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1

PARTISN results for the OECD\\/NEA 3-D extension C5G7 MOX benchmark  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have participated in the Expert Group on 3-D Radiation Transport Benchmarks' 3-D Extension C5G7 MOX problems using the discrete ordinate transport code PARTISN. The computational mesh was created using the FRAC-IN-THE-BOX code, which produces a volume fraction Cartesian mesh from combinatorial geometry descriptions. keff eigenvalues, maximum pin powers, and average fuel assembly powers are reported and compared to an

Jon A. Dahl

2006-01-01

2

3D Benchmark on Discretization Schemes for Anisotropic Diffusion Problems  

E-print Network

3D Benchmark on Discretization Schemes for Anisotropic Diffusion Problems on General Grids Robert and heterogeneous diffusion problems, associated with general, possibly non-conforming, 3D grids, were proposed-conforming meshes, 3D benchmark. MSC2010: 65N08, 65N30, 65Y20, 76S05 Robert Eymard Universit´e Paris-Est, France, e

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

3

X3D-edit authoring for extensible 3D (X3D) graphics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A primary benefit of the Extensible 3D (X3D) Graphics Specification is the use of the Extensible Markup Language (XML) to encode 3D scenes compatibly with the next-generation Web. XML-based languages provide a wide variety of new capabilities for authoring, processing and validating graphics scenes. X3D-Edit is an authoring tool for X3D scenes developed using IBM's Xeena, an XML-based tool-building application.

Donald P. Brutzman

2003-01-01

4

3D Face Recognition Benchmarks on the Bosphorus Database with Focus on Facial  

E-print Network

3D Face Recognition Benchmarks on the Bosphorus Database with Focus on Facial Expressions Ne¸se Aly an evaluation of several 3D face recogniz- ers on the Bosphorus database which was gathered for studies and are usually accepted as baseline approaches. In addition, 2D texture classifiers are also incorporated

Salah, Albert

5

3D radiation transport benchmark problems and results for simple geometries with void region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three-dimensional (3D) transport benchmark problems for simple geometries with void region were proposed at the OECD\\/NEA in order to check the accuracy of deterministic 3D transport programs. The exact total fluxes by the analytical method are given for the pure absorber cases, and Monte Carlo values are given for the 50% scattering cases as the reference values. The total fluxes

Yasunobu Nagaya; Naoki Sugimura

2001-01-01

6

Irradiance extension for the radiance fluctuation code BRUTE3D  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric radiance structures are induced by local temperature and density fluctuations. The design, development, and use of electro-optical surveillance systems require the knowledge of atmospheric radiance clutter at small spatial scales. A model is developed to study radiance fluctuations observed by an airborne IR sensor. This model uses intermediate results of the Air Force Research Laboratory background radiance code SAMM-2 and synthesizes an image of atmospheric background clutter according to the sensor characteristics. Inputs are a 3-D grid of temperature fluctuations and SAMM-2 transfer functions. We extend this code to calculate atmospheric limb viewing irradiance images for airborne and satellite sensors. We detail the irradiance extension of the clutter calculation code and present some results for satellite and airborne viewing conditions.

Rialland, Valrie; Chervet, Patrick; Quang, Carine; Roblin, Antoine

2010-06-01

7

Commissioning and benchmarking a 3D dosimetry system for clinical use  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: A 3D dosimetry system is described which consists of two parts: a radiochromic plastic dosimeter PRESAGE (which responds to absorbed dose with a linear change in optical-density) and the Duke large-field-of-view optical-CT scanner (DLOS). The DLOS/PRESAGE system has recently been commissioned and benchmarked for clinical use and, in particular, for verification and commissioning of complex radiation treatments. Methods: DLOS commissioning involved determining the dynamic range, spatial resolution, noise, temporal, and other characteristics of the light source and imaging components. Benchmarking tests were performed on the combined DLOS/PRESAGE system to establish baseline dosimetric performance. The tests consisted of delivering simple radiation treatments to PRESAGE dosimeters, and comparing the measured 3D relative dose distributions with the known gold standard. The gold standard distribution was obtained from machine beam-data or the treatment planning system (TPS). All studies used standardized procedures to ensure consistency. Results: For commissioning, isotropic spatial resolution was submillimeter (MTF > 0.5 for frequencies of 1.5 lp/mm) and the dynamic range was {approx}60 dB. Flood field uniformity was within 10% and stable after 45 min of warm-up. Stray-light is small, due to telecentricity, but even the residual can be removed through deconvolution by a point-spread-function. For benchmarking, the mean 3D passing NDD (normalized dose distribution) rate (3%, 3mm, 5% dose threshold) over the benchmark data sets was 97.3% {+-} 0.6% (range 96%-98%), which is on par with other planar dosimeters used in external beam radiation therapy indicating excellent agreement. Noise was low at <2% of maximum dose (4-12 Gy) for 2 mm reconstructions. The telecentric design was critical to enabling fast imaging with minimal stray-light artifacts. Conclusions: This work presents the first comprehensive benchmarking of a 3D dosimetry system for clinical use. The DLOS/PRESAGE benchmark tests show consistently good agreement to simple known distributions. The system produces accurate isotropic 2 mm dose data over clinical volumes (e.g., 16 cm diameter phantoms, 12 cm height), in under 15 min. It represents a uniquely useful and versatile new tool for commissioning and verification of complex therapy treatments.

Thomas, Andrew; Newton, Joseph; Adamovics, John; Oldham, Mark [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Rider University, Lawrenceville, New Jersey 08648 (United States); Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States)

2011-08-15

8

Commissioning and benchmarking a 3D dosimetry system for clinical use  

PubMed Central

Purpose: A 3D dosimetry system is described which consists of two parts: a radiochromic plastic dosimeter PRESAGE (which responds to absorbed dose with a linear change in optical-density) and the Duke large-field-of-view optical-CT scanner (DLOS). The DLOS?PRESAGE system has recently been commissioned and benchmarked for clinical use and, in particular, for verification and commissioning of complex radiation treatments. Methods: DLOS commissioning involved determining the dynamic range, spatial resolution, noise, temporal, and other characteristics of the light source and imaging components. Benchmarking tests were performed on the combined DLOS?PRESAGE system to establish baseline dosimetric performance. The tests consisted of delivering simple radiation treatments to PRESAGE dosimeters, and comparing the measured 3D relative dose distributions with the known gold standard. The gold standard distribution was obtained from machine beam-data or the treatment planning system (TPS). All studies used standardized procedures to ensure consistency. Results: For commissioning, isotropic spatial resolution was submillimeter (MTF?>?0.5 for frequencies of 1.5 lp?mm) and the dynamic range was ?60 dB. Flood field uniformity was within 10% and stable after 45 min of warm-up. Stray-light is small, due to telecentricity, but even the residual can be removed through deconvolution by a point-spread-function. For benchmarking, the mean 3D passing NDD (normalized dose distribution) rate (3%, 3mm, 5% dose threshold) over the benchmark data sets was 97.3%??0.6% (range 96%98%), which is on par with other planar dosimeters used in external beam radiation therapy indicating excellent agreement. Noise was low at <2% of maximum dose (412 Gy) for 2 mm reconstructions. The telecentric design was critical to enabling fast imaging with minimal stray-light artifacts. Conclusions: This work presents the first comprehensive benchmarking of a 3D dosimetry system for clinical use. The DLOS?PRESAGE benchmark tests show consistently good agreement to simple known distributions. The system produces accurate isotropic 2 mm dose data over clinical volumes (e.g., 16 cm diameter phantoms, 12 cm height), in under 15 min. It represents a uniquely useful and versatile new tool for commissioning and verification of complex therapy treatments. PMID:21928656

Thomas, Andrew; Newton, Joseph; Adamovics, John; Oldham, Mark

2011-01-01

9

TRAB-3D/SMABRE Calculation of the OECD/NRC PWR MSLB Benchmark  

SciTech Connect

All three exercises of the OECD/NRC Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Main Steam Line Break (MSLB) Benchmark were calculated. The SMABRE thermal-hydraulics code was used for the first exercise, the plant simulation with point-kinetics neutronics. The second exercise was calculated with the TRAB-3D three-dimensional reactor dynamics code. The third exercise was calculated with the combination TRAB-3D/SMABRE. The results of all the exercises agree reasonably well with those of the other participants; therefore, instead of reporting results, this paper concentrates on describing the computational aspects of the calculation with the above-mentioned codes and on some observations of the sensitivity of the results. The variations calculated with SMABRE with modifications in the upper head, steam generators, and steam lines affect mainly the time of recriticality. During the fourth workshop of the benchmark, a decision was made to extrapolate the cross sections if the fuel temperature or moderator density was out of the range of the given cross section tables. In the TRAB-3D calculation, this extrapolation made a significant difference for the first scenario; there is a low power maximum after the scram, which is not seen in the calculation without the extrapolation.

Daavittila, A.; Haemaelaeinen, A.; Kyrki-Rajamaeki, R.

2001-06-17

10

Domain Decomposition PN Solutions to the 3D Transport Benchmark over a Range in Parameter Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objectives of this contribution are twofold. First, the Domain Decomposition (DD) method used in the parafish parallel transport solver is re-interpreted as a Generalized Schwarz Splitting as defined by Tang [SIAM J Sci Stat Comput, vol.13 (2), pp. 573-595, 1992]. Second, parafish provides spherical harmonic (i.e., PN) solutions to the NEA benchmark suite for 3D transport methods and codes over a range in parameter space. To the best of the author's knowledge, these are the first spherical harmonic solutions provided for this demanding benchmark suite. They have been obtained using 512 CPU cores of the JuRoPa machine installed at the Jlich Computing Center (Germany).

Van Criekingen, S.

2014-06-01

11

Casting simulation: Mold filling and solidification -- Benchmark calculations using FLOW-3D{reg_sign}  

SciTech Connect

Results of a numerical simulation of the filling of a sand mold with pure aluminum and its solidification are presented in this paper. The problem has been chosen as a benchmark test for the 7th International Conference on Casting Modeling and Solidification. The computations are carried out using FLOW-3D which is a general-purpose CFD code. The simulation involves viscous fluid flow with transient free surfaces, metal/mold heat transfer, conduction in both metal and mold, and latent heat release. The basic methods used to solve the full Navier-Stokes and energy equations, with the fluid configuration modeled by the VOF method, are presented along with the physical setup of the problem and numerical solution strategy.

Barkhudarov, M.R.; Hirt, C.W. [Flow Science, Inc., Los Alamos, NM (United States)

1995-12-31

12

3D-GEM: Geo-technical extension towards an integrated 3D information model for infrastructural development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In infrastructural projects, communication as well as information exchange and (re-)use in and between involved parties is difficult. Mainly this is caused by a lack of information harmonisation. Various specialists are working together on the development of an infrastructural project and all use their own specific software and definitions for various information types. In addition, the lack of and/or differences in the use and definition of thematic semantic information regarding the various information types adds to the problem. Realistic 3D models describing and integrating parts of the earth already exist, but are generally neglecting the subsurface, and especially the aspects of geology and geo-technology. This paper summarises the research towards the extension of an existing integrated semantic information model to include surface as well as subsurface objects and in particular, subsurface geological and geotechnical objects. The major contributions of this research are the definition of geotechnical objects and the mechanism to link them with CityGML, GeoSciML and O&M standard models. The model is called 3D-GEM, short for 3D Geotechnical Extension Model.

Tegtmeier, W.; Zlatanova, S.; van Oosterom, P. J. M.; Hack, H. R. G. K.

2014-03-01

13

Parareal in time 3D numerical solver for the LWR Benchmark neutron diffusion transient model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present a time-parallel algorithm for the 3D neutrons calculation of a transient model in a nuclear reactor core. The neutrons calculation consists in numerically solving the time dependent diffusion approximation equation, which is a simplified transport equation. The numerical resolution is done with finite elements method based on a tetrahedral meshing of the computational domain, representing the reactor core, and time discretization is achieved using a ?-scheme. The transient model presents moving control rods during the time of the reaction. Therefore, cross-sections (piecewise constants) are taken into account by interpolations with respect to the velocity of the control rods. The parallelism across the time is achieved by an adequate use of the parareal in time algorithm to the handled problem. This parallel method is a predictor corrector scheme that iteratively combines the use of two kinds of numerical propagators, one coarse and one fine. Our method is made efficient by means of a coarse solver defined with large time step and fixed position control rods model, while the fine propagator is assumed to be a high order numerical approximation of the full model. The parallel implementation of our method provides a good scalability of the algorithm. Numerical results show the efficiency of the parareal method on large light water reactor transient model corresponding to the Langenbuch-Maurer-Werner benchmark.

Baudron, Anne-Marie; Lautard, Jean-Jacques; Maday, Yvon; Riahi, Mohamed Kamel; Salomon, Julien

2014-12-01

14

Nonlinear rheology in ASPECT: benchmarking and an application to 3D subduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ASPECT (Advanced Solver for Problems in Earth's ConvecTion) is a promising new code designed for modelling thermal convection in the mantle (Kronbichler et al. 2012). The massively parallel code uses state-of-the-art numerical methods, such as high performance solvers and adaptive mesh refinement. It builds on tried-and-well-tested libraries and works with plug-ins allowing easy extension to fine-tune it to the user's specific needs. We extended the code by implementing a frictional plasticity criterion that can be combined with a viscous creep rheology, allowing for thermo-mechanically coupled visco-plastic flow. This way we can accommodate for the nonlinear behavior of the Earth's materials and incorporate for instance the localization of deformation through plastic yielding. This has been shown to be of great importance for modelling lithosphere deformation. Three well-known benchmarks are used to test and validate our implementation of plasticity: the punch benchmark (e.g. Thieulot et al. 2008), which considers the indentation of a perfectly plastic material and allows for comparison with an analytical solution; the brick benchmark (Kaus 2010), performed in both a compressional and tensional regime with shear band angles bounded by results of other codes and theory; and the sandbox experiment by Buiter et al. (2006) modelling the time evolution of the extension of viscous and plastic layers in the presence of a free surface. We further showcase ASPECT's capabilities with a more geodynamical application: the subduction of an oceanic plate in a three-dimensional thermo-mechanically coupled system. We compare the use of nonlinear rheologies versus that of constant mantle and plate viscosities with an adaptation of the subducting/overriding plate setup of Schellart and Moresi (2013). These models also demonstrate how the adaptive mesh refinement allows for high resolutions locally while the code remains computationally efficient even in the presence of large deformation and large viscosity contrasts. Buiter, S. J. H. et al., "The numerical sandbox: comparison of model results for a shortening and an extension experiment". Analogue and Numerical Modelling of Crustal-Scale Processes, Buiter, S. J. H. and Schreurs, G. (eds). London: Geological Society, 2006. Kaus, B. J. (2010), Factors that control the angle of shear bands in geodynamic numerical models of brittle deformation, Tectonophysics, 484, 36-47. Kronbichler, M., Heister, T. and Bangerth, W. (2012), High Accuracy Mantle Convection Simulation through Modern Numerical Methods, Geophysical Journal International, 191, 12-29. Schellart, W. P. and Moresi, L. (2013), A new driving mechanism for backarc extension and backarc shortening through slab sinking induced toroidal and poloidal mantle flow: Results from dynamic subduction models;with an overriding plate, Journal of Geophysical Research, 118, 1-28. Thieulot, C., Fullsack, P. and Braun, J. (2008), Adaptive octree-based finite element analysis of two-dimensional and three-dimensional indentation problems, Journal of Geophysical Research, 113.

Glerum, Anne; Thieulot, Cedric; Fraters, Menno; Spakman, Wim

2014-05-01

15

Higher order finite element methods and multigrid solvers in a benchmark problem for the 3D Navier-Stokes equations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a numerical study of the 3D flow around a cylinder which was defined as a benchmark problem for the steady state Navier-Stokes equations within the DFG high-priority research program flow simulation with high-performance computers by Schafer and Turek (Vol. 52, Vieweg: Braunschweig, 1996). The first part of the study is a comparison of several finite element discretizations with respect to the accuracy of the computed benchmark parameters. It turns out that boundary fitted higher order finite element methods are in general most accurate. Our numerical study improves the hitherto existing reference values for the benchmark parameters considerably. The second part of the study deals with efficient and robust solvers for the discrete saddle point problems. All considered solvers are based on coupled multigrid methods. The flexible GMRES method with a multiple discretization multigrid method proves to be the best solver.

John, Volker

2002-10-01

16

Improvements to the Pool Critical Assembly Pressure Vessel Benchmark with 3-D Parallel SN PENTRAN  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The internationally circulated Pool Critical Assembly (PCA) Pressure Vessel Benchmark was analyzed using the PENTRAN Parallel SN code system for the geometry, material, and source specifications as described in the PCA Benchmark documentation. Improvements to the benchmark are proposed here through the application of more representative flux and volume weighted homogenized cross sections for the PCA reactor core, which were obtained from a rigorous heterogeneous modeling of all fuel assembly types in the core. A new source term definition is also proposed based on calculated relative power in each core fuel assembly with a spectrum based on the Uranium-235 fission spectra. This research focused on utilizing the BUGLE-96 cross section library and accompanying reaction rates, while also examining PENTRAN's adaptive differencing implemented on a coarse mesh basis, as well as fixed use of Directional Theta-Weighted (DTW) SN differencing scheme in order to compare the calculated PENTRAN results to measured data. The results show good comparison with the measured benchmark data, which suggests PENTRAN is a viable, reliable code system for calculation of light water reactor neutron shielding and pressure vessel dosimetry calculations. Furthermore, the improvements to the benchmark methodology resulting from this work provide a 6 percent increase in accuracy of the calculation (based on the average of all calculation points), when compared with experimentally measured results at the same spatial locations in the PCA pressure vessel simulator.

Edgar, Christopher A.; Sjoden, Glenn E.; Yi, Ce

2014-06-01

17

RELAP5-3D Results for Phase I (Exercise 2) of the OECD/NEA MHTGR-350 MW Benchmark  

SciTech Connect

The coupling of the PHISICS code suite to the thermal hydraulics system code RELAP5-3D has recently been initiated at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to provide a fully coupled prismatic Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) system modeling capability as part of the NGNP methods development program. The PHISICS code consists of three modules: INSTANT (performing 3D nodal transport core calculations), MRTAU (depletion and decay heat generation) and a perturbation/mixer module. As part of the verification and validation activities, steady state results have been obtained for Exercise 2 of Phase I of the newly-defined OECD/NEA MHTGR-350 MW Benchmark. This exercise requires participants to calculate a steady-state solution for an End of Equilibrium Cycle 350 MW Modular High Temperature Reactor (MHTGR), using the provided geometry, material, and coolant bypass flow description. The paper provides an overview of the MHTGR Benchmark and presents typical steady state results (e.g. solid and gas temperatures, thermal conductivities) for Phase I Exercise 2. Preliminary results are also provided for the early test phase of Exercise 3 using a two-group cross-section library and the Relap5-3D model developed for Exercise 2.

Gerhard Strydom

2012-06-01

18

RELAP5-3D results for phase I (Exercise 2) of the OECD/NEA MHTGR-350 MW benchmark  

SciTech Connect

The coupling of the PHISICS code suite to the thermal hydraulics system code RELAP5-3D has recently been initiated at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to provide a fully coupled prismatic Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) system modeling capability as part of the NGNP methods development program. The PHISICS code consists of three modules: INSTANT (performing 3D nodal transport core calculations), MRTAU (depletion and decay heat generation) and a perturbation/mixer module. As part of the verification and validation activities, steady state results have been obtained for Exercise 2 of Phase I of the newly-defined OECD/NEA MHTGR-350 MW Benchmark. This exercise requires participants to calculate a steady-state solution for an End of Equilibrium Cycle 350 MW Modular High Temperature Reactor (MHTGR), using the provided geometry, material, and coolant bypass flow description. The paper provides an overview of the MHTGR Benchmark and presents typical steady state results (e.g. solid and gas temperatures, thermal conductivities) for Phase I Exercise 2. Preliminary results are also provided for the early test phase of Exercise 3 using a two-group cross-section library and the Relap5-3D model developed for Exercise 2. (authors)

Strydom, G.; Epiney, A. S. [Idaho National Laboratory INL, 2525 N. Fremont Ave., Idaho Falls, ID 83402 (United States)

2012-07-01

19

Group-Slicer: A collaborative extension of 3D-Slicer  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe a first step towards a collaborative extension of the well-known 3D-Slicer; this platform is nowadays used as a standalone tool for both surgical planning and medical intervention. We show how this tool can be easily modified to make it collaborative so that it may constitute an integrated environment for expertise exchange as well as a

Federico Simmross-wattenberg; Noem Carranza-herrezuelo; Cristina Palacios-camarero; Pablo Casaseca-de-la-higuera; Miguel ngel Martn-fernndez; Santiago Aja-fernndez; Juan Ruiz-alzola; Carl-fredrik Westin; Carlos Alberola-lpez

2005-01-01

20

New Multi-group Transport Neutronics (PHISICS) Capabilities for RELAP5-3D and its Application to Phase I of the OECD/NEA MHTGR-350 MW Benchmark  

SciTech Connect

PHISICS is a neutronics code system currently under development at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Its goal is to provide state of the art simulation capability to reactor designers. The different modules for PHISICS currently under development are a nodal and semi-structured transport core solver (INSTANT), a depletion module (MRTAU) and a cross section interpolation (MIXER) module. The INSTANT module is the most developed of the mentioned above. Basic functionalities are ready to use, but the code is still in continuous development to extend its capabilities. This paper reports on the effort of coupling the nodal kinetics code package PHISICS (INSTANT/MRTAU/MIXER) to the thermal hydraulics system code RELAP5-3D, to enable full core and system modeling. This will enable the possibility to model coupled (thermal-hydraulics and neutronics) problems with more options for 3D neutron kinetics, compared to the existing diffusion theory neutron kinetics module in RELAP5-3D (NESTLE). In the second part of the paper, an overview of the OECD/NEA MHTGR-350 MW benchmark is given. This benchmark has been approved by the OECD, and is based on the General Atomics 350 MW Modular High Temperature Gas Reactor (MHTGR) design. The benchmark includes coupled neutronics thermal hydraulics exercises that require more capabilities than RELAP5-3D with NESTLE offers. Therefore, the MHTGR benchmark makes extensive use of the new PHISICS/RELAP5-3D coupling capabilities. The paper presents the preliminary results of the three steady state exercises specified in Phase I of the benchmark using PHISICS/RELAP5-3D.

Gerhard Strydom; Cristian Rabiti; Andrea Alfonsi

2012-10-01

21

Parareal in time 3D numerical solver for the LWR Benchmark neutron diffusion transient model  

E-print Network

We present a parareal in time algorithm for the simulation of neutron diffusion transient model. The method is made efficient by means of a coarse solver defined with large time steps and steady control rods model. Using finite element for the space discretization, our implementation provides a good scalability of the algorithm. Numerical results show the efficiency of the parareal method on large light water reactor transient model corresponding to the Langenbuch-Maurer-Werner (LMW) benchmark [1].

Baudron, Anne-Marie A -M; Maday, Yvon; Riahi, Mohamed Kamel; Salomon, Julien

2014-01-01

22

Partisn calculations of 3D radiation transport benchmarks for simple geometries with void regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have solved the 3D radiation transport benachmark problems proposed by Prof Kobayashi using the transport code PARTISN. We have used different angular discretizations represented by the Sn method of various orders of n to investigate the resultant sensitivity of the solution. In addition, we have employed our first collision source method as incorporated in the code to mitigate the

Raymond E. Alcouffe

2001-01-01

23

3D Incompressible Two-Phase Flow Benchmark Computations for Rising Droplets  

E-print Network

we compare the flow solvers DROPS, NaSt3DGPF and OpenFOAM. All codes adopt different numerical with two test cases is formulated in which we compare the flow solvers DROPS [2], NaSt3DGPF [3] and OpenFOAM¨uttgers DROPS NaSt3D OpenFOAM developer IGPM, RWTH Aachen INS, University of Bonn open source space

24

3D Incompressible TwoPhase Flow Benchmark Computations for Rising Droplets  

E-print Network

cases is formulated in which we compare the flow solvers DROPS, NaSt3DGPF and OpenFOAM. All codes adopt] and OpenFOAM [4]. All codes adopt di#erent numerical techniques. We list the main features of each code and Alexander R?uttgers DROPS NaSt3D OpenFOAM developer IGPM, RWTH Aachen INS, University of Bonn open source

25

Toward Verification of USM3D Extensions for Mixed Element Grids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The unstructured tetrahedral grid cell-centered finite volume flow solver USM3D has been recently extended to handle mixed element grids composed of hexahedral, prismatic, pyramidal, and tetrahedral cells. Presently, two turbulence models, namely, baseline Spalart-Allmaras (SA) and Menter Shear Stress Transport (SST), support mixed element grids. This paper provides an overview of the various numerical discretization options available in the newly enhanced USM3D. Using the SA model, the flow solver extensions are verified on three two-dimensional test cases available on the Turbulence Modeling Resource website at the NASA Langley Research Center. The test cases are zero pressure gradient flat plate, planar shear, and bump-inchannel. The effect of cell topologies on the flow solution is also investigated using the planar shear case. Finally, the assessment of various cell and face gradient options is performed on the zero pressure gradient flat plate case.

Pandya, Mohagna J.; Frink, Neal T.; Ding, Ejiang; Parlette, Edward B.

2013-01-01

26

Extension of Efficient Low Dissipative High Order Schemes for 3-D Curvilinear Moving Grids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The efficient low dissipative high order schemes proposed by Yee et al. is formulated for 3-D curvilinear moving grids. These schemes consists of a high order base schemes combined with nonlinear characteristic filters. The amount of numerical dissipation is minimized by applying the schemes to the entropy splitting form of the inviscid flux derivatives. The analysis is given for a thermally perfect gas. The main difficulty in the extension of higher order schemes that were formulated in Cartesian coordinates to curvilinear moving grids is the higher order transformed metric evaluations. The higher order numerical evaluation of the transformed metric terms to insure freestream preservation is done in a coordinate invariant manner. The formulation is an improvement over existing formulation of high order scheme in curvilinear moving grids.

Vinokur, Marcel; Yee H. C.; Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

27

Extensions to SCDAP/RELAP5-3D for Analysis of Advanced Reactors  

SciTech Connect

The SCDAP/RELAP5-3D code was extended to enable the code to perform transient analyses of advanced LWRs (Light Water Reactors) and HTGRs (High Temperature Gas Reactors). The extensions for LWRs included: (1) representation of micro-heterogeneous fuel varying in composition in the radial and axial directions, (2) modeling of two-dimensional radial/axial heat conduction for more accurate calculation of fuel and cladding temperatures during the reflood period of a large break loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA), (3) modeling of fuel-cladding interface pressure and fuel-cladding gap conductance, (4) representation of radial power profiles varying in a discontinuous manner in the axial direction, and (5) addition of material properties for fuel composed of mixtures of ThO2-UO2 and ThO2-PuO2. The extensions for HTGR analyses included: (1) modeling of the transient two-dimensional temperature behavior of graphite moderated reactor cores (pebble bed and block-type), reactor vessel, and reactor containment, (2) modeling of flow losses and convective heat transfer in pebble bed reactor cores, (3) modeling of oxidation of graphite components in reactor cores due to the ingress of air and/or water, and (4) modeling of the affect of oxidation on the composition of gases in the reactor system. The applications of the extended code to LWR analyses showed that advanced fuels intended for proliferation resistance and waste reduction could also be designed to produce calculated peak cladding temperatures during a large break LOCA less than the 1477 K acceptance criterion in 10 CFR 50.46. Fuels composed of ThO2-UO2 and ThO2-PuO2 are examples of such fuels. The applications of the extended code to HTGR analyses showed that: (1) HTGRs can be designed for passive removal of all decay heat, and (2)

Harvego, Edwin Allan; Siefken, Larry James

2003-04-01

28

Dynamics of diachronous back-arc extension: insights from 3D thermo-mechanical analogue experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subduction of an old, dense oceanic lithosphere can lead to rifting and extension of the magmatic arc. Such subduction systems are inherently three-dimensional with significant along-strike variations in the timing and style of deformation and magmatism. Geodynamic models used to explain such variations and associated trench curvature generally ignore the role of the overriding plate and its deformation. 3D thermo-mechanical analogue experiments are used to investigate the kinematics and dynamics of diachronous arc rifting and back-arc basin opening. In the models, horizontal tension increases in the upper plate until the magmatic arc lithosphere fails and back-arc opening occurs via slab rollback. This result corresponds well to previous 2D models of arc rifting and subsequent back-arc opening via trench rollback and the mechanics of retreating slabs in fluid dynamic experiments. However, in our experiments arc failure occurs diachronously, initiating near the model edge due to locally higher temperatures and lower strength and then propagating along strike, producing an arcuate plate boundary. The experiments demonstrate that trench rollback rate is limited by the propagation rate of arc failure. Conversely, slab rollback generates additional horizontal tension in the adjacent magmatic arc lithosphere, which drives along-strike propagation of arc failure. Feedback between the rates of trench rollback and arc failure propagation dictates the geometry of the back-arc basin in plan-view. The shape of the back-arc basin obtained in models fits remarkably well with that of the Mariana basin in the western Pacific. Experiments where the strength of the magmatic arc, or forearc varies along strike or where the negative buoyancy of the subducting plate varies along strike explore further the role of the slab edge and the trench-parallel tensile strength of the retreating forearc block.

Boutelier, D. A.; Cruden, A. R.

2013-12-01

29

Tunneling Analyst: A 3D GIS extension for rock mass classification and fault zone analysis in tunneling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, an extension called Tunneling Analyst (TA) has been developed in ArcScene 3D GIS software, part of the ArcGIS software package. It dramatically extends the functionalities of ArcScene because it allows: (1) estimation of the 3D distribution of rock mass rating (RMR) values using borehole and geophysical exploration data, (2) the modeling of 3D discontinuity planes such as faults from field-based structural measurements, and (3) analysis of 3D intersections and 3D buffer zones between proposed tunnel alignments and some discontinuities. Because TA can handle and visualize both 2D and 3D geological data in a single GIS environment, the tedious tasks required for data conversion between various software packages can be reduced significantly. The application to the Daecheong tunneling project in Korea shows that TA could present a rational solution to evaluating the rock mass classes along a proposed tunnel alignment and can also provide specific 3D spatial query tools to support the tunnel design work. This paper describes the concept and details of the development and implementation of TA.

Choi, Yosoon; Yoon, Seo-Youn; Park, Hyeong-Dong

2009-06-01

30

Image-based virtual exhibit and its extension to 3D  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we introduce an image-based virtual exhibition system especially for clothing product. It can provide a powerful\\u000a material substitution function, which is very useful for customization clothing-built. A novel color substitution algorithm\\u000a and two texture morphing methods are designed to ensure realistic substitution result. To extend it to 3D, we need to do the\\u000a model reconstruction based on

Ming-Min Zhang; Zhi-Geng Pan; Li-Feng Ren; Peng Wang

2007-01-01

31

Kinematic MHD Models of Collapsing Magnetic Traps: Extension to 3D  

SciTech Connect

We show how fully 3D kinematic MHD models of collapsing magnetic traps (CMTs) can be constructed, thus extending previous work on 2D trap models. CMTs are thought to form in the relaxing magnetic field lines in solar flares and it has been proposed that they play an important role in the acceleration of high-energy particles. This work is a first step to understanding the physics of CMTs better.

Grady, Keith J.; Neukirch, Thomas [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)

2009-02-16

32

Depth-based coding of MVD data for 3D video extension of H.264/AVC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a novel approach of using depth information for advanced coding of associated video data in Multiview Video plus Depth (MVD)-based 3D video systems. As a possible implementation of this conception, we describe two coding tools that have been developed for H.264/AVC based 3D Video Codec as response to Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) Call for Proposals (CfP). These tools are Depth-based Motion Vector Prediction (DMVP) and Backward View Synthesis Prediction (BVSP). Simulation results conducted under JCT-3V/MPEG 3DV Common Test Conditions show, that proposed in this paper tools reduce bit rate of coded video data by 15% of average delta bit rate reduction, which results in 13% of bit rate savings on total for the MVD data over the state-of-the-art MVC+D coding. Moreover, presented in this paper conception of depth-based coding of video has been further developed by MPEG 3DV and JCT-3V and this work resulted in even higher compression efficiency, bringing about 20% of delta bit rate reduction on total for coded MVD data over the reference MVC+D coding. Considering significant gains, proposed in this paper coding approach can be beneficial for development of new 3D video coding standards. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

Rusanovskyy, Dmytro; Hannuksela, Miska M.; Su, Wenyi

2013-06-01

33

RELAP5-3D Results for Phase I (Exercise 2) of the OECD\\/NEA MHTGR-350 MW Benchmark  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coupling of the PHISICS code suite to the thermal hydraulics system code RELAP5-3D has recently been initiated at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to provide a fully coupled prismatic Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) system modeling capability as part of the NGNP methods development program. The PHISICS code consists of three modules: INSTANT (performing 3D nodal transport core calculations),

Gerhard Strydom

2012-01-01

34

Extension of multigrid methodology to supersonic/hypersonic 3-D viscous flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multigrid acceleration technique developed for solving 3-D Navier-Stokes equations for subsonic/transonic flows was extended to supersonic/hypersonic flows. An explicit multistage Runge-Kutta type of time stepping scheme is used as the basic algorithm in conjunction with the multigrid scheme. Solutions were obtained for a blunt conical frustum at Mach 6 to demonstrate the applicability of the multigrid scheme to high speed flows. Computations were performed for a generic High Speed Civil Transport configuration designed to cruise at Mach 3. These solutions show both the efficiency and accuracy of the present scheme for computing high speed viscous flows over configurations of practical interest.

Vatsa, Veer N.; Turkel, Eli; Abolhassani, J. S.

1991-01-01

35

Two-Fluid Extensions to the M3D CDX-U Validation Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of a cross-code verification and validation effort, both the M3D code [1] and the NIMROD code [2] have qualitatively reproduced the nonlinear behavior of a complete sawtooth cycle in the CDX-U tokamak, chosen for the study because its low temperature and small size puts it in a parameter regime easily accessible to both codes. Initial M3D studies on this problem used a resistive MHD model with a large, empirical perpendicular heat transport value and with modest toroidal resolution (24 toroidal planes). The success of this study prompted the pursuit of more quantitatively accurate predictions by the application of more sophisticated physical models and higher numerical resolution. The results of two consequent follow-up studies are presented here. In the first, the toroidal resolution of the original run is doubled to 48 planes. The behavior of the sawtooth in this case is essentially the same as in the lower- resolution study. The sawtooth study has also been repeated using a two-fluid plasma model, with the effects of the &*circ;i term emphasized. The resulting mode rotation, as well as the effects on the reconnection rate (sawtooth crash time), sawtooth period, and overall stability are presented. [1] W. Park, et al., Phys. Plasmas 6, 1796 (1999). [2] C. Sovinec, et al., J. Comp. Phys. 195, 355 (2004).

Breslau, J.; Strauss, H.; Sugiyama, L.

2005-10-01

36

Highest performance in 3D metal cutting at smallest footprint: benchmark of a robot based system vs. parameters of gantry systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the automotive industry as well as in other industries ecological aspects regarding energy savings are driving new technologies and materials, e.g. lightweight materials as aluminium or press hardened steels. Processing such parts especially complex 3D shaped parts laser manufacturing has become the key process offering highest efficiency. The most established systems for 3D cutting applications are based on gantry systems. The disadvantage of those systems is their huge footprint to realize the required stability and work envelope. Alternatively a robot based system might be of advantage if accuracy, speed and overall performance would be capable processing automotive parts. With the BIM "beam in motion" system, JENOPTIK Automatisierungstechnik GmbH has developed a modular robot based laser processing machine, which meets all OEM specs processing press hardened steel parts. A benchmark of the BIM versus a gantry system was done regarding all required parameters to fulfil OEM specifications for press hardened steel parts. As a result a highly productive, accurate and efficient system can be described based on one or multiple robot modules working simultaneously together. The paper presents the improvements on the robot machine concept BIM addressed in 2012 [1] leading to an industrial proven system approach for the automotive industry. It further compares the performance and the parameters for 3D cutting applications of the BIM system versus a gantry system by samples of applied parts. Finally an overview of suitable applications for processing complex 3D parts with high productivity at small footprint is given.

Scheller, Torsten; Bastick, Andr; Michel-Triller, Robert; Manzella, Christon

2014-02-01

37

Extension of a data-driven gating technique to 3D, whole body PET studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Respiratory gating can be used to separate a PET acquisition into a series of near motion-free bins. This is typically done using additional gating hardware; however, software-based methods can derive the respiratory signal from the acquired data itself. The aim of this work was to extend a data-driven respiratory gating method to acquire gated, 3D, whole body PET images of clinical patients. The existing method, previously demonstrated with 2D, single bed-position data, uses a spectral analysis to find regions in raw PET data which are subject to respiratory motion. The change in counts over time within these regions is then used to estimate the respiratory signal of the patient. In this work, the gating method was adapted to only accept lines of response from a reduced set of axial angles, and the respiratory frequency derived from the lung bed position was used to help identify the respiratory frequency in all other bed positions. As the respiratory signal does not identify the direction of motion, a registration-based technique was developed to align the direction for all bed positions. Data from 11 clinical FDG PET patients were acquired, and an optical respiratory monitor was used to provide a hardware-based signal for comparison. All data were gated using both the data-driven and hardware methods, and reconstructed. The centre of mass of manually defined regions on gated images was calculated, and the overall displacement was defined as the change in the centre of mass between the first and last gates. The mean displacement was 10.3 mm for the data-driven gated images and 9.1 mm for the hardware gated images. No significant difference was found between the two gating methods when comparing the displacement values. The adapted data-driven gating method was demonstrated to successfully produce respiratory gated, 3D, whole body, clinical PET acquisitions.

Schleyer, Paul J.; O'Doherty, Michael J.; Marsden, Paul K.

2011-07-01

38

Non-Trivial Extensions of the 3D-Poincar Algebra and Fractional Supersymmetry for Anyons  

E-print Network

Non-trivial extensions of the three dimensional Poincar\\'e algebra, beyond the supersymmetric one, are explicitly constructed. These algebraic structures are the natural three dimensional generalizations of fractional supersymmetry of order $F$ already considered in one and two dimensions. Representations of these algebras are exhibited, and unitarity is explicitly checked. It is then shown that these extensions generate symmetries which connect fractional spin states or anyons. Finally, a natural classification arises according to the decomposition of $F$ into its product of prime numbers leading to sub-systems with smaller symmetries.

M. Rausch de Traubenberg; M. J. Slupinski

1996-09-25

39

Non-Trivial Extensions of the $3D-$Poincar Algebra and Fractional Supersymmetry for Anyons  

E-print Network

Non-trivial extensions of the three dimensional Poincar algebra, beyond the supersymmetric one, are explicitly constructed. These algebraic structures are the natural three dimensional generalizations of fractional supersymmetry of order $F$ already considered in one and two dimensions. The representations of these algebras are exhibited. It is then shown that these extensions generate symmetries which connect fractional spin states or anyons. Finally, a natural classification arises according to the decomposition of $F$ into its product of prime numbers leading to sub-systems with smaller symmetries.

Rausch de Traubenberg, M

1996-01-01

40

Benchmark of Atucha-2 PHWR RELAP5-3D control rod model by Monte Carlo MCNP5 core calculation  

SciTech Connect

Atucha-2 is a Siemens-designed PHWR reactor under construction in the Republic of Argentina. Its geometrical complexity and peculiarities require the adoption of advanced Monte Carlo codes for performing realistic neutronic simulations. Therefore core models of Atucha-2 PHWR were developed using MCNP5. In this work a methodology was set up to collect the flux in the hexagonal mesh by which the Atucha-2 core is represented. The scope of this activity is to evaluate the effect of obliquely inserted control rod on neutron flux in order to validate the RELAP5-3D{sup C}/NESTLE three dimensional neutron kinetic coupled thermal-hydraulic model, applied by GRNSPG/UNIPI for performing selected transients of Chapter 15 FSAR of Atucha-2. (authors)

Pecchia, M.; D'Auria, F. [San Piero A Grado Nuclear Research Group GRNSPG, Univ. of Pisa, via Diotisalvi, 2, 56122 - Pisa (Italy); Mazzantini, O. [Nucleo-electrica Argentina Societad Anonima NA-SA, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2012-07-01

41

Effects of Secondary Circuit Modeling on Results of Pressurized Water Reactor Main Steam Line Break Benchmark Calculations with New Coupled Code TRAB-3D/SMABRE  

SciTech Connect

All of the three exercises of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development/Nuclear Regulatory Commission pressurized water reactor main steam line break (PWR MSLB) benchmark were calculated at VTT, the Technical Research Centre of Finland. For the first exercise, the plant simulation with point-kinetic neutronics, the thermal-hydraulics code SMABRE was used. The second exercise was calculated with the three-dimensional reactor dynamics code TRAB-3D, and the third exercise with the combination TRAB-3D/SMABRE. VTT has over ten years' experience of coupling neutronic and thermal-hydraulic codes, but this benchmark was the first time these two codes, both developed at VTT, were coupled together. The coupled code system is fast and efficient; the total computation time of the 100-s transient in the third exercise was 16 min on a modern UNIX workstation. The results of all the exercises are similar to those of the other participants. In order to demonstrate the effect of secondary circuit modeling on the results, three different cases were calculated. In case 1 there is no phase separation in the steam lines and no flow reversal in the aspirator. In case 2 the flow reversal in the aspirator is allowed, but there is no phase separation in the steam lines. Finally, in case 3 the drift-flux model is used for the phase separation in the steam lines, but the aspirator flow reversal is not allowed. With these two modeling variations, it is possible to cover a remarkably broad range of results. The maximum power level reached after the reactor trip varies from 534 to 904 MW, the range of the time of the power maximum being close to 30 s. Compared to the total calculated transient time of 100 s, the effect of the secondary side modeling is extremely important.

Daavittila, Antti; Haemaelaeinen, Anitta; Kyrki-Rajamaeki, Riitta [VTT Processes (Finland)

2003-05-15

42

A demonstration of the validity of a 3-D video motion analysis method for measuring finger flexion and extension  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study demonstrates the validity of using 3-D video motion analysis to measure hand motion. Several researchers have devised ingenious methods to study normal and abnormal hand movements. Although very helpful, these earlier studies are static representations of a dynamic phenomenon. Despite the many studies of hand motion using scientifically impeccable techniques, little is known about digital motion, and there

Gregory S Rash; P. P Belliappa; Mark P Wachowiak; Naveen N Somia; Amit Gupta

1999-01-01

43

Continuous-scanning laser Doppler vibrometry: Extensions to arbitrary areas, multi-frequency and 3D capture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To date, differing implementations of continuous scan laser Doppler vibrometry have been demonstrated by various academic institutions, but since the scan paths were defined using step or sine functions from function generators, the paths were typically limited to 1D line scans or 2D areas such as raster paths or Lissajous trajectories. The excitation was previously often limited to a single frequency due to the specific signal processing performed to convert the scan data into an ODS. In this paper, a configuration of continuous-scan laser Doppler vibrometry is demonstrated which permits scanning of arbitrary areas, with the benefit of allowing multi-frequency/broadband excitation. Various means of generating scan paths to inspect arbitrary areas are discussed and demonstrated. Further, full 3D vibration capture is demonstrated by the addition of a range-finding facility to the described configuration, and iteratively relocating a single scanning laser head. Here, the range-finding facility was provided by a Microsoft Kinect, an inexpensive piece of consumer electronics.

Weekes, B.; Ewins, D.; Acciavatti, F.

2014-05-01

44

Comparison Between Laser Scanning and Automated 3d Modelling Techniques to Reconstruct Complex and Extensive Cultural Heritage Areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Cultural Heritage field, the necessity to survey objects in a fast manner, with the ability to repeat the measurements several times for deformation or degradation monitoring purposes, is increasing. In this paper, two significant cases, an architectonical one and an archaeological one, are presented. Due to different reasons and emergency situations, the finding of the optimal solution to enable quick and well-timed survey for a complete digital reconstruction of the object is required. In both cases, two survey methods have been tested and used: a laser scanning approach that allows to obtain high-resolution and complete scans within a short time and a photogrammetric one that allows the three-dimensional reconstruction of the object from images. In the last months, several methodologies, including free or low cost techniques, have arisen. These kinds of software allow the fully automatically three-dimensional reconstruction of objects from images, giving back a dense point cloud and, in some case, a surfaced mesh model. In this paper some comparisons between the two methodologies above mentioned are presented, using the example of some real cases of study. The surveys have been performed by employing both photogrammetry and laser scanner techniques. The methodological operational choices, depending on the required goal, the difficulties encountered during the survey with these methods, the execution time (that is the key parameter), and finally the obtained results, are fully described and examinated. On the final 3D model, an analytical comparison has been made, to analyse the differences, the tolerances, the possibility of accuracy improvement and the future developments.

Fassi, F.; Fregonese, L.; Ackermann, S.; De Troia, V.

2013-02-01

45

A stabilized mixed finite element method for shear-rate dependent non-Newtonian fluids: 3D benchmark problems and application to blood flow in bifurcating arteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a stabilized mixed finite element method for shear-rate dependent fluids. The nonlinear viscosity field is a function of the shear-rate and varies uniformly in space and in time. The stabilized form is developed via application of Variational Multiscale (VMS) framework to the underlying generalized Navier-Stokes equation. Linear and quadratic tetrahedral and hexahedral elements are employed with equal-order interpolations for the velocity and pressure fields. A variety of benchmark problems are solved to assess the stability and accuracy properties of the resulting method. The method is then applied to non-Newtonian shear-rate dependent flows in bifurcating artery geometry, and significant non-Newtonian fluid effects are observed. A comparative study of the proposed method shows that the additional computational costs due to the nonlinear shear-rate dependent viscosity are only ten percent more than the computational cost for a Newtonian model.

Kwack, JaeHyuk; Masud, Arif

2014-04-01

46

Source convergence diagnostics using Boltzmann entropy criterion application to different OECD/NEA criticality benchmarks with the 3-D Monte Carlo code Tripoli-4  

SciTech Connect

The measurement of the stationarity of Monte Carlo fission source distributions in k{sub eff} calculations plays a central role in the ability to discriminate between fake and 'true' convergence (in the case of a high dominant ratio or in case of loosely coupled systems). Recent theoretical developments have been made in the study of source convergence diagnostics, using Shannon entropy. We will first recall those results, and we will then generalize them using the expression of Boltzmann entropy, highlighting the gain in terms of the various physical problems that we can treat. Finally we will present the results of several OECD/NEA benchmarks using the Tripoli-4 Monte Carlo code, enhanced with this new criterion. (authors)

Dumonteil, E.; Le Peillet, A.; Lee, Y. K.; Petit, O.; Jouanne, C.; Mazzolo, A. [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique CEA, Service d'Etude des Reacteurs et de Mathematiques Appliquees DEN/DM2S/SERMA/LEPP, Centre de Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvettes (France)

2006-07-01

47

Photonic bandgap extension of surface-disordered 3D photonic crystals based on the TiO2 inverse opal architecture.  

PubMed

A photonic bandgap (PBG) extension of surface-disordered 3D photonic crystals (PCs) based on the TiO2 inverse opal (TiO2-IO) architecture has been demonstrated. By using a liquid phase deposition (LPD) process based on the controlled hydrolysis of ammonium hexafluorotitanate and boric acid, an extra layer of TiO2 nanoparticles were deposited onto the internal surface of the air voids in the TiO2-IOs to increase their surface roughness, thereby introducing surface disorder in the 3D order structures. The PBG relative width of surface-disordered TiO2-IOs has been broadened significantly, and, compared to the original TiO2-IO, its largest rate of increase (27%) has been obtained. It was found that the PBG relative width increased rapidly at first and then to a much slower rate of change with increase of the duration of the LPD time. A possible cause for this finding is discussed in this Letter. PMID:24978999

Wang, Aijun; Liu, Wenfang; Tang, Junjie; Chen, Sheng-Li; Dong, Peng

2014-04-15

48

Retroarc extension in the last 6 Ma in the South-Central Andes (36S-40S) evaluated through a 3-D gravity modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Andean retroarc between 35 and 40S is the locus of debate regarding its Pliocene to Quaternary tectonic setting. Retroarc volcanic eruptions since 6 Ma to the Present are, based on some hypotheses, associated with widespread extension. In these works, geological data point to the existence of normal faults affecting previous (Late Cretaceous to Miocene) contractional structures. In order to evaluate such interpretations we have collected data from various geological and geophysical studies and scales. Based on these data, an existing large-scale 3-D gravity model could be improved and used to investigate the lithospheric structure of this region. Moreover, using the gravity model, an attenuated crust could be localized and quantified throughout the retroarc area. Deep seismic data available from this region are limited to the forearc - arc area, while in general the retroarc zone lacks deep seismic constraints. The only deep seismic profile extending to the retroarc is a receiver function profile at 39S, showing crustal attenuation. This observation correlates with the extensional activity recognized at the surface. When analysing the gravity field, positive residual anomalies are observed. They correlate with crustal attenuation at the areas of extension. Also, computed elastic thickness in the retroarc shows good correlation between the areas of crustal stretching and low flexural rigidity, explained by thermal processes. The present extensional deformation reflected in positive residual gravity anomalies points to the influence of reactivated Triassic rifting inherited from early phases of Pangea break-up. Finally, the present local uplift and consequent fluvial incision at the retroarc zone are explained by crustal stretching and not by crustal shortening, the common mechanism in Andean orogenesis.

Folguera, A.; Alasonati Tarov, Z.; Gtze, H.-J.; Rojas Vera, E.; Gimnez, M.; Ramos, V. A.

2012-12-01

49

MRML: an extensible communication protocol for interoperability and benchmarking of multimedia information retrieval systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While in the area of relational databases interoperability is ensured by common communication protocols (e.g. ODBC/JDBC using SQL), Content Based Image Retrieval Systems (CBIRS) and other multimedia retrieval systems are lacking both a common query language and a common communication protocol. Besides its obvious short term convenience, interoperability of systems is crucial for the exchange and analysis of user data. In this paper, we present and describe an extensible XML-based query markup language, called MRML (Multimedia Retrieval markup Language). MRML is primarily designed so as to ensure interoperability between different content-based multimedia retrieval systems. Further, MRML allows researchers to preserve their freedom in extending their system as needed. MRML encapsulates multimedia queries in a way that enable multimedia (MM) query languages, MM content descriptions, MM query engines, and MM user interfaces to grow independently from each other, reaching a maximum of interoperability while ensuring a maximum of freedom for the developer. For benefitting from this, only a few simple design principles have to be respected when extending MRML for one's fprivate needs. The design of extensions withing the MRML framework will be described in detail in the paper. MRML has been implemented and tested for the CBIRS Viper, using the user interface Snake Charmer. Both are part of the GNU project and can be downloaded at our site.

Mueller, Wolfgang; Mueller, Henning; Marchand-Maillet, Stephane; Pun, Thierry; Squire, David M.; Pecenovic, Zoran; Giess, Christoph; de Vries, Arjen P.

2000-10-01

50

Radiosity diffusion model in 3D  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the Radiosity-Diffusion model in three dimensions(3D), as an extension to previous work in 2D. It is a method for handling non-scattering spaces in optically participating media. We present the extension of the model to 3D including an extension to the model to cope with increased complexity of the 3D domain. We show that in 3D more careful consideration

Jason D. Riley; Simon R. Arridge; Yiorgos Chrysanthou; Hamid Dehghani; Elizabeth M. Hillman; Martin Schweiger

2001-01-01

51

3-D Vector Field Simulation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This simulation illustrates a wide range of 3D vector fields, including spherical, radial, and linear. The fields can be displayed as vectors, particle trajectories, equipotentials, and other options. The number of particles, vectors, or streamlines, and the field strength are adjustable. Directions and source code are also included. This is an extension of a 3D Electric and Magnetic Field viewer from the same author.

Falstad, Paul

2004-07-13

52

EUROGRAPHICS 2008 Tutorial Interactive Introduction to X3D Graphics  

E-print Network

EUROGRAPHICS 2008 Tutorial Interactive Introduction to X3D Graphics Don Brutzman 1 and Craig Anslow, Wellington, New Zealand Abstract Extensible 3D (X3D) graphics is a collection of open-standards that define a system that integrates network- enabled 3D graphics and multimedia. X3D applications are real

Anslow, Craig

53

VALIDATION OF IMPROVED 3D ATR MODEL  

SciTech Connect

A full-core Monte Carlo based 3D model of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) was previously developed. [1] An improved 3D model has been developed by the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) to eliminate homogeneity of fuel plates of the old model, incorporate core changes into the new model, and to validate against a newer, more complicated core configuration. This new 3D model adds capability for fuel loading design and azimuthal power peaking studies of the ATR fuel elements.

Soon Sam Kim; Bruce G. Schnitzler

2005-11-01

54

Europeana and 3D  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current 3D hype creates a lot of interest in 3D. People go to 3D movies, but are we ready to use 3D in our homes, in our offices, in our communication? Are we ready to deliver real 3D to a general public and use interactive 3D in a meaningful way to enjoy, learn, communicate? The CARARE project is realising this for the moment in the domain of monuments and archaeology, so that real 3D of archaeological sites and European monuments will be available to the general public by 2012. There are several aspects to this endeavour. First of all is the technical aspect of flawlessly delivering 3D content over all platforms and operating systems, without installing software. We have currently a working solution in PDF, but HTML5 will probably be the future. Secondly, there is still little knowledge on how to create 3D learning objects, 3D tourist information or 3D scholarly communication. We are still in a prototype phase when it comes to integrate 3D objects in physical or virtual museums. Nevertheless, Europeana has a tremendous potential as a multi-facetted virtual museum. Finally, 3D has a large potential to act as a hub of information, linking to related 2D imagery, texts, video, sound. We describe how to create such rich, explorable 3D objects that can be used intuitively by the generic Europeana user and what metadata is needed to support the semantic linking.

Pletinckx, D.

2011-09-01

55

Calcific extension towards the mitral valve causes non-rheumatic mitral stenosis in degenerative aortic stenosis: real-time 3D transoesophageal echocardiography study  

PubMed Central

Objective Mitral annular/leaflet calcification (MALC) is frequently observed in patients with degenerative aortic stenosis (AS). However, the impact of MALC on mitral valve function has not been established. We aimed to investigate whether MALC reduces mitral annular area and restricts leaflet opening, resulting in non-rheumatic mitral stenosis. Methods Real-time three-dimensional transoesophageal images of the mitral valve were acquired in 101 patients with degenerative AS and 26 control participants. The outer and inner borders of the mitral annular area (MAA) and the maximal leaflet opening angle were measured at early diastole. The mitral valve area (MVA) was calculated as the left ventricular stroke volume divided by the velocity time integral of the transmitral flow velocity. Results Although the outer MAA was significantly larger in patients with AS compared to control participants (8.21.3 vs 7.30.9?cm2, p<0.001), the inner MAA was significantly smaller (4.51.1 vs 5.90.9?cm2, p<0.001), resulting in an average decrease of 45% in the effective MAA. The maximal anterior and posterior leaflet opening angle was also significantly smaller in patients with AS (6410 vs 728, p<0.001, 7112 vs 877, p<0.001). Thus, MVA was significantly smaller in patients with AS (2.51.0 vs 3.80.8?cm2, p<0.001). Twenty-four (24%) patients with AS showed MVA <1.5?cm2. Multivariate regression analysis including parameters for mitral valve geometry revealed that a decrease in effective MAA and a reduced posterior leaflet opening angle were independent predictors for MVA. Conclusions Calcific extension to the mitral valve in patients with AS reduced effective MAA and the leaflet opening, resulting in a significant non-rheumatic mitral stenosis in one-fourth of the patients. PMID:25332828

Iwataki, Mai; Takeuchi, Masaaki; Otani, Kyoko; Kuwaki, Hiroshi; Yoshitani, Hidetoshi; Abe, Haruhiko; Lang, Roberto M; Levine, Robert A; Otsuji, Yutaka

2014-01-01

56

LASTRAC.3d: Transition Prediction in 3D Boundary Layers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Langley Stability and Transition Analysis Code (LASTRAC) is a general-purpose, physics-based transition prediction code released by NASA for laminar flow control studies and transition research. This paper describes the LASTRAC extension to general three-dimensional (3D) boundary layers such as finite swept wings, cones, or bodies at an angle of attack. The stability problem is formulated by using a body-fitted nonorthogonal curvilinear coordinate system constructed on the body surface. The nonorthogonal coordinate system offers a variety of marching paths and spanwise waveforms. In the extreme case of an infinite swept wing boundary layer, marching with a nonorthogonal coordinate produces identical solutions to those obtained with an orthogonal coordinate system using the earlier release of LASTRAC. Several methods to formulate the 3D parabolized stability equations (PSE) are discussed. A surface-marching procedure akin to that for 3D boundary layer equations may be used to solve the 3D parabolized disturbance equations. On the other hand, the local line-marching PSE method, formulated as an easy extension from its 2D counterpart and capable of handling the spanwise mean flow and disturbance variation, offers an alternative. A linear stability theory or parabolized stability equations based N-factor analysis carried out along the streamline direction with a fixed wavelength and downstream-varying spanwise direction constitutes an efficient engineering approach to study instability wave evolution in a 3D boundary layer. The surface-marching PSE method enables a consistent treatment of the disturbance evolution along both streamwise and spanwise directions but requires more stringent initial conditions. Both PSE methods and the traditional LST approach are implemented in the LASTRAC.3d code. Several test cases for tapered or finite swept wings and cones at an angle of attack are discussed.

Chang, Chau-Lyan

2004-01-01

57

3D face recognition based on multiple keypoint descriptors and sparse representation.  

PubMed

Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in developing methods for 3D face recognition. However, 3D scans often suffer from the problems of missing parts, large facial expressions, and occlusions. To be useful in real-world applications, a 3D face recognition approach should be able to handle these challenges. In this paper, we propose a novel general approach to deal with the 3D face recognition problem by making use of multiple keypoint descriptors (MKD) and the sparse representation-based classification (SRC). We call the proposed method 3DMKDSRC for short. Specifically, with 3DMKDSRC, each 3D face scan is represented as a set of descriptor vectors extracted from keypoints by meshSIFT. Descriptor vectors of gallery samples form the gallery dictionary. Given a probe 3D face scan, its descriptors are extracted at first and then its identity can be determined by using a multitask SRC. The proposed 3DMKDSRC approach does not require the pre-alignment between two face scans and is quite robust to the problems of missing data, occlusions and expressions. Its superiority over the other leading 3D face recognition schemes has been corroborated by extensive experiments conducted on three benchmark databases, Bosphorus, GavabDB, and FRGC2.0. The Matlab source code for 3DMKDSRC and the related evaluation results are publicly available at http://sse.tongji.edu.cn/linzhang/3dmkdsrcface/3dmkdsrc.htm. PMID:24940876

Zhang, Lin; Ding, Zhixuan; Li, Hongyu; Shen, Ying; Lu, Jianwei

2014-01-01

58

3D Face Recognition Based on Multiple Keypoint Descriptors and Sparse Representation  

PubMed Central

Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in developing methods for 3D face recognition. However, 3D scans often suffer from the problems of missing parts, large facial expressions, and occlusions. To be useful in real-world applications, a 3D face recognition approach should be able to handle these challenges. In this paper, we propose a novel general approach to deal with the 3D face recognition problem by making use of multiple keypoint descriptors (MKD) and the sparse representation-based classification (SRC). We call the proposed method 3DMKDSRC for short. Specifically, with 3DMKDSRC, each 3D face scan is represented as a set of descriptor vectors extracted from keypoints by meshSIFT. Descriptor vectors of gallery samples form the gallery dictionary. Given a probe 3D face scan, its descriptors are extracted at first and then its identity can be determined by using a multitask SRC. The proposed 3DMKDSRC approach does not require the pre-alignment between two face scans and is quite robust to the problems of missing data, occlusions and expressions. Its superiority over the other leading 3D face recognition schemes has been corroborated by extensive experiments conducted on three benchmark databases, Bosphorus, GavabDB, and FRGC2.0. The Matlab source code for 3DMKDSRC and the related evaluation results are publicly available at http://sse.tongji.edu.cn/linzhang/3dmkdsrcface/3dmkdsrc.htm. PMID:24940876

Zhang, Lin; Ding, Zhixuan; Li, Hongyu; Shen, Ying; Lu, Jianwei

2014-01-01

59

Performance of the Cray T3D and Emerging Architectures on Canopy QCD Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cray T3D, an MIMD system with NUMA shared memory capabilities and in principle very low communications latency, can support the Canopy framework for grid-oriented applications. CANOPY has been ported to the T3D, with the intent of making it available to a spectrum of users. The performance of the T3D running Canopy has been benchmarked on five QCD applications extensively run on ACPMAPS at Fermilab, requiring a variety of data access patterns. The net performance and scaling behavior reveals an efficiency relative to peak Gflops almost identical to that achieved on ACPMAPS. Detailed studies of the major factors impacting performance are presented. Generalizations applying this analysis to the newly emerging crop of commercial systems reveal where their limitations will lie. On these applications, efficiencies of above 25% are not to be expected; eliminating overheads due to Canopy will improve matters, but by less than a factor of two.

Fischler, Mark; Uchima, Mike

1996-03-01

60

Performance of the Cray T3D and emerging architectures on canopy QCD applications  

SciTech Connect

The Cray T3D, an MIMD system with NUMA shared memory capabilities and in principle very low communications latency, can support the Canopy framework for grid-oriented applications. CANOPY has been ported to the T3D, with the intent of making it available to a spectrum of users. The performance of the T3D running Canopy has been benchmarked on five QCD applications extensively run on ACPMAPS at Fermilab, requiring a variety of data access patterns. The net performance and scaling behavior reveals an efficiency relative to peak Gflops almost identical to that achieved on ACPMAPS. Detailed studies of the major factors impacting performance are presented. Generalizations applying this analysis to the newly emerging crop of commercial systems reveal where their limitations will lie. On these applications, efficiencies of above 25% are not to be expected; eliminating overheads due to Canopy will improve matters, but by less than a factor of two.

Fischler, M.; Uchima, M.

1995-11-01

61

Dynamics of 3D Real Foam Coarsening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamics of a polydisperse 3D dry foam was experimentally investigated by means of a novel nondestructive method, more precisely by optical tomography associated to a foam reconstruction algorithm. The foam coarsening law obeys to a 3D extension of the classical von Neumann coarsening law of 2D foams. It is obtained as -1\\/3d\\/dt = k'\\\\( f-\\\\). is the mean volume

C. Monnereau; M. Vignes-Adler

1998-01-01

62

3D ear identification based on sparse representation.  

PubMed

Biometrics based personal authentication is an effective way for automatically recognizing, with a high confidence, a person's identity. Recently, 3D ear shape has attracted tremendous interests in research field due to its richness of feature and ease of acquisition. However, the existing ICP (Iterative Closet Point)-based 3D ear matching methods prevalent in the literature are not quite efficient to cope with the one-to-many identification case. In this paper, we aim to fill this gap by proposing a novel effective fully automatic 3D ear identification system. We at first propose an accurate and efficient template-based ear detection method. By utilizing such a method, the extracted ear regions are represented in a common canonical coordinate system determined by the ear contour template, which facilitates much the following stages of feature extraction and classification. For each extracted 3D ear, a feature vector is generated as its representation by making use of a PCA-based local feature descriptor. At the stage of classification, we resort to the sparse representation based classification approach, which actually solves an l1-minimization problem. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work introducing the sparse representation framework into the field of 3D ear identification. Extensive experiments conducted on a benchmark dataset corroborate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed approach. The associated Matlab source code and the evaluation results have been made publicly online available at http://sse.tongji.edu.cn/linzhang/ear/srcear/srcear.htm. PMID:24740247

Zhang, Lin; Ding, Zhixuan; Li, Hongyu; Shen, Ying

2014-01-01

63

3D Ear Identification Based on Sparse Representation  

PubMed Central

Biometrics based personal authentication is an effective way for automatically recognizing, with a high confidence, a persons identity. Recently, 3D ear shape has attracted tremendous interests in research field due to its richness of feature and ease of acquisition. However, the existing ICP (Iterative Closet Point)-based 3D ear matching methods prevalent in the literature are not quite efficient to cope with the one-to-many identification case. In this paper, we aim to fill this gap by proposing a novel effective fully automatic 3D ear identification system. We at first propose an accurate and efficient template-based ear detection method. By utilizing such a method, the extracted ear regions are represented in a common canonical coordinate system determined by the ear contour template, which facilitates much the following stages of feature extraction and classification. For each extracted 3D ear, a feature vector is generated as its representation by making use of a PCA-based local feature descriptor. At the stage of classification, we resort to the sparse representation based classification approach, which actually solves an l1-minimization problem. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work introducing the sparse representation framework into the field of 3D ear identification. Extensive experiments conducted on a benchmark dataset corroborate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed approach. The associated Matlab source code and the evaluation results have been made publicly online available at http://sse.tongji.edu.cn/linzhang/ear/srcear/srcear.htm. PMID:24740247

Zhang, Lin; Ding, Zhixuan; Li, Hongyu; Shen, Ying

2014-01-01

64

Neutron Fluence, Dosimetry and Damage Response Determination in In-Core/Ex-Core Components of the VENUS CEN/SCK LWR Using 3-D Monte Carlo Simulations: NEA's VENUS-3 Benchmark  

SciTech Connect

Validating state-of-the-art methods used to predict fluence exposure to reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) has become an important issue in identifying the sources of uncertainty in the estimated RPV fluence for pressurized water reactors. This is a very important aspect in evaluating irradiation damage leading to the hardening and embrittlement of such structural components. One of the major benchmark experiments carried out to test three-dimensional methodologies is the VENUS-3 Benchmark Experiment in which three-dimensional Monte Carlo and S{sub n} codes have proved more efficient than synthesis methods. At the Instituto de Fusion Nuclear (DENIM) at the Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, a detailed full three-dimensional model of the Venus Critical Facility has been developed making use of the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP4B. The problem geometry and source modeling are described, and results, including calculated versus experimental (C/E) ratios as well as additional studies, are presented. Evidence was found that the great majority of C/E values fell within the 10% tolerance and most within 5%. Tolerance limits are discussed on the basis of evaluated data library and fission spectra sensitivity, where a value ranging between 10 to 15% should be accepted. Also, a calculation of the atomic displacement rate has been carried out in various locations throughout the reactor, finding that values of 0.0001 displacements per atom in external components such as the core barrel are representative of this type of reactor during a 30-yr time span.

Perlado, J. Manuel; Marian, Jaime; Sanz, Jesus Garcia

2000-03-15

65

3D Imaging.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses 3 D imaging as it relates to digital representations in virtual library collections. Highlights include X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT); the National Science Foundation (NSF) Digital Library Initiatives; output peripherals; image retrieval systems, including metadata; and applications of 3 D imaging for libraries and museums. (LRW)

Hastings, S. K.

2002-01-01

66

Cyberchase 3D Builder  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Cyberchase iOS geometry app ($) enables students to use 2D nets to create 3D shapes. The app includes eight levels which increase in difficulty; increasing the complexity of the nets and combining different 3D shapes together.

Kids, Pbs

2014-01-21

67

3D Shapes Video  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This upbeat music video reviews 3D shapes including the sphere, cylinder, cube, and cone. As each 3D shape is presented, examples of things we see every day that have the same shape are also shown for reinforcement. (Length: 3:18)

Kindergarten, Harry

2011-06-17

68

3D Slicer  

Microsoft Academic Search

To be applied to practical clinical research problems, medical image computing software requires infrastructure including routines to read and write various file formats, manipulate 2D and 3D coordinate systems, and present a consistent user interface paradigm and visualization metaphor. At the same time, research software needs to be flexible to facilitate implementation of new ideas. 3D Slicer is a project

Stephen D. Pieper; Michael Halle; Ron Kikinis

2004-01-01

69

CSY3019 -Graphics Programming Assignment 2: Development of 2D/3D graphics software: Java 3D (50%)  

E-print Network

CSY3019 - Graphics Programming Assignment 2: Development of 2D/3D graphics software: Java 3D (50:00 - 15:00)). Brief: Produce a technical report and accompanying application using Java 3D. The application is to be a Java 3D environment in the form of the MY extension floor (corridor and rooms

Hill, Gary

70

Massively parallel implementation of 3D-RISM calculation with volumetric 3D-FFT.  

PubMed

A new three-dimensional reference interaction site model (3D-RISM) program for massively parallel machines combined with the volumetric 3D fast Fourier transform (3D-FFT) was developed, and tested on the RIKEN K supercomputer. The ordinary parallel 3D-RISM program has a limitation on the number of parallelizations because of the limitations of the slab-type 3D-FFT. The volumetric 3D-FFT relieves this limitation drastically. We tested the 3D-RISM calculation on the large and fine calculation cell (2048(3) grid points) on 16,384 nodes, each having eight CPU cores. The new 3D-RISM program achieved excellent scalability to the parallelization, running on the RIKEN K supercomputer. As a benchmark application, we employed the program, combined with molecular dynamics simulation, to analyze the oligomerization process of chymotrypsin Inhibitor 2 mutant. The results demonstrate that the massive parallel 3D-RISM program is effective to analyze the hydration properties of the large biomolecular systems. PMID:24771232

Maruyama, Yutaka; Yoshida, Norio; Tadano, Hiroto; Takahashi, Daisuke; Sato, Mitsuhisa; Hirata, Fumio

2014-07-01

71

Google Maps 3D  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Several major companies, including Google, are working on getting elaborate 3D maps online. This latest iteration of Google maps for Android-powered devices allows users to browse select cities in a 3D fashion. Utilizing aerial imagery, the buildings appear in a three-dimensional format, which can aid people navigating their way around an unfamiliar urban environment. Visitors can customize their own views with the "tilt" and "compass" mode features, which makes things a bit more fun.

2012-07-20

72

TRACE 3-D documentation  

SciTech Connect

TRACE 3-D is an interactive beam-dynamics program that calculates the envelopes of a bunched beam, including linear space-charge forces, through a user-defined transport system. TRACE 3-D provides an immediate graphics display of the envelopes and the phase-space ellipses and allows nine types of beam-matching options. This report describes the beam-dynamics calculations and gives detailed instruction for using the code. Several examples are described in detail.

Crandall, K.R.

1987-08-01

73

3-D Simulations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Three-dimensional (3-D) rendering and animation technology is not only used for entertainment, but also for research and educational purposes. The technology can be used for purposes of scientific simulation in fields such as physics, biology, or chemistry. For example, Stanford University's Folding@home project (1) uses 3-D simulations and distributed computing to study protein folding, misfolding, aggregation, and related diseases. Three-D simulations can also be used to observe phenomena that would normally be impossible to scrutinize in detail, as is demonstrated on this website on Nanorobotics (2). This next website describes work by the Robotics Research Group (3) in using 3-D simulations to enhance undergraduate and graduate engineering education. The EdCenter (4) makes available several compressed files of 3-D simulations that model earthquake data, Mars, a San Diego Fly Through, and more. On this website (5 ), Martin Baker provides "all you need to know about 3D theory" and this website (6) provides access to a free open-source software package which "makes it easy to build 3-D simulations of decentralized systems and artificial life." This last article from Cyberbotics, Ltd. (7) discusses how mobile robotics simulation programs can be used to design robots.

74

OSP 3D Eclipse Workspace  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The OSP 3D Eclipse Workspace contains the source code and examples for the Simple 3D and Java 3D implementations of OSP 3D API. The Simple 3D implementation uses only the standard Java distribution and will run on any Java-enabled computer. The Java 3D implementation improves the performance and the appearance of examples but the Java 3D library must be installed. Like the Simple 3D implementation, the Java 3D implementation uses GPU hardware acceleration to provide better intersection of surfaces and hidden-lines removal, as well as additional features such as textures and lighting. See Java 3D.

Jara, Carlos; Franciscouembre; Christian, Wolfgang

2011-04-05

75

3D Computer Vision and Video Computing 3D Vision3D Vision  

E-print Network

1 3D Computer Vision and Video Computing 3D Vision3D Vision Topic 1 of Part II Camera Models CSC I6716 Spring2011 Zhigang Zhu, City College of New York zhu@cs.ccny.cuny.edu 3D Computer Vision and Video Computing 3D Vision3D Vision Closely Related Disciplines Image Processing ­ images to mages Computer

Zhu, Zhigang

76

3D Computer Vision and Video Computing 3D Vision3D Vision  

E-print Network

3D Computer Vision and Video Computing 3D Vision3D Vision CSC I6716 Fall 2010 Topic 1 of Part II Camera Models Zhigang Zhu, City College of New York zhu@cs.ccny.cuny.edu #12;3D Computer Vision and Video Computing 3D Vision3D Vision Closely Related Disciplines Image Processing ­ images to mages Computer

Zhu, Zhigang

77

Massive 3D gravity Big Bounce  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The properties of an extension of the new massive 3D gravity by scalar matter with Higgs-like self-interaction are investigated. Its perturbative unitarity consistency is verified for a family of cosmological bounce solutions found by the superpotential method. They correspond to the lower bound ?=-1 of the BHT unitarity window and describe eternally accelerated 3D Universe between two initial/final stable dS vacua states.

Louzada, H. L. C.; Camara Ds, U.; Sotkov, G. M.

2010-03-01

78

Lenticular Sheet 3-D Pictures And 3-D Projections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of lenticular sheet 3-D pictures dates from the beginning of this century. This method is responsible of commercial 3-D post-cards and 3-D photographic portraits. New applications are presented in this paper. They concern two domains where direct holographic 3-D reconstructions are impossible. These applications are the 3-D reconstruction of electron microscope pictures and the 3-D projection on a lenticular screen.

Marraud, A.; Bonnet, M.; Rambourg, A.

1980-06-01

79

3D reservoir visualization  

SciTech Connect

This paper shows how some simple 3D computer graphics tools can be combined to provide efficient software for visualizing and analyzing data obtained from reservoir simulators and geological simulations. The animation and interactive capabilities of the software quickly provide a deep understanding of the fluid-flow behavior and an accurate idea of the internal architecture of a reservoir.

Van, B.T.; Pajon, J.L.; Joseph, P. (Inst. Francais du Petrole (FR))

1991-11-01

80

3D Face Identification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technologies related to identity recognition have found widespread application in the last years; among these, face recognition is one of the most promising and probably the most studied. The main goal of this work is to verify if it is possible to obtain a reliable identification of people, starting from a reconstructed 3D model of the face images. We describe

Mosad Abdelwahab; Abd El-hamid; H. El-bakry; M. A. El-dosuky

2014-01-01

81

Aura 3D Textures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new technique, called aura 3D textures, for generating solid textures based on input examples. Our method is fully automatic and requires no user interactions in the process. Given an input texture sample, our method first creates its aura matrix representations and then generates a solid texture by sampling the aura matrices of the input sample constrained

Xuejie Qin; Yee-hong Yang

2007-01-01

82

Seeing in 3D  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most people, even among technical draftsmen, designers and computer graphics programmers, find it very difficult to visualize 3D shapes well enough to reason about them. We demonstrate the problem and take participants through a series of exercises whereby they can begin to acquire this important practical skill. \\

Bob Parslow; Geoff Wyvill

2008-01-01

83

3D Metrology Camera  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a concept for a metrology system that can simultaneously determine the Cartesian coordinates of thousands of targets and has no moving parts. The system is called the MSTAR3D system and is based on two color interferometry where the conventional photodiode has been replaced with an extremely fast focal plane array. It permits the measurement of the three-dimensional position

Carl Christian Liebe; Serge Dubovitsky; Robert Peters

2007-01-01

84

3D ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in 3D based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32? ?32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex 3D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the 3D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3D mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intraand inter-observer variability.

Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Esteban Arango, Juan; Imbault, Marion; Fink, Mathias; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

2014-10-01

85

3-D seismology in the Arabian Gulf  

SciTech Connect

Since 1977 when Aramco and GSI (Geophysical Services International) pioneered the first 3-D seismic survey in the Arabian Gulf, under the guidance of Aramco`s Chief Geophysicist John Hoke, 3-D seismology has been effectively used to map many complex subsurface geological phenomena. By the mid-1990s extensive 3-D surveys were acquired in Abu Dhabi, Oman, Qatar and Saudi Arabia. Also in the mid-1990`s Bahrain, Kuwait and Dubai were preparing to record surveys over their fields. On the structural side 3-D has refined seismic maps, focused faults and fractures systems, as well as outlined the distribution of facies, porosity and fluid saturation. In field development, 3D has not only reduced drilling costs significantly, but has also improved the understanding of fluid behavior in the reservoir. In Oman, Petroleum Development Oman (PDO) has now acquired the first Gulf 4-D seismic survey (time-lapse 3D survey) over the Yibal Field. The 4-D survey will allow PDO to directly monitor water encroachment in the highly-faulted Cretaceous Shu`aiba reservoir. In exploration, 3-D seismology has resolved complex prospects with structural and stratigraphic complications and reduced the risk in the selection of drilling locations. The many case studies from Saudi Arabia, Oman, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates, which are reviewed in this paper, attest to the effectiveness of 3D seismology in exploration and producing, in clastics and carbonates reservoirs, and in the Mesozoic and Paleozoic.

Al-Husseini, M. [Gulf PetroLink, Manama (Bahrain); Chimblo, R. [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

1995-08-01

86

BEAMS3D Neutral Beam Injection Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the advent of applied 3D fields in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully 3D neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS3D, which addresses this need by coupling 3D equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous slowing down, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database. Elementary benchmark calculations are presented to verify the collisionless particle orbits, NBI model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle 3D magnetic fields. Notice: this manuscript has been authored by Princeton University under Contract Number DE-AC02-09CH11466 with the US Department of Energy. The United States Government retains and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes.

McMillan, Matthew; Lazerson, Samuel A.

2014-09-01

87

Interactives: 3D Shapes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How much liquid can that glass hold? What are the dimensions of that package that's heading off to a friend overseas? Answers to both of those questions (and many more) can be found in this lovely interactive feature on 3D shapes created by experts at the Annenberg Media group. Visitors to this site will learn about three-dimensional geometric shapes by examining a number of objects through a number of interactive exercises and games. The materials are divided into four sections, which include "3D Shapes", "Surface Area & Volume", and "Platonic Solids". The "Platonic Solids" area is quite a bit of fun, as visitors will get the opportunity to print out foldable shapes such as a tetrahedron. A short fifteen question quiz that tests the materials covered by these various activities rounds out the site.

88

Sketching 3D Animations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are interested in providing animators with a general-purpose tool allowing them to create animations using straight-ahead actions as well as pose-to-pose techniques. Our approach seeks to bring the expressiveness of real-time motion capture systems into a general-purpose multi-track system running on a graphics workstation. We emphasize the use of high-bandwidth interaction with 3D objects together with specific data reduction

Jean-francis Balaguer; Enrico Gobbetti

1995-01-01

89

3D Bridge Construction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the field of architecture, tangible virtual reality interfaces allow architects to design and construct large complex structures in a three-dimensional space, and interact with the 3D models using the most natural means of computer human interaction: the two-handed system. The main goal of this project is to design and create an interactive, tangible, virtual reality interface for constructing various

Yuan Xie; Peter Schrder; Steven Schkolne

90

3D Flyover Movies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of 3D flyover movies depicts geologically interesting localities in the Southwest United States. The selection includes well-known landmarks such as Meteor Crater, Monument Valley, Hopi Buttes, and others. They are available in a number of different formats and file sizes. The movies, the data files used to make them, and the software to view them are all available for free download. There is also a link to a tutorial on how to make Fledermaus scenes and movies.

Simkin, Marvin

2005-01-01

91

Shielding Benchmark Computational Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Over the past several decades, nuclear science has relied on experimental research to verify and validate information about shielding nuclear radiation for a variety of applications. These benchmarks are compared with results from computer code models and are useful for the development of more accurate cross-section libraries, computer code development of radiation transport modeling, and building accurate tests for miniature shielding mockups of new nuclear facilities. When documenting measurements, one must describe many parts of the experimental results to allow a complete computational analysis. Both old and new benchmark experiments, by any definition, must provide a sound basis for modeling more complex geometries required for quality assurance and cost savings in nuclear project development. Benchmarks may involve one or many materials and thicknesses, types of sources, and measurement techniques. In this paper the benchmark experiments of varying complexity are chosen to study the transport properties of some popular materials and thicknesses. These were analyzed using three-dimensional (3-D) models and continuous energy libraries of MCNP4B2, a Monte Carlo code developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico. A shielding benchmark library provided the experimental data and allowed a wide range of choices for source, geometry, and measurement data. The experimental data had often been used in previous analyses by reputable groups such as the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency Nuclear Science Committee (OECD/NEANSC).

Hunter, H.T.; Slater, C.O.; Holland, L.B.; Tracz, G.; Marshall, W.J.; Parsons, J.L.

2000-09-17

92

3D printing technique applied to rapid casting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose The purpose of this paper is to verify the feasibility and evaluate the dimensional accuracy of two rapid casting (RC) solutions based on 3D printing technology: investment casting starting from 3D-printed starch patterns and the ZCast process for the production of cavities for light-alloys castings. Design\\/methodology\\/approach Starting from the identification and design of a benchmark, technological prototypes

Elena Bassoli; Andrea Gatto; Luca Iuliano; Maria Grazia Violante

2007-01-01

93

3D Audio System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ames Research Center research into virtual reality led to the development of the Convolvotron, a high speed digital audio processing system that delivers three-dimensional sound over headphones. It consists of a two-card set designed for use with a personal computer. The Convolvotron's primary application is presentation of 3D audio signals over headphones. Four independent sound sources are filtered with large time-varying filters that compensate for motion. The perceived location of the sound remains constant. Possible applications are in air traffic control towers or airplane cockpits, hearing and perception research and virtual reality development.

1992-01-01

94

Simple 3D Drawing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed by Barbara Kaskosz of the University of Rhode Island and Doug Ensley of Shippensburg University, this resource from The Mathematical Association of America's Digital Classroom Resources collection will prove quite valuable for educators and anyone with an interest in computer graphics or geometry. Through this resource, visitors will learn how to draw and rotate 3D objects via a series of short tutorials. Along the way, users will learn about the mathematics behind manipulating cubes, the geometry involved with the manipulation of cubes, and they will also get a chance to work on their own structures. Overall, it's a fine resource and it offers insights for students in several different disciplines

95

3D and beyond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This conference on physiology and function covers a wide range of subjects, including the vasculature and blood flow, the flow of gas, water, and blood in the lung, the neurological structure and function, the modeling, and the motion and mechanics of organs. Many technologies are discussed. I believe that the list would include a robotic photographer, to hold the optical equipment in a precisely controlled way to obtain the images for the user. Why are 3D images needed? They are to achieve certain objectives through measurements of some objects. For example, in order to improve performance in sports or beauty of a person, we measure the form, dimensions, appearance, and movements.

Fung, Y. C.

1995-05-01

96

3D Surgical Simulation  

PubMed Central

This paper discusses the development of methods for computer-aided jaw surgery. Computer-aided jaw surgery allows us to incorporate the high level of precision necessary for transferring virtual plans into the operating room. We also present a complete computer-aided surgery (CAS) system developed in close collaboration with surgeons. Surgery planning and simulation include construction of 3D surface models from Cone-beam CT (CBCT), dynamic cephalometry, semi-automatic mirroring, interactive cutting of bone and bony segment repositioning. A virtual setup can be used to manufacture positioning splints for intra-operative guidance. The system provides further intra-operative assistance with the help of a computer display showing jaw positions and 3D positioning guides updated in real-time during the surgical procedure. The CAS system aids in dealing with complex cases with benefits for the patient, with surgical practice, and for orthodontic finishing. Advanced software tools for diagnosis and treatment planning allow preparation of detailed operative plans, osteotomy repositioning, bone reconstructions, surgical resident training and assessing the difficulties of the surgical procedures prior to the surgery. CAS has the potential to make the elaboration of the surgical plan a more flexible process, increase the level of detail and accuracy of the plan, yield higher operative precision and control, and enhance documentation of cases. Supported by NIDCR DE017727, and DE018962 PMID:20816308

Cevidanes, Lucia; Tucker, Scott; Styner, Martin; Kim, Hyungmin; Chapuis, Jonas; Reyes, Mauricio; Proffit, William; Turvey, Timothy; Jaskolka, Michael

2009-01-01

97

Scalable 3D GIS environment managed by 3D-XML-based modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays, the namely 3D GIS technologies become a key factor in establishing and maintaining large-scale 3D geoinformation services. However, with the rapidly increasing size and complexity of the 3D models being acquired, a pressing needed for suitable data management solutions has become apparent. This paper outlines that storage and exchange of geospatial data between databases and different front ends like 3D models, GIS or internet browsers require a standardized format which is capable to represent instances of 3D GIS models, to minimize loss of information during data transfer and to reduce interface development efforts. After a review of previous methods for spatial 3D data management, a universal lightweight XML-based format for quick and easy sharing of 3D GIS data is presented. 3D data management based on XML is a solution meeting the requirements as stated, which can provide an efficient means for opening a new standard way to create an arbitrary data structure and share it over the Internet. To manage reality-based 3D models, this paper uses 3DXML produced by Dassault Systemes. 3DXML uses opening XML schemas to communicate product geometry, structure and graphical display properties. It can be read, written and enriched by standard tools; and allows users to add extensions based on their own specific requirements. The paper concludes with the presentation of projects from application areas which will benefit from the functionality presented above.

Shi, Beiqi; Rui, Jianxun; Chen, Neng

2008-10-01

98

USM3D Predictions of Supersonic Nozzle Flow  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study focused on the NASA Tetrahedral Unstructured Software System CFD code (USM3D) capability to predict supersonic plume flow. Previous studies, published in 2004 and 2009, investigated USM3D's results versus historical experimental data. This current study continued that comparison however focusing on the use of the volume souring to capture the shear layers and internal shock structure of the plume. This study was conducted using two benchmark axisymmetric supersonic jet experimental data sets. The study showed that with the use of volume sourcing, USM3D was able to capture and model a jet plume's shear layer and internal shock structure.

Carter, Melissa B.; Elmiligui, Alaa A.; Campbell, Richard L.; Nayani, Sudheer N.

2014-01-01

99

3D Computer Vision and Video Computing 3D Vision3D Vision  

E-print Network

1 3D Computer Vision and Video Computing 3D Vision3D Vision CSc I6716 Spring 2011 Topic 3 of Part II Stereo Vision p g Zhigang Zhu, City College of New York zhu@cs.ccny.cuny.edu 3D Computer Vision and Video Computing Stereo VisionStereo Vision Problem Infer 3D structure of a scene from two or more images

Zhu, Zhigang

100

3D Computer Vision and Video Computing 3D Vision3D Vision  

E-print Network

1 3D Computer Vision and Video Computing 3D Vision3D Vision CSc I6716 Fall 2010 Topic 3 of Part II Stereo Vision Zhigang Zhu, City College of New York zhu@cs.ccny.cuny.edu 3D Computer Vision and Video Computing Stereo VisionStereo Vision Problem Infer 3D structure of a scene from two or more images taken

Zhu, Zhigang

101

Entourage3D  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From charettes to ateliers, architectural education is dedicated to collaborative learning environments. In recent years, some of these activities have migrated to the web, and along the way a number of forward-thinking individuals have seen fit to create online resources that might be of use to students working in this field. Created by the Design Machine Group at the University of Washington's Department of Architecture, the entourage 3D database includes "building blocks, complete models, and finishing touches for users to download and use." Visitors will appreciate the fact that they can browse these resources by such categories as building component, lighting element, office furniture, or street furniture. Visitors will need to complete a free registration before looking at the various designs and plans available here, but this only takes a few moments.

102

A Simplified HTTR Diffusion Theory Benchmark  

SciTech Connect

The Georgia Institute of Technology (GA-Tech) recently developed a transport theory benchmark based closely on the geometry and the features of the HTTR reactor that is operational in Japan. Though simplified, the benchmark retains all the principal physical features of the reactor and thus provides a realistic and challenging test for the codes. The purpose of this paper is twofold. The first goal is an extension of the benchmark to diffusion theory applications by generating the additional data not provided in the GA-Tech prior work. The second goal is to use the benchmark on the HEXPEDITE code available to the INL. The HEXPEDITE code is a Greens function-based neutron diffusion code in 3D hexagonal-z geometry. The results showed that the HEXPEDITE code accurately reproduces the effective multiplication factor of the reference HELIOS solution. A secondary, but no less important, conclusion is that in the testing against actual HTTR data of a full sequence of codes that would include HEXPEDITE, in the apportioning of inevitable discrepancies between experiment and models, the portion of error attributable to HEXPEDITE would be expected to be modest. If large discrepancies are observed, they would have to be explained by errors in the data fed into HEXPEDITE. Results based on a fully realistic model of the HTTR reactor are presented in a companion paper. The suite of codes used in that paper also includes HEXPEDITE. The results shown here should help that effort in the decision making process for refining the modeling steps in the full sequence of codes.

Rodolfo M. Ferrer; Abderrafi M. Ougouag; Farzad Rahnema

2010-10-01

103

Limitations of Community College Benchmarking and Benchmarks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter distinguishes between benchmarks and benchmarking, describes a number of data and cultural limitations to benchmarking projects, and suggests that external demands for accountability are the dominant reason for growing interest in benchmarking among community colleges.

Bers, Trudy H.

2006-01-01

104

Exploring in 3D: Make your own 3D glasses  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, learners will construct their own 3-D glasses in order to use them on 3-D images, such as images of the Sun from the STEREO spacecraft. This activity requires special materials, such as red and blue acetate paper and can be used with an accompanying activity, titled Create Your Own 3-D Images.

105

Geometry in 3-D  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource guide from the Middle School Portal 2 project, written specifically for teachers, provides links to exemplary resources including background information, lessons, career information, and related national science education standards. The online resources featured in Geometry in 3-D actively engage students in exploring a variety of geometric shapes, at times through lessons that involve building models or creating paper nets that fold into three-dimensional shapes; at other times, through technology that allows students to rotate and zoom in on figures, noting their attributes and complexity. Other lessons offer problems on surface area and volume, a part of every middle school curriculum. The problems, each with a different twist on the subject, challenge students to reconsider their understanding of how to measure solids. Activities for developing spatial sense, another primary objective in teaching geometry, are also featured. Finally, there are online galleries of geometric solids, included for the rare opportunity they offer to show your students the beauty in mathematics. In Background Information, you will find workshop sessions developed for teachers and other materials that may interest you as a professional. Each resource deals specifically with three-dimensional geometry topics that align with the geometry and measurement standards recommended by NCTM.

Herrera, Terese

2006-09-01

106

Architect Studio 3D  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When one thinks of the vast number of influential architects the world has seen during the past centuries, one is reminded of Dies van der Rohe, Walter Gropius, Le Corbusier, and of course, that Master from the Midwest, Frank Lloyd Wright. It's hard to imagine that a website would be able to conjure up the spirit of this famous and controversial architect, but it does just that. With the assistance of a user-friendly interface, the Architect Studio 3D site allows users to build a model home for a number of clients and their very specific needs. With a small icon of the master residing in the bottom of the left-hand corner of the screen, visitors will get the chance to create their own building for one of these clients, and then submit it to a design gallery for consideration by others. For those visitors who may be less familiar with the world of architecture, there is a handy section titled "About Architecture". Here they will find a glossary of terms that provide brief descriptions of such important concepts and design elements as site, wall, client, roof, and exterior material. Of course, no such site would be complete without a brief biography of the man himself, and as such, a nice overview of his work and life is provided here as well.

107

Methods for comparing 3D surface attributes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A common task in data analysis is to compare two or more sets of data, statistics, presentations, etc. A predominant method in use is side-by-side visual comparison of images. While straightforward, it burdens the user with the task of discerning the differences between the two images. The user if further taxed when the images are of 3D scenes. This paper presents several methods for analyzing the extent, magnitude, and manner in which surfaces in 3D differ in their attributes. The surface geometry are assumed to be identical and only the surface attributes (color, texture, etc.) are variable. As a case in point, we examine the differences obtained when a 3D scene is rendered progressively using radiosity with different form factor calculation methods. The comparison methods include extensions of simple methods such as mapping difference information to color or transparency, and more recent methods including the use of surface texture, perturbation, and adaptive placements of error glyphs.

Pang, Alex; Freeman, Adam

1996-03-01

108

Orbiting and Colliding Galaxies 3D Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Orbiting and Colliding Galaxies 3D Model is a three-dimensional extension of the Alar and Juri Toomres' 1972 supercomputer model of colliding galaxies. This model assumes that galactic centers are point masses and the orbiting stars do not interact with each other (the galactic cores interact with each other and the individual stars). Unlike the Toomres' model (and the Colliding Galaxies model by Christian and Lim), both galactic cores begin with a compliment of stars orbiting their respective cores. These stars start in a 3-D circular orbit about the center of each galaxy in one plane. When the two galaxies pass each other they produce the long spiraling tails. The Orbiting and Colliding Galaxies Model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_comp_phys_colliding_galaxies3d.jar file will run the program if Java is installed.

Mitchell, Robbie

2011-06-15

109

3D Op&cs Crayola 3D chalk, 3D markers  

E-print Network

chromadepth.com #12;from chromadepth.com #12;from chromadepth.com #12;from Disney Viewmaster 3Dguy.tv, ormaqstudios.com Red/blue 3D glasses Wikimedia, Avatar 3D movies do 3D movies do it? · Using polarized light Polarizing filter Light waves

Anderson, Betty Lise

110

3D Hall MHD Simulation Studies (NRLHALL3D)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 3D Hall MHD simulation code (NRLHALL3D) has recently been developed at the Naval Research Laboratory. The 3D Hall MHD equations are solved in conservative form using a finite-volume scheme. The hydrodynamic variables in a cell are updated by calculating fluxes across the cell interfaces. The fluxes of mass, momentum, and energy across cell interfaces are calculated by integrating a

J. D. Huba

2001-01-01

111

Inuit3D: An Interactive Virtual 3D Web Exhibition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Canadian Museum of Civilization and the National Research Council ofCanada collaborated on the production of Inuit 3D, one of six inaugural VirtualMuseum of Canada exhibitions launched in April 2001. Inuit 3D is an interactiveexhibition in which visitors navigate through three exhibition halls andinteractively examine twelve 3D models of objects from the Museum's collection.Introductory videos are presented at the entrance

Frank Corcoran; Jeffrey Demaine; Michel Picard; Louis-Guy Dicaire; John Taylor

2002-01-01

112

Liquid Crystal Active Glasses for 3D Cinema  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquid crystals have been extensively studied and are massively used in display technology. Their recent use to provide optical shutters in active glasses for 3D cinema has focused the attention on new specific requirements. Recent improvements in the quality of 3D movies production and projection (e.g., involving triple flash projectors) resulted in the need for high quality glasses with no

Abhishek K. Srivastava; J. L. de Bougrenet de la Tocnaye; Laurent Dupont

2010-01-01

113

Model-Based Interpretation of 3D Medical Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

The automatic segmentation and labelling of anatomical structures in 3D medical images is a challenging task of practical importance. We describe a model-based approach which allows robust and accurate interpretation using explicit anatomical knowledge. Our method is based on the extension to 3D of Point Distribution Mo- dels (PDMs) and associated image search algorithms. A combination of global, Genetic Algorithm

A. Hill; A. Thornham; C. J. Taylor

1993-01-01

114

3D Spectroscopy in Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; Acknowledgements; 1. Introductory review and technical approaches Martin M. Roth; 2. Observational procedures and data reduction James E. H. Turner; 3. 3D Spectroscopy instrumentation M. A. Bershady; 4. Analysis of 3D data Pierre Ferruit; 5. Science motivation for IFS and galactic studies F. Eisenhauer; 6. Extragalactic studies and future IFS science Luis Colina; 7. Tutorials: how to handle 3D spectroscopy data Sebastian F. Snchez, Begona Garca-Lorenzo and Arlette Pcontal-Rousset.

Mediavilla, Evencio; Arribas, Santiago; Roth, Martin; Cepa-Nogu, Jordi; Snchez, Francisco

2011-09-01

115

Spherical 3D isotropic wavelets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Future cosmological surveys will provide 3D large scale structure maps with large sky coverage, for which a 3D spherical Fourier-Bessel (SFB) analysis in spherical coordinates is natural. Wavelets are particularly well-suited to the analysis and denoising of cosmological data, but a spherical 3D isotropic wavelet transform does not currently exist to analyse spherical 3D data. Aims: The aim of this paper is to present a new formalism for a spherical 3D isotropic wavelet, i.e. one based on the SFB decomposition of a 3D field and accompany the formalism with a public code to perform wavelet transforms. Methods: We describe a new 3D isotropic spherical wavelet decomposition based on the undecimated wavelet transform (UWT) described in Starck et al. (2006). We also present a new fast discrete spherical Fourier-Bessel transform (DSFBT) based on both a discrete Bessel transform and the HEALPIX angular pixelisation scheme. We test the 3D wavelet transform and as a toy-application, apply a denoising algorithm in wavelet space to the Virgo large box cosmological simulations and find we can successfully remove noise without much loss to the large scale structure. Results: We have described a new spherical 3D isotropic wavelet transform, ideally suited to analyse and denoise future 3D spherical cosmological surveys, which uses a novel DSFBT. We illustrate its potential use for denoising using a toy model. All the algorithms presented in this paper are available for download as a public code called MRS3D at http://jstarck.free.fr/mrs3d.html

Lanusse, F.; Rassat, A.; Starck, J.-L.

2012-04-01

116

Adaptive 3D Web Sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, technological developments have made it possible to build interactive 3D models of objects and 3D Virtual Environments that can be experienced through the Web, using common, low-cost personal computers. As in the case of Web-based hypermedia, adaptivity can play an important role in increasing the usefulness, effectiveness and usability of 3D Web sites, i.e., Web sites distributing

Luca Chittaro; Roberto Ranon

2007-01-01

117

Static 3D image space  

Microsoft Academic Search

As three-dimensional (3D) techniques continue to evolve from their humble beginnings-nineteenth century stereo photographs and twentieth century movies and holographs, the urgency for advancement in 3D display is escalating, as the need for widespread application in medical imaging, baggage scanning, gaming, television and movie display, and military strategizing increases. The most recent 3D developments center upon volumetric display, which generate

Badia Koudsi; Jim J. Sluss Jr.

2010-01-01

118

3D gaze tracking system for NVidia 3D Vision.  

PubMed

Inappropriate parallax setting in stereoscopic content generally causes visual fatigue and visual discomfort. To optimize three dimensional (3D) effects in stereoscopic content by taking into account health issue, understanding how user gazes at 3D direction in virtual space is currently an important research topic. In this paper, we report the study of developing a novel 3D gaze tracking system for Nvidia 3D Vision() to be used in desktop stereoscopic display. We suggest an optimized geometric method to accurately measure the position of virtual 3D object. Our experimental result shows that the proposed system achieved better accuracy compared to conventional geometric method by average errors 0.83 cm, 0.87 cm, and 1.06 cm in X, Y, and Z dimensions, respectively. PMID:24110407

Wibirama, Sunu; Hamamoto, Kazuhiko

2013-01-01

119

Parallel CARLOS-3D code development  

SciTech Connect

CARLOS-3D is a three-dimensional scattering code which was developed under the sponsorship of the Electromagnetic Code Consortium, and is currently used by over 80 aerospace companies and government agencies. The code has been extensively validated and runs on both serial workstations and parallel super computers such as the Intel Paragon. CARLOS-3D is a three-dimensional surface integral equation scattering code based on a Galerkin method of moments formulation employing Rao- Wilton-Glisson roof-top basis for triangular faceted surfaces. Fully arbitrary 3D geometries composed of multiple conducting and homogeneous bulk dielectric materials can be modeled. This presentation describes some of the extensions to the CARLOS-3D code, and how the operator structure of the code facilitated these improvements. Body of revolution (BOR) and two-dimensional geometries were incorporated by simply including new input routines, and the appropriate Galerkin matrix operator routines. Some additional modifications were required in the combined field integral equation matrix generation routine due to the symmetric nature of the BOR and 2D operators. Quadrilateral patched surfaces with linear roof-top basis functions were also implemented in the same manner. Quadrilateral facets and triangular facets can be used in combination to more efficiently model geometries with both large smooth surfaces and surfaces with fine detail such as gaps and cracks. Since the parallel implementation in CARLOS-3D is at high level, these changes were independent of the computer platform being used. This approach minimizes code maintenance, while providing capabilities with little additional effort. Results are presented showing the performance and accuracy of the code for some large scattering problems. Comparisons between triangular faceted and quadrilateral faceted geometry representations will be shown for some complex scatterers.

Putnam, J.M. [McDonnell Douglas Corp., St. Louis, MO (United States); Kotulski, J.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1996-02-01

120

GRAPHICS PROGRAMMING SECTION D -JAVA 3D  

E-print Network

GRAPHICS PROGRAMMING SECTION D - JAVA 3D 1SECTION D - GRAPHICS 3-D........................................................................................ 78 ©Gary Hill September 2004 Java 3-D 1 of 13 #12;GRAPHICS PROGRAMMING SECTION D - GRAPHICS 3-D 30 Graphics 3D: Introduction to Java 3D Java 3D is a high level, scene graph based Application Programming

Hill, Gary

121

3D Game Programming Introduction  

E-print Network

Graphics Advance Computer Graphics Game Design Visual Effect Computer Animation Programming C/C++ Human type of object location of vertex end of object definition GAMEGAME What is video game?What is video2012/9/18 1 3D Game Programming Introduction 3D Game Programming Introduction Ming-Te Chi

Ouhyoung, Ming

122

JavaSound3D  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This java application allows the user to look at the waveform of WAV files or microphone inputs in detail. One can see a graph of the fast fourier transform (FFT) of the data in the window in a 2D or 3D graph. The 3D graph shows how the FFT changes over time.

Bliss, Jennifer; Steele, Brad; Mechtly, Bruce

2008-07-29

123

3D World Building System  

ScienceCinema

This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.

None

2014-02-26

124

Market study: 3-D eyetracker  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A market study of a proposed version of a 3-D eyetracker for initial use at NASA's Ames Research Center was made. The commercialization potential of a simplified, less expensive 3-D eyetracker was ascertained. Primary focus on present and potential users of eyetrackers, as well as present and potential manufacturers has provided an effective means of analyzing the prospects for commercialization.

1977-01-01

125

Euro3D Science Conference  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Euro3D RTN is an EU funded Research Training Network to foster the exploitation of 3D spectroscopy in Europe. 3D spectroscopy is a general term for spectroscopy of an area of the sky and derives its name from its two spatial + one spectral dimensions. There are an increasing number of instruments which use integral field devices to achieve spectroscopy of an area of the sky, either using lens arrays, optical fibres or image slicers, to pack spectra of multiple pixels on the sky (``spaxels'') onto a 2D detector. On account of the large volume of data and the special methods required to reduce and analyse 3D data, there are only a few centres of expertise and these are mostly involved with instrument developments. There is a perceived lack of expertise in 3D spectroscopy spread though the astronomical community and its use in the armoury of the observational astronomer is viewed as being highly specialised. For precisely this reason the Euro3D RTN was proposed to train young researchers in this area and develop user tools to widen the experience with this particular type of data in Europe. The Euro3D RTN is coordinated by Martin M. Roth (Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam) and has been running since July 2002. The first Euro3D science conference was held in Cambridge, UK from 22 to 23 May 2003. The main emphasis of the conference was, in keeping with the RTN, to expose the work of the young post-docs who are funded by the RTN. In addition the team members from the eleven European institutes involved in Euro3D also presented instrumental and observational developments. The conference was organized by Andy Bunker and held at the Institute of Astronomy. There were over thirty participants and 26 talks covered the whole range of application of 3D techniques. The science ranged from Galactic planetary nebulae and globular clusters to kinematics of nearby galaxies out to objects at high redshift. Several talks were devoted to reporting recent observations with newly completed 3D instruments - CIRPASS, GMOS, PMAS and SPIFFI. Work on 3D software, being developed as part of the Euro3D RTN, was also described and demonstrated. This proceedings volume, consisting of carefully refereed and edited manuscripts, represents the bulk of the talks at the conference and amply demonstrates that 3D spectroscopy is a lively and burgeoning field of optical observation.

Walsh, J. R.

2004-02-01

126

PLOT3D user's manual  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

PLOT3D is a computer graphics program designed to visualize the grids and solutions of computational fluid dynamics. Seventy-four functions are available. Versions are available for many systems. PLOT3D can handle multiple grids with a million or more grid points, and can produce varieties of model renderings, such as wireframe or flat shaded. Output from PLOT3D can be used in animation programs. The first part of this manual is a tutorial that takes the reader, keystroke by keystroke, through a PLOT3D session. The second part of the manual contains reference chapters, including the helpfile, data file formats, advice on changing PLOT3D, and sample command files.

Walatka, Pamela P.; Buning, Pieter G.; Pierce, Larry; Elson, Patricia A.

1990-01-01

127

3D vision system assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we report on the development of a 3D vision system consisting of a flat panel stereoscopic display and auto-converging stereo camera and an assessment of the system's use for robotic driving, manipulation, and surveillance operations. The 3D vision system was integrated onto a Talon Robot and Operator Control Unit (OCU) such that direct comparisons of the performance of a number of test subjects using 2D and 3D vision systems were possible. A number of representative scenarios were developed to determine which tasks benefited most from the added depth perception and to understand when the 3D vision system hindered understanding of the scene. Two tests were conducted at Fort Leonard Wood, MO with noncommissioned officers ranked Staff Sergeant and Sergeant First Class. The scenarios; the test planning, approach and protocols; the data analysis; and the resulting performance assessment of the 3D vision system are reported.

Pezzaniti, J. Larry; Edmondson, Richard; Vaden, Justin; Hyatt, Bryan; Chenault, David B.; Kingston, David; Geulen, Vanilynmae; Newell, Scott; Pettijohn, Brad

2009-02-01

128

Evolution of Archaea in 3D modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The analysis of all groups of Archaea performed in two-dimensions have demonstrated a specific distribution of Archaean species as a function of pH/temperature, temperature/salinity and pH/salinity. Work presented here is an extension of this analysis with a three dimensional (3D) modeling in logarithmic scale. As it was shown in 2D representation, the "Rules of the Diagonal" have been expressed even more clearly in 3D modeling. In this article, we used a 3D Mesh modeling to show the range of distribution of each separate group of Archaea as a function of pH, temperature, and salinity. Visible overlap and links between different groups indicate a direction of evolution in Archaea. The major direction in ancestral life (vector of evolution) has been indicated: from high temperature, acidic, and low-salinity system towards low temperature, alkaline and high salinity systems. Specifics of the geometrical coordinates and distribution of separate groups of Archaea in 3 D scale were analyzed with a mathematical description of the functions. Based on the obtained data, a new model for the origin and evolution of life on Earth is proposed. The geometry of this model is described by a hyperboloid of one sheet. Conclusions of this research are consistent with previous results derived from the two-dimensional diagrams. This approach is suggested as a new method for analyzing any biological group in accordance to its environmental parameters.

Pikuta, Elena V.; Tankosic, Dragana; Sheldon, Rob

2012-11-01

129

3D or not 3D - that is the question!  

Microsoft Academic Search

Should an introduction to 3D computer graphics and animation be a part of a general core curriculum requirement for all design majors regardless their concentration, track or degree?At ACM-SIGGRAPH it is taken for granted that a working knowledge of 3D computer graphics is a valuable if not necessary part of a versatile skill set to prepare design graduates for future

Gregory P. Garvey

2006-01-01

130

Unassisted 3D camera calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the rapid growth of 3D technology, 3D image capture has become a critical part of the 3D feature set on mobile phones. 3D image quality is affected by the scene geometry as well as on-the-device processing. An automatic 3D system usually assumes known camera poses accomplished by factory calibration using a special chart. In real life settings, pose parameters estimated by factory calibration can be negatively impacted by movements of the lens barrel due to shaking, focusing, or camera drop. If any of these factors displaces the optical axes of either or both cameras, vertical disparity might exceed the maximum tolerable margin and the 3D user may experience eye strain or headaches. To make 3D capture more practical, one needs to consider unassisted (on arbitrary scenes) calibration. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that relies on detection and matching of keypoints between left and right images. Frames containing erroneous matches, along with frames with insufficiently rich keypoint constellations, are detected and discarded. Roll, pitch yaw , and scale differences between left and right frames are then estimated. The algorithm performance is evaluated in terms of the remaining vertical disparity as compared to the maximum tolerable vertical disparity.

Atanassov, Kalin; Ramachandra, Vikas; Nash, James; Goma, Sergio R.

2012-03-01

131

Map Rainfall in 3D  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

William Montgomery, New Jersey City University Summary This comprehensive activity introduces students to onscreen digitizing (OSD); automated mapping (Add XY Event Theme); table joins; 3D models; and automated ...

Montgomery, William

132

3-D lithium ion microbattery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lithium-ion battery has emerged as a common power source for portable consumer electronics since its debut two decades ago. Due to the low atomic weight and high electrochemical activity of lithium chemistry, lithium-ion battery has a higher energy density as compared to other battery systems, such as Ni-Cd, Ni-MH, and lead-acid batteries. As a result, use of lithium-ion batteries enables the size of batteries to be effectively reduced without compromising capacity. More importantly, as battery size is reduced, it enhances the applications of portable electronics, increasing the convenience of use. The 3-D battery architecture described in the dissertation is believed to be a new paradigm for future batteries. The architecture features coupled 3-D electrodes to provide better charge/discharge kinetics and a higher charge capacity per footprint area. The overarching objective of this dissertation is to implement the 3-D architecture using the lithium-ion chemistry. The 3-D lithium-ion batteries are designed to provide high areal energy density without compromising power density. The dissertation is comprised of four interrelated sections. First, a simulation was conducted to identify key battery parameters and to define an ideal three-dimensional cell structure. The second part of the research involved identifying fabrication routes to build the 3-D electrode, which was the key design element in the 3-D paradigm. The third part of the dissertation was to correlate the electrode performance with its geometric features. In particular, the influence of aspect ratio was investigated. Lastly, an electrolyte/separator was designed and fabricated based on the existing 3-D electrode configuration. This enabled 3-D battery to be assembled.

Yeh, Yuting

133

Static 3D image space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As three-dimensional (3D) techniques continue to evolve from their humble beginnings-nineteenth century stereo photographs and twentieth century movies and holographs, the urgency for advancement in 3D display is escalating, as the need for widespread application in medical imaging, baggage scanning, gaming, television and movie display, and military strategizing increases. The most recent 3D developments center upon volumetric display, which generate 3D images within actual 3D space. More specifically, CSpace volumetric display generates a truly natural 3D image consisting of perceived width, height, and depth within the confines of physical space. Wireframe graphics enable viewers a 360-degree display without the use of additional visual aids. In this paper, research detailing the selection and testing of several rare earth, single-doped, fluoride crystals, namely 1%Er: NYF4, 2%Er: NYF4, 3%Er: NYF4 , 2%Er:KY3F10, and 2%Er:YLF, is introduced. These materials are the basis for CSpace display in a two-step twofrequency up-Conversion process. Significant determinants were tested and identified to aid in the selection of a suitable medium. Results show that 2%Er: NYF4 demonstrates good optical emitted power. Its superior level of brightness makes it the most suitable candidate for CSpace display. Testing also proved 2%Er: KY3F10 crystal might be a viable medium.

Koudsi, Badia; Sluss, Jim J., Jr.

2010-02-01

134

Studies of ELMs and RMPs with M3D  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several recent applications of M3D are presented. Studies are in progress in the penetration of resonant magnetic perturbations (RMP) which have been found to stabilize edge localized modes (ELM). In a two fluid MHD model, RMPs did not provide ELM stabilization in studies conducted so far. Instead the plasma relaxes toward a 3D equilibrium. The ELM stabilization evidently comes from kinetic modification of the pressure and current profiles. Simulations with the XGC kinetic neoclassical code suggest that RMPs are screened from the plasma. Calculation of screening caused by plasma rotation is in progress. In other work, ELM benchmarking simulations will be be presented. In linear simulations, M3D, NIMROD, and ELITE were found to be in reasonable agreement. Preliminary application of spectral elements to ELM simulations will be presented.

Strauss, H. R.; Hientzsch, Bernhard; Park, G. Y.; Chang, C. S.; Sugiyama, L.

2007-11-01

135

3-D threat image projection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Automated Explosive Detection Systems utilizing Computed Tomography perform a series X-ray scans of passenger bags being checked in at the airport, and produce various 2-D projection images and 3-D volumetric images of the bag. The determination as to whether the passenger bag contains an explosive and needs to be searched manually is performed through trained Transportation Security Administration screeners following an approved protocol. In order to keep the screeners vigilant with regards to screening quality, the Transportation Security Administration has mandated the use of Threat Image Projection on 2-D projection X-ray screening equipment used at all US airports. These algorithms insert visual artificial threats into images of the normal passenger bags in order to test the screeners with regards to their screening efficiency and their screening quality at determining threats. This technology for 2-D X-ray system is proven and is widespread amongst multiple manufacturers of X-ray projection systems. Until now, Threat Image Projection has been unsuccessful at being introduced into 3-D Automated Explosive Detection Systems for numerous reasons. The failure of these prior attempts are mainly due to imaging queues that the screeners pickup on, and therefore make it easy for the screeners to discern the presence of the threat image and thus defeating the intended purpose. This paper presents a novel approach for 3-D Threat Image Projection for 3-D Automated Explosive Detection Systems. The method presented here is a projection based approach where both the threat object and the bag remain in projection sinogram space. Novel approaches have been developed for projection based object segmentation, projection based streak reduction used for threat object isolation along with scan orientation independence and projection based streak generation for an overall realistic 3-D image. The algorithms are prototyped in MatLab and C++ and demonstrate non discernible 3-D threat image insertion into various luggage, and non discernable streak patterns for 3-D images when compared to actual scanned images.

Yildiz, Yesna O.; Abraham, Douglas Q.; Agaian, Sos; Panetta, Karen

2008-02-01

136

Multimedia 3D Video Research  

E-print Network

(1992-1994, 2008-12), IEEE Circuits and Systems for Video Technology (1997-1999) Sept 2013 2hmhang hmhang/EE, NCTU11 #12;Research Roadmap Driven by Network Benchmarking Lab (NBL): Deep Packet Inspection Dept of Computer Science, NCTU ydlin@cs.nctu.edu.tw www.cs.nctu.edu.tw/~ydlin www.nbl.org.tw 9-14

Lin, Jason Yi-Bing

137

Benchmark Glaciers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United States Geological Survey (USGS) operates a long-term "benchmark" glacier program to intensively monitor climate, glacier motion, glacier mass balance, glacier geometry, and stream runoff at a few select sites. The data collected are used to understand glacier-related hydrologic processes and improve the quantitative prediction of water resources, glacier-related hazards, and the consequences of climate change. This page presents some of the balance, runoff, and temperature data for three glaciers: Gulkana, South Cascade and Wolverine. Reports for each of these glaciers uses the collected data to draw many conclusions. There is also a section with common questions and myths about glaciers.

138

From 3D view to 3D print  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last few years 3D printing is getting more and more popular and used in many fields going from manufacturing to industrial design, architecture, medical support and aerospace. 3D printing is an evolution of bi-dimensional printing, which allows to obtain a solid object from a 3D model, realized with a 3D modelling software. The final product is obtained using an additive process, in which successive layers of material are laid down one over the other. A 3D printer allows to realize, in a simple way, very complex shapes, which would be quite difficult to be produced with dedicated conventional facilities. Thanks to the fact that the 3D printing is obtained superposing one layer to the others, it doesn't need any particular work flow and it is sufficient to simply draw the model and send it to print. Many different kinds of 3D printers exist based on the technology and material used for layer deposition. A common material used by the toner is ABS plastics, which is a light and rigid thermoplastic polymer, whose peculiar mechanical properties make it diffusely used in several fields, like pipes production and cars interiors manufacturing. I used this technology to create a 1:1 scale model of the telescope which is the hardware core of the space small mission CHEOPS (CHaracterising ExOPlanets Satellite) by ESA, which aims to characterize EXOplanets via transits observations. The telescope has a Ritchey-Chrtien configuration with a 30cm aperture and the launch is foreseen in 2017. In this paper, I present the different phases for the realization of such a model, focusing onto pros and cons of this kind of technology. For example, because of the finite printable volume (101012 inches in the x, y and z directions respectively), it has been necessary to split the largest parts of the instrument in smaller components to be then reassembled and post-processed. A further issue is the resolution of the printed material, which is expressed in terms of layers thickness, in the Z direction, and in drop-per-inch, in X and Y directions. 3D printing is also an easy and quick production technique, which can become useful in the ad-hoc realization of mechanical components for optical setups to be used in a laboratory for new concept studies and validation, reducing the manufacturing time. With this technique, indeed, it is possible to realize in few hours custom-made mechanical parts, without any specific knowledge and expertise in tool machinery, as long as the resolution and size are compliant with the requirements.

Dima, M.; Farisato, G.; Bergomi, M.; Viotto, V.; Magrin, D.; Greggio, D.; Farinato, J.; Marafatto, L.; Ragazzoni, R.; Piazza, D.

2014-08-01

139

YouDash3D: exploring stereoscopic 3D gaming for 3D movie theaters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Along with the success of the digitally revived stereoscopic cinema, events beyond 3D movies become attractive for movie theater operators, i.e. interactive 3D games. In this paper, we present a case that explores possible challenges and solutions for interactive 3D games to be played by a movie theater audience. We analyze the setting and showcase current issues related to lighting and interaction. Our second focus is to provide gameplay mechanics that make special use of stereoscopy, especially depth-based game design. Based on these results, we present YouDash3D, a game prototype that explores public stereoscopic gameplay in a reduced kiosk setup. It features live 3D HD video stream of a professional stereo camera rig rendered in a real-time game scene. We use the effect to place the stereoscopic effigies of players into the digital game. The game showcases how stereoscopic vision can provide for a novel depth-based game mechanic. Projected trigger zones and distributed clusters of the audience video allow for easy adaptation to larger audiences and 3D movie theater gaming.

Schild, Jonas; Seele, Sven; Masuch, Maic

2012-03-01

140

Speaking Volumes About 3-D  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 1999, Genex submitted a proposal to Stennis Space Center for a volumetric 3-D display technique that would provide multiple users with a 360-degree perspective to simultaneously view and analyze 3-D data. The futuristic capabilities of the VolumeViewer(R) have offered tremendous benefits to commercial users in the fields of medicine and surgery, air traffic control, pilot training and education, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing, and military/battlefield management. The technology has also helped NASA to better analyze and assess the various data collected by its satellite and spacecraft sensors. Genex capitalized on its success with Stennis by introducing two separate products to the commercial market that incorporate key elements of the 3-D display technology designed under an SBIR contract. The company Rainbow 3D(R) imaging camera is a novel, three-dimensional surface profile measurement system that can obtain a full-frame 3-D image in less than 1 second. The third product is the 360-degree OmniEye(R) video system. Ideal for intrusion detection, surveillance, and situation management, this unique camera system offers a continuous, panoramic view of a scene in real time.

2002-01-01

141

PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITHOUT TURB3D)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into five groups: 1) Grid Functions for grids, grid-checking, etc.; 2) Scalar Functions for contour or carpet plots of density, pressure, temperature, Mach number, vorticity magnitude, helicity, etc.; 3) Vector Functions for vector plots of velocity, vorticity, momentum, and density gradient, etc.; 4) Particle Trace Functions for rake-like plots of particle flow or vortex lines; and 5) Shock locations based on pressure gradient. TURB3D is a modification of PLOT3D which is used for viewing CFD simulations of incompressible turbulent flow. Input flow data consists of pressure, velocity and vorticity. Typical quantities to plot include local fluctuations in flow quantities and turbulent production terms, plotted in physical or wall units. PLOT3D/TURB3D includes both TURB3D and PLOT3D because the operation of TURB3D is identical to PLOT3D, and there is no additional sample data or printed documentation for TURB3D. Graphical capabilities of PLOT3D version 3.6b+ vary among the implementations available through COSMIC. Customers are encouraged to purchase and carefully review the PLOT3D manual before ordering the program for a specific computer and graphics library. There is only one manual for use with all implementations of PLOT3D, and although this manual generally assumes that the Silicon Graphics Iris implementation is being used, informative comments concerning other implementations appear throughout the text. With all implementations, the visual representation of the object and flow field created by PLOT3D consists of points, lines, and polygons. Points can be represented with dots or symbols, color can be used to denote data values, and perspective is used to show depth. Differences among implementations impact the program's ability to use graphical features that are based on 3D polygons, the user's ability to manipulate the graphical displays, and the user's ability to obtain alternate forms of output. The Apollo implementation of PLOT3D uses some of the capabilities of Apollo's 3-dimensional graphics hardware, but does not take advantage of the s

Buning, P.

1994-01-01

142

PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITH TURB3D)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into five groups: 1) Grid Functions for grids, grid-checking, etc.; 2) Scalar Functions for contour or carpet plots of density, pressure, temperature, Mach number, vorticity magnitude, helicity, etc.; 3) Vector Functions for vector plots of velocity, vorticity, momentum, and density gradient, etc.; 4) Particle Trace Functions for rake-like plots of particle flow or vortex lines; and 5) Shock locations based on pressure gradient. TURB3D is a modification of PLOT3D which is used for viewing CFD simulations of incompressible turbulent flow. Input flow data consists of pressure, velocity and vorticity. Typical quantities to plot include local fluctuations in flow quantities and turbulent production terms, plotted in physical or wall units. PLOT3D/TURB3D includes both TURB3D and PLOT3D because the operation of TURB3D is identical to PLOT3D, and there is no additional sample data or printed documentation for TURB3D. Graphical capabilities of PLOT3D version 3.6b+ vary among the implementations available through COSMIC. Customers are encouraged to purchase and carefully review the PLOT3D manual before ordering the program for a specific computer and graphics library. There is only one manual for use with all implementations of PLOT3D, and although this manual generally assumes that the Silicon Graphics Iris implementation is being used, informative comments concerning other implementations appear throughout the text. With all implementations, the visual representation of the object and flow field created by PLOT3D consists of points, lines, and polygons. Points can be represented with dots or symbols, color can be used to denote data values, and perspective is used to show depth. Differences among implementations impact the program's ability to use graphical features that are based on 3D polygons, the user's ability to manipulate the graphical displays, and the user's ability to obtain alternate forms of output. The Apollo implementation of PLOT3D uses some of the capabilities of Apollo's 3-dimensional graphics hardware, but does not take advantage of the s

Buning, P.

1994-01-01

143

The NAS Parallel Benchmarks 2.1 Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present performance results for version 2.1 of the NAS Parallel Benchmarks (NPB) on the following architectures: IBM SP2/66 MHz; SGI Power Challenge Array/90 MHz; Cray Research T3D; and Intel Paragon. The NAS Parallel Benchmarks are a widely-recognized suite of benchmarks originally designed to compare the performance of highly parallel computers with that of traditional supercomputers.

Saphir, William; Woo, Alex; Yarrow, Maurice

1996-01-01

144

R3D Align web server for global nucleotide to nucleotide alignments of RNA 3D structures.  

PubMed

The R3D Align web server provides online access to 'RNA 3D Align' (R3D Align), a method for producing accurate nucleotide-level structural alignments of RNA 3D structures. The web server provides a streamlined and intuitive interface, input data validation and output that is more extensive and easier to read and interpret than related servers. The R3D Align web server offers a unique Gallery of Featured Alignments, providing immediate access to pre-computed alignments of large RNA 3D structures, including all ribosomal RNAs, as well as guidance on effective use of the server and interpretation of the output. By accessing the non-redundant lists of RNA 3D structures provided by the Bowling Green State University RNA group, R3D Align connects users to structure files in the same equivalence class and the best-modeled representative structure from each group. The R3D Align web server is freely accessible at http://rna.bgsu.edu/r3dalign/. PMID:23716643

Rahrig, Ryan R; Petrov, Anton I; Leontis, Neocles B; Zirbel, Craig L

2013-07-01

145

Petal, terrain & airbags - 3D  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Portions of the lander's deflated airbags and a petal are at the lower area of this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. The metallic object at lower right is part of the lander's low-gain antenna. This image is part of a 3D 'monster

Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

1997-01-01

146

3D printed impedance elements by micro-dispensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Micro-dispensing allows electric circuits to be "3D printed," which can be used to give 3D printed systems electronic and electromagnetic functionality. The focus of this thesis is using micro-dispensing to fabricate capacitors and inductors. 3D printed impedance elements are capable of being more easily embedded, can be used to create structural electronics, and will have extensive applications in antennas, metamaterials, frequency selective surfaces, and more. This is the first known effort to print and measure impedance elements by micro-dispensing which holds great potential for manufacturing multi-material devices.

Robles Dominguez, Ubaldo

147

3D Fire Spread Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These excellent animations overlay animations of fire spread on 3D terrain that incorporates satellite imagery. A timeline shows the animation's current time relative to the fire occurrence, and an inset map provides an overhead view of the fire on a map that shows fuels by location. Animations are available for several wildfires that occurred in California.

Johson, Harry D.; University, San D.

148

Prototype Implementations for Multi-typed 3D Urban Features Visualization on Mobile 3D and Web 3D Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY This study aims at urban 3D features modeling\\/rendering system architecture design and its prototype implementations on 3D mobile and web 3D application. Mobile 3D is a cutting- edge technology. However, platforms and devices for mobile 3D GIS technology manipulating geographic data and information provide some limitations to design and implement. Despite, emerging standard mobile 3D graphic rendering stimulates mobile

Kiwon LEE

2007-01-01

149

Benchmarking in Student Affairs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the use of benchmarking in student affairs, focusing on issues related to student housing. Provides examples of how benchmarking has influenced administrative practice at many institutions. (EV)

Mosier, Robert E.; Schwarzmueller, Gary J.

2002-01-01

150

3D Geometry Projection from 2D to 3D  

E-print Network

n n n zzz yyy xxx P Points = y x tsss tsss S 3,22,21,2 3,12,11,1 Some matrix = n n vvv uuu I 21 21 of the points in P. #12;5 First, look at 2D rotation (easier) - n n yyy xxx 21 21 ... cossin sincos coordinates. That is, it's rotated. #12;6 Simple 3D Rotation - n n n zzz yyy xxx 21 21 21 ... 100 0cossin 0

Jacobs, David

151

3D histomorphometric quantification from 3D computed tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The histomorphometric analysis is based on stereologic concepts and was originally applied to biologic samples. This technique has been used to evaluate different complex structures such as ceramic filters, net structures and cancellous objects that are objects with inner connected structures. The measured histomorphometric parameters of structure are: sample volume to total reconstructed volume (BV/TV), sample surface to sample volume (BS/BV), connection thickness (Tb Th), connection number (Tb N) and connection separation (Tb Sp). The anisotropy was evaluated as well. These parameters constitute the base of histomorphometric analysis. The quantification is realized over cross-sections recovered by cone beam reconstruction, where a real-time microfocus radiographic system is used as tomographic system. The three-dimensional (3D) histomorphometry, obtained from tomography, corresponds to an evolution of conventional method that is based on 2D analysis. It is more coherent with morphologic and topologic context of the sample. This work shows result from 3D histomorphometric quantification to characterize objects examined by 3D computer tomography. The results, which characterizes the internal structures of ceramic foams with different porous density, are compared to results from conventional methods.

de Oliveira, L. F.; Lopes, R. T.

2004-06-01

152

BENCHMARK TESTING A.1 Benchmark Testing Design  

E-print Network

of various degrees of speci city (e.g., Arti cial Intelligence vs. Natural Language Processing) and di erent173 Appendix A BENCHMARK TESTING A.1 Benchmark Testing Design We rst performed a benchmark testing, were: (1-term: Natural Language Processing), (2-terms: Group Decision Support Systems, Collaboration

153

BENCHMARK TESTING A.1 Benchmark Testing Design  

E-print Network

consisted of terms of various degrees of specificity (e.g., Artificial Intelligence vs. Natural Language173 Appendix A BENCHMARK TESTING A.1 Benchmark Testing Design We first performed a benchmark in the computing area, were: (1­term: Natural Language Processing), (2­terms: Group Decision Support Systems

154

Sketch-driven mental 3D object retrieval  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

3D object recognition and retrieval recently gained a big interest because of the limitation of the "2D-to-2D" approaches. The latter suffer from several drawbacks such as the lack of information (due for instance to occlusion), pose sensitivity, illumination changes, etc. Our main motivation is to gather both discrimination and easy interaction by allowing simple (but multiple) 2D specifications of queries and their retrieval into 3D gallery sets. We introduce a novel "2D sketch-to-3D model" retrieval framework with the following contributions: (i) first a novel generative approach for aligning and normalizing the pose of 3D gallery objects and extracting their 2D canonical views is introduced. (ii) Afterwards, robust and compact contour signatures are extracted using the set of 2D canonical views. We also introduce a pruning approach to speedup the whole search process in a coarseto- fine way. (iii) Finally, object ranking is performed using our variant of elastic dynamic programming which considers only a subset of possible matches thereby providing a considerable gain in performance for the same amount of errors. Our experiments are reported/compared through the Princeton Shape Benchmark; clearly showing the good performance of our framework w.r.t. the other approaches. An iPhone demo of this method is available and allows us to achieve "2D sketch to 3D object" querying and interaction.

Napolon, Thibault; Sahbi, Hichem

2010-02-01

155

Extensible and Scalable 3D Visualization of Simulated Construction Operations  

E-print Network

- Event Simulation, Validation, Verification, Vitascope Copyright © 2003, Vineet Rajendra Kamat #12 model can ascertain that there are no errors in the coding (Verification); 2) The experts, field and the way the model developer understands it (Validation); and 3) A model can be communicated effectively

Kamat, Vineet R.

156

Forensic 3D Scene Reconstruction  

SciTech Connect

Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a feasible prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

LITTLE,CHARLES Q.; PETERS,RALPH R.; RIGDON,J. BRIAN; SMALL,DANIEL E.

1999-10-12

157

Optoplasmonics: hybridization in 3D  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Femtosecond laser fabrication has been used to make hybrid refractive and di ractive micro-optical elements in photo-polymer SZ2080. For applications in micro- uidics, axicon lenses were fabricated (both single and arrays), for generation of light intensity patterns extending through the entire depth of a typically tens-of-micrometers deep channel. Further hybridisation of an axicon with a plasmonic slot is fabricated and demonstrated nu- merically. Spiralling chiral grooves were inscribed into a 100-nm-thick gold coating sputtered over polymerized micro-axicon lenses, using a focused ion beam. This demonstrates possibility of hybridisation between optical and plasmonic 3D micro-optical elements. Numerical modelling of optical performance by 3D-FDTD method is presented.

Rosa, L.; Gervinskas, G.; ukauskas, A.; Malinauskas, M.; Brasselet, E.; Juodkazis, S.

2013-12-01

158

3D plasmonic chiral colloids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

3D plasmonic chiral colloids are synthesized through deterministically grouping of two gold nanorod AuNRs on DNA origami. These nanorod crosses exhibit strong circular dichroism (CD) at optical frequencies which can be engineered through position tuning of the rods on the origami. Our experimental results agree qualitatively well with theoretical predictions.3D plasmonic chiral colloids are synthesized through deterministically grouping of two gold nanorod AuNRs on DNA origami. These nanorod crosses exhibit strong circular dichroism (CD) at optical frequencies which can be engineered through position tuning of the rods on the origami. Our experimental results agree qualitatively well with theoretical predictions. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr06006c

Shen, Xibo; Zhan, Pengfei; Kuzyk, Anton; Liu, Qing; Asenjo-Garcia, Ana; Zhang, Hui; Garca de Abajo, F. Javier; Govorov, Alexander; Ding, Baoquan; Liu, Na

2014-01-01

159

3D Printing in Space  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

First we thought that 3D printing was just a pipe dream, the stuff of science fiction. Now, we know it to be very real with numerous innovations to follow. This recent report from the National Materials and Manufacturing Board's Division of Engineering and Physical Sciences suggests that 3D printing in space will soon be a reality. Published in July 2014, this 100-page report contains a range of findings on the future of additive manufacturing and its potential in space. The basic idea is that scientists in space could manufacture replacement parts and tools while in-orbit. Visitors are welcome to download and read the entire report, which will be of great interest to scientists, engineers, and others fascinated by the future of technological innovation.

National Research Council (U.S.). Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board; National Research Council (U.S.). Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences.; National Research Council (U.S.). National Materials and Manufacturing Board

2014-07-01

160

3D interactive pictorial maps  

E-print Network

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 11 A bar graph shows comparison of data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 12 Simplififed shapes of states of USA with changing heights. . . . . . . 28 13 The slider interface in Maya for changing heights of models. . . . . . 29 14 Melscript... for creating the slider interface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 15 Polygonal text in Maya for statistical maps. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 16 Dome of light and hypershade option in Maya. . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 17 3D models with baked shadow...

Naz, Asma

2005-02-17

161

3-D Magnetostatic Field Simulation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet simulates various magnetic sources, including a line of current, a square loop, a magnetic sphere and a solenoid. Size, number of particles, and field strength are adjustable. Display options include particles in velocity or force fields, field vectors, field lines and potential vectors. The vectors and lines can be displayed in 3D or on a movable 2D slice. Charge can be reversed. Source code and directions are included.

Falstad, Paul

2004-07-13

162

NASA: Exploration in 3D  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NASA's Exploration in 3D website is well executed and is accompanied by music with that classic, creepy, outer space feel. For visitors who prefer silence while looking at images of deep, dark space, there is a mute button near the bottom right side of the homepage. With this website, NASA is allowing the public to see their next major project, which involves creating a transportation system to take astronauts to the moon and then on to Mars. To enable the interested public to watch the progress of their plans for space, NASA will be taking photos of the project and putting them on this website, so they can be downloaded and printed. Once said images are printed, that's where the 3-D pocket viewfinders come in. For visitors interested in getting a viewfinder, click on the link at the bottom of the page that says "Click here to request your own EXN3D Pocket Viewfinder". To view the latest images with your viewfinder that are ready to download and print, visitors can click on "Downloads". Interested parties should check back in the future to see newly added images of the progress of the transportation system.

163

Free Fall 3D Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Ejs Free Fall 3D model displays the three-dimensional dynamics of a ball dropped near the surface of Earth onto a platform. The initial conditions for the ball are zero initial velocities in the x, y, and z directions. The coefficient of restitution for the balls collision with the platform is less than one. The initial height of the ball can be changed by dragging it when the simulation is paused. You can modify this simulation if you have Ejs installed by right-clicking within the plot and selecting Open Ejs Model from the pop-up menu item. Ejs Free Fall 3D model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_newton_FreeFall3D.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. Ejs is a part of the Open Source Physics Project and is designed to make it easier to access, modify, and generate computer models. Additional Ejs models for Newtonian mechanics are available. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or Ejs.

Christian, Wolfgang

2008-06-03

164

[Real time 3D echocardiography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients.

Bauer, F.; Shiota, T.; Thomas, J. D.

2001-01-01

165

Randomized benchmarking of multiqubit gates.  

PubMed

We describe an extension of single-qubit gate randomized benchmarking that measures the error of multiqubit gates in a quantum information processor. This platform-independent protocol evaluates the performance of Clifford unitaries, which form a basis of fault-tolerant quantum computing. We implemented the benchmarking protocol with trapped ions and found an error per random two-qubit Clifford unitary of 0.1620.008, thus setting the first benchmark for such unitaries. By implementing a second set of sequences with an extra two-qubit phase gate inserted after each step, we extracted an error per phase gate of 0.0690.017. We conducted these experiments with transported, sympathetically cooled ions in a multizone Paul trap-a system that can in principle be scaled to larger numbers of ions. PMID:23004946

Gaebler, J P; Meier, A M; Tan, T R; Bowler, R; Lin, Y; Hanneke, D; Jost, J D; Home, J P; Knill, E; Leibfried, D; Wineland, D J

2012-06-29

166

EASYOGL: Fast Prototyping Platform For 3d Multimedia Integration Using Tcl\\/Tk And Opengl  

Microsoft Academic Search

EasyOGL is a Tcl\\/Tk extension that adds three new dynamically loadable packages: a new Tk 3D graphics widget, an OpenGL package and an OpenGLU package. The 3D graphics widget pro- vides a context for drawing 3D graphics. The OpenGL\\/GLU pack- ages provide interpretive access to the OpenGL\\/GLU libraries so that developers can script interactive 3D graphics that appear in- side

S. Sidney Fels; Matt Yedlin

2001-01-01

167

Magmatic Systems in 3-D  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multichannel seismic (MCS) images of crustal magma chambers are ideal targets for advanced visualization techniques. In the mid-ocean ridge environment, reflections originating at the melt-lens are well separated from other reflection boundaries, such as the seafloor, layer 2A and Moho, which enables the effective use of transparency filters. 3-D visualization of seismic reflectivity falls into two broad categories: volume and surface rendering. Volumetric-based visualization is an extremely powerful approach for the rapid exploration of very dense 3-D datasets. These 3-D datasets are divided into volume elements or voxels, which are individually color coded depending on the assigned datum value; the user can define an opacity filter to reject plotting certain voxels. This transparency allows the user to peer into the data volume, enabling an easy identification of patterns or relationships that might have geologic merit. Multiple image volumes can be co-registered to look at correlations between two different data types (e.g., amplitude variation with offsets studies), in a manner analogous to draping attributes onto a surface. In contrast, surface visualization of seismic reflectivity usually involves producing "fence" diagrams of 2-D seismic profiles that are complemented with seafloor topography, along with point class data, draped lines and vectors (e.g. fault scarps, earthquake locations and plate-motions). The overlying seafloor can be made partially transparent or see-through, enabling 3-D correlations between seafloor structure and seismic reflectivity. Exploration of 3-D datasets requires additional thought when constructing and manipulating these complex objects. As numbers of visual objects grow in a particular scene, there is a tendency to mask overlapping objects; this clutter can be managed through the effective use of total or partial transparency (i.e., alpha-channel). In this way, the co-variation between different datasets can be investigated, even if one data object lies behind another. Stereoscopic viewing is another powerful tool to investigate 3-D relationships between objects. This form of immersion is constructed through viewing two separate images that are interleaved--typically 48 frames per second, per eye--and synced through an emitter and a set of specialized polarizing eyeglasses. The polarizing lenses flicker at an equivalent rate, blanking the eye for which a particular image was not drawn, producing the desired stereo effect. Volumetric visualization of the ARAD 3-D seismic dataset will be presented. The effective use of transparency reveals detailed structure of the melt-lens beneath the 903'N overlapping spreading center (OSC) along the East Pacific Rise, including melt-filled fractures within the propagating rift-tip. In addition, range-gated images of seismic reflectivity will be co-registered to investigate the physical properties (melt versus mush) of the magma chamber at this locale. Surface visualization of a dense, 2-D grid of MCS seismic data beneath Axial seamount (Juan de Fuca Ridge) will also be highlighted, including relationships between the summit caldera and rift zones, and the underlying (and humongous) magma chamber. A selection of Quicktime movies will be shown. Popcorn will be served, really!

Kent, G. M.; Harding, A. J.; Babcock, J. M.; Orcutt, J. A.; Bazin, S.; Singh, S.; Detrick, R. S.; Canales, J. P.; Carbotte, S. M.; Diebold, J.

2002-12-01

168

Benchmarking and Performance Measurement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper defines benchmarking and its relationship to quality management, describes a project which applied the technique in a library context, and explores the relationship between performance measurement and benchmarking. Numerous benchmarking methods contain similar elements: deciding what to benchmark; identifying partners; gathering

Town, J. Stephen

169

I3D: An Interactive System for Exploring Annotated 3D Environments  

E-print Network

]. The effectiveness of interactive 3D viewers for communicating information about 3D environments can be dramaticallyI3D: An Interactive System for Exploring Annotated 3D Environments AICA'95 Scientific Visualization-mail: {gobbetti|balaguer}@crs4.it ABSTRACT In this paper, we present I3D, a system that combines the 3D input

170

Interactive 3D Animation System for Web3D Masayuki Furukawa, Shinya Fukumoto, Hiroshi Kawasaki  

E-print Network

of state model using a printer as a 3D object. In the example, three states of 3D object are defined can try 3D manual of printer by using tablet PC to learn the effectiveness of our 3D animation systemInteractive 3D Animation System for Web3D Masayuki Furukawa, Shinya Fukumoto, Hiroshi Kawasaki

Tokyo, University of

171

Cloudy_3D, a new pseudo-3D photoionization code  

E-print Network

We developed a new quick pseudo-3D photoionization code based on Cloudy (G. Ferland) and IDL (RSI) tools. The code is running the 1D photoionization code Cloudy various times, changing at each run the input parameters (e.g. inner radius, density law) according to an angular law describing the morphology of the object. Then a cube is generated by interpolating the outputs of Cloudy. In each cell of the cube, the physical conditions (electron temperature and density, ionic fractions) and the emissivities of lines are determined. Associated tools (VISNEB and VELNEB_3D) are used to rotate the nebula and to compute surface brightness maps and emission line profiles, given a velocity law and taking into account the effect of the thermal broadening and eventually the turbulence. Integrated emission line profiles are computed, given aperture shapes and positions (seeing and instrumental width effects are included). The main advantage of this tool is the short time needed to compute a model (a few tens minutes).

C. Morisset

2006-05-16

172

3D The Next Crucial Step in  

E-print Network

simulations could be performed, 3D simulation capabilities are emerging. The movies here of early 3D of CASTRO Precollapse Postcollapse #12;CASTRO 3D AMR mesh: Explosion model #12;The movie depicts3D � The Next Crucial Step in Core-Collapse Supernova Simulations CASTRO! Jason Nordhaus and A

173

Interactive 3D Mars Visualization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Interactive 3D Mars Visualization system provides high-performance, immersive visualization of satellite and surface vehicle imagery of Mars. The software can be used in mission operations to provide the most accurate position information for the Mars rovers to date. When integrated into the mission data pipeline, this system allows mission planners to view the location of the rover on Mars to 0.01-meter accuracy with respect to satellite imagery, with dynamic updates to incorporate the latest position information. Given this information so early in the planning process, rover drivers are able to plan more accurate drive activities for the rover than ever before, increasing the execution of science activities significantly. Scientifically, this 3D mapping information puts all of the science analyses to date into geologic context on a daily basis instead of weeks or months, as was the norm prior to this contribution. This allows the science planners to judge the efficacy of their previously executed science observations much more efficiently, and achieve greater science return as a result. The Interactive 3D Mars surface view is a Mars terrain browsing software interface that encompasses the entire region of exploration for a Mars surface exploration mission. The view is interactive, allowing the user to pan in any direction by clicking and dragging, or to zoom in or out by scrolling the mouse or touchpad. This set currently includes tools for selecting a point of interest, and a ruler tool for displaying the distance between and positions of two points of interest. The mapping information can be harvested and shared through ubiquitous online mapping tools like Google Mars, NASA WorldWind, and Worldwide Telescope.

Powell, Mark W.

2012-01-01

174

What Lies Ahead (3-D)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This 3-D cylindrical-perspective mosaic taken by the navigation camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit on sol 82 shows the view south of the large crater dubbed 'Bonneville.' The rover will travel toward the Columbia Hills, seen here at the upper left. The rock dubbed 'Mazatzal' and the hole the rover drilled in to it can be seen at the lower left. The rover's position is referred to as 'Site 22, Position 32.' This image was geometrically corrected to make the horizon appear flat.

2004-01-01

175

3D face recognition via conformal representation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we propose a 3D face recognition approach based on the conformal representation of facial surfaces. Firstly, facial surfaces are mapped onto the 2D unit disk by Riemann mapping. Their conformal representation (i.e. the pair of mean curvature (MC) and conformal factor (CF) ) are then computed and encoded to Mean Curvature Images (MCIs) and Conformal Factor Images (CFIs). Considering that different regions of face deform unequally due to expression variation, MCIs and CFIs are divided into five parts. LDA is applied to each part to obtain the feature vector. At last, five parts are fused on the distance level for recognition. Extensive experiments carried out on the BU-3DFE database demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

Han, Junhui; Fang, Chi; Ding, Xiaoqing; Sun, Jian; Gu, Xianfeng D.

2014-03-01

176

RT3D tutorials for GMS users  

Microsoft Academic Search

RT3D (Reactive Transport in 3-Dimensions) is a computer code that solves coupled partial differential equations that describe reactive-flow and transport of multiple mobile and\\/or immobile species in a three dimensional saturated porous media. RT3D was developed from the single-species transport code, MT3D (DoD-1.5, 1997 version). As with MT3D, RT3D also uses the USGS groundwater flow model MODFLOW for computing spatial

T. P. Clement; N. L. Jones

1998-01-01

177

3D Modeling From 2D Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article will give an overview of the methods of transition from the set of images into 3D model. Direct method of creating 3D model using 3D software will be described. Creating photorealistic 3D models from a set of photographs is challenging problem in computer vision because the technology is still in its development stage while the demands for 3D

Lana Madracevic; Stjepan Sogoric

2010-01-01

178

3D printed bionic ears.  

PubMed

The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097

Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C

2013-06-12

179

Martian terrain & airbags - 3D  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Portions of the lander's deflated airbags and a petal are at lower left in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. This image is part of a 3D 'monster' panorama of the area surrounding the landing site.

Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

1997-01-01

180

Martian terrain & airbags - 3D  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Portions of the lander's deflated airbags and a petal are at the lower area of this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. This image is part of a 3D 'monster' panorama of the area surrounding the landing site.

Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

1997-01-01

181

3D Printed Bionic Ears  

PubMed Central

The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the precise anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097

Mannoor, Manu S.; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A.; Soboyejo, Winston O.; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H.; McAlpine, Michael C.

2013-01-01

182

Modeling of Particle Orbits in 3D MHD Equilibria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern Tokamaks and stellarators have significant auxiliary fast ion heating systems which must be accounted for in equilibrium calculations. Direct measurement of fast ion profiles is difficult, so often in Tokamaks they are provided by forward modeling. The 3D nature of fields from Tokamaks with resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) and from stellarators necessitates a fully 3D model. The BEAMS3D code uses guiding center approximations to find particle trajectories in 3D fields, and can include the physical effects of hot ion collisions and scattering, charge-exchange and recombination, pitch angle and energy scattering, and viscous velocity reduction. We benchmark the code for beam deposition, charge exchange, and collisionless particle orbits, with positive results. We apply the code to MHD solutions representing the geometry of DIII-D and NCSX, and extract the hot ion pressure profiles. While currently designed to work with the equilibria produced by VMEC or with vacuum fields, the code easily could be modified to work with other equilibria.

McMillan, Matthew; Lazerson, Samuel; Feibush, Eliot

2012-10-01

183

Perception-based shape retrieval for 3D building models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the help of 3D search engines, a large number of 3D building models can be retrieved freely online. A serious disadvantage of most rotation-insensitive shape descriptors is their inability to distinguish between two 3D building models which are different at their main axes, but appear similar when one of them is rotated. To resolve this problem, we present a novel upright-based normalization method which not only correctly rotates such building models, but also greatly simplifies and accelerates the abstraction and the matching of building models' shape descriptors. Moreover, the abundance of architectural styles significantly hinders the effective shape retrieval of building models. Our research has shown that buildings with different designs are not well distinguished by the widely recognized shape descriptors for general 3D models. Motivated by this observation and to further improve the shape retrieval quality, a new building matching method is introduced and analyzed based on concepts found in the field of perception theory and the well-known Light Field descriptor. The resulting normalized building models are first classified using the qualitative shape descriptors of Shell and Unevenness which outline integral geometrical and topological information. These models are then put in on orderly fashion with the help of an improved quantitative shape descriptor which we will term as Horizontal Light Field Descriptor, since it assembles detailed shape characteristics. To accurately evaluate the proposed methodology, an enlarged building shape database which extends previous well-known shape benchmarks was implemented as well as a model retrieval system supporting inputs from 2D sketches and 3D models. Various experimental performance evaluation results have shown that, as compared to previous methods, retrievals employing the proposed matching methodology are faster and more consistent with human recognition of spatial objects. In addition these performance evaluation results have verified that the proposed methodology does not sacrifice the matching accuracy while significantly improves the efficiency when matching 3D building models.

Zhang, Man; Zhang, Liqiang; Takis Mathiopoulos, P.; Ding, Yusi; Wang, Hao

2013-01-01

184

LOTT RANCH 3D PROJECT  

SciTech Connect

The Lott Ranch 3D seismic prospect located in Garza County, Texas is a project initiated in September of 1991 by the J.M. Huber Corp., a petroleum exploration and production company. By today's standards the 126 square mile project does not seem monumental, however at the time it was conceived it was the most intensive land 3D project ever attempted. Acquisition began in September of 1991 utilizing GEO-SEISMIC, INC., a seismic data contractor. The field parameters were selected by J.M. Huber, and were of a radical design. The recording instruments used were GeoCor IV amplifiers designed by Geosystems Inc., which record the data in signed bit format. It would not have been practical, if not impossible, to have processed the entire raw volume with the tools available at that time. The end result was a dataset that was thought to have little utility due to difficulties in processing the field data. In 1997, Yates Energy Corp. located in Roswell, New Mexico, formed a partnership to further develop the project. Through discussions and meetings with Pinnacle Seismic, it was determined that the original Lott Ranch 3D volume could be vastly improved upon reprocessing. Pinnacle Seismic had shown the viability of improving field-summed signed bit data on smaller 2D and 3D projects. Yates contracted Pinnacle Seismic Ltd. to perform the reprocessing. This project was initiated with high resolution being a priority. Much of the potential resolution was lost through the initial summing of the field data. Modern computers that are now being utilized have tremendous speed and storage capacities that were cost prohibitive when this data was initially processed. Software updates and capabilities offer a variety of quality control and statics resolution, which are pertinent to the Lott Ranch project. The reprocessing effort was very successful. The resulting processed data-set was then interpreted using modern PC-based interpretation and mapping software. Production data, log data, and scout ticket data were integrated with the 3D interpretations to evaluate drilling opportunities resulting in an initial three well drilling program. Thousands of miles of signed bit data exist. Much of this data was processed during a time when software and hardware capabilities were either incapable or cost prohibitive to glean the full potential of the data. In fact in some circles signed bit gained an undeserved reputation for being less than optimum. As a consequence much of the older signed bit data sits on the shelf long forgotten or overlooked. With the high cost of new acquisition and permitting it might behoove other exploration companies to reconsider resurrecting perfectly viable existing volumes and have them reprocessed at a fraction of the cost of new acquisition.

Larry Lawrence; Bruce Miller

2004-09-01

185

Kernel-Based 3D Tracking Ambrish Tyagi1  

E-print Network

truth. 1. Introduction A complex scene by definition is one in which several moving objects (people is organized as follows. We review related work in Sect. 2. We then describe our kernel- based 3D tracker in Sect. 3 and automatic re-initialization method in Sect. 4. An extensive experimental evaluation

Davis, James W.

186

A 3D laser and vision based classifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a method for modelling semantic content in scenes, in order to facilitate urban driving. More specifically, it presents a 3D classifier based on Velodyne data and monocular color imagery. The system contains two main components: a ground model and an object model. The ground model is a novel extension of elevation maps using Conditional Random Fields. It

Bertrand Douillard; Alex Brooks; Fabio Ramos

2009-01-01

187

Modeling the Properties of 3D Woven Composites  

SciTech Connect

An extensive study has been completed of the internal geometry, the mechanisms of failure, and the micromechanics of local failure events in graphite/epoxy composites with three dimensional (3D) woven reinforcement. This work has led to the development of models for predicting elastic constants, strength, notch sensitivity, and fatigue life. A summary is presented here.

Cox, B.N.

1995-10-01

188

3-D GEOMETRY ENHANCEMENT BY CONTOUR OPTIMIZATION IN TURNTABLE SEQUENCES  

E-print Network

, computer games, product presentations in e-commerce, or other virtual reality systems. Although the ren and design of 3-D models with high quality is still time consuming and thus expensive. This has motivated geometry. In order to circumvent the limitation of reconstructing the visual hull only, many extensions

Eisert, Peter

189

Demonstration of a 3D vision algorithm for space applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper reports an extension of the MIAG algorithm for recognition and motion parameter determination of general 3-D polyhedral objects based on model matching techniques and using movement invariants as features of object representation. Results of tests conducted on the algorithm under conditions simulating space conditions are presented.

Defigueiredo, Rui J. P. (editor)

1987-01-01

190

Converting 2D Video to 3D: An Efficient Path to a 3D Experience  

E-print Network

and the appear- ance of the most successful movie of all time in vivid 3D (Avatar), has apparently put 3D video is to explore effective 3D content- creation methods. Most contemporary 3D con- tent (for example, commercialsConverting 2D Video to 3D: An Efficient Path to a 3D Experience Wide-scale deployment of 3D video

Bovik, Alan

191

Quasi 3D modeling of water flow in vadose zone and groundwater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryThe complexity of subsurface flow systems calls for a variety of concepts leading to the multiplicity of simplified flow models. One habitual simplification is based on the assumption that lateral flow and transport in unsaturated zone are not significant unless the capillary fringe is involved. In such cases the flow and transport in the unsaturated zone above groundwater level can be simulated as a 1D phenomenon, whereas the flow and transport through groundwater are viewed as 2D or 3D phenomena. A new approach for a numerical scheme for 3D variably saturated flow using quasi 3D Richards' equation and finite difference scheme is presented. The corresponding numerical algorithm and the QUASI-3D computer code were developed. Results of the groundwater level simulations were compared with transient laboratory experimental data for 2D data constant-flux infiltration, quasi-3D HYDRUS-MODFLOW numerical model and a FULL-3D numerical model using Richards' equation. Hypothetical 3D examples of infiltration, pumping and groundwater mound dissipation for different spatial-time scales are presented. Water flow simulation for the Alto Piura aquifer (Peru) demonstrates the QUASI-3D model application at the regional scale. Computationally the QUASI-3D code was found to be more efficient by an order of 10-300%, while being accurate with respect to the benchmark fully 3D variable saturation code, when the capillary fringe was considered.

Kuznetsov, M.; Yakirevich, A.; Pachepsky, Y. A.; Sorek, S.; Weisbrod, N.

2012-07-01

192

Visually inspecting the search behavior of Harmony Search and its variants with Viz3D  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to assess the Harmony Search (HS) meta-heuristic and some of its variants when submitted to benchmark continuous optimization problems to reveal whether and how such variants change the patterns of search behavior exhibited by the canonical version. For this purpose, a new Visual Mining tool based on the Viz3D algorithm was developed to aid

Marcelo Lotif; Andre L. V. Coelho

2011-01-01

193

Comparative Study of 3D Printing Technologies for Rapid Casting of Aluminium Alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to compare the efficacy of two rapid casting technologies, namely, ZCast process and investment casting based on 3D printing technique of rapid prototyping for casting of aluminium alloy. A standard procedure has been premeditated starting from the identification and design of benchmark. The concept was presented in physical form by producing prototypes to assess

Simranpreet Singh Gill; Munish Kaplas

2009-01-01

194

3D Printing: Embedded 3D Printing of Strain Sensors within Highly Stretchable Elastomers (Adv. Mater. 36/2014).  

PubMed

R. J. Wood, J. A. Lewis, and co-workers report on page 6307 a new method for fabricating strain sensors within highly conformal and extensible elastomeric matrices, known as embedded-3D printing. Credit: Y. Bai, J. Muth and J. Lewis, Harvard University. PMID:25234851

Muth, Joseph T; Vogt, Daniel M; Truby, Ryan L; Meng, Yi?it; Kolesky, David B; Wood, Robert J; Lewis, Jennifer A

2014-09-01

195

Conducting polymer 3D microelectrodes.  

PubMed

Conducting polymer 3D microelectrodes have been fabricated for possible future neurological applications. A combination of micro-fabrication techniques and chemical polymerization methods has been used to create pillar electrodes in polyaniline and polypyrrole. The thin polymer films obtained showed uniformity and good adhesion to both horizontal and vertical surfaces. Electrodes in combination with metal/conducting polymer materials have been characterized by cyclic voltammetry and the presence of the conducting polymer film has shown to increase the electrochemical activity when compared with electrodes coated with only metal. An electrochemical characterization of gold/polypyrrole electrodes showed exceptional electrochemical behavior and activity. PC12 cells were finally cultured on the investigated materials as a preliminary biocompatibility assessment. These results show that the described electrodes are possibly suitable for future in-vitro neurological measurements. PMID:22163508

Sasso, Luigi; Vazquez, Patricia; Vedarethinam, Indumathi; Castillo-Len, Jaime; Emnus, Jenny; Svendsen, Winnie E

2010-01-01

196

A Graphical User Interface for RELAX3D  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Laplace/Poisson solver RELAX3D has been used extensively in cyclotron central region design and other accelerator and beam physics applications. It is typically run in an interactive mode where the user types in commands and parameters to initiate and control the solution process and to view or output the results. This paper describes a prototype graphical user interface (GUI), developed using Tcl/Tk, that eliminates most of this typing and makes for more efficient user interaction. The use of a unique package called Expect (a Tcl/Tk extension) allows the interface to be implemented as an independent front-end process that communicates with the running RELAX3D program, thus requiring minimal modifications to RELAX3D itself. Since Expect can control multiple processes, and since RELAX3D results are often sent to some subsequent program for visualization, particle tracking, etc., there are interesting opportunities to integrate these post-processing tasks into the same GUI that is used for RELAX3D.

Jones, F. W.

1997-05-01

197

Low Complexity Mode Decision for 3D-HEVC  

PubMed Central

High efficiency video coding- (HEVC-) based 3D video coding (3D-HEVC) developed by joint collaborative team on 3D video coding (JCT-3V) for multiview video and depth map is an extension of HEVC standard. In the test model of 3D-HEVC, variable coding unit (CU) size decision and disparity estimation (DE) are introduced to achieve the highest coding efficiency with the cost of very high computational complexity. In this paper, a fast mode decision algorithm based on variable size CU and DE is proposed to reduce 3D-HEVC computational complexity. The basic idea of the method is to utilize the correlations between depth map and motion activity in prediction mode where variable size CU and DE are needed, and only in these regions variable size CU and DE are enabled. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can save about 43% average computational complexity of 3D-HEVC while maintaining almost the same rate-distortion (RD) performance. PMID:25254237

Li, Nana; Gan, Yong

2014-01-01

198

3D reconstruction, visualization, and measurement of MRI images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper primarily focuses on manipulating 2D medical image data that often come in as Magnetic Resonance and reconstruct them into 3D volumetric images. Clinical diagnosis and therapy planning using 2D medical images can become a torturous problem for a physician. For example, our 2D breast images of a patient mimic a breast carcinoma. In reality, the patient has 'fat necrosis', a benign breast lump. Physicians need powerful, accurate and interactive 3D visualization systems to extract anatomical details and examine the root cause of the problem. Our proposal overcomes the above mentioned limitations through the development of volume rendering algorithms and extensive use of parallel, distributed and neural networks computing strategies. MRI coupled with 3D imaging provides a reliable method for quantifying 'fat necrosis' characteristics and progression. Our 3D interactive application enables a physician to compute spatial measurements and quantitative evaluations and, from a general point of view, use all 3D interactive tools that can help to plan a complex surgical operation. The capability of our medical imaging application can be extended to reconstruct and visualize 3D volumetric brain images. Our application promises to be an important tool in neurological surgery planning, time and cost reduction.

Pandya, Abhijit S.; Patel, Pritesh P.; Desai, Mehul B.; Desai, Paramtap

1999-03-01

199

3D printing facilitated scaffold-free tissue unit fabrication.  

PubMed

Tissue spheroids hold great potential in tissue engineering as building blocks to assemble into functional tissues. To date, agarose molds have been extensively used to facilitate fusion process of tissue spheroids. As a molding material, agarose typically requires low temperature plates for gelation and/or heated dispenser units. Here, we proposed and developed an alginate-based, direct 3D mold-printing technology: 3D printing microdroplets of alginate solution into biocompatible, bio-inert alginate hydrogel molds for the fabrication of scaffold-free tissue engineering constructs. Specifically, we developed a 3D printing technology to deposit microdroplets of alginate solution on calcium containing substrates in a layer-by-layer fashion to prepare ring-shaped 3D hydrogel molds. Tissue spheroids composed of 50% endothelial cells and 50% smooth muscle cells were robotically placed into the 3D printed alginate molds using a 3D printer, and were found to rapidly fuse into toroid-shaped tissue units. Histological and immunofluorescence analysis indicated that the cells secreted collagen type I playing a critical role in promoting cell-cell adhesion, tissue formation and maturation. PMID:24717646

Tan, Yu; Richards, Dylan J; Trusk, Thomas C; Visconti, Richard P; Yost, Michael J; Kindy, Mark S; Drake, Christopher J; Argraves, William Scott; Markwald, Roger R; Mei, Ying

2014-06-01

200

3D Equilibrium Reconstruction in Stellarators and Tokamaks with STELLOPT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to model and predict the behavior of stellarators and tokamaks requires an ability to match simulation parameters with experimental measurements. This process, known as experimental reconstruction, has been used extensively with 2D axisymmetric codes for Tokamaks. These codes, such as EFIT, lack the ability to model the 3D nature of stellarators and the emerging 3D nature of Tokamaks. Phenomena such as, shielding of islands by neoclassical flows and the suppression of edge localized modes through application of 3D fields, highlight the need for such 3D tools. The stellarator optimizer code STELLOPT has been modified to match 3D VMEC equilibria to experimental measurements. This has allowed 3D experimental reconstructions to be preformed on W7-AS, LHD, and DIII-D devices. The free boundary VMEC equilibria are matched to Thomson profiles (ne and Te), charge exchange measurements (Ti), MSE (polarization angle), and magnetic diagnostics (B-probes, flux loops, Rogowski coils). Three dimensional reconstructed equilibria are presented alongside confidence metrics for the reconstruction process.

Lazerson, Samuel; Pablant, Novimir; Gates, David; Neilson, Hutch; Nazikian, Raffi; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Watanabe, Kiyomasa; Ida, Katsumi; Sakakibara, Satoru

2012-10-01

201

Factory Flow Benchmarking Report  

E-print Network

LAI benchmarked representative part fabrications and some assembly operations within its member companies of the defense aircraft industry. This paper reports the results of this benchmarking effort. In addition, this ...

Shields, Thomas J.

202

Benchmark On Sensitivity Calculation (Phase III)  

SciTech Connect

The sensitivities of the keff eigenvalue to neutron cross sections have become commonly used in similarity studies and as part of the validation algorithm for criticality safety assessments. To test calculations of the sensitivity coefficients, a benchmark study (Phase III) has been established by the OECD-NEA/WPNCS/EG UACSA (Expert Group on Uncertainty Analysis for Criticality Safety Assessment). This paper presents some sensitivity results generated by the benchmark participants using various computational tools based upon different computational methods: SCALE/TSUNAMI-3D and -1D, MONK, APOLLO2-MORET 5, DRAGON-SUSD3D and MMKKENO. The study demonstrates the performance of the tools. It also illustrates how model simplifications impact the sensitivity results and demonstrates the importance of 'implicit' (self-shielding) sensitivities. This work has been a useful step towards verification of the existing and developed sensitivity analysis methods.

Ivanova, Tatiana [IRSN; Laville, Cedric [IRSN; Dyrda, James [Atomic Weapons Establishment; Mennerdahl, Dennis [E. Mennerdahl Systems; Golovko, Yury [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE), Obninsk, Russia; Raskach, Kirill [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE), Obninsk, Russia; Tsiboulia, Anatoly [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE), Obninsk, Russia; Lee, Gil Soo [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS); Woo, Sweng-Woong [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS); Bidaud, Adrien [Labratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmolo-gie (LPSC); Patel, Amrit [NRC; Bledsoe, Keith C [ORNL; Rearden, Bradley T [ORNL; Gulliford, J. [OECD Nuclear Energy Agency

2012-01-01

203

Benchmarking protein classification algorithms via supervised cross-validation.  

PubMed

Development and testing of protein classification algorithms are hampered by the fact that the protein universe is characterized by groups vastly different in the number of members, in average protein size, similarity within group, etc. Datasets based on traditional cross-validation (k-fold, leave-one-out, etc.) may not give reliable estimates on how an algorithm will generalize to novel, distantly related subtypes of the known protein classes. Supervised cross-validation, i.e., selection of test and train sets according to the known subtypes within a database has been successfully used earlier in conjunction with the SCOP database. Our goal was to extend this principle to other databases and to design standardized benchmark datasets for protein classification. Hierarchical classification trees of protein categories provide a simple and general framework for designing supervised cross-validation strategies for protein classification. Benchmark datasets can be designed at various levels of the concept hierarchy using a simple graph-theoretic distance. A combination of supervised and random sampling was selected to construct reduced size model datasets, suitable for algorithm comparison. Over 3000 new classification tasks were added to our recently established protein classification benchmark collection that currently includes protein sequence (including protein domains and entire proteins), protein structure and reading frame DNA sequence data. We carried out an extensive evaluation based on various machine-learning algorithms such as nearest neighbor, support vector machines, artificial neural networks, random forests and logistic regression, used in conjunction with comparison algorithms, BLAST, Smith-Waterman, Needleman-Wunsch, as well as 3D comparison methods DALI and PRIDE. The resulting datasets provide lower, and in our opinion more realistic estimates of the classifier performance than do random cross-validation schemes. A combination of supervised and random sampling was used to construct model datasets, suitable for algorithm comparison. PMID:17604112

Kertsz-Farkas, Attila; Dhir, Somdutta; Sonego, Paolo; Pacurar, Mircea; Netoteia, Sergiu; Nijveen, Harm; Kuzniar, Arnold; Leunissen, Jack A M; Kocsor, Andrs; Pongor, Sndor

2008-04-24

204

A view-sequential 3D display  

E-print Network

This thesis outlines the various techniques for creating electronic 3D displays and analyzes their commercial potential. The thesis argues for the use of view-sequential techniques in the design of 3D displays based on ...

Cossairt, Oliver S. (Oliver Strider), 1978-

2003-01-01

205

An interactive multiview 3D display system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The progresses in 3D display systems and user interaction technologies will help more effective 3D visualization of 3D information. They yield a realistic representation of 3D objects and simplifies our understanding to the complexity of 3D objects and spatial relationship among them. In this paper, we describe an autostereoscopic multiview 3D display system with capability of real-time user interaction. Design principle of this autostereoscopic multiview 3D display system is presented, together with the details of its hardware/software architecture. A prototype is built and tested based upon multi-projectors and horizontal optical anisotropic display structure. Experimental results illustrate the effectiveness of this novel 3D display and user interaction system.

Zhang, Zhaoxing; Geng, Zheng; Zhang, Mei; Dong, Hui

2013-03-01

206

High throughput 3-D tissue cytometry  

E-print Network

This thesis presents the ongoing technological development of high throughput 3-D tissue cytometry.and its applications in biomedicine. 3-D tissue cytometry has been developed in our laboratory based on two-photon microscopy ...

Kwon, Hyuk-Sang, 1971-

2007-01-01

207

3D Printing Making the Digital Real  

E-print Network

3D printing is quickly expanding field, with the popularity and uses for 3D printers growing every day. 3D printing can be used to prototype, create replacement parts, and is even versatile enough to print prostheses and medical implants. It will have a growing impact on our world, as more and more people gain access to these amazing machines.[1] In this article, we would like to attempt to give an introduction of the technology. 3Dimensions printing is a method of converting a virtual 3D model into a physical object. 3D printing is a category of rapid prototyping technology. 3D printers typically work by printing successive layers on top of the previous to build up a three dimensional object. 3D printing is a revolutionary method for creating 3D models with the use of inkjet technology.[7

Miss Prachi More

208

PSS-3D1D: an improved 3D1D profile method of protein fold recognition for the annotation of twilight zone sequences.  

PubMed

Annotation of any newly determined protein sequence depends on the pairwise sequence identity with known sequences. However, for the twilight zone sequences which have only 15-25% identity, the pair-wise comparison methods are inadequate and the annotation becomes a challenging task. Such sequences can be annotated by using methods that recognize their fold. Bowie etal. described a 3D1D profile method in which the amino acid sequences that fold into a known 3D structure are identified by their compatibility to that known 3D structure. We have improved the above method by using the predicted secondary structure information and employ it for fold recognition from the twilight zone sequences. In our Protein Secondary Structure 3D1D (PSS-3D1D) method, a score (w) for the predicted secondary structure of the query sequence is included in finding the compatibility of the query sequence to the known fold 3D structures. In the benchmarks, the PSS-3D1D method shows a maximum of 21% improvement in predicting correctly the ? + ? class of folds from the sequences with twilight zone level of identity, when compared with the 3D1D profile method. Hence, the PSS-3D1D method could offer more clues than the 3D1D method for the annotation of twilight zone sequences. The web based PSS-3D1D method is freely available in the PredictFold server at http://bioinfo.bdu.ac.in/servers/ . PMID:22160493

Ganesan, K; Parthasarathy, S

2011-12-01

209

ALE3D Rolling Simulations  

SciTech Connect

Hot rolling is a problem involving large deformations during the process of turning an ingot into a thin sheet. As a result of the large deformations inherent in the process, significant amounts of energy are put into the ingot mechanically, most of which results in heat generation. Therefore, in order to predict the results of rolling both the mechanical and the thermal factors must accurately represent the real conditions. The factors which must be properly tuned include interface friction, mass scaling to decrease computation times, heat transfer at the interface, convective heat transfer from the ingot, and convective heat transfer from the roll. Since these parameters are generally not measurable the correct values must be derived by tuning the parameters so that solutions match some other measurable result. The interface friction will be tuned using an ALE3D input deck which has been set up to output the torque applied to the roll during the pass. The friction coefficient will be adjusted so that the computed torque matches the measured value. The various heat transfer coefficients are dependent on each other, and are tuned based on measured roll surface temperatures, ingot exit temperatures, and the energy input through the mechanical deformation of the ingot. The heat transfer coefficient at the interface has been found to be approximately 1.25 x 10{sup 5} W/m{sup 2}K, based on estimates of how much heat can be taken from the roll surface by coolant and matching a roll surface temperature. The convection coefficient on the ingot surface has been assumed to be 100 W/m{sup 2}K, on the high end for convection to air. However, this convection coefficient is low enough that the ingot should cool uniformly through its thickness as it would with a lower convection coefficient. Also necessary in accurate modeling is a good description of material behavior. In order to aid the development of an accurate material model an ALE3D input deck which simulates compression tests with temperature gradients has been developed. The model output engineering stress-strain curves which can be compared to the experimentally collected data. Also, comparisons of the deformed shapes can be made. The model has been tuned using MTS parameters for AA 5182 and will be ready for use when parameters for AA 2024 are experimentally developed. Currently, more work is needed to properly tune all the model parameters. A parameterized three dimensional geometry and mesh has been created so that once the parameters are tuned the transition to three dimensional simulations should be quick.

Riordan, T

2006-07-27

210

3D Radiative Transfer in Cloudy Atmospheres  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

3D cloud radiative community has matured enough to prepare a volume on 3D radiative transfer in cloudy atmosphere that will be published by Springer-Verlag this year. Many leading 3D radiative transfer scientists are amongst the co-authors of the book. The book starts with the basic 3D radiative transfer problem, describes its solutions and models, discusses the effects of cloud inhomogeneity for remote sensing, addresses climate problems in realistic atmosphere and studies cloud-vegetation interactions.

Marshak, Alexander; Davis, Anthony B.; LeBlanc, Lisa

2004-01-01

211

MODELOSHIDROGEOLOGICOS3D Integracin de la informacin  

E-print Network

MODELOSHIDROGEOLOGICOS3D Integración de la información geológica 3D en modelos hidrogeológicos Xavier Almolda Cardona #12;MODELOSHIDROGEOLOGICOS3D Índice Motivación Pasos modelación Definición intercambio de datos Escenario concreto #12;MODELOSHIDROGEOLOGICOS3D Motivación Mejor aprovechamiento de la

Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat

212

3-D Source & NWL Update Paul Wilson  

E-print Network

9/26/2006 3-D Source & NWL Update Paul Wilson #12;9/26/2006 Update on ARIES-CS 3-D Source and NWL 2 Fundamental Source Density Note: based on Data from J. Lyon (ORNL) #12;9/26/2006 Update on ARIES-CS 3-D Source on ARIES-CS 3-D Source and NWL 4 Peak source probability lower at 60o Toroidal Angle (=0o) Peak source

213

3D-LSI compatible logic family  

Microsoft Academic Search

Triple diffusion (3D) bipolar integrated circuit technology was introduced in the early 1960's. The current status of development of 3D in connection with recent advances in the technology of large scale integration (LSI) is examined. The triple diffusion process is discussed and a description of 3D device properties is presented. Attention is also given to 3D circuits and their performance,

J. Buie

1975-01-01

214

Benchmarking for Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The chapters in this collection explore the concept of benchmarking as it is being used and developed in higher education (HE). Case studies and reviews show how universities in the United Kingdom are using benchmarking to aid in self-regulation and self-improvement. The chapters are: (1) "Introduction to Benchmarking" (Norman Jackson and Helen

Jackson, Norman, Ed.; Lund, Helen, Ed.

215

Pathways for Learning from 3D Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to find out if 3D stereoscopic presentation of information in a movie format changes a viewer's experience of the movie content. Four possible pathways from 3D presentation to memory and learning were considered: a direct connection based on cognitive neuroscience research; a connection through "immersion" in that 3D

Carrier, L. Mark; Rab, Saira S.; Rosen, Larry D.; Vasquez, Ludivina; Cheever, Nancy A.

2012-01-01

216

Imaging a Sustainable Future in 3D  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is the intention of this paper, to contribute to a sustainable future by providing objective object information based on 3D photography as well as promoting 3D photography not only for scientists, but also for amateurs. Due to the presentation of this article by CIPA Task Group 3 on "3D Photographs in Cultural Heritage", the presented samples are masterpieces of historic as well as of current 3D photography concentrating on cultural heritage. In addition to a report on exemplarily access to international archives of 3D photographs, samples for new 3D photographs taken with modern 3D cameras, as well as by means of a ground based high resolution XLITE staff camera and also 3D photographs taken from a captive balloon and the use of civil drone platforms are dealt with. To advise on optimum suited 3D methodology, as well as to catch new trends in 3D, an updated synoptic overview of the 3D visualization technology, even claiming completeness, has been carried out as a result of a systematic survey. In this respect, e.g., today's lasered crystals might be "early bird" products in 3D, which, due to lack in resolution, contrast and color, remember to the stage of the invention of photography.

Schuhr, W.; Lee, J. D.; Kanngieser, E.

2012-07-01

217

3D Flow Visualization Using Texture Advection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Texture advection is an effective tool for animating and investigating 2D flows. In this paper, we discuss how this technique can be extended to 3D flows. In particular, we examine the use of 3D and 4D textures on 3D synthetic and computational fluid dynamics flow fields.

Kao, David; Zhang, Bing; Kim, Kwansik; Pang, Alex; Moran, Pat (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

218

Consistent stylization of stereoscopic 3D images  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of stylization filters to photographs is common, Instagram being a popular recent example. These image manipulation applications work great for 2D images. However, stereoscopic 3D cameras are increasingly available to consumers (Nintendo 3DS, Fuji W3 3D, HTC Evo 3D). How will users apply these same stylizations to stereoscopic images?

Lesley Northam; Paul Asente; Craig S. Kaplan

2012-01-01

219

Beowulf 3D: a case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses the creative and technical challenges encountered during the production of "Beowulf 3D," director Robert Zemeckis' adaptation of the Old English epic poem and the first film to be simultaneously released in IMAX 3D and digital 3D formats.

Engle, Rob

2008-02-01

220

3D Printing Prof. Hank Dietz  

E-print Network

3D Printing Prof. Hank Dietz TCMS, March 14, 2014 University of Kentucky Electrical & Computer #12;3D With Glue Layers of paper: printed with glue & cut Layers of powder: printed with glue Can also be printed in full color #12;3D Extrusion (RepRaps) FDM: Fused Deposition Modeling FFF: Fused

Dietz, Henry G. "Hank"

221

The Makerbot: Desktop 3D printing  

E-print Network

The Makerbot: Desktop 3D printing Matthew Roughan School of Mathematical Sciences matthew is Lots of maths hidden in something like 3D printing Geometry and Linear algebra ++ Same math used #12;CNC CNC = Computer Numerical Control CNC machines have been around for a while 3D printers

Roughan, Matthew

222

From Museum Exhibits to 3D Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article presents the use of 3D scanners and printers for the digitization of 3D objects of cultural heritage. The work describes the full processing chain from the scanning of an exhibit to the creation of a tangible copy using a 3D printer. Problems caused by imperfect data sets are discussed and solutions proposed.

Agnieszka Tomaka; Leszek Luchowski; Krzysztof Skabek

2009-01-01

223

Structural Indexing: Efficient 3-D Object Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present an approach for the recognition of multiple 3-D object models from three 3-D scene data. The approach uses two different types of primitives for matching: small surface patches, where differential properties can be reliably computed, and lines corresponding to depth or orientation discontinuities. These are represented by splashes and 3-D curves, respectively. It is shown how both

Fridtjof Stein; Grard G. Medioni

1992-01-01

224

3D face recognition with wireless transportation  

E-print Network

. For the feature extraction component, we ?rst introduce the 3D Morphable Model. Then a 3D feature extraction algorithm based on the 3D Morphable Model is presented. The algorithm is insensitive to facial expression. Experimental results show that it can accurately...

Zou, Le

2009-05-15

225

AUTOMATIC 3D FACE REGISTRATION WITHOUT INITIALIZATION  

E-print Network

of Tennessee, 334 Ferris Hall, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA. Abstract: Recently 3D face reconstructionChapter 3 AUTOMATIC 3D FACE REGISTRATION WITHOUT INITIALIZATION A. Koschan, V. R. Ayyagari, F and recognition has gained an important role in computer vision and biometrics research. Depth information of a 3D

Abidi, Mongi A.

226

3D ultrafast laser scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser scanners are essential for scientific research, manufacturing, defense, and medical practice. Unfortunately, often times the speed of conventional laser scanners (e.g., galvanometric mirrors and acousto-optic deflectors) falls short for many applications, resulting in motion blur and failure to capture fast transient information. Here, we present a novel type of laser scanner that offers roughly three orders of magnitude higher scan rates than conventional methods. Our laser scanner, which we refer to as the hybrid dispersion laser scanner, performs inertia-free laser scanning by dispersing a train of broadband pulses both temporally and spatially. More specifically, each broadband pulse is temporally processed by time stretch dispersive Fourier transform and further dispersed into space by one or more diffractive elements such as prisms and gratings. As a proof-of-principle demonstration, we perform 1D line scans at a record high scan rate of 91 MHz and 2D raster scans and 3D volumetric scans at an unprecedented scan rate of 105 kHz. The method holds promise for a broad range of scientific, industrial, and biomedical applications. To show the utility of our method, we demonstrate imaging, nanometer-resolved surface vibrometry, and high-precision flow cytometry with real-time throughput that conventional laser scanners cannot offer due to their low scan rates.

Mahjoubfar, A.; Goda, K.; Wang, C.; Fard, A.; Adam, J.; Gossett, D. R.; Ayazi, A.; Sollier, E.; Malik, O.; Chen, E.; Liu, Y.; Brown, R.; Sarkhosh, N.; Di Carlo, D.; Jalali, B.

2013-03-01

227

Parallel 3D Mortar Element Method for Adaptive Nonconforming Meshes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High order methods are frequently used in computational simulation for their high accuracy. An efficient way to avoid unnecessary computation in smooth regions of the solution is to use adaptive meshes which employ fine grids only in areas where they are needed. Nonconforming spectral elements allow the grid to be flexibly adjusted to satisfy the computational accuracy requirements. The method is suitable for computational simulations of unsteady problems with very disparate length scales or unsteady moving features, such as heat transfer, fluid dynamics or flame combustion. In this work, we select the Mark Element Method (MEM) to handle the non-conforming interfaces between elements. A new technique is introduced to efficiently implement MEM in 3-D nonconforming meshes. By introducing an "intermediate mortar", the proposed method decomposes the projection between 3-D elements and mortars into two steps. In each step, projection matrices derived in 2-D are used. The two-step method avoids explicitly forming/deriving large projection matrices for 3-D meshes, and also helps to simplify the implementation. This new technique can be used for both h- and p-type adaptation. This method is applied to an unsteady 3-D moving heat source problem. With our new MEM implementation, mesh adaptation is able to efficiently refine the grid near the heat source and coarsen the grid once the heat source passes. The savings in computational work resulting from the dynamic mesh adaptation is demonstrated by the reduction of the the number of elements used and CPU time spent. MEM and mesh adaptation, respectively, bring irregularity and dynamics to the computer memory access pattern. Hence, they provide a good way to gauge the performance of computer systems when running scientific applications whose memory access patterns are irregular and unpredictable. We select a 3-D moving heat source problem as the Unstructured Adaptive (UA) grid benchmark, a new component of the NAS Parallel Benchmarks (NPB). In this paper, we present some interesting performance results of ow OpenMP parallel implementation on different architectures such as the SGI Origin2000, SGI Altix, and Cray MTA-2.

Feng, Huiyu; Mavriplis, Catherine; VanderWijngaart, Rob; Biswas, Rupak

2004-01-01

228

RELAP5-3D User Problems  

SciTech Connect

The Reactor Excursion and Leak Analysis Program with 3D capability1 (RELAP5-3D) is a reactor system analysis code that has been developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). The 3D capability in RELAP5-3D includes 3D hydrodynamics2 and 3D neutron kinetics3,4. Assessment, verification, and validation of the 3D capability in RELAP5-3D is discussed in the literature5,6,7,8,9. Additional assessment, verification, and validation of the 3D capability of RELAP5-3D will be presented in other papers in this users seminar. As with any software, user problems occur. User problems usually fall into the categories of input processing failure, code execution failure, restart/renodalization failure, unphysical result, and installation. This presentation will discuss some of the more generic user problems that have been reported on RELAP5-3D as well as their resolution.

Riemke, Richard Allan

2001-09-01

229

Case study: Beauty and the Beast 3D: benefits of 3D viewing for 2D to 3D conversion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From the earliest stages of the Beauty and the Beast 3D conversion project, the advantages of accurate desk-side 3D viewing was evident. While designing and testing the 2D to 3D conversion process, the engineering team at Walt Disney Animation Studios proposed a 3D viewing configuration that not only allowed artists to "compose" stereoscopic 3D but also improved efficiency by allowing artists to instantly detect which image features were essential to the stereoscopic appeal of a shot and which features had minimal or even negative impact. At a time when few commercial 3D monitors were available and few software packages provided 3D desk-side output, the team designed their own prototype devices and collaborated with vendors to create a "3D composing" workstation. This paper outlines the display technologies explored, final choices made for Beauty and the Beast 3D, wish-lists for future development and a few rules of thumb for composing compelling 2D to 3D conversions.

Handy Turner, Tara

2010-02-01

230

DspaceOgreTerrain 3D Terrain Visualization Tool  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

DspaceOgreTerrain is an extension to the DspaceOgre 3D visualization tool that supports real-time visualization of various terrain types, including digital elevation maps, planets, and meshes. DspaceOgreTerrain supports creating 3D representations of terrains and placing them in a scene graph. The 3D representations allow for a continuous level of detail, GPU-based rendering, and overlaying graphics like wheel tracks and shadows. It supports reading data from the SimScape terrain- modeling library. DspaceOgreTerrain solves the problem of displaying the results of simulations that involve very large terrains. In the past, it has been used to visualize simulations of vehicle traverses on Lunar and Martian terrains. These terrains were made up of billions of vertices and would not have been renderable in real-time without using a continuous level of detail rendering technique.

Myint, Steven; Jain, Abhinandan; Pomerantz, Marc I.

2012-01-01

231

Geological mapping goes 3-D in response to societal needs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The transition to 3-D mapping has been made possible by technological advances in digital cartography, GIS, data storage, analysis, and visualization. Despite various challenges, technological advancements facilitated a gradual transition from 2-D maps to 2.5-D draped maps to 3-D geological mapping, supported by digital spatial and relational databases that can be interrogated horizontally or vertically and viewed interactively. Challenges associated with data collection, human resources, and information management are daunting due to their resource and training requirements. The exchange of strategies at the workshops has highlighted the use of basin analysis to develop a process-based predictive knowledge framework that facilitates data integration. Three-dimensional geological information meets a public demand that fills in the blanks left by conventional 2-D mapping. Two-dimensional mapping will, however, remain the standard method for extensive areas of complex geology, particularly where deformed igneous and metamorphic rocks defy attempts at 3-D depiction.

Thorleifson, H.; Berg, R.C.; Russell, H.A.J.

2010-01-01

232

A dimensional comparison between embedded 3D-printed and silicon microchannels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The subject of this paper is the dimensional characterization of embedded microchannel arrays created using contemporary 3D-printing fabrication techniques. Conventional microchannel arrays, fabricated using deep reactive ion etching techniques (DRIE) and wet-etching (KOH), are used as a benchmark for comparison. Rectangular and trapezoidal cross-sectional shapes were investigated. The channel arrays were 3D-printed in vertical and horizontal directions, to examine the influence of print orientation on channel characteristics. The 3D-printed channels were benchmarked against Silicon channels in terms of the following dimensional characteristics: cross-sectional area (CSA), perimeter, and surface profiles. The 3D-printed microchannel arrays demonstrated variances in CSA of 6.6-20% with the vertical printing approach yielding greater dimensional conformity than the horizontal approach. The measured CSA and perimeter of the vertical channels were smaller than the nominal dimensions, while the horizontal channels were larger in both CSA and perimeter due to additional side-wall roughness present throughout the channel length. This side-wall roughness caused significant shape distortion. Surface profile measurements revealed that the base wall roughness was approximately the resolution of current 3D-printers. A spatial periodicity was found along the channel length which appeared at different frequencies for each channel array. This paper concludes that vertical 3D-printing is superior to the horizontal printing approach, in terms of both dimensional fidelity and shape conformity and can be applied in microfluidic device applications.

O'Connor, J.; Punch, J.; Jeffers, N.; Stafford, J.

2014-07-01

233

Quantitative 3D Optical Imaging: Applications in Dosimetry and Biophysics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical-CT has been shown to be a potentially useful imaging tool for the two very different spheres of biologists and radiation therapy physicists, but it has yet to live up to that potential. In radiation therapy, researchers have used optical-CT for the readout of 3D dosimeters, but it is yet to be a clinically relevant tool as the technology is too slow to be considered practical. Biologists have used the technique for structural imaging, but have struggled with emission tomography as the reality of photon attenuation for both excitation and emission have made the images quantitatively irrelevant. Dosimetry. The DLOS (Duke Large field of view Optical-CT Scanner) was designed and constructed to make 3D dosimetry utilizing optical-CT a fast and practical tool while maintaining the accuracy of readout of the previous, slower readout technologies. Upon construction/optimization/implementation of several components including a diffuser, band pass filter, registration mount & fluid filtration system the dosimetry system provides high quality data comparable to or exceeding that of commercial products. In addition, a stray light correction algorithm was tested and implemented. The DLOS in combination with the 3D dosimeter it was designed for, PREAGETM, then underwent rigorous commissioning and benchmarking tests validating its performance against gold standard data including a set of 6 irradiations. DLOS commissioning tests resulted in sub-mm isotropic spatial resolution (MTF >0.5 for frequencies of 1.5lp/mm) and a dynamic range of 60dB. Flood field uniformity was 10% and stable after 45minutes. Stray light proved to be small, due to telecentricity, but even the residual can be removed through deconvolution. Benchmarking tests showed the mean 3D passing gamma rate (3%, 3mm, 5% dose threshold) over the 6 benchmark data sets was 97.3% +/- 0.6% (range 96%-98%) scans totaling 10 minutes, indicating excellent ability to perform 3D dosimetry while improving the speed of readout. Noise was low at 2% for 2mm reconstructions. The DLOS/PRESAGERTM benchmark tests show consistently excellent performance, with very good agreement to simple known distributions. The telecentric design was critical to enabling fast (~15mins) imaging with minimal stray light artifacts. The system produces accurate isotropic 2mm3 dose data over clinical volumes (e.g. 16cm diameter phantoms, 12 cm height), and represents a uniquely useful and versatile new tool for commissioning complex radiotherapy techniques. The system also has wide versatility, and has successfully been used in preliminary tests with protons and with kV irradiations. Biology. Attenuation corrections for optical-emission-CT were done by modeling physical parameters in the imaging setup within the framework of an ordered subset expectation maximum (OSEM) iterative reconstruction algorithm. This process has a well documented history in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), but is inherently simpler due to the lack of excitation photons to account for. Excitation source strength distribution, excitation and emission attenuation were modeled. The accuracy of the correction was investigated by imaging phantoms containing known distributions of attenuation and fluorophores. The correction was validated on a manufactured phantom designed to give uniform emission in a central cuboidal region and later applied to a cleared mouse brain with GFP (green-fluorescentprotein) labeled vasculature and a cleared 4T1 xenograft flank tumor with constitutive RFP (red-fluorescent-protein). Reconstructions were compared to corresponding slices imaged with a fluorescent dissection microscope. Significant optical-ECT attenuation artifacts were observed in the uncorrected phantom images and appeared up to 80% less intense than the verification image in the central region. The corrected phantom images showed excellent agreement with the verification image with only slight variations. The corrected tissue sample reconstructions showed general agreement between the verification images. Comp

Thomas, Andrew Stephen

234

Benchmarking short sequence mapping tools  

PubMed Central

Background The development of next-generation sequencing instruments has led to the generation of millions of short sequences in a single run. The process of aligning these reads to a reference genome is time consuming and demands the development of fast and accurate alignment tools. However, the current proposed tools make different compromises between the accuracy and the speed of mapping. Moreover, many important aspects are overlooked while comparing the performance of a newly developed tool to the state of the art. Therefore, there is a need for an objective evaluation method that covers all the aspects. In this work, we introduce a benchmarking suite to extensively analyze sequencing tools with respect to various aspects and provide an objective comparison. Results We applied our benchmarking tests on 9 well known mapping tools, namely, Bowtie, Bowtie2, BWA, SOAP2, MAQ, RMAP, GSNAP, Novoalign, and mrsFAST (mrFAST) using synthetic data and real RNA-Seq data. MAQ and RMAP are based on building hash tables for the reads, whereas the remaining tools are based on indexing the reference genome. The benchmarking tests reveal the strengths and weaknesses of each tool. The results show that no single tool outperforms all others in all metrics. However, Bowtie maintained the best throughput for most of the tests while BWA performed better for longer read lengths. The benchmarking tests are not restricted to the mentioned tools and can be further applied to others. Conclusion The mapping process is still a hard problem that is affected by many factors. In this work, we provided a benchmarking suite that reveals and evaluates the different factors affecting the mapping process. Still, there is no tool that outperforms all of the others in all the tests. Therefore, the end user should clearly specify his needs in order to choose the tool that provides the best results. PMID:23758764

2013-01-01

235

Benchmarking infrastructure for mutation text mining  

PubMed Central

Background Experimental research on the automatic extraction of information about mutations from texts is greatly hindered by the lack of consensus evaluation infrastructure for the testing and benchmarking of mutation text mining systems. Results We propose a community-oriented annotation and benchmarking infrastructure to support development, testing, benchmarking, and comparison of mutation text mining systems. The design is based on semantic standards, where RDF is used to represent annotations, an OWL ontology provides an extensible schema for the data and SPARQL is used to compute various performance metrics, so that in many cases no programming is needed to analyze results from a text mining system. While large benchmark corpora for biological entity and relation extraction are focused mostly on genes, proteins, diseases, and species, our benchmarking infrastructure fills the gap for mutation information. The core infrastructure comprises (1) an ontology for modelling annotations, (2) SPARQL queries for computing performance metrics, and (3) a sizeable collection of manually curated documents, that can support mutation grounding and mutation impact extraction experiments. Conclusion We have developed the principal infrastructure for the benchmarking of mutation text mining tasks. The use of RDF and OWL as the representation for corpora ensures extensibility. The infrastructure is suitable for out-of-the-box use in several important scenarios and is ready, in its current state, for initial community adoption. PMID:24568600

2014-01-01

236

3D fold growth rates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geological folds are inherently three-dimensional structures. Therefore, a growing fold structure also propagates in three dimensions. In this study, fold growth in all three dimensions is studied and quantified numerically using a finite-element algorithm for simulating three-dimensional deformation of Newtonian materials. To simplify terminology, only upright symmetrical single-layer fold structures are considered here. The horizontal higher-viscous layer exhibits an initial point perturbation. Horizontal compression in one direction (x-direction) leads to a mechanical folding instability, which grows from this perturbation in all three dimensions, described by: Fold amplification (growth in z-direction) The fold growth in z-direction (vertical) is commonly referred to as fold amplification and describes the growth from a fold shape with low limb-dip angle to a shape with higher limb-dip angle. Fold elongation (growth in y-direction) The fold growth in y-direction is parallel to the fold axis and is here referred to as fold elongation. It describes the growth from a dome-shaped (3D) structure to a more cylindrical fold (2D). Sequential fold growth (growth in x-direction) The fold growth in x-direction is parallel to the shortening direction and perpendicular to the fold axis. It describes the growth of secondary (and further) folds adjacent to the initial isolated fold and is here referred to as sequential fold growth. In existing literature, both fold elongation and sequential fold growth have previously been referred to as lateral fold growth, which is here used as an umbrella term for both. First results indicate that in the initial folding stage, the fold growth rates in all three dimensions are of the same order. However, after some shortening and fold amplification, the two lateral growth rates first increase significantly and then decrease below the value of the vertical fold amplification. At a later folding stage, the vertical amplification rate of the initial fold also decreases and the sequentially grown secondary folds exhibit higher vertical amplification rates. During the entire modeled folding history, the two lateral directions generally show a very similar growth rate.

Frehner, Marcel

2013-04-01

237

3-D Perspective Pasadena, California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This perspective view shows the western part of the city of Pasadena, California, looking north towards the San Gabriel Mountains. Portions of the cities of Altadena and La Canada, Flintridge are also shown. The image was created from three datasets: the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) supplied the elevation data; Landsat data from November 11, 1986 provided the land surface color (not the sky) and U.S. Geological Survey digital aerial photography provides the image detail. The Rose Bowl, surrounded by a golf course, is the circular feature at the bottom center of the image. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory is the cluster of large buildings north of the Rose Bowl at the base of the mountains. A large landfill, Scholl Canyon, is the smooth area in the lower left corner of the scene. This image shows the power of combining data from different sources to create planning tools to study problems that affect large urban areas. In addition to the well-known earthquake hazards, Southern California is affected by a natural cycle of fire and mudflows. Wildfires strip the mountains of vegetation, increasing the hazards from flooding and mudflows for several years afterwards. Data such as shown on this image can be used to predict both how wildfires will spread over the terrain and also how mudflows will be channeled down the canyons. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission was designed to collect three dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI) space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC. Size: 5.8 km (3.6 miles) x 10 km (6.2 miles) Location: 34.16 deg. North lat., 118.16 deg. West lon. Orientation: Looking North Original Data Resolution: SRTM, 30 meters; Landsat,30 meters; Aerial Photo, 3 meters (no vertical exaggeration)

2000-01-01

238

Implementation of 3D Optical Scanning Technology for Automotive Applications.  

PubMed

Reverse engineering (RE) is a powerful tool for generating a CAD model from the 3D scan data of a physical part that lacks documentation or has changed from the original CAD design of the part. The process of digitizing a part and creating a CAD model from 3D scan data is less time consuming and provides greater accuracy than manually measuring the part and designing the part from scratch in CAD. 3D optical scanning technology is one of the measurement methods which have evolved over the last few years and it is used in a wide range of areas from industrial applications to art and cultural heritage. It is also used extensively in the automotive industry for applications such as part inspections, scanning of tools without CAD definition, scanning the casting for definition of the stock (i.e. the amount of material to be removed from the surface of the castings) model for CAM programs and reverse engineering. In this study two scanning experiments of automotive applications are illustrated. The first one examines the processes from scanning to re-manufacturing the damaged sheet metal cutting die, using a 3D scanning technique and the second study compares the scanned point clouds data to 3D CAD data for inspection purposes. Furthermore, the deviations of the part holes are determined by using different lenses and scanning parameters. PMID:22573995

Ku?, Abdil

2009-01-01

239

Extra Dimensions: 3D and Time in PDF Documentation  

SciTech Connect

Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide, non-technical audience. We discuss how the field of radiation imaging could benefit from incorporating full 3D information about not only the detectors, but also the results of the experimental analyses, in its electronic publications. In this article, we present examples drawn from high-energy physics, mathematics and molecular biology which take advantage of this functionality. We demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input.

Graf, N.A.; /SLAC

2012-04-11

240

Computer Vision-Assisted Interaction in X3D Virtual Environment on WWW  

Microsoft Academic Search

X3D is the next generation Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML97) using Extensible Markup Language (XML) and provides\\u000a a standardized, portable, and platform-independent way to render dynamic interactive 3D scenes across the Internet. Accordingly,\\u000a the current paper presents the integration of a more flexible user interface into X3D using computer vision-based techniques.\\u000a The proposed method enables navigation of a virtual environment

Dong Hoon Lee; Soon Ki Jung

2003-01-01

241

2D-to-3D Photo Rendering for 3D Displays Dario Comanducci  

E-print Network

fast and effective ap- proach to 2D-3D conversion of an image pair for the three- dimensional rendering2D-to-3D Photo Rendering for 3D Displays Dario Comanducci Dip. di Sistemi e Informatica, Univ. di geometry, and an original algorithm for the recovery of 3D visual param- eters from the properties

Martin, Ralph R.

242

Printing 3D Models to the Genisys Xs 3D Printer By Sotiri Koyonos  

E-print Network

Printing 3D Models to the Genisys Xs 3D Printer By Sotiri Koyonos VMIL Consultant 28 February 2003's Genisys Xs 3D printer. This document assumes that you have created a stereo lithography file (*.stl Abstract This document outlines the process for manufacturing three dimensional (3D) models on the ITG

Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

243

Geometric Smoothing of 3D Surfaces and Nonlinear Diffusion of 3D Images  

E-print Network

Geometric Smoothing of 3D Surfaces and Non­linear Diffusion of 3D Images Technical Report LEMS­144 for them. Keywords: Shape representation, deformation, scale, 3D smoothing, curvature dependent flow and formal theorems about its smoothing properties, the development of a similar process in 3D has been

244

Fully Implicit, Nonlinear 3D Extended Magnetohydrodynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extended magnetohydrodynamics (XMHD) includes nonideal effects such as nonlinear, anisotropic transport and two-fluid (Hall) effects. XMHD supports multiple, separate time scales that make explicit time differencing approaches extremely inefficient. While a fully implicit implementation promises efficiency without sacrificing numerical accuracy,(D. A. Knoll et al., phJ. Comput. Phys.) 185 (2), 583-611 (2003) the nonlinear nature of the XMHD system and the numerical stiffness associated with the fast waves make this endeavor difficult. Newton-Krylov methods are, however, ideally suited for such a task. These synergistically combine Newton's method for nonlinear convergence, and Krylov techniques to solve the associated Jacobian (linear) systems. Krylov methods can be implemented Jacobian-free and can be preconditioned for efficiency. Successful preconditioning strategies have been developed for 2D incompressible resistive(L. Chacn et al., phJ. Comput. Phys). 178 (1), 15- 36 (2002) and Hall(L. Chacn and D. A. Knoll, phJ. Comput. Phys.), 188 (2), 573-592 (2003) MHD models. These are based on ``physics-based'' ideas, in which knowledge of the physics is exploited to derive well-conditioned (diagonally-dominant) approximations to the original system that are amenable to optimal solver technologies (multigrid). In this work, we will describe the status of the extension of the 2D preconditioning ideas for a 3D compressible, single-fluid XMHD model.

Chacon, Luis; Knoll, Dana

2003-10-01

245

Segmentation of 3D tubular structures based on 3D intensity models and particle filter tracking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a new approach for tracking-based segmentation of 3D tubular structures. The approach is based on a novel combination of a 3D cylindrical intensity model and particle filter tracking. In comparison to earlier work we utilize a 3D intensity model as the measurement model of the particle filter, thus a more realistic 3D appearance model is used that directly represents the image intensities of 3D tubular structures within semiglobal regions-of-interest. We have successfully applied our approach using 3D synthetic images and real 3D MRA image data of the human pelvis.

Wrz, Stefan; Godinez, William J.; Rohr, Karl

2009-02-01

246

Stereo 3D vision adapter using commercial DIY goods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The conventional display can show only one screen, but it is impossible to enlarge the size of a screen, for example twice. Meanwhile the mirror supplies us with the same image but this mirror image is usually upside down. Assume that the images on an original screen and a virtual screen in the mirror are completely different and both images can be displayed independently. It would be possible to enlarge a screen area twice. This extension method enables the observers to show the virtual image plane and to enlarge a screen area twice. Although the displaying region is doubled, this virtual display could not produce 3D images. In this paper, we present an extension method using a unidirectional diffusing image screen and an improvement for displaying a 3D image using orthogonal polarized image projection.

Sakamoto, Kunio; Ohara, Takashi

2009-10-01

247

SRB-3D Solid Rocket Booster performance prediction program. Volume 1: Engineering description/users information manual  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The modified Solid Rocket Booster Performance Evaluation Model (SRB-3D) was developed as an extension to the internal ballistics module of the SRB-2 performance program. This manual contains the engineering description of SRB-3D which describes the approach used to develop the 3D concept and an explanation of the modifications which were necessary to implement these concepts.

Winkler, J. C.

1976-01-01

248

Ultra-High Density 3D SRAM Cell Designs for Monolithic 3D Integration  

E-print Network

Ultra-High Density 3D SRAM Cell Designs for Monolithic 3D Integration Chang Liu and Sung Kyu Lim presents design options for 3D SRAM cells to enable ultra-high density 3D SRAM based on monolithic 3D-scale inter-tier vias. Choosing the most compact 22nm 2D SRAM as our design baseline, we first achieve a 33

Lim, Sung Kyu

249

Interaction with 3D models on large displays using 3D input techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Almost all existing 3D modeling applications rely on 2D input techniques for creating and modifying 3D models by users. This translation of user inputs from a 2D plane into actions in a 3D world often causes problems for modelers when moving, placing, rotating and transforming 3D objects. Although several 3D input techniques have been developed in the past, these have

Beverley Laundry; Masood Masoodian; Bill Rogers

2010-01-01

250

Using 3D Voronoi grids in radiative transfer simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Probing the structure of complex astrophysical objects requires effective three-dimensional (3D) numerical simulation of the relevant radiative transfer (RT) processes. As with any numerical simulation code, the choice of an appropriate discretization is crucial. Adaptive grids with cuboidal cells such as octrees have proven very popular; however, several recently introduced hydrodynamical and RT codes are based on a Voronoi tessellation of the spatial domain. An unstructured grid of this nature poses new challenges in laying down the rays (straight paths) needed in RT codes. Aims: We show that it is straightforward to implement accurate and efficient RT on 3D Voronoi grids. Methods: We present a method for computing straight paths between two arbitrary points through a 3D Voronoi grid in the context of a RT code. We implement this grid in our RT code SKIRT, using the open source library Voro++ to obtain the relevant properties of the Voronoi grid cells based solely on the generating points. We compare the results obtained through the Voronoi grid with those generated by an octree grid for two synthetic models, and we perform the well-known Pascucci RT benchmark using the Voronoi grid. Results: The presented algorithm produces correct results for our test models. Shooting photon packages through the geometrically much more complex 3D Voronoi grid is only about three times slower than the equivalent process in an octree grid with the same number of cells, while in fact the total number of Voronoi grid cells may be lower for an equally good representation of the density field. Conclusions: The benefits of using a Voronoi grid in RT simulation codes will often outweigh the somewhat slower performance.

Camps, P.; Baes, M.; Saftly, W.

2013-12-01

251

A rod-airfoil experiment as a benchmark for broadband noise modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

A low Mach number rod-airfoil experiment is shown to be a good benchmark for numerical and theoretical broadband noise modeling. The benchmarking approach is applied to a sound computation from a 2D unsteady-Reynolds-averaged NavierStokes (U-RANS) flow field, where 3D effects are partially compensated for by a spanwise statistical model and by a 3D large eddy simulation. The experiment was conducted

Marc C. Jacob; Jrme Boudet; Damiano Casalino; Marc Michard

2005-01-01

252

EKF-based 3D SLAM for structured environment reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the extension and experimental validation of the widely used EKF-based SLAM algorithm to 3D space. It uses planar features extracted probabilistically from dense three-dimensional point clouds generated by a rotating 2D laser scanner. These features are represented in compliance with the symmetries and perturbation model (SPmodel) in a stochastic map. As the robot moves, this map is

Jan Weingarten; Roland Siegwart

2005-01-01

253

Small-stencil 3D schemes for diffusive flows in porous media Robert Eymard  

E-print Network

Small-stencil 3D schemes for diffusive flows in porous media Robert Eymard , Rapha`ele Herbin and Cindy Guichard Abstract In this paper, we study some discretization schemes for diffusing flows which are produced from the modelling of the underground geology are quite often 3D extensions of 2D

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

254

Embedded 3D Printing of Strain Sensors within Highly Stretchable Elastomers.  

PubMed

A new method, embedded-3D printing (e-3DP), is reported for fabricating strain sensors within highly conformal and extensible elastomeric matrices. e-3DP allows soft sensors to be created in nearly arbitrary planar and 3D motifs in a highly programmable and seamless manner. Several embodiments are demonstrated and sensor performance is characterized. PMID:24934143

Muth, Joseph T; Vogt, Daniel M; Truby, Ryan L; Meng, Yi?it; Kolesky, David B; Wood, Robert J; Lewis, Jennifer A

2014-09-01

255

Design of a 3D Interactive Math  

Microsoft Academic Search

Can 3D graphics help high-school students learn advanced mathematics? Can we create a sufficiently compelling application such that students would choose to play with advanced math concepts for fun? What usability problems does this technology pose for novice users? AquaMOOSE 3D is a desktop 3D environment designed to help students learn about the behavior of parametric equations. AquaMOOSE is based

Jason Elliott; Amy Bruckman

256

Automatic 3D Modeling of Unstructured Scenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many computer vision and robotics applications call for accurate three-dimensional (3D) models of real-world objects. Current 3D modeling techniques require significant manual assistance or make assumptions about the scene characteristics or data collection procedure. In this thesis work, we propose to fully automate the 3D modeling process without resorting to these restrictive assumptions. Given a set of unordered range images

Daniel Huber

257

Intelligent interpretation of 3-D imagery  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report documents the research efforts of Advanced Information & Decision Systems (AI&DS) to develop three dimensional (3-D) object classification techniques for vehicle targets in air-to-ground laser range imagery. The authors emphasize an artificial intelligence (AI) approach to intelligently interpret laser imagery in terms of 3-D symbolic models. The full classification system includes 3-D image feature extraction, geometric modeling, model

D. Kuan; R. Drazovich

1983-01-01

258

LEAST SQUARES MATCHING OF 3D SURFACES  

Microsoft Academic Search

An algorithm for the least squares matching of overlapping 3D surfaces is presented. It estimates the transformation parameters of one or more fully 3D surfaces with respect to a template one, using the Generalized Gauss-Markoff model, minimizing the sum of squares of the Euclidean distances between the surfaces. This formulation gives the opportunity of matching arbitrarily oriented 3D surfaces simultaneously,

Devrim Akca

2007-01-01

259

LEAST SQUARES 3D SURFACE MATCHING  

Microsoft Academic Search

An algorithm for the least squares matching of overlapping 3D surfaces is presented. It estimates the transformation parameters between two or more fully 3D surfaces, using the Generalized Gauss-Markoff model, minimizing the sum of squares of the Euclidean distances between the surfaces. This formulation gives the opportunity of matching arbitrarily oriented 3D surfaces simultaneously, without using explicit tie points. Besides

Armin Gruen; Devrim Akca

260

Automating the 3D Modeling Pipeline  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe advances in automating the 3D modeling pipeline to create rich 3D textured models. Our work is aimed at large scale site modeling, where much manual ef- fort is often needed to create complete models. We present i) an automatic 2D-3D registration method for texture using cast shadows as a cue to refine the registration parameters, ii) methods for

Peter Allen; Alejandro Troccoli; Paul Blaer

261

Rubber Impact on 3D Textile Composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

A low velocity impact study of aircraft tire rubber on 3D textile-reinforced composite plates was performed experimentally\\u000a and numerically. In contrast to regular unidirectional composite laminates, no delaminations occur in such a 3D textile composite.\\u000a Yarn decohesions, matrix cracks and yarn ruptures have been identified as the major damage mechanisms under impact load. An\\u000a increase in the number of 3D

Sebastian Heimbs; Bjrn Van Den Broucke; Yann Duplessis Kergomard; Frederic Dau; Benoit Malherbe

2011-01-01

262

3-D Hydrogen Atom Probability Densitites  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The 3-D Hydrogen Atom Probability Densitites model simulates the probability density of the first few (n = 1, 2, and 3, and associated l and m values) energy eigenstates for the Hydrogen atom (the Coulomb potential). The main window shows the energy level diagram for the solutions to the Coulomb potential in three dimensions. States may be selected either by using the dropdown menu item or by using the energy level diagram and clicking a dark green level, with specific n, l, and m values) which will turn bright green and change the state shown in the 3d visualization window. The probability is shown with a 3d cloud, with higher probability shown as a darker sphere. The simulation uses either simple 3D or Java 3D (if installed) to render the view the probability densities. If Java 3D is not installed, the simulation defaults to simple 3D using Java. The 3-D Hydrogen Atom Probability Densitites model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_qm_hydrogen3d.jar file will run the program if Java is installed.

Palop, Jose I.

2010-12-12

263

Intelligent interpretation of 3-D imagery  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the research efforts of Advanced Information and Decision Systems (AIandDS) to develop three-dimensional (3-D) object classification techniques for vehicle targets in air-to-ground laser range imagery. The authors emphasize an artificial intelligence (AI) approach to intelligently interpret laser imagery in terms of 3-D symbolic models. The full classification system includes 3-D image feature extraction, geometric modeling, model prediction, and feature-to-model matching. This report discusses new techniques for implmenting these major system components, and provides overall conclusions and discussion about the feasibility of developing an automated 3-D object classification system.

Kuan, D.; Drazovich, R.

1983-02-01

264

Dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

3D printer applications in the biomedical sciences and medical imaging are expanding and will have an increasing impact on the practice of medicine. Orthopedic and reconstructive surgery has been an obvious area for development of 3D printer applications as the segmentation of bony anatomy to generate printable models is relatively straightforward. There are important issues that should be addressed when using 3D printed models for applications that may affect patient care; in particular the dimensional accuracy of the printed parts needs to be high to avoid poor decisions being made prior to surgery or therapeutic procedures. In this work, the dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebral bodies derived from CT data for a cadaver spine is compared with direct measurements on the ex-vivo vertebra and with measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra using commercial 3D image processing software. The vertebra was printed on a consumer grade 3D printer using an additive print process using PLA (polylactic acid) filament. Measurements were made for 15 different anatomic features of the vertebral body, including vertebral body height, endplate width and depth, pedicle height and width, and spinal canal width and depth, among others. It is shown that for the segmentation and printing process used, the results of measurements made on the 3D printed vertebral body are substantially the same as those produced by direct measurement on the vertebra and measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra.

Ogden, Kent; Ordway, Nathaniel; Diallo, Dalanda; Tillapaugh-Fay, Gwen; Aslan, Can

2014-03-01

265

Software for 3D radiotherapy dosimetry. Validation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The subject of this work is polyGeVero software (GeVero Co., Poland), which has been developed to fill the requirements of fast calculations of 3D dosimetry data with the emphasis on polymer gel dosimetry for radiotherapy. This software comprises four workspaces that have been prepared for: (i) calculating calibration curves and calibration equations, (ii) storing the calibration characteristics of the 3D dosimeters, (iii) calculating 3D dose distributions in irradiated 3D dosimeters, and (iv) comparing 3D dose distributions obtained from measurements with the aid of 3D dosimeters and calculated with the aid of treatment planning systems (TPSs). The main features and functions of the software are described in this work. Moreover, the core algorithms were validated and the results are presented. The validation was performed using the data of the new PABIGnx polymer gel dosimeter. The polyGeVero software simplifies and greatly accelerates the calculations of raw 3D dosimetry data. It is an effective tool for fast verification of TPS-generated plans for tumor irradiation when combined with a 3D dosimeter. Consequently, the software may facilitate calculations by the 3D dosimetry community. In this work, the calibration characteristics of the PABIGnx obtained through four calibration methods: multi vial, cross beam, depth dose, and brachytherapy, are discussed as well.

Kozicki, Marek; Maras, Piotr; Karwowski, Andrzej C.

2014-08-01

266

Stereo 3-D Vision in Teaching Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stereo 3-D vision is a technology used to present images on a flat surface (screen, paper, etc.) and at the same time to create the notion of three-dimensional spatial perception of the viewed scene. A great number of physical processes are much better understood when viewed in stereo 3-D vision compared to standard flat 2-D presentation. The current paper describes the modern stereo 3-D technologies that are applicable to various tasks in teaching physics in schools, colleges, and universities. Examples of stereo 3-D simulations developed by the author can be observed on online.

Zabunov, Svetoslav

2012-03-01

267

Extension Agricola, (Agricultural Extension),  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Agricultural Extension Manual is a how-to manual covering techniques of extension work and community organization. It is written for extension workers. Also it promotes recommended agricultural practices, training of counterparts and a host of other r...

M. J. Gibbons, R. Schroeder

1987-01-01

268

Non-Ideal ELM Stability and Non-Axisymmetric Field Penetration Calculations with M3D-C1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical studies of ELM stability and non-axisymmetric field penetration in diverted DIII-D and NSTX equilibria are presented, with resistive and finite Larmor radius effects included. These results are obtained with the nonlinear two-fluid code M3D-C1, which has recently been extended to allow linear non-axisymmetric calculations. Benchmarks of M3D-C1 with ideal codes ELITE and GATO show good agreement for the linear stability of peeling-ballooning modes in the ideal limit. New calculations of the resistive stability of ideally stable DIII-D equilibria are presented. M3D-C1 has also been used to calculate the linear response to non-axisymmetric external fields; these calculations are benchmarked with Surfmn and MARS-F. New numerical methods implemented in M3D-C1 are presented, including the treatment of boundary conditions with C^1 elements in a non-rectangular mesh.

Ferraro, N. M.; Chu, M. S.; Snyder, P. B.; Jardin, S. C.; Luo, X.

2009-11-01

269

3D PDF - a means of public access to geological 3D - objects, using the example of GTA3D  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In geology, 3D modeling has become very important. In the past, two-dimensional data such as isolines, drilling profiles, or cross-sections based on those, were used to illustrate the subsurface geology, whereas now, we can create complex digital 3D models. These models are produced with special software, such as GOCAD . The models can be viewed, only through the software used to create them, or through viewers available for free. The platform-independent PDF (Portable Document Format), enforced by Adobe, has found a wide distribution. This format has constantly evolved over time. Meanwhile, it is possible to display CAD data in an Adobe 3D PDF file with the free Adobe Reader (version 7). In a 3D PDF, a 3D model is freely rotatable and can be assembled from a plurality of objects, which can thus be viewed from all directions on their own. In addition, it is possible to create moveable cross-sections (profiles), and to assign transparency to the objects. Based on industry-standard CAD software, 3D PDFs can be generated from a large number of formats, or even be exported directly from this software. In geoinformatics, different approaches to creating 3D PDFs exist. The intent of the Authority for Mining, Energy and Geology to allow free access to the models of the Geotectonic Atlas (GTA3D), could not be realized with standard software solutions. A specially designed code converts the 3D objects to VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language). VRML is one of the few formats that allow using image files (maps) as textures, and to represent colors and shapes correctly. The files were merged in Acrobat X Pro, and a 3D PDF was generated subsequently. A topographic map, a display of geographic directions and horizontal and vertical scales help to facilitate the use.

Slaby, Mark-Fabian; Reimann, Rdiger

2013-04-01

270

Integration of real-time 3D image acquisition and multiview 3D display  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seamless integration of 3D acquisition and 3D display systems offers enhanced experience in 3D visualization of the real world objects or scenes. The vivid representation of captured 3D objects displayed on a glasses-free 3D display screen could bring the realistic viewing experience to viewers as if they are viewing real-world scene. Although the technologies in 3D acquisition and 3D display have advanced rapidly in recent years, effort is lacking in studying the seamless integration of these two different aspects of 3D technologies. In this paper, we describe our recent progress on integrating a light-field 3D acquisition system and an autostereoscopic multiview 3D display for real-time light field capture and display. This paper focuses on both the architecture design and the implementation of the hardware and the software of this integrated 3D system. A prototype of the integrated 3D system is built to demonstrate the real-time 3D acquisition and 3D display capability of our proposed system.

Zhang, Zhaoxing; Geng, Zheng; Li, Tuotuo; Li, Wei; Wang, Jingyi; Liu, Yongchun

2014-03-01

271

Comparative analysis of video processing and 3D rendering for cloud video games using different virtualization technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a comprehensive empirical performance evaluation of 3D video processing employing the physical/virtual architecture implemented in a cloud environment. Different virtualization technologies, virtual video cards and various 3D benchmarks tools have been utilized in order to analyse the optimal performance in the context of 3D online gaming applications. This study highlights 3D video rendering performance under each type of hypervisors, and other factors including network I/O, disk I/O and memory usage. Comparisons of these factors under well-known virtual display technologies such as VNC, Spice and Virtual 3D adaptors reveal the strengths and weaknesses of the various hypervisors with respect to 3D video rendering and streaming.

Bada, Adedayo; Alcaraz-Calero, Jose M.; Wang, Qi; Grecos, Christos

2014-05-01

272

Advances in 3D Graphics for Smartphones  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mobile industry has evolved rapidly in the past couple of decade and amongst these advances are 3D graphics on mobile phones. This advances topic have had to address specific process of architectures and small memories on mobile phones that are generally ill equipped to the intensive calculations of floating-point precision required by 3D math. In this paper, we high

F. Chehimi; P. Coulton; R. Edwards

2006-01-01

273

3D SLAM for planetary worksite mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a robust framework suitable for conducting three-dimensional Simultaneous Lo- calization and Mapping (3D SLAM) in a planetary worksite environment. By utilizing a laser rangefinder mounted on a rover platform, we have demonstrated an approach that is able to create globally consistent maps of natural, unstructured 3D terrain. The framework presented in this paper utilizes a

Chi Hay Tong; Timothy D. Barfoot; Erick Dupuis

2011-01-01

274

A Minimalistic 3D Pharmacophore Model  

E-print Network

A Minimalistic 3D Pharmacophore Model for Cyclopentapeptide CXCR4 Antagonists Jon Va° benø Gregory, the chemokine receptor CXCR4 is an attractive target for antiretroviral drugs. Despite the large number of CXCR4 inhibitors studied, the 3D phar- macophore for binding to CXCR4 remains elusive, mainly as a result

Marshall, Garland R.

275

3D Reconstruction of Tensors and Vectors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Here we have developed formulations for the reconstruction of 3D tensor fields from planar (Radon) and line-integral (X-ray) projections of 3D vector and tensor fields. Much of the motivation for this work is the potential application of MRI to perform di...

2005-01-01

276

3D high dynamic range display system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a new high dynamic range (HDR) display system that generates a physical 3D HDR image without using stereoscopic methods. To boost contrast beyond that obtained using either a hardcopy or a projector, we employ a multiprojection system to superimpose images onto a textured solid hardcopy that is output by a 3D printer or a rapid prototyping machine.

Saeko Shimazu; Daisuke Iwai; Kosuke Sato

2011-01-01

277

IN THIS ISSUE 2 3D Printing  

E-print Network

IN THIS ISSUE 2 3D Printing in McKeldin 3 Saving WMUC Radio 4 You Did What?!? 7 Dance at UMD, in this issue. Our Terrapin Learning Commons is embracing all things digital, and the acquisition of a 3D printer allows any student the op- portunity to make their visions a reality. This little addition

Hill, Wendell T.

278

3D high dynamic range display system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a new high dynamic range (HDR) display system that generates a physical 3D HDR image without using stereoscopic methods. To boost contrast beyond that obtained using either a hardcopy or a projector, we employ a multi-projection system to superimpose images onto a textured solid hardcopy that is output by a 3D printer or a rapid prototyping machine.

Saeko Shimazu; Daisuke Iwai; Kosuke Sato

2011-01-01

279

3D imaging system for biometric applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a growing interest in the use of 3D data for many new applications beyond traditional metrology areas. In particular, using 3D data to obtain shape information of both people and objects for applications ranging from identification to game inputs does not require high degrees of calibration or resolutions in the tens of micron range, but does require a

Kevin Harding; Gil Abramovich; Vijay Paruchura; Swaminathan Manickam; Arun Vemury

2010-01-01

280

3D Metamorphosis: a Survey Francis Lazarusy  

E-print Network

3D Metamorphosis: a Survey Francis Lazarusy and Anne Verroustz y I.R.C.O.M.-S.I.C. SP2MI, Boulevard.P. 105, 78153 Le Chesnay Cedex, FRANCE Abstract A metamorphosis or a (3D) morphing is the process representations. We conclude by sketching some morphing strategies for the future. Key Words: metamorphosis, shape

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

281

Embedding Pyramids into 3D Meshes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pyramid architecture is a powerful topology in the area of computer vision. On the other hand, the 3D mesh architecture possesses rich topological features which make it suitable for building scalable parallel processor systems. The usefulness of these two architectures has led us to consider the problem of embedding pyramids into 3D meshes, for which we present two solutions.

Cindy K. Y. Ng; Lawrence K. L. Pun; Dixon Man-ching Ip; Mounir Hamdi; Ishfaq Ahmad

1996-01-01

282

Comprehensive Halftoning of 3D Scenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The display of images on binary output hardware requires a halfton- ing step. Conventional halftoning algorithms approximate image values independently from the image content and often introduce artificial texture that obscures fine details. The objective of this research is to adapt a halftoning technique to 3D scene informa- tion and thus to enhance the display of computer generated 3D scenes.

Oleg Veryovka; John W. Buchanan

1999-01-01

283

Real-time 3D model acquisition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The digitization of the 3D shape of real objects is a rapidly expanding field, with applications in entertainment, design, and archaeology. We propose a new 3D model acquisition system that permits the user to rotate an object by hand and see a continuously-updated model as the object is scanned. This tight feedback loop allows the user to find and fill

Szymon Rusinkiewicz; Olaf A. Hall-Holt; Marc Levoy

2002-01-01

284

Focalization in 3D Video Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates Bal's concept of focalization for 3D video games. First, the argument traces focalization in the historical development of camera strategies in 3D video games. It highlights the detachment of the camera into an own interactive operator. Then, it exemplifies the visual focalization in video games using two case studies. In the following, it looks at possible problems

Michael Nitsche

285

VIDEO-TO-3D Marc Pollefeys  

E-print Network

acquisition systems. This stimulates the use of consumer photo- or video cameras. The approach presentedVIDEO-TO-3D Marc Pollefeys ¢¡ £¤¡¦¥ , Luc Van Gool , Maarten Vergauwen , Kurt Cornelis/V KEY WORDS: 3D modeling, video sequences, structure from motion, self-calibration, stereo matching

Pollefeys, Marc

286

Wow! 3D Content Awakens the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From her first encounter with stereoscopic 3D technology designed for classroom instruction, Megan Timme, principal at Hamilton Park Pacesetter Magnet School in Dallas, sensed it could be transformative. Last spring, when she began pilot-testing 3D content in her third-, fourth- and fifth-grade classrooms, Timme wasn't disappointed. Students

Gordon, Dan

2010-01-01

287

3-D inversion of magnetic data  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a method for inverting surface magnetic data to recover 3-D susceptibility models. To allow the maximum flexibility for the model to represent geologi- cally realistic structures, we discretize the 3-D model region into a set of rectangular cells, each having a constant susceptibility. The number of cells is generally far greater than the number of the data available,

Yaoguo Li; Douglas W. Oldenburg

1996-01-01

288

3D, or Not to Be?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It may be too soon for students to be showing up for class with popcorn and gummy bears, but technology similar to that behind the 3D blockbuster movie "Avatar" is slowly finding its way into college classrooms. 3D classroom projectors are taking students on fantastic voyages inside the human body, to the ruins of ancient Greece--even to faraway

Norbury, Keith

2012-01-01

289

Parametrizable cameras for 3D computational steering  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a method for the definition of multiple views in 3D interfaces for computational steering. The method uses the concept of a point-based parametrizable camera object. This concept enables a user to create and configure multiple views on his custom 3D interface in an intuitive graphical manner. Each view can be coupled to objects present in the interface, parametrized

Jurriaan D. Mulder; Jarke J. van Wijk

1997-01-01

290

Skeletons of 3D Shapes Jayant Shah  

E-print Network

Skeletons of 3D Shapes Jayant Shah Mathematics Department, Northeastern University, Boston MA email: shah@neu.edu Abstract A new method for determining skeletons of 3D shapes is described calculus is formulated for de- termining pruned, smoothed shape skeletons by minimizing a functional. 1

Shah, Jayant M.

291

Freehand 3D Ultrasound Calibration: A Review  

E-print Network

) and surgery (Rygh et al., 2006). One of the techniques to build a 3D ultrasonic system is to track a position rotations, azimuth, elevation and roll, about these axes. This transformation is determined through a rotation and a translation in 3D space. For brevity, we will use the notation TBA to mean a rotational

Drummond, Tom

292

3, 35433588, 2003 3-D air pollution  

E-print Network

ACPD 3, 3543­3588, 2003 3-D air pollution modelling L. M. Frohn et al. Title Page Abstract hemispheric nested air pollution model L. M. Frohn, J. H. Christensen, J. Brandt, C. Geels, and K. M. Hansen 2003 Correspondence to: L. M. Frohn (lmf@dmu.dk) 3543 #12;ACPD 3, 3543­3588, 2003 3-D air pollution

Boyer, Edmond

293

Stereo 3-D Vision in Teaching Physics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stereo 3-D vision is a technology used to present images on a flat surface (screen, paper, etc.) and at the same time to create the notion of three-dimensional spatial perception of the viewed scene. A great number of physical processes are much better understood when viewed in stereo 3-D vision compared to standard flat 2-D presentation. The

Zabunov, Svetoslav

2012-01-01

294

An Inexpensive 3D Camera Askold Strat  

E-print Network

generator. Such hand-held device can be used to capture smooth shapes by acquiring one or more images. Its and Computer Vision): Digitization and Image Capture; B.0 (Hardware): Keywords: 3D camera, 3D shape acquisition 1 Description Shape acquisition has become an essential component of computer graphics systems

Oliveira, Manuel M.

295

Terajets produced by 3D dielectric cuboids  

E-print Network

The capability of generating terajets using 3D dielectric cuboids working at terahertz (THz) frequencies (as analogues of nanojets in the infrared band) are introduced and studied numerically. The focusing performance of the terajets are evaluated in terms of the transversal full width at half maximum along x- and y- directions using different refractive indexes for a 3D dielectric cuboid with a fixed geometry, obtaining a quasi-symmetric terajet with a subwavelength resolution of ~0.46{\\lambda}0 when the refractive index is n = 1.41. Moreover, the backscattering enhancement produced when metal particles are introduced in the terajet region is demonstrated for a 3D dielectric cuboid and compared with its 2D counterpart. The results of the jet generated for the 3D case are experimentally validated at sub-THz waves, demonstrating the ability to produce terajets using 3D cuboids.

Pacheco-Pea, V; Minin, I V; Minin, O V

2014-01-01

296

Sieve of Eratosthenes Benchmarks for the Z8 FORTH Microcontroller.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents benchmarks for the Z8 FORTH microcontroller system that ORNL uses extensively in proving concepts and developing prototype test equipment for the Smart House Project. The results are based on the sieve of Eratosthenes algorithm, a cal...

R. Edwards

1989-01-01

297

The psychology of the 3D experience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With 3D televisions expected to reach 50% home saturation as early as 2016, understanding the psychological mechanisms underlying the user response to 3D technology is critical for content providers, educators and academics. Unfortunately, research examining the effects of 3D technology has not kept pace with the technology's rapid adoption, resulting in large-scale use of a technology about which very little is actually known. Recognizing this need for new research, we conducted a series of studies measuring and comparing many of the variables and processes underlying both 2D and 3D media experiences. In our first study, we found narratives within primetime dramas had the power to shift viewer attitudes in both 2D and 3D settings. However, we found no difference in persuasive power between 2D and 3D content. We contend this lack of effect was the result of poor conversion quality and the unique demands of 3D production. In our second study, we found 3D technology significantly increased enjoyment when viewing sports content, yet offered no added enjoyment when viewing a movie trailer. The enhanced enjoyment of the sports content was shown to be the result of heightened emotional arousal and attention in the 3D condition. We believe the lack of effect found for the movie trailer may be genre-related. In our final study, we found 3D technology significantly enhanced enjoyment of two video games from different genres. The added enjoyment was found to be the result of an increased sense of presence.

Janicke, Sophie H.; Ellis, Andrew

2013-03-01

298

Optimal-tradeoff circular harmonic function filters for 3D target recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

3D target recognition is of significant interest because representing the object in 3D space couuld essentially provide a solution to pose variation and self-occlusion problems that are big challenges in 2D pattern recognition. Correlation filers have been used in a variety of 2D pattern matching applications and many correlation filter designs have been developed to handle problems such as rotations. Correlation filters also offer other benefits such as shift-invariance, graceful degradation and closed-form solutions. The 3D extension of correlation filter is a natural extension to handle 3D pattern recognition problem. In this paper, we propose a 3D correlation filter design method based on cylindrical circular harmonic function (CCHF) and use LADAR imagery to illustrate the good performance of CCHF filters.

Vijaya Kumar, Bhagavatula V. K.; Xie, Chunyan; Mahalanobis, Abhijit

2003-09-01

299

Epilepsy Research Benchmarks Progress Report  

E-print Network

Epilepsy Research Benchmarks Progress Report 2007 ­ 2012 #12;i Epilepsy Research Benchmarks .................................................................................................................................................................................... 1 Benchmarks Area I - Prevent epilepsy and its progression.......................................................................................................................2 A. Identify as yet unrecognized causes of epilepsy (e.g., genetic, autoimmune and infectious

300

Development of a 3-D Variable-Direction Anisotropy program, VDA-3D, to represent normal and tangential fluxes, in 3-D groundwater flow modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A computer program, VDA-3D, for groundwater flow simulation with a 3-dimensional anisotropic hydraulic conductivity tensor [K] has been developed, which represents normal fluxes with the Kxx, Kyy, Kzz components of [K], and tangential fluxes with the Kxy, Kxz, Kyz components. The need to simulate tangential fluxes occurs when the principal directions of the hydraulic conductivity tensor are not aligned with the model coordinates. Off-diagonal components of the conductivity tensor relate Darcy flux components to head gradient components that do not point in the same direction as the flux components. The program for 3-Dimensional Variable-Direction Anisotropy (VDA-3D) is based on a method developed by Edwards and Rogers (1998) and is an extension to 3 dimensions of the 2-dimensional Layer Variable-Direction Anisotropy (LVDA) package developed by Anderman and others (2002) for the USGS MODFLOW groundwater modeling program. The Edwards method is based on the traditional mass balance of water for a finite-difference-discretization cell of aquifer material, and enforces continuity of water flux across each of the 6 cell faces. VDA-3D is used to apply the Edwards method to a set of 1-D, 2-D, and 3-D test problems, some homogeneous, one with heterogeneity between two zones of the grid, and one with heterogeneity from cell to cell; each problem has boundary conditions of either constant head or constant flux. One test problem with constant head boundaries uses distributions of sources and sinks that are calculated to represent a problem with a given analytic solution. A second program has been written to implement an alternate method to simulate tangential fluxes, developed by Li and others (2010) and referred to as the Lzgh method. Like VDA-3D, the Lzgh method formulates the finite difference discretization of the flow equation for a medium with heterogeneous anisotropic hydraulic conductivity. In the Lzgh method, the conductivity is not required to be uniform over each finite difference cell as it is in VDA-3D, and the head function is required to be continuous across the cell faces, which it is not in VDA-3D. The only data requirement difference between the two methods is that the hydraulic conductivities are provided at cell centroids for VDA-3D and at cell interfaces for Lzgh. Early test results for a 2-D heterogeneous problem with a synthetic conductivity distribution and a dominantly 1-D flow pattern indicate that Lzgh can reproduce the results of VDA-3D, provided the harmonic means of all the components of the cell-centered VDA-3D hydraulic conductivity tensor are used to create the tensor at cell interfaces for Lzgh. Further work is planned to compare the accuracy of the resultant head distributions and the computational costs of the two methods, and to compare additional problems with different flow patterns.

Umari, A. M.; Kipp, K. L.

2013-12-01

301

Remote scientific visualization of progressive 3D meshes with X3D Adrien Maglo  

E-print Network

Remote scientific visualization of progressive 3D meshes with X3D Adrien Maglo MAS - Ecole Centrale adaptation, progressive meshes, scientific visual- ization. 1 Introduction e-mail: adrien.maglo@ecp.fr e

Lavoué, Guillaume

302

Extra dimensions: 3d and time in pdf documentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High energy physics is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide audience. In this talk, we present examples of HEP applications which take advantage of this functionality. We demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input. Using this technique, higher dimensional data, such as LEGO plots or time-dependent information can be included in PDF files. In principle, a complete event display, with full interactivity, can be incorporated into a PDF file. This would allow the end user not only to customize the view and representation of the data, but to access the underlying data itself.

Graf, N. A.

2008-07-01

303

Extra Dimensions: 3D and Time in PDF Documentation  

SciTech Connect

High energy physics is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide audience. In this talk, we present examples of HEP applications which take advantage of this functionality. We demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input. Using this technique, higher dimensional data, such as LEGO plots or time-dependent information can be included in PDF files. In principle, a complete event display, with full interactivity, can be incorporated into a PDF file. This would allow the end user not only to customize the view and representation of the data, but to access the underlying data itself.

Graf, Norman A.; /SLAC

2011-11-10

304

3D optical measuring technologies for industrial applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Automatic dimensional inspection of 3D articles with high resolution and productivity is an urgent problem for industry. It takes solving some measurement basic and applied tasks. Using the optical inspection methods, it is essential to take into account the influence of 3D bodies' extension on their Fraunhofer diffraction pattern and images. This influence strongly depends on the configuration of illumination, which therefore is fundamentally important. The solution for diffraction phenomena by volumetric slit under inclined plane and spherical wave illumination has been represented. The obtained results can be applied for investigation of formation and high-frequency filtering images of 3D bodies of constant thickness. Ensuring the safety and high operation reliability of nuclear reactors takes 100% inspection of geometrical parameters of fuel assemblies, which include the spacer grids performed as cellular structure with fuel elements. The required spacer grids geometry of assembly in the transverse and longitudinal cross sections is extremely important for maintaining the necessary heat regime. A universal method for 3D spacer grid inspection using the diffractive optical element, which generates as the structural illumination, a multiple-ring pattern on the inner surface of a spacer grid cell is investigated. Using some diffractive optical elements one can inspect the nomenclature of all produced grids. Experimental results for semi-industrial version of spacer grid inspection system are presented. A structured light method and testing results of pilot system for noncontact inspection of wire wear and its defects for train electro-supply network are given and discussed.

Chugui, Yuri; Verkhogliad, Alexander; Kalikin, Vadim; Zav'yalov, Peter

2011-05-01

305

PIXIE3D: A Parallel, Implicit, eXtended MHD 3D Code  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on the development of PIXIE3D, a 3D parallel, fully implicit Newton-Krylov extended MHD code in general curvilinear geometry. PIXIE3D employs a second-order, finite-volume-based spatial discretization that satisfies remarkable properties such as being conservative, solenoidal in the magnetic field to machine precision, non-dissipative, and linearly and nonlinearly stable in the absence of physical dissipation. PIXIE3D employs fully-implicit Newton-Krylov methods

Luis Chacon

2006-01-01

306

A Parameterizable Framework for Replicated Experiments in Virtual 3D Environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports on a parameterizable 3D framework that provides 3D content developers with an initial spatial starting configuration, metaphorical connectors for accessing exhibits or interactive 3D learning objects or experiments, and other optional 3D extensions, such as a multimedia room, a gallery, username identification tools and an avatar selection room. The framework is implemented in X3D and uses a Web-based content management system. It has been successfully used for an interactive virtual museum for key historical experiments and in two additional interactive e-learning implementations: an African arts museum and a virtual science centre. It can be shown that, by reusing the framework, the production costs for the latter two implementations can be significantly reduced and content designers can focus on developing educational content instead of producing cost-intensive out-of-focus 3D objects.

Biella, Daniel; Luther, Wolfram

307

Multiview 3D reconstruction in geosciences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiview three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction is a technology that allows the creation of 3D models of a given scenario from a series of overlapping pictures taken using consumer-grade digital cameras. This type of 3D reconstruction is facilitated by freely available software, which does not require expert-level skills. This technology provides a 3D working environment, which integrates sample/field data visualization and measurement tools. In this study, we test the potential of this method for 3D reconstruction of decimeter-scale objects of geological interest. We generated 3D models of three different outcrops exposed in a marble quarry and two solids: a volcanic bomb and a stalagmite. Comparison of the models obtained in this study using the presented method with those obtained using a precise laser scanner shows that multiview 3D reconstruction yields models that present a root mean square error/average linear dimensions between 0.11 and 0.68%. Thus this technology turns out to be an extremely promising tool, which can be fruitfully applied in geosciences.

Favalli, M.; Fornaciai, A.; Isola, I.; Tarquini, S.; Nannipieri, L.

2012-07-01

308

3D bioprinting of tissues and organs.  

PubMed

Additive manufacturing, otherwise known as three-dimensional (3D) printing, is driving major innovations in many areas, such as engineering, manufacturing, art, education and medicine. Recent advances have enabled 3D printing of biocompatible materials, cells and supporting components into complex 3D functional living tissues. 3D bioprinting is being applied to regenerative medicine to address the need for tissues and organs suitable for transplantation. Compared with non-biological printing, 3D bioprinting involves additional complexities, such as the choice of materials, cell types, growth and differentiation factors, and technical challenges related to the sensitivities of living cells and the construction of tissues. Addressing these complexities requires the integration of technologies from the fields of engineering, biomaterials science, cell biology, physics and medicine. 3D bioprinting has already been used for the generation and transplantation of several tissues, including multilayered skin, bone, vascular grafts, tracheal splints, heart tissue and cartilaginous structures. Other applications include developing high-throughput 3D-bioprinted tissue models for research, drug discovery and toxicology. PMID:25093879

Murphy, Sean V; Atala, Anthony

2014-08-01

309

Optically rewritable 3D liquid crystal displays.  

PubMed

Optically rewritable liquid crystal display (ORWLCD) is a concept based on the optically addressed bi-stable display that does not need any power to hold the image after being uploaded. Recently, the demand for the 3D image display has increased enormously. Several attempts have been made to achieve 3D image on the ORWLCD, but all of them involve high complexity for image processing on both hardware and software levels. In this Letter, we disclose a concept for the 3D-ORWLCD by dividing the given image in three parts with different optic axis. A quarter-wave plate is placed on the top of the ORWLCD to modify the emerging light from different domains of the image in different manner. Thereafter, Polaroid glasses can be used to visualize the 3D image. The 3D image can be refreshed, on the 3D-ORWLCD, in one-step with proper ORWLCD printer and image processing, and therefore, with easy image refreshing and good image quality, such displays can be applied for many applications viz. 3D bi-stable display, security elements, etc. PMID:25361316

Sun, J; Srivastava, A K; Zhang, W; Wang, L; Chigrinov, V G; Kwok, H S

2014-11-01

310

A "LEARN 2D, APPLY 3D" METHOD FOR 3D DECONVOLUTION MICROSCOPY. Ferreol Soulez  

E-print Network

structure marked by fluorescent dye excited by uniform illumination. On the resulting 2D image, struc- turesA "LEARN 2D, APPLY 3D" METHOD FOR 3D DECONVOLUTION MICROSCOPY. Ferr´eol Soulez Centre de Recherche at the "the 3D Deconvolution Microscopy Challenge" held during ISBI 2013. It uses sparse cod- ing algorithm

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

311

XML3D and Xflow: combining declarative 3D for the Web with generic data flows.  

PubMed

Researchers have combined XML3D, which provides declarative, interactive 3D scene descriptions based on HTML5, with Xflow, a language for declarative, high-performance data processing. The result lets Web developers combine a 3D scene graph with data flows for dynamic meshes, animations, image processing, and postprocessing. PMID:24808080

Klein, Felix; Sons, Kristian; Rubinstein, Dmitri; Slusallek, Philipp

2013-01-01

312

A high capacity 3D steganography algorithm.  

PubMed

In this paper, we present a very high-capacity and low-distortion 3D steganography scheme. Our steganography approach is based on a novel multilayered embedding scheme to hide secret messages in the vertices of 3D polygon models. Experimental results show that the cover model distortion is very small as the number of hiding layers ranges from 7 to 13 layers. To the best of our knowledge, this novel approach can provide much higher hiding capacity than other state-of-the-art approaches, while obeying the low distortion and security basic requirements for steganography on 3D models. PMID:19147891

Chao, Min-Wen; Lin, Chao-hung; Yu, Cheng-Wei; Lee, Tong-Yee

2009-01-01

313

The ESO 3D Visualisation Tool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ESO 3D visualisation tool provides the capability for visualisation and basic scientific exploitation of 3D spectroscopic datasets obtained with VLT integral field unit instrumentation, including MUSE. The tool was implemented as part of the ALMA CASA software viewer and as such provides the opportunity to view ALMA data as well as VLT 3D data within the same tool. Recently, the first version of the visualisation tool, featuring optical and near-infrared spectroscopic capabilities, has been completed and we describe the released software which is available for Mac OS X and Linux systems.

Kuntschner, H.; Kmmel, M.; Westmoquette, M.; Ballester, P.; Pasquini, L.

2012-12-01

314

3D packaging for integrated circuit systems  

SciTech Connect

A goal was set for high density, high performance microelectronics pursued through a dense 3D packing of integrated circuits. A {open_quotes}tool set{close_quotes} of assembly processes have been developed that enable 3D system designs: 3D thermal analysis, silicon electrical through vias, IC thinning, mounting wells in silicon, adhesives for silicon stacking, pretesting of IC chips before commitment to stacks, and bond pad bumping. Validation of these process developments occurred through both Sandia prototypes and subsequent commercial examples.

Chu, D.; Palmer, D.W. [eds.

1996-11-01

315

An Improved Version of TOPAZ 3D  

SciTech Connect

An improved version of the TOPAZ 3D gun code is presented as a powerful tool for beam optics simulation. In contrast to the previous version of TOPAZ 3D, the geometry of the device under test is introduced into TOPAZ 3D directly from a CAD program, such as Solid Edge or AutoCAD. In order to have this new feature, an interface was developed, using the GiD software package as a meshing code. The article describes this method with two models to illustrate the results.

Krasnykh, Anatoly

2003-07-29

316

AN IMPROVED VERSION OF TOPAZ 3D *  

E-print Network

An improved version of the TOPAZ 3D gun code is presented as a powerful tool for beam optics simulation. In contrast to the previous version of TOPAZ 3D, the geometry of the device under test is introduced into TOPAZ 3D directly from a CAD program, such as Solid Edge or AutoCAD. In order to have this new feature, an interface was developed, using the GiD software package as a meshing code. The article describes this method with two models to illustrate the results.

unknown authors

2003-01-01

317

3D Modeling of the ALICE Photoinjector Upgrade  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The injector for the ALICE machine (Accelerators and Lasers In Combined Experiments) at Daresbury Laboratory is based around a 350 kV DC photocathode electron gun. An upgrade is proposed to introduce a load-lock GaAs photocathode preparation facility to allow rapid transfer of photocathodes to the gun without breaking the vacuum system. In the current design this requires side-loading of the photocathodes into the cathode ball. An alternative is to relocate the ceramic insulator vertically which will allow back-loading and also backillumination of the photocathodes. 3D electrostatic simulations of the gun chamber are presented for both options along with 3D beam dynamic simulations for an off-axis photocathode, introduced to increase photocathode lifetime by reducing damage by ion backbombardment. Beam dynamic simulations are also presented for the entire injector beamline as well as for a proposed extension to the injector beamline to include a diagnostic section.

McKenzie, J. W.; Militsyn, B. L.; Saveliev, Y. M.

2009-08-01

318

3D Modeling of the ALICE Photoinjector Upgrade  

SciTech Connect

The injector for the ALICE machine (Accelerators and Lasers In Combined Experiments) at Daresbury Laboratory is based around a 350 kV DC photocathode electron gun. An upgrade is proposed to introduce a load-lock GaAs photocathode preparation facility to allow rapid transfer of photocathodes to the gun without breaking the vacuum system. In the current design this requires side-loading of the photocathodes into the cathode ball. An alternative is to relocate the ceramic insulator vertically which will allow back-loading and also backillumination of the photocathodes. 3D electrostatic simulations of the gun chamber are presented for both options along with 3D beam dynamic simulations for an off-axis photocathode, introduced to increase photocathode lifetime by reducing damage by ion backbombardment. Beam dynamic simulations are also presented for the entire injector beamline as well as for a proposed extension to the injector beamline to include a diagnostic section.

McKenzie, J. W.; Militsyn, B. L.; Saveliev, Y. M. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom)

2009-08-04

319

Prototype application for web 3D routing in building  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current routing systems in GIS software mostly provide routes that allow the users to navigate between source and destination points in 2 dimensions. This paper describes the development of a web-based 3D routing system for a university campus using Open Source Software (OSS) and Open Specifications (OS). The system uses the advantages of interoperability and allows the integration and extension of different system components. A data model is described and the process of creating the data model and the migration of the data stored in dxf architectural drawings to the data model are explained. The paper also discusses the architecture and the interaction of the different prototype components such as 3D viewer, database, and programming languages. Furthermore, it describes customized tools that were developed to provide the users a simple interface to interact with the system through a standard internet browser.

Ehlers, Manfred; Hijazi, Ihab

2010-11-01

320

3D shape analysis of heterochromatin foci based on a 3D spherical harmonics intensity model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a novel approach for 3D shape analysis of heterochromatin foci in 3D confocal light microscopy images of cell nuclei. The approach is based on a 3D parametric intensity model and uses a spherical harmonics (SH) expansion. The model parameters including the SH coefficients are automatically determined by least squares fitting of the model to the image intensities. Based on the obtained SH coefficients, a shape descriptor is determined, which enables distinguishing heterochromatin foci based on their 3D shape to characterize compaction states of heterochromatin. Our approach has been successfully applied to real static and dynamic 3D microscopy image data.

Eck, Simon; Wrz, Stefan; Mller-Ott, Katharina; Hahn, Matthias; Schotta, Gunnar; Rippe, Karsten; Rohr, Karl

2014-03-01

321

3D sound and 3D image interactions: a review of audio-visual depth perception  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There has been much research concerning visual depth perception in 3D stereoscopic displays and, to a lesser extent, auditory depth perception in 3D spatial sound systems. With 3D sound systems now available in a number of different forms, there is increasing interest in the integration of 3D sound systems with 3D displays. It therefore seems timely to review key concepts and results concerning depth perception in such display systems. We first present overviews of both visual and auditory depth perception, before focussing on cross-modal effects in audio-visual depth perception, which may be of direct interest to display and content designers.

Berry, Jonathan S.; Roberts, David A. T.; Holliman, Nicolas S.

2014-02-01

322

Eyes on the Earth 3D  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Eyes on the Earth 3D software gives scientists, and the general public, a realtime, 3D interactive means of accurately viewing the real-time locations, speed, and values of recently collected data from several of NASA's Earth Observing Satellites using a standard Web browser (climate.nasa.gov/eyes). Anyone with Web access can use this software to see where the NASA fleet of these satellites is now, or where they will be up to a year in the future. The software also displays several Earth Science Data sets that have been collected on a daily basis. This application uses a third-party, 3D, realtime, interactive game engine called Unity 3D to visualize the satellites and is accessible from a Web browser.

Kulikov, anton I.; Doronila, Paul R.; Nguyen, Viet T.; Jackson, Randal K.; Greene, William M.; Hussey, Kevin J.; Garcia, Christopher M.; Lopez, Christian A.

2013-01-01

323

Cyclone Rusty's Landfall in 3-D  

NASA Video Gallery

This 3-D image derived from NASA's TRMM satellite Precipitation Radar data on February 26, 2013 at 0654 UTC showed that the tops of some towering thunderstorms in Rusty's eye wall were reaching hei...

324

Elastic registration of 3D ultrasound images.  

PubMed

3D registration of ultrasound images is an important and fast-growing research area with various medical applications, such as image-guided radiotherapy and surgery. However, this registration process is extremely challenging due to the deformation of soft tissue and the existence of speckles in these images. This paper presents a novel intra-modality elastic registration technique for 3D ultrasound images. It uses the general concept of attribute vectors to find the corresponding voxels in the fixed and moving images. The method does not require any pre-segmentation and does not employ any numerical optimization procedure. Therefore, the computational requirements are very low and it has the potential to be used for real-time applications. The technique is implemented and tested for 3D ultrasound images of liver, captured by a 3D ultrasound transducer. The results show that the method is sufficiently accurate and robust and does not easily get trapped with local minima. PMID:16685832

Foroughi, Pezhman; Abolmaesumi, Purang

2005-01-01

325

Modeling Cellular Processes in 3-D  

PubMed Central

Summary Recent advances in photonic imaging and fluorescent protein technology offer unprecedented views of molecular space-time dynamics in living cells. At the same time, advances in computing hardware and software enable modeling of ever more complex systems, from global climate to cell division. As modeling and experiment become more closely integrated, we must address the issue of modeling cellular processes in 3-D. Here, we highlight recent advances related to 3-D modeling in cell biology. While some processes require full 3-D analysis, we suggest that others are more naturally described in 2-D or 1-D. Keeping the dimensionality as low as possible reduces computational time and makes models more intuitively comprehensible; however, the ability to test full 3-D models will build greater confidence in models generally and remains an important emerging area of cell biological modeling. PMID:22036197

Mogilner, Alex; Odde, David

2011-01-01

326

Stereoscopic 3D Line Drawing Yongjin Kim  

E-print Network

of the screen like 3D. CR Categories: I.3.3 [Computer Graphics]: Picture/Image Generation--Display algorithms Keywords: non-photorealism, line drawing, line stylization, stere- oscopy, binocular rivalry, stereo

Kang, Henry

327

Three dimensional (3D) optical information processing  

E-print Network

Light exhibits dramatically different properties when it propagates in or interacts with 3D structured media. Comparing to 2D optical elements where the light interacts with a sequence of surfaces separated by free space, ...

Tian, Kehan

2006-01-01

328

Magnetic Dipole Field 3D Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Magnetic Dipole Field 3D Model displays the field lines and field vectors of a dipole located at the origin and oriented along the z-axis. Users can compute the field line passing through a point by dragging the a marker within the 3D view. Users can also visualize the field vectors in a plane passing though the center of the dipole. The Magnetic Dipole Field 3D Model was developed using the Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_em_MagneticDipole3D.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. EJS is a part of the Open Source Physics Project and is designed to make it easier to access, modify, and generate computer models.

Christian, Wolfgang

2012-08-11

329

Tropical Cyclone Jack in Satellite 3-D  

NASA Video Gallery

This 3-D flyby from NASA's TRMM satellite of Tropical Cyclone Jack on April 21 shows that some of the thunderstorms were shown by TRMM PR were still reaching height of at least 17 km (10.5 miles). ...

330

Method and apparatus for creating 3D-prints and a 3-D printing system  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A method and apparatus for creating a print file for printing a 3-D print using a 3-D printing system is described, the 3-D print comprising a plurality of 3-D structures printed on a substrate, each 3-D print structure having a height with respect to the substrate. A two-dimensional source image is input comprising a plurality of image pixel areas. A filtered image is obtained by applying a topographic operator to the source image to generate for every image pixel a representation of a pixel height profile, the pixel height profile corresponding to cross-sections through a 3-D print structure which is to be formed by 3-D printing. Thereby definitions of a plurality of image layers are generated from the filtered image for printing using the 3-D printing system. The print file is output based on the plurality of image layers. The topographic operator has the following property: any cross-section through a solid section of a 3-D structure at a second level in the 3-D print structure which is closer to the substrate than a first level has an area which is equal to or larger than the area of the cross-section of the 3-D structure at the first level.

2009-09-15

331

Benchmarking expert system tools  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of its evaluation of new technologies, the Artificial Intelligence Section of the Mission Planning and Analysis Div. at NASA-Johnson has made timing tests of several expert system building tools. Among the production systems tested were Automated Reasoning Tool, several versions of OPS5, and CLIPS (C Language Integrated Production System), an expert system builder developed by the AI section. Also included in the test were a Zetalisp version of the benchmark along with four versions of the benchmark written in Knowledge Engineering Environment, an object oriented, frame based expert system tool. The benchmarks used for testing are studied.

Riley, Gary

1988-01-01

332

Progressive coding of textured 3D models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the rapid development of computer and information technology, 3D modeling and rendering capabilities are becoming increasingly important in many applications, including industrial design, architecture, CAD\\/CAM, video games, and medical imaging. Since 3D mesh models often have the huge amount of the data, it is time-consuming to retrieve from a storage device or to download from the network. Most

K. Nagatomo; D. Yoshikai; M. Okuda; M. Ikehara; S.-I. Takahashi

2002-01-01

333

Thermal-Aware 3D Floorplan  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Three-dimensional integration makes floorplanning a much more difficult problem because the multiple device layers dramatically\\u000a enlarge the solution space and the increased power density accentuates the thermal problem. This chapter introduces the algorithms\\u000a for 3D floorplanning with both 2D blocks and 3D blocks. In addition to stochastic optimizations based on various representations\\u000a that are briefly introduced, the analytical approach is

Jason Cong; Yuchun Ma

334

A search engine for 3D models  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the number of 3D models available on the Web grows, there is an increasing need for a search engine to help people find them. Unfortunately, traditional text-based search techniques are not always effective for 3D data. In this article, we investigate new shape-based search methods. The key challenges are to develop query methods simple enough for novice users and

Thomas A. Funkhouser; Patrick Min; Michael M. Kazhdan; Joyce Chen; Alex Halderman; David P. Dobkin; David Pokrass Jacobs

2003-01-01

335

3D plasma observations near Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three-dimensional (3D) proton velocity data measured by the ASPERA mass spectrometer onboard the Phobos-2 spacecraft are presented. The mass spectrometer was capable of providing 3D plasma distribution data by scanning through the 4 pi space, but most of the time its own scanner was switched off, and only 2D data have been presented so far. Because the spacecraft was often

E. Kallio; H. Koskinen; S. Barabash; R. Lundin; O. Norberg; J. G. Luhmann

1993-01-01

336

3D plasma observations near Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

3-dimensional (3D) proton velocity data measured by the ASPERA mass spectrometer onboard the Phobos-2 spacecraft are presented. The mass spectrometer was capable of providing 3D plasma distribution data by scanning through the 4? space, but most of the time its own scanner was switched off, and only 2D data have been presented so far. Because the spacecraft was often spinning

E. Kallio; H. Koskinen; S. Barabash; R. Lundin; O. Norberg; J. G. Luhmann

1993-01-01

337

FUN3D Manual: 12.5  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.5, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational uid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables ecient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status. XXXX This manual is intended to guide an application engineer through con gura- tion, compiling, installing, and executing the Fun3D simulation package. The focus is on the most commonly exercised capabilities. Therefore, some of the immature or rarely exercised capabilities are intentionally omitted in the in- terest of clarity. An accompanying document that provides example cases is under development. Release of the generic gas capability is restricted because of International Trac in Arms Regulations (ITAR), so Fun3D usually distributed with the generic gas capability disabled. See section 1.4 for details. This manual de- scribes Fun3D with and without the generic gas capability, denoted eqn type= 'generic'. Features that are speci c to an eqn type are explicitly indicated. This document is updated and released with each subsequent version of Fun3D. In fact, a signi cant portion is automatically extracted from the Fun3D source code. If you have diculties, nd any errors,

Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, William L.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

2014-01-01

338

Standoff 3D Gamma-Ray Imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new standoff imaging technique able to provide 3-dimensional (3D) images of gamma-ray sources distributed in the environment. Unlike standard 3D tomographic methods, this technique does not require the radioactive sources to be bounded within a predefined physical space. In the present implementation, the gamma-ray imaging system is based on two large planar HPGe double sided segmented detectors,

Lucian Mihailescu; Kai Vetter; Daniel Chivers

2009-01-01

339

Experience with 3-D composite grids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experience with the three-dimensional (3-D), chimera grid embedding scheme is described. Applications of the inviscid version to a multiple-body configuration, a wind/body/tail configuration, and an estimate of wind tunnel wall interference are described. Applications to viscous flows include a 3-D cavity and another multi-body configuration. A variety of grid generators is used, and several embedding strategies are described.

Benek, J. A.; Donegan, T. L.; Suhs, N. E.

1987-01-01

340

Realistic 3D Human Facial Animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Construction and animation of realistic human facial models is an important research field in computer graphics. How to simulate the motions of human faces on 3D facial models in real-time to generate realistic facial expressions is still a challenge. In this paper, a technique to simulate the human facial animation realistically in real-time is presented. First of all, the 3D

ZHANG Qing-Shan; CHEN Guo-Liang

2003-01-01

341

A new 3D Hall MHD code  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new 3D Hall MHD code has been developed at the Naval Research Laboratory. The 3D Hall MHD equations are solved in conservative form using a finite-volume scheme. The hydrodynamic variables in a cell are updated by calculating fluxes across the cell interfaces. The fluxes of mass, momentum, and energy across cell interfaces are calculated by integrating a Boltzmann-like distribution

J. D. Huba

2001-01-01

342

3D Hall MHD Reconnection Dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 3D Hall MHD simulation code (VooDoo) has recently been developed at the Naval Research Laboratory. We present preliminary results of a fully 3D magnetic reconnection study using this code. The initial configuration of the plasma system is as follows. The ambient, reversed magnetic field is in the x-direction and is proportional to B0 tanh(y\\/Ly) where Ly is the scale

J. D. Huba; L. Rudakov

2002-01-01

343

3D engine for immersive virtual environments  

E-print Network

3D ENGINE FOR IMMERSIVE VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS A Thesis by CHRISTOPHER DEAN ANDERSON Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 2003 Major Subject: Visualization Sciences 3D ENGINE FOR IMMERSIVE VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS A Thesis by CHRISTOPHER DEAN ANDERSON Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University...

Anderson, Christopher Dean

2005-02-17

344

Automatic 3D virtual scenes modeling for multisensors simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SEDRIS that stands for Synthetic Environment Data Representation and Interchange Specification is a DoD/DMSO initiative in order to federate and make interoperable 3D mocks up in the frame of virtual reality and simulation. This paper shows an original application of SEDRIS concept for research physical multi sensors simulation, when SEDRIS is more classically known for training simulation. CHORALE (simulated Optronic Acoustic Radar battlefield) is used by the French DGA/DCE (Directorate for Test and Evaluation of the French Ministry of Defense) to perform multi-sensors simulations. CHORALE enables the user to create virtual and realistic multi spectral 3D scenes, and generate the physical signal received by a sensor, typically an IR sensor. In the scope of this CHORALE workshop, French DGA has decided to introduce a SEDRIS based new 3D terrain modeling tool that enables to create automatically 3D databases, directly usable by the physical sensor simulation CHORALE renderers. This AGETIM tool turns geographical source data (including GIS facilities) into meshed geometry enhanced with the sensor physical extensions, fitted to the ray tracing rendering of CHORALE, both for the infrared, electromagnetic and acoustic spectrum. The basic idea is to enhance directly the 2D source level with the physical data, rather than enhancing the 3D meshed level, which is more efficient (rapid database generation) and more reliable (can be generated many times, changing some parameters only). The paper concludes with the last current evolution of AGETIM in the scope mission rehearsal for urban war using sensors. This evolution includes indoor modeling for automatic generation of inner parts of buildings.

Latger, Jean; Le Goff, Alain; Cathala, Thierry; Larive, Mathieu

2006-05-01

345

Application of the INSTANT-HPS PN Transport Code to the C5G7 Benchmark Problem  

SciTech Connect

INSTANT is the INL's next generation neutron transport solver to support high-fidelity multi-physics reactor simulation INSTANT is in continuous development to extend its capability Code is designed to take full advantage of middle to large cluster (10-1000 processors) Code is designed to focus on method adaptation while also mesh adaptation will be possible. It utilizes the most modern computing techniques to generate a neutronics tool of full-core transport calculations for reactor analysis and design. It can perform calculations on unstructured 2D/3D triangular, hexagonal and Cartesian geometries. Calculations can be easily extended to more geometries because of the independent mesh framework coded with the model Fortran. This code has a multigroup solver with thermal rebalance and Chebyshev acceleration. It employs second-order PN and Hybrid Finite Element method (PNHFEM) discretization scheme. Three different in-group solvers - preconditioned Conjugate Gradient (CG) method, preconditioned Generalized Minimal Residual Method (GMRES) and Red-Black iteration - have been implemented and parallelized with the spatial domain decomposition in the code. The input is managed with extensible markup language (XML) format. 3D variables including the flux distributions are outputted into VTK files, which can be visualized by tools such as VisIt and ParaView. An extension of the code named INSTANTHPS provides the capability to perform 3D heterogeneous transport calculations within fuel pins. C5G7 is an OECD/NEA benchmark problem created to test the ability of modern deterministic transport methods and codes to treat reactor core problems without spatial homogenization. This benchmark problem had been widely analyzed with various code packages. In this transaction, results of the applying the INSTANT-HPS code to the C5G7 problem are summarized.

Y. Wang; H. Zhang; R. H. Szilard; R. C. Martineau

2011-06-01

346

Stereoscopic reconfiguration for 3D displays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present a method to reconfigure 3D movies in order to minimize distortion when seen on a different display than the one it has been configured for. By their very nature, 3D broadcasts come with a stereoscopic pair to be seen by the left and right eyes. However, according to reasons that we ought to explain in the paper, the cameras used to shoot a movie are calibrated according to specific viewing parameters such as the screen size, the viewing distance and the eye separation. As a consequence, a 3D broadcast seen on a different display (say a home theater or a PC screen) than the one it has been configured for (say an IMAX R screen) will suffer from noticeable distortions. In this paper, we describe the relationship between the size of the 3D display, the position of the observer, and the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of the cameras. With this information, we propose a method to reorganize the stereoscopic pair in order to minimize distortion when seen on an arbitrary display. In addition to the raw video pair, our method uses the viewing distance, a rough estimate of the 3D scene, and some basic information on the 3D display. An inpainting technique is used to fill disoccluded areas.

Houde, Jean-Christophe; Jodoin, Pierre-Marc; Desch"nes, Franois

2012-03-01

347

3D Viscoelastic traction force microscopy.  

PubMed

Native cell-material interactions occur on materials differing in their structural composition, chemistry, and physical compliance. While the last two decades have shown the importance of traction forces during cell-material interactions, they have been almost exclusively presented on purely elastic in vitro materials. Yet, most bodily tissue materials exhibit some level of viscoelasticity, which could play an important role in how cells sense and transduce tractions. To expand the realm of cell traction measurements and to encompass all materials from elastic to viscoelastic, this paper presents a general, and comprehensive approach for quantifying 3D cell tractions in viscoelastic materials. This methodology includes the experimental characterization of the time-dependent material properties for any viscoelastic material with the subsequent mathematical implementation of the determined material model into a 3D traction force microscopy (3D TFM) framework. Utilizing this new 3D viscoelastic TFM (3D VTFM) approach, we quantify the influence of viscosity on the overall material traction calculations and quantify the error associated with omitting time-dependent material effects, as is the case for all other TFM formulations. We anticipate that the 3D VTFM technique will open up new avenues of cell-material investigations on even more physiologically relevant time-dependent materials including collagen and fibrin gels. PMID:25170569

Toyjanova, Jennet; Hannen, Erin; Bar-Kochba, Eyal; Darling, Eric M; Henann, David L; Franck, Christian

2014-09-24

348

The design and implementation of stereoscopic 3D scalable vector graphics based on WebKit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG), which is a language designed based on eXtensible Markup Language (XML), is used to describe basic shapes embedded in webpages, such as circles and rectangles. However, it can only depict 2D shapes. As a consequence, web pages using classical SVG can only display 2D shapes on a screen. With the increasing development of stereoscopic 3D (S3D) technology, binocular 3D devices have been widely used. Under this circumstance, we intend to extend the widely used web rendering engine WebKit to support the description and display of S3D webpages. Therefore, the extension of SVG is of necessity. In this paper, we will describe how to design and implement SVG shapes with stereoscopic 3D mode. Two attributes representing the depth and thickness are added to support S3D shapes. The elimination of hidden lines and hidden surfaces, which is an important process in this project, is described as well. The modification of WebKit is also discussed, which is made to support the generation of both left view and right view at the same time. As is shown in the result, in contrast to the 2D shapes generated by the Google Chrome web browser, the shapes got from our modified browser are in S3D mode. With the feeling of depth and thickness, the shapes seem to be real 3D objects away from the screen, rather than simple curves and lines as before.

Liu, Zhongxin; Wang, Wenmin; Wang, Ronggang

2014-03-01

349

Strong quantitative benchmarking of quantum optical devices  

SciTech Connect

Quantum communication devices, such as quantum repeaters, quantum memories, or quantum channels, are unavoidably exposed to imperfections. However, the presence of imperfections can be tolerated, as long as we can verify that such devices retain their quantum advantages. Benchmarks based on witnessing entanglement have proven useful for verifying the true quantum nature of these devices. The next challenge is to characterize how strongly a device is within the quantum domain. We present a method, based on entanglement measures and rigorous state truncation, which allows us to characterize the degree of quantumness of optical devices. This method serves as a quantitative extension to a large class of previously known quantum benchmarks, requiring no additional information beyond what is already used for the nonquantitative benchmarks.

Killoran, N.; Luetkenhaus, N. [Institute for Quantum Computing and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, N2L 3G1 (Canada)

2011-05-15

350

The Princeton Shape Benchmark  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, many shape representations and geomet- ric algorithms have been proposed for matching 3D shapes. Usually, each algorithm is tested on a different (small) database of 3D models, and thus no direct comparison is available for competing methods. In this paper, we describe the Princeton Shape Bench- mark (PSB), a publicly available database of polygonal models collected from

Philip Shilane; Patrick Min; Michael M. Kazhdan; Thomas A. Funkhouser

2004-01-01

351

Full-color holographic 3D printer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A holographic 3D printer is a system that produces a direct hologram with full-parallax information using the 3-dimensional data of a subject from a computer. In this paper, we present a proposal for the reproduction of full-color images with the holographic 3D printer. In order to realize the 3-dimensional color image, we selected the 3 laser wavelength colors of red (?=633nm), green (?=533nm), and blue (?=442nm), and we built a one-step optical system using a projection system and a liquid crystal display. The 3-dimensional color image is obtained by synthesizing in a 2D array the multiple exposure with these 3 wavelengths made on each 250mm elementary hologram, and moving recording medium on a x-y stage. For the natural color reproduction in the holographic 3D printer, we take the approach of the digital processing technique based on the color management technology. The matching between the input and output colors is performed by investigating first, the relation between the gray level transmittance of the LCD and the diffraction efficiency of the hologram and second, by measuring the color displayed by the hologram to establish a correlation. In our first experimental results a non-linear functional relation for single and multiple exposure of the three components were found. These results are the first step in the realization of a natural color 3D image produced by the holographic color 3D printer.

Takano, Masami; Shigeta, Hiroaki; Nishihara, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Takahashi, Susumu; Ohyama, Nagaaki; Kobayashi, Akihiko; Iwata, Fujio

2003-05-01

352

3D whiteboard: collaborative sketching with 3D-tracked smart phones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of our investigation of the feasibility of a new approach for collaborative drawing in 3D, based on Android smart phones. Our approach utilizes a number of fiduciary markers, placed in the working area where they can be seen by the smart phones' cameras, in order to estimate the pose of each phone in the room. Our prototype allows two users to draw 3D objects with their smart phones by moving their phones around in 3D space. For example, 3D lines are drawn by recording the path of the phone as it is moved around in 3D space, drawing line segments on the screen along the way. Each user can see the virtual drawing space on their smart phones' displays, as if the display was a window into this space. Besides lines, our prototype application also supports 3D geometry creation, geometry transformation operations, and it shows the location of the other user's phone.

Lue, James; Schulze, Jrgen P.

2014-02-01

353

Development of a 3D mapping using 2D\\/3D sensors for mobile robot locomotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a simultaneous localization and mapping algorithm (SLAM) by using a new 3D sensor namely the photonic mixer devices (PMD). The PMD camera enables 3D image grabbing within a few milliseconds and gives an important impulse in visual 3D sensing. This camera is capable of capturing reliable depth images directly in real-time. The PMD is also compact and

C. Joochim; H. Roth

2008-01-01

354

i3D: A High-Speed 3D Web Browser  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present i3D, a system that combines the 3D input and high-performance rendering capabilities of high-end virtual reality systems with the data fetching abilities of network browsers. Using a Spaceball, the user can intuitively navigate inside the three-dimensional data, while selecting 3D objects with the mouse triggers requests for access to remote media documents that can be

Jean-francis Balaguer; Enrico Gobbetti

1995-01-01

355

3D Content-Based Search Based on 3D Krawtchouk Moments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a novel method for 3D content-based search and retrieval is proposed. Guided by the imperative need for a reliable 3D content based search tool and the very interesting results of research work done in the past on the performance of Krawtchouk moments and Krawtchouk moment invariants in image processing, Weighted 3D Krawtchouk moments are introduced for efficient

Athanasios Mademlis; Apostolos Axenopoulos; Petros Daras; Dimitrios Tzovaras; Michael G. Strintzis

2006-01-01

356

3D CAFE simulation of a macrosegregation benchmark T. Carozzani1  

E-print Network

smallest surfaces, dimensions 6 cm x 1 cm, are positioned vertically in contact with heat exchangers. The right-hand-side (RHS) heat exchanger is heated up to 280 °C while the left-hand- hal-00714100,version1/1/012087 #12;side (LHS) heat exchanger is cooled down to 240 °C. These temperatures are maintained for 1000s so

Boyer, Edmond

357

Relap5-3d model validation and benchmark exercises for advanced gas cooled reactor application  

E-print Network

inherent safety characteristics and fuel properties on which today?s accident-resistant HTGR designs are based.2,3 These inherent safety characteristics stem from the use of graphite moderator, which has a high temperature capability, and TRISO fuel... layers of dense pyrocarbon.3 In contrast to the BISO particle, the TRISO particle includes an extra silicon carbide layer in between the two dense pyrocarbon layers to significantly improve the fuel?s fission product retention capabilities.3 Using...

Moore, Eugene James Thomas

2006-08-16

358

A Benchmark for the Comparison of 3-D Motion Segmentation Algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past few years, several methods for segment- ing a scene containing multiple rigidly moving objects have been proposed. However, most existing methods have been tested on a handful of sequences only, and each method has been often tested on a different set of sequences. Therefore, the comparison of different methods has been fairly limited. In this paper, we

Roberto Tron; Ren Vidal

2007-01-01

359

NAS Parallel Conjugate Gradient Benchmark on the Cray T3D  

E-print Network

, the CG kernel. This kernel was implemented on one of the newest massively­parallel supercomputers­instruction/ multiple­data (MIMD) machine. It consists of a variable number of process­ ing elements (PE's) connected

Kolda, Tamara G.

360

Influence of Fibre Architecture on Impact Damage Tolerance in 3D Woven Composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

3D woven composites, due to the presence of through-thickness fibre-bridging, have the potential to improve damage tolerance and at the same time to reduce the manufacturing costs. However, ability to withstand damage depends on weave topology as well as geometry of individual tows. There is an extensive literature on damage tolerance of 2D prepreg laminates but limited work is reported on the damage tolerance of 3D weaves. In view of the recent interest in 3D woven composites from aerospace as well as non-aerospace sectors, this paper aims to provide an understanding of the impact damage resistance as well as damage tolerance of 3D woven composites. Four different 3D woven architectures, orthogonal, angle interlocked, layer-to-layer and modified layer-to-layer structures, have been produced under identical weaving conditions. Two additional structures, Unidirectional (UD) cross-ply and 2D plain weave, have been developed for comparison with 3D weaves. All the four 3D woven laminates have similar order of magnitude of damage area and damage width, but significantly lower than UD and 2D woven laminates. Damage Resistance, calculated as impact energy per unit damage area, has been shown to be significantly higher for 3D woven laminates. Rate of change of CAI strength with impact energy appears to be similar for all four 3D woven laminates as well as UD laminate; 2D woven laminate has higher rate of degradation with respect to impact energy. Undamaged compression strength has been shown to be a function of average tow waviness angle. Additionally, 3D weaves exhibit a critical damage size; below this size there is no appreciable reduction in compression strength. 3D woven laminates have also exhibited a degree of plasticity during compression whereas UD laminates fail instantly. The experimental work reported in this paper forms a foundation for systematic development of computational models for 3D woven architectures for damage tolerance.

Potluri, P.; Hogg, P.; Arshad, M.; Jetavat, D.; Jamshidi, P.

2012-10-01

361

3D Simulation: Microgravity Environments and Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Most, if not all, 3-D and Virtual Reality (VR) software programs are designed for one-G gravity applications. Space environments simulations require gravity effects of one one-thousandth to one one-million of that of the Earth's surface (10(exp -3) - 10(exp -6) G), thus one must be able to generate simulations that replicate those microgravity effects upon simulated astronauts. Unfortunately, the software programs utilized by the National Aeronautical and Space Administration does not have the ability to readily neutralize the one-G gravity effect. This pre-programmed situation causes the engineer or analysis difficulty during micro-gravity simulations. Therefore, microgravity simulations require special techniques or additional code in order to apply the power of 3D graphic simulation to space related applications. This paper discusses the problem and possible solutions to allow microgravity 3-D/VR simulations to be completed successfully without program code modifications.

Hunter, Steve L.; Dischinger, Charles; Estes, Samantha; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

362

Atomic resolution 3D electron diffraction microscopy  

SciTech Connect

Electron lens aberration is the major barrier limiting the resolution of electron microscopy. Here we describe a novel form of electron microscopy to overcome electron lens aberration. By combining coherent electron diffraction with the oversampling phasing method, we show that the 3D structure of a 2 x 2 x 2 unit cell nano-crystal (framework of LTA [Al12Si12O48]8) can be ab initio determined at the resolution of 1 Angstrom from a series of simulated noisy diffraction pattern projections with rotation angles ranging from -70 degrees to +70 degrees in 5 degrees increments along a single rotation axis. This form of microscopy (which we call 3D electron diffraction microscopy) does not require any reference waves, and can image the 3D structure of nanocrystals, as well as non-crystalline biological and materials science samples, with the resolution limited only by the quality of sample diffraction.

Miao, Jianwei; Ohsuna, Tetsu; Terasaki, Osamu; O'Keefe, Michael A.

2002-03-01

363

3D printing for dielectric elastomers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an analysis on the feasibility of the 3D printing technology known as Stereolithography for adaption to Dielectric Elastomer (DE) Production. We also present a method for 3D printing in two materials using Stereolithography, solving one of the main challenges identified in adapting this technology to DEs. Stereolithography is well suited to DE production because of similarities in the materials used and because of its high achievable resolution. However, DE production requires the use of two separate materials, and of soft materials, both of which are difficult with Stereolithography. Our method makes two material printing with Stereolithography possible by using multiple resin baths and an intermediary cleaning step. If the other challenges can be overcome, automatic 3D production of DEs will be possible.

Creegan, Andrew; Anderson, Iain

2014-03-01

364

MRS3D: 3D Spherical Wavelet Transform on the Sphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future cosmological surveys will provide 3D large scale structure maps with large sky coverage, for which a 3D Spherical Fourier-Bessel (SFB) analysis is natural. Wavelets are particularly well-suited to the analysis and denoising of cosmological data, but a spherical 3D isotropic wavelet transform does not currently exist to analyse spherical 3D data. We present a new fast Discrete Spherical Fourier-Bessel Transform (DSFBT) based on both a discrete Bessel Transform and the HEALPIX angular pixelisation scheme. We tested the 3D wavelet transform and as a toy-application, applied a denoising algorithm in wavelet space to the Virgo large box cosmological simulations and found we can successfully remove noise without much loss to the large scale structure. The new spherical 3D isotropic wavelet transform, called MRS3D, is ideally suited to analysing and denoising future 3D spherical cosmological surveys; it uses a novel discrete spherical Fourier-Bessel Transform. MRS3D is based on two packages, IDL and Healpix and can be used only if these two packages have been installed.

Lanusse, F.; Rassat, A.; Starck, J.-L.

2011-12-01

365

Innovations in 3D printing: a 3D overview from optics to organs.  

PubMed

3D printing is a method of manufacturing in which materials, such as plastic or metal, are deposited onto one another in layers to produce a three dimensional object, such as a pair of eye glasses or other 3D objects. This process contrasts with traditional ink-based printers which produce a two dimensional object (ink on paper). To date, 3D printing has primarily been used in engineering to create engineering prototypes. However, recent advances in printing materials have now enabled 3D printers to make objects that are comparable with traditionally manufactured items. In contrast with conventional printers, 3D printing has the potential to enable mass customisation of goods on a large scale and has relevance in medicine including ophthalmology. 3D printing has already been proved viable in several medical applications including the manufacture of eyeglasses, custom prosthetic devices and dental implants. In this review, we discuss the potential for 3D printing to revolutionise manufacturing in the same way as the printing press revolutionised conventional printing. The applications and limitations of 3D printing are discussed; the production process is demonstrated by producing a set of eyeglass frames from 3D blueprints. PMID:24288392

Schubert, Carl; van Langeveld, Mark C; Donoso, Larry A

2014-02-01

366

3D Visualization for Phoenix Mars Lander Science Operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Planetary surface exploration missions present considerable operational challenges in the form of substantial communication delays, limited communication windows, and limited communication bandwidth. A 3D visualization software was developed and delivered to the 2008 Phoenix Mars Lander (PML) mission. The components of the system include an interactive 3D visualization environment called Mercator, terrain reconstruction software called the Ames Stereo Pipeline, and a server providing distributed access to terrain models. The software was successfully utilized during the mission for science analysis, site understanding, and science operations activity planning. A terrain server was implemented that provided distribution of terrain models from a central repository to clients running the Mercator software. The Ames Stereo Pipeline generates accurate, high-resolution, texture-mapped, 3D terrain models from stereo image pairs. These terrain models can then be visualized within the Mercator environment. The central cross-cutting goal for these tools is to provide an easy-to-use, high-quality, full-featured visualization environment that enhances the mission science team s ability to develop low-risk productive science activity plans. In addition, for the Mercator and Viz visualization environments, extensibility and adaptability to different missions and application areas are key design goals.

Edwards, Laurence; Keely, Leslie; Lees, David; Stoker, Carol

2012-01-01

367

Reproducibility of 3D chromatin configuration reconstructions.  

PubMed

It is widely recognized that the three-dimensional (3D) architecture of eukaryotic chromatin plays an important role in processes such as gene regulation and cancer-driving gene fusions. Observing or inferring this 3D structure at even modest resolutions had been problematic, since genomes are highly condensed and traditional assays are coarse. However, recently devised high-throughput molecular techniques have changed this situation. Notably, the development of a suite of chromatin conformation capture (CCC) assays has enabled elicitation of contacts-spatially close chromosomal loci-which have provided insights into chromatin architecture. Most analysis of CCC data has focused on the contact level, with less effort directed toward obtaining 3D reconstructions and evaluating the accuracy and reproducibility thereof. While questions of accuracy must be addressed experimentally, questions of reproducibility can be addressed statistically-the purpose of this paper. We use a constrained optimization technique to reconstruct chromatin configurations for a number of closely related yeast datasets and assess reproducibility using four metrics that measure the distance between 3D configurations. The first of these, Procrustes fitting, measures configuration closeness after applying reflection, rotation, translation, and scaling-based alignment of the structures. The others base comparisons on the within-configuration inter-point distance matrix. Inferential results for these metrics rely on suitable permutation approaches. Results indicate that distance matrix-based approaches are preferable to Procrustes analysis, not because of the metrics per se but rather on account of the ability to customize permutation schemes to handle within-chromosome contiguity. It has recently been emphasized that the use of constrained optimization approaches to 3D architecture reconstruction are prone to being trapped in local minima. Our methods of reproducibility assessment provide a means for comparing 3D reconstruction solutions so that we can discern between local and global optima by contrasting solutions under perturbed inputs. PMID:24519450

Segal, Mark R; Xiong, Hao; Capurso, Daniel; Vazquez, Mariel; Arsuaga, Javier

2014-07-01

368

PURDUE EXTENSION Purdue Extension  

E-print Network

PURDUE EXTENSION Purdue Extension 1-888-EXT-INFO Preparing for Asian Soybean Rust Preparing for Asian Soybean Rust Preparing for Asian Soybean Rust ID-324ID-324 #12;2 What is Asian soybean rust? Asian soybean rust was first discovered in the continental United States in November 2004. This foliar disease

369

Study of the performance of different subpixel image correlation methods in 3D digital image correlation.  

PubMed

The three-dimensional digital image correlation (3D-DIC) method is rapidly developing and is being widely applied to engineering and manufacturing. Despite its extensive use, the error caused by different image matching algorithms is seldom discussed. An algorithm for 3D speckle image generation is proposed, and the performances of different subpixel correlation algorithms are studied. The advantage is that there is no interpolation bias of texture in the simulation before and after deformation, and the error from the interpolation of speckle can be omitted in this algorithm. An error criterion for 3D reconstruction is proposed. 3D speckle images were simulated, and the performance of four subpixel algorithms is addressed. Based on the research results of different subpixel algorithms, a first-order Newton-Raphson iteration method and gradient-based method are recommended for 3D-DIC measurement. PMID:20648187

Hu, Zhenxing; Xie, Huimin; Lu, Jian; Hua, Tao; Zhu, Jianguo

2010-07-20

370

2D and 3D Super-resolution: A Bayesian approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Super-Resolution (SR) image reconstruction is the area of research and development which produces one or a set of high-resolution (HR) images from one or a set of low-resolution (LR) frames. Nowadays, there is a great number of methods of SR either for fixed or video sequence and for gray, color or hyperspectral images. There is, however, an area where we need still great effort is the 3D data, particularly in medical and biological or in non destructive testing (NDT) imaging systems where very often we may obtain low resolution 3D volumes reconstructed in different contexts (PET, Microscopy, molecular imaging, SAR imaging, holography and 3D TV, etc.) and we would like to reconstruct a HR 3D volume from a few LR ones. In this paper, first we report a few extensions to a recently developed Bayesian SR methods and then propose to extend it to 3D case.

Mohammad-Djafari, Ali

2007-10-01

371

Interactive exploration of acquired 3D data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of our image-based rendering group is to accurately render scenes acquired from the real world. To achieve this goal, we capture scene data by taking 3D panoramic photographs from multiple locations and merge the acquired data into a single model from which real-time 3D rendering can be performed. In this paper, we describe our acquisition hardware and rendering system that seeks to achieve this goal, with particular emphasis on the techniques used to support interactive exploration.

Nyland, Lars S.; McAllister, David K.; Popescu, Voicu; McCue, Chris; Lastra, Anselmo A.

2000-05-01

372

Acquisition and applications of 3D images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The moir fringes method and their analysis up to medical and entertainment applications are discussed in this paper. We describe the procedure of capturing 3D images with an Inspeck Camera that is a real-time 3D shape acquisition system based on structured light techniques. The method is a high-resolution one. After processing the images, using computer, we can use the data for creating laser fashionable objects by engraving them with a Q-switched Nd:YAG. In medical field we mention the plastic surgery and the replacement of X-Ray especially in pediatric use.

Sterian, Paul; Mocanu, Elena

2007-08-01

373

Immersive 3D geovisualisation in higher education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through geovisualisation we explore spatial data, we analyse it towards a specific questions, we synthesise results, and we present and communicate them to a specific audience (MacEachren & Kraak 1997). After centuries of paper maps, the means to represent and visualise our physical environment and its abstract qualities have changed dramatically since the 1990s - and accordingly the methods how to use geovisualisation in teaching. Whereas some people might still consider the traditional classroom as ideal setting for teaching and learning geographic relationships and its mapping, we used a 3D CAVE (computer-animated virtual environment) as environment for a problem-oriented learning project called "GEOSimulator". Focussing on this project, we empirically investigated, if such a technological advance like the CAVE make 3D visualisation, including 3D geovisualisation, not only an important tool for businesses (Abulrub et al. 2012) and for the public (Wissen et al. 2008), but also for educational purposes, for which it had hardly been used yet. The 3D CAVE is a three-sided visualisation platform, that allows for immersive and stereoscopic visualisation of observed and simulated spatial data. We examined the benefits of immersive 3D visualisation for geographic research and education and synthesized three fundamental technology-based visual aspects: First, the conception and comprehension of space and location does not need to be generated, but is instantaneously and intuitively present through stereoscopy. Second, optical immersion into virtual reality strengthens this spatial perception which is in particular important for complex 3D geometries. And third, a significant benefit is interactivity, which is enhanced through immersion and allows for multi-discursive and dynamic data exploration and knowledge transfer. Based on our problem-oriented learning project, which concentrates on a case study on flood risk management at the Wilde Weisseritz in Germany, a river that significantly contributed to the hundred-year flooding in Dresden in 2002, we empirically evaluated the usefulness of this immersive 3D technology towards learning success. Results show that immersive 3D geovisualisation have educational and content-related advantages compared to 2D geovisualisations through the mentioned benefits. This innovative way of geovisualisation is thus not only entertaining and motivating for students, but can also be constructive for research studies by, for instance, facilitating the study of complex environments or decision-making processes.

Philips, Andrea; Walz, Ariane; Bergner, Andreas; Graeff, Thomas; Heistermann, Maik; Kienzler, Sarah; Korup, Oliver; Lipp, Torsten; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Zeilinger, Gerold

2014-05-01

374

3D micro-EDM machining technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The micro-EDM machining technique has been broadly applied to fabricate 2D and 3D micro-parts. It is difficult to produce a metal mold with dimension from several micrometers and with the accuracy in the level of micrometers . Poor accuracy comes from electrode wear during 3D micro-EDM machining. In this research, an efficient wear compensation cooperated with CAD/CAM path compensation is provided to improve the machining accuracy. In the experiments, by fabricating a micro-gear and sculpturing letters on surface of tiny steel ball, the technique provided in this research shows the expected results successfully.

Kuo, Chia-Lung; Chen, Shung-Tong; Wu, Ying-Jeng E.; Yen, Albert T.

1997-11-01

375

RBF network and 3D object recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper gives a preliminary study on the possibility of using RBF network to recognize 3D objects by direct projection matching with no insertion of feature extraction procedure. Two problems are studied; one is the maximum distance (in terms of rotating angles) between consecutive 2D projections of the 3D object, beyond which correct discrimination will be out of the question. The other is the way to generate the attractor locations automatically, competitive learning algorithm of auto-clustering is proposed. Experimental results of both parts are presented.

Li, Jie-Gu; Tang, Xiaodong; Ding, Qi

1996-03-01

376

Mars Express, 3-D Artist's Concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The European Space Agency's Mars Express spacecraft is depicted in orbit around Mars in this artist's concept stereo illustration.

The spacecraft was launched June 2, 2003, from Baikonur, Kazakhstan, on a journey to arrive at Mars in December 2003.

This red-blue anaglyph artwork can be viewed in 3-D on your computer monitor or in color print form by wearing red-blue (cyan) 3-D glasses.

Mars Express is a mission of the European Space Agency. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., supplied the receiver for the mission's Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionospheric Sounding instrument.

2003-01-01

377

Anisotropy effects on 3D waveform inversion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the recent years 3D waveform inversion has become achievable procedure for seismic data processing. A number of datasets has been inverted and presented (Warner el al 2008, Ben Hadj at all, Sirgue et all 2010) using isotropic 3D waveform inversion. However the question arises will the results be affected by isotropic assumption. Full-wavefield inversion techniques seek to match field data, wiggle-for-wiggle, to synthetic data generated by a high-resolution model of the sub-surface. In this endeavour, correctly matching the travel times of the principal arrivals is a necessary minimal requirement. In many, perhaps most, long-offset and wide-azimuth datasets, it is necessary to introduce some form of p-wave velocity anisotropy to match the travel times successfully. If this anisotropy is not also incorporated into the wavefield inversion, then results from the inversion will necessarily be compromised. We have incorporated anisotropy into our 3D wavefield tomography codes, characterised as spatially varying transverse isotropy with a tilted axis of symmetry - TTI anisotropy. This enhancement approximately doubles both the run time and the memory requirements of the code. We show that neglect of anisotropy can lead to significant artefacts in the recovered velocity models. We will present inversion results of inverting anisotropic 3D dataset by assuming isotropic earth and compare them with anisotropic inversion result. As a test case Marmousi model extended to 3D with no velocity variation in third direction and with added spatially varying anisotropy is used. Acquisition geometry is assumed as OBC with sources and receivers everywhere at the surface. We attempted inversion using both 2D and full 3D acquisition for this dataset. Results show that if no anisotropy is taken into account although image looks plausible most features are miss positioned in depth and space, even for relatively low anisotropy, which leads to incorrect result. This may lead to misinterpretation of results. However if correct physics is used results agree with correct model. Our algorithm is relatively affordable and runs on standard pc clusters in acceptable time. Refferences: H. Ben Hadj Ali, S. Operto and J. Virieux. Velocity model building by 3D frequency-domain full-waveform inversion of wide-aperture seismic data, Geophysics (Special issue: Velocity Model Building), 73(6), P. VE101-VE117 (2008). L. Sirgue, O.I. Barkved, J. Dellinger, J. Etgen, U. Albertin, J.H. Kommedal, Full waveform inversion: the next leap forward in imaging at Valhall, First Brake April 2010 - Issue 4 - Volume 28 M. Warner, I. Stekl, A. Umpleby, Efficient and Effective 3D Wavefield Tomography, 70th EAGE Conference & Exhibition (2008)

Stekl, I.; Warner, M.; Umpleby, A.

2010-12-01

378

The Galicia 3D experiment: an Introduction.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In June and July 2013, scientists from 8 institutions took part in the Galicia 3D seismic experiment, the first ever crustal -scale academic 3D MCS survey over a rifted margin. The aim was to determine the 3D structure of a critical portion of the west Galicia rifted margin. At this margin, well-defined tilted fault blocks, bound by west-dipping faults and capped by synrift sediments are underlain by a bright reflection, undulating on time sections, termed the S reflector and thought to represent a major detachment fault of some kind. Moving west, the crust thins to zero thickness and mantle is unroofed, as evidence by the "Peridotite Ridge" first reported at this margin, but since observed at many other magma-poor margins. By imaging such a margin in detail, the experiment aimed to resolve the processes controlling crustal thinning and mantle unroofing at a type example magma poor margin. The experiment set out to collect several key datasets: a 3D seismic reflection volume measuring ~20x64km and extending down to ~14s TWT, a 3D ocean bottom seismometer dataset suitable for full wavefield inversion (the recording of the complete 3D seismic shots by 70 ocean bottom instruments), the "mirror imaging" of the crust using the same grid of OBS, a single 2D combined reflection/refraction profile extending to the west to determine the transition from unroofed mantle to true oceanic crust, and the seismic imaging of the water column, calibrated by regular deployment of XBTs to measure the temperature structure of the water column. We collected 1280 km2 of seismic reflection data, consisting of 136533 shots recorded on 1920 channels, producing 260 million seismic traces, each ~ 14s long. This adds up to ~ 8 terabytes of data, representing, we believe, the largest ever academic 3D MCS survey in terms of both the area covered and the volume of data. The OBS deployment was the largest ever within an academic 3D survey.

Reston, Timothy; Martinez Loriente, Sara; Holroyd, Luke; Merry, Tobias; Sawyer, Dale; Morgan, Julia; Jordan, Brian; Tesi Sanjurjo, Mari; Alexanian, Ara; Shillington, Donna; Gibson, James; Minshull, Tim; Karplus, Marianne; Bayracki, Gaye; Davy, Richard; Klaeschen, Dirk; Papenberg, Cord; Ranero, Cesar; Perez-Gussinye, Marta; Martinez, Miguel

2014-05-01

379

3D Printing in Zero-G ISS Technology Demonstration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has a long term strategy to fabricate components and equipment on-demand for manned missions to the Moon, Mars, and beyond. To support this strategy, NASA and Made in Space, Inc. are developing the 3D Printing In Zero-G payload as a Technology Demonstration for the International Space Station. The 3D Printing In Zero-G experiment will be the first machine to perform 3D printing in space. The greater the distance from Earth and the longer the mission duration, the more difficult resupply becomes; this requires a change from the current spares, maintenance, repair, and hardware design model that has been used on the International Space Station up until now. Given the extension of the ISS Program, which will inevitably result in replacement parts being required, the ISS is an ideal platform to begin changing the current model for resupply and repair to one that is more suitable for all exploration missions. 3D Printing, more formally known as Additive Manufacturing, is the method of building parts/ objects/tools layer-by-layer. The 3D Print experiment will use extrusion-based additive manufacturing, which involves building an object out of plastic deposited by a wire-feed via an extruder head. Parts can be printed from data files loaded on the device at launch, as well as additional files uplinked to the device while on-orbit. The plastic extrusion additive manufacturing process is a low-energy, low-mass solution to many common needs on board the ISS. The 3D Print payload will serve as the ideal first step to proving that process in space. It is unreasonable to expect NASA to launch large blocks of material from which parts or tools can be traditionally machined, and even more unreasonable to fly up specialized manufacturing hardware to perform the entire range of function traditionally machining requires. The technology to produce parts on demand, in space, offers unique design options that are not possible through traditional manufacturing methods while offering cost-effective, high-precision, low-unit on-demand manufacturing. Thus, Additive Manufacturing capabilities are the foundation of an advanced manufacturing in space roadmap.

Johnston, Mallory M.; Werkheiser, Mary J.; Cooper, Kenneth G.; Snyder, Michael P.; Edmunson, Jennifer E.

2014-01-01

380

Benchmark of Different Electromagnetic Codes for the High Frequency Calculation  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we present benchmarking results for highclass 3D electromagnetic (EM) codes in designing RF cavities today. These codes include Omega3P [1], VORPAL [2], CST Microwave Studio [3], Ansoft HFSS [4], and ANSYS [5]. Two spherical cavities are selected as the benchmark models. We have compared not only the accuracy of resonant frequencies, but also that of surface EM fields, which are critical for superconducting RF cavities. By removing degenerated modes, we calculate all the resonant modes up to 10 GHz with similar mesh densities, so that the geometry approximation and field interpolation error related to the wavelength can be observed.

Kai Tian, Haipeng Wang, Frank Marhauser, Guangfeng Cheng, Chuandong Zhou

2009-05-01

381

Effect of viewing distance on 3D fatigue caused by viewing mobile 3D content  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With an advent of autostereoscopic display technique and increased needs for smart phones, there has been a significant growth in mobile TV markets. The rapid growth in technical, economical, and social aspects has encouraged 3D TV manufacturers to apply 3D rendering technology to mobile devices so that people have more opportunities to come into contact with many 3D content anytime and anywhere. Even if the mobile 3D technology leads to the current market growth, there is an important thing to consider for consistent development and growth in the display market. To put it briefly, human factors linked to mobile 3D viewing should be taken into consideration before developing mobile 3D technology. Many studies have investigated whether mobile 3D viewing causes undesirable biomedical effects such as motion sickness and visual fatigue, but few have examined main factors adversely affecting human health. Viewing distance is considered one of the main factors to establish optimized viewing environments from a viewer's point of view. Thus, in an effort to determine human-friendly viewing environments, this study aims to investigate the effect of viewing distance on human visual system when exposing to mobile 3D environments. Recording and analyzing brainwaves before and after watching mobile 3D content, we explore how viewing distance affects viewing experience from physiological and psychological perspectives. Results obtained in this study are expected to provide viewing guidelines for viewers, help ensure viewers against undesirable 3D effects, and lead to make gradual progress towards a human-friendly mobile 3D viewing.

Mun, Sungchul; Lee, Dong-Su; Park, Min-Chul; Yano, Sumio

2013-05-01

382

Analysis on the 3D crosstalk in stereoscopic display  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays, with the rapid progresses in flat panel display (FPD) technologies, the three-dimensional (3D) display is now becoming a next mainstream of display market. Among the various 3D display techniques, the stereoscopic 3D display shows different left/right images for each eye of observer using special glasses and is the most popular 3D technique with the advantages of low price and high 3D resolution. However, current stereoscopic 3D displays suffer with the 3D crosstalk which means the interference between the left eye mage and right eye images since it degrades the quality of 3D image severely. In this paper, the meaning and causes of the 3D crosstalk in stereoscopic 3D display are introduced and the pre-proposed methods of 3D crosstalk measurement vision science are reviewed. Based on them The threshold of 3D crosstalk to realize a 3D display with no degradation is analyzed.

Choi, Hee-Jin

2010-11-01

383

3D characterisation of potential CO2 reservoir and seal rocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital core analysis at multiple scales incorporating X-ray micro-computed tomography (?CT) imaging in different states in 3D, and registration of 2D SEM and SEMenergy-dispersive X-ray spectra (EDS) images into the 3D tomograms, offers an extensive and unique toolbox for characterising potential CO2 reservoir and seal candidates. ?CT imaging allows the calculation of connected porosity, and subsequently properties such as permeability,

A. Golab; R. Romeyn; H. Averdunk; M. Knackstedt; T. J. Senden

2012-01-01

384

Extensive regularization of the coupled cluster methods based on the generating functional formalism: Application to gas-phase benchmarks and to the S{sub N}2 reaction of CHCl{sub 3} and OH{sup -} in water  

SciTech Connect

The recently introduced energy expansion based on the use of generating functional (GF) [K. Kowalski and P. D. Fan, J. Chem. Phys. 130, 084112 (2009)] provides a way of constructing size-consistent noniterative coupled cluster (CC) corrections in terms of moments of the CC equations. To take advantage of this expansion in a strongly interacting regime, the regularization of the cluster amplitudes is required in order to counteract the effect of excessive growth of the norm of the CC wave function. Although proven to be efficient, the previously discussed form of the regularization does not lead to rigorously size-consistent corrections. In this paper we address the issue of size-consistent regularization of the GF expansion by redefining the equations for the cluster amplitudes. The performance and basic features of proposed methodology are illustrated on several gas-phase benchmark systems. Moreover, the regularized GF approaches are combined with quantum mechanical molecular mechanics module and applied to describe the S{sub N}2 reaction of CHCl{sub 3} and OH{sup -} in aqueous solution.

Kowalski, Karol; Valiev, Marat [William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, K8-91 Battelle, P.O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

2009-12-21

385

Extensive regularization of the coupled cluster methods based on the generating functional formalism: Application to gas-phase benchmarks and to the SN2 reaction of CHCl3 and OH- in water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recently introduced energy expansion based on the use of generating functional (GF) [K. Kowalski and P. D. Fan, J. Chem. Phys. 130, 084112 (2009)] provides a way of constructing size-consistent noniterative coupled cluster (CC) corrections in terms of moments of the CC equations. To take advantage of this expansion in a strongly interacting regime, the regularization of the cluster amplitudes is required in order to counteract the effect of excessive growth of the norm of the CC wave function. Although proven to be efficient, the previously discussed form of the regularization does not lead to rigorously size-consistent corrections. In this paper we address the issue of size-consistent regularization of the GF expansion by redefining the equations for the cluster amplitudes. The performance and basic features of proposed methodology are illustrated on several gas-phase benchmark systems. Moreover, the regularized GF approaches are combined with quantum mechanical molecular mechanics module and applied to describe the SN2 reaction of CHCl3 and OH- in aqueous solution.

Kowalski, Karol; Valiev, Marat

2009-12-01

386

Extensive regularization of the coupled cluster methods based on the generating functional formalism: application to gas-phase benchmarks and to the S(N)2 reaction of CHCl3 and OH- in water  

SciTech Connect

The recently introduced energy expansion based on the use of generating functional (GF) [K. Kowalski, P.D. Fan, J. Chem. Phys. 130, 084112 (2009)] provides a way of constructing size-consistent non-iterative coupled-cluster (CC) corrections in terms of moments of the CC equations. To take advantage of this expansion in a strongly interacting regime, the regularization of the cluster amplitudes is required in order to counteract the effect of excessive growth of the norm of the CC wavefunction. Although proven to be effcient, the previously discussed form of the regularization does not lead to rigorously size-consistent corrections. In this paper we address the issue of size-consistent regularization of the GF expansion by redefning the equations for the cluster amplitudes. The performance and basic features of proposed methodology is illustrated on several gas-phase benchmark systems. Moreover, the regularized GF approaches are combined with QM/MM module and applied to describe the SN2 reaction of CHCl3 and OH- in aqueous solution.

Kowalski, Karol; Valiev, Marat

2009-12-21

387

3D Self-Portraits Etienne Vouga2  

E-print Network

scanning pose change output reconstruction textured reconstruction large variety of examples3D print Figure for applications such as online avatars or 3D printing (the miniature shown here was printed using a ZPrinter 650 and accurate cap- ture system for 3D self-portraits using a single 3D sensor. Figure 2: 3D printed miniatures

O'Brien, James F.

388

3D Engineered Models for Construction Support & Available Tools  

E-print Network

3D Engineered Models for Construction Support & Available Tools #12;3D Engineered Models for Construction � New web page www.fhwa.dot.gov/3d (search "fhwa 3D") � Specs, Standards, Details, Tech Briefs � Provides initial response within 24 hours of inquiry National Website and TSSC 2 #12;3D Engineered Models

389

3D Printing In Zero-G ISS Technology Demonstration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has a long term strategy to fabricate components and equipment on-demand for manned missions to the Moon, Mars, and beyond. To support this strategy, NASA and Made in Space, Inc. are developing the 3D Printing In Zero-G payload as a Technology Demonstration for the International Space Station (ISS). The 3D Printing In Zero-G experiment ('3D Print') will be the first machine to perform 3D printing in space. The greater the distance from Earth and the longer the mission duration, the more difficult resupply becomes; this requires a change from the current spares, maintenance, repair, and hardware design model that has been used on the International Space Station (ISS) up until now. Given the extension of the ISS Program, which will inevitably result in replacement parts being required, the ISS is an ideal platform to begin changing the current model for resupply and repair to one that is more suitable for all exploration missions. 3D Printing, more formally known as Additive Manufacturing, is the method of building parts/objects/tools layer-by-layer. The 3D Print experiment will use extrusion-based additive manufacturing, which involves building an object out of plastic deposited by a wire-feed via an extruder head. Parts can be printed from data files loaded on the device at launch, as well as additional files uplinked to the device while on-orbit. The plastic extrusion additive manufacturing process is a low-energy, low-mass solution to many common needs on board the ISS. The 3D Print payload will serve as the ideal first step to proving that process in space. It is unreasonable to expect NASA to launch large blocks of material from which parts or tools can be traditionally machined, and even more unreasonable to fly up multiple drill bits that would be required to machine parts from aerospace-grade materials such as titanium 6-4 alloy and Inconel. The technology to produce parts on demand, in space, offers unique design options that are not possible through traditional manufacturing methods while offering cost-effective, high-precision, low-unit on-demand manufacturing. Thus, Additive Manufacturing capabilities are the foundation of an advanced manufacturing in space roadmap. The 3D Printing In Zero-G experiment will demonstrate the capability of utilizing Additive Manufacturing technology in space. This will serve as the enabling first step to realizing an additive manufacturing, print-on-demand "machine shop" for long-duration missions and sustaining human exploration of other planets, where there is extremely limited ability and availability of Earth-based logistics support. Simply put, Additive Manufacturing in space is a critical enabling technology for NASA. It will provide the capability to produce hardware on-demand, directly lowering cost and decreasing risk by having the exact part or tool needed in the time it takes to print. This capability will also provide the much-needed solution to the cost, volume, and up-mass constraints that prohibit launching everything needed for long-duration or long-distance missions from Earth, including spare parts and replacement systems. A successful mission for the 3D Printing In Zero-G payload is the first step to demonstrate the capability of printing on orbit. The data gathered and lessons learned from this demonstration will be applied to the next generation of additive manufacturing technology on orbit. It is expected that Additive Manufacturing technology will quickly become a critical part of any mission's infrastructure.

Werkheiser, Niki; Cooper, Kenneth; Edmunson, Jennifer; Dunn, Jason; Snyder, Michael

2014-01-01

390

3-D Stacked Package Technology and Trends  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need to integrate more device technology in a given board space for handheld applications such as mobile phones has driven the adoption of innovative packages which stack such devices in the vertical or third dimension (3D). Stacking of device chips in small and thin fine-pitch ball grid array packages has evolved into the stacking of packages themselves to achieve

Flynn P. Carson; Young Cheol Kim; In Sang Yoon

2009-01-01

391

3-D Teaching Models for All  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Allowing a student to "see" through touch what other students see through a microscope can be a challenging task. Therefore, author Joan Bradley created three-dimensional (3-D) models with one student's visual impairment in mind. They are meant to benefit all students and can be used to teach common high school biology topics, including the

Bradley, Joan; Farland-Smith, Donna

2010-01-01

392

3D integration with PCB technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The future of 3D integration and packaging of power electronics using printed circuit board (PCB) technology is presented. This is to show how power electronics can benefit from the same advantages that have been exploited by the microelectronic industry, for some time already, regarding high density packaging, as implemented in modern digital photo and video cameras for example. Complementary technologies,

E. C. W. de Jong; L. A. Ferreira; P. Bauer

2006-01-01

393

Spatial Visualization by Realistic 3D Views  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the popular Purdue Spatial Visualization Test-Visualization by Rotations (PSVT-R) in isometric drawings was recreated with CAD software that allows 3D solid modeling and rendering to provide more realistic pictorial views. Both the original and the modified PSVT-R tests were given to students and their scores on the two tests were

Yue, Jianping

2008-01-01

394

3D reconstruction of underwater structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental change is a growing international concern, calling for the regular monitoring, studying and preserving of detailed information about the evolution of underwater ecosystems. For example, fragile coral reefs are exposed to various sources of hazards and potential destruction, and need close observation. Computer vision offers promising technologies to build 3D models of an environment from two-dimensional images. The state

Chris Beall; Brian J. Lawrence; Viorela Ila; Frank Dellaert

2010-01-01

395

: A European Serious Gaming 3D Environment  

E-print Network

. Serious games are about to enter the medical sector to give people with behavioural or addictive disordersPlayMancer 1 : A European Serious Gaming 3D Environment Elias Kalapanidas1 , Hikari Watanabe2 Lausanne, Switzerland lam@netunion.com 6 University of Patras, Dept. of Electrical & Computer Engineering

396

3D visualization technologies for teleguided robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of 3D stereoscopic visualization may provide a user with higher comprehension of remote environments in teleoperation when compared to 2D viewing. Works in the literature have demonstrated how stereo vision contributes to improve perception of some depth cues often for abstract tasks, while little can be found about the advantages of stereoscopic visualization in mobile robot teleguide applications.

Salvatore Livatino; Filippo Privitera

2006-01-01

397

Recognizing 3-D Objects Using Surface Descriptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors provide a complete method for describing and recognizing 3-D objects, using surface information. Their system takes as input dense range date and automatically produces a symbolic description of the objects in the scene in terms of their visible surface patches. This segmented representation may be viewed as a graph whose nodes capture information about the individual surface patches

Ting-jun Fan; Grard G. Medioni; Ramakant Nevatia

1989-01-01

398

3D Biological Tissue Image Rendering Software  

Cancer.gov

Available for commercial development is software that provides automatic visualization of features inside biological image volumes in 3D. The software provides a simple and interactive visualization for the exploration of biological datasets through dataset-specific transfer functions and direct volume rendering.

399

Combining 3D printing and printable electronics  

E-print Network

A platform that enables the integration of conductive traces and printed three dimensional mechanical structures has been developed. We discuss the development of the platform and address issues that arise when combining 3D printing and printable electronics. We demonstrate a rapid prototyped three dimensional conductive trace and propose future applications for the platform.

John Sarik; Alex Butler; James Scott; Steve Hodges; Nicolas Villar

400

Design space exploration for 3D architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

As technology scales, interconnects have become a major performance bottleneck and a major source of power consumption for microprocessors. Increasing interconnect costs make it necessary to consider alternate ways of building modern microprocessors. One promising option is 3D architectures where a stack of multiple device layers with direct vertical tunneling through them are put together on the same chip. As

Yuan Xie; Gabriel H. Loh; Bryan Black; Kerry Bernstein

2006-01-01

401

Comprehensible rendering of 3-D shapes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new rendering technique that produces 3-D images with enhanced visual comprehensibility. Shape features can be readily understood if certain geometric properties are enhanced. To achieve this, we develop drawing algorithms for discontinuities, edges, contour lines, and curved hatching. All of them are realized with 2-D image processing operations instead of line tracking processes, so that they can

Takafumi Saito; Tokiichiro Takahashi

1990-01-01

402

Mermaid 3D code in ATLAS applications  

E-print Network

The paper describes the new periodic boundary condition model of ATLAS detector and changes in the Mermaid 3D code algorithms necessary to calculate it. The parallel processing modification of the Mermaid code to perform the complete Atlas model calculation is presented in comparison with this 1:10 model of the fine TileCal structure.

Dubrovin, AN; Vorojtsov, S B

2001-01-01

403

The New Realm of 3-D Vision  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dimension Technologies Inc., developed a line of 2-D/3-D Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) screens, including a 15-inch model priced at consumer levels. DTI's family of flat panel LCD displays, called the Virtual Window(TM), provide real-time 3-D images without the use of glasses, head trackers, helmets, or other viewing aids. Most of the company initial 3-D display research was funded through NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. The images on DTI's displays appear to leap off the screen and hang in space. The display accepts input from computers or stereo video sources, and can be switched from 3-D to full-resolution 2-D viewing with the push of a button. The Virtual Window displays have applications in data visualization, medicine, architecture, business, real estate, entertainment, and other research, design, military, and consumer applications. Displays are currently used for computer games, protein analysis, and surgical imaging. The technology greatly benefits the medical field, as surgical simulators are helping to increase the skills of surgical residents. Virtual Window(TM) is a trademark of Dimension Technologies Inc.

2002-01-01

404

Visuohaptic discrimination of 3D gross shape.  

PubMed

Human sensitivity to 3D gross shape changes was measured for the visual and haptic sensory channels. Three volume-invariant affine transformations were defined: compressing, shearing and stretching. Participants discriminated a reference 3D object (cube or sphere) from its deformed shape under three experimental conditions: visual only (on a computer monitor), haptic only (through a point-contact force-feedback device) and visuohaptic simulations. The results indicate that vision is more sensitive to gross shape changes than point-based touch, and that vision dominated in the visuohaptic condition. In the haptic alone condition, thresholds were higher for shearing and stretching than for compressing. Thresholds were otherwise similar for the three transformations in the vision only or visuohaptic conditions. These trends were similar for the two shapes tested. A second experiment, conducted under similar conditions but preventing participants from manipulating object orientations, verified that the main conclusion of our research still holds when visual inspection can rely only on a single perspective view of the object. Our earlier studies on 3D visuohaptic watermarking showed that the haptic channel is more sensitive to surface texture and roughness changes than vision. The thresholds from the present and our earlier studies can potentially be used as the upper limits for selecting watermark strengths in order to ensure watermark imperceptibility in a 3D visuohaptic watermarking system. PMID:22472054

Kim, Kwangtaek; Barni, Mauro; Prattichizzo, Domenico; Tan, Hong Z

2012-01-01

405

3D imaging finds more breast cancers.  

PubMed

In the largest such study to date, researchers have found that breast cancer screening using a combination of traditional 2D digital mammography and 3D imaging detects more invasive breast cancers and reduces false alarms compared with traditional mammography alone. PMID:25185169

2014-09-01

406

Production of 3D Structures in Printing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to form a raised three dimensional image makes possible the use of modified processes, inks and substrates in fine art work, such as children's books, business cards, postcards, and special type printing processes. If the raised image attains the required height and firmness, it can be used in printing of Braille characters. Production of three dimensional (3D) images

Veronika Chovancova; Alexandra Pekarovicova; Paul D. Fleming III

407

3D imaging system for biometric applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a growing interest in the use of 3D data for many new applications beyond traditional metrology areas. In particular, using 3D data to obtain shape information of both people and objects for applications ranging from identification to game inputs does not require high degrees of calibration or resolutions in the tens of micron range, but does require a means to quickly and robustly collect data in the millimeter range. Systems using methods such as structured light or stereo have seen wide use in measurements, but due to the use of a triangulation angle, and thus the need for a separated second viewpoint, may not be practical for looking at a subject 10 meters away. Even when working close to a subject, such as capturing hands or fingers, the triangulation angle causes occlusions, shadows, and a physically large system that may get in the way. This paper will describe methods to collect medium resolution 3D data, plus highresolution 2D images, using a line of sight approach. The methods use no moving parts and as such are robust to movement (for portability), reliable, and potentially very fast at capturing 3D data. This paper will describe the optical methods considered, variations on these methods, and present experimental data obtained with the approach.

Harding, Kevin; Abramovich, Gil; Paruchura, Vijay; Manickam, Swaminathan; Vemury, Arun

2010-04-01

408

Rubber Impact on 3D Textile Composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A low velocity impact study of aircraft tire rubber on 3D textile-reinforced composite plates was performed experimentally and numerically. In contrast to regular unidirectional composite laminates, no delaminations occur in such a 3D textile composite. Yarn decohesions, matrix cracks and yarn ruptures have been identified as the major damage mechanisms under impact load. An increase in the number of 3D warp yarns is proposed to improve the impact damage resistance. The characteristic of a rubber impact is the high amount of elastic energy stored in the impactor during impact, which was more than 90% of the initial kinetic energy. This large geometrical deformation of the rubber during impact leads to a less localised loading of the target structure and poses great challenges for the numerical modelling. A hyperelastic Mooney-Rivlin constitutive law was used in Abaqus/Explicit based on a step-by-step validation with static rubber compression tests and low velocity impact tests on aluminium plates. Simulation models of the textile weave were developed on the meso- and macro-scale. The final correlation between impact simulation results on 3D textile-reinforced composite plates and impact test data was promising, highlighting the potential of such numerical simulation tools.

Heimbs, Sebastian; Van Den Broucke, Bjrn; Duplessis Kergomard, Yann; Dau, Frederic; Malherbe, Benoit

2012-06-01

409

3D Tracking via Body Radio Reflections  

E-print Network

This paper introduces WiTrack, a system that tracks the 3D motion of a user from the radio signals reflected off her body. It works even if the person is occluded from the WiTrack device or in a different room. WiTrack ...

Adib, Fadel

2013-12-11

410

How to See Shadows in 3D  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shadows can be found easily everywhere around us, so that we rarely find it interesting to reflect on how they work. In order to raise curiosity among students on the optics of shadows, we can display the shadows in 3D, particularly using a stereoscopic set-up. In this paper we describe the optics of stereoscopic shadows using simple schematic

Parikesit, Gea O. F.

2014-01-01

411

3D Storm Tracking in 3D Doppler Precipitation Reflectivity Datasets  

E-print Network

; (a) Precipitation Reflectivity (b) Radial Velocity Figure 1: The Doppler radar imagery obtained from3D Storm Tracking in 3D Doppler Precipitation Reflectivity Datasets W. Qiu, R.E. Mercer, J fwqiu,mercer,barrong@csd.uwo.ca P. Joe King City Radar Station Atmospheric Environmental Services (AES

Barron, John

412

World's first 3D studio "True" 3D film: the public can interactively  

E-print Network

-photorealistic ones for body imaging - better illumination is required for body imaging. Accuracy The accuracy their viewpoint while watching the film. 3D capture of a jump: Alternative imaging techniques require ~10 the development of advanced 3D capture facilities for use by medical science, ergonomics, digital media

Nebel, Jean-Christophe

413

Fourier transform of the 3d NS equations The 3d NS equations are  

E-print Network

1 Fourier transform of the 3d NS equations The 3d NS equations are (1) vi t + vj vi xj = - p xi transforms (2) vi x( ) = ui k( )eikx k p x( ) = p k( )eikx k we obtain the Fourier transform of (1 easily add it in at the end. Our interest is in the advection and pressure terms. Introducing the Fourier

Salmon, Rick

414

Slicing: 3D texture mapping Store volume in solid (3D) texture memory  

E-print Network

1 1 Slicing: 3D texture mapping Store volume in solid (3D) texture memory For all k screen Parameter optimization: narrowing down solutions Design galleries: solution dispersion Design principles rendering image ­ Dispersion : finding a set of parameters of the input vectors that optimally disperse

Fang, Shiaofen

415

Scalable 3D representation for 3D video display in a large-scale space  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors introduce their research for realizing a 3D video display system in a very large-scale space such as a soccer stadium, concert hall, etc. They propose a method for describing the shape of a 3D object with a set of planes in order to synthesize a novel view of the object effectively. The most effective layout of the planes

Itaru Kitahara; Yuichi Ohta

2003-01-01

416

3D reconstruction of the operating field for image overlay in 3D-endoscopic surgery.  

E-print Network

and are not designed for robotically-assisted surgery. Because of the displacement of organs during operation3D reconstruction of the operating field for image overlay in 3D-endoscopic surgery. Fabien Mourgues, Fr´ed´eric Devernay, `Eve Coste-Mani`ere CHIR Medical Robotics Team www.inria.fr/chir, INRIA, BP

Boyer, Edmond

417

3D Photography Topic: 3D Point-Based Registration: the ICP algorithm  

E-print Network

3D Photography Project II Topic: 3D Point-Based Registration: the ICP algorithm Due: October 19 The goal of this homework is the experimentation with the ICP algorithm for the registration of two point clouds. The first task is to use a range image R1 and then create the range image R1' by applying a known

Stamos, Ioannis

418

Randomized benchmarking with confidence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Randomized benchmarking is a promising tool for characterizing the noise in experimental implementations of quantum systems. In this paper, we prove that the estimates produced by randomized benchmarking (both standard and interleaved) for arbitrary Markovian noise sources are remarkably precise by showing that the variance due to sampling random gate sequences is small. We discuss how to choose experimental parameters, in particular the number and lengths of random sequences, in order to characterize average gate errors with rigorous confidence bounds. We also show that randomized benchmarking can be used to reliably characterize time-dependent Markovian noise (e.g., when noise is due to a magnetic field with fluctuating strength). Moreover, we identify a necessary property for time-dependent noise that is violated by some sources of non-Markovian noise, which provides a test for non-Markovianity.

Wallman, Joel J.; Flammia, Steven T.

2014-10-01

419

Performance improvement through benchmarking  

SciTech Connect

Benchmarking has become very popular in the past few years, taking its place in the list of management tools alongside organizational restructuring, total quality management, process reengineering, and others as ways to make improvements to operational and financial performance. Yet much is misunderstood about the technique, and there is substantial room for improvement in its application across industry, and particularly within the utility industry. The purpose of this paper is to explain some of the details of benchmarking, including its capabilities and limitations, and demonstrate how different applications require different approaches to benchmarking. The intent is to provide a brief overview of the different potential uses, and then, through a case example, show how the different capabilities can be put to use.

Buckstaff, K. [Theodore Barry & Associates, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

1994-12-31

420

Benchmarking on-line services industries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Web Quality Analyser (WQA) is a new benchmarking tool for industry. It has been extensively tested across services industries.\\u000a Forty five critical success features are presented as measures that capture the users perception of services industry websites.\\u000a This tool differs to previous tools, in that it captures the information technology (IT) related driver sectors of website\\u000a performance, along with

John Hamilton

2006-01-01

421

Recognition methods for 3D textured surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Texture as a surface representation is the subject of a wide body of computer vision and computer graphics literature. While texture is always associated with a form of repetition in the image, the repeating quantity may vary. The texture may be a color or albedo variation as in a checkerboard, a paisley print or zebra stripes. Very often in real-world scenes, texture is instead due to a surface height variation, e.g. pebbles, gravel, foliage and any rough surface. Such surfaces are referred to here as 3D textured surfaces. Standard texture recognition algorithms are not appropriate for 3D textured surfaces because the appearance of these surfaces changes in a complex manner with viewing direction and illumination direction. Recent methods have been developed for recognition of 3D textured surfaces using a database of surfaces observed under varied imaging parameters. One of these methods is based on 3D textons obtained using K-means clustering of multiscale feature vectors. Another method uses eigen-analysis originally developed for appearance-based object recognition. In this work we develop a hybrid approach that employs both feature grouping and dimensionality reduction. The method is tested using the Columbia-Utrecht texture database and provides excellent recognition rates. The method is compared with existing recognition methods for 3D textured surfaces. A direct comparison is facilitated by empirical recognition rates from the same texture data set. The current method has key advantages over existing methods including requiring less prior information on both the training and novel images.

Cula, Oana G.; Dana, Kristin J.

2001-06-01

422

3-D Force-balanced Magnetospheric Configurations  

SciTech Connect

The knowledge of plasma pressure is essential for many physics applications in the magnetosphere, such as computing magnetospheric currents and deriving magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. A thorough knowledge of the 3-D pressure distribution has however eluded the community, as most in-situ pressure observations are either in the ionosphere or the equatorial region of the magnetosphere. With the assumption of pressure isotropy there have been attempts to obtain the pressure at different locations by either (a) mapping observed data (e.g., in the ionosphere) along the field lines of an empirical magnetospheric field model or (b) computing a pressure profile in the equatorial plane (in 2-D) or along the Sun-Earth axis (in 1-D) that is in force balance with the magnetic stresses of an empirical model. However, the pressure distributions obtained through these methods are not in force balance with the empirical magnetic field at all locations. In order to find a global 3-D plasma pressure distribution in force balance with the magnetospheric magnetic field, we have developed the MAG-3D code, that solves the 3-D force balance equation J x B = (upside-down delta) P computationally. Our calculation is performed in a flux coordinate system in which the magnetic field is expressed in terms of Euler potentials as B = (upside-down delta) psi x (upside-down delta) alpha. The pressure distribution, P = P(psi,alpha), is prescribed in the equatorial plane and is based on satellite measurements. In addition, computational boundary conditions for y surfaces are imposed using empirical field models. Our results provide 3-D distributions of magnetic field and plasma pressure as well as parallel and transverse currents for both quiet-time and disturbed magnetospheric conditions.

Sorin Zaharia; C.Z. Cheng; K. Maezawa

2003-02-10

423

MixIn3D: 3D Mixed Reality with ToF-Camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work discusses an approach to seamlessly integrate real and virtual scene content by on-the-fly 3D scene modeling and dynamic scene interaction. The key element is a ToF-depth camera, accompanied by color cameras, mounted on a pan-tilt head. The system allows to scan the environment for easy 3D reconstruction, and will track and model dynamically moving objects like human actors in 3D. This allows to compute mutual occlusions between real and virtual objects and correct light and shadow generation with mutual light interaction. No dedicated studio is required, as virtually any room can be turned into a virtual studio with this approach. Since the complete process operates in 3D and produces consistent color and depth sequences, this system can be used for full 3D TV production.

Koch, Reinhard; Schiller, Ingo; Bartczak, Bogumil; Kellner, Falko; Kser, Kevin

424

Radiation Coupling with the FUN3D Unstructured-Grid CFD Code  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The HARA radiation code is fully-coupled to the FUN3D unstructured-grid CFD code for the purpose of simulating high-energy hypersonic flows. The radiation energy source terms and surface heat transfer, under the tangent slab approximation, are included within the fluid dynamic ow solver. The Fire II flight test, at the Mach-31 1643-second trajectory point, is used as a demonstration case. Comparisons are made with an existing structured-grid capability, the LAURA/HARA coupling. The radiative surface heat transfer rates from the present approach match the benchmark values within 6%. Although radiation coupling is the focus of the present work, convective surface heat transfer rates are also reported, and are seen to vary depending upon the choice of mesh connectivity and FUN3D ux reconstruction algorithm. On a tetrahedral-element mesh the convective heating matches the benchmark at the stagnation point, but under-predicts by 15% on the Fire II shoulder. Conversely, on a mixed-element mesh the convective heating over-predicts at the stagnation point by 20%, but matches the benchmark away from the stagnation region.

Wood, William A.

2012-01-01

425

Assessing 3D tunnel position in ACL reconstruction using a novel single image 3D-2D registration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The routinely used procedure for evaluating tunnel positions following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructions based on standard X-ray images is known to pose difficulties in terms of obtaining accurate measures, especially in providing three-dimensional tunnel positions. This is largely due to the variability in individual knee joint pose relative to X-ray plates. Accurate results were reported using postoperative CT. However, its extensive usage in clinical routine is hampered by its major requirement of having CT scans of individual patients, which is not available for most ACL reconstructions. These difficulties are addressed through the proposed method, which aligns a knee model to X-ray images using our novel single-image 3D-2D registration method and then estimates the 3D tunnel position. In the proposed method, the alignment is achieved by using a novel contour-based 3D-2D registration method wherein image contours are treated as a set of oriented points. However, instead of using some form of orientation weighting function and multiplying it with a distance function, we formulate the 3D-2D registration as a probability density estimation using a mixture of von Mises-Fisher-Gaussian (vMFG) distributions and solve it through an expectation maximization (EM) algorithm. Compared with the ground-truth established from postoperative CT, our registration method in an experiment using a plastic phantom showed accurate results with errors of (-0.43+/-1.19, 0.45+/-2.17, 0.23+/-1.05) and (0.03+/-0.55, -0.03+/-0.54, -2.73+/-1.64) mm. As for the entry point of the ACL tunnel, one of the key measurements, it was obtained with high accuracy of 0.53+/-0.30 mm distance errors.

Kang, X.; Yau, W. P.; Otake, Y.; Cheung, P. Y. S.; Hu, Y.; Taylor, R. H.

2012-02-01

426

Finding a suitable finite element for 3D geodynamic modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical modeling of geodynamic processes has become an important research topic in the recent decades. Apart from the correct interpretation of the model results, it is also vastly important to clearly understand the technical aspects of the model formulation, the weaknesses and advantages of different numerical schemes. The majority of numerical models considered to date are two-dimensional. The increased computational complexity of the 3D models make the selection of a suitable numerical scheme even more important compared to 2D. The geodynamic models can be very ill-posed from the numerical point of view. They usually contain large abrupt viscosity variations, and mixture of compressible and incompressible material behavior. In such a context the spatial discretization becomes very important, because it must provide an accurate and convergent solution, preferably with minimal cost and maximal geometrical flexibility. Practice shows that there is always a trade-of between the accuracy (stability) and the cost. Almost entire 3D finite element codes employed in geodynamic modeling community use some form of spatial discretization that violates the mathematical criteria of stability, the so-called Ladyzhenskaya-Babushka-Brezzi (LBB) condition. The explanation behind this fact is that instabilities do not necessarily show up in practice, but unstable discretization is relatively computationally inexpensive. The stability of LBB-stable elements itself is also conditional and strongly problem-depended. In the Rayleigh-Taylor benchmark with large (>1000) abrupt viscosity contrasts, discretized with non-fitted mesh, the meaningless velocity solutions can be obtained even with stable elements. Altogether these results bring us to a conclusion that the optimal choice of the finite element still remains unclear and deserves further study. In this work we bring our recent results concerning the selection of a suitable 3D finite element discretization to the attention of the modeling community. We consider different types of LBB-stable (including quite rear ones) and unstable (stabilized) formulations, both in the context of a standard continuous Galerkin, as well as a discontinuous Galerkin finite element methods. We believe that our findings will be interesting both for the code developers and for the practical researchers in the field of geodynamic modeling.

Popov, Anton; Sobolev, Stephan

2010-05-01

427

DYNA3D/ParaDyn Regression Test Suite Inventory  

SciTech Connect

The following table constitutes an initial assessment of feature coverage across the regression test suite used for DYNA3D and ParaDyn. It documents the regression test suite at the time of production release 10.1 in September 2010. The columns of the table represent groupings of functionalities, e.g., material models. Each problem in the test suite is represented by a row in the table. All features exercised by the problem are denoted by a check mark in the corresponding column. The definition of ''feature'' has not been subdivided to its smallest unit of user input, e.g., algorithmic parameters specific to a particular type of contact surface. This represents a judgment to provide code developers and users a reasonable impression of feature coverage without expanding the width of the table by several multiples. All regression testing is run in parallel, typically with eight processors. Many are strictly regression tests acting as a check that the codes continue to produce adequately repeatable results as development unfolds, compilers change and platforms are replaced. A subset of the tests represents true verification problems that have been checked against analytical or other benchmark solutions. Users are welcomed to submit documented problems for inclusion in the test suite, especially if they are heavily exercising, and dependent upon, features that are currently underrepresented.

Lin, J I

2011-01-25

428

Recent developments in stereoscopic and holographic 3D display technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently, there is increasing interest in the development of high performance 3D display technologies to support a variety of applications including medical imaging, scientific visualization, gaming, education, entertainment, air traffic control and remote operations in 3D environments. In this paper we will review the attributes of the various 3D display technologies including stereoscopic and holographic 3D, human factors issues of stereoscopic 3D, the challenges in realizing Holographic 3D displays and the recent progress in these technologies.

Sarma, Kalluri

2014-06-01

429

ORBXYZ: A 3D single-particle orbit code for following charged particle trajectories in equilibrium magnetic fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

The single particle orbit code, TIBRO, was modified extensively to improve the interpolation methods used and to allow use of vector potential fields in the simulation of charged particle orbits on a 3D domain. A 3D cubic B-spline algorithm is used to generate spline coefficients used in the interpolation. Smooth and accurate field representations are obtained. When vector potential fields

D. V. Anderson; R. H. Cohen; J. R. Ferguson; B. M. Johnston; C. B. Sharp; P. A. Willmann

1981-01-01

430

Superplot3d: an open source GUI tool for 3d trajectory visualisation and elementary processing.  

PubMed

When acquiring simple three-dimensional (3d) trajectory data it is common to accumulate large coordinate data sets. In order to examine integrity and consistency of object tracking, it is often necessary to rapidly visualise these data. Ordinarily, to achieve this the user must either execute 3d plotting functions in a numerical computing environment or manually inspect data in two dimensions, plotting each individual axis.Superplot3d is an open source MATLAB script which takes tab delineated Cartesian data points in the form x, y, z and time and generates an instant visualization of the object's trajectory in free-rotational three dimensions. Whole trajectories may be instantly presented, allowing for rapid inspection. Executable from the MATLAB command line (or deployable as a compiled standalone application) superplot3d also provides simple GUI controls to obtain rudimentary trajectory information, allow specific visualization of trajectory sections and perform elementary processing.Superplot3d thus provides a framework for non-programmers and programmers alike, to recreate recently acquired 3d object trajectories in rotatable 3d space. It is intended, via the use of a preference driven menu to be flexible and work with output from multiple tracking software systems. Source code and accompanying GUIDE .fig files are provided for deployment and further development. PMID:24079529

Whitehorn, Luke J; Hawkes, Frances M; Dublon, Ian An

2013-01-01

431

3D Biplanar Reconstruction of Scoliotic Vertebrae Using Statistical Models  

E-print Network

promising results. Keywords: 3D reconstruction model, scoliosis, 3D/2D registration, biplanar radiographies, statistical deformable model, energy function optimization. 1. Introduction The scoliosis is a three

Mignotte, Max

432

Benchmarking the World's Best  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A century ago, the United States was a world leader in industrial benchmarking. However, after World War II, once no one could compete with the U.S., it became complacent. Many industrialized countries now have higher student achievement and more equitable and efficient education systems. A higher proportion of young people in their workforces

Tucker, Marc S.

2012-01-01

433

Accelerated Randomized Benchmarking  

E-print Network

Quantum information processing offers promising advances for a wide range of fields and applications, provided that we can efficiently assess the performance of the control applied in candidate systems. That is, we must be able to determine whether we have implemented a desired gate, and refine accordingly. Randomized benchmarking reduces the difficulty of this task by exploiting symmetries in quantum operations. Here, we bound the resources required for benchmarking and show that, with prior information, we can achieve several orders of magnitude better accuracy than in traditional approaches to benchmarking. Moreover, by building on state-of-the-art classical algorithms, we reach these accuracies with near-optimal resources. Our approach requires an order of magnitude less data to achieve the same accuracies and to provide online estimates of the errors in the reported fidelities. We also show that our approach is useful for physical devices by comparing to simulations. Our results thus enable the application of randomized benchmarking in new regimes, and dramatically reduce the experimental effort required to assess control fidelities in quantum systems. Finally, our work is based on open-source scientific libraries, and can readily be applied in systems of interest.

Christopher Granade; Christopher Ferrie; D. G. Cory

2014-04-21

434

Educational Benchmarks, 1996.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) monitors the South's education reforms through "Benchmarks" reports, tracking progress toward 12 goals for elementary, secondary, and higher education that were endorsed by the SREB in 1988. The board collects state-by-state data every 2 years and compares how states are doing on over 60 different

Creech, Joseph D.

435

On Benchmarking Optical Flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluating the performance of optical flow algorithms has been difficult because of the lack of ground truth data sets for complex scenes. We present a new method for generating motion fields from real sequences containing polyhedral objects and present a test suite for benchmarking optical flow algorithms consisting of complex synthetic sequences and real scenes with ground truth. We provide

Brendan Mccane; Kevin Novins; D. Crannitch; Ben Galvin

2001-01-01

436

Benchmarks: WICHE Region 2012  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Benchmarks: WICHE Region 2012 presents information on the West's progress in improving access to, success in, and financing of higher education. The information is updated annually to monitor change over time and encourage its use as a tool for informed discussion in policy and education communities. To establish a general context for the

Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2013

2013-01-01