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1

On 3D object retrieval benchmarking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The continuous evolution of 3D computer graphics and the progress of 3D digitization systems resulted in a continuous increase in the available 3D content. The widespread use of 3D objects in diverse domains contributed on forming 3D object retrieval as an active research field. In order to objectively evaluate the performance of retrieval methodologies there is a need for objective benchmarking schemes. In this work, we provide a comprehensive overview of the state-of-the-art evaluation methodologies including not only the performance measures but also the corresponding benchmark datasets. Meaningful benchmark datasets are discussed while a detailed list of publicly available 3D model repositories is given organized in terms of application domains, content magnitude and data types. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

Koutsoudis, Anestis; Pratikakis, Ioannis; Chamzas, Christodoulos

2013-12-01

2

3D CAFE simulation of a macrosegregation benchmark experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A macrosegregation benchmark experiment is simulated using a three dimensional (3D) Cellular Automaton (CA) - Finite Element (FE) model. It consists of a Sn - 3 wt% Pb alloy solidified in a rectangular cavity. Thanks to tabulated thermodynamic properties and solidification paths with temperature and composition, the effect of natural convection and macrosegregation on cooling curves is correctly predicted. Nucleation parameters are adjusted so that the simulated grain structure correlates with the real grain structure. Although macrosegregation is well predicted, this is not the case for freckles yet observed in the solidified sample.

Carozzani, T.; Digonnet, H.; Bellet, M.; Gandin, Ch-A.

2012-07-01

3

A benchmark study on mantle convection in a 3-D spherical shell using CitcomS  

Microsoft Academic Search

As high-performance computing facilities and sophisticated modeling software become available, modeling mantle convection in a three-dimensional (3-D) spherical shell geometry with realistic physical parameters and processes becomes increasingly feasible. However, there is still a lack of comprehensive benchmark studies for 3-D spherical mantle convection. Here we present benchmark and test calculations using a finite element code CitcomS for 3-D spherical

Shijie Zhong; Allen McNamara; Eh Tan; Louis Moresi; Michael Gurnis

2008-01-01

4

A 3D Pottery Database for Benchmarking Content Based Retrieval Mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The benchmarking of 3D content base retrieval mechanisms is usually performed on test bed datasets composed by 3D models. These usually cover several categories of objects such as ships, airplanes, animals, furniture, etc. In this paper, we attempted the generation of a ground truth database of 3D models that exhibit morphological characteristics similar to those found in ancient Greek pottery.

A. Koutsoudis; G. Pavlidis; F. Arnaoutoglou; D. Tsiafakis; C. Chamzas

2008-01-01

5

DRAGON solutions to the 3D transport benchmark over a range in parameter space  

Microsoft Academic Search

DRAGON solutions to the “NEA suite of benchmarks for 3D transport methods and codes over a range in parameter space” are discussed in this paper. A description of the benchmark is first provided, followed by a detailed review of the different computational models used in the lattice code DRAGON. Two numerical methods were selected for generating the required quantities for

Nicolas Martin; Alain Hébert; Guy Marleau

2010-01-01

6

Assessing 3-D Integrated Software Development Processes: A New Benchmark  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The increasing complexity and dynamic of software development have become the most critical challenges for large projects.\\u000a As one of the new emerged methodologies to these problems, TRISO-Model uses an integrated three-dimensional structure to classify\\u000a and organize the essential elements in software development. In order to simulate and evaluate the modeling ability of TRISO-Model,\\u000a a new benchmark is created in

Mingshu Li; Zhong Guan Cun

2006-01-01

7

Analysis of the NEACRP PWR rod ejection benchmark problems with DIF3D-K.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Analyses of the NEACRP PWR rod ejection transient benchmark problems with the DIF3D-K nodal kinetics code are presented. The DIF3D-K results are shown to be in generally good agreement with results obtained using other codes, in particular reference resul...

M. H. Kim T. A. Taiwo H. S. Khalil

1994-01-01

8

Synthetic benchmark for modeling flow in 3D fractured media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intensity and localization of flows in fractured media have promoted the development of a large range of different modeling approaches including Discrete Fracture Networks, pipe networks and equivalent continuous media. While benchmarked usually within site studies, we propose an alternative numerical benchmark based on highly-resolved Discrete Fracture Networks (DFNs) and on a stochastic approach. Test cases are built on fractures of different lengths, orientations, aspect ratios and hydraulic apertures, issuing the broad ranges of topological structures and hydraulic properties classically observed. We present 18 DFN cases, with 10 random simulations by case. These 180 DFN structures are provided and fully documented. They display a representative variety of the configurations that challenge the numerical methods at the different stages of discretization, mesh generation and system solving. Using a previously assessed mixed hybrid finite element method (Erhel et al., 2009a), we systematically provide reference flow and head solutions. Because CPU and memory requirements stem mainly from system solving, we study direct and iterative sparse linear solvers. We show that the most cpu-time efficient method is a direct multifrontal method for small systems, while conjugate gradient preconditioned by algebraic multrigrid is more relevant at larger sizes. Available results can be used further as references for building up alternative numerical and physical models in both directions of improving accuracy and efficiency.

de Dreuzy, Jean-Raynald; Pichot, Géraldine; Poirriez, Baptiste; Erhel, Jocelyne

2013-01-01

9

Reference solutions for 3-D radiation transport benchmarks by a Monte Carlo code GMVP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reference Solutions for the 3-D transport benchmark problems proposed by Kobayashi are presented. They were obtained by the multigroup Monte Carlo code GMVP with the point-detector estimator. The statistical uncertainties (1?) are less than 1% at all the calculation points. The GMVP results show good agreement with the analytical solutions by Kobayashi and the MCNP solutions for the pure absorber

Yasunobu Nagaya

2001-01-01

10

Calculation of the VVER-1000 coolant transient benchmark using the coupled code systems DYN3D\\/RELAP5 and DYN3D\\/ATHLET  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant-measured data provided by the OECD\\/NEA VVER-1000 coolant transient benchmark programme were used to validate the DYN3D\\/RELAP5 and DYN3D\\/ATHLET coupled code systems. Phase 1 of the benchmark (V1000CT-1) refers to an experiment that was conducted during the commissioning of the Kozloduy NPP Unit 6 in Bulgaria. In this experiment, the fourth main coolant pump was switched on whilst the remaining

Y. Kozmenkov; S. Kliem; U. Grundmann; U. Rohde; F.-P. Weiss

2007-01-01

11

Conclusions of the M3D\\/NIMROD Cross-Code Benchmark  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cross-validation of the nonlinear M3D [1] and NIMROD [2] codes in the resistive MHD regime in tokamaks has been brought to a successful conclusion. The small but well-diagnosed CDX-U device was selected for the benchmark because its low temperature (S 1, occurring near the plasma boundary and present even when q_0>1. These findings call into question the applicability of the

J. Breslau; S. Jardin; H. Strauss; D. Schnack; A. Pankin

2004-01-01

12

Commissioning and benchmarking a 3D dosimetry system for clinical use  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: A 3D dosimetry system is described which consists of two parts: a radiochromic plastic dosimeter PRESAGE (which responds to absorbed dose with a linear change in optical-density) and the Duke large-field-of-view optical-CT scanner (DLOS). The DLOS/PRESAGE system has recently been commissioned and benchmarked for clinical use and, in particular, for verification and commissioning of complex radiation treatments. Methods: DLOS commissioning involved determining the dynamic range, spatial resolution, noise, temporal, and other characteristics of the light source and imaging components. Benchmarking tests were performed on the combined DLOS/PRESAGE system to establish baseline dosimetric performance. The tests consisted of delivering simple radiation treatments to PRESAGE dosimeters, and comparing the measured 3D relative dose distributions with the known gold standard. The gold standard distribution was obtained from machine beam-data or the treatment planning system (TPS). All studies used standardized procedures to ensure consistency. Results: For commissioning, isotropic spatial resolution was submillimeter (MTF > 0.5 for frequencies of 1.5 lp/mm) and the dynamic range was {approx}60 dB. Flood field uniformity was within 10% and stable after 45 min of warm-up. Stray-light is small, due to telecentricity, but even the residual can be removed through deconvolution by a point-spread-function. For benchmarking, the mean 3D passing NDD (normalized dose distribution) rate (3%, 3mm, 5% dose threshold) over the benchmark data sets was 97.3% {+-} 0.6% (range 96%-98%), which is on par with other planar dosimeters used in external beam radiation therapy indicating excellent agreement. Noise was low at <2% of maximum dose (4-12 Gy) for 2 mm reconstructions. The telecentric design was critical to enabling fast imaging with minimal stray-light artifacts. Conclusions: This work presents the first comprehensive benchmarking of a 3D dosimetry system for clinical use. The DLOS/PRESAGE benchmark tests show consistently good agreement to simple known distributions. The system produces accurate isotropic 2 mm dose data over clinical volumes (e.g., 16 cm diameter phantoms, 12 cm height), in under 15 min. It represents a uniquely useful and versatile new tool for commissioning and verification of complex therapy treatments.

Thomas, Andrew; Newton, Joseph; Adamovics, John; Oldham, Mark [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Rider University, Lawrenceville, New Jersey 08648 (United States); Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States)

2011-08-15

13

Commissioning and benchmarking a 3D dosimetry system for clinical use  

PubMed Central

Purpose: A 3D dosimetry system is described which consists of two parts: a radiochromic plastic dosimeter PRESAGE® (which responds to absorbed dose with a linear change in optical-density) and the Duke large-field-of-view optical-CT scanner (DLOS). The DLOS?PRESAGE system has recently been commissioned and benchmarked for clinical use and, in particular, for verification and commissioning of complex radiation treatments. Methods: DLOS commissioning involved determining the dynamic range, spatial resolution, noise, temporal, and other characteristics of the light source and imaging components. Benchmarking tests were performed on the combined DLOS?PRESAGE system to establish baseline dosimetric performance. The tests consisted of delivering simple radiation treatments to PRESAGE dosimeters, and comparing the measured 3D relative dose distributions with the known gold standard. The gold standard distribution was obtained from machine beam-data or the treatment planning system (TPS). All studies used standardized procedures to ensure consistency. Results: For commissioning, isotropic spatial resolution was submillimeter (MTF?>?0.5 for frequencies of 1.5 lp?mm) and the dynamic range was ?60 dB. Flood field uniformity was within 10% and stable after 45 min of warm-up. Stray-light is small, due to telecentricity, but even the residual can be removed through deconvolution by a point-spread-function. For benchmarking, the mean 3D passing NDD (normalized dose distribution) rate (3%, 3mm, 5% dose threshold) over the benchmark data sets was 97.3%?±?0.6% (range 96%–98%), which is on par with other planar dosimeters used in external beam radiation therapy indicating excellent agreement. Noise was low at <2% of maximum dose (4–12 Gy) for 2 mm reconstructions. The telecentric design was critical to enabling fast imaging with minimal stray-light artifacts. Conclusions: This work presents the first comprehensive benchmarking of a 3D dosimetry system for clinical use. The DLOS?PRESAGE benchmark tests show consistently good agreement to simple known distributions. The system produces accurate isotropic 2 mm dose data over clinical volumes (e.g., 16 cm diameter phantoms, 12 cm height), in under 15 min. It represents a uniquely useful and versatile new tool for commissioning and verification of complex therapy treatments.

Thomas, Andrew; Newton, Joseph; Adamovics, John; Oldham, Mark

2011-01-01

14

Benchmarking a 3D Map-Based Approach to Modeling Beam Transport in RF Cavities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results of benchmarking our recently developed capability for generating High-Order Mode (HOM) maps of RF cavity fields for use in particle tracking code-based simulations. We use VORPAL field data as a starting point, and follow the approach of Abell to produce transfer maps that are subsequently incorporated into the MaryLie/IMPACT (ML/I) and Synergia frameworks. For the m = 0 mode, we conducted detailed comparisons between map-based ML/I simulations of on- and off-axis beam transport through a realistic RF cavity on one hand, and the results of a direct 3D EM VORPAL simulation on the other. We present and discuss these benchmarking results.

Pogorelov, Ilya; Abell, Dan; Stoltz, Peter; Amundson, Jim

2009-05-01

15

3D path planning and extension for endoscopic guidance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physicians use endoscopic procedures to diagnose and treat a variety of medical conditions. For example, bronchoscopy is often performed to diagnose lung cancer. The current practice for planning endoscopic procedures requires the physician to manually scroll through the slices of a three-dimensional (3D) medical image. When doing this scrolling, the physician must perform 3D mental reconstruction of the endoscopic route to reach a specific diagnostic region of interest (ROI). Unfortunately, in the case of complex branching structures such as the airway tree, ROIs are often situated several generations away from the organ's origin. Existing image-analysis methods can help define possible endoscopic navigation paths, but they do not provide specific routes for reaching a given ROI. We have developed an automated method to find a specific route to reach an ROI. Given a 3D medical image, our method takes as inputs: (1) pre-defined ROIs; (2) a segmentation of the branching organ through which the endoscopic device will navigate; and (3) centerlines (paths) through the segmented organ. We use existing methods for branching-organ segmentation and centerline extraction. Our method then (1) identifies the closest paths (routes) to the ROI; and (2) if necessary, performs a directed search for the organ of interest, extending the existing paths to complete a route. Results from human 3D computed tomography chest images illustrate the efficacy of the method.

Gibbs, Jason D.; Higgins, William E.

2007-03-01

16

Analysis of the Boiling Water Reactor Turbine Trip Benchmark with the Codes DYN3D and ATHLET/DYN3D  

SciTech Connect

The OECD/NRC Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) Turbine Trip Benchmark was analyzed by the code DYN3D and the coupled code system ATHLET/DYN3D. For the exercise 2 benchmark calculations with given thermal-hydraulic boundary conditions of the core, the analyses were performed with the core model DYN3D. Concerning the modeling of the BWR core in the DYN3D code, several simplifications and their influence on the results were investigated. The standard calculations with DYN3D were performed with 764 coolant channels (one channel per fuel assembly), the assembly discontinuity factors (ADF), and the phase slip model of Molochnikov. Comparisons were performed with the results obtained by calculations with 33 thermal-hydraulic channels, without the ADF and with the slip model of Zuber and Findlay. It is shown that the influence on core-averaged values of the steady state and the transient is small. Considering local parameters, the influence of the ADF or the reduced number of coolant channels is not negligible. For the calculations of exercise 3, the DYN3D model validated during the exercise 2 calculations in combination with the ATHLET system model, developed at Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit for exercise 1, has been used. Calculations were performed for the basic scenario as well as for all specified extreme versions. They were carried out using a modified version of the external coupling of the codes, the 'parallel' coupling. This coupling shows a stable performance at the low time step sizes necessary for an appropriate description of the feedback during the transient. The influence of assumed failures of different relevant safety systems on the plant and the core behavior was investigated in the calculations of the extreme scenarios. The calculations of exercises 2 and 3 contribute to the validation of DYN3D and ATHLET/DYN3D for BWR systems.

Grundmann, Ulrich; Kliem, Soeren; Rohde, Ulrich [Forschungszentrum Rossendorf (Germany)

2004-10-15

17

Analogue benchmarks of shortening and extension experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a direct comparison of scaled analogue experiments to test the reproducibility of model results among ten different experimental modelling laboratories. We present results for two experiments: a brittle thrust wedge experiment and a brittle- viscous extension experiment. The experimental set-up, the model construction technique, the viscous material and the base and wall properties were prescribed. However, each lab-

GUIDO SCHREURS; SUSANNE J. H. BUITER; DAVID BOUTELIER; GIACOMO CORTI; ELISABETTA COSTA; ALEXANDER CRUDEN; JEAN-MARC DANIEL; SILVAN HOTH; HEMIN KOYI; NINA KUKOWSKI; JO LOHRMANN; ANTONIO RAVAGLIA; ROY W. SCHLISCHE; MARTHA OLIVER WITHJACK; YASUHIRO YAMADA; CRISTIAN CAVOZZI; C. Del Ventisette; J. A. E. Brady; A. Hoffmann-Rothe; J.-M. Mengus; D. Montanari; F. Nilforoushan

2006-01-01

18

Laser-plasma interaction in ignition relevant plasmas: benchmarking our 3D modelling capabilities versus recent experiments  

SciTech Connect

We have developed a new target platform to study Laser Plasma Interaction in ignition-relevant condition at the Omega laser facility (LLE/Rochester)[1]. By shooting an interaction beam along the axis of a gas-filled hohlraum heated by up to 17 kJ of heater beam energy, we were able to create a millimeter-scale underdense uniform plasma at electron temperatures above 3 keV. Extensive Thomson scattering measurements allowed us to benchmark our hydrodynamic simulations performed with HYDRA [1]. As a result of this effort, we can use with much confidence these simulations as input parameters for our LPI simulation code pF3d [2]. In this paper, we show that by using accurate hydrodynamic profiles and full three-dimensional simulations including a realistic modeling of the laser intensity pattern generated by various smoothing options, fluid LPI theory reproduces the SBS thresholds and absolute reflectivity values and the absence of measurable SRS. This good agreement was made possible by the recent increase in computing power routinely available for such simulations.

Divol, L; Froula, D H; Meezan, N; Berger, R; London, R A; Michel, P; Glenzer, S H

2007-09-27

19

Three-dimensional image quality measurement for the benchmarking of 3D watermarking schemes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three-dimensional image quality assessment causes new challenges for a wide set of applications and particularly for emerging 3-D watermarking schemes. First, new metrics have to be drawn for the distortion measurement from an original 3-D surface to its deformed version: this metric is necessary to address distortions that are acceptable and to which a 3-D watermarking algorithm should resist. In

Patrice Rondao Alface; Mathieu De Craene; Benoit B. Macq

2005-01-01

20

2D and 3D turbulent reconnection as a benchmark within the SWIFF project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goals of SWIFF (swiff.eu/) are: * Zero-in on the physics of all aspects of space weather and design mathematical models that can address them. * Develop specific computational models that are especially suited to handling the great complexity of space weather events where the range of time evolutions and of spatial variations are so much more challenging than in regular meteorological models. * Develop the software needed to implement such computational models on the modern supercomputers available now in Europe. Within Swiff a rigorous benchmarking acrtivity is taking place that will be reported here. A full description is available at: swiff.eu/wiki/index.php?title=Main_Page#Benchmark_Activities

Lapenta, G.; Markidis, S.; Bettarini, L.

2012-04-01

21

Three-dimensional image quality measurement for the benchmarking of 3D watermarking schemes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three-dimensional image quality assessment causes new challenges for a wide set of applications and particularly for emerging 3-D watermarking schemes. First, new metrics have to be drawn for the distortion measurement from an original 3-D surface to its deformed version: this metric is necessary to address distortions that are acceptable and to which a 3-D watermarking algorithm should resist. In this paper, we focus on distortion energy evaluation extending works on distortion minimization for planar and spherical parameterization. Secondly, a key perceptual assessment of 3-D geometrical transforms is their impact on the various 2-D views that can be extracted from the object. As a matter of fact, most of the applications (games, avatars, ...) are targeting users owning 2-D screens. In this paper we restrict our study to 3-D shape distortion analysis, assuming standard lighting conditions and we do not address the textures distortion issues. We analyze how to automatically select relevant pairs of 2D projections which needs an initial registration between both shapes to compare. We use a mutual information criterion to assess the distortion for each projection pair and eventually derive a global score by weighting the contributions of each view.

Rondao Alface, Patrice; De Craene, Mathieu; Macq, Benoit B.

2005-03-01

22

Maximum energy release rate distribution from a generalized 3D virtual crack extension method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a generalized 3D virtual crack extension (VCE) technique for determining the distribution of the maximum energy release rate along a general 3D crack front. The method allows for VCEs at any inclination to the local crack plane. By taking the component of the extension in the crack front's local normal plane it evaluates the local energy release rate, G, in that component's direction. Repeated VCEs applied to the crack front at different inclinations enable the maximum G and its associated direction in the normal plane to be determined. This technique has been applied to a quarter-circular crack in a square cross-section bar underaxial and torsional loading. The evaluated maximum energy release rates show the expected antisymmetric direction and symmetric magnitude distributions. The test case also demonstrates a sinusoidal G distribution within the normal plane which would imply that the maximum G and its direction could be evaluated from only two local G values.

Claydon, P. W.

1992-08-01

23

Results of 2007 Ect Benchmark Obtained with Civa at Cea: Prediction of Ect Inspection Over Tubes with 2d or 3d Flaws  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) has developed for years the software CIVA dedicated to the simulation of NDT techniques such as Eddy Current Testing (ECT). ECT modeling is achieved in CIVA using semi-analytical models based on the Volume Integral Method (VIM). This paper presents results obtained with CIVA for the QNDE 2007 ECT benchmark, dedicated to the inspection of tube affected by 2D and 3D flaws. Further configurations are also proposed for future benchmark sessions.

Pichenot, G.; Reboud, C.; Raillon, R.; Mahaut, S.

2008-02-01

24

Revisiting the TORT Solutions to the NEA Suite of Benchmarks for 3D Transport Methods and Codes Over a Range in Parameter Space  

SciTech Connect

Improved TORT solutions to the 3D transport codes' suite of benchmarks exercise are presented in this study. Preliminary TORT solutions to this benchmark indicate that the majority of benchmark quantities for most benchmark cases are computed with good accuracy, and that accuracy improves with model refinement. However, TORT fails to compute accurate results for some benchmark cases with aspect ratios drastically different from 1, possibly due to ray effects. In this work, we employ the standard approach of splitting the solution to the transport equation into an uncollided flux and a fully collided flux via the code sequence GRTUNCL3D and TORT to mitigate ray effects. The results of this code sequence presented in this paper show that the accuracy of most benchmark cases improved substantially. Furthermore, the iterative convergence problems reported for the preliminary TORT solutions have been resolved by bringing the computational cells' aspect ratio closer to unity and, more importantly, by using 64-bit arithmetic precision in the calculation sequence. Results of this study are also reported.

Bekar, Kursat B [ORNL; Azmy, Yousry [North Carolina State University

2009-01-01

25

An extension of the Felzenszwalb-Huttenlocher segmentation to 3D point clouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper investigates the segmentation algorithm proposed by Felzenszwalb and Huttenlocher1 and its compatibility to 3D point clouds acquired with state-of-the-art 3D laser scanners. To use the algorithm, we adapt the range and intensity data to the smoothed graph structure used by the algorithm. We investigate the influence of the algorithm's parameters to its performance and result that are meaningful to both the machines and the humans.

Sima, Mihai-Cotizo; Nüchter, Andreas

2013-03-01

26

The impact of laminin on 3D neurite extension in collagen gels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary goal of this research was to characterize the effect of laminin on three-dimensional (3D) neurite growth. Gels were formed using type I collagen at concentrations of 0.4-2.0 mg mL-1 supplemented with laminin at concentrations of 0, 1, 10, or 100 µg mL-1. When imaged with confocal microscopy, laminin was shown to follow the collagen fibers; however, the addition of laminin had minimal effect on the stiffness of the scaffolds at any concentration of collagen. Individual neurons dissociated from E9 chick dorsal root ganglia were cultured in the gels for 24 h, and neurite lengths were measured. For collagen gels without laminin, a typical bimodal response of neurite outgrowth was observed, with increased growth at lower concentrations of collagen gel. However, alteration of the chemical nature of the collagen gel by the laminin additive shifted, or completely mitigated, the bimodal neurite growth response seen in gels without laminin. Expression of integrin subunits, ?1, ?3, ?6 and ?1, were confirmed by PCR and immunolabeling in the 3D scaffolds. These results provide insight into the interplay between mechanical and chemical environment to support neurite outgrowth in 3D. Understanding the relative impact of environmental factors on 3D nerve growth may improve biomaterial design for nerve cell regeneration.

Swindle-Reilly, Katelyn E.; Papke, Jason B.; Kutosky, Hannah P.; Throm, Allison; Hammer, Joshua A.; Harkins, Amy B.; Kuntz Willits, Rebecca

2012-08-01

27

Agarose gel stiffness determines rate of DRG neurite extension in 3D cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The optimization of scaffold mechanical properties for neurite extension is critical for neural tissue engineering. Agarose hydrogels can be used to stimulate and maintain three-dimensional neurite extension from primary sensory ganglia in vitro. The present study explores the structure–function relationship between dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurite extension and agarose gel mechanical properties. A range of agarose gels of differing concentrations

A. P. Balgude; X. Yu; A. Szymanski; R. V. Bellamkonda

2001-01-01

28

Kinematic MHD Models of Collapsing Magnetic Traps: Extension to 3D  

SciTech Connect

We show how fully 3D kinematic MHD models of collapsing magnetic traps (CMTs) can be constructed, thus extending previous work on 2D trap models. CMTs are thought to form in the relaxing magnetic field lines in solar flares and it has been proposed that they play an important role in the acceleration of high-energy particles. This work is a first step to understanding the physics of CMTs better.

Grady, Keith J.; Neukirch, Thomas [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)

2009-02-16

29

Agarose gel sti!ness determines rate of DRG neurite extension in 3D cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The optimization of sca!old mechanical properties for neurite extension is critical for neural tissue engineering. Agarose hydrogels can be used to stimulate and maintain three-dimensional neurite extension from primary sensory ganglia in vitro. The present study explores the structure}function relationship between dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurite extension and agarose gel mechanical properties. A range of agarose gels of di!ering concentrations

A. P. Balgude; X. Yu; A. Szymanski; R. V. Bellamkonda

2001-01-01

30

2008 Ect Benchmark Results: Modeling with Civa of 3d Flaws Responses in Planar and Cylindrical Work Pieces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The configurations proposed in the 2008 ECT modeling benchmark session are addressed in this paper using the eddy current modeling tool embedded into CIVA, which is a multi-technique simulation platform dedicated to NDT and developed at the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA). The theoretical approach used in CIVA for ECT modeling is based on Volume integral Method (VIM) coupled with the Method of Moments (MoM) and thus leads to fast and accurate calculations in the case of canonical geometries. Symmetries of the configurations considered in this benchmark are moreover exploited by using the Dodd and Deed formalism for the field computations. After a presentation of the semi-analytical model, results obtained in all benchmark cases are discussed and compared with experimental data.

Reboud, C.; Pichenot, G.; Prémel, D.; Raillon, R.

2009-03-01

31

RELAP5-3D Results for Phase I (Exercise 2) of the OECD\\/NEA MHTGR-350 MW Benchmark  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coupling of the PHISICS code suite to the thermal hydraulics system code RELAP5-3D has recently been initiated at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to provide a fully coupled prismatic Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) system modeling capability as part of the NGNP methods development program. The PHISICS code consists of three modules: INSTANT (performing 3D nodal transport core calculations),

Gerhard Strydom

2012-01-01

32

3D Imaging With Large Focus Extension By A Coherent Optical Microscope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In microscopy, high magnifications are achievable for investigating micro-objects but the paradigm is that higher is the required magnification, lower is the depth of focus. For an object having a three-dimensional (3D) complex shape only a portion of it appears in good focus to the observer who is essentially looking at a single image plane. Actually, two approaches exist to obtain an extended focused image (EFI), both having severe limitations since the first requires mechanical scanning while the other one requires specially designed optics. We demonstrate that an EFI of an object can be obtained through digital holography (DH) without any mechanical scanning or special optical components. The conceptual novelty of the proposed approach lies in the fact that it is possible to completely exploit the unique feature of DH in extracting all the information content stored in hologram, amplitude and phase, to extend the depth of focus.

Ferraro, Pietro; Grilli, Simonetta; Alfieri, Domenico; de Nicola, Sergio; Finizio, Andrea; Pierattini, Giovanni; Javidi, Bahrain; Coppola, Giuseppe; Striano, Valerio

2006-10-01

33

Extension of a data-driven gating technique to 3D, whole body PET studies.  

PubMed

Respiratory gating can be used to separate a PET acquisition into a series of near motion-free bins. This is typically done using additional gating hardware; however, software-based methods can derive the respiratory signal from the acquired data itself. The aim of this work was to extend a data-driven respiratory gating method to acquire gated, 3D, whole body PET images of clinical patients. The existing method, previously demonstrated with 2D, single bed-position data, uses a spectral analysis to find regions in raw PET data which are subject to respiratory motion. The change in counts over time within these regions is then used to estimate the respiratory signal of the patient. In this work, the gating method was adapted to only accept lines of response from a reduced set of axial angles, and the respiratory frequency derived from the lung bed position was used to help identify the respiratory frequency in all other bed positions. As the respiratory signal does not identify the direction of motion, a registration-based technique was developed to align the direction for all bed positions. Data from 11 clinical FDG PET patients were acquired, and an optical respiratory monitor was used to provide a hardware-based signal for comparison. All data were gated using both the data-driven and hardware methods, and reconstructed. The centre of mass of manually defined regions on gated images was calculated, and the overall displacement was defined as the change in the centre of mass between the first and last gates. The mean displacement was 10.3 mm for the data-driven gated images and 9.1 mm for the hardware gated images. No significant difference was found between the two gating methods when comparing the displacement values. The adapted data-driven gating method was demonstrated to successfully produce respiratory gated, 3D, whole body, clinical PET acquisitions. PMID:21666288

Schleyer, Paul J; O'Doherty, Michael J; Marsden, Paul K

2011-06-10

34

Extension of a data-driven gating technique to 3D, whole body PET studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Respiratory gating can be used to separate a PET acquisition into a series of near motion-free bins. This is typically done using additional gating hardware; however, software-based methods can derive the respiratory signal from the acquired data itself. The aim of this work was to extend a data-driven respiratory gating method to acquire gated, 3D, whole body PET images of clinical patients. The existing method, previously demonstrated with 2D, single bed-position data, uses a spectral analysis to find regions in raw PET data which are subject to respiratory motion. The change in counts over time within these regions is then used to estimate the respiratory signal of the patient. In this work, the gating method was adapted to only accept lines of response from a reduced set of axial angles, and the respiratory frequency derived from the lung bed position was used to help identify the respiratory frequency in all other bed positions. As the respiratory signal does not identify the direction of motion, a registration-based technique was developed to align the direction for all bed positions. Data from 11 clinical FDG PET patients were acquired, and an optical respiratory monitor was used to provide a hardware-based signal for comparison. All data were gated using both the data-driven and hardware methods, and reconstructed. The centre of mass of manually defined regions on gated images was calculated, and the overall displacement was defined as the change in the centre of mass between the first and last gates. The mean displacement was 10.3 mm for the data-driven gated images and 9.1 mm for the hardware gated images. No significant difference was found between the two gating methods when comparing the displacement values. The adapted data-driven gating method was demonstrated to successfully produce respiratory gated, 3D, whole body, clinical PET acquisitions.

Schleyer, Paul J.; O'Doherty, Michael J.; Marsden, Paul K.

2011-07-01

35

A Generic Extension Mechanism for X3D to Define, Implement and Integrate New First-Class Nodes, Components, and Profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current Extensible 3D (X3D) specification (5) defines a set of nodes, which are grouped in compo- nents and profiles. The extension mechanism of X3D allows only the spontaneous creation of new second-class nodes by prototype statements. We think that it is useful to create new first-class nodes on demand, which might be organized into proprietary unregistered components or profiles

Enrico Rukzio

36

Benchmarking of 3D space charge codes using direct phase space measurements from photoemission high voltage dc gun  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a comparison between space charge calculations and direct measurements of the transverse phase space of space charge dominated electron bunches from a high voltage dc photoemission gun followed by an emittance compensation solenoid magnet. The measurements were performed using a double-slit emittance measurement system over a range of bunch charge and solenoid current values. The data are compared with detailed simulations using the 3D space charge codes GPT and Parmela3D. The initial particle distributions were generated from measured transverse and temporal laser beam profiles at the photocathode. The beam brightness as a function of beam fraction is calculated for the measured phase space maps and found to approach within a factor of 2 the theoretical maximum set by the thermal energy and the accelerating field at the photocathode.

Bazarov, Ivan V.; Dunham, Bruce M.; Gulliford, Colwyn; Li, Yulin; Liu, Xianghong; Sinclair, Charles K.; Soong, Ken; Hannon, Fay

2008-10-01

37

Benchmark of coupling codes (ALOHA, TOPLHA and GRILL3D) with ITER-relevant Lower Hybrid antenna  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to assist the design of the future ITER Lower Hybrid launcher, coupling codes ALOHA, from CEA\\/IRFM, TOPLHA, from Politecnico di Torino, and GRILL3D, developed by Dr. Mikhail Irzak (A.F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, St. Petersburg, Russia) and operated by ENEA Frascati, have been compared with the updated (six modules with four active waveguides per module) Passive-Active Multi-junction (PAM) Lower

D. Milanesio; J. Hillairet; L. Panaccione; R. Maggiora; J. F. Artaud; Y. S. Bae; A. M. A. Barbera; J. Belo; G. Berger-By; J. M. Bernard; Ph. Cara; A. Cardinali; C. Castaldo; S. Ceccuzzi; R. Cesario; J. Decker; L. Delpech; A. Ekedahl; J. Garcia; P. Garibaldi; M. Goniche; D. Guilhem; C. Hamlyn-Harris; G. T. Hoang; H. Jia; Q. Y. Huang; F. Imbeaux; S. H. Kim; Y. Lausenaz; R. Magne; L. Marfisi; S. Meschino; F. Mirizzi; W. Namkung; L. Pajewski; Y. Peysson; A. Saille; G. Schettini; M. Schneider; P. K. Sharma; A. A. Tuccillo; O. Tudisco; R. Villari; K. Vulliez; Y. Wu; Q. Zeng

2011-01-01

38

Dynamic pulse buckling of cylindrical shells under axial impact: A benchmark study of 2D and 3D finite element calculations  

SciTech Connect

A series of tests investigating dynamic pulse buckling of a cylindrical shell under axial impact is compared to several 2D and 3D finite element simulations of the event. The purpose of the work is to investigate the performance of various analysis codes and element types on a problem which is applicable to radioactive material transport packages, and ultimately to develop a benchmark problem to qualify finite element analysis codes for the transport package design industry. During the pulse buckling tests, a buckle formed at each end of the cylinder, and one of the two buckles became unstable and collapsed. Numerical simulations of the test were performed using PRONTO, a Sandia developed transient dynamics analysis code, and ABAQUS/Explicit with both shell and continuum elements. The calculations are compared to the tests with respect to deformed shape and impact load history.

Hoffman, E.L.; Ammerman, D.J.

1995-04-01

39

On the development of NURBS-based isogeometric solid shell elements: 2D problems and preliminary extension to 3D  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work deals with the development of 2D solid shell non-uniform rational B-spline elements. We address a static problem, that can be solved with a 2D model, involving a thin slender structure under small perturbations. The plane stress, plane strain and axisymmetric assumption can be made. overline{B} projection and reduced integration techniques are considered to deal with the locking phenomenon. The use of the overline{B} approach leads to the implementation of two strategies insensitive to locking: the first strategy is based on a 1D projection of the mean strain across the thickness; the second strategy undertakes to project all the strains onto a suitably chosen 2D space. Conversely, the reduced integration approach based on Gauss points is less expensive, but only alleviates locking and is limited to quadratic approximations. The performance of the various 2D elements developed is assessed through several numerical examples. Simple extensions of these techniques to 3D are finally performed.

Bouclier, R.; Elguedj, T.; Combescure, A.

2013-05-01

40

77 FR 4982 - Solicitation of Input From Stakeholders Regarding the Smith-Lever 3(d) Extension Integrated Pest...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Agriculture Solicitation of Input From Stakeholders Regarding the Smith-Lever 3(d...Notice of public meeting and request for stakeholder input...Program (EIPM). 2:15-4 p.m. Stakeholder input on general administration of...

2012-02-01

41

K-FIX; 3D; three-dimensional extension two-phase flow dynamics. [CDC7600; FORTRAN IV  

Microsoft Academic Search

This package consists of two programs K-FIX(3D) and K-FIX(3D,FLX) which extend the transient, two-dimensional, two-fluid program K-FIX (NESC Abstract 727) to perform three-dimensional calculations. The transient dynamics of three-dimensional, two-phase flow with interfacial exchange are calculated at all flow speeds. Each phase is described in terms of its own density, velocity, and temperature. The application is to flow in the

W. C. Rivard; M. D. Torrey

2008-01-01

42

Benchmarking Dutch and U.S. Naval Shipbuilding: Reducing U.S. Naval Shipbuilding Costs Using Collaborative PLM and 3D Imaging.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

U.S. Navy shipbuilding contractors need to find a way to reduce costs without sacrificing current reliability and quality requirements. 3D Laser Scanning Technology (3D LST) and Collaborative Product Lifecycle Management (CPLM) are two technologies that a...

E. Jansen K. Shannon T. Silkey T. J. Housel

2012-01-01

43

3D extension of the Monte Carlo code MCSHAPE for photon–matter interactions in heterogeneous media  

Microsoft Academic Search

MCSHAPE is a Monte Carlo code for the simulation of gamma and X-ray diffusion in matter which gives a general description of the evolution of the polarisation state of the photons. The model is derived from the so-called ‘vector’ transport equation. The three-dimensional (3D) version of the code can accurately simulate the propagation of photons in heterogeneous media originating from

V. Scot; J. E. Fernandez; L. Vincze; K. Janssens

2007-01-01

44

A flexible and extensible object-oriented 3D architecture: application in the development of virtual anatomy lessons.  

PubMed

"Anatomic VisualizeR" represents the first application to be developed using a 3D architectural framework created at the University of California, San Diego, School of Medicine. This application combines 3D anatomic models (based on the Visible Human dataset) with supporting 2D media (e.g., diagnostic imagery, surgical videos, etc.) to establish a comprehensive learning environment for anatomy. "Guided lessons" are being created to address complex curricular and learning objectives. Faculty expertise is represented in these preconfigured lessons, in part through the specification of appropriate content and the incorporation of activities to enhance visualization. These lessons are an intellectual framework which ensures that clinically-relevant issues and ancillary learning opportunities are available. The curricular exercises are non-sequential and can be interrupted at any time; users are encouraged to freely explore the environment. At the core of Anatomic VisualizeR's object-oriented architecture is the ability to identify, access, view, and manipulate heterogeneous content. The capacity to query a database gateway to retrieve specified resources has been built into the application. Encapsulation of individual elements to form 3D display objects ("blocks") enables Anatomic VisualizeR to efficiently manage 3D models, 2D images, text, sound, and video. The "block" paradigm also allows Anatomic VisualizeR to associate contextually appropriate display characteristics and behaviors with the various content elements. For example, the anatomic model block provides the capability to "link" and "unlink" the anatomic models and to alter their transparencies. The anatomic models can be displayed concurrently with other blocks to facilitate structural comparisons. Anatomic VisualizeR marks a major milestone in our developmental efforts. While lessons and database content are still not complete, we are confident that it will become the first tangible realization of our vision. PMID:10168940

Hoffman, H; Murray, M; Danks, M; Prayaga, R; Irwin, A; Vu, D

1997-01-01

45

Evolution of crustal stress patterns and fault orientations during oblique extension: Numerical 3D experiments from rift to break-up  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In continental rifts, extension is often oblique to the rift trend. This was the case during formation of the South Atlantic (especially in the Equatorial Segment), and the North Atlantic (Baffin Bay and Fram Strait). Oblique extension formed the Gulf of California, the Gulf of Aden and is presently active in the Ethiopian Rift System, as well as the Dead Sea Fault System. This study addresses the evolution of crustal stress patterns and fault geometries during oblique extension. It presents 3D numerical experiments on lithospheric scale that cover the rift evolution from initial deformation to break-up. Each simulation involves a different direction of extension in order to explore the whole extensional spectrum (i.e. rift-orthogonal extension, low to high obliquity, strike-slip deformation). The applied elasto-visco-plastic numerical model (SLIM3D) is based on the finite element method which allows an efficient implementation of a free surface and involves nonlinear stress- and temperature-dependent viscosity with laboratory-based parameters. Analog experiments have a rich history in studying the fault patterns of oblique rifts, however, reproducing realistic rheologies and temperature-dependent viscosity is problematic. While these issues are overcome in present day numerical models, they are limited by computational power which constrains 3D models to a relatively coarse resolution. In this study, I widen the scope of numerical 3D models by introducing a post-processing method that uses the stress-tensor to evaluate both the stress regime (extensional, strike-slip, compressional) and the preferred fault azimuth at each surface element assuming that faults are formed with optimal orientation in the stress field. Numerical results are validated by comparison to previous analog experiments. The numerical models exhibit a characteristic three-phase rift evolution. Individual phases can be characterised in terms of rift-parallel, extension-orthogonal, and intermediate normal fault directions as well as strike-slip faults with Riedel shear orientations. In experiments with low obliquity, sigmoidal en-echelon patterns emerge that result from the rotation of long-lived shear zones. Strain partitioning occurs in models of intermediate and high obliquity where the rift center and the rift flanks experience strike-slip deformation and normal faulting, respectively.

Brune, Sascha

2013-04-01

46

Effects of Secondary Circuit Modeling on Results of Pressurized Water Reactor Main Steam Line Break Benchmark Calculations with New Coupled Code TRAB-3D\\/SMABRE  

Microsoft Academic Search

All of the three exercises of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development\\/Nuclear Regulatory Commission pressurized water reactor main steam line break (PWR MSLB) benchmark were calculated at VTT, the Technical Research Centre of Finland. For the first exercise, the plant simulation with point-kinetic neutronics, the thermal-hydraulics code SMABRE was used. The second exercise was calculated with the three-dimensional reactor

Antti Daavittila; Anitta Haemaelaeinen; Riitta Kyrki-Rajamaeki

2003-01-01

47

Retroarc extension in the last 6 Ma in the South-Central Andes (36°S-40°S) evaluated through a 3-D gravity modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Andean retroarc between 35° and 40°S is the locus of debate regarding its Pliocene to Quaternary tectonic setting. Retroarc volcanic eruptions since 6 Ma to the Present are, based on some hypotheses, associated with widespread extension. In these works, geological data point to the existence of normal faults affecting previous (Late Cretaceous to Miocene) contractional structures. In order to evaluate such interpretations we have collected data from various geological and geophysical studies and scales. Based on these data, an existing large-scale 3-D gravity model could be improved and used to investigate the lithospheric structure of this region. Moreover, using the gravity model, an attenuated crust could be localized and quantified throughout the retroarc area. Deep seismic data available from this region are limited to the forearc - arc area, while in general the retroarc zone lacks deep seismic constraints. The only deep seismic profile extending to the retroarc is a receiver function profile at 39°S, showing crustal attenuation. This observation correlates with the extensional activity recognized at the surface. When analysing the gravity field, positive residual anomalies are observed. They correlate with crustal attenuation at the areas of extension. Also, computed elastic thickness in the retroarc shows good correlation between the areas of crustal stretching and low flexural rigidity, explained by thermal processes. The present extensional deformation reflected in positive residual gravity anomalies points to the influence of reactivated Triassic rifting inherited from early phases of Pangea break-up. Finally, the present local uplift and consequent fluvial incision at the retroarc zone are explained by crustal stretching and not by crustal shortening, the common mechanism in Andean orogenesis.

Folguera, A.; Alasonati Tašárová, Z.; Götze, H.-J.; Rojas Vera, E.; Giménez, M.; Ramos, V. A.

2012-12-01

48

MRML: an extensible communication protocol for interoperability and benchmarking of multimedia information retrieval systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While in the area of relational databases interoperability is ensured by common communication protocols (e.g. ODBC/JDBC using SQL), Content Based Image Retrieval Systems (CBIRS) and other multimedia retrieval systems are lacking both a common query language and a common communication protocol. Besides its obvious short term convenience, interoperability of systems is crucial for the exchange and analysis of user data. In this paper, we present and describe an extensible XML-based query markup language, called MRML (Multimedia Retrieval markup Language). MRML is primarily designed so as to ensure interoperability between different content-based multimedia retrieval systems. Further, MRML allows researchers to preserve their freedom in extending their system as needed. MRML encapsulates multimedia queries in a way that enable multimedia (MM) query languages, MM content descriptions, MM query engines, and MM user interfaces to grow independently from each other, reaching a maximum of interoperability while ensuring a maximum of freedom for the developer. For benefitting from this, only a few simple design principles have to be respected when extending MRML for one's f\\private needs. The design of extensions withing the MRML framework will be described in detail in the paper. MRML has been implemented and tested for the CBIRS Viper, using the user interface Snake Charmer. Both are part of the GNU project and can be downloaded at our site.

Mueller, Wolfgang; Mueller, Henning; Marchand-Maillet, Stephane; Pun, Thierry; Squire, David M.; Pecenovic, Zoran; Giess, Christoph; de Vries, Arjen P.

2000-10-01

49

Benchmarking the benchmarking models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – A review of benchmarking literature revealed that there are different types of benchmarking and a plethora of benchmarking process models. In some cases, a model has been uniquely developed for performing a particular type of benchmarking. This poses the following problems: it can create confusion among the users as to whether they should use only the unique benchmarking

G. Anand; Rambabu Kodali

2008-01-01

50

Modeling of 3D Edge Plasmas with BoRiS code  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report continuing progress with 3D fluid edge plasma code BoRiS(M.Borchardt et al., J. Nucl. Mater., 290-293 (2001) 546-550.). The present physics model in BoRiS includes equations for plasma and neutral densities, parallel momentum and thermal energy. Some successful benchmarks with 2D edge code UEDGE have been demonstrated, so far separate for plasma and neutrals. Here we discuss the extension

M. V. Umansky; T. D. Rognlien; M. E. Fenstermacher; M. Borchardt; J. Riemann; R. Schneider

2002-01-01

51

Metamorphic Tectonites and Differential Exhumation Reveal 3D Nature of Extension and Lower Crustal Flow in the Active Woodlark Rift, Papua New Guinea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The D'Entrecasteaux Islands metamorphic core complexes (MCCs) occur in the Woodlark rift, a continental region where ˜200 km of extension since ˜6 Ma has been focused into a relatively small number of normal faults, some dipping at <30° . Flow of a low viscosity lower crust on a time scale of <4 m.y. is evidenced by the narrow width of

T. A. Little; S. L. Baldwin; P. G. Fitzgerald; B. D. Monteleone; K. J. Peters

2004-01-01

52

3-D Vector Field Simulation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This simulation illustrates a wide range of 3D vector fields, including spherical, radial, and linear. The fields can be displayed as vectors, particle trajectories, equipotentials, and other options. The number of particles, vectors, or streamlines, and the field strength are adjustable. Directions and source code are also included. This is an extension of a 3D Electric and Magnetic Field viewer from the same author.

Falstad, Paul

2004-07-13

53

Fundamentals of 3D halftoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

3D halftoning is a new technique that allows the approximation of digital volumetric objects of varying material density e.g.\\u000a porous media for example, by an ensemble of binary material volume elements called vels. In theory, 3D halftoning is basically\\u000a an extension of the well known 2D halftoning process, as widely used in binary printing applications. In practice, however,\\u000a the development

Qun Lou; Peter Stucki

54

Metamorphic Tectonites and Differential Exhumation Reveal 3D Nature of Extension and Lower Crustal Flow in the Active Woodlark Rift, Papua New Guinea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The D'Entrecasteaux Islands metamorphic core complexes (MCCs) occur in the Woodlark rift, a continental region where ˜200 km of extension since ˜6 Ma has been focused into a relatively small number of normal faults, some dipping at <30° . Flow of a low viscosity lower crust on a time scale of <4 m.y. is evidenced by the narrow width of the rift zone, and the apparent large magnitude of extension (Beta ˜5) , as contrasted by observed relief on the Moho (<=10 km). Gneisses in the footwalls of MCCs, including retrogressed eclogites, have been exhumed from depths of ˜30 km since ˜3 Ma. Our structural and thermochronometric data covers parts of the D'Entrecasteaux MCCs, including Normanby Island. These are mantled by serpentinized ultramafic rocks of the Papuan ophiolite. Remnants of this upper plate are preserved along the margins of the MCCs. In underlying mylonites, exhumation-related fabrics, microstructures and quartz lattice preferred orientations reveal a regional pattern of lineations and top-north shear inconsistent with diapir tectonics. The gently dipping mylonites were later warped by uplift of the ˜30 km-wide domes, perhaps in response to magmatic underplating during intrusion of dolerite dikes and granodiorites at ˜2 Ma. Southward across Fergusson Island, muscovite Ar/Ar ages, increase by ˜2 m.y. along the detachment, suggesting footwall exhumation by top-to-the-north slip at >12 mm/yr. To the east, an MCC on eastern Normanby Island has top-north footwall mylonites that dip gently SW and that were exhumed during the Pliocene as part of a northward progression of normal faulting that did not arrive at the offshore Moresby Seamount until ˜1.2 Ma (ODP Leg 180 site), relationships that suggest a rolling-hinge style uplift. Importantly, its detachment exposes no rocks deeper than blueschist-facies. Ductile deformation fabrics in the MCCs reveal patterns of lower crustal motion that can be evaluated against seafloor spreading-derived plate motions. Shear fabrics in MCCs closest to the Woodlark spreading ridges, including Normanby and Misima Islands are parallel to the NNE direction of 0.5-3.6 Ma Solomon Sea-Australia spreading. Farther west, lineations in the lower plates of the D'Entrecasteaux MCCs locally deflect ˜40-50° clockwise from this direction. This obliquity is interpreted to reflect inhomogeneous lower crustal extension to the west of the Woodlark spreading ridges. A rift corridor extending ˜100 km to the north of Goodenough and Fergusson Islands is defined by active normal faulting and subsidence of the Trobriand margin. We infer that a previously subducted, locally eclogite-bearing, slab of thinned Australian lower crust to the north of the islands is being pulled out from beneath this zone as it is being sinistrally sheared along its eastern edge. Today the rift zone steps ˜70 km south towards the Papuan Peninsula to define a right-step, an asymmetry that is enhanced by seafloor spreading east of ˜151.4° E. Published focal mechanisms suggest that N-S sinistral shear along the northern Woodlark rift is continuing. In central Normanby Island, ˜2 Ma andesites may have erupted along a transverse fault bounding the deeply exhumed D'Entrecasteaux corridor. Its offshore extension trends N along a major embayment in the Woodlark Rise.

Little, T. A.; Baldwin, S. L.; Fitzgerald, P. G.; Monteleone, B. D.; Peters, K. J.

2004-12-01

55

Optimal 3-D coefficient tree structure for 3-D wavelet video coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

An optimal three-dimensional (3-D) coefficient tree structure for 3-D zerotree wavelet video coding is considered in this paper. The 3-D zerotree wavelet video coding is inspired by the success of the two-dimensional (2-D) zerotree wavelet image coding. Existing 3-D zerotree wavelet video codecs use the either symmetric or symmetric-alike 3-D tree structure, which is a straightforward extension of the symmetric

Chao He; Jianyu Dong; Yuan F. Zheng; Zhigang Gao

2003-01-01

56

Benchmark Characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

An abstract system of benchmark characteristics that makes it possible, in the beginning of the design stage, to design with benchmark performance in mind is presented. The benchmark characteristics for a set of commonly used benchmarks are then shown. The benchmark set used includes some benchmarks from the Systems Performance Evaluation Cooperative. The SPEC programs are industry-standard applications that use

Thomas M. Conte; Wen-mei W. Hwu

1991-01-01

57

VALIDATION OF IMPROVED 3D ATR MODEL  

SciTech Connect

A full-core Monte Carlo based 3D model of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) was previously developed. [1] An improved 3D model has been developed by the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) to eliminate homogeneity of fuel plates of the old model, incorporate core changes into the new model, and to validate against a newer, more complicated core configuration. This new 3D model adds capability for fuel loading design and azimuthal power peaking studies of the ATR fuel elements.

Soon Sam Kim; Bruce G. Schnitzler

2005-11-01

58

Java 3D  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Java3D is a low level 3D scene-graph based graphics programming API for the java language. It does not form part of the core APIs required by the Java specification. The class libraries exist under the javax.media.j3d top level package as well as utility classes provided in javax.vecmath.

59

Performance of the Cray T3D and emerging architectures on canopy QCD applications  

SciTech Connect

The Cray T3D, an MIMD system with NUMA shared memory capabilities and in principle very low communications latency, can support the Canopy framework for grid-oriented applications. CANOPY has been ported to the T3D, with the intent of making it available to a spectrum of users. The performance of the T3D running Canopy has been benchmarked on five QCD applications extensively run on ACPMAPS at Fermilab, requiring a variety of data access patterns. The net performance and scaling behavior reveals an efficiency relative to peak Gflops almost identical to that achieved on ACPMAPS. Detailed studies of the major factors impacting performance are presented. Generalizations applying this analysis to the newly emerging crop of commercial systems reveal where their limitations will lie. On these applications, efficiencies of above 25% are not to be expected; eliminating overheads due to Canopy will improve matters, but by less than a factor of two.

Fischler, M.; Uchima, M.

1995-11-01

60

3D Motifs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three-dimensional (3D) motifs are patterns of local structure associated with function, typically based on residues in binding\\u000a or catalytic sites. Protein structures of unknown function can be annotated by comparing them to known 3D motifs. Many methods\\u000a have been developed for identifying 3D motifs and for searching structures for their occurrence. Approaches vary in the type\\u000a and amount of input

Elaine C. Meng; Benjamin J. Polacco; Patricia C. Babbitt

61

3D Imaging.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses 3 D imaging as it relates to digital representations in virtual library collections. Highlights include X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT); the National Science Foundation (NSF) Digital Library Initiatives; output peripherals; image retrieval systems, including metadata; and applications of 3 D imaging for libraries and museums. (LRW)|

Hastings, S. K.

2002-01-01

62

3D seismic inversion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The research results from the 3D inversion have been made into products already available on the market. The new products are used both within the EU and in the rest of the world. The two partners in the 3D inversion project have launched two different pr...

K. Bolding Rasmussen J. Moerch Pedersen S. Gluck E. Juve

1997-01-01

63

3D Imaging.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses 3 D imaging as it relates to digital representations in virtual library collections. Highlights include X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT); the National Science Foundation (NSF) Digital Library Initiatives; output peripherals; image retrieval systems, including metadata; and applications of 3 D imaging for libraries and museums. (LRW)

Hastings, S. K.

2002-01-01

64

Holographic 3-D printer  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a holographic printer, which produces 3-D hard copies of computer processed objects. For the purpose of automatic making of 3-D hard copies of distortion free, a new method to synthesize holographic stereogram is proposed. It is is flat format and lippmann type holographic stereogram which can be printed by one optical step. The proposed hologram has not

Masahiro Yamaguchi; Nagaaki Ohyama; Toshio Honda

1990-01-01

65

3D Slicer  

Microsoft Academic Search

To be applied to practical clinical research problems, medical image computing software requires infrastructure including routines to read and write various file formats, manipulate 2D and 3D coordinate systems, and present a consistent user interface paradigm and visualization metaphor. At the same time, research software needs to be flexible to facilitate implementation of new ideas. 3D Slicer is a project

Stephen D. Pieper; Michael Halle; Ron Kikinis

2004-01-01

66

Macrophage podosomes go 3D.  

PubMed

Macrophage tissue infiltration is a critical step in the immune response against microorganisms and is also associated with disease progression in chronic inflammation and cancer. Macrophages are constitutively equipped with specialized structures called podosomes dedicated to extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation. We recently reported that these structures play a critical role in trans-matrix mesenchymal migration mode, a protease-dependent mechanism. Podosome molecular components and their ECM-degrading activity have been extensively studied in two dimensions (2D), but yet very little is known about their fate in three-dimensional (3D) environments. Therefore, localization of podosome markers and proteolytic activity were carefully examined in human macrophages performing mesenchymal migration. Using our gelled collagen I 3D matrix model to obligate human macrophages to perform mesenchymal migration, classical podosome markers including talin, paxillin, vinculin, gelsolin, cortactin were found to accumulate at the tip of F-actin-rich cell protrusions together with ?1 integrin and CD44 but not ?2 integrin. Macrophage proteolytic activity was observed at podosome-like protrusion sites using confocal fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy. The formation of migration tunnels by macrophages inside the matrix was accomplished by degradation, engulfment and mechanic compaction of the matrix. In addition, videomicroscopy revealed that 3D F-actin-rich protrusions of migrating macrophages were as dynamic as their 2D counterparts. Overall, the specifications of 3D podosomes resembled those of 2D podosome rosettes rather than those of individual podosomes. This observation was further supported by the aspect of 3D podosomes in fibroblasts expressing Hck, a master regulator of podosome rosettes in macrophages. In conclusion, human macrophage podosomes go 3D and take the shape of spherical podosome rosettes when the cells perform mesenchymal migration. This work sets the scene for future studies of molecular and cellular processes regulating macrophage trans-migration. PMID:20801545

Van Goethem, Emeline; Guiet, Romain; Balor, Stéphanie; Charrière, Guillaume M; Poincloux, Renaud; Labrousse, Arnaud; Maridonneau-Parini, Isabelle; Le Cabec, Véronique

67

Autostereoscopic 3D Display  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Display technology has made big advances in last years. Displays are flat, offer high resolution, are bright, fast and almost free of flicker. Apart from new technologies that make displays still more affordable the major direction of development turns to applications, especially TV. In this consolidation process new features are sought. Still lacking is the 3D display capability most obvious compared to viewing real-world scenes. In the last decades a lot of new 3D technologies have been proposed, developed and only few have reached the commercial market. A breakthrough into the mass market has been prevented for technical as well as commercial reasons. Most natural viewing is provided by holography. Unfortunately, even the technical challenges are so demanding that the 3D research community turned to the stereoscopic technology known for more than a century. Many technologies have been proposed and the shutter technique has already matured to a commercial product. But the mass market requires 3D viewing without using additional viewing aids. Currently, these Autostereoscopic 3D Displays still cannot meet the quality standard and comfort of today's 2D displays. In our opinion 3D displays should first of all match all of today's 2D demands and additionally be capable of 3D displaying.

Schwerdtner, Armin

2006-02-01

68

3D Transmographer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Build your own polygon and transform it in the Cartesian coordinate system. Experiment with reflections across any line, revolving around any line (which yields a 3-D image), rotations about any point, and translations in any direction.

69

TRACE 3-D documentation  

SciTech Connect

TRACE 3-D is an interactive beam-dynamics program that calculates the envelopes of a bunched beam, including linear space-charge forces, through a user-defined transport system. TRACE 3-D provides an immediate graphics display of the envelopes and the phase-space ellipses and allows nine types of beam-matching options. This report describes the beam-dynamics calculations and gives detailed instruction for using the code. Several examples are described in detail.

Crandall, K.R.

1987-08-01

70

3D Video Recorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the 3D Video Recorder, a system capable of recording, processing, and playing three-dimensional video from multiple points of view. We first record 2D video streams from several synchronized digital video cameras and store pre-processed images to disk. An off-line process- ing stage converts these images into a time-varying three- dimensional hierarchical point-based data structure and stores this 3D

Stephan Würmlin; Edouard Lamboray; Oliver G. Staadt; Markus H. Gross

2002-01-01

71

DYNA3D  

Microsoft Academic Search

DYNA3D is an explicit, three-dimensional, finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic response of inelastic solids and structures. DYNA3D contains 30 material models and 10 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic\\/isotropic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, Blatz-Ko rubber, high explosive

1989-01-01

72

Multiplatform 3-D Graphics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus of our research is enabling the users to interact with three-dimensional (3-D) graphics and interactive applications with the same content, appearance, and interaction paradigm on different platforms [Internet, television (TV), and mobile devices]. The main contribution of this article is the design and implementation of a platform-dependent architecture for 3-D graphics and content, validated in the entertainment and

Maria del Puy Carretero; Amalia Ortiz; David Oyarzun; Isabel Torre; Maria Linaza; Alejandro Garcia-Alonso

2010-01-01

73

Radiosity diffusion model in 3D  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the Radiosity-Diffusion model in three dimensions(3D), as an extension to previous work in 2D. It is a method for handling non-scattering spaces in optically participating media. We present the extension of the model to 3D including an extension to the model to cope with increased complexity of the 3D domain. We show that in 3D more careful consideration must be given to the issues of meshing and visibility to model the transport of light within reasonable computational bounds. We demonstrate the model to be comparable to Monte-Carlo simulations for selected geometries, and show preliminary results of comparisons to measured time-resolved data acquired on resin phantoms.

Riley, Jason D.; Arridge, Simon R.; Chrysanthou, Yiorgos; Dehghani, Hamid; Hillman, Elizabeth M.; Schweiger, Martin

2001-11-01

74

Computation of magnetic forces on moving conductors by using ELEKTRA and other 3-D computer codes  

SciTech Connect

The finite-element computer code ELEKTRA is the only publicly available code known to the authors that is capable of solving 3-D eddy-current problems that entail the use of moving electrical conductors having finite dimensions. It is, therefore, expected to become a standard tool for the analysis of magnetic levitation (maglev) systems using sheet guideways. This study systematically evaluates the ELEKTRA code by comparing it with experimental data and {open_quotes}benchmark{close_quotes} solutions, as appropriate. In addition, alternatives to ELEKTRA were investigated, and a new computer code, based on an extension of the double-Fourier series analysis, was developed.

Wang, Z.; Coffey, H.T.; Mulcahy, T.

1994-08-01

75

Translational benchmark risk analysis  

PubMed Central

Translational development – in the sense of translating a mature methodology from one area of application to another, evolving area – is discussed for the use of benchmark doses in quantitative risk assessment. Illustrations are presented with traditional applications of the benchmark paradigm in biology and toxicology, and also with risk endpoints that differ from traditional toxicological archetypes. It is seen that the benchmark approach can apply to a diverse spectrum of risk management settings. This suggests a promising future for this important risk-analytic tool. Extensions of the method to a wider variety of applications represent a significant opportunity for enhancing environmental, biomedical, industrial, and socio-economic risk assessments.

Piegorsch, Walter W.

2010-01-01

76

A 3D Facial Expression Database For Facial Behavior Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally, human facial expressions have been studied using either 2D static images or 2D video sequences. The 2D-based analysis is incapable of handing large pose variations. Although 3D modeling techniques have been extensively used for 3D face recognition and 3D face animation, barely any research on 3D facial expression recognition using 3D range data has been reported. A primary factor

Lijun Yin; Xiaozhou Wei; Yi Sun; Jun Wang; Matthew J. Rosato

2006-01-01

77

3-D Cardboard Busts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides a lesson for a high school art course on three-dimensional design. Based on a portrait bust by Naum Gabo, the project involves the construction of a 3-D portrait bust using railroad board. Describes techniques that students will need to be taught before beginning. (DSK)

Payne, Debra

1998-01-01

78

3D reservoir visualization  

SciTech Connect

This paper shows how some simple 3D computer graphics tools can be combined to provide efficient software for visualizing and analyzing data obtained from reservoir simulators and geological simulations. The animation and interactive capabilities of the software quickly provide a deep understanding of the fluid-flow behavior and an accurate idea of the internal architecture of a reservoir.

Van, B.T.; Pajon, J.L.; Joseph, P. (Inst. Francais du Petrole (FR))

1991-11-01

79

Rossby wave instability in 3D discs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Rossby wave instability (RWI) is a promising mechanism for producing large-scale vortices in protoplanetary discs. The instability operates around a density bump in the disc, and the resulting vortices may facilitate planetesimal formation and angular momentum transfer in the disc dead zone. Most previous works on the RWI deal with 2D (height-integrated) discs. However, vortices in 3D may have different dynamical behaviours from those in 2D. Recent numerical simulations of the RWI in 3D global discs by Meheut et al. have revealed intriguing vertical structure of the vortices, including appreciable vertical velocities. In this paper we present a linear analysis of the RWI, in 3D global models of isothermal discs. We calculate the growth rates of the Rossby modes (of various azimuthal wave numbers m= 2-6) trapped around the fiducial density bump and carry out 3D numerical simulations to compare with our linear results. We show that the 3D RWI growth rates are only slightly smaller than the 2D growth rates, and the velocity structures seen in the numerical simulations during the linear phase are in agreement with the velocity eigenfunctions obtained in our linear calculations. This numerical benchmark shows that numerical simulations can accurately describe the instability. The angular momentum transfer rate associated with Rossby vortices is also studied.

Meheut, Heloise; Yu, Cong; Lai, Dong

2012-05-01

80

3-D seismology in the Arabian Gulf  

SciTech Connect

Since 1977 when Aramco and GSI (Geophysical Services International) pioneered the first 3-D seismic survey in the Arabian Gulf, under the guidance of Aramco`s Chief Geophysicist John Hoke, 3-D seismology has been effectively used to map many complex subsurface geological phenomena. By the mid-1990s extensive 3-D surveys were acquired in Abu Dhabi, Oman, Qatar and Saudi Arabia. Also in the mid-1990`s Bahrain, Kuwait and Dubai were preparing to record surveys over their fields. On the structural side 3-D has refined seismic maps, focused faults and fractures systems, as well as outlined the distribution of facies, porosity and fluid saturation. In field development, 3D has not only reduced drilling costs significantly, but has also improved the understanding of fluid behavior in the reservoir. In Oman, Petroleum Development Oman (PDO) has now acquired the first Gulf 4-D seismic survey (time-lapse 3D survey) over the Yibal Field. The 4-D survey will allow PDO to directly monitor water encroachment in the highly-faulted Cretaceous Shu`aiba reservoir. In exploration, 3-D seismology has resolved complex prospects with structural and stratigraphic complications and reduced the risk in the selection of drilling locations. The many case studies from Saudi Arabia, Oman, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates, which are reviewed in this paper, attest to the effectiveness of 3D seismology in exploration and producing, in clastics and carbonates reservoirs, and in the Mesozoic and Paleozoic.

Al-Husseini, M. [Gulf PetroLink, Manama (Bahrain); Chimblo, R. [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

1995-08-01

81

Interactives: 3D Shapes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How much liquid can that glass hold? What are the dimensions of that package that's heading off to a friend overseas? Answers to both of those questions (and many more) can be found in this lovely interactive feature on 3D shapes created by experts at the Annenberg Media group. Visitors to this site will learn about three-dimensional geometric shapes by examining a number of objects through a number of interactive exercises and games. The materials are divided into four sections, which include "3D Shapes", "Surface Area & Volume", and "Platonic Solids". The "Platonic Solids" area is quite a bit of fun, as visitors will get the opportunity to print out foldable shapes such as a tetrahedron. A short fifteen question quiz that tests the materials covered by these various activities rounds out the site.

82

Shielding Benchmark Computational Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Over the past several decades, nuclear science has relied on experimental research to verify and validate information about shielding nuclear radiation for a variety of applications. These benchmarks are compared with results from computer code models and are useful for the development of more accurate cross-section libraries, computer code development of radiation transport modeling, and building accurate tests for miniature shielding mockups of new nuclear facilities. When documenting measurements, one must describe many parts of the experimental results to allow a complete computational analysis. Both old and new benchmark experiments, by any definition, must provide a sound basis for modeling more complex geometries required for quality assurance and cost savings in nuclear project development. Benchmarks may involve one or many materials and thicknesses, types of sources, and measurement techniques. In this paper the benchmark experiments of varying complexity are chosen to study the transport properties of some popular materials and thicknesses. These were analyzed using three-dimensional (3-D) models and continuous energy libraries of MCNP4B2, a Monte Carlo code developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico. A shielding benchmark library provided the experimental data and allowed a wide range of choices for source, geometry, and measurement data. The experimental data had often been used in previous analyses by reputable groups such as the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency Nuclear Science Committee (OECD/NEANSC).

Hunter, H.T.; Slater, C.O.; Holland, L.B.; Tracz, G.; Marshall, W.J.; Parsons, J.L.

2000-09-17

83

Intraoral 3D scanner  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here a new set-up of a 3D-scanning system for CAD\\/CAM in dental industry is proposed. The system is designed for direct scanning of the dental preparations within the mouth. The measuring process is based on phase correlation technique in combination with fast fringe projection in a stereo arrangement. The novelty in the approach is characterized by the following features: A

Peter Kühmstedt; Christian Bräuer-Burchardt; Christoph Munkelt; Matthias Heinze; Martin Palme; Ingo Schmidt; Josef Hintersehr; Gunther Notni

2007-01-01

84

3D microscope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to circumvent the fact that only one observer can view the image from a stereoscopic microscope, an attachment was devised for displaying the 3D microscopic image on a large LCD monitor for viewing by multiple observers in real time. The principle of operation, design, fabrication, and performance are presented, along with tolerance measurements relating to the properties of the cellophane half-wave plate used in the design.

Iizuka, Keigo

2008-02-01

85

3-D Wave Simulation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet is a 3D simulation of wave motion due to different types of sources. The simulation can be rotated and/or frozen and viewed on a 2D slice. Among the possible simulations are point, line, slit, quadrapole and plane sources. The intensity can be shown, or the view limited to the sides of the box. The frequency, source separation, phase difference and balance are adjustable when necessary. The page also includes directions in English and German, and the source.

Falstad, Paul

2004-07-23

86

3D Bridge Construction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the field of architecture, tangible virtual reality interfaces allow architects to design and construct large complex structures in a three-dimensional space, and interact with the 3D models using the most natural means of computer human interaction: the two-handed system. The main goal of this project is to design and create an interactive, tangible, virtual reality interface for constructing various

Yuan Xie; Peter Schröder; Steven Schkolne

87

DYNA3D  

SciTech Connect

DYNA3D is an explicit, three-dimensional, finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic response of inelastic solids and structures. DYNA3D contains 30 material models and 10 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, Blatz-Ko rubber, high explosive burn, hydrodynamic without deviatoric stresses, elastoplastic hydrodynamic, temperature-dependent elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic with failure, soil and crushable foam with failure, Johnson/Cook plasticity model, pseudo TENSOR geological model, elastoplastic with fracture, power law isotropic plasticity, strain rate dependent plasticity, rigid, thermal orthotropic, composite damage model, thermal orthotropic with 12 curves, piecewise linear isotropic plasticity, inviscid two invariant geologic cap, orthotropic crushable model, Moonsy-Rivlin rubber, and resultant plasticity. The hydrodynamic material models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 10 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack 'Tuesday' high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, tabulated, and TENSOR pore collapse. DYNA3D generates three binary output databases. One contains information for complete states at infrequent intervals; 50 to 100 states is typical. The second contains information for a subset of nodes and elements at frequent intervals; 1,000 to 10,000 states is typical. The last contains interface data for contact surfaces.

Kennedy, T. (IBM Corporation, Armonk, NY (United States))

1989-05-01

88

3D printing technique applied to rapid casting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to verify the feasibility and evaluate the dimensional accuracy of two rapid casting (RC) solutions based on 3D printing technology: investment casting starting from 3D-printed starch patterns and the ZCast process for the production of cavities for light-alloys castings. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Starting from the identification and design of a benchmark, technological prototypes

Elena Bassoli; Andrea Gatto; Luca Iuliano; Maria Grazia Violante

2007-01-01

89

Benchmarking of SNAM with the ITER 3D model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discrete ordinates particle transport codes (SN codes) are widely used in reactor design, radiation shielding, nuclear detection and other fields. SN automatic modeling system (SNAM) is an integrated interface program between CAD systems and SN codes, which makes full use of CAD technology to improve SN modeling and perform the conversion between CAD models and SN code input files.

H. Hu; Y. Wu; M. Chen; Q. Zeng; A. Ding; S. Zheng; Y. Li; L. Lu; J. Li; P. Long

2007-01-01

90

Simple 3D Drawing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed by Barbara Kaskosz of the University of Rhode Island and Doug Ensley of Shippensburg University, this resource from The Mathematical Association of America's Digital Classroom Resources collection will prove quite valuable for educators and anyone with an interest in computer graphics or geometry. Through this resource, visitors will learn how to draw and rotate 3D objects via a series of short tutorials. Along the way, users will learn about the mathematics behind manipulating cubes, the geometry involved with the manipulation of cubes, and they will also get a chance to work on their own structures. Overall, it's a fine resource and it offers insights for students in several different disciplines

91

3D and beyond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This conference on physiology and function covers a wide range of subjects, including the vasculature and blood flow, the flow of gas, water, and blood in the lung, the neurological structure and function, the modeling, and the motion and mechanics of organs. Many technologies are discussed. I believe that the list would include a robotic photographer, to hold the optical equipment in a precisely controlled way to obtain the images for the user. Why are 3D images needed? They are to achieve certain objectives through measurements of some objects. For example, in order to improve performance in sports or beauty of a person, we measure the form, dimensions, appearance, and movements.

Fung, Y. C.

1995-05-01

92

3D-AQS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last thirty years, we have come to understand that the atmosphere is quite dynamic, leading to transport of pollutants over wide areas including continent-to-continent motions. In order to understand the importance of local versus long-range transport, the vertical third dimension needs to be understood to assess source/receptor relationships. Our group has combined lidar at UMBC with measurements from spaceborne platforms to provide views of aerosol pollution in ways that weren't possible even ten years ago. As a result of the initial lidar/AOD work, we have recently been funded to create a Three Dimensional Air Quality System (3D-AQS) under the NASA Integrated Systems Solutions solicitation. This paper will review some of our recent studies on air pollution in the Baltimore-Washington region and describe the work to be conducted under 3D-AQS. We see this as the beginning of a new vision for NASA, NOAA, EPA and the Centers for Disease Control to combine systems under the Global Earth Observing Systems of Systems (GEOSS) approach to better determine the effects of aerosols on human health.

Hoff, R.; Chu, A.; Prados, A.; Wayland, C.; Kittaka, C.; Dimmick, F.; Al-Saadi, J.; Szykman, J.; Engel-Cox, J.; McCann, K.; Torres, O.; Kondragunta, S.; Ackerman, S.; Wimmers, T.; Boothe, V.

2006-05-01

93

NUBEAM developments and 3d halo modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent developments related to the 3D halo model in NUBEAM code are described. To have a reliable halo neutral source for diagnostic simulation, the TRANSP/NUBEAM code has been enhanced with full implementation of ADAS atomic physic ground state and excited state data for hydrogenic beams and mixed species plasma targets. The ADAS codes and database provide the density and temperature dependence of the atomic data, and the collective nature of the state excitation process. To be able to populate 3D halo output with sufficient statistical resolution, the capability to control the statistics of fast ion CX modeling and for thermal halo launch has been added to NUBEAM. The 3D halo neutral model is based on modification and extension of the ``beam in box'' aligned 3d Cartesian grid that includes the neutral beam itself, 3D fast neutral densities due to CX of partially slowed down fast ions in the beam halo region, 3D thermal neutral densities due to CX deposition and fast neutral recapture source. More details on the 3D halo simulation design will be presented.

Gorelenkova, M. V.; Medley, S. S.; Kaye, S. M.

2012-10-01

94

Parallel CARLOS-3D code development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

CARLOS-3D is a three-dimensional scattering code which was developed under the sponsorship of the Electromagnetic Code Consortium, and is currently used by over 80 aerospace companies and government agencies. The code has been extensively validated and ru...

J. M. Putnam J. D. Kotulski

1996-01-01

95

Entourage3D  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From charettes to ateliers, architectural education is dedicated to collaborative learning environments. In recent years, some of these activities have migrated to the web, and along the way a number of forward-thinking individuals have seen fit to create online resources that might be of use to students working in this field. Created by the Design Machine Group at the University of Washington's Department of Architecture, the entourage 3D database includes "building blocks, complete models, and finishing touches for users to download and use." Visitors will appreciate the fact that they can browse these resources by such categories as building component, lighting element, office furniture, or street furniture. Visitors will need to complete a free registration before looking at the various designs and plans available here, but this only takes a few moments.

96

Pixel based 3D object recognition with bidirectional associative memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the pixel based recognition of 3D objects with bidirectional associative memories. Computational power and memory requirements for this approach are identified and compared to the performance of current computer architectures by benchmarking different processors. It is shown, that the performance of special purpose hardware, like neurocomputers, is between one and two orders of magnitude higher than the

I. Elsen; K.-F. Kraiss; D. Krumbiegel

1997-01-01

97

Stellar Aberration 3D  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The EJS Stellar Aberration 3D Model illustrates the phenomenon known as the aberration of starlight, first reported by James Bradley in 1729. Aberration occurs because light has a finite speed, and thus light from a star takes a finite amount of time to travel through the tube of a telescope. During this time, the telescope moves as a result of Earth's rotational and orbital motions (in this case, the orbital motion is more important because it is faster). Therefore, if the telescope is pointed directly at the star the starlight will hit the sides of the tube before reaching the eyepiece. To see the star the telescope must be pointed forward (ie in the direction of Earth's motion) very slightly. As a result the apparent location of the star on the sky is different from its true location. The simulation illustrates the effects of aberration for a star at any location in the sky, during any time of year. A 3D view shows the Earth orbiting the sun, the star, and the apparent position of the star on the Celestial Sphere. This view can also display vectors detailing how the velocity of Earth combines with the velocity of light from the star to produce a new relative velocity vector that indicates the apparent location of the star. A separate 2D view shows the "true" location of the star as well as the apparent location for an observer looking up from Earth. Note that some features have been simplified or exaggerated. The Earth's orbit is treated as a circle. The size of Earth, Sun, and Earth's orbit are greatly exaggerated compared to the distance to the star. The speed controls allow the user to set Earth's orbital speed to an appreciable fraction of light speed, which is not realistic. Finally, the simulation illustrates the "classical" aberration effect, not the (more correct) relativistic aberration.

Timberlake, Todd

2011-05-18

98

Extra Dimensions: 3D in PDF Documentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) and the ISO PRC file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. Until recently, Adobe's Acrobat software was also capable of incorporating 3D content into PDF files from a variety of 3D file formats, including proprietary CAD formats. However, this functionality is no longer available in Acrobat X, having been spun off to a separate company. Incorporating 3D content now requires the additional purchase of a separate plug-in. In this talk we present alternatives based on open source libraries which allow the programmatic creation of 3D content in PDF format. While not providing the same level of access to CAD files as the commercial software, it does provide physicists with an alternative path to incorporate 3D content into PDF files from such disparate applications as detector geometries from Geant4, 3D data sets, mathematical surfaces or tesselated volumes.

Graf, Norman A.

2012-12-01

99

Benchmarking ENDF\\/B-VII.0  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new major release VII.0 of the ENDF\\/B nuclear data library has been tested extensively using benchmark calculations. These were based upon MCNP-4C3 continuous-energy Monte Carlo neutronics simulations, together with nuclear data processed using the code NJOY. Three types of benchmarks were used, viz., criticality safety benchmarks, (fusion) shielding benchmarks, and reference systems for which the effective delayed neutron fraction

Steven C. van der Marck

2006-01-01

100

Benchmarking ENDF\\/B-VII.0  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new major release VII.0 of the ENDF\\/B nuclear data library has been tested extensively using benchmark calculations. These were based upon MCNP-4C3 continuous-energy Monte Carlo neutronics simulations, together with nuclear data processed using the code NJOY. Three types of benchmarks were used, viz., criticality safety benchmarks (fusion) shielding benchmarks, and reference systems for which the effective delayed neutron fraction

Steven C. van der Marck; Steven C. van der

2006-01-01

101

3D Saliency maps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eye tracking devices have been extensively used to study human selection mechanisms and promoted the development of computational models of visual attention, whose well known outcomes are the saliency maps. Among the eye trackers, wearable ones have the advantages of allowing the estimation of the Point of Regard (POR) while performing natural tasks, instead of experimental, static lab settings. The

Fiora Pirri; Matia Pizzoli; Daniele Rigato; Redjan Shabani

2011-01-01

102

Geometry in 3-D  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource guide from the Middle School Portal 2 project, written specifically for teachers, provides links to exemplary resources including background information, lessons, career information, and related national science education standards. The online resources featured in Geometry in 3-D actively engage students in exploring a variety of geometric shapes, at times through lessons that involve building models or creating paper nets that fold into three-dimensional shapes; at other times, through technology that allows students to rotate and zoom in on figures, noting their attributes and complexity. Other lessons offer problems on surface area and volume, a part of every middle school curriculum. The problems, each with a different twist on the subject, challenge students to reconsider their understanding of how to measure solids. Activities for developing spatial sense, another primary objective in teaching geometry, are also featured. Finally, there are online galleries of geometric solids, included for the rare opportunity they offer to show your students the beauty in mathematics. In Background Information, you will find workshop sessions developed for teachers and other materials that may interest you as a professional. Each resource deals specifically with three-dimensional geometry topics that align with the geometry and measurement standards recommended by NCTM.

Herrera, Terese

2006-09-01

103

Architect Studio 3D  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When one thinks of the vast number of influential architects the world has seen during the past centuries, one is reminded of Dies van der Rohe, Walter Gropius, Le Corbusier, and of course, that Master from the Midwest, Frank Lloyd Wright. It's hard to imagine that a website would be able to conjure up the spirit of this famous and controversial architect, but it does just that. With the assistance of a user-friendly interface, the Architect Studio 3D site allows users to build a model home for a number of clients and their very specific needs. With a small icon of the master residing in the bottom of the left-hand corner of the screen, visitors will get the chance to create their own building for one of these clients, and then submit it to a design gallery for consideration by others. For those visitors who may be less familiar with the world of architecture, there is a handy section titled "About Architecture". Here they will find a glossary of terms that provide brief descriptions of such important concepts and design elements as site, wall, client, roof, and exterior material. Of course, no such site would be complete without a brief biography of the man himself, and as such, a nice overview of his work and life is provided here as well.

104

3D video capturing for multiprojection type 3D display  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have already developed glasses-free three-dimensional (3-D) displays using multi-projectors and a special diffuser screen that results in a highly realistic communication system. The system can display 70-200 inch large-sized 3-D images with full high-definition video image quality. The displayed 3-D images were, however, only computergenerated graphics or still images of actual objects. In this work, we studied a 3-D video capturing method for our multiprojection 3-D display. We analyzed the optimal arrangement of cameras for the display, and the image quality as influenced by calibration error. In the experiments, we developed a prototype multi-camera system using 30 highdefinition video cameras. The captured images were corrected via image processing optimized for the display. We successfully captured and displayed, for the first time, 3-D video of actual moving objects in our glasses-free 3-D video system.

Kawakita, Masahiro; Gurbuz, Sabri; Iwasawa, Shoichiro; Lopez-Gulliver, Roberto; Yano, Sumio; Ando, Hiroshi; Inoue, Naomi

2011-05-01

105

Astronomical Parallax 3D  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Astronomical Parallax 3D Model illustrates the phenomenon of annual stellar parallax in astronomy. Parallax is the apparent displacement of an object relative to the background that is caused by the motion of the observer (rather than the motion of the object itself, or of the background). This simulation illustrates the parallax of an object in space that results from the Earth's annual orbital motion. The Space View window shows the Earth (blue point) orbiting the Sun (organe point). The white point represents a stationary star. The open white circle shows the location of the object on the celestial sphere as seen from the Sun. The magenta point shows the location of the star on the celestial sphere as seen by an observer on the orbiting Earth. Various options allow the user to display the line of sight from Earth through the star, the line from the Sun through the star, cardinal direction arrows, the trace of the star's apparent motion, the trace of Earth's orbit, and the planes and axes of the celestial equator and ecliptic. Controls allow the user to adjust the distance to the star as well as its celestial coordinates (as seen from the Sun). Another menu allows the user to select a particular day (equinox or solstice) of the year. The Sky View window shows the apparent location of the star on the sky as seen by an Earth observer. The "true location" (the location as seen from the Sun) is shown as an open white circle, while the apparent location is shown as a magenta disk. Note that some features have been simplified or exaggerated. The Earth's orbit is treated as a circle. The distances to the "star" are vastly smaller than the distance to any real star (at the distance to the nearest real star the annual parallax would be imperceptible in this simulation). The size of the Earth, sun, and star are exaggerated so as to make them visible on the scale of the simulation.

Timberlake, Todd

2011-05-18

106

Methods for comparing 3D surface attributes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A common task in data analysis is to compare two or more sets of data, statistics, presentations, etc. A predominant method in use is side-by-side visual comparison of images. While straightforward, it burdens the user with the task of discerning the differences between the two images. The user if further taxed when the images are of 3D scenes. This paper presents several methods for analyzing the extent, magnitude, and manner in which surfaces in 3D differ in their attributes. The surface geometry are assumed to be identical and only the surface attributes (color, texture, etc.) are variable. As a case in point, we examine the differences obtained when a 3D scene is rendered progressively using radiosity with different form factor calculation methods. The comparison methods include extensions of simple methods such as mapping difference information to color or transparency, and more recent methods including the use of surface texture, perturbation, and adaptive placements of error glyphs.

Pang, Alex; Freeman, Adam

1996-03-01

107

3D constraint effect on 3D fatigue crack propagation  

Microsoft Academic Search

As typical examples, tensile round bars with elliptical surface cracks are used to illustrate the three-dimensional (3D) constraint effect and the characteristics of 3D fatigue crack propagation. Based on the latest plastic constraint theory and the concept of equivalent thickness Beq, a practical 3D crack closure model, which can be as well used to obtain material da\\/dN??Keff curves, is developed

Haijun Shen; Wanlin Guo

2005-01-01

108

Static 3D image space  

Microsoft Academic Search

As three-dimensional (3D) techniques continue to evolve from their humble beginnings-nineteenth century stereo photographs and twentieth century movies and holographs, the urgency for advancement in 3D display is escalating, as the need for widespread application in medical imaging, baggage scanning, gaming, television and movie display, and military strategizing increases. The most recent 3D developments center upon volumetric display, which generate

Badia Koudsi; Jim J. Sluss Jr.

2010-01-01

109

3D Spectroscopy in Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; Acknowledgements; 1. Introductory review and technical approaches Martin M. Roth; 2. Observational procedures and data reduction James E. H. Turner; 3. 3D Spectroscopy instrumentation M. A. Bershady; 4. Analysis of 3D data Pierre Ferruit; 5. Science motivation for IFS and galactic studies F. Eisenhauer; 6. Extragalactic studies and future IFS science Luis Colina; 7. Tutorials: how to handle 3D spectroscopy data Sebastian F. Sánchez, Begona García-Lorenzo and Arlette Pécontal-Rousset.

Mediavilla, Evencio; Arribas, Santiago; Roth, Martin; Cepa-Nogué, Jordi; Sánchez, Francisco

2011-09-01

110

Color 3D reverse engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a principle and a method of color 3D laser scanning measurement, based on the fundamental of monochrome 3D measurement study. A new color 3D measurement model was derived, and a rapid calibrating method to measure the system parameters was proposed—the optical plane equation calibrating method. A calibrating drone was made. This paper also advances an auto-merging method

Z. Q Xu; S. H Ye; G. Z Fan

2002-01-01

111

Spherical 3D isotropic wavelets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Future cosmological surveys will provide 3D large scale structure maps with large sky coverage, for which a 3D spherical Fourier-Bessel (SFB) analysis in spherical coordinates is natural. Wavelets are particularly well-suited to the analysis and denoising of cosmological data, but a spherical 3D isotropic wavelet transform does not currently exist to analyse spherical 3D data. Aims: The aim of this paper is to present a new formalism for a spherical 3D isotropic wavelet, i.e. one based on the SFB decomposition of a 3D field and accompany the formalism with a public code to perform wavelet transforms. Methods: We describe a new 3D isotropic spherical wavelet decomposition based on the undecimated wavelet transform (UWT) described in Starck et al. (2006). We also present a new fast discrete spherical Fourier-Bessel transform (DSFBT) based on both a discrete Bessel transform and the HEALPIX angular pixelisation scheme. We test the 3D wavelet transform and as a toy-application, apply a denoising algorithm in wavelet space to the Virgo large box cosmological simulations and find we can successfully remove noise without much loss to the large scale structure. Results: We have described a new spherical 3D isotropic wavelet transform, ideally suited to analyse and denoise future 3D spherical cosmological surveys, which uses a novel DSFBT. We illustrate its potential use for denoising using a toy model. All the algorithms presented in this paper are available for download as a public code called MRS3D at http://jstarck.free.fr/mrs3d.html

Lanusse, F.; Rassat, A.; Starck, J.-L.

2012-04-01

112

Perspectives of stereo 3D TV applications development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Engineers at Motorola Mobility Software Center in St.-Petersburg have significant experience in implementation of 3D video and graphics support in a variety of digital video processing and display system. Analysis of major world trends in this area allowed the authors preparing hints on Stereo 3D application development how to surmount the major current obstacle for extensive transition to 3D TV

Dmitry Vavilov; Denis Dovzhenko; Alexander Anisimov

2010-01-01

113

In situ thermal gelling polypeptide for chondrocytes 3D culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the search for a cell-instructive or cell-interactive artificial extracellular matrix, synthetic hydrogels have been extensively investigated to apply three-dimensional (3D) cell culture and tissue engineering. Here, we are reporting a reverse thermal gelling l\\/dl-polyalanine block copolymer aqueous solution for chondrocyte 3D culture. The polymer aqueous solution undergoes sol-to-gel transition as the temperature increases, thus forming a 3D cell encapsulating

Bo Gyu Choi; Min Hee Park; So-Hye Cho; Min Kyung Joo; Hye Jin Oh; Eun Hye Kim; Dong Keun Han; Byeongmoon Jeong

2010-01-01

114

3D gaze tracking system for NVidia 3D Vision(®).  

PubMed

Inappropriate parallax setting in stereoscopic content generally causes visual fatigue and visual discomfort. To optimize three dimensional (3D) effects in stereoscopic content by taking into account health issue, understanding how user gazes at 3D direction in virtual space is currently an important research topic. In this paper, we report the study of developing a novel 3D gaze tracking system for Nvidia 3D Vision(®) to be used in desktop stereoscopic display. We suggest an optimized geometric method to accurately measure the position of virtual 3D object. Our experimental result shows that the proposed system achieved better accuracy compared to conventional geometric method by average errors 0.83 cm, 0.87 cm, and 1.06 cm in X, Y, and Z dimensions, respectively. PMID:24110407

Wibirama, Sunu; Hamamoto, Kazuhiko

2013-07-01

115

Development of an extense atmospheric scene database with the 3-D Monte-Carlo EarthCARE Simulator to build 3 along-track views angular dependence models in the framework of ESA EarthCARE Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the main error sources when measuring the Earth Radiation Budget ERB is the lack of knowledge of the anisotropy of the observed scene radiance field Major efforts have been made over the last 25 years to build and improve Angular Dependence Models ADMs that account for this anisotropy thus allowing to retrieve flux measurements with the desired accuracy ADMs are required to carry out radiance-to-flux conversions they can be derived directly from satellite data along the course of a mission if directional sampling of radiances is sufficient to infer flux estimates Because the EarthCARE-BBR Broadband radiometer instrument lacks sufficient angular sampling an alternate approach was explored to derive a set of ADMs using TOA radiances and fluxes that were simulated by the Monte-Carlo photon transport algorithm in the EarthCARE Simulator To replace the lack of satellite information more than 200 000 detailed 3-D atmospheric scenes were defined They took into account foreseen specific orbital constraints five different land surface types and the ocean surface with four different wind speed conditions with corresponding atmospheric surface cloudy interrelated conditions including a fine aerosol cloud classification and discretisation The simulations were processed on the Grid on-Demand ESA-ESRIN interface more than 100 CPUs as well as on their Centre Nazionale di Ricerca CNR associated cluster 16 nodes grid cluster with 4 CPUs each The EarthCARE-BBR makes measurements at nadir and in the along-track direction at

Lopez-Baeza, E.; Domenech, C.; Barker, H. W.; Bouvet, M.; Donovan, D.; Velazquez, A.

116

Model-Based Interpretation of 3D Medical Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

The automatic segmentation and labelling of anatomical structures in 3D medical images is a challenging task of practical importance. We describe a model-based approach which allows robust and accurate interpretation using explicit anatomical knowledge. Our method is based on the extension to 3D of Point Distribution Mo- dels (PDMs) and associated image search algorithms. A combination of global, Genetic Algorithm

A. Hill; A. Thornham; C. J. Taylor

1993-01-01

117

3D motion estimation for depth image coding in 3D video coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a new solution is introduced for the efficient compression of 3D video based on color and depth maps. While standard video codecs are designed for coding monoscopic videos, their application to depth maps is found to be suboptimal. With regard to the special properties of the depth maps, we propose an extension to conventional video coding in

B. Kamolrat; W. A. C. Fernando; M. Mrak; A. Kondoz

2009-01-01

118

Modifications of the PRONTO 3D finite element program tailored to fast burst nuclear reactor design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This update discusses modifications of PRONTO 3D tailored to the design of fast burst nuclear reactors. A thermoelastic constitutive model and spatially variant thermal history load were added for this special application. Included are descriptions of the thermoelastic constitutive model and the thermal loading algorithm, two example problems used to benchmark the new capability, a user's guide, and PRONTO 3D

D. S. Oscar; S. W. Attaway; J. D. Miller

1991-01-01

119

Modular 3-D Transport model  

EPA Science Inventory

MT3D was first developed by Chunmiao Zheng in 1990 at S.S. Papadopulos & Associates, Inc. with partial support from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Starting in 1990, MT3D was released as a pubic domain code from the USEPA. Commercial versions with enhanced capab...

120

JavaSound3D  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This java application allows the user to look at the waveform of WAV files or microphone inputs in detail. One can see a graph of the fast fourier transform (FFT) of the data in the window in a 2D or 3D graph. The 3D graph shows how the FFT changes over time.

Bliss, Jennifer; Steele, Brad; Mechtly, Bruce

2008-07-29

121

Computing 3D Periodic Triangulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: This work is motivated by the need for software computing 3D periodic triangula- tions in numerous domains including astronomy, material engineering, biomedical computing, fluid dynamics etc. We design an algorithmic test to check whether a partition of the 3D flat torus into tetrahedra forms a triangulation (which subsumes that it is a simplicial complex). We propose an incremental algorithm

Manuel Caroli; Monique Teillaud

2009-01-01

122

Parallel CARLOS-3D code development  

SciTech Connect

CARLOS-3D is a three-dimensional scattering code which was developed under the sponsorship of the Electromagnetic Code Consortium, and is currently used by over 80 aerospace companies and government agencies. The code has been extensively validated and runs on both serial workstations and parallel super computers such as the Intel Paragon. CARLOS-3D is a three-dimensional surface integral equation scattering code based on a Galerkin method of moments formulation employing Rao- Wilton-Glisson roof-top basis for triangular faceted surfaces. Fully arbitrary 3D geometries composed of multiple conducting and homogeneous bulk dielectric materials can be modeled. This presentation describes some of the extensions to the CARLOS-3D code, and how the operator structure of the code facilitated these improvements. Body of revolution (BOR) and two-dimensional geometries were incorporated by simply including new input routines, and the appropriate Galerkin matrix operator routines. Some additional modifications were required in the combined field integral equation matrix generation routine due to the symmetric nature of the BOR and 2D operators. Quadrilateral patched surfaces with linear roof-top basis functions were also implemented in the same manner. Quadrilateral facets and triangular facets can be used in combination to more efficiently model geometries with both large smooth surfaces and surfaces with fine detail such as gaps and cracks. Since the parallel implementation in CARLOS-3D is at high level, these changes were independent of the computer platform being used. This approach minimizes code maintenance, while providing capabilities with little additional effort. Results are presented showing the performance and accuracy of the code for some large scattering problems. Comparisons between triangular faceted and quadrilateral faceted geometry representations will be shown for some complex scatterers.

Putnam, J.M. [McDonnell Douglas Corp., St. Louis, MO (United States); Kotulski, J.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1996-02-01

123

Euro3D Science Conference  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Euro3D RTN is an EU funded Research Training Network to foster the exploitation of 3D spectroscopy in Europe. 3D spectroscopy is a general term for spectroscopy of an area of the sky and derives its name from its two spatial + one spectral dimensions. There are an increasing number of instruments which use integral field devices to achieve spectroscopy of an area of the sky, either using lens arrays, optical fibres or image slicers, to pack spectra of multiple pixels on the sky (``spaxels'') onto a 2D detector. On account of the large volume of data and the special methods required to reduce and analyse 3D data, there are only a few centres of expertise and these are mostly involved with instrument developments. There is a perceived lack of expertise in 3D spectroscopy spread though the astronomical community and its use in the armoury of the observational astronomer is viewed as being highly specialised. For precisely this reason the Euro3D RTN was proposed to train young researchers in this area and develop user tools to widen the experience with this particular type of data in Europe. The Euro3D RTN is coordinated by Martin M. Roth (Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam) and has been running since July 2002. The first Euro3D science conference was held in Cambridge, UK from 22 to 23 May 2003. The main emphasis of the conference was, in keeping with the RTN, to expose the work of the young post-docs who are funded by the RTN. In addition the team members from the eleven European institutes involved in Euro3D also presented instrumental and observational developments. The conference was organized by Andy Bunker and held at the Institute of Astronomy. There were over thirty participants and 26 talks covered the whole range of application of 3D techniques. The science ranged from Galactic planetary nebulae and globular clusters to kinematics of nearby galaxies out to objects at high redshift. Several talks were devoted to reporting recent observations with newly completed 3D instruments - CIRPASS, GMOS, PMAS and SPIFFI. Work on 3D software, being developed as part of the Euro3D RTN, was also described and demonstrated. This proceedings volume, consisting of carefully refereed and edited manuscripts, represents the bulk of the talks at the conference and amply demonstrates that 3D spectroscopy is a lively and burgeoning field of optical observation.

Walsh, J. R.

2004-02-01

124

3-D Video Processing for 3-D TV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most desirable ways of realizing high quality information and telecommunication services has been called "The Sensation of Reality," which can be achieved by visual communication based on 3-D (Three-dimensional) images. These kinds of 3-D imaging systems have revealed potential applications in the fields of education, entertainment, medical surgery, video conferencing, etc. Especially, three-dimensional television (3-D TV) is believed to be the next generation of TV technology. Figure 13.1 shows how TV's display technologies have evolved , and Fig. 13.2 details the evolution of TV broadcasting as forecasted by the ETRI (Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute). It is clear that 3-D TV broadcasting will be the next development in this field, and realistic broadcasting will soon follow.

Sohn, Kwanghoon; Kim, Hansung; Kim, Yongtae

125

Detailed 3D Representations for Object Recognition and Modeling.  

PubMed

Geometric 3D reasoning at the level of objects has received renewed attention recently in the context of visual scene understanding. The level of geometric detail, however, is typically limited to qualitative representations or coarse boxes. This is linked to the fact that today's object class detectors are tuned toward robust 2D matching rather than accurate 3D geometry, encouraged by bounding-box-based benchmarks such as Pascal VOC. In this paper, we revisit ideas from the early days of computer vision, namely, detailed, 3D geometric object class representations for recognition. These representations can recover geometrically far more accurate object hypotheses than just bounding boxes, including continuous estimates of object pose and 3D wireframes with relative 3D positions of object parts. In combination with robust techniques for shape description and inference, we outperform state-of-the-art results in monocular 3D pose estimation. In a series of experiments, we analyze our approach in detail and demonstrate novel applications enabled by such an object class representation, such as fine-grained categorization of cars and bicycles, according to their 3D geometry, and ultrawide baseline matching. PMID:24051723

Zeeshan Zia, M; Stark, Michael; Schiele, Bernt; Schindler, Konrad

2013-11-01

126

Detailed 3D Representations for Object Recognition and Modeling.  

PubMed

Geometric 3D reasoning at the level of objects has received renewed attention recently, in the context of visual scene understanding. The level of geometric detail, however, is typically limited to qualitative representations or coarse boxes. This is linked to the fact that today’s object class detectors are tuned towards robust 2D matching rather than accurate 3D geometry, encouraged by bounding-box based benchmarks such as Pascal VOC. In this paper, we revisit ideas from the early days of computer vision, namely, detailed, 3D geometric object class representations for recognition. These representations can recover geometrically far more accurate object hypotheses than just bounding boxes, including continuous estimates of object pose, and 3D wireframes with relative 3D positions of object parts. In combination with robust techniques for shape description and inference, we outperform state-of-the-art results in monocular 3D pose estimation. In a series of experiments, we analyze our approach in detail, and demonstrate novel applications enabled by such an object class representation, such as fine-grained categorization of cars and bicycles according to their 3D geometry, and ultra-wide baseline matching. PMID:23689866

Zia, M Zeeshan; Stark, Michael; Schiele, Bernt; Schindler, Konrad

2013-05-14

127

Metropole-3D: a rigorous 3D topography simulator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have extended the capability of a vector 3D lithography simulator METROPOLE-3D from a photomask simulator to become a full 3D photolithography simulator. It is designed to run moderately fast on conventional engineering workstations. METROPOLE-3D solves Maxwell's equations rigorously in three dimensions to model how non-vertically incident light is scattered and transmitted in non-planar structures. METROPOLE- 3D consists of several simulation modules: photomask simulator which models the aerial image of any mask pattern (including phase-shifting masks); exposure simulator which models light intensity distribution within the photoresist and arbitrary underlying non-planar substrate structures; post-exposure baking module which models the photo-active compound diffusion, chemically amplified (CA) photoresist cross-linking and de-protection processes; and finally, 3D development module which models the photoresist development process using the level-set algorithm. This simulator has a wide range of applications in studying the pressing engineering problems encountered in state-of-the-art VLSI fabrication processes. The simulator has been applied to the layout printability/manufacturability analysis to study the dominant physical phenomena in lithography, deposition, CMP and etching processes that affect the transfer of mask patterns to the final etched structures on the wafers. Using this new 3D rigorous photolithography simulator, optical proximity effects have been studied. A reflective notching problem caused by the reflective substrate structure has been thoroughly studied, and an anti-reflective coating (ARC) solution to this notching problem has been optimized by the simulations. Finally, a 3D contamination to defect transformation study was successfully performed using our rigorous simulator.

Li, Xiaolei; Lucas, Kevin D.; Swecker, Aaron L.; Strojwas, Andrzej J.

1998-06-01

128

DYNA3D. Explicit 3-d Hydrodynamic FEM Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

DYNA3D is an explicit, three-dimensional, finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic response of inelastic solids and structures. DYNA3D contains 30 material models and 10 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic\\/isotropic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, Blatz-Ko rubber, high explosive

R. Chu; M. Amakai; H. C. Lung; T. Ishigai

1989-01-01

129

DYNA3D; Explicit 3-d Hydrodynamic FEM Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

DYNA3D is an explicit, three-dimensional, finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic response of inelastic solids and structures. DYNA3D contains 30 material models and 10 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic\\/isotropic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, Blatz-Ko rubber, high explosive

Whirley

1989-01-01

130

DYNA3D. Explicit 3-d Hydrodynamic FEM Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

DYNA3D is an explicit, three-dimensional, finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic response of inelastic solids and structures. DYNA3D contains 30 material models and 10 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic\\/isotropic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, Blatz-Ko rubber, high explosive

R. G. Whirley; B. E. Englemann

1993-01-01

131

DYNA3D. Explicit 3-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

DYNA3D is an explicit, three-dimensional, finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic response of inelastic solids and structures. DYNA3D contains 30 material models and 10 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic\\/isotropic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, Blatz-Ko rubber, high explosive

Whirley

1989-01-01

132

DYNA3D. Explicit 3-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

DYNA3D is an explicit, three-dimensional, finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic response of inelastic solids and structures. DYNA3D contains 30 material models and 10 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic\\/isotropic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, Blatz-Ko rubber, high explosive

R. G. Whirley; B. E. Englemann

1993-01-01

133

Unassisted 3D camera calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the rapid growth of 3D technology, 3D image capture has become a critical part of the 3D feature set on mobile phones. 3D image quality is affected by the scene geometry as well as on-the-device processing. An automatic 3D system usually assumes known camera poses accomplished by factory calibration using a special chart. In real life settings, pose parameters estimated by factory calibration can be negatively impacted by movements of the lens barrel due to shaking, focusing, or camera drop. If any of these factors displaces the optical axes of either or both cameras, vertical disparity might exceed the maximum tolerable margin and the 3D user may experience eye strain or headaches. To make 3D capture more practical, one needs to consider unassisted (on arbitrary scenes) calibration. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that relies on detection and matching of keypoints between left and right images. Frames containing erroneous matches, along with frames with insufficiently rich keypoint constellations, are detected and discarded. Roll, pitch yaw , and scale differences between left and right frames are then estimated. The algorithm performance is evaluated in terms of the remaining vertical disparity as compared to the maximum tolerable vertical disparity.

Atanassov, Kalin; Ramachandra, Vikas; Nash, James; Goma, Sergio R.

2012-02-01

134

Evolution of Archaea in 3D modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The analysis of all groups of Archaea performed in two-dimensions have demonstrated a specific distribution of Archaean species as a function of pH/temperature, temperature/salinity and pH/salinity. Work presented here is an extension of this analysis with a three dimensional (3D) modeling in logarithmic scale. As it was shown in 2D representation, the "Rules of the Diagonal" have been expressed even more clearly in 3D modeling. In this article, we used a 3D Mesh modeling to show the range of distribution of each separate group of Archaea as a function of pH, temperature, and salinity. Visible overlap and links between different groups indicate a direction of evolution in Archaea. The major direction in ancestral life (vector of evolution) has been indicated: from high temperature, acidic, and low-salinity system towards low temperature, alkaline and high salinity systems. Specifics of the geometrical coordinates and distribution of separate groups of Archaea in 3 D scale were analyzed with a mathematical description of the functions. Based on the obtained data, a new model for the origin and evolution of life on Earth is proposed. The geometry of this model is described by a hyperboloid of one sheet. Conclusions of this research are consistent with previous results derived from the two-dimensional diagrams. This approach is suggested as a new method for analyzing any biological group in accordance to its environmental parameters.

Pikuta, Elena V.; Tankosic, Dragana; Sheldon, Rob

2012-11-01

135

3D flash lag illusion.  

PubMed

Objective of this research is to study the presence of 3D flash lag illusion created by a moving object that has a motion-in-depth and a flash object. An object consisting of two thin sticks was simulated to approach the subject who observed it with a stereoscope. In the process of approaching, another stick was briefly presented in the middle of the moving sticks. Five human subjects took part in our experiments and all perceived 3D flash lag illusion. The perceived depth created by 3D flash lag illusion was measured by two different psychophysical experiments, by use of a vernier caliper and by a method of nulling with another depth cue. We studied relation between the perceived depth and the presentation distance. The experimental results indicate that the perceived gap by 3D flash lag illusion is independent from the presentation distance. PMID:15149831

Ishii, Masahiro; Seekkuarachchi, Himali; Tamura, Hiroki; Tang, Zheng

2004-01-01

136

Q3D Elemental Impurities  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text VersionPage 1. Q3D Elemental Impurities This draft guidance, when finalized, will represent the Food and Drug Administration's ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation

137

3D Topographic Map Simulation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive simulation illustrates how topographic maps are created and used to depict landforms and changes in elevation. Students can sculpt mountains and valleys using a 3-D model and see the changes to the corresponding topographic map, or make alterations to the map and see how the 3-D terrain model changes. The display can be tilted, rotated, or enlarged to view changes to the map and/or terrain model.

2011-04-25

138

3-D lithium ion microbattery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lithium-ion battery has emerged as a common power source for portable consumer electronics since its debut two decades ago. Due to the low atomic weight and high electrochemical activity of lithium chemistry, lithium-ion battery has a higher energy density as compared to other battery systems, such as Ni-Cd, Ni-MH, and lead-acid batteries. As a result, use of lithium-ion batteries enables the size of batteries to be effectively reduced without compromising capacity. More importantly, as battery size is reduced, it enhances the applications of portable electronics, increasing the convenience of use. The 3-D battery architecture described in the dissertation is believed to be a new paradigm for future batteries. The architecture features coupled 3-D electrodes to provide better charge/discharge kinetics and a higher charge capacity per footprint area. The overarching objective of this dissertation is to implement the 3-D architecture using the lithium-ion chemistry. The 3-D lithium-ion batteries are designed to provide high areal energy density without compromising power density. The dissertation is comprised of four interrelated sections. First, a simulation was conducted to identify key battery parameters and to define an ideal three-dimensional cell structure. The second part of the research involved identifying fabrication routes to build the 3-D electrode, which was the key design element in the 3-D paradigm. The third part of the dissertation was to correlate the electrode performance with its geometric features. In particular, the influence of aspect ratio was investigated. Lastly, an electrolyte/separator was designed and fabricated based on the existing 3-D electrode configuration. This enabled 3-D battery to be assembled.

Yeh, Yuting

139

Static 3D image space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As three-dimensional (3D) techniques continue to evolve from their humble beginnings-nineteenth century stereo photographs and twentieth century movies and holographs, the urgency for advancement in 3D display is escalating, as the need for widespread application in medical imaging, baggage scanning, gaming, television and movie display, and military strategizing increases. The most recent 3D developments center upon volumetric display, which generate 3D images within actual 3D space. More specifically, CSpace volumetric display generates a truly natural 3D image consisting of perceived width, height, and depth within the confines of physical space. Wireframe graphics enable viewers a 360-degree display without the use of additional visual aids. In this paper, research detailing the selection and testing of several rare earth, single-doped, fluoride crystals, namely 1%Er: NYF4, 2%Er: NYF4, 3%Er: NYF4 , 2%Er:KY3F10, and 2%Er:YLF, is introduced. These materials are the basis for CSpace display in a two-step twofrequency up-Conversion process. Significant determinants were tested and identified to aid in the selection of a suitable medium. Results show that 2%Er: NYF4 demonstrates good optical emitted power. Its superior level of brightness makes it the most suitable candidate for CSpace display. Testing also proved 2%Er: KY3F10 crystal might be a viable medium.

Koudsi, Badia; Sluss, Jim J., Jr.

2010-02-01

140

Laminar Validation Cases for the Incompressible Flow Model in ALE3D  

SciTech Connect

To benchmark the incompressible flow model in ALE3D, two test cases are conducted. The first case of two-dimensional flow over a flat plate is selected because it provides a straightforward example to determine whether or not ALE3D can grow a boundary layer by viscous diffusion. The benefit of the flat plate problem is that under certain conditions, the governing Navier-Stokes equations can be simplified and solved with numerical techniques, providing an independent result that can be compared with the solution from ALE3D. The second test case is that of two-dimensional, laminar flow about a circular cylinder. This test case is selected because it provides the complexity of an unsteady bluff-body wake in which vorticity is periodically shed from the surface of the cylinder. Since this canonical flow problem has been studied extensively both experimentally and computationally, the results from ALE3D can be compared with those presented in the literature. The results for the flat plate case demonstrate that the implicit time integration scheme results in an approximate twenty-four-fold reduction of the simulation time over that of the explicit time integration scheme. On the other hand, a problematic trend is observed in the explicit time integration scheme used in the flat plate case. The errors in both the velocity and shear stress are not reduced through grid refinement as one might expect. Another trend that raises concern with the flat plate problem is the sensitivity of the velocity and shear stress to the outlet zero natural boundary condition. In all of the flat plate simulations, at least one of the calculated quantities varies quite noticeably near the outlet of the flow domain. For the case of a circular cylinder in which an explicit time integration scheme is employed, both the drag coefficient and Strouhal number demonstrate trends of converging to a solution that compares favorably with results from other studies in the literature.

Ortega, J

2002-07-16

141

3-D threat image projection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Automated Explosive Detection Systems utilizing Computed Tomography perform a series X-ray scans of passenger bags being checked in at the airport, and produce various 2-D projection images and 3-D volumetric images of the bag. The determination as to whether the passenger bag contains an explosive and needs to be searched manually is performed through trained Transportation Security Administration screeners following an approved protocol. In order to keep the screeners vigilant with regards to screening quality, the Transportation Security Administration has mandated the use of Threat Image Projection on 2-D projection X-ray screening equipment used at all US airports. These algorithms insert visual artificial threats into images of the normal passenger bags in order to test the screeners with regards to their screening efficiency and their screening quality at determining threats. This technology for 2-D X-ray system is proven and is widespread amongst multiple manufacturers of X-ray projection systems. Until now, Threat Image Projection has been unsuccessful at being introduced into 3-D Automated Explosive Detection Systems for numerous reasons. The failure of these prior attempts are mainly due to imaging queues that the screeners pickup on, and therefore make it easy for the screeners to discern the presence of the threat image and thus defeating the intended purpose. This paper presents a novel approach for 3-D Threat Image Projection for 3-D Automated Explosive Detection Systems. The method presented here is a projection based approach where both the threat object and the bag remain in projection sinogram space. Novel approaches have been developed for projection based object segmentation, projection based streak reduction used for threat object isolation along with scan orientation independence and projection based streak generation for an overall realistic 3-D image. The algorithms are prototyped in MatLab and C++ and demonstrate non discernible 3-D threat image insertion into various luggage, and non discernable streak patterns for 3-D images when compared to actual scanned images.

Yildiz, Yesna O.; Abraham, Douglas Q.; Agaian, Sos; Panetta, Karen

2008-03-01

142

The Nas Parallel Benchmarks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new set of benchmarks has been developed for the performance evaluation of highly parallel supercomputers. These benchmarks consist of five parallel kernels and three simulated application benchmarks. Together theymimic the computation and data movement characteristics of large scale computational fluid dynamics (CFD) applications.The principal distinguishing feature of these benchmarks is their penciland paper specification---all details of these benchmarks are

D. Bailey; E. Barszcz; J. Barton; D. Browning; R. Carter; L. Dagum

1994-01-01

143

MSV3d: database of human MisSense variants mapped to 3D protein structure  

PubMed Central

The elucidation of the complex relationships linking genotypic and phenotypic variations to protein structure is a major challenge in the post-genomic era. We present MSV3d (Database of human MisSense Variants mapped to 3D protein structure), a new database that contains detailed annotation of missense variants of all human proteins (20 199 proteins). The multi-level characterization includes details of the physico-chemical changes induced by amino acid modification, as well as information related to the conservation of the mutated residue and its position relative to functional features in the available or predicted 3D model. Major releases of the database are automatically generated and updated regularly in line with the dbSNP (database of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) and SwissVar releases, by exploiting the extensive Décrypthon computational grid resources. The database (http://decrypthon.igbmc.fr/msv3d) is easily accessible through a simple web interface coupled to a powerful query engine and a standard web service. The content is completely or partially downloadable in XML or flat file formats. Database URL: http://decrypthon.igbmc.fr/msv3d

Luu, Tien-Dao; Rusu, Alin-Mihai; Walter, Vincent; Ripp, Raymond; Moulinier, Luc; Muller, Jean; Toursel, Thierry; Thompson, Julie D.; Poch, Olivier; Nguyen, Hoan

2012-01-01

144

A fully 3D small PET scanner.  

PubMed

A fully 3D small PET scanner based on a novel detection principle for gamma rays is described. It uses BaF2 scintillator and photosensitive wire chambers. Extensive tests with technical prototypes have shown that such a system will have a detection efficiency for gamma rays comparable with what can be obtained with the more traditional approach, and a spatial resolution determined by the size of the crystals. The expected performances of the scanner, based on our measurements and on simulations, are given. PMID:1565695

Tavernier, S; Bruyndonckx, P; Shuping, Z

1992-03-01

145

VRMath: A 3D Microworld for Learning 3D Geometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the design of a prototype VRLE (Virtual Reality Learning Environment) named VRMath. VRMath is an online application that utilises VR (Virtual Reality) technology combined with the power of a Logo-like programming language and hypermedia and the Internet to facilitate the learning of 3-Dimensional (3D) geometry concepts and processes. VRMath is being designed within the framework of

Andy Yeh; Rod Nason

2006-01-01

146

Biological insights from topology independent comparison of protein 3D structures  

PubMed Central

Comparing and classifying the three-dimensional (3D) structures of proteins is of crucial importance to molecular biology, from helping to determine the function of a protein to determining its evolutionary relationships. Traditionally, 3D structures are classified into groups of families that closely resemble the grouping according to their primary sequence. However, significant structural similarities exist at multiple levels between proteins that belong to these different structural families. In this study, we propose a new algorithm, CLICK, to capture such similarities. The method optimally superimposes a pair of protein structures independent of topology. Amino acid residues are represented by the Cartesian coordinates of a representative point (usually the C? atom), side chain solvent accessibility, and secondary structure. Structural comparison is effected by matching cliques of points. CLICK was extensively benchmarked for alignment accuracy on four different sets: (i) 9537 pair-wise alignments between two structures with the same topology; (ii) 64 alignments from set (i) that were considered to constitute difficult alignment cases; (iii) 199 pair-wise alignments between proteins with similar structure but different topology; and (iv) 1275 pair-wise alignments of RNA structures. The accuracy of CLICK alignments was measured by the average structure overlap score and compared with other alignment methods, including HOMSTRAD, MUSTANG, Geometric Hashing, SALIGN, DALI, GANGSTA+, FATCAT, ARTS and SARA. On average, CLICK produces pair-wise alignments that are either comparable or statistically significantly more accurate than all of these other methods. We have used CLICK to uncover relationships between (previously) unrelated proteins. These new biological insights include: (i) detecting hinge regions in proteins where domain or sub-domains show flexibility; (ii) discovering similar small molecule binding sites from proteins of different folds and (iii) discovering topological variants of known structural/sequence motifs. Our method can generally be applied to compare any pair of molecular structures represented in Cartesian coordinates as exemplified by the RNA structure superimposition benchmark.

Nguyen, Minh N.; Madhusudhan, M. S.

2011-01-01

147

3D Modeling and Visualization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents our experience in applying 3D modeling for processing and visualizing geoscience's information since more than 10 years. Subsurface characterization is important in a number of geological activities including petroleum industry, waste deposit, natural resources (mineral and water), geotechnical engineering and environmental applications. However, it faces a lack of information because the subsurface is usually investigated from irregular

Jean-Jacques Royer

148

3D Gaussian Beam Modeling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Long-term goals of this research are: provide the underwater acoustic research community and the US Navy with a practical 3D propagation model that can be used over a broad frequency range in passive and active sonar performance prediction, acoustic commu...

P. Hursky

2011-01-01

149

Multiprocessor 3D sound system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally, the reproduction of three dimensional audio has been constrained to the use of headphones. Recent progress has allowed the reproduction of 3-D audio through conventional speakers. However, these methods place severe constraints in the position of the listener and the speakers. This paper discusses a new developed system that allows greater freedom in the placement of the speakers without

Mohamed El-Sharkawy; Newton Guillen; Waleed Eshmawy; Brad Langhorst; Harry Gundrum; Darrel Judd; Richard Auerbach

1997-01-01

150

3D Fire Spread Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These excellent animations overlay animations of fire spread on 3D terrain that incorporates satellite imagery. A timeline shows the animation's current time relative to the fire occurrence, and an inset map provides an overhead view of the fire on a map that shows fuels by location. Animations are available for several wildfires that occurred in California.

Johson, Harry D.; University, San D.

151

3-D threat image projection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automated Explosive Detection Systems utilizing Computed Tomography perform a series X-ray scans of passenger bags being checked in at the airport, and produce various 2-D projection images and 3-D volumetric images of the bag. The determination as to whether the passenger bag contains an explosive and needs to be searched manually is performed through trained Transportation Security Administration screeners following

Yesna O. Yildiz; Douglas Q. Abraham; Sos Agaian; Karen Panetta

2008-01-01

152

Die Stacking (3D) Microarchitecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

D die stacking is an exciting new technology that in- creases transistor density by vertically integrating two or more die with a dense, high-speed interface. The result of 3D die stacking is a significant reduction of interconnect both within a die and across dies in a system. For instance, blocks within a microprocessor can be placed vertically on multiple die

Bryan Black; Murali Annavaram; Ned Brekelbaum; John Devale; Lei Jiang; Gabriel H. Loh; Don McCauley; Pat Morrow; Donald W. Nelson; Daniel Pantuso; Paul Reed; Jeff Rupley; Sadasivan Shankar; John Paul Shen; Clair Webb

2006-01-01

153

3D silicon turning micromirror  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of designing a 3D silicon turning mirror is combine the two of 2D comb drivers. The turning mirror is driven by electrostatic force with vertical comb fingers. The upper comb driver is composed of a turning mirror plate, two pairs of torsion beams, a supporting frame and vertical comb fingers. The lower comb driver is composed of vertical

Chen Shi-Hao; Chien Chao-Heng

2003-01-01

154

R3D Align web server for global nucleotide to nucleotide alignments of RNA 3D structures  

PubMed Central

The R3D Align web server provides online access to ‘RNA 3D Align’ (R3D Align), a method for producing accurate nucleotide-level structural alignments of RNA 3D structures. The web server provides a streamlined and intuitive interface, input data validation and output that is more extensive and easier to read and interpret than related servers. The R3D Align web server offers a unique Gallery of Featured Alignments, providing immediate access to pre-computed alignments of large RNA 3D structures, including all ribosomal RNAs, as well as guidance on effective use of the server and interpretation of the output. By accessing the non-redundant lists of RNA 3D structures provided by the Bowling Green State University RNA group, R3D Align connects users to structure files in the same equivalence class and the best-modeled representative structure from each group. The R3D Align web server is freely accessible at http://rna.bgsu.edu/r3dalign/.

Rahrig, Ryan R.; Petrov, Anton I.; Leontis, Neocles B.; Zirbel, Craig L.

2013-01-01

155

Quasi-3D Algorithm in Multi-scale Modeling Framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As discussed in the companion paper by Arakawa and Jung, the Quasi-3D (Q3D) Multi-scale Modeling Framework (MMF) is a 4D estimation/prediction framework that combines a GCM with a 3D anelastic vector vorticity equation model (VVM) applied to a Q3D network of horizontal grid points. This paper presents an outline of the recently revised Q3D algorithm and a highlight of the results obtained by application of the algorithm to an idealized model setting. The Q3D network of grid points consists of two sets of grid-point arrays perpendicular to each other. For a scalar variable, for example, each set consists of three parallel rows of grid points. Principal and supplementary predictions are made on the central and the two adjacent rows, respectively. The supplementary prediction is to allow the principal prediction be three-dimensional at least to the second-order accuracy. To accommodate a higher-order accuracy and to make the supplementary predictions formally three-dimensional, a few rows of ghost points are added at each side of the array. Values at these ghost points are diagnostically determined by a combination of statistical estimation and extrapolation. The basic structure of the estimation algorithm is determined in view of the global stability of Q3D advection. The algorithm is calibrated using the statistics of past data at and near the intersections of the two sets of grid- point arrays. Since the CRM in the Q3D MMF extends beyond individual GCM boxes, the CRM can be a GCM by itself. However, it is better to couple the CRM with the GCM because (1) the CRM is a Q3D CRM based on a highly anisotropic network of grid points and (2) coupling with a GCM makes it more straightforward to inherit our experience with the conventional GCMs. In the coupled system we have selected, prediction of thermdynamic variables is almost entirely done by the Q3D CRM with no direct forcing by the GCM. The coupling of the dynamics between the two components is through mutual relaxation of prognostic variables to maintain consistency between the two components. This paper presents more details of the Q3D algorithm and comparisons of the results obtained from its application to an idealized model setting with the corresponding results from a benchmark simulation based on a straightforward application of a 3D CRM to the entire domain.

Jung, J.; Arakawa, A.

2008-12-01

156

Texture splats for 3D vector and scalar field visualization  

SciTech Connect

Volume Visualization is becoming an important tool for understanding large 3D datasets. A popular technique for volume rendering is known as splatting. With new hardware architectures offering substantial improvements in the performance of rendering texture mapped objects, we present textured splats. An ideal reconstruction function for 3D signals is developed which can be used as a texture map for a splat. Extensions to the basic splatting technique are then developed to additionally represent vector fields.

Crawfis, R.A.; Max, N.

1993-04-06

157

3-D QSAutogrid/R: an alternative procedure to build 3-D QSAR models. Methodologies and applications.  

PubMed

Since it first appeared in 1988 3-D QSAR has proved its potential in the field of drug design and activity prediction. Although thousands of citations now exist in 3-D QSAR, its development was rather slow with the majority of new 3-D QSAR applications just extensions of CoMFA. An alternative way to build 3-D QSAR models, based on an evolution of software, has been named 3-D QSAutogrid/R and has been developed to use only software freely available to academics. 3-D QSAutogrid/R covers all the main features of CoMFA and GRID/GOLPE with implementation by multiprobe/multiregion variable selection (MPGRS) that improves the simplification of interpretation of the 3-D QSAR map. The methodology is based on the integration of the molecular interaction fields as calculated by AutoGrid and the R statistical environment that can be easily coupled with many free graphical molecular interfaces such as UCSF-Chimera, AutoDock Tools, JMol, and others. The description of each R package is reported in detail, and, to assess its validity, 3-D QSAutogrid/R has been applied to three molecular data sets of which either CoMFA or GRID/GOLPE models were reported in order to compare the results. 3-D QSAutogrid/R has been used as the core engine to prepare more that 240 3-D QSAR models forming the very first 3-D QSAR server ( www.3d-qsar.com ) with its code freely available through R-Cran distribution. PMID:22643034

Ballante, Flavio; Ragno, Rino

2012-06-13

158

MPML3D: Scripting Agents for the 3D Internet.  

PubMed

The aim of this paper is two-fold. First, it describes a scripting language for specifying communicative behavior and interaction of computer-controlled agents ("bots") in the popular three-dimensional (3D) multi-user online world of "Second Life" and the emerging "OpenSimulator" project. While tools for designing avatars and in-world objects in Second Life exist, technology for non-programmer content creators of scenarios involving scripted agents is currently missing. Therefore, we have implemented new client software that controls bots based on the Multimodal Presentation Markup Language 3D (MPML3D), a highly expressive XML-based scripting language for controlling the verbal and non-verbal behavior of interacting animated agents. Second, the paper compares Second Life and OpenSimulator platforms and discusses the merits and limitations of each from the perspective of agent control. Here, we also conducted a small study that compares the network performance of both platforms. PMID:20479495

Prendinger, Helmut; Ullrich, Sebastian; Nakasone, Arturo; Ishizuka, Mitsuru

2010-04-30

159

DYNA3D. Explicit 3-d Hydrodynamic FEM Program  

SciTech Connect

DYNA3D is an explicit, three-dimensional, finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic response of inelastic solids and structures. DYNA3D contains 30 material models and 10 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, Blatz-Ko rubber, high explosive burn, hydrodynamic without deviatoric stresses, elastoplastic hydrodynamic, temperature-dependent elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic with failure, soil and crushable foam with failure, Johnson/Cook plasticity model, pseudo TENSOR geological model, elastoplastic with fracture, power law isotropic plasticity, strain rate dependent plasticity, rigid, thermal orthotropic, composite damage model, thermal orthotropic with 12 curves, piecewise linear isotropic plasticity, inviscid two invariant geologic cap, orthotropic crushable model, Moonsy-Rivlin rubber, and resultant plasticity. The hydrodynamic material models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 10 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack `Tuesday` high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, tabulated, and TENSOR pore collapse. DYNA3D generates three binary output databases. One contains information for complete states at infrequent intervals; 50 to 100 states is typical. The second contains information for a subset of nodes and elements at frequent intervals; 1,000 to 10,000 states is typical. The last contains interface data for contact surfaces.

Kennedy, T. [IBM Corporation, Armonk, NY (United States)

1989-05-01

160

DYNA3D. Explicit 3-d Hydrodynamic FEM Program  

SciTech Connect

DYNA3D is an explicit, three-dimensional, finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic response of inelastic solids and structures. DYNA3D contains 30 material models and 10 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, Blatz-Ko rubber, high explosive burn, hydrodynamic without deviatoric stresses, elastoplastic hydrodynamic, temperature-dependent elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic with failure, soil and crushable foam with failure, Johnson/Cook plasticity model, pseudo TENSOR geological model, elastoplastic with fracture, power law isotropic plasticity, strain rate dependent plasticity, rigid, thermal orthotropic, composite damage model, thermal orthotropic with 12 curves, piecewise linear isotropic plasticity, inviscid two invariant geologic cap, orthotropic crushable model, Moonsy-Rivlin rubber, resultant plasticity. The hydrodynamic material models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 10 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack Tuesday high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, tabulated, and TENSOR pore collapse. DYNA3D generates three binary output databases. One contains information for complete states at infrequent intervals; 50 to 100 states is typical. The second contains information for a subset of nodes and elements at frequent intervals; 1,000 to 10,000 states is typical. The last contains interface data for contact surfaces.

Chu, R.; Amakai, M.; Lung, H.C.; Ishigai, T. [Fujitsu Systems Business of America Inc., Santa Clara, CA (United States)

1989-05-01

161

Sketch-driven mental 3D object retrieval  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

3D object recognition and retrieval recently gained a big interest because of the limitation of the "2D-to-2D" approaches. The latter suffer from several drawbacks such as the lack of information (due for instance to occlusion), pose sensitivity, illumination changes, etc. Our main motivation is to gather both discrimination and easy interaction by allowing simple (but multiple) 2D specifications of queries and their retrieval into 3D gallery sets. We introduce a novel "2D sketch-to-3D model" retrieval framework with the following contributions: (i) first a novel generative approach for aligning and normalizing the pose of 3D gallery objects and extracting their 2D canonical views is introduced. (ii) Afterwards, robust and compact contour signatures are extracted using the set of 2D canonical views. We also introduce a pruning approach to speedup the whole search process in a coarseto- fine way. (iii) Finally, object ranking is performed using our variant of elastic dynamic programming which considers only a subset of possible matches thereby providing a considerable gain in performance for the same amount of errors. Our experiments are reported/compared through the Princeton Shape Benchmark; clearly showing the good performance of our framework w.r.t. the other approaches. An iPhone demo of this method is available and allows us to achieve "2D sketch to 3D object" querying and interaction.

Napoléon, Thibault; Sahbi, Hichem

2010-02-01

162

From 3d geomodelling systems towards 3d geoscience information systems: Data model, query functionality, and data management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two-dimensional GIS are extensively used in geology to create, analyse, and interpret geological map models. However, these systems are unable to represent the Earth's subsurface in three spatial dimensions. The objective of this article is to overcome this deficiency and to provide a general framework for a 3d GIS.The presented approach is based on existing 3d geomodelling theory and software,

Marcus Apel

2006-01-01

163

3D-graphite structure  

SciTech Connect

The structure of clusters of some new carbon 3D-graphite phases have been calculated using the molecular-mechanics methods. It is established that 3D-graphite polytypes {alpha}{sub 1,1}, {alpha}{sub 1,3}, {alpha}{sub 1,5}, {alpha}{sub 2,1}, {alpha}{sub 2,3}, {alpha}{sub 3,1}, {beta}{sub 1,2}, {beta}{sub 1,4}, {beta}{sub 1,6}, {beta}{sub 2,1}, and {beta}{sub 3,2} consist of sp{sup 2}-hybridized atoms, have hexagonal unit cells, and differ in regards to the structure of layers and order of their alternation. A possible way to experimentally synthesize new carbon phases is proposed: the polymerization and carbonization of hydrocarbon molecules.

Belenkov, E. A., E-mail: belenkov@csu.ru; Ali-Pasha, V. A. [Chelyabinsk State University (Russian Federation)

2011-01-15

164

3-D Relativistic MHD Simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present 3-D numerical simulations of moderately hot, supersonic jets propagating initially along or obliquely to the field lines of a denser magnetized background medium with Lorentz factors of W = 4.56 and evolving in a four-dimensional spacetime. The new results are understood as follows: Relativistic simulations have consistently shown that these jets are effectively heavy and so they do not suffer substantial momentum losses and are not decelerated as efficiently as their nonrelativistic counterparts. In addition, the ambient magnetic field, however strong, can be pushed aside with relative ease by the beam, provided that the degrees of freedom associated with all three spatial dimensions are followed self-consistently in the simulations. This effect is analogous to pushing Japanese ``noren'' or vertical Venetian blinds out of the way while the slats are allowed to bend in 3-D space rather than as a 2-D slab structure.

Nishikawa, K.-I.; Frank, J.; Koide, S.; Sakai, J.-I.; Christodoulou, D. M.; Sol, H.; Mutel, R. L.

1998-12-01

165

Forensic 3D Scene Reconstruction  

SciTech Connect

Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a feasible prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

LITTLE,CHARLES Q.; PETERS,RALPH R.; RIGDON,J. BRIAN; SMALL,DANIEL E.

1999-10-12

166

See Goddard in 3D!  

NASA Video Gallery

See Goddard in 3D! This short promotional video highlights some of the best that the Goddard Space Flight Center has to offer -- showcasing the science and technology born from the efforts of the dedicated Goddard family. View this video in higher resolution on YouTube: http://youtu.be/08rMlpvUP3w?hd=1 View 2D version: http://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/goto?10744

gsfcvideo

2011-04-08

167

Optical 3D motion measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a CCD-camera based system for high-speed and accurate measurement of the three-dimensional movement of reflective targets. These targets are attached to the moving object under study. The system has been developed at TU Delft and consists of specialized hardware for real-time multi-camera image processing at 100 frames\\/s and software for data acquisition, 3D reconstruction and target tracking.

J. C. Sabel

1996-01-01

168

3-D Magnetostatic Field Simulation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet simulates various magnetic sources, including a line of current, a square loop, a magnetic sphere and a solenoid. Size, number of particles, and field strength are adjustable. Display options include particles in velocity or force fields, field vectors, field lines and potential vectors. The vectors and lines can be displayed in 3D or on a movable 2D slice. Charge can be reversed. Source code and directions are included.

Falstad, Paul

2004-07-13

169

Free Fall 3D Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Ejs Free Fall 3D model displays the three-dimensional dynamics of a ball dropped near the surface of Earth onto a platform. The initial conditions for the ball are zero initial velocities in the x, y, and z directions. The coefficient of restitution for the ballâs collision with the platform is less than one. The initial height of the ball can be changed by dragging it when the simulation is paused. You can modify this simulation if you have Ejs installed by right-clicking within the plot and selecting âOpen Ejs Modelâ from the pop-up menu item. Ejs Free Fall 3D model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_newton_FreeFall3D.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. Ejs is a part of the Open Source Physics Project and is designed to make it easier to access, modify, and generate computer models. Additional Ejs models for Newtonian mechanics are available. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or Ejs.

Christian, Wolfgang

2008-06-03

170

Randomized Benchmarking of Multiqubit Gates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe an extension of single-qubit gate randomized benchmarking that measures the error of multiqubit gates in a quantum information processor. This platform-independent protocol evaluates the performance of Clifford unitaries, which form a basis of fault-tolerant quantum computing. We implemented the benchmarking protocol with trapped ions and found an error per random two-qubit Clifford unitary of 0.162±0.008, thus setting the first benchmark for such unitaries. By implementing a second set of sequences with an extra two-qubit phase gate inserted after each step, we extracted an error per phase gate of 0.069±0.017. We conducted these experiments with transported, sympathetically cooled ions in a multizone Paul trap—a system that can in principle be scaled to larger numbers of ions.

Gaebler, J. P.; Meier, A. M.; Tan, T. R.; Bowler, R.; Lin, Y.; Hanneke, D.; Jost, J. D.; Home, J. P.; Knill, E.; Leibfried, D.; Wineland, D. J.

2012-06-01

171

DYNA3D. Explicit 3-d Hydrodynamic FEM Program  

SciTech Connect

DYNA3D is an explicit, three-dimensional, finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic response of inelastic solids and structures. DYNA3D contains 30 material models and 10 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, Blatz-Ko rubber, high explosive burn, hydrodynamic without deviatoric stresses, elastoplastic hydrodynamic, temperature-dependent elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic with failure, soil and crushable foam with failure, Johnson/Cook plasticity model, pseudo TENSOR geological model, elastoplastic with fracture, power law isotropic plasticity, strain rate dependent plasticity, rigid, thermal orthotropic, composite damage model, thermal orthotropic with 12 curves, piecewise linear isotropic plasticity, inviscid two invariant geologic cap, orthotropic crushable model, Moonsy-Rivlin rubber, resultant plasticity, closed form update shell plasticity, and Frazer-Nash rubber model. The hydrodynamic material models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 10 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack Tuesday high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, tabulated, and TENSOR pore collapse. DYNA3D generates three binary output databases. One contains information for complete states at infrequent intervals; 50 to 100 states is typical. The second contains information for a subset of nodes and elements at frequent intervals; 1,000 to 10,000 states is typical. The last contains interface data for contact surfaces.

Whirley, R.G.; Englemann, B.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1993-11-01

172

DYNA3D. Explicit 3-d Hydrodynamic FEM Program  

SciTech Connect

DYNA3D is an explicit, three-dimensional, finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic response of inelastic solids and structures. DYNA3D contains 30 material models and 10 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, Blatz-Ko rubber, high explosive burn, hydrodynamic without deviatoric stresses, elastoplastic hydrodynamic, temperature-dependent elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic with failure, soil and crushable foam with failure, Johnson/Cook plasticity model, pseudo TENSOR geological model, elastoplastic with fracture, power law isotropic plasticity, strain rate dependent plasticity, rigid, thermal orthotropic, composite damage model, thermal orthotropic with 12 curves, piecewise linear isotropic plasticity, inviscid two invariant geologic cap, orthotropic crushable model, Moonsy-Rivlin rubber, resultant plasticity, closed form update shell plasticity, and Frazer-Nash rubber model. The hydrodynamic material models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 10 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack Tuesday high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, tabulated, and TENSOR pore collapse. DYNA3D generates three binary output databases. One contains information for complete states at infrequent intervals; 50 to 100 states is typical. The second contains information for a subset of nodes and elements at frequent intervals; 1,000 to 10,000 states is typical. The last contains interface data for contact surfaces.

Whirley, R.G.; Englemann, B.E. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States))

1993-11-30

173

DYNA3D. Explicit 3-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program  

SciTech Connect

DYNA3D is an explicit, three-dimensional, finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic response of inelastic solids and structures. DYNA3D contains 30 material models and 10 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, Blatz-Ko rubber, high explosive burn, hydrodynamic without deviatoric stresses, elastoplastic hydrodynamic, temperature-dependent elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic with failure, soil and crushable foam with failure, Johnson/Cook plasticity model, pseudo TENSOR geological model, elastoplastic with fracture, power law isotropic plasticity, strain rate dependent plasticity, rigid, thermal orthotropic, composite damage model, thermal orthotropic with 12 curves, piecewise linear isotropic plasticity, inviscid two invariant geologic cap, orthotropic crushable model, Moonsy-Rivlin rubber, resultant plasticity, closed form update shell plasticity, and Frazer-Nash rubber model. The hydrodynamic material models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 10 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack `Tuesday` high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, tabulated, and TENSOR pore collapse. DYNA3D generates three binary output databases. One contains information for complete states at infrequent intervals; 50 to 100 states is typical. The second contains information for a subset of nodes and elements at frequent intervals; 1,000 to 10,000 states is typical. The last contains interface data for contact surfaces.

Whirley, R.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1989-05-01

174

DYNA3D. Explicit 3-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program  

SciTech Connect

DYNA3D is an explicit, three-dimensional, finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic response of inelastic solids and structures. DYNA3D contains 30 material models and 10 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, Blatz-Ko rubber, high explosive burn, hydrodynamic without deviatoric stresses, elastoplastic hydrodynamic, temperature-dependent elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic with failure, soil and crushable foam with failure, Johnson/Cook plasticity model, pseudo TENSOR geological model, elastoplastic with fracture, power law isotropic plasticity, strain rate dependent plasticity, rigid, thermal orthotropic, composite damage model, thermal orthotropic with 12 curves, piecewise linear isotropic plasticity, inviscid two invariant geologic cap, orthotropic crushable model, Moonsy-Rivlin rubber, resultant plasticity, closed form update shell plasticity, and Frazer-Nash rubber model. The hydrodynamic material models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 10 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack `Tuesday` high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, tabulated, and TENSOR pore collapse. DYNA3D generates three binary output databases. One contains information for complete states at infrequent intervals; 50 to 100 states is typical. The second contains information for a subset of nodes and elements at frequent intervals; 1,000 to 10,000 states is typical. The last contains interface data for contact surfaces.

Whirley, R.G.; Englemann, B.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1993-11-01

175

DYNA3D; Explicit 3-d Hydrodynamic FEM Program  

SciTech Connect

DYNA3D is an explicit, three-dimensional, finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic response of inelastic solids and structures. DYNA3D contains 30 material models and 10 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, Blatz-Ko rubber, high explosive burn, hydrodynamic without deviatoric stresses, elastoplastic hydrodynamic, temperature-dependent elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic with failure, soil and crushable foam with failure, Johnson/Cook plasticity model, pseudo TENSOR geological model, elastoplastic with fracture, power law isotropic plasticity, strain rate dependent plasticity, rigid, thermal orthotropic, composite damage model, thermal orthotropic with 12 curves, piecewise linear isotropic plasticity, inviscid two invariant geologic cap, orthotropic crushable model, Moonsy-Rivlin rubber, resultant plasticity, closed form update shell plasticity, and Frazer-Nash rubber model. The hydrodynamic material models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 10 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack Tuesday high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, tabulated, and TENSOR pore collapse. DYNA3D generates three binary output databases. One contains information for complete states at infrequent intervals; 50 to 100 states is typical. The second contains information for a subset of nodes and elements at frequent intervals; 1,000 to 10,000 states is typical. The last contains interface data for contact surfaces.

Whirley, R.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1989-05-01

176

DYNA3D. Explicit 3-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program  

SciTech Connect

DYNA3D is an explicit, three-dimensional, finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic response of inelastic solids and structures. DYNA3D contains 30 material models and 10 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, Blatz-Ko rubber, high explosive burn, hydrodynamic without deviatoric stresses, elastoplastic hydrodynamic, temperature-dependent elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic with failure, soil and crushable foam with failure, Johnson/Cook plasticity model, pseudo TENSOR geological model, elastoplastic with fracture, power law isotropic plasticity, strain rate dependent plasticity, rigid, thermal orthotropic, composite damage model, thermal orthotropic with 12 curves, piecewise linear isotropic plasticity, inviscid two invariant geologic cap, orthotropic crushable model, Moonsy-Rivlin rubber, resultant plasticity, closed form update shell plasticity, and Frazer-Nash rubber model. The hydrodynamic material models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 10 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack Tuesday high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, tabulated, and TENSOR pore collapse. DYNA3D generates three binary output databases. One contains information for complete states at infrequent intervals; 50 to 100 states is typical. The second contains information for a subset of nodes and elements at frequent intervals; 1,000 to 10,000 states is typical. The last contains interface data for contact surfaces.

Whirley, R.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1989-05-01

177

3D silicon strip detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN has started operation in autumn 2008, plans for a luminosity upgrade to the Super-LHC (sLHC) have already been developed for several years. This projected luminosity increase by an order of magnitude gives rise to a challenging radiation environment for tracking detectors at the LHC experiments. Significant improvements in radiation hardness are required with respect to the LHC. Using a strawman layout for the new tracker of the ATLAS experiment as an example, silicon strip detectors (SSDs) with short strips of 2-3 cm length are foreseen to cover the region from 28 to 60 cm distance to the beam. These SSD will be exposed to radiation levels up to 10Neq/cm, which makes radiation resistance a major concern for the upgraded ATLAS tracker. Several approaches to increasing the radiation hardness of silicon detectors exist. In this article, it is proposed to combine the radiation hard 3D-design originally conceived for pixel-style applications with the benefits of the established planar technology for strip detectors by using SSDs that have regularly spaced doped columns extending into the silicon bulk under the detector strips. The first 3D SSDs to become available for testing were made in the Single Type Column (STC) design, a technological simplification of the original 3D design. With such 3D SSDs, a small number of prototype sLHC detector modules with LHC-speed front-end electronics as used in the semiconductor tracking systems of present LHC experiments were built. Modules were tested before and after irradiation to fluences of 10Neq/cm. The tests were performed with three systems: a highly focused IR-laser with 5?m spot size to make position-resolved scans of the charge collection efficiency, an Sr?-source set-up to measure the signal levels for a minimum ionizing particle (MIP), and a beam test with 180 GeV pions at CERN. This article gives a brief overview of the results obtained with 3D-STC-modules.

Part Of This Work Is Performed Within The Framework Of Rd50; Parzefall, Ulrich; Bates, Richard; Boscardin, Maurizio; Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco; Eckert, Simon; Eklund, Lars; Fleta, Celeste; Jakobs, Karl; Kühn, Susanne; Lozano, Manuel; Pahn, Gregor; Parkes, Chris; Pellegrini, Giulio; Pennicard, David; Piemonte, Claudio; Ronchin, Sabina; Szumlak, Tomasz; Zoboli, Andrea; Zorzi, Nicola; Part of this work is performed within the framework of RD50

2009-06-01

178

Magmatic Systems in 3-D  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multichannel seismic (MCS) images of crustal magma chambers are ideal targets for advanced visualization techniques. In the mid-ocean ridge environment, reflections originating at the melt-lens are well separated from other reflection boundaries, such as the seafloor, layer 2A and Moho, which enables the effective use of transparency filters. 3-D visualization of seismic reflectivity falls into two broad categories: volume and surface rendering. Volumetric-based visualization is an extremely powerful approach for the rapid exploration of very dense 3-D datasets. These 3-D datasets are divided into volume elements or voxels, which are individually color coded depending on the assigned datum value; the user can define an opacity filter to reject plotting certain voxels. This transparency allows the user to peer into the data volume, enabling an easy identification of patterns or relationships that might have geologic merit. Multiple image volumes can be co-registered to look at correlations between two different data types (e.g., amplitude variation with offsets studies), in a manner analogous to draping attributes onto a surface. In contrast, surface visualization of seismic reflectivity usually involves producing "fence" diagrams of 2-D seismic profiles that are complemented with seafloor topography, along with point class data, draped lines and vectors (e.g. fault scarps, earthquake locations and plate-motions). The overlying seafloor can be made partially transparent or see-through, enabling 3-D correlations between seafloor structure and seismic reflectivity. Exploration of 3-D datasets requires additional thought when constructing and manipulating these complex objects. As numbers of visual objects grow in a particular scene, there is a tendency to mask overlapping objects; this clutter can be managed through the effective use of total or partial transparency (i.e., alpha-channel). In this way, the co-variation between different datasets can be investigated, even if one data object lies behind another. Stereoscopic viewing is another powerful tool to investigate 3-D relationships between objects. This form of immersion is constructed through viewing two separate images that are interleaved--typically 48 frames per second, per eye--and synced through an emitter and a set of specialized polarizing eyeglasses. The polarizing lenses flicker at an equivalent rate, blanking the eye for which a particular image was not drawn, producing the desired stereo effect. Volumetric visualization of the ARAD 3-D seismic dataset will be presented. The effective use of transparency reveals detailed structure of the melt-lens beneath the 9°03'N overlapping spreading center (OSC) along the East Pacific Rise, including melt-filled fractures within the propagating rift-tip. In addition, range-gated images of seismic reflectivity will be co-registered to investigate the physical properties (melt versus mush) of the magma chamber at this locale. Surface visualization of a dense, 2-D grid of MCS seismic data beneath Axial seamount (Juan de Fuca Ridge) will also be highlighted, including relationships between the summit caldera and rift zones, and the underlying (and humongous) magma chamber. A selection of Quicktime movies will be shown. Popcorn will be served, really!

Kent, G. M.; Harding, A. J.; Babcock, J. M.; Orcutt, J. A.; Bazin, S.; Singh, S.; Detrick, R. S.; Canales, J. P.; Carbotte, S. M.; Diebold, J.

2002-12-01

179

ALE3D Model Predictions and Materials Characterization for the Cookoff Response of PBXN-109  

Microsoft Academic Search

ALE3D simulations are presented for the thermal explosion of PBXN-109 (RDX, AI, HTPB, DOA) in support of an effort by the U. S. Navy and Department of Energy (DOE) to validate computational models. The U.S. Navy is performing benchmark tests for the slow cookoff of PBXN-109 in a sealed tube. Candidate models are being tested using the ALE3D code, which

M A McClelland; J L Maienschein; A L Nichols; J F Wardell; A I Atwood; P O Curran

2002-01-01

180

Gene3D: structural assignments for the biologist and bioinformaticist alike  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gene3D database (http:\\/\\/www.biochem.ucl. ac.uk\\/bsm\\/cath_new\\/Gene3D\\/) provides structural assignments for genes within complete genomes. These are available via the internet from either the World Wide Web or FTP. Assignments are made using PSI-BLAST and subsequently processed using the DRange protocol. The DRange protocol is an empirically benchmarked method for assessing the validity of structural assignments made using sequence searching methods where

Daniel W. A. Buchan; Stuart C. G. Rison; James E. Bray; David Lee; Frances M. G. Pearl; Janet M. Thornton; Christine A. Orengo

2003-01-01

181

CCMR: Micro Legos Creation, Assembly and Application for Micro Scale 3D Voxels  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A new adjunct to the revolutionary idea of 3D printing is investigated and tested. This adjunct concerns the digital 3D printing of objects by use of 3D geometric voxels or so called Micro Legos. These voxels are placed in 3D space according to an objectâs specifications in contrast to the creation of objects through continuous or analog production. The overall dimensional accuracy and repeatability of the object are determined strictly on the voxel in lieu of the printer. The material property of the digital 3D object is also analyzed and shown to be easily manipulated by placement and type of voxel. The cardinal problem lays in the rapid and efficient manufacturing of the micro scale voxels. SU-8 was the chosen material for voxel creation and photolithography was the chosen method for voxel manufacturing. By benchmarking the creation and manufacturing of micro voxels, future digital 3D printing of objects will become a reality.

Miller, Joseph

2009-08-15

182

Real-time 3D shape reconstruction, dynamic 3D mesh deformation, and high fidelity visualization for 3D video  

Microsoft Academic Search

3D video [IEEE Multimedia (1997) 18] is the ultimate image media recording dynamic visual events in the real world as is; it records time varying 3D object shape with high fidelity surface properties (i.e., color and texture). Its applications cover wide varieties of personal and social human activities: entertainment (e.g., 3D game and 3D TV), education (e.g., 3D animal picture

Takashi Matsuyama; Xiaojun Wu; Takeshi Takai; Shohei Nobuhara

2004-01-01

183

TRACE 3-D code improvements  

SciTech Connect

TRACE 3-D is an interactive beam-transport code for bunched beams that includes accelerating elements and linear space-charge forces. It has been integrated with an improved GUI (graphic user interface) based on the Shell for Particle Accelerator Related Codes. Recent modifications to the code include centroid tracking and an improved beam description consisting of a set of beam slices, each having its own 6D centroid and sigma matrix. This allows us to study some nonlinear effects, such as wakefields, that are related to the variation of the beam bunch along the longitudinal direction. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Lysenko, W.P.; Rusthoi, D.P.; Chan, K.C. [AOT-1, MS H808, Los Alamos National Lab., Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States of America); Gillespie, G.H.; Hill, B.W. [G. H. Gillespie Associates, Inc., P.O. Box 2961, Del Mar, California 92014 (United States of America)

1997-02-01

184

TRACE 3-D code improvements  

SciTech Connect

TRACE 3-D is an interactive beam-transport code for bunched beams that includes accelerating elements and linear space-charge forces. It has been integrated with an improved GUI (graphic user interface) based on the Shell for Particle Accelerator Related Codes. Recent modifications to the code include centroid tracking and an improved beam description consisting of a set of beam slices, each having its own 6D centroid and sigma matrix. This allows us to study some nonlinear effects, such as wakefields, that are related to the variation of the beam bunch along the longitudinal direction.

Lysenko, W. P.; Rusthoi, D. P.; Chan, K. C. D.; Gillespie, G. H.; Hill, B. W. [AOT-1, MS H808, Los Alamos National Lab., Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); G. H. Gillespie Associates, Inc., P.O. Box 2961, Del Mar, California 92014 (United States)

1997-02-01

185

TRACE 3-D code improvements  

SciTech Connect

TRACE 3-D is an interactive beam-transport code for bunched beams that includes accelerating elements and linear space-charge forces. It has been integrated with an improved GUI (graphic user interface) based on the Shell for Particle Accelerator Related Codes. Recent modifications to the code include centroid tracking and an improved beam description consisting of a set of beam slices, each having its own 6D centroid and sigma matrix. This allows one to study some nonlinear effects, such as wakefields, that are related to the variation of the beam bunch along the longitudinal direction.

Lysenko, W.P.; Rusthoi, D.P.; Chan, K.C.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Gillespie, G.H.; Hill, B.W. [G.H. Gillespie Associates, Inc., Del Mar, CA (United States)

1996-11-01

186

3-D Electrostatic Field Simulation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet simulates the electric field and potential for various charge distributions, including point, line, dipole, spherical and other charges. There is also a simulation, with adjustable speed, of a charge moving close to the speed of light. The field can be displayed as a velocity or force field with particles following field lines, or as field or equipotential lines. The potential and fields can be displayed in 3-D or on a movable 2-D slice. The field strength and number of particles is adjustable, and the charge can be reversed. Source code and directions (also in German) are included.

Falstad, Paul

2004-07-13

187

3D-Partikelfilter SLAM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In diesem Artikel wird ein Verfahren zur Erstellung von 3D Punktwolkenkarten der Umgebung vorgestellt, das während der Fahrt aufgenommene Laserentfernungsmessungen verarbeitet. Dabei werden die vollen sechs Freiheitsgrade in der Roboterposition beachtet. Es wird ein partikelfilterbasierter Ansatz verfolgt, der FastSLAM und ähnliche Ansätze aus dem Zweidimensionalen ins Dreidimensionale überträgt. Hierbei werden insbesondere Methoden zur Handhabung der erhöhten Komplexität durch die zusätzlichen Freiheitsgrade und des erhöhten Speicheraufwandes vorgestellt. Des Weiteren kommt das Verfahren mit Odometriebewegungsdaten aus und ist nicht auf zusätzliche Bewegungssensoren angewiesen. Abschließend wird das Verfahren zur Evaluation sowohl auf Simulationsals auch auf Realdaten angewendet.

Welle, Jochen; Schulz, Dirk; Cremers, A. B.

188

Automatic Single View-Based 3-D Face Synthesis for Unsupervised Multimedia Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various 3-D face synthesis techniques have been proposed and extensively used in many applications. Compared with others, single view-based face synthesis technology allows unsupervised 3-D face reconstruction without any offline operations. Although many algorithms have been published, automatic and robust single view-based 3-D face synthesis still remains unsolved. In contrast to other methods, the single view-based 3-D face synthesis algorithm

Yun Sheng; Abdul H. Sadka; Ahmet M. Kondoz

2008-01-01

189

3-D Relativistic MHD Simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present 3-D numerical simulations of moderately hot, supersonic jets propagating initially along or obliquely to the field lines of a denser magnetized background medium with Lorentz factors of W=4.56 and evolving in a four-dimensional spacetime. The new results are understood as follows: Relativistic simulations have consistently shown that these jets are effectively heavy and so they do not suffer substantial momentum losses and are not decelerated as efficiently as their nonrelativistic counterparts. In addition, the ambient magnetic field, however strong, can be pushed aside with relative ease by the beam, provided that the degrees of freedom associated with all three spatial dimensions are followed self-consistently in the simulations. This effect is analogous to pushing Japanese ``noren'' or vertical Venetian blinds out of the way while the slats are allowed to bend in 3-D space rather than as a 2-D slab structure. We also simulate jets with the more realistic initial conditions for injecting jets for helical mangetic field, perturbed density, velocity, and internal energy, which are supposed to be caused in the process of jet generation. Three possible explanations for the observed variability are (i) tidal disruption of a star falling into the black hole, (ii) instabilities in the relativistic accretion disk, and (iii) jet-related PRocesses. New results will be reported at the meeting.

Nishikaw, K.-I.; Frank, J.; Christodoulou, D. M.; Koide, S.; Sakai, J.-I.; Sol, H.; Mutel, R. L.

1998-12-01

190

Gravitation in 3D Spacetime  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

3D spacetime was developed by the IWPD Scale Metrics (SM) team using a coordinate system that translates n dimensions to n-1. 4-vectors are expressed in 3D along with a scaling factor representing time. Time is not orthogonal to the three spatial dimensions, but rather in alignment with an object's axis-of-motion. We have defined this effect as the object's ``orientation'' (X). The SM orientation (X) is equivalent to the orientation of the 4-velocity vector positioned tangent to its worldline, where X-1=?+1 and ? is the angle of the 4-vector relative to the axis-of -motion. Both 4-vectors and SM appear to represent valid conceptualizations of the relationship between space and time. Why entertain SM? Scale Metrics gravity is quantized and may suggest a path for the full unification of gravitation with quantum theory. SM has been tested against current observation and is in agreement with the age of the universe, suggests a physical relationship between dark energy and dark matter, is in agreement with the accelerating expansion rate of the universe, contributes to the understanding of the fine-structure constant and provides a physical explanation of relativistic effects.

Laubenstein, John; Cockream, Kandi

2009-05-01

191

3D printed bionic ears.  

PubMed

The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097

Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C

2013-06-12

192

Human Ear Recognition in 3D  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human ear is a new class of relatively stable biometrics that has drawn researchers' attention recently. In this paper, we propose a complete human recognition system using 3D ear biometrics. The system consists of 3D ear detection, 3D ear identification, and 3D ear verification. For ear detection, we propose a new approach which uses a single reference 3D ear shape

Hui Chen; Bir Bhanu

2007-01-01

193

3D Measurement Technologies for Computer Animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper surveys 3D measurement technologies for computer animation and considers unsolved problems on this subject. 3D measurement technologies are actually very important for converting various 3D objects in the real world to 3D models in the virtual world for computer animation. Current 3D measurement technologies have been developed mainly for measuring objects in industrial or scientific fields, such as

Yasuhito Suenaga

1996-01-01

194

3D Modeling From 2D Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article will give an overview of the methods of transition from the set of images into 3D model. Direct method of creating 3D model using 3D software will be described. Creating photorealistic 3D models from a set of photographs is challenging problem in computer vision because the technology is still in its development stage while the demands for 3D

Lana Madracevic; Stjepan Sogoric

2010-01-01

195

Integrated method for 3D reconstruction of the interchange  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 3D model of interchanges is one of the fundamental components of the city models and has got researcher"s extensive concern in recent years. However, solution to automatic extraction of 3D man-made complicated objects is still unavailable up to now because automatic interpretation of spatial image lacks required performance for practical applications. In this paper, an integrated method involving stereo image pair, CAD, DPW and VR technology for 3D reconstruction of the interchange is put forward and various solutions are presented to meet the demands of the Cyber City according to application requirements. Besides, the semantics of interchange as a whole is used to control and to evaluate the quality of interchange model extraction in all the reconstruction process. Finally, a software platform for 3D reconstruction of the interchange using OpenGL and VC++ is built up and the efficiency of suggested method is examined through practical case studies.

Shao, Zhenfeng; Li, Deren; Cheng, Qimin; Li, Jingliang

2004-02-01

196

GPU Benchmarks Based On Strange Attractors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main purpose of presented GPU benchmark is to generate complex polygonal mesh structures based on strange attractors with fractal structure. Attractors have to be created as 4D objects using quaternion algebra. Polygonal mesh can have different numbers of polygons because of iterative application of this system. The major complexity of every mesh would provide efficient results using multiple methods such as ray-tracing, anti aliasing and anisotropic filtering to evaluate GPU performance. Our main goal is to develop new faster algorithm to generate 3D structures and apply its complexity for GPU benchmarking.

Podoba, Tomáš; Vl?ek, Karel; Giesl, Ji?í

197

Perception-based shape retrieval for 3D building models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the help of 3D search engines, a large number of 3D building models can be retrieved freely online. A serious disadvantage of most rotation-insensitive shape descriptors is their inability to distinguish between two 3D building models which are different at their main axes, but appear similar when one of them is rotated. To resolve this problem, we present a novel upright-based normalization method which not only correctly rotates such building models, but also greatly simplifies and accelerates the abstraction and the matching of building models' shape descriptors. Moreover, the abundance of architectural styles significantly hinders the effective shape retrieval of building models. Our research has shown that buildings with different designs are not well distinguished by the widely recognized shape descriptors for general 3D models. Motivated by this observation and to further improve the shape retrieval quality, a new building matching method is introduced and analyzed based on concepts found in the field of perception theory and the well-known Light Field descriptor. The resulting normalized building models are first classified using the qualitative shape descriptors of Shell and Unevenness which outline integral geometrical and topological information. These models are then put in on orderly fashion with the help of an improved quantitative shape descriptor which we will term as Horizontal Light Field Descriptor, since it assembles detailed shape characteristics. To accurately evaluate the proposed methodology, an enlarged building shape database which extends previous well-known shape benchmarks was implemented as well as a model retrieval system supporting inputs from 2D sketches and 3D models. Various experimental performance evaluation results have shown that, as compared to previous methods, retrievals employing the proposed matching methodology are faster and more consistent with human recognition of spatial objects. In addition these performance evaluation results have verified that the proposed methodology does not sacrifice the matching accuracy while significantly improves the efficiency when matching 3D building models.

Zhang, Man; Zhang, Liqiang; Takis Mathiopoulos, P.; Ding, Yusi; Wang, Hao

2013-01-01

198

Benchmarking massively parallel architectures  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to summarize some initial experiences related to measuring the performance of massively parallel processors (MPPs) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Actually, the range of MPP architectures the authors have used is rather limited, being confined mostly to the Thinking Machines Corporation (TMC) Connection Machine CM-2 and CM-5. Some very preliminary work has been carried out on the Kendall Square KSR-1, and efforts related to other machines, such as the Intel Paragon and the soon-to-be-released CRAY T3D are planned. This paper will concentrate more on methodology rather than discuss specific architectural strengths and weaknesses; the latter is expected to be the subject of future reports. MPP benchmarking is a field in critical need of structure and definition. As the authors have stated previously, such machines have enormous potential, and there is certainly a dire need for orders of magnitude computational power over current supercomputers. However, performance reports for MPPs must emphasize actual sustainable performance from real applications in a careful, responsible manner. Such has not always been the case. A recent paper has described in some detail, the problem of potentially misleading performance reporting in the parallel scientific computing field. Thus, in this paper, the authors briefly offer a few general ideas on MPP performance analysis.

Lubeck, O.; Moore, J.; Simmons, M.; Wasserman, H.

1993-07-01

199

Benchmarking massively parallel architectures  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to summarize some initial experiences related to measuring the performance of massively parallel processors (MPPs) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Actually, the range of MPP architectures the authors have used is rather limited, being confined mostly to the Thinking Machines Corporation (TMC) Connection Machine CM-2 and CM-5. Some very preliminary work has been carried out on the Kendall Square KSR-1, and efforts related to other machines, such as the Intel Paragon and the soon-to-be-released CRAY T3D are planned. This paper will concentrate more on methodology rather than discuss specific architectural strengths and weaknesses; the latter is expected to be the subject of future reports. MPP benchmarking is a field in critical need of structure and definition. As the authors have stated previously, such machines have enormous potential, and there is certainly a dire need for orders of magnitude computational power over current supercomputers. However, performance reports for MPPs must emphasize actual sustainable performance from real applications in a careful, responsible manner. Such has not always been the case. A recent paper has described in some detail, the problem of potentially misleading performance reporting in the parallel scientific computing field. Thus, in this paper, the authors briefly offer a few general ideas on MPP performance analysis.

Lubeck, O.; Moore, J.; Simmons, M.; Wasserman, H.

1993-01-01

200

Hidden Markov models-based 3D MRI brain segmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a 3D MRI segmentation algorithm based on Hidden Markov Models (HMMs). The mathematical models for the HMM that forms the basis of the segmentation algorithm for both the continuous and discrete cases are developed and contrasted with Hidden Markov Random Field in terms of complexity and extensibility to larger fields. The presented algorithm clearly demonstrates the capacity

M. Ibrahim; Nigel M. John; Mansur R. Kabuka; Akmal A. Younis

2006-01-01

201

Transforming Facial Images in 2 and 3-D  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review image processing techniques for manipulating 2-D representations of facial images and show their potential for extension to 3-D. Techniques for the manipulation of 2-D images include those used for: (i) averaging images of different faces to form facial 'prototypes', (ii) automated caricature exaggeration of the way an individual face differs in shape and colour from a prototype and

S. Akamatsu

1997-01-01

202

An Investigation of Selective Coloring with 3-D Laser Printing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on preliminary results involving an experimental rapid prototyping process known as 3-D laser printing. The system builds parts by repeatedly laser printing thermoplastic cross-sectional “slice” images of a part one on top of the next. With each new layer, the total build thickness increases until the part is complete. An interesting extension to this system involves the

Denis Cormier; James Taylor; Harvey West

2002-01-01

203

Comparative Study of 3D Printing Technologies for Rapid Casting of Aluminium Alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to compare the efficacy of two rapid casting technologies, namely, ZCast process and investment casting based on 3D printing technique of rapid prototyping for casting of aluminium alloy. A standard procedure has been premeditated starting from the identification and design of benchmark. The concept was presented in physical form by producing prototypes to assess

Simranpreet Singh Gill; Munish Kaplas

2009-01-01

204

ALE3D Model Predications and Materials Characterization for Cookoff Response of PBXN-109.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

ALE3D simulations are presented for the thermal explosion of PBXN-109 (RDX, AI, HTPB, DOA) in support of an effort by the U. S. Navy and Department of Energy (DOE) to validate computational models. The U. S. Navy is performing benchmark tests for the slow...

M. A. McClelland J. L. Maienschein A. L. Nichols J. F. Wardell A. I. Atwood P. O. Curran

2002-01-01

205

NIF Ignition Target 3D Point Design  

SciTech Connect

We have developed an input file for running 3D NIF hohlraums that is optimized such that it can be run in 1-2 days on parallel computers. We have incorporated increasing levels of automation into the 3D input file: (1) Configuration controlled input files; (2) Common file for 2D and 3D, different types of capsules (symcap, etc.); and (3) Can obtain target dimensions, laser pulse, and diagnostics settings automatically from NIF Campaign Management Tool. Using 3D Hydra calculations to investigate different problems: (1) Intrinsic 3D asymmetry; (2) Tolerance to nonideal 3D effects (e.g. laser power balance, pointing errors); and (3) Synthetic diagnostics.

Jones, O; Marinak, M; Milovich, J; Callahan, D

2008-11-05

206

Benchmarking in Foodservice Operations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this study was to identify usage of foodservice performance measures, important activities in foodservice benchmarking, and benchmarking attitudes, beliefs, and practices by foodservice directors. The design of this study included two par...

B. C. Johnson

1998-01-01

207

PNNL Information Technology Benchmarking  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (PNNL's) approach to information technology (IT) benchmarking. The purpose is to engage other organizations in the collaborative process of benchmarking in order to improve the value of IT services provided to customers. This document's intended audience consists of other U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratories and their IT staff. Although the individual participants must define the scope of collaborative benchmarking, an outline of IT service areas for possible benchmarking is described.

Hostetler, David D.; Goolsbey, Jan E.; Niesen, David A.; Phillips, Anita C.

1999-08-09

208

Benchmark selection considerations.  

PubMed

Benchmarking with other organizations is an important component in achieving best practice and the highest level of quality patient care. When more than 1 benchmark exists for the same metric, choosing which one to use can be challenging. Considerations are discussed for the selection of the best benchmark to use to ensure that an organization is striving for top performance. PMID:22504885

Rees, Susan; Leahy-Gross, Kristine

209

Benchmarking for Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The chapters in this collection explore the concept of benchmarking as it is being used and developed in higher education (HE). Case studies and reviews show how universities in the United Kingdom are using benchmarking to aid in self-regulation and self-improvement. The chapters are: (1) "Introduction to Benchmarking" (Norman Jackson and Helen…

Jackson, Norman, Ed.; Lund, Helen, Ed.

210

Benchmark On Sensitivity Calculation (Phase III)  

SciTech Connect

The sensitivities of the keff eigenvalue to neutron cross sections have become commonly used in similarity studies and as part of the validation algorithm for criticality safety assessments. To test calculations of the sensitivity coefficients, a benchmark study (Phase III) has been established by the OECD-NEA/WPNCS/EG UACSA (Expert Group on Uncertainty Analysis for Criticality Safety Assessment). This paper presents some sensitivity results generated by the benchmark participants using various computational tools based upon different computational methods: SCALE/TSUNAMI-3D and -1D, MONK, APOLLO2-MORET 5, DRAGON-SUSD3D and MMKKENO. The study demonstrates the performance of the tools. It also illustrates how model simplifications impact the sensitivity results and demonstrates the importance of 'implicit' (self-shielding) sensitivities. This work has been a useful step towards verification of the existing and developed sensitivity analysis methods.

Ivanova, Tatiana [IRSN; Laville, Cedric [IRSN; Dyrda, James [Atomic Weapons Establishment; Mennerdahl, Dennis [E. Mennerdahl Systems; Golovko, Yury [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE), Obninsk, Russia; Raskach, Kirill [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE), Obninsk, Russia; Tsiboulia, Anatoly [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE), Obninsk, Russia; Lee, Gil Soo [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS); Woo, Sweng-Woong [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS); Bidaud, Adrien [Labratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmolo-gie (LPSC); Patel, Amrit [NRC; Bledsoe, Keith C [ORNL; Rearden, Bradley T [ORNL; Gulliford, J. [OECD Nuclear Energy Agency

2012-01-01

211

ALE3D Rolling Simulations  

SciTech Connect

Hot rolling is a problem involving large deformations during the process of turning an ingot into a thin sheet. As a result of the large deformations inherent in the process, significant amounts of energy are put into the ingot mechanically, most of which results in heat generation. Therefore, in order to predict the results of rolling both the mechanical and the thermal factors must accurately represent the real conditions. The factors which must be properly tuned include interface friction, mass scaling to decrease computation times, heat transfer at the interface, convective heat transfer from the ingot, and convective heat transfer from the roll. Since these parameters are generally not measurable the correct values must be derived by tuning the parameters so that solutions match some other measurable result. The interface friction will be tuned using an ALE3D input deck which has been set up to output the torque applied to the roll during the pass. The friction coefficient will be adjusted so that the computed torque matches the measured value. The various heat transfer coefficients are dependent on each other, and are tuned based on measured roll surface temperatures, ingot exit temperatures, and the energy input through the mechanical deformation of the ingot. The heat transfer coefficient at the interface has been found to be approximately 1.25 x 10{sup 5} W/m{sup 2}K, based on estimates of how much heat can be taken from the roll surface by coolant and matching a roll surface temperature. The convection coefficient on the ingot surface has been assumed to be 100 W/m{sup 2}K, on the high end for convection to air. However, this convection coefficient is low enough that the ingot should cool uniformly through its thickness as it would with a lower convection coefficient. Also necessary in accurate modeling is a good description of material behavior. In order to aid the development of an accurate material model an ALE3D input deck which simulates compression tests with temperature gradients has been developed. The model output engineering stress-strain curves which can be compared to the experimentally collected data. Also, comparisons of the deformed shapes can be made. The model has been tuned using MTS parameters for AA 5182 and will be ready for use when parameters for AA 2024 are experimentally developed. Currently, more work is needed to properly tune all the model parameters. A parameterized three dimensional geometry and mesh has been created so that once the parameters are tuned the transition to three dimensional simulations should be quick.

Riordan, T

2006-07-27

212

Validation Test Report for Delft3D.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the model setup, parameter selection and model validation of the Delft3D modeling system in nearshore applications. Delft3D, developed by Delft Hydraulics, is a complete coastal hydrodynamic modeling system, capable of simulating hyd...

D. W. Wang J. D. Dykes R. A. Allard Y. L. Hsu

2008-01-01

213

Locomotive wheel 3D reconstruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the article, a system, which is used to reconstruct locomotive wheels, is described, helping workers detect the condition of a wheel through a direct view. The system consists of a line laser, a 2D camera, and a computer. We use 2D camera to capture the line-laser light reflected by the object, a wheel, and then compute the final coordinates of the structured light. Finally, using Matlab programming language, we transform the coordinate of points to a smooth surface and illustrate the 3D view of the wheel. The article also proposes the system structure, processing steps and methods, and sets up an experimental platform to verify the design proposal. We verify the feasibility of the whole process, and analyze the results comparing to standard date. The test results show that this system can work well, and has a high accuracy on the reconstruction. And because there is still no such application working in railway industries, so that it has practical value in railway inspection system.

Guan, Xin; Luo, Zhisheng; Gao, Xiaorong; Wu, Jianle

2010-08-01

214

Ultrahighly accurate 3D profilometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed an Ultrahigh-Accurate 3-D Profilometer (UA3P), which, using a new, in-house-developed atomic force probe, has an accuracy of 10 nm. It is capable of measuring corners as small as 2 micro meter in radius and can cover an area up to 400 x 400 x 90 (mm), providing a powerful boost to nano-level processing. A commercial product was introduced in 1994. Examples of the key components made possible by this technology include aspherical lenses (used for a Blu-ray Disc device, a next-generation DVD, digital cameras, cellular phones, optical communications), free form lenses (used for frennel lens common to CD and DVD, laser printer lens, multi focus glass lens, cubic phase plate to extend depth of focus), gigabit semiconductor wafers, hard discs, air conditioner scroll vanes, DVC cylinders. The premiere ultra high-precision three-dimensional profilometer delivers superb performance using a variety of micro-measurements for a wide range of applications.

Tsutsumi, Hideki; Yoshizumi, Keiichi; Takeuchi, Hiroyuki

2005-02-01

215

Computer Generated Content for 3D TV  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mixed content is a primary feature of current TV program making and consequently real-time computer generated video in autostereoscopic format is important if 3D TV is going to make an impact. In this paper, an approach for computer generating 3D integral imaging frames is proposed. The method is based on a 3D integral imaging ray-tracer containing 3D integral imaging parser,

M. G. Eljdid; A. Aggoun; O. H. Youssef

2007-01-01

216

3D Visual Phrases for Landmark Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we study the problem of landmark recognition and propose to leverage 3D visual phrases to improve the performance. A 3D visual phrase is a triangular facet on the surface of a reconstructed 3D landmark model. In contrast to existing 2D visual phrases which are mainly based on co-occurrence statistics in 2D image planes, such 3D visual phrases

Qiang Hao; Rui Cai; Zhiwei Li; Lei Zhang; Yanwei Pang; Feng Wu

2012-01-01

217

Multiview 3D reconstruction in geosciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiview three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction is a technology that allows the creation of 3D models of a given scenario from a series of overlapping pictures taken using consumer-grade digital cameras. This type of 3D reconstruction is facilitated by freely available software, which does not require expert-level skills. This technology provides a 3D working environment, which integrates sample\\/field data visualization and measurement

M. Favalli; A. Fornaciai; I. Isola; S. Tarquini; L. Nannipieri

218

Directional offset of a 3D curve  

Microsoft Academic Search

Being a fundamental operation in geometric modeling, there have been a number of researches on offsetting of 2D curves and 3D surfaces. However, there is no commonly accepted definition of 3D curve offset. In this paper, we propose a 3D curve offset method, named directional offset, motivated from the observation of the needs in many engineering design practices. Since the

Hayong Shin; Su K. Cho

2002-01-01

219

3D Object Modeling - Issues and Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter provides an overview of 3D object modeling approaches. It begins by briefly describing the issues in 3D object modeling and their impact on the quality of the resulting model. Then it looks in depth on classical 3D object modeling techniques and what they involve. It discusses advantages and disadvantages and gives possible applications for each described method. The

Ana-Maria Cretu

220

Optimal Aspect Ratio for 3D TV  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various types of 3D display technologies have been developed over the past decade. However the problem of how the aspect ratio of 3D display devices should be determined has received limited attention. Displays are often determined by industry and international standards, and do not take the 3D scene properties and depth perception into account. In this work we investigate the

Irene Cheng; Anup Basu

2007-01-01

221

Beowulf 3D: a case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses the creative and technical challenges encountered during the production of "Beowulf 3D," director Robert Zemeckis' adaptation of the Old English epic poem and the first film to be simultaneously released in IMAX 3D and digital 3D formats.

Engle, Rob

2008-03-01

222

From Museum Exhibits to 3D Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article presents the use of 3D scanners and printers for the digitization of 3D objects of cultural heritage. The work describes the full processing chain from the scanning of an exhibit to the creation of a tangible copy using a 3D printer. Problems caused by imperfect data sets are discussed and solutions proposed.

Agnieszka Tomaka; Leszek Luchowski; Krzysztof Skabek

2009-01-01

223

Consistent stylization of stereoscopic 3D images  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of stylization filters to photographs is common, Instagram being a popular recent example. These image manipulation applications work great for 2D images. However, stereoscopic 3D cameras are increasingly available to consumers (Nintendo 3DS, Fuji W3 3D, HTC Evo 3D). How will users apply these same stylizations to stereoscopic images?

Lesley Northam; Paul Asente; Craig S. Kaplan

2012-01-01

224

3D grasping solutions through MWS models  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to solve a great number of robotics problems in 3D environments, raw information yielded by visual sensors can be discretized imposing a 3D model with a specific mesh topology. The goal of this work is to use the solid representation model MWS (modeling wave set) for solving grasping problems on 3D free shape objects. This implies to reinforce

Antonio Adán; Andrés S. Vázquez; Fernando Molina

2005-01-01

225

Benchmarking your benchmarks: a user's perspective  

SciTech Connect

This paper is intended for anyone faced with the responsibility for computer hardware or software selection. The content is biased toward administrative considerations, although some technical issues are presented. The basic goal is to promote a role for benchmarking in the computer acquisition process that is significantly broader than that commonly employed. We attempt to do this by showing how a thorough benchmarking effort (in the usual sense) did not provide sufficient information to accurately predict user satisfaction and productivity. We describe other measures of a system's properties that should be included in benchmarking.

Brice, R.

1982-01-01

226

A 36 fps SXGA 3-D Display Processor Embedding a Programmable 3-D Graphics Rendering Engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a 3D display processor embedding a programmable 3D graphics rendering engine is proposed. The proposed processor combines a 3D graphics rendering engine and a 3D image synthesis engine to support both true realism and interactivity for the future multimedia applications. Using high coherence between 3D graphics data and 3D display inputs, both pipelines are merged by sharing

Seok-Hoon Kim; Jae-Sung Yoon; Chang-Hyo Yu; Donghyun Kim; Kyusik Chung; Han Shin Lim; Yun-Gu Lee; Jong Beom Ra; Lee-Sup Kim

2008-01-01

227

Research Reactor Benchmarks  

SciTech Connect

A criticality benchmark experiment performed at the Jozef Stefan Institute TRIGA Mark II research reactor is described. This experiment and its evaluation are given as examples of benchmark experiments at research reactors. For this reason the differences and possible problems compared to other benchmark experiments are particularly emphasized. General guidelines for performing criticality benchmarks in research reactors are given. The criticality benchmark experiment was performed in a normal operating reactor core using commercially available fresh 20% enriched fuel elements containing 12 wt% uranium in uranium-zirconium hydride fuel material. Experimental conditions to minimize experimental errors and to enhance computer modeling accuracy are described. Uncertainties in multiplication factor due to fuel composition and geometry data are analyzed by sensitivity analysis. The simplifications in the benchmark model compared to the actual geometry are evaluated. Sample benchmark calculations with the MCNP and KENO Monte Carlo codes are given.

Ravnik, Matjaz; Jeraj, Robert [J. Stefan Institute (Slovenia)

2003-09-15

228

3-D Cavern Enlargement Analyses  

SciTech Connect

Three-dimensional finite element analyses simulate the mechanical response of enlarging existing caverns at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). The caverns are located in Gulf Coast salt domes and are enlarged by leaching during oil drawdowns as fresh water is injected to displace the crude oil from the caverns. The current criteria adopted by the SPR limits cavern usage to 5 drawdowns (leaches). As a base case, 5 leaches were modeled over a 25 year period to roughly double the volume of a 19 cavern field. Thirteen additional leaches where then simulated until caverns approached coalescence. The cavern field approximated the geometries and geologic properties found at the West Hackberry site. This enabled comparisons are data collected over nearly 20 years to analysis predictions. The analyses closely predicted the measured surface subsidence and cavern closure rates as inferred from historic well head pressures. This provided the necessary assurance that the model displacements, strains, and stresses are accurate. However, the cavern field has not yet experienced the large scale drawdowns being simulated. Should they occur in the future, code predictions should be validated with actual field behavior at that time. The simulations were performed using JAS3D, a three dimensional finite element analysis code for nonlinear quasi-static solids. The results examine the impacts of leaching and cavern workovers, where internal cavern pressures are reduced, on surface subsidence, well integrity, and cavern stability. The results suggest that the current limit of 5 oil drawdowns may be extended with some mitigative action required on the wells and later on to surface structure due to subsidence strains. The predicted stress state in the salt shows damage to start occurring after 15 drawdowns with significant failure occurring at the 16th drawdown, well beyond the current limit of 5 drawdowns.

EHGARTNER, BRIAN L.; SOBOLIK, STEVEN R.

2002-03-01

229

RELAP5-3D User Problems  

SciTech Connect

The Reactor Excursion and Leak Analysis Program with 3D capability1 (RELAP5-3D) is a reactor system analysis code that has been developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). The 3D capability in RELAP5-3D includes 3D hydrodynamics2 and 3D neutron kinetics3,4. Assessment, verification, and validation of the 3D capability in RELAP5-3D is discussed in the literature5,6,7,8,9,10. Additional assessment, verification, and validation of the 3D capability of RELAP5-3D will be presented in other papers in this users seminar. As with any software, user problems occur. User problems usually fall into the categories of input processing failure, code execution failure, restart/renodalization failure, unphysical result, and installation. This presentation will discuss some of the more generic user problems that have been reported on RELAP5-3D as well as their resolution.

Riemke, Richard Allan

2002-09-01

230

3D laptop for defense applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polaris Sensor Technologies has developed numerous 3D display systems using a US Army patented approach. These displays have been developed as prototypes for handheld controllers for robotic systems and closed hatch driving, and as part of a TALON robot upgrade for 3D vision, providing depth perception for the operator for improved manipulation and hazard avoidance. In this paper we discuss the prototype rugged 3D laptop computer and its applications to defense missions. The prototype 3D laptop combines full temporal and spatial resolution display with the rugged Amrel laptop computer. The display is viewed through protective passive polarized eyewear, and allows combined 2D and 3D content. Uses include robot tele-operation with live 3D video or synthetically rendered scenery, mission planning and rehearsal, enhanced 3D data interpretation, and simulation.

Edmondson, Richard; Chenault, David

2012-05-01

231

Benchmarking short sequence mapping tools  

PubMed Central

Background The development of next-generation sequencing instruments has led to the generation of millions of short sequences in a single run. The process of aligning these reads to a reference genome is time consuming and demands the development of fast and accurate alignment tools. However, the current proposed tools make different compromises between the accuracy and the speed of mapping. Moreover, many important aspects are overlooked while comparing the performance of a newly developed tool to the state of the art. Therefore, there is a need for an objective evaluation method that covers all the aspects. In this work, we introduce a benchmarking suite to extensively analyze sequencing tools with respect to various aspects and provide an objective comparison. Results We applied our benchmarking tests on 9 well known mapping tools, namely, Bowtie, Bowtie2, BWA, SOAP2, MAQ, RMAP, GSNAP, Novoalign, and mrsFAST (mrFAST) using synthetic data and real RNA-Seq data. MAQ and RMAP are based on building hash tables for the reads, whereas the remaining tools are based on indexing the reference genome. The benchmarking tests reveal the strengths and weaknesses of each tool. The results show that no single tool outperforms all others in all metrics. However, Bowtie maintained the best throughput for most of the tests while BWA performed better for longer read lengths. The benchmarking tests are not restricted to the mentioned tools and can be further applied to others. Conclusion The mapping process is still a hard problem that is affected by many factors. In this work, we provided a benchmarking suite that reveals and evaluates the different factors affecting the mapping process. Still, there is no tool that outperforms all of the others in all the tests. Therefore, the end user should clearly specify his needs in order to choose the tool that provides the best results.

2013-01-01

232

ICSBEP Benchmarks For Nuclear Data Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) was initiated in 1992 by the United States Department of Energy. The ICSBEP became an official activity of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) - Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) in 1995. Representatives from the United States, United Kingdom, France, Japan, the Russian Federation, Hungary, Republic of Korea, Slovenia, Serbia and Montenegro (formerly Yugoslavia), Kazakhstan, Spain, Israel, Brazil, Poland, and the Czech Republic are now participating. South Africa, India, China, and Germany are considering participation. The purpose of the ICSBEP is to identify, evaluate, verify, and formally document a comprehensive and internationally peer-reviewed set of criticality safety benchmark data. The work of the ICSBEP is published as an OECD handbook entitled ``International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments.'' The 2004 Edition of the Handbook contains benchmark specifications for 3331 critical or subcritical configurations that are intended for use in validation efforts and for testing basic nuclear data. New to the 2004 Edition of the Handbook is a draft criticality alarm / shielding type benchmark that should be finalized in 2005 along with two other similar benchmarks. The Handbook is being used extensively for nuclear data testing and is expected to be a valuable resource for code and data validation and improvement efforts for decades to come. Specific benchmarks that are useful for testing structural materials such as iron, chromium, nickel, and manganese; beryllium; lead; thorium; and 238U are highlighted.

Briggs, J. Blair

2005-05-01

233

Quantitative 3D Optical Imaging: Applications in Dosimetry and Biophysics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical-CT has been shown to be a potentially useful imaging tool for the two very different spheres of biologists and radiation therapy physicists, but it has yet to live up to that potential. In radiation therapy, researchers have used optical-CT for the readout of 3D dosimeters, but it is yet to be a clinically relevant tool as the technology is too slow to be considered practical. Biologists have used the technique for structural imaging, but have struggled with emission tomography as the reality of photon attenuation for both excitation and emission have made the images quantitatively irrelevant. Dosimetry. The DLOS (Duke Large field of view Optical-CT Scanner) was designed and constructed to make 3D dosimetry utilizing optical-CT a fast and practical tool while maintaining the accuracy of readout of the previous, slower readout technologies. Upon construction/optimization/implementation of several components including a diffuser, band pass filter, registration mount & fluid filtration system the dosimetry system provides high quality data comparable to or exceeding that of commercial products. In addition, a stray light correction algorithm was tested and implemented. The DLOS in combination with the 3D dosimeter it was designed for, PREAGETM, then underwent rigorous commissioning and benchmarking tests validating its performance against gold standard data including a set of 6 irradiations. DLOS commissioning tests resulted in sub-mm isotropic spatial resolution (MTF >0.5 for frequencies of 1.5lp/mm) and a dynamic range of ˜60dB. Flood field uniformity was 10% and stable after 45minutes. Stray light proved to be small, due to telecentricity, but even the residual can be removed through deconvolution. Benchmarking tests showed the mean 3D passing gamma rate (3%, 3mm, 5% dose threshold) over the 6 benchmark data sets was 97.3% +/- 0.6% (range 96%-98%) scans totaling ˜10 minutes, indicating excellent ability to perform 3D dosimetry while improving the speed of readout. Noise was low at ˜2% for 2mm reconstructions. The DLOS/PRESAGERTM benchmark tests show consistently excellent performance, with very good agreement to simple known distributions. The telecentric design was critical to enabling fast (~15mins) imaging with minimal stray light artifacts. The system produces accurate isotropic 2mm3 dose data over clinical volumes (e.g. 16cm diameter phantoms, 12 cm height), and represents a uniquely useful and versatile new tool for commissioning complex radiotherapy techniques. The system also has wide versatility, and has successfully been used in preliminary tests with protons and with kV irradiations. Biology. Attenuation corrections for optical-emission-CT were done by modeling physical parameters in the imaging setup within the framework of an ordered subset expectation maximum (OSEM) iterative reconstruction algorithm. This process has a well documented history in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), but is inherently simpler due to the lack of excitation photons to account for. Excitation source strength distribution, excitation and emission attenuation were modeled. The accuracy of the correction was investigated by imaging phantoms containing known distributions of attenuation and fluorophores. The correction was validated on a manufactured phantom designed to give uniform emission in a central cuboidal region and later applied to a cleared mouse brain with GFP (green-fluorescentprotein) labeled vasculature and a cleared 4T1 xenograft flank tumor with constitutive RFP (red-fluorescent-protein). Reconstructions were compared to corresponding slices imaged with a fluorescent dissection microscope. Significant optical-ECT attenuation artifacts were observed in the uncorrected phantom images and appeared up to 80% less intense than the verification image in the central region. The corrected phantom images showed excellent agreement with the verification image with only slight variations. The corrected tissue sample reconstructions showed general agreement between the verification images. Comp

Thomas, Andrew Stephen

234

3D fold growth rates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geological folds are inherently three-dimensional structures. Therefore, a growing fold structure also propagates in three dimensions. In this study, fold growth in all three dimensions is studied and quantified numerically using a finite-element algorithm for simulating three-dimensional deformation of Newtonian materials. To simplify terminology, only upright symmetrical single-layer fold structures are considered here. The horizontal higher-viscous layer exhibits an initial point perturbation. Horizontal compression in one direction (x-direction) leads to a mechanical folding instability, which grows from this perturbation in all three dimensions, described by: Fold amplification (growth in z-direction) The fold growth in z-direction (vertical) is commonly referred to as fold amplification and describes the growth from a fold shape with low limb-dip angle to a shape with higher limb-dip angle. Fold elongation (growth in y-direction) The fold growth in y-direction is parallel to the fold axis and is here referred to as fold elongation. It describes the growth from a dome-shaped (3D) structure to a more cylindrical fold (2D). Sequential fold growth (growth in x-direction) The fold growth in x-direction is parallel to the shortening direction and perpendicular to the fold axis. It describes the growth of secondary (and further) folds adjacent to the initial isolated fold and is here referred to as sequential fold growth. In existing literature, both fold elongation and sequential fold growth have previously been referred to as lateral fold growth, which is here used as an umbrella term for both. First results indicate that in the initial folding stage, the fold growth rates in all three dimensions are of the same order. However, after some shortening and fold amplification, the two lateral growth rates first increase significantly and then decrease below the value of the vertical fold amplification. At a later folding stage, the vertical amplification rate of the initial fold also decreases and the sequentially grown secondary folds exhibit higher vertical amplification rates. During the entire modeled folding history, the two lateral directions generally show a very similar growth rate.

Frehner, Marcel

2013-04-01

235

Attention to 3-D Shape, 3-D Motion, and Texture in 3-D Structure from Motion Displays  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used fMRI to directly compare the neural substrates of three-dimensional (3-D) shape and motion processing for realistic textured objects rotating in depth. Subjects made judgments about several different attributes of these objects, including 3-D shape, the 3-D motion, and the scale of surface texture. For all of these tasks, we equated visual input, motor output, and task difficulty, and

Hendrik Peuskens; Kristl G. Claeys; James T. Todd; J. Farley Norman; Paul Van Hecke; Guy A. Orban

2004-01-01

236

RT3D tutorials for GMS users  

SciTech Connect

RT3D (Reactive Transport in 3-Dimensions) is a computer code that solves coupled partial differential equations that describe reactive-flow and transport of multiple mobile and/or immobile species in a three dimensional saturated porous media. RT3D was developed from the single-species transport code, MT3D (DoD-1.5, 1997 version). As with MT3D, RT3D also uses the USGS groundwater flow model MODFLOW for computing spatial and temporal variations in groundwater head distribution. This report presents a set of tutorial problems that are designed to illustrate how RT3D simulations can be performed within the Department of Defense Groundwater Modeling System (GMS). GMS serves as a pre- and post-processing interface for RT3D. GMS can be used to define all the input files needed by RT3D code, and later the code can be launched from within GMS and run as a separate application. Once the RT3D simulation is completed, the solution can be imported to GMS for graphical post-processing. RT3D v1.0 supports several reaction packages that can be used for simulating different types of reactive contaminants. Each of the tutorials, described below, provides training on a different RT3D reaction package. Each reaction package has different input requirements, and the tutorials are designed to describe these differences. Furthermore, the tutorials illustrate the various options available in GMS for graphical post-processing of RT3D results. Users are strongly encouraged to complete the tutorials before attempting to use RT3D and GMS on a routine basis.

Clement, T.P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Jones, N.L. [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States)

1998-02-01

237

3D seismic imaging, example of 3D area in the middle of Banat  

Microsoft Academic Search

3D seismic imaging was carried out in the 3D seismic volume situated in the middle of Banat region in Serbia. The 3D area is about 300 km square. The aim of 3D investigation was defining geology structures and techtonics especially in Mesozoik complex. The investigation objects are located in depth from 2000 to 3000 m. There are number of wells

S. Antic

2009-01-01

238

Diorama Engine - A 3D Directing Tool for 3D Computer Animation Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in 3D computer graphics technologies have enabled 3D computer animation to become a popular method of storytelling. However, the tools which provide access to the technology are targeted mainly at trained professionals, and are seldom easy enough for a director to use. We present Diorama engine, a 3D directing tool for 3D computer animation. Diorama engine is a

Koji Mikami; Toru Tokuhara

2003-01-01

239

3-D Visualization for Civil Engineering Undergraduate Learning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Civil engineering analysis and modeling frequently reduces 3-D land features and structures to 2-D representations on such media as paper and overhead projection systems. Students often have trouble understanding the 3-D aspect of civil engineering problems because of the limitations of conventional 2-D representations. Many students find it difficult to understand how landforms from a topographic survey will impact a construction project, where a watershed is located, how beams and columns are connected in a building frame, what work will need to be done to excavate a foundation, or how to lay out a roadway. With the advent of new computer technologies, it is possible to take numerical 3-D data and render virtual computer models that are presented in 3-D, enhancing the learning experience in relation to both analysis and design in the civil engineering curriculum [1]. To this end, the College of Engineering at Valparaiso University has established the Scientific Visualization Laboratory to improve the learning experience for students for 3-D concepts that are hard to represent in conventional 2-D space [2-4]. Examples include electromagnetic fields, complex organic molecules, microelectronic circuit fabrications, force vectors, moving machines and their individual parts, terrain models, buildings, and bridges. Furthermore, the time dimension can be incorporated to create a 4-D model that can show the change over time of a 3-D model due to motion, loading, modifications, deterioration, and environmental effects. This paper describes our extension to the existing work done by the Scientific Visualization Laboratory to improve teaching methods in civil engineering by utilizing the 3-D displays of virtual reality hardware.

Will, Jeffrey D.; Leitch, Kenneth R.; Martin, Kristine E.

2009-11-04

240

Key technologies for an advanced 3D TV system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes recent advances in a number of R&D areas that are believed to provide 'key technologies' for the further development of a novel, digital, broadcast 3D-TV system. The provided results are part of the outcome of the European IST project ATTEST (Advanced Three-Dimensional Television System Technologies), a two-year research initiative that was finalized in March 2004. The paper covers some essential parts of the envisaged 3D signal processing chain such as the real-time generation of "virtual" stereoscopic views from monoscopic color video and associated per-pixel depth information as well as the efficient compression and the backwards-compatible transmission of this advanced data representation format using state-of-the-art video coding standards such as MPEG-2 (color data) and MPEG-4 Visual, resp. Advanced Video Coding (depth data). Furthermore, the paper also describes the development of a new, single-user autostereoscopic 3D-TV display (Free2C). This novel, high-quality 3D device utilizes a lenticular lens raster to separate two individual perspective views, which are presented simultaneously on an underlying LC panel. To provide the user with a satisfying 3D reproduction within a sufficiently large viewing area - a major problem for many state-of-the-art autostereoscopic 3D displays - the lenticular is constantly readjusted according to the viewer's actual head position, which is measured by a highly accurate, video-based tracking system. This approach allows for a variation of the viewing distance within a range of 400 mm to 1100 mm as well as horizontal head movements within a range of about +/-30°. The feasibility of the new 3D-TV concept is proved through extensive human factors evaluations of the before-described algorithms and components.

Fehn, Christoph; Hopf, Klaus; Quante, Birgit

2004-10-01

241

A 3-D anisotropic diffusion filter for speckle reduction in 3-D ultrasound images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we study speckle reduction technology for 3-D ultrasound images and a 3-D anisotropic diffusion (AD) filter is developed. The 3-D anisotropic diffusion filter works directly in the 3-D image domain and can overcome the limitations of the 2-D anisotropic diffusion filter and the traditional 3-D anisotropic diffusion filter. The proposed algorithm uses normalized gradient to replace gradient in the computation of the diffusion coefficients, which can reduce the speckle effectively while preserving the edges. Experiments have been performed on real 3-D ultrasound images and the experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed 3D anisotropic diffusion filter.

Tang, Jinshan; Sun, Qingling

2009-01-01

242

Benchmarks for target tracking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The term benchmark originates from the chiseled horizontal marks that surveyors made, into which an angle-iron could be placed to bracket ("bench") a leveling rod, thus ensuring that the leveling rod can be repositioned in exactly the same place in the future. A benchmark in computer terms is the result of running a computer program, or a set of programs, in order to assess the relative performance of an object by running a number of standard tests and trials against it. This paper will discuss the history of simulation benchmarks that are being used by multiple branches of the military and agencies of the US government. These benchmarks range from missile defense applications to chemical biological situations. Typically, a benchmark is used with Monte Carlo runs in order to tease out how algorithms deal with variability and the range of possible inputs. We will also describe problems that can be solved by a benchmark.

Dunham, Darin T.; West, Philip D.

2011-09-01

243

Extra dimensions: 3D and time in PDF documentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide, non-technical audience. We discuss how the field of radiation imaging could benefit from incorporating full 3D information about not only the detectors, but also the results of the experimental analyses, in its electronic publications. In this article, we present examples drawn from high-energy physics, mathematics and molecular biology which take advantage of this functionality. We demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input.

Graf, N. A.

2011-01-01

244

Implementation of 3D Optical Scanning Technology for Automotive Applications  

PubMed Central

Reverse engineering (RE) is a powerful tool for generating a CAD model from the 3D scan data of a physical part that lacks documentation or has changed from the original CAD design of the part. The process of digitizing a part and creating a CAD model from 3D scan data is less time consuming and provides greater accuracy than manually measuring the part and designing the part from scratch in CAD. 3D optical scanning technology is one of the measurement methods which have evolved over the last few years and it is used in a wide range of areas from industrial applications to art and cultural heritage. It is also used extensively in the automotive industry for applications such as part inspections, scanning of tools without CAD definition, scanning the casting for definition of the stock (i.e. the amount of material to be removed from the surface of the castings) model for CAM programs and reverse engineering. In this study two scanning experiments of automotive applications are illustrated. The first one examines the processes from scanning to re-manufacturing the damaged sheet metal cutting die, using a 3D scanning technique and the second study compares the scanned point clouds data to 3D CAD data for inspection purposes. Furthermore, the deviations of the part holes are determined by using different lenses and scanning parameters.

Kus, Abdil

2009-01-01

245

3D perturbations in an isothermal self-similar flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explore three-dimensional (3D) isothermal perturbation structures in a non-linear dynamic background of self-gravitating isothermal radial flow with spherical symmetry. The overall flow then appears quasi-spherically symmetric. Here, the dynamic background radial flow describes a self-similar evolution with a central/final free-fall asymptotic solution and a far-away/initial flow but without involving the sonic critical line (SCL). As transients peter out, 3D perturbations can consistently emerge and evolve in a self-similar manner with angular variations separated out in terms of spherical harmonics and with x?r/(at) as the independent self-similar variable where r, t and a are the radius, time and isothermal sound speed, respectively. Independent asymptotic perturbation solutions in large and small x regimes are derived analytically. Global 3D perturbation solutions are constructed numerically for sensible asymptotic solutions. The fifth-order perturbation equations have solutions of four curl-free modes and one vortex mode, with the former identified as multipole and antimultipole modes, P1 and P2 modes, respectively. Of the five solutions, four are of potential astrophysical interest and can be utilized for benchmarking numerical codes and simulation results. Our results show that perturbations may or may not grow in a free-fall manner, depending on initial perturbations in mass and velocity distribution. We also find that vortex mode can be converted to other modes during a collapse, and in the l= 1 case, mode conversion will serve to produce a gravitational dipole. For self-similar solutions characterized by envelope expansion with core collapse (EECC), global 3D isothermal perturbation configurations can also be constructed.

Lou, Yu-Qing; Bai, Xue-Ning

2011-07-01

246

The oo7 Benchmark  

Microsoft Academic Search

The OO7 Benchmark represents a comprehensive test of OODBMS performance. In thisreport we describe the benchmark and present performance results from its implementationin four OODB systems. It is our hope that the OO7 Benchmark will provide useful insightfor end-users evaluating the performance of OODB systems# we also hope that the researchcommunity will find that OO7 provides a database schema, instance,

Michael J. Carey; David J. Dewitt; Jeffrey F. Naughton

1993-01-01

247

The 007 Benchmark  

Microsoft Academic Search

The OO7 Benchmark represents a comprehensive test of OODBMS performance. In this paper we describe the benchmark and present performance results from its implementation in three OODBMS systems. It is our hope that the OO7 Benchmark will provide useful insight for end-users evaluating the performance of OODBMS systems; we also hope that the research community will find that OO7 provides

Michael J. Carey; David J. DeWitt; Jeffrey F. Naughton

1993-01-01

248

ATR for 3D medical imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a novel concept of Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) for 3D medical imaging. Such 3D imaging can be obtained from X-ray Computerized Tomography (CT), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Positron Emission Tomography (PET), Ultrasonography (USG), functional MRI, and others. In the case of CT, such 3D imaging can be derived from 3D-mapping of X-ray linear attenuation coefficients, related to 3D Fourier transform of Radon transform, starting from frame segmentation (or contour definition) into an object and background. Then, 3D template matching is provided, based on inertial tensor invariants, adopted from rigid body mechanics, by comparing the mammographic data base with a real object of interest, such as a malignant breast tumor. The method is more general than CAD breast mammography.

Jannson, Tomasz; Kostrzewski, Andrew; Paki Amouzou, P.

2007-10-01

249

3D Dense Correspondence for 3D Dense Morphable Face Shape Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Realistic 3D face model is desired in various applications such as face recognition, games, avatars, animations, and etc. Construction of 3D face model is composed of 1) building a face shape model and 2) rendering the face shape model. Thus, building a realistic 3D face shape model is an essential step for realistic 3D face model. Recently, 3D morphable model

Sun-Tae Chung; Seongwon Cho

2008-01-01

250

Stereo 3D vision adapter using commercial DIY goods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The conventional display can show only one screen, but it is impossible to enlarge the size of a screen, for example twice. Meanwhile the mirror supplies us with the same image but this mirror image is usually upside down. Assume that the images on an original screen and a virtual screen in the mirror are completely different and both images can be displayed independently. It would be possible to enlarge a screen area twice. This extension method enables the observers to show the virtual image plane and to enlarge a screen area twice. Although the displaying region is doubled, this virtual display could not produce 3D images. In this paper, we present an extension method using a unidirectional diffusing image screen and an improvement for displaying a 3D image using orthogonal polarized image projection.

Sakamoto, Kunio; Ohara, Takashi

2009-10-01

251

Intelligent interpretation of 3-D imagery  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report documents the research efforts of Advanced Information & Decision Systems (AI&DS) to develop three dimensional (3-D) object classification techniques for vehicle targets in air-to-ground laser range imagery. The authors emphasize an artificial intelligence (AI) approach to intelligently interpret laser imagery in terms of 3-D symbolic models. The full classification system includes 3-D image feature extraction, geometric modeling, model

D. Kuan; R. Drazovich

1983-01-01

252

The Inverse Kinematics of 3-D Towing  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This work addresses the kinematics of 3-D towing where multiple aerial robots are used to cooperatively transport a payload\\u000a using cables. In 3-D towing, it is important to determine the relative positions of the robots for the desired position and\\u000a orientation of the payload. This is actually the inverse kinematics problem of the 3-D towing. In the case with three

Qimi Jiang; Vijay Kumar

253

Extending MPML3D to Second Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an approach how to integrate virtual agents into the 3D multi-user online world Second Life. For this\\u000a purpose we have implemented a new client software for Second Life that controls virtual agents (“bots”) and makes use of the\\u000a Multimodal Presentation Markup Language 3D (MPML3D) to define their behavior. The technical merits and limitations of Second\\u000a Life are

Sebastian Ullrich; Helmut Prendinger; Mitsuru Ishizuka

2008-01-01

254

Nonlinear Dynamics of the 3D Pendulum  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 3D pendulum consists of a rigid body, supported at a fixed pivot, with three rotational degrees of freedom. The pendulum is acted on by a gravitational force. 3D pendulum dynamics have been much studied in integrable cases that arise when certain physical symmetry assumptions are made. This paper treats the non-integrable case of the 3D pendulum dynamics when the

Nalin A. Chaturvedi; Taeyoung Lee; Melvin Leok; N. Harris McClamroch

2011-01-01

255

Sequential priming of 3-D perceptual organization  

Microsoft Academic Search

In four experiments, the effects of sequential priming on the perceptual organization of complex three-dimensional (3-D) displays\\u000a were examined. Observers were asked to view stereoscopic arrays and to search an embedded subset of items for an odd-colored\\u000a target while 3-D orientation of the stimuli was varied randomly between trials. Search times decreased reliably when 3-D stimulus\\u000a orientation was unchanged on

Jason S. McCarley; Zijiang J. He

2001-01-01

256

Reconstruction for 3D immersive virtual environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The future of tele-conferencing is towards multi-party 3D Tele-Immersion (TI) and TI environments that can support realistic inter-personal communications and virtual interaction among participants. In this paper, we address two important issues, pertinent to TI environments. The paper focuses on techniques for the real-time, 3D reconstruction of moving humans from multiple Kinect devices. The off-line generation of real-life 3D scenes

D. S. Alexiadis; G. Kordelas; K. C Apostolakis; J. D. Agapito; J. M. Vegas; E. Izquierdo; P. Daras

2012-01-01

257

3D shape scanning with a Kinect  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a method for 3D object scanning by aligning depth and color scans which were taken from around an object with a Kinect camera. Our easy-to-use, cost-effective scanning solution could make 3D scanning technology more accessible to everyday users and turn 3D shape models into a much more widely used asset for many new applications, for instance in community

Yan Cui; Didier Stricker

2011-01-01

258

Saving lives through early detection: Breaking the PET efficiency barrier with the 3D-CBS  

Microsoft Academic Search

An innovative 3-D Complete-Body-Scan (3D-CBS) medical imaging device, combining the benefits of functional imaging capability of the Positron Emission Tomography (PET) with anatomical imaging capability of the Computed Tomography (CT), is presented. The unique architecture of the 3D-CBS electronics allows for the extension, in a cost-effective manner, of the axial field of view (FOV, which is the length of the

Dario B. Crosetto

259

High sensitivity, total body PET scanning using 3D data acquisition and reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A suitable 3-D total body scanning protocol is developed and compared with the standard 2-D clinical protocol using phantom data. An extension of the 3-D protocol to maximize sensitivity, axial sampling, and noise uniformity is proposed for future scanners. By combining 3-D data acquisition and reconstruction with a quasi-continuous axial bed motion, gains in signal-to-noise (S\\/N) of around 2 can

Simon R. Cherry; Magnus Dahlbom; Edward J. Hoffman

1992-01-01

260

System-level process variability analysis and mitigation for 3D MPSoCs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—While prior research,has extensively evaluated,the perfor- mance advantage of moving from a 2D to a 3D design style, the impact of process parameter,variations on 3D designs has been largely ignored. In this paper, we attempt to bridge this gap by proposing a variability-aware design framework,for fully-synchronous (FS) and multiple clock-domain (MCD) 3D systems. First, we develop analytical system-level models of

Siddharth Garg; Diana Marculescu

2009-01-01

261

Quantizing the void: extending Web3D for space-filling haptic meshes.  

PubMed

In this paper we summarize the progress of the Web3D scene graph model, and associated standards, specifically Extensible 3D (X3D) in the domain of medical simulation. Historically, the Web3D nodesets have focused on the representation and rendering of point, line or surface geometry. More recently, significant progress in X3D Volume rendering has been made available through the co-operative DICOM work item, n-Dimensional Presentation States. However, here we outline the need for a standard for simulation meshes and review several related approaches. As a result, we propose preliminary requirements for a simulation mesh standard and provide several use case scenarios of how Web3D and haptic technologies can aid the fulfillment of these requirements. We conclude with an X3D proposal to describe simulation meshes for soft (deformable) bodies. PMID:21335877

Ullrich, Sebastian; Kuhlen, Torsten; Polys, Nicholas F; Evestedt, Daniel; Aratow, Michael; John, Nigel W

2011-01-01

262

Intelligent interpretation of 3-D imagery  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the research efforts of Advanced Information and Decision Systems (AIandDS) to develop three-dimensional (3-D) object classification techniques for vehicle targets in air-to-ground laser range imagery. The authors emphasize an artificial intelligence (AI) approach to intelligently interpret laser imagery in terms of 3-D symbolic models. The full classification system includes 3-D image feature extraction, geometric modeling, model prediction, and feature-to-model matching. This report discusses new techniques for implmenting these major system components, and provides overall conclusions and discussion about the feasibility of developing an automated 3-D object classification system.

Kuan, D.; Drazovich, R.

1983-02-01

263

3-D IFS fractals as real-time graphics model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fractals have recently been attracting increasing research interest. Unlike conventional geometrical figures, fractals have unlimited details—a potentially useful feature for artistic images. One way to generate fractals is to use Iterated Function Systems (IFS). There have been significant research efforts on 2-D IFS. Programs for rendering 2-D IFS fractals are readily available. 3-D IFS appear to be a natural extension

Yan Qiu Chen; Guoan Bi

1997-01-01

264

3D simulations of early blood vessel formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blood vessel networks form by spontaneous aggregation of individual cells migrating toward vascularization sites (vasculogenesis). A successful theoretical model of two-dimensional experimental vasculogenesis has been recently proposed, showing the relevance of percolation concepts and of cell cross-talk (chemotactic autocrine loop) to the understanding of this self-aggregation process. Here we study the natural 3D extension of the computational model proposed earlier,

F. Cavalli; A. Gamba; G. Naldi; M. Semplice; D. Valdembri; G. Serini

2007-01-01

265

Non-Ideal ELM Stability and Non-Axisymmetric Field Penetration Calculations with M3D-C1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical studies of ELM stability and non-axisymmetric field penetration in diverted DIII-D and NSTX equilibria are presented, with resistive and finite Larmor radius effects included. These results are obtained with the nonlinear two-fluid code M3D-C1, which has recently been extended to allow linear non-axisymmetric calculations. Benchmarks of M3D-C1 with ideal codes ELITE and GATO show good agreement for the linear stability of peeling-ballooning modes in the ideal limit. New calculations of the resistive stability of ideally stable DIII-D equilibria are presented. M3D-C1 has also been used to calculate the linear response to non-axisymmetric external fields; these calculations are benchmarked with Surfmn and MARS-F. New numerical methods implemented in M3D-C1 are presented, including the treatment of boundary conditions with C^1 elements in a non-rectangular mesh.

Ferraro, N. M.; Chu, M. S.; Snyder, P. B.; Jardin, S. C.; Luo, X.

2009-11-01

266

Intermediate variable elimination in a global context for a 3D multimedia application  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 3D multimedia applications have been experiencing a tremendous growth in number and complexity. Such applications mainly consist of complex algorithms that process extensive amounts of data to create 3D images and results. For quick access, data need to be stored in small and expensive memories near the processor. Due to the increasing memory-processor gap in speed and the characteristics

M. Leeman; D. A. Alonso

2003-01-01

267

3D Facial Expression Recognition Based on Primitive Surface Feature Distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The creation of facial range models by 3D imaging sys- tems has led to extensive work on 3D face recognition (19). However, little work has been done to study the usefulness of such data for recognizing and understanding facial ex- pressions. Psychological research shows that the shape of a human face, a highly mobile facial surface, is critical to fa-

Jun Wang; Lijun Yin; Xiaozhou Wei; Yi Sun

2006-01-01

268

Video based 3D reconstruction using spatio-temporal attention analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

3D reconstruction has been widely used in many important applications. While extensive research has been done in 3D reconstruction, several key issues are still open and the precision of the recovered regions is still far from satisfaction. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to selecting regions of interest in video frames by analyzing multiple spatio-temporal characteristics and reconstructing

Xian Xiao; Changsheng Xu; Yong Rui

2010-01-01

269

3-D automatic mesh generation for FEA using dynamic bubble system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, an extension of the previously developed 2-D dynamic bubble system for 3-D automatic mesh generation using tetrahedral finite elements is presented. Initially, a set of vertices inside the entire analysis region is generated using a 3-D dynamic bubble system, followed by automatic mesh generation according to the Delaunay tessellation algorithm and the generated set of vertices. The

Takayuki Yokoyama; Vlatko Cingoski; Kazufumi Kaneda; Hideo Yamashita

1999-01-01

270

Goal directed benchmarking for organizational efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we extend the standard data envelopment analysis (DEA) model to include longer term top management goals. This extension is in recognition of the fact that benchmarking for decision making units (DMUs) is more than a purely monitoring process, and includes a component of future planning. The new model uses a goal programming structure to find points on

Theodor J. Stewart

2010-01-01

271

The Interactive 3D BreakAway Map: A navigation and examination aid for multi-floor 3D worlds  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose the Interactive 3D BreakAway Map (I3BAM), an extension of the well- known Worlds In Miniature (6). The I3BAM supports user navigation in virtual buildings as a navigation aid, but also provides a means of examining any floor of a virtual building without having to necessarily navigate it. The aid presents multiple views of a virtual

Luca Chittaro; Vijay Kumar Gatla; Subramanian Venkataraman

2005-01-01

272

3-D seismic data for geohazards assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three-dimensional (3-D) seismic data, acquired for oil and gas exploration purposes, is now being used to supplement, or in some cases, even replace conventional high resolution geohazard surveys in the Gulf of Mexico. The use of 3-D seismic data has improved the identification and understanding of some types of geohazards and has resulted in a more thorough interpretation of the

Gafford

1996-01-01

273

Analysis of 3D TV systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The success of a 3-D television system requires that the observer fuses the corresponding left and right images comfortably, and that the depth resolution in the image satisfies the requirements of the specific task for which the system is employed. An investigation into the performance of 3-D TV systems has revealed that both the extent of the comfortable stereo- region

Aladdin M. Ariyaeeinia

1993-01-01

274

Architecture of 3D laser TV system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A history of 3D laser TV system development is presented. Different types of an optical architecture for 2D and 3D laser TV are considered. Methods of optimization optical structure for application in laser television are described. Different existing optical simulation programs are compared. A program for calculation optical architecture with improved parameters is offered. To form stereo image based on

Sergey Biryuchinskiy; Konstantin Melnikov

2011-01-01

275

Stereo 3-D Vision in Teaching Physics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Stereo 3-D vision is a technology used to present images on a flat surface (screen, paper, etc.) and at the same time to create the notion of three-dimensional spatial perception of the viewed scene. A great number of physical processes are much better understood when viewed in stereo 3-D vision compared to standard flat 2-D presentation. The…

Zabunov, Svetoslav

2012-01-01

276

3D Information Visualisation: A Historical Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of 3D visualisation of digital information is a recent phenomenon. It relies on users understanding 3D perspectival spaces. Questions about the universal access of such spaces has been debated since its inception in the European Renaissance. Perspective has since become a strong cultural influence in Western visual communication. Perspective imaging assists the process of experimenting by the sketching

Theodor G. Wyeld

2005-01-01

277

3D, or Not to Be?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|It may be too soon for students to be showing up for class with popcorn and gummy bears, but technology similar to that behind the 3D blockbuster movie "Avatar" is slowly finding its way into college classrooms. 3D classroom projectors are taking students on fantastic voyages inside the human body, to the ruins of ancient Greece--even to faraway…

Norbury, Keith

2012-01-01

278

3d seismic techniques aid exploration, development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three-dimensional (3D) seismic techiques are rapidly becoming more acceptable as a geophysical exploration tool, especially as a tool for field development. This article reviews the procedures for 3D seismic data collection, processing and interpretation used in both land and marine environments. This is the third article in a series on new geophysical exploration technologies. 16 refs.

H. R. Jr

1981-01-01

279

Wow! 3D Content Awakens the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|From her first encounter with stereoscopic 3D technology designed for classroom instruction, Megan Timme, principal at Hamilton Park Pacesetter Magnet School in Dallas, sensed it could be transformative. Last spring, when she began pilot-testing 3D content in her third-, fourth- and fifth-grade classrooms, Timme wasn't disappointed. Students…

Gordon, Dan

2010-01-01

280

The 3D Model Acquisition Pipeline  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three-dimensional (3D) image acquisition systems are rapidly becoming more affordable, especially systems based on commodity electronic cameras. At the same time, personal computers with graphics hardware capable of displaying complex 3D models are also becoming inexpensive enough to be available to a large population. As a result, there is potentially an opportunity to consider new virtual reality applications as diverse

Fausto Bernardini; Holly E. Rushmeier

2002-01-01

281

3D SLAM for planetary worksite mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a robust framework suitable for conducting three-dimensional Simultaneous Lo- calization and Mapping (3D SLAM) in a planetary worksite environment. By utilizing a laser rangefinder mounted on a rover platform, we have demonstrated an approach that is able to create globally consistent maps of natural, unstructured 3D terrain. The framework presented in this paper utilizes a

Chi Hay Tong; Timothy D. Barfoot; Erick Dupuis

2011-01-01

282

Tilted planes in 3D image analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reliable 3D wholebody scanners which output digitized 3D images of a complete human body are now commercially available. This paper describes a software package, called 3DM, being developed by researchers at Clemson University and which manipulates and extracts measurements from such images. The focus of this paper is on tilted planes, a 3DM tool which allows a user to define

Roy P. Pargas; Nancy J. Staples; Brian F. Malloy; Ken Cantrell; Murtuza Chhatriwala

1998-01-01

283

3D high dynamic range display system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a new high dynamic range (HDR) display system that generates a physical 3D HDR image without using stereoscopic methods. To boost contrast beyond that obtained using either a hardcopy or a projector, we employ a multi-projection system to superimpose images onto a textured solid hardcopy that is output by a 3D printer or a rapid prototyping machine.

Saeko Shimazu; Daisuke Iwai; Kosuke Sato

2011-01-01

284

3D high dynamic range display system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a new high dynamic range (HDR) display system that generates a physical 3D HDR image without using stereoscopic methods. To boost contrast beyond that obtained using either a hardcopy or a projector, we employ a multiprojection system to superimpose images onto a textured solid hardcopy that is output by a 3D printer or a rapid prototyping machine.

Saeko Shimazu; Daisuke Iwai; Kosuke Sato

2011-01-01

285

[3D emulation of epicardium dynamic mapping].  

PubMed

In order to realize epicardium dynamic mapping of the whole atria, 3-D graphics are drawn with OpenGL. Some source codes are introduced in the paper to explain how to produce, read, and manipulate 3-D model data. PMID:16011109

Lu, Jun; Yang, Cui-Wei; Fang, Zu-Xiang

2005-03-01

286

3-D Video Representation Using Depth Maps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current 3-D video (3DV) technology is based on stereo systems. These systems use stereo video coding for pictures delivered by two input cameras. Typically, such stereo systems only reproduce these two camera views at the receiver and stereoscopic displays for multiple viewers require wearing special 3-D glasses. On the other hand, emerging autostereo- scopic multiview displays emit a large numbers

Karsten Muller; Philipp Merkle; Thomas Wiegand

2011-01-01

287

Asynchronous 3D Free Lagrange code.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

FLIT3D is a Free Lagrange code developed for three dimensional fluid flow and radiation transport on massively parallel computers. The acronym FLIT3D stands for Free Lagrange Independent Timesteps in 3 Dimensions. The basic ideas are developed from those ...

P. G. Eltgroth

1990-01-01

288

A Synthetic Benchmark  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple method of measuring performance is by means of a benchmark pro- gram. Unless such a program is carefully constructed it is unlikely to be typical of the many thousands of programs run at an installation. An example benchmark for measuring the processor power of scientific computers is presented: this is compared with other methods of assessing computer power.

H. J. Curnow; Brian A. Wichmann

1976-01-01

289

PNNL Information Technology Benchmarking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document describes the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (PNNL's) approach to information technology (IT) benchmarking. The purpose is to engage other organizations in the collaborative process of benchmarking in order to improve the value of IT services provided to customers. This document's intended audience consists of other U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratories and their IT staff. Although

David D. Hostetler; Jan E. Goolsbey; David A. Niesen; Anita C. Phillips

1999-01-01

290

Sieve of Eratosthenes Benchmarks for the Z8 FORTH Microcontroller.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents benchmarks for the Z8 FORTH microcontroller system that ORNL uses extensively in proving concepts and developing prototype test equipment for the Smart House Project. The results are based on the sieve of Eratosthenes algorithm, a cal...

R. Edwards

1989-01-01

291

Modeling of Non-Eroding Penetration Using ALE3D and Zapotec  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate predictions of non-eroding penetration are becoming a problem of increasing technological importance. Sandia's Zapotec (a coupling of Pronto3D and CTH) has been the code of choice for design purposes, but there have been some concerns expressed about relying on a single code methodology. Consequently, LLNL's ALE3D (which uses a slide line based approach) is currently being investigated for applicability. As a benchmark, we choose to model the penetration experiments of steel projectiles against aluminum targets to examine the differences between the two methodologies.

Cazamias, J. U.; Schraml, S. J.

2007-12-01

292

Real-time stereo 3D ultrasound.  

PubMed

Real-time 3D ultrasound was developed at Duke University in 1991 and has since been used with a variety of transducers and shown effectiveness in clinical applications and in vivo animal imaging studies. Methods for displaying the 3D pyramid of data acquired by the system include selecting 2D image slices or integrating data into a volume rendered view. A third method, real-time stereo 3D imaging, is discussed here. The clinical commercial 3D system has been modified in our laboratory to display a real-time stereo image pair on the scanner display to be viewed through a stereoscope. This merges the pair into a single image, with a sensation of depth. Stereoscopic displays have previously been demonstrated to provide benefits, including improved depth judgments and increased perception of image quality in other applications. Previously-saved volumes of ultrasound data are shown in stereo 3D using the new system. PMID:17521045

Noble, Joanna R; Fronheiser, Matthew P; Smith, Stephen W

2006-10-01

293

Fabrication of 3D Silicon Sensors  

SciTech Connect

Silicon sensors with a three-dimensional (3-D) architecture, in which the n and p electrodes penetrate through the entire substrate, have many advantages over planar silicon sensors including radiation hardness, fast time response, active edge and dual readout capabilities. The fabrication of 3D sensors is however rather complex. In recent years, there have been worldwide activities on 3D fabrication. SINTEF in collaboration with Stanford Nanofabrication Facility have successfully fabricated the original (single sided double column type) 3D detectors in two prototype runs and the third run is now on-going. This paper reports the status of this fabrication work and the resulted yield. The work of other groups such as the development of double sided 3D detectors is also briefly reported.

Kok, A.; Hansen, T.E.; Hansen, T.A.; Lietaer, N.; Summanwar, A.; /SINTEF, Oslo; Kenney, C.; Hasi, J.; /SLAC; Da Via, C.; /Manchester U.; Parker, S.I.; /Hawaii U.

2012-06-06

294

tomo3d: a new 3-D joint refraction and reflection travel-time tomography code for active-source seismic data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the development state of tomo3d, a code for three-dimensional refraction and reflection travel-time tomography of wide-angle seismic data based on the previous two-dimensional version of the code, tomo2d. The core of both forward and inverse problems is inherited from the 2-D version. The ray tracing is performed by a hybrid method combining the graph and bending methods. The graph method finds an ordered array of discrete model nodes, which satisfies Fermat's principle, that is, whose corresponding travel time is a global minimum within the space of discrete nodal connections. The bending method is then applied to produce a more accurate ray path by using the nodes as support points for an interpolation with beta-splines. Travel time tomography is formulated as an iterative linearized inversion, and each step is solved using an LSQR algorithm. In order to avoid the singularity of the sensitivity kernel and to reduce the instability of inversion, regularization parameters are introduced in the inversion in the form of smoothing and damping constraints. Velocity models are built as 3-D meshes, and velocity values at intermediate locations are obtained by trilinear interpolation within the corresponding pseudo-cubic cell. Meshes are sheared to account for topographic relief. A floating reflector is represented by a 2-D grid, and depths at intermediate locations are calculated by bilinear interpolation within the corresponding square cell. The trade-off between the resolution of the final model and the associated computational cost is controlled by the relation between the selected forward star for the graph method (i.e. the number of nodes that each node considers as its neighbors) and the refinement of the velocity mesh. Including reflected phases is advantageous because it provides a better coverage and allows us to define the geometry of those geological interfaces with velocity contrasts sharp enough to be observed on record sections. The code also offers the possibility of including water-layer multiples in the modeling, whenever this phase can be followed to greater offsets than the primary phases. This increases the quantity of useful information in the data and yields more extensive and better constrained velocity and geometry models. We will present results from benchmark tests for forward and inverse problems, as well as synthetic tests comparing an inversion with refractions only and another one with both refractions and reflections.

Meléndez, A.; Korenaga, J.; Sallarès, V.; Ranero, C. R.

2012-04-01

295

Cookoff Response of PBXN-109: Material Characterization and ALE3D Thermal Predictions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Materials properties measurements are made for the RDX-based explosive, PBXN-109, and initial ALE3D model predictions are given for the cookoff temperature in a U.S. Navy test. This work is part of an effort in the U.S. Navy and Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories to understand the thermal explosion behavior of this material. Benchmark cookoff experiments are being performed by the

M A McClelland; T D Tran; B J Cunningham; R K Weese; J L Maienschein

2001-01-01

296

Cookoff response of PBXN-109: material characterization and ALE3D model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Materials properties measurements are made for the RDX-based explosive, PBXN-109, and an initial ALE3D model for cookoff is discussed. A significant effort is underway in the U.S. Navy and Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories to understand the thermal explosion behavior of this material. Benchmark cookoff experiments are being performed by the U.S. Navy to validate DOE materials models and computer

M A McClelland; T D Tran; B J Cunningham; R K Weese; J L Maienschein

2000-01-01

297

Development and validation of the three-dimensional dynamic code—KIKO3D  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-dimensional reactor dynamics program—KIKO3D—for coupled neutron kinetics and thermohydraulics calculation of VVER type pressurized water reactor cores has been developed and benchmarked. For solution of the time dependent neutronic equations, a nodal method was used. Concerning the geometry, the symmetries of the nodes, and the concrete form of the neutronic equations to be solved inside the nodes (transport or

A. Keresztúri; Gy. Hegyi; Cs. Marázcy; I. Panka; M. Telbisz; I. Trosztel; Cs. Hegedüs

2003-01-01

298

Quasi-3D Modeling of Shear Waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shear waves were first addressed by Oltman-Shay et. al (1989). Since then, they have been studied intensively. Most of these studies are either based on linear stability analysis or direct simulation utilizing nonlinear shallow water equations. One reason that shear waves attract so much attention is that they are believed to be a plausible mechanism that could contribute to the mixing in the nearshore circulation modeling. On the other hand, Svendsen and Putrevu (1994) found that the 3D structure of currents will also introduce momentum mixing which is similar to the dispersion effect discovered by Taylor (1954), and which is at least one order larger than the turbulence mixing. In this work, we will utilize a quasi-3D nearshore circulation model SHORECIRC (Svendsen et. al, 2000) to simulate finite amplitude shear waves. Our purpose was to investigate how the 3D dispersion mixing and the lateral mixing provided by the shear waves affect each other. To achieve this, 2D and quasi-3D numerical experiments are carried out simultaneously. Our calculations showed that shear waves are more organized in the quasi-3D simulation than that in 2D simulation. We also found that under certain circumstances, the mixing provided by shear waves can be even stronger than that of the 3D dispersive mixing. As the shear waves grow, the 3D dispersive mixing decreases.

Zhao, Q.; Svendsen, I.

2001-12-01

299

Multiview 3D reconstruction in geosciences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiview three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction is a technology that allows the creation of 3D models of a given scenario from a series of overlapping pictures taken using consumer-grade digital cameras. This type of 3D reconstruction is facilitated by freely available software, which does not require expert-level skills. This technology provides a 3D working environment, which integrates sample/field data visualization and measurement tools. In this study, we test the potential of this method for 3D reconstruction of decimeter-scale objects of geological interest. We generated 3D models of three different outcrops exposed in a marble quarry and two solids: a volcanic bomb and a stalagmite. Comparison of the models obtained in this study using the presented method with those obtained using a precise laser scanner shows that multiview 3D reconstruction yields models that present a root mean square error/average linear dimensions between 0.11 and 0.68%. Thus this technology turns out to be an extremely promising tool, which can be fruitfully applied in geosciences.

Favalli, M.; Fornaciai, A.; Isola, I.; Tarquini, S.; Nannipieri, L.

2012-07-01

300

3D Face Modeling based on 3D Dense Morphable Face Shape Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Realistic 3D face model is more precise in representing pose, illumination, and expression of face than 2D face model so that it can be utilized usefully in various applications such as face recognition, games, avatars, animations, and etc. In this paper, we propose a 3D face modeling method based on 3D dense morphable shape model. The proposed 3D modeling method

Yongsuk Jang Kim; Sun-Tae Chung; Boogyun Kim; Seongwon Cho

2008-01-01

301

Computation of 3-D velocity fields from 3-D cine CT images of a human heart  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of computing the three-dimensional (3-D) velocity field from 3-D cine computer tomographs (CTs) of a beating heart is proposed. Using continuum theory, the authors develop two constraints on the 3-D velocity field generated by a beating heart. With these constraints, the computation of the 3-D velocity field is formulated as an optimization problem and a solution to the

Samuel M. Song; Richard M. Leahy

1991-01-01

302

Efficient 3-D model search and retrieval using generalized 3-D radon transforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measuring the similarity between three-dimensional (3-D) objects is a challenging problem, with applications in computer vision, molecular biology, computer graphics, and many other areas. This paper describes a novel method for 3-D model content-based search based on the 3-D Generalized Radon Transform and a querying by-3-D-model approach. A set of descriptor vectors is extracted using the Radial Integration Transform (RIT)

Petros Daras; Dimitrios Zarpalas; Dimitrios Tzovaras; Michael Gerassimos Strintzis

2006-01-01

303

3-D COSMOS: a new 3-D model based computerised operation simulation and navigation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new three-dimensional (3-D) model based system for preoperative planning, simulating the operation and transfer of the operation from 3-D model to patient (navigation) is to be introduced. A computer controlled digitizer with specially designed software enables 3-D measurement and symmetry analysis on the 3-D model with a precision better than 0.01 mm (SD: 0.05 mm, range: ?0.2 to +0.04

Gert Santler

2000-01-01

304

3D optical measuring technologies for industrial applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Automatic dimensional inspection of 3D articles with high resolution and productivity is an urgent problem for industry. It takes solving some measurement basic and applied tasks. Using the optical inspection methods, it is essential to take into account the influence of 3D bodies' extension on their Fraunhofer diffraction pattern and images. This influence strongly depends on the configuration of illumination, which therefore is fundamentally important. The solution for diffraction phenomena by volumetric slit under inclined plane and spherical wave illumination has been represented. The obtained results can be applied for investigation of formation and high-frequency filtering images of 3D bodies of constant thickness. Ensuring the safety and high operation reliability of nuclear reactors takes 100% inspection of geometrical parameters of fuel assemblies, which include the spacer grids performed as cellular structure with fuel elements. The required spacer grids geometry of assembly in the transverse and longitudinal cross sections is extremely important for maintaining the necessary heat regime. A universal method for 3D spacer grid inspection using the diffractive optical element, which generates as the structural illumination, a multiple-ring pattern on the inner surface of a spacer grid cell is investigated. Using some diffractive optical elements one can inspect the nomenclature of all produced grids. Experimental results for semi-industrial version of spacer grid inspection system are presented. A structured light method and testing results of pilot system for noncontact inspection of wire wear and its defects for train electro-supply network are given and discussed.

Chugui, Yuri; Verkhogliad, Alexander; Kalikin, Vadim; Zav'yalov, Peter

2011-05-01

305

Extra dimensions: 3d and time in pdf documentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High energy physics is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide audience. In this talk, we present examples of HEP applications which take advantage of this functionality. We demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input. Using this technique, higher dimensional data, such as LEGO plots or time-dependent information can be included in PDF files. In principle, a complete event display, with full interactivity, can be incorporated into a PDF file. This would allow the end user not only to customize the view and representation of the data, but to access the underlying data itself.

Graf, N. A.

2008-07-01

306

Computational model of stereoscopic 3D visual saliency.  

PubMed

Many computational models of visual attention performing well in predicting salient areas of 2D images have been proposed in the literature. The emerging applications of stereoscopic 3D display bring an additional depth of information affecting the human viewing behavior, and require extensions of the efforts made in 2D visual modeling. In this paper, we propose a new computational model of visual attention for stereoscopic 3D still images. Apart from detecting salient areas based on 2D visual features, the proposed model takes depth as an additional visual dimension. The measure of depth saliency is derived from the eye movement data obtained from an eye-tracking experiment using synthetic stimuli. Two different ways of integrating depth information in the modeling of 3D visual attention are then proposed and examined. For the performance evaluation of 3D visual attention models, we have created an eye-tracking database, which contains stereoscopic images of natural content and is publicly available, along with this paper. The proposed model gives a good performance, compared to that of state-of-the-art 2D models on 2D images. The results also suggest that a better performance is obtained when depth information is taken into account through the creation of a depth saliency map, rather than when it is integrated by a weighting method. PMID:23412612

Wang, Junle; Da Silva, Matthieu Perreira; Le Callet, Patrick; Ricordel, Vincent

2013-02-11

307

Multiframe fusion of undersampled 3D imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

3D imaging LADAR Avalanche Photo-Diode (APD) arrays are emerging as an important technology for future generation remote sensing and reconnaissance systems. One important limiting factor in their development is the pixel pitch, which is typically 100 micrometers. This makes the spatial resolution of an APD array at least 10 times lower than their Charge Coupled Device (CCD) array counterparts. With the development of smaller pixel-pitch APD arrays in 3D applications that rival those of CCD's used in 2D imaging many years away, this research endeavors to fuse 3D images with poor spatial resolution with 2D images to obtain superior spatial and range resolution. Microscanning or dithering is a technique used to combine multiple images of the same scene to obtain a more densely sampled version. This techniques has been applied successfully to both 2D and 3D imagery. In this paper, a standard microscanning approach is compared to a new technique involving the use of a properly sampled 2D image combined with multiple low-resolution 3D images in order to obtain a more densely sample 3D image. The comparison will report the mean squared range error obtained from the traditional microscanning approach and the new 2D/3D fusion approach as a function of the number of 3D frames used in the image reconstruction. Since the 2D image contains no range information, improvements in mean squared range error by the new algorithm demonstrate its ability to successfully fuse 2D add 3D information.

Cain, Stephen C.

2012-10-01

308

Benchmarking and the laboratory  

PubMed Central

This article describes how benchmarking can be used to assess laboratory performance. Two benchmarking schemes are reviewed, the Clinical Benchmarking Company's Pathology Report and the College of American Pathologists' Q-Probes scheme. The Clinical Benchmarking Company's Pathology Report is undertaken by staff based in the clinical management unit, Keele University with appropriate input from the professional organisations within pathology. Five annual reports have now been completed. Each report is a detailed analysis of 10 areas of laboratory performance. In this review, particular attention is focused on the areas of quality, productivity, variation in clinical practice, skill mix, and working hours. The Q-Probes scheme is part of the College of American Pathologists programme in studies of quality assurance. The Q-Probes scheme and its applicability to pathology in the UK is illustrated by reviewing two recent Q-Probe studies: routine outpatient test turnaround time and outpatient test order accuracy. The Q-Probes scheme is somewhat limited by the small number of UK laboratories that have participated. In conclusion, as a result of the government's policy in the UK, benchmarking is here to stay. Benchmarking schemes described in this article are one way in which pathologists can demonstrate that they are providing a cost effective and high quality service. Key Words: benchmarking • pathology

Galloway, M; Nadin, L

2001-01-01

309

The 3D Object Mediator: Handling 3D Models on Internet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 3D Object MEdiator (3DOME 3 ) ofiers two services for handling 3D models: a modelshop and a renderfarm. These services can be consulted through the Internet. The modelshop meets the demands for brokerage of geometric descriptions of 3D models. People who create ge- ometric models of objects can supply their models to the modelshop and 3DOME will ofier them

Arjan J. F. Kok; Joost Van Lawick Van Pabst; Hamideh Afsarmanesh

1997-01-01

310

Ray phase space approach for 3-D imaging and 3-D optical data representation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a framework to model, analyze and design three-dimensional (3-D) imaging systems. A system engineering approach is adopted which relates 3-D images (real or synthesized) to 3-D objects (real or synthesized) using a novel representation of the optical data which we call \\

Adrian Stern; Bahram Javidi

2005-01-01

311

3D packaging for integrated circuit systems  

SciTech Connect

A goal was set for high density, high performance microelectronics pursued through a dense 3D packing of integrated circuits. A {open_quotes}tool set{close_quotes} of assembly processes have been developed that enable 3D system designs: 3D thermal analysis, silicon electrical through vias, IC thinning, mounting wells in silicon, adhesives for silicon stacking, pretesting of IC chips before commitment to stacks, and bond pad bumping. Validation of these process developments occurred through both Sandia prototypes and subsequent commercial examples.

Chu, D.; Palmer, D.W. [eds.

1996-11-01

312

The ESO 3D Visualisation Tool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ESO 3D visualisation tool provides the capability for visualisation and basic scientific exploitation of 3D spectroscopic datasets obtained with VLT integral field unit instrumentation, including MUSE. The tool was implemented as part of the ALMA CASA software viewer and as such provides the opportunity to view ALMA data as well as VLT 3D data within the same tool. Recently, the first version of the visualisation tool, featuring optical and near-infrared spectroscopic capabilities, has been completed and we describe the released software which is available for Mac OS X and Linux systems.

Kuntschner, H.; Kümmel, M.; Westmoquette, M.; Ballester, P.; Pasquini, L.

2012-12-01

313

Investigations in massive 3D gravity  

SciTech Connect

Some interesting gravitational properties of the Bergshoeff-Hohm-Townsend model (massive 3D gravity), such as the presence of a short-range gravitational force in the nonrelativistic limit and the existence of an impact-parameter-dependent gravitational deflection angle, are studied. Interestingly enough, these phenomena have no counterpart in the usual Einstein 3D gravity. In order to better understand the two aforementioned gravitational properties, they are also analyzed in the framework of 3D higher-derivative gravity with the Einstein-Hilbert term with the 'wrong sign'.

Accioly, Antonio [Laboratorio de Fisica Experimental (LAFEX), Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud 150, Urca, 22290-180, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Instituto de Fisica Teorica (IFT), Sao Paulo State University (UNESP), Rua Dr. Bento Teobaldo Ferraz 271, Bloco II-Barra Funda, 01140-070, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Helayeel-Neto, Jose; Morais, Jefferson; Turcati, Rodrigo [Laboratorio de Fisica Experimental (LAFEX), Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud 150, Urca, 22290-180, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Scatena, Eslley [Instituto de Fisica Teorica (IFT), Sao Paulo State University (UNESP), Rua Dr. Bento Teobaldo Ferraz 271, Bloco II-Barra Funda, 01140-070, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

2011-05-15

314

3D Animations of Fresnel's Equations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To better understand Fresnel's equations, it is beneficial to have full 3D animations in order to help demonstrate numerous physical happenings. We would like to show the laws of reflection, refraction, image formation and polarization in 3D animations. With these models, we will also be able to show phenomena such as total internal reflection and total refraction, including various laws and principles ranging from Huygen to Snell and Rayleigh. Considering these trends have not yet been animated in full 3D models, it is our ultimate goal to do so as a way to better observe, dissect, and understand the inner and outer workings of Fresnel's equations.

May, Donald; Parish, Daniel; Nobra, Richard; Golden, Ashley; Kanaujiya, Naresh; Debnam, Jessica

2009-04-01

315

Modeling cell migration in 3D  

PubMed Central

Cell migration is a multi-scale process that integrates signaling, mechanics and biochemical reaction kinetics. Various mathematical models accurately predict cell migration on 2D surfaces, but are unable to capture the complexities of 3D migration. Additionally, quantitative 3D cell migration models have been few and far between. In this review we look and characterize various mathematical models available in literature to predict cell migration in 3D matrices and analyze their strengths and possible changes to these models that could improve their predictive capabilities.

Rangarajan, Rajagopal

2008-01-01

316

DSI3D-RCS test case manual  

SciTech Connect

The DSI3D-RCS code is designed to numerically evaluate radar cross sections on complex objects by solving Maxwell`s curl equations in the time-domain and in three space dimensions. The code has been designed to run on the new parallel processing computers as well as on conventional serial computers. The DSI3D-RCS code has been used to solve the following problems: (1) wedge cylinder--thin flat metal plate; (2) wedge cylinder with plate extension--thin flat metal plate; (3) plate with half cylinder extension--thin flat metal plate; (4) rectangular plate (business card)--thin flat metal plate; (5) wedge cylinder with gap--thin flat metal plate; (6) NASA Almond; (7) wavelength circular cavity. In order to generate each of the angle sweeps, it was necessary to run DSI3D once for each data point on the graphs. This is because these are backscatter calculations, and the incident pulse comes from a different direction as the angle {phi} is changed.

Madsen, N.; Steich, D.; Cook, G.; Eme, B.

1995-08-01

317

Toxicological Benchmarks for Wildlife  

SciTech Connect

Ecological risks of environmental contaminants are evaluated by using a two-tiered process. In the first tier, a screening assessment is performed where concentrations of contaminants in the environment are compared to no observed adverse effects level (NOAEL)-based toxicological benchmarks. These benchmarks represent concentrations of chemicals (i.e., concentrations presumed to be nonhazardous to the biota) in environmental media (water, sediment, soil, food, etc.). While exceedance of these benchmarks does not indicate any particular level or type of risk, concentrations below the benchmarks should not result in significant effects. In practice, when contaminant concentrations in food or water resources are less than these toxicological benchmarks, the contaminants may be excluded from further consideration. However, if the concentration of a contaminant exceeds a benchmark, that contaminant should be retained as a contaminant of potential concern (COPC) and investigated further. The second tier in ecological risk assessment, the baseline ecological risk assessment, may use toxicological benchmarks as part of a weight-of-evidence approach (Suter 1993). Under this approach, based toxicological benchmarks are one of several lines of evidence used to support or refute the presence of ecological effects. Other sources of evidence include media toxicity tests, surveys of biota (abundance and diversity), measures of contaminant body burdens, and biomarkers. This report presents NOAEL- and lowest observed adverse effects level (LOAEL)-based toxicological benchmarks for assessment of effects of 85 chemicals on 9 representative mammalian wildlife species (short-tailed shrew, little brown bat, meadow vole, white-footed mouse, cottontail rabbit, mink, red fox, and whitetail deer) or 11 avian wildlife species (American robin, rough-winged swallow, American woodcock, wild turkey, belted kingfisher, great blue heron, barred owl, barn owl, Cooper's hawk, and red-tailed hawk, osprey) (scientific names for both the mammalian and avian species are presented in Appendix B). [In this document, NOAEL refers to both dose (mg contaminant per kg animal body weight per day) and concentration (mg contaminant per kg of food or L of drinking water)]. The 20 wildlife species were chosen because they are widely distributed and provide a representative range of body sizes and diets. The chemicals are some of those that occur at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) waste sites. The NOAEL-based benchmarks presented in this report represent values believed to be nonhazardous for the listed wildlife species; LOAEL-based benchmarks represent threshold levels at which adverse effects are likely to become evident. These benchmarks consider contaminant exposure through oral ingestion of contaminated media only. Exposure through inhalation and/or direct dermal exposure are not considered in this report.

Sample, B.E. Opresko, D.M. Suter, G.W.

1993-01-01

318

HNV-3D: Multipurpose Head Mounted Display.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

HNV-3D stand for Holographic Night Vision goggles with 3 Dimensional vision perception and sensor fusion. They have been especially developed for the advanced future needs of individual soldiers, drivers, special forces, helicopter crew, The lightweight H...

1999-01-01

319

3D visualization of simulated construction operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant advances have been made in the field of construction process modeling. However, no convenient graphical support tools exist that can depict the modeled operations in 3D. This results in the \\

Vineet R. Kamat; Julio C. Martinez

2000-01-01

320

Resolution characteritazion of 3D cameras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Resolution analysis represents a 2D imaging topic for the use of particular targets for equipment characterization. These concepts can be extended in 3D imaging through the use of specific tridimensional target object. The core of this paper is focused on experimental characterization of seven different 3D laser scanner through the extraction of resolution, accuracy and uncertainly parameters from 3D target object. The process of every single range map defined by the same resolution leads to different results as z-resolution, optical resolution, linear and angular accuracy. The aim of this research is to suggest a characterization process mainly based on resolution and accuracy parameters that allow a reliable comparison between 3D scanner performances.

Guidi, G.; Russo, M.; Magrassi, G.; Bordegoni, M.

2009-01-01

321

3-D Nonlinear Evolution of MHd Instabilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The nonlinear evolution of ideal MHD internal instabilities is investigated in straight cylindrical geometry by means of a 3-D initial-value computer code. These instabilities are characterized by pairs of velocity vortex cells rolling off each other and ...

G. Bateman H. R. Hicks J. W. Wooten

1977-01-01

322

Magnetic Dipole Field 3D Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Magnetic Dipole Field 3D Model displays the field lines and field vectors of a dipole located at the origin and oriented along the z-axis. Users can compute the field line passing through a point by dragging the a marker within the 3D view. Users can also visualize the field vectors in a plane passing though the center of the dipole. The Magnetic Dipole Field 3D Model was developed using the Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_em_MagneticDipole3D.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. EJS is a part of the Open Source Physics Project and is designed to make it easier to access, modify, and generate computer models.

Christian, Wolfgang

2012-08-11

323

Microscopy in 3D: a biologist's toolbox  

PubMed Central

The power of fluorescence microscopy to study cellular structures and macromolecular complexes spans a wide range of size scales, from studies of cell behavior and function in physiological, three-dimensional (3D) environments, to understanding the molecular architecture of organelles. At each length scale, the challenge in 3D imaging is to extract the most spatial and temporal resolution possible while limiting photodamage/bleaching to living cells. A number of advancements in 3D fluorescence microscopy now offer higher resolution, improved speed, and reduced photobleaching relative to traditional point-scanning microscopy methods. Here, we discuss a few specific microscopy modalities that we believe will be particularly advantageous in imaging cells and subcellular structures in physiologically relevant 3D environments.

Fischer, Robert S.; Wu, Yicong; Kanchanawong, Pakorn; Shroff, Hari; Waterman, Clare M.

2012-01-01

324

3D Laser Radar Vision Processor System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Loral Defense Systems (LDS) developed a 3D Laser Radar Vision Processor system capable of detecting, classifying, and identifying small mobile targets as well as larger fixed targets using three dimensional laser radar imagery for use with a robotic type ...

T. M. Sebok

1990-01-01

325

Benchmarking ENDF/B-VII.0  

SciTech Connect

The new major release VII.0 of the ENDF/B nuclear data library has been tested extensively using benchmark calculations. These were based upon MCNP-4C3 continuous-energy Monte Carlo neutronics simulations, together with nuclear data processed using the code NJOY. Three types of benchmarks were used, viz., criticality safety benchmarks (fusion) shielding benchmarks, and reference systems for which the effective delayed neutron fraction is reported. For criticality safety, more than 700 benchmarks from the International Handbook of Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments were used. Benchmarks from all categories were used, ranging from low-enriched uranium, compound fuel, thermal spectrum ones (LEU-COMP-THERM), to mixed uranium-plutonium, metallic fuel, fast spectrum ones (MIX-MET-FAST). For fusion shielding many benchmarks were based on IAEA specifications for the Oktavian experiments (for Al, Co, Cr, Cu, LiF, Mn, Mo, Si, Ti, W, Zr), Fusion Neutronics Source in Japan (for Be, C O, Fe, Pb), and Pulsed Sphere experiments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (for {sup 6}Li, {sup 7}Li, Be, C, N, O, Mg, Al, Ti, Fe, Pb, D{sub 2}O, H{sub 2}O, concrete, polyethylene and teflon). For testing delayed neutron data more than thirty measurements in widely varying systems were used. Among these were measurements in the Tank Critical Assembly (TCA in Japan) and IPEN/MB-01 (Brazil), both with a thermal spectrum, and two cores in Masurca (France) and three cores in the Fast Critical Assembly (FCA, Japan), all with fast spectra. In criticality safety, many benchmarks were chosen from the category with a thermal spectrum, low-enriched uranium, compound fuel (LEU-COMP-THERM), because this is typical of most current-day reactors, and because these benchmarks were previously underpredicted by as much as 0.5% by most nuclear data libraries (such as ENDF/B-VI.8, JEFF-3.0). The calculated results presented here show that this underprediction is no longer there for ENDF/B-VII.0. The average over 257 benchmarks deviates only 0.017% from the measured benchmark value. Moreover, no clear trends (with e.g. enrichment, lattice pitch, or spectrum) have been observed. Also for fast spectrum benchmarks, both for intermediately or highly enriched uranium and for plutonium, clear improvements are apparent from the calculations. The results for bare assemblies have improved, as well as those with a depleted or natural uranium reflector. On the other hand, the results for plutonium solutions (PU-SOL-THERM) are still high, on average (over 120 benchmarks) roughly 0.6%. Furthermore there still is a bias for a range of benchmarks based on cores in the Zero Power Reactor (ANL) with sizable amounts of tungsten in them. The results for the fusion shielding benchmarks have not changed significantly, compared to ENDF/B-VI.8, for most materials. The delayed neutron testing shows that the values for both thermal and fast spectrum cases are now well predicted, which is an improvement when compared with ENDF/B-VI.8.

Marck, Steven C. van der [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group NRG, P.O. Box, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)]. E-mail: vandermarck@nrg-nl.com

2006-12-15

326

Benchmarking ENDF/B-VII.0  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new major release VII.0 of the ENDF/B nuclear data library has been tested extensively using benchmark calculations. These were based upon MCNP-4C3 continuous-energy Monte Carlo neutronics simulations, together with nuclear data processed using the code NJOY. Three types of benchmarks were used, viz., criticality safety benchmarks, (fusion) shielding benchmarks, and reference systems for which the effective delayed neutron fraction is reported. For criticality safety, more than 700 benchmarks from the International Handbook of Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments were used. Benchmarks from all categories were used, ranging from low-enriched uranium, compound fuel, thermal spectrum ones (LEU-COMP-THERM), to mixed uranium-plutonium, metallic fuel, fast spectrum ones (MIX-MET-FAST). For fusion shielding many benchmarks were based on IAEA specifications for the Oktavian experiments (for Al, Co, Cr, Cu, LiF, Mn, Mo, Si, Ti, W, Zr), Fusion Neutronics Source in Japan (for Be, C, N, O, Fe, Pb), and Pulsed Sphere experiments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (for 6Li, 7Li, Be, C, N, O, Mg, Al, Ti, Fe, Pb, D2O, H2O, concrete, polyethylene and teflon). For testing delayed neutron data more than thirty measurements in widely varying systems were used. Among these were measurements in the Tank Critical Assembly (TCA in Japan) and IPEN/MB-01 (Brazil), both with a thermal spectrum, and two cores in Masurca (France) and three cores in the Fast Critical Assembly (FCA, Japan), all with fast spectra. In criticality safety, many benchmarks were chosen from the category with a thermal spectrum, low-enriched uranium, compound fuel (LEU-COMP-THERM), because this is typical of most current-day reactors, and because these benchmarks were previously underpredicted by as much as 0.5% by most nuclear data libraries (such as ENDF/B-VI.8, JEFF-3.0). The calculated results presented here show that this underprediction is no longer there for ENDF/B-VII.0. The average over 257 benchmarks deviates only 0.017% from the measured benchmark value. Moreover, no clear trends (with e.g. enrichment, lattice pitch, or spectrum) have been observed. Also for fast spectrum benchmarks, both for intermediately or highly enriched uranium and for plutonium, clear improvements are apparent from the calculations. The results for bare assemblies have improved, as well as those with a depleted or natural uranium reflector. On the other hand, the results for plutonium solutions (PU-SOL-THERM) are still high, on average (over 120 benchmarks) roughly 0.6%. Furthermore there still is a bias for a range of benchmarks based on cores in the Zero Power Reactor (ANL) with sizable amounts of tungsten in them. The results for the fusion shielding benchmarks have not changed significantly, compared to ENDF/B-VI.8, for most materials. The delayed neutron testing shows that the values for both thermal and fast spectrum cases are now well predicted, which is an improvement when compared with ENDF/B-VI.8.

van der Marck, Steven C.

2006-12-01

327

Rapid calibration for 3-D freehand ultrasound  

Microsoft Academic Search

3-D freehand ultrasound is a new imaging technique that is rapidly finding clinical applications. A position-sensing device is attached to a conventional ultrasound probe so that, as B-scans are acquired, they can be labelled with their relative positions and orientations. This allows a 3-D data set to be constructed from the B-scans. A key requirement of all freehand imaging systems

R. W. Prager; R. N. Rohling; A. H. Gee; L. Berman

1998-01-01

328

Perception of detail in 3D images  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lot of current 3D displays suffer from the fact that their spatial resolution is lower compared to their 2D counterparts. One reason for this is that the multiple views needed to generate 3D are often spatially multiplexed. Besides this, imperfect separation of the left- and right-eye view leads to blurring or ghosting, and therefore to a decrease in perceived

I. Heyndrickx; R. Kaptein

2009-01-01

329

3-D atlas of stars and galaxies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three comprehensive full-sky map sequences, each including 3-D stereographs are presented. They cover local space (out to about 25 pc), regional space (showing the naked-eye stars to magnitude 6.5 and distant space (large-scale groupings of over 20,000 galaxies). All the 3-D maps have been derived from the most accurate distance data available, including the results produced by the Hipparcos satellite,

R. Monkhouse; J. Cox

2000-01-01

330

Piezoelectric Transducer Based 3D Intraoral Scanner  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are not so many 3D profile tools specially designed for specifically narrow space, for example, to scan the tooth shape of a human jaw. In this paper, a real-time 3D intraoral scanner based on piezoelectric transducer is presented for the measurement of tooth profile in the mouth cavity. The proposed system comprises a laser diode beam, a micro charge-coupled

Furqan Ullah; Gun Soo Lee; Kang Park

2012-01-01

331

3D analysis of tissue expanders.  

PubMed

This article reviews some of the phenomena associated with tissue expansion that are amenable to study with 3D imaging and presents selected cases from the literature where the technology has been used to answer clinical questions and plan procedures. The authors discuss implant selection, remodeling, contraction, and 3D analysis. Future directions and limitations of the use of this technology in the head and neck are also described. PMID:22004865

McCarn, Kate; Hilger, Peter A

2011-11-01

332

2D Images into 3D Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are many applications, such as rapid prototyping, simulations and presentations, where non-professional computer end-users could benefit from the ability to create simple 3D models. Existing tools are geared towards the creation of production quality 3D models by professional users with sufficient background, time and motivation to overcome steep learning curves. Inflatable Icons combine diffusion-based image extrusion with a number

Alexander Repenning

333

Advanced materials for the 3D microbattery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Out recent achievements in the development of three-dimensional (3D) thin film microbatteries on silicon and on microchannel plates (MCP) are presented. In such 3D microbatteries, the battery sandwich-like structure, including electrodes, electrolyte and current collectors, is deposited conformally on all available surfaces, thereby utilizing the dead volume of the substrate. Thin-film molybdenum oxysulfide and iron sulfide cathodes were deposited galvanostatically.

D. Golodnitsky; V. Yufit; M. Nathan; I. Shechtman; T. Ripenbein; E. Strauss; S. Menkin; E. Peled

2006-01-01

334

3-D Model of the Big Dipper  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students see firsthand that stars and constellations are not arranged in a flat, 2-D pattern in this Moveable Museum unit. The five-page PDF guide includes suggested general background readings for educators, activity notes, step-by-step directions, and a Big Dipper map. Students make their own 3-D models of the Big Dipper using readily available materials and examine their models, observing the 3-D constellation from new perspectives.

335

A Search Engine for 3D Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the number of 3D models available on the Web grows, there is an increasing need for a search engine to help people find them. Unfortunately, traditional text-based search techniques are not always effective for 3D data. In this paper, we investigate new shape-based search methods. The key challenges are to develop query methods simple enough for novice users and

Thomas Funkhouser; Patrick Min; Misha Kazhdan; Joyce Chen; Alex Halderman; David Dobkin; David Jacobs

2002-01-01

336

A search engine for 3D models  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the number of 3D models available on the Web grows, there is an increasing need for a search engine to help people find them. Unfortunately, traditional text-based search techniques are not always effective for 3D data. In this article, we investigate new shape-based search methods. The key challenges are to develop query methods simple enough for novice users and

Thomas A. Funkhouser; Patrick Min; Michael M. Kazhdan; Joyce Chen; Alex Halderman; David P. Dobkin; David Pokrass Jacobs

2003-01-01

337

Efficient 3D reconstruction for face recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Face recognition with variant pose, illumination and expression (PIE) is a challenging problem. In this paper, we propose an analysis-by-synthesis framework for face recognition with variant PIE. First, an efficient two-dimensional (2D)-to-threedimensional,(3D) integrated face reconstruction approach,is introduced to reconstruct a personalized 3D face model from a single frontal face image with neutral expression and normal illumination. Then, realistic virtual

Dalong Jiang; Yuxiao Hu; Shuicheng Yan; Lei Zhang; Hongjiang Zhang; Wen Gao

2005-01-01

338

Automatic 3D Reconstruction for Face Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis-by-synthesis framework for face recognition with variant pose, illumination and expression (PIE) is proposed in this paper. First, an efficient 2D-to-3D integrated face reconstruction approach is introduced to reconstruct a personalized 3D face model from a single frontal face image with neutral expression and normal illumination; Then, realistic virtual faces with different PIE are synthesized based on the personalized

Yuxiao Hu; Dalong Jiang; Shuicheng Yan; Lei Zhang; Hongjiang Zhang

2004-01-01

339

3D EM Characterization of Wafer Probes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following paper describes a method to characterize wafer probes using a 3D EM simulator. Rather than following the traditional method of building a custom test fixture for different probe setups and measuring the S-parameters, this 3D EM characterization method yields multi-port S-parameters of a specific probe structure by utilizing simulations. For a standard characterization, the S-parameters can be a

Hanyi Ding; Randy Wolf; John Ferrario

2001-01-01

340

PubChem3D: Conformer generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: PubChem, an open archive for the biological activities of small molecules, provides search and analysis tools to assist users in locating desired information. Many of these tools focus on the notion of chemical structure similarity at some level. PubChem3D enables similarity of chemical structure 3-D conformers to augment the existing similarity of 2-D chemical structure graphs. It is also

Evan E Bolton; Sunghwan Kim; Stephen H Bryant

2011-01-01

341

3D Conformal External-Beam Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three-dimensional conformal external-beam accelerated partial breast irradiation (3D-conformal APBI) allows noninvasive delivery\\u000a of hypofractionated adjuvant radiation treatment to the region of the breast at highest risk of developing a local recurrence\\u000a after lumpectomy. The potential advantages of a 3D conformal radiation therapy approach to APBI compared to brachytherapy\\u000a include its noninvasive approach and an improvement in dose homogeneity, while a

Yasmin Hasan; Frank A. Vicini

342

Requirements for Topology in 3D GIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Topology and its various benefits are well understood within the context of 2D Geographical Information Systems. However, requirements in three-dimensional (3D) applications have yet to be defined, with factors such as lack of users' familiarity with the potential of such systems impeding this process. In this paper, we identify and review a number of requirements for topology in 3D applications.

Claire Ellul; Muki Haklay

2006-01-01

343

Congestion estimation for 3-D circuit architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three-dimensional (3-D) routing is an important step in deep submicrometer very large-scale integrated design. Given a 3-D grid graph and a set of two-terminal nets to be routed, we propose a probabilistic model to calculate the routing density (congestion) on each edge of the grid graph. The routing density provides a direct congestion estimation. Our experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness

Lerong Cheng; William N. N. Hung; Guowu Yang; Xiaoyu Song

2004-01-01

344

3D face recognition by shadow moiré  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research applies the shadow moiré method to recognize a 3D face. The contour information of a face is stored in a database by a hierarchical structure from outer to inner contours, which contains the 3D features of the face. The contour similarity rate can be detected by the image moment invariant method. This research extends traditional two-dimensional face recognition into three-dimensional analysis to enhance the detection rate of a face.

Lay, Yun-Long; Yang, Hui-Jen; Lin, Chern-Sheng; Chen, Wei-Yu

2012-02-01

345

Auto convergence for stereoscopic 3D cameras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Viewing comfort is an important concern for 3-D capable consumer electronics such as 3-D cameras and TVs. Consumer generated content is typically viewed at a close distance which makes the vergence-accommodation conflict particularly pronounced, causing discomfort and eye fatigue. In this paper, we present a Stereo Auto Convergence (SAC) algorithm for consumer 3-D cameras that reduces the vergence-accommodation conflict on the 3-D display by adjusting the depth of the scene automatically. Our algorithm processes stereo video in realtime and shifts each stereo frame horizontally by an appropriate amount to converge on the chosen object in that frame. The algorithm starts by estimating disparities between the left and right image pairs using correlations of the vertical projections of the image data. The estimated disparities are then analyzed by the algorithm to select a point of convergence. The current and target disparities of the chosen convergence point determines how much horizontal shift is needed. A disparity safety check is then performed to determine whether or not the maximum and minimum disparity limits would be exceeded after auto convergence. If the limits would be exceeded, further adjustments are made to satisfy the safety limits. Finally, desired convergence is achieved by shifting the left and the right frames accordingly. Our algorithm runs real-time at 30 fps on a TI OMAP4 processor. It is tested using an OMAP4 embedded prototype stereo 3-D camera. It significantly improves 3-D viewing comfort.

Zhang, Buyue; Kothandaraman, Sreenivas; Batur, Aziz Umit

2012-02-01

346

Towards an optimized 3D broadcast chain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we will present the concept of a modular three dimensional broadcast chain, that allows for an evolutionary introduction of depth perception into the context of 2D digital TV. The work is performed within the framework of the European Information Society Technologies (IST) project "Advanced Three-dimensional Television System Technologies" (ATTEST), bringing together the expertise of industries, research centers and universities to design a backwards-compatible, flexible and modular broadcast 3D-TV system. This three dimensional broadcast chain includes content creation, coding, transmission and display. Research in human 3D perception will be used to guide the development process. The goals of the project towards the optimized 3D broadcast chain comprise the development of a novel broadcast 3D camera, algorithms to convert existing 2D-video material into 3D, a 2D-compatible coding and transmission scheme for 3D-video using MPEG-2/4/7 technologies and the design of two new autostereoscopic displays.

Op de Beeck, Marc J. R.; Wilinski, Piotr; Fehn, Christoph; Kauff, Peter; Ijsselsteijn, Wijnand A.; Pollefeys, Marc; Van Gool, Luc J.; Ofek, Eyal; Sexton, Ian

2002-10-01

347

Focus-distance-controlled 3D TV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a phenomenon that a 3D image appears in proportion to a focus distance when something is watched through a convex lens. An adjustable focus lens which can control the focus distance of the convex lens is contrived and applied to 3D TV. We can watch 3D TV without eyeglasses. The 3D TV image meets the NTSC standard. A parallax data and a focus data about the image can be accommodated at the same time. A continuous image method realizes much wider views. An anti 3D image effect can be avoided by using this method. At present, an analysis of proto-type lens and experiment are being carried out. As a result, a phantom effect and a viewing area can be improved. It is possible to watch the 3D TV at any distance. Distance data are triangulated by two cameras. A plan of AVI photo type using ten thousand lenses is discussed. This method is compared with four major conventional methods. As a result, it is revealed that this method can make the efficient use of Integral Photography and Varifocal type method. In the case of Integral Photography, a miniaturization of this system is possible. But it is difficult to get actual focus. In the case of varifocal type method, there is no problem with focusing, but the miniaturization is impossible. The theory investigated in this paper makes it possible to solve these problems.

Yanagisawa, Nobuaki; Kim, Kyung-Tae; Son, Jung-Young; Murata, Tatsuya; Orima, Takatoshi

1996-09-01

348

Focus-distance-controlled 3D TV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a phenomenon that a 3D image appears in proportion to a focus distance when something is watched through a convex lens. An adjustable focus lens which can control the focus distance of the convex lens is contrived and applied to 3D TV. We can watch 3D TV without eyeglasses. The 3D TV image meets the NTSC standard. A parallax data and a focus data about the image can be accommodated at the same time. A continuous image method realizes much wider views. An anti 3D image effect can be avoided by using this method. At present, an analysis of proto-type lens and experiment are being carried out. As a result, a phantom effect and a viewing area can be improved. It is possible to watch the 3D TV at any distance. Distance data are triangulated by two cameras. A plan of AVI proto type using ten thousands lenses is discussed. This method is compared with four major conventional methods. As a result, it is revealed that this method can make the efficient use of integral photography and varifocal type method. In the case of integral photography, a miniaturization of this system is possible. But it is difficult to get actual focus. In the case of varifocal type method, there is no problem with focusing, but the miniaturization is impossible. The theory investigated in this paper makes it possible to solve these problems.

Yanagisawa, Nobuaki; Kim, Kyung-Tae; Son, Jung-Young; Murata, Tatsuya; Orima, Takatoshi

1997-05-01

349

Stereoscopic reconfiguration for 3D displays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present a method to reconfigure 3D movies in order to minimize distortion when seen on a different display than the one it has been configured for. By their very nature, 3D broadcasts come with a stereoscopic pair to be seen by the left and right eyes. However, according to reasons that we ought to explain in the paper, the cameras used to shoot a movie are calibrated according to specific viewing parameters such as the screen size, the viewing distance and the eye separation. As a consequence, a 3D broadcast seen on a different display (say a home theater or a PC screen) than the one it has been configured for (say an IMAX R screen) will suffer from noticeable distortions. In this paper, we describe the relationship between the size of the 3D display, the position of the observer, and the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of the cameras. With this information, we propose a method to reorganize the stereoscopic pair in order to minimize distortion when seen on an arbitrary display. In addition to the raw video pair, our method uses the viewing distance, a rough estimate of the 3D scene, and some basic information on the 3D display. An inpainting technique is used to fill disoccluded areas.

Houde, Jean-Christophe; Jodoin, Pierre-Marc; Deschênes, François

2012-02-01

350

Rapid 360 degree imaging and stitching of 3D objects using multiple precision 3D cameras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present the system architecture of a 360 degree view 3D imaging system. The system consists of multiple 3D sensors synchronized to take 3D images around the object. Each 3D camera employs a single high-resolution digital camera and a color-coded light projector. The cameras are synchronized to rapidly capture the 3D and color information of a static object or a live person. The color encoded structure lighting ensures the precise reconstruction of the depth of the object. A 3D imaging system architecture is presented. The architecture employs the displacement of the camera and the projector to triangulate the depth information. The 3D camera system has achieved high depth resolution down to 0.1mm on a human head sized object and 360 degree imaging capability.

Lu, Thomas; Yin, Stuart; Zhang, Jianzhong; Li, Jiangan; Wu, Frank

2008-03-01

351

3D Modeling of the ALICE Photoinjector Upgrade  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The injector for the ALICE machine (Accelerators and Lasers In Combined Experiments) at Daresbury Laboratory is based around a 350 kV DC photocathode electron gun. An upgrade is proposed to introduce a load-lock GaAs photocathode preparation facility to allow rapid transfer of photocathodes to the gun without breaking the vacuum system. In the current design this requires side-loading of the photocathodes into the cathode ball. An alternative is to relocate the ceramic insulator vertically which will allow back-loading and also backillumination of the photocathodes. 3D electrostatic simulations of the gun chamber are presented for both options along with 3D beam dynamic simulations for an off-axis photocathode, introduced to increase photocathode lifetime by reducing damage by ion backbombardment. Beam dynamic simulations are also presented for the entire injector beamline as well as for a proposed extension to the injector beamline to include a diagnostic section.

McKenzie, J. W.; Militsyn, B. L.; Saveliev, Y. M.

2009-08-01

352

Spilling the beans on java 3D: a tool for the virtual anatomist.  

PubMed

The computing world has just provided the anatomist with another tool: Java 3D, within the Java 2 platform. On December 9, 1998, Sun Microsystems released Java 2. Java 3D classes are now included in the jar (Java Archive) archives of the extensions directory of Java 2. Java 3D is also a part of the Java Media Suite of APIs (Application Programming Interfaces). But what is Java? How does Java 3D work? How do you view Java 3D objects? A brief introduction to the concepts of Java and object-oriented programming is provided. Also, there is a short description of the tools of Java 3D and of the Java 3D viewer. Thus, the virtual anatomist has another set of computer tools to use for modeling various aspects of anatomy, such as embryological development. Also, the virtual anatomist will be able to assist the surgeon with virtual surgery using the tools found in Java 3D. Java 3D will be able to fulfill gaps, such as the lack of platform independence, interactivity, and manipulability of 3D images, currently existing in many anatomical computer-aided learning programs. PMID:10321435

Guttmann, G D

1999-04-15

353

Neural network benchmark  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we will present a Neural Net Benchmark. In many neural algorithms, learning is defined as a change in connection weight values that result in the capture of training information that can later be recalled. A typical learning algorithm is: if neuron A was active and A's activity caused a connected neuron B to fire, then the synaptic connection between A and B should be increased by certain amount. The benchmark systematically tests a neural network for this ability. The benchmark can be written as: (L3, L4, L5, L6, ... ...). L3 tests the net's ability for 3- neuron correlation: if A and B were active and A and B's activity caused a connected neuron C to fire, can the network recall it later? Similarly, L4, L5, ... tests a net for 4-neuron, 5-neuron correlation. We will also present a neural net classification based on the benchmark.

Liu, Ying

1997-04-01

354

TWODANT benchmark. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

TWODANT (Two-Dimensional, Diffusion-Accelerated, Neutral-Particle Transport) code has been benchmarked against 6 critical experiments (Jezebel plutonium critical assembly) and their k effective values compared with those of KENO and MCNP codes.

Lee, Sung [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States)

1994-01-11

355

Benchmarking: Graphics Workstations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper reports on work being performed to benchmark a new breed of machines, the graphics workstations for scientific and engineering applications. We begin with the history of workstations and how they developed. Many different forces created the gra...

B. E. Brown R. L. Judd

1985-01-01

356

Thin slice three dimentional (3D) reconstruction versus CT 3D reconstruction of human breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: With improvement in the early diagnosis of breast cancer, breast conserving therapy (BCT) is being increasingly used. Precise preoperative evaluation of the incision margin is, therefore, very important. Utilizing three dimentional (3D) images in a preoperative evaluation for breast conserving surgery has considerable significance, but the currently 3D CT scan reconstruction commonly used has problems in accurately displaying breast cancer. Thin slice 3D reconstruction is also widely used now to delineate organs and tissues of breast cancers. This study was aimed to compare 3D CT with thin slice 3D reconstruction in breast cancer patients to find a better technique for accurate evaluation of breast cancer. Methods: A total of 16-slice spiral CT scans and 3D reconstructions were performed on 15 breast cancer patients. All patients had been treated with modified radical mastectomy; 2D and 3D images of breast and tumours were obtained. The specimens were fixed and sliced at 2 mm thickness to obtain serial thin slice images, and reconstructed using 3D DOCTOR software to gain 3D images. Results: Compared with 2D CT images, thin slice images showed more clearly the morphological characteristics of tumour, breast tissues and the margins of different tissues in each slice. After 3D reconstruction, the tumour shapes obtained by the two reconstruction methods were basically the same, but the thin slice 3D reconstruction showed the tumour margins more clearly. Interpretation & conclusions: Compared with 3D CT reconstruction, thin slice 3D reconstruction of breast tumour gave clearer images, which could provide guidance for the observation and application of CT 3D reconstructed images and contribute to the accurate evaluation of tumours using CT imaging technology.

Zhang, Yi; Zhou, Yan; Yang, Xinhua; Tang, Peng; Qiu, Quanguang; Liang, Yong; Jiang, Jun

2013-01-01

357

Strong quantitative benchmarking of quantum optical devices  

SciTech Connect

Quantum communication devices, such as quantum repeaters, quantum memories, or quantum channels, are unavoidably exposed to imperfections. However, the presence of imperfections can be tolerated, as long as we can verify that such devices retain their quantum advantages. Benchmarks based on witnessing entanglement have proven useful for verifying the true quantum nature of these devices. The next challenge is to characterize how strongly a device is within the quantum domain. We present a method, based on entanglement measures and rigorous state truncation, which allows us to characterize the degree of quantumness of optical devices. This method serves as a quantitative extension to a large class of previously known quantum benchmarks, requiring no additional information beyond what is already used for the nonquantitative benchmarks.

Killoran, N.; Luetkenhaus, N. [Institute for Quantum Computing and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, N2L 3G1 (Canada)

2011-05-15

358

Strong quantitative benchmarking of quantum optical devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum communication devices, such as quantum repeaters, quantum memories, or quantum channels, are unavoidably exposed to imperfections. However, the presence of imperfections can be tolerated, as long as we can verify that such devices retain their quantum advantages. Benchmarks based on witnessing entanglement have proven useful for verifying the true quantum nature of these devices. The next challenge is to characterize how strongly a device is within the quantum domain. We present a method, based on entanglement measures and rigorous state truncation, which allows us to characterize the degree of quantumness of optical devices. This method serves as a quantitative extension to a large class of previously known quantum benchmarks, requiring no additional information beyond what is already used for the nonquantitative benchmarks.

Killoran, N.; Lütkenhaus, N.

2011-05-01

359

Object operations benchmark  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performance is a major issue in the acceptance of object-oriented and relational database systems aimed at engineering applications such as computer-aided software engineering (CASE) and computer-aided design (CAD). Because traditional database systems benchmarks are inapproriate to measure performance for operations on engineering objects, we designed a new benchmark Object Operations version 1 (OO1) to focus on important characteristics of these

R. G. G. Cattell; J. Skeen

1992-01-01

360

Toxicological Benchmarks for Wildlife  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecological risks of environmental contaminants are evaluated by using a two-tiered process. In the first tier, a screening assessment is performed where concentrations of contaminants in the environment are compared to no observed adverse effects level (NOAEL)-based toxicological benchmarks. These benchmarks represent concentrations of chemicals (i.e., concentrations presumed to be nonhazardous to the biota) in environmental media (water, sediment, soil,

B. E. Opresko; D. M. Suter

1993-01-01

361

Automatic 3D virtual scenes modeling for multisensors simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SEDRIS that stands for Synthetic Environment Data Representation and Interchange Specification is a DoD/DMSO initiative in order to federate and make interoperable 3D mocks up in the frame of virtual reality and simulation. This paper shows an original application of SEDRIS concept for research physical multi sensors simulation, when SEDRIS is more classically known for training simulation. CHORALE (simulated Optronic Acoustic Radar battlefield) is used by the French DGA/DCE (Directorate for Test and Evaluation of the French Ministry of Defense) to perform multi-sensors simulations. CHORALE enables the user to create virtual and realistic multi spectral 3D scenes, and generate the physical signal received by a sensor, typically an IR sensor. In the scope of this CHORALE workshop, French DGA has decided to introduce a SEDRIS based new 3D terrain modeling tool that enables to create automatically 3D databases, directly usable by the physical sensor simulation CHORALE renderers. This AGETIM tool turns geographical source data (including GIS facilities) into meshed geometry enhanced with the sensor physical extensions, fitted to the ray tracing rendering of CHORALE, both for the infrared, electromagnetic and acoustic spectrum. The basic idea is to enhance directly the 2D source level with the physical data, rather than enhancing the 3D meshed level, which is more efficient (rapid database generation) and more reliable (can be generated many times, changing some parameters only). The paper concludes with the last current evolution of AGETIM in the scope mission rehearsal for urban war using sensors. This evolution includes indoor modeling for automatic generation of inner parts of buildings.

Latger, Jean; Le Goff, Alain; Cathala, Thierry; Larive, Mathieu

2006-06-01

362

Imaging irregularly sampled 3D prestack data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Imaging multichannel seismic data for amplitude inversion is a challenging task. The process seeks an inverse for a matrix of very high order that relates the data to a reflectivity model. Due to the irregular coverage of 3D surveys, the matrix is ill-conditioned and its coefficients are badly scaled. In this dissertation, I present a new approach for imaging irregularly sampled 3D data. The strategy is to reduce the size of the full matrix by reducing the size of 3D prestack data before imaging, and to balance the coefficients of the matrix by regularizing the coverage of 3D surveys. I tackle the case of Kirchhoff imaging operators because of their I/O flexibility and computational efficiency. However, after regularization, full-wave extrapolation techniques may become attractive and practical to implement on the regularly sampled prestack volume. For adequately sampled 3D data with varying surface coverage, I use an asymptotic approximate inverse to obtain a good image. I apply a new partial prestack operator named azimuth moveout (AMO) to reduce the size of the prestack. data and regularize its coverage by partial stacking. The effects of irregular coverage and varying illumination at depth are reduced by applying a diagonal transformation to the Kirchhoff operator. Problems arise in 3D reflection seismology where fine sampling is not possible and the sparse geometry of 3D surveys results in spatial aliasing. I develop a new dealaising technique which I refer to as inversion to common offset (ICO). Posing partial stacking as an optimization process, the inversion improves the stack when the data are spatially aliased. I present two formulations for ICO, namely data-space and model-space inversion and design an efficient implementation of the algorithm in the Log-stretch Fourier domain. To accelerate the convergence of the iterative solution I present a new technique for Preconditioning the inversion based on row and column scaling. Results from field marine and land surveys are presented to demonstrate the application of AMO and ICO for regularizing the coverage of 3D surveys and reducing the costs of 3D prestack imaging. The images obtained by prestack migration after regularization are superior to those obtained by migrating the irregularly sampled data. Furthermore, ICO provides a promising approach for reducing the costs of 3D acquisition.

Chemingui, Nizar

363

Application of the INSTANT-HPS PN Transport Code to the C5G7 Benchmark Problem  

SciTech Connect

INSTANT is the INL's next generation neutron transport solver to support high-fidelity multi-physics reactor simulation INSTANT is in continuous development to extend its capability Code is designed to take full advantage of middle to large cluster (10-1000 processors) Code is designed to focus on method adaptation while also mesh adaptation will be possible. It utilizes the most modern computing techniques to generate a neutronics tool of full-core transport calculations for reactor analysis and design. It can perform calculations on unstructured 2D/3D triangular, hexagonal and Cartesian geometries. Calculations can be easily extended to more geometries because of the independent mesh framework coded with the model Fortran. This code has a multigroup solver with thermal rebalance and Chebyshev acceleration. It employs second-order PN and Hybrid Finite Element method (PNHFEM) discretization scheme. Three different in-group solvers - preconditioned Conjugate Gradient (CG) method, preconditioned Generalized Minimal Residual Method (GMRES) and Red-Black iteration - have been implemented and parallelized with the spatial domain decomposition in the code. The input is managed with extensible markup language (XML) format. 3D variables including the flux distributions are outputted into VTK files, which can be visualized by tools such as VisIt and ParaView. An extension of the code named INSTANTHPS provides the capability to perform 3D heterogeneous transport calculations within fuel pins. C5G7 is an OECD/NEA benchmark problem created to test the ability of modern deterministic transport methods and codes to treat reactor core problems without spatial homogenization. This benchmark problem had been widely analyzed with various code packages. In this transaction, results of the applying the INSTANT-HPS code to the C5G7 problem are summarized.

Y. Wang; H. Zhang; R. H. Szilard; R. C. Martineau

2011-06-01

364

Self assembled structures for 3D integration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three dimensional (3D) micro-scale structures attached to a silicon substrate have various applications in microelectronics. However, formation of 3D structures using conventional micro-fabrication techniques are not efficient and require precise control of processing parameters. Self assembly is a method for creating 3D structures that takes advantage of surface area minimization phenomena. Solder based self assembly (SBSA), the subject of this dissertation, uses solder as a facilitator in the formation of 3D structures from 2D patterns. Etching a sacrificial layer underneath a portion of the 2D pattern allows the solder reflow step to pull those areas out of the substrate plane resulting in a folded 3D structure. Initial studies using the SBSA method demonstrated low yields in the formation of five different polyhedra. The failures in folding were primarily attributed to nonuniform solder deposition on the underlying metal pads. The dip soldering method was analyzed and subsequently refined. A modified dip soldering process provided improved yield among the polyhedra. Solder bridging referred as joining of solder deposited on different metal patterns in an entity influenced the folding mechanism. In general, design parameters such as small gap-spacings and thick metal pads were found to favor solder bridging for all patterns studied. Two types of soldering: face and edge soldering were analyzed. Face soldering refers to the application of solder on the entire metal face. Edge soldering indicates application of solder only on the edges of the metal face. Mechanical grinding showed that face soldered SBSA structures were void free and robust in nature. In addition, the face soldered 3D structures provide a consistent heat resistant solder standoff height that serve as attachments in the integration of dissimilar electronic technologies. Face soldered 3D structures were developed on the underlying conducting channel to determine the thermo-electric reliability of face soldered structures.

Rao, Madhav

365

The Princeton Shape Benchmark  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, many shape representations and geomet- ric algorithms have been proposed for matching 3D shapes. Usually, each algorithm is tested on a different (small) database of 3D models, and thus no direct comparison is available for competing methods. In this paper, we describe the Princeton Shape Bench- mark (PSB), a publicly available database of polygonal models collected from

Philip Shilane; Patrick Min; Michael M. Kazhdan; Thomas A. Funkhouser

2004-01-01

366

Development of delta-f particle code for 3D neoclassical transport calculations in tokamaks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new delta-f particle code has been developed in order to calculate neoclassical transport precisely and efficiently in 3D tokamak configurations. Neoclassical transport becomes not only highly complex in 3D tokamaks, but also important in establishing a self-consistent 3D equilibrium. The new code calculates guiding-center orbits on flux coordinates, to efficiently provide viable information to a 3D equilibrium solver, as well as to obtain fundamental properties of 3D neoclassical transport such as Neoclassical Toroidal Viscosity (NTV). Also in the new code, collisions are modeled with modified Lorentz operator to study the essence of pitch-angle scattering while preserving momentum conservation, which is critical to separate 3D effects from 2D effects in transport. The code will be able to test complex parametric dependency that is predicted by analytic NTV theories, and also will be able to improve the predictability by including more precise orbits for both passing and trapped particles. Detailed progress will be presented, and preliminary simulation and benchmark results will be discussed. This work was supported by the US DOE Contract #DE-AC02-09CH11466.

Kim, Kimin; Park, Jong-Kyu; Kramer, Gerrit J.; Boozer, Allen H.

2011-11-01

367

3D dynamic roadmapping for abdominal catheterizations.  

PubMed

Despite rapid advances in interventional imaging, the navigation of a guide wire through abdominal vasculature remains, not only for novice radiologists, a difficult task. Since this navigation is mostly based on 2D fluoroscopic image sequences from one view, the process is slowed down significantly due to missing depth information and patient motion. We propose a novel approach for 3D dynamic roadmapping in deformable regions by predicting the location of the guide wire tip in a 3D vessel model from the tip's 2D location, respiratory motion analysis, and view geometry. In a first step, the method compensates for the apparent respiratory motion in 2D space before backprojecting the 2D guide wire tip into three dimensional space, using a given projection matrix. To countervail the error connected to the projection parameters and the motion compensation, as well as the ambiguity caused by vessel deformation, we establish a statistical framework, which computes a reliable estimate of the guide wire tip location within the 3D vessel model. With this 2D-to-3D transfer, the navigation can be performed from arbitrary viewing angles, disconnected from the static perspective view of the fluoroscopic sequence. Tests on a realistic breathing phantom and on synthetic data with a known ground truth clearly reveal the superiority of our approach compared to naive methods for 3D roadmapping. The concepts and information presented in this paper are based on research and are not commercially available. PMID:18982662

Bender, Frederik; Groher, Martin; Khamene, Ali; Wein, Wolfgang; Heibel, Tim Hauke; Navab, Nassir

2008-01-01

368

Improving 3D Spatial Visualization of Stream Channel Morphology: A Geomorphic Application of ArcView 3D Analyst Extension.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This laboratory exercise helps student bridge the gap between fieldwork, data collection, visualization, and interpretation of the data. Using a combination of surveying techniques, spreadsheet modeling, and GIS , students further develop their spatial visualization skills and use these skills to predict geomorphic responses.

Van Hoesen, John

369

Some remarks on shell element analysis with DYNA3D and NIKE3D  

SciTech Connect

There has been some confusion in the user community recently regarding the various shell element formulations now available in DYNA3D (Whirley and Hadlquist, 1991) and NIKE3D (Maker, Ferencz, and Hallquist, 1991). In particular, questions have been raised about the behavior of these elements under large strain, and the display of meaningful results from such problems using TAURUS (Spelce and Hallquist, 1991). This brief report is intended to aid the DYNA/NIKE user community by elaborating on the formulation of the DYNA3D/NIKE3D shell elements and on the display of shell data using TAURUS. In the following discussion no attempt is made to give a complete description of the theoretical development or implementation of any of the elements. Readers interested in a more complete discussion of the shell elements in DYNA3D and NIKE3D are directed to the published papers cited in the code User Manuals.

Whirley, R.G.; Engelmann, B.E.; Maker, B.N.; Spelce, T.E.

1992-03-24

370

Depth tolerance of simple interpolation methods for 3D camera used for natural 3D display  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural 3D images can be generated by displaying high-density directional images. In order to display real 3D scenes, a 3D camera technique which generates high-density directional images of real 3D scenes is required. The most promising method is to generate them by using an interpolation algorithm from multiple images captured by horizontally aligned multiple cameras. In this study we examined four different simple interpolation algorithms. The algorithm that utilizes one representative object distance as a priori was found to be the most effective one. This technique offers the fast interpolation. However, there is a tradeoff between the number of cameras and the depth of 3D objects. The allowable depth for 3D objects is reported.

Yoshikawa, Hiroshi; Takaki, Yasuhiro

2003-11-01

371

BodyParts3D: 3D structure database for anatomical concepts.  

PubMed

BodyParts3D is a dictionary-type database for anatomy in which anatomical concepts are represented by 3D structure data that specify corresponding segments of a 3D whole-body model for an adult human male. It encompasses morphological and geometrical knowledge in anatomy and complements ontological representation. Moreover, BodyParts3D introduces a universal coordinate system in human anatomy, which may facilitate management of samples and data in biomedical research and clinical practice. As of today, 382 anatomical concepts, sufficient for mapping materials in most molecular medicine experiments, have been specified. Expansion of the dictionary by adding further segments and details to the whole-body model will continue in collaboration with clinical researchers until sufficient resolution and accuracy for most clinical application are achieved. BodyParts3D is accessible at: http://lifesciencedb.jp/ag/bp3d/. PMID:18835852

Mitsuhashi, Nobutaka; Fujieda, Kaori; Tamura, Takuro; Kawamoto, Shoko; Takagi, Toshihisa; Okubo, Kousaku

2008-10-03

372

3-D topography simulator (3-D MULSS) based on a physical description of material topography  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a three-dimensional (3-D) topography simulator (3-D MULSS), and its applications. We focus on the description of the material surface and the algorithm of the surface advancement. Then we propose a 3-D topography simulation algorithm, with consideration of the probe size of observation, and based on the integration formula of the balance equation. Next, we show the simulation

Masato Fujinaga; Norihiko Kotani

1997-01-01

373

Sensor Fusion for 3D Human body Tracking with an Articulated 3D Body Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a tracking system called VooDoo for 3d tracking of human body movements based on a 3d body model and the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. The proposed approach is able to incorporate raw data from different input sensors, as well as results from feature trackers in 2d or 3d. All input data is processed within the same

Steffen Knoop; Stefan Vacek; Rüdiger Dillmann

2006-01-01

374

3D integral imaging with optical processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Integral imaging (InI) systems are imaging devices that provide auto-stereoscopic images of 3D intensity objects. Since the birth of this new technology, InI systems have faced satisfactorily many of their initial drawbacks. Basically, two kind of procedures have been used: digital and optical procedures. The "3D Imaging and Display Group" at the University of Valencia, with the essential collaboration of Prof. Javidi, has centered its efforts in the 3D InI with optical processing. Among other achievements, our Group has proposed the annular amplitude modulation for enlargement of the depth of field, dynamic focusing for reduction of the facet-braiding effect, or the TRES and MATRES devices to enlarge the viewing angle.

Martínez-Corral, Manuel; Martínez-Cuenca, Raúl; Saavedra, Genaro; Javidi, Bahram

2008-05-01

375

Efficient Reasoning with RCC-3D  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Qualitative spatial reasoning is an important function of the human brain. Artificial systems that can perform such reasoning have many applications such as Geographic Information Systems (GIS), robotics, biomedicine, and engineering. Automation of such analytical processes alleviates manual labor, and may increase the accuracy of the spatial assessments because the reasoning can be done objectively using 3D digital representations of the objects. Herein we introduce an algorithm to determine the spatial relation that exists between a pair of 3D objects when no a priori spatial knowledge is given. A second algorithm is presented to efficiently find the spatial relation that holds between each pair of objects in a set of 3D objects.

Albath, Julia; Leopold, Jennifer L.; Sabharwal, Chaman L.; Perry, Kenneth

376

Simple buffers for 3D STORM microscopy  

PubMed Central

3D STORM is one of the leading methods for super-resolution imaging, with resolution down to 10 nm in the lateral direction, and 30–50 nm in the axial direction. However, there is one important requirement to perform this type of imaging: making dye molecules blink. This usually relies on the utilization of complex buffers, containing different chemicals and sensitive enzymatic systems, limiting the reproducibility of the method. We report here that the commercial mounting medium Vectashield can be used for STORM of Alexa-647, and yields images comparable or superior to those obtained with more complex buffers, especially for 3D imaging. We expect that this advance will promote the versatile utilization of 3D STORM by removing one of its entry barriers, as well as provide a more reproducible way to compare optical setups and data processing algorithms.

Olivier, Nicolas; Keller, Debora; Rajan, Vinoth Sundar; Gonczy, Pierre; Manley, Suliana

2013-01-01

377

Simnple, portable, 3-D projection routine  

SciTech Connect

A 3-D projection routine is presented for use in computer graphics applications. The routine is simple enough to be considered portable, and easily modified for special problems. There is often the need to draw three-dimensional objects on a two-dimensional plotting surface. For the object to appear realistic, perspective effects must be included that allow near objects to appear larger than distant objects. Several 3-D projection routines are commercially available, but they are proprietary, not portable, and not easily changed by the user. Most are restricted to surfaces that are functions of two variables. This makes them unsuitable for viewing physical objects such as accelerator prototypes or propagating beams. This report develops a very simple algorithm for 3-D projections; the core routine is only 39 FORTRAN lines long. It can be easily modified for special problems. Software dependent calls are confined to simple drivers that can be exchanged when different plotting software packages are used.

Wagner, J.S.

1987-04-01

378

Stereo vision based 3D game interface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently, keyboards, mice, wands and joysticks are still the most popular interactive devices. While these devices are mostly adequate, they are so unnatural that they are unable to give players the feeling of immersiveness. Researchers have begun investigation into natural interfaces that are intuitively simple and unobtrusive to the user. Recent advances in various signal-processing technologies, coupled with an explosion in the available computing power, have given rise to a number of natural human computer interface (HCI) modalities: speech, vision-based gesture recognition, etc. In this paper we propose a natural three dimensional (3D) game interface, which uses the motion of the player fists in 3D space to achieve the control of sixd egree of freedom (DOFs). And we also propose a real-time 3D fist tracking algorithm, which is based on stereo vision and Bayesian network. Finally, a flying game is used to test our interface.

Lu, Peng; Chen, Yisong; Dong, Chao

2009-10-01

379

Atomic resolution 3D electron diffraction microscopy  

SciTech Connect

Electron lens aberration is the major barrier limiting the resolution of electron microscopy. Here we describe a novel form of electron microscopy to overcome electron lens aberration. By combining coherent electron diffraction with the oversampling phasing method, we show that the 3D structure of a 2 x 2 x 2 unit cell nano-crystal (framework of LTA [Al12Si12O48]8) can be ab initio determined at the resolution of 1 Angstrom from a series of simulated noisy diffraction pattern projections with rotation angles ranging from -70 degrees to +70 degrees in 5 degrees increments along a single rotation axis. This form of microscopy (which we call 3D electron diffraction microscopy) does not require any reference waves, and can image the 3D structure of nanocrystals, as well as non-crystalline biological and materials science samples, with the resolution limited only by the quality of sample diffraction.

Miao, Jianwei; Ohsuna, Tetsu; Terasaki, Osamu; O'Keefe, Michael A.

2002-03-01

380

Simple buffers for 3D STORM microscopy.  

PubMed

3D STORM is one of the leading methods for super-resolution imaging, with resolution down to 10 nm in the lateral direction, and 30-50 nm in the axial direction. However, there is one important requirement to perform this type of imaging: making dye molecules blink. This usually relies on the utilization of complex buffers, containing different chemicals and sensitive enzymatic systems, limiting the reproducibility of the method. We report here that the commercial mounting medium Vectashield can be used for STORM of Alexa-647, and yields images comparable or superior to those obtained with more complex buffers, especially for 3D imaging. We expect that this advance will promote the versatile utilization of 3D STORM by removing one of its entry barriers, as well as provide a more reproducible way to compare optical setups and data processing algorithms. PMID:23761850

Olivier, Nicolas; Keller, Debora; Rajan, Vinoth Sundar; Gönczy, Pierre; Manley, Suliana

2013-05-14

381

The CIFIST 3D model atmosphere grid.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Grids of stellar atmosphere models and associated synthetic spectra are numerical products which have a large impact in astronomy due to their ubiquitous application in the interpretation of radiation from individual stars and stellar populations. 3D model atmospheres are now on the verge of becoming generally available for a wide range of stellar atmospheric parameters. We report on efforts to develop a grid of 3D model atmospheres for late-type stars within the CIFIST Team at Paris Observatory. The substantial demands in computational and human labor for the model production and post-processing render this apparently mundane task a challenging logistic exercise. At the moment the CIFIST grid comprises 77 3D model atmospheres with emphasis on dwarfs of solar and sub-solar metallicities. While the model production is still ongoing, first applications are already worked upon by the CIFIST Team and collaborators.

Ludwig, H.-G.; Caffau, E.; Steffen, M.; Freytag, B.; Bonifacio, P.; Ku?inskas, A.

382

Extensive regularization of the coupled cluster methods based on the generating functional formalism: Application to gas-phase benchmarks and to the SN2 reaction of CHCl3 and OH- in water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recently introduced energy expansion based on the use of generating functional (GF) [K. Kowalski and P. D. Fan, J. Chem. Phys. 130, 084112 (2009)] provides a way of constructing size-consistent noniterative coupled cluster (CC) corrections in terms of moments of the CC equations. To take advantage of this expansion in a strongly interacting regime, the regularization of the cluster amplitudes is required in order to counteract the effect of excessive growth of the norm of the CC wave function. Although proven to be efficient, the previously discussed form of the regularization does not lead to rigorously size-consistent corrections. In this paper we address the issue of size-consistent regularization of the GF expansion by redefining the equations for the cluster amplitudes. The performance and basic features of proposed methodology are illustrated on several gas-phase benchmark systems. Moreover, the regularized GF approaches are combined with quantum mechanical molecular mechanics module and applied to describe the SN2 reaction of CHCl3 and OH- in aqueous solution.

Kowalski, Karol; Valiev, Marat

2009-12-01

383

Extensive regularization of the coupled cluster methods based on the generating functional formalism: Application to gas-phase benchmarks and to the S{sub N}2 reaction of CHCl{sub 3} and OH{sup -} in water  

SciTech Connect

The recently introduced energy expansion based on the use of generating functional (GF) [K. Kowalski and P. D. Fan, J. Chem. Phys. 130, 084112 (2009)] provides a way of constructing size-consistent noniterative coupled cluster (CC) corrections in terms of moments of the CC equations. To take advantage of this expansion in a strongly interacting regime, the regularization of the cluster amplitudes is required in order to counteract the effect of excessive growth of the norm of the CC wave function. Although proven to be efficient, the previously discussed form of the regularization does not lead to rigorously size-consistent corrections. In this paper we address the issue of size-consistent regularization of the GF expansion by redefining the equations for the cluster amplitudes. The performance and basic features of proposed methodology are illustrated on several gas-phase benchmark systems. Moreover, the regularized GF approaches are combined with quantum mechanical molecular mechanics module and applied to describe the S{sub N}2 reaction of CHCl{sub 3} and OH{sup -} in aqueous solution.

Kowalski, Karol; Valiev, Marat [William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, K8-91 Battelle, P.O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

2009-12-21

384

MULTI3D: A Domain-Decomposed 3D Radiative Transfer Code  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present MULTI3D, a 3D radiative transfer code currently under development. It is optimized for computing NLTE problems based on (radiation-)MHD models of stellar atmospheres. MULTI3D is based on MULTI and includes most of the physics present in that code. MULTI3D was first written as a serial code by Botnen (1997) and has recently been upgraded to an MPI-parallelized, domain-decomposed version. The code has so far successfully been run on up to 64 processors, solving the NLTE radiative transfer for a six-level Ca II atom with 400 frequency points in an atmosphere of 256 × 128 × 108 grid points.

Leenaarts, J.; Carlsson, M.

2009-12-01

385

MRS3D: 3D Spherical Wavelet Transform on the Sphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future cosmological surveys will provide 3D large scale structure maps with large sky coverage, for which a 3D Spherical Fourier-Bessel (SFB) analysis is natural. Wavelets are particularly well-suited to the analysis and denoising of cosmological data, but a spherical 3D isotropic wavelet transform does not currently exist to analyse spherical 3D data. We present a new fast Discrete Spherical Fourier-Bessel Transform (DSFBT) based on both a discrete Bessel Transform and the HEALPIX angular pixelisation scheme. We tested the 3D wavelet transform and as a toy-application, applied a denoising algorithm in wavelet space to the Virgo large box cosmological simulations and found we can successfully remove noise without much loss to the large scale structure. The new spherical 3D isotropic wavelet transform, called MRS3D, is ideally suited to analysing and denoising future 3D spherical cosmological surveys; it uses a novel discrete spherical Fourier-Bessel Transform. MRS3D is based on two packages, IDL and Healpix and can be used only if these two packages have been installed.

Lanusse, F.; Rassat, A.; Starck, J.-L.

2011-12-01

386

Vector quantization of 3-D point clouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A geometry compression algorithm for 3-D QSplat data using vector quantization (VQ) is proposed in this work. The positions of child spheres are transformed to the local coordinate system, which is determined by the parent children relationship. The coordinate transform makes child positions more compactly distributed in 3-D space, facilitating effective quantization. Moreover, we develop a constrained encoding method for sphere radii, which guarantees hole-free surface rendering at the decoder side. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm provides a faithful rendering quality even at low bitrates.

Sim, Jae-Young; Kim, Chang-Su; Lee, Sang-Uk

2005-10-01

387

Ultrafast laser inscribed 3D integrated photonics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the discovery, that a tightly focused femtosecond laser beam can induce a highly localized and permanent refractive index change in a wide range of dielectrics, ultrafast laser inscription has found applications in many elds due to its unique 3D and rapid prototyping capabilities. These ultrafast laser inscribed waveguide devices are compact and lightweight as well as inherently robust since the waveguides are embedded within the bulk material. In this presentation we will review our current understanding of ultrafast laser - glass lattice interactions and its application to the fabrication of inherently stable, compact waveguide lasers and astronomical 3D integrated photonic circuits.

Gross, S.; Arriola, A.; Palmer, G.; Jovanovic, N.; Spaleniak, I.; Meany, T. D.; Duan, Y.; Liu, Q.; Dekker, P.; Lancaster, D. G.; Ebendorff-Heidepriem, H.; Tuthill, P. G.; Norris, B.; Fuerbach, A.; Ireland, M.; Steel, M. J.; Withford, M. J.

2013-09-01

388

RBF network and 3D object recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper gives a preliminary study on the possibility of using RBF network to recognize 3D objects by direct projection matching with no insertion of feature extraction procedure. Two problems are studied; one is the maximum distance (in terms of rotating angles) between consecutive 2D projections of the 3D object, beyond which correct discrimination will be out of the question. The other is the way to generate the attractor locations automatically, competitive learning algorithm of auto-clustering is proposed. Experimental results of both parts are presented.

Li, Jie-Gu; Tang, Xiao-Xiao; Ding, Qi

1996-03-01

389

PNNL Information Technology Benchmarking  

SciTech Connect

Benchmarking is a methodology for searching out industry best practices that lead to superior performance. It is exchanging information, not just with any organization, but with organizations known to be the best within PNNL, in industry, or in dissimilar industries with equivalent functions. It is used as a continuous improvement tool for business and technical processes, products, and services. Information technology--comprising all computer and electronic communication products and services--underpins the development and/or delivery of many PNNL products and services. This document describes the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (PNNL's) approach to information technology (IT) benchmarking. The purpose is to engage other organizations in the collaborative process of benchmarking in order to improve the value of IT services provided to customers. TM document's intended audience consists of other US Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratories and their IT staff. Although the individual participants must define the scope of collaborative benchmarking, an outline of IT service areas for possible benchmarking is described.

DD Hostetler

1999-09-08

390

C3d adjuvant activity is reduced by altering residues involved in the electronegative binding of C3d to CR2  

PubMed Central

Summary The final degradation product of the complement protein C3, C3d, has been used as a molecular adjuvant to various antigens. Chimera proteins of the antigen and multiple copies of C3d were developed to test the adjuvant effect of this molecule. The main mechanism by which C3d enhances the immune response is interaction with CR2. In-vitro studies showed that the avidity of C3d for CR2 is affected by residues located at the interacting surface (e.g. 170N) as well as by residues located in other areas. The role of the latter residues has been proposed to depend on the electrostatic nature of the C3d-CR2 interaction, where the charges of the whole molecules are responsible for their binding. C3d is primarily a negatively charged molecule, while CR2 is a positive one. Previous experiments demonstrated that elimination of a positive charge (K162A) in C3d enhanced its avidity for CR2, while elimination of negative charges or addition positives ones (D163A N170R, respectively), impaired the avidity for CR2. Despite the extensive in-vitro research, the role of these residues in the adjuvant effect of C3d is unclear. To study the role of residues at the interacting and non-interacting surface of C3d on the adjuvanticity, single as well as a double residue substitutions were engineered in the murine C3d (R162A, D163A, N170R and D163A-N170R) gene. Two copies of these mutant molecules were fused to HIV-1 Envgp120 and the proteins were tested for their avidity to bind CR2 (sCR2). Later, these DNA constructs were tested in mice to determine their adjuvant capability. Mutation at residue 162 (R162A) neither enhanced nor impaired the avidity of Envgp120-C3d2 for sCR2 in-vitro. Mutations at residues D163A and N170R, on the other hand, reduced the binding affinity of Envgp120- C3d2 for sCR2. Furthermore, these mutations synergized and abolished the interaction of C3d for CR2. The data correlated with the adjuvant capability of these molecules in the mouse model. In summary, residues that alter the electronegative status of C3d (D163A and N170R) impair the binding of chimera proteins to CR2, reducing the adjuvant activity of this molecule.

Toapanta, Franklin R; DeAlmeida, Dilhari R; Dunn, Matthew; Ross, Ted M

2013-01-01

391

Effect of viewing distance on 3D fatigue caused by viewing mobile 3D content  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With an advent of autostereoscopic display technique and increased needs for smart phones, there has been a significant growth in mobile TV markets. The rapid growth in technical, economical, and social aspects has encouraged 3D TV manufacturers to apply 3D rendering technology to mobile devices so that people have more opportunities to come into contact with many 3D content anytime and anywhere. Even if the mobile 3D technology leads to the current market growth, there is an important thing to consider for consistent development and growth in the display market. To put it briefly, human factors linked to mobile 3D viewing should be taken into consideration before developing mobile 3D technology. Many studies have investigated whether mobile 3D viewing causes undesirable biomedical effects such as motion sickness and visual fatigue, but few have examined main factors adversely affecting human health. Viewing distance is considered one of the main factors to establish optimized viewing environments from a viewer's point of view. Thus, in an effort to determine human-friendly viewing environments, this study aims to investigate the effect of viewing distance on human visual system when exposing to mobile 3D environments. Recording and analyzing brainwaves before and after watching mobile 3D content, we explore how viewing distance affects viewing experience from physiological and psychological perspectives. Results obtained in this study are expected to provide viewing guidelines for viewers, help ensure viewers against undesirable 3D effects, and lead to make gradual progress towards a human-friendly mobile 3D viewing.

Mun, Sungchul; Lee, Dong-Su; Park, Min-Chul; Yano, Sumio

2013-05-01

392

Influence of Fibre Architecture on Impact Damage Tolerance in 3D Woven Composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

3D woven composites, due to the presence of through-thickness fibre-bridging, have the potential to improve damage tolerance and at the same time to reduce the manufacturing costs. However, ability to withstand damage depends on weave topology as well as geometry of individual tows. There is an extensive literature on damage tolerance of 2D prepreg laminates but limited work is reported on the damage tolerance of 3D weaves. In view of the recent interest in 3D woven composites from aerospace as well as non-aerospace sectors, this paper aims to provide an understanding of the impact damage resistance as well as damage tolerance of 3D woven composites. Four different 3D woven architectures, orthogonal, angle interlocked, layer-to-layer and modified layer-to-layer structures, have been produced under identical weaving conditions. Two additional structures, Unidirectional (UD) cross-ply and 2D plain weave, have been developed for comparison with 3D weaves. All the four 3D woven laminates have similar order of magnitude of damage area and damage width, but significantly lower than UD and 2D woven laminates. Damage Resistance, calculated as impact energy per unit damage area, has been shown to be significantly higher for 3D woven laminates. Rate of change of CAI strength with impact energy appears to be similar for all four 3D woven laminates as well as UD laminate; 2D woven laminate has higher rate of degradation with respect to impact energy. Undamaged compression strength has been shown to be a function of average tow waviness angle. Additionally, 3D weaves exhibit a critical damage size; below this size there is no appreciable reduction in compression strength. 3D woven laminates have also exhibited a degree of plasticity during compression whereas UD laminates fail instantly. The experimental work reported in this paper forms a foundation for systematic development of computational models for 3D woven architectures for damage tolerance.

Potluri, P.; Hogg, P.; Arshad, M.; Jetavat, D.; Jamshidi, P.

2012-10-01

393

Eddy Current Benchmark Problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the proposal of a benchmark activity. The objective of the proposed eddy current benchmark problem is to evaluate accuracy of various numerical or semi-analytical methods in predicting an eddy current probe multi-frequency response. The probe has a complicated structure and it consists of a cylindrical ferrite core with five symmetrically placed columns. The probe was used to test plates made from nickel-base superalloy INCONEL 600. In the plate a set of defects were introduced. An AC currents consist of 15 harmonic components are applied to the excitation coils. In all cases the specimens were examined by placing the probe on the reverse side of the flaws. The acquired data will be send by email to all participants of the benchmark's activity.

Chady, T.; Sikora, R.

2008-02-01

394

3-D Road Structure from Motion Stereo.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper presents a new method for reconstructing the 3-D structure of road boundaries from consecutive images. First, we present a method for estimating depth information by applying a motion stereo method to consecutive images, given an estimate of th...

M. Asada

1987-01-01

395

Production of 3D Structures in Printing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to form a raised three dimensional image makes possible the use of modified processes, inks and substrates in fine art work, such as children's books, business cards, postcards, and special type printing processes. If the raised image attains the required height and firmness, it can be used in printing of Braille characters. Production of three dimensional (3D) images

Veronika Chovancova; Alexandra Pekarovicova; Paul D. Fleming III

396

Ricci Flow for 3D Shape Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ricci flow is a powerful curvature flow method in geo- metric analysis. This work is the first application of surface Ricci flow in computer vision. We show that previous meth- ods based on conformal geometries, such as harmonic maps and least-square conformal maps, which can only handle 3D shapes with simple topology are subsumed by our Ricci flowbasedmethodwhichcan handlesurfaceswitharbitrary topology.

Xianfeng Gu; Sen Wang; Junho Kim; Yun Zeng; Yang Wang; Hong Qin; Dimitris Samaras

2007-01-01

397

Dynamic Spatially Augmented 3D Painting  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present techniques for creating a Spatially Augmented Reality for moving polygonal objects in an indoor environment, and a sys- tem that uses these techniques for painting in 3D on these objects in real time. By tracking the object and projecting on its different surfaces with two or more projectors, our system creates a dynamic spatially augmented version of the

Deepak Bandyopadhyay; Ramesh Raskar; Andrei State; Henry Fuchs

2001-01-01

398

Sonification of dynamics in 3D  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document is a report on the results of the COST IC0601 SID STSM of Florian Grond to Marcelo Wanderley. During the time of this STSM I had the opportunity to work efficiently on the proposed topic resulting in a prototype framework for the sonification of 3D dynamical data. I met local researchers in the field of sonification and auditory

Florian Grond; Marcelo Wanderley

399

Design space exploration for 3D architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

As technology scales, interconnects have become a major performance bottleneck and a major source of power consumption for microprocessors. Increasing interconnect costs make it necessary to consider alternate ways of building modern microprocessors. One promising option is 3D architectures where a stack of multiple device layers with direct vertical tunneling through them are put together on the same chip. As

Yuan Xie; Gabriel H. Loh; Bryan Black; Kerry Bernstein

2006-01-01

400

3-D Teaching Models for All  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Allowing a student to "see" through touch what other students see through a microscope can be a challenging task. Therefore, author Joan Bradley created three-dimensional (3-D) models with one student's visual impairment in mind. They are meant to benefit all students and can be used to teach common high school biology topics, including the…

Bradley, Joan; Farland-Smith, Donna

2010-01-01

401

Compression of integral 3D TV pictures  

Microsoft Academic Search

: The development of a compressionalgorithm for reduction of the transmission bit rate of 3Dintegral TV pictures is discussed. The proposed full parallax3D image compression algorithm takes advantage of thecross correlation between the multiple images recorded ona CCD placed behind a directionally selective microlensarray as well as the correlation inherent within each image.Tests carried out show that by using a

M. Forman; A. Aggoun; M. Mccormick De Montfort

1995-01-01

402

3D TV by holographic stereogram (II)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer holographic stereogram (CHS) is useful for holographic 3D TV because it is constructed from the multi horizontal viewpoint plane images and is compatible to the multi-view point images. Each hologram is recorded as a slit hologram (element hologram) but total viewing area and the number of the element holograms have been limited to some extent by the size and

Koki Sato; Lan Tian; Hongming Zhao; Kunihiko Takano

2007-01-01

403

Challenges in multiview video — The 3 D'S  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the purpose of this paper we group, under the generic term multiview video, different systems for which multiple standard video cameras and, possibly, additional depth-capturing cameras, are used. Video is then presented to the user using special glasses or displays. Research work in this area has focused on topics ranging from designing compression techniques to developing new 3D displays.

A. Ortega

2010-01-01

404

3D Virtual Reality for Teaching Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are developing 3D virtual learning environments (VLEs) as learning materials for an undergraduate astronomy course, in which will utilize advances both in technologies available and in our understanding of the social nature of learning. These learning materials will be used to test whether such VLEs can indeed augment science learning so that it is more engaging, active, visual and effective. Our project focuses on the challenges and requirements of introductory college astronomy classes. Here we present our virtual world of the Jupiter system and how we plan to implement it to allow students to learn course material - physical laws and concepts in astronomy - while engaging them into exploration of the Jupiter's system, encouraging their imagination, curiosity, and motivation. The VLE can allow students to work individually or collaboratively. The 3D world also provides an opportunity for research in astronomy education to investigate impact of social interaction, gaming features, and use of manipulatives offered by a learning tool on students’ motivation and learning outcomes. Use of this VLE is also a valuable source for exploration of how the learners’ spatial awareness can be enhanced by working in 3D environment. We will present the Jupiter-system environment along with a preliminary study of the efficacy and usability of our Jupiter 3D VLE.

Speck, Angela; Ruzhitskaya, L.; Laffey, J.; Ding, N.

2012-01-01

405

3D Underwater Sensor Network Localization  

Microsoft Academic Search

We transform the 3D underwater sensor network (USN) localization problem into its 2D counterpart by employing sensor depth information and a simple projection technique. We first prove that a nondegenerative projection preserves network localizability. We then prove that given a network and a constant k, all of the geometric k-lateration localization methods are equivalent. Based on these results, we design

Amin Y. Teymorian; Wei Cheng; Liran Ma; Xiuzhen Cheng; Xicheng Lu; Zexin Lu

2009-01-01

406

3-D Teaching Models for All  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Allowing a student to "see" through touch what other students see through a microscope can be a challenging task. Therefore, author Joan Bradley created three-dimensional (3-D) models with one student's visual impairment in mind. They are meant to benefit

Farland-Smith, Donna; Bradley, Joan

2010-03-01

407

Nexus 2005 - 3D Team Description  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper intends to give an overview of our Soccer Simulation Team work done on 3D version. The main development we made was using a two-phase selection mechanism to determine the best action among all possible ones carried out by the ball controller agent for a given situation. Our aim is to construct stable and flexible agent architecture for our

Vahid Salmani; Farid Seifi; Hossein Moienzadeh; Amin Milani Fard; Mahmoud Naghibzadeh

408

3D visualization of simulated construction operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant advances have been made in the field of construction process modeling. However, no convenient graphical support tools exist that can depict the modeled operations in 3D. This results in the “black box” effect being experienced by many simulation output analysts who have reservations about the credibility of the analysis based solely on the text and chart based output provided

Vineet R. Kamat; Julio C. Martinez

2000-01-01

409

3D digitization of Historical Maps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Most of the modern maps around the world lie on paper subject or other flat but flexible material. Although, most of the historic maps in maplibraries' collections and museums are representations of the real world on paper there are still cases of ? anaglyph maps (3D maps), ? deformed maps (i.e. maps on books, atlases) that used to be

Miltiades Daniil

410

Computer aided 3D seismic interpretation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1975 numerous 3D seismic surveys have been carried out by Prakla-Seismos GmbH, the majority of these in the Ruhr coal district of NW Germany. A prerequisite of these surveys was that new methods had to be introduced into acquisition and processing. The author describes the new techniques that are necessary for the interpretation of the seismic data.

Lemcke

1982-01-01

411

Vection with large screen 3D imagery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vection is the illusory impression of self motion that can be obtained when an observer views a I,arge screen display containing a rotating or translating pattern. To aid in our construction of an interactive large screen interface to virtual 3D environments, we conducted studies to determine the factors which induce a sense of vection. We found that having a foreground

Kathy Lowther; Colin Ware

1996-01-01

412

Simple 3-D applications in web service  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes methods of online translation of text files into a visually more intuitive 3-D format. Relatively simple text files are used as examples here, but the approach described can easily be extended to more complicated tasks. Java Servlet Pages (JSP) dynamic homepage technology is used to provide online access and data processing. Different processing methods are used by the example applications.

Zhang, Jie; John, Nigel W.

2002-07-01

413

A system for sculpting 3-D data  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major research area in 3-D computer graphics is the inputting of complex descriptions. This paper describes our current attempt at solving that problem: creation of a sculptor's studio-line environment in which the user is provided with various tools to shape, cut and join objects. The emphasis of the implementation has been on naturalness and habitability. The issues involved in

Richard E. Parent

1977-01-01

414

Bounds for Orthogonal 3-D Graph Drawing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies 3-D orthogonal grid drawings for graphs of arbi- trary degree, in particular Kn, with vertices drawn as boxes. It estab- lishes asymptotic lower bounds for the volume of the bounding box and the number of bends of such drawings and exhibits a construction that achieves these bounds. No edge route in this construction bends more than three

Therese C. Biedl; Thomas C. Shermer; Sue Whitesides; Stephen K. Wismath

1999-01-01

415

A Cray T3D performance study  

SciTech Connect

We carry out a performance study using the Cray T3D parallel supercomputer to illustrate some important features of this machine. Timing experiments show the speed of various basic operations while more complicated operations give some measure of its parallel performance.

Nallana, A. [Interact, Inc., Austin, TX (United States); Kincaid, D.R. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States)

1996-05-01

416

3D flash ladar at Raytheon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Raytheon has recently been funded by DARPA to develop an FPA for single shot eyesafe ladar operation. The goal of the program is to develop new high speed imaging rays to rapidly acquire high resolution, 3D images of tactical targets at ranges as long as 7 to 10 kilometers. This would provide precision strike, target identification from rapidly moving platforms,

Maurice J. Halmos; Michael D. Jack; James F. Asbrock; C. Anderson; Steven L. Bailey; George Chapman; E. Gordon; P. E. Herning; Murray H. Kalisher; Louis F. Klaras; Kim Kosai; V. Liquori; Mike Pines; Valerie Randall; Robin Reeder; Joseph P. Rosbeck; Sanghamitra Sen; Patrick A. Trotta; P. Wetzel; Andrew T. Hunter; John E. Jensen; T. J. DeLyon; Charlie W. Trussell; James A. Hutchinson; Raymond S. Balcerak

2001-01-01

417

3D Object Digitization: Topology Preserving Reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we derive a sampling theorem, which is the first one to guarantee topology preservation during digitization of 3D objects. This new theorem is appli- cable to several reconstruction methods, e.g. a union- of-balls reconstruction and the trilinear interpolation.

Peer Stelldinger; Longin Jan Latecki

2006-01-01

418

Constructing stable grasps in 3D  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents fast and simple algorithms for directly constructing stable grasps in 3D. The synthesis of stable grasps constructs virtual springs at the contacts, such that the grasped object is stable, and has a desired stiffness matrix about its stable equilibrium. The paper develops a simple geometric relation between the stiffness of the grasp and the spatial configuration of

Van-Duc Nguyen

1987-01-01

419

Fault-tolerant 3D clock network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clock tree synthesis is one of the most important and challenging problems in 3D ICs. The clock signals have to be delivered by through-silicon vias (TSVs) to different tiers with minimum skew and latency. While there are a few related works in literature, none of them considers the reliability of TSVs. Accordingly, the failure of any TSV in the clock

Chiao-Ling Lung; Yu-Shih Su; Shih-Hsiu Huang; Yiyu Shi; Shih-Chieh Chang

2011-01-01

420

Traditional cartoon style 3D computer animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer animation has always looked too glossy and shiny, which is why traditional cartoon specialists, such as Matt Groening have often avoided using the 3D computer graphic medium as a solution. Traditional animation's flexibility in terms of choice of appearance and style is appealing but in certain aspects it is very time consuming. There is therefore a need to develop

N. Nasr; N. Higgett

2002-01-01

421

Engineering tumors with 3D scaffolds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microenvironmental conditions control tumorigenesis and biomimetic culture systems that allow for in vitro and in vivo tumor modeling may greatly aid studies of cancer cells' dependency on these conditions. We engineered three-dimensional (3D) human tumor models using carcinoma cells in polymeric scaffolds that recreated microenvironmental characteristics representative of tumors in vivo. Strikingly, the angiogenic characteristics of tumor cells were dramatically

Claudia Fischbach; Ruth Chen; Takuya Matsumoto; Tobias Schmelzle; Joan S Brugge; Peter J Polverini; David J Mooney

2007-01-01

422

The 3D Color Printer Explorer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 3D Color Printer Explorer is an interactive tool for the computation and visualization of scalar measurements on interactively defined samplings of the device's color space. It supports the user in the discovery and analysis of the conceptual linking between color statistics in different ranges of the printer gamut. The system allows the measurement and definition of different color quality

C. Cusano; R. Schettini; S. Zuffi

423

Mobile augmented reality based 3D snapshots  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a mobile augmented reality application that is based on 3D snapshotting using multiple photographs. Optical square mark- ers provide the anchor for reconstructed virtual objects in the scene. A novel approach based on pixel flow highly improves tracking performance. This dual tracking approach also allows for a new single-button user interface metaphor for moving virtual objects in the

Peter KeitlerFrieder; Frieder Pankratz; Björn Schwerdtfeger; Daniel Pustka; Wolf Rodiger; Gudrun Klinker; Christian Rauch; Anup Chathoth; John P. Collomosse; Yi-zhe Song

2009-01-01

424

3D integration with PCB technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The future of 3D integration and packaging of power electronics using printed circuit board (PCB) technology is presented. This is to show how power electronics can benefit from the same advantages that have been exploited by the microelectronic industry, for some time already, regarding high density packaging, as implemented in modern digital photo and video cameras for example. Complementary technologies,

E. C. W. de Jong; L. A. Ferreira; P. Bauer

2006-01-01

425

3-D Diamond MCM Technology Development Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

3-D Diamond MCMs is an enabling technology to support chip-to-chip and module-to-module high

D. A. Schaefer

1998-01-01

426

Bosphorus Database for 3D Face Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new 3D face database that includes a rich set of expressions, systematic variation of poses and different types of occlusions is presented in this paper. This database is unique from three aspects: i) the facial expressions are composed of judiciously selected subset of Action Units as well as the six basic emotions, and many actors\\/actresses are incorporated to obtain

Arman Savran; Nese Alyüz; Hamdi Dibeklioglu; Oya Çeliktutan; Berk Gökberk; Bülent Sankur; Lale Akarun

2008-01-01

427

3D FractaL-Tree  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

3D FractaL-Tree allows scientists to collect data from actual specimens in the field or laboratory, insert these measurements into a spatially explicit L-system package, and then visually compare to the computer generated 3D image with such specimens. The measurements are recorded and analyzed in a series of worksheets in Microsoft Excelî and the results are entered into the graphics engine in a Java applet. 3D FractaL-Tree produces a rotatable three-dimensional image of the tree which is helpful for examining such characters as self-avoidance (entanglement and breakage), penetration of sunlight, distances that small herbivores (such as caterpillars) would have to traverse to go from one tip to another, and Voronoi polyhedra of volume distribution of biomass on different subsections of a tree. These and other factors have been discussed in the Adaptive Geometry of Trees (Horn, 1971). Three different representations are available in 3D FractaL-Tree images: wire frame, solid, and transparent. Easy options for saving and exporting images are included.

John Jungck (Beloit College;Biology); Jennifer Spangenberg (Beloit College;Biology); Noppadon Khiripet (National Electronics and Computer Technology Center, Thailand;Bioinformatics Unit); Rawin Viruchpinta (National Electronics and Computer Technology Center, Thailand;); Jutarat Maneewattanapluk (National Electronics and Computer Technology Center, Thailand;)

2007-07-18

428

Antialiasing for automultiscopic 3D displays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automultiscopic displays show stereoscopic images that can be viewed from any viewpoint with- out special glasses. They hold great promise for the future of television and digital entertainment. However, the image quality on these 3D displays is currently not sufficient to appeal to the mass market. In this paper, we extend the frequency analysis of light fields to address some

Matthias Zwicker; Wojciech Matusik; Frédo Durand; Hanspeter Pfister; Clifton Forlines

2006-01-01

429

Spatial Visualization by Realistic 3D Views  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this study, the popular Purdue Spatial Visualization Test-Visualization by Rotations (PSVT-R) in isometric drawings was recreated with CAD software that allows 3D solid modeling and rendering to provide more realistic pictorial views. Both the original and the modified PSVT-R tests were given to students and their scores on the two tests were…

Yue, Jianping

2008-01-01

430

3D GF for Anisotropic Elastic Bimaterials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The subroutine (in Fortran) calculates the 3D Green's functions of displacement, stress and/or their derivatives WRT source coordinates in anisotropic elastic bimaterials subjected to a point force. The source and field points can be located in either material or on the interface.

Yang, Bo

2003-04-15

431

3-D Heterogeneous Electronics by Transfer Printing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we describe an approach, called transfer printing, to allow the combination of broad classes of materials into three-dimensional (3-D) heterogeneously integrated electronic devices. The process involves fabrication of source wafers that contain high performance single crystal devices from materials including, but not limited to, silicon, gallium arsenide and gallium nitride. These devices are then delineated and transferred to a

C. A. Bower; E. Menard; J. Carr; J. A. Rogers

2007-01-01

432

Holography of incoherently illuminated 3D scenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review several methods of generating holograms of 3D realistic objects illuminated by incoherent white light. Using these methods, it is possible to obtain holograms with a simple digital camera, operating in regular light conditions. Thus, most disadvantages characterizing conventional holography, namely the need for a powerful, highly coherent laser and meticulous stability of the optical system are avoided. These

Natan T. Shaked; Joseph Rosen

2008-01-01

433

3D Structure of Staphylococcal Enterotoxins.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this research is to determine the crystal structure of the staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) by x-ray diffraction and protein modeling techniques and to correlate the 3D structures with their biological activities, in order to provide essen...

M. Sax J. Pletcher S. Swaminathan

1994-01-01

434

Maximum tearing energy computation for 3D rubber fracture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a finite element procedure for computing tearing energy for any arbitrarily shaped 3D crack front in rubber solids using the virtual crack extension method. The magnitude and direction of maximum tearing energy can be evaluated from the specified virtual crack extensions in three dimensions defined by spherical coordinates for any type of crack front. This finite element procedure was applied to a double pure shear fracture specimen. The results obtained for tearing energy are in good agreement with those calculated with the J-integral as well as with the experimental data. It is shown that a sinusoidal tearing energy distribution occurs within the crack front normal plane for a double pure shear fracture specimen.

Pidaparti, R. M. V.; Pontula, G.

1994-09-01

435

Analysis on the 3D crosstalk in stereoscopic display  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays, with the rapid progresses in flat panel display (FPD) technologies, the three-dimensional (3D) display is now becoming a next mainstream of display market. Among the various 3D display techniques, the stereoscopic 3D display shows different left/right images for each eye of observer using special glasses and is the most popular 3D technique with the advantages of low price and high 3D resolution. However, current stereoscopic 3D displays suffer with the 3D crosstalk which means the interference between the left eye mage and right eye images since it degrades the quality of 3D image severely. In this paper, the meaning and causes of the 3D crosstalk in stereoscopic 3D display are introduced and the pre-proposed methods of 3D crosstalk measurement vision science are reviewed. Based on them The threshold of 3D crosstalk to realize a 3D display with no degradation is analyzed.

Choi, Hee-Jin

2010-11-01

436

PubChem3D: Similar conformers  

PubMed Central

Background PubChem is a free and open public resource for the biological activities of small molecules. With many tens of millions of both chemical structures and biological test results, PubChem is a sizeable system with an uneven degree of available information. Some chemical structures in PubChem include a great deal of biological annotation, while others have little to none. To help users, PubChem pre-computes "neighboring" relationships to relate similar chemical structures, which may have similar biological function. In this work, we introduce a "Similar Conformers" neighboring relationship to identify compounds with similar 3-D shape and similar 3-D orientation of functional groups typically used to define pharmacophore features. Results The first two diverse 3-D conformers of 26.1 million PubChem Compound records were compared to each other, using a shape Tanimoto (ST) of 0.8 or greater and a color Tanimoto (CT) of 0.5 or greater, yielding 8.16 billion conformer neighbor pairs and 6.62 billion compound neighbor pairs, with an average of 253 "Similar Conformers" compound neighbors per compound. Comparing the 3-D neighboring relationship to the corresponding 2-D neighboring relationship ("Similar Compounds") for molecules such as caffeine, aspirin, and morphine, one finds unique sets of related chemical structures, providing additional significant biological annotation. The PubChem 3-D neighboring relationship is also shown to be able to group a set of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), despite limited PubChem 2-D similarity. In a study of 4,218 chemical structures of biomedical interest, consisting of many known drugs, using more diverse conformers per compound results in more 3-D compound neighbors per compound; however, the overlap of the compound neighbor lists per conformer also increasingly resemble each other, being 38% identical at three conformers and 68% at ten conformers. Perhaps surprising is that the average count of conformer neighbors per conformer increases rather slowly as a function of diverse conformers considered, with only a 70% increase for a ten times growth in conformers per compound (a 68-fold increase in the conformer pairs considered). Neighboring 3-D conformers on the scale performed, if implemented naively, is an intractable problem using a modest sized compute cluster. Methodology developed in this work relies on a series of filters to prevent performing 3-D superposition optimization, when it can be determined that two conformers cannot possibly be a neighbor. Most filters are based on Tanimoto equation volume constraints, avoiding incompatible conformers; however, others consider preliminary superposition between conformers using reference shapes. Conclusion The "Similar Conformers" 3-D neighboring relationship locates similar small molecules of biological interest that may go unnoticed when using traditional 2-D chemical structure graph-based methods, making it complementary to such methodologies. The computational cost of 3-D similarity methodology on a wide scale, such as PubChem contents, is a considerable issue to overcome. Using a series of efficient filters, an effective throughput rate of more than 150,000 conformers per second per processor core was achieved, more than two orders of magnitude faster than without filtering.

2011-01-01

437

A 2D driven 3D vessel segmentation algorithm for 3D digital subtraction angiography data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cerebrovascular disease is among the leading causes of death in western industrial nations. 3D rotational angiography delivers indispensable information on vessel morphology and pathology. Physicians make use of this to analyze vessel geometry in detail, i.e. vessel diameters, location and size of aneurysms, to come up with a clinical decision. 3D segmentation is a crucial step in this pipeline. Although

M. Spiegel; T. Redel; T. Struffert; J. Hornegger; A. Doerfler

2011-01-01

438

3D interaction for puzzle solving with the cubtile, 3D multitouch device  

Microsoft Academic Search

This experimentation proposes a new interaction technique for 3D puzzle solving using a cubic device with five multitouch surfaces. The interaction is based on three levels. First, the device is used to move a 3D pointer (a selection box) into the virtual environment using. Such translations are performed relying on all the device faces. Once the selection icon is close

Toni Da Luz; Immersion SAS

2011-01-01

439

Software for 3-D Reconstruction from Images of Oblique Sections through 3-D Crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oblique section reconstruction can produce a 3-D image from electron micrographs of a sectioned crystal when the orientation of the section plane is not aligned with the principal planes of the unit cell. We describe here the reconstruction protocol and the specialized computer software for a Fourier space method that can extract 3-D information from 2-D projection images of oblique

Hanspeter Winkler; Kenneth A. Taylor

1996-01-01

440

Diorama engine: a 3D video storyboard editor for 3D computer animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this sketch, we will demonstrate a video storyboard tool targeted for 3D computer animation. Our tool provides limited but specialized functions of standard 3D computer graphics software, focusing on ease of scene construction, camera control and the ability to preview in realtime. This allows for quicker and easier creation of video storyboards over existing approaches.

Koji Mikami; Toru Tokuhara; Mitsuru Kaneko

2002-01-01

441

Browsing 3-D spaces with 3-D vision: body-driven navigation through the Internet city  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a computer vision stereo based interface to navigate inside a 3-D Internet city, using body gestures. A wide-baseline stereo pair of cameras is used to obtain 3-D body models of the user's hands and head in a small desk -area environment. The interface feeds this information to a n HMM gesture classifier to reliably recognize the user's

Flavia Sparacino; Christopher Richard Wren; Ali Azarbayejani; Alex Pentland

2002-01-01

442

Arsrapport 3D-Laser 2005 (Annual Report 3-D Laser 2005).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose for the project Target recognition with high resolution 3-D imaging laser radar is to increase knowledge in the field and to give a base for better assessment of the performance of 3-D imaging laser radar systems, current systems as well as fu...

T. Chevalier P. Andersson C. Groenwall F. Gustafsson J. Landgard

2005-01-01

443

3-D inversion of magnetotelluric Phase Tensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three-dimensional (3-D) inversion of the magnetotelluric (MT) has become a routine practice among the MT community due to progress of algorithms for 3-D inverse problems (e.g. Mackie and Madden, 1993; Siripunvaraporn et al., 2005). While availability of such 3-D inversion codes have increased the resolving power of the MT data and improved the interpretation, on the other hand, still the galvanic effects poses difficulties in interpretation of resistivity structure obtained from the MT data. In order to tackle the galvanic distortion of MT data, Caldwell et al., (2004) introduced the concept of phase tensor. They demonstrated how the regional phase information can be retrieved from the observed impedance tensor without any assumptions for structural dimension, where both the near surface inhomogeneity and the regional conductivity structures can be 3-D. We made an attempt to modify a 3-D inversion code (Siripunvaraporn et al., 2005) to directly invert the phase tensor elements. We present here the main modification done in the sensitivity calculation and then show a few synthetic studies and its application to the real data. The synthetic model study suggests that the prior model (m_0) setting is important in retrieving the true model. This is because estimation of correct induction scale length lacks in the phase tensor inversion process. Comparison between results from conventional impedance inversion and new phase tensor inversion suggests that, in spite of presence of the galvanic distortion (due to near surface checkerboard anomalies in our case), the new inverion algorithm retrieves the regional conductivitity structure reliably. We applied the new inversion to the real data from the Indian sub continent and compared with the results from conventional impedance inversion.

Patro, Prasanta; Uyeshima, Makoto

2010-05-01

444

3-D Force-balanced Magnetospheric Configurations  

SciTech Connect

The knowledge of plasma pressure is essential for many physics applications in the magnetosphere, such as computing magnetospheric currents and deriving magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. A thorough knowledge of the 3-D pressure distribution has however eluded the community, as most in-situ pressure observations are either in the ionosphere or the equatorial region of the magnetosphere. With the assumption of pressure isotropy there have been attempts to obtain the pressure at different locations by either (a) mapping observed data (e.g., in the ionosphere) along the field lines of an empirical magnetospheric field model or (b) computing a pressure profile in the equatorial plane (in 2-D) or along the Sun-Earth axis (in 1-D) that is in force balance with the magnetic stresses of an empirical model. However, the pressure distributions obtained through these methods are not in force balance with the empirical magnetic field at all locations. In order to find a global 3-D plasma pressure distribution in force balance with the magnetospheric magnetic field, we have developed the MAG-3D code, that solves the 3-D force balance equation J x B = (upside-down delta) P computationally. Our calculation is performed in a flux coordinate system in which the magnetic field is expressed in terms of Euler potentials as B = (upside-down delta) psi x (upside-down delta) alpha. The pressure distribution, P = P(psi,alpha), is prescribed in the equatorial plane and is based on satellite measurements. In addition, computational boundary conditions for y surfaces are imposed using empirical field models. Our results provide 3-D distributions of magnetic field and plasma pressure as well as parallel and transverse currents for both quiet-time and disturbed magnetospheric conditions.

Sorin Zaharia; C.Z. Cheng; K. Maezawa

2003-02-10

445

3-D transient analysis of pebble-bed HTGR by TORT-TD/ATTICA3D  

SciTech Connect

As most of the acceptance criteria are local core parameters, application of transient 3-D fine mesh neutron transport and thermal hydraulics coupled codes is mandatory for best estimate evaluations of safety margins. This also applies to high-temperature gas cooled reactors (HTGR). Application of 3-D fine-mesh transient transport codes using few energy groups coupled with 3-D thermal hydraulics codes becomes feasible in view of increasing computing power. This paper describes the discrete ordinates based coupled code system TORT-TD/ATTICA3D that has recently been extended by a fine-mesh diffusion solver. Based on transient analyses for the PBMR-400 design, the transport/diffusion capabilities are demonstrated and 3-D local flux and power redistribution effects during a partial control rod withdrawal are shown. (authors)

Seubert, A.; Sureda, A. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit GRS MbH, Forschungszentrum, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Lapins, J.; Buck, M. [Institut fuer Kernenergetik und Energiesysteme IKE, Universitaet Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 31, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Bader, J. [Institut fuer Kernenergetik und Energiesysteme IKE, Universitaet Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 31, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); EnBW Kernkraft GmbH, Kernkraftwerk Philippsburg, Rheinschanzinsel, D-76661 Philippsburg (Germany); Laurien, E. [Institut fuer Kernenergetik und Energiesysteme IKE, Universitaet Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 31, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

2012-07-01

446