 7, while in the second design the transform can attain a redundancy factor around 3.5, independent of the number of analysis directions. Due to the low redundancy, the 3D shearlet transform becomes a viable alternative to the 3D curvelet transform. Experimental results are provided to support these findings.

Goossens, Bart; Luong, Hi"p.; Aelterman, Jan; Pižurica, Aleksandra; Philips, Wilfried

2011-09-01

99

Benchmark Glaciers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United States Geological Survey (USGS) operates a long-term "benchmark" glacier program to intensively monitor climate, glacier motion, glacier mass balance, glacier geometry, and stream runoff at a few select sites. The data collected are used to understand glacier-related hydrologic processes and improve the quantitative prediction of water resources, glacier-related hazards, and the consequences of climate change. This page presents some of the balance, runoff, and temperature data for three glaciers: Gulkana, South Cascade and Wolverine. Reports for each of these glaciers uses the collected data to draw many conclusions. There is also a section with common questions and myths about glaciers.

100

Simple 3D Drawing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed by Barbara Kaskosz of the University of Rhode Island and Doug Ensley of Shippensburg University, this resource from The Mathematical Association of America's Digital Classroom Resources collection will prove quite valuable for educators and anyone with an interest in computer graphics or geometry. Through this resource, visitors will learn how to draw and rotate 3D objects via a series of short tutorials. Along the way, users will learn about the mathematics behind manipulating cubes, the geometry involved with the manipulation of cubes, and they will also get a chance to work on their own structures. Overall, it's a fine resource and it offers insights for students in several different disciplines.

Ensley, Doug

101

3D and beyond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This conference on physiology and function covers a wide range of subjects, including the vasculature and blood flow, the flow of gas, water, and blood in the lung, the neurological structure and function, the modeling, and the motion and mechanics of organs. Many technologies are discussed. I believe that the list would include a robotic photographer, to hold the optical equipment in a precisely controlled way to obtain the images for the user. Why are 3D images needed? They are to achieve certain objectives through measurements of some objects. For example, in order to improve performance in sports or beauty of a person, we measure the form, dimensions, appearance, and movements.

Fung, Y. C.

1995-05-01

102

Simple 3D Drawing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed by Barbara Kaskosz of the University of Rhode Island and Doug Ensley of Shippensburg University, this resource from The Mathematical Association of America's Digital Classroom Resources collection will prove quite valuable for educators and anyone with an interest in computer graphics or geometry. Through this resource, visitors will learn how to draw and rotate 3D objects via a series of short tutorials. Along the way, users will learn about the mathematics behind manipulating cubes, the geometry involved with the manipulation of cubes, and they will also get a chance to work on their own structures. Overall, it's a fine resource and it offers insights for students in several different disciplines

103

3D Face Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Three-dimensional human facial surface information is a powerful biometric modality that has potential to improve the identification\\u000a and\\/or verification accuracy of face recognition systems under challenging situations. In the presence of illumination, expression\\u000a and pose variations, traditional 2D image-based face recognition algorithms usually encounter problems. With the availability\\u000a of three-dimensional (3D) facial shape information, which is inherently insensitive to illumination

Berk Gökberk; Albert Ali Salah; Lale Akarun; Remy Etheve; Daniel Riccio; Jean-Luc Dugelay; D. Petrovska-Delacrètaz; G. Chollet; B. Dorizzi

2008-01-01

104

Doing Your Own Benchmark  

Microsoft Academic Search

2. Why Benchmark? Vendors often perform benchmark for marketing purposes. These benchmarks are usually the public ones covered in this book, although IBM usually runs its own set of proprietary benchmarks. Occasionally, vendors run internal benchmarks are run to uncover software bottlenecks that might constrain the product regardless of hardware capacity. Examples of these constraints include looking for a built-in

Tom Sawyer

1991-01-01

105

Martian terrain - 3D  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An area of rocky terrain near the landing site of the Sagan Memorial Station can be seen in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. This image is part of a 3D 'monster' panorama of the area surrounding the landing site.

Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

1997-01-01

106

3D Surgical Simulation  

PubMed Central

This paper discusses the development of methods for computer-aided jaw surgery. Computer-aided jaw surgery allows us to incorporate the high level of precision necessary for transferring virtual plans into the operating room. We also present a complete computer-aided surgery (CAS) system developed in close collaboration with surgeons. Surgery planning and simulation include construction of 3D surface models from Cone-beam CT (CBCT), dynamic cephalometry, semi-automatic mirroring, interactive cutting of bone and bony segment repositioning. A virtual setup can be used to manufacture positioning splints for intra-operative guidance. The system provides further intra-operative assistance with the help of a computer display showing jaw positions and 3D positioning guides updated in real-time during the surgical procedure. The CAS system aids in dealing with complex cases with benefits for the patient, with surgical practice, and for orthodontic finishing. Advanced software tools for diagnosis and treatment planning allow preparation of detailed operative plans, osteotomy repositioning, bone reconstructions, surgical resident training and assessing the difficulties of the surgical procedures prior to the surgery. CAS has the potential to make the elaboration of the surgical plan a more flexible process, increase the level of detail and accuracy of the plan, yield higher operative precision and control, and enhance documentation of cases. Supported by NIDCR DE017727, and DE018962 PMID:20816308

Cevidanes, Lucia; Tucker, Scott; Styner, Martin; Kim, Hyungmin; Chapuis, Jonas; Reyes, Mauricio; Proffit, William; Turvey, Timothy; Jaskolka, Michael

2009-01-01

107

Exploring in 3D: Make your own 3D glasses  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, learners will construct their own 3-D glasses in order to use them on 3-D images, such as images of the Sun from the STEREO spacecraft. This activity requires special materials, such as red and blue acetate paper and can be used with an accompanying activity, titled Create Your Own 3-D Images.

108

Benchmark simulation models, quo vadis?  

PubMed

As the work of the IWA Task Group on Benchmarking of Control Strategies for wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is coming to an end, it is essential to disseminate the knowledge gained. For this reason, all authors of the IWA Scientific and Technical Report on benchmarking have come together to provide their insights, highlighting areas where knowledge may still be deficient and where new opportunities are emerging, and to propose potential avenues for future development and application of the general benchmarking framework and its associated tools. The paper focuses on the topics of temporal and spatial extension, process modifications within the WWTP, the realism of models, control strategy extensions and the potential for new evaluation tools within the existing benchmark system. We find that there are major opportunities for application within all of these areas, either from existing work already being done within the context of the benchmarking simulation models (BSMs) or applicable work in the wider literature. Of key importance is increasing capability, usability and transparency of the BSM package while avoiding unnecessary complexity. PMID:23823534

Jeppsson, U; Alex, J; Batstone, D J; Benedetti, L; Comas, J; Copp, J B; Corominas, L; Flores-Alsina, X; Gernaey, K V; Nopens, I; Pons, M-N; Rodríguez-Roda, I; Rosen, C; Steyer, J-P; Vanrolleghem, P A; Volcke, E I P; Vrecko, D

2013-01-01

109

Benchmarking Linac Codes for the HIPPI Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the framework of the HIPPI project a 3D linac code comparison and benchmarking program have been initiated. Particular attention is devoted to the validation of the space charge solvers, comparing the calculated electric field of a common initial distribution with a semi-analytical solution. In order to study the effects of numerical noise on the single particle dynamics, also the

A. Franchi; R. Duperrier; G. Franchetti; F. Gerigk; L. Groening; I. Hofmann; A. Orzhekhovskaya; A. Sauer; D. Uriot; S. Yaramyschev

2005-01-01

110

'Bonneville' in 3-D!  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this 3-D navigation camera mosaic of the crater called 'Bonneville' after driving approximately 13 meters (42.7 feet) to get a better vantage point. Spirit's current position is close enough to the edge to see the interior of the crater, but high enough and far enough back to get a view of all of the walls. Because scientists and rover controllers are so pleased with this location, they will stay here for at least two more martian days, or sols, to take high resolution panoramic camera images of 'Bonneville' in its entirety. Just above the far crater rim, on the left side, is the rover's heatshield, which is visible as a tiny reflective speck.

2004-01-01

111

Fine pitch chip interconnection technology for 3D integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

3D-IC packaging using through silicon via technology has been extensively developed to meet small form factor and low power consumption for next generation devices. For 3D chip integration, a robust micro-joining technology is required to stack Si chips, which usually offer high I\\/O pin counts to achieve better electrical performance. As for the 3D chip stacking methodology, chip-on-wafer bonding is

Jihwan. Hwang; Jongyeon. Kim; Woonseong. Kwon; Unbyoung. Kang; Taeje. Cho; Sayoon. Kang

2010-01-01

112

3D collar design creation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This preliminary research revolute the conventional clothing design process by true designs from three-dimensional (3D) rather than two-dimensional. The aim of the research is to develop a handy 3D clothing design software tool for general garment designers. Work carried out in this paper is the preliminary result of the 3D software infrastructure. In addition, 3D collar design based on a

Jing-Jing Fang

2003-01-01

113

CYBERVIEW 3D DOCUMENT GENERATOR  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

THE CYBERVIEW 3D DOCUMENT GENERATOR -- is a new WWW server add-on that makes it easy to create HTML documents with inline, rotatable, hyperlinked 3D images ("3D imagemaps"). The pages generated by Cyberview can be viewed in standard HTML 2.0-compatible Web browsers. Try it at:

114

Uncertainty in 3D gel dosimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three-dimensional (3D) gel dosimetry has a unique role to play in safeguarding conformal radiotherapy treatments as the technique can cover the full treatment chain and provides the radiation oncologist with the integrated dose distribution in 3D. It can also be applied to benchmark new treatment strategies such as image guided and tracking radiotherapy techniques. A major obstacle that has hindered the wider dissemination of gel dosimetry in radiotherapy centres is a lack of confidence in the reliability of the measured dose distribution. Uncertainties in 3D dosimeters are attributed to both dosimeter properties and scanning performance. In polymer gel dosimetry with MRI readout, discrepancies in dose response of large polymer gel dosimeters versus small calibration phantoms have been reported which can lead to significant inaccuracies in the dose maps. The sources of error in polymer gel dosimetry with MRI readout are well understood and it has been demonstrated that with a carefully designed scanning protocol, the overall uncertainty in absolute dose that can currently be obtained falls within 5% on an individual voxel basis, for a minimum voxel size of 5 mm3. However, several research groups have chosen to use polymer gel dosimetry in a relative manner by normalizing the dose distribution towards an internal reference dose within the gel dosimeter phantom. 3D dosimetry with optical scanning has also been mostly applied in a relative way, although in principle absolute calibration is possible. As the optical absorption in 3D dosimeters is less dependent on temperature it can be expected that the achievable accuracy is higher with optical CT. The precision in optical scanning of 3D dosimeters depends to a large extend on the performance of the detector. 3D dosimetry with X-ray CT readout is a low contrast imaging modality for polymer gel dosimetry. Sources of error in x-ray CT polymer gel dosimetry (XCT) are currently under investigation and include inherent limitations in dosimeter homogeneity, imaging performance, and errors induced through post-acquisition processing. This overview highlights a number of aspects relating to uncertainties in polymer gel dosimetry.

De Deene, Yves; Jirasek, Andrew

2015-01-01

115

Validation of MF3D for BWR Neutron Fluence Computations  

SciTech Connect

The validation of the MCNP-based software package, MF3D, being developed for boiling water reactor (BWR) neutron fluence computations, is currently under way by benchmarking the MF3D computational fluence results against BWR fluence measurements at selected locations between the shroud and the reactor pressure vessel (RPV). This validation is essential to ensure that the MF3D software package is an accurate and useful tool for reliable BWR neutron fluence computations. A summary of typical computed to measured results ratios (C/M ratios) at the 4-deg azimuth is provided in Table I. The computational results obtained using the MF3D package are in good agreement with the measurements, which validates the package as an accurate BWR neutron fluence simulator.

S. Sitaraman; R-T. Chiang; A. L. Jenkins; K. Asano; K. Koyabu

2000-06-04

116

RELAP5-3D Code Application for RBMK-1500 Reactor Core Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents an evaluation of RELAP5-3D code suitability to model specific transients that take place during RBMK-1500 reactor operation, where the neutronic response of the core is important. A successful best estimate RELAP5-3D model of the Ignalina NPP RBMK-1500 reactor has been developed and validated against real plant data. Certain RELAP5-3D transient calculation results were benchmarked against calculation results

Evaldas Bubelis; Algirdas Kaliatka; Eugenijus Uspuras

2002-01-01

117

Research and Implement of 3D Data Integration between 3D GIS and 3D CAD  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY 3D GIS and 3D CAD system describe the same real-world objects but they belong to different domains. The data involved in the two systems are therefore quite different. Along with the evolution of information technology and 3D representation of geospatial information, more and more 3D applications demand both of them to be used together. This paper focuses on how

TOR Yam Khoon

118

'Diamond' in 3-D  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This 3-D, microscopic imager mosaic of a target area on a rock called 'Diamond Jenness' was taken after NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity ground into the surface with its rock abrasion tool for a second time.

Opportunity has bored nearly a dozen holes into the inner walls of 'Endurance Crater.' On sols 177 and 178 (July 23 and July 24, 2004), the rover worked double-duty on Diamond Jenness. Surface debris and the bumpy shape of the rock resulted in a shallow and irregular hole, only about 2 millimeters (0.08 inch) deep. The final depth was not enough to remove all the bumps and leave a neat hole with a smooth floor. This extremely shallow depression was then examined by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.

On Sol 178, Opportunity's 'robotic rodent' dined on Diamond Jenness once again, grinding almost an additional 5 millimeters (about 0.2 inch). The rover then applied its Moessbauer spectrometer to the deepened hole. This double dose of Diamond Jenness enabled the science team to examine the rock at varying layers. Results from those grindings are currently being analyzed.

The image mosaic is about 6 centimeters (2.4 inches) across.

2004-01-01

119

Prominent rocks - 3D  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many prominent rocks near the Sagan Memorial Station are featured in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. Wedge is at lower left; Shark, Half-Dome, and Pumpkin are at center. Flat Top, about four inches high, is at lower right. The horizon in the distance is one to two kilometers away.

Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

1997-01-01

120

Architect Studio 3D  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When one thinks of the vast number of influential architects the world has seen during the past centuries, one is reminded of Dies van der Rohe, Walter Gropius, Le Corbusier, and of course, that Master from the Midwest, Frank Lloyd Wright. It's hard to imagine that a website would be able to conjure up the spirit of this famous and controversial architect, but it does just that. With the assistance of a user-friendly interface, the Architect Studio 3D site allows users to build a model home for a number of clients and their very specific needs. With a small icon of the master residing in the bottom of the left-hand corner of the screen, visitors will get the chance to create their own building for one of these clients, and then submit it to a design gallery for consideration by others. For those visitors who may be less familiar with the world of architecture, there is a handy section titled "About Architecture". Here they will find a glossary of terms that provide brief descriptions of such important concepts and design elements as site, wall, client, roof, and exterior material. Of course, no such site would be complete without a brief biography of the man himself, and as such, a nice overview of his work and life is provided here as well.

121

Geometry in 3-D  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource guide from the Middle School Portal 2 project, written specifically for teachers, provides links to exemplary resources including background information, lessons, career information, and related national science education standards. The online resources featured in Geometry in 3-D actively engage students in exploring a variety of geometric shapes, at times through lessons that involve building models or creating paper nets that fold into three-dimensional shapes; at other times, through technology that allows students to rotate and zoom in on figures, noting their attributes and complexity. Other lessons offer problems on surface area and volume, a part of every middle school curriculum. The problems, each with a different twist on the subject, challenge students to reconsider their understanding of how to measure solids. Activities for developing spatial sense, another primary objective in teaching geometry, are also featured. Finally, there are online galleries of geometric solids, included for the rare opportunity they offer to show your students the beauty in mathematics. In Background Information, you will find workshop sessions developed for teachers and other materials that may interest you as a professional. Each resource deals specifically with three-dimensional geometry topics that align with the geometry and measurement standards recommended by NCTM.

Terese Herrera

122

Benchmarking and Performance Measurement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper defines benchmarking and its relationship to quality management, describes a project which applied the technique in a library context, and explores the relationship between performance measurement and benchmarking. Numerous benchmarking methods contain similar elements: deciding what to benchmark; identifying partners; gathering…

Town, J. Stephen

123

Inuit3D: An Interactive Virtual 3D Web Exhibition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Canadian Museum of Civilization and the National Research Council ofCanada collaborated on the production of Inuit 3D, one of six inaugural VirtualMuseum of Canada exhibitions launched in April 2001. Inuit 3D is an interactiveexhibition in which visitors navigate through three exhibition halls andinteractively examine twelve 3D models of objects from the Museum's collection.Introductory videos are presented at the entrance

Frank Corcoran; Jeffrey Demaine; Michel Picard; Louis-Guy Dicaire; John Taylor

2002-01-01

124

Parallel CARLOS-3D code development  

SciTech Connect

CARLOS-3D is a three-dimensional scattering code which was developed under the sponsorship of the Electromagnetic Code Consortium, and is currently used by over 80 aerospace companies and government agencies. The code has been extensively validated and runs on both serial workstations and parallel super computers such as the Intel Paragon. CARLOS-3D is a three-dimensional surface integral equation scattering code based on a Galerkin method of moments formulation employing Rao- Wilton-Glisson roof-top basis for triangular faceted surfaces. Fully arbitrary 3D geometries composed of multiple conducting and homogeneous bulk dielectric materials can be modeled. This presentation describes some of the extensions to the CARLOS-3D code, and how the operator structure of the code facilitated these improvements. Body of revolution (BOR) and two-dimensional geometries were incorporated by simply including new input routines, and the appropriate Galerkin matrix operator routines. Some additional modifications were required in the combined field integral equation matrix generation routine due to the symmetric nature of the BOR and 2D operators. Quadrilateral patched surfaces with linear roof-top basis functions were also implemented in the same manner. Quadrilateral facets and triangular facets can be used in combination to more efficiently model geometries with both large smooth surfaces and surfaces with fine detail such as gaps and cracks. Since the parallel implementation in CARLOS-3D is at high level, these changes were independent of the computer platform being used. This approach minimizes code maintenance, while providing capabilities with little additional effort. Results are presented showing the performance and accuracy of the code for some large scattering problems. Comparisons between triangular faceted and quadrilateral faceted geometry representations will be shown for some complex scatterers.

Putnam, J.M. [McDonnell Douglas Corp., St. Louis, MO (United States); Kotulski, J.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1996-02-01

125

Browsing the 3D Web  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 3D browser gives users access to the technology's benefits, is a critical part of the 3D Web. 3D browser software performs complex calculations of the perspective, shading, and other features necessary to give a rendered image or object a three-dimensional appearance. Proponents say the addition of a third dimension to Web browsing would result in better visualization and analysis

Neal Leavitt

2006-01-01

126

3D Projection Sideband Cooling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate 3D microwave projection sideband cooling of trapped, neutral atoms. The technique employs state-dependent potentials that enable microwave photons to drive vibration-number reducing transitions. The particular cooling sequence we employ uses minimal spontaneous emission, and works even for relatively weakly bound atoms. We cool 76% of atoms to their 3D vibrational ground states in a site-resolvable 3D optical lattice.

Li, Xiao; Corcovilos, Theodore A.; Wang, Yang; Weiss, David S.

2012-03-01

127

3D projection sideband cooling.  

PubMed

We demonstrate 3D microwave projection sideband cooling of trapped, neutral atoms. The technique employs state-dependent potentials that enable microwave photons to drive vibration-number reducing transitions. The particular cooling sequence we employ uses minimal spontaneous emission, and works even for relatively weakly bound atoms. We cool 76% of atoms to their 3D vibrational ground states in a site-resolvable 3D optical lattice. PMID:22463405

Li, Xiao; Corcovilos, Theodore A; Wang, Yang; Weiss, David S

2012-03-01

128

Adaptive 3D Web Sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, technological developments have made it possible to build interactive 3D models of objects and 3D Virtual Environments that can be experienced through the Web, using common, low-cost personal computers. As in the case of Web-based hypermedia, adaptivity can play an important role in increasing the usefulness, effectiveness and usability of 3D Web sites, i.e., Web sites distributing

Luca Chittaro; Roberto Ranon

2007-01-01

129

3D World Building System  

SciTech Connect

This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.

None

2013-10-30

130

3D Tissue Scaffolds BIOMATERIALS  

E-print Network

3D Tissue Scaffolds BIOMATERIALS Our goal is to develop measurement tools and reference materials006497-01) in collaboration with the New Jersey Center for Biomaterials (RESBIO P41 EB 001046). · We have-material interactions have focused on planar (2D) surfaces or films. However, biomaterials are commonly used in 3D

131

3D parking assistant system  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the evolution of our prototype for a new generation of circumstance recognition system. This prototype provides the driver a 3D representation of the scene surrounding his vehicle. We focus essentially on the improvement of quality and robustness of the set of 3D points reconstructed by tracking from acquisitions and on a process of obstacle modeling from this set

K. Fintzel; R. Bendahan; C. Vestri; S. Bougnoux; T. Kakinami

2004-01-01

132

3-D Drawing and Geometry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A Math Forum Summer 1998 Institute project that uses examples of paintings, architecture, etc. to analyze different types of 3-D drawings, and teaches students how to create them. Careers in 3-D drawing that use these techniques, from architecture to movies, are also illustrated. Types include isometric, oblique, and perspective drawings. A drawing project for students is outlined and submissions are invited.

Math Forum

2001-01-01

133

Modeling 3D Euclidean Geometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: The space we live in is well described as 3D Euclidean... This article compares five models of 3D Euclidean geometry -- not theoretically, but by demonstrating how to implement a simple recursive ray tracer in each of them. It's meant as a tangible case study of the profitability of choosing an appropriate model, discussing the trade-offs between elegance and

Daniel Fontijne; Leo Dorst

2003-01-01

134

3D World Building System  

ScienceCinema

This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.

None

2014-02-26

135

PLOT3D user's manual  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

PLOT3D is a computer graphics program designed to visualize the grids and solutions of computational fluid dynamics. Seventy-four functions are available. Versions are available for many systems. PLOT3D can handle multiple grids with a million or more grid points, and can produce varieties of model renderings, such as wireframe or flat shaded. Output from PLOT3D can be used in animation programs. The first part of this manual is a tutorial that takes the reader, keystroke by keystroke, through a PLOT3D session. The second part of the manual contains reference chapters, including the helpfile, data file formats, advice on changing PLOT3D, and sample command files.

Walatka, Pamela P.; Buning, Pieter G.; Pierce, Larry; Elson, Patricia A.

1990-01-01

136

Biological insights from topology independent comparison of protein 3D structures  

PubMed Central

Comparing and classifying the three-dimensional (3D) structures of proteins is of crucial importance to molecular biology, from helping to determine the function of a protein to determining its evolutionary relationships. Traditionally, 3D structures are classified into groups of families that closely resemble the grouping according to their primary sequence. However, significant structural similarities exist at multiple levels between proteins that belong to these different structural families. In this study, we propose a new algorithm, CLICK, to capture such similarities. The method optimally superimposes a pair of protein structures independent of topology. Amino acid residues are represented by the Cartesian coordinates of a representative point (usually the C? atom), side chain solvent accessibility, and secondary structure. Structural comparison is effected by matching cliques of points. CLICK was extensively benchmarked for alignment accuracy on four different sets: (i) 9537 pair-wise alignments between two structures with the same topology; (ii) 64 alignments from set (i) that were considered to constitute difficult alignment cases; (iii) 199 pair-wise alignments between proteins with similar structure but different topology; and (iv) 1275 pair-wise alignments of RNA structures. The accuracy of CLICK alignments was measured by the average structure overlap score and compared with other alignment methods, including HOMSTRAD, MUSTANG, Geometric Hashing, SALIGN, DALI, GANGSTA+, FATCAT, ARTS and SARA. On average, CLICK produces pair-wise alignments that are either comparable or statistically significantly more accurate than all of these other methods. We have used CLICK to uncover relationships between (previously) unrelated proteins. These new biological insights include: (i) detecting hinge regions in proteins where domain or sub-domains show flexibility; (ii) discovering similar small molecule binding sites from proteins of different folds and (iii) discovering topological variants of known structural/sequence motifs. Our method can generally be applied to compare any pair of molecular structures represented in Cartesian coordinates as exemplified by the RNA structure superimposition benchmark. PMID:21596786

Nguyen, Minh N.; Madhusudhan, M. S.

2011-01-01

137

NEBU3D, a new pseudo-3d photoionization code  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most ionized nebulae have complex morphological structures. This is true not only for HII regions, but also for Planetary Nebulae. So far, almost all selfconsistent physical analyses of ionized nebulae have used 1D photoionization codes á la Cloudy. A few 3D photoionization codes now exist (Gruenwald et al. 1996; Ercolano et al. 2003). There are practical difficulties with 3D model fitting of real nebulae: one is the enormous parameter space to consider and another one is the fact that 3D codes are very CPU-time and memory consuming: several hours are needed on clusters or supercomputers to make a full model.

Morisset, C.; Stasi?ska, G.; Peña, M.

2005-10-01

138

3D RISM theory with fast reciprocal-space electrostatics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The calculation of electrostatic solute-solvent interactions in 3D RISM ("three-dimensional reference interaction site model") integral equation theory is recast in a form that allows for a computational treatment analogous to the "particle-mesh Ewald" formalism as used for molecular simulations. In addition, relations that connect 3D RISM correlation functions and interaction potentials with thermodynamic quantities such as the chemical potential and average solute-solvent interaction energy are reformulated in a way that calculations of expensive real-space electrostatic terms on the 3D grid are completely avoided. These methodical enhancements allow for both, a significant speedup particularly for large solute systems and a smoother convergence of predicted thermodynamic quantities with respect to box size, as illustrated for several benchmark systems.

Heil, Jochen; Kast, Stefan M.

2015-03-01

139

3D RISM theory with fast reciprocal-space electrostatics.  

PubMed

The calculation of electrostatic solute-solvent interactions in 3D RISM ("three-dimensional reference interaction site model") integral equation theory is recast in a form that allows for a computational treatment analogous to the "particle-mesh Ewald" formalism as used for molecular simulations. In addition, relations that connect 3D RISM correlation functions and interaction potentials with thermodynamic quantities such as the chemical potential and average solute-solvent interaction energy are reformulated in a way that calculations of expensive real-space electrostatic terms on the 3D grid are completely avoided. These methodical enhancements allow for both, a significant speedup particularly for large solute systems and a smoother convergence of predicted thermodynamic quantities with respect to box size, as illustrated for several benchmark systems. PMID:25796231

Heil, Jochen; Kast, Stefan M

2015-03-21

140

RELAP5-3D User Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Reactor Excursion and Leak Analysis Program with 3D capability1 (RELAP5-3D) is a reactor system analysis code that has been developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). The 3D capability in RELAP5-3D includes 3D hydrodynamics2 and 3D neutron kinetics3,4. Assessment, verification, and validation of the 3D capability in RELAP5-3D

Riemke; Richard Allan

2002-01-01

141

Benchmarking and Data Analysis  

E-print Network

Benchmarking and Data Analysis Kellie Williams | Houston ISD ESL-KT-14-11-14 CATEE 2014: Clean Air Through Efficiency Conference, Dallas, Texas Nov. 18-20 Benchmarking ? Process of comparing data sets ? Baselines, Goals, KPIs ? Energy Star...

Williams, K.

2014-01-01

142

3D or not 3D - that is the question!  

Microsoft Academic Search

Should an introduction to 3D computer graphics and animation be a part of a general core curriculum requirement for all design majors regardless their concentration, track or degree?At ACM-SIGGRAPH it is taken for granted that a working knowledge of 3D computer graphics is a valuable if not necessary part of a versatile skill set to prepare design graduates for future

Gregory P. Garvey

2006-01-01

143

Optimization Techniques for 3D Graphics Deployment on Mobile Devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

3D Internet technologies are becoming essential enablers in many application areas including games, education, collaboration, navigation and social networking. The use of 3D Internet applications with mobile devices provides location-independent access and richer use context, but also performance issues. Therefore, one of the important challenges facing 3D Internet applications is the deployment of 3D graphics on mobile devices. In this article, we present an extensive survey on optimization techniques for 3D graphics deployment on mobile devices and qualitatively analyze the applicability of each technique from the standpoints of visual quality, performance and energy consumption. The analysis focuses on optimization techniques related to data-driven 3D graphics deployment, because it supports off-line use, multi-user interaction, user-created 3D graphics and creation of arbitrary 3D graphics. The outcome of the analysis facilitates the development and deployment of 3D Internet applications on mobile devices and provides guidelines for future research.

Koskela, Timo; Vatjus-Anttila, Jarkko

2015-03-01

144

Benchmark On Sensitivity Calculation (Phase III)  

SciTech Connect

The sensitivities of the keff eigenvalue to neutron cross sections have become commonly used in similarity studies and as part of the validation algorithm for criticality safety assessments. To test calculations of the sensitivity coefficients, a benchmark study (Phase III) has been established by the OECD-NEA/WPNCS/EG UACSA (Expert Group on Uncertainty Analysis for Criticality Safety Assessment). This paper presents some sensitivity results generated by the benchmark participants using various computational tools based upon different computational methods: SCALE/TSUNAMI-3D and -1D, MONK, APOLLO2-MORET 5, DRAGON-SUSD3D and MMKKENO. The study demonstrates the performance of the tools. It also illustrates how model simplifications impact the sensitivity results and demonstrates the importance of 'implicit' (self-shielding) sensitivities. This work has been a useful step towards verification of the existing and developed sensitivity analysis methods.

Ivanova, Tatiana [IRSN; Laville, Cedric [IRSN; Dyrda, James [Atomic Weapons Establishment; Mennerdahl, Dennis [E. Mennerdahl Systems; Golovko, Yury [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE), Obninsk, Russia; Raskach, Kirill [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE), Obninsk, Russia; Tsiboulia, Anatoly [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE), Obninsk, Russia; Lee, Gil Soo [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS); Woo, Sweng-Woong [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS); Bidaud, Adrien [Labratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmolo-gie (LPSC); Patel, Amrit [NRC; Bledsoe, Keith C [ORNL; Rearden, Bradley T [ORNL; Gulliford, J. [OECD Nuclear Energy Agency

2012-01-01

145

COSMOsim3D: 3D-similarity and alignment based on COSMO polarization charge densities.  

PubMed

COSMO ?-surfaces resulting from quantum chemical calculations of molecules in a simulated conductor, and their histograms, the so-called ?-profiles, are widely proven to provide a very suitable and almost complete basis for the description of molecular interactions in condensed systems. The COSMOsim method therefore introduced a global measure of molecular similarity on the basis of similarity of ?-profiles, but it had the disadvantage of neglecting the 3D distribution of molecular polarities, which is crucially determining all ligand-receptor binding. This disadvantage is now overcome by COSMOsim3D, which is a logical and physically sound extension of the COSMOsim method, which uses local ?-profiles on a spatial grid. This new method is used to measure intermolecular similarities on the basis of the 3D representation of the surface polarization charge densities ? of the target and the probe molecule. The probe molecule is translated and rotated in space in order to maximize the sum of local ?-profile similarities between target and probe. This sum, the COSMOsim3D similarity, is a powerful descriptor of ligand similarity and allows for a good discrimination between bioisosters and random pairs. Validation experiments using about 600 pharmacological activity classes in the MDDR database are given. Furthermore, COSMOsim3D represents a unique and very robust method for a field-based ligand-ligand alignment. PMID:22804925

Thormann, Michael; Klamt, Andreas; Wichmann, Karin

2012-08-27

146

Benchmarking for Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The chapters in this collection explore the concept of benchmarking as it is being used and developed in higher education (HE). Case studies and reviews show how universities in the United Kingdom are using benchmarking to aid in self-regulation and self-improvement. The chapters are: (1) "Introduction to Benchmarking" (Norman Jackson and Helen…

Jackson, Norman, Ed.; Lund, Helen, Ed.

147

SULEC: Benchmarking a new ALE finite-element code  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a 2-D/3-D arbitrary lagrangian-eulerian (ALE) finite-element code, SULEC, based on known techniques from literature. SULEC is successful in tackling many of the problems faced by numerical models of lithosphere and mantle processes, such as the combination of viscous, elastic, and plastic rheologies, the presence of a free surface, the contrast in viscosity between lithosphere and the underlying asthenosphere, and the occurrence of large deformations including viscous flow and offset on shear zones. The aim of our presentation is (1) to describe SULEC, and (2) to present a set of analytical and numerical benchmarks that we use to continuously test our code. SULEC solves the incompressible momentum equation coupled with the energy equation. It uses a structured mesh that is built of quadrilateral or brick elements that can vary in size in all dimensions, allowing to achieve high resolutions where required. The elements are either linear in velocity with constant pressure, or quadratic in velocity with linear pressure. An accurate pressure field is obtained through an iterative penalty (Uzawa) formulation. Material properties are carried on tracer particles that are advected through the Eulerian mesh. Shear elasticity is implemented following the approach of Moresi et al. [J. Comp. Phys. 184, 2003], brittle materials deform following a Drucker-Prager criterion, and viscous flow is by temperature- and pressure-dependent power-law creep. The top boundary of our models is a true free surface (with free surface stabilisation) on which simple surface processes models may be imposed. We use a set of benchmarks that test viscous, viscoelastic, elastic and plastic deformation, temperature advection and conduction, free surface behaviour, and pressure computation. Part of our benchmark set is automated allowing easy testing of new code versions. Examples include Poiseuille flow, Couette flow, Stokes flow, relaxation of viscous topography, viscous pure shear, viscoelastic pure shear, viscoelastic simple shear, and half-space cooling. More demanding tests include for example the Blankenbach convection benchmark (Geophys. J. Int. 98, 1989), the Schmeling et al. subduction benchmark (Phys. Earth Planet. Int. 171, 2008), and the angle of shear bands in compression and extension. While we do not aim to provide the most complete set of tests for new numerical codes, we do hope that our tests may help future code developers.

Buiter, S.; Ellis, S.

2012-04-01

148

Accepting the T3D  

SciTech Connect

In April, a 128 PE Cray T3D was installed at Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Advanced Computing Laboratory as part of the DOE`s High-Performance Parallel Processor Program (H4P). In conjunction with CRI, the authors implemented a 30 day acceptance test. The test was constructed in part to help them understand the strengths and weaknesses of the T3D. In this paper, they briefly describe the H4P and its goals. They discuss the design and implementation of the T3D acceptance test and detail issues that arose during the test. They conclude with a set of system requirements that must be addressed as the T3D system evolves.

Rich, D.O.; Pope, S.C.; DeLapp, J.G.

1994-10-01

149

Map Rainfall in 3D  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

William Montgomery, New Jersey City University Summary This comprehensive activity introduces students to onscreen digitizing (OSD); automated mapping (Add XY Event Theme); table joins; 3D models; and automated ...

William Montgomery

150

Analysis of ANS LWR physics benchmark problems.  

SciTech Connect

Various Monte Carlo and deterministic solutions to the three PWR Lattice Benchmark Problems recently defined by the ANS Ad Hoc Committee on Reactor Physics Benchmarks are presented. These solutions were obtained using the VIM continuous-energy Monte Carlo code and the DIF3D/WIMS-D4M code package implemented at the Argonne National Laboratory. The code results for the K{sub eff} and relative pin power distribution are compared to measured values. Additionally, code results for the three benchmark-prescribed infinite lattice configurations are also intercompared. The results demonstrate that the codes produce very good estimates of both the K{sub eff} and power distribution for the critical core and the lattice parameters of the infinite lattice configuration.

Taiwo, T. A.

1998-07-29

151

Wrapping 3D scanning data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geomagic WrapTM is a commercially available software for reconstructing shapes and surfaces from 3D scanning data. The data can be any arbitrary finite point set in 3D, and there are no requirements on local density or organization in slices, etc. The software contains components for surface reconstruction, improvement, and analysis, and it supports a variety of input and output formats that make it compatible with scanning hardware and CAD and graphics software.

Edelsbrunner, Herbert; Facello, Michael A.; Fu, Ping; Qian, Jiang; Nekhayev, Dmitry V.

1998-03-01

152

Exploring 3D Printing Alternatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Throughout most of this book, you have spent a majority of your time learning about Shapeways and SketchUp. Both work well\\u000a together when designing and developing models for 3D printing. The ease of using SketchUp and the ability to effortlessly\\u000a upload and 3D print models are amazing. In this chapter, we switch gears and introduce a few other tools and

Sandeep Singh

153

Regularized 3D Morphable Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three-dimensional morphable models of object classes are a powerful tool in modeling, animation and recognition. We introduce here the new concept of regularized 3D mor- phable models, along with an iterative learning algorithm, by adding in the statistical model a noise\\/regularization term which is estimated from the examples set. With regu- larized 3D morphable models we are able to handle

Curzio Basso; Thomas Vetter; Volker Blanz

2003-01-01

154

3-D QSAutogrid/R: an alternative procedure to build 3-D QSAR models. Methodologies and applications.  

PubMed

Since it first appeared in 1988 3-D QSAR has proved its potential in the field of drug design and activity prediction. Although thousands of citations now exist in 3-D QSAR, its development was rather slow with the majority of new 3-D QSAR applications just extensions of CoMFA. An alternative way to build 3-D QSAR models, based on an evolution of software, has been named 3-D QSAutogrid/R and has been developed to use only software freely available to academics. 3-D QSAutogrid/R covers all the main features of CoMFA and GRID/GOLPE with implementation by multiprobe/multiregion variable selection (MPGRS) that improves the simplification of interpretation of the 3-D QSAR map. The methodology is based on the integration of the molecular interaction fields as calculated by AutoGrid and the R statistical environment that can be easily coupled with many free graphical molecular interfaces such as UCSF-Chimera, AutoDock Tools, JMol, and others. The description of each R package is reported in detail, and, to assess its validity, 3-D QSAutogrid/R has been applied to three molecular data sets of which either CoMFA or GRID/GOLPE models were reported in order to compare the results. 3-D QSAutogrid/R has been used as the core engine to prepare more that 240 3-D QSAR models forming the very first 3-D QSAR server ( www.3d-qsar.com ) with its code freely available through R-Cran distribution. PMID:22643034

Ballante, Flavio; Ragno, Rino

2012-06-25

155

3D printed impedance elements by micro-dispensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Micro-dispensing allows electric circuits to be "3D printed," which can be used to give 3D printed systems electronic and electromagnetic functionality. The focus of this thesis is using micro-dispensing to fabricate capacitors and inductors. 3D printed impedance elements are capable of being more easily embedded, can be used to create structural electronics, and will have extensive applications in antennas, metamaterials, frequency selective surfaces, and more. This is the first known effort to print and measure impedance elements by micro-dispensing which holds great potential for manufacturing multi-material devices.

Robles Dominguez, Ubaldo

156

Development of "3D Digital Camera System"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

FUJIFILM has developed world's first 3D digital camera "Finepix REAL 3D W1". The FinePix REAL 3D W1 has two 10 megapixel CCDs, two 3× optical zoom lenses, newly developed 2D/3D LCD monitor (2.8 inch), and newly developed 3D processor "Real Photo Processor 3D". The camera allows you to view the 3D images on the LCD monitor without special glasses.

Horii, Hirofumi; Oda, Kazuya; Sato, Hitoshi; Nishimura, Toru

157

DRACO development for 3D simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The DRACO (r-z) lagrangian radiation-hydrodynamics laser fusion simulation code is being extended to model 3D hydrodynamics in (x-y-z) coordinates with hexahedral cells on a structured grid. The equation of motion is solved with a lagrangian update with optional rezoning. The fluid equations are solved using an explicit scheme based on (Schulz, 1964) while the SALE-3D algorithm (Amsden, 1981) is used as a template for computing cell volumes and other quantities. A second order rezoner has been added which uses linear interpolation of the underlying continuous functions to preserve accuracy (Van Leer, 1976). Artificial restoring force terms and smoothing algorithms are used to avoid grid distortion in high aspect ratio cells. These include alternate node couplers along with a rotational restoring force based on the Tensor Code (Maenchen, 1964). Electron and ion thermal conduction is modeled using an extension of Kershaw's method (Kershaw, 1981) to 3D geometry. Test problem simulations will be presented to demonstrate the applicability of this new version of DRACO to the study of fluid instabilities in three dimensions.

Fatenejad, Milad; Moses, Gregory

2006-10-01

158

3-D threat image projection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Automated Explosive Detection Systems utilizing Computed Tomography perform a series X-ray scans of passenger bags being checked in at the airport, and produce various 2-D projection images and 3-D volumetric images of the bag. The determination as to whether the passenger bag contains an explosive and needs to be searched manually is performed through trained Transportation Security Administration screeners following an approved protocol. In order to keep the screeners vigilant with regards to screening quality, the Transportation Security Administration has mandated the use of Threat Image Projection on 2-D projection X-ray screening equipment used at all US airports. These algorithms insert visual artificial threats into images of the normal passenger bags in order to test the screeners with regards to their screening efficiency and their screening quality at determining threats. This technology for 2-D X-ray system is proven and is widespread amongst multiple manufacturers of X-ray projection systems. Until now, Threat Image Projection has been unsuccessful at being introduced into 3-D Automated Explosive Detection Systems for numerous reasons. The failure of these prior attempts are mainly due to imaging queues that the screeners pickup on, and therefore make it easy for the screeners to discern the presence of the threat image and thus defeating the intended purpose. This paper presents a novel approach for 3-D Threat Image Projection for 3-D Automated Explosive Detection Systems. The method presented here is a projection based approach where both the threat object and the bag remain in projection sinogram space. Novel approaches have been developed for projection based object segmentation, projection based streak reduction used for threat object isolation along with scan orientation independence and projection based streak generation for an overall realistic 3-D image. The algorithms are prototyped in MatLab and C++ and demonstrate non discernible 3-D threat image insertion into various luggage, and non discernable streak patterns for 3-D images when compared to actual scanned images.

Yildiz, Yesna O.; Abraham, Douglas Q.; Agaian, Sos; Panetta, Karen

2008-02-01

159

Low bit-rate scalable video coding with 3-D set partitioning in hierarchical trees (3-D SPIHT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a low bit-rate embedded video coding scheme that utilizes a threedimensional(3D) extension of the set partitioning in hierarchical trees (SPIHT) algorithm whichhas proved so successful in still image coding. Three-dimensional spatio-temporal orientationtrees coupled with powerful SPIHT sorting and refinement renders 3D SPIHT video coder soefficient that it provides comparable performance to H.263 objectively and subjectively

Beong-jo Kim; Zixiang Xiong; William A. Pearlman

2000-01-01

160

Benchmarking infrastructure for mutation text mining  

PubMed Central

Background Experimental research on the automatic extraction of information about mutations from texts is greatly hindered by the lack of consensus evaluation infrastructure for the testing and benchmarking of mutation text mining systems. Results We propose a community-oriented annotation and benchmarking infrastructure to support development, testing, benchmarking, and comparison of mutation text mining systems. The design is based on semantic standards, where RDF is used to represent annotations, an OWL ontology provides an extensible schema for the data and SPARQL is used to compute various performance metrics, so that in many cases no programming is needed to analyze results from a text mining system. While large benchmark corpora for biological entity and relation extraction are focused mostly on genes, proteins, diseases, and species, our benchmarking infrastructure fills the gap for mutation information. The core infrastructure comprises (1) an ontology for modelling annotations, (2) SPARQL queries for computing performance metrics, and (3) a sizeable collection of manually curated documents, that can support mutation grounding and mutation impact extraction experiments. Conclusion We have developed the principal infrastructure for the benchmarking of mutation text mining tasks. The use of RDF and OWL as the representation for corpora ensures extensibility. The infrastructure is suitable for out-of-the-box use in several important scenarios and is ready, in its current state, for initial community adoption. PMID:24568600

2014-01-01

161

YouDash3D: exploring stereoscopic 3D gaming for 3D movie theaters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Along with the success of the digitally revived stereoscopic cinema, events beyond 3D movies become attractive for movie theater operators, i.e. interactive 3D games. In this paper, we present a case that explores possible challenges and solutions for interactive 3D games to be played by a movie theater audience. We analyze the setting and showcase current issues related to lighting and interaction. Our second focus is to provide gameplay mechanics that make special use of stereoscopy, especially depth-based game design. Based on these results, we present YouDash3D, a game prototype that explores public stereoscopic gameplay in a reduced kiosk setup. It features live 3D HD video stream of a professional stereo camera rig rendered in a real-time game scene. We use the effect to place the stereoscopic effigies of players into the digital game. The game showcases how stereoscopic vision can provide for a novel depth-based game mechanic. Projected trigger zones and distributed clusters of the audience video allow for easy adaptation to larger audiences and 3D movie theater gaming.

Schild, Jonas; Seele, Sven; Masuch, Maic

2012-03-01

162

ICSBEP Benchmarks For Nuclear Data Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) was initiated in 1992 by the United States Department of Energy. The ICSBEP became an official activity of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) — Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) in 1995. Representatives from the United States, United Kingdom, France, Japan, the Russian Federation, Hungary, Republic of Korea, Slovenia, Serbia and Montenegro (formerly Yugoslavia), Kazakhstan, Spain, Israel, Brazil, Poland, and the Czech Republic are now participating. South Africa, India, China, and Germany are considering participation. The purpose of the ICSBEP is to identify, evaluate, verify, and formally document a comprehensive and internationally peer-reviewed set of criticality safety benchmark data. The work of the ICSBEP is published as an OECD handbook entitled "International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments." The 2004 Edition of the Handbook contains benchmark specifications for 3331 critical or subcritical configurations that are intended for use in validation efforts and for testing basic nuclear data. New to the 2004 Edition of the Handbook is a draft criticality alarm / shielding type benchmark that should be finalized in 2005 along with two other similar benchmarks. The Handbook is being used extensively for nuclear data testing and is expected to be a valuable resource for code and data validation and improvement efforts for decades to come. Specific benchmarks that are useful for testing structural materials such as iron, chromium, nickel, and manganese; beryllium; lead; thorium; and 238U are highlighted.

Briggs, J. Blair

2005-05-01

163

Extending 3D city models with legal information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

3D city models represent existing physical objects and their topological and functional relations. In everyday life the rights and responsibilities connected to these objects, primarily legally defined rights and obligations but also other socially and culturally established rights, are of importance. The rights and obligations are defined in various laws and it is often difficult to identify the rules applicable for a certain case. The existing 2D cadastres show civil law rights and obligations and plans to extend them to provide information about public law restrictions for land use are in several countries under way. It is tempting to design extensions to the 3D city models to provide information about legal rights in 3D. The paper analyses the different types of information that are needed to reduce conflicts and to facilitate decisions about land use. We identify the role 3D city models augmented with planning information in 3D can play, but do not advocate a general conversion from 2D to 3D for the legal cadastre. Space is not anisotropic and the up/down dimension is practically very different from the two dimensional plane - this difference must be respected when designing spatial information systems. The conclusions are: (1) continue the current regime for ownership of apartments, which is not ownership of a 3D volume, but co-ownership of a building with exclusive use of some rooms; such exclusive use rights could be shown in a 3D city model; (2) ownership of 3D volumes for complex and unusual building situations can be reported in a 3D city model, but are not required everywhere; (3) indicate restrictions for land use and building in 3D city models, with links to the legal sources.

Frank, A. U.; Fuhrmann, T.; Navratil, G.

2012-10-01

164

NoSQL Based 3D City Model Management System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To manage increasingly complicated 3D city models, a framework based on NoSQL database is proposed in this paper. The framework supports import and export of 3D city model according to international standards such as CityGML, KML/COLLADA and X3D. We also suggest and implement 3D model analysis and visualization in the framework. For city model analysis, 3D geometry data and semantic information (such as name, height, area, price and so on) are stored and processed separately. We use a Map-Reduce method to deal with the 3D geometry data since it is more complex, while the semantic analysis is mainly based on database query operation. For visualization, a multiple 3D city representation structure CityTree is implemented within the framework to support dynamic LODs based on user viewpoint. Also, the proposed framework is easily extensible and supports geoindexes to speed up the querying. Our experimental results show that the proposed 3D city management system can efficiently fulfil the analysis and visualization requirements.

Mao, B.; Harrie, L.; Cao, J.; Wu, Z.; Shen, J.

2014-04-01

165

Remote 3D Medical Consultation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two-dimensional (2D) video-based telemedical consultation has been explored widely in the past 15-20 years. Two issues that seem to arise in most relevant case studies are the difficulty associated with obtaining the desired 2D camera views, and poor depth perception. To address these problems we are exploring the use of a small array of cameras to synthesize a spatially continuous range of dynamic three-dimensional (3D) views of a remote environment and events. The 3D views can be sent across wired or wireless networks to remote viewers with fixed displays or mobile devices such as a personal digital assistant (PDA). The viewpoints could be specified manually or automatically via user head or PDA tracking, giving the remote viewer virtual head- or hand-slaved (PDA-based) remote cameras for mono or stereo viewing. We call this idea remote 3D medical consultation (3DMC). In this article we motivate and explain the vision for 3D medical consultation; we describe the relevant computer vision/graphics, display, and networking research; we present a proof-of-concept prototype system; and we present some early experimental results supporting the general hypothesis that 3D remote medical consultation could offer benefits over conventional 2D televideo.

Welch, Greg; Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Fuchs, Henry; Cairns, Bruce; Mayer-Patel, Ketan; Yang, Ruigang; State, Andrei; Towles, Herman; Ilie, Adrian; Krishnan, Srinivas; Söderholm, Hanna M.

166

Speaking Volumes About 3-D  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 1999, Genex submitted a proposal to Stennis Space Center for a volumetric 3-D display technique that would provide multiple users with a 360-degree perspective to simultaneously view and analyze 3-D data. The futuristic capabilities of the VolumeViewer(R) have offered tremendous benefits to commercial users in the fields of medicine and surgery, air traffic control, pilot training and education, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing, and military/battlefield management. The technology has also helped NASA to better analyze and assess the various data collected by its satellite and spacecraft sensors. Genex capitalized on its success with Stennis by introducing two separate products to the commercial market that incorporate key elements of the 3-D display technology designed under an SBIR contract. The company Rainbow 3D(R) imaging camera is a novel, three-dimensional surface profile measurement system that can obtain a full-frame 3-D image in less than 1 second. The third product is the 360-degree OmniEye(R) video system. Ideal for intrusion detection, surveillance, and situation management, this unique camera system offers a continuous, panoramic view of a scene in real time.

2002-01-01

167

CCMR: Micro Legos Creation, Assembly and Application for Micro Scale 3D Voxels  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A new adjunct to the revolutionary idea of 3D printing is investigated and tested. This adjunct concerns the digital 3D printing of objects by use of 3D geometric voxels or so called Micro Legos. These voxels are placed in 3D space according to an object’s specifications in contrast to the creation of objects through continuous or analog production. The overall dimensional accuracy and repeatability of the object are determined strictly on the voxel in lieu of the printer. The material property of the digital 3D object is also analyzed and shown to be easily manipulated by placement and type of voxel. The cardinal problem lays in the rapid and efficient manufacturing of the micro scale voxels. SU-8 was the chosen material for voxel creation and photolithography was the chosen method for voxel manufacturing. By benchmarking the creation and manufacturing of micro voxels, future digital 3D printing of objects will become a reality.

Miller, Joseph

2009-08-15

168

PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITH TURB3D)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into five groups: 1) Grid Functions for grids, grid-checking, etc.; 2) Scalar Functions for contour or carpet plots of density, pressure, temperature, Mach number, vorticity magnitude, helicity, etc.; 3) Vector Functions for vector plots of velocity, vorticity, momentum, and density gradient, etc.; 4) Particle Trace Functions for rake-like plots of particle flow or vortex lines; and 5) Shock locations based on pressure gradient. TURB3D is a modification of PLOT3D which is used for viewing CFD simulations of incompressible turbulent flow. Input flow data consists of pressure, velocity and vorticity. Typical quantities to plot include local fluctuations in flow quantities and turbulent production terms, plotted in physical or wall units. PLOT3D/TURB3D includes both TURB3D and PLOT3D because the operation of TURB3D is identical to PLOT3D, and there is no additional sample data or printed documentation for TURB3D. Graphical capabilities of PLOT3D version 3.6b+ vary among the implementations available through COSMIC. Customers are encouraged to purchase and carefully review the PLOT3D manual before ordering the program for a specific computer and graphics library. There is only one manual for use with all implementations of PLOT3D, and although this manual generally assumes that the Silicon Graphics Iris implementation is being used, informative comments concerning other implementations appear throughout the text. With all implementations, the visual representation of the object and flow field created by PLOT3D consists of points, lines, and polygons. Points can be represented with dots or symbols, color can be used to denote data values, and perspective is used to show depth. Differences among implementations impact the program's ability to use graphical features that are based on 3D polygons, the user's ability to manipulate the graphical displays, and the user's ability to obtain alternate forms of output. The Apollo implementation of PLOT3D uses some of the capabilities of Apollo's 3-dimensional graphics hardware, but does not take advantage of the s

Buning, P.

1994-01-01

169

PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITHOUT TURB3D)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into five groups: 1) Grid Functions for grids, grid-checking, etc.; 2) Scalar Functions for contour or carpet plots of density, pressure, temperature, Mach number, vorticity magnitude, helicity, etc.; 3) Vector Functions for vector plots of velocity, vorticity, momentum, and density gradient, etc.; 4) Particle Trace Functions for rake-like plots of particle flow or vortex lines; and 5) Shock locations based on pressure gradient. TURB3D is a modification of PLOT3D which is used for viewing CFD simulations of incompressible turbulent flow. Input flow data consists of pressure, velocity and vorticity. Typical quantities to plot include local fluctuations in flow quantities and turbulent production terms, plotted in physical or wall units. PLOT3D/TURB3D includes both TURB3D and PLOT3D because the operation of TURB3D is identical to PLOT3D, and there is no additional sample data or printed documentation for TURB3D. Graphical capabilities of PLOT3D version 3.6b+ vary among the implementations available through COSMIC. Customers are encouraged to purchase and carefully review the PLOT3D manual before ordering the program for a specific computer and graphics library. There is only one manual for use with all implementations of PLOT3D, and although this manual generally assumes that the Silicon Graphics Iris implementation is being used, informative comments concerning other implementations appear throughout the text. With all implementations, the visual representation of the object and flow field created by PLOT3D consists of points, lines, and polygons. Points can be represented with dots or symbols, color can be used to denote data values, and perspective is used to show depth. Differences among implementations impact the program's ability to use graphical features that are based on 3D polygons, the user's ability to manipulate the graphical displays, and the user's ability to obtain alternate forms of output. The Apollo implementation of PLOT3D uses some of the capabilities of Apollo's 3-dimensional graphics hardware, but does not take advantage of the s

Buning, P.

1994-01-01

170

Interactive 3d Landscapes on Line  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper describes challenges identified while developing browser embedded 3D landscape rendering applications, our current approach and work-flow and how recent development in browser technologies could affect. All the data, even if processed by optimization and decimation tools, result in very huge databases that require paging, streaming and Level-of-Detail techniques to be implemented to allow remote web based real time fruition. Our approach has been to select an open source scene-graph based visual simulation library with sufficient performance and flexibility and adapt it to the web by providing a browser plug-in. Within the current Montegrotto VR Project, content produced with new pipelines has been integrated. The whole Montegrotto Town has been generated procedurally by CityEngine. We used this procedural approach, based on algorithms and procedures because it is particularly functional to create extensive and credible urban reconstructions. To create the archaeological sites we used optimized mesh acquired with laser scanning and photogrammetry techniques whereas to realize the 3D reconstructions of the main historical buildings we adopted computer-graphic software like blender and 3ds Max. At the final stage, semi-automatic tools have been developed and used up to prepare and clusterise 3D models and scene graph routes for web publishing. Vegetation generators have also been used with the goal of populating the virtual scene to enhance the user perceived realism during the navigation experience. After the description of 3D modelling and optimization techniques, the paper will focus and discuss its results and expectations.

Fanini, B.; Calori, L.; Ferdani, D.; Pescarin, S.

2011-09-01

171

TRIALITY AND ALGEBRAIC GROUPS OF TYPE 3D4 MAX-ALBERT KNUS AND JEAN-PIERRE TIGNOL  

E-print Network

TRIALITY AND ALGEBRAIC GROUPS OF TYPE 3D4 MAX-ALBERT KNUS AND JEAN-PIERRE TIGNOL Abstract.We determine which simple algebraic groups of type 3D4 over arbitrary , of type 3D4 if L is a cyclic* * field extension of F and of type 6D4 if L is a non-cyclic field extension

172

WP-3D aircraft parked on ramp  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space Shuttle tiles were mounted on a pylon on the right wing (not shown) of this National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) WP-3D for tests conducted off the eastern coast of Southern Florida and at the Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility NASA conducted extensive in-flight rain damage tests of the Shuttle Thermal Protection System (TPS) tiles on an F-104 at Dryden, while the NOAA conducted the tests on the WP-3D. P-3 testing concentrated on observing the effects of larger drops of moisture at lower speeds on the tiles. Shuttle Thermal Protection tiles were mounted on a pylon underneath the right wing of the aircraft. Tiles were mounted on two movable doors contained within both the left and right sides of the test fixture, for a total of four doors. The WP-3D flew three research flights while at Dryden--on Jan. 30, Feb. 2, and Feb. 5, 1987. The pylon test fixture is mounted on the right wing and thus does not appear in the photograph. Three particle measurement probes mounted on the left wing tip pylon and the pod under the forward fuselage are to measure atmospheric conditions. A National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration Lockheed WP-3D made a series of flights off the eastern coast of Florida and from Edwards Air Force Base in a cooperative program with the Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (now the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California) in 1987 to test in-flight rain damage to the Space Shuttle thermal protection system. Dryden performed its tests with an F-104 aircraft over the facilities at Edwards, California. Both sets of tests were done at the behest of NASA's Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas. These tests revealed that damage can occur to the Shuttle's thermal protection system during flight in rain. This is a concern, since such damage could compromise flight safety for the Space Shuttles and would certainly affect costs of operation and schedules. Sections of the Space Shuttle thermal protection system's 6- by 6-inch tiles were mounted on a pylon under the right wing of the WP-3D aircraft. The aircraft was equipped with raindropsize-measuring instruments and cloud radars. The WP-3D weather research aircraft obtained rain impact data for airspeeds between 180 and 260 knots indicated airspeed. Test samples were mounted on two movable doors contained within the left and right sides of the test fixture (for a total of four doors). The doors could be opened or closed to the free-stream airflow during flight at angles of 0, 15, 30, 45, and 60 degrees. The WP-3D tile testing concentrated on observing the effects of larger drops of moisture at lower speeds. The principle investigator for the tile tests was Robert R. Meyer, Jr., NASA engineer, Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (now Director of Research Engineering, Dryen Flight Research Center.) The Department of Commerce WP-3D aircraft was based at the Miami International Airport. It served as an environmental research platform for oceanographic and atmospheric studies by various government agencies and universities. The WP-3D flown in the Shuttle tile tests was specially instrumented for scientific observation with three radars and an onboard data recording capability. The pylon used for the tile tests could be configured so that specialized equipment could be installed for different users in the scientific community.

1987-01-01

173

Automatic Single View-Based 3-D Face Synthesis for Unsupervised Multimedia Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various 3-D face synthesis techniques have been proposed and extensively used in many applications. Compared with others, single view-based face synthesis technology allows unsupervised 3-D face reconstruction without any offline operations. Although many algorithms have been published, automatic and robust single view-based 3-D face synthesis still remains unsolved. In contrast to other methods, the single view-based 3-D face synthesis algorithm

Yun Sheng; Abdul H. Sadka; Ahmet M. Kondoz

2008-01-01

174

NIKE3D. Static & Dynamic Response of 3d Solids  

Microsoft Academic Search

NIKE3D is a vectorized, fully implicit, three dimensional, finite element program for analyzing the finite strain, static and dynamic response of inelastic solids, shells, and beams. Capabilities currently available include sliding interfaces, body force loads due to base acceleration, body force loads due to spinning (geometry dependent), concentrated nodal loads, pressure boundary conditions (geometry dependent), displacement boundary conditions, thermal stresses,

R. Ferencz; J. O. Hallquist

1990-01-01

175

NIKE3D. Static & Dynamic Response of 3D Solids  

Microsoft Academic Search

NIKE3D is a vectorized, fully implicit, three dimensional, finite element program for analyzing the finite strain, static and dynamic response of inelastic solids, shells, and beams. Capabilities currently available include sliding interfaces, body force loads due to base acceleration, body force loads due to spinning (geometry dependent), concentrated nodal loads, pressure boundary conditions (geometry dependent), displacement boundary conditions, thermal stresses,

R. Ferencz; J. O. Hallquist

1990-01-01

176

NIKE3D. Static & Dynamic Response of 3D Solids  

Microsoft Academic Search

NIKE3D is a vectorized, fully implicit, three dimensional, finite element program for analyzing the finite strain, static and dynamic response of inelastic solids, shells, and beams. Capabilities currently available include sliding interfaces, body force loads due to base acceleration, body force loads due to spinning (geometry dependent), concentrated nodal loads, pressure boundary conditions (geometry dependent), displacement boundary conditions, thermal stresses,

R. M. Ferencz; J. O. Hallquist

1989-01-01

177

Petal, terrain & airbags - 3D  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Portions of the lander's deflated airbags and a petal are at the lower area of this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. The metallic object at lower right is part of the lander's low-gain antenna. This image is part of a 3D 'monster

Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

1997-01-01

178

3D interactive pictorial maps  

E-print Network

these maps interactive on the Web and have them accessible to a large number of viewers. The results show a number of interactive 3D pictorial maps of different countries and continents. These maps are initially built with Maya, a 3D modeling software..., and converted into web pages using the Viewpoint Technology. For statistical maps, Mel scripts have been used in Maya to take input from the user and change the shape of models accordingly to represent data. These maps are interactive and navigable...

Naz, Asma

2005-02-17

179

Advanced OPC Mask-3D and Resist-3D modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this paper is to extend the ability of a more stable overall process control for the 28 nm Metal layer. A method to better control complex 2D-layout structures for this node is described. Challenges are coming from the fact that the structures, which limit the process window are mainly of 2D routing nature and are difficult to monitor. Within the framework of this study the emphasis is on how to predict these process-window-limiting structures upfront, to identify root causes and to assist in easier monitoring solutions enhancing the process control. To address those challenges, the first step is the construction of a reliable Mask-3D and Resist-3D model. Advanced 3Dmodeling allows better prediction of process variation upfront. Furthermore it allows highlighting critical structures impacted by either best-focus shifts or by low-contrast resist-imaging effects, which then will be transferred non-linearly after etch. This paper has a tight attention on measuring the 3D nature of the resist profiles by multiple experimental techniques such as Cross-section scanning electron microscopy methods (X-SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Based on these measurements the most reliable data are selected to calibrate full-chip Resist-3D model with. Current results show efficient profile matching among the calibrated R3D model, wafer AFM and X-SEM measurements. In parallel this study enables the application of a new metric as result of the resist profiles behavior in function of exposure dose. In addition it renders the importance on the resist shape. Together these items are reflected to be efficient support on process optimization and improvement on the process control.

Szucs, A.; Planchot, J.; Farys, V.; Yesilada, E.; Depre, L.; Kapasi, S.; Gourgon, C.; Besacier, M.; Mouraille, O.; Driessen, F.

2014-03-01

180

COG validation: SINBAD Benchmark Problems  

SciTech Connect

We validated COG, a 3D Monte Carlo radiation transport code, against experimental data and MNCP4C simulations from the Shielding Integral Benchmark Archive Database (SINBAD) compiled by RSICC. We modeled three experiments: the Osaka Nickel and Aluminum sphere experiments conducted at the OKTAVIAN facility, and the liquid oxygen experiment conducted at the FNS facility. COG results are in good agreement with experimental data and generally within a few % of MCNP results. There are several possible sources of discrepancy between MCNP and COG results: (1) the cross-section database versions are different, MCNP uses ENDFB VI 1.1 while COG uses ENDFB VIR7, (2) the code implementations are different, and (3) the models may differ slightly. We also limited the use of variance reduction methods when running the COG version of the problems.

Lent, E M; Sale, K E; Buck, R M; Descalle, M

2004-02-23

181

The oo7 Benchmark  

Microsoft Academic Search

The OO7 Benchmark represents a comprehensive test of OODBMS performance. In thisreport we describe the benchmark and present performance results from its implementationin four OODB systems. It is our hope that the OO7 Benchmark will provide useful insightfor end-users evaluating the performance of OODB systems# we also hope that the researchcommunity will find that OO7 provides a database schema, instance,

Michael J. Carey; David J. Dewitt; Jeffrey F. Naughton

1993-01-01

182

The 007 Benchmark  

Microsoft Academic Search

The OO7 Benchmark represents a comprehensive test of OODBMS performance. In this paper we describe the benchmark and present performance results from its implementation in three OODBMS systems. It is our hope that the OO7 Benchmark will provide useful insight for end-users evaluating the performance of OODBMS systems; we also hope that the research community will find that OO7 provides

Michael J. Carey; David J. DeWitt; Jeffrey F. Naughton

1993-01-01

183

MCNP neutron benchmarks  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 50 neutron benchmark calculations have recently been completed as part of an ongoing program to validate the MCNP Monte Carlo radiation transport code. The benchmark calculations reported here are part of an ongoing multiyear, multiperson effort to benchmark version 4 of the MCNP code. The MCNP is a Monte Carlo three-dimensional general-purpose, continuous-energy neutron, photon, and electron transport

J. S. Hendricks; D. J. Whalen; D. A. Cardon; J. L. Uhle

1992-01-01

184

NAS Parallel Benchmarks, Multi-Zone Versions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We describe an extension of the NAS Parallel Benchmarks (NPB) suite that involves solving the application benchmarks LU, BT and SP on collections of loosely coupled discretization meshes. The solutions on the meshes are updated independently, but after each time step they exchange boundary value information. This strategy, which is common among structured-mesh production flow solver codes in use at NASA Ames and elsewhere, provides relatively easily exploitable coarse-grain parallelism between meshes. Since the individual application benchmarks also allow fine-grain parallelism themselves, this NPB extension, named NPB Multi-Zone (NPB-MZ), is a good candidate for testing hybrid and multi-level parallelization tools and strategies.

vanderWijngaart, Rob F.; Haopiang, Jin

2003-01-01

185

3D revision control framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

The maintenance of assets in a large 3D scene can involve many authors with potentially different skills and different modeling tools. The standard paradigm of collaborative editing is sharing of files between various instances of applications. This presents problems, not limited to maintaining consistency of the models and dealing with concurrent edits in the same part of a scene. In

Jozef Doboš; Anthony Steed

2012-01-01

186

3D Graphics Acceleration Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents some aspects of the design methodologies and techniques that are being used in the OMI GraphMem project. One of the aims of the project has been to investigate 3D graphics accelerator architectures and graphics algorithms. The environment for rapidly prototyping algorithms and the subsequent development of VHDL based designs is described. VHDL has become an important language

P. F. Lister; M. C. Bassett; N. Ford; I. Stamoulis; S. McCann; P. L. Watten

187

The World of 3-D.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students explore three-dimensional properties by creating red and green wall decorations related to Christmas. Students examine why images seem to vibrate when red and green pieces are small and close together. Instructions to conduct the activity and construct 3-D glasses are given. (MDH)

Mayshark, Robin K.

1991-01-01

188

Ideal 3D asymmetric concentrator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonimaging optics is a field devoted to the design of optical components for applications such as solar concentration or illumination. In this field, many different techniques have been used for producing reflective and refractive optical devices, including reverse engineering techniques. In this paper we apply photometric field theory and elliptic ray bundles method to study 3D asymmetric – without rotational

Angel Garcia-Botella; Antonio Alvarez Fernandez-Balbuena; Daniel Vázquez; Eusebio Bernabeu

2009-01-01

189

Couch & Martian terrain - 3D  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This area of terrain near the Sagan Memorial Station was taken on Sol 3 by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP). 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. The curved rock dubbed 'Couch'

Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

1997-01-01

190

3D Fire Spread Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These excellent animations overlay animations of fire spread on 3D terrain that incorporates satellite imagery. A timeline shows the animation's current time relative to the fire occurrence, and an inset map provides an overhead view of the fire on a map that shows fuels by location. Animations are available for several wildfires that occurred in California.

Harry D. Johson

191

3D Skull Recognition Using 3D Matching Technique  

E-print Network

Biometrics has become a "hot" area. Governments are funding research programs focused on biometrics. In this paper the problem of person recognition and verification based on a different biometric application has been addressed. The system is based on the 3DSkull recognition using 3D matching technique, in fact this paper present several bio-metric approaches in order of assign the weak point in term of used the biometric from the authorize person and insure the person who access the data is the real person. The feature of the simulate system shows the capability of using 3D matching system as an efficient way to identify the person through his or her skull by match it with database, this technique grantee fast processing with optimizing the false positive and negative as well .

Alanazi, Hamdan O; Zaidan, A A

2010-01-01

192

3D SSD tracking with estimated 3D planes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a tracking method where full camera position and orientation is tracked from intensity differences in a video sequence. The camera pose is calculated based on 3D planes, and hence does not depend on point correspondences. The plane based formulation also allows additional constraints to be naturally added, e.g., perpendicularity between walls, floor and ceiling surfaces, co-planarity of wall

Dana Cobzas; Martin Jägersand; Peter F. Sturm

2009-01-01

193

3D Geometry Projection from 2D to 3D  

E-print Network

n n n zzz yyy xxx P Points = y x tsss tsss S 3,22,21,2 3,12,11,1 Some matrix = n n vvv uuu I 21 21 of the points in P. #12;5 First, look at 2D rotation (easier) - n n yyy xxx 21 21 ... cossin sincos coordinates. That is, it's rotated. #12;6 Simple 3D Rotation - n n n zzz yyy xxx 21 21 21 ... 100 0cossin 0

Jacobs, David

194

3D-Model view characterization using equilibrium planes Adrien Theetten1  

E-print Network

is described by a shock graph. Chen et al. [4] use 100 orthogonal projections of an ob- ject and encode them TELECOM; TELECOM Lille 1, France main contact: jean-philippe.vandeborre@lifl.fr Figure 1. Two database on the Princeton 3D Shape Benchmark Database using a collection of 50 images (photos, sketches, etc.) as queries

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

195

Comparative Study of 3D Printing Technologies for Rapid Casting of Aluminium Alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to compare the efficacy of two rapid casting technologies, namely, ZCast process and investment casting based on 3D printing technique of rapid prototyping for casting of aluminium alloy. A standard procedure has been premeditated starting from the identification and design of benchmark. The concept was presented in physical form by producing prototypes to assess

Simranpreet Singh Gill; Munish Kaplas

2009-01-01

196

3D Finite Element Meshing from Imaging Data ?  

PubMed Central

This paper describes an algorithm to extract adaptive and quality 3D meshes directly from volumetric imaging data. The extracted tetrahedral and hexahedral meshes are extensively used in the Finite Element Method (FEM). A top-down octree subdivision coupled with the dual contouring method is used to rapidly extract adaptive 3D finite element meshes with correct topology from volumetric imaging data. The edge contraction and smoothing methods are used to improve the mesh quality. The main contribution is extending the dual contouring method to crack-free interval volume 3D meshing with feature sensitive adaptation. Compared to other tetrahedral extraction methods from imaging data, our method generates adaptive and quality 3D meshes without introducing any hanging nodes. The algorithm has been successfully applied to constructing the geometric model of a biomolecule in finite element calculations. PMID:19777144

Zhang, Yongjie; Bajaj, Chandrajit; Sohn, Bong-Soo

2009-01-01

197

3D Video Rendering Adaptation: A Survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With various types of 3D display, the same 3D content may present different visual experience qualities. To achieve the perfect 3D visual experience, 3D video rendering adaptation is highly desired. This paper surveys the state-of-the-art 3D video rendering adaption technologies and further summarizes the remaining open challenges. First, we explain the basic 3D vision principle which provides 3D video rendering adaptation rules. Second, based on the outline of disparity processing, we survey two categories of 3D video rendering adaptation technologies: (1) video size and depth range adaptation; (2) viewpoint adaptation. For video size and depth range adaptation, the linear scaling based 3D video super-resolution, disparity transform and content-aware 3D video retargeting are specifically overviewed. Finally, we point out the open issues to be investigated in the area of 3D video rendering adaptation.

Liu, Jinxia; Liu, Yanwei; Qi, Honggang; Wang, Zunyi; Zhang, Zengnian

2015-03-01

198

Interactive 3D Animation System for Web3D Masayuki Furukawa, Shinya Fukumoto, Hiroshi Kawasaki  

E-print Network

of state model using a printer as a 3D object. In the example, three states of 3D object are defined can try 3D manual of printer by using tablet PC to learn the effectiveness of our 3D animation systemInteractive 3D Animation System for Web3D Masayuki Furukawa, Shinya Fukumoto, Hiroshi Kawasaki

Tokyo, University of

199

Predictor GROUPS (by name) 3D-JIGSAW (302) -446 models for 100 3D targets  

E-print Network

Predictor GROUPS (by name) 3D-JIGSAW (302) - 446 models for 100 3D targets 3D-JIGSAW_POPULUS (247) - 500 models for 100 3D targets 3D-JIGSAW_RECOM (420) - 462 models for 100 3D targets Paul W. Fitzjohn

Karplus, Kevin

200

Passive dynamic walking with quadrupeds - Extensions towards 3D  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, we applied the principles of passive dynamic walking onto the three dimensional motion of a simplified quadrupedal model. We extended the simulation framework of a planar system to include a rolling degree of freedom and searched for limit cycles that represent periodic gaits. Among the eight different gaits that we identified, were three kinds of trots

C. David Remy; Marco Hutter; Roland Siegwart

2010-01-01

201

USGS Yosemite Benchmark Streamgage  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

In this image, the USGS Hydrologic Benchmark Streamgage on the Merced River in Yosemite Valley can be seen. Hydrologic Benchmark streamgages are those at which no human development exists upstream of the streamgage. This streamgage is a cooperation between the National Park Service, National Oceanic...

202

BENCHMARK DOSE SOFTWARE (BMDS)  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA has announced the latest update to the Benchmark Dose Software (BMDS) tool which is used to facilitate the application of benchmark dose (BMD) methods to EPA hazardous pollutant risk assessments. This latest version (1.4.1b) contains seventeen (17) different models that ar...

203

Thermal Performance Benchmarking (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This project will benchmark the thermal characteristics of automotive power electronics and electric motor thermal management systems. Recent vehicle systems will be benchmarked to establish baseline metrics, evaluate advantages and disadvantages of different thermal management systems, and identify areas of improvement to advance the state-of-the-art.

Moreno, G.

2014-11-01

204

Epilepsy Research Benchmarks Progress Report  

E-print Network

Epilepsy Research Benchmarks Progress Report 2007 ­ 2012 #12;i Epilepsy Research Benchmarks .................................................................................................................................................................................... 1 Benchmarks Area I - Prevent epilepsy and its progression.......................................................................................................................2 A. Identify as yet unrecognized causes of epilepsy (e.g., genetic, autoimmune and infectious

205

Forensic 3D Scene Reconstruction  

SciTech Connect

Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a feasible prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

LITTLE,CHARLES Q.; PETERS,RALPH R.; RIGDON,J. BRIAN; SMALL,DANIEL E.

1999-10-12

206

3D light scanning macrography.  

PubMed

The technique of 3D light scanning macrography permits the non-invasive surface scanning of small specimens at magnifications up to 200x. Obviating both the problem of limited depth of field inherent to conventional close-up macrophotography and the metallic coating required by scanning electron microscopy, 3D light scanning macrography provides three-dimensional digital images of intact specimens without the loss of colour, texture and transparency information. This newly developed technique offers a versatile, portable and cost-efficient method for the non-invasive digital and photographic documentation of small objects. Computer controlled device operation and digital image acquisition facilitate fast and accurate quantitative morphometric investigations, and the technique offers a broad field of research and educational applications in biological, medical and materials sciences. PMID:11489078

Huber, D; Keller, M; Robert, D

2001-08-01

207

3D Printing in Space  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

First we thought that 3D printing was just a pipe dream, the stuff of science fiction. Now, we know it to be very real with numerous innovations to follow. This recent report from the National Materials and Manufacturing Board's Division of Engineering and Physical Sciences suggests that 3D printing in space will soon be a reality. Published in July 2014, this 100-page report contains a range of findings on the future of additive manufacturing and its potential in space. The basic idea is that scientists in space could manufacture replacement parts and tools while in-orbit. Visitors are welcome to download and read the entire report, which will be of great interest to scientists, engineers, and others fascinated by the future of technological innovation.

National Research Council (U.S.). Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board

208

Forensic 3D scene reconstruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a fieldable prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

Little, Charles Q.; Small, Daniel E.; Peters, Ralph R.; Rigdon, J. B.

2000-05-01

209

3D Printed Robotic Hand  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dexterous robotic hands are changing the way robots and humans interact and use common tools. Unfortunately, the complexity of the joints and actuations drive up the manufacturing cost. Some cutting edge and commercially available rapid prototyping machines now have the ability to print multiple materials and even combine these materials in the same job. A 3D model of a robotic hand was designed using Creo Parametric 2.0. Combining "hard" and "soft" materials, the model was printed on the Object Connex350 3D printer with the purpose of resembling as much as possible the human appearance and mobility of a real hand while needing no assembly. After printing the prototype, strings where installed as actuators to test mobility. Based on printing materials, the manufacturing cost of the hand was $167, significantly lower than other robotic hands without the actuators since they have more complex assembly processes.

Pizarro, Yaritzmar Rosario; Schuler, Jason M.; Lippitt, Thomas C.

2013-01-01

210

HOME MONITORING OF ELDERLY PEOPLE WITH 3D CAMERA TECHNOLOGY  

Microsoft Academic Search

We advocate the usage of 3D camera technology in the visual monitoring of elderly people in their home environment or in the nursing home. We illustrate the usage of this novel technology by proposing an extension to existing work on visual fall detection and inactivity detection.

B. Jansen; R. Deklerck

211

Demonstration of a 3D vision algorithm for space applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper reports an extension of the MIAG algorithm for recognition and motion parameter determination of general 3-D polyhedral objects based on model matching techniques and using movement invariants as features of object representation. Results of tests conducted on the algorithm under conditions simulating space conditions are presented.

Defigueiredo, Rui J. P. (editor)

1987-01-01

212

Anthropometric 3D Face Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a novel anthropometric three dimensional (Anthroface 3D) face recognition algorithm, which is based on a systematically\\u000a selected set of discriminatory structural characteristics of the human face derived from the existing scientific literature\\u000a on facial anthropometry. We propose a novel technique for automatically detecting 10 anthropometric facial fiducial points\\u000a that are associated with these discriminatory anthropometric features. We isolate

Shalini Gupta; Mia K. Markey; Alan C. Bovik

2010-01-01

213

Verification and validation benchmarks.  

SciTech Connect

Verification and validation (V&V) are the primary means to assess the accuracy and reliability of computational simulations. V&V methods and procedures have fundamentally improved the credibility of simulations in several high-consequence fields, such as nuclear reactor safety, underground nuclear waste storage, and nuclear weapon safety. Although the terminology is not uniform across engineering disciplines, code verification deals with assessing the reliability of the software coding, and solution verification deals with assessing the numerical accuracy of the solution to a computational model. Validation addresses the physics modeling accuracy of a computational simulation by comparing the computational results with experimental data. Code verification benchmarks and validation benchmarks have been constructed for a number of years in every field of computational simulation. However, no comprehensive guidelines have been proposed for the construction and use of V&V benchmarks. For example, the field of nuclear reactor safety has not focused on code verification benchmarks, but it has placed great emphasis on developing validation benchmarks. Many of these validation benchmarks are closely related to the operations of actual reactors at near-safety-critical conditions, as opposed to being more fundamental-physics benchmarks. This paper presents recommendations for the effective design and use of code verification benchmarks based on manufactured solutions, classical analytical solutions, and highly accurate numerical solutions. In addition, this paper presents recommendations for the design and use of validation benchmarks, highlighting the careful design of building-block experiments, the estimation of experimental measurement uncertainty for both inputs and outputs to the code, validation metrics, and the role of model calibration in validation. It is argued that the understanding of predictive capability of a computational model is built on the level of achievement in V&V activities, how closely related the V&V benchmarks are to the actual application of interest, and the quantification of uncertainties related to the application of interest.

Oberkampf, William Louis; Trucano, Timothy Guy

2007-02-01

214

NASA: Exploration in 3D  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NASA's Exploration in 3D website is well executed and is accompanied by music with that classic, creepy, outer space feel. For visitors who prefer silence while looking at images of deep, dark space, there is a mute button near the bottom right side of the homepage. With this website, NASA is allowing the public to see their next major project, which involves creating a transportation system to take astronauts to the moon and then on to Mars. To enable the interested public to watch the progress of their plans for space, NASA will be taking photos of the project and putting them on this website, so they can be downloaded and printed. Once said images are printed, that's where the 3-D pocket viewfinders come in. For visitors interested in getting a viewfinder, click on the link at the bottom of the page that says "Click here to request your own EXN3D Pocket Viewfinder". To view the latest images with your viewfinder that are ready to download and print, visitors can click on "Downloads". Interested parties should check back in the future to see newly added images of the progress of the transportation system.

215

[Real time 3D echocardiography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients.

Bauer, F.; Shiota, T.; Thomas, J. D.

2001-01-01

216

3D computational ghost imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computational ghost imaging is a technique that enables lensless single-pixel detectors to produce images. By illuminating a scene with a series of patterns from a digital light projector (DLP) and measuring the reflected or transmitted intensity, it is possible to retrieve a two-dimensional (2D) image when using a suitable computer algorithm. An important feature of this approach is that although the light travels from the DLP and is measured by the detector, the images produced reveal that the detector behaves like a source of light and the DLP behaves like a camera. By placing multiple single-pixel detectors in different locations it is possible to obtain multiple ghost images with different shading profiles, which together can be used to accurately calculate the three-dimensional (3D) surface geometry through a photometric stereo techniques. In this work we show that using four photodiodes and a 850nm source of illumination, high quality 3D images of a large toy soldier can be retrieved. The use of simplified lensless detectors in 3D imaging allows different detector materials and architectures to be used whose sensitivity may extend beyond the visible spectrum, at wavelengths where existing camera based technology can become expensive or unsuitable.

Edgar, Matthew P.; Sun, Baoqing; Bowman, Richard; Welsh, Stephen S.; Padgett, Miles J.

2013-10-01

217

3D face recognition via conformal representation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we propose a 3D face recognition approach based on the conformal representation of facial surfaces. Firstly, facial surfaces are mapped onto the 2D unit disk by Riemann mapping. Their conformal representation (i.e. the pair of mean curvature (MC) and conformal factor (CF) ) are then computed and encoded to Mean Curvature Images (MCIs) and Conformal Factor Images (CFIs). Considering that different regions of face deform unequally due to expression variation, MCIs and CFIs are divided into five parts. LDA is applied to each part to obtain the feature vector. At last, five parts are fused on the distance level for recognition. Extensive experiments carried out on the BU-3DFE database demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

Han, Junhui; Fang, Chi; Ding, Xiaoqing; Sun, Jian; Gu, Xianfeng D.

2014-03-01

218

International Conference on Product Lifecycle Management 1 Validation of Perdue Engineering Shape Benchmark  

E-print Network

e-mail: jonathan.corney@strath.ac.uk Abstract: The effective organization of CAD data archives, cheap and effective method of content classification for CAD data. Keyword: 3D Search, 3D Content Based Retrieval, CAD database, CAD data management, Shape Benchmark 1 Introduction This paper is concerned

Martin, Ralph R.

219

Human Ear Recognition in 3D  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human ear is a new class of relatively stable biometrics that has drawn researchers' attention recently. In this paper, we propose a complete human recognition system using 3D ear biometrics. The system consists of 3D ear detection, 3D ear identification, and 3D ear verification. For ear detection, we propose a new approach which uses a single reference 3D ear shape

Hui Chen; Bir Bhanu

2007-01-01

220

3D Modeling From 2D Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article will give an overview of the methods of transition from the set of images into 3D model. Direct method of creating 3D model using 3D software will be described. Creating photorealistic 3D models from a set of photographs is challenging problem in computer vision because the technology is still in its development stage while the demands for 3D

Lana Madracevic; Stjepan Sogoric

2010-01-01

221

NAS Parallel Benchmarks Results 3-95  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NAS Parallel Benchmarks (NPB) were developed in 1991 at NASA Ames Research Center to study the performance of parallel supercomputers. The eight benchmark problems are specified in a "pencil and paper" fashion, i.e., the complete details of the problem are given in a NAS technical document. Except for a few restrictions, benchmark implementors are free to select the language constructs and implementation techniques best suited for a particular system. In this paper, we present new NPB performance results for the following systems: (a) Parallel-Vector Processors: CRAY C90, CRAY T90 and Fujitsu VPP500; (b) Highly Parallel Processors: CRAY T3D, IBM SP2-WN (Wide Nodes), and IBM SP2-TN2 (Thin Nodes 2); and (c) Symmetric Multiprocessors: Convex Exemplar SPPIOOO, CRAY J90, DEC Alpha Server 8400 5/300, and SGI Power Challenge XL (75 MHz). We also present sustained performance per dollar for Class B LU, SP and BT benchmarks. We also mention future NAS plans for the NPB.

Saini, Subhash; Bailey, David H.; Walter, Howard (Technical Monitor)

1995-01-01

222

tomo3d: a new 3-D joint refraction and reflection travel-time tomography code for active-source seismic data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the development state of tomo3d, a code for three-dimensional refraction and reflection travel-time tomography of wide-angle seismic data based on the previous two-dimensional version of the code, tomo2d. The core of both forward and inverse problems is inherited from the 2-D version. The ray tracing is performed by a hybrid method combining the graph and bending methods. The graph method finds an ordered array of discrete model nodes, which satisfies Fermat's principle, that is, whose corresponding travel time is a global minimum within the space of discrete nodal connections. The bending method is then applied to produce a more accurate ray path by using the nodes as support points for an interpolation with beta-splines. Travel time tomography is formulated as an iterative linearized inversion, and each step is solved using an LSQR algorithm. In order to avoid the singularity of the sensitivity kernel and to reduce the instability of inversion, regularization parameters are introduced in the inversion in the form of smoothing and damping constraints. Velocity models are built as 3-D meshes, and velocity values at intermediate locations are obtained by trilinear interpolation within the corresponding pseudo-cubic cell. Meshes are sheared to account for topographic relief. A floating reflector is represented by a 2-D grid, and depths at intermediate locations are calculated by bilinear interpolation within the corresponding square cell. The trade-off between the resolution of the final model and the associated computational cost is controlled by the relation between the selected forward star for the graph method (i.e. the number of nodes that each node considers as its neighbors) and the refinement of the velocity mesh. Including reflected phases is advantageous because it provides a better coverage and allows us to define the geometry of those geological interfaces with velocity contrasts sharp enough to be observed on record sections. The code also offers the possibility of including water-layer multiples in the modeling, which is useful whenever these phases can be followed to greater offsets than the primary ones. This increases the amount of information available from the data, yielding more extensive and better constrained velocity and geometry models. We will present synthetic results from benchmark tests for the forward and inverse problems, as well as from more complex inversion tests for different inversions possibilities such as one with travel times from refracted waves only (i.e. first arrivals) and one with travel-times from both refracted and reflected waves. In addition, we will show some preliminary results for the inversion of real 3-D OBS data acquired off-shore Ecuador and Colombia.

Meléndez, A.; Korenaga, J.; Sallares, V.; Ranero, C. R.

2012-12-01

223

Toxicological Benchmarks for Wildlife  

SciTech Connect

Ecological risks of environmental contaminants are evaluated by using a two-tiered process. In the first tier, a screening assessment is performed where concentrations of contaminants in the environment are compared to no observed adverse effects level (NOAEL)-based toxicological benchmarks. These benchmarks represent concentrations of chemicals (i.e., concentrations presumed to be nonhazardous to the biota) in environmental media (water, sediment, soil, food, etc.). While exceedance of these benchmarks does not indicate any particular level or type of risk, concentrations below the benchmarks should not result in significant effects. In practice, when contaminant concentrations in food or water resources are less than these toxicological benchmarks, the contaminants may be excluded from further consideration. However, if the concentration of a contaminant exceeds a benchmark, that contaminant should be retained as a contaminant of potential concern (COPC) and investigated further. The second tier in ecological risk assessment, the baseline ecological risk assessment, may use toxicological benchmarks as part of a weight-of-evidence approach (Suter 1993). Under this approach, based toxicological benchmarks are one of several lines of evidence used to support or refute the presence of ecological effects. Other sources of evidence include media toxicity tests, surveys of biota (abundance and diversity), measures of contaminant body burdens, and biomarkers. This report presents NOAEL- and lowest observed adverse effects level (LOAEL)-based toxicological benchmarks for assessment of effects of 85 chemicals on 9 representative mammalian wildlife species (short-tailed shrew, little brown bat, meadow vole, white-footed mouse, cottontail rabbit, mink, red fox, and whitetail deer) or 11 avian wildlife species (American robin, rough-winged swallow, American woodcock, wild turkey, belted kingfisher, great blue heron, barred owl, barn owl, Cooper's hawk, and red-tailed hawk, osprey) (scientific names for both the mammalian and avian species are presented in Appendix B). [In this document, NOAEL refers to both dose (mg contaminant per kg animal body weight per day) and concentration (mg contaminant per kg of food or L of drinking water)]. The 20 wildlife species were chosen because they are widely distributed and provide a representative range of body sizes and diets. The chemicals are some of those that occur at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) waste sites. The NOAEL-based benchmarks presented in this report represent values believed to be nonhazardous for the listed wildlife species; LOAEL-based benchmarks represent threshold levels at which adverse effects are likely to become evident. These benchmarks consider contaminant exposure through oral ingestion of contaminated media only. Exposure through inhalation and/or direct dermal exposure are not considered in this report.

Sample, B.E. Opresko, D.M. Suter, G.W.

1993-01-01

224

Interactive 3D Mars Visualization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Interactive 3D Mars Visualization system provides high-performance, immersive visualization of satellite and surface vehicle imagery of Mars. The software can be used in mission operations to provide the most accurate position information for the Mars rovers to date. When integrated into the mission data pipeline, this system allows mission planners to view the location of the rover on Mars to 0.01-meter accuracy with respect to satellite imagery, with dynamic updates to incorporate the latest position information. Given this information so early in the planning process, rover drivers are able to plan more accurate drive activities for the rover than ever before, increasing the execution of science activities significantly. Scientifically, this 3D mapping information puts all of the science analyses to date into geologic context on a daily basis instead of weeks or months, as was the norm prior to this contribution. This allows the science planners to judge the efficacy of their previously executed science observations much more efficiently, and achieve greater science return as a result. The Interactive 3D Mars surface view is a Mars terrain browsing software interface that encompasses the entire region of exploration for a Mars surface exploration mission. The view is interactive, allowing the user to pan in any direction by clicking and dragging, or to zoom in or out by scrolling the mouse or touchpad. This set currently includes tools for selecting a point of interest, and a ruler tool for displaying the distance between and positions of two points of interest. The mapping information can be harvested and shared through ubiquitous online mapping tools like Google Mars, NASA WorldWind, and Worldwide Telescope.

Powell, Mark W.

2012-01-01

225

3D printing facilitated scaffold-free tissue unit fabrication.  

PubMed

Tissue spheroids hold great potential in tissue engineering as building blocks to assemble into functional tissues. To date, agarose molds have been extensively used to facilitate fusion process of tissue spheroids. As a molding material, agarose typically requires low temperature plates for gelation and/or heated dispenser units. Here, we proposed and developed an alginate-based, direct 3D mold-printing technology: 3D printing microdroplets of alginate solution into biocompatible, bio-inert alginate hydrogel molds for the fabrication of scaffold-free tissue engineering constructs. Specifically, we developed a 3D printing technology to deposit microdroplets of alginate solution on calcium containing substrates in a layer-by-layer fashion to prepare ring-shaped 3D hydrogel molds. Tissue spheroids composed of 50% endothelial cells and 50% smooth muscle cells were robotically placed into the 3D printed alginate molds using a 3D printer, and were found to rapidly fuse into toroid-shaped tissue units. Histological and immunofluorescence analysis indicated that the cells secreted collagen type I playing a critical role in promoting cell-cell adhesion, tissue formation and maturation. PMID:24717646

Tan, Yu; Richards, Dylan J; Trusk, Thomas C; Visconti, Richard P; Yost, Michael J; Kindy, Mark S; Drake, Christopher J; Argraves, William Scott; Markwald, Roger R; Mei, Ying

2014-06-01

226

Low Complexity Mode Decision for 3D-HEVC  

PubMed Central

High efficiency video coding- (HEVC-) based 3D video coding (3D-HEVC) developed by joint collaborative team on 3D video coding (JCT-3V) for multiview video and depth map is an extension of HEVC standard. In the test model of 3D-HEVC, variable coding unit (CU) size decision and disparity estimation (DE) are introduced to achieve the highest coding efficiency with the cost of very high computational complexity. In this paper, a fast mode decision algorithm based on variable size CU and DE is proposed to reduce 3D-HEVC computational complexity. The basic idea of the method is to utilize the correlations between depth map and motion activity in prediction mode where variable size CU and DE are needed, and only in these regions variable size CU and DE are enabled. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can save about 43% average computational complexity of 3D-HEVC while maintaining almost the same rate-distortion (RD) performance. PMID:25254237

Li, Nana; Gan, Yong

2014-01-01

227

Application of the INSTANT-HPS PN Transport Code to the C5G7 Benchmark Problem  

SciTech Connect

INSTANT is the INL's next generation neutron transport solver to support high-fidelity multi-physics reactor simulation INSTANT is in continuous development to extend its capability Code is designed to take full advantage of middle to large cluster (10-1000 processors) Code is designed to focus on method adaptation while also mesh adaptation will be possible. It utilizes the most modern computing techniques to generate a neutronics tool of full-core transport calculations for reactor analysis and design. It can perform calculations on unstructured 2D/3D triangular, hexagonal and Cartesian geometries. Calculations can be easily extended to more geometries because of the independent mesh framework coded with the model Fortran. This code has a multigroup solver with thermal rebalance and Chebyshev acceleration. It employs second-order PN and Hybrid Finite Element method (PNHFEM) discretization scheme. Three different in-group solvers - preconditioned Conjugate Gradient (CG) method, preconditioned Generalized Minimal Residual Method (GMRES) and Red-Black iteration - have been implemented and parallelized with the spatial domain decomposition in the code. The input is managed with extensible markup language (XML) format. 3D variables including the flux distributions are outputted into VTK files, which can be visualized by tools such as VisIt and ParaView. An extension of the code named INSTANTHPS provides the capability to perform 3D heterogeneous transport calculations within fuel pins. C5G7 is an OECD/NEA benchmark problem created to test the ability of modern deterministic transport methods and codes to treat reactor core problems without spatial homogenization. This benchmark problem had been widely analyzed with various code packages. In this transaction, results of the applying the INSTANT-HPS code to the C5G7 problem are summarized.

Y. Wang; H. Zhang; R. H. Szilard; R. C. Martineau

2011-06-01

228

Strong quantitative benchmarking of quantum optical devices  

SciTech Connect

Quantum communication devices, such as quantum repeaters, quantum memories, or quantum channels, are unavoidably exposed to imperfections. However, the presence of imperfections can be tolerated, as long as we can verify that such devices retain their quantum advantages. Benchmarks based on witnessing entanglement have proven useful for verifying the true quantum nature of these devices. The next challenge is to characterize how strongly a device is within the quantum domain. We present a method, based on entanglement measures and rigorous state truncation, which allows us to characterize the degree of quantumness of optical devices. This method serves as a quantitative extension to a large class of previously known quantum benchmarks, requiring no additional information beyond what is already used for the nonquantitative benchmarks.

Killoran, N.; Luetkenhaus, N. [Institute for Quantum Computing and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, N2L 3G1 (Canada)

2011-05-15

229

Benchmarking TENDL-2012  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new release of the TENDL nuclear data library, TENDL-2012, was tested by performing many benchmark calculations. Close to 2000 criticality safety benchmark cases were used, as well as many benchmark shielding cases. All the runs could be compared with similar runs based on the nuclear data libraries ENDF/B-VII.1, JENDL-4.0, and JEFF-3.1.1 respectively. The results are that many of the criticality safety results obtained with TENDL-2012 are close to the ones for the other libraries. In particular the results for the thermal spectrum cases with LEU fuel are good. Nevertheless, there is a fair amount of cases for which the TENDL-2012 results are not as good as the other libraries. Especially a number of fast spectrum cases with reflectors are not well described. The results for the shielding benchmarks are mostly similar to the ones for the other libraries. Some isolated cases with differences are identified.

van der Marck, S. C.; Koning, A. J.; Rochman, D. A.

2014-04-01

230

3D printed bionic ears.  

PubMed

The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097

Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C

2013-06-12

231

Martian terrain & airbags - 3D  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Portions of the lander's deflated airbags and a petal are at lower left in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. This image is part of a 3D 'monster' panorama of the area surrounding the landing site.

Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

1997-01-01

232

Martian terrain & airbags - 3D  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Portions of the lander's deflated airbags and a petal are at the lower area of this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. This image is part of a 3D 'monster' panorama of the area surrounding the landing site.

Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

1997-01-01

233

3D Printed Bionic Ears  

PubMed Central

The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the precise anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097

Mannoor, Manu S.; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A.; Soboyejo, Winston O.; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H.; McAlpine, Michael C.

2013-01-01

234

3D acoustic atmospheric tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a method for tomographically reconstructing spatially varying 3D atmospheric temperature profiles and wind velocity fields based. Measurements of the acoustic signature measured onboard a small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) are compared to ground-based observations of the same signals. The frequency-shifted signal variations are then used to estimate the acoustic propagation delay between the UAV and the ground microphones, which are also affected by atmospheric temperature and wind speed vectors along each sound ray path. The wind and temperature profiles are modelled as the weighted sum of Radial Basis Functions (RBFs), which also allow local meteorological measurements made at the UAV and ground receivers to supplement any acoustic observations. Tomography is used to provide a full 3D reconstruction/visualisation of the observed atmosphere. The technique offers observational mobility under direct user control and the capacity to monitor hazardous atmospheric environments, otherwise not justifiable on the basis of cost or risk. This paper summarises the tomographic technique and reports on the results of simulations and initial field trials. The technique has practical applications for atmospheric research, sound propagation studies, boundary layer meteorology, air pollution measurements, analysis of wind shear, and wind farm surveys.

Rogers, Kevin; Finn, Anthony

2014-10-01

235

Positional Awareness Map 3D (PAM3D)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Western Aeronautical Test Range of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Dryden Flight Research Center needed to address the aging software and hardware of its current situational awareness display application, the Global Real-Time Interactive Map (GRIM). GRIM was initially developed in the late 1980s and executes on older PC architectures using a Linux operating system that is no longer supported. Additionally, the software is difficult to maintain due to its complexity and loss of developer knowledge. It was decided that a replacement application must be developed or acquired in the near future. The replacement must provide the functionality of the original system, the ability to monitor test flight vehicles in real-time, and add improvements such as high resolution imagery and true 3-dimensional capability. This paper will discuss the process of determining the best approach to replace GRIM, and the functionality and capabilities of the first release of the Positional Awareness Map 3D.

Hoffman, Monica; Allen, Earl L.; Yount, John W.; Norcross, April Louise

2012-01-01

236

Thermo-mechanics of 3D-wafer level and 3D stacked IC packaging technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The miniaturisation 3D integration\\/stacking systems has a significant impact on both thermal resistance and thermo-mechanical reliability. The trends regarding these issues are summarised for the different 3D integration approaches: 3D-SIP, 3D-WLP and 3D-SIC.

Bart Vandevelde; Chukwudi Okoro; Mario Gonzalez; Bart Swinnen; Eric Beyne

2008-01-01

237

Keywords--3D geometric modeling, 3D scanning, laser light-sectioning, Elliptical Fourier Descriptors  

E-print Network

1 Keywords--3D geometric modeling, 3D scanning, laser light-sectioning, Elliptical Fourier of the camera; and c) rectifying the laser A 3D scanning system for biomedical purposes using the laser light Descriptors I. INTRODUCTION he use of three-dimensional (3D) scanning systems for acquiring 3D models

Hayes, John

238

Benchmarking Linac Codes for the HIPPI Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the framework of the HIPPI project a 3D linac code comparison and benchmarking program have been initiated. Particular attention is devoted to the validation of the space charge solvers, comparing the calculated electric field of a common initial distribution with a semi-analytical solution. In order to study the effects of numerical noise on the single particle dynamics, also the calculated single particle tune is compared with an analytical prediction. Particle tracking is eventually compared using the lattice of UNILAC DTL section, in preparation of validation with experimental emittance measurements to be carried out in the next two years.

Franchi, A.; Duperrier, R.; Franchetti, G.; Gerigk, F.; Groening, L.; Hofmann, I.; Orzhekhovskaya, A.; Sauer, A.; Uriot, D.; Yaramyschev, S.

2005-06-01

239

A dimensional comparison between embedded 3D-printed and silicon microchannels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The subject of this paper is the dimensional characterization of embedded microchannel arrays created using contemporary 3D-printing fabrication techniques. Conventional microchannel arrays, fabricated using deep reactive ion etching techniques (DRIE) and wet-etching (KOH), are used as a benchmark for comparison. Rectangular and trapezoidal cross-sectional shapes were investigated. The channel arrays were 3D-printed in vertical and horizontal directions, to examine the influence of print orientation on channel characteristics. The 3D-printed channels were benchmarked against Silicon channels in terms of the following dimensional characteristics: cross-sectional area (CSA), perimeter, and surface profiles. The 3D-printed microchannel arrays demonstrated variances in CSA of 6.6-20% with the vertical printing approach yielding greater dimensional conformity than the horizontal approach. The measured CSA and perimeter of the vertical channels were smaller than the nominal dimensions, while the horizontal channels were larger in both CSA and perimeter due to additional side-wall roughness present throughout the channel length. This side-wall roughness caused significant shape distortion. Surface profile measurements revealed that the base wall roughness was approximately the resolution of current 3D-printers. A spatial periodicity was found along the channel length which appeared at different frequencies for each channel array. This paper concludes that vertical 3D-printing is superior to the horizontal printing approach, in terms of both dimensional fidelity and shape conformity and can be applied in microfluidic device applications.

O'Connor, J.; Punch, J.; Jeffers, N.; Stafford, J.

2014-07-01

240

LOTT RANCH 3D PROJECT  

SciTech Connect

The Lott Ranch 3D seismic prospect located in Garza County, Texas is a project initiated in September of 1991 by the J.M. Huber Corp., a petroleum exploration and production company. By today's standards the 126 square mile project does not seem monumental, however at the time it was conceived it was the most intensive land 3D project ever attempted. Acquisition began in September of 1991 utilizing GEO-SEISMIC, INC., a seismic data contractor. The field parameters were selected by J.M. Huber, and were of a radical design. The recording instruments used were GeoCor IV amplifiers designed by Geosystems Inc., which record the data in signed bit format. It would not have been practical, if not impossible, to have processed the entire raw volume with the tools available at that time. The end result was a dataset that was thought to have little utility due to difficulties in processing the field data. In 1997, Yates Energy Corp. located in Roswell, New Mexico, formed a partnership to further develop the project. Through discussions and meetings with Pinnacle Seismic, it was determined that the original Lott Ranch 3D volume could be vastly improved upon reprocessing. Pinnacle Seismic had shown the viability of improving field-summed signed bit data on smaller 2D and 3D projects. Yates contracted Pinnacle Seismic Ltd. to perform the reprocessing. This project was initiated with high resolution being a priority. Much of the potential resolution was lost through the initial summing of the field data. Modern computers that are now being utilized have tremendous speed and storage capacities that were cost prohibitive when this data was initially processed. Software updates and capabilities offer a variety of quality control and statics resolution, which are pertinent to the Lott Ranch project. The reprocessing effort was very successful. The resulting processed data-set was then interpreted using modern PC-based interpretation and mapping software. Production data, log data, and scout ticket data were integrated with the 3D interpretations to evaluate drilling opportunities resulting in an initial three well drilling program. Thousands of miles of signed bit data exist. Much of this data was processed during a time when software and hardware capabilities were either incapable or cost prohibitive to glean the full potential of the data. In fact in some circles signed bit gained an undeserved reputation for being less than optimum. As a consequence much of the older signed bit data sits on the shelf long forgotten or overlooked. With the high cost of new acquisition and permitting it might behoove other exploration companies to reconsider resurrecting perfectly viable existing volumes and have them reprocessed at a fraction of the cost of new acquisition.

Larry Lawrence; Bruce Miller

2004-09-01

241

3D J-Integral Capability in Grizzly  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes work done to develop a capability to evaluate fracture contour J-Integrals in 3D in the Grizzly code. In the current fiscal year, a previously-developed 2D implementation of a J-Integral evaluation capability has been extended to work in 3D, and to include terms due both to mechanically-induced strains and due to gradients in thermal strains. This capability has been verified against a benchmark solution on a model of a curved crack front in 3D. The thermal term in this integral has been verified against a benchmark problem with a thermal gradient. These developments are part of a larger effort to develop Grizzly as a tool that can be used to predict the evolution of aging processes in nuclear power plant systems, structures, and components, and assess their capacity after being subjected to those aging processes. The capabilities described here have been developed to enable evaluations of Mode- stress intensity factors on axis-aligned flaws in reactor pressure vessels. These can be compared with the fracture toughness of the material to determine whether a pre-existing flaw would begin to propagate during a pos- tulated pressurized thermal shock accident. This report includes a demonstration calculation to show how Grizzly is used to perform a deterministic assessment of such a flaw propagation in a degraded reactor pressure vessel under pressurized thermal shock conditions. The stress intensity is calculated from J, and the toughness is computed using the fracture master curve and the degraded ductile to brittle transition temperature.

Benjamin Spencer; Marie Backman; Pritam Chakraborty; William Hoffman

2014-09-01

242

The KMAT: Benchmarking Knowledge Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an overview of knowledge management and benchmarking, including the benefits and methods of benchmarking (e.g., competitive, cooperative, collaborative, and internal benchmarking). Arthur Andersen's KMAT (Knowledge Management Assessment Tool) is described. The KMAT is a collaborative benchmarking tool, designed to help organizations make…

de Jager, Martha

243

Toxicological Benchmarks for Wildlife  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecological risks of environmental contaminants are evaluated by using a two-tiered process. In the first tier, a screening assessment is performed where concentrations of contaminants in the environment are compared to no observed adverse effects level (NOAEL)-based toxicological benchmarks. These benchmarks represent concentrations of chemicals (i.e., concentrations presumed to be nonhazardous to the biota) in environmental media (water, sediment, soil,

B. E. Opresko; D. M. Suter

1993-01-01

244

NIF Ignition Target 3D Point Design  

SciTech Connect

We have developed an input file for running 3D NIF hohlraums that is optimized such that it can be run in 1-2 days on parallel computers. We have incorporated increasing levels of automation into the 3D input file: (1) Configuration controlled input files; (2) Common file for 2D and 3D, different types of capsules (symcap, etc.); and (3) Can obtain target dimensions, laser pulse, and diagnostics settings automatically from NIF Campaign Management Tool. Using 3D Hydra calculations to investigate different problems: (1) Intrinsic 3D asymmetry; (2) Tolerance to nonideal 3D effects (e.g. laser power balance, pointing errors); and (3) Synthetic diagnostics.

Jones, O; Marinak, M; Milovich, J; Callahan, D

2008-11-05

245

Parallel 3D Mortar Element Method for Adaptive Nonconforming Meshes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High order methods are frequently used in computational simulation for their high accuracy. An efficient way to avoid unnecessary computation in smooth regions of the solution is to use adaptive meshes which employ fine grids only in areas where they are needed. Nonconforming spectral elements allow the grid to be flexibly adjusted to satisfy the computational accuracy requirements. The method is suitable for computational simulations of unsteady problems with very disparate length scales or unsteady moving features, such as heat transfer, fluid dynamics or flame combustion. In this work, we select the Mark Element Method (MEM) to handle the non-conforming interfaces between elements. A new technique is introduced to efficiently implement MEM in 3-D nonconforming meshes. By introducing an "intermediate mortar", the proposed method decomposes the projection between 3-D elements and mortars into two steps. In each step, projection matrices derived in 2-D are used. The two-step method avoids explicitly forming/deriving large projection matrices for 3-D meshes, and also helps to simplify the implementation. This new technique can be used for both h- and p-type adaptation. This method is applied to an unsteady 3-D moving heat source problem. With our new MEM implementation, mesh adaptation is able to efficiently refine the grid near the heat source and coarsen the grid once the heat source passes. The savings in computational work resulting from the dynamic mesh adaptation is demonstrated by the reduction of the the number of elements used and CPU time spent. MEM and mesh adaptation, respectively, bring irregularity and dynamics to the computer memory access pattern. Hence, they provide a good way to gauge the performance of computer systems when running scientific applications whose memory access patterns are irregular and unpredictable. We select a 3-D moving heat source problem as the Unstructured Adaptive (UA) grid benchmark, a new component of the NAS Parallel Benchmarks (NPB). In this paper, we present some interesting performance results of ow OpenMP parallel implementation on different architectures such as the SGI Origin2000, SGI Altix, and Cray MTA-2.

Feng, Huiyu; Mavriplis, Catherine; VanderWijngaart, Rob; Biswas, Rupak

2004-01-01

246

3-D object-oriented image analysis of geophysical data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geophysical data are the main source of information about the subsurface. Geophysical techniques are, however, highly non-unique in determining specific physical parameters and boundaries of subsurface objects. To obtain actual physical information, an inversion process is often applied, in which measurements at or above the Earth surface are inverted into a 2- or 3-D subsurface spatial distribution of the physical property. Interpreting these models into structural objects, related to physical processes, requires a priori knowledge and expert analysis which is susceptible to subjective choices and is therefore often non-repeatable. In this research, we implemented a recently introduced object-based approach to interpret the 3-D inversion results of a single geophysical technique using the available a priori information and the physical and geometrical characteristics of the interpreted objects. The introduced methodology is semi-automatic and repeatable, and allows the extraction of subsurface structures using 3-D object-oriented image analysis (3-D OOA) in an objective knowledge-based classification scheme. The approach allows for a semi-objective setting of thresholds that can be tested and, if necessary, changed in a very fast and efficient way. These changes require only changing the thresholds used in a so-called ruleset, which is composed of algorithms that extract objects from a 3-D data cube. The approach is tested on a synthetic model, which is based on a priori knowledge on objects present in the study area (Tanzania). Object characteristics and thresholds were well defined in a 3-D histogram of velocity versus depth, and objects were fully retrieved. The real model results showed how 3-D OOA can deal with realistic 3-D subsurface conditions in which the boundaries become fuzzy, the object extensions become unclear and the model characteristics vary with depth due to the different physical conditions. As expected, the 3-D histogram of the real data was substantially more complex. Still, the 3-D OOA-derived objects were extracted based on their velocity and their depth location. Spatially defined boundaries, based on physical variations, can improve the modelling with spatially dependent parameter information. With 3-D OOA, the non-uniqueness on the location of objects and their physical properties can be potentially significantly reduced.

Fadel, I.; Kerle, N.; van der Meijde, M.

2014-07-01

247

SRB-3D Solid Rocket Booster performance prediction program. Volume 1: Engineering description/users information manual  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The modified Solid Rocket Booster Performance Evaluation Model (SRB-3D) was developed as an extension to the internal ballistics module of the SRB-2 performance program. This manual contains the engineering description of SRB-3D which describes the approach used to develop the 3D concept and an explanation of the modifications which were necessary to implement these concepts.

Winkler, J. C.

1976-01-01

248

Abstract--3D IC technologies have recently attracted great attention due to the potential performance improvement, power  

E-print Network

Abstract--3D IC technologies have recently attracted great attention due to the potential IC technologies. The OpenAccess extension for 3D-Craft is discussed, and the key components including. INTRODUCTION he 3D IC technologies promise to further increase integration density, beyond Moore's Law

Cong, Jason "Jingsheng"

249

Part removal of 3D printed parts  

E-print Network

An experimental study was performed to understand the correlation between printing parameters in the FDM 3D printing process, and the force required to remove a part from the build platform of a 3D printing using a patent ...

Peña Doll, Mateo

2014-01-01

250

High throughput 3-D tissue cytometry  

E-print Network

This thesis presents the ongoing technological development of high throughput 3-D tissue cytometry.and its applications in biomedicine. 3-D tissue cytometry has been developed in our laboratory based on two-photon microscopy ...

Kwon, Hyuk-Sang, 1971-

2007-01-01

251

GRAPHICS PROGRAMMING SECTION D -JAVA 3D  

E-print Network

........................................................................................................ 38 36 Graphics 3D: Transformations current JVM (Java Virtual Machine) to upgrade with Java 3D (default location is C:/j2sdk1.4.0/jre (for JRE

Hill, Gary

252

Saving lives through early detection: Breaking the PET efficiency barrier with the 3D-CBS  

Microsoft Academic Search

An innovative 3-D Complete-Body-Scan (3D-CBS) medical imaging device, combining the benefits of functional imaging capability of the Positron Emission Tomography (PET) with anatomical imaging capability of the Computed Tomography (CT), is presented. The unique architecture of the 3D-CBS electronics allows for the extension, in a cost-effective manner, of the axial field of view (FOV, which is the length of the

Dario B. Crosetto

253

Shadow 3D: A 3D GUI Middleware for Home Digital Media Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shadow 3D is an extended version of Shadow, a GUI middleware for home digital media devices. In addition to Shadow's 2D GUI features, Shadow 3D supports a full range of 3D GUI features including OpenGL-based low-level 3D graphics, 3D object management, and high-level 3D widgets. It also provides a method for seamless integration with legacy 2D GUI applications. In this

Bomjun Kwon; Shane Cho; Sunghwan Min; Heejin Chung; Cheolhun Jo; Ji-Young Kim; Seok-Jae Lee

2008-01-01

254

Geological mapping goes 3-D in response to societal needs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The transition to 3-D mapping has been made possible by technological advances in digital cartography, GIS, data storage, analysis, and visualization. Despite various challenges, technological advancements facilitated a gradual transition from 2-D maps to 2.5-D draped maps to 3-D geological mapping, supported by digital spatial and relational databases that can be interrogated horizontally or vertically and viewed interactively. Challenges associated with data collection, human resources, and information management are daunting due to their resource and training requirements. The exchange of strategies at the workshops has highlighted the use of basin analysis to develop a process-based predictive knowledge framework that facilitates data integration. Three-dimensional geological information meets a public demand that fills in the blanks left by conventional 2-D mapping. Two-dimensional mapping will, however, remain the standard method for extensive areas of complex geology, particularly where deformed igneous and metamorphic rocks defy attempts at 3-D depiction.

Thorleifson, H.; Berg, R.C.; Russell, H.A.J.

2010-01-01

255

DspaceOgreTerrain 3D Terrain Visualization Tool  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

DspaceOgreTerrain is an extension to the DspaceOgre 3D visualization tool that supports real-time visualization of various terrain types, including digital elevation maps, planets, and meshes. DspaceOgreTerrain supports creating 3D representations of terrains and placing them in a scene graph. The 3D representations allow for a continuous level of detail, GPU-based rendering, and overlaying graphics like wheel tracks and shadows. It supports reading data from the SimScape terrain- modeling library. DspaceOgreTerrain solves the problem of displaying the results of simulations that involve very large terrains. In the past, it has been used to visualize simulations of vehicle traverses on Lunar and Martian terrains. These terrains were made up of billions of vertices and would not have been renderable in real-time without using a continuous level of detail rendering technique.

Myint, Steven; Jain, Abhinandan; Pomerantz, Marc I.

2012-01-01

256

Quantitative 3D Optical Imaging: Applications in Dosimetry and Biophysics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical-CT has been shown to be a potentially useful imaging tool for the two very different spheres of biologists and radiation therapy physicists, but it has yet to live up to that potential. In radiation therapy, researchers have used optical-CT for the readout of 3D dosimeters, but it is yet to be a clinically relevant tool as the technology is too slow to be considered practical. Biologists have used the technique for structural imaging, but have struggled with emission tomography as the reality of photon attenuation for both excitation and emission have made the images quantitatively irrelevant. Dosimetry. The DLOS (Duke Large field of view Optical-CT Scanner) was designed and constructed to make 3D dosimetry utilizing optical-CT a fast and practical tool while maintaining the accuracy of readout of the previous, slower readout technologies. Upon construction/optimization/implementation of several components including a diffuser, band pass filter, registration mount & fluid filtration system the dosimetry system provides high quality data comparable to or exceeding that of commercial products. In addition, a stray light correction algorithm was tested and implemented. The DLOS in combination with the 3D dosimeter it was designed for, PREAGETM, then underwent rigorous commissioning and benchmarking tests validating its performance against gold standard data including a set of 6 irradiations. DLOS commissioning tests resulted in sub-mm isotropic spatial resolution (MTF >0.5 for frequencies of 1.5lp/mm) and a dynamic range of ˜60dB. Flood field uniformity was 10% and stable after 45minutes. Stray light proved to be small, due to telecentricity, but even the residual can be removed through deconvolution. Benchmarking tests showed the mean 3D passing gamma rate (3%, 3mm, 5% dose threshold) over the 6 benchmark data sets was 97.3% +/- 0.6% (range 96%-98%) scans totaling ˜10 minutes, indicating excellent ability to perform 3D dosimetry while improving the speed of readout. Noise was low at ˜2% for 2mm reconstructions. The DLOS/PRESAGERTM benchmark tests show consistently excellent performance, with very good agreement to simple known distributions. The telecentric design was critical to enabling fast (~15mins) imaging with minimal stray light artifacts. The system produces accurate isotropic 2mm3 dose data over clinical volumes (e.g. 16cm diameter phantoms, 12 cm height), and represents a uniquely useful and versatile new tool for commissioning complex radiotherapy techniques. The system also has wide versatility, and has successfully been used in preliminary tests with protons and with kV irradiations. Biology. Attenuation corrections for optical-emission-CT were done by modeling physical parameters in the imaging setup within the framework of an ordered subset expectation maximum (OSEM) iterative reconstruction algorithm. This process has a well documented history in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), but is inherently simpler due to the lack of excitation photons to account for. Excitation source strength distribution, excitation and emission attenuation were modeled. The accuracy of the correction was investigated by imaging phantoms containing known distributions of attenuation and fluorophores. The correction was validated on a manufactured phantom designed to give uniform emission in a central cuboidal region and later applied to a cleared mouse brain with GFP (green-fluorescentprotein) labeled vasculature and a cleared 4T1 xenograft flank tumor with constitutive RFP (red-fluorescent-protein). Reconstructions were compared to corresponding slices imaged with a fluorescent dissection microscope. Significant optical-ECT attenuation artifacts were observed in the uncorrected phantom images and appeared up to 80% less intense than the verification image in the central region. The corrected phantom images showed excellent agreement with the verification image with only slight variations. The corrected tissue sample reconstructions showed general agreement between the verification images. Comp

Thomas, Andrew Stephen

257

Tomographic 3D-PIV and Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tomographic particle image velocimetry is a 3D PIV technique based on the illumination, recording, reconstruction and analysis of tracer-particle motion within a three-dimensional measurement volume. The recently developed technique makes use of several simultaneous views of the illuminated particles, typically 4, and their three-dimensional reconstruction as a light-intensity distribution by means of optical tomography. The reconstruction is performed with the MART algorithm (multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique), yielding a 3D distribution of light intensity discretized over an array of voxels. The reconstructed tomogram pair is then analyzed by means of 3D crosscorrelation with an iterative multigrid volume-deformation technique, returning the three-component velocity vector distribution over the measurement volume. The implementation of the tomographic technique in time-resolved mode by means of high repetition rate PIV hardware has the capability to yield 4D velocity information. The first part of the chapter describes the operation principles and gives a detailed assessment of the tomographic reconstruction algorithm performance based upon a computer-simulated experiment. The second part of the chapter proposes four applications on two flow cases: 1. the transitional wake behind a circular cylinder; 2. the turbulent boundary layer developing over a flat plate. For the first case, experiments in air at ReD = 2700 are described together with the experimental assessment of the tomographic reconstruction accuracy. In this experiment a direct comparison is made between the results obtained by tomographic PIV and stereo-PIV. Experiments conducted in a water facility on the cylinder wake shows the extension of the technique to time-resolved measurements in water at ReD = 540 by means of a low repetition rate PIV system. A high data yield is obtained using high-resolution cameras (2k × 2k pixels) returning 650k vectors per volume. Measurements of the turbulent boundary layer in air at Re? = 1900 provide a clear visualization of streamwise-aligned low-speed regions as well as hairpin vortices grouped into packets. Finally, in similar flow conditions the boundary layer is measured using a high repetition rate PIV system at 5kHz, where the spatiotemporal evolution of the flow structures is visualized revealing a mechanism for the rapid growth of a Q2 event, possibly associated to the generation of hairpin-like structures.

Elsinga, Gerrit E.; Wieneke, Bernhard; Scarano, Fulvio; Schröder, Andreas

258

Quality Control of 3D Geospatial Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

New technologies for the acquisition of 3D geospatial data (in particular airborne and terrestrial laser scanner) as well as an increasing performance of CPUs and GPUs make it possible that 3D geospatial data can be collected for large areas and handled on standard PCs. 3D GIS technology is a young market with high growth potential and very new kind of

VOLKER WALTER

259

Personal 3D audio system with loudspeakers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional 3D audio systems often have a limited sweet spot for the user to perceive 3D effects successfully. In this paper, we present a personal 3D audio system with loudspeakers that has unlimited sweet spots. The idea is to have a camera track the user's head movement, and recompute the crosstalk canceller filters accordingly. As far as the authors are

Myung-Suk Song; Cha Zhang; Dinei A. F. Florêncio; Hong-Goo Kang

2010-01-01

260

Consistent stylization of stereoscopic 3D images  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of stylization filters to photographs is common, Instagram being a popular recent example. These image manipulation applications work great for 2D images. However, stereoscopic 3D cameras are increasingly available to consumers (Nintendo 3DS, Fuji W3 3D, HTC Evo 3D). How will users apply these same stylizations to stereoscopic images?

Lesley Northam; Paul Asente; Craig S. Kaplan

2012-01-01

261

Beowulf 3D: a case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses the creative and technical challenges encountered during the production of "Beowulf 3D," director Robert Zemeckis' adaptation of the Old English epic poem and the first film to be simultaneously released in IMAX 3D and digital 3D formats.

Engle, Rob

2008-02-01

262

From Museum Exhibits to 3D Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article presents the use of 3D scanners and printers for the digitization of 3D objects of cultural heritage. The work describes the full processing chain from the scanning of an exhibit to the creation of a tangible copy using a 3D printer. Problems caused by imperfect data sets are discussed and solutions proposed.

Agnieszka Tomaka; Leszek Luchowski; Krzysztof Skabek

2009-01-01

263

3D Printing Prof. Hank Dietz  

E-print Network

3D Printing Prof. Hank Dietz TCMS, March 14, 2014 University of Kentucky Electrical & Computer/Craft: paper moves in Y, knife in X EDM/Laser: X/Y bed, vaporizes material #12;Subtractive 3D CNC: Computer #12;3D With Glue Layers of paper: printed with glue & cut Layers of powder: printed with glue Can

Dietz, Henry G. "Hank"

264

Pathways for Learning from 3D Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to find out if 3D stereoscopic presentation of information in a movie format changes a viewer's experience of the movie content. Four possible pathways from 3D presentation to memory and learning were considered: a direct connection based on cognitive neuroscience research; a connection through "immersion" in that 3D

Carrier, L. Mark; Rab, Saira S.; Rosen, Larry D.; Vasquez, Ludivina; Cheever, Nancy A.

2012-01-01

265

The Makerbot: Desktop 3D printing  

E-print Network

The Makerbot: Desktop 3D printing Matthew Roughan School of Mathematical Sciences matthew is Lots of maths hidden in something like 3D printing Geometry and Linear algebra ++ Same math used #12;CNC CNC = Computer Numerical Control CNC machines have been around for a while 3D printers

Roughan, Matthew

266

Imaging a Sustainable Future in 3D  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is the intention of this paper, to contribute to a sustainable future by providing objective object information based on 3D photography as well as promoting 3D photography not only for scientists, but also for amateurs. Due to the presentation of this article by CIPA Task Group 3 on "3D Photographs in Cultural Heritage", the presented samples are masterpieces of historic as well as of current 3D photography concentrating on cultural heritage. In addition to a report on exemplarily access to international archives of 3D photographs, samples for new 3D photographs taken with modern 3D cameras, as well as by means of a ground based high resolution XLITE staff camera and also 3D photographs taken from a captive balloon and the use of civil drone platforms are dealt with. To advise on optimum suited 3D methodology, as well as to catch new trends in 3D, an updated synoptic overview of the 3D visualization technology, even claiming completeness, has been carried out as a result of a systematic survey. In this respect, e.g., today's lasered crystals might be "early bird" products in 3D, which, due to lack in resolution, contrast and color, remember to the stage of the invention of photography.

Schuhr, W.; Lee, J. D.; Kanngieser, E.

2012-07-01

267

3D Flow Visualization Using Texture Advection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Texture advection is an effective tool for animating and investigating 2D flows. In this paper, we discuss how this technique can be extended to 3D flows. In particular, we examine the use of 3D and 4D textures on 3D synthetic and computational fluid dynamics flow fields.

Kao, David; Zhang, Bing; Kim, Kwansik; Pang, Alex; Moran, Pat (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

268

NONPLANAR RESLICING FOR FREEHAND 3D ULTRASOUND  

E-print Network

NON­PLANAR RESLICING FOR FREEHAND 3D ULTRASOUND A. H. Gee, R. W. Prager and L. Berman CUED 3D Ultrasound Andrew Gee, Richard Prager and Laurence Berman \\Lambda University of Cambridge imaging modalities, including 3D ultrasound. The acquired data is resampled on a user­ specified plane

Drummond, Tom

269

Study of thinned Si wafer warpage in 3D stacked wafers  

Microsoft Academic Search

3D (three-dimensional) wafer stacking technology has been developed extensively recently. One of the many technical challenges in 3D stacked wafers, and one of the most important, is wafer warpage. Wafer warpage is one of the root causes leading to process and product failures such as delamination, cracking, mechanical stresses, within wafer (WIW) uniformity and even electrical failure. In this study,

Youngrae Kim; Sung-Keun Kang; Sarah Eunkyung Kim

2010-01-01

270

Measuring 3D Plant Growth Using Optical Flow J.L. Barron A. Liptay  

E-print Network

to the camera. We compute 3D velocity (motion) of the corn seedling's tip by using a simple extension of the 2D presented earlier (BioImaging 2, 1994) where optical flow was used to measure the 2D growth (in the vertical1 Measuring 3D Plant Growth Using Optical Flow J.L. Barron A. Liptay Dept. of Computer Science

Barron, John

271

Crater Scaling for Oblique Impacts in Frictional Targets: Insight from 3D Hydrocode Modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By using our 3D-hydrocode iSALE-3D we performed an extensive parameter study concerning oblique meteorite impacts. Our main goal is to quantify the influence of the impact angle on crater size for gravity-dominated craters in hydrodynamic and frictional target materials.

Elbeshausen, D.; Wünnemann, K.; Collins, G. S.

2008-03-01

272

Supernova Remnant in 3-D  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for the movie

For the first time, a multiwavelength three-dimensional reconstruction of a supernova remnant has been created. This stunning visualization of Cassiopeia A, or Cas A, the result of an explosion approximately 330 years ago, uses data from several telescopes: X-ray data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, infrared data from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope and optical data from the National Optical Astronomy Observatory 4-meter telescope at Kitt Peak, Ariz., and the Michigan-Dartmouth-MIT 2.4-meter telescope, also at Kitt Peak. In this visualization, the green region is mostly iron observed in X-rays. The yellow region is a combination of argon and silicon seen in X-rays, optical, and infrared including jets of silicon plus outer debris seen in the optical. The red region is cold debris seen in the infrared. Finally, the blue reveals the outer blast wave, most prominently detected in X-rays.

Most of the material shown in this visualization is debris from the explosion that has been heated by a shock moving inwards. The red material interior to the yellow/orange ring has not yet encountered the inward moving shock and so has not yet been heated. These unshocked debris were known to exist because they absorb background radio light, but they were only recently discovered in infrared emission with Spitzer. The blue region is composed of gas surrounding the explosion that was heated when it was struck by the outgoing blast wave, as clearly seen in Chandra images.

To create this visualization, scientists took advantage of both a previously known phenomenon the Doppler effect and a new technology that bridges astronomy and medicine. When elements created inside a supernova, such as iron, silicon and argon, are heated they emit light at certain wavelengths. Material moving towards the observer will have shorter wavelengths and material moving away will have longer wavelengths. Since the amount of the wavelength shift is related to the speed of motion, one can determine how fast the debris are moving in either direction. Because Cas A is the result of an explosion, the stellar debris is expanding radially outwards from the explosion center. Using simple geometry, the scientists were able to construct a 3-D model using all of this information. A program called 3-D Slicer modified for astronomical use by the Astronomical Medicine Project at Harvard University in Cambridge, Mass. was used to display and manipulate the 3-D model. Commercial software was then used to create the 3-D fly-through.

The blue filaments defining the blast wave were not mapped using the Doppler effect because they emit a different kind of light synchrotron radiation that does not emit light at discrete wavelengths, but rather in a broad continuum. The blue filaments are only a representation of the actual filaments observed at the blast wave.

This visualization shows that there are two main components to this supernova remnant: a spherical component in the outer parts of the remnant and a flattened (disk-like) component in the inner region. The spherical component consists of the outer layer of the star that exploded, probably made of helium and carbon. These layers drove a spherical blast wave into the diffuse gas surrounding the star. The flattened component that astronomers were unable to map into 3-D prior to these Spitzer observations consists of the inner layers of the star. It is made from various heavier elements, not all shown in the visualization, such as oxygen, neon, silicon, sulphur, argon and iron.

High-velocity plumes, or jets, of this material are shooting out from the explosion in the plane of the disk-like component mentioned above. Plumes of silicon appear in the northeast and southwest, while those of iron are seen in the southeast and north. These jets were already known and Doppler velocity measurements have been made for these structures, but their orientation and position with resp

2009-01-01

273

RELAP5-3D Code Application for RBMK-1500 Reactor Core Analysis  

SciTech Connect

The paper presents an evaluation of RELAP5-3D code suitability to model specific transients that take place during RBMK-1500 reactor operation, where the neutronic response of the core is important. A successful best estimate RELAP5-3D model of the Ignalina NPP RBMK-1500 reactor has been developed and validated against real plant data. Certain RELAP5-3D transient calculation results were benchmarked against calculation results obtained using the Russian code STEPAN, specially designed for RBMK reactor analysis. Comparison of the results obtained, using the RELAP5-3D and STEPAN codes, showed quite good mutual coincidence of the calculation results and good agreement with real plant data. (authors)

Bubelis, Evaldas; Kaliatka, Algirdas; Uspuras, Eugenijus [Lithuanian Energy Institute, Breslaujos str. 3, LT-44403 Kaunas (Lithuania)

2002-07-01

274

Comparative analysis of video processing and 3D rendering for cloud video games using different virtualization technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a comprehensive empirical performance evaluation of 3D video processing employing the physical/virtual architecture implemented in a cloud environment. Different virtualization technologies, virtual video cards and various 3D benchmarks tools have been utilized in order to analyse the optimal performance in the context of 3D online gaming applications. This study highlights 3D video rendering performance under each type of hypervisors, and other factors including network I/O, disk I/O and memory usage. Comparisons of these factors under well-known virtual display technologies such as VNC, Spice and Virtual 3D adaptors reveal the strengths and weaknesses of the various hypervisors with respect to 3D video rendering and streaming.

Bada, Adedayo; Alcaraz-Calero, Jose M.; Wang, Qi; Grecos, Christos

2014-05-01

275

3-D Visualization for Civil Engineering Undergraduate Learning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Civil engineering analysis and modeling frequently reduces 3-D land features and structures to 2-D representations on such media as paper and overhead projection systems. Students often have trouble understanding the 3-D aspect of civil engineering problems because of the limitations of conventional 2-D representations. Many students find it difficult to understand how landforms from a topographic survey will impact a construction project, where a watershed is located, how beams and columns are connected in a building frame, what work will need to be done to excavate a foundation, or how to lay out a roadway. With the advent of new computer technologies, it is possible to take numerical 3-D data and render virtual computer models that are presented in 3-D, enhancing the learning experience in relation to both analysis and design in the civil engineering curriculum [1]. To this end, the College of Engineering at Valparaiso University has established the Scientific Visualization Laboratory to improve the learning experience for students for 3-D concepts that are hard to represent in conventional 2-D space [2-4]. Examples include electromagnetic fields, complex organic molecules, microelectronic circuit fabrications, force vectors, moving machines and their individual parts, terrain models, buildings, and bridges. Furthermore, the time dimension can be incorporated to create a 4-D model that can show the change over time of a 3-D model due to motion, loading, modifications, deterioration, and environmental effects. This paper describes our extension to the existing work done by the Scientific Visualization Laboratory to improve teaching methods in civil engineering by utilizing the 3-D displays of virtual reality hardware.

Leitch, Kenneth R.

276

RELAP5-3D code validation in the neutron-dynamic analysis of transient processes taking place in RBMK-1500 reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents an evaluation of RELAP5-3D code suitability to model-specific transients that take place during RBMK-1500 reactor operation, where the neutronic response of the core is important. Certain RELAP5-3D transient calculation results were benchmarked against calculation results obtained using the Russian complex neutronic-thermal-hydraulic code STEPAN\\/KOBRA, specially designed for RBMK reactor analysis. Comparison of the results obtained, using the RELAP5-3D

E. Uspuras; E. Bubelis

2003-01-01

277

The Esri 3D city information model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With residential and commercial space becoming increasingly scarce, cities are going vertical. Managing the urban environments in 3D is an increasingly important and complex undertaking. To help solving this problem, Esri has released the ArcGIS for 3D Cities solution. The ArcGIS for 3D Cities solution provides the information model, tools and apps for creating, analyzing and maintaining a 3D city using the ArcGIS platform. This paper presents an overview of the 3D City Information Model and some sample use cases.

Reitz, T.; Schubiger-Banz, S.

2014-02-01

278

Benchmark of Different Electromagnetic Codes for the High Frequency Calculation  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we present benchmarking results for highclass 3D electromagnetic (EM) codes in designing RF cavities today. These codes include Omega3P [1], VORPAL [2], CST Microwave Studio [3], Ansoft HFSS [4], and ANSYS [5]. Two spherical cavities are selected as the benchmark models. We have compared not only the accuracy of resonant frequencies, but also that of surface EM fields, which are critical for superconducting RF cavities. By removing degenerated modes, we calculate all the resonant modes up to 10 GHz with similar mesh densities, so that the geometry approximation and field interpolation error related to the wavelength can be observed.

Kai Tian, Haipeng Wang, Frank Marhauser, Guangfeng Cheng, Chuandong Zhou

2009-05-01

279

Implementation of 3D Optical Scanning Technology for Automotive Applications  

PubMed Central

Reverse engineering (RE) is a powerful tool for generating a CAD model from the 3D scan data of a physical part that lacks documentation or has changed from the original CAD design of the part. The process of digitizing a part and creating a CAD model from 3D scan data is less time consuming and provides greater accuracy than manually measuring the part and designing the part from scratch in CAD. 3D optical scanning technology is one of the measurement methods which have evolved over the last few years and it is used in a wide range of areas from industrial applications to art and cultural heritage. It is also used extensively in the automotive industry for applications such as part inspections, scanning of tools without CAD definition, scanning the casting for definition of the stock (i.e. the amount of material to be removed from the surface of the castings) model for CAM programs and reverse engineering. In this study two scanning experiments of automotive applications are illustrated. The first one examines the processes from scanning to re-manufacturing the damaged sheet metal cutting die, using a 3D scanning technique and the second study compares the scanned point clouds data to 3D CAD data for inspection purposes. Furthermore, the deviations of the part holes are determined by using different lenses and scanning parameters. PMID:22573995

Ku?, Abdil

2009-01-01

280

Extra Dimensions: 3D and Time in PDF Documentation  

SciTech Connect

Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide, non-technical audience. We discuss how the field of radiation imaging could benefit from incorporating full 3D information about not only the detectors, but also the results of the experimental analyses, in its electronic publications. In this article, we present examples drawn from high-energy physics, mathematics and molecular biology which take advantage of this functionality. We demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input.

Graf, N.A.; /SLAC

2012-04-11

281

Extra dimensions: 3D and time in PDF documentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide, non-technical audience. We discuss how the field of radiation imaging could benefit from incorporating full 3D information about not only the detectors, but also the results of the experimental analyses, in its electronic publications. In this article, we present examples drawn from high-energy physics, mathematics and molecular biology which take advantage of this functionality. We demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input.

Graf, N. A.

2011-01-01

282

BIK-BUS: biologically motivated 3D keypoint based on bottom-up saliency.  

PubMed

One of the major problems found when developing a 3D recognition system involves the choice of keypoint detector and descriptor. To help solve this problem, we present a new method for the detection of 3D keypoints on point clouds and we perform benchmarking between each pair of 3D keypoint detector and 3D descriptor to evaluate their performance on object and category recognition. These evaluations are done in a public database of real 3D objects. Our keypoint detector is inspired by the behavior and neural architecture of the primate visual system. The 3D keypoints are extracted based on a bottom-up 3D saliency map, that is, a map that encodes the saliency of objects in the visual environment. The saliency map is determined by computing conspicuity maps (a combination across different modalities) of the orientation, intensity, and color information in a bottom-up and in a purely stimulus-driven manner. These three conspicuity maps are fused into a 3D saliency map and, finally, the focus of attention (or keypoint location) is sequentially directed to the most salient points in this map. Inhibiting this location automatically allows the system to attend to the next most salient location. The main conclusions are: with a similar average number of keypoints, our 3D keypoint detector outperforms the other eight 3D keypoint detectors evaluated by achieving the best result in 32 of the evaluated metrics in the category and object recognition experiments, when the second best detector only obtained the best result in eight of these metrics. The unique drawback is the computational time, since biologically inspired 3D keypoint based on bottom-up saliency is slower than the other detectors. Given that there are big differences in terms of recognition performance, size and time requirements, the selection of the keypoint detector and descriptor has to be matched to the desired task and we give some directions to facilitate this choice. PMID:25420258

Filipe, Sílvio; Itti, Laurent; Alexandre, Luís A

2015-01-01

283

Accelerated randomized benchmarking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum information processing offers promising advances for a wide range of fields and applications, provided that we can efficiently assess the performance of the control applied in candidate systems. That is, we must be able to determine whether we have implemented a desired gate, and refine accordingly. Randomized benchmarking reduces the difficulty of this task by exploiting symmetries in quantum operations. Here, we bound the resources required for benchmarking and show that, with prior information, we can achieve several orders of magnitude better accuracy than in traditional approaches to benchmarking. Moreover, by building on state-of-the-art classical algorithms, we reach these accuracies with near-optimal resources. Our approach requires an order of magnitude less data to achieve the same accuracies and to provide online estimates of the errors in the reported fidelities. We also show that our approach is useful for physical devices by comparing to simulations.

Granade, Christopher; Ferrie, Christopher; Cory, D. G.

2015-01-01

284

Benchmarking Pthreads performance  

SciTech Connect

The importance of the performance of threads libraries is growing as clusters of shared memory machines become more popular POSIX threads, or Pthreads, is an industry threads library standard. We have implemented the first Pthreads benchmark suite. In addition to measuring basic thread functions, such as thread creation, we apply the L.ogP model to standard Pthreads communication mechanisms. We present the results of our tests for several hardware platforms. These results demonstrate that the performance of existing Pthreads implementations varies widely; parts of nearly all of these implementations could be further optimized. Since hardware differences do not fully explain these performance variations, optimizations could improve the implementations. 2. Incorporating Threads Benchmarks into SKaMPI is an MPI benchmark suite that provides a general framework for performance analysis [7]. SKaMPI does not exhaustively test the MPI standard. Instead, it

May, J M; de Supinski, B R

1999-04-27

285

The FTIO Benchmark  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We introduce a new benchmark for measuring the performance of parallel input/ouput. This benchmark has flexible initialization. size. and scaling properties that allows it to satisfy seven criteria for practical parallel I/O benchmarks. We obtained performance results while running on the a SGI Origin2OOO computer with various numbers of processors: with 4 processors. the performance was 68.9 Mflop/s with 0.52 of the time spent on I/O, with 8 processors the performance was 139.3 Mflop/s with 0.50 of the time spent on I/O, with 16 processors the performance was 173.6 Mflop/s with 0.43 of the time spent on I/O. and with 32 processors the performance was 259.1 Mflop/s with 0.47 of the time spent on I/O.

Fagerstrom, Frederick C.; Kuszmaul, Christopher L.; Woo, Alex C. (Technical Monitor)

1999-01-01

286

Development of Unsteady Aerodynamic and Aeroelastic Reduced-Order Models Using the FUN3D Code  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent significant improvements to the development of CFD-based unsteady aerodynamic reduced-order models (ROMs) are implemented into the FUN3D unstructured flow solver. These improvements include the simultaneous excitation of the structural modes of the CFD-based unsteady aerodynamic system via a single CFD solution, minimization of the error between the full CFD and the ROM unsteady aero- dynamic solution, and computation of a root locus plot of the aeroelastic ROM. Results are presented for a viscous version of the two-dimensional Benchmark Active Controls Technology (BACT) model and an inviscid version of the AGARD 445.6 aeroelastic wing using the FUN3D code.

Silva, Walter A.; Vatsa, Veer N.; Biedron, Robert T.

2009-01-01

287

Learning View-Model Joint Relevance for 3D Object Retrieval.  

PubMed

3D object retrieval has attracted extensive research efforts and become an important task in recent years. It is noted that how to measure the relevance between 3D objects is still a difficult issue. Most of the existing methods employ just the model-based or view-based approaches, which may lead to incomplete information for 3D object representation. In this paper, we propose to jointly learn the view-model relevance among 3D objects for retrieval, in which the 3D objects are formulated in different graph structures. With the view information, the multiple views of 3D objects are employed to formulate the 3D object relationship in an object hypergraph structure. With the model data, the model-based features are extracted to construct an object graph to describe the relationship among the 3D objects. The learning on the two graphs is conducted to estimate the relevance among the 3D objects, in which the view/model graph weights can be also optimized in the learning process. This is the first work to jointly explore the view-based and model-based relevance among the 3D objects in a graph-based framework. The proposed method has been evaluated in three data sets. The experimental results and comparison with the state-of-the-art methods demonstrate the effectiveness on retrieval accuracy of the proposed 3D object retrieval method. PMID:25643404

Lu, Ke; He, Ning; Xue, Jian; Dong, Jiyang; Shao, Ling

2015-05-01

288

3D Face Mesh Modeling from Range Images for 3D Face Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an algorithm for 3D face deformation and modeling using range data captured by a 3D scanner. Using only three facial feature points extracted from the range images and a 3D generic face model, the algorithm first aligns the 3D model to the entire range data of a given subject's face. Then each aligned triangle of the mesh model,

A-nasser Ansari; Mohamed Abdel-mottaleb; Mohammad H. Mahoor

2007-01-01

289

Printing 3D Models to the Genisys Xs 3D Printer By Sotiri Koyonos  

E-print Network

Printing 3D Models to the Genisys Xs 3D Printer By Sotiri Koyonos VMIL Consultant 28 February 2003's Genisys Xs 3D printer. This document assumes that you have created a stereo lithography file (*.stl Abstract This document outlines the process for manufacturing three dimensional (3D) models on the ITG

Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

290

Inference of Surfaces, 3D Curves, and Junctions From Sparse, Noisy, 3D Data  

E-print Network

mid >> min, high agreement in exactly two orientations (an intersection, or 3D curve). c) max midInference of Surfaces, 3D Curves, and Junctions From Sparse, Noisy, 3D Data Gideon Guy and Gérard min, votes are coming from all directions (a 3D junction). #12;Feature Reconstruction: Curve Saliency

Kazhdan, Michael

291

PhD Showcase: 3D Oceanographic Data Compression Using 3D-ODETLAP  

E-print Network

error com- pared to 3D-SPIHT and provide a feature to keep the max- imum error under a userPhD Showcase: 3D Oceanographic Data Compression Using 3D-ODETLAP PhD Student:You Li Rensselaer This paper describes a 3D environmental data compression technique for oceanographic datasets. With proper

Franklin, W. Randolph

292

University of Cambridge, 3D Ultrasound Research Sequential 3D Diagnostic Ultrasound  

E-print Network

University of Cambridge, 3D Ultrasound Research Sequential 3D Diagnostic Ultrasound using the Stradx System Andrew Gee, Richard Prager & Graham Treece June 2001 Sequential 3D Diagnostic Ultrasound using the Stradx System 1 Sequential freehand 3D ultrasound Sequential Conventional Conventional

Drummond, Tom

293

3D Velocity from 3D Doppler Radial Velocity J. L. Barron,1  

E-print Network

to compute local 3D velocity (local 3D optical flow). Radial velocity (measured by the Doppler effect3D Velocity from 3D Doppler Radial Velocity J. L. Barron,1 R. E. Mercer,1 X. Chen,1 P. Joe2 1 by a Doppler radar. We demonstrate the perfor- mance of our algorithms quantitatively on synthetic radial

Barron, John

294

Can 3D Point Clouds Replace GCPs?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past decade, large-scale photogrammetric products have been extensively used for the geometric documentation of cultural heritage monuments, as they combine metric information with the qualities of an image document. Additionally, the rising technology of terrestrial laser scanning has enabled the easier and faster production of accurate digital surface models (DSM), which have in turn contributed to the documentation of heavily textured monuments. However, due to the required accuracy of control points, the photogrammetric methods are always applied in combination with surveying measurements and hence are dependent on them. Along this line of thought, this paper explores the possibility of limiting the surveying measurements and the field work necessary for the production of large-scale photogrammetric products and proposes an alternative method on the basis of which the necessary control points instead of being measured with surveying procedures are chosen from a dense and accurate point cloud. Using this point cloud also as a surface model, the only field work necessary is the scanning of the object and image acquisition, which need not be subject to strict planning. To evaluate the proposed method an algorithm and the complementary interface were produced that allow the parallel manipulation of 3D point clouds and images and through which single image procedures take place. The paper concludes by presenting the results of a case study in the ancient temple of Hephaestus in Athens and by providing a set of guidelines for implementing effectively the method.

Stavropoulou, G.; Tzovla, G.; Georgopoulos, A.

2014-05-01

295

3-D Cavern Enlargement Analyses  

SciTech Connect

Three-dimensional finite element analyses simulate the mechanical response of enlarging existing caverns at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). The caverns are located in Gulf Coast salt domes and are enlarged by leaching during oil drawdowns as fresh water is injected to displace the crude oil from the caverns. The current criteria adopted by the SPR limits cavern usage to 5 drawdowns (leaches). As a base case, 5 leaches were modeled over a 25 year period to roughly double the volume of a 19 cavern field. Thirteen additional leaches where then simulated until caverns approached coalescence. The cavern field approximated the geometries and geologic properties found at the West Hackberry site. This enabled comparisons are data collected over nearly 20 years to analysis predictions. The analyses closely predicted the measured surface subsidence and cavern closure rates as inferred from historic well head pressures. This provided the necessary assurance that the model displacements, strains, and stresses are accurate. However, the cavern field has not yet experienced the large scale drawdowns being simulated. Should they occur in the future, code predictions should be validated with actual field behavior at that time. The simulations were performed using JAS3D, a three dimensional finite element analysis code for nonlinear quasi-static solids. The results examine the impacts of leaching and cavern workovers, where internal cavern pressures are reduced, on surface subsidence, well integrity, and cavern stability. The results suggest that the current limit of 5 oil drawdowns may be extended with some mitigative action required on the wells and later on to surface structure due to subsidence strains. The predicted stress state in the salt shows damage to start occurring after 15 drawdowns with significant failure occurring at the 16th drawdown, well beyond the current limit of 5 drawdowns.

EHGARTNER, BRIAN L.; SOBOLIK, STEVEN R.

2002-03-01

296

tomo3d: a new 3-D joint refraction and reflection travel-time tomography code for active-source seismic data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the development state of tomo3d, a code for three-dimensional refraction and reflection travel-time tomography of wide-angle seismic data based on the previous two-dimensional version of the code, tomo2d. The core of both forward and inverse problems is inherited from the 2-D version. The ray tracing is performed by a hybrid method combining the graph and bending methods. The graph method finds an ordered array of discrete model nodes, which satisfies Fermat's principle, that is, whose corresponding travel time is a global minimum within the space of discrete nodal connections. The bending method is then applied to produce a more accurate ray path by using the nodes as support points for an interpolation with beta-splines. Travel time tomography is formulated as an iterative linearized inversion, and each step is solved using an LSQR algorithm. In order to avoid the singularity of the sensitivity kernel and to reduce the instability of inversion, regularization parameters are introduced in the inversion in the form of smoothing and damping constraints. Velocity models are built as 3-D meshes, and velocity values at intermediate locations are obtained by trilinear interpolation within the corresponding pseudo-cubic cell. Meshes are sheared to account for topographic relief. A floating reflector is represented by a 2-D grid, and depths at intermediate locations are calculated by bilinear interpolation within the corresponding square cell. The trade-off between the resolution of the final model and the associated computational cost is controlled by the relation between the selected forward star for the graph method (i.e. the number of nodes that each node considers as its neighbors) and the refinement of the velocity mesh. Including reflected phases is advantageous because it provides a better coverage and allows us to define the geometry of those geological interfaces with velocity contrasts sharp enough to be observed on record sections. The code also offers the possibility of including water-layer multiples in the modeling, whenever this phase can be followed to greater offsets than the primary phases. This increases the quantity of useful information in the data and yields more extensive and better constrained velocity and geometry models. We will present results from benchmark tests for forward and inverse problems, as well as synthetic tests comparing an inversion with refractions only and another one with both refractions and reflections.

Meléndez, A.; Korenaga, J.; Sallarès, V.; Ranero, C. R.

2012-04-01

297

A Fast 3D-BSG Algorithm for 3D Packing Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

3D packing is a fundamental problem for VLSI design. It arises from 3D-ICs floorplan design and task schedule in reconfigurable FPGA design. In this paper, we present a novel 3D floorplan representation by improving the 3D bounded slice-surface grid (3D-BSG) structure in two aspects: (1) optimize the evaluation time complexity from O(n3) to O(n2) by using three block relation graphs;

Lingyi Zhang; Sheqin Dong; Xianlong Hong; Yuchun Ma

2007-01-01

298

3D model search and retrieval based on the 3D Radon transform  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a novel method for 3D model content-based search and retrieval based on the 3D radon transform and a querying-by-3D-model approach. Descriptors are extracted using the 3D radon transform and applying a number of functionals on the transform's coefficients. Similarity measures are then created for the extracted descriptors and introduced into a 3D model-matching algorithm. This results in

Dimitrios Zarpalas; Petros Daras; Dimitrios Tzovaras; Michael G. Strintzis

2004-01-01

299

Benchmarking: graphics workstations  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on work being performed to benchmark a new breed of machines, the graphics workstations for scientific and engineering applications. We begin with the history of workstations and how they developed. Many different forces created the graphics workstation. Scientific and engineering calculations are traditionally performed by super computers in a computing center. The graphic workstation was introduced, and this technology was added to the computing environment. The answers we need are ... what can the workstations do and when do we remove the programs or parts of programs from supercomputers and place them on worstations. Benchmarks and what they can and cannot measure are discussed in this light. The particulars about graphics benchmarks and the operating system, including windows, are reviewed, then the benchmarks we are using are described and the results are presented. Since this work is never finished, future plans are also discussed. The emphasis of our work is toward scientific and engineering workstations connected with existing mainframe computers. In the industry today we hear the term JAWS (Just Another WorkStation) when a new workstation is introduced. What does the new product do beyond those on the market. In this paper we present ways to measure and tell the difference between workstations.

Brown, B.E.; Judd, R.L.

1985-09-11

300

Bryce Canyon Benchmark  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A USGS elevation benchmark in Bryce Canyon National Park. Bryce Canyon is a unique sandstone formation in southern Utah. It is home to a large number of hoodoos, which are oddly shaped pillars of rock that formed due to different erosion rates for the dolomite that caps them and the sandstone that ...

301

Benchmark Comparisons August 2006  

E-print Network

administered oversamples are not included. Mean The mean is the weighted arithmetic average of student level Comparisons Report Class Mean a Sig b Effect Size c Mean a Sig b Effect Size c Mean a Sig b Effect Size c Benchmark Mean Comparisons NSSE 2006 51.9 NSSEville State compared with: 54.3 Mean a NSSEville State Level

Rainforth, Emma C.

302

Benchmarking for maximum value.  

PubMed

Speaking at the most recent Healthcare Estates conference, Ed Baldwin, of international built asset consultancy EC Harris LLP, examined the role of benchmarking and market-testing--two of the key methods used to evaluate the quality and cost-effectiveness of hard and soft FM services provided under PFI healthcare schemes to ensure they are offering maximum value for money. PMID:19344004

Baldwin, Ed

2009-03-01

303

Benchmark Comparisons August 2011  

E-print Network

Carnegie Class NSSE 2011 M ean a 54.4 58.6 a We ighted by ge nder and enro llm ent s tatus (a nd by ins divided by the po o led s tandard deviatio n. Distributions of Student Benchmark Scores No te: Each bo x

304

Benchmark Comparisons August 2010  

E-print Network

expectations for student performance. M ean a 52.8 57.2 a We ighted by ge nde r and enro llm ent s ta tus (plus renc e divide d by the po o led s tandard deviatio n. Distributions of Student Benchmark Scores Level

305

Dicom Color Medical Image Compression using 3D-SPIHT for Pacs Application.  

PubMed

The proposed algorithm presents an application of 3D-SPIHT algorithm to color volumetric dicom medical images using 3D wavelet decomposition and a 3D spatial dependence tree. The wavelet decomposition is accomplished with biorthogonal 9/7 filters. 3D-SPIHT is the modern-day benchmark for three dimensional image compressions. The three-dimensional coding is based on the observation that the sequences of images are contiguous in the temporal axis and there is no motion between slices. Therefore, the 3D discrete wavelet transform can fully exploit the inter-slices correlations. The set partitioning techniques involve a progressive coding of the wavelet coefficients. The 3D-SPIHT is implemented and the Rate-distortion (Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR) vs. bit rate) performances are presented for volumetric medical datasets by using biorthogonal 9/7. The results are compared with the previous results of JPEG 2000 standards. Results show that 3D-SPIHT method exploits the color space relationships as well as maintaining the full embeddedness required by color image sequences compression and gives better performance in terms of the PSNR and compression ratio than the JPEG 2000. The results suggest an effective practical implementation for PACS applications. PMID:23675076

Kesavamurthy, T; Rani, Subha

2008-06-01

306

FastScript3D - A Companion to Java 3D  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

FastScript3D is a computer program, written in the Java 3D(TM) programming language, that establishes an alternative language that helps users who lack expertise in Java 3D to use Java 3D for constructing three-dimensional (3D)-appearing graphics. The FastScript3D language provides a set of simple, intuitive, one-line text-string commands for creating, controlling, and animating 3D models. The first word in a string is the name of a command; the rest of the string contains the data arguments for the command. The commands can also be used as an aid to learning Java 3D. Developers can extend the language by adding custom text-string commands. The commands can define new 3D objects or load representations of 3D objects from files in formats compatible with such other software systems as X3D. The text strings can be easily integrated into other languages. FastScript3D facilitates communication between scripting languages [which enable programming of hyper-text markup language (HTML) documents to interact with users] and Java 3D. The FastScript3D language can be extended and customized on both the scripting side and the Java 3D side.

Koenig, Patti

2005-01-01

307

3-D Perspective Pasadena, California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This perspective view shows the western part of the city of Pasadena, California, looking north towards the San Gabriel Mountains. Portions of the cities of Altadena and La Canada, Flintridge are also shown. The image was created from three datasets: the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) supplied the elevation data; Landsat data from November 11, 1986 provided the land surface color (not the sky) and U.S. Geological Survey digital aerial photography provides the image detail. The Rose Bowl, surrounded by a golf course, is the circular feature at the bottom center of the image. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory is the cluster of large buildings north of the Rose Bowl at the base of the mountains. A large landfill, Scholl Canyon, is the smooth area in the lower left corner of the scene. This image shows the power of combining data from different sources to create planning tools to study problems that affect large urban areas. In addition to the well-known earthquake hazards, Southern California is affected by a natural cycle of fire and mudflows. Wildfires strip the mountains of vegetation, increasing the hazards from flooding and mudflows for several years afterwards. Data such as shown on this image can be used to predict both how wildfires will spread over the terrain and also how mudflows will be channeled down the canyons. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission was designed to collect three dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI) space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC. Size: 5.8 km (3.6 miles) x 10 km (6.2 miles) Location: 34.16 deg. North lat., 118.16 deg. West lon. Orientation: Looking North Original Data Resolution: SRTM, 30 meters; Landsat,30 meters; Aerial Photo, 3 meters (no vertical exaggeration)

2000-01-01

308

Rapid part-based 3D modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

An intuitive and easy-to-use 3D modeling system has become more crucial with the rapid growth of computer graphics in our daily lives. Image-based modeling (IBM) has been a popular alternative to pure 3D modelers (e.g. 3D Studio Max, Maya) since its introduction in the late 1990s. However, IBM techniques are inherently very slow and rarely user friendly. Most IBM techniques

Ismail Oner Sebe; Suya You; Ulrich Neumann

2005-01-01

309

3D City Modelling from LIDAR Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Airborne Laser Surveying (ALS) or LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) becomes more and more popular because it provides a\\u000a rapid 3D data collection over a massive area. The captured 3D data contains terrain models, forestry, 3D buildings and so\\u000a on. Current research combines other data resources on extracting building information or uses pre-defined building models\\u000a to fit the roof structures.

Rebecca O. C. Tse; Christopher Gold; Dave Kidner

310

Multimodal volume rendering with 3D textures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe a volume rendering application for multimodal datasets based on 3D texture mapping. Our method takes as input two pre-registered voxel models and constructs two 3D textures. It renders the multimodal data by depth compositing view-aligned texture slices of the model. For each texel of a slice, it performs a fetch to each 3D texture and

Pascual Abellán; Dani Tost

2008-01-01

311

Hardware trust implications of 3-D integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

3-D circuit-level integration is a chip fabrication technique in which two or more dies are stacked and combined into a single circuit through the use of vertical electroconductive posts. Since the dies may be manufactured separately, 3-D circuit integration offers the option of enhancing a commodity processor with a variety of security functions. This paper examines the 3-D design approach

Ted Huffmire; Timothy E. Levin; Michael Bilzor; Cynthia E. Irvine; Jonathan Valamehr; Mohit Tiwari; Timothy Sherwood; Ryan Kastner

2010-01-01

312

Aeroelasticity Benchmark Assessment: Subsonic Fixed Wing Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fundamental technical challenge in computational aeroelasticity is the accurate prediction of unsteady aerodynamic phenomena and the effect on the aeroelastic response of a vehicle. Currently, a benchmarking standard for use in validating the accuracy of computational aeroelasticity codes does not exist. Many aeroelastic data sets have been obtained in wind-tunnel and flight testing throughout the world; however, none have been globally presented or accepted as an ideal data set. There are numerous reasons for this. One reason is that often, such aeroelastic data sets focus on the aeroelastic phenomena alone (flutter, for example) and do not contain associated information such as unsteady pressures and time-correlated structural dynamic deflections. Other available data sets focus solely on the unsteady pressures and do not address the aeroelastic phenomena. Other discrepancies can include omission of relevant data, such as flutter frequency and / or the acquisition of only qualitative deflection data. In addition to these content deficiencies, all of the available data sets present both experimental and computational technical challenges. Experimental issues include facility influences, nonlinearities beyond those being modeled, and data processing. From the computational perspective, technical challenges include modeling geometric complexities, coupling between the flow and the structure, grid issues, and boundary conditions. The Aeroelasticity Benchmark Assessment task seeks to examine the existing potential experimental data sets and ultimately choose the one that is viewed as the most suitable for computational benchmarking. An initial computational evaluation of that configuration will then be performed using the Langley-developed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software FUN3D1 as part of its code validation process. In addition to the benchmarking activity, this task also includes an examination of future research directions. Researchers within the Aeroelasticity Branch will examine other experimental efforts within the Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) program (such as testing of the NASA Common Research Model (CRM)) and other NASA programs and assess aeroelasticity issues and research topics.

Florance, Jennifer P.; Chwalowski, Pawel; Wieseman, Carol D.

2010-01-01

313

Dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

3D printer applications in the biomedical sciences and medical imaging are expanding and will have an increasing impact on the practice of medicine. Orthopedic and reconstructive surgery has been an obvious area for development of 3D printer applications as the segmentation of bony anatomy to generate printable models is relatively straightforward. There are important issues that should be addressed when using 3D printed models for applications that may affect patient care; in particular the dimensional accuracy of the printed parts needs to be high to avoid poor decisions being made prior to surgery or therapeutic procedures. In this work, the dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebral bodies derived from CT data for a cadaver spine is compared with direct measurements on the ex-vivo vertebra and with measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra using commercial 3D image processing software. The vertebra was printed on a consumer grade 3D printer using an additive print process using PLA (polylactic acid) filament. Measurements were made for 15 different anatomic features of the vertebral body, including vertebral body height, endplate width and depth, pedicle height and width, and spinal canal width and depth, among others. It is shown that for the segmentation and printing process used, the results of measurements made on the 3D printed vertebral body are substantially the same as those produced by direct measurement on the vertebra and measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra.

Ogden, Kent; Ordway, Nathaniel; Diallo, Dalanda; Tillapaugh-Fay, Gwen; Aslan, Can

2014-03-01

314

Software for 3D radiotherapy dosimetry. Validation.  

PubMed

The subject of this work is polyGeVero(®) software (GeVero Co., Poland), which has been developed to fill the requirements of fast calculations of 3D dosimetry data with the emphasis on polymer gel dosimetry for radiotherapy. This software comprises four workspaces that have been prepared for: (i) calculating calibration curves and calibration equations, (ii) storing the calibration characteristics of the 3D dosimeters, (iii) calculating 3D dose distributions in irradiated 3D dosimeters, and (iv) comparing 3D dose distributions obtained from measurements with the aid of 3D dosimeters and calculated with the aid of treatment planning systems (TPSs). The main features and functions of the software are described in this work. Moreover, the core algorithms were validated and the results are presented. The validation was performed using the data of the new PABIG(nx) polymer gel dosimeter. The polyGeVero(®) software simplifies and greatly accelerates the calculations of raw 3D dosimetry data. It is an effective tool for fast verification of TPS-generated plans for tumor irradiation when combined with a 3D dosimeter. Consequently, the software may facilitate calculations by the 3D dosimetry community. In this work, the calibration characteristics of the PABIG(nx) obtained through four calibration methods: multi vial, cross beam, depth dose, and brachytherapy, are discussed as well. PMID:25003788

Kozicki, Marek; Maras, Piotr; Karwowski, Andrzej C

2014-08-01

315

Software for 3D radiotherapy dosimetry. Validation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The subject of this work is polyGeVero® software (GeVero Co., Poland), which has been developed to fill the requirements of fast calculations of 3D dosimetry data with the emphasis on polymer gel dosimetry for radiotherapy. This software comprises four workspaces that have been prepared for: (i) calculating calibration curves and calibration equations, (ii) storing the calibration characteristics of the 3D dosimeters, (iii) calculating 3D dose distributions in irradiated 3D dosimeters, and (iv) comparing 3D dose distributions obtained from measurements with the aid of 3D dosimeters and calculated with the aid of treatment planning systems (TPSs). The main features and functions of the software are described in this work. Moreover, the core algorithms were validated and the results are presented. The validation was performed using the data of the new PABIGnx polymer gel dosimeter. The polyGeVero® software simplifies and greatly accelerates the calculations of raw 3D dosimetry data. It is an effective tool for fast verification of TPS-generated plans for tumor irradiation when combined with a 3D dosimeter. Consequently, the software may facilitate calculations by the 3D dosimetry community. In this work, the calibration characteristics of the PABIGnx obtained through four calibration methods: multi vial, cross beam, depth dose, and brachytherapy, are discussed as well.

Kozicki, Marek; Maras, Piotr; Karwowski, Andrzej C.

2014-08-01

316

3D Tomographic imaging of colliding cylindrical blast waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interaction of strong shocks & radiative blast waves is believed to give rise to the turbulent, knotted structures commonly observed in extended astrophysical objects. Modeling these systems is however extremely challenging due to the complex interplay between hydrodynamics, radiation and atomic physics. As a result we have been developing laboratory scale blast wave collision experiments to provide high quality data for code benchmarking, & to improve our physical understanding. We report on experimental & numerical investigations of the collision dynamics of counter propagating strong (>Mach 50) cylindrical thin-shelled blast waves driven by focusing intense laser pulses into an extended medium of atomic clusters. In our test system the blast wave collision creates strongly asymmetric electron density profiles, precluding the use of Abel inversion methods. In consequence we have employed a new tomographic imaging technique, allowing us to recover the full 3D, time framed electron density distribution. Tomography & streaked Schlieren imaging enabled tracking of radial & longitudinal mass flow & the investigation of Mach stem formation as pairs of blast waves collided. We have compared our experimental system to numerical simulations by the 3D magnetoresistive hydrocode GORGON.

Smith, R. A.; Lazarus, J.; Hohenberger, M.; Robinson, J.; Marocchino, A.; Chittenden, J.; Dunne, M.; Moore, A.; Gumbrell, E.

2007-11-01

317

3D PDF - a means of public access to geological 3D - objects, using the example of GTA3D  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In geology, 3D modeling has become very important. In the past, two-dimensional data such as isolines, drilling profiles, or cross-sections based on those, were used to illustrate the subsurface geology, whereas now, we can create complex digital 3D models. These models are produced with special software, such as GOCAD ®. The models can be viewed, only through the software used to create them, or through viewers available for free. The platform-independent PDF (Portable Document Format), enforced by Adobe, has found a wide distribution. This format has constantly evolved over time. Meanwhile, it is possible to display CAD data in an Adobe 3D PDF file with the free Adobe Reader (version 7). In a 3D PDF, a 3D model is freely rotatable and can be assembled from a plurality of objects, which can thus be viewed from all directions on their own. In addition, it is possible to create moveable cross-sections (profiles), and to assign transparency to the objects. Based on industry-standard CAD software, 3D PDFs can be generated from a large number of formats, or even be exported directly from this software. In geoinformatics, different approaches to creating 3D PDFs exist. The intent of the Authority for Mining, Energy and Geology to allow free access to the models of the Geotectonic Atlas (GTA3D), could not be realized with standard software solutions. A specially designed code converts the 3D objects to VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language). VRML is one of the few formats that allow using image files (maps) as textures, and to represent colors and shapes correctly. The files were merged in Acrobat X Pro, and a 3D PDF was generated subsequently. A topographic map, a display of geographic directions and horizontal and vertical scales help to facilitate the use.

Slaby, Mark-Fabian; Reimann, Rüdiger

2013-04-01

318

Extra Dimensions: 3D and Time in PDF Documentation  

SciTech Connect

High energy physics is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide audience. In this talk, we present examples of HEP applications which take advantage of this functionality. We demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input. Using this technique, higher dimensional data, such as LEGO plots or time-dependent information can be included in PDF files. In principle, a complete event display, with full interactivity, can be incorporated into a PDF file. This would allow the end user not only to customize the view and representation of the data, but to access the underlying data itself.

Graf, Norman A.; /SLAC

2011-11-10

319

3D optical measuring technologies for industrial applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Automatic dimensional inspection of 3D articles with high resolution and productivity is an urgent problem for industry. It takes solving some measurement basic and applied tasks. Using the optical inspection methods, it is essential to take into account the influence of 3D bodies' extension on their Fraunhofer diffraction pattern and images. This influence strongly depends on the configuration of illumination, which therefore is fundamentally important. The solution for diffraction phenomena by volumetric slit under inclined plane and spherical wave illumination has been represented. The obtained results can be applied for investigation of formation and high-frequency filtering images of 3D bodies of constant thickness. Ensuring the safety and high operation reliability of nuclear reactors takes 100% inspection of geometrical parameters of fuel assemblies, which include the spacer grids performed as cellular structure with fuel elements. The required spacer grids geometry of assembly in the transverse and longitudinal cross sections is extremely important for maintaining the necessary heat regime. A universal method for 3D spacer grid inspection using the diffractive optical element, which generates as the structural illumination, a multiple-ring pattern on the inner surface of a spacer grid cell is investigated. Using some diffractive optical elements one can inspect the nomenclature of all produced grids. Experimental results for semi-industrial version of spacer grid inspection system are presented. A structured light method and testing results of pilot system for noncontact inspection of wire wear and its defects for train electro-supply network are given and discussed.

Chugui, Yuri; Verkhogliad, Alexander; Kalikin, Vadim; Zav'yalov, Peter

2011-05-01

320

Extra dimensions: 3d and time in pdf documentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High energy physics is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide audience. In this talk, we present examples of HEP applications which take advantage of this functionality. We demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input. Using this technique, higher dimensional data, such as LEGO plots or time-dependent information can be included in PDF files. In principle, a complete event display, with full interactivity, can be incorporated into a PDF file. This would allow the end user not only to customize the view and representation of the data, but to access the underlying data itself.

Graf, N. A.

2008-07-01

321

Development of a 3-D Variable-Direction Anisotropy program, VDA-3D, to represent normal and tangential fluxes, in 3-D groundwater flow modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A computer program, VDA-3D, for groundwater flow simulation with a 3-dimensional anisotropic hydraulic conductivity tensor [K] has been developed, which represents normal fluxes with the Kxx, Kyy, Kzz components of [K], and tangential fluxes with the Kxy, Kxz, Kyz components. The need to simulate tangential fluxes occurs when the principal directions of the hydraulic conductivity tensor are not aligned with the model coordinates. Off-diagonal components of the conductivity tensor relate Darcy flux components to head gradient components that do not point in the same direction as the flux components. The program for 3-Dimensional Variable-Direction Anisotropy (VDA-3D) is based on a method developed by Edwards and Rogers (1998) and is an extension to 3 dimensions of the 2-dimensional Layer Variable-Direction Anisotropy (LVDA) package developed by Anderman and others (2002) for the USGS MODFLOW groundwater modeling program. The Edwards method is based on the traditional mass balance of water for a finite-difference-discretization cell of aquifer material, and enforces continuity of water flux across each of the 6 cell faces. VDA-3D is used to apply the Edwards method to a set of 1-D, 2-D, and 3-D test problems, some homogeneous, one with heterogeneity between two zones of the grid, and one with heterogeneity from cell to cell; each problem has boundary conditions of either constant head or constant flux. One test problem with constant head boundaries uses distributions of sources and sinks that are calculated to represent a problem with a given analytic solution. A second program has been written to implement an alternate method to simulate tangential fluxes, developed by Li and others (2010) and referred to as the Lzgh method. Like VDA-3D, the Lzgh method formulates the finite difference discretization of the flow equation for a medium with heterogeneous anisotropic hydraulic conductivity. In the Lzgh method, the conductivity is not required to be uniform over each finite difference cell as it is in VDA-3D, and the head function is required to be continuous across the cell faces, which it is not in VDA-3D. The only data requirement difference between the two methods is that the hydraulic conductivities are provided at cell centroids for VDA-3D and at cell interfaces for Lzgh. Early test results for a 2-D heterogeneous problem with a synthetic conductivity distribution and a dominantly 1-D flow pattern indicate that Lzgh can reproduce the results of VDA-3D, provided the harmonic means of all the components of the cell-centered VDA-3D hydraulic conductivity tensor are used to create the tensor at cell interfaces for Lzgh. Further work is planned to compare the accuracy of the resultant head distributions and the computational costs of the two methods, and to compare additional problems with different flow patterns.

Umari, A. M.; Kipp, K. L.

2013-12-01

322

Benchmark Data Through The International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPHEP)  

SciTech Connect

The International Reactor Physics Experiments Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) was initiated by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Nuclear Energy Agency’s (NEA) Nuclear Science Committee (NSC) in June of 2002. The IRPhEP focus is on the derivation of internationally peer reviewed benchmark models for several types of integral measurements, in addition to the critical configuration. While the benchmarks produced by the IRPhEP are of primary interest to the Reactor Physics Community, many of the benchmarks can be of significant value to the Criticality Safety and Nuclear Data Communities. Benchmarks that support the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), for example, also support fuel manufacture, handling, transportation, and storage activities and could challenge current analytical methods. The IRPhEP is patterned after the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) and is closely coordinated with the ICSBEP. This paper highlights the benchmarks that are currently being prepared by the IRPhEP that are also of interest to the Criticality Safety Community. The different types of measurements and associated benchmarks that can be expected in the first publication and beyond are described. The protocol for inclusion of IRPhEP benchmarks as ICSBEP benchmarks and for inclusion of ICSBEP benchmarks as IRPhEP benchmarks is detailed. The format for IRPhEP benchmark evaluations is described as an extension of the ICSBEP format. Benchmarks produced by the IRPhEP add new dimension to criticality safety benchmarking efforts and expand the collection of available integral benchmarks for nuclear data testing. The first publication of the "International Handbook of Evaluated Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments" is scheduled for January of 2006.

J. Blair Briggs; Dr. Enrico Sartori

2005-09-01

323

3D Cardiac Deformation from Ultrasound Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quantitative estimation of regional cardiac deformation from 3D image sequences has important clinical implications for the assessment of viability in the heart wall. Such estimates have so far been obtained almost exclusively from Magnetic Resonance (MR) im- ages, speciflcally MR tagging. In this paper we describe a methodology for estimating cardiac deformations from 3D ultrasound images. The images are

Xenophon Papademetris; Albert J. Sinusas; Donald P. Dione; James S. Duncan

1999-01-01

324

Stereo 3-D Vision in Teaching Physics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stereo 3-D vision is a technology used to present images on a flat surface (screen, paper, etc.) and at the same time to create the notion of three-dimensional spatial perception of the viewed scene. A great number of physical processes are much better understood when viewed in stereo 3-D vision compared to standard flat 2-D presentation. The…

Zabunov, Svetoslav

2012-01-01

325

Integrated modelling for 3D GIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three dimensional (3D) model facilitates the study of the real world objects it represents. A geoinformation system (GIS) should exploit the 3D model in a digital form as a basis for answering questions pertaining to aspects of the real world. With respect to the earth sciences, different kinds of objects of reality can be realized. These objects are components

M. Pilouk

1996-01-01

326

The 3D Model Acquisition Pipeline  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three-dimensional (3D) image acquisition systems are rapidly becoming more affordable, especially systems based on commodity electronic cameras. At the same time, personal computers with graphics hardware capable of displaying complex 3D models are also becoming inexpensive enough to be available to a large population. As a result, there is potentially an opportunity to consider new virtual reality applications as diverse

Fausto Bernardini; Holly E. Rushmeier

2002-01-01

327

3D GIS: CURRENT STATUS AND PERSPECTIVES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, variety of software is already capable of handling a wide range of spatial problems, beginning with approaches for describing spatial objects to quite complex analysis and 3D visualisation. However, increasing number of applications need more advanced tools for representing and analysing the 3D world. Among all types of systems dealing with spatial information, GIS has proven to be the

Siyka Zlatanova; Alias Abdul Rahman; Morakot Pilouk

2002-01-01

328

Trends in 3D GIS Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, a variety of software is capable of handling a wide range of spatial problems, beginning with approaches for describing spatial objects to quite complex analysis and 3D visualisation. However, an increasing number of applications need more advanced tools for representing and analysing the 3D world. Among all types of systems dealing with spatial information, GIS has proven to be

Siyka ZLATANOVA; Alias Abdul RAHMAN; Morakot PILOUK

2002-01-01

329

3D high dynamic range display system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a new high dynamic range (HDR) display system that generates a physical 3D HDR image without using stereoscopic methods. To boost contrast beyond that obtained using either a hardcopy or a projector, we employ a multiprojection system to superimpose images onto a textured solid hardcopy that is output by a 3D printer or a rapid prototyping machine.

Saeko Shimazu; Daisuke Iwai; Kosuke Sato

2011-01-01

330

IN THIS ISSUE 2 3D Printing  

E-print Network

IN THIS ISSUE 2 3D Printing in McKeldin 3 Saving WMUC Radio 4 You Did What?!? 7 Dance at UMD, in this issue. Our Terrapin Learning Commons is embracing all things digital, and the acquisition of a 3D printer allows any student the op- portunity to make their visions a reality. This little addition

Hill, Wendell T.

331

3D high dynamic range display system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a new high dynamic range (HDR) display system that generates a physical 3D HDR image without using stereoscopic methods. To boost contrast beyond that obtained using either a hardcopy or a projector, we employ a multi-projection system to superimpose images onto a textured solid hardcopy that is output by a 3D printer or a rapid prototyping machine.

Saeko Shimazu; Daisuke Iwai; Kosuke Sato

2011-01-01

332

Antenna 3D Pad printing solution evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diversification, styling, miniaturization and cost reduction are trends in the field of portable electronics. The 3D technology is an innovative way to meet this demand. This paper evaluated the Pad printing 3D antenna manufacture technology which offers versatile and cost effective interconnection platform compared to the flex-antenna or sheet metal technologies. The basic Pad Printing process was introduced firstly, the

Ye Xiong; Zengchao Qu

2011-01-01

333

3, 35433588, 2003 3-D air pollution  

E-print Network

ACPD 3, 3543­3588, 2003 3-D air pollution modelling L. M. Frohn et al. Title Page Abstract hemispheric nested air pollution model L. M. Frohn, J. H. Christensen, J. Brandt, C. Geels, and K. M. Hansen 2003 Correspondence to: L. M. Frohn (lmf@dmu.dk) 3543 #12;ACPD 3, 3543­3588, 2003 3-D air pollution

Boyer, Edmond

334

Advances in 3D Graphics for Smartphones  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mobile industry has evolved rapidly in the past couple of decade and amongst these advances are 3D graphics on mobile phones. This advances topic have had to address specific process of architectures and small memories on mobile phones that are generally ill equipped to the intensive calculations of floating-point precision required by 3D math. In this paper, we high

F. Chehimi; P. Coulton; R. Edwards

2006-01-01

335

3D Film Making Cary Kornfeld  

E-print Network

the talk a free screening of ETHZ student 3D films will take place at the School of Film and Animation3D Film Making Cary Kornfeld Sr. Research Assoc., Stereoscopic Imaging Research Group Swiss Federal Stereoscopic Films are special. They tickle parts of our brain that are "rarely" stimulated in this way. Making

Zanibbi, Richard

336

Building Three-Dimensional (3D) Structures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners practice drawing 3D structures in two dimensions. Learners draw cube stacks from five different points of view. Use this activity to help learners discern between 2D and 3D as well as explore reflections and perspective.

Exploratorium

2010-01-01

337

Real-time 3D model acquisition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The digitization of the 3D shape of real objects is a rapidly expanding field, with applications in entertainment, design, and archaeology. We propose a new 3D model acquisition system that permits the user to rotate an object by hand and see a continuously-updated model as the object is scanned. This tight feedback loop allows the user to find and fill

Szymon Rusinkiewicz; Olaf A. Hall-Holt; Marc Levoy

2002-01-01

338

3D, or Not to Be?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It may be too soon for students to be showing up for class with popcorn and gummy bears, but technology similar to that behind the 3D blockbuster movie "Avatar" is slowly finding its way into college classrooms. 3D classroom projectors are taking students on fantastic voyages inside the human body, to the ruins of ancient Greece--even to faraway…

Norbury, Keith

2012-01-01

339

3D bifurcation analysis in geomaterials  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a study of failure in geomaterials is proposed using the second order work criterion and a phenomenological approach. In a first part, an analytical investigation of this criterion is proposed. General 3D equation of instability cones as well as of the 3D bifurcation domain limit are given for every incrementally piece-wise linear constitutive model. In the second

Florent Prunier; Farid Laouafa; Félix Darve

2009-01-01

340

3D ULTRASOUND PROBE CALIBRATION WITHOUT A  

E-print Network

3D ULTRASOUND PROBE CALIBRATION WITHOUT A POSITION SENSOR A. H. Gee, N. E. Houghton, G. M. Treece Ultrasound Probe Calibration Without a Position Sensor Andrew Gee, Neil Houghton, Graham Treece and Richard present a technique for 3D ultrasound probe calibration which does not require mea- surements from

Drummond, Tom

341

Benchmarking Corporate Energy Management  

E-print Network

's energy management procedures and perfonnance compare to that of other companies. Energy management involves everything from setting goals and targets to implementing best maintenance practices. This paper, however, discusses benchmarking energy... co-authored by me for the IETC 2000 titled "Corporate Energy Management: A Survey of Large Manufacturing Companies," eight elements of best energy management practice were presented and data on the energy management practices of 23 companies...

Norland, D. L.

342

Benchmark Comparisons August 2006  

E-print Network

administered oversamples are not included. Mean The mean is the weighted arithmetic average of student level Report Class Mean a Sig b Effect Size c Mean a Sig b Effect Size c Mean a Sig b Effect Size c First-Year 53.0 51.6 52.6 Seniors 57.5 56.0 56.5 Level of Academic Challenge (LAC) Selected Peers Benchmark Mean

Haykin, Simon

343

Clinical applications of 3-D dosimeters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Both 3-D gels and radiochromic plastic dosimeters, in conjunction with dose image readout systems (MRI or optical-CT), have been employed to measure 3-D dose distributions in many clinical applications. The 3-D dose maps obtained from these systems can provide a useful tool for clinical dose verification for complex treatment techniques such as IMRT, SRS/SBRT, brachytherapy, and proton beam therapy. These complex treatments present high dose gradient regions in the boundaries between the target and surrounding critical organs. Dose accuracy in these areas can be critical, and may affect treatment outcome. In this review, applications of 3-D gels and PRESAGE dosimeter are reviewed and evaluated in terms of their performance in providing information on clinical dose verification as well as commissioning of various treatment modalities. Future interests and clinical needs on studies of 3-D dosimetry are also discussed.

Wuu, Cheng-Shie

2015-01-01

344

3D digitizer for complex parts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article presents a new method which obtain 3D data of the complex parts or its CAD model based upon the material removal process and each cross-section optical scanning process of the parts. The advantages of this method is that the internal and external profile information of the complex parts can be capture data the same precision, the 3D data and 3D CAD model is acquired through the 3D CAD/CAM package. Examples of such structure described in this paper. In addition, the 3D digitizer is made with an existing CNC milling machine and an image scanner. Its highest accuracy of 2D edge detecting is 5.4micrometers , and the resolution is 2.7micrometers .

Yang, Yu X.; Zhou, Jian; Zhao, Mingtao; Tan, Yushan

1999-10-01

345

Fabrication of 3D Silicon Sensors  

SciTech Connect

Silicon sensors with a three-dimensional (3-D) architecture, in which the n and p electrodes penetrate through the entire substrate, have many advantages over planar silicon sensors including radiation hardness, fast time response, active edge and dual readout capabilities. The fabrication of 3D sensors is however rather complex. In recent years, there have been worldwide activities on 3D fabrication. SINTEF in collaboration with Stanford Nanofabrication Facility have successfully fabricated the original (single sided double column type) 3D detectors in two prototype runs and the third run is now on-going. This paper reports the status of this fabrication work and the resulted yield. The work of other groups such as the development of double sided 3D detectors is also briefly reported.

Kok, A.; Hansen, T.E.; Hansen, T.A.; Lietaer, N.; Summanwar, A.; /SINTEF, Oslo; Kenney, C.; Hasi, J.; /SLAC; Da Via, C.; /Manchester U.; Parker, S.I.; /Hawaii U.

2012-06-06

346

The psychology of the 3D experience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With 3D televisions expected to reach 50% home saturation as early as 2016, understanding the psychological mechanisms underlying the user response to 3D technology is critical for content providers, educators and academics. Unfortunately, research examining the effects of 3D technology has not kept pace with the technology's rapid adoption, resulting in large-scale use of a technology about which very little is actually known. Recognizing this need for new research, we conducted a series of studies measuring and comparing many of the variables and processes underlying both 2D and 3D media experiences. In our first study, we found narratives within primetime dramas had the power to shift viewer attitudes in both 2D and 3D settings. However, we found no difference in persuasive power between 2D and 3D content. We contend this lack of effect was the result of poor conversion quality and the unique demands of 3D production. In our second study, we found 3D technology significantly increased enjoyment when viewing sports content, yet offered no added enjoyment when viewing a movie trailer. The enhanced enjoyment of the sports content was shown to be the result of heightened emotional arousal and attention in the 3D condition. We believe the lack of effect found for the movie trailer may be genre-related. In our final study, we found 3D technology significantly enhanced enjoyment of two video games from different genres. The added enjoyment was found to be the result of an increased sense of presence.

Janicke, Sophie H.; Ellis, Andrew

2013-03-01

347

The design and implementation of stereoscopic 3D scalable vector graphics based on WebKit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG), which is a language designed based on eXtensible Markup Language (XML), is used to describe basic shapes embedded in webpages, such as circles and rectangles. However, it can only depict 2D shapes. As a consequence, web pages using classical SVG can only display 2D shapes on a screen. With the increasing development of stereoscopic 3D (S3D) technology, binocular 3D devices have been widely used. Under this circumstance, we intend to extend the widely used web rendering engine WebKit to support the description and display of S3D webpages. Therefore, the extension of SVG is of necessity. In this paper, we will describe how to design and implement SVG shapes with stereoscopic 3D mode. Two attributes representing the depth and thickness are added to support S3D shapes. The elimination of hidden lines and hidden surfaces, which is an important process in this project, is described as well. The modification of WebKit is also discussed, which is made to support the generation of both left view and right view at the same time. As is shown in the result, in contrast to the 2D shapes generated by the Google Chrome web browser, the shapes got from our modified browser are in S3D mode. With the feeling of depth and thickness, the shapes seem to be real 3D objects away from the screen, rather than simple curves and lines as before.

Liu, Zhongxin; Wang, Wenmin; Wang, Ronggang

2014-03-01

348

Extending 2-D Smoothed Local Symmetries to 3-D  

E-print Network

3-D Smoothed Local Symmetries (3-D SLS's) are presented as a representation for three-dimensional shapes. 3-D SLS's make explicit the perceptually salient features of 3-D objects and are especially suited to representing ...

Braunegg, David J.

349

3D Modeling of the ALICE Photoinjector Upgrade  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The injector for the ALICE machine (Accelerators and Lasers In Combined Experiments) at Daresbury Laboratory is based around a 350 kV DC photocathode electron gun. An upgrade is proposed to introduce a load-lock GaAs photocathode preparation facility to allow rapid transfer of photocathodes to the gun without breaking the vacuum system. In the current design this requires side-loading of the photocathodes into the cathode ball. An alternative is to relocate the ceramic insulator vertically which will allow back-loading and also backillumination of the photocathodes. 3D electrostatic simulations of the gun chamber are presented for both options along with 3D beam dynamic simulations for an off-axis photocathode, introduced to increase photocathode lifetime by reducing damage by ion backbombardment. Beam dynamic simulations are also presented for the entire injector beamline as well as for a proposed extension to the injector beamline to include a diagnostic section.

McKenzie, J. W.; Militsyn, B. L.; Saveliev, Y. M.

2009-08-01

350

Sonic Millip3De: A Massively Parallel 3D-Stacked Accelerator for 3D Ultrasound  

E-print Network

process, we show Sonic Millip3De can enable 3D ultrasound with a fully sampled 128x96 transducer array to estimating cyst volumes by mentally piecing together 2D slice images [8]. However, the benefits of 3D also-held. To construct a 3D volumetric image, a conventional linear transducer array (e.g., 128 elements) for 2D imaging

Kambhampati, Subbarao

351

XML3D and Xflow: combining declarative 3D for the Web with generic data flows.  

PubMed

Researchers have combined XML3D, which provides declarative, interactive 3D scene descriptions based on HTML5, with Xflow, a language for declarative, high-performance data processing. The result lets Web developers combine a 3D scene graph with data flows for dynamic meshes, animations, image processing, and postprocessing. PMID:24808080

Klein, Felix; Sons, Kristian; Rubinstein, Dmitri; Slusallek, Philipp

2013-01-01

352

The applying research for 3D mesh models watermarking based on 3D MAX  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 3D mesh models watermarking scheme based on 3D MAX is proposed. In 3D MAX, object is transformed to mesh model. The vertexes and surfaces of mesh model are analyzed. The selected insert points are the vertexes which are associated with less acute angle of right triangle. Embedding watermark uses the LSB method. Experimental results show that the scheme's invisibility

L. Yaqin; Zhou Defu

2010-01-01

353

Indoor 3D Modeling and Visualization with a 3D Terrestrial Laser Scanner  

Microsoft Academic Search

For indoor wireless location, it is useful to have 3D models to docu- ment and to validate the results of the locations derived from wireless sensing equipment. Visualization using a 3D model also allows the user to generate a realistic mental model while navigating their virtual surroundings. While it is possible to build a 3D framework model from CAD drawings,

Jia Dongzhen; Tor Yam Khoon; Zhong Zheng; Zhou Qi

354

3D Laser scanning system and 3D segmentation of urban scenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper dwells upon the promising 3D technology for mobile robots and automation industry. The first part of the paper describes the design details of our own 3D Time of Flight (TOF) scanning system based on 2D laser range finder. The second part presents a specific segmentation technique for 3D outdoor urban environments by the common detection of plane models.

L. C. Goron; L. Tamas; I. Reti; G. Lazea

2010-01-01

355

METRIC FOR AUTOMATED DETECTION AND IDENTIFICATION OF 3D CAD ELEMENTS IN 3D SCANNED  

E-print Network

and comparing 3D as-built to 3D as-planned data is therefore critical during the entire asset life cycle (Akinci, and these can then be compared to primitives used to build the planned 3D CAD model of the scanned asset (Akinci

Bosché, Frédéric

356

3D CAFE simulation of a macrosegregation benchmark T. Carozzani1  

E-print Network

using Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) spec smallest surfaces, dimensions 6 cm x 1 cm, are positioned vertically in contact with heat exchangers are well insulated and considered as adiabatic. The ingot is first melted by heating up to 260 °C. A 10

Boyer, Edmond

357

Relap5-3d model validation and benchmark exercises for advanced gas cooled reactor application  

E-print Network

High-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGR) are passively safe, efficient, and economical solutions to the worldÂ?s energy crisis. HTGRs are capable of generating high temperatures during normal operation, introducing design challenges related...

Moore, Eugene James Thomas

2006-08-16

358

Design of 3D eye-safe middle range vibrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser Doppler Vibrometer and Range Meter (3D-MRV) is designed for middle range distances [1-100 meters]. 3D-MRV combines more than one laser in one device for a simultaneous real time measuring the distance and movement of the targets. The first laser has a short pulse (t˜30psec) and low energy (E˜200nJ) for distance measurement and the second one is a CW (continuous wave) single frequency laser for the velocity measurement with output power (P˜30mW). Both lasers perform on the eye-safe wavelength 1.5 ?m. 3D-MRV uses the same mono-static optical transmitting and receiving channel for both lasers including an output telescope and a scanning angular system. 3D-MRV has an optical polarization switch to combine linear polarized laser beams from two lasers into one optical channel. The laser beams from both lasers by turns illuminate the target and the scattered laser radiation is collected by the telescope on a photo detector. The electrical signal from photo detector is used for measuring the distance to the target and its movement. For distance measurement the time of flight method is employed. For targets movement the optical heterodyne method is employed. The received CW laser radiation is mixed on a photo detector with the frequency-shifted laser radiation that is taken from CW laser and passed through an acousto-optic cell. The electrical signal from a photo detector on the difference frequency and phase has information about movement of the scattered targets. 3D-MVR may be used for the real time picturing of vibration of the extensive targets like bridges or aircrafts.

Polulyakh, Valeriy; Poutivski, Iouri

2014-05-01

359

Design of 3D eye-safe middle range vibrometer  

SciTech Connect

Laser Doppler Vibrometer and Range Meter (3D-MRV) is designed for middle range distances [1–100 meters]. 3D-MRV combines more than one laser in one device for a simultaneous real time measuring the distance and movement of the targets. The first laser has a short pulse (t?30psec) and low energy (E?200nJ) for distance measurement and the second one is a CW (continuous wave) single frequency laser for the velocity measurement with output power (P?30mW). Both lasers perform on the eye-safe wavelength 1.5 ?m. 3D-MRV uses the same mono-static optical transmitting and receiving channel for both lasers including an output telescope and a scanning angular system. 3D-MRV has an optical polarization switch to combine linear polarized laser beams from two lasers into one optical channel. The laser beams from both lasers by turns illuminate the target and the scattered laser radiation is collected by the telescope on a photo detector. The electrical signal from photo detector is used for measuring the distance to the target and its movement. For distance measurement the time of flight method is employed. For targets movement the optical heterodyne method is employed. The received CW laser radiation is mixed on a photo detector with the frequency-shifted laser radiation that is taken from CW laser and passed through an acousto-optic cell. The electrical signal from a photo detector on the difference frequency and phase has information about movement of the scattered targets. 3D-MVR may be used for the real time picturing of vibration of the extensive targets like bridges or aircrafts.

Polulyakh, Valeriy [Advanced Data Security, 1933 O'Toole Way, San Jose, CA 95131 (United States); Poutivski, Iouri [Terimber Corporation, 2456 Homewood Drive, San Jose, CA 95128, USA and Facebook Inc, 1601 Willow Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

2014-05-27

360

Optically rewritable 3D liquid crystal displays.  

PubMed

Optically rewritable liquid crystal display (ORWLCD) is a concept based on the optically addressed bi-stable display that does not need any power to hold the image after being uploaded. Recently, the demand for the 3D image display has increased enormously. Several attempts have been made to achieve 3D image on the ORWLCD, but all of them involve high complexity for image processing on both hardware and software levels. In this Letter, we disclose a concept for the 3D-ORWLCD by dividing the given image in three parts with different optic axis. A quarter-wave plate is placed on the top of the ORWLCD to modify the emerging light from different domains of the image in different manner. Thereafter, Polaroid glasses can be used to visualize the 3D image. The 3D image can be refreshed, on the 3D-ORWLCD, in one-step with proper ORWLCD printer and image processing, and therefore, with easy image refreshing and good image quality, such displays can be applied for many applications viz. 3D bi-stable display, security elements, etc. PMID:25361316

Sun, J; Srivastava, A K; Zhang, W; Wang, L; Chigrinov, V G; Kwok, H S

2014-11-01

361

3D bioprinting of tissues and organs.  

PubMed

Additive manufacturing, otherwise known as three-dimensional (3D) printing, is driving major innovations in many areas, such as engineering, manufacturing, art, education and medicine. Recent advances have enabled 3D printing of biocompatible materials, cells and supporting components into complex 3D functional living tissues. 3D bioprinting is being applied to regenerative medicine to address the need for tissues and organs suitable for transplantation. Compared with non-biological printing, 3D bioprinting involves additional complexities, such as the choice of materials, cell types, growth and differentiation factors, and technical challenges related to the sensitivities of living cells and the construction of tissues. Addressing these complexities requires the integration of technologies from the fields of engineering, biomaterials science, cell biology, physics and medicine. 3D bioprinting has already been used for the generation and transplantation of several tissues, including multilayered skin, bone, vascular grafts, tracheal splints, heart tissue and cartilaginous structures. Other applications include developing high-throughput 3D-bioprinted tissue models for research, drug discovery and toxicology. PMID:25093879

Murphy, Sean V; Atala, Anthony

2014-08-01

362

Cell-matrix adhesions in 3D.  

PubMed

Cells in a three-dimensional (3D) extracellular matrix environment often display different properties and behavior compared to cells cultured on a two-dimensional (2D) substrate. Recent studies characterizing the cell-matrix adhesions formed by cells within a 3D matrix have arrived at contradictory conclusions regarding the presence and composition of adhesions. Here we review this literature, and provide a comparative compilation of information found in published studies from the 3D cell-matrix adhesion field in order to identify shared and divergent conclusions and conceptually important areas that require further research. Although there is a general consensus that discrete cell-matrix adhesions exist in various 3D matrix environments, there are specific exceptions, particularly in cells undergoing amoeboid migration. There are also technical issues to consider when imaging adhesions in 3D matrix; for example, over-expression of a cytoskeletal cell adhesion component can potentially cloud the visualization of adhesions and even alter the mode of cell migration. Properties such as stiffness and local matrix topography may also affect the composition of cell-matrix adhesions. For example, even though cells contain integrin-based 3D adhesions, there can be substantial variability within these adhesions in the presence of force-dependent cytoskeletal components such as vinculin. These new findings and ideas provide promising new leads for understanding the regulation and function of cell-matrix adhesions in 3D matrix. PMID:21723391

Harunaga, Jill S; Yamada, Kenneth M

2011-09-01

363

3D imaging in forensic odontology.  

PubMed

This paper describes the investigation of a new 3D capture method for acquiring and subsequent forensic analysis of bite mark injuries on human skin. When documenting bite marks with standard 2D cameras errors in photographic technique can occur if best practice is not followed. Subsequent forensic analysis of the mark is problematic when a 3D structure is recorded into a 2D space. Although strict guidelines (BAFO) exist, these are time-consuming to follow and, due to their complexity, may produce errors. A 3D image capture and processing system might avoid the problems resulting from the 2D reduction process, simplifying the guidelines and reducing errors. Proposed Solution: a series of experiments are described in this paper to demonstrate that the potential of a 3D system might produce suitable results. The experiments tested precision and accuracy of the traditional 2D and 3D methods. A 3D image capture device minimises the amount of angular distortion, therefore such a system has the potential to create more robust forensic evidence for use in courts. A first set of experiments tested and demonstrated which method of forensic analysis creates the least amount of intra-operator error. A second set tested and demonstrated which method of image capture creates the least amount of inter-operator error and visual distortion. In a third set the effects of angular distortion on 2D and 3D methods of image capture were evaluated. PMID:20557154

Evans, Sam; Jones, Carl; Plassmann, Peter

2010-06-16

364

Simplified two and three dimensional HTTR benchmark problems  

SciTech Connect

To assess the accuracy of diffusion or transport methods for reactor calculations, it is desirable to create heterogeneous benchmark problems that are typical of whole core configurations. In this paper we have created two and three dimensional numerical benchmark problems typical of high temperature gas cooled prismatic cores. Additionally, a single cell and single block benchmark problems are also included. These problems were derived from the HTTR start-up experiment. Since the primary utility of the benchmark problems is in code-to-code verification, minor details regarding geometry and material specification of the original experiment have been simplified while retaining the heterogeneity and the major physics properties of the core from a neutronics viewpoint. A six-group material (macroscopic) cross section library has been generated for the benchmark problems using the lattice depletion code HELIOS. Using this library, Monte Carlo solutions are presented for three configurations (all-rods-in, partially-controlled and all-rods-out) for both the 2D and 3D problems. These solutions include the core eigenvalues, the block (assembly) averaged fission densities, local peaking factors, the absorption densities in the burnable poison and control rods, and pin fission density distribution for selected blocks. Also included are the solutions for the single cell and single block problems.

Zhan Zhang; Dingkang Zhang; Justin M. Pounders; Abderrafi M. Ougouag

2011-05-01

365

FUN3D Manual: 12.4  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.4, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixedelement unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

2014-01-01

366

An Improved Version of TOPAZ 3D  

SciTech Connect

An improved version of the TOPAZ 3D gun code is presented as a powerful tool for beam optics simulation. In contrast to the previous version of TOPAZ 3D, the geometry of the device under test is introduced into TOPAZ 3D directly from a CAD program, such as Solid Edge or AutoCAD. In order to have this new feature, an interface was developed, using the GiD software package as a meshing code. The article describes this method with two models to illustrate the results.

Krasnykh, Anatoly

2003-07-29

367

3D packaging for integrated circuit systems  

SciTech Connect

A goal was set for high density, high performance microelectronics pursued through a dense 3D packing of integrated circuits. A {open_quotes}tool set{close_quotes} of assembly processes have been developed that enable 3D system designs: 3D thermal analysis, silicon electrical through vias, IC thinning, mounting wells in silicon, adhesives for silicon stacking, pretesting of IC chips before commitment to stacks, and bond pad bumping. Validation of these process developments occurred through both Sandia prototypes and subsequent commercial examples.

Chu, D.; Palmer, D.W. [eds.

1996-11-01

368

Investigations in massive 3D gravity  

SciTech Connect

Some interesting gravitational properties of the Bergshoeff-Hohm-Townsend model (massive 3D gravity), such as the presence of a short-range gravitational force in the nonrelativistic limit and the existence of an impact-parameter-dependent gravitational deflection angle, are studied. Interestingly enough, these phenomena have no counterpart in the usual Einstein 3D gravity. In order to better understand the two aforementioned gravitational properties, they are also analyzed in the framework of 3D higher-derivative gravity with the Einstein-Hilbert term with the 'wrong sign'.

Accioly, Antonio [Laboratorio de Fisica Experimental (LAFEX), Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud 150, Urca, 22290-180, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Instituto de Fisica Teorica (IFT), Sao Paulo State University (UNESP), Rua Dr. Bento Teobaldo Ferraz 271, Bloco II-Barra Funda, 01140-070, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Helayeel-Neto, Jose; Morais, Jefferson; Turcati, Rodrigo [Laboratorio de Fisica Experimental (LAFEX), Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud 150, Urca, 22290-180, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Scatena, Eslley [Instituto de Fisica Teorica (IFT), Sao Paulo State University (UNESP), Rua Dr. Bento Teobaldo Ferraz 271, Bloco II-Barra Funda, 01140-070, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

2011-05-15

369

Renal volume assessment with 3D ultrasound  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  This study was undertaken to determine the accuracy of 3D ultrasound (US) in assessing renal volume, with multislice computed\\u000a tomography (MSCT) considered as the gold standard.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  Forty-nine patients (30 men, 19 women; age range 30–82 years) underwent abdominal contrast-enhanced MSCT and 3D-US performed\\u000a with a 3.5-MHz 3D\\/4D convex-array probe. The results of the two modalities were compared with

A. Brancaforte; S. Serantoni; F. Silva Barbosa; G. Di Leo; F. Sardanelli; G. P. Cornalba

370

FUN3D Manual: 12.6  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.6, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, William L.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

2015-01-01

371

3D goes digital: from stereoscopy to modern 3D imaging techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the 19th century, English physicist Charles Wheatstone discovered stereopsis, the basis for 3D perception. His construction of the first stereoscope established the foundation for stereoscopic 3D imaging. Since then, many optical instruments were influenced by these basic ideas. In recent decades, the advent of digital technologies revolutionized 3D imaging. Powerful readily available sensors and displays combined with efficient pre- or post-processing enable new methods for 3D imaging and applications. This paper draws an arc from basic concepts of 3D imaging to modern digital implementations, highlighting instructive examples from its 175 years of history.

Kerwien, N.

2014-11-01

372

Eyes on the Earth 3D  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Eyes on the Earth 3D software gives scientists, and the general public, a realtime, 3D interactive means of accurately viewing the real-time locations, speed, and values of recently collected data from several of NASA's Earth Observing Satellites using a standard Web browser (climate.nasa.gov/eyes). Anyone with Web access can use this software to see where the NASA fleet of these satellites is now, or where they will be up to a year in the future. The software also displays several Earth Science Data sets that have been collected on a daily basis. This application uses a third-party, 3D, realtime, interactive game engine called Unity 3D to visualize the satellites and is accessible from a Web browser.

Kulikov, anton I.; Doronila, Paul R.; Nguyen, Viet T.; Jackson, Randal K.; Greene, William M.; Hussey, Kevin J.; Garcia, Christopher M.; Lopez, Christian A.

2013-01-01

373

Focus 3D: Compressive Accommodation Display  

E-print Network

We present a glasses-free 3D display design with the potential to provide viewers with nearly correct accommodative depth cues, as well as motion parallax and binocular cues. Building on multilayer attenuator and directional ...

Maimone, Andrew

374

Three dimensional (3D) optical information processing  

E-print Network

Light exhibits dramatically different properties when it propagates in or interacts with 3D structured media. Comparing to 2D optical elements where the light interacts with a sequence of surfaces separated by free space, ...

Tian, Kehan

2006-01-01

375

3d Printing: Manufacturing by Design  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This curriculum development resource, provided by the Regional Center for Next Generation Manufacturing (RCNGM), contains valuable information and reference material on 3d (three-dimensional) printing. Included on this page are a video, a list of 3d printing resources and online tools, as well as links to several individual modules related to 3d printing. "This "model curriculum" is designed to introduce the current state of the art in 3D printing, how it works, how its used and how it may lead us into the future of personalized manufacturing. The curriculum is designed to be used in a "blended" learning environment with a teacher and students utilizing the online resources in a classroom or lab." Users must create a free login before viewing this resource.

376

Modeling Cellular Processes in 3-D  

PubMed Central

Summary Recent advances in photonic imaging and fluorescent protein technology offer unprecedented views of molecular space-time dynamics in living cells. At the same time, advances in computing hardware and software enable modeling of ever more complex systems, from global climate to cell division. As modeling and experiment become more closely integrated, we must address the issue of modeling cellular processes in 3-D. Here, we highlight recent advances related to 3-D modeling in cell biology. While some processes require full 3-D analysis, we suggest that others are more naturally described in 2-D or 1-D. Keeping the dimensionality as low as possible reduces computational time and makes models more intuitively comprehensible; however, the ability to test full 3-D models will build greater confidence in models generally and remains an important emerging area of cell biological modeling. PMID:22036197

Mogilner, Alex; Odde, David

2011-01-01

377

FUN3D Manual: 12.5  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.5, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational uid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables ecient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status. XXXX This manual is intended to guide an application engineer through con gura- tion, compiling, installing, and executing the Fun3D simulation package. The focus is on the most commonly exercised capabilities. Therefore, some of the immature or rarely exercised capabilities are intentionally omitted in the in- terest of clarity. An accompanying document that provides example cases is under development. Release of the generic gas capability is restricted because of International Trac in Arms Regulations (ITAR), so Fun3D usually distributed with the generic gas capability disabled. See section 1.4 for details. This manual de- scribes Fun3D with and without the generic gas capability, denoted eqn type= 'generic'. Features that are speci c to an eqn type are explicitly indicated. This document is updated and released with each subsequent version of Fun3D. In fact, a signi cant portion is automatically extracted from the Fun3D source code. If you have diculties, nd any errors,

Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, William L.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

2014-01-01

378

PCA-based 3D Face Photography  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a 3D face photography system based on a small set of training facial range images. The training set is composed by 2D texture and 3D range images (i.e. ge- ometry) of a single subject with different facial expressions. The basic idea behind the method is to create texture and geometry spaces based on the training set and

Ives Mac; Luiz Velho; Roberto M. Cesar-Jr

379

PCA-based 3D Face Photography  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a 3D face photography system based on a small set of training facial range images. The training set is composed by 2D texture and 3D range images (i.e. geometry) of a single subject with different facial expressions. The basic idea behind the method is to create texture and geometry spaces based on the training set and transformations

Jesus P. Mena-chalco; Ives Macedo; Luiz Velho; Roberto Marcondes Cesar Jr

2008-01-01

380

DRACO development for 3D simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DRACO (r-z) lagrangian radiation-hydrodynamics laser fusion simulation code is being extended to model 3D hydrodynamics in (x-y-z) coordinates with hexahedral cells on a structured grid. The equation of motion is solved with a lagrangian update with optional rezoning. The fluid equations are solved using an explicit scheme based on (Schulz, 1964) while the SALE-3D algorithm (Amsden, 1981) is used

Milad Fatenejad; Gregory Moses

2006-01-01

381

A search engine for 3D models  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the number of 3D models available on the Web grows, there is an increasing need for a search engine to help people find them. Unfortunately, traditional text-based search techniques are not always effective for 3D data. In this article, we investigate new shape-based search methods. The key challenges are to develop query methods simple enough for novice users and

Thomas A. Funkhouser; Patrick Min; Michael M. Kazhdan; Joyce Chen; Alex Halderman; David P. Dobkin; David Pokrass Jacobs

2003-01-01

382

A Search Engine for 3D Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the number of 3D models available on the Web grows, there is an increasing need for a search engine to help people find them. Unfortunately, traditional text-based search techniques are not always effective for 3D data. In this paper, we investigate new shape-based search methods. The key challenges are to develop query methods simple enough for novice users and

Thomas Funkhouser; Patrick Min; Misha Kazhdan; Joyce Chen; Alex Halderman; David Dobkin; David Jacobs

2002-01-01

383

3D-HST results and prospects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 3D-HST survey is providing a comprehensive census of the distant Universe, combining HST WFC3 imaging and grism spectroscopy with a myriad of other ground- and space-based datasets. This talk constitutes an overview of science results from the survey, with a focus on ongoing work and ways to exploit the rich public release of the 3D-HST data.

Van Dokkum, Pieter G.

2015-01-01

384

3-D Model of the Big Dipper  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students see firsthand that stars and constellations are not arranged in a flat, 2-D pattern in this Moveable Museum unit. The five-page PDF guide includes suggested general background readings for educators, activity notes, step-by-step directions, and a Big Dipper map. Students make their own 3-D models of the Big Dipper using readily available materials and examine their models, observing the 3-D constellation from new perspectives.

385

Photo-realistic 3D Model Reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photo-realistic 3D modeling is a challenging problem and has been a research topic for many years. Quick genera- tion of photo-realistic three-dimensional calibrated models using a hand-held device is highly desirable for applica- tions ranging from forensic investigation, mining, to mobile robotics. In this paper, we present the instant Scene Mod- eler (iSM), a 3D imaging system that automatically creates

Stephen Se; Piotr Jasiobedzki

2006-01-01

386

3D face recognition with wireless transportation  

E-print Network

: Co-Chairs of Committee, Mi Lu Zixiang Xiong Committee Members, Scott Miller Xi Zhang Andreas Klappenecker Head of Department, Costas N. Georghiades August 2007 Major Subject: Computer Engineering iii ABSTRACT 3D Face Recognition with Wireless... Transportation. (August 2007) Le Zou, B.S., Southeast University; M.S., Southeast University Co?Chairs of Advisory Committee: Dr. Mi Lu Dr. Zixiang Xiong In this dissertation, we focus on two related parts of a 3D face recognition system with wireless...

Zou, Le

2009-05-15

387

Rapid calibration for 3-D freehand ultrasound  

Microsoft Academic Search

3-D freehand ultrasound is a new imaging technique that is rapidly finding clinical applications. A position-sensing device is attached to a conventional ultrasound probe so that, as B-scans are acquired, they can be labelled with their relative positions and orientations. This allows a 3-D data set to be constructed from the B-scans. A key requirement of all freehand imaging systems

R. W. Prager; R. N. Rohling; A. H. Gee; L. Berman

1998-01-01

388

Reversible 3-D decorrelation of medical images.  

PubMed

Two methods, namely, differential pulse code modulation (DPCM) and hierarchical interpolation (HINT), are considered. It is shown that HINT cannot be extended straightforwardly to 3-D images as contrasted with DPCM. A 3-D HINT is therefore proposed which is based on a combination of 2-D and 3-D filters. Both decorrelation methods were applied to three-dimensional computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance (MR), and single-photon-emission CT (SPECT) images. It was found that a 3-D approach is optimal for some studies, while for other studies 2-D or even 1-D decorrelation performs better. The optimal dimensionality of DPCM is related to the magnitudes of the local correlation coefficients (CCs). However, the nonlocal nature of HINT makes the local correlation coefficients useless as indicators of the dimensionality; a better candidate is the image voxel size. For images with cubic or nearly cubic voxels 3-D HINT is generally optimal. For images in which the slice thickness is large compared to the pixel size a 2-D (intraslice) HINT is best. In general, the increase in efficiency obtained by extending 2-D decorrelation method to 3-D is small. PMID:18218433

Roos, P; Viergever, M A

1993-01-01

389

Stereoscopic reconfiguration for 3D displays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present a method to reconfigure 3D movies in order to minimize distortion when seen on a different display than the one it has been configured for. By their very nature, 3D broadcasts come with a stereoscopic pair to be seen by the left and right eyes. However, according to reasons that we ought to explain in the paper, the cameras used to shoot a movie are calibrated according to specific viewing parameters such as the screen size, the viewing distance and the eye separation. As a consequence, a 3D broadcast seen on a different display (say a home theater or a PC screen) than the one it has been configured for (say an IMAX R screen) will suffer from noticeable distortions. In this paper, we describe the relationship between the size of the 3D display, the position of the observer, and the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of the cameras. With this information, we propose a method to reorganize the stereoscopic pair in order to minimize distortion when seen on an arbitrary display. In addition to the raw video pair, our method uses the viewing distance, a rough estimate of the 3D scene, and some basic information on the 3D display. An inpainting technique is used to fill disoccluded areas.

Houde, Jean-Christophe; Jodoin, Pierre-Marc; Desch"nes, François

2012-03-01

390

Ricci flow for 3D shape analysis.  

PubMed

Ricci flow is a powerful curvature flow method, which is invariant to rigid motion, scaling, isometric, and conformal deformations. We present the first application of surface Ricci flow in computer vision. Previous methods based on conformal geometry, which only handle 3D shapes with simple topology, are subsumed by the Ricci flow-based method, which handles surfaces with arbitrary topology. We present a general framework for the computation of Ricci flow, which can design any Riemannian metric by user-defined curvature. The solution to Ricci flow is unique and robust to noise. We provide implementation details for Ricci flow on discrete surfaces of either euclidean or hyperbolic background geometry. Our Ricci flow-based method can convert all 3D problems into 2D domains and offers a general framework for 3D shape analysis. We demonstrate the applicability of this intrinsic shape representation through standard shape analysis problems, such as 3D shape matching and registration, and shape indexing. Surfaces with large nonrigid anisotropic deformations can be registered using Ricci flow with constraints of feature points and curves. We show how conformal equivalence can be used to index shapes in a 3D surface shape space with the use of Teichmüller space coordinates. Experimental results are shown on 3D face data sets with large expression deformations and on dynamic heart data. PMID:20224122

Zeng, Wei; Samaras, Dimitris; Gu, Xianfeng David

2010-04-01

391

LOCOMOTION IN FOSSIL CARNIVORA: AN APPLICATION OF EIGENSURFACE ANALYSIS FOR MORPHOMETRIC COMPARISON OF 3D SURFACES  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new geometric morphometric method called 'eigensurface analysis' for the quantitative analysis of three-dimensional (3D) surfaces. Eigensurface can be viewed as an extension of outline- and landmark-based geometric methods to deal with complete 3D surfaces of objects. We applied eigensurface analysis to the problem of functional inference based on the mammalian calcaneum bone, which is commonly preserved in

P. David Polly; Norman MacLeod

2008-01-01

392

Feature point-based 3D mesh watermarking that withstands the cropping attack  

Microsoft Academic Search

State-of the-art robust 3D watermarking schemes already withstand combinations of a wide variety of attacks (e.g. noise addition, simplification, smoothing, etc). Nevertheless, there are practical limitations of existing 3D watermarking methods due to their extreme sensitivity to cropping. Spread Transform Dither Modulation (STDM) method is an extension of Quantization Index Modulation (QIM). Besides the simplicity and the trade-off between high

Mireia Montañola Sales; Rony Darazi; Joachim Giard; Patrice Rondao Alface; Benoît Macq

2011-01-01

393

Assessment of thinned Si wafer warpage in 3D stacked wafers  

Microsoft Academic Search

3D (three-dimensional) wafer stacking technology has been developed extensively recently. Among many technical challenges in 3D stacked wafers the wafer warpage is one of the important processing issues to be resolved because the wafer warpage is one of the root causes leading to process and product failures such as delamination, cracking, mechanical stresses, WIW (within wafer) non-uniformity and electrical failure.

Youngrae Kim; Sung-Geun Kang; Eun-kyung Kim

2009-01-01

394

Optimization of 3D plasmonic crystal structures for refractive index sensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the refractive index sensitive transmission of a 3D plasmonic crystal that consists of a square array of subwavelength cylindrical nanowells in a polymer conformally coated with a gold film. Using extensive 3D finite-difference time-domain simulations, we investigate the effect of system parameters such as periodicity, well diameter and depth, and metal thickness on its refractive index sensitivity. These

Joana Maria; Tu T. Truong; Jimin Yao; Tae-Woo Lee; Ralph G. Nuzzo; Sven Leyffer; Stephen K. Gray; John A. Rogers

2009-01-01

395

Designing for user experience: what to expect from mobile 3d tv and video?  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT A long process has been undertaken to develop,the technology,of 3D video for consumer products, but studies to determine the needs and expectations of actual users have been disregarded. The object of this study is to examine users’ needs, expectations and requirements for mobile 3D television and video. We conducted three user studies applying,triangulation methodology,of the extensive survey, focus groups

Satu Jumisko-pyykkö; Mandy Weitzel; Dominik Strohmeier

2008-01-01

396

Numerical simulation of sloshing waves in a 3D tank based on a finite element method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sloshing waves in a three dimensional (3D) tank are analysed using a finite element method based on the fully non-linear wave potential theory. When the tank is undergoing two dimensional (2D) motion, the calculated results are found to be in very good agreement with other published data. Extensive calculation has been made for the tank in 3D motion. As

G. X. Wu; Q. W. Ma; R. Eatock Taylor

1998-01-01

397

CFL3D, FUN3d, and NSU3D Contributions to the Fifth Drag Prediction Workshop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results presented at the Fifth Drag Prediction Workshop using CFL3D, FUN3D, and NSU3D are described. These are calculations on the workshop provided grids and drag adapted grids. The NSU3D results have been updated to reflect an improvement to skin friction calculation on skewed grids. FUN3D results generated after the workshop are included for custom participant generated grids and a grid from a previous workshop. Uniform grid refinement at the design condition shows a tight grouping in calculated drag, where the variation in the pressure component of drag is larger than the skin friction component. At this design condition, A fine-grid drag value was predicted with a smaller drag adjoint adapted grid via tetrahedral adaption to a metric and mixed-element subdivision. The buffet study produced larger variation than the design case, which is attributed to large differences in the predicted side-of-body separation extent. Various modeling and discretization approaches had a strong impact on predicted side-of-body separation. This large wing root separation bubble was not observed in wind tunnel tests indicating that more work is necessary in modeling wing root juncture flows to predict experiments.

Park, Michael A.; Laflin, Kelly R.; Chaffin, Mark S.; Powell, Nicholas; Levy, David W.

2013-01-01

398

Reconstruction of volumetric ultrasound panorama based on improved 3D SIFT.  

PubMed

Registration of ultrasound volumes is a key issue for the reconstruction of volumetric ultrasound panorama. In this paper, we propose an improved three-dimensional (3D) scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) algorithm to globally register ultrasound volumes acquired from dedicated ultrasound probe, where local deformations are corrected by block-based warping algorithm. Original SIFT algorithm is extended to 3D and improved by combining the SIFT detector with Rohr3D detector to extract complementary features and applying the diffusion distance algorithm for robust feature comparison. Extensive experiments have been performed on both phantom and clinical data sets to demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of our approach. PMID:19524403

Ni, Dong; Chui, Yim Pan; Qu, Yingge; Yang, Xuan; Qin, Jing; Wong, Tien-Tsin; Ho, Simon S H; Heng, Pheng Ann

2009-10-01

399

Radiation Coupling with the FUN3D Unstructured-Grid CFD Code  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The HARA radiation code is fully-coupled to the FUN3D unstructured-grid CFD code for the purpose of simulating high-energy hypersonic flows. The radiation energy source terms and surface heat transfer, under the tangent slab approximation, are included within the fluid dynamic ow solver. The Fire II flight test, at the Mach-31 1643-second trajectory point, is used as a demonstration case. Comparisons are made with an existing structured-grid capability, the LAURA/HARA coupling. The radiative surface heat transfer rates from the present approach match the benchmark values within 6%. Although radiation coupling is the focus of the present work, convective surface heat transfer rates are also reported, and are seen to vary depending upon the choice of mesh connectivity and FUN3D ux reconstruction algorithm. On a tetrahedral-element mesh the convective heating matches the benchmark at the stagnation point, but under-predicts by 15% on the Fire II shoulder. Conversely, on a mixed-element mesh the convective heating over-predicts at the stagnation point by 20%, but matches the benchmark away from the stagnation region.

Wood, William A.

2012-01-01

400

Lezione 20: La grafica 3D ed il WEB  

E-print Network

', importandole da vari programmi di grafica 3D. Grafica 3D in Flash Vecta 3D e' un plug-in per 3D studio MAX cheLezione 20: La grafica 3D ed il WEB La grafica 3D ed il WEB Lo sviluppo che ha avuto Internet negli distribuire contenuti multimediali. La grafica 3D e' uno strumento interessante con cui e' possibile creare

Gribaudo, Marco

401

3D Visualization for Phoenix Mars Lander Science Operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Planetary surface exploration missions present considerable operational challenges in the form of substantial communication delays, limited communication windows, and limited communication bandwidth. A 3D visualization software was developed and delivered to the 2008 Phoenix Mars Lander (PML) mission. The components of the system include an interactive 3D visualization environment called Mercator, terrain reconstruction software called the Ames Stereo Pipeline, and a server providing distributed access to terrain models. The software was successfully utilized during the mission for science analysis, site understanding, and science operations activity planning. A terrain server was implemented that provided distribution of terrain models from a central repository to clients running the Mercator software. The Ames Stereo Pipeline generates accurate, high-resolution, texture-mapped, 3D terrain models from stereo image pairs. These terrain models can then be visualized within the Mercator environment. The central cross-cutting goal for these tools is to provide an easy-to-use, high-quality, full-featured visualization environment that enhances the mission science team s ability to develop low-risk productive science activity plans. In addition, for the Mercator and Viz visualization environments, extensibility and adaptability to different missions and application areas are key design goals.

Edwards, Laurence; Keely, Leslie; Lees, David; Stoker, Carol

2012-01-01

402

Subducted slab remnant dynamics in 3D spherical models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismic studies suggest that some subducted slab remnants have remained at mid-mantle depths after 150 Myr or more while others have reached the CMB. Tomographic images indicate slab remnants below former subduction zones (e.g., the Mongol-Okhost slab in the lower mantle, a remnant of the closing of the ocean between Siberia and Mongolia in the late Jurassic, and three Tethyan slab fragments below India and Asia) as well as an extensive slab graveyard at the core-mantle boundary. Mantle rheology and slab temperature are typically considered to be the dominant phenomena affecting slab sinking rates, however, other effects may have an important influence. One possibility that could help elucidate the tomographic observations is that different types of subduction history may have determined the present-day signature of the subducted lithosphere. We systematically investigate which principal factors, including slab properties, provide the best agreement with the 3D mantle structure infered from seismic tomography. Specifically, we consider the influence of initial slab dimensions, temperatures, morphology and temperature-dependent rheology. We also examine mantle viscosity stratification and the influence of the endothermic phase boundary at 670 km on the dynamics of a slab that detaches from the lithosphere. Subsequently, we try to identify conditions that can prolong slab sinking rates. We determine the dominant mantle and slab properties required to obtain the tomographically infered present day slab locations and also compare our 3D Spherical geometry models to 3D Cartesian models to identify the effects of curvature.

Quere, S.; Lowman, J. P.; Arkani-Hamed, J.

2011-12-01

403

Cancer3D: understanding cancer mutations through protein structures  

PubMed Central

The new era of cancer genomics is providing us with extensive knowledge of mutations and other alterations in cancer. The Cancer3D database at http://www.cancer3d.org gives an open and user-friendly way to analyze cancer missense mutations in the context of structures of proteins in which they are found. The database also helps users analyze the distribution patterns of the mutations as well as their relationship to changes in drug activity through two algorithms: e-Driver and e-Drug. These algorithms use knowledge of modular structure of genes and proteins to separately study each region. This approach allows users to find novel candidate driver regions or drug biomarkers that cannot be found when similar analyses are done on the whole-gene level. The Cancer3D database provides access to the results of such analyses based on data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE). In addition, it displays mutations from over 14 700 proteins mapped to more than 24 300 structures from PDB. This helps users visualize the distribution of mutations and identify novel three-dimensional patterns in their distribution. PMID:25392415

Porta-Pardo, Eduard; Hrabe, Thomas; Godzik, Adam

2015-01-01

404

Subjective evaluation of a 3D videoconferencing system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A shortcoming of traditional videoconferencing systems is that they present the user with a flat, two-dimensional image of the remote participants. Recent advances in autostereoscopic display technology now make it possible to develop video conferencing systems supporting true binocular depth perception. In this paper, we present a subjective evaluation of a prototype multiview autostereoscopic video conferencing system and suggest a number of possible improvements based on the results. Whereas methods for subjective evaluation of traditional 2D videoconferencing systems are well established, the introduction of 3D requires an extension of the test procedures to assess the quality of depth perception. For this purpose, two depth-based test tasks have been designed and experiments have been conducted with test subjects comparing the 3D system to a conventional 2D video conferencing system. The outcome of the experiments show that the perception of depth is significantly improved in the 3D system, but the overall quality of experience is higher in the 2D system.

Rizek, Hadi; Brunnström, Kjell; Wang, Kun; Andrén, Börje; Johanson, Mathias

2014-03-01

405

PLOT3D Export Tool for Tecplot  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The PLOT3D export tool for Tecplot solves the problem of modified data being impossible to output for use by another computational science solver. The PLOT3D Exporter add-on enables the use of the most commonly available visualization tools to engineers for output of a standard format. The exportation of PLOT3D data from Tecplot has far reaching effects because it allows for grid and solution manipulation within a graphical user interface (GUI) that is easily customized with macro language-based and user-developed GUIs. The add-on also enables the use of Tecplot as an interpolation tool for solution conversion between different grids of different types. This one add-on enhances the functionality of Tecplot so significantly, it offers the ability to incorporate Tecplot into a general suite of tools for computational science applications as a 3D graphics engine for visualization of all data. Within the PLOT3D Export Add-on are several functions that enhance the operations and effectiveness of the add-on. Unlike Tecplot output functions, the PLOT3D Export Add-on enables the use of the zone selection dialog in Tecplot to choose which zones are to be written by offering three distinct options - output of active, inactive, or all zones (grid blocks). As the user modifies the zones to output with the zone selection dialog, the zones to be written are similarly updated. This enables the use of Tecplot to create multiple configurations of a geometry being analyzed. For example, if an aircraft is loaded with multiple deflections of flaps, by activating and deactivating different zones for a specific flap setting, new specific configurations of that aircraft can be easily generated by only writing out specific zones. Thus, if ten flap settings are loaded into Tecplot, the PLOT3D Export software can output ten different configurations, one for each flap setting.

Alter, Stephen

2010-01-01

406

3D-MoRSE descriptors explained.  

PubMed

3D-MoRSE is a very flexible 3D structure encoding framework for chemoinformatics and QSAR purposes due to the range of scattering parameter values and variety of weighting schemes used. While arising in many QSAR studies, up to this time they were considered as hardly interpreted and were treated like a "black box". This study is intended to lift the veil of mystery, providing a comprehensible way to the interpretation of 3D-MoRSE descriptors in QSAR/QSPR studies. The values of these descriptors are calculated with rather simple equation, but may vary when using differing starting geometries as optimization input. This variation increases with scattering parameter and also is higher for electronegativity weighted and unweighted descriptors. Though each 3D-MoRSE descriptor incorporates the information about the whole molecule structure, its final value is derived mostly from short-distance (up to 3?) atomic pairs. And, if a QSAR study covers structurally similar set of compounds, then the role of 3D-MoRSE descriptor in a model can be interpreted using just several pairs of neighbor atoms. The guide to interpretation process is discussed and illustrated with a case study. Realizing the mathematical concept behind 3D-descriptors and knowing their properties it is easy not only to interpret, but also to predict the importance of 3D-MoRSE descriptors in a QSAR study. The process of prediction is described on the practical example and its accuracy is confirmed with further QSAR modeling. PMID:25459771

Devinyak, Oleg; Havrylyuk, Dmytro; Lesyk, Roman

2014-11-01

407

Former Yosemite Hydrologic Benchmark Streamgage  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

In this image, the former USGS Hydrologic Benchmark Streamgage on the Merced River in Yosemite Valley can be seen. Hydrologic Benchmark streamgages are those at which no human development exists upstream of the streamgage. The streamgage station has been in existence since 1915, and was replaced by ...

408

Creating Benchmarks for Science Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Project 2061 has been constructing goals for science, mathematics, and technology education since 1985, beginning with high school graduation standards (in "Science for All Americans 1989") and working toward reasonable standards for students at earlier grade levels. Projected "Benchmarks for Science Literacy" will include benchmark lists, some…

Ahlgren, Andrew

1993-01-01

409

AOAB -- Automated Optimization Algorithm Benchmarking  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present AOAB, the Automated Optimization Algorithm Benchmarking system. AOAB can be used to automatically conduct experiments with numerical optimization algorithms by applying them to different benchmarks with different parameter settings. Based on the results, AOAB can automatically perform comparisons between different algorithms and settings. It can aid the researcher to identify trends for good parameter settings

Thomas Weise; Li Niu; Ke Tang

2010-01-01

410

Benchmarking. A Guide for Educators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book offers strategies for enhancing a school's teaching and learning by using benchmarking, a team-research and data-driven process for increasing school effectiveness. Benchmarking enables professionals to study and know their systems and continually improve their practices. The book is designed to lead a team step by step through the…

Tucker, Sue

411

3D whiteboard: collaborative sketching with 3D-tracked smart phones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of our investigation of the feasibility of a new approach for collaborative drawing in 3D, based on Android smart phones. Our approach utilizes a number of fiduciary markers, placed in the working area where they can be seen by the smart phones' cameras, in order to estimate the pose of each phone in the room. Our prototype allows two users to draw 3D objects with their smart phones by moving their phones around in 3D space. For example, 3D lines are drawn by recording the path of the phone as it is moved around in 3D space, drawing line segments on the screen along the way. Each user can see the virtual drawing space on their smart phones' displays, as if the display was a window into this space. Besides lines, our prototype application also supports 3D geometry creation, geometry transformation operations, and it shows the location of the other user's phone.

Lue, James; Schulze, Jürgen P.

2014-02-01

412

3D Printing in Zero-G ISS Technology Demonstration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has a long term strategy to fabricate components and equipment on-demand for manned missions to the Moon, Mars, and beyond. To support this strategy, NASA and Made in Space, Inc. are developing the 3D Printing In Zero-G payload as a Technology Demonstration for the International Space Station. The 3D Printing In Zero-G experiment will be the first machine to perform 3D printing in space. The greater the distance from Earth and the longer the mission duration, the more difficult resupply becomes; this requires a change from the current spares, maintenance, repair, and hardware design model that has been used on the International Space Station up until now. Given the extension of the ISS Program, which will inevitably result in replacement parts being required, the ISS is an ideal platform to begin changing the current model for resupply and repair to one that is more suitable for all exploration missions. 3D Printing, more formally known as Additive Manufacturing, is the method of building parts/ objects/tools layer-by-layer. The 3D Print experiment will use extrusion-based additive manufacturing, which involves building an object out of plastic deposited by a wire-feed via an extruder head. Parts can be printed from data files loaded on the device at launch, as well as additional files uplinked to the device while on-orbit. The plastic extrusion additive manufacturing process is a low-energy, low-mass solution to many common needs on board the ISS. The 3D Print payload will serve as the ideal first step to proving that process in space. It is unreasonable to expect NASA to launch large blocks of material from which parts or tools can be traditionally machined, and even more unreasonable to fly up specialized manufacturing hardware to perform the entire range of function traditionally machining requires. The technology to produce parts on demand, in space, offers unique design options that are not possible through traditional manufacturing methods while offering cost-effective, high-precision, low-unit on-demand manufacturing. Thus, Additive Manufacturing capabilities are the foundation of an advanced manufacturing in space roadmap.

Johnston, Mallory M.; Werkheiser, Mary J.; Cooper, Kenneth G.; Snyder, Michael P.; Edmunson, Jennifer E.

2014-01-01

413

Interactive visual optimization and analysis for RFID benchmarking.  

PubMed

Radio frequency identification (RFID) is a powerful automatic remote identification technique that has wide applications. To facilitate RFID deployment, an RFID benchmarking instrument called aGate has been invented to identify the strengths and weaknesses of different RFID technologies in various environments. However, the data acquired by aGate are usually complex time varying multidimensional 3D volumetric data, which are extremely challenging for engineers to analyze. In this paper, we introduce a set of visualization techniques, namely, parallel coordinate plots, orientation plots, a visual history mechanism, and a 3D spatial viewer, to help RFID engineers analyze benchmark data visually and intuitively. With the techniques, we further introduce two workflow procedures (a visual optimization procedure for finding the optimum reader antenna configuration and a visual analysis procedure for comparing the performance and identifying the flaws of RFID devices) for the RFID benchmarking, with focus on the performance analysis of the aGate system. The usefulness and usability of the system are demonstrated in the user evaluation. PMID:19834206

Wu, Yingcai; Chung, Ka-Kei; Qu, Huamin; Yuan, Xiaoru; Cheung, S C

2009-01-01

414

ICER-3D Hyperspectral Image Compression Software  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Software has been developed to implement the ICER-3D algorithm. ICER-3D effects progressive, three-dimensional (3D), wavelet-based compression of hyperspectral images. If a compressed data stream is truncated, the progressive nature of the algorithm enables reconstruction of hyperspectral data at fidelity commensurate with the given data volume. The ICER-3D software is capable of providing either lossless or lossy compression, and incorporates an error-containment scheme to limit the effects of data loss during transmission. The compression algorithm, which was derived from the ICER image compression algorithm, includes wavelet-transform, context-modeling, and entropy coding subalgorithms. The 3D wavelet decomposition structure used by ICER-3D exploits correlations in all three dimensions of sets of hyperspectral image data, while facilitating elimination of spectral ringing artifacts, using a technique summarized in "Improving 3D Wavelet-Based Compression of Spectral Images" (NPO-41381), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 33, No. 3 (March 2009), page 7a. Correlation is further exploited by a context-modeling subalgorithm, which exploits spectral dependencies in the wavelet-transformed hyperspectral data, using an algorithm that is summarized in "Context Modeler for Wavelet Compression of Hyperspectral Images" (NPO-43239), which follows this article. An important feature of ICER-3D is a scheme for limiting the adverse effects of loss of data during transmission. In this scheme, as in the similar scheme used by ICER, the spatial-frequency domain is partitioned into rectangular error-containment regions. In ICER-3D, the partitions extend through all the wavelength bands. The data in each partition are compressed independently of those in the other partitions, so that loss or corruption of data from any partition does not affect the other partitions. Furthermore, because compression is progressive within each partition, when data are lost, any data from that partition received prior to the loss can be used to reconstruct that partition at lower fidelity. By virtue of the compression improvement it achieves relative to previous means of onboard data compression, this software enables (1) increased return of hyperspectral scientific data in the presence of limits on the rates of transmission of data from spacecraft to Earth via radio communication links and/or (2) reduction in spacecraft radio-communication power and/or cost through reduction in the amounts of data required to be downlinked and stored onboard prior to downlink. The software is also suitable for compressing hyperspectral images for ground storage or archival purposes.

Xie, Hua; Kiely, Aaron; Klimesh, matthew; Aranki, Nazeeh

2010-01-01

415

Applications of Integral Benchmark Data  

SciTech Connect

The International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) and the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) provide evaluated integral benchmark data that may be used for validation of reactor physics / nuclear criticality safety analytical methods and data, nuclear data testing, advanced modeling and simulation, and safety analysis licensing activities. The handbooks produced by these programs are used in over 30 countries. Five example applications are presented in this paper: (1) Use of IRPhEP Data in Uncertainty Analyses and Cross Section Adjustment, (2) Uncertainty Evaluation Methods for Reactor Core Design at JAEA Using Reactor Physics Experimental Data, (3) Application of Benchmarking Data to a Broad Range of Criticality Safety Problems, (4) Cross Section Data Testing with ICSBEP Benchmarks, and (5) Use of the International Handbook of Evaluated Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments to Support the Power Industry.

Giuseppe Palmiotti; Teruhiko Kugo; Fitz Trumble; Albert C. (Skip) Kahler; Dale Lancaster

2014-11-01

416

3D hydro-mechanically coupled groundwater flow modelling of Pleistocene glaciation effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pleistocene glaciation led to temporal and spatial variations of sub-surface pore fluid pressure. In basins covered by ice sheets, fluid flow and recharge rates are strongly elevated during glaciations as compared to inter-glacial periods. Present-day hydrogeological conditions across formerly glaciated areas are likely to still reflect the impact of glaciations that ended locally more than 10 thousand years before present. 3D hydro-mechanical coupled modelling of glaciation can help to improve the management of groundwater resources in formerly glaciated basins. An open source numerical code for solving linear elasticity, which is based on the finite element method (FEM) in 3D, has been developed. By coupling this code with existing 3D flow codes it is possible to enable hydro-mechanical coupled modelling. Results of two benchmark simulations are compared to existing analytical solutions to demonstrate the performance of the newly developed code. While the result for a fluid-structure coupled case is in reasonable agreement with the analytical model, the result for a classical structure-fluid coupled benchmark showed that the analytical solution only matches the numerical result when the relevant coupling parameter (loading efficiency) is known in advance. This indicates that the applicability of widely applied approaches using an extra term in the groundwater flow equation for vertical stress to simulate hydro-mechanical coupling might have to be re-evaluated. A case study with the commercial groundwater simulator FEFLOW demonstrates the newly developed solution.

Rühaak, Wolfram; Bense, Victor F.; Sass, Ingo

2014-06-01

417

A 3D shape retrieval framework for 3D smart cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces the importance of 3D shape retrieval frameworks in 3D smart cities, and proposes a unified framework\\u000a for 3D shape retrieval. The proposed method is based on the concept of visual representation, where each object is rendered\\u000a with several depth images and binary images from distributed vertices in the regular polyhedron. For each image, several shape\\u000a descriptors are

Biao Leng; Zhang Xiong; Xiangwei Fu

2010-01-01

418

The importance of 3D dosimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiation therapy has been getting progressively more complex for the past 20 years. Early radiation therapy techniques needed only basic dosimetry equipment; motorized water phantoms, ionization chambers, and basic radiographic film techniques. As intensity modulated radiation therapy and image guided therapy came into widespread practice, medical physicists were challenged with developing effective and efficient dose measurement techniques. The complex 3-dimensional (3D) nature of the dose distributions that were being delivered demanded the development of more quantitative and more thorough methods for dose measurement. The quality assurance vendors developed a wide array of multidetector arrays that have been enormously useful for measuring and characterizing dose distributions, and these have been made especially useful with the advent of 3D dose calculation systems based on the array measurements, as well as measurements made using film and portal imagers. Other vendors have been providing 3D calculations based on data from the linear accelerator or the record and verify system, providing thorough evaluation of the dose but lacking quality assurance (QA) of the dose delivery process, including machine calibration. The current state of 3D dosimetry is one of a state of flux. The vendors and professional associations are trying to determine the optimal balance between thorough QA, labor efficiency, and quantitation. This balance will take some time to reach, but a necessary component will be the 3D measurement and independent calculation of delivered radiation therapy dose distributions.

Low, Daniel

2015-01-01

419

3D surface reconstruction from range slices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research on three-dimensional (3D) surface reconstruction from range slices obtained from range-gated laser imaging system is of significance. 3D surfaces reconstructed based on existing binarization method or centroid method are rough or discontinuous in some circumstances. In this paper we address these problems and develop a 3D surface reconstruction algorithm based on the idea that combining the centroid method with weighted linear interpolation and mean filter. The algorithm consists of three steps. In the first step, interesting regions are extracted from each range slice based on mean filter, and then are merged to derive a single range image. In the second step, the derived range image is denoised and smoothed based on adaptive histogram method, weighted linear interpolation and mean filter method respectively. Finally, nonzero valued pixels in the after processed range image are converted to point cloud according to the range-gated imaging parameters, and then 3D surface meshes are established from the point cloud based on the topological relationship between adjacent pixels in the range image. Experiment is conducted on range slices generated from range-gated laser imaging simulation platform, and the registration result of the reconstructed surface of our method with the original surface of the object shows that the proposed method can reconstruct object surface accurately, so it can be used for the designing of reconstruction and displaying of range-gated laser imaging system, and also can be used for 3D object recognition.

Wang, Mingming; Zhu, Feng; Hao, Ying-ming

2014-11-01

420

3D camera tracking from disparity images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we propose a robust camera tracking method that uses disparity images computed from known parameters of 3D camera and multiple epipolar constraints. We assume that baselines between lenses in 3D camera and intrinsic parameters are known. The proposed method reduces camera motion uncertainty encountered during camera tracking. Specifically, we first obtain corresponding feature points between initial lenses using normalized correlation method. In conjunction with matching features, we get disparity images. When the camera moves, the corresponding feature points, obtained from each lens of 3D camera, are robustly tracked via Kanade-Lukas-Tomasi (KLT) tracking algorithm. Secondly, relative pose parameters of each lens are calculated via Essential matrices. Essential matrices are computed from Fundamental matrix calculated using normalized 8-point algorithm with RANSAC scheme. Then, we determine scale factor of translation matrix by d-motion. This is required because the camera motion obtained from Essential matrix is up to scale. Finally, we optimize camera motion using multiple epipolar constraints between lenses and d-motion constraints computed from disparity images. The proposed method can be widely adopted in Augmented Reality (AR) applications, 3D reconstruction using 3D camera, and fine surveillance systems which not only need depth information, but also camera motion parameters in real-time.

Kim, Kiyoung; Woo, Woontack

2005-07-01

421

Innovations in 3D printing: a 3D overview from optics to organs.  

PubMed

3D printing is a method of manufacturing in which materials, such as plastic or metal, are deposited onto one another in layers to produce a three dimensional object, such as a pair of eye glasses or other 3D objects. This process contrasts with traditional ink-based printers which produce a two dimensional object (ink on paper). To date, 3D printing has primarily been used in engineering to create engineering prototypes. However, recent advances in printing materials have now enabled 3D printers to make objects that are comparable with traditionally manufactured items. In contrast with conventional printers, 3D printing has the potential to enable mass customisation of goods on a large scale and has relevance in medicine including ophthalmology. 3D printing has already been proved viable in several medical applications including the manufacture of eyeglasses, custom prosthetic devices and dental implants. In this review, we discuss the potential for 3D printing to revolutionise manufacturing in the same way as the printing press revolutionised conventional printing. The applications and limitations of 3D printing are discussed; the production process is demonstrated by producing a set of eyeglass frames from 3D blueprints. PMID:24288392

Schubert, Carl; van Langeveld, Mark C; Donoso, Larry A

2014-02-01

422

Benchmarking monthly homogenization algorithms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology) Action ES0601: Advances in homogenization methods of climate series: an integrated approach (HOME) has executed a blind intercomparison and validation study for monthly homogenization algorithms. Time series of monthly temperature and precipitation were evaluated because of their importance for climate studies and because they represent two important types of statistics (additive and multiplicative). The algorithms were validated against a realistic benchmark dataset. The benchmark contains real inhomogeneous data as well as simulated data with inserted inhomogeneities. Random break-type inhomogeneities were added to the simulated datasets modeled as a Poisson process with normally distributed breakpoint sizes. To approximate real world conditions, breaks were introduced that occur simultaneously in multiple station series within a simulated network of station data. The simulated time series also contained outliers, missing data periods and local station trends. Further, a stochastic nonlinear global (network-wide) trend was added. Participants provided 25 separate homogenized contributions as part of the blind study as well as 22 additional solutions submitted after the details of the imposed inhomogeneities were revealed. These homogenized datasets were assessed by a number of performance metrics including (i) the centered root mean square error relative to the true homogeneous value at various averaging scales, (ii) the error in linear trend estimates and (iii) traditional contingency skill scores. The metrics were computed both using the individual station series as well as the network average regional series. The performance of the contributions depends significantly on the error metric considered. Contingency scores by themselves are not very informative. Although relative homogenization algorithms typically improve the homogeneity of temperature data, only the best ones improve precipitation data. Training was found to be very important. Moreover, state-of-the-art relative homogenization algorithms developed to work with an inhomogeneous reference are shown to perform best. The study showed that currently automatic algorithms can perform as well as manual ones.

Venema, V. K. C.; Mestre, O.; Aguilar, E.; Auer, I.; Guijarro, J. A.; Domonkos, P.; Vertacnik, G.; Szentimrey, T.; Stepanek, P.; Zahradnicek, P.; Viarre, J.; Müller-Westermeier, G.; Lakatos, M.; Williams, C. N.; Menne, M.; Lindau, R.; Rasol, D.; Rustemeier, E.; Kolokythas, K.; Marinova, T.; Andresen, L.; Acquaotta, F.; Fratianni, S.; Cheval, S.; Klancar, M.; Brunetti, M.; Gruber, C.; Prohom Duran, M.; Likso, T.; Esteban, P.; Brandsma, T.

2011-08-01

423

Benchmarking foreign electronics technologies  

SciTech Connect

This report has been drafted in response to a request from the Japanese Technology Evaluation Center`s (JTEC) Panel on Benchmarking Select Technologies. Since April 1991, the Competitive Semiconductor Manufacturing (CSM) Program at the University of California at Berkeley has been engaged in a detailed study of quality, productivity, and competitiveness in semiconductor manufacturing worldwide. The program is a joint activity of the College of Engineering, the Haas School of Business, and the Berkeley Roundtable on the International Economy, under sponsorship of the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, and with the cooperation of semiconductor producers from Asia, Europe and the United States. Professors David A. Hodges and Robert C. Leachman are the project`s Co-Directors. The present report for JTEC is primarily based on data and analysis drawn from that continuing program. The CSM program is being conducted by faculty, graduate students and research staff from UC Berkeley`s Schools of Engineering and Business, and Department of Economics. Many of the participating firms are represented on the program`s Industry Advisory Board. The Board played an important role in defining the research agenda. A pilot study was conducted in 1991 with the cooperation of three semiconductor plants. The research plan and survey documents were thereby refined. The main phase of the CSM benchmarking study began in mid-1992 and will continue at least through 1997. reports are presented on the manufacture of integrated circuits; data storage; wireless technology; human-machine interfaces; and optoelectronics. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

Bostian, C.W.; Hodges, D.A.; Leachman, R.C.; Sheridan, T.B.; Tsang, W.T.; White, R.M.

1994-12-01

424

Lithospheric structure of the Labrador Sea from constrained 3-D gravity inversion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Regional inversions of free air gravity data constrained by bathymetric and sediment thickness information were undertaken over the Labrador Sea and its margins to generate 3-D density anomaly models to investigate broad-scale crustal structural variations across the extinct spreading centre. Benchmarked against independent seismic Moho depth constraints, a density anomaly isosurface within the inverted volumes was selected as a Moho-proxy and regional maps of Moho structure were developed. Inversions using two different sources for depth to basement constraints revealed similar Moho structures with a depth to Moho of 12 km beneath the Labrador Sea which deepens to 20 km and greater towards Davis Strait and beneath the offshore extension of the Grenville Province. Density anomaly slices through the models corresponding to seismic lines show good agreement between the inverted Moho-proxy and the seismic Moho, with the only exceptions occurring where a high velocity lower crustal zone or underplate has been modelled from wide-angle reflection/refraction profiling studies. The inverted depth to Moho estimates were combined with depth to basement constraints to investigate crustal thickness, both for the full crust and for individual crustal layers, revealing that the crust of the Labrador Sea is generally 5-10 km thick but thickens to 20-25 km towards Davis Strait and beneath the offshore extension of the Grenville Province, not taking into account high density underplates or anomalously high density lower crust. Sediment and crustal thickness variations were investigated to compute stretching factors, ?, across the Labrador Sea and to identify zones which deviate from local isostatic compensation. Assuming both an initial unstretched crustal thickness of 35 km and using a variable unstretched crustal thickness model, much of the Labrador Sea has experienced 70-90 per cent thinning. The derived ? values suggest that embrittlement of the entire crust and serpentinization of the upper mantle are likely to have occurred for large portions of the central and southern Labrador Sea, inboard of known oceanic crust. Isostatic considerations reveal sediment excess and deficiency on the Labrador and Greenland margins, respectively, possibly reflecting fundamental rheological asymmetry, with the Greenland margin appearing weaker than the Labrador margin. A strong gradient from sediment deficiency to excess, exclusive to the Labrador margin, may reveal the southwestern limit of a regional graben bounding listric detachment or of a zone of distributed faults and detachments.

Welford, J. Kim; Hall, Jeremy

2013-11-01

425

3D Printing In Zero-G ISS Technology Demonstration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has a long term strategy to fabricate components and equipment on-demand for manned missions to the Moon, Mars, and beyond. To support this strategy, NASA and Made in Space, Inc. are developing the 3D Printing In Zero-G payload as a Technology Demonstration for the International Space Station (ISS). The 3D Printing In Zero-G experiment ('3D Print') will be the first machine to perform 3D printing in space. The greater the distance from Earth and the longer the mission duration, the more difficult resupply becomes; this requires a change from the current spares, maintenance, repair, and hardware design model that has been used on the International Space Station (ISS) up until now. Given the extension of the ISS Program, which will inevitably result in replacement parts being required, the ISS is an ideal platform to begin changing the current model for resupply and repair to one that is more suitable for all exploration missions. 3D Printing, more formally known as Additive Manufacturing, is the method of building parts/objects/tools layer-by-layer. The 3D Print experiment will use extrusion-based additive manufacturing, which involves building an object out of plastic deposited by a wire-feed via an extruder head. Parts can be printed from data files loaded on the device at launch, as well as additional files uplinked to the device while on-orbit. The plastic extrusion additive manufacturing process is a low-energy, low-mass solution to many common needs on board the ISS. The 3D Print payload will serve as the ideal first step to proving that process in space. It is unreasonable to expect NASA to launch large blocks of material from which parts or tools can be traditionally machined, and even more unreasonable to fly up multiple drill bits that would be required to machine parts from aerospace-grade materials such as titanium 6-4 alloy and Inconel. The technology to produce parts on demand, in space, offers unique design options that are not possible through traditional manufacturing methods while offering cost-effective, high-precision, low-unit on-demand manufacturing. Thus, Additive Manufacturing capabilities are the foundation of an advanced manufacturing in space roadmap. The 3D Printing In Zero-G experiment will demonstrate the capability of utilizing Additive Manufacturing technology in space. This will serve as the enabling first step to realizing an additive manufacturing, print-on-demand "machine shop" for long-duration missions and sustaining human exploration of other planets, where there is extremely limited ability and availability of Earth-based logistics support. Simply put, Additive Manufacturing in space is a critical enabling technology for NASA. It will provide the capability to produce hardware on-demand, directly lowering cost and decreasing risk by having the exact part or tool needed in the time it takes to print. This capability will also provide the much-needed solution to the cost, volume, and up-mass constraints that prohibit launching everything needed for long-duration or long-distance missions from Earth, including spare parts and replacement systems. A successful mission for the 3D Printing In Zero-G payload is the first step to demonstrate the capability of printing on orbit. The data gathered and lessons learned from this demonstration will be applied to the next generation of additive manufacturing technology on orbit. It is expected that Additive Manufacturing technology will quickly become a critical part of any mission's infrastructure.

Werkheiser, Niki; Cooper, Kenneth; Edmunson, Jennifer; Dunn, Jason; Snyder, Michael

2014-01-01

426

CSc 165 Lecture Note Slides 3D Modeling  

E-print Network

3D Model File Formats .3ds ­ 3D Studio Max format .blend ­ Blender format .dae ­ COLLADA DigitalCSc 165 Lecture Note Slides 3D Modeling for Games CSc 165 Lecture Note Slides 3D Modeling For Games 2 Overview · Model Characteristics · 3D Model File Formats · Model Loaders · Digital Content

Gordon, Scott

427

Stereo vision based 3D game interface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently, keyboards, mice, wands and joysticks are still the most popular interactive devices. While these devices are mostly adequate, they are so unnatural that they are unable to give players the feeling of immersiveness. Researchers have begun investigation into natural interfaces that are intuitively simple and unobtrusive to the user. Recent advances in various signal-processing technologies, coupled with an explosion in the available computing power, have given rise to a number of natural human computer interface (HCI) modalities: speech, vision-based gesture recognition, etc. In this paper we propose a natural three dimensional (3D) game interface, which uses the motion of the player fists in 3D space to achieve the control of sixd egree of freedom (DOFs). And we also propose a real-time 3D fist tracking algorithm, which is based on stereo vision and Bayesian network. Finally, a flying game is used to test our interface.

Lu, Peng; Chen, Yisong; Dong, Chao

2009-10-01

428

Web3D Consortium: GeoVRML  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

GeoVRML is an official Working Group of the Web3D Consortium (http://www.web3d.org/) and its goal is to develop tools and recommended practice for using the Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) to represent geographical data. The idea is that geo-referenced data (maps and 3-D terrain models) can be viewed over the web using a standard VRML plugin. GeoVRML Working Group has a mailing list where discussions and developments are posted. Specifications, source code, examples, tools and the accompanying Run-Time for GeoVRML 1.1 are available online to download. Also provided are Goals & Issues, News & Milestones, FAQ, GeoVRML Wish List for future developments, and other resources related to GeoVRML.

429

Simple buffers for 3D STORM microscopy  

PubMed Central

3D STORM is one of the leading methods for super-resolution imaging, with resolution down to 10 nm in the lateral direction, and 30–50 nm in the axial direction. However, there is one important requirement to perform this type of imaging: making dye molecules blink. This usually relies on the utilization of complex buffers, containing different chemicals and sensitive enzymatic systems, limiting the reproducibility of the method. We report here that the commercial mounting medium Vectashield can be used for STORM of Alexa-647, and yields images comparable or superior to those obtained with more complex buffers, especially for 3D imaging. We expect that this advance will promote the versatile utilization of 3D STORM by removing one of its entry barriers, as well as provide a more reproducible way to compare optical setups and data processing algorithms. PMID:23761850

Olivier, Nicolas; Keller, Debora; Rajan, Vinoth Sundar; Gönczy, Pierre; Manley, Suliana

2013-01-01

430

3D holoscopic video imaging system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since many years, integral imaging has been discussed as a technique to overcome the limitations of standard still photography imaging systems where a three-dimensional scene is irrevocably projected onto two dimensions. With the success of 3D stereoscopic movies, a huge interest in capturing three-dimensional motion picture scenes has been generated. In this paper, we present a test bench integral imaging camera system aiming to tailor the methods of light field imaging towards capturing integral 3D motion picture content. We estimate the hardware requirements needed to generate high quality 3D holoscopic images and show a prototype camera setup that allows us to study these requirements using existing technology. The necessary steps that are involved in the calibration of the system as well as the technique of generating human readable holoscopic images from the recorded data are discussed.

Steurer, Johannes H.; Pesch, Matthias; Hahne, Christopher

2012-03-01

431

3D nanopillar optical antenna photodetectors.  

PubMed

We demonstrate 3D surface plasmon photoresponse in nanopillar arrays resulting in enhanced responsivity due to both Localized Surface Plasmon Resonances (LSPRs) and Surface Plasmon Polariton Bloch Waves (SPP-BWs). The LSPRs are excited due to a partial gold shell coating the nanopillar which acts as a 3D Nanopillar Optical Antenna (NOA) in focusing light into the nanopillar. Angular photoresponse measurements show that SPP-BWs can be spectrally coincident with LSPRs to result in a x2 enhancement in responsivity at 1180 nm. Full-wave Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) simulations substantiate both the spatial and spectral coupling of the SPP-BW / LSPR for enhanced absorption and the nature of the LSPR. Geometrical control of the 3D NOA and the self-aligned metal hole lattice allows the hybridization of both localized and propagating surface plasmon modes for enhanced absorption. Hybridized plasmonic modes opens up new avenues in optical antenna design in nanoscale photodetectors. PMID:23187366

Senanayake, Pradeep; Hung, Chung-Hong; Shapiro, Joshua; Scofield, Adam; Lin, Andrew; Williams, Benjamin S; Huffaker, Diana L

2012-11-01

432

3D printing for dielectric elastomers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an analysis on the feasibility of the 3D printing technology known as Stereolithography for adaption to Dielectric Elastomer (DE) Production. We also present a method for 3D printing in two materials using Stereolithography, solving one of the main challenges identified in adapting this technology to DEs. Stereolithography is well suited to DE production because of similarities in the materials used and because of its high achievable resolution. However, DE production requires the use of two separate materials, and of soft materials, both of which are difficult with Stereolithography. Our method makes two material printing with Stereolithography possible by using multiple resin baths and an intermediary cleaning step. If the other challenges can be overcome, automatic 3D production of DEs will be possible.

Creegan, Andrew; Anderson, Iain

2014-03-01

433

Efficient Reasoning with RCC-3D  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Qualitative spatial reasoning is an important function of the human brain. Artificial systems that can perform such reasoning have many applications such as Geographic Information Systems (GIS), robotics, biomedicine, and engineering. Automation of such analytical processes alleviates manual labor, and may increase the accuracy of the spatial assessments because the reasoning can be done objectively using 3D digital representations of the objects. Herein we introduce an algorithm to determine the spatial relation that exists between a pair of 3D objects when no a priori spatial knowledge is given. A second algorithm is presented to efficiently find the spatial relation that holds between each pair of objects in a set of 3D objects.

Albath, Julia; Leopold, Jennifer L.; Sabharwal, Chaman L.; Perry, Kenneth

434

3D Simulation: Microgravity Environments and Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Most, if not all, 3-D and Virtual Reality (VR) software programs are designed for one-G gravity applications. Space environments simulations require gravity effects of one one-thousandth to one one-million of that of the Earth's surface (10(exp -3) - 10(exp -6) G), thus one must be able to generate simulations that replicate those microgravity effects upon simulated astronauts. Unfortunately, the software programs utilized by the National Aeronautical and Space Administration does not have the ability to readily neutralize the one-G gravity effect. This pre-programmed situation causes the engineer or analysis difficulty during micro-gravity simulations. Therefore, microgravity simulations require special techniques or additional code in order to apply the power of 3D graphic simulation to space related applications. This paper discusses the problem and possible solutions to allow microgravity 3-D/VR simulations to be completed successfully without program code modifications.

Hunter, Steve L.; Dischinger, Charles; Estes, Samantha; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

435

The CIFIST 3D model atmosphere grid.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Grids of stellar atmosphere models and associated synthetic spectra are numerical products which have a large impact in astronomy due to their ubiquitous application in the interpretation of radiation from individual stars and stellar populations. 3D model atmospheres are now on the verge of becoming generally available for a wide range of stellar atmospheric parameters. We report on efforts to develop a grid of 3D model atmospheres for late-type stars within the CIFIST Team at Paris Observatory. The substantial demands in computational and human labor for the model production and post-processing render this apparently mundane task a challenging logistic exercise. At the moment the CIFIST grid comprises 77 3D model atmospheres with emphasis on dwarfs of solar and sub-solar metallicities. While the model production is still ongoing, first applications are already worked upon by the CIFIST Team and collaborators.

Ludwig, H.-G.; Caffau, E.; Steffen, M.; Freytag, B.; Bonifacio, P.; Ku?inskas, A.

436

NAFEMS Finite Element Benchmarks for MDG Code Verification  

SciTech Connect

NAFEMS was originally founded at the United Kingdom's National Engineering Laboratory as the National Agency for Finite Element Methods and Standards. It was subsequently privatized as the not-for-profit organization NAFEMS, Ltd., but retains its mission ''To promote the safe and reliable use of finite element and related technology''. That mission has been pursued in part by sponsoring a series of studies that published benchmarked deemed suitable to assess the basic accuracy of engineering simulation tools. The early studies focused on FEA for linear solid and structural mechanics and then extended to nonlinear solid mechanics, eventually including contact. These benchmarks are complemented by educational mat