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1

THREEDANT calculations for the 3-D extension C5G7 MOX benchmark  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 3-D extension C5G7 MOX benchmark, which is a follow-up benchmark of the C5G7 MOX on deterministic 2-D\\/3-D MOX fuel assembly transport calculations without spatial homogenization, aims at providing a more challenging test of the abilities of currently available 3-D methods to handle the spatial heterogeneities of reactor core. The geometry configuration was modified with some significant changes including control

Hong-Chul Kim; Chi Young Han; Jong Kyung Kim

2006-01-01

2

On 3D object retrieval benchmarking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The continuous evolution of 3D computer graphics and the progress of 3D digitization systems resulted in a continuous increase in the available 3D content. The widespread use of 3D objects in diverse domains contributed on forming 3D object retrieval as an active research field. In order to objectively evaluate the performance of retrieval methodologies there is a need for objective benchmarking schemes. In this work, we provide a comprehensive overview of the state-of-the-art evaluation methodologies including not only the performance measures but also the corresponding benchmark datasets. Meaningful benchmark datasets are discussed while a detailed list of publicly available 3D model repositories is given organized in terms of application domains, content magnitude and data types. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

Koutsoudis, Anestis; Pratikakis, Ioannis; Chamzas, Christodoulos

2013-12-01

3

Deterministic solutions for 3D Kobayashi benchmarks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present results for the set of three-dimensional radiation transport benchmark problems with void region proposed by Kobayashi. Reference solutions for the pure absorber cases were obtained by direct quadrature. All cases were calculated by the three-dimensional discrete ordinates nodal and characteristics code IDT. The discrete ordinates results for the pure-absorber case suffer strongly from ray effects which remain present

Igor Zmijarevic; Richard Sanchez

2001-01-01

4

A 3D stylized half-core CANDU benchmark problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 3D stylized half-core Canadian deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor benchmark problem is presented. The benchmark problem is comprised of a heterogeneous lattice of 37-element natural uranium fuel bundles, heavy water moderated, heavy water cooled, with adjuster rods included as reactivity control devices. Furthermore, a 2-group macroscopic cross section library has been developed for the problem to increase the utility of

Justin M. Pounders; Farzad Rahnema; Dumitru Serghiuta; John Tholammakkil

2011-01-01

5

3D CAFE simulation of a macrosegregation benchmark experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A macrosegregation benchmark experiment is simulated using a three dimensional (3D) Cellular Automaton (CA) - Finite Element (FE) model. It consists of a Sn - 3 wt% Pb alloy solidified in a rectangular cavity. Thanks to tabulated thermodynamic properties and solidification paths with temperature and composition, the effect of natural convection and macrosegregation on cooling curves is correctly predicted. Nucleation parameters are adjusted so that the simulated grain structure correlates with the real grain structure. Although macrosegregation is well predicted, this is not the case for freckles yet observed in the solidified sample.

Carozzani, T.; Digonnet, H.; Bellet, M.; Gandin, Ch-A.

2012-07-01

6

lmbench: an extensible micro-benchmark suite  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY lmbench is a powerful and extensible suite of micro-benchmarks that measures a variety of important aspects of system performance. It has a powerful timing harness that manages most of the 'housekeeping' chores associated with benchmarking, making it easy to create new benchmarks that analyze systems or components of specific interest to the user. In many ways lmbench is a

Carl Staelin

2005-01-01

7

Indoor Modelling Benchmark for 3D Geometry Extraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A combination of faster, cheaper and more accurate hardware, more sophisticated software, and greater industry acceptance have all laid the foundations for an increased desire for accurate 3D parametric models of buildings. Pointclouds are the data source of choice currently with static terrestrial laser scanning the predominant tool for large, dense volume measurement. The current importance of pointclouds as the primary source of real world representation is endorsed by CAD software vendor acquisitions of pointcloud engines in 2011. Both the capture and modelling of indoor environments require great effort in time by the operator (and therefore cost). Automation is seen as a way to aid this by reducing the workload of the user and some commercial packages have appeared that provide automation to some degree. In the data capture phase, advances in indoor mobile mapping systems are speeding up the process, albeit currently with a reduction in accuracy. As a result this paper presents freely accessible pointcloud datasets of two typical areas of a building each captured with two different capture methods and each with an accurate wholly manually created model. These datasets are provided as a benchmark for the research community to gauge the performance and improvements of various techniques for indoor geometry extraction. With this in mind, non-proprietary, interoperable formats are provided such as E57 for the scans and IFC for the reference model. The datasets can be found at: http://indoor-bench.github.io/indoor-bench.

Thomson, C.; Boehm, J.

2014-06-01

8

Simulation of underwater explosion benchmark experiments with ALE3D  

SciTech Connect

Some code improvements have been made during the course of this study. One immediately obvious need was for more flexibility in the constitutive representation for materials in shell elements. To remedy this situation, a model with a tabular representation of stress versus strain and rate dependent effects was implemented. This was required in order to obtain reasonable results in the IED cylinder simulation. Another deficiency was in the ability to extract and plot variables associated with shell elements. The pipe whip analysis required the development of a scheme to tally and plot time dependent shell quantities such as stresses and strains. This capability had previously existed only for solid elements. Work was initiated to provide the same range of plotting capability for structural elements that exist with the DYNA3D/TAURUS tools. One of the characteristics of these problems is the disparity in zoning required in the vicinity of the charge and bubble compared to that needed in the far field. This disparity can cause the equipotential relaxation logic to provide a less than optimal solution. Various approaches were utilized to bias the relaxation to obtain more optimal meshing during relaxation. Extensions of these techniques have been developed to provide more powerful options, but more work still needs to be done. The results presented here are representative of what can be produced with an ALE code structured like ALE3D. They are not necessarily the best results that could have been obtained. More experience in assessing sensitivities to meshing and boundary conditions would be very useful. A number of code deficiencies discovered in the course of this work have been corrected and are available for any future investigations.

Couch, R.; Faux, D.

1997-05-19

9

DRAGON solutions to the 3D transport benchmark over a range in parameter space  

Microsoft Academic Search

DRAGON solutions to the “NEA suite of benchmarks for 3D transport methods and codes over a range in parameter space” are discussed in this paper. A description of the benchmark is first provided, followed by a detailed review of the different computational models used in the lattice code DRAGON. Two numerical methods were selected for generating the required quantities for

Nicolas Martin; Alain Hébert; Guy Marleau

2010-01-01

10

Analysis of the Boiling Water Reactor Turbine Trip Benchmark with the Codes DYN3D and ATHLET\\/DYN3D  

Microsoft Academic Search

The OECD\\/NRC Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) Turbine Trip Benchmark was analyzed by the code DYN3D and the coupled code system ATHLET\\/DYN3D. For the exercise 2 benchmark calculations with given thermal-hydraulic boundary conditions of the core, the analyses were performed with the core model DYN3D. Concerning the modeling of the BWR core in the DYN3D code, several simplifications and their influence

Ulrich Grundmann; Soeren Kliem; Ulrich Rohde

2004-01-01

11

Verification of the code DYN3D/R with the help of international benchmarks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Different benchmarks for reactors with quadratic fuel assemblies were calculated with the code DYN3D/R. In this report comparisons with the results of the reference solutions are carried out. The results of DYN3D/R and the reference calculation for the ei...

U. Grundmann U. Rohde

1997-01-01

12

Global 3-D electromagnetic forward modelling: a benchmark study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global electromagnetic (EM) induction studies have been the focus of increasing attention during the past few years. A primary stimulus for this interest has been increased quality, coverage and variety of the newly available data sets especially from recent low-Earth-orbiting satellite missions. The combination of traditional ground-based data with satellite-borne measurements presents intriguing opportunity to attack the most challenging problem of deep EM studies: the recovery of 3-D variations of electrical conductivity in the Earth's mantle. But the reliable inference of deep-Earth electrical properties depends on the accuracy and efficiency of the underlying forward modelling solutions used to model 3-D electromagnetic induction in a heterogeneous sphere. Several 3-D forward solvers have been proposed over the last decade, which are based on staggered-grid finite difference, integral equation, finite element and spherical harmonic-finite element approaches. However, there has been no systematic intercomparison amongst the solvers. The goal of this paper is to conduct such a study in order to explore the relative merits of the different approaches when confronted with a set of synthetic models designed to probe the numerical accuracy of each. The results of the intercomparison are presented along with performance metrics to help assess the computational costs associated with each solution.

Kelbert, Anna; Kuvshinov, Alexey; Velímský, Jakub; Koyama, Takao; Ribaudo, Joseph; Sun, Jin; Martinec, Zden?k; Weiss, Chester J.

2014-05-01

13

3D radiation transport benchmark problems and results for simple geometries with void region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three-dimensional (3D) transport benchmark problems for simple geometries with void region were proposed at the OECD\\/NEA in order to check the accuracy of deterministic 3D transport programs. The exact total fluxes by the analytical method are given for the pure absorber cases, and Monte Carlo values are given for the 50% scattering cases as the reference values. The total fluxes

Yasunobu Nagaya; Naoki Sugimura

2001-01-01

14

BENCHMARKING OF SYNTHESIZED 3-D SN TRANSPORT METHODS FOR PRESSURE VESSEL FLUENCE CALCULATIONS WITH MONTE CARLO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monte Carlo calculations of pressure vessel (PV) neutron fluence have been performed to benchmark discrete ordinates (SN) transport methods. These calculations, along with measured data at the ex-vessel cavity dosimeter, provide a means to examine various uncertainties associated with the SN transport calculations. For the purpose of the PV fluence calculations, synthesized 3-D deterministic models are shown to produce results

J. C. Wagner; A. Haghighat; B. G. Petrovic; H. L. Hanshaw

15

Commissioning and benchmarking a 3D dosimetry system for clinical use  

PubMed Central

Purpose: A 3D dosimetry system is described which consists of two parts: a radiochromic plastic dosimeter PRESAGE® (which responds to absorbed dose with a linear change in optical-density) and the Duke large-field-of-view optical-CT scanner (DLOS). The DLOS?PRESAGE system has recently been commissioned and benchmarked for clinical use and, in particular, for verification and commissioning of complex radiation treatments. Methods: DLOS commissioning involved determining the dynamic range, spatial resolution, noise, temporal, and other characteristics of the light source and imaging components. Benchmarking tests were performed on the combined DLOS?PRESAGE system to establish baseline dosimetric performance. The tests consisted of delivering simple radiation treatments to PRESAGE dosimeters, and comparing the measured 3D relative dose distributions with the known gold standard. The gold standard distribution was obtained from machine beam-data or the treatment planning system (TPS). All studies used standardized procedures to ensure consistency. Results: For commissioning, isotropic spatial resolution was submillimeter (MTF?>?0.5 for frequencies of 1.5 lp?mm) and the dynamic range was ?60 dB. Flood field uniformity was within 10% and stable after 45 min of warm-up. Stray-light is small, due to telecentricity, but even the residual can be removed through deconvolution by a point-spread-function. For benchmarking, the mean 3D passing NDD (normalized dose distribution) rate (3%, 3mm, 5% dose threshold) over the benchmark data sets was 97.3%?±?0.6% (range 96%–98%), which is on par with other planar dosimeters used in external beam radiation therapy indicating excellent agreement. Noise was low at <2% of maximum dose (4–12 Gy) for 2 mm reconstructions. The telecentric design was critical to enabling fast imaging with minimal stray-light artifacts. Conclusions: This work presents the first comprehensive benchmarking of a 3D dosimetry system for clinical use. The DLOS?PRESAGE benchmark tests show consistently good agreement to simple known distributions. The system produces accurate isotropic 2 mm dose data over clinical volumes (e.g., 16 cm diameter phantoms, 12 cm height), in under 15 min. It represents a uniquely useful and versatile new tool for commissioning and verification of complex therapy treatments.

Thomas, Andrew; Newton, Joseph; Adamovics, John; Oldham, Mark

2011-01-01

16

Benchmarking a 3D Map-Based Approach to Modeling Beam Transport in RF Cavities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results of benchmarking our recently developed capability for generating High-Order Mode (HOM) maps of RF cavity fields for use in particle tracking code-based simulations. We use VORPAL field data as a starting point, and follow the approach of Abell to produce transfer maps that are subsequently incorporated into the MaryLie/IMPACT (ML/I) and Synergia frameworks. For the m = 0 mode, we conducted detailed comparisons between map-based ML/I simulations of on- and off-axis beam transport through a realistic RF cavity on one hand, and the results of a direct 3D EM VORPAL simulation on the other. We present and discuss these benchmarking results.

Pogorelov, Ilya; Abell, Dan; Stoltz, Peter; Amundson, Jim

2009-05-01

17

Domain Decomposition PN Solutions to the 3D Transport Benchmark over a Range in Parameter Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objectives of this contribution are twofold. First, the Domain Decomposition (DD) method used in the parafish parallel transport solver is re-interpreted as a Generalized Schwarz Splitting as defined by Tang [SIAM J Sci Stat Comput, vol.13 (2), pp. 573-595, 1992]. Second, parafish provides spherical harmonic (i.e., PN) solutions to the NEA benchmark suite for 3D transport methods and codes over a range in parameter space. To the best of the author's knowledge, these are the first spherical harmonic solutions provided for this demanding benchmark suite. They have been obtained using 512 CPU cores of the JuRoPa machine installed at the Jülich Computing Center (Germany).

Van Criekingen, S.

2014-06-01

18

Results of the ISPRS benchmark on urban object detection and 3D building reconstruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For more than two decades, many efforts have been made to develop methods for extracting urban objects from data acquired by airborne sensors. In order to make the results of such algorithms more comparable, benchmarking data sets are of paramount importance. Such a data set, consisting of airborne image and laserscanner data, has been made available to the scientific community by ISPRS WGIII/4. Researchers were encouraged to submit their results of urban object detection and 3D building reconstruction, which were evaluated based on reference data. This paper presents the outcomes of the evaluation for building detection, tree detection, and 3D building reconstruction. The results achieved by different methods are compared and analysed to identify promising strategies for automatic urban object extraction from current airborne sensor data, but also common problems of state-of-the-art methods.

Rottensteiner, Franz; Sohn, Gunho; Gerke, Markus; Wegner, Jan Dirk; Breitkopf, Uwe; Jung, Jaewook

2014-07-01

19

Analysis of SNEAK7A and 7B Critical Benchmarks Using 3-D Deterministic Transport with Different Libraries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some high-quality reactor physics benchmark experiments are being re-evaluated with today's state-of-the-art methods, particularly using that of detailed 3-D models. Two experiments analysed in the framework of the International Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments (IRPhE) project are SNEAK-7A and 7B. These assemblies are characterised by Pu-fuelled fast critical assemblies in the Karlsruhe Fast Critical Facility for the purpose of testing the

S. J. Kim; I. Kodeli; E. Sartori

2004-01-01

20

Numerical Benchmark of 3D Ground Motion Simulation in the Alpine valley of Grenoble, France.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thank to the use of sophisticated numerical methods and to the access to increasing computational resources, our predictions of strong ground motion become more and more realistic and need to be carefully compared. We report our effort of benchmarking numerical methods of ground motion simulation in the case of the valley of Grenoble in the French Alps. The Grenoble valley is typical of a moderate seismicity area where strong site effects occur. The benchmark consisted in computing the seismic response of the `Y'-shaped Grenoble valley to (i) two local earthquakes (Ml<=3) for which recordings were avalaible; and (ii) two local hypothetical events (Mw=6) occuring on the so-called Belledonne Border Fault (BBF) [1]. A free-style prediction was also proposed, in which participants were allowed to vary the source and/or the model parameters and were asked to provide the resulting uncertainty in their estimation of ground motion. We received a total of 18 contributions from 14 different groups; 7 of these use 3D methods, among which 3 could handle surface topography, the other half comprises predictions based upon 1D (2 contributions), 2D (4 contributions) and empirical Green's function (EGF) (3 contributions) methods. Maximal frequency analysed ranged between 2.5 Hz for 3D calculations and 40 Hz for EGF predictions. We present a detailed comparison of the different predictions using raw indicators (e.g. peak values of ground velocity and acceleration, Fourier spectra, site over reference spectral ratios, ...) as well as sophisticated misfit criteria based upon previous works [2,3]. We further discuss the variability in estimating the importance of particular effects such as non-linear rheology, or surface topography. References: [1] Thouvenot F. et al., The Belledonne Border Fault: identification of an active seismic strike-slip fault in the western Alps, Geophys. J. Int., 155 (1), p. 174-192, 2003. [2] Anderson J., Quantitative measure of the goodness-of-fit of synthetic seismograms, proceedings of the 13th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Vancouver, paper #243, 2004. [3] Kristekova M. et al., Misfit Criteria for Quantitative Comparison of Seismograms, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., in press, 2006.

Tsuno, S.; Chaljub, E.; Cornou, C.; Bard, P.

2006-12-01

21

Practical analytical solutions for benchmarking of 2-D and 3-D geodynamic Stokes problems with variable viscosity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geodynamic modeling is often related with challenging computations involving solution of the Stokes and continuity equations under the condition of highly variable viscosity. Based on a new analytical approach we have developed particular analytical solutions for 2-D and 3-D incompressible Stokes flows with both linearly and exponentially variable viscosity. We demonstrate how these particular solutions can be converted into 2-D and 3-D test problems suitable for benchmarking numerical codes aimed at modeling various mantle convection and lithospheric dynamics problems. The Main advantage of this new generalized approach is that a large variety of benchmark solutions can be generated, including relatively complex cases with open model boundaries, non-vertical gravity and variable gradients of the viscosity and density fields, which are not parallel to the Cartesian axes. Examples of respective 2-D and 3-D MatLab codes are provided with this paper.

Popov, I. Yu.; Lobanov, I. S.; Popov, S. I.; Popov, A. I.; Gerya, T. V.

2014-06-01

22

Practical analytical solutions for benchmarking of 2-D and 3-D geodynamic Stokes problems with variable viscosity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geodynamic modeling often involves challenging computations involving solution of Stokes and continuity equations under condition of highly variable viscosity. Based on new analytical approach we developed generalized analytical solutions for 2-D and 3-D incompressible Stokes flows with both linearly and exponentially variable viscosity. We demonstrated how these generalized solutions can be converted into 2-D and 3-D test problems suitable for benchmarking numerical codes aimed at modeling various mantle convection and lithospheric dynamics problems. Main advantage of this new generalized approach is that large variety of benchmark solutions can be generated including relatively complex cases with open model boundaries, non-vertical gravity and variable gradients of viscosity and density fields, which are not parallel to Cartesian axes. Examples of respective 2-D and 3-D MatLab codes are provided with this paper.

Popov, I. Yu.; Lobanov, I. S.; Popov, S. I.; Popov, A. I.; Gerya, T. V.

2013-12-01

23

Nonlinear rheology in ASPECT: benchmarking and an application to 3D subduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ASPECT (Advanced Solver for Problems in Earth's ConvecTion) is a promising new code designed for modelling thermal convection in the mantle (Kronbichler et al. 2012). The massively parallel code uses state-of-the-art numerical methods, such as high performance solvers and adaptive mesh refinement. It builds on tried-and-well-tested libraries and works with plug-ins allowing easy extension to fine-tune it to the user's specific needs. We extended the code by implementing a frictional plasticity criterion that can be combined with a viscous creep rheology, allowing for thermo-mechanically coupled visco-plastic flow. This way we can accommodate for the nonlinear behavior of the Earth's materials and incorporate for instance the localization of deformation through plastic yielding. This has been shown to be of great importance for modelling lithosphere deformation. Three well-known benchmarks are used to test and validate our implementation of plasticity: the punch benchmark (e.g. Thieulot et al. 2008), which considers the indentation of a perfectly plastic material and allows for comparison with an analytical solution; the brick benchmark (Kaus 2010), performed in both a compressional and tensional regime with shear band angles bounded by results of other codes and theory; and the sandbox experiment by Buiter et al. (2006) modelling the time evolution of the extension of viscous and plastic layers in the presence of a free surface. We further showcase ASPECT's capabilities with a more geodynamical application: the subduction of an oceanic plate in a three-dimensional thermo-mechanically coupled system. We compare the use of nonlinear rheologies versus that of constant mantle and plate viscosities with an adaptation of the subducting/overriding plate setup of Schellart and Moresi (2013). These models also demonstrate how the adaptive mesh refinement allows for high resolutions locally while the code remains computationally efficient even in the presence of large deformation and large viscosity contrasts. Buiter, S. J. H. et al., "The numerical sandbox: comparison of model results for a shortening and an extension experiment". Analogue and Numerical Modelling of Crustal-Scale Processes, Buiter, S. J. H. and Schreurs, G. (eds). London: Geological Society, 2006. Kaus, B. J. (2010), Factors that control the angle of shear bands in geodynamic numerical models of brittle deformation, Tectonophysics, 484, 36-47. Kronbichler, M., Heister, T. and Bangerth, W. (2012), High Accuracy Mantle Convection Simulation through Modern Numerical Methods, Geophysical Journal International, 191, 12-29. Schellart, W. P. and Moresi, L. (2013), A new driving mechanism for backarc extension and backarc shortening through slab sinking induced toroidal and poloidal mantle flow: Results from dynamic subduction models;with an overriding plate, Journal of Geophysical Research, 118, 1-28. Thieulot, C., Fullsack, P. and Braun, J. (2008), Adaptive octree-based finite element analysis of two-dimensional and three-dimensional indentation problems, Journal of Geophysical Research, 113.

Glerum, Anne; Thieulot, Cedric; Fraters, Menno; Spakman, Wim

2014-05-01

24

Extensible visualization and analysis for multidimensional images using Vaa3D.  

PubMed

Open-Source 3D Visualization-Assisted Analysis (Vaa3D) is a software platform for the visualization and analysis of large-scale multidimensional images. In this protocol we describe how to use several popular features of Vaa3D, including (i) multidimensional image visualization, (ii) 3D image object generation and quantitative measurement, (iii) 3D image comparison, fusion and management, (iv) visualization of heterogeneous images and respective surface objects and (v) extension of Vaa3D functions using its plug-in interface. We also briefly demonstrate how to integrate these functions for complicated applications of microscopic image visualization and quantitative analysis using three exemplar pipelines, including an automated pipeline for image filtering, segmentation and surface generation; an automated pipeline for 3D image stitching; and an automated pipeline for neuron morphology reconstruction, quantification and comparison. Once a user is familiar with Vaa3D, visualization usually runs in real time and analysis takes less than a few minutes for a simple data set. PMID:24385149

Peng, Hanchuan; Bria, Alessandro; Zhou, Zhi; Iannello, Giulio; Long, Fuhui

2014-01-01

25

TORT solutions to the NEA suite of benchmarks for 3D transport methods and codes over a range in parameter space  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the TORT solutions to the 3D transport codes’ suite of benchmarks exercise. An overview of benchmark configurations is provided, followed by a description of the TORT computational model we developed to solve the cases comprising the benchmark suite. In the numerical experiments reported in this paper, we chose to refine the spatial and angular discretizations simultaneously, from the

Kursat B. Bekar; Yousry Y. Azmy

2009-01-01

26

Higher order finite element methods and multigrid solvers in a benchmark problem for the 3D Navier-Stokes equations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a numerical study of the 3D flow around a cylinder which was defined as a benchmark problem for the steady state Navier-Stokes equations within the DFG high-priority research program flow simulation with high-performance computers by Schafer and Turek (Vol. 52, Vieweg: Braunschweig, 1996). The first part of the study is a comparison of several finite element discretizations with respect to the accuracy of the computed benchmark parameters. It turns out that boundary fitted higher order finite element methods are in general most accurate. Our numerical study improves the hitherto existing reference values for the benchmark parameters considerably. The second part of the study deals with efficient and robust solvers for the discrete saddle point problems. All considered solvers are based on coupled multigrid methods. The flexible GMRES method with a multiple discretization multigrid method proves to be the best solver.

John, Volker

2002-10-01

27

Improvements to the Pool Critical Assembly Pressure Vessel Benchmark with 3-D Parallel SN PENTRAN  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The internationally circulated Pool Critical Assembly (PCA) Pressure Vessel Benchmark was analyzed using the PENTRAN Parallel SN code system for the geometry, material, and source specifications as described in the PCA Benchmark documentation. Improvements to the benchmark are proposed here through the application of more representative flux and volume weighted homogenized cross sections for the PCA reactor core, which were obtained from a rigorous heterogeneous modeling of all fuel assembly types in the core. A new source term definition is also proposed based on calculated relative power in each core fuel assembly with a spectrum based on the Uranium-235 fission spectra. This research focused on utilizing the BUGLE-96 cross section library and accompanying reaction rates, while also examining PENTRAN's adaptive differencing implemented on a coarse mesh basis, as well as fixed use of Directional Theta-Weighted (DTW) SN differencing scheme in order to compare the calculated PENTRAN results to measured data. The results show good comparison with the measured benchmark data, which suggests PENTRAN is a viable, reliable code system for calculation of light water reactor neutron shielding and pressure vessel dosimetry calculations. Furthermore, the improvements to the benchmark methodology resulting from this work provide a 6 percent increase in accuracy of the calculation (based on the average of all calculation points), when compared with experimentally measured results at the same spatial locations in the PCA pressure vessel simulator.

Edgar, Christopher A.; Sjoden, Glenn E.; Yi, Ce

2014-06-01

28

Analysis of SNEAK-7A and 7B Critical Benchmarks Using 3-D Deterministic Transport with Different Libraries  

SciTech Connect

Some high-quality reactor physics benchmark experiments are being re-evaluated with today's state-of-the-art methods, particularly using that of detailed 3-D models. Two experiments analysed in the framework of the International Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments (IRPhE) project are SNEAK-7A and 7B. These assemblies are characterised by Pu-fuelled fast critical assemblies in the Karlsruhe Fast Critical Facility for the purpose of testing the cross section data and calculational methods. As the detailed information on the SNEAK-7A and 7B benchmark experiments becomes available, the purpose of this paper is to neutronically describe these experiments as closely as possible to the configuration as they existed in the critical facility, thereby minimizing subsequent corrections caused by modeling deficiencies. The basic cross section libraries used for this analysis are JEF-2.2 and ENDF/B-VI. Core eigenvalues, spectral indices and central material worths are compared between the predictions and measurements. The capability of modern 3-D transport methods is appreciated and the quality of the basic library is assessed. In addition, the core eigenvalue sensitivity analysis for the basic cross section of each important nuclide is performed, using a sensitivity and uncertainly analysis code. Using the deviation of the calculated spectrum indices from the measurement, together with the sensitivity coefficient, it is shown how the sensitivity analysis can be usefully adopted to figure out a specific detail of a basic cross section needing improvement in each library. (authors)

Kim, S. J. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Yuseong, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Kodeli, I.; Sartori, E. [OECD NEA Data Bank, 12 Boulevard des Iles, 92130 Issy-les-Moulineaux (France)

2004-07-01

29

Reconstruction of 3d Objects of Assets and Facilities by Using Benchmark Points  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acquiring and modeling 3D geo-data of building assets and facility objects is one of the challenges. A number of methods and technologies are being utilized for this purpose. Total station, GPS, photogrammetric and terrestrial laser scanning are few of these technologies. In this paper, points commonly shared by potential facades of assets and facilities modeled from point clouds are identified. These points are useful for modeling process to reconstruct 3D models of assets and facilities stored to be used for management purposes. These models are segmented through different planes to produce accurate 2D plans. This novel method improves the efficiency and quality of construction of models of assets and facilities with the aim utilize in 3D management projects such as maintenance of buildings or group of items that need to be replaced, or renovated for new services.

Baig, S. U.; Rahman, A. A.

2013-08-01

30

PANTHER solution to the NEA-NSC 3-D PWR core transient benchmark. Uncontrolled withdrawal of control rods at zero power.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains the results of PANTHER calculations for the ''NEA-NSC 3-D PWR Core Transient Benchmark: Uncontrolled Withdrawal of Control Rods at Zero Power''. PANTHER was able to model the benchmark problems without modifications to the code. All t...

J. C. Kuijper

1994-01-01

31

Benchmarking a 3D Map-Based Approach to Modeling Beam Transport in RF Cavities  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present results of benchmarking our recently developed capability for generating High-Order Mode (HOM) maps of RF cavity fields for use in particle tracking code-based simulations. We use VORPAL field data as a starting point, and follow the approach of Abell to produce transfer maps that are subsequently incorporated into the MaryLie\\/IMPACT (ML\\/I) and Synergia frameworks. For the m =

Ilya Pogorelov; Dan Abell; Peter Stoltz; Jim Amundson

2009-01-01

32

Performance evaluation of 3D optoelectronic computer architectures based on the FFT and sorting benchmarks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optical interconnections can achieve greater data rates and lower power consumption than electronic. Yet, no computers featuring such interconnections have been demonstrated. It is projected that the first such computers will be composed of a stack of arrays of electronic processing elements, each one connected to its neighbors using free space optics. This architecture is called a 3D optoelectronic computer.

George A. Betzos; Pericles A. Mitkas

1995-01-01

33

Toward Verification of USM3D Extensions for Mixed Element Grids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The unstructured tetrahedral grid cell-centered finite volume flow solver USM3D has been recently extended to handle mixed element grids composed of hexahedral, prismatic, pyramidal, and tetrahedral cells. Presently, two turbulence models, namely, baseline Spalart-Allmaras (SA) and Menter Shear Stress Transport (SST), support mixed element grids. This paper provides an overview of the various numerical discretization options available in the newly enhanced USM3D. Using the SA model, the flow solver extensions are verified on three two-dimensional test cases available on the Turbulence Modeling Resource website at the NASA Langley Research Center. The test cases are zero pressure gradient flat plate, planar shear, and bump-inchannel. The effect of cell topologies on the flow solution is also investigated using the planar shear case. Finally, the assessment of various cell and face gradient options is performed on the zero pressure gradient flat plate case.

Pandya, Mohagna J.; Frink, Neal T.; Ding, Ejiang; Parlette, Edward B.

2013-01-01

34

A highly heterogeneous 3D PWR core benchmark: deterministic and Monte Carlo method comparison  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physical analyses of the LWR potential performances with regards to the fuel utilization require an important part of the work dedicated to the validation of the deterministic models used for theses analyses. Advances in both codes and computer technology give the opportunity to perform the validation of these models on complex 3D core configurations closed to the physical situations encountered (both steady-state and transient configurations). In this paper, we used the Monte Carlo Transport code TRIPOLI-4®; to describe a whole 3D large-scale and highly-heterogeneous LWR core. The aim of this study is to validate the deterministic CRONOS2 code to Monte Carlo code TRIPOLI-4®; in a relevant PWR core configuration. As a consequence, a 3D pin by pin model with a consistent number of volumes (4.3 millions) and media (around 23,000) is established to precisely characterize the core at equilibrium cycle, namely using a refined burn-up and moderator density maps. The configuration selected for this analysis is a very heterogeneous PWR high conversion core with fissile (MOX fuel) and fertile zones (depleted uranium). Furthermore, a tight pitch lattice is selcted (to increase conversion of 238U in 239Pu) that leads to harder neutron spectrum compared to standard PWR assembly. In these conditions two main subjects will be discussed: the Monte Carlo variance calculation and the assessment of the diffusion operator with two energy groups for the core calculation.

Jaboulay, J.-C.; Damian, F.; Douce, S.; Lopez, F.; Guenaut, C.; Aggery, A.; Poinot-Salanon, C.

2014-06-01

35

Present Status and Extensions of the Monte Carlo Performance Benchmark  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NEA Monte Carlo Performance benchmark started in 2011 aiming to monitor over the years the abilities to perform a full-size Monte Carlo reactor core calculation with a detailed power production for each fuel pin with axial distribution. This paper gives an overview of the contributed results thus far. It shows that reaching a statistical accuracy of 1 % for most of the small fuel zones requires about 100 billion neutron histories. The efficiency of parallel execution of Monte Carlo codes on a large number of processor cores shows clear limitations for computer clusters with common type computer nodes. However, using true supercomputers the speedup of parallel calculations is increasing up to large numbers of processor cores. More experience is needed from calculations on true supercomputers using large numbers of processors in order to predict if the requested calculations can be done in a short time. As the specifications of the reactor geometry for this benchmark test are well suited for further investigations of full-core Monte Carlo calculations and a need is felt for testing other issues than its computational performance, proposals are presented for extending the benchmark to a suite of benchmark problems for evaluating fission source convergence for a system with a high dominance ratio, for coupling with thermal-hydraulics calculations to evaluate the use of different temperatures and coolant densities and to study the correctness and effectiveness of burnup calculations. Moreover, other contemporary proposals for a full-core calculation with realistic geometry and material composition will be discussed.

Hoogenboom, J. Eduard; Petrovic, Bojan; Martin, William R.

2014-06-01

36

Extension of the 3-D range migration algorithm to cylindrical and spherical scanning geometries  

Microsoft Academic Search

A near field three-dimensional (3-D) synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) algorithm specially tailored for cylindrical and spherical scanning geometries is presented. An imaging system with 3-D capability can be implemented by using a stepped-frequency radar which synthesizes a two-dimensional (2-D) aperture. Typical scanning geometries commonly used are planar, cylindrical, and spherical. The 3-D range migration algorithm (RMA) can be readily used with

Joaquim Fortuny-Guasch; Juan M. Lopez-Sanchez

2001-01-01

37

The impact of laminin on 3D neurite extension in collagen gels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary goal of this research was to characterize the effect of laminin on three-dimensional (3D) neurite growth. Gels were formed using type I collagen at concentrations of 0.4-2.0 mg mL-1 supplemented with laminin at concentrations of 0, 1, 10, or 100 µg mL-1. When imaged with confocal microscopy, laminin was shown to follow the collagen fibers; however, the addition of laminin had minimal effect on the stiffness of the scaffolds at any concentration of collagen. Individual neurons dissociated from E9 chick dorsal root ganglia were cultured in the gels for 24 h, and neurite lengths were measured. For collagen gels without laminin, a typical bimodal response of neurite outgrowth was observed, with increased growth at lower concentrations of collagen gel. However, alteration of the chemical nature of the collagen gel by the laminin additive shifted, or completely mitigated, the bimodal neurite growth response seen in gels without laminin. Expression of integrin subunits, ?1, ?3, ?6 and ?1, were confirmed by PCR and immunolabeling in the 3D scaffolds. These results provide insight into the interplay between mechanical and chemical environment to support neurite outgrowth in 3D. Understanding the relative impact of environmental factors on 3D nerve growth may improve biomaterial design for nerve cell regeneration.

Swindle-Reilly, Katelyn E.; Papke, Jason B.; Kutosky, Hannah P.; Throm, Allison; Hammer, Joshua A.; Harkins, Amy B.; Kuntz Willits, Rebecca

2012-08-01

38

ARTISYNTH: AN EXTENSIBLE, CROSS-PLATFORM 3D ARTICULATORY SPEECH SYNTHESIZER  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe our progress on the construction of a combined 3D face and vocal tract simulator for articulatory speech synthe- sis called ArtiSynth. The architecture provides six main modules: (1) a simulator engine and synthesis framework, (2) a two and three-dimensional model development component, (3) a numer- ics engine, (4) a graphical renderer, (5) an audio synthesis engine and (6)

Sidney Fels; Florian V ogt; Kees van den Doel; John E. Lloyd; Oliver Guenther

2005-01-01

39

Depth-based coding of MVD data for 3D video extension of H.264/AVC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a novel approach of using depth information for advanced coding of associated video data in Multiview Video plus Depth (MVD)-based 3D video systems. As a possible implementation of this conception, we describe two coding tools that have been developed for H.264/AVC based 3D Video Codec as response to Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) Call for Proposals (CfP). These tools are Depth-based Motion Vector Prediction (DMVP) and Backward View Synthesis Prediction (BVSP). Simulation results conducted under JCT-3V/MPEG 3DV Common Test Conditions show, that proposed in this paper tools reduce bit rate of coded video data by 15% of average delta bit rate reduction, which results in 13% of bit rate savings on total for the MVD data over the state-of-the-art MVC+D coding. Moreover, presented in this paper conception of depth-based coding of video has been further developed by MPEG 3DV and JCT-3V and this work resulted in even higher compression efficiency, bringing about 20% of delta bit rate reduction on total for coded MVD data over the reference MVC+D coding. Considering significant gains, proposed in this paper coding approach can be beneficial for development of new 3D video coding standards. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

Rusanovskyy, Dmytro; Hannuksela, Miska M.; Su, Wenyi

2013-06-01

40

Registration of colored 3D point clouds with a Kernel-based extension to the normal distributions transform  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new algorithm for scan registration of colored 3D point data which is an extension to the Normal Distributions Transform (NDT). The probabilistic approach of NDT is extended to a color-aware registration algorithm by modeling the point distributions as Gaussian mixture-models in color space. We discuss different point cloud registration techniques, as well as alternative variants of the

Benjamin Huhle; Martin Magnusson; Wolfgang Strasser; Achim J. Lilienthal

2008-01-01

41

3D extension of the Monte Carlo code MCSHAPE for photon matter interactions in heterogeneous media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MCSHAPE is a Monte Carlo code for the simulation of gamma and X-ray diffusion in matter which gives a general description of the evolution of the polarisation state of the photons. The model is derived from the so-called 'vector' transport equation. The three-dimensional (3D) version of the code can accurately simulate the propagation of photons in heterogeneous media originating from either polarised (i.e. synchrotron) or unpolarised sources, such as X-ray tubes. Photoelectric effect, Rayleigh and Compton scattering, the three most important interaction types for photons in the considered energy range (1-1000 keV), are included in the simulation with the state-of-art extent of detail. In this paper, the 3D version of the code MCSHAPE is presented. The sample is described using the so-called voxel model. Results from the validation studies and applications of the code to scanning XRF and XRF tomography experiments are discussed.

Scot, V.; Fernandez, J. E.; Vincze, L.; Janssens, K.

2007-10-01

42

Depth-of-field extension and 3D reconstruction in digital holographic microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The limited depth-of-field is a main drawback of microscopy that prevents from observing, for example, thick semi-transparent objects with all their features in focus. Several algorithms have been developed during the past years to fuse images having various planes of focus and thus obtain a completely focused image with virtually extended depth-of-field. We present a comparison of several of these methods in the particular field of digital holographic microscopy, taking advantage of some of the main properties of holography. We especially study the extended depth-of-field for phase images reconstructed from the hologram of a biological specimen. A criterion of spatial measurement on the object is considered, completed with a visual criterion. The step of distance taken into account to build the stack of images is less than the instrument depth-of-field. Then, preserving the distance of focus associated with each pixel of the image, a three-dimensional representation is presented after automatic detection of the object. The limits of such a method of extraction of 3D information are discussed.

Bergoënd, Isabelle; Colomb, Tristan; Pavillon, Nicolas; Emery, Yves; Depeursinge, Christian

2009-06-01

43

Highest performance in 3D metal cutting at smallest footprint: benchmark of a robot based system vs. parameters of gantry systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the automotive industry as well as in other industries ecological aspects regarding energy savings are driving new technologies and materials, e.g. lightweight materials as aluminium or press hardened steels. Processing such parts especially complex 3D shaped parts laser manufacturing has become the key process offering highest efficiency. The most established systems for 3D cutting applications are based on gantry systems. The disadvantage of those systems is their huge footprint to realize the required stability and work envelope. Alternatively a robot based system might be of advantage if accuracy, speed and overall performance would be capable processing automotive parts. With the BIM "beam in motion" system, JENOPTIK Automatisierungstechnik GmbH has developed a modular robot based laser processing machine, which meets all OEM specs processing press hardened steel parts. A benchmark of the BIM versus a gantry system was done regarding all required parameters to fulfil OEM specifications for press hardened steel parts. As a result a highly productive, accurate and efficient system can be described based on one or multiple robot modules working simultaneously together. The paper presents the improvements on the robot machine concept BIM addressed in 2012 [1] leading to an industrial proven system approach for the automotive industry. It further compares the performance and the parameters for 3D cutting applications of the BIM system versus a gantry system by samples of applied parts. Finally an overview of suitable applications for processing complex 3D parts with high productivity at small footprint is given.

Scheller, Torsten; Bastick, André; Michel-Triller, Robert; Manzella, Christon

2014-02-01

44

Benchmarking of HPCC: A novel 3D molecular representation combining shape and pharmacophoric descriptors for efficient molecular similarity assessments.  

PubMed

Since 3D molecular shape is an important determinant of biological activity, designing accurate 3D molecular representations is still of high interest. Several chemoinformatic approaches have been developed to try to describe accurate molecular shapes. Here, we present a novel 3D molecular description, namely harmonic pharma chemistry coefficient (HPCC), combining a ligand-centric pharmacophoric description projected onto a spherical harmonic based shape of a ligand. The performance of HPCC was evaluated by comparison to the standard ROCS software in a ligand-based virtual screening (VS) approach using the publicly available directory of useful decoys (DUD) data set comprising over 100,000 compounds distributed across 40 protein targets. Our results were analyzed using commonly reported statistics such as the area under the curve (AUC) and normalized sum of logarithms of ranks (NSLR) metrics. Overall, our HPCC 3D method is globally as efficient as the state-of-the-art ROCS software in terms of enrichment and slightly better for more than half of the DUD targets. Since it is largely admitted that VS results depend strongly on the nature of the protein families, we believe that the present HPCC solution is of interest over the current ligand-based VS methods. PMID:23467019

Karaboga, Arnaud S; Petronin, Florent; Marchetti, Gino; Souchet, Michel; Maigret, Bernard

2013-04-01

45

Benchmarking of 3D space charge codes using direct phase space measurements from photoemission high voltage dc gun  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a comparison between space charge calculations and direct measurements of the transverse phase space of space charge dominated electron bunches from a high voltage dc photoemission gun followed by an emittance compensation solenoid magnet. The measurements were performed using a double-slit emittance measurement system over a range of bunch charge and solenoid current values. The data are compared with detailed simulations using the 3D space charge codes GPT and Parmela3D. The initial particle distributions were generated from measured transverse and temporal laser beam profiles at the photocathode. The beam brightness as a function of beam fraction is calculated for the measured phase space maps and found to approach within a factor of 2 the theoretical maximum set by the thermal energy and the accelerating field at the photocathode.

Bazarov, Ivan V.; Dunham, Bruce M.; Gulliford, Colwyn; Li, Yulin; Liu, Xianghong; Sinclair, Charles K.; Soong, Ken; Hannon, Fay

2008-10-01

46

On the development of NURBS-based isogeometric solid shell elements: 2D problems and preliminary extension to 3D  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work deals with the development of 2D solid shell non-uniform rational B-spline elements. We address a static problem, that can be solved with a 2D model, involving a thin slender structure under small perturbations. The plane stress, plane strain and axisymmetric assumption can be made. projection and reduced integration techniques are considered to deal with the locking phenomenon. The use of the approach leads to the implementation of two strategies insensitive to locking: the first strategy is based on a 1D projection of the mean strain across the thickness; the second strategy undertakes to project all the strains onto a suitably chosen 2D space. Conversely, the reduced integration approach based on Gauss points is less expensive, but only alleviates locking and is limited to quadratic approximations. The performance of the various 2D elements developed is assessed through several numerical examples. Simple extensions of these techniques to 3D are finally performed.

Bouclier, R.; Elguedj, T.; Combescure, A.

2013-11-01

47

Laser-plasma interaction in ignition relevant plasmas: benchmarking our 3D modelling capabilities versus recent experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a new target platform to study Laser Plasma Interaction in ignition-relevant condition at the Omega laser facility (LLE\\/Rochester)[1]. By shooting an interaction beam along the axis of a gas-filled hohlraum heated by up to 17 kJ of heater beam energy, we were able to create a millimeter-scale underdense uniform plasma at electron temperatures above 3 keV. Extensive

L. Divol; D. Froula; N. Meezan; R. Berger; P. Michel; S. H. Glenzer

2008-01-01

48

A demonstration of the validity of a 3-D video motion analysis method for measuring finger flexion and extension  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study demonstrates the validity of using 3-D video motion analysis to measure hand motion. Several researchers have devised ingenious methods to study normal and abnormal hand movements. Although very helpful, these earlier studies are static representations of a dynamic phenomenon. Despite the many studies of hand motion using scientifically impeccable techniques, little is known about digital motion, and there

Gregory S Rash; P. P Belliappa; Mark P Wachowiak; Naveen N Somia; Amit Gupta

1999-01-01

49

Extension of the ICP algorithm to non-rigid intensity-based registration of 3D volumes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presents a new registration and gain correction algorithm for 3D medical images. It is intensity based. The basic idea is to represent the images by 4D points (xj, yj, zj, i j) and to define a global energy function based on this representation. For minimization, the authors propose a technique which does not require to compute the derivatives of this

Jacques Feldmar; Gregoire Malandain; Jerome Declerck; Nicholas Ayache

1996-01-01

50

A Topological View at Observed Flare Features: An Extension of the Standard Flare Model to 3D  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We conduct topology analysis of erupting non-linear force-free field (NLFFF) configurations of eight sigmoidal active regions observed with Hinode/XRT and SDO/AIA. The NLFFF models are computed using the flux rope insertion method and unstable models are utilized to represent the erupting configurations. Topology analysis shows that the quasi-separatrix layers (QSLs) in the chromosphere match well the flare ribbons observed in these regions. In addition, we show that low-lying QSLs associated with the rising flux rope change shape and extent to match the separating flare ribbons as observed by AIA. Post-flare loops are fit well by field lines lying under the generalized X-line at the bottom of the flux rope. We show a correspondence in the evolution of the post-flare loops from a strong-to-weak sheared state and the behavior of the field lines as the flux rope expands in the corona. We show that transient corona holes are associated with the footprints of the flux rope in the low atmosphere. In addition, we compute the reconnected flux in one of the regions and using information from the models constrain how much energy has been released during the event. We use this kind of topology analysis to extend the standard CME/flare model to full 3D and find implications to reconnection in 3D.

Savcheva, Antonia; Pariat, Etienne; McKillop, Sean; Hanson, Elizabeth; Su, Yingna; DeLuca, Edward E.

2014-06-01

51

Benchmarking of calculated projectile fragmentation cross-sections using the 3-D, MC codes PHITS, FLUKA, HETC-HEDS, MCNPX_HI, and NUCFRG2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particles and heavy ions are used in various fields of nuclear physics, medical physics, and material science, and their interactions with different media, including human tissue and critical organs, have therefore carefully been investigated both experimentally and theoretically since the 1930s. However, heavy-ion transport includes many complex processes and measurements for all possible systems, including critical organs, would be impractical or too expensive; e.g. direct measurements of dose equivalents to critical organs in humans cannot be performed. A reliable and accurate particle and heavy-ion transport code is therefore an essential tool in the design study of accelerator facilities as well as for other various applications. Recently, new applications have also arisen within transmutation and reactor science, space and medicine, especially radiotherapy, and several accelerator facilities are operating or planned for construction. Accurate knowledge of the physics of interaction of particles and heavy ions is also necessary for estimating radiation damage to equipment used on space vehicles, to calculate the transport of the heavy ions in the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) through the interstellar medium, and the evolution of the heavier elements after the Big Bang. Concerns about the biological effect of space radiation and space dosimetry are increasing rapidly due to the perspective of long-duration astronaut missions, both in relation to the International Space Station and to manned interplanetary missions in near future. Radiation protection studies for crews of international flights at high altitude have also received considerable attention in recent years. There is therefore a need to develop accurate and reliable particle and heavy-ion transport codes. To be able to calculate complex geometries, including production and transport of protons, neutrons, and alpha particles, 3-dimensional transport using Monte Carlo (MC) technique must be used. Today several particle and heavy-ion MC transport codes exist, e.g. Particle and Heavy-Ion Transport code System (PHITS), High Energy Transport Code-Human Exploration and Development of Space (HETC-HEDS), SHIELD-HIT, GEANT4, FLUKA, MARS, and MCNPX. In this paper, we present an extensive benchmarking of the calculated projectile fragmentation cross-sections from the reactions of 300-1000MeV/u28Si, 40Ar, and 56Fe on polyethylene, carbon, aluminum, and copper targets (relevant to space radioprotection) using PHITS, FLUKA, HETC-HEDS, and MCNPX, against measurements. The influence of the different models used in the different transport codes on the calculated results is also discussed. Some measured cross-sections are also compared to the calculated cross-sections using NUCFRG2, which are incorporated in the 1-dimensional, deterministic radiation transport code HZETRN.

Sihver, L.; Mancusi, D.; Niita, K.; Sato, T.; Townsend, L.; Farmer, C.; Pinsky, L.; Ferrari, A.; Cerutti, F.; Gomes, I.

52

Comparison Between Laser Scanning and Automated 3d Modelling Techniques to Reconstruct Complex and Extensive Cultural Heritage Areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Cultural Heritage field, the necessity to survey objects in a fast manner, with the ability to repeat the measurements several times for deformation or degradation monitoring purposes, is increasing. In this paper, two significant cases, an architectonical one and an archaeological one, are presented. Due to different reasons and emergency situations, the finding of the optimal solution to enable quick and well-timed survey for a complete digital reconstruction of the object is required. In both cases, two survey methods have been tested and used: a laser scanning approach that allows to obtain high-resolution and complete scans within a short time and a photogrammetric one that allows the three-dimensional reconstruction of the object from images. In the last months, several methodologies, including free or low cost techniques, have arisen. These kinds of software allow the fully automatically three-dimensional reconstruction of objects from images, giving back a dense point cloud and, in some case, a surfaced mesh model. In this paper some comparisons between the two methodologies above mentioned are presented, using the example of some real cases of study. The surveys have been performed by employing both photogrammetry and laser scanner techniques. The methodological operational choices, depending on the required goal, the difficulties encountered during the survey with these methods, the execution time (that is the key parameter), and finally the obtained results, are fully described and examinated. On the final 3D model, an analytical comparison has been made, to analyse the differences, the tolerances, the possibility of accuracy improvement and the future developments.

Fassi, F.; Fregonese, L.; Ackermann, S.; De Troia, V.

2013-02-01

53

Extension of PENELOPE to protons: Simulation of nuclear reactions and benchmark with Geant4  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Describing the implementation of nuclear reactions in the extension of the Monte Carlo code (MC) PENELOPE to protons (PENH) and benchmarking with Geant4.Methods: PENH is based on mixed-simulation mechanics for both elastic and inelastic electromagnetic collisions (EM). The adopted differential cross sections for EM elastic collisions are calculated using the eikonal approximation with the Dirac–Hartree–Fock–Slater atomic potential. Cross sections for EM inelastic collisions are computed within the relativistic Born approximation, using the Sternheimer–Liljequist model of the generalized oscillator strength. Nuclear elastic and inelastic collisions were simulated using explicitly the scattering analysis interactive dialin database for {sup 1}H and ICRU 63 data for {sup 12}C, {sup 14}N, {sup 16}O, {sup 31}P, and {sup 40}Ca. Secondary protons, alphas, and deuterons were all simulated as protons, with the energy adapted to ensure consistent range. Prompt gamma emission can also be simulated upon user request. Simulations were performed in a water phantom with nuclear interactions switched off or on and integral depth–dose distributions were compared. Binary-cascade and precompound models were used for Geant4. Initial energies of 100 and 250 MeV were considered. For cases with no nuclear interactions simulated, additional simulations in a water phantom with tight resolution (1 mm in all directions) were performed with FLUKA. Finally, integral depth–dose distributions for a 250 MeV energy were computed with Geant4 and PENH in a homogeneous phantom with, first, ICRU striated muscle and, second, ICRU compact bone.Results: For simulations with EM collisions only, integral depth–dose distributions were within 1%/1 mm for doses higher than 10% of the Bragg-peak dose. For central-axis depth–dose and lateral profiles in a phantom with tight resolution, there are significant deviations between Geant4 and PENH (up to 60%/1 cm for depth–dose distributions). The agreement is much better with FLUKA, with deviations within 3%/3 mm. When nuclear interactions were turned on, agreement (within 6% before the Bragg-peak) between PENH and Geant4 was consistent with uncertainties on nuclear models and cross sections, whatever the material simulated (water, muscle, or bone).Conclusions: A detailed and flexible description of nuclear reactions has been implemented in the PENH extension of PENELOPE to protons, which utilizes a mixed-simulation scheme for both elastic and inelastic EM collisions, analogous to the well-established algorithm for electrons/positrons. PENH is compatible with all current main programs that use PENELOPE as the MC engine. The nuclear model of PENH is realistic enough to give dose distributions in fair agreement with those computed by Geant4.

Sterpin, E. [Center of Molecular Imaging, Radiotherapy and Oncology, Institut de recherche expérimentale et clinique, Université catholique de Louvain, Avenue Hippocrate 54, 1200 Brussels (Belgium)] [Center of Molecular Imaging, Radiotherapy and Oncology, Institut de recherche expérimentale et clinique, Université catholique de Louvain, Avenue Hippocrate 54, 1200 Brussels (Belgium); Sorriaux, J. [Center of Molecular Imaging, Radiotherapy and Oncology, Institut de recherche expérimentale et clinique, Université catholique de Louvain, Avenue Hippocrate 54, 1200 Brussels, Belgium and ICTEAM Institute, Université catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)] [Center of Molecular Imaging, Radiotherapy and Oncology, Institut de recherche expérimentale et clinique, Université catholique de Louvain, Avenue Hippocrate 54, 1200 Brussels, Belgium and ICTEAM Institute, Université catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Vynckier, S. [Center of Molecular Imaging, Radiotherapy and Oncology, Institut de recherche expérimentale et clinique, Université catholique de Louvain, Avenue Hippocrate 54, 1200 Brussels, Belgium and Département de radiothérapie, Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, Avenue Hippocrate 10, 1200 Brussels (Belgium)] [Center of Molecular Imaging, Radiotherapy and Oncology, Institut de recherche expérimentale et clinique, Université catholique de Louvain, Avenue Hippocrate 54, 1200 Brussels, Belgium and Département de radiothérapie, Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, Avenue Hippocrate 10, 1200 Brussels (Belgium)

2013-11-15

54

Photonic bandgap extension of surface-disordered 3D photonic crystals based on the TiO2 inverse opal architecture.  

PubMed

A photonic bandgap (PBG) extension of surface-disordered 3D photonic crystals (PCs) based on the TiO2 inverse opal (TiO2-IO) architecture has been demonstrated. By using a liquid phase deposition (LPD) process based on the controlled hydrolysis of ammonium hexafluorotitanate and boric acid, an extra layer of TiO2 nanoparticles were deposited onto the internal surface of the air voids in the TiO2-IOs to increase their surface roughness, thereby introducing surface disorder in the 3D order structures. The PBG relative width of surface-disordered TiO2-IOs has been broadened significantly, and, compared to the original TiO2-IO, its largest rate of increase (27%) has been obtained. It was found that the PBG relative width increased rapidly at first and then to a much slower rate of change with increase of the duration of the LPD time. A possible cause for this finding is discussed in this Letter. PMID:24978999

Wang, Aijun; Liu, Wenfang; Tang, Junjie; Chen, Sheng-Li; Dong, Peng

2014-04-15

55

A New Method to Explore the Spectral Impact of the Piriform Fossae on the Singing Voice: Benchmarking Using MRI-Based 3D-Printed Vocal Tracts  

PubMed Central

The piriform fossae are the 2 pear-shaped cavities lateral to the laryngeal vestibule at the lower end of the vocal tract. They act acoustically as side-branches to the main tract, resulting in a spectral zero in the output of the human voice. This study investigates their spectral role by comparing numerical and experimental results of MRI-based 3D printed Vocal Tracts, for which a new experimental method (based on room acoustics) is introduced. The findings support results in the literature: the piriform fossae create a spectral trough in the region 4–5 kHz and act as formants repellents. Moreover, this study extends those results by demonstrating numerically and perceptually the impact of having large piriform fossae on the sung output.

Delvaux, Bertrand; Howard, David

2014-01-01

56

Extension axes in the Kumano forearc basin from inversion of fault populations mapped in a 3D seismic volume, Nankai Trough, SE Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of a 3D seismic volume across the Nankai Trough off Kii Peninsula defines a population of normal faults that indicate subhorizontal extension within the recent (0-3.8 Ma) forearc basin strata. IODP drilling (as part of the Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment, or NanTroSEIZE) within the seismic survey area documented an abrupt change in the orientation of the maximum horizontal stress across a major out-of-sequence-thrust fault (OOST). This fault, termed the “megasplay,” extends >120 km along strike and forms the seaward boundary of the Kumano forearc basin. Borehole breakouts indicate that the orientation of maximum horizontal stress changes from 150/330 degrees in the prism to 134/314 degrees in the forearc basin across the megasplay, just 10 km landward. A borehole 15 km further landward in the forearc basin indicates that the orientation of the maximum horizontal stress is 150/330 degrees. These orientations are hypothesized to reflect the mechanical behavior of the plate boundary fault systems at depth. The 3D seismic dataset is the link between the point data at boreholes and the surrounding three-dimensional rock volume. In the Kumano Basin, normal faults are generally restricted to the gently dipping cover sequence that unconformably overlies the older (late Miocene) accretionary prism. From a population of more than 400 normal faults we used 240 that cut the seafloor to infer strains associated with ongoing deformation. Four sub-populations strike between 45/225 and 100/280 degrees. Two sub-populations strike between 140/320 and 170/350 degrees. All populations include conjugate sets with a preferred NNW (ENE in the case of NW striking) dip direction, and fault dips are between 45 and 75 degrees, most >55. We used the method of Marrett and Allmendinger (1990) to invert the populations for the orientations of principle strains and the Molnar (1983) method to calculate the kinematic moment tensors, assuming that 1) motion along faults is purely dip-slip, and 2) all faults are weighted equally. A displacement-weighted calculation of moment tensors is in progress. Our preliminary inversion indicates a maximum extension direction oriented ~161/341 degrees, nearly parallel to the direction of plate convergence, and also approximately parallel to the shortening direction inferred for the outer accretionary wedge near the trench. Separating the total population into geographic sub-groups reveals a systematic change in the orientation of maximum extension, from NNW/SSE (parallel to plate convergence) at the forearc high to ENE/WSW in the landward portion of the basin. The strains determined from our inversion are consistent with stresses inferred from borehole breakouts at the two IODP boreholes in the basin. Several mechanisms have been proposed to drive the extension observed in forearc wedges, including localized underplating and coseismic deformation. In the Nankai subduction zone, this extension may be attributed to prevailing stress conditions within the accretionary wedge, a response to gravitational stresses within the shallow sediments, or tilting of the basin related to slip on the megasplay fault.

Sacks, A.; Saffer, D. M.; Fisher, D. M.

2010-12-01

57

BENCHMARKING 3D RTM ON HPC PLATFORMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Reverse Time Migration (RTM) has become the dominant technology in seismic imaging for geologically complex subsurface areas. In particular has proven to be very useful for the subsalt oil plays of the US Gulf of Mexico. However, RTM cannot be applied on daily basis due to the extreme computational demand. The recent availability of multi-core processors, homogeneous and heterogeneous,

Francisco Ortigosa; Hongbo Zhou; Santiago Fernandez

58

Effects of DS-modified agarose gels on neurite extension in 3D scaffold through mechanisms other than changing the pore radius of the gels.  

PubMed

Dermatan sulfate is widely distributed as glycosaminoglycan side chains of proteoglycans, which are the main components of glial scar and inhibit neurite regeneration after nerve injury. However its role in the inhibiting process is not clear. Understanding neurite extension in three-dimensional scaffolds is critical for neural tissue engineering. This study used agarose gels modified with dermatan sulfate as the three-dimensional culture scaffold. We explored structure-function relationship between the three-dimensional scaffold and neurite extension and examined the role of dermatan sulfate on neurite extension in the three-dimensional scaffold. A range of agarose concentrations was used to generate varied gel physical structures and the corresponding neurite extension of embryonic day (E9) chick dorsal root ganglia was examined. We measured gel stiffness and gel pore size to determine whether dermatan sulfate changed the gels' conformation. As gel concentration increased, neurite length and gel pore size decreased, and gel stiffness increased. At 1.00 and 1.25% (wt/vol) concentrations, dermatan sulfates both immobilized with agarose gels and dissolved in culture medium inhibit neurite extension. While at 1.50 and 1.75% (wt/vol) concentrations, only immobilized dermatan sulfate worked. Immobilized dermatan sulfate could modify molecular shape of agarose gels, decrease gel pore size statistically, but did not influence gel stiffness. We have proved that the decrease of gel pore size is insufficient to inhibit neurite extension. These results indicate that dermatan sulfate inhibits neurite extension not through forming a mechanical barrier. Maybe its interaction with neuron membrane is the key factor in neurite extension. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 102A: 2157-2162, 2014. PMID:23894002

Peng, Jin; Pan, Qian; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Hao; Zhou, Xue; Jiang, Hua

2014-07-01

59

3D input for 3D worlds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virtual Worlds present a 3D space to the user. However, input devices are typically 2D. This unnatural mapping reduces the engagement of the experience. We are exploring using Wii controllers to provide 3D gesture-based input to the 3D virtual world, Second Life. By evaluating its usability, we found that gesture-based interfaces are appealing and natural for hand gestures such as

Sreeram Sreedharan; Edmund S. Zurita; Beryl Plimmer

2007-01-01

60

Hyperspectral image coding using 3D transforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work considers the efficient coding of hyperspectral images. The shape-adaptive DCT is extended to the three-dimensional case. Both the 3D-SA-DCT and the conventional 3D-DCT are combined with either of two alternative techniques for coding the transform coefficients. The proposed schemes are compared with two state of the art coding algorithms, which serve as benchmarks, and are found to have

Dmitry Markman; David Malah

2001-01-01

61

Europeana and 3D  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current 3D hype creates a lot of interest in 3D. People go to 3D movies, but are we ready to use 3D in our homes, in our offices, in our communication? Are we ready to deliver real 3D to a general public and use interactive 3D in a meaningful way to enjoy, learn, communicate? The CARARE project is realising this for the moment in the domain of monuments and archaeology, so that real 3D of archaeological sites and European monuments will be available to the general public by 2012. There are several aspects to this endeavour. First of all is the technical aspect of flawlessly delivering 3D content over all platforms and operating systems, without installing software. We have currently a working solution in PDF, but HTML5 will probably be the future. Secondly, there is still little knowledge on how to create 3D learning objects, 3D tourist information or 3D scholarly communication. We are still in a prototype phase when it comes to integrate 3D objects in physical or virtual museums. Nevertheless, Europeana has a tremendous potential as a multi-facetted virtual museum. Finally, 3D has a large potential to act as a hub of information, linking to related 2D imagery, texts, video, sound. We describe how to create such rich, explorable 3D objects that can be used intuitively by the generic Europeana user and what metadata is needed to support the semantic linking.

Pletinckx, D.

2011-09-01

62

Benchmark Characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

An abstract system of benchmark characteristics that makes it possible, in the beginning of the design stage, to design with benchmark performance in mind is presented. The benchmark characteristics for a set of commonly used benchmarks are then shown. The benchmark set used includes some benchmarks from the Systems Performance Evaluation Cooperative. The SPEC programs are industry-standard applications that use

Thomas M. Conte; Wen-mei W. Hwu

1991-01-01

63

Java 3D  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Java3D is a low level 3D scene-graph based graphics programming API for the java language. It does not form part of the core APIs required by the Java specification. The class libraries exist under the javax.media.j3d top level package as well as utility classes provided in javax.vecmath.

64

3D photoacoustic imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our group has concentrated on development of a 3D photoacoustic imaging system for biomedical imaging research. The technology employs a sparse parallel detection scheme and specialized reconstruction software to obtain 3D optical images using a single laser pulse. With the technology we have been able to capture 3D movies of translating point targets and rotating line targets. The current limitation

Jeffrey J. L. Carson; Michael Roumeliotis; Govind Chaudhary; Robert Z. Stodilka; Mark A. Anastasio

2010-01-01

65

LASTRAC.3d: Transition Prediction in 3D Boundary Layers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Langley Stability and Transition Analysis Code (LASTRAC) is a general-purpose, physics-based transition prediction code released by NASA for laminar flow control studies and transition research. This paper describes the LASTRAC extension to general three-dimensional (3D) boundary layers such as finite swept wings, cones, or bodies at an angle of attack. The stability problem is formulated by using a body-fitted nonorthogonal curvilinear coordinate system constructed on the body surface. The nonorthogonal coordinate system offers a variety of marching paths and spanwise waveforms. In the extreme case of an infinite swept wing boundary layer, marching with a nonorthogonal coordinate produces identical solutions to those obtained with an orthogonal coordinate system using the earlier release of LASTRAC. Several methods to formulate the 3D parabolized stability equations (PSE) are discussed. A surface-marching procedure akin to that for 3D boundary layer equations may be used to solve the 3D parabolized disturbance equations. On the other hand, the local line-marching PSE method, formulated as an easy extension from its 2D counterpart and capable of handling the spanwise mean flow and disturbance variation, offers an alternative. A linear stability theory or parabolized stability equations based N-factor analysis carried out along the streamline direction with a fixed wavelength and downstream-varying spanwise direction constitutes an efficient engineering approach to study instability wave evolution in a 3D boundary layer. The surface-marching PSE method enables a consistent treatment of the disturbance evolution along both streamwise and spanwise directions but requires more stringent initial conditions. Both PSE methods and the traditional LST approach are implemented in the LASTRAC.3d code. Several test cases for tapered or finite swept wings and cones at an angle of attack are discussed.

Chang, Chau-Lyan

2004-01-01

66

3D Face Recognition Based on Multiple Keypoint Descriptors and Sparse Representation.  

PubMed

Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in developing methods for 3D face recognition. However, 3D scans often suffer from the problems of missing parts, large facial expressions, and occlusions. To be useful in real-world applications, a 3D face recognition approach should be able to handle these challenges. In this paper, we propose a novel general approach to deal with the 3D face recognition problem by making use of multiple keypoint descriptors (MKD) and the sparse representation-based classification (SRC). We call the proposed method 3DMKDSRC for short. Specifically, with 3DMKDSRC, each 3D face scan is represented as a set of descriptor vectors extracted from keypoints by meshSIFT. Descriptor vectors of gallery samples form the gallery dictionary. Given a probe 3D face scan, its descriptors are extracted at first and then its identity can be determined by using a multitask SRC. The proposed 3DMKDSRC approach does not require the pre-alignment between two face scans and is quite robust to the problems of missing data, occlusions and expressions. Its superiority over the other leading 3D face recognition schemes has been corroborated by extensive experiments conducted on three benchmark databases, Bosphorus, GavabDB, and FRGC2.0. The Matlab source code for 3DMKDSRC and the related evaluation results are publicly available at http://sse.tongji.edu.cn/linzhang/3dmkdsrcface/3dmkdsrc.htm. PMID:24940876

Zhang, Lin; Ding, Zhixuan; Li, Hongyu; Shen, Ying; Lu, Jianwei

2014-01-01

67

3D Face Recognition Based on Multiple Keypoint Descriptors and Sparse Representation  

PubMed Central

Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in developing methods for 3D face recognition. However, 3D scans often suffer from the problems of missing parts, large facial expressions, and occlusions. To be useful in real-world applications, a 3D face recognition approach should be able to handle these challenges. In this paper, we propose a novel general approach to deal with the 3D face recognition problem by making use of multiple keypoint descriptors (MKD) and the sparse representation-based classification (SRC). We call the proposed method 3DMKDSRC for short. Specifically, with 3DMKDSRC, each 3D face scan is represented as a set of descriptor vectors extracted from keypoints by meshSIFT. Descriptor vectors of gallery samples form the gallery dictionary. Given a probe 3D face scan, its descriptors are extracted at first and then its identity can be determined by using a multitask SRC. The proposed 3DMKDSRC approach does not require the pre-alignment between two face scans and is quite robust to the problems of missing data, occlusions and expressions. Its superiority over the other leading 3D face recognition schemes has been corroborated by extensive experiments conducted on three benchmark databases, Bosphorus, GavabDB, and FRGC2.0. The Matlab source code for 3DMKDSRC and the related evaluation results are publicly available at http://sse.tongji.edu.cn/linzhang/3dmkdsrcface/3dmkdsrc.htm.

Zhang, Lin; Ding, Zhixuan; Li, Hongyu; Shen, Ying; Lu, Jianwei

2014-01-01

68

3D Model Retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

The topic of this paper is content-based retrieval of 3D models that are represented as triangle meshes. An object from some 3D geometry database can traditionally be accessed using attached structural information such as textual annotation. However, there are frequent requirements for a content-based retrieval of various multimedia contents. A content-based 3D model retrieval system has been implemented and this

D. Saupe

69

3D with Kinect  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze Kinect as a 3D measuring device, experimentally investigate depth measurement resolution and error properties and make a quantitative comparison of Kinect accuracy with stereo reconstruction from SLR cameras and a 3D-TOF camera. We propose Kinect geometrical model and its calibration procedure providing an accurate calibration of Kinect 3D measurement and Kinect cameras. We demonstrate the functionality of Kinect

Jan Smisek; Michal Jancosek; Tomas Pajdla

2011-01-01

70

3D Ear Identification Based on Sparse Representation  

PubMed Central

Biometrics based personal authentication is an effective way for automatically recognizing, with a high confidence, a person’s identity. Recently, 3D ear shape has attracted tremendous interests in research field due to its richness of feature and ease of acquisition. However, the existing ICP (Iterative Closet Point)-based 3D ear matching methods prevalent in the literature are not quite efficient to cope with the one-to-many identification case. In this paper, we aim to fill this gap by proposing a novel effective fully automatic 3D ear identification system. We at first propose an accurate and efficient template-based ear detection method. By utilizing such a method, the extracted ear regions are represented in a common canonical coordinate system determined by the ear contour template, which facilitates much the following stages of feature extraction and classification. For each extracted 3D ear, a feature vector is generated as its representation by making use of a PCA-based local feature descriptor. At the stage of classification, we resort to the sparse representation based classification approach, which actually solves an l1-minimization problem. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work introducing the sparse representation framework into the field of 3D ear identification. Extensive experiments conducted on a benchmark dataset corroborate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed approach. The associated Matlab source code and the evaluation results have been made publicly online available at http://sse.tongji.edu.cn/linzhang/ear/srcear/srcear.htm.

Zhang, Lin; Ding, Zhixuan; Li, Hongyu; Shen, Ying

2014-01-01

71

3D ear identification based on sparse representation.  

PubMed

Biometrics based personal authentication is an effective way for automatically recognizing, with a high confidence, a person's identity. Recently, 3D ear shape has attracted tremendous interests in research field due to its richness of feature and ease of acquisition. However, the existing ICP (Iterative Closet Point)-based 3D ear matching methods prevalent in the literature are not quite efficient to cope with the one-to-many identification case. In this paper, we aim to fill this gap by proposing a novel effective fully automatic 3D ear identification system. We at first propose an accurate and efficient template-based ear detection method. By utilizing such a method, the extracted ear regions are represented in a common canonical coordinate system determined by the ear contour template, which facilitates much the following stages of feature extraction and classification. For each extracted 3D ear, a feature vector is generated as its representation by making use of a PCA-based local feature descriptor. At the stage of classification, we resort to the sparse representation based classification approach, which actually solves an l1-minimization problem. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work introducing the sparse representation framework into the field of 3D ear identification. Extensive experiments conducted on a benchmark dataset corroborate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed approach. The associated Matlab source code and the evaluation results have been made publicly online available at http://sse.tongji.edu.cn/linzhang/ear/srcear/srcear.htm. PMID:24740247

Zhang, Lin; Ding, Zhixuan; Li, Hongyu; Shen, Ying

2014-01-01

72

Neutron Fluence, Dosimetry and Damage Response Determination in In-Core/Ex-Core Components of the VENUS CEN/SCK LWR Using 3-D Monte Carlo Simulations: NEA's VENUS-3 Benchmark  

SciTech Connect

Validating state-of-the-art methods used to predict fluence exposure to reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) has become an important issue in identifying the sources of uncertainty in the estimated RPV fluence for pressurized water reactors. This is a very important aspect in evaluating irradiation damage leading to the hardening and embrittlement of such structural components. One of the major benchmark experiments carried out to test three-dimensional methodologies is the VENUS-3 Benchmark Experiment in which three-dimensional Monte Carlo and S{sub n} codes have proved more efficient than synthesis methods. At the Instituto de Fusion Nuclear (DENIM) at the Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, a detailed full three-dimensional model of the Venus Critical Facility has been developed making use of the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP4B. The problem geometry and source modeling are described, and results, including calculated versus experimental (C/E) ratios as well as additional studies, are presented. Evidence was found that the great majority of C/E values fell within the 10% tolerance and most within 5%. Tolerance limits are discussed on the basis of evaluated data library and fission spectra sensitivity, where a value ranging between 10 to 15% should be accepted. Also, a calculation of the atomic displacement rate has been carried out in various locations throughout the reactor, finding that values of 0.0001 displacements per atom in external components such as the core barrel are representative of this type of reactor during a 30-yr time span.

Perlado, J. Manuel; Marian, Jaime; Sanz, Jesus Garcia

2000-03-15

73

3D Imaging.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses 3 D imaging as it relates to digital representations in virtual library collections. Highlights include X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT); the National Science Foundation (NSF) Digital Library Initiatives; output peripherals; image retrieval systems, including metadata; and applications of 3 D imaging for libraries and museums. (LRW)

Hastings, S. K.

2002-01-01

74

Holographic 3-D printer  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a holographic printer, which produces 3-D hard copies of computer processed objects. For the purpose of automatic making of 3-D hard copies of distortion free, a new method to synthesize holographic stereogram is proposed. It is is flat format and lippmann type holographic stereogram which can be printed by one optical step. The proposed hologram has not

Masahiro Yamaguchi; Nagaaki Ohyama; Toshio Honda

1990-01-01

75

3D Shapes Video  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This upbeat music video reviews 3D shapes including the sphere, cylinder, cube, and cone. As each 3D shape is presented, examples of things we see every day that have the same shape are also shown for reinforcement. (Length: 3:18)

Kindergarten, Harry

2011-06-17

76

3D Shape Synthesis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We present a novel approach to 3D shape synthesis of closed surfaces. A curved or polyhedral 3D object of genus zero is represented by a curvature distribution on a spherical mesh that has nearly uniform distribution with known connectivity among mesh nod...

H. Y. Shum M. Hebert K. Ikeuchi

1995-01-01

77

3D Shape Similarity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We study the 3D shape similarity between closed surfaces. We represent a curved or polyhedral 3D object of genus zero using a mesh representation that has nearly uniform distribution with known connectivity among mesh nodes. We define a shape similarity m...

H. Y. Shum M. Hebert K. Ikeuchi

1995-01-01

78

Cyberchase 3D Builder  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Cyberchase iOS geometry app ($) enables students to use 2D nets to create 3D shapes. The app includes eight levels which increase in difficulty; increasing the complexity of the nets and combining different 3D shapes together.

Kids, Pbs

2014-01-21

79

3D virtual colonoscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present here a method called 3D virtual colonoscopy, which is an alternative method to existing procedures of imaging the mucosal surface of the colon. Using 3D reconstruction of helical CT data and volume visualization techniques, the authors generate images of the inner surface of the colon as if the viewer's eyes were inside the colon. They also create

Lichan Hong; Arie Kaufman; Yi-Chih Wei; Ajay Viswambharan; M. Wax; Zhengrong Liangs

1995-01-01

80

3D silicon detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Significant process in 3D detectors has taken place since Sherwood parker proposed the 3D silicon detector in 1997. The 3D detector was conceived as a method to overcome the radiation induced reduction in carrier lifetime in heavily irradiated silicon detectors via the use of advanced MEMS device fabrication techniques. This paper reviews the state of the art in 3D detectors. Work performed within the major fabrication institutes will be discussed, including modifications to the original design to reduce complexity and increase device yield. Characterization of 3D detectors up to the maximum radiation fluence expected at the high luminosity LHC operation will be presented. Results from both strip and pixel devices will be shown using characterization methods that include 90-Sr betas, focused laser and high-energy pions.

Bates, R. L.

2012-08-01

81

Massively parallel implementation of 3D-RISM calculation with volumetric 3D-FFT.  

PubMed

A new three-dimensional reference interaction site model (3D-RISM) program for massively parallel machines combined with the volumetric 3D fast Fourier transform (3D-FFT) was developed, and tested on the RIKEN K supercomputer. The ordinary parallel 3D-RISM program has a limitation on the number of parallelizations because of the limitations of the slab-type 3D-FFT. The volumetric 3D-FFT relieves this limitation drastically. We tested the 3D-RISM calculation on the large and fine calculation cell (2048(3) grid points) on 16,384 nodes, each having eight CPU cores. The new 3D-RISM program achieved excellent scalability to the parallelization, running on the RIKEN K supercomputer. As a benchmark application, we employed the program, combined with molecular dynamics simulation, to analyze the oligomerization process of chymotrypsin Inhibitor 2 mutant. The results demonstrate that the massive parallel 3D-RISM program is effective to analyze the hydration properties of the large biomolecular systems. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24771232

Maruyama, Yutaka; Yoshida, Norio; Tadano, Hiroto; Takahashi, Daisuke; Sato, Mitsuhisa; Hirata, Fumio

2014-07-01

82

Cn3D  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Introduction to Cn3D for retrieving and viewing individual biomolecular structures and structure alignments. Additional topics include sequence imports and conservation, annotating a structure, saving structures and images, and advanced topics.

National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI)

83

3D Plasmon Ruler  

SciTech Connect

In this animation of a 3D plasmon ruler, the plasmonic assembly acts as a transducer to deliver optical information about the structural dynamics of an attached protein. (courtesy of Paul Alivisatos group)

None

2011-01-01

84

The 3-D Universe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Moveable Museum article, available as a printable PDF file, looks at how astronomers use data to create 3-D models of the universe. Explore these concepts further using the recommended resources mentioned in this reading selection.

85

3D Transmographer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Build your own polygon and transform it in the Cartesian coordinate system. Experiment with reflections across any line, revolving around any line (which yields a 3-D image), rotations about any point, and translations in any direction.

86

TRACE 3-D documentation  

SciTech Connect

TRACE 3-D is an interactive beam-dynamics program that calculates the envelopes of a bunched beam, including linear space-charge forces, through a user-defined transport system. TRACE 3-D provides an immediate graphics display of the envelopes and the phase-space ellipses and allows nine types of beam-matching options. This report describes the beam-dynamics calculations and gives detailed instruction for using the code. Several examples are described in detail.

Crandall, K.R.

1987-08-01

87

DYNA3D  

Microsoft Academic Search

DYNA3D is an explicit, three-dimensional, finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic response of inelastic solids and structures. DYNA3D contains 30 material models and 10 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic\\/isotropic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, Blatz-Ko rubber, high explosive

1989-01-01

88

3-D Simulations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Three-dimensional (3-D) rendering and animation technology is not only used for entertainment, but also for research and educational purposes. The technology can be used for purposes of scientific simulation in fields such as physics, biology, or chemistry. For example, Stanford University's Folding@home project (1) uses 3-D simulations and distributed computing to study protein folding, misfolding, aggregation, and related diseases. Three-D simulations can also be used to observe phenomena that would normally be impossible to scrutinize in detail, as is demonstrated on this website on Nanorobotics (2). This next website describes work by the Robotics Research Group (3) in using 3-D simulations to enhance undergraduate and graduate engineering education. The EdCenter (4) makes available several compressed files of 3-D simulations that model earthquake data, Mars, a San Diego Fly Through, and more. On this website (5 ), Martin Baker provides "all you need to know about 3D theory" and this website (6) provides access to a free open-source software package which "makes it easy to build 3-D simulations of decentralized systems and artificial life." This last article from Cyberbotics, Ltd. (7) discusses how mobile robotics simulation programs can be used to design robots.

89

A Full-Wave Solution of the Maxwell's Equations in 3D Plasmas  

SciTech Connect

We present a new global solver for the Maxwell's equations in stellarator plasmas (LEMan). The 3D geometrical effects are fully taken into account, no assumption on the wavelength is made. The full cold plasma dielectric tensor including finite electron mass is implemented, extension to the kinetic model is under development. The wave equation is discretised with finite elements (linear or cubic) radially and Fourier decomposition in the poloidal and toroidal angles. Special care is taken to correctly treat the problem near the magnetic axis. Unicity of the solution, gauge condition and the energy conservation are ensured. Some results and benchmarks for the Alfven and ion cyclotron frequency ranges are presented.

Popovich, P.; Mellet, N.; Villard, L.; Cooper, W.A. [Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, Association EURATOM - Confederation Suisse, EPFL, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

2005-09-26

90

Integration of multi physics modeling of 3D stacks into modern 3D data structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the concept of how to integrate results of multi physics investigation of 3D stacks into modern comprehensive 3D data structures. Beside a description of modern 3D data structures and methods for floorplanning and Place&Route, approaches for multi physics modeling are introduced. The extension of the layout optimization process by multi physics modeling is investigated. Finally, we

Peter Schneider; Andy Heinig; Robert Fischbach; Jens Lienig; Sven Reitz; Jörn Stolle; Andreas Wilde

2010-01-01

91

Translational benchmark risk analysis  

PubMed Central

Translational development – in the sense of translating a mature methodology from one area of application to another, evolving area – is discussed for the use of benchmark doses in quantitative risk assessment. Illustrations are presented with traditional applications of the benchmark paradigm in biology and toxicology, and also with risk endpoints that differ from traditional toxicological archetypes. It is seen that the benchmark approach can apply to a diverse spectrum of risk management settings. This suggests a promising future for this important risk-analytic tool. Extensions of the method to a wider variety of applications represent a significant opportunity for enhancing environmental, biomedical, industrial, and socio-economic risk assessments.

Piegorsch, Walter W.

2010-01-01

92

First 3D Printout  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a I didn’t want to keep you waiting for too long, so in this chapter you’ll print your first 3D model using the Shapeways Creator\\u000a and Co-Creator. “What? I thought this book was about using SketchUp to develop models for 3D printing!” Well, you aren’t done\\u000a with SketchUp yet. You’ll be learning how to develop custom models using SketchUp starting in

Sandeep Singh

93

The ATLAS3D project - XV. Benchmark for early-type galaxies scaling relations from 260 dynamical models: mass-to-light ratio, dark matter, Fundamental Plane and Mass Plane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the volume-limited and nearly mass-selected (stellar mass Mstars ? 6 × 109 M?) ATLAS3D sample of 260 early-type galaxies (ETGs, ellipticals Es and lenticulars S0s). We construct detailed axisymmetric dynamical models (Jeans Anisotropic MGE), which allow for orbital anisotropy, include a dark matter halo and reproduce in detail both the galaxy images and the high-quality integral-field stellar kinematics out to about 1Re, the projected half-light radius. We derive accurate total mass-to-light ratios (M/L)e and dark matter fractions fDM, within a sphere of radius r={R_e} centred on the galaxies. We also measure the stellar (M/L)stars and derive a median dark matter fraction fDM = 13 per cent in our sample. We infer masses MJAM ? L × (M/L)e ? 2 × M1/2, where M1/2 is the total mass within a sphere enclosing half of the galaxy light. We find that the thin two-dimensional subset spanned by galaxies in the (M_JAM,? _e,R_e^maj) coordinates system, which we call the Mass Plane (MP) has an observed rms scatter of 19 per cent, which implies an intrinsic one of 11 per cent. Here, R_e^maj is the major axis of an isophote enclosing half of the observed galaxy light, while ?e is measured within that isophote. The MP satisfies the scalar virial relation M_JAM? ? _e^2 R_e^maj within our tight errors. This show that the larger scatter in the Fundamental Plane (FP) (L, ?e, Re) is due to stellar population effects [including trends in the stellar initial mass function (IMF)]. It confirms that the FP deviation from the virial exponents is due to a genuine (M/L)e variation. However, the details of how both Re and ?e are determined are critical in defining the precise deviation from the virial exponents. The main uncertainty in masses or M/L estimates using the scalar virial relation is in the measurement of Re. This problem is already relevant for nearby galaxies and may cause significant biases in virial mass and size determinations at high redshift. Dynamical models can eliminate these problems. We revisit the (M/L)e-?e relation, which describes most of the deviations between the MP and the FP. The best-fitting relation is (M/L)_e? ? _e^{0.72} (r band). It provides an upper limit to any systematic increase of the IMF mass normalization with ?e. The correlation is more shallow and has smaller scatter for slow rotating systems or for galaxies in Virgo. For the latter, when using the best distance estimates, we observe a scatter in (M/L)e of 11 per cent, and infer an intrinsic one of 8 per cent. We perform an accurate empirical study of the link between ?e and the galaxies circular velocity Vcirc within 1Re (where stars dominate) and find the relation max (Vcirc) ? 1.76 × ?e, which has an observed scatter of 7 per cent. The accurate parameters described in this paper are used in the companion Paper XX (Cappellari et al.) of this series to explore the variation of global galaxy properties, including the IMF, on the projections of the MP.

Cappellari, Michele; Scott, Nicholas; Alatalo, Katherine; Blitz, Leo; Bois, Maxime; Bournaud, Frédéric; Bureau, M.; Crocker, Alison F.; Davies, Roger L.; Davis, Timothy A.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Emsellem, Eric; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnovi?, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; McDermid, Richard M.; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Sarzi, Marc; Serra, Paolo; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Young, Lisa M.

2013-07-01

94

Multiviewer 3D monitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical Optics Corporation has developed an advanced 3-D virtual reality system for use with simulation tools for training technical and military personnel. This system avoids such drawbacks of other virtual reality (VR) systems as eye fatigue, headaches, and alignment for each viewer, all of which are due to the need to wear special VR goggles. The new system is based

Andrew A. Kostrzewski; Tin M. Aye; Dai Hyun Kim; Vladimir Esterkin; Gajendra D. Savant

1998-01-01

95

3D Shape Match  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Flash applet provides a Concentration-type game (called pelmanism in the UK) in which students must discern the properties of three-dimensional solids and their colors in order to match them in pairs. Spheres, cones, prisms and other standard 3-D shapes are hidden face down on cards. Time and number of trials needed to solve are recorded.

Bunker, Dan

2011-01-01

96

Massive 3D gravity Big Bounce  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The properties of an extension of the new massive 3D gravity by scalar matter with Higgs-like self-interaction are investigated. Its perturbative unitarity consistency is verified for a family of cosmological bounce solutions found by the superpotential method. They correspond to the lower bound ?=-1 of the BHT unitarity window and describe eternally accelerated 3D Universe between two initial/final stable dS vacua states.

Louzada, H. L. C.; Camara Ds, U.; Sotkov, G. M.

2010-03-01

97

3-D seismology in the Arabian Gulf  

SciTech Connect

Since 1977 when Aramco and GSI (Geophysical Services International) pioneered the first 3-D seismic survey in the Arabian Gulf, under the guidance of Aramco`s Chief Geophysicist John Hoke, 3-D seismology has been effectively used to map many complex subsurface geological phenomena. By the mid-1990s extensive 3-D surveys were acquired in Abu Dhabi, Oman, Qatar and Saudi Arabia. Also in the mid-1990`s Bahrain, Kuwait and Dubai were preparing to record surveys over their fields. On the structural side 3-D has refined seismic maps, focused faults and fractures systems, as well as outlined the distribution of facies, porosity and fluid saturation. In field development, 3D has not only reduced drilling costs significantly, but has also improved the understanding of fluid behavior in the reservoir. In Oman, Petroleum Development Oman (PDO) has now acquired the first Gulf 4-D seismic survey (time-lapse 3D survey) over the Yibal Field. The 4-D survey will allow PDO to directly monitor water encroachment in the highly-faulted Cretaceous Shu`aiba reservoir. In exploration, 3-D seismology has resolved complex prospects with structural and stratigraphic complications and reduced the risk in the selection of drilling locations. The many case studies from Saudi Arabia, Oman, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates, which are reviewed in this paper, attest to the effectiveness of 3D seismology in exploration and producing, in clastics and carbonates reservoirs, and in the Mesozoic and Paleozoic.

Al-Husseini, M. [Gulf PetroLink, Manama (Bahrain); Chimblo, R. [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

1995-08-01

98

Smithsonian X 3D  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Would you like to explore a wooly mammoth skeleton in great detail? How about some ceremonial masks created by Pacific Northwest Native Americans? The Smithsonian X 3D project makes all of this possible for visitors from all over the world. This site was created by the Smithsonian's Digitization Program Office and currently visitors can examine twelve digitized models, including a fossilized dolphin skull and the gun of noted explorer, David Livingston. The Video Gallery is a great addition as it contains short films that discuss the project's conservation work, along with a great film titled "What is 3D digitization?" Moving on, the Educators area contains a wonderful set of classroom resources that can be used in conjunction with some of the objects. Finally, the Tours area contains dozens of short films demonstrating these objects, including Seeing Around the Remnant of a Supernova, and Carving and Painting the Cosmic Buddha.

99

3-D Grab!  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern technologies in imaging greatly extend the potential to present visual information. With recently developed software tools, the perception of the third dimension can not only dramatically enhance presentation, but also allow spatial data to be better encoded. 3-D images can be taken for many subjects with only one camera, carefully moved to generate a stereo pair. Color anaglyph viewing now can be very effective using computer screens, and active filter technologies can enhance visual effects with ever-decreasing cost. We will present various novel results of 3-D imaging, including those from the auroral observations of the new twinned Athabasca University Geophysical Observatories.; Single camera stereo image for viewing with red/cyan glasses.

Connors, M. G.; Schofield, I. S.

2012-12-01

100

Calc3D Pro  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The calculator can do statistics, best fits, function plotting, integration. It handles vectors, matrices, complex numbers, quaternions, coordinates, regular polygons and intersections. For point, line, plane, sphere, circle Calc 3D calculates distances, intersections, and some additional information like volume and area. Cartesian, spherical and cylindrical coordinates can be transformed into each other. Carthesian plot, polar plot, parametric plot, best fit, fast fourier transformation, histogram, smooth, and others.

101

3-D Wave Simulation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet is a 3D simulation of wave motion due to different types of sources. The simulation can be rotated and/or frozen and viewed on a 2D slice. Among the possible simulations are point, line, slit, quadrapole and plane sources. The intensity can be shown, or the view limited to the sides of the box. The frequency, source separation, phase difference and balance are adjustable when necessary. The page also includes directions in English and German, and the source.

Falstad, Paul

2004-07-23

102

DYNA3D  

SciTech Connect

DYNA3D is an explicit, three-dimensional, finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic response of inelastic solids and structures. DYNA3D contains 30 material models and 10 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, Blatz-Ko rubber, high explosive burn, hydrodynamic without deviatoric stresses, elastoplastic hydrodynamic, temperature-dependent elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic with failure, soil and crushable foam with failure, Johnson/Cook plasticity model, pseudo TENSOR geological model, elastoplastic with fracture, power law isotropic plasticity, strain rate dependent plasticity, rigid, thermal orthotropic, composite damage model, thermal orthotropic with 12 curves, piecewise linear isotropic plasticity, inviscid two invariant geologic cap, orthotropic crushable model, Moonsy-Rivlin rubber, and resultant plasticity. The hydrodynamic material models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 10 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack 'Tuesday' high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, tabulated, and TENSOR pore collapse. DYNA3D generates three binary output databases. One contains information for complete states at infrequent intervals; 50 to 100 states is typical. The second contains information for a subset of nodes and elements at frequent intervals; 1,000 to 10,000 states is typical. The last contains interface data for contact surfaces.

Kennedy, T. (IBM Corporation, Armonk, NY (United States))

1989-05-01

103

3D Audio System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ames Research Center research into virtual reality led to the development of the Convolvotron, a high speed digital audio processing system that delivers three-dimensional sound over headphones. It consists of a two-card set designed for use with a personal computer. The Convolvotron's primary application is presentation of 3D audio signals over headphones. Four independent sound sources are filtered with large time-varying filters that compensate for motion. The perceived location of the sound remains constant. Possible applications are in air traffic control towers or airplane cockpits, hearing and perception research and virtual reality development.

1992-01-01

104

Twin Peaks - 3D  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The two hills in the distance, approximately one to two kilometers away, have been dubbed the 'Twin Peaks' and are of great interest to Pathfinder scientists as objects of future study. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. The white areas on the left hill, called the 'Ski Run' by scientists, may have been formed by hydrologic processes.

The IMP is a stereo imaging system with color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye.

Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

1997-01-01

105

3D-Imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trotz steigender Verkehrsdichte ist die Zahl der Verkehrsunfälle mit Personenschäden in den letzten Jahren gesunken. Um zukünftige Fahrzeuge sowohl für die Insassen als auch für andere Verkehrsteilnehmer noch sicherer zu machen, wird eine zuneh-mend dreidimensionale Umfelderfassung durch das Fahrzeug notwendig. Eine entsprechende 3D-Sen-sorik ist in der Lage, gefährliche Situationen vorausschauend zu erkennen, den Fahrer bestmöglich zu unterstützen und somit Unfälle zu vermeiden. Aber auch im Falle eines nicht mehr zu vermeidenden Unfalls lässt sich das Verletzungsrisiko für alle Beteiligten minimieren.

Buxbaum, Bernd; Lange, Robert; Ringbeck, Thorsten

106

3D Face Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Three-dimensional human facial surface information is a powerful biometric modality that has potential to improve the identification\\u000a and\\/or verification accuracy of face recognition systems under challenging situations. In the presence of illumination, expression\\u000a and pose variations, traditional 2D image-based face recognition algorithms usually encounter problems. With the availability\\u000a of three-dimensional (3D) facial shape information, which is inherently insensitive to illumination

Berk Gökberk; Albert Ali Salah; Lale Akarun; Remy Etheve; Daniel Riccio; Jean-Luc Dugelay; D. Petrovska-Delacrètaz; G. Chollet; B. Dorizzi

2008-01-01

107

3D Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Blender (GNU\\/Linux, Windows, Mac) is a Free Software 3D graphics program with animation, video compositing, and game creation\\u000a features. This program is also available on two UNIX platforms: SGI Irix, which was popular for high-end graphics work before\\u000a the GNU\\/Linux desktop came along, and Sun Solaris. On Ubuntu, you can install Blender using the Add\\/Remove Applications tool.\\u000a Other GNU\\/Linux distributions

Daniel James

108

Canvas 3D JS library  

Microsoft Academic Search

Web browsers do not have a standard method of creating\\/delivering 3D content. The Canvas 3D add-on for Firefox 3, which will become part of the browser in a future release, allows the delivery of 3D content via the canvas element. However, 3D is a complex problem. This paper proposes a library built on top of the Canvas 3D that will

Catherine Leung; Andor Salga; Andrew Smith

2008-01-01

109

3D video performance segmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a novel approach that achieves segmentation of subject body parts in 3D videos. 3D video consists in a free-viewpoint video of real-world subjects in motion immersed in a virtual world. Each 3D video frame is composed of one or several 3D models. A topology dictionary is used to cluster 3D video sequences with respect to the model topology

Tony Tung; Takashi Matsuyama

2010-01-01

110

Extra Dimensions: 3D in PDF Documentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) and the ISO PRC file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. Until recently, Adobe's Acrobat software was also capable of incorporating 3D content into PDF files from a variety of 3D file formats, including proprietary CAD formats. However, this functionality is no longer available in Acrobat X, having been spun off to a separate company. Incorporating 3D content now requires the additional purchase of a separate plug-in. In this talk we present alternatives based on open source libraries which allow the programmatic creation of 3D content in PDF format. While not providing the same level of access to CAD files as the commercial software, it does provide physicists with an alternative path to incorporate 3D content into PDF files from such disparate applications as detector geometries from Geant4, 3D data sets, mathematical surfaces or tesselated volumes.

Graf, Norman A.

2012-12-01

111

Entourage3D  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From charettes to ateliers, architectural education is dedicated to collaborative learning environments. In recent years, some of these activities have migrated to the web, and along the way a number of forward-thinking individuals have seen fit to create online resources that might be of use to students working in this field. Created by the Design Machine Group at the University of Washington's Department of Architecture, the entourage 3D database includes "building blocks, complete models, and finishing touches for users to download and use." Visitors will appreciate the fact that they can browse these resources by such categories as building component, lighting element, office furniture, or street furniture. Visitors will need to complete a free registration before looking at the various designs and plans available here, but this only takes a few moments.

112

Prominent rocks - 3D  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many prominent rocks near the Sagan Memorial Station are featured in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. Wedge is at lower left; Shark, Half-Dome, and Pumpkin are at center. Flat Top, about four inches high, is at lower right. The horizon in the distance is one to two kilometers away.

Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

1997-01-01

113

Architect Studio 3D  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When one thinks of the vast number of influential architects the world has seen during the past centuries, one is reminded of Dies van der Rohe, Walter Gropius, Le Corbusier, and of course, that Master from the Midwest, Frank Lloyd Wright. It's hard to imagine that a website would be able to conjure up the spirit of this famous and controversial architect, but it does just that. With the assistance of a user-friendly interface, the Architect Studio 3D site allows users to build a model home for a number of clients and their very specific needs. With a small icon of the master residing in the bottom of the left-hand corner of the screen, visitors will get the chance to create their own building for one of these clients, and then submit it to a design gallery for consideration by others. For those visitors who may be less familiar with the world of architecture, there is a handy section titled "About Architecture". Here they will find a glossary of terms that provide brief descriptions of such important concepts and design elements as site, wall, client, roof, and exterior material. Of course, no such site would be complete without a brief biography of the man himself, and as such, a nice overview of his work and life is provided here as well.

114

'Diamond' in 3-D  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This 3-D, microscopic imager mosaic of a target area on a rock called 'Diamond Jenness' was taken after NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity ground into the surface with its rock abrasion tool for a second time.

Opportunity has bored nearly a dozen holes into the inner walls of 'Endurance Crater.' On sols 177 and 178 (July 23 and July 24, 2004), the rover worked double-duty on Diamond Jenness. Surface debris and the bumpy shape of the rock resulted in a shallow and irregular hole, only about 2 millimeters (0.08 inch) deep. The final depth was not enough to remove all the bumps and leave a neat hole with a smooth floor. This extremely shallow depression was then examined by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.

On Sol 178, Opportunity's 'robotic rodent' dined on Diamond Jenness once again, grinding almost an additional 5 millimeters (about 0.2 inch). The rover then applied its Moessbauer spectrometer to the deepened hole. This double dose of Diamond Jenness enabled the science team to examine the rock at varying layers. Results from those grindings are currently being analyzed.

The image mosaic is about 6 centimeters (2.4 inches) across.

2004-01-01

115

Benchmarking ENDF\\/B-VII.0  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new major release VII.0 of the ENDF\\/B nuclear data library has been tested extensively using benchmark calculations. These were based upon MCNP-4C3 continuous-energy Monte Carlo neutronics simulations, together with nuclear data processed using the code NJOY. Three types of benchmarks were used, viz., criticality safety benchmarks (fusion) shielding benchmarks, and reference systems for which the effective delayed neutron fraction

Steven C. van der Marck; Steven C. van der

2006-01-01

116

Benchmarking ENDF\\/B-VII.0  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new major release VII.0 of the ENDF\\/B nuclear data library has been tested extensively using benchmark calculations. These were based upon MCNP-4C3 continuous-energy Monte Carlo neutronics simulations, together with nuclear data processed using the code NJOY. Three types of benchmarks were used, viz., criticality safety benchmarks, (fusion) shielding benchmarks, and reference systems for which the effective delayed neutron fraction

Steven C. van der Marck

2006-01-01

117

Orbiting and Colliding Galaxies 3D Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Orbiting and Colliding Galaxies 3D Model is a three-dimensional extension of the Alar and Juri Toomres' 1972 supercomputer model of colliding galaxies. This model assumes that galactic centers are point masses and the orbiting stars do not interact with each other (the galactic cores interact with each other and the individual stars). Unlike the Toomres' model (and the Colliding Galaxies model by Christian and Lim), both galactic cores begin with a compliment of stars orbiting their respective cores. These stars start in a 3-D circular orbit about the center of each galaxy in one plane. When the two galaxies pass each other they produce the long spiraling tails. The Orbiting and Colliding Galaxies Model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_comp_phys_colliding_galaxies3d.jar file will run the program if Java is installed.

Mitchell, Robbie

2011-06-15

118

3D Emotional Agent Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter presents architecture to design emotional agents evolving in an artificial 3D environment. The agent behavior\\u000a and environment emulator are independent of implementation. To achieve this, a Language of Interface for Animations in 3D\\u000a called LIA-3D, is presented. The agent and environment simulator uses LIA to establish communication with each other.

Félix F. Ramos; Luis Razo; Alma V. Martinez; Fabiel Zúñiga; H. Ivan Piza

2005-01-01

119

Autofocus for 3D imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three dimensional (3D) autofocus remains a significant challenge for the development of practical 3D multipass radar imaging. The current 2D radar autofocus methods are not readily extendable across sensor passes. We propose a general framework that allows a class of data adaptive solutions for 3D auto-focus across passes with minimal constraints on the scene contents. The key enabling assumption is

Forest Lee-Elkin

2008-01-01

120

Development of an extense atmospheric scene database with the 3-D Monte-Carlo EarthCARE Simulator to build 3 along-track views angular dependence models in the framework of ESA EarthCARE Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the main error sources when measuring the Earth Radiation Budget ERB is the lack of knowledge of the anisotropy of the observed scene radiance field Major efforts have been made over the last 25 years to build and improve Angular Dependence Models ADMs that account for this anisotropy thus allowing to retrieve flux measurements with the desired accuracy ADMs are required to carry out radiance-to-flux conversions they can be derived directly from satellite data along the course of a mission if directional sampling of radiances is sufficient to infer flux estimates Because the EarthCARE-BBR Broadband radiometer instrument lacks sufficient angular sampling an alternate approach was explored to derive a set of ADMs using TOA radiances and fluxes that were simulated by the Monte-Carlo photon transport algorithm in the EarthCARE Simulator To replace the lack of satellite information more than 200 000 detailed 3-D atmospheric scenes were defined They took into account foreseen specific orbital constraints five different land surface types and the ocean surface with four different wind speed conditions with corresponding atmospheric surface cloudy interrelated conditions including a fine aerosol cloud classification and discretisation The simulations were processed on the Grid on-Demand ESA-ESRIN interface more than 100 CPUs as well as on their Centre Nazionale di Ricerca CNR associated cluster 16 nodes grid cluster with 4 CPUs each The EarthCARE-BBR makes measurements at nadir and in the along-track direction at

Lopez-Baeza, E.; Domenech, C.; Barker, H. W.; Bouvet, M.; Donovan, D.; Velazquez, A.

121

Inverse reservoir modeling using 3-D seismic  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new software system is proposed with the objective of obtaining detailed reservoir delineating and characterization on the basis of deviated well log data, seismic time interpretation, geologic constraints, and three-dimensional (3-D) stacked seismic data. Inverse modeling is used as the technology to achieve this. Advantages of inversion are the integration of all available information and extensive quality control (e.g.,

1993-01-01

122

3D optical measuring technologies for industrial applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic dimensional inspection of 3D articles with high resolution and productivity is an urgent problem for industry. It takes solving some measurement basic and applied tasks. Using the optical inspection methods, it is essential to take into account the influence of 3D bodies' extension on their Fraunhofer diffraction pattern and images. This influence strongly depends on the configuration of illumination,

Yuri Chugui; Alexander Verkhogliad; Vadim Kalikin; Peter Zav'yalov

2011-01-01

123

Virtual 3D camera composition from frame constraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have designed a graphical interface that enables 3D visual artists or developers of interactive 3D virtual environments to efficiently define sophisticated camera compositions by creating storyboard frames, indicating how a desired shot should appear. These storyboard frames are then automatically encoded into an extensive set of virtual camera constraints that capture the key visual composition elements of the storyboard

William H. Bares; Scott McDermott; Christina Boudreaux; Somying Thainimit

2000-01-01

124

Modifications of the PRONTO 3D finite element program tailored to fast burst nuclear reactor design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This update discusses modifications of PRONTO 3D tailored to the design of fast burst nuclear reactors. A thermoelastic constitutive model and spatially variant thermal history load were added for this special application. Included are descriptions of the thermoelastic constitutive model and the thermal loading algorithm, two example problems used to benchmark the new capability, a user's guide, and PRONTO 3D

D. S. Oscar; S. W. Attaway; J. D. Miller

1991-01-01

125

3D World Building System  

ScienceCinema

This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.

None

2014-02-26

126

Market study: 3-D eyetracker  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A market study of a proposed version of a 3-D eyetracker for initial use at NASA's Ames Research Center was made. The commercialization potential of a simplified, less expensive 3-D eyetracker was ascertained. Primary focus on present and potential users of eyetrackers, as well as present and potential manufacturers has provided an effective means of analyzing the prospects for commercialization.

1977-01-01

127

3D World Building System  

ScienceCinema

This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.

128

JavaSound3D  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This java application allows the user to look at the waveform of WAV files or microphone inputs in detail. One can see a graph of the fast fourier transform (FFT) of the data in the window in a 2D or 3D graph. The 3D graph shows how the FFT changes over time.

Bliss, Jennifer; Steele, Brad; Mechtly, Bruce

2008-07-29

129

3D World Building System  

SciTech Connect

This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.

None

2013-10-30

130

3-D Drawing and Geometry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A Math Forum Summer 1998 Institute project that uses examples of paintings, architecture, etc. to analyze different types of 3-D drawings, and teaches students how to create them. Careers in 3-D drawing that use these techniques, from architecture to movies, are also illustrated. Types include isometric, oblique, and perspective drawings. A drawing project for students is outlined and submissions are invited.

Forum, Math; Sanders, Cathi

2001-01-01

131

Euro3D Science Conference  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Euro3D RTN is an EU funded Research Training Network to foster the exploitation of 3D spectroscopy in Europe. 3D spectroscopy is a general term for spectroscopy of an area of the sky and derives its name from its two spatial + one spectral dimensions. There are an increasing number of instruments which use integral field devices to achieve spectroscopy of an area of the sky, either using lens arrays, optical fibres or image slicers, to pack spectra of multiple pixels on the sky (``spaxels'') onto a 2D detector. On account of the large volume of data and the special methods required to reduce and analyse 3D data, there are only a few centres of expertise and these are mostly involved with instrument developments. There is a perceived lack of expertise in 3D spectroscopy spread though the astronomical community and its use in the armoury of the observational astronomer is viewed as being highly specialised. For precisely this reason the Euro3D RTN was proposed to train young researchers in this area and develop user tools to widen the experience with this particular type of data in Europe. The Euro3D RTN is coordinated by Martin M. Roth (Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam) and has been running since July 2002. The first Euro3D science conference was held in Cambridge, UK from 22 to 23 May 2003. The main emphasis of the conference was, in keeping with the RTN, to expose the work of the young post-docs who are funded by the RTN. In addition the team members from the eleven European institutes involved in Euro3D also presented instrumental and observational developments. The conference was organized by Andy Bunker and held at the Institute of Astronomy. There were over thirty participants and 26 talks covered the whole range of application of 3D techniques. The science ranged from Galactic planetary nebulae and globular clusters to kinematics of nearby galaxies out to objects at high redshift. Several talks were devoted to reporting recent observations with newly completed 3D instruments - CIRPASS, GMOS, PMAS and SPIFFI. Work on 3D software, being developed as part of the Euro3D RTN, was also described and demonstrated. This proceedings volume, consisting of carefully refereed and edited manuscripts, represents the bulk of the talks at the conference and amply demonstrates that 3D spectroscopy is a lively and burgeoning field of optical observation.

Walsh, J. R.

2004-02-01

132

PLOT3D user's manual  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

PLOT3D is a computer graphics program designed to visualize the grids and solutions of computational fluid dynamics. Seventy-four functions are available. Versions are available for many systems. PLOT3D can handle multiple grids with a million or more grid points, and can produce varieties of model renderings, such as wireframe or flat shaded. Output from PLOT3D can be used in animation programs. The first part of this manual is a tutorial that takes the reader, keystroke by keystroke, through a PLOT3D session. The second part of the manual contains reference chapters, including the helpfile, data file formats, advice on changing PLOT3D, and sample command files.

Walatka, Pamela P.; Buning, Pieter G.; Pierce, Larry; Elson, Patricia A.

1990-01-01

133

Range Graphics Benchmark.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document will detail the various avenues available to the government in determining what benchmarks are applicable to the test range community. Areas explored include vendor benchmarks, government developed benchmarks, third party benchmarks, and pro...

1995-01-01

134

3D Shape from Unorganized 3D Point Clouds  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We present a framework to automatically infer topology and geometry from an unorganized 3D point cloud obtained from a 3D\\u000a scene. If the cloud is not oriented, we use existing methods to orient it prior to recovering the topology. We develop a quality\\u000a measure for scoring a chosen topology\\/orientation. The topology is used to segment the cloud into manifold components

George Kamberov; Gerda Kamberova; Amit Jain

2005-01-01

135

DYNA3D. Explicit 3-d Hydrodynamic FEM Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

DYNA3D is an explicit, three-dimensional, finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic response of inelastic solids and structures. DYNA3D contains 30 material models and 10 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic\\/isotropic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, Blatz-Ko rubber, high explosive

R. G. Whirley; B. E. Englemann

1993-01-01

136

DYNA3D. Explicit 3-d Hydrodynamic FEM Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

DYNA3D is an explicit, three-dimensional, finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic response of inelastic solids and structures. DYNA3D contains 30 material models and 10 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic\\/isotropic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, Blatz-Ko rubber, high explosive

1989-01-01

137

DYNA3D. Explicit 3-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

DYNA3D is an explicit, three-dimensional, finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic response of inelastic solids and structures. DYNA3D contains 30 material models and 10 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic\\/isotropic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, Blatz-Ko rubber, high explosive

Whirley

1989-01-01

138

DYNA3D. Explicit 3-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

DYNA3D is an explicit, three-dimensional, finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic response of inelastic solids and structures. DYNA3D contains 30 material models and 10 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic\\/isotropic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, Blatz-Ko rubber, high explosive

R. G. Whirley; B. E. Englemann

1993-01-01

139

DYNA3D; Explicit 3-d Hydrodynamic FEM Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

DYNA3D is an explicit, three-dimensional, finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic response of inelastic solids and structures. DYNA3D contains 30 material models and 10 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic\\/isotropic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, Blatz-Ko rubber, high explosive

Whirley

1989-01-01

140

Unassisted 3D camera calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the rapid growth of 3D technology, 3D image capture has become a critical part of the 3D feature set on mobile phones. 3D image quality is affected by the scene geometry as well as on-the-device processing. An automatic 3D system usually assumes known camera poses accomplished by factory calibration using a special chart. In real life settings, pose parameters estimated by factory calibration can be negatively impacted by movements of the lens barrel due to shaking, focusing, or camera drop. If any of these factors displaces the optical axes of either or both cameras, vertical disparity might exceed the maximum tolerable margin and the 3D user may experience eye strain or headaches. To make 3D capture more practical, one needs to consider unassisted (on arbitrary scenes) calibration. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that relies on detection and matching of keypoints between left and right images. Frames containing erroneous matches, along with frames with insufficiently rich keypoint constellations, are detected and discarded. Roll, pitch yaw , and scale differences between left and right frames are then estimated. The algorithm performance is evaluated in terms of the remaining vertical disparity as compared to the maximum tolerable vertical disparity.

Atanassov, Kalin; Ramachandra, Vikas; Nash, James; Goma, Sergio R.

2012-02-01

141

Applied multifocus 3D microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The depth from focus measurement principle relies on the detection of the optimal focusing distance for measuring the depth map of an object and finding its 3D shape. The principle is most effective at microscopic ranges where it is usually found implemented around a z-controlled microscope and sometimes named multifocus 3D microscopy. As such, the method competes with many other 3D measurement methods showing both advantages and disadvantages. Multifocus 3D microscopy is presented and compared to chromatic aberation, confocal microscopy, white light interferometry. Then, this paper discusses two applications of multifocus 3D microscopy for measuring wood respectively metallic parts in the sub-millimeter range. The first application aims at measuring the topography of wood samples for surface quality control. The wood samples surface topography is evaluated with data obtained from both confocal microscopy and multifocus 3D microscopy. The profiles and a standard roughness factor are compared. The second application concerns the measurement of burrs on metallic parts. Possibilities and limits of multifocus 3D microscopy are presented and discussed.

Zamofing, Thierry; Hügli, Heinz

2004-02-01

142

Benchmarking Reference Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is a companion to an introductory article on benchmarking published in an earlier issue of Medical Reference Services Quarterly. Librarians interested in benchmarking often ask the following questions: How do I determine what to benchmark; how do I form a benchmarking team; how do I identify benchmarking partners; what's the best way to collect and analyze benchmarking information;

Holly Shipp Buchanan; Joanne G. Marshall

1996-01-01

143

Accepting the T3D  

SciTech Connect

In April, a 128 PE Cray T3D was installed at Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Advanced Computing Laboratory as part of the DOE`s High-Performance Parallel Processor Program (H4P). In conjunction with CRI, the authors implemented a 30 day acceptance test. The test was constructed in part to help them understand the strengths and weaknesses of the T3D. In this paper, they briefly describe the H4P and its goals. They discuss the design and implementation of the T3D acceptance test and detail issues that arose during the test. They conclude with a set of system requirements that must be addressed as the T3D system evolves.

Rich, D.O.; Pope, S.C.; DeLapp, J.G.

1994-10-01

144

Autofocus for 3D imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three dimensional (3D) autofocus remains a significant challenge for the development of practical 3D multipass radar imaging. The current 2D radar autofocus methods are not readily extendable across sensor passes. We propose a general framework that allows a class of data adaptive solutions for 3D auto-focus across passes with minimal constraints on the scene contents. The key enabling assumption is that portions of the scene are sparse in elevation which reduces the number of free variables and results in a system that is simultaneously solved for scatterer heights and autofocus parameters. The proposed method extends 2-pass interferometric synthetic aperture radar (IFSAR) methods to an arbitrary number of passes allowing the consideration of scattering from multiple height locations. A specific case from the proposed autofocus framework is solved and demonstrates autofocus and coherent multipass 3D estimation across the 8 passes of the "Gotcha Volumetric SAR Data Set" X-Band radar data.

Lee-Elkin, Forest

2008-05-01

145

Exploring 3D Printing Alternatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Throughout most of this book, you have spent a majority of your time learning about Shapeways and SketchUp. Both work well\\u000a together when designing and developing models for 3D printing. The ease of using SketchUp and the ability to effortlessly\\u000a upload and 3D print models are amazing. In this chapter, we switch gears and introduce a few other tools and

Sandeep Singh

146

3D Topographic Map Simulation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive simulation illustrates how topographic maps are created and used to depict landforms and changes in elevation. Students can sculpt mountains and valleys using a 3-D model and see the changes to the corresponding topographic map, or make alterations to the map and see how the 3-D terrain model changes. The display can be tilted, rotated, or enlarged to view changes to the map and/or terrain model.

2011-04-25

147

Laminar Validation Cases for the Incompressible Flow Model in ALE3D  

SciTech Connect

To benchmark the incompressible flow model in ALE3D, two test cases are conducted. The first case of two-dimensional flow over a flat plate is selected because it provides a straightforward example to determine whether or not ALE3D can grow a boundary layer by viscous diffusion. The benefit of the flat plate problem is that under certain conditions, the governing Navier-Stokes equations can be simplified and solved with numerical techniques, providing an independent result that can be compared with the solution from ALE3D. The second test case is that of two-dimensional, laminar flow about a circular cylinder. This test case is selected because it provides the complexity of an unsteady bluff-body wake in which vorticity is periodically shed from the surface of the cylinder. Since this canonical flow problem has been studied extensively both experimentally and computationally, the results from ALE3D can be compared with those presented in the literature. The results for the flat plate case demonstrate that the implicit time integration scheme results in an approximate twenty-four-fold reduction of the simulation time over that of the explicit time integration scheme. On the other hand, a problematic trend is observed in the explicit time integration scheme used in the flat plate case. The errors in both the velocity and shear stress are not reduced through grid refinement as one might expect. Another trend that raises concern with the flat plate problem is the sensitivity of the velocity and shear stress to the outlet zero natural boundary condition. In all of the flat plate simulations, at least one of the calculated quantities varies quite noticeably near the outlet of the flow domain. For the case of a circular cylinder in which an explicit time integration scheme is employed, both the drag coefficient and Strouhal number demonstrate trends of converging to a solution that compares favorably with results from other studies in the literature.

Ortega, J

2002-07-16

148

3-D threat image projection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Automated Explosive Detection Systems utilizing Computed Tomography perform a series X-ray scans of passenger bags being checked in at the airport, and produce various 2-D projection images and 3-D volumetric images of the bag. The determination as to whether the passenger bag contains an explosive and needs to be searched manually is performed through trained Transportation Security Administration screeners following an approved protocol. In order to keep the screeners vigilant with regards to screening quality, the Transportation Security Administration has mandated the use of Threat Image Projection on 2-D projection X-ray screening equipment used at all US airports. These algorithms insert visual artificial threats into images of the normal passenger bags in order to test the screeners with regards to their screening efficiency and their screening quality at determining threats. This technology for 2-D X-ray system is proven and is widespread amongst multiple manufacturers of X-ray projection systems. Until now, Threat Image Projection has been unsuccessful at being introduced into 3-D Automated Explosive Detection Systems for numerous reasons. The failure of these prior attempts are mainly due to imaging queues that the screeners pickup on, and therefore make it easy for the screeners to discern the presence of the threat image and thus defeating the intended purpose. This paper presents a novel approach for 3-D Threat Image Projection for 3-D Automated Explosive Detection Systems. The method presented here is a projection based approach where both the threat object and the bag remain in projection sinogram space. Novel approaches have been developed for projection based object segmentation, projection based streak reduction used for threat object isolation along with scan orientation independence and projection based streak generation for an overall realistic 3-D image. The algorithms are prototyped in MatLab and C++ and demonstrate non discernible 3-D threat image insertion into various luggage, and non discernable streak patterns for 3-D images when compared to actual scanned images.

Yildiz, Yesna O.; Abraham, Douglas Q.; Agaian, Sos; Panetta, Karen

2008-03-01

149

YouDash3D: exploring stereoscopic 3D gaming for 3D movie theaters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Along with the success of the digitally revived stereoscopic cinema, events beyond 3D movies become attractive for movie theater operators, i.e. interactive 3D games. In this paper, we present a case that explores possible challenges and solutions for interactive 3D games to be played by a movie theater audience. We analyze the setting and showcase current issues related to lighting and interaction. Our second focus is to provide gameplay mechanics that make special use of stereoscopy, especially depth-based game design. Based on these results, we present YouDash3D, a game prototype that explores public stereoscopic gameplay in a reduced kiosk setup. It features live 3D HD video stream of a professional stereo camera rig rendered in a real-time game scene. We use the effect to place the stereoscopic effigies of players into the digital game. The game showcases how stereoscopic vision can provide for a novel depth-based game mechanic. Projected trigger zones and distributed clusters of the audience video allow for easy adaptation to larger audiences and 3D movie theater gaming.

Schild, Jonas; Seele, Sven; Masuch, Maic

2012-02-01

150

Remote 3D Medical Consultation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two-dimensional (2D) video-based telemedical consultation has been explored widely in the past 15-20 years. Two issues that seem to arise in most relevant case studies are the difficulty associated with obtaining the desired 2D camera views, and poor depth perception. To address these problems we are exploring the use of a small array of cameras to synthesize a spatially continuous range of dynamic three-dimensional (3D) views of a remote environment and events. The 3D views can be sent across wired or wireless networks to remote viewers with fixed displays or mobile devices such as a personal digital assistant (PDA). The viewpoints could be specified manually or automatically via user head or PDA tracking, giving the remote viewer virtual head- or hand-slaved (PDA-based) remote cameras for mono or stereo viewing. We call this idea remote 3D medical consultation (3DMC). In this article we motivate and explain the vision for 3D medical consultation; we describe the relevant computer vision/graphics, display, and networking research; we present a proof-of-concept prototype system; and we present some early experimental results supporting the general hypothesis that 3D remote medical consultation could offer benefits over conventional 2D televideo.

Welch, Greg; Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Fuchs, Henry; Cairns, Bruce; Mayer-Patel, Ketan; Yang, Ruigang; State, Andrei; Towles, Herman; Ilie, Adrian; Krishnan, Srinivas; Söderholm, Hanna M.

151

Benchmark Glaciers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United States Geological Survey (USGS) operates a long-term "benchmark" glacier program to intensively monitor climate, glacier motion, glacier mass balance, glacier geometry, and stream runoff at a few select sites. The data collected are used to understand glacier-related hydrologic processes and improve the quantitative prediction of water resources, glacier-related hazards, and the consequences of climate change. This page presents some of the balance, runoff, and temperature data for three glaciers: Gulkana, South Cascade and Wolverine. Reports for each of these glaciers uses the collected data to draw many conclusions. There is also a section with common questions and myths about glaciers.

152

PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITH TURB3D)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into five groups: 1) Grid Functions for grids, grid-checking, etc.; 2) Scalar Functions for contour or carpet plots of density, pressure, temperature, Mach number, vorticity magnitude, helicity, etc.; 3) Vector Functions for vector plots of velocity, vorticity, momentum, and density gradient, etc.; 4) Particle Trace Functions for rake-like plots of particle flow or vortex lines; and 5) Shock locations based on pressure gradient. TURB3D is a modification of PLOT3D which is used for viewing CFD simulations of incompressible turbulent flow. Input flow data consists of pressure, velocity and vorticity. Typical quantities to plot include local fluctuations in flow quantities and turbulent production terms, plotted in physical or wall units. PLOT3D/TURB3D includes both TURB3D and PLOT3D because the operation of TURB3D is identical to PLOT3D, and there is no additional sample data or printed documentation for TURB3D. Graphical capabilities of PLOT3D version 3.6b+ vary among the implementations available through COSMIC. Customers are encouraged to purchase and carefully review the PLOT3D manual before ordering the program for a specific computer and graphics library. There is only one manual for use with all implementations of PLOT3D, and although this manual generally assumes that the Silicon Graphics Iris implementation is being used, informative comments concerning other implementations appear throughout the text. With all implementations, the visual representation of the object and flow field created by PLOT3D consists of points, lines, and polygons. Points can be represented with dots or symbols, color can be used to denote data values, and perspective is used to show depth. Differences among implementations impact the program's ability to use graphical features that are based on 3D polygons, the user's ability to manipulate the graphical displays, and the user's ability to obtain alternate forms of output. The Apollo implementation of PLOT3D uses some of the capabilities of Apollo's 3-dimensional graphics hardware, but does not take advantage of the s

Buning, P.

1994-01-01

153

PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITHOUT TURB3D)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into five groups: 1) Grid Functions for grids, grid-checking, etc.; 2) Scalar Functions for contour or carpet plots of density, pressure, temperature, Mach number, vorticity magnitude, helicity, etc.; 3) Vector Functions for vector plots of velocity, vorticity, momentum, and density gradient, etc.; 4) Particle Trace Functions for rake-like plots of particle flow or vortex lines; and 5) Shock locations based on pressure gradient. TURB3D is a modification of PLOT3D which is used for viewing CFD simulations of incompressible turbulent flow. Input flow data consists of pressure, velocity and vorticity. Typical quantities to plot include local fluctuations in flow quantities and turbulent production terms, plotted in physical or wall units. PLOT3D/TURB3D includes both TURB3D and PLOT3D because the operation of TURB3D is identical to PLOT3D, and there is no additional sample data or printed documentation for TURB3D. Graphical capabilities of PLOT3D version 3.6b+ vary among the implementations available through COSMIC. Customers are encouraged to purchase and carefully review the PLOT3D manual before ordering the program for a specific computer and graphics library. There is only one manual for use with all implementations of PLOT3D, and although this manual generally assumes that the Silicon Graphics Iris implementation is being used, informative comments concerning other implementations appear throughout the text. With all implementations, the visual representation of the object and flow field created by PLOT3D consists of points, lines, and polygons. Points can be represented with dots or symbols, color can be used to denote data values, and perspective is used to show depth. Differences among implementations impact the program's ability to use graphical features that are based on 3D polygons, the user's ability to manipulate the graphical displays, and the user's ability to obtain alternate forms of output. The Apollo implementation of PLOT3D uses some of the capabilities of Apollo's 3-dimensional graphics hardware, but does not take advantage of the s

Buning, P.

1994-01-01

154

Advanced OPC Mask-3D and Resist-3D modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this paper is to extend the ability of a more stable overall process control for the 28 nm Metal layer. A method to better control complex 2D-layout structures for this node is described. Challenges are coming from the fact that the structures, which limit the process window are mainly of 2D routing nature and are difficult to monitor. Within the framework of this study the emphasis is on how to predict these process-window-limiting structures upfront, to identify root causes and to assist in easier monitoring solutions enhancing the process control. To address those challenges, the first step is the construction of a reliable Mask-3D and Resist-3D model. Advanced 3Dmodeling allows better prediction of process variation upfront. Furthermore it allows highlighting critical structures impacted by either best-focus shifts or by low-contrast resist-imaging effects, which then will be transferred non-linearly after etch. This paper has a tight attention on measuring the 3D nature of the resist profiles by multiple experimental techniques such as Cross-section scanning electron microscopy methods (X-SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Based on these measurements the most reliable data are selected to calibrate full-chip Resist-3D model with. Current results show efficient profile matching among the calibrated R3D model, wafer AFM and X-SEM measurements. In parallel this study enables the application of a new metric as result of the resist profiles behavior in function of exposure dose. In addition it renders the importance on the resist shape. Together these items are reflected to be efficient support on process optimization and improvement on the process control.

Szucs, A.; Planchot, J.; Farys, V.; Yesilada, E.; Depre, L.; Kapasi, S.; Gourgon, C.; Besacier, M.; Mouraille, O.; Driessen, F.

2014-03-01

155

Petal, terrain & airbags - 3D  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Portions of the lander's deflated airbags and a petal are at the lower area of this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. The metallic object at lower right is part of the lander's low-gain antenna. This image is part of a 3D 'monster

Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

1997-01-01

156

The Nas Parallel Benchmarks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new set of benchmarks has been developed for the performance evaluation of highly parallel supercomputers. These benchmarks consist of five parallel kernels and three simulated application benchmarks. Together theymimic the computation and data movement characteristics of large scale computational fluid dynamics (CFD) applications.The principal distinguishing feature of these benchmarks is their penciland paper specification---all details of these benchmarks are

D. Bailey; E. Barszcz; J. Barton; D. Browning; R. Carter; L. Dagum

1994-01-01

157

The NAS Parallel Benchmarks 2.1 Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present performance results for version 2.1 of the NAS Parallel Benchmarks (NPB) on the following architectures: IBM SP2/66 MHz; SGI Power Challenge Array/90 MHz; Cray Research T3D; and Intel Paragon. The NAS Parallel Benchmarks are a widely-recognized suite of benchmarks originally designed to compare the performance of highly parallel computers with that of traditional supercomputers.

Saphir, William; Woo, Alex; Yarrow, Maurice

1996-01-01

158

Biological insights from topology independent comparison of protein 3D structures  

PubMed Central

Comparing and classifying the three-dimensional (3D) structures of proteins is of crucial importance to molecular biology, from helping to determine the function of a protein to determining its evolutionary relationships. Traditionally, 3D structures are classified into groups of families that closely resemble the grouping according to their primary sequence. However, significant structural similarities exist at multiple levels between proteins that belong to these different structural families. In this study, we propose a new algorithm, CLICK, to capture such similarities. The method optimally superimposes a pair of protein structures independent of topology. Amino acid residues are represented by the Cartesian coordinates of a representative point (usually the C? atom), side chain solvent accessibility, and secondary structure. Structural comparison is effected by matching cliques of points. CLICK was extensively benchmarked for alignment accuracy on four different sets: (i) 9537 pair-wise alignments between two structures with the same topology; (ii) 64 alignments from set (i) that were considered to constitute difficult alignment cases; (iii) 199 pair-wise alignments between proteins with similar structure but different topology; and (iv) 1275 pair-wise alignments of RNA structures. The accuracy of CLICK alignments was measured by the average structure overlap score and compared with other alignment methods, including HOMSTRAD, MUSTANG, Geometric Hashing, SALIGN, DALI, GANGSTA+, FATCAT, ARTS and SARA. On average, CLICK produces pair-wise alignments that are either comparable or statistically significantly more accurate than all of these other methods. We have used CLICK to uncover relationships between (previously) unrelated proteins. These new biological insights include: (i) detecting hinge regions in proteins where domain or sub-domains show flexibility; (ii) discovering similar small molecule binding sites from proteins of different folds and (iii) discovering topological variants of known structural/sequence motifs. Our method can generally be applied to compare any pair of molecular structures represented in Cartesian coordinates as exemplified by the RNA structure superimposition benchmark.

Nguyen, Minh N.; Madhusudhan, M. S.

2011-01-01

159

PubChem3D: Biologically relevant 3-D similarity  

PubMed Central

Background The use of 3-D similarity techniques in the analysis of biological data and virtual screening is pervasive, but what is a biologically meaningful 3-D similarity value? Can one find statistically significant separation between "active/active" and "active/inactive" spaces? These questions are explored using 734,486 biologically tested chemical structures, 1,389 biological assay data sets, and six different 3-D similarity types utilized by PubChem analysis tools. Results The similarity value distributions of 269.7 billion unique conformer pairs from 734,486 biologically tested compounds (all-against-all) from PubChem were utilized to help work towards an answer to the question: what is a biologically meaningful 3-D similarity score? The average and standard deviation for the six similarity measures STST-opt, CTST-opt, ComboTST-opt, STCT-opt, CTCT-opt, and ComboTCT-opt were 0.54 ± 0.10, 0.07 ± 0.05, 0.62 ± 0.13, 0.41 ± 0.11, 0.18 ± 0.06, and 0.59 ± 0.14, respectively. Considering that this random distribution of biologically tested compounds was constructed using a single theoretical conformer per compound (the "default" conformer provided by PubChem), further study may be necessary using multiple diverse conformers per compound; however, given the breadth of the compound set, the single conformer per compound results may still apply to the case of multi-conformer per compound 3-D similarity value distributions. As such, this work is a critical step, covering a very wide corpus of chemical structures and biological assays, creating a statistical framework to build upon. The second part of this study explored the question of whether it was possible to realize a statistically meaningful 3-D similarity value separation between reputed biological assay "inactives" and "actives". Using the terminology of noninactive-noninactive (NN) pairs and the noninactive-inactive (NI) pairs to represent comparison of the "active/active" and "active/inactive" spaces, respectively, each of the 1,389 biological assays was examined by their 3-D similarity score differences between the NN and NI pairs and analyzed across all assays and by assay category types. While a consistent trend of separation was observed, this result was not statistically unambiguous after considering the respective standard deviations. While not all "actives" in a biological assay are amenable to this type of analysis, e.g., due to different mechanisms of action or binding configurations, the ambiguous separation may also be due to employing a single conformer per compound in this study. With that said, there were a subset of biological assays where a clear separation between the NN and NI pairs found. In addition, use of combo Tanimoto (ComboT) alone, independent of superposition optimization type, appears to be the most efficient 3-D score type in identifying these cases. Conclusion This study provides a statistical guideline for analyzing biological assay data in terms of 3-D similarity and PubChem structure-activity analysis tools. When using a single conformer per compound, a relatively small number of assays appear to be able to separate "active/active" space from "active/inactive" space.

2011-01-01

160

R3D Align web server for global nucleotide to nucleotide alignments of RNA 3D structures  

PubMed Central

The R3D Align web server provides online access to ‘RNA 3D Align’ (R3D Align), a method for producing accurate nucleotide-level structural alignments of RNA 3D structures. The web server provides a streamlined and intuitive interface, input data validation and output that is more extensive and easier to read and interpret than related servers. The R3D Align web server offers a unique Gallery of Featured Alignments, providing immediate access to pre-computed alignments of large RNA 3D structures, including all ribosomal RNAs, as well as guidance on effective use of the server and interpretation of the output. By accessing the non-redundant lists of RNA 3D structures provided by the Bowling Green State University RNA group, R3D Align connects users to structure files in the same equivalence class and the best-modeled representative structure from each group. The R3D Align web server is freely accessible at http://rna.bgsu.edu/r3dalign/.

Rahrig, Ryan R.; Petrov, Anton I.; Leontis, Neocles B.; Zirbel, Craig L.

2013-01-01

161

3D plasmonic chiral colloids.  

PubMed

3D plasmonic chiral colloids are synthesized through deterministically grouping of two gold nanorod AuNRs on DNA origami. These nanorod crosses exhibit strong circular dichroism (CD) at optical frequencies which can be engineered through position tuning of the rods on the origami. Our experimental results agree qualitatively well with theoretical predictions. PMID:24424350

Shen, Xibo; Zhan, Pengfei; Kuzyk, Anton; Liu, Qing; Asenjo-Garcia, Ana; Zhang, Hui; de Abajo, F Javier García; Govorov, Alexander; Ding, Baoquan; Liu, Na

2014-02-21

162

3D Computations and Experiments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project is in its first full year after the combining of two previously funded projects: 3 D Code Development and Dynamic Material Properties. The motivation behind this move was to emphasize and strengthen the ties between the experimental work and ...

R. Couch D. Faux D. Goto D. Nikkel

2003-01-01

163

3-D Data Smoothing Algorithm.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Algorithm presented in this report is designed for use in smoothing 3-D data at NUWES. It uses fourth-order sequential differences to screen the data for outliers and then a special form of least-squares smoothing is performed to select an appropriate...

J. B. Tysver

1981-01-01

164

3D Fire Spread Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These excellent animations overlay animations of fire spread on 3D terrain that incorporates satellite imagery. A timeline shows the animation's current time relative to the fire occurrence, and an inset map provides an overhead view of the fire on a map that shows fuels by location. Animations are available for several wildfires that occurred in California.

Johson, Harry D.; University, San D.

165

On 3D Input Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

We provide an overview of some of our input device developments, which we designed in response to the need for more advanced 3D interfaces. Some of our devices are more task-specific and others are more general, but all of them support six or more degrees of freedom (DOF) and work in three dimensions. In our work, we try to understand

Bernd Fröhlich; Jan Hochstrate; Alexander Kulik; Anke Huckauf

2006-01-01

166

3D Graphics Acceleration Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents some aspects of the design methodologies and techniques that are being used in the OMI GraphMem project. One of the aims of the project has been to investigate 3D graphics accelerator architectures and graphics algorithms. The environment for rapidly prototyping algorithms and the subsequent development of VHDL based designs is described. VHDL has become an important language

P. F. Lister; M. C. Bassett; N. Ford; I. Stamoulis; S. McCann; P. L. Watten

167

Die Stacking (3D) Microarchitecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

D die stacking is an exciting new technology that in- creases transistor density by vertically integrating two or more die with a dense, high-speed interface. The result of 3D die stacking is a significant reduction of interconnect both within a die and across dies in a system. For instance, blocks within a microprocessor can be placed vertically on multiple die

Bryan Black; Murali Annavaram; Ned Brekelbaum; John Devale; Lei Jiang; Gabriel H. Loh; Don McCauley; Pat Morrow; Donald W. Nelson; Daniel Pantuso; Paul Reed; Jeff Rupley; Sadasivan Shankar; John Paul Shen; Clair Webb

2006-01-01

168

Benchmarking ORTEC Isotopic Measurements and Calculations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report represents a description of compiled benchmark tests conducted to probe and to demonstrate the extensive utility of the Ortec ISOTOPIC (gamma)-ray analysis computer program. The ISOTOPIC program performs analyses of (gamma)-ray spectra applied...

B. N. Nitin C. V. Vito R. Dewberry S. R. Raymond

2008-01-01

169

A 3d Puzzle for Learning Anatomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new metaphor for learning anatomy - the 3d puzzle. With this metaphor students learn anatomic relations by assem- bling a geometric model themselves. For this purpose, a 3d model is enriched with docking positions which allow objects to be connected to- gether. As complex 3d interactions are required to compose 3d objects, sophisticated 3d visualization- and interaction

Bernhard Preim; Felix Ritter; Oliver Deussen

1999-01-01

170

Texture splats for 3D vector and scalar field visualization  

SciTech Connect

Volume Visualization is becoming an important tool for understanding large 3D datasets. A popular technique for volume rendering is known as splatting. With new hardware architectures offering substantial improvements in the performance of rendering texture mapped objects, we present textured splats. An ideal reconstruction function for 3D signals is developed which can be used as a texture map for a splat. Extensions to the basic splatting technique are then developed to additionally represent vector fields.

Crawfis, R.A.; Max, N.

1993-04-06

171

Multifocus synthesis and its application to 3D image capturing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new technique for the high-resolution image synthesis called multifocus synthesis is presented. As an important extension, the 3-D real-world image capture is discussed. In the approach, the object image is taken at a number of focal distances by a single camera placed at a fixed position. Each of these images are then converted into the multiresolution using the optimized QMF. The resultant volume of coefficients are then analyzed and 3-D distance information is computed.

Yamaguchi, Hirohisa

1993-10-01

172

3-D QSAutogrid/R: an alternative procedure to build 3-D QSAR models. Methodologies and applications.  

PubMed

Since it first appeared in 1988 3-D QSAR has proved its potential in the field of drug design and activity prediction. Although thousands of citations now exist in 3-D QSAR, its development was rather slow with the majority of new 3-D QSAR applications just extensions of CoMFA. An alternative way to build 3-D QSAR models, based on an evolution of software, has been named 3-D QSAutogrid/R and has been developed to use only software freely available to academics. 3-D QSAutogrid/R covers all the main features of CoMFA and GRID/GOLPE with implementation by multiprobe/multiregion variable selection (MPGRS) that improves the simplification of interpretation of the 3-D QSAR map. The methodology is based on the integration of the molecular interaction fields as calculated by AutoGrid and the R statistical environment that can be easily coupled with many free graphical molecular interfaces such as UCSF-Chimera, AutoDock Tools, JMol, and others. The description of each R package is reported in detail, and, to assess its validity, 3-D QSAutogrid/R has been applied to three molecular data sets of which either CoMFA or GRID/GOLPE models were reported in order to compare the results. 3-D QSAutogrid/R has been used as the core engine to prepare more that 240 3-D QSAR models forming the very first 3-D QSAR server ( www.3d-qsar.com ) with its code freely available through R-Cran distribution. PMID:22643034

Ballante, Flavio; Ragno, Rino

2012-06-25

173

Registration of 3D spectral OCT volumes using 3D SIFT feature point matching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent introduction of next generation spectral OCT scanners has enabled routine acquisition of high resolution, 3D cross-sectional volumetric images of the retina. 3D OCT is used in the detection and management of serious eye diseases such as glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration. For follow-up studies, image registration is a vital tool to enable more precise, quantitative comparison of disease states. This work presents a registration method based on a recently introduced extension of the 2D Scale-Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) framework1 to 3D.2 The SIFT feature extractor locates minima and maxima in the difference of Gaussian scale space to find salient feature points. It then uses histograms of the local gradient directions around each found extremum in 3D to characterize them in a 4096 element feature vector. Matching points are found by comparing the distance between feature vectors. We apply this method to the rigid registration of optic nerve head- (ONH) and macula-centered 3D OCT scans of the same patient that have only limited overlap. Three OCT data set pairs with known deformation were used for quantitative assessment of the method's robustness and accuracy when deformations of rotation and scaling were considered. Three-dimensional registration accuracy of 2.0+/-3.3 voxels was observed. The accuracy was assessed as average voxel distance error in N=1572 matched locations. The registration method was applied to 12 3D OCT scans (200 x 200 x 1024 voxels) of 6 normal eyes imaged in vivo to demonstrate the clinical utility and robustness of the method in a real-world environment.

Niemeijer, Meindert; Garvin, Mona K.; Lee, Kyungmoo; van Ginneken, Bram; Abràmoff, Michael D.; Sonka, Milan

2009-02-01

174

3D printed impedance elements by micro-dispensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Micro-dispensing allows electric circuits to be "3D printed," which can be used to give 3D printed systems electronic and electromagnetic functionality. The focus of this thesis is using micro-dispensing to fabricate capacitors and inductors. 3D printed impedance elements are capable of being more easily embedded, can be used to create structural electronics, and will have extensive applications in antennas, metamaterials, frequency selective surfaces, and more. This is the first known effort to print and measure impedance elements by micro-dispensing which holds great potential for manufacturing multi-material devices.

Robles Dominguez, Ubaldo

175

DYNA3D. Explicit 3-d Hydrodynamic FEM Program  

SciTech Connect

DYNA3D is an explicit, three-dimensional, finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic response of inelastic solids and structures. DYNA3D contains 30 material models and 10 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, Blatz-Ko rubber, high explosive burn, hydrodynamic without deviatoric stresses, elastoplastic hydrodynamic, temperature-dependent elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic with failure, soil and crushable foam with failure, Johnson/Cook plasticity model, pseudo TENSOR geological model, elastoplastic with fracture, power law isotropic plasticity, strain rate dependent plasticity, rigid, thermal orthotropic, composite damage model, thermal orthotropic with 12 curves, piecewise linear isotropic plasticity, inviscid two invariant geologic cap, orthotropic crushable model, Moonsy-Rivlin rubber, resultant plasticity. The hydrodynamic material models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 10 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack Tuesday high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, tabulated, and TENSOR pore collapse. DYNA3D generates three binary output databases. One contains information for complete states at infrequent intervals; 50 to 100 states is typical. The second contains information for a subset of nodes and elements at frequent intervals; 1,000 to 10,000 states is typical. The last contains interface data for contact surfaces.

Chu, R.; Amakai, M.; Lung, H.C.; Ishigai, T. [Fujitsu Systems Business of America Inc., Santa Clara, CA (United States)

1989-05-01

176

DYNA3D. Explicit 3-d Hydrodynamic FEM Program  

SciTech Connect

DYNA3D is an explicit, three-dimensional, finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic response of inelastic solids and structures. DYNA3D contains 30 material models and 10 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, Blatz-Ko rubber, high explosive burn, hydrodynamic without deviatoric stresses, elastoplastic hydrodynamic, temperature-dependent elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic with failure, soil and crushable foam with failure, Johnson/Cook plasticity model, pseudo TENSOR geological model, elastoplastic with fracture, power law isotropic plasticity, strain rate dependent plasticity, rigid, thermal orthotropic, composite damage model, thermal orthotropic with 12 curves, piecewise linear isotropic plasticity, inviscid two invariant geologic cap, orthotropic crushable model, Moonsy-Rivlin rubber, and resultant plasticity. The hydrodynamic material models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 10 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack `Tuesday` high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, tabulated, and TENSOR pore collapse. DYNA3D generates three binary output databases. One contains information for complete states at infrequent intervals; 50 to 100 states is typical. The second contains information for a subset of nodes and elements at frequent intervals; 1,000 to 10,000 states is typical. The last contains interface data for contact surfaces.

Kennedy, T. [IBM Corporation, Armonk, NY (United States)

1989-05-01

177

Modeling the moist-convective atmosphere with a Quasi-3-D Multiscale Modeling Framework (Q3D MMF)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Q3D MMF (Quasi-Three-Dimensional Multiscale Modeling Framework) is a new generation of MMF that replaces the conventional subgrid-scale parameterizations in general circulation models (GCMs) with explicit simulations of cloud and associated processes by cloud-resolving models (CRMs). In the Q3D MMF, 3-D CRMs are applied to the channel domains that extend over GCM grid cells. To avoid "double counting" of the large-scale effects, only the eddy effects simulated by the CRMs are implemented into the GCM as far as the transports are concerned, while the total effects are implemented for diabatic processes. The CRMs recognize the large-scale horizontal inhomogeneity through the lateral boundary conditions obtained from the GCM through interpolation. To maintain compatibility between the GCM and CRMs, the averages of CRM variables over the GCM grid spacing are relaxed to the corresponding GCM variables with the advective time scale. To evaluate the Q3D MMF, a transition from a wave to strong vortices is simulated in an idealized horizontal domain. Comparison with a fully 3-D benchmark simulation shows that the Q3D MMF successfully predicts the evolution of the vortices. It also captures important statistics such as the domain-averaged surface precipitation rate, turbulent fluxes and subgrid-scale (co)variances. From tests with 3-D and 2-D CRMs, respectively, it is concluded that the ability to recognize large-scale inhomogeneities is primarily responsible for the successful performance of the Q3D MMF. It is also demonstrated that the use of two perpendicular sets of CRMs has positive impacts on the simulation.

Jung, Joon-Hee; Arakawa, Akio

2014-03-01

178

Canadian Language Benchmarks 2000: Additional Sample Task Ideas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is designed to be a companion to the "Canadian Language Benchmarks 2000: Theoretical Framework." It builds on the original document with an extensive listing of additional sample task ideas for reading, listening, speaking, and writing benchmarks. The document provides additional examples of tasks for stage I reading benchmarks and…

Pawlikowska-Smith, Grazyna

179

Benchmarking in Student Affairs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the use of benchmarking in student affairs, focusing on issues related to student housing. Provides examples of how benchmarking has influenced administrative practice at many institutions. (EV)

Mosier, Robert E.; Schwarzmueller, Gary J.

2002-01-01

180

3-D electromagnetic modeling of wakefields in accelerator components  

SciTech Connect

We discuss the use of 3-D finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) electromagnetic codes for the modeling of accelerator components. Computational modeling of cylindrically symmetric structures such as induction accelerator cells has been extremely successful in predicting the wake potential and wake impedances of these structures, but fully 3-D modeling of complex structures has been limited due to the substantial computer resources required for a fully 3-D model. New massively parallel 3-D time domain electromagnetic codes now under development using conforming unstructured meshes allow a substantial increase in the geometric fidelity of the structures being modeled. Development of these new codes will be discussed in the context of their applicability to accelerator problems. A variety of 3-D structures are tested with an existing cubical cell FDTD code and the wake impedances are compared with simple analytic models for the structures. These results will provide a set of benchmarks for testing the new time domain codes. Structures under consideration include a stripline beam position monitor as well as circular and elliptical apertures in circular waveguides. Excellent agreement for the monopole and dipole impedances with the models are found for these structures below the cutoff frequency of the beam line. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Poole, B.R.; Caporaso, G.J.; Ng, W.C.; Shang, C.C.; Steich, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

1997-02-01

181

3-D electromagnetic modeling of wakefields in accelerator components  

SciTech Connect

We discuss the use of 3-D finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) electromagnetic codes for the modeling of accelerator components. Computational modeling of cylindrically symmetric structures such as induction accelerator cells has been extremely successful in predicting the wake potential and wake impedances of these structures, but fully 3-D modeling of complex structures has been limited due to the substantial computer resources required for a fully 3-D model. New massively parallel 3-D time domain electromagnetic codes now under development using conforming unstructured meshes allow a substantial increase in the geometric fidelity of the structures being modeled. Development of these new codes will be discussed in the context of their applicability to accelerator problems. A variety of 3-D structures are tested with an existing cubical cell FDTD code and the wake impedances are compared with simple analytic models for the structures. These results will provide a set of benchmarks for testing the new time domain codes. Structures under consideration include a stripline beam position monitor as well as circular and elliptical apertures in circular waveguides. Excellent agreement for the monopole and dipole impedances with the models are found for these structures below the cutoff frequency of the beam line.

Poole, Brian R.; Caporaso, George J.; Ng, Wang C.; Shang, Clifford C.; Steich, David [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

1997-02-01

182

3-D electromagnetic modeling of wakefields in accelerator components  

SciTech Connect

We discuss the use of 3-D finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) electromagnetic codes for modeling accelerator components. Computational modeling of cylindrically symmetric structures such as induction accelerator cells has been very successful in predicting the wake potential and wake impedances of these structures, but full 3-D modeling of complex structures has been limited due to substantial computer resources required for a full 3-D model. New massively parallel 3-D time domain electromagnetic codes now under development using conforming unstructured meshes allow a substantial increase in the geometric fidelity of the structures being modeled. Development of these new codes are discussed in context of applicability to accelerator problems. Various 3-D structures are tested with an existing cubical cell FDTD code and wake impedances compared with simple analytic models for the structures; results will be used as benchmarks for testing the new time time domain codes. Structures under consideration include a stripline beam position monitor as well as circular and elliptical apertures in circular waveguides. Excellent agreement for monopole and dipole impedances with models were found for these structures below the cutoff frequency of the beam line.

Poole, B.R.; Caporaso, G.J.; Ng, Wang C.; Shang, C.C.; Steich, D.

1996-09-18

183

From 3d geomodelling systems towards 3d geoscience information systems: Data model, query functionality, and data management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two-dimensional GIS are extensively used in geology to create, analyse, and interpret geological map models. However, these systems are unable to represent the Earth's subsurface in three spatial dimensions. The objective of this article is to overcome this deficiency and to provide a general framework for a 3d GIS.The presented approach is based on existing 3d geomodelling theory and software,

Marcus Apel

2006-01-01

184

Low bit-rate scalable video coding with 3-D set partitioning in hierarchical trees (3-D SPIHT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a low bit-rate embedded video coding scheme that utilizes a threedimensional(3D) extension of the set partitioning in hierarchical trees (SPIHT) algorithm whichhas proved so successful in still image coding. Three-dimensional spatio-temporal orientationtrees coupled with powerful SPIHT sorting and refinement renders 3D SPIHT video coder soefficient that it provides comparable performance to H.263 objectively and subjectively

Beong-jo Kim; Zixiang Xiong; William A. Pearlman

2000-01-01

185

Extending 3D city models with legal information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

3D city models represent existing physical objects and their topological and functional relations. In everyday life the rights and responsibilities connected to these objects, primarily legally defined rights and obligations but also other socially and culturally established rights, are of importance. The rights and obligations are defined in various laws and it is often difficult to identify the rules applicable for a certain case. The existing 2D cadastres show civil law rights and obligations and plans to extend them to provide information about public law restrictions for land use are in several countries under way. It is tempting to design extensions to the 3D city models to provide information about legal rights in 3D. The paper analyses the different types of information that are needed to reduce conflicts and to facilitate decisions about land use. We identify the role 3D city models augmented with planning information in 3D can play, but do not advocate a general conversion from 2D to 3D for the legal cadastre. Space is not anisotropic and the up/down dimension is practically very different from the two dimensional plane - this difference must be respected when designing spatial information systems. The conclusions are: (1) continue the current regime for ownership of apartments, which is not ownership of a 3D volume, but co-ownership of a building with exclusive use of some rooms; such exclusive use rights could be shown in a 3D city model; (2) ownership of 3D volumes for complex and unusual building situations can be reported in a 3D city model, but are not required everywhere; (3) indicate restrictions for land use and building in 3D city models, with links to the legal sources.

Frank, A. U.; Fuhrmann, T.; Navratil, G.

2012-10-01

186

NoSQL Based 3D City Model Management System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To manage increasingly complicated 3D city models, a framework based on NoSQL database is proposed in this paper. The framework supports import and export of 3D city model according to international standards such as CityGML, KML/COLLADA and X3D. We also suggest and implement 3D model analysis and visualization in the framework. For city model analysis, 3D geometry data and semantic information (such as name, height, area, price and so on) are stored and processed separately. We use a Map-Reduce method to deal with the 3D geometry data since it is more complex, while the semantic analysis is mainly based on database query operation. For visualization, a multiple 3D city representation structure CityTree is implemented within the framework to support dynamic LODs based on user viewpoint. Also, the proposed framework is easily extensible and supports geoindexes to speed up the querying. Our experimental results show that the proposed 3D city management system can efficiently fulfil the analysis and visualization requirements.

Mao, B.; Harrie, L.; Cao, J.; Wu, Z.; Shen, J.

2014-04-01

187

3D-graphite structure  

SciTech Connect

The structure of clusters of some new carbon 3D-graphite phases have been calculated using the molecular-mechanics methods. It is established that 3D-graphite polytypes {alpha}{sub 1,1}, {alpha}{sub 1,3}, {alpha}{sub 1,5}, {alpha}{sub 2,1}, {alpha}{sub 2,3}, {alpha}{sub 3,1}, {beta}{sub 1,2}, {beta}{sub 1,4}, {beta}{sub 1,6}, {beta}{sub 2,1}, and {beta}{sub 3,2} consist of sp{sup 2}-hybridized atoms, have hexagonal unit cells, and differ in regards to the structure of layers and order of their alternation. A possible way to experimentally synthesize new carbon phases is proposed: the polymerization and carbonization of hydrocarbon molecules.

Belenkov, E. A., E-mail: belenkov@csu.ru; Ali-Pasha, V. A. [Chelyabinsk State University (Russian Federation)

2011-01-15

188

Optoplasmonics: hybridization in 3D  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Femtosecond laser fabrication has been used to make hybrid refractive and di ractive micro-optical elements in photo-polymer SZ2080. For applications in micro- uidics, axicon lenses were fabricated (both single and arrays), for generation of light intensity patterns extending through the entire depth of a typically tens-of-micrometers deep channel. Further hybridisation of an axicon with a plasmonic slot is fabricated and demonstrated nu- merically. Spiralling chiral grooves were inscribed into a 100-nm-thick gold coating sputtered over polymerized micro-axicon lenses, using a focused ion beam. This demonstrates possibility of hybridisation between optical and plasmonic 3D micro-optical elements. Numerical modelling of optical performance by 3D-FDTD method is presented.

Rosa, L.; Gervinskas, G.; Žukauskas, A.; Malinauskas, M.; Brasselet, E.; Juodkazis, S.

2013-12-01

189

D3-D research operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses research at the D3-D tokamak reactor. The topics covered under the general heading of research program/scientific progress are: confinement, boundary physics, beta and stability, rf heating, and current drive. The operations section includes: tokamak operations, neutral beam operations, ECH/ICH operations, and shielding radiation studies. Program development focuses on: transport diagnostics, advanced divertor, 110 GHz ECH system, fast wave current drive, pellet injector. Collaborative work on D3-D and international cooperation are addressed and the following topics are covered under support services: quality assurance, planning and control, computer operations, and safety. ITER/CIT contributions are also covered and a list of FY89 publications is presented.

Politzer, P.

1990-04-01

190

Compositing 3-D rendered images  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complexity of anti-aliased 3-D rendering systems can be controlled by using a tool-building approach like that of the UNIX™ text-processing tools. Such an approach requires a simple picture representation amenable to anti-aliasing that all rendering programs can produce, a compositing algorithm for that representation and a command language to piece together scenes. This paper advocates a representation that combines

Tom Duff

1985-01-01

191

Differential 3D shape retrieval  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are presenting a differential three-dimensional (3-D) shape profiling method that is based on the combination of orthogonal fringe projection. It allows us to compute depth gradient maps in a fast and efficient manner. What we are demonstrating is that depth gradients can be computed in a simple way by measuring fringe deformation throughout a novel single-shot approach. We show the usefulness and potential applications of the proposed approach. Validation experiments are presented as well.

Di Martino, J. Matías; Fernández, Alicia; Ayubi, Gastón A.; Ferrari, José A.

2014-07-01

192

Quantitative 3D CT bronchography  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the framework of computer-aided diagnosis, this paper pro- poses a novel functionality for computerized tomography (CT)- based investigation of pulmonary airways. It provides a specific visualization modality - the virtual CT bronchography - together with quantitative investigation via a central axis-based description. This functionality relies on an energy-based 3D reconstruction of the bronchial tree up to the order divisions.

Catalin L. Fetita; Françoise J. Preteux

2002-01-01

193

3-D Magnetostatic Field Simulation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet simulates various magnetic sources, including a line of current, a square loop, a magnetic sphere and a solenoid. Size, number of particles, and field strength are adjustable. Display options include particles in velocity or force fields, field vectors, field lines and potential vectors. The vectors and lines can be displayed in 3D or on a movable 2D slice. Charge can be reversed. Source code and directions are included.

Falstad, Paul

2004-07-13

194

[Real time 3D echocardiography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients.

Bauer, F.; Shiota, T.; Thomas, J. D.

2001-01-01

195

NASA: Exploration in 3D  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NASA's Exploration in 3D website is well executed and is accompanied by music with that classic, creepy, outer space feel. For visitors who prefer silence while looking at images of deep, dark space, there is a mute button near the bottom right side of the homepage. With this website, NASA is allowing the public to see their next major project, which involves creating a transportation system to take astronauts to the moon and then on to Mars. To enable the interested public to watch the progress of their plans for space, NASA will be taking photos of the project and putting them on this website, so they can be downloaded and printed. Once said images are printed, that's where the 3-D pocket viewfinders come in. For visitors interested in getting a viewfinder, click on the link at the bottom of the page that says "Click here to request your own EXN3D Pocket Viewfinder". To view the latest images with your viewfinder that are ready to download and print, visitors can click on "Downloads". Interested parties should check back in the future to see newly added images of the progress of the transportation system.

196

DYNA3D. Explicit 3-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program  

SciTech Connect

DYNA3D is an explicit, three-dimensional, finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic response of inelastic solids and structures. DYNA3D contains 30 material models and 10 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, Blatz-Ko rubber, high explosive burn, hydrodynamic without deviatoric stresses, elastoplastic hydrodynamic, temperature-dependent elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic with failure, soil and crushable foam with failure, Johnson/Cook plasticity model, pseudo TENSOR geological model, elastoplastic with fracture, power law isotropic plasticity, strain rate dependent plasticity, rigid, thermal orthotropic, composite damage model, thermal orthotropic with 12 curves, piecewise linear isotropic plasticity, inviscid two invariant geologic cap, orthotropic crushable model, Moonsy-Rivlin rubber, resultant plasticity, closed form update shell plasticity, and Frazer-Nash rubber model. The hydrodynamic material models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 10 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack Tuesday high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, tabulated, and TENSOR pore collapse. DYNA3D generates three binary output databases. One contains information for complete states at infrequent intervals; 50 to 100 states is typical. The second contains information for a subset of nodes and elements at frequent intervals; 1,000 to 10,000 states is typical. The last contains interface data for contact surfaces.

Whirley, R.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1989-05-01

197

DYNA3D. Explicit 3-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program  

SciTech Connect

DYNA3D is an explicit, three-dimensional, finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic response of inelastic solids and structures. DYNA3D contains 30 material models and 10 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, Blatz-Ko rubber, high explosive burn, hydrodynamic without deviatoric stresses, elastoplastic hydrodynamic, temperature-dependent elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic with failure, soil and crushable foam with failure, Johnson/Cook plasticity model, pseudo TENSOR geological model, elastoplastic with fracture, power law isotropic plasticity, strain rate dependent plasticity, rigid, thermal orthotropic, composite damage model, thermal orthotropic with 12 curves, piecewise linear isotropic plasticity, inviscid two invariant geologic cap, orthotropic crushable model, Moonsy-Rivlin rubber, resultant plasticity, closed form update shell plasticity, and Frazer-Nash rubber model. The hydrodynamic material models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 10 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack `Tuesday` high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, tabulated, and TENSOR pore collapse. DYNA3D generates three binary output databases. One contains information for complete states at infrequent intervals; 50 to 100 states is typical. The second contains information for a subset of nodes and elements at frequent intervals; 1,000 to 10,000 states is typical. The last contains interface data for contact surfaces.

Whirley, R.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1989-05-01

198

DYNA3D. Explicit 3-d Hydrodynamic FEM Program  

SciTech Connect

DYNA3D is an explicit, three-dimensional, finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic response of inelastic solids and structures. DYNA3D contains 30 material models and 10 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, Blatz-Ko rubber, high explosive burn, hydrodynamic without deviatoric stresses, elastoplastic hydrodynamic, temperature-dependent elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic with failure, soil and crushable foam with failure, Johnson/Cook plasticity model, pseudo TENSOR geological model, elastoplastic with fracture, power law isotropic plasticity, strain rate dependent plasticity, rigid, thermal orthotropic, composite damage model, thermal orthotropic with 12 curves, piecewise linear isotropic plasticity, inviscid two invariant geologic cap, orthotropic crushable model, Moonsy-Rivlin rubber, resultant plasticity, closed form update shell plasticity, and Frazer-Nash rubber model. The hydrodynamic material models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 10 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack Tuesday high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, tabulated, and TENSOR pore collapse. DYNA3D generates three binary output databases. One contains information for complete states at infrequent intervals; 50 to 100 states is typical. The second contains information for a subset of nodes and elements at frequent intervals; 1,000 to 10,000 states is typical. The last contains interface data for contact surfaces.

Whirley, R.G.; Englemann, B.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1993-11-01

199

DYNA3D; Explicit 3-d Hydrodynamic FEM Program  

SciTech Connect

DYNA3D is an explicit, three-dimensional, finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic response of inelastic solids and structures. DYNA3D contains 30 material models and 10 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, Blatz-Ko rubber, high explosive burn, hydrodynamic without deviatoric stresses, elastoplastic hydrodynamic, temperature-dependent elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic with failure, soil and crushable foam with failure, Johnson/Cook plasticity model, pseudo TENSOR geological model, elastoplastic with fracture, power law isotropic plasticity, strain rate dependent plasticity, rigid, thermal orthotropic, composite damage model, thermal orthotropic with 12 curves, piecewise linear isotropic plasticity, inviscid two invariant geologic cap, orthotropic crushable model, Moonsy-Rivlin rubber, resultant plasticity, closed form update shell plasticity, and Frazer-Nash rubber model. The hydrodynamic material models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 10 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack Tuesday high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, tabulated, and TENSOR pore collapse. DYNA3D generates three binary output databases. One contains information for complete states at infrequent intervals; 50 to 100 states is typical. The second contains information for a subset of nodes and elements at frequent intervals; 1,000 to 10,000 states is typical. The last contains interface data for contact surfaces.

Whirley, R.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1989-05-01

200

DYNA3D. Explicit 3-d Hydrodynamic FEM Program  

SciTech Connect

DYNA3D is an explicit, three-dimensional, finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic response of inelastic solids and structures. DYNA3D contains 30 material models and 10 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, Blatz-Ko rubber, high explosive burn, hydrodynamic without deviatoric stresses, elastoplastic hydrodynamic, temperature-dependent elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic with failure, soil and crushable foam with failure, Johnson/Cook plasticity model, pseudo TENSOR geological model, elastoplastic with fracture, power law isotropic plasticity, strain rate dependent plasticity, rigid, thermal orthotropic, composite damage model, thermal orthotropic with 12 curves, piecewise linear isotropic plasticity, inviscid two invariant geologic cap, orthotropic crushable model, Moonsy-Rivlin rubber, resultant plasticity, closed form update shell plasticity, and Frazer-Nash rubber model. The hydrodynamic material models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 10 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack Tuesday high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, tabulated, and TENSOR pore collapse. DYNA3D generates three binary output databases. One contains information for complete states at infrequent intervals; 50 to 100 states is typical. The second contains information for a subset of nodes and elements at frequent intervals; 1,000 to 10,000 states is typical. The last contains interface data for contact surfaces.

Whirley, R.G.; Englemann, B.E. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States))

1993-11-30

201

DYNA3D. Explicit 3-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program  

SciTech Connect

DYNA3D is an explicit, three-dimensional, finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic response of inelastic solids and structures. DYNA3D contains 30 material models and 10 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, Blatz-Ko rubber, high explosive burn, hydrodynamic without deviatoric stresses, elastoplastic hydrodynamic, temperature-dependent elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic with failure, soil and crushable foam with failure, Johnson/Cook plasticity model, pseudo TENSOR geological model, elastoplastic with fracture, power law isotropic plasticity, strain rate dependent plasticity, rigid, thermal orthotropic, composite damage model, thermal orthotropic with 12 curves, piecewise linear isotropic plasticity, inviscid two invariant geologic cap, orthotropic crushable model, Moonsy-Rivlin rubber, resultant plasticity, closed form update shell plasticity, and Frazer-Nash rubber model. The hydrodynamic material models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 10 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack `Tuesday` high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, tabulated, and TENSOR pore collapse. DYNA3D generates three binary output databases. One contains information for complete states at infrequent intervals; 50 to 100 states is typical. The second contains information for a subset of nodes and elements at frequent intervals; 1,000 to 10,000 states is typical. The last contains interface data for contact surfaces.

Whirley, R.G.; Englemann, B.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1993-11-01

202

Magmatic Systems in 3-D  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multichannel seismic (MCS) images of crustal magma chambers are ideal targets for advanced visualization techniques. In the mid-ocean ridge environment, reflections originating at the melt-lens are well separated from other reflection boundaries, such as the seafloor, layer 2A and Moho, which enables the effective use of transparency filters. 3-D visualization of seismic reflectivity falls into two broad categories: volume and surface rendering. Volumetric-based visualization is an extremely powerful approach for the rapid exploration of very dense 3-D datasets. These 3-D datasets are divided into volume elements or voxels, which are individually color coded depending on the assigned datum value; the user can define an opacity filter to reject plotting certain voxels. This transparency allows the user to peer into the data volume, enabling an easy identification of patterns or relationships that might have geologic merit. Multiple image volumes can be co-registered to look at correlations between two different data types (e.g., amplitude variation with offsets studies), in a manner analogous to draping attributes onto a surface. In contrast, surface visualization of seismic reflectivity usually involves producing "fence" diagrams of 2-D seismic profiles that are complemented with seafloor topography, along with point class data, draped lines and vectors (e.g. fault scarps, earthquake locations and plate-motions). The overlying seafloor can be made partially transparent or see-through, enabling 3-D correlations between seafloor structure and seismic reflectivity. Exploration of 3-D datasets requires additional thought when constructing and manipulating these complex objects. As numbers of visual objects grow in a particular scene, there is a tendency to mask overlapping objects; this clutter can be managed through the effective use of total or partial transparency (i.e., alpha-channel). In this way, the co-variation between different datasets can be investigated, even if one data object lies behind another. Stereoscopic viewing is another powerful tool to investigate 3-D relationships between objects. This form of immersion is constructed through viewing two separate images that are interleaved--typically 48 frames per second, per eye--and synced through an emitter and a set of specialized polarizing eyeglasses. The polarizing lenses flicker at an equivalent rate, blanking the eye for which a particular image was not drawn, producing the desired stereo effect. Volumetric visualization of the ARAD 3-D seismic dataset will be presented. The effective use of transparency reveals detailed structure of the melt-lens beneath the 9°03'N overlapping spreading center (OSC) along the East Pacific Rise, including melt-filled fractures within the propagating rift-tip. In addition, range-gated images of seismic reflectivity will be co-registered to investigate the physical properties (melt versus mush) of the magma chamber at this locale. Surface visualization of a dense, 2-D grid of MCS seismic data beneath Axial seamount (Juan de Fuca Ridge) will also be highlighted, including relationships between the summit caldera and rift zones, and the underlying (and humongous) magma chamber. A selection of Quicktime movies will be shown. Popcorn will be served, really!

Kent, G. M.; Harding, A. J.; Babcock, J. M.; Orcutt, J. A.; Bazin, S.; Singh, S.; Detrick, R. S.; Canales, J. P.; Carbotte, S. M.; Diebold, J.

2002-12-01

203

ALE3D Simulations of Gap Closure and Surface Ignition for Cookoff Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are developing ALE3D models to describe the thermal, chemical and mechanical behavior during the heating, ignition and explosive phases of various cookoff phenomena. The candidate models and numerical strategies are being evaluated using benchmark cookoff experiments. ALE3D is a three-dimensional computer code capable of solving the model equations in a coupled fashion through all the phases of the cookoff

W M Howard; M A McClelland; A L Nichols

2006-01-01

204

ALE3D Model Predictions and Materials Characterization for the Cookoff Response of PBXN-109  

Microsoft Academic Search

ALE3D simulations are presented for the thermal explosion of PBXN-109 (RDX, AI, HTPB, DOA) in support of an effort by the U. S. Navy and Department of Energy (DOE) to validate computational models. The U.S. Navy is performing benchmark tests for the slow cookoff of PBXN-109 in a sealed tube. Candidate models are being tested using the ALE3D code, which

M A McClelland; J L Maienschein; A L Nichols; J F Wardell; A I Atwood; P O Curran

2002-01-01

205

3-D Electrostatic Field Simulation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet simulates the electric field and potential for various charge distributions, including point, line, dipole, spherical and other charges. There is also a simulation, with adjustable speed, of a charge moving close to the speed of light. The field can be displayed as a velocity or force field with particles following field lines, or as field or equipotential lines. The potential and fields can be displayed in 3-D or on a movable 2-D slice. The field strength and number of particles is adjustable, and the charge can be reversed. Source code and directions (also in German) are included.

Falstad, Paul

2004-07-13

206

Vacant Lander in 3-D  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This 3-D image captured by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's rear hazard-identification camera shows the now-empty lander that carried the rover 283 million miles to Meridiani Planum, Mars. Engineers received confirmation that Opportunity's six wheels successfully rolled off the lander and onto martian soil at 3:01 a.m. PST, January 31, 2004, on the seventh martian day, or sol, of the mission. The rover is approximately 1 meter (3 feet) in front of the lander, facing north.

2004-01-01

207

3D Finite Element Meshing from Imaging Data ?  

PubMed Central

This paper describes an algorithm to extract adaptive and quality 3D meshes directly from volumetric imaging data. The extracted tetrahedral and hexahedral meshes are extensively used in the Finite Element Method (FEM). A top-down octree subdivision coupled with the dual contouring method is used to rapidly extract adaptive 3D finite element meshes with correct topology from volumetric imaging data. The edge contraction and smoothing methods are used to improve the mesh quality. The main contribution is extending the dual contouring method to crack-free interval volume 3D meshing with feature sensitive adaptation. Compared to other tetrahedral extraction methods from imaging data, our method generates adaptive and quality 3D meshes without introducing any hanging nodes. The algorithm has been successfully applied to constructing the geometric model of a biomolecule in finite element calculations.

Zhang, Yongjie; Bajaj, Chandrajit; Sohn, Bong-Soo

2009-01-01

208

3D Radiative Transfer in Cloudy Atmospheres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Developments in three-dimensional cloud radiation over the past few decades are assessed and distilled into this contributed volume. Chapters are authored by subject-matter experts who address a broad audience of graduate students, researchers, and anyone interested in cloud-radiation processes in the solar and infrared spectral regions. After two introductory chapters and a section on the fundamental physics and computational techniques, the volume extensively treats two main application areas: the impact of clouds on the Earth's radiation budget, which is an essential aspect of climate modeling; and remote observation of clouds, especially with the advanced sensors on current and future satellite missions. http://www.springeronline.com/alert/article?a=3D1_1fva7w_1j826l_41z_6

Marshak, Alexander; Davis, Anthony

209

3D face recognition via conformal representation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we propose a 3D face recognition approach based on the conformal representation of facial surfaces. Firstly, facial surfaces are mapped onto the 2D unit disk by Riemann mapping. Their conformal representation (i.e. the pair of mean curvature (MC) and conformal factor (CF) ) are then computed and encoded to Mean Curvature Images (MCIs) and Conformal Factor Images (CFIs). Considering that different regions of face deform unequally due to expression variation, MCIs and CFIs are divided into five parts. LDA is applied to each part to obtain the feature vector. At last, five parts are fused on the distance level for recognition. Extensive experiments carried out on the BU-3DFE database demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

Han, Junhui; Fang, Chi; Ding, Xiaoqing; Sun, Jian; Gu, Xianfeng D.

2014-03-01

210

Positional Awareness Map 3D (PAM3D)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Western Aeronautical Test Range of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Dryden Flight Research Center needed to address the aging software and hardware of its current situational awareness display application, the Global Real-Time Interactive Map (GRIM). GRIM was initially developed in the late 1980s and executes on older PC architectures using a Linux operating system that is no longer supported. Additionally, the software is difficult to maintain due to its complexity and loss of developer knowledge. It was decided that a replacement application must be developed or acquired in the near future. The replacement must provide the functionality of the original system, the ability to monitor test flight vehicles in real-time, and add improvements such as high resolution imagery and true 3-dimensional capability. This paper will discuss the process of determining the best approach to replace GRIM, and the functionality and capabilities of the first release of the Positional Awareness Map 3D.

Hoffman, Monica; Allen, Earl L.; Yount, John W.; Norcross, April Louise

2012-01-01

211

Human Ear Recognition in 3D  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human ear is a new class of relatively stable biometrics that has drawn researchers' attention recently. In this paper, we propose a complete human recognition system using 3D ear biometrics. The system consists of 3D ear detection, 3D ear identification, and 3D ear verification. For ear detection, we propose a new approach which uses a single reference 3D ear shape

Hui Chen; Bir Bhanu

2007-01-01

212

3D Measurement Technologies for Computer Animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper surveys 3D measurement technologies for computer animation and considers unsolved problems on this subject. 3D measurement technologies are actually very important for converting various 3D objects in the real world to 3D models in the virtual world for computer animation. Current 3D measurement technologies have been developed mainly for measuring objects in industrial or scientific fields, such as

Yasuhito Suenaga

1996-01-01

213

Incremental Vehicle 3-D Modeling from Video  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a new model-based approach for building 3-D models of vehicles from color video provided by a traffic surveillance camera. We incrementally build 3D models using a clustering technique. Geometrical relations based on 3D generic vehicle model map 2D features to 3D. The 3D features are then adaptively clustered over the frame sequence to incrementally generate

Nirmalya Ghosh; Bir Bhanu

2006-01-01

214

Exploitation of 3D video technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

3D video is not an artificial CG animation but a real 3D movie recording the full 3D shape, motion, and precise surface color & texture of real world objects. It enables us to observe real object behaviors from any viewpoints as well as to see pop-up 3D object images. We believe the exploitation of 3D video technologies will open up

Takashi Matsuyama

2004-01-01

215

3D printed bionic ears.  

PubMed

The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097

Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C

2013-06-12

216

3D Printed Bionic Ears  

PubMed Central

The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the precise anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing.

Mannoor, Manu S.; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A.; Soboyejo, Winston O.; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H.; McAlpine, Michael C.

2013-01-01

217

Martian terrain & airbags - 3D  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Portions of the lander's deflated airbags and a petal are at lower left in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. This image is part of a 3D 'monster' panorama of the area surrounding the landing site.

Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

1997-01-01

218

Martian terrain & airbags - 3D  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Portions of the lander's deflated airbags and a petal are at the lower area of this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. This image is part of a 3D 'monster' panorama of the area surrounding the landing site.

Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

1997-01-01

219

LOTT RANCH 3D PROJECT  

SciTech Connect

The Lott Ranch 3D seismic prospect located in Garza County, Texas is a project initiated in September of 1991 by the J.M. Huber Corp., a petroleum exploration and production company. By today's standards the 126 square mile project does not seem monumental, however at the time it was conceived it was the most intensive land 3D project ever attempted. Acquisition began in September of 1991 utilizing GEO-SEISMIC, INC., a seismic data contractor. The field parameters were selected by J.M. Huber, and were of a radical design. The recording instruments used were GeoCor IV amplifiers designed by Geosystems Inc., which record the data in signed bit format. It would not have been practical, if not impossible, to have processed the entire raw volume with the tools available at that time. The end result was a dataset that was thought to have little utility due to difficulties in processing the field data. In 1997, Yates Energy Corp. located in Roswell, New Mexico, formed a partnership to further develop the project. Through discussions and meetings with Pinnacle Seismic, it was determined that the original Lott Ranch 3D volume could be vastly improved upon reprocessing. Pinnacle Seismic had shown the viability of improving field-summed signed bit data on smaller 2D and 3D projects. Yates contracted Pinnacle Seismic Ltd. to perform the reprocessing. This project was initiated with high resolution being a priority. Much of the potential resolution was lost through the initial summing of the field data. Modern computers that are now being utilized have tremendous speed and storage capacities that were cost prohibitive when this data was initially processed. Software updates and capabilities offer a variety of quality control and statics resolution, which are pertinent to the Lott Ranch project. The reprocessing effort was very successful. The resulting processed data-set was then interpreted using modern PC-based interpretation and mapping software. Production data, log data, and scout ticket data were integrated with the 3D interpretations to evaluate drilling opportunities resulting in an initial three well drilling program. Thousands of miles of signed bit data exist. Much of this data was processed during a time when software and hardware capabilities were either incapable or cost prohibitive to glean the full potential of the data. In fact in some circles signed bit gained an undeserved reputation for being less than optimum. As a consequence much of the older signed bit data sits on the shelf long forgotten or overlooked. With the high cost of new acquisition and permitting it might behoove other exploration companies to reconsider resurrecting perfectly viable existing volumes and have them reprocessed at a fraction of the cost of new acquisition.

Larry Lawrence; Bruce Miller

2004-09-01

220

Modeling of Particle Orbits in 3D MHD Equilibria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern Tokamaks and stellarators have significant auxiliary fast ion heating systems which must be accounted for in equilibrium calculations. Direct measurement of fast ion profiles is difficult, so often in Tokamaks they are provided by forward modeling. The 3D nature of fields from Tokamaks with resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) and from stellarators necessitates a fully 3D model. The BEAMS3D code uses guiding center approximations to find particle trajectories in 3D fields, and can include the physical effects of hot ion collisions and scattering, charge-exchange and recombination, pitch angle and energy scattering, and viscous velocity reduction. We benchmark the code for beam deposition, charge exchange, and collisionless particle orbits, with positive results. We apply the code to MHD solutions representing the geometry of DIII-D and NCSX, and extract the hot ion pressure profiles. While currently designed to work with the equilibria produced by VMEC or with vacuum fields, the code easily could be modified to work with other equilibria.

McMillan, Matthew; Lazerson, Samuel; Feibush, Eliot

2012-10-01

221

Perception-based shape retrieval for 3D building models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the help of 3D search engines, a large number of 3D building models can be retrieved freely online. A serious disadvantage of most rotation-insensitive shape descriptors is their inability to distinguish between two 3D building models which are different at their main axes, but appear similar when one of them is rotated. To resolve this problem, we present a novel upright-based normalization method which not only correctly rotates such building models, but also greatly simplifies and accelerates the abstraction and the matching of building models' shape descriptors. Moreover, the abundance of architectural styles significantly hinders the effective shape retrieval of building models. Our research has shown that buildings with different designs are not well distinguished by the widely recognized shape descriptors for general 3D models. Motivated by this observation and to further improve the shape retrieval quality, a new building matching method is introduced and analyzed based on concepts found in the field of perception theory and the well-known Light Field descriptor. The resulting normalized building models are first classified using the qualitative shape descriptors of Shell and Unevenness which outline integral geometrical and topological information. These models are then put in on orderly fashion with the help of an improved quantitative shape descriptor which we will term as Horizontal Light Field Descriptor, since it assembles detailed shape characteristics. To accurately evaluate the proposed methodology, an enlarged building shape database which extends previous well-known shape benchmarks was implemented as well as a model retrieval system supporting inputs from 2D sketches and 3D models. Various experimental performance evaluation results have shown that, as compared to previous methods, retrievals employing the proposed matching methodology are faster and more consistent with human recognition of spatial objects. In addition these performance evaluation results have verified that the proposed methodology does not sacrifice the matching accuracy while significantly improves the efficiency when matching 3D building models.

Zhang, Man; Zhang, Liqiang; Takis Mathiopoulos, P.; Ding, Yusi; Wang, Hao

2013-01-01

222

A technique for 3-D robot vision for space applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An extension of the MIAG algorithm for recognition and motion parameter determination of general 3-D polyhedral objects based on model matching techniques and using Moment Invariants as features of object representation is discussed. Results of tests conducted on the algorithm under conditions simulating space conditions are presented.

Markandey, V.; Tagare, H.; Defigueiredo, R. J. P.

1987-01-01

223

A plasticity concrete material model for DYNA3D  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lagrangian finite element codes with explicit time integration are extensively used for the analysis of structures subjected to explosive loading. Within these codes, numerous material models have been implemented. However, the development of a realistic but efficient concrete material model has proven complex and challenging.The plasticity concrete material model in the Lagrangian finite element code DYNA3D was assessed and enhanced.

L. Javier Malvar; John E. Crawford; James W. Wesevich; Don Simons

1997-01-01

224

An Investigation of Selective Coloring with 3-D Laser Printing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on preliminary results involving an experimental rapid prototyping process known as 3-D laser printing. The system builds parts by repeatedly laser printing thermoplastic cross-sectional “slice” images of a part one on top of the next. With each new layer, the total build thickness increases until the part is complete. An interesting extension to this system involves the

Denis Cormier; James Taylor; Harvey West

2002-01-01

225

A 3D laser and vision based classifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a method for modelling semantic content in scenes, in order to facilitate urban driving. More specifically, it presents a 3D classifier based on Velodyne data and monocular color imagery. The system contains two main components: a ground model and an object model. The ground model is a novel extension of elevation maps using Conditional Random Fields. It

Bertrand Douillard; Alex Brooks; Fabio Ramos

2009-01-01

226

Modeling the Properties of 3D Woven Composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An extensive study has been completed of the internal geometry, the mechanisms of failure, and the micromechanics of local failure events in graphite/epoxy composites with three dimensional (3D) woven reinforcement. This work has led to the development of models for predicting elastic constants, strength, notch sensitivity, and fatigue life. A summary is presented here.

Cox, Brian N.

1995-01-01

227

Demonstration of a 3D vision algorithm for space applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper reports an extension of the MIAG algorithm for recognition and motion parameter determination of general 3-D polyhedral objects based on model matching techniques and using movement invariants as features of object representation. Results of tests conducted on the algorithm under conditions simulating space conditions are presented.

Defigueiredo, Rui J. P. (editor)

1987-01-01

228

3D molecular interconnection technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the functional modeling of complex biological processing structures with high-density 3D connections (such as the visual cortex), we propose a simple multi-chip stack structure, with through-chip connections and molecular wires between the layers. We have designed and fabricated a two-chip stack, and molecular wiring materials have been examined: chemically and electrochemically grown conductive polymers. The next experimental stage will be to fabricate a three-chip stack. We have calculated the rate at which electrical signals can be transmitted through the layer and down a molecular wire. The measured values of conductivity for the polymer-based wires lie in the range sigma = 1 - 100 S m-1, which would allow bandwidths up to 100 Mbits s-1 per connection.

Crawley, D.; Nikolic, K.; Forshaw, M.; Ackermann, J.; Videlot, C.; Nguyen, T. N.; Wang, L.; Sarro, P. M.

2003-09-01

229

3D Elastic Wavefield Tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wavefield tomography, or waveform inversion, aims to extract the maximum information from seismic data by matching trace by trace the response of the solid earth to seismic waves using numerical modelling tools. Its first formulation dates from the early 80's, when Albert Tarantola developed a solid theoretical basis that is still used today with little change. Due to computational limitations, the application of the method to 3D problems has been unaffordable until a few years ago, and then only under the acoustic approximation. Although acoustic wavefield tomography is widely used, a complete solution of the seismic inversion problem requires that we account properly for the physics of wave propagation, and so must include elastic effects. We have developed a 3D tomographic wavefield inversion code that incorporates the full elastic wave equation. The bottle neck of the different implementations is the forward modelling algorithm that generates the synthetic data to be compared with the field seismograms as well as the backpropagation of the residuals needed to form the direction update of the model parameters. Furthermore, one or two extra modelling runs are needed in order to calculate the step-length. Our approach uses a FD scheme explicit time-stepping by finite differences that are 4th order in space and 2nd order in time, which is a 3D version of the one developed by Jean Virieux in 1986. We chose the time domain because an explicit time scheme is much less demanding in terms of memory than its frequency domain analogue, although the discussion of wich domain is more efficient still remains open. We calculate the parameter gradients for Vp and Vs by correlating the normal and shear stress wavefields respectively. A straightforward application would lead to the storage of the wavefield at all grid points at each time-step. We tackled this problem using two different approaches. The first one makes better use of resources for small models of dimension equal or less than 300x300x300 nodes, and it under-samples the wavefield reducing the number of stored time-steps by an order of magnitude. For bigger models the wavefield is stored only at the boundaries of the model and then re-injected while the residuals are backpropagated allowing to compute the correlation 'on the fly'. In terms of computational resource, the elastic code is an order of magnitude more demanding than the equivalent acoustic code. We have combined shared memory with distributed memory parallelisation using OpenMP and MPI respectively. Thus, we take advantage of the increasingly common multi-core architecture processors. We have successfully applied our inversion algorithm to different realistic complex 3D models. The models had non-linear relations between pressure and shear wave velocities. The shorter wavelengths of the shear waves improve the resolution of the images obtained with respect to a purely acoustic approach.

Guasch, L.; Warner, M.; Stekl, I.; Umpleby, A.; Shah, N.

2010-12-01

230

ALE3D Model Predications and Materials Characterization for Cookoff Response of PBXN-109.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

ALE3D simulations are presented for the thermal explosion of PBXN-109 (RDX, AI, HTPB, DOA) in support of an effort by the U. S. Navy and Department of Energy (DOE) to validate computational models. The U. S. Navy is performing benchmark tests for the slow...

M. A. McClelland J. L. Maienschein A. L. Nichols J. F. Wardell A. I. Atwood P. O. Curran

2002-01-01

231

NIF Ignition Target 3D Point Design  

SciTech Connect

We have developed an input file for running 3D NIF hohlraums that is optimized such that it can be run in 1-2 days on parallel computers. We have incorporated increasing levels of automation into the 3D input file: (1) Configuration controlled input files; (2) Common file for 2D and 3D, different types of capsules (symcap, etc.); and (3) Can obtain target dimensions, laser pulse, and diagnostics settings automatically from NIF Campaign Management Tool. Using 3D Hydra calculations to investigate different problems: (1) Intrinsic 3D asymmetry; (2) Tolerance to nonideal 3D effects (e.g. laser power balance, pointing errors); and (3) Synthetic diagnostics.

Jones, O; Marinak, M; Milovich, J; Callahan, D

2008-11-05

232

The NAS parallel benchmarks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new set of benchmarks was developed for the performance evaluation of highly parallel supercomputers. These benchmarks consist of a set of kernels, the 'Parallel Kernels,' and a simulated application benchmark. Together they mimic the computation and data movement characteristics of large scale computational fluid dynamics (CFD) applications. The principal distinguishing feature of these benchmarks is their 'pencil and paper' specification - all details of these benchmarks are specified only algorithmically. In this way many of the difficulties associated with conventional benchmarking approaches on highly parallel systems are avoided.

Bailey, David (editor); Barton, John (editor); Lasinski, Thomas (editor); Simon, Horst (editor)

1993-01-01

233

Supernova Remnant in 3-D  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for the movie

For the first time, a multiwavelength three-dimensional reconstruction of a supernova remnant has been created. This stunning visualization of Cassiopeia A, or Cas A, the result of an explosion approximately 330 years ago, uses data from several telescopes: X-ray data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, infrared data from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope and optical data from the National Optical Astronomy Observatory 4-meter telescope at Kitt Peak, Ariz., and the Michigan-Dartmouth-MIT 2.4-meter telescope, also at Kitt Peak. In this visualization, the green region is mostly iron observed in X-rays. The yellow region is a combination of argon and silicon seen in X-rays, optical, and infrared including jets of silicon plus outer debris seen in the optical. The red region is cold debris seen in the infrared. Finally, the blue reveals the outer blast wave, most prominently detected in X-rays.

Most of the material shown in this visualization is debris from the explosion that has been heated by a shock moving inwards. The red material interior to the yellow/orange ring has not yet encountered the inward moving shock and so has not yet been heated. These unshocked debris were known to exist because they absorb background radio light, but they were only recently discovered in infrared emission with Spitzer. The blue region is composed of gas surrounding the explosion that was heated when it was struck by the outgoing blast wave, as clearly seen in Chandra images.

To create this visualization, scientists took advantage of both a previously known phenomenon the Doppler effect and a new technology that bridges astronomy and medicine. When elements created inside a supernova, such as iron, silicon and argon, are heated they emit light at certain wavelengths. Material moving towards the observer will have shorter wavelengths and material moving away will have longer wavelengths. Since the amount of the wavelength shift is related to the speed of motion, one can determine how fast the debris are moving in either direction. Because Cas A is the result of an explosion, the stellar debris is expanding radially outwards from the explosion center. Using simple geometry, the scientists were able to construct a 3-D model using all of this information. A program called 3-D Slicer modified for astronomical use by the Astronomical Medicine Project at Harvard University in Cambridge, Mass. was used to display and manipulate the 3-D model. Commercial software was then used to create the 3-D fly-through.

The blue filaments defining the blast wave were not mapped using the Doppler effect because they emit a different kind of light synchrotron radiation that does not emit light at discrete wavelengths, but rather in a broad continuum. The blue filaments are only a representation of the actual filaments observed at the blast wave.

This visualization shows that there are two main components to this supernova remnant: a spherical component in the outer parts of the remnant and a flattened (disk-like) component in the inner region. The spherical component consists of the outer layer of the star that exploded, probably made of helium and carbon. These layers drove a spherical blast wave into the diffuse gas surrounding the star. The flattened component that astronomers were unable to map into 3-D prior to these Spitzer observations consists of the inner layers of the star. It is made from various heavier elements, not all shown in the visualization, such as oxygen, neon, silicon, sulphur, argon and iron.

High-velocity plumes, or jets, of this material are shooting out from the explosion in the plane of the disk-like component mentioned above. Plumes of silicon appear in the northeast and southwest, while those of iron are seen in the southeast and north. These jets were already known and Doppler velocity measurements have been made for these structures, but their orientation and position with resp

2009-01-01

234

3D printing facilitated scaffold-free tissue unit fabrication.  

PubMed

Tissue spheroids hold great potential in tissue engineering as building blocks to assemble into functional tissues. To date, agarose molds have been extensively used to facilitate fusion process of tissue spheroids. As a molding material, agarose typically requires low temperature plates for gelation and/or heated dispenser units. Here, we proposed and developed an alginate-based, direct 3D mold-printing technology: 3D printing microdroplets of alginate solution into biocompatible, bio-inert alginate hydrogel molds for the fabrication of scaffold-free tissue engineering constructs. Specifically, we developed a 3D printing technology to deposit microdroplets of alginate solution on calcium containing substrates in a layer-by-layer fashion to prepare ring-shaped 3D hydrogel molds. Tissue spheroids composed of 50% endothelial cells and 50% smooth muscle cells were robotically placed into the 3D printed alginate molds using a 3D printer, and were found to rapidly fuse into toroid-shaped tissue units. Histological and immunofluorescence analysis indicated that the cells secreted collagen type I playing a critical role in promoting cell-cell adhesion, tissue formation and maturation. PMID:24717646

Tan, Yu; Richards, Dylan J; Trusk, Thomas C; Visconti, Richard P; Yost, Michael J; Kindy, Mark S; Drake, Christopher J; Argraves, William Scott; Markwald, Roger R; Mei, Ying

2014-06-01

235

Volume-sampled 3D modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a 3D object-space antialiasing technique for volume graphics. Our approach performs antialiasing once-on a 3D view-independent representation-as part of the modeling stage. Unlike antialiasing of 2D scan-converted graphics, where the main focus is on generating aesthetically pleasing displays, antialiasing of 3D voxelized graphics emphasizes the production of alias-free 3D models for various volume graphics manipulations, including but not

Sidney W. Wang; Arie E. Kaufman

1994-01-01

236

ATR for 3D medical imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel concept of Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) for 3D medical imaging. Such 3D imaging can be obtained from X-ray Computerized Tomography (CT), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Positron Emission Tomography (PET), Ultrasonography (USG), functional MRI, and others. In the case of CT, such 3D imaging can be derived from 3D-mapping of X-ray linear attenuation coefficients, related to

Tomasz Jannson; Andrew Kostrzewski; P. Paki Amouzou

2007-01-01

237

Boronization in D3-D  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A thin boron film was applied to the D3-D tokamak plasma facing surfaces to reduce impurity influx, particularly oxygen and carbon. A direct result of this surface modification was the observation of a regime of very high energy confinement, VH-mode, with confinement times from 1.5 to 2 times greater than predicted by H-mode scaling relation for the same set of parameters. VH-mode discharges are characterized by low ohmic target densities, low edge neutral pressure, and reduced cycling. These conditions have reduced the collisionality, (nu)*, in the edge region producing a higher edge pressure gradient and a significant bootstrap current, up to 30 percent of the total current. We will describe the edge plasma properties after boronization including reductions in recycling inferred from measurements of (tau)(sub p)*. In particular we will discuss the edge plasma conditions necessary for access to VH-mode including the boronization process and properties of the deposited film.

Jackson, G. L.; Burrell, K. H.; Deboo, J. C.; Greenfield, C. M.; Groebner, R. J.; Hodapp, T.; Kellman, A. G.; Lee, R.; Lippman, S. I.; Phillips, J.

1992-05-01

238

Benchmark On Sensitivity Calculation (Phase III)  

SciTech Connect

The sensitivities of the keff eigenvalue to neutron cross sections have become commonly used in similarity studies and as part of the validation algorithm for criticality safety assessments. To test calculations of the sensitivity coefficients, a benchmark study (Phase III) has been established by the OECD-NEA/WPNCS/EG UACSA (Expert Group on Uncertainty Analysis for Criticality Safety Assessment). This paper presents some sensitivity results generated by the benchmark participants using various computational tools based upon different computational methods: SCALE/TSUNAMI-3D and -1D, MONK, APOLLO2-MORET 5, DRAGON-SUSD3D and MMKKENO. The study demonstrates the performance of the tools. It also illustrates how model simplifications impact the sensitivity results and demonstrates the importance of 'implicit' (self-shielding) sensitivities. This work has been a useful step towards verification of the existing and developed sensitivity analysis methods.

Ivanova, Tatiana [IRSN; Laville, Cedric [IRSN; Dyrda, James [Atomic Weapons Establishment; Mennerdahl, Dennis [E. Mennerdahl Systems; Golovko, Yury [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE), Obninsk, Russia; Raskach, Kirill [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE), Obninsk, Russia; Tsiboulia, Anatoly [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE), Obninsk, Russia; Lee, Gil Soo [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS); Woo, Sweng-Woong [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS); Bidaud, Adrien [Labratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmolo-gie (LPSC); Patel, Amrit [NRC; Bledsoe, Keith C [ORNL; Rearden, Bradley T [ORNL; Gulliford, J. [OECD Nuclear Energy Agency

2012-01-01

239

Shear invariant 3D model retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increase in affordable computing power has fostered the creation of 3D models. The field of 3D models is on the rise with the advent of high speed Internet. Large repositories of 3D models are being created and made public on the Internet. Searching among these repositories is an obvious requirement. In this paper, we present a total shear invariant

Sagar Naik; B. Prabhakaran

2007-01-01

240

Consistent stylization of stereoscopic 3D images  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of stylization filters to photographs is common, Instagram being a popular recent example. These image manipulation applications work great for 2D images. However, stereoscopic 3D cameras are increasingly available to consumers (Nintendo 3DS, Fuji W3 3D, HTC Evo 3D). How will users apply these same stylizations to stereoscopic images?

Lesley Northam; Paul Asente; Craig S. Kaplan

2012-01-01

241

3D Flow Visualization Using Texture Advection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Texture advection is an effective tool for animating and investigating 2D flows. In this paper, we discuss how this technique can be extended to 3D flows. In particular, we examine the use of 3D and 4D textures on 3D synthetic and computational fluid dynamics flow fields.

Kao, David; Zhang, Bing; Kim, Kwansik; Pang, Alex; Moran, Pat (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

242

Beowulf 3D: a case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses the creative and technical challenges encountered during the production of "Beowulf 3D," director Robert Zemeckis' adaptation of the Old English epic poem and the first film to be simultaneously released in IMAX 3D and digital 3D formats.

Engle, Rob

2008-03-01

243

Pathways for Learning from 3D Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to find out if 3D stereoscopic presentation of information in a movie format changes a viewer's experience of the movie content. Four possible pathways from 3D presentation to memory and learning were considered: a direct connection based on cognitive neuroscience research; a connection through "immersion" in that 3D

Carrier, L. Mark; Rab, Saira S.; Rosen, Larry D.; Vasquez, Ludivina; Cheever, Nancy A.

2012-01-01

244

Architecture for digital 3D broadcasting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent discussions with a number of leading Cable Television broadcasters has indicated a willingness to include 3D capabilities in their role out of digital television services. Such a service would represent a landmark in the evolution of 3D. While this will provide a tremendous stimulation to numerous fledgling 3D industries throughout the world, the development of a digital 3D broadcast architecture that would meet the stringent requirements of the Cable companies will not be a simple exercise. During discussion, the Cable companies proposed the following specification for a digital Cable 3D service: 1) The 3D service must be totally 2D compatible; 2) The fact that 3D is being transmitted should not be detectable by the 2D viewer and not affect the 2D service in any way; 3) No additional bandwidth will be required for the 3D service; 4) The 3D service must be totally compatible with all existing and future 2D systems and equipment; 5) The 3D system must cater for existing stereoscopic display system and future 'multiple view' displays; 6) Unlimited supply of high quality, low cost, 3D material. Additionally, should the 3D service prove to be economically viable then: 7) The service must be capable of being upgraded to accept stereoscopic video images. In the case of 7, then 2D compatibility would not be required and a number of the other restrictions would be relaxed. An architecture that will meet these requirements is described.

Harman, Phil V.

1999-05-01

245

Structural Indexing: Efficient 3-D Object Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present an approach for the recognition of multiple 3-D object models from three 3-D scene data. The approach uses two different types of primitives for matching: small surface patches, where differential properties can be reliably computed, and lines corresponding to depth or orientation discontinuities. These are represented by splashes and 3-D curves, respectively. It is shown how both

Fridtjof Stein; Gérard G. Medioni

1992-01-01

246

3D steerable pyramid based on conic filters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The object of this work is 3D directional structures detection. The detection is based on steerable filters, which can be steered to any orientation fixed by the user, and are synthesized using a limited number of basis filters. These filters are used in a recursive multi-scale transform: the steerable pyramid. 2D multiscale approaches using oriented filters have proved to be efficient to detect such curvilinear patterns. We develop a 3D extension of the steerable pyramid to analyze volumes with a desired number of filters.

Delle Luche, Céline A.; Denis, Florence; Baskurt, Atilla

2004-02-01

247

Tomographic 3D-PIV and Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tomographic particle image velocimetry is a 3D PIV technique based on the illumination, recording, reconstruction and analysis of tracer-particle motion within a three-dimensional measurement volume. The recently developed technique makes use of several simultaneous views of the illuminated particles, typically 4, and their three-dimensional reconstruction as a light-intensity distribution by means of optical tomography. The reconstruction is performed with the MART algorithm (multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique), yielding a 3D distribution of light intensity discretized over an array of voxels. The reconstructed tomogram pair is then analyzed by means of 3D crosscorrelation with an iterative multigrid volume-deformation technique, returning the three-component velocity vector distribution over the measurement volume. The implementation of the tomographic technique in time-resolved mode by means of high repetition rate PIV hardware has the capability to yield 4D velocity information. The first part of the chapter describes the operation principles and gives a detailed assessment of the tomographic reconstruction algorithm performance based upon a computer-simulated experiment. The second part of the chapter proposes four applications on two flow cases: 1. the transitional wake behind a circular cylinder; 2. the turbulent boundary layer developing over a flat plate. For the first case, experiments in air at ReD = 2700 are described together with the experimental assessment of the tomographic reconstruction accuracy. In this experiment a direct comparison is made between the results obtained by tomographic PIV and stereo-PIV. Experiments conducted in a water facility on the cylinder wake shows the extension of the technique to time-resolved measurements in water at ReD = 540 by means of a low repetition rate PIV system. A high data yield is obtained using high-resolution cameras (2k × 2k pixels) returning 650k vectors per volume. Measurements of the turbulent boundary layer in air at Re? = 1900 provide a clear visualization of streamwise-aligned low-speed regions as well as hairpin vortices grouped into packets. Finally, in similar flow conditions the boundary layer is measured using a high repetition rate PIV system at 5kHz, where the spatiotemporal evolution of the flow structures is visualized revealing a mechanism for the rapid growth of a Q2 event, possibly associated to the generation of hairpin-like structures.

Elsinga, Gerrit E.; Wieneke, Bernhard; Scarano, Fulvio; Schröder, Andreas

248

Benchmarking protein classification algorithms via supervised cross-validation.  

PubMed

Development and testing of protein classification algorithms are hampered by the fact that the protein universe is characterized by groups vastly different in the number of members, in average protein size, similarity within group, etc. Datasets based on traditional cross-validation (k-fold, leave-one-out, etc.) may not give reliable estimates on how an algorithm will generalize to novel, distantly related subtypes of the known protein classes. Supervised cross-validation, i.e., selection of test and train sets according to the known subtypes within a database has been successfully used earlier in conjunction with the SCOP database. Our goal was to extend this principle to other databases and to design standardized benchmark datasets for protein classification. Hierarchical classification trees of protein categories provide a simple and general framework for designing supervised cross-validation strategies for protein classification. Benchmark datasets can be designed at various levels of the concept hierarchy using a simple graph-theoretic distance. A combination of supervised and random sampling was selected to construct reduced size model datasets, suitable for algorithm comparison. Over 3000 new classification tasks were added to our recently established protein classification benchmark collection that currently includes protein sequence (including protein domains and entire proteins), protein structure and reading frame DNA sequence data. We carried out an extensive evaluation based on various machine-learning algorithms such as nearest neighbor, support vector machines, artificial neural networks, random forests and logistic regression, used in conjunction with comparison algorithms, BLAST, Smith-Waterman, Needleman-Wunsch, as well as 3D comparison methods DALI and PRIDE. The resulting datasets provide lower, and in our opinion more realistic estimates of the classifier performance than do random cross-validation schemes. A combination of supervised and random sampling was used to construct model datasets, suitable for algorithm comparison. PMID:17604112

Kertész-Farkas, Attila; Dhir, Somdutta; Sonego, Paolo; Pacurar, Mircea; Netoteia, Sergiu; Nijveen, Harm; Kuzniar, Arnold; Leunissen, Jack A M; Kocsor, András; Pongor, Sándor

2008-04-24

249

Benchmarking for Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The chapters in this collection explore the concept of benchmarking as it is being used and developed in higher education (HE). Case studies and reviews show how universities in the United Kingdom are using benchmarking to aid in self-regulation and self-improvement. The chapters are: (1) "Introduction to Benchmarking" (Norman Jackson and Helen…

Jackson, Norman, Ed.; Lund, Helen, Ed.

250

tomo3d: a new 3-D joint refraction and reflection travel-time tomography code for active-source seismic data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the development state of tomo3d, a code for three-dimensional refraction and reflection travel-time tomography of wide-angle seismic data based on the previous two-dimensional version of the code, tomo2d. The core of both forward and inverse problems is inherited from the 2-D version. The ray tracing is performed by a hybrid method combining the graph and bending methods. The graph method finds an ordered array of discrete model nodes, which satisfies Fermat's principle, that is, whose corresponding travel time is a global minimum within the space of discrete nodal connections. The bending method is then applied to produce a more accurate ray path by using the nodes as support points for an interpolation with beta-splines. Travel time tomography is formulated as an iterative linearized inversion, and each step is solved using an LSQR algorithm. In order to avoid the singularity of the sensitivity kernel and to reduce the instability of inversion, regularization parameters are introduced in the inversion in the form of smoothing and damping constraints. Velocity models are built as 3-D meshes, and velocity values at intermediate locations are obtained by trilinear interpolation within the corresponding pseudo-cubic cell. Meshes are sheared to account for topographic relief. A floating reflector is represented by a 2-D grid, and depths at intermediate locations are calculated by bilinear interpolation within the corresponding square cell. The trade-off between the resolution of the final model and the associated computational cost is controlled by the relation between the selected forward star for the graph method (i.e. the number of nodes that each node considers as its neighbors) and the refinement of the velocity mesh. Including reflected phases is advantageous because it provides a better coverage and allows us to define the geometry of those geological interfaces with velocity contrasts sharp enough to be observed on record sections. The code also offers the possibility of including water-layer multiples in the modeling, which is useful whenever these phases can be followed to greater offsets than the primary ones. This increases the amount of information available from the data, yielding more extensive and better constrained velocity and geometry models. We will present synthetic results from benchmark tests for the forward and inverse problems, as well as from more complex inversion tests for different inversions possibilities such as one with travel times from refracted waves only (i.e. first arrivals) and one with travel-times from both refracted and reflected waves. In addition, we will show some preliminary results for the inversion of real 3-D OBS data acquired off-shore Ecuador and Colombia.

Meléndez, A.; Korenaga, J.; Sallares, V.; Ranero, C. R.

2012-12-01

251

3D non-Planar Finite Difference Dynamic Rupture: Application to the Landers Earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many aspects of seismic complexity have been explained in the last thirty years thanks to the development of numerical approaches allowing seismologists to simulate the dynamic rupture of earthquakes. Heterogeneities in both the initial stress field and the surrounding medium are extremely important elements. The constitutive law describing the physics of the breakdown process which relates the fault friction to fault kinematics is also determinant. However, given the increasing amount of high quality seismological data, more sophisticated approaches are needed to explain observations so that others important physical factors, such as the real fault geometry, could be integrated into simulations. Bearing in mind these new high quality observations along with the current computational power, a great interest has arisen in the last five years to develop 3D numerical codes to simulate earthquakes with real fault geometries. Recently, Cruz-Atienza and Virieux (2004) have introduced a 2D finite difference (FD) approach for modeling the dynamic rupture of non-planar faults. In this work we analyze the 3D extension of such an approach. On that account, the new 3D code may consider arbitrary heterogeneous media, composite friction laws and non-planar fault geometries. The numerical criteria for rupture boundary conditions to model rupture processes accurately were determined experimentally finding consistency with those determined for the 2D case: the source is discretized by a set of numerical cells. Given a spatial grid step for wave propagation, the number of grid nodes contained in each cell should be adapted accordingly. The smaller the spatial step the greater the number of nodes. We have performed dynamic rupture simulations for different curved 3D faults and compared results with those given by a BIE method (Aochi et al., 2000). Consistency between solutions yielded by different numerical approaches is essential since it is the only way to have confidence in these kinds of complex simulations for which no theoretical solutions are available. This benchmarking exercise has also allowed us to better understand and quantify the effect of fault curvature on near-source seismograms and fault solutions. Finally, we applied our numerical approach to model the 1992 Landers earthquake (Mw=7.3). Several simulations were carried out including a heterogeneous initial stress field, layered elastic medium and the non-planar fault trace geometry. Complexity in near-field seismograms enhances the importance of both a heterogeneous surrounding medium and non-planar fault geometry due to their intimate interaction during rupture process. Aochi, H., E. Fukuyama and M. Matsu'ura, 2000, Pure. Appl. Geophys., 157, 2003-2027. Cruz-Atienza, V.M. and J. Virieux, 2004, Geophys. J. Int., 158, 939-954.

Cruz-Atienza, V. M.; Virieux, J.; Aochi, H.; Peyrat, S.

2004-12-01

252

SULEC: Benchmarking a new ALE finite-element code  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a 2-D/3-D arbitrary lagrangian-eulerian (ALE) finite-element code, SULEC, based on known techniques from literature. SULEC is successful in tackling many of the problems faced by numerical models of lithosphere and mantle processes, such as the combination of viscous, elastic, and plastic rheologies, the presence of a free surface, the contrast in viscosity between lithosphere and the underlying asthenosphere, and the occurrence of large deformations including viscous flow and offset on shear zones. The aim of our presentation is (1) to describe SULEC, and (2) to present a set of analytical and numerical benchmarks that we use to continuously test our code. SULEC solves the incompressible momentum equation coupled with the energy equation. It uses a structured mesh that is built of quadrilateral or brick elements that can vary in size in all dimensions, allowing to achieve high resolutions where required. The elements are either linear in velocity with constant pressure, or quadratic in velocity with linear pressure. An accurate pressure field is obtained through an iterative penalty (Uzawa) formulation. Material properties are carried on tracer particles that are advected through the Eulerian mesh. Shear elasticity is implemented following the approach of Moresi et al. [J. Comp. Phys. 184, 2003], brittle materials deform following a Drucker-Prager criterion, and viscous flow is by temperature- and pressure-dependent power-law creep. The top boundary of our models is a true free surface (with free surface stabilisation) on which simple surface processes models may be imposed. We use a set of benchmarks that test viscous, viscoelastic, elastic and plastic deformation, temperature advection and conduction, free surface behaviour, and pressure computation. Part of our benchmark set is automated allowing easy testing of new code versions. Examples include Poiseuille flow, Couette flow, Stokes flow, relaxation of viscous topography, viscous pure shear, viscoelastic pure shear, viscoelastic simple shear, and half-space cooling. More demanding tests include for example the Blankenbach convection benchmark (Geophys. J. Int. 98, 1989), the Schmeling et al. subduction benchmark (Phys. Earth Planet. Int. 171, 2008), and the angle of shear bands in compression and extension. While we do not aim to provide the most complete set of tests for new numerical codes, we do hope that our tests may help future code developers.

Buiter, S.; Ellis, S.

2012-04-01

253

A novel 3D anisotropic diffusion filter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a 3D anisotropic diffusion filter for denoising and enhancing oriented data. The approach is a generalization of a previous contribution and it is based on a novel, more precise orientation estimation step. The orientation in the 3D space is computed using an asymmetric Isotropic Recursive Oriented Network (IRON) operator that can handle in a natural way junctions and corners. In the experimental section we employ a set of 3D synthetic blocks to illustrate the efficiency of the new method through quantitative and visual comparisons with other 3D-extended classical models or recently proposed 3D Partial Differential Equations (PDE).

Pop, Sorin; Terebes, Romulus; da Costa, Jean-Pierre; Germain, Christian; Borda, Monica; Ludusan, Cosmin; Lavialle, Olivier

2010-02-01

254

The Esri 3D city information model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With residential and commercial space becoming increasingly scarce, cities are going vertical. Managing the urban environments in 3D is an increasingly important and complex undertaking. To help solving this problem, Esri has released the ArcGIS for 3D Cities solution. The ArcGIS for 3D Cities solution provides the information model, tools and apps for creating, analyzing and maintaining a 3D city using the ArcGIS platform. This paper presents an overview of the 3D City Information Model and some sample use cases.

Reitz, T.; Schubiger-Banz, S.

2014-02-01

255

Increasing the benefits of product-level benchmarking for strategic eco-efficient decision making  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Widely accepted classifications of benchmarking distinguish between different levels of benchmarking. Strategic-level benchmarking is considered to be of a higher sophistication than product-level benchmarking. Such strategic benchmarking would be based on process information instead of product information. The purpose of this paper is to research the possibility of obtaining strategic-level information based on an extensive amount of product-level

Renee Wever; Casper Boks; Thomas Marinelli; Ab Stevels

2007-01-01

256

Parallel 3D Mortar Element Method for Adaptive Nonconforming Meshes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High order methods are frequently used in computational simulation for their high accuracy. An efficient way to avoid unnecessary computation in smooth regions of the solution is to use adaptive meshes which employ fine grids only in areas where they are needed. Nonconforming spectral elements allow the grid to be flexibly adjusted to satisfy the computational accuracy requirements. The method is suitable for computational simulations of unsteady problems with very disparate length scales or unsteady moving features, such as heat transfer, fluid dynamics or flame combustion. In this work, we select the Mark Element Method (MEM) to handle the non-conforming interfaces between elements. A new technique is introduced to efficiently implement MEM in 3-D nonconforming meshes. By introducing an "intermediate mortar", the proposed method decomposes the projection between 3-D elements and mortars into two steps. In each step, projection matrices derived in 2-D are used. The two-step method avoids explicitly forming/deriving large projection matrices for 3-D meshes, and also helps to simplify the implementation. This new technique can be used for both h- and p-type adaptation. This method is applied to an unsteady 3-D moving heat source problem. With our new MEM implementation, mesh adaptation is able to efficiently refine the grid near the heat source and coarsen the grid once the heat source passes. The savings in computational work resulting from the dynamic mesh adaptation is demonstrated by the reduction of the the number of elements used and CPU time spent. MEM and mesh adaptation, respectively, bring irregularity and dynamics to the computer memory access pattern. Hence, they provide a good way to gauge the performance of computer systems when running scientific applications whose memory access patterns are irregular and unpredictable. We select a 3-D moving heat source problem as the Unstructured Adaptive (UA) grid benchmark, a new component of the NAS Parallel Benchmarks (NPB). In this paper, we present some interesting performance results of ow OpenMP parallel implementation on different architectures such as the SGI Origin2000, SGI Altix, and Cray MTA-2.

Feng, Huiyu; Mavriplis, Catherine; VanderWijngaart, Rob; Biswas, Rupak

2004-01-01

257

3-D object-oriented image analysis of geophysical data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geophysical data are the main source of information about the subsurface. Geophysical techniques are, however, highly non-unique in determining specific physical parameters and boundaries of subsurface objects. To obtain actual physical information, an inversion process is often applied, in which measurements at or above the Earth surface are inverted into a 2- or 3-D subsurface spatial distribution of the physical property. Interpreting these models into structural objects, related to physical processes, requires a priori knowledge and expert analysis which is susceptible to subjective choices and is therefore often non-repeatable. In this research, we implemented a recently introduced object-based approach to interpret the 3-D inversion results of a single geophysical technique using the available a priori information and the physical and geometrical characteristics of the interpreted objects. The introduced methodology is semi-automatic and repeatable, and allows the extraction of subsurface structures using 3-D object-oriented image analysis (3-D OOA) in an objective knowledge-based classification scheme. The approach allows for a semi-objective setting of thresholds that can be tested and, if necessary, changed in a very fast and efficient way. These changes require only changing the thresholds used in a so-called ruleset, which is composed of algorithms that extract objects from a 3-D data cube. The approach is tested on a synthetic model, which is based on a priori knowledge on objects present in the study area (Tanzania). Object characteristics and thresholds were well defined in a 3-D histogram of velocity versus depth, and objects were fully retrieved. The real model results showed how 3-D OOA can deal with realistic 3-D subsurface conditions in which the boundaries become fuzzy, the object extensions become unclear and the model characteristics vary with depth due to the different physical conditions. As expected, the 3-D histogram of the real data was substantially more complex. Still, the 3-D OOA-derived objects were extracted based on their velocity and their depth location. Spatially defined boundaries, based on physical variations, can improve the modelling with spatially dependent parameter information. With 3-D OOA, the non-uniqueness on the location of objects and their physical properties can be potentially significantly reduced.

Fadel, I.; Kerle, N.; Meijde, M. van der

2014-07-01

258

3-D object-oriented image analysis of geophysical data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geophysical data are the main source of information about the subsurface. Geophysical techniques are, however, highly non-unique in determining specific physical parameters and boundaries of subsurface objects. To obtain actual physical information, an inversion process is often applied, in which measurements at or above the Earth surface are inverted into a 2- or 3-D subsurface spatial distribution of the physical property. Interpreting these models into structural objects, related to physical processes, requires a priori knowledge and expert analysis which is susceptible to subjective choices and is therefore often non-repeatable. In this research, we implemented a recently introduced object-based approach to interpret the 3-D inversion results of a single geophysical technique using the available a priori information and the physical and geometrical characteristics of the interpreted objects. The introduced methodology is semi-automatic and repeatable, and allows the extraction of subsurface structures using 3-D object-oriented image analysis (3-D OOA) in an objective knowledge-based classification scheme. The approach allows for a semi-objective setting of thresholds that can be tested and, if necessary, changed in a very fast and efficient way. These changes require only changing the thresholds used in a so-called ruleset, which is composed of algorithms that extract objects from a 3-D data cube. The approach is tested on a synthetic model, which is based on a priori knowledge on objects present in the study area (Tanzania). Object characteristics and thresholds were well defined in a 3-D histogram of velocity versus depth, and objects were fully retrieved. The real model results showed how 3-D OOA can deal with realistic 3-D subsurface conditions in which the boundaries become fuzzy, the object extensions become unclear and the model characteristics vary with depth due to the different physical conditions. As expected, the 3-D histogram of the real data was substantially more complex. Still, the 3-D OOA-derived objects were extracted based on their velocity and their depth location. Spatially defined boundaries, based on physical variations, can improve the modelling with spatially dependent parameter information. With 3-D OOA, the non-uniqueness on the location of objects and their physical properties can be potentially significantly reduced.

Fadel, I.; Kerle, N.; Meijde, M. van der

2014-05-01

259

Case study: Beauty and the Beast 3D: benefits of 3D viewing for 2D to 3D conversion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From the earliest stages of the Beauty and the Beast 3D conversion project, the advantages of accurate desk-side 3D viewing was evident. While designing and testing the 2D to 3D conversion process, the engineering team at Walt Disney Animation Studios proposed a 3D viewing configuration that not only allowed artists to "compose" stereoscopic 3D but also improved efficiency by allowing artists to instantly detect which image features were essential to the stereoscopic appeal of a shot and which features had minimal or even negative impact. At a time when few commercial 3D monitors were available and few software packages provided 3D desk-side output, the team designed their own prototype devices and collaborated with vendors to create a "3D composing" workstation. This paper outlines the display technologies explored, final choices made for Beauty and the Beast 3D, wish-lists for future development and a few rules of thumb for composing compelling 2D to 3D conversions.

Handy Turner, Tara

2010-02-01

260

Benchmarking your benchmarks: a user's perspective  

SciTech Connect

This paper is intended for anyone faced with the responsibility for computer hardware or software selection. The content is biased toward administrative considerations, although some technical issues are presented. The basic goal is to promote a role for benchmarking in the computer acquisition process that is significantly broader than that commonly employed. We attempt to do this by showing how a thorough benchmarking effort (in the usual sense) did not provide sufficient information to accurately predict user satisfaction and productivity. We describe other measures of a system's properties that should be included in benchmarking.

Brice, R.

1982-01-01

261

DspaceOgreTerrain 3D Terrain Visualization Tool  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

DspaceOgreTerrain is an extension to the DspaceOgre 3D visualization tool that supports real-time visualization of various terrain types, including digital elevation maps, planets, and meshes. DspaceOgreTerrain supports creating 3D representations of terrains and placing them in a scene graph. The 3D representations allow for a continuous level of detail, GPU-based rendering, and overlaying graphics like wheel tracks and shadows. It supports reading data from the SimScape terrain- modeling library. DspaceOgreTerrain solves the problem of displaying the results of simulations that involve very large terrains. In the past, it has been used to visualize simulations of vehicle traverses on Lunar and Martian terrains. These terrains were made up of billions of vertices and would not have been renderable in real-time without using a continuous level of detail rendering technique.

Myint, Steven; Jain, Abhinandan; Pomerantz, Marc I.

2012-01-01

262

Geological mapping goes 3-D in response to societal needs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The transition to 3-D mapping has been made possible by technological advances in digital cartography, GIS, data storage, analysis, and visualization. Despite various challenges, technological advancements facilitated a gradual transition from 2-D maps to 2.5-D draped maps to 3-D geological mapping, supported by digital spatial and relational databases that can be interrogated horizontally or vertically and viewed interactively. Challenges associated with data collection, human resources, and information management are daunting due to their resource and training requirements. The exchange of strategies at the workshops has highlighted the use of basin analysis to develop a process-based predictive knowledge framework that facilitates data integration. Three-dimensional geological information meets a public demand that fills in the blanks left by conventional 2-D mapping. Two-dimensional mapping will, however, remain the standard method for extensive areas of complex geology, particularly where deformed igneous and metamorphic rocks defy attempts at 3-D depiction.

Thorleifson, H.; Berg, R. C.; Russell, H. A. J.

2010-01-01

263

3-D Perspective Pasadena, California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This perspective view shows the western part of the city of Pasadena, California, looking north towards the San Gabriel Mountains. Portions of the cities of Altadena and La Canada, Flintridge are also shown. The image was created from three datasets: the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) supplied the elevation data; Landsat data from November 11, 1986 provided the land surface color (not the sky) and U.S. Geological Survey digital aerial photography provides the image detail. The Rose Bowl, surrounded by a golf course, is the circular feature at the bottom center of the image. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory is the cluster of large buildings north of the Rose Bowl at the base of the mountains. A large landfill, Scholl Canyon, is the smooth area in the lower left corner of the scene. This image shows the power of combining data from different sources to create planning tools to study problems that affect large urban areas. In addition to the well-known earthquake hazards, Southern California is affected by a natural cycle of fire and mudflows. Wildfires strip the mountains of vegetation, increasing the hazards from flooding and mudflows for several years afterwards. Data such as shown on this image can be used to predict both how wildfires will spread over the terrain and also how mudflows will be channeled down the canyons. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission was designed to collect three dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI) space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC. Size: 5.8 km (3.6 miles) x 10 km (6.2 miles) Location: 34.16 deg. North lat., 118.16 deg. West lon. Orientation: Looking North Original Data Resolution: SRTM, 30 meters; Landsat,30 meters; Aerial Photo, 3 meters (no vertical exaggeration)

2000-01-01

264

Quantitative 3D Optical Imaging: Applications in Dosimetry and Biophysics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical-CT has been shown to be a potentially useful imaging tool for the two very different spheres of biologists and radiation therapy physicists, but it has yet to live up to that potential. In radiation therapy, researchers have used optical-CT for the readout of 3D dosimeters, but it is yet to be a clinically relevant tool as the technology is too slow to be considered practical. Biologists have used the technique for structural imaging, but have struggled with emission tomography as the reality of photon attenuation for both excitation and emission have made the images quantitatively irrelevant. Dosimetry. The DLOS (Duke Large field of view Optical-CT Scanner) was designed and constructed to make 3D dosimetry utilizing optical-CT a fast and practical tool while maintaining the accuracy of readout of the previous, slower readout technologies. Upon construction/optimization/implementation of several components including a diffuser, band pass filter, registration mount & fluid filtration system the dosimetry system provides high quality data comparable to or exceeding that of commercial products. In addition, a stray light correction algorithm was tested and implemented. The DLOS in combination with the 3D dosimeter it was designed for, PREAGETM, then underwent rigorous commissioning and benchmarking tests validating its performance against gold standard data including a set of 6 irradiations. DLOS commissioning tests resulted in sub-mm isotropic spatial resolution (MTF >0.5 for frequencies of 1.5lp/mm) and a dynamic range of ˜60dB. Flood field uniformity was 10% and stable after 45minutes. Stray light proved to be small, due to telecentricity, but even the residual can be removed through deconvolution. Benchmarking tests showed the mean 3D passing gamma rate (3%, 3mm, 5% dose threshold) over the 6 benchmark data sets was 97.3% +/- 0.6% (range 96%-98%) scans totaling ˜10 minutes, indicating excellent ability to perform 3D dosimetry while improving the speed of readout. Noise was low at ˜2% for 2mm reconstructions. The DLOS/PRESAGERTM benchmark tests show consistently excellent performance, with very good agreement to simple known distributions. The telecentric design was critical to enabling fast (~15mins) imaging with minimal stray light artifacts. The system produces accurate isotropic 2mm3 dose data over clinical volumes (e.g. 16cm diameter phantoms, 12 cm height), and represents a uniquely useful and versatile new tool for commissioning complex radiotherapy techniques. The system also has wide versatility, and has successfully been used in preliminary tests with protons and with kV irradiations. Biology. Attenuation corrections for optical-emission-CT were done by modeling physical parameters in the imaging setup within the framework of an ordered subset expectation maximum (OSEM) iterative reconstruction algorithm. This process has a well documented history in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), but is inherently simpler due to the lack of excitation photons to account for. Excitation source strength distribution, excitation and emission attenuation were modeled. The accuracy of the correction was investigated by imaging phantoms containing known distributions of attenuation and fluorophores. The correction was validated on a manufactured phantom designed to give uniform emission in a central cuboidal region and later applied to a cleared mouse brain with GFP (green-fluorescentprotein) labeled vasculature and a cleared 4T1 xenograft flank tumor with constitutive RFP (red-fluorescent-protein). Reconstructions were compared to corresponding slices imaged with a fluorescent dissection microscope. Significant optical-ECT attenuation artifacts were observed in the uncorrected phantom images and appeared up to 80% less intense than the verification image in the central region. The corrected phantom images showed excellent agreement with the verification image with only slight variations. The corrected tissue sample reconstructions showed general agreement between the verification images. Comp

Thomas, Andrew Stephen

265

Diorama Engine - A 3D Directing Tool for 3D Computer Animation Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in 3D computer graphics technologies have enabled 3D computer animation to become a popular method of storytelling. However, the tools which provide access to the technology are targeted mainly at trained professionals, and are seldom easy enough for a director to use. We present Diorama engine, a 3D directing tool for 3D computer animation. Diorama engine is a

Koji Mikami; Toru Tokuhara

2003-01-01

266

Can 3D Point Clouds Replace GCPs?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past decade, large-scale photogrammetric products have been extensively used for the geometric documentation of cultural heritage monuments, as they combine metric information with the qualities of an image document. Additionally, the rising technology of terrestrial laser scanning has enabled the easier and faster production of accurate digital surface models (DSM), which have in turn contributed to the documentation of heavily textured monuments. However, due to the required accuracy of control points, the photogrammetric methods are always applied in combination with surveying measurements and hence are dependent on them. Along this line of thought, this paper explores the possibility of limiting the surveying measurements and the field work necessary for the production of large-scale photogrammetric products and proposes an alternative method on the basis of which the necessary control points instead of being measured with surveying procedures are chosen from a dense and accurate point cloud. Using this point cloud also as a surface model, the only field work necessary is the scanning of the object and image acquisition, which need not be subject to strict planning. To evaluate the proposed method an algorithm and the complementary interface were produced that allow the parallel manipulation of 3D point clouds and images and through which single image procedures take place. The paper concludes by presenting the results of a case study in the ancient temple of Hephaestus in Athens and by providing a set of guidelines for implementing effectively the method.

Stavropoulou, G.; Tzovla, G.; Georgopoulos, A.

2014-05-01

267

ICSBEP Benchmarks For Nuclear Data Applications  

SciTech Connect

The International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) was initiated in 1992 by the United States Department of Energy. The ICSBEP became an official activity of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) -- Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) in 1995. Representatives from the United States, United Kingdom, France, Japan, the Russian Federation, Hungary, Republic of Korea, Slovenia, Serbia and Montenegro (formerly Yugoslavia), Kazakhstan, Spain, Israel, Brazil, Poland, and the Czech Republic are now participating. South Africa, India, China, and Germany are considering participation. The purpose of the ICSBEP is to identify, evaluate, verify, and formally document a comprehensive and internationally peer-reviewed set of criticality safety benchmark data. The work of the ICSBEP is published as an OECD handbook entitled ''International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments.'' The 2004 Edition of the Handbook contains benchmark specifications for 3331 critical or subcritical configurations that are intended for use in validation efforts and for testing basic nuclear data. New to the 2004 Edition of the Handbook is a draft criticality alarm / shielding type benchmark that should be finalized in 2005 along with two other similar benchmarks. The Handbook is being used extensively for nuclear data testing and is expected to be a valuable resource for code and data validation and improvement efforts for decades to come. Specific benchmarks that are useful for testing structural materials such as iron, chromium, nickel, and manganese; beryllium; lead; thorium; and 238U are highlighted.

Briggs, J. Blair [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (United States)

2005-05-24

268

Extra Dimensions: 3D and Time in PDF Documentation  

SciTech Connect

Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide, non-technical audience. We discuss how the field of radiation imaging could benefit from incorporating full 3D information about not only the detectors, but also the results of the experimental analyses, in its electronic publications. In this article, we present examples drawn from high-energy physics, mathematics and molecular biology which take advantage of this functionality. We demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input.

Graf, N.A.; /SLAC

2012-04-11

269

Study of blur discrimination for 3D stereo viewing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blur is an important attribute in the study and modeling of the human visual system. Blur discrimination was studied extensively using 2D test patterns. In this study, we present the details of subjective tests performed to measure blur discrimination thresholds using stereoscopic 3D test patterns. Specifically, the effect of disparity on the blur discrimination thresholds is studied on a passive stereoscopic 3D display. The blur discrimination thresholds are measured using stereoscopic 3D test patterns with positive, negative and zero disparity values, at multiple reference blur levels. A disparity value of zero represents the 2D viewing case where both the eyes will observe the same image. The subjective test results indicate that the blur discrimination thresholds remain constant as we vary the disparity value. This further indicates that binocular disparity does not affect blur discrimination thresholds and the models developed for 2D blur discrimination thresholds can be extended to stereoscopic 3D blur discrimination thresholds. We have presented fitting of the Weber model to the 3D blur discrimination thresholds measured from the subjective experiments.

Subedar, Mahesh; Karam, Lina J.

2014-03-01

270

ATR for 3D medical imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a novel concept of Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) for 3D medical imaging. Such 3D imaging can be obtained from X-ray Computerized Tomography (CT), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Positron Emission Tomography (PET), Ultrasonography (USG), functional MRI, and others. In the case of CT, such 3D imaging can be derived from 3D-mapping of X-ray linear attenuation coefficients, related to 3D Fourier transform of Radon transform, starting from frame segmentation (or contour definition) into an object and background. Then, 3D template matching is provided, based on inertial tensor invariants, adopted from rigid body mechanics, by comparing the mammographic data base with a real object of interest, such as a malignant breast tumor. The method is more general than CAD breast mammography.

Jannson, Tomasz; Kostrzewski, Andrew; Paki Amouzou, P.

2007-10-01

271

Development of 3D video and 3D data services for T-DMB  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present motivation, system concept, and implementation details of stereoscopic 3D visual services on T-DMB. We have developed two types of 3D visual service : one is '3D video service', which provides 3D depth feeling for a video program by sending left and right view video streams, and the other is '3D data service', which provides presentation

Kugjin Yun; Hyun Lee; Namho Hur; Jinwoong Kim

2008-01-01

272

Interaction with 3D models on large displays using 3D input techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Almost all existing 3D modeling applications rely on 2D input techniques for creating and modifying 3D models by users. This translation of user inputs from a 2D plane into actions in a 3D world often causes problems for modelers when moving, placing, rotating and transforming 3D objects. Although several 3D input techniques have been developed in the past, these have

Beverley Laundry; Masood Masoodian; Bill Rogers

2010-01-01

273

Sequential priming of 3-D perceptual organization  

Microsoft Academic Search

In four experiments, the effects of sequential priming on the perceptual organization of complex three-dimensional (3-D) displays\\u000a were examined. Observers were asked to view stereoscopic arrays and to search an embedded subset of items for an odd-colored\\u000a target while 3-D orientation of the stimuli was varied randomly between trials. Search times decreased reliably when 3-D stimulus\\u000a orientation was unchanged on

Jason S. McCarley; Zijiang J. He

2001-01-01

274

Algorithm for 3D Point Cloud Denoising  

Microsoft Academic Search

The raw data of point cloud produced by 3D scanning tools contains additive noise from various sources. This paper proposes a method for 3D unorganized point cloud denoising by making full use of the depth information of unorganized points and space analytic geometry theory, applying over-domain average method for 2D image of image denoising theory to 3D point data. The

Wenming Huang; Yuanwang Li; Peizhi Wen; Xiaojun Wu

2009-01-01

275

Stereo vision based 3D input device  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper concerns extracting 3D motion information from a 3D input device in real time focused to enabling effective human-computer. interaction. In particular, we develop a novel algorithm for extracting 6 degrees-of-freedom motion information from a 3D input device by employing an epipolar geometry of stereo camera, color, motion, and structure information, free from requiring the aid of camera calibration

SangMin Yoon; Ig-Jae Kim; Sang Chul Ahn; H. Ko; HyoungGon Kim

2002-01-01

276

Rubber Impact on 3D Textile Composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

A low velocity impact study of aircraft tire rubber on 3D textile-reinforced composite plates was performed experimentally\\u000a and numerically. In contrast to regular unidirectional composite laminates, no delaminations occur in such a 3D textile composite.\\u000a Yarn decohesions, matrix cracks and yarn ruptures have been identified as the major damage mechanisms under impact load. An\\u000a increase in the number of 3D

Sebastian Heimbs; Björn Van Den Broucke; Yann Duplessis Kergomard; Frederic Dau; Benoit Malherbe

2011-01-01

277

Reconstruction for 3D immersive virtual environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The future of tele-conferencing is towards multi-party 3D Tele-Immersion (TI) and TI environments that can support realistic inter-personal communications and virtual interaction among participants. In this paper, we address two important issues, pertinent to TI environments. The paper focuses on techniques for the real-time, 3D reconstruction of moving humans from multiple Kinect devices. The off-line generation of real-life 3D scenes

D. S. Alexiadis; G. Kordelas; K. C Apostolakis; J. D. Agapito; J. M. Vegas; E. Izquierdo; P. Daras

2012-01-01

278

3D shape scanning with a Kinect  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a method for 3D object scanning by aligning depth and color scans which were taken from around an object with a Kinect camera. Our easy-to-use, cost-effective scanning solution could make 3D scanning technology more accessible to everyday users and turn 3D shape models into a much more widely used asset for many new applications, for instance in community

Yan Cui; Didier Stricker

2011-01-01

279

Distributed Control for 3D Metamorphosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we define Proteo as a class of three-dimensional (3D) metamorphic robotic system capable of approximating arbitrary 3D shapes by utilizing repeated modules. Each Proteo module contains embedded sensors, actuators and a controller, and each resides in a 3D grid space. A module can move itself to one of its open neighbor sites under certain motion constraints. Distributed

Mark Yim; Ying Zhang; John Lamping; Eric Mao

2001-01-01

280

Imaged-Based 3D Face Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an image-based 3D face modeling algorithm. Different from traditional complex stereo vision procedure, our new method needs only two orthogonal images for fast 3D modeling without any camera calibration. The proposed method has two steps. Firstly according to MPEG-4 protocol for 3D face structure, we appoint and deform feature points by radial basis functions (RBF) in the input

Mandun Zhang; Linna Ma; Xiangyong Zeng; Yangsheng Wang

2004-01-01

281

COG validation: SINBAD Benchmark Problems  

SciTech Connect

We validated COG, a 3D Monte Carlo radiation transport code, against experimental data and MNCP4C simulations from the Shielding Integral Benchmark Archive Database (SINBAD) compiled by RSICC. We modeled three experiments: the Osaka Nickel and Aluminum sphere experiments conducted at the OKTAVIAN facility, and the liquid oxygen experiment conducted at the FNS facility. COG results are in good agreement with experimental data and generally within a few % of MCNP results. There are several possible sources of discrepancy between MCNP and COG results: (1) the cross-section database versions are different, MCNP uses ENDFB VI 1.1 while COG uses ENDFB VIR7, (2) the code implementations are different, and (3) the models may differ slightly. We also limited the use of variance reduction methods when running the COG version of the problems.

Lent, E M; Sale, K E; Buck, R M; Descalle, M

2004-02-23

282

TAURUS. 3-d Finite Element Code Postprocessor  

SciTech Connect

TAURUS reads the binary plot files generated by the LLNL three-dimensional finite element analysis codes, NIKE3D (ESTSC 139), DYNA3D (ESTSC 138), TACO3D (ESTSC 287), TOPAZ3D (ESTSC 231), and GEMINI (ESTSC 455) and plots contours, time histories,and deformed shapes. Contours of a large number of quantities may be plotted on meshes consisting of plate, shell, and solid type elements. TAURUS can compute a variety of strain measures, reaction forces along constrained boundaries, and momentum. TAURUS has three phases: initialization, geometry display with contouring, and time history processing.

Whirley, R.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1991-05-01

283

TAURUS. 3-D Finite Element Code Postprocessor  

SciTech Connect

TAURUS reads the binary plot files generated by the LLNL three-dimensional finite element analysis codes, NIKE3D, DYNA3D, TACO3D, TOPAZ3D, and GEMINI and plots contours, time histories,and deformed shapes. Contours of a large number of quantities may be plotted on meshes consisting of plate, shell, and solid type elements. TAURUS can compute a variety of strain measures, reaction forces along constrained boundaries, and momentum. TAURUS has three phases: initialization, geometry display with contouring, and time history processing.

Whirley, R.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1984-05-01

284

TAURUS. 3-D Finite Element Code Postprocessor  

SciTech Connect

TAURUS reads the binary plot files generated by the LLNL three-dimensional finite element analysis codes, NIKE3D, DYNA3D, TACO3D, TOPAZ3D, and GEMINI and plots contours, time histories,and deformed shapes. Contours of a large number of quantities may be plotted on meshes consisting of plate, shell, and solid type elements. TAURUS can compute a variety of strain measures, reaction forces along constrained boundaries, and momentum. TAURUS has three phases: initialization, geometry display with contouring, and time history processing.

Whirley, R.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1992-03-03

285

TAURUS. 3-D Finite Element Code Postprocessor  

SciTech Connect

TAURUS reads the binary plot files generated by the LLNL three-dimensional finite element analysis codes, NIKE3D, DYNA3D, TACO3D, TOPAZ3D, and GEMINI and plots contours, time histories, and deformed shapes. Contours of a large number of quantities may be plotted on meshes consisting of plate, shell, and solid type elements. TAURUS can compute a variety of strain measures, reaction forces along constrained boundaries, and momentum. TAURUS has three phases: initialization, geometry display with contouring, and time history processing.

Kennedy, T. [IBM Corporation, Waltham, MA (United States)

1992-03-03

286

TAURUS. 3-d Finite Element Code Postprocessor  

SciTech Connect

TAURUS reads the binary plot files generated by the LLNL three-dimensional finite element analysis codes, NIKE3D (ESTSC 139), DYNA3D (ESTSC 138), TACO3D (ESTSC 287), TOPAZ3D (ESTSC 231), and GEMINI (ESTSC 455) and plots contours, time histories,and deformed shapes. Contours of a large number of quantities may be plotted on meshes consisting of plate, shell, and solid type elements. TAURUS can compute a variety of strain measures, reaction forces along constrained boundaries, and momentum. TAURUS has three phases: initialization, geometry display with contouring, and time history processing.

Whirley, R.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1992-03-03

287

TAURUS. 3-D Finite Element Code Postprocessor  

SciTech Connect

TAURUS reads the binary plot files generated by the LLNL three-dimensional finite element analysis codes, NIKE3D, DYNA3D, TACO3D, TOPAZ3D, and GEMINI and plots contours, time histories,and deformed shapes. Contours of a large number of quantities may be plotted on meshes consisting of plate, shell, and solid type elements. TAURUS can compute a variety of strain measures, reaction forces along constrained boundaries, and momentum. TAURUS has three phases: initialization, geometry display with contouring, and time history processing.

Whirley, R.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1993-11-30

288

Software for 3D radiotherapy dosimetry. Validation.  

PubMed

The subject of this work is polyGeVero(®) software (GeVero Co., Poland), which has been developed to fill the requirements of fast calculations of 3D dosimetry data with the emphasis on polymer gel dosimetry for radiotherapy. This software comprises four workspaces that have been prepared for: (i) calculating calibration curves and calibration equations, (ii) storing the calibration characteristics of the 3D dosimeters, (iii) calculating 3D dose distributions in irradiated 3D dosimeters, and (iv) comparing 3D dose distributions obtained from measurements with the aid of 3D dosimeters and calculated with the aid of treatment planning systems (TPSs). The main features and functions of the software are described in this work. Moreover, the core algorithms were validated and the results are presented. The validation was performed using the data of the new PABIG(nx) polymer gel dosimeter. The polyGeVero(®) software simplifies and greatly accelerates the calculations of raw 3D dosimetry data. It is an effective tool for fast verification of TPS-generated plans for tumor irradiation when combined with a 3D dosimeter. Consequently, the software may facilitate calculations by the 3D dosimetry community. In this work, the calibration characteristics of the PABIG(nx) obtained through four calibration methods: multi vial, cross beam, depth dose, and brachytherapy, are discussed as well. PMID:25003788

Kozicki, Marek; Maras, Piotr; Karwowski, Andrzej C

2014-08-01

289

Dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

3D printer applications in the biomedical sciences and medical imaging are expanding and will have an increasing impact on the practice of medicine. Orthopedic and reconstructive surgery has been an obvious area for development of 3D printer applications as the segmentation of bony anatomy to generate printable models is relatively straightforward. There are important issues that should be addressed when using 3D printed models for applications that may affect patient care; in particular the dimensional accuracy of the printed parts needs to be high to avoid poor decisions being made prior to surgery or therapeutic procedures. In this work, the dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebral bodies derived from CT data for a cadaver spine is compared with direct measurements on the ex-vivo vertebra and with measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra using commercial 3D image processing software. The vertebra was printed on a consumer grade 3D printer using an additive print process using PLA (polylactic acid) filament. Measurements were made for 15 different anatomic features of the vertebral body, including vertebral body height, endplate width and depth, pedicle height and width, and spinal canal width and depth, among others. It is shown that for the segmentation and printing process used, the results of measurements made on the 3D printed vertebral body are substantially the same as those produced by direct measurement on the vertebra and measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra.

Ogden, Kent; Ordway, Nathaniel; Diallo, Dalanda; Tillapaugh-Fay, Gwen; Aslan, Can

2014-03-01

290

Nonlinear approach to the 3-D reconstruction of microscopic objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 3-D reconstruction of light microscopic objects has been extensively investigated in the past, but fundamental problems remain. The real object under observation does not normally have high transparency, and light transmission will be attenuated introducing nonlinearities in the imaging process. A nonlinear approach to this problem has been developed. In this nonlinear approach the authors regard the 3-dimensional spatially resolved light absorption coefficient as the object information of interest. A nonlinear equation system modeling the imaging process is proposed.

Wu, Xiangchen; Schwarzmann, Peter

1991-07-01

291

Benchmarks for target tracking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The term benchmark originates from the chiseled horizontal marks that surveyors made, into which an angle-iron could be placed to bracket ("bench") a leveling rod, thus ensuring that the leveling rod can be repositioned in exactly the same place in the future. A benchmark in computer terms is the result of running a computer program, or a set of programs, in order to assess the relative performance of an object by running a number of standard tests and trials against it. This paper will discuss the history of simulation benchmarks that are being used by multiple branches of the military and agencies of the US government. These benchmarks range from missile defense applications to chemical biological situations. Typically, a benchmark is used with Monte Carlo runs in order to tease out how algorithms deal with variability and the range of possible inputs. We will also describe problems that can be solved by a benchmark.

Dunham, Darin T.; West, Philip D.

2011-09-01

292

3D microvascular architecture of pre-cancerous lesions and invasive carcinomas of the colon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the significance of tumour neoangiogenesis and the extensive knowledge on the molecular basis of blood vessel formation currently no quantitative data exist on the 3D microvascular architecture in human primary tumours and their precursor lesions. This prompted us to examine the 3D vascular network of normal colon mucosa, adenomas and invasive carcinomas by means of quantitative microvascular corrosion casting.

M A Konerding; E Fait; A Gaumann

2001-01-01

293

Head Modeling from Pictures and Morphing in 3D with Image Metamorphosis Based on Triangulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a combined method of facial reconstruction and morphing between two heads, showing the extensive usage of feature points detected from pictures. We first present an efficient method to generate a 3D head for animation from picture data and then a simple method to do 3D- shape interpolation and 2D morphing based on triangulation. The basic idea is

Won-sook Lee; Nadia Magnenat-thalmann

1998-01-01

294

The oo7 Benchmark  

Microsoft Academic Search

The OO7 Benchmark represents a comprehensive test of OODBMS performance. In thisreport we describe the benchmark and present performance results from its implementationin four OODB systems. It is our hope that the OO7 Benchmark will provide useful insightfor end-users evaluating the performance of OODB systems# we also hope that the researchcommunity will find that OO7 provides a database schema, instance,

Michael J. Carey; David J. Dewitt; Jeffrey F. Naughton

1993-01-01

295

The 007 Benchmark  

Microsoft Academic Search

The OO7 Benchmark represents a comprehensive test of OODBMS performance. In this paper we describe the benchmark and present performance results from its implementation in three OODBMS systems. It is our hope that the OO7 Benchmark will provide useful insight for end-users evaluating the performance of OODBMS systems; we also hope that the research community will find that OO7 provides

Michael J. Carey; David J. DeWitt; Jeffrey F. Naughton

1993-01-01

296

Integration of real-time 3D image acquisition and multiview 3D display  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seamless integration of 3D acquisition and 3D display systems offers enhanced experience in 3D visualization of the real world objects or scenes. The vivid representation of captured 3D objects displayed on a glasses-free 3D display screen could bring the realistic viewing experience to viewers as if they are viewing real-world scene. Although the technologies in 3D acquisition and 3D display have advanced rapidly in recent years, effort is lacking in studying the seamless integration of these two different aspects of 3D technologies. In this paper, we describe our recent progress on integrating a light-field 3D acquisition system and an autostereoscopic multiview 3D display for real-time light field capture and display. This paper focuses on both the architecture design and the implementation of the hardware and the software of this integrated 3D system. A prototype of the integrated 3D system is built to demonstrate the real-time 3D acquisition and 3D display capability of our proposed system.

Zhang, Zhaoxing; Geng, Zheng; Li, Tuotuo; Li, Wei; Wang, Jingyi; Liu, Yongchun

2014-03-01

297

NAS Parallel Benchmarks, Multi-Zone Versions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We describe an extension of the NAS Parallel Benchmarks (NPB) suite that involves solving the application benchmarks LU, BT and SP on collections of loosely coupled discretization meshes. The solutions on the meshes are updated independently, but after each time step they exchange boundary value information. This strategy, which is common among structured-mesh production flow solver codes in use at NASA Ames and elsewhere, provides relatively easily exploitable coarse-grain parallelism between meshes. Since the individual application benchmarks also allow fine-grain parallelism themselves, this NPB extension, named NPB Multi-Zone (NPB-MZ), is a good candidate for testing hybrid and multi-level parallelization tools and strategies.

vanderWijngaart, Rob F.; Haopiang, Jin

2003-01-01

298

Antenna 3D Pad printing solution evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diversification, styling, miniaturization and cost reduction are trends in the field of portable electronics. The 3D technology is an innovative way to meet this demand. This paper evaluated the Pad printing 3D antenna manufacture technology which offers versatile and cost effective interconnection platform compared to the flex-antenna or sheet metal technologies. The basic Pad Printing process was introduced firstly, the

Ye Xiong; Zengchao Qu

2011-01-01

299

3D shape coding with superquadrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a geometric coding method for 3D real and virtual objects transmission and visualization. We describe object surfaces with a set of superellipsoids which are structured with a constructive solid geometry (CSG) tree. An unstructured cloud of 3D points lying on the original object surface is considered as initial data. The tree is obtained using a split and merge

L. Chevalier; F. Jaillet; A. Baskurt

2001-01-01

300

Contour Matching for 3D Ear Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ear is a new class of relatively stable biometric that is invariant from childhood to early old age (8 to 70). It is not affected with facial expressions, cosmetics and eye glasses. In this paper, we introduce a two-step ICP (Iterative Closest Point) algorithm for matching 3D ears. In the first step, the helix of the ear in 3D images

Hui Chen; Bir Bhanu

2005-01-01

301

Real-time 3D model acquisition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The digitization of the 3D shape of real objects is a rapidly expanding field, with applications in entertainment, design, and archaeology. We propose a new 3D model acquisition system that permits the user to rotate an object by hand and see a continuously-updated model as the object is scanned. This tight feedback loop allows the user to find and fill

Szymon Rusinkiewicz; Olaf A. Hall-Holt; Marc Levoy

2002-01-01

302

Building Three-Dimensional (3D) Structures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners practice drawing 3D structures in two dimensions. Learners draw cube stacks from five different points of view. Use this activity to help learners discern between 2D and 3D as well as explore reflections and perspective.

Exploratorium

2010-01-01

303

Amodal volume completion: 3D visual completion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work considers the common problem of completing partially visible artifacts within a 3D scene. Human vision abilities to complete such artifacts are well studied within the realms of perceptual psychology. However, the psychological explanations for completion have received only limited application in the domain of 3D computer vision. Here, we examine pri- or work in this area of computer

Toby P. Breckon; Robert B. Fisher

2005-01-01

304

Automatic 3D target model generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Model-based target recognition is an active area of research. However, little attention has been given to the problem of target model generation for a model-based automatic target recognition (ATR) system. This paper describes novel algorithms which automatically generate a 3-D object-oriented spatial database that is used to represent and manipulate 3-D target models.

Louis A. Oddo

1993-01-01

305

DYNA3D Code Practices and Developments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

DYNA3D is an explicit, finite element code developed to solve high rate dynamic simulations for problems of interest to the engineering mechanics community. The DYNA3D code has been under continuous development since 1976 by the Methods Development Group ...

J. Lin E. Zywicz P. Raboin

2000-01-01

306

Wow! 3D Content Awakens the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From her first encounter with stereoscopic 3D technology designed for classroom instruction, Megan Timme, principal at Hamilton Park Pacesetter Magnet School in Dallas, sensed it could be transformative. Last spring, when she began pilot-testing 3D content in her third-, fourth- and fifth-grade classrooms, Timme wasn't disappointed. Students…

Gordon, Dan

2010-01-01

307

3D Similarity Search by Shape Approximation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new method for similarity retrieval of 3D surface seg- ments in spatial database systems as used in molecular biology, medical imaging, or CAD. We propose a similarity criterion and algorithm for 3D surface segments which is based on the approximation of segments by using multi-parametric functions. The method can be adjusted to individual requirements of specific

Hans-peter Kriegel; Thomas Schmidt; Thomas Seidl

1997-01-01

308

The 3D Model Acquisition Pipeline  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three-dimensional (3D) image acquisition systems are rapidly becoming more affordable, especially systems based on commodity electronic cameras. At the same time, personal computers with graphics hardware capable of displaying complex 3D models are also becoming inexpensive enough to be available to a large population. As a result, there is potentially an opportunity to consider new virtual reality applications as diverse

Fausto Bernardini; Holly E. Rushmeier

2002-01-01

309

3D Cardiac Deformation from Ultrasound Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quantitative estimation of regional cardiac deformation from 3D image sequences has important clinical implications for the assessment of viability in the heart wall. Such estimates have so far been obtained almost exclusively from Magnetic Resonance (MR) im- ages, speciflcally MR tagging. In this paper we describe a methodology for estimating cardiac deformations from 3D ultrasound images. The images are

Xenophon Papademetris; Albert J. Sinusas; Donald P. Dione; James S. Duncan

1999-01-01

310

Watermarking 3D Objects for Verification.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We intend to introduce and investigate the fundamental similarities and differences of watermarking 3D graphic models compared to 2D images, and propose some solutions to address a class of applications of digital watermarking the, the verification of 3D ...

B. Yeo M. M. Young

1999-01-01

311

Hierarchical segmentation of 3-D range images  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present a novel approach for segmentation of dense three-dimensional range images. In this approach, four local properties, namely the 3-D coordinate, the surface normal, the Gaussian curvature, and the mean curvature of each data point, are combined in a hierarchical data structure to segment a given 3-D dense range map into surface patches. This algorithm is applicable to

Farshid Arman; Bikash Sabata; J. K. Aggarwal

1989-01-01

312

Virtual Drilling - Sculpturing in 3-D Volumes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this paper we propose a virtual drilling-sculpturing algorithm applied on 3-D objects. The 3-D objects can either be simple geometrical shapes such as cubes and spheres or more complicated objects as teeth. In the second case, we consider that we are p...

L. Kechagias A. G. Bors I. Pitas

2001-01-01

313

Making burr puzzles from 3D models  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 3D burr puzzle is a 3D model that consists of interlocking pieces with a single-key property. That is, when the puzzle is assembled, all the pieces are notched except one single key component which remains mobile. The intriguing property of the assembled burr puzzle is that it is stable, perfectly interlocked, without glue or screws, etc. Moreover, a burr

Shiqing Xin; Chi-Fu Lai; Chi-Wing Fu; Tien-Tsin Wong; Ying He; Daniel Cohen-Or

2011-01-01

314

A Survey of 3D Interaction Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent gains in the performance of 3D graphics hardware and rendering systems have not been matched by a corresponding improvement in our knowledge of how to interact with the virtual environments we create; therefore there is a need to examine these further if we are to improve the overall quality of our interactive 3D systems. This paper examines some of

Chris Hand

1997-01-01

315

Stereo 3-D Vision in Teaching Physics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stereo 3-D vision is a technology used to present images on a flat surface (screen, paper, etc.) and at the same time to create the notion of three-dimensional spatial perception of the viewed scene. A great number of physical processes are much better understood when viewed in stereo 3-D vision compared to standard flat 2-D presentation. The…

Zabunov, Svetoslav

2012-01-01

316

Natural oscillations in 3D plasma clusters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation and investigation of 3D plasma clusters is a new challenge in complex plasma science. The particles in such structures show individual properties developing simultaneously collective effects. In this contribution we present the formation, the dynamical study and the analysis of characteristic oscillations of 3D plasma clusters an intermediate size, at which both, kinetic and fluid behavior, appear. Experiments

T. Antonova; B. M. Annaratone; H. M. Thomas; G. E. Morfill

2006-01-01

317

3D, or Not to Be?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It may be too soon for students to be showing up for class with popcorn and gummy bears, but technology similar to that behind the 3D blockbuster movie "Avatar" is slowly finding its way into college classrooms. 3D classroom projectors are taking students on fantastic voyages inside the human body, to the ruins of ancient Greece--even to faraway…

Norbury, Keith

2012-01-01

318

3D trajectory control for quadrocopter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The demand for unattended aerial systems capable of fulfilling e.g. surveillance tasks in contaminated or inaccessible areas without any assistance of a human pilot is the motivation for the investigation of a 3D trajectory control. Hence, this paper deals with the development of such a control algorithm able to follow any kind of 3D trajectory within the quadrocopter's capabilities. In

Tim Puls; Andreas Hein

2010-01-01

319

Fast 3D Zernike Moments and - Invariants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this report is threefold: First we generalize to 3D a long ago known fastalgorithm for the computation of ordinary geometrical moments of 2D fields startingfrom what could be named cumulative moments. This is done by first reformulatingthe 2D algorithm in terms of matrix operations and subsequently extending the resultstraightforwardly to 3D.

Nikolaos Canterakis

1997-01-01

320

Smart cameras tackle 3D industrial inspection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to review the technology and applications of 3D visual measurement systems. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A particular line profile sensor is used to explain the principle of laser triangulation, and further profilers are described. A grid projection technique is presented. Finally, a series of industrial 3D vision devices from SICK are described. Findings –

Christine Connolly

2010-01-01

321

Advances in 3D Graphics for Smartphones  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mobile industry has evolved rapidly in the past couple of decade and amongst these advances are 3D graphics on mobile phones. This advances topic have had to address specific process of architectures and small memories on mobile phones that are generally ill equipped to the intensive calculations of floating-point precision required by 3D math. In this paper, we high

F. Chehimi; P. Coulton; R. Edwards

2006-01-01

322

Comparative analysis of video processing and 3D rendering for cloud video games using different virtualization technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a comprehensive empirical performance evaluation of 3D video processing employing the physical/virtual architecture implemented in a cloud environment. Different virtualization technologies, virtual video cards and various 3D benchmarks tools have been utilized in order to analyse the optimal performance in the context of 3D online gaming applications. This study highlights 3D video rendering performance under each type of hypervisors, and other factors including network I/O, disk I/O and memory usage. Comparisons of these factors under well-known virtual display technologies such as VNC, Spice and Virtual 3D adaptors reveal the strengths and weaknesses of the various hypervisors with respect to 3D video rendering and streaming.

Bada, Adedayo; Alcaraz-Calero, Jose M.; Wang, Qi; Grecos, Christos

2014-05-01

323

Fabrication of 3D Silicon Sensors  

SciTech Connect

Silicon sensors with a three-dimensional (3-D) architecture, in which the n and p electrodes penetrate through the entire substrate, have many advantages over planar silicon sensors including radiation hardness, fast time response, active edge and dual readout capabilities. The fabrication of 3D sensors is however rather complex. In recent years, there have been worldwide activities on 3D fabrication. SINTEF in collaboration with Stanford Nanofabrication Facility have successfully fabricated the original (single sided double column type) 3D detectors in two prototype runs and the third run is now on-going. This paper reports the status of this fabrication work and the resulted yield. The work of other groups such as the development of double sided 3D detectors is also briefly reported.

Kok, A.; Hansen, T.E.; Hansen, T.A.; Lietaer, N.; Summanwar, A.; /SINTEF, Oslo; Kenney, C.; Hasi, J.; /SLAC; Da Via, C.; /Manchester U.; Parker, S.I.; /Hawaii U.

2012-06-06

324

Lava Beds National Monument: A 3-D Photographic Tour Featuring Park Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This virtual tour features three-dimensional images from the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) collection. It introduces visitors to the volcanic landforms of Lava Beds National Monument in California, the site of extensive recent and Quaternary volcanism. Features include cinder and spatter cones, lava flows, and the monument's extensive network of lava tubes, many of which are open to the public. The 3-D images are anaglyphs and require red and cyan 3-D viewing glasses.

325

Modeling of Non-Eroding Penetration Using ALE3D and Zapotec  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate predictions of non-eroding penetration are becoming a problem of increasing technological importance. Sandia's Zapotec (a coupling of Pronto3D and CTH) has been the code of choice for design purposes, but there have been some concerns expressed about relying on a single code methodology. Consequently, LLNL's ALE3D (which uses a slide line based approach) is currently being investigated for applicability. As a benchmark, we choose to model the penetration experiments of steel projectiles against aluminum targets to examine the differences between the two methodologies.

Cazamias, J. U.; Schraml, S. J.

2007-12-01

326

Development of Unsteady Aerodynamic and Aeroelastic Reduced-Order Models Using the FUN3D Code  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent significant improvements to the development of CFD-based unsteady aerodynamic reduced-order models (ROMs) are implemented into the FUN3D unstructured flow solver. These improvements include the simultaneous excitation of the structural modes of the CFD-based unsteady aerodynamic system via a single CFD solution, minimization of the error between the full CFD and the ROM unsteady aero- dynamic solution, and computation of a root locus plot of the aeroelastic ROM. Results are presented for a viscous version of the two-dimensional Benchmark Active Controls Technology (BACT) model and an inviscid version of the AGARD 445.6 aeroelastic wing using the FUN3D code.

Silva, Walter A.; Vatsa, Veer N.; Biedron, Robert T.

2009-01-01

327

The psychology of the 3D experience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With 3D televisions expected to reach 50% home saturation as early as 2016, understanding the psychological mechanisms underlying the user response to 3D technology is critical for content providers, educators and academics. Unfortunately, research examining the effects of 3D technology has not kept pace with the technology's rapid adoption, resulting in large-scale use of a technology about which very little is actually known. Recognizing this need for new research, we conducted a series of studies measuring and comparing many of the variables and processes underlying both 2D and 3D media experiences. In our first study, we found narratives within primetime dramas had the power to shift viewer attitudes in both 2D and 3D settings. However, we found no difference in persuasive power between 2D and 3D content. We contend this lack of effect was the result of poor conversion quality and the unique demands of 3D production. In our second study, we found 3D technology significantly increased enjoyment when viewing sports content, yet offered no added enjoyment when viewing a movie trailer. The enhanced enjoyment of the sports content was shown to be the result of heightened emotional arousal and attention in the 3D condition. We believe the lack of effect found for the movie trailer may be genre-related. In our final study, we found 3D technology significantly enhanced enjoyment of two video games from different genres. The added enjoyment was found to be the result of an increased sense of presence.

Janicke, Sophie H.; Ellis, Andrew

2013-03-01

328

BENCHMARKING ORTEC ISOTOPIC MEASUREMENTS AND CALCULATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report represents a description of compiled benchmark tests conducted to probe and to demonstrate the extensive utility of the Ortec ISOTOPIC -ray analysis computer program. The ISOTOPIC program performs analyses of -ray spectra applied to specific acquisition configurations in order to apply finite-geometry correction factors and sample-matrix-container photon absorption correction factors. The analysis program provides an extensive set of

R Dewberry; R Raymond Sigg; V Vito Casella; N Nitin Bhatt

2008-01-01

329

Method of characteristics - Based sensitivity calculations for international PWR benchmark  

SciTech Connect

Method to calculate sensitivity of fractional-linear neutron flux functionals to transport equation coefficients is proposed. Implementation of the method on the basis of MOC code MCCG3D is developed. Sensitivity calculations for fission intensity for international PWR benchmark are performed. (authors)

Suslov, I. R.; Tormyshev, I. V.; Komlev, O. G. [FSUE SSCRF-IPPE, Kalugadistrict, Bondarenkosq. 1, 249033, Obninsk (Russian Federation)] [FSUE SSCRF-IPPE, Kalugadistrict, Bondarenkosq. 1, 249033, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

2013-07-01

330

BENCHMARK DOSE SOFTWARE (BMDS)  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA has announced the latest update to the Benchmark Dose Software (BMDS) tool which is used to facilitate the application of benchmark dose (BMD) methods to EPA hazardous pollutant risk assessments. This latest version (1.4.1b) contains seventeen (17) different models that ar...

331

LASL Benchmark Performance 1978.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the results of running several benchmark programs on a CDC STAR-100, a Cray Research CRAY-1, a CDC 6600, a CDC 7600, and a CDC Cyber 73. The benchmark effort included CRAY-1's at several installations running different operating syste...

A. L. McKnight

1979-01-01

332

NAS Parallel Benchmarks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The NAS Parallel Benchmarks (NPB) are a suite of parallel computer performance benchmarks. They were originally developed at the NASA Ames Research Center in 1991 to assess high-end parallel supercomputers. Although they are no longer used as widely as th...

D. H. Bailey

2009-01-01

333

A Synthetic Benchmark  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple method of measuring performance is by means of a benchmark pro- gram. Unless such a program is carefully constructed it is unlikely to be typical of the many thousands of programs run at an installation. An example benchmark for measuring the processor power of scientific computers is presented: this is compared with other methods of assessing computer power.

H. J. Curnow; Brian A. Wichmann

1976-01-01

334

Making Benchmark Testing Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many schools are moving to develop benchmark tests to monitor their students' progress toward state standards throughout the academic year. Benchmark tests can provide the ongoing information that schools need to guide instructional programs and to address student learning problems. The authors discuss six criteria that educators can use to…

Herman, Joan L.; Baker, Eva L.

2005-01-01

335

Benchmarking in public procurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper investigates the technique of benchmarking to improve the quality of the public procurement process and discusses the importance of benchmarking to overcome perceived weaknesses with these processes. This is followed by a case study of Sri-Lanka, exploring the difficulties faced by public sector employees in separating the daily business of government from the political influences of

Jeanette Raymond

2008-01-01

336

Benchmark Dose Modeling-2  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this full-day course is to provide participants with interactive training on the use of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Benchmark Dose Software (BMDS) and its application to risk assessment. Benchmark dose (BMD) modeling involves fitting m...

337

Development of a 3-D Variable-Direction Anisotropy program, VDA-3D, to represent normal and tangential fluxes, in 3-D groundwater flow modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A computer program, VDA-3D, for groundwater flow simulation with a 3-dimensional anisotropic hydraulic conductivity tensor [K] has been developed, which represents normal fluxes with the Kxx, Kyy, Kzz components of [K], and tangential fluxes with the Kxy, Kxz, Kyz components. The need to simulate tangential fluxes occurs when the principal directions of the hydraulic conductivity tensor are not aligned with the model coordinates. Off-diagonal components of the conductivity tensor relate Darcy flux components to head gradient components that do not point in the same direction as the flux components. The program for 3-Dimensional Variable-Direction Anisotropy (VDA-3D) is based on a method developed by Edwards and Rogers (1998) and is an extension to 3 dimensions of the 2-dimensional Layer Variable-Direction Anisotropy (LVDA) package developed by Anderman and others (2002) for the USGS MODFLOW groundwater modeling program. The Edwards method is based on the traditional mass balance of water for a finite-difference-discretization cell of aquifer material, and enforces continuity of water flux across each of the 6 cell faces. VDA-3D is used to apply the Edwards method to a set of 1-D, 2-D, and 3-D test problems, some homogeneous, one with heterogeneity between two zones of the grid, and one with heterogeneity from cell to cell; each problem has boundary conditions of either constant head or constant flux. One test problem with constant head boundaries uses distributions of sources and sinks that are calculated to represent a problem with a given analytic solution. A second program has been written to implement an alternate method to simulate tangential fluxes, developed by Li and others (2010) and referred to as the Lzgh method. Like VDA-3D, the Lzgh method formulates the finite difference discretization of the flow equation for a medium with heterogeneous anisotropic hydraulic conductivity. In the Lzgh method, the conductivity is not required to be uniform over each finite difference cell as it is in VDA-3D, and the head function is required to be continuous across the cell faces, which it is not in VDA-3D. The only data requirement difference between the two methods is that the hydraulic conductivities are provided at cell centroids for VDA-3D and at cell interfaces for Lzgh. Early test results for a 2-D heterogeneous problem with a synthetic conductivity distribution and a dominantly 1-D flow pattern indicate that Lzgh can reproduce the results of VDA-3D, provided the harmonic means of all the components of the cell-centered VDA-3D hydraulic conductivity tensor are used to create the tensor at cell interfaces for Lzgh. Further work is planned to compare the accuracy of the resultant head distributions and the computational costs of the two methods, and to compare additional problems with different flow patterns.

Umari, A. M.; Kipp, K. L.

2013-12-01

338

Cell-Matrix Adhesions in 3D  

PubMed Central

Cells in a three-dimensional (3D) extracellular matrix environment often display different properties and behavior compared to cells cultured on a two-dimensional (2D) substrate. Recent studies characterizing the cell-matrix adhesions formed by cells within a 3D matrix have arrived at contradictory conclusions regarding the presence and composition of adhesions. Here we review this literature, and provide a comparative compilation of information found in published studies from the 3D cell-matrix adhesion field in order to identify shared and divergent conclusions and conceptually important areas that require further research. Although there is a general consensus that discrete cell-matrix adhesions exist in various 3D matrix environments, there are specific exceptions, particularly in cells undergoing amoeboid migration. There are also technical issues to consider when imaging adhesions in 3D matrix; for example, over-expression of a cytoskeletal cell adhesion component can potentially cloud the visualization of adhesions and even alter the mode of cell migration. Properties such as stiffness and local matrix topography may also affect the composition of cell-matrix adhesions. For example, even though cells contain integrin-based 3D adhesions, there can be substantial variability within these adhesions in the presence of force-dependent cytoskeletal components such as vinculin. These new findings and ideas provide promising new leads for understanding the regulation and function of cell-matrix adhesions in 3D matrix.

Harunaga, Jill S.; Yamada, Kenneth M.

2011-01-01

339

3D facial expression modeling for recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current two-dimensional image based face recognition systems encounter difficulties with large variations in facial appearance due to the pose, illumination and expression changes. Utilizing 3D information of human faces is promising for handling the pose and lighting variations. While the 3D shape of a face does not change due to head pose (rigid) and lighting changes, it is not invariant to the non-rigid facial movement and evolution, such as expressions and aging effect. We propose a facial surface matching framework to match multiview facial scans to a 3D face model, where the (non-rigid) expression deformation is explicitly modeled for each subject, resulting in a person-specific deformation model. The thin plate spline (TPS) is applied to model the deformation based on the facial landmarks. The deformation is applied to the 3D neutral expression face model to synthesize the corresponding expression. Both the neutral and the synthesized 3D surface models are used to match a test scan. The surface registration and matching between a test scan and a 3D model are achieved by a modified Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. Preliminary experimental results demonstrate that the proposed expression modeling and recognition-by-synthesis schemes improve the 3D matching accuracy.

Lu, Xiaoguang; Jain, Anil K.; Dass, Sarat C.

2005-03-01

340

MOD3D: a model for incorporating MODTRAN radiative transfer into 3D simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

MOD3D, a rapid and accurate radiative transport algorithm, is being developed for application to 3D simulations. MOD3D couples to optical property databases generated by the MODTRAN4 Correlated-k (CK) band model algorithm. The Beer's Law dependence of the CK algorithm provides for proper coupling of illumination and line-of-sight paths. Full 3D spatial effects are modeled by scaling and interpolating optical data

Alexander Berk; Gail P. Anderson; Brett N. Gossage

2001-01-01

341

MOD3D: A model for incorporating MODTRAN radiative transfer into 3D simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

MOD3D, a rapid and accurate radiative transport algorithm, is being developed for application to 3D simulations. MOD3D couples to optical property databases generated by the MODTRAN4 Correlated-k (CK) band model algorithm. The Beer's Law dependence of the CK algorithm provides for proper coupling of illumination and line-of-sight paths. Full 3D spatial effects are modeled by scaling and interpolating optical data

Alexander Berk; Gail P. Anderson; Brett Gossage

342

Computation of 3-D velocity fields from 3-D cine CT images of a human heart  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of computing the three-dimensional (3-D) velocity field from 3-D cine computer tomographs (CTs) of a beating heart is proposed. Using continuum theory, the authors develop two constraints on the 3-D velocity field generated by a beating heart. With these constraints, the computation of the 3-D velocity field is formulated as an optimization problem and a solution to the

Samuel M. Song; Richard M. Leahy

1991-01-01

343

ISReal: An Open Platform for Semantic-Based 3D Simulations in the 3D Internet  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We present the first open and cross-disciplinary 3D Internet research platform, called ISReal, for intelligent 3D simulation\\u000a of realities. Its core innovation is the comprehensively integrated application of semantic Web technologies, semantic services,\\u000a intelligent agents, verification and 3D graphics for this purpose. In this paper, we focus on the interplay between its components\\u000a for semantic XML3D scene query processing and

Patrick Kapahnke; Pascal Liedtke; Stefan Nesbigall; Stefan Warwas; Matthias Klusch

2010-01-01

344

3-D face structure extraction and recognition from images using 3-D morphing and distance mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a novel approach for creating a three-dimensional (3-D) face structure from multiple image views of a human face taken at a priori unknown poses by appropriately morphing a generic 3-D face. A cubic explicit polynomial in 3-D is used to morph a generic face into the specific face structure. The 3-D face structure allows for accurate pose estimation

Chongzhen Zhang; Fernand S. Cohen

2002-01-01

345

Extra dimensions: 3d and time in pdf documentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High energy physics is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide audience. In this talk, we present examples of HEP applications which take advantage of this functionality. We demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input. Using this technique, higher dimensional data, such as LEGO plots or time-dependent information can be included in PDF files. In principle, a complete event display, with full interactivity, can be incorporated into a PDF file. This would allow the end user not only to customize the view and representation of the data, but to access the underlying data itself.

Graf, N. A.

2008-07-01

346

The 3D Heliosphere: What Can We Learn from STEREO?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many techniques have been used to study the 3D heliosphere, with the earliest probably being the analysis of comet tails. I will list most of these and mention a few, focusing on existing multi-point studies. The result, from more than 50 years of study, Is that a lot is known. This has led to a good picture of the quasi-steady heliosphere and its relation to the 3D Corona. But, there are also some large gaps and STEREO is designed to address one of these: the timing, size, geometry, mass, speed, direction, and 3D propagation of Corona[ mass ejections (CMEs). In spite of the statistical analysis of a large data archive, Imaginative use of in situ and remote measurements, and extensive modeling, these properties of CMES are poorly known. I will outline an example of how STEREO instruments might work together to develop a far better 30 description of CMEs In the 3D heliosphere and note that other examples are described in the Science Definition Team report and in the Science Objectives given by the four instrument teams. Since the two STEREO spacecraft are not intended to work in isolation, I will also outline how they might be used In combination With ground-based and other spacecraft observations.

Suess, S. T.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

347

Optimal-tradeoff circular harmonic function filters for 3D target recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

3D target recognition is of significant interest because representing the object in 3D space couuld essentially provide a solution to pose variation and self-occlusion problems that are big challenges in 2D pattern recognition. Correlation filers have been used in a variety of 2D pattern matching applications and many correlation filter designs have been developed to handle problems such as rotations. Correlation filters also offer other benefits such as shift-invariance, graceful degradation and closed-form solutions. The 3D extension of correlation filter is a natural extension to handle 3D pattern recognition problem. In this paper, we propose a 3D correlation filter design method based on cylindrical circular harmonic function (CCHF) and use LADAR imagery to illustrate the good performance of CCHF filters.

Vijaya Kumar, Bhagavatula V. K.; Xie, Chunyan; Mahalanobis, Abhijit

2003-09-01

348

Cookoff Response of PBXN-109: Material Characterization and ALE3D Thermal Predictions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Materials properties measurements are made for the RDX-based explosive, PBXN-109, and initial ALE3D model predictions are given for the cookoff temperature in a U.S. Navy test. This work is part of an effort in the U.S. Navy and Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories to understand the thermal explosion behavior of this material. Benchmark cookoff experiments are being performed by the

M A McClelland; T D Tran; B J Cunningham; R K Weese; J L Maienschein

2001-01-01

349

Cookoff response of PBXN-109: material characterization and ALE3D model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Materials properties measurements are made for the RDX-based explosive, PBXN-109, and an initial ALE3D model for cookoff is discussed. A significant effort is underway in the U.S. Navy and Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories to understand the thermal explosion behavior of this material. Benchmark cookoff experiments are being performed by the U.S. Navy to validate DOE materials models and computer

M A McClelland; T D Tran; B J Cunningham; R K Weese; J L Maienschein

2000-01-01

350

Predicting probe impedance change in EC-NDI using a 3D finite element model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to aid in the interpretation of nondestructive eddy current inspection data this paper reports preliminary results obtained with a 3D Finite Element Model of a conducting plate with a semi-elliptical flaw for several inspection frequencies. The results include predicted impedance change patterns over a 2D scan of the flaw. The data are useful as training sets for automated evaluation of nondestructive inspection data. The numerical results were validated with benchmark experimental measurements. .

Revilla, Arturo; Pierluissi, Joseph H.; Osegueda, Roberto A.

2001-04-01

351

Optical 3D surface digitizing in forensic medicine: 3D documentation of skin and bone injuries.  

PubMed

Photography process reduces a three-dimensional (3D) wound to a two-dimensional level. If there is a need for a high-resolution 3D dataset of an object, it needs to be three-dimensionally scanned. No-contact optical 3D digitizing surface scanners can be used as a powerful tool for wound and injury-causing instrument analysis in trauma cases. The 3D skin wound and a bone injury documentation using the optical scanner Advanced TOpometric Sensor (ATOS II, GOM International, Switzerland) will be demonstrated using two illustrative cases. Using this 3D optical digitizing method the wounds (the virtual 3D computer model of the skin and the bone injuries) and the virtual 3D model of the injury-causing tool are graphically documented in 3D in real-life size and shape and can be rotated in the CAD program on the computer screen. In addition, the virtual 3D models of the bone injuries and tool can now be compared in a 3D CAD program against one another in virtual space, to see if there are matching areas. Further steps in forensic medicine will be a full 3D surface documentation of the human body and all the forensic relevant injuries using optical 3D scanners. PMID:14609658

Thali, Michael J; Braun, Marcel; Dirnhofer, Richard

2003-11-26

352

Indoor 3D Modeling and Visualization with a 3D Terrestrial Laser Scanner  

Microsoft Academic Search

For indoor wireless location, it is useful to have 3D models to docu- ment and to validate the results of the locations derived from wireless sensing equipment. Visualization using a 3D model also allows the user to generate a realistic mental model while navigating their virtual surroundings. While it is possible to build a 3D framework model from CAD drawings,

Jia Dongzhen; Tor Yam Khoon; Zhong Zheng; Zhou Qi

353

XML3D and Xflow: Combining Declarative 3D for the Web with Generic Data Flows.  

PubMed

Researchers have combined XML3D, which provides declarative, interactive 3D scene descriptions based on HTML5, with Xflow, a language for declarative, high-performance data processing. The result lets Web developers combine a 3D scene graph with data flows for dynamic meshes, animations, image processing, and postprocessing. PMID:24808080

Klein, F; Sons, K; Rubinstein, D; Slusallek, P

2013-01-01

354

3D Laser scanning system and 3D segmentation of urban scenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper dwells upon the promising 3D technology for mobile robots and automation industry. The first part of the paper describes the design details of our own 3D Time of Flight (TOF) scanning system based on 2D laser range finder. The second part presents a specific segmentation technique for 3D outdoor urban environments by the common detection of plane models.

L. C. Goron; L. Tamas; I. Reti; G. Lazea

2010-01-01

355

The 3D quantum law of motion and the 3D quantum trajectories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we resolve the three-dimensional quantum stationary Hamilton-Jacobi equation (3D-QSHJE) for a general form of the potential, and discuss the nature of the hidden antisymmetric tensor introduced by Bertoldi et al. We derive the 3D quantum law of motion and plot the 3D quantum trajectories of a free particle (electron).

Djama, T.

2007-07-01

356

3D packaging for integrated circuit systems  

SciTech Connect

A goal was set for high density, high performance microelectronics pursued through a dense 3D packing of integrated circuits. A {open_quotes}tool set{close_quotes} of assembly processes have been developed that enable 3D system designs: 3D thermal analysis, silicon electrical through vias, IC thinning, mounting wells in silicon, adhesives for silicon stacking, pretesting of IC chips before commitment to stacks, and bond pad bumping. Validation of these process developments occurred through both Sandia prototypes and subsequent commercial examples.

Chu, D.; Palmer, D.W. [eds.

1996-11-01

357

3D Animations of Fresnel's Equations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To better understand Fresnel's equations, it is beneficial to have full 3D animations in order to help demonstrate numerous physical happenings. We would like to show the laws of reflection, refraction, image formation and polarization in 3D animations. With these models, we will also be able to show phenomena such as total internal reflection and total refraction, including various laws and principles ranging from Huygen to Snell and Rayleigh. Considering these trends have not yet been animated in full 3D models, it is our ultimate goal to do so as a way to better observe, dissect, and understand the inner and outer workings of Fresnel's equations.

May, Donald; Parish, Daniel; Nobra, Richard; Golden, Ashley; Kanaujiya, Naresh; Debnam, Jessica

2009-04-01

358

A 3D shape constraint on video.  

PubMed

We propose to combine the information from multiple motion fields by enforcing a constraint on the surface normals (3D shape) of the scene in view. The fact that the shape vectors in the different views are related only by rotation can be formulated as a rank = 3 constraint. This constraint is implemented in an algorithm which solves 3D motion and structure estimation as a practical constrained minimization. Experiments demonstrate its usefulness as a tool in structure from motion providing very accurate estimates of 3D motion. PMID:16724596

Ji, Hui; Fermuller, Cornelia

2006-06-01

359

The ESO 3D Visualisation Tool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ESO 3D visualisation tool provides the capability for visualisation and basic scientific exploitation of 3D spectroscopic datasets obtained with VLT integral field unit instrumentation, including MUSE. The tool was implemented as part of the ALMA CASA software viewer and as such provides the opportunity to view ALMA data as well as VLT 3D data within the same tool. Recently, the first version of the visualisation tool, featuring optical and near-infrared spectroscopic capabilities, has been completed and we describe the released software which is available for Mac OS X and Linux systems.

Kuntschner, H.; Kümmel, M.; Westmoquette, M.; Ballester, P.; Pasquini, L.

2012-12-01

360

A high capacity 3D steganography algorithm.  

PubMed

In this paper, we present a very high-capacity and low-distortion 3D steganography scheme. Our steganography approach is based on a novel multilayered embedding scheme to hide secret messages in the vertices of 3D polygon models. Experimental results show that the cover model distortion is very small as the number of hiding layers ranges from 7 to 13 layers. To the best of our knowledge, this novel approach can provide much higher hiding capacity than other state-of-the-art approaches, while obeying the low distortion and security basic requirements for steganography on 3D models. PMID:19147891

Chao, Min-Wen; Lin, Chao-hung; Yu, Cheng-Wei; Lee, Tong-Yee

2009-01-01

361

DSI3D-RCS test case manual  

SciTech Connect

The DSI3D-RCS code is designed to numerically evaluate radar cross sections on complex objects by solving Maxwell`s curl equations in the time-domain and in three space dimensions. The code has been designed to run on the new parallel processing computers as well as on conventional serial computers. The DSI3D-RCS code has been used to solve the following problems: (1) wedge cylinder--thin flat metal plate; (2) wedge cylinder with plate extension--thin flat metal plate; (3) plate with half cylinder extension--thin flat metal plate; (4) rectangular plate (business card)--thin flat metal plate; (5) wedge cylinder with gap--thin flat metal plate; (6) NASA Almond; (7) wavelength circular cavity. In order to generate each of the angle sweeps, it was necessary to run DSI3D once for each data point on the graphs. This is because these are backscatter calculations, and the incident pulse comes from a different direction as the angle {phi} is changed.

Madsen, N.; Steich, D.; Cook, G.; Eme, B.

1995-08-01

362

Modeling Cellular Processes in 3-D  

PubMed Central

Summary Recent advances in photonic imaging and fluorescent protein technology offer unprecedented views of molecular space-time dynamics in living cells. At the same time, advances in computing hardware and software enable modeling of ever more complex systems, from global climate to cell division. As modeling and experiment become more closely integrated, we must address the issue of modeling cellular processes in 3-D. Here, we highlight recent advances related to 3-D modeling in cell biology. While some processes require full 3-D analysis, we suggest that others are more naturally described in 2-D or 1-D. Keeping the dimensionality as low as possible reduces computational time and makes models more intuitively comprehensible; however, the ability to test full 3-D models will build greater confidence in models generally and remains an important emerging area of cell biological modeling.

Mogilner, Alex; Odde, David

2011-01-01

363

3-D TRMM Flyby of Hurricane Amanda  

NASA Video Gallery

The TRMM satellite flew over Hurricane Amanda on Tuesday, May 27 at 1049 UTC (6:49 a.m. EDT) and captured rainfall rates and cloud height data that was used to create this 3-D simulated flyby. Cred...

364

Crashworthiness simulations with DYNA3D.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Current progress in parallel algorithm research and applications in vehicle crash simulation is described for the explicit, finite element algorithms in DYNA3D. Problem partitioning methods and parallel algorithms for contact at material interfaces are th...

A. J. De Groot A. S. Lee C. G. Hoover D. A. Schauer G. J. Kay

1996-01-01

365

TRMM 3-D Flyby of Ingrid  

NASA Video Gallery

This 3-D flyby of Tropical Storm Ingrid's rainfall was created from TRMM satellite data for Sept. 16. Heaviest rainfall appears in red towers over the Gulf of Mexico, while moderate rainfall stretc...

366

Eyes on the Earth 3D  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Eyes on the Earth 3D software gives scientists, and the general public, a realtime, 3D interactive means of accurately viewing the real-time locations, speed, and values of recently collected data from several of NASA's Earth Observing Satellites using a standard Web browser (climate.nasa.gov/eyes). Anyone with Web access can use this software to see where the NASA fleet of these satellites is now, or where they will be up to a year in the future. The software also displays several Earth Science Data sets that have been collected on a daily basis. This application uses a third-party, 3D, realtime, interactive game engine called Unity 3D to visualize the satellites and is accessible from a Web browser.

Kulikov, anton I.; Doronila, Paul R.; Nguyen, Viet T.; Jackson, Randal K.; Greene, William M.; Hussey, Kevin J.; Garcia, Christopher M.; Lopez, Christian A.

2013-01-01

367

Using Wavelet Transforms in 3D Mapping.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Naval Research Laboratory's Digital Mapping, Charting and Geodesy Analysis Program is Investigating the application of wavelet technology to terrain approximation in 3D mapping. The wavelet transform allows the lab to obtain the frequency content of g...

R. V. Ladner J. T. Sample K. B. Shaw

2002-01-01

368

New Directions in 3-D Multiphoton Lithography.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiphoton absorption polymerization (MAP) is a promising technique for the lithographic fabrication of 3-D microdevices. However, this technique also has two major shortcomings that have so far precluded its use in the mass production of devices. First, MAP is an inherently serial technique, and structures must be created on a voxel-by-voxel basis. Second, the fabrication of many desirable 3-D devices requires incorporation of materials other than polymers. We will discuss our recent progress in attacking both of these problems. We have developed soft-lithographic techniques that allow for the creation of complex 3-D structures that can include closed loops based on master structures created using MAP. We have also developed a technique that allows for the selective deposition of materials that include metals, metal oxides, and biomolecules on desired regions of 3-D structures fabricated with MAP. We demonstrate the use of the latter technique in the creation of functional microinductors.

Fourkas, John; Lafratta, Christopher; Farrer, Richard; Li, Linjie; Naughton, Michael

2006-03-01

369

Cyclone Rusty's Landfall in 3-D  

NASA Video Gallery

This 3-D image derived from NASA's TRMM satellite Precipitation Radar data on February 26, 2013 at 0654 UTC showed that the tops of some towering thunderstorms in Rusty's eye wall were reaching hei...

370

Microscopy in 3D: a biologist's toolbox  

PubMed Central

The power of fluorescence microscopy to study cellular structures and macromolecular complexes spans a wide range of size scales, from studies of cell behavior and function in physiological, three-dimensional (3D) environments, to understanding the molecular architecture of organelles. At each length scale, the challenge in 3D imaging is to extract the most spatial and temporal resolution possible while limiting photodamage/bleaching to living cells. A number of advancements in 3D fluorescence microscopy now offer higher resolution, improved speed, and reduced photobleaching relative to traditional point-scanning microscopy methods. Here, we discuss a few specific microscopy modalities that we believe will be particularly advantageous in imaging cells and subcellular structures in physiologically relevant 3D environments.

Fischer, Robert S.; Wu, Yicong; Kanchanawong, Pakorn; Shroff, Hari; Waterman, Clare M.

2012-01-01

371

Tropical Cyclone Jack in Satellite 3-D  

NASA Video Gallery

This 3-D flyby from NASA's TRMM satellite of Tropical Cyclone Jack on April 21 shows that some of the thunderstorms were shown by TRMM PR were still reaching height of at least 17 km (10.5 miles). ...

372

3D Facial Pattern Analysis for Autism.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of this project is to use recently developed 3D shape acquisition technologies and advanced computational techniques to define the autism face and determine whether there is a statistically significant facial phenotype. During this report period,...

Y. Duan

2010-01-01

373

3D Facial Pattern Analysis for Autism.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of this project is to use recently developed 3D shape acquisition technologies and advanced computational techniques to define the autism face and determine whether there is a statistically significant facial phenotype. During this report period,...

Y. Duan

2009-01-01

374

3-D Animation of Typhoon Bopha  

NASA Video Gallery

This 3-D animation of NASA's TRMM satellite data showed Typhoon Bopha tracking over the Philippines on Dec. 3 and moving into the Sulu Sea on Dec. 4, 2012. TRMM saw heavy rain (red) was falling at ...

375

MOD3D: a model for incorporating MODTRAN radiative transfer into 3D simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MOD3D, a rapid and accurate radiative transport algorithm, is being developed for application to 3D simulations. MOD3D couples to optical property databases generated by the MODTRAN4 Correlated-k (CK) band model algorithm. The Beer's Law dependence of the CK algorithm provides for proper coupling of illumination and line-of-sight paths. Full 3D spatial effects are modeled by scaling and interpolating optical data to local conditions. A C++ version of MOD3D has been integrated into JMASS for calculation of path transmittances, thermal emission and single scatter solar radiation. Results from initial validation efforts are presented.

Berk, Alexander; Anderson, Gail P.; Gossage, Brett N.

2001-08-01

376

Realistic 3D Human Facial Animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Construction and animation of realistic human facial models is an important research field in computer graphics. How to simulate the motions of human faces on 3D facial models in real-time to generate realistic facial expressions is still a challenge. In this paper, a technique to simulate the human facial animation realistically in real-time is presented. First of all, the 3D

ZHANG Qing-Shan; CHEN Guo-Liang

2003-01-01

377

Synthesizing invariant 3D rigid scattering centers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) is difficult in general, but especially with RADAR. However, the problem can be greatly simplified by using the 3-D reconstruction techniques presented at SPIE[Stuff] the previous 2 years. Now, instead of matching seemingly random signals in 1-D or 2-D, one must match scattering centers in 3-D. This method tracks scattering centers through an image collection sequence

D. G. Arnold; Rifka Claypool; Vincent J. Velten; Kirk Sturtz

2001-01-01

378

DYNA3D Code Practices and Developments  

Microsoft Academic Search

DYNA3D is an explicit, finite element code developed to solve high rate dynamic simulations for problems of interest to the engineering mechanics community. The DYNA3D code has been under continuous development since 1976[1] by the Methods Development Group in the Mechanical Engineering Department of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The pace of code development activities has substantially increased in the past

L. Lin; E. Zywicz; P. Raboin

2000-01-01

379

Tracking and Visualizing Turbulent 3D Features  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visualizing 3D time-varying fluid datasets is difficult because of the immense amount of data to be processed and understood. These datasets contain many evolving amorphous regions, and it is difficult to observe patterns and visually follow regions of interest. In this paper, we present a technique which isolates and tracks full-volume representations of regions of interest from 3D regular and

Deborah Silver; Xin Wang

1997-01-01

380

Congestion estimation for 3-D circuit architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three-dimensional (3-D) routing is an important step in deep submicrometer very large-scale integrated design. Given a 3-D grid graph and a set of two-terminal nets to be routed, we propose a probabilistic model to calculate the routing density (congestion) on each edge of the grid graph. The routing density provides a direct congestion estimation. Our experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness

Lerong Cheng; William N. N. Hung; Guowu Yang; Xiaoyu Song

2004-01-01

381

New Directions in 3-D Multiphoton Lithography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiphoton absorption polymerization (MAP) is a promising technique for the lithographic fabrication of 3-D microdevices. However, this technique also has two major shortcomings that have so far precluded its use in the mass production of devices. First, MAP is an inherently serial technique, and structures must be created on a voxel-by-voxel basis. Second, the fabrication of many desirable 3-D devices

John Fourkas; Christopher Lafratta; Richard Farrer; Linjie Li; Michael Naughton

2006-01-01

382

Bronchial tree modeling and 3D reconstruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Providing an in-vivo and non-invasive tool for 3D reconstruction of anatomical tree structures (vascular networks and bronchial tree) from 2D or pseudo-3D data acquisition remains today a key and challenging issue for computer vision in medical imaging. In this paper, we address this issue within the specific framework of airways. Our contribution consists of a realistic 3D modeling of the bronchial tree structure. Mathematical and physical principles here involved refer to 3D mathematical morphology (3DMM), Diffusion Limited Aggregation (DLA), energy-based modeling and fractal representations. Here, a model-based 3D reconstruction of the bronchial tree is achieved in a fully-automated way. The tree segmentation is performed by applying a DLA-based propagation. The initialization results from the 3DMM procedure. Energy modeling and fractals are used to overcome the well- known cases of subdivision ambiguities and artifact generation related to such a complex topological structure. Therefore, the proposed method is robust with respect to anatomical variabilities. The 3D bronchial tree reconstruction is finally visualized by using a semi-transparent volume rendering technique which provides brochogram- like representations. The developed method was applied to a data set acquired within a clinical framework by using both double- and multiple- detector CT scanners (5 patients corresponding to 1500 axial slices, including both normal and strong pathological cases). Results thus obtained, compared with a previously-developed 2D/3D technique, show significant improvements and accuracy increase of the 3D reconstructions.

Fetita, Catalin I.; Preteux, Francoise J.

2000-10-01

383

3D-free Rescue Robot System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a 3D-free rescue robot system which mainly consists of a moving vehicle with automatic outriggers, a 3D reaching arm and a spring balancer. This robot system lightens the weight of firemen at rescue activities on this system, supports his\\/her rescue activities by widening his\\/her working area, and reduces various risks entailing for the activities. The spring balancer

Takanori Kiyota; Noboru Sugimoto; Mie Someya

2006-01-01

384

Tilt 3D 1.0.1  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Have you ever wanted to see a website in 3D? Well, this is now possible with Tilt3D 1.0.1. Created by Victor Porof, the tool is "layers each node based on the nesting in the tree, creating stacks of elements, each having a corresponding depth and being textured according to the webpage rendering." It's a pretty fun little tool and it is compatible with all operating systems running Mozilla Firefox.

Porof, Victor

2012-07-13

385

Piezoelectric Transducer Based 3D Intraoral Scanner  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are not so many 3D profile tools specially designed for specifically narrow space, for example, to scan the tooth shape of a human jaw. In this paper, a real-time 3D intraoral scanner based on piezoelectric transducer is presented for the measurement of tooth profile in the mouth cavity. The proposed system comprises a laser diode beam, a micro charge-coupled

Furqan Ullah; Gun Soo Lee; Kang Park

2012-01-01

386

A search engine for 3D models  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the number of 3D models available on the Web grows, there is an increasing need for a search engine to help people find them. Unfortunately, traditional text-based search techniques are not always effective for 3D data. In this article, we investigate new shape-based search methods. The key challenges are to develop query methods simple enough for novice users and

Thomas A. Funkhouser; Patrick Min; Michael M. Kazhdan; Joyce Chen; Alex Halderman; David P. Dobkin; David Pokrass Jacobs

2003-01-01

387

A Search Engine for 3D Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the number of 3D models available on the Web grows, there is an increasing need for a search engine to help people find them. Unfortunately, traditional text-based search techniques are not always effective for 3D data. In this paper, we investigate new shape-based search methods. The key challenges are to develop query methods simple enough for novice users and

Thomas Funkhouser; Patrick Min; Misha Kazhdan; Joyce Chen; Alex Halderman; David Dobkin; David Jacobs

2002-01-01

388

Prototype application for web 3D routing in building  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current routing systems in GIS software mostly provide routes that allow the users to navigate between source and destination points in 2 dimensions. This paper describes the development of a web-based 3D routing system for a university campus using Open Source Software (OSS) and Open Specifications (OS). The system uses the advantages of interoperability and allows the integration and extension of different system components. A data model is described and the process of creating the data model and the migration of the data stored in dxf architectural drawings to the data model are explained. The paper also discusses the architecture and the interaction of the different prototype components such as 3D viewer, database, and programming languages. Furthermore, it describes customized tools that were developed to provide the users a simple interface to interact with the system through a standard internet browser.

Ehlers, Manfred; Hijazi, Ihab

2009-09-01

389

Auto convergence for stereoscopic 3D cameras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Viewing comfort is an important concern for 3-D capable consumer electronics such as 3-D cameras and TVs. Consumer generated content is typically viewed at a close distance which makes the vergence-accommodation conflict particularly pronounced, causing discomfort and eye fatigue. In this paper, we present a Stereo Auto Convergence (SAC) algorithm for consumer 3-D cameras that reduces the vergence-accommodation conflict on the 3-D display by adjusting the depth of the scene automatically. Our algorithm processes stereo video in realtime and shifts each stereo frame horizontally by an appropriate amount to converge on the chosen object in that frame. The algorithm starts by estimating disparities between the left and right image pairs using correlations of the vertical projections of the image data. The estimated disparities are then analyzed by the algorithm to select a point of convergence. The current and target disparities of the chosen convergence point determines how much horizontal shift is needed. A disparity safety check is then performed to determine whether or not the maximum and minimum disparity limits would be exceeded after auto convergence. If the limits would be exceeded, further adjustments are made to satisfy the safety limits. Finally, desired convergence is achieved by shifting the left and the right frames accordingly. Our algorithm runs real-time at 30 fps on a TI OMAP4 processor. It is tested using an OMAP4 embedded prototype stereo 3-D camera. It significantly improves 3-D viewing comfort.

Zhang, Buyue; Kothandaraman, Sreenivas; Batur, Aziz Umit

2012-02-01

390

DYNA3D example problem manual  

SciTech Connect

This manual describes in detail the solution of ten example problems using the explicit nonlinear finite element code DYNA3D. The sample problems include solid, shell, and beam element types, and a variety of linear and nonlinear material models. For each example, there is first an engineering description of the physical problem to be studied. Next, the analytical techniques incorporated in the model are discussed and key features of DYNA3D are highlighted. INGRID commands used to generate the mesh are listed, and sample plots from the DYNA3D analysis are given. Finally, there is a description of the TAURUS post-processing commands used to generate the plots of the solution. This set of example problems is useful in verifying the installation of DYNA3D on a new computer system. In addition, these documented analyses illustrate the application of DYNA3D to a variety of engineering problems, and thus this manual should be helpful to new analysts getting started with DYNA3D. 7 refs., 56 figs., 9 tabs.

Lovejoy, S.C.; Whirley, R.G.

1990-10-10

391

Toxicological Benchmarks for Wildlife  

SciTech Connect

Ecological risks of environmental contaminants are evaluated by using a two-tiered process. In the first tier, a screening assessment is performed where concentrations of contaminants in the environment are compared to no observed adverse effects level (NOAEL)-based toxicological benchmarks. These benchmarks represent concentrations of chemicals (i.e., concentrations presumed to be nonhazardous to the biota) in environmental media (water, sediment, soil, food, etc.). While exceedance of these benchmarks does not indicate any particular level or type of risk, concentrations below the benchmarks should not result in significant effects. In practice, when contaminant concentrations in food or water resources are less than these toxicological benchmarks, the contaminants may be excluded from further consideration. However, if the concentration of a contaminant exceeds a benchmark, that contaminant should be retained as a contaminant of potential concern (COPC) and investigated further. The second tier in ecological risk assessment, the baseline ecological risk assessment, may use toxicological benchmarks as part of a weight-of-evidence approach (Suter 1993). Under this approach, based toxicological benchmarks are one of several lines of evidence used to support or refute the presence of ecological effects. Other sources of evidence include media toxicity tests, surveys of biota (abundance and diversity), measures of contaminant body burdens, and biomarkers. This report presents NOAEL- and lowest observed adverse effects level (LOAEL)-based toxicological benchmarks for assessment of effects of 85 chemicals on 9 representative mammalian wildlife species (short-tailed shrew, little brown bat, meadow vole, white-footed mouse, cottontail rabbit, mink, red fox, and whitetail deer) or 11 avian wildlife species (American robin, rough-winged swallow, American woodcock, wild turkey, belted kingfisher, great blue heron, barred owl, barn owl, Cooper's hawk, and red-tailed hawk, osprey) (scientific names for both the mammalian and avian species are presented in Appendix B). [In this document, NOAEL refers to both dose (mg contaminant per kg animal body weight per day) and concentration (mg contaminant per kg of food or L of drinking water)]. The 20 wildlife species were chosen because they are widely distributed and provide a representative range of body sizes and diets. The chemicals are some of those that occur at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) waste sites. The NOAEL-based benchmarks presented in this report represent values believed to be nonhazardous for the listed wildlife species; LOAEL-based benchmarks represent threshold levels at which adverse effects are likely to become evident. These benchmarks consider contaminant exposure through oral ingestion of contaminated media only. Exposure through inhalation and/or direct dermal exposure are not considered in this report.

Sample, B.E. Opresko, D.M. Suter, G.W.

1993-01-01

392

Design of 3D eye-safe middle range vibrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser Doppler Vibrometer and Range Meter (3D-MRV) is designed for middle range distances [1-100 meters]. 3D-MRV combines more than one laser in one device for a simultaneous real time measuring the distance and movement of the targets. The first laser has a short pulse (t˜30psec) and low energy (E˜200nJ) for distance measurement and the second one is a CW (continuous wave) single frequency laser for the velocity measurement with output power (P˜30mW). Both lasers perform on the eye-safe wavelength 1.5 ?m. 3D-MRV uses the same mono-static optical transmitting and receiving channel for both lasers including an output telescope and a scanning angular system. 3D-MRV has an optical polarization switch to combine linear polarized laser beams from two lasers into one optical channel. The laser beams from both lasers by turns illuminate the target and the scattered laser radiation is collected by the telescope on a photo detector. The electrical signal from photo detector is used for measuring the distance to the target and its movement. For distance measurement the time of flight method is employed. For targets movement the optical heterodyne method is employed. The received CW laser radiation is mixed on a photo detector with the frequency-shifted laser radiation that is taken from CW laser and passed through an acousto-optic cell. The electrical signal from a photo detector on the difference frequency and phase has information about movement of the scattered targets. 3D-MVR may be used for the real time picturing of vibration of the extensive targets like bridges or aircrafts.

Polulyakh, Valeriy; Poutivski, Iouri

2014-05-01

393

CFL3D, FUN3d, and NSU3D Contributions to the Fifth Drag Prediction Workshop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results presented at the Fifth Drag Prediction Workshop using CFL3D, FUN3D, and NSU3D are described. These are calculations on the workshop provided grids and drag adapted grids. The NSU3D results have been updated to reflect an improvement to skin friction calculation on skewed grids. FUN3D results generated after the workshop are included for custom participant generated grids and a grid from a previous workshop. Uniform grid refinement at the design condition shows a tight grouping in calculated drag, where the variation in the pressure component of drag is larger than the skin friction component. At this design condition, A fine-grid drag value was predicted with a smaller drag adjoint adapted grid via tetrahedral adaption to a metric and mixed-element subdivision. The buffet study produced larger variation than the design case, which is attributed to large differences in the predicted side-of-body separation extent. Various modeling and discretization approaches had a strong impact on predicted side-of-body separation. This large wing root separation bubble was not observed in wind tunnel tests indicating that more work is necessary in modeling wing root juncture flows to predict experiments.

Park, Michael A.; Laflin, Kelly R.; Chaffin, Mark S.; Powell, Nicholas; Levy, David W.

2013-01-01

394

Benchmarking ENDF/B-VII.0  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new major release VII.0 of the ENDF/B nuclear data library has been tested extensively using benchmark calculations. These were based upon MCNP-4C3 continuous-energy Monte Carlo neutronics simulations, together with nuclear data processed using the code NJOY. Three types of benchmarks were used, viz., criticality safety benchmarks, (fusion) shielding benchmarks, and reference systems for which the effective delayed neutron fraction is reported. For criticality safety, more than 700 benchmarks from the International Handbook of Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments were used. Benchmarks from all categories were used, ranging from low-enriched uranium, compound fuel, thermal spectrum ones (LEU-COMP-THERM), to mixed uranium-plutonium, metallic fuel, fast spectrum ones (MIX-MET-FAST). For fusion shielding many benchmarks were based on IAEA specifications for the Oktavian experiments (for Al, Co, Cr, Cu, LiF, Mn, Mo, Si, Ti, W, Zr), Fusion Neutronics Source in Japan (for Be, C, N, O, Fe, Pb), and Pulsed Sphere experiments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (for 6Li, 7Li, Be, C, N, O, Mg, Al, Ti, Fe, Pb, D 2O, H 2O, concrete, polyethylene and teflon). For testing delayed neutron data more than thirty measurements in widely varying systems were used. Among these were measurements in the Tank Critical Assembly (TCA in Japan) and IPEN/MB-01 (Brazil), both with a thermal spectrum, and two cores in Masurca (France) and three cores in the Fast Critical Assembly (FCA, Japan), all with fast spectra. In criticality safety, many benchmarks were chosen from the category with a thermal spectrum, low-enriched uranium, compound fuel (LEU-COMP-THERM), because this is typical of most current-day reactors, and because these benchmarks were previously underpredicted by as much as 0.5% by most nuclear data libraries (such as ENDF/B-VI.8, JEFF-3.0). The calculated results presented here show that this underprediction is no longer there for ENDF/B-VII.0. The average over 257 benchmarks deviates only 0.017% from the measured benchmark value. Moreover, no clear trends (with e.g. enrichment, lattice pitch, or spectrum) have been observed. Also for fast spectrum benchmarks, both for intermediately or highly enriched uranium and for plutonium, clear improvements are apparent from the calculations. The results for bare assemblies have improved, as well as those with a depleted or natural uranium reflector. On the other hand, the results for plutonium solutions (PU-SOL-THERM) are still high, on average (over 120 benchmarks) roughly 0.6%. Furthermore there still is a bias for a range of benchmarks based on cores in the Zero Power Reactor (ANL) with sizable amounts of tungsten in them. The results for the fusion shielding benchmarks have not changed significantly, compared to ENDF/B-VI.8, for most materials. The delayed neutron testing shows that the values for both thermal and fast spectrum cases are now well predicted, which is an improvement when compared with ENDF/B-VI.8.

van der Marck, Steven C.

2006-12-01

395

Self assembled structures for 3D integration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three dimensional (3D) micro-scale structures attached to a silicon substrate have various applications in microelectronics. However, formation of 3D structures using conventional micro-fabrication techniques are not efficient and require precise control of processing parameters. Self assembly is a method for creating 3D structures that takes advantage of surface area minimization phenomena. Solder based self assembly (SBSA), the subject of this dissertation, uses solder as a facilitator in the formation of 3D structures from 2D patterns. Etching a sacrificial layer underneath a portion of the 2D pattern allows the solder reflow step to pull those areas out of the substrate plane resulting in a folded 3D structure. Initial studies using the SBSA method demonstrated low yields in the formation of five different polyhedra. The failures in folding were primarily attributed to nonuniform solder deposition on the underlying metal pads. The dip soldering method was analyzed and subsequently refined. A modified dip soldering process provided improved yield among the polyhedra. Solder bridging referred as joining of solder deposited on different metal patterns in an entity influenced the folding mechanism. In general, design parameters such as small gap-spacings and thick metal pads were found to favor solder bridging for all patterns studied. Two types of soldering: face and edge soldering were analyzed. Face soldering refers to the application of solder on the entire metal face. Edge soldering indicates application of solder only on the edges of the metal face. Mechanical grinding showed that face soldered SBSA structures were void free and robust in nature. In addition, the face soldered 3D structures provide a consistent heat resistant solder standoff height that serve as attachments in the integration of dissimilar electronic technologies. Face soldered 3D structures were developed on the underlying conducting channel to determine the thermo-electric reliability of face soldered structures.

Rao, Madhav

396

PLOT3D Export Tool for Tecplot  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The PLOT3D export tool for Tecplot solves the problem of modified data being impossible to output for use by another computational science solver. The PLOT3D Exporter add-on enables the use of the most commonly available visualization tools to engineers for output of a standard format. The exportation of PLOT3D data from Tecplot has far reaching effects because it allows for grid and solution manipulation within a graphical user interface (GUI) that is easily customized with macro language-based and user-developed GUIs. The add-on also enables the use of Tecplot as an interpolation tool for solution conversion between different grids of different types. This one add-on enhances the functionality of Tecplot so significantly, it offers the ability to incorporate Tecplot into a general suite of tools for computational science applications as a 3D graphics engine for visualization of all data. Within the PLOT3D Export Add-on are several functions that enhance the operations and effectiveness of the add-on. Unlike Tecplot output functions, the PLOT3D Export Add-on enables the use of the zone selection dialog in Tecplot to choose which zones are to be written by offering three distinct options - output of active, inactive, or all zones (grid blocks). As the user modifies the zones to output with the zone selection dialog, the zones to be written are similarly updated. This enables the use of Tecplot to create multiple configurations of a geometry being analyzed. For example, if an aircraft is loaded with multiple deflections of flaps, by activating and deactivating different zones for a specific flap setting, new specific configurations of that aircraft can be easily generated by only writing out specific zones. Thus, if ten flap settings are loaded into Tecplot, the PLOT3D Export software can output ten different configurations, one for each flap setting.

Alter, Stephen

2010-01-01

397

Benchmarking Linac Codes for the HIPPI Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the framework of the HIPPI project a 3D linac code comparison and benchmarking program have been initiated. Particular attention is devoted to the validation of the space charge solvers, comparing the calculated electric field of a common initial distribution with a semi-analytical solution. In order to study the effects of numerical noise on the single particle dynamics, also the calculated single particle tune is compared with an analytical prediction. Particle tracking is eventually compared using the lattice of UNILAC DTL section, in preparation of validation with experimental emittance measurements to be carried out in the next two years.

Franchi, A.; Duperrier, R.; Franchetti, G.; Gerigk, F.; Groening, L.; Hofmann, I.; Orzhekhovskaya, A.; Sauer, A.; Uriot, D.; Yaramyschev, S.

2005-06-01

398

Benchmarking Linac Codes for the HIPPI Project  

SciTech Connect

In the framework of the HIPPI project a 3D linac code comparison and benchmarking program have been initiated. Particular attention is devoted to the validation of the space charge solvers, comparing the calculated electric field of a common initial distribution with a semi-analytical solution. In order to study the effects of numerical noise on the single particle dynamics, also the calculated single particle tune is compared with an analytical prediction. Particle tracking is eventually compared using the lattice of UNILAC DTL section, in preparation of validation with experimental emittance measurements to be carried out in the next two years.

Franchi, A.; Franchetti, G.; Groening, L.; Hofmann, I.; Orzhekhovskaya, A.; Yaramyschev, S. [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Duperrier, R.; Uriot, D. [CEA, Saclay (France); Gerigk, F. [CCLRC-RAL(United Kingdom); Sauer, A. [IAP, Frankfurt (Germany)

2005-06-08

399

The design and implementation of stereoscopic 3D scalable vector graphics based on WebKit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG), which is a language designed based on eXtensible Markup Language (XML), is used to describe basic shapes embedded in webpages, such as circles and rectangles. However, it can only depict 2D shapes. As a consequence, web pages using classical SVG can only display 2D shapes on a screen. With the increasing development of stereoscopic 3D (S3D) technology, binocular 3D devices have been widely used. Under this circumstance, we intend to extend the widely used web rendering engine WebKit to support the description and display of S3D webpages. Therefore, the extension of SVG is of necessity. In this paper, we will describe how to design and implement SVG shapes with stereoscopic 3D mode. Two attributes representing the depth and thickness are added to support S3D shapes. The elimination of hidden lines and hidden surfaces, which is an important process in this project, is described as well. The modification of WebKit is also discussed, which is made to support the generation of both left view and right view at the same time. As is shown in the result, in contrast to the 2D shapes generated by the Google Chrome web browser, the shapes got from our modified browser are in S3D mode. With the feeling of depth and thickness, the shapes seem to be real 3D objects away from the screen, rather than simple curves and lines as before.

Liu, Zhongxin; Wang, Wenmin; Wang, Ronggang

2014-03-01

400

Strong quantitative benchmarking of quantum optical devices  

SciTech Connect

Quantum communication devices, such as quantum repeaters, quantum memories, or quantum channels, are unavoidably exposed to imperfections. However, the presence of imperfections can be tolerated, as long as we can verify that such devices retain their quantum advantages. Benchmarks based on witnessing entanglement have proven useful for verifying the true quantum nature of these devices. The next challenge is to characterize how strongly a device is within the quantum domain. We present a method, based on entanglement measures and rigorous state truncation, which allows us to characterize the degree of quantumness of optical devices. This method serves as a quantitative extension to a large class of previously known quantum benchmarks, requiring no additional information beyond what is already used for the nonquantitative benchmarks.

Killoran, N.; Luetkenhaus, N. [Institute for Quantum Computing and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, N2L 3G1 (Canada)

2011-05-15

401

Cookoff response of PBXN-109: material characterization and ALE3D model  

SciTech Connect

Materials properties measurements are made for the RDX-based explosive, PBXN-109, and an initial ALE3D model for cookoff is discussed. A significant effort is underway in the U.S. Navy and Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories to understand the thermal explosion behavior of this material. Benchmark cookoff experiments are being performed by the U.S. Navy to validate DOE materials models and computer codes. The ALE3D computer code can model the coupled thermal, mechanical, and chemical behavior of heating and ignition in cookoff tests. In order to provide a predictive capability, materials characterization measurements are being performed to specify parameters in these models. We report on progress in the development of these ALE3D materials models and present measurements as a function of temperature for thermal expansion, heat capacity, shear modulus, bulk modulus, and One-Dimensional-Time-to-Explosion (ODTX).

McClelland, M A; Tran, T D; Cunningham, B J; Weese, R K; Maienschein, J L

2000-10-24

402

Object operations benchmark  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performance is a major issue in the acceptance of object-oriented and relational database systems aimed at engineering applications such as computer-aided software engineering (CASE) and computer-aided design (CAD). Because traditional database systems benchmarks are inapproriate to measure performance for operations on engineering objects, we designed a new benchmark Object Operations version 1 (OO1) to focus on important characteristics of these

R. G. G. Cattell; J. Skeen

1992-01-01

403

DYNA3D Code Practices and Developments  

SciTech Connect

DYNA3D is an explicit, finite element code developed to solve high rate dynamic simulations for problems of interest to the engineering mechanics community. The DYNA3D code has been under continuous development since 1976[1] by the Methods Development Group in the Mechanical Engineering Department of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The pace of code development activities has substantially increased in the past five years, growing from one to between four and six code developers. This has necessitated the use of software tools such as CVS (Concurrent Versions System) to help manage multiple version updates. While on-line documentation with an Adobe PDF manual helps to communicate software developments, periodically a summary document describing recent changes and improvements in DYNA3D software is needed. The first part of this report describes issues surrounding software versions and source control. The remainder of this report details the major capability improvements since the last publicly released version of DYNA3D in 1996. Not included here are the many hundreds of bug corrections and minor enhancements, nor the development in DYNA3D between the manual release in 1993[2] and the public code release in 1996.

Lin, L.; Zywicz, E.; Raboin, P.

2000-04-21

404

2D/3D facial feature extraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose and compare three different automatic landmarking methods for near-frontal faces. The face information is provided as 480x640 gray-level images in addition to the corresponding 3D scene depth information. All three methods follow a coarse-to-fine suite and use the 3D information in an assist role. The first method employs a combination of principal component analysis (PCA) and independent component analysis (ICA) features to analyze the Gabor feature set. The second method uses a subset of DCT coefficients for template-based matching. These two methods employ SVM classifiers with polynomial kernel functions. The third method uses a mixture of factor analyzers to learn Gabor filter outputs. We contrast the localization performance separately with 2D texture and 3D depth information. Although the 3D depth information per se does not perform as well as texture images in landmark localization, the 3D information has still a beneficial role in eliminating the background and the false alarms.

Çinar Akakin, Hatice; Ali Salah, Albert; Akarun, Lale; Sankur, Bülent

2006-02-01

405

3D optical measuring technologies and systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of the R & D activity of TDI SIE SB RAS in the field of the 3D optical measuring technologies and systems for noncontact 3D optical dimensional inspection applied to atomic and railway industry safety problems are presented. This activity includes investigations of diffraction phenomena on some 3D objects, using the original constructive calculation method. The efficient algorithms for precise determining the transverse and longitudinal sizes of 3D objects of constant thickness by diffraction method, peculiarities on formation of the shadow and images of the typical elements of the extended objects were suggested. Ensuring the safety of nuclear reactors and running trains as well as their high exploitation reliability requires a 100% noncontact precise inspection of geometrical parameters of their components. To solve this problem we have developed methods and produced the technical vision measuring systems LMM, CONTROL, PROFIL, and technologies for noncontact 3D dimensional inspection of grid spacers and fuel elements for the nuclear reactor VVER-1000 and VVER-440, as well as automatic laser diagnostic COMPLEX for noncontact inspection of geometric parameters of running freight car wheel pairs. The performances of these systems and the results of industrial testing are presented and discussed. The created devices are in pilot operation at Atomic and Railway Companies.

Chugui, Yuri V.

2005-02-01

406

3D whiteboard: collaborative sketching with 3D-tracked smart phones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of our investigation of the feasibility of a new approach for collaborative drawing in 3D, based on Android smart phones. Our approach utilizes a number of fiduciary markers, placed in the working area where they can be seen by the smart phones' cameras, in order to estimate the pose of each phone in the room. Our prototype allows two users to draw 3D objects with their smart phones by moving their phones around in 3D space. For example, 3D lines are drawn by recording the path of the phone as it is moved around in 3D space, drawing line segments on the screen along the way. Each user can see the virtual drawing space on their smart phones' displays, as if the display was a window into this space. Besides lines, our prototype application also supports 3D geometry creation, geometry transformation operations, and it shows the location of the other user's phone.

Lue, James; Schulze, Jürgen P.

2014-02-01

407

Some remarks on shell element analysis with DYNA3D and NIKE3D  

SciTech Connect

There has been some confusion in the user community recently regarding the various shell element formulations now available in DYNA3D (Whirley and Hadlquist, 1991) and NIKE3D (Maker, Ferencz, and Hallquist, 1991). In particular, questions have been raised about the behavior of these elements under large strain, and the display of meaningful results from such problems using TAURUS (Spelce and Hallquist, 1991). This brief report is intended to aid the DYNA/NIKE user community by elaborating on the formulation of the DYNA3D/NIKE3D shell elements and on the display of shell data using TAURUS. In the following discussion no attempt is made to give a complete description of the theoretical development or implementation of any of the elements. Readers interested in a more complete discussion of the shell elements in DYNA3D and NIKE3D are directed to the published papers cited in the code User Manuals.

Whirley, R.G.; Engelmann, B.E.; Maker, B.N.; Spelce, T.E.

1992-03-24

408

Some remarks on shell element analysis with DYNA3D and NIKE3D  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There has been some confusion in the user community recently regarding the various shell element formulations now available in DYNA3D (Whirley and Hadlquist, 1991) and NIKE3D (Maker, Ferencz, and Hallquist, 1991). In particular, questions have been raised about the behavior of these elements under large strain, and the display of meaningful results from such problems using TAURUS (Spelce and Hallquist, 1991). This brief report is intended to aid the DYNA/NIKE user community by elaborating on the formulation of the DYNA3D/NIKE3D shell elements and on the display of shell data using TAURUS. In the following discussion no attempt is made to give a complete description of the theoretical development or implementation of any of the elements. Readers interested in a more complete discussion of the shell elements in DYNA3D and NIKE3D are directed to the published papers cited in the code User Manuals.

Whirley, R. G.; Engelmann, B. E.; Maker, B. N.; Spelce, T. E.

1992-03-01

409

The Princeton Shape Benchmark  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, many shape representations and geomet- ric algorithms have been proposed for matching 3D shapes. Usually, each algorithm is tested on a different (small) database of 3D models, and thus no direct comparison is available for competing methods. In this paper, we describe the Princeton Shape Bench- mark (PSB), a publicly available database of polygonal models collected from

Philip Shilane; Patrick Min; Michael M. Kazhdan; Thomas A. Funkhouser

2004-01-01

410

Initial version of an integrated thermal hydraulics and neutron kinetics 3D code X3D  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theoretical concept for the description of 3D nuclear kinetics, heat conduction and the thermal-hydraulic single and two-phase flow phenomena in a 3D light water reactor core simulated by parallel channels is presented. The heat generation within each fuel element is described by a 3D core kinetics code employing a two-group diffusion theory model. Finite differences are used to approximate

S. Jewer; A. Thompson; A. Hoeld; P. A. Beeley

2006-01-01

411

An efficient 3D object management and interactive walkthrough for the 3D facility management system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An efficient 3D facility management system is developed based on the spatial data structure(MD-tree). In the system, 3D objects in a city are semi-automatically generated from 2D-maps by using appropriate rules. The entire 3D space is sliced into multiple layers depending on the height. The objects that belong to each layer are managed by corresponding 2D MD-tree. Potentially visible objects

Takashi TAMADA; Y. Nakamura; S. Takeda

1994-01-01

412

Sensor Fusion for 3D Human body Tracking with an Articulated 3D Body Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a tracking system called VooDoo for 3d tracking of human body movements based on a 3d body model and the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. The proposed approach is able to incorporate raw data from different input sensors, as well as results from feature trackers in 2d or 3d. All input data is processed within the same

Steffen Knoop; Stefan Vacek; Rüdiger Dillmann

2006-01-01

413

Point cloud representation of 3D shape for laser-plasma scanning 3D display  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a method of representing 3D shape for the laser-plasma scanning 3D display devices using point cloud in consideration of hardware is proposed. A new device has been developed for 3D spatial displays. This device generates plasma luminous bodies produced by ldquolaser-induced breakdownrdquo in midair. In this method, objects are represented by point cloud so that the burden

Hiroyo Ishikawa; Hideo Saito

2008-01-01

414

i3D: A High-Speed 3D Web Browser  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present i3D, a system that combines the 3D input and high-performance rendering capabilities of high-end virtual reality systems with the data fetching abilities of network browsers. Using a Spaceball, the user can intuitively navigate inside the three-dimensional data, while selecting 3D objects with the mouse triggers requests for access to remote media documents that can be

Jean-francis Balaguer; Enrico Gobbetti

1995-01-01

415

A 3D shape retrieval framework for 3D smart cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces the importance of 3D shape retrieval frameworks in 3D smart cities, and proposes a unified framework\\u000a for 3D shape retrieval. The proposed method is based on the concept of visual representation, where each object is rendered\\u000a with several depth images and binary images from distributed vertices in the regular polyhedron. For each image, several shape\\u000a descriptors are

Biao Leng; Zhang Xiong; Xiangwei Fu

2010-01-01

416

3D nanopillar optical antenna photodetectors.  

PubMed

We demonstrate 3D surface plasmon photoresponse in nanopillar arrays resulting in enhanced responsivity due to both Localized Surface Plasmon Resonances (LSPRs) and Surface Plasmon Polariton Bloch Waves (SPP-BWs). The LSPRs are excited due to a partial gold shell coating the nanopillar which acts as a 3D Nanopillar Optical Antenna (NOA) in focusing light into the nanopillar. Angular photoresponse measurements show that SPP-BWs can be spectrally coincident with LSPRs to result in a x2 enhancement in responsivity at 1180 nm. Full-wave Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) simulations substantiate both the spatial and spectral coupling of the SPP-BW / LSPR for enhanced absorption and the nature of the LSPR. Geometrical control of the 3D NOA and the self-aligned metal hole lattice allows the hybridization of both localized and propagating surface plasmon modes for enhanced absorption. Hybridized plasmonic modes opens up new avenues in optical antenna design in nanoscale photodetectors. PMID:23187366

Senanayake, Pradeep; Hung, Chung-Hong; Shapiro, Joshua; Scofield, Adam; Lin, Andrew; Williams, Benjamin S; Huffaker, Diana L

2012-11-01

417

Synthesizing invariant 3D rigid scattering centers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) is difficult in general, but especially with RADAR. However, the problem can be greatly simplified by using the 3-D reconstruction techniques presented at SPIE[Stuff] the previous 2 years. Now, instead of matching seemingly random signals in 1-D or 2-D, one must match scattering centers in 3-D. This method tracks scattering centers through an image collection sequence that would typically be used for SAR image formation. A major difference is that this approach naturally allows object motion (in fact the more the object moves, the better) and the resulting 'image' is a 3-D set of scattering centers scattering centers directly from synthetic data to build a database in anticipation of comparing the relative separability of these reconstructed scattering centers against more traditional approaches for doing ATR.

Arnold, D. G.; Claypool, Rifka; Velten, Vincent J.; Sturtz, Kirk

2001-08-01

418

INGRID; 3-D Mesh Generation Nonlinear Systems  

SciTech Connect

INGRID is a general-purpose, three-dimensional mesh generator developed for use with finite element, nonlinear, structural dynamics codes. INGRID generates the large and complex input data files for DYNA3D, NIKE3D, FACET, and TOPAZ3D. One of the greatest advantages of INGRID is that virtually any shape can be described without resorting to wedge elements, tetrahedrons, triangular elements or highly distorted quadrilateral or hexahedral elements. Other capabilities available are in the areas of geometry and graphics. Exact surface equations and surface intersections considerably improve the ability to deal with accurate models, and a hidden line graphics algorithm is included which is efficient on the most complicated meshes. The primary new capability is associated with the boundary conditions, loads, and material properties required by nonlinear mechanics programs. Commands have been designed for each case to minimize user effort. This is particularly important since special processing is almost always required for each load or boundary condition.

Stillman, D.W.; Rainsberger, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1985-07-01

419

INGRID. 3-D Mesh Generation Nonlinear Systems  

SciTech Connect

INGRID is a general-purpose, three-dimensional mesh generator developed for use with finite element, nonlinear, structural dynamics codes. INGRID generates the large and complex input data files for DYNA3D, NIKE3D, FACET, and TOPAZ3D. One of the greatest advantages of INGRID is that virtually any shape can be described without resorting to wedge elements, tetrahedrons, triangular elements or highly distorted quadrilateral or hexahedral elements. Other capabilities available are in the areas of geometry and graphics. Exact surface equations and surface intersections considerably improve the ability to deal with accurate models, and a hidden line graphics algorithm is included which is efficient on the most complicated meshes. The primary new capability is associated with the boundary conditions, loads, and material properties required by nonlinear mechanics programs. Commands have been designed for each case to minimize user effort. This is particularly important since special processing is almost always required for each load or boundary condition.

Christon, M.A.; Dovey, D.; Stillman, D.W.; Hallquist, J.O.; Rainsberger, R.B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1992-09-01

420

INGRID. 3-D Mesh Generation Nonlinear Systems  

SciTech Connect

INGRID is a general-purpose, three-dimensional mesh generator developed for use with finite element, nonlinear, structural dynamics codes. INGRID generates the large and complex input data files for DYNA3D, NIKE3D, FACET, and TOPAZ3D (ESTSC. One of the greatest advantages of INGRID is that virtually any shape can be described without resorting to wedge elements, tetrahedrons, triangular elements or highly distorted quadrilateral or hexahedral elements. Other capabilities available are in the areas of geometry and graphics. Exact surface equations and surface intersections considerably improve the ability to deal with accurate models, and a hidden line graphics algorithm is included which is efficient on the most complicated meshes. The primary new capability is associated with the boundary conditions, loads, and material properties required by nonlinear mechanics programs. Commands have been designed for each case to minimize user effort. This is particularly important since special processing is almost always required for each load or boundary condition.

Stillman, D.W.; Rainsberger, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States)

1985-07-01

421

INGRID. 3-D Mesh Generation Nonlinear Systems  

SciTech Connect

INGRID is a general-purpose, three-dimensional mesh generator developed for use with finite element, nonlinear, structural dynamics codes. INGRID generates the large and complex input data files for DYNA3D, NIKE3D, FACET, and TOPAZ3D. One of the greatest advantages of INGRID is that virtually any shape can be described without resorting to wedge elements, tetrahedrons, triangular elements or highly distorted quadrilateral or hexahedral elements. Other capabilities available are in the areas of geometry and graphics. Exact surface equations and surface intersections considerably improve the ability to deal with accurate models, and a hidden line graphics algorithm is included which is efficient on the most complicated meshes. The primary new capability is associated with the boundary conditions, loads, and material properties required by nonlinear mechanics programs. Commands have been designed for each case to minimize user effort. This is particularly important since special processing is almost always required for each load or boundary condition.

Stillman, D.W.; Rainsberger, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab, Livermore, CA (United States)

1985-07-01

422

Optical controller for 3D manipulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the development of an optical three-dimensional controller. A typical 3D controller consists of a two dimensional controller with a superfluous secondary controller for its third dimension. These 3D controllers have a severely limited operating range and do not allow the user to move simultaneously in three dimensions. In the past, controllers commonly used potentiometers to detect movement; this component limits the operating range as the sensors must be fixed to a point. The proposed optical controller incorporates all three dimensions into a single controller allowing for further utility while decreasing complexity for its user. The use of an optical controller would be advantageous in terms of its size and weight as many mechanical and electrical components in traditional controllers would be eliminated. The optical controller could be used for precision controlling in many circumstances because of its direct mapping to 3D systems.

Leang, Jonathan; Tsui, Chileung; Le, Shi; Wang, Wei-Chih

2014-03-01

423

Web3D Consortium: GeoVRML  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

GeoVRML is an official Working Group of the Web3D Consortium (http://www.web3d.org/) and its goal is to develop tools and recommended practice for using the Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) to represent geographical data. The idea is that geo-referenced data (maps and 3-D terrain models) can be viewed over the web using a standard VRML plugin. GeoVRML Working Group has a mailing list where discussions and developments are posted. Specifications, source code, examples, tools and the accompanying Run-Time for GeoVRML 1.1 are available online to download. Also provided are Goals & Issues, News & Milestones, FAQ, GeoVRML Wish List for future developments, and other resources related to GeoVRML.

424

Atomic resolution 3D electron diffraction microscopy  

SciTech Connect

Electron lens aberration is the major barrier limiting the resolution of electron microscopy. Here we describe a novel form of electron microscopy to overcome electron lens aberration. By combining coherent electron diffraction with the oversampling phasing method, we show that the 3D structure of a 2 x 2 x 2 unit cell nano-crystal (framework of LTA [Al12Si12O48]8) can be ab initio determined at the resolution of 1 Angstrom from a series of simulated noisy diffraction pattern projections with rotation angles ranging from -70 degrees to +70 degrees in 5 degrees increments along a single rotation axis. This form of microscopy (which we call 3D electron diffraction microscopy) does not require any reference waves, and can image the 3D structure of nanocrystals, as well as non-crystalline biological and materials science samples, with the resolution limited only by the quality of sample diffraction.

Miao, Jianwei; Ohsuna, Tetsu; Terasaki, Osamu; O'Keefe, Michael A.

2002-03-01

425

Impedance mammograph 3D phantom studies.  

PubMed

The results obtained using the Technical University of Gdansk Electroimpedance Mammograph (TUGEM) of a 3D phantom study are presented. The TUGEM system is briefly described. The hardware contains the measurement head and DSP-based identification modules controlled by a PC computer. A specially developed reconstruction algorithm, Regulated Correction Frequency Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (RCFART), is used to obtain 3D images. To visualize results, the Advance Visualization System (AVS) is used. It allows a powerful image processing on a fast workstation or on a high-performance computer. Results of three types of 3D conductivity perturbations used in the study (aluminum, Plexiglas, and cucumber) are shown. The relative volumes of perturbations less than 2% of the measurement chamber are easily evidenced. PMID:10372188

Wtorek, J; Stelter, J; Nowakowski, A

1999-04-20

426

Extensive regularization of the coupled cluster methods based on the generating functional formalism: Application to gas-phase benchmarks and to the SN2 reaction of CHCl3 and OH- in water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recently introduced energy expansion based on the use of generating functional (GF) [K. Kowalski and P. D. Fan, J. Chem. Phys. 130, 084112 (2009)] provides a way of constructing size-consistent noniterative coupled cluster (CC) corrections in terms of moments of the CC equations. To take advantage of this expansion in a strongly interacting regime, the regularization of the cluster amplitudes is required in order to counteract the effect of excessive growth of the norm of the CC wave function. Although proven to be efficient, the previously discussed form of the regularization does not lead to rigorously size-consistent corrections. In this paper we address the issue of size-consistent regularization of the GF expansion by redefining the equations for the cluster amplitudes. The performance and basic features of proposed methodology are illustrated on several gas-phase benchmark systems. Moreover, the regularized GF approaches are combined with quantum mechanical molecular mechanics module and applied to describe the SN2 reaction of CHCl3 and OH- in aqueous solution.

Kowalski, Karol; Valiev, Marat

2009-12-01

427

Development of 3D video and 3D data services for T-DMB  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present motivation, system concept, and implementation details of stereoscopic 3D visual services on T-DMB. We have developed two types of 3D visual service : one is '3D video service', which provides 3D depth feeling for a video program by sending left and right view video streams, and the other is '3D data service', which provides presentation of 3D objects overlaid on top of 2D video program. We have developed several highly efficient and sophisticated transmission schemes for the delivery of 3D visual data in order to meet the system requirements such as (1) minimization of bitrate overhead to comply with the strict constraint of T-DMB channel bandwidth; (2) backward and forward compatibility with existing T-DMB; (3) maximize the eye-catching effect of 3D visual representation while reducing eye fatigue. We found that, in contrast to conventional way of providing a stereo version of a program as a whole, the proposed scheme can lead to variety of efficient and effective 3D visual services which can be adapted to many business models.

Yun, Kugjin; Lee, Hyun; Hur, Namho; Kim, Jinwoong

2008-03-01

428

Reproducibility of 3D chromatin configuration reconstructions.  

PubMed

It is widely recognized that the three-dimensional (3D) architecture of eukaryotic chromatin plays an important role in processes such as gene regulation and cancer-driving gene fusions. Observing or inferring this 3D structure at even modest resolutions had been problematic, since genomes are highly condensed and traditional assays are coarse. However, recently devised high-throughput molecular techniques have changed this situation. Notably, the development of a suite of chromatin conformation capture (CCC) assays has enabled elicitation of contacts-spatially close chromosomal loci-which have provided insights into chromatin architecture. Most analysis of CCC data has focused on the contact level, with less effort directed toward obtaining 3D reconstructions and evaluating the accuracy and reproducibility thereof. While questions of accuracy must be addressed experimentally, questions of reproducibility can be addressed statistically-the purpose of this paper. We use a constrained optimization technique to reconstruct chromatin configurations for a number of closely related yeast datasets and assess reproducibility using four metrics that measure the distance between 3D configurations. The first of these, Procrustes fitting, measures configuration closeness after applying reflection, rotation, translation, and scaling-based alignment of the structures. The others base comparisons on the within-configuration inter-point distance matrix. Inferential results for these metrics rely on suitable permutation approaches. Results indicate that distance matrix-based approaches are preferable to Procrustes analysis, not because of the metrics per se but rather on account of the ability to customize permutation schemes to handle within-chromosome contiguity. It has recently been emphasized that the use of constrained optimization approaches to 3D architecture reconstruction are prone to being trapped in local minima. Our methods of reproducibility assessment provide a means for comparing 3D reconstruction solutions so that we can discern between local and global optima by contrasting solutions under perturbed inputs. PMID:24519450

Segal, Mark R; Xiong, Hao; Capurso, Daniel; Vazquez, Mariel; Arsuaga, Javier

2014-07-01

429

Visualization of liver in 3-D  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Visualization of the liver in three dimensions (3-D) can improve the accuracy of volumetric estimation and also aid in surgical planning. We have developed a method for 3-D visualization of the liver using x-ray computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) images. This method includes four major components: (1) segmentation algorithms for extracting liver data from tomographic images; (2) interpolation techniques for both shape and intensity; (3) schemes for volume rendering and display, and (4) routines for electronic surgery and image analysis. This method has been applied to cases from a living-donor liver transplant project and appears to be useful for surgical planning.

Chen, Chin-Tu; Chou, Jin-Shin; Giger, Maryellen L.; Kahn, Charles E.; Bae, K. T.; Lin, Wei-Chung

1991-05-01

430

Acquisition and applications of 3D images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The moiré fringes method and their analysis up to medical and entertainment applications are discussed in this paper. We describe the procedure of capturing 3D images with an Inspeck Camera that is a real-time 3D shape acquisition system based on structured light techniques. The method is a high-resolution one. After processing the images, using computer, we can use the data for creating laser fashionable objects by engraving them with a Q-switched Nd:YAG. In medical field we mention the plastic surgery and the replacement of X-Ray especially in pediatric use.

Sterian, Paul; Mocanu, Elena

2007-08-01

431

Theoretical manual for DYNA3D  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a theoretical manual for DYNA3D, a vectorized explicit three-dimensional finite element code for analyzing the large deformation dynamic response of inelastic solids. A contact-impact algorithm that permits gaps and sliding along material interfaces is described. By a specialization of this algorithm, such interfaces can be rigidly tied to admit variable zoning without the need of transition regions. Spatial discretization is achieved by the use of 8-node solid elements, and the equations-of-motion are integrated by the central difference method. DYNA3D is operational on the CRAY-1 and CDC7600 computers.

Hallquist, J.O.

1983-03-01

432

SAND contact in DYNA3D  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes some recent developments in adaptive contact algorithms for the transient analysis of penetration and material failure in DYNA3D. A failure criterion is defined for volumes of potentially failing material on each side of a contact surface. As material within an element fails, the element is deleted from the calculation and the contact surface is adaptively redefined to include the newly exposed outer material boundary. This algorithm admits arbitrary combinations of shell and solid elements to allow modeling of composite or honeycomb structures. The algorithms and their efficiency are illustrated with several DYNA3D simulations and results are compared with experimental data.

Whirley, R.G.; Engelmann, B.E.

1992-08-25

433

Hadamard camera for 3D imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper at hand describes in details the work that has been carried out for fusing a commercial micro mirror sampling element with TOF acquisition methods and known Hadamard multiplexing techniques for implementation of fast and SNR optimized 3D image capture. The theoretical basics of TOF and Hadamard technique are presented and will be complemented by theoretical explanation of utilizing them for 3D volumetric image generation. Finally measurement results of scene image acquisition are going to be demonstrated and discussed as well as expanded by considerations about possible applications in THz-imaging and the following research steps.

Romasew, Eugen; Barenz, Joachim; Tholl, Hans Dieter

2007-11-01

434

Immersive 3D geovisualisation in higher education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through geovisualisation we explore spatial data, we analyse it towards a specific questions, we synthesise results, and we present and communicate them to a specific audience (MacEachren & Kraak 1997). After centuries of paper maps, the means to represent and visualise our physical environment and its abstract qualities have changed dramatically since the 1990s - and accordingly the methods how to use geovisualisation in teaching. Whereas some people might still consider the traditional classroom as ideal setting for teaching and learning geographic relationships and its mapping, we used a 3D CAVE (computer-animated virtual environment) as environment for a problem-oriented learning project called "GEOSimulator". Focussing on this project, we