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Sample records for 3-d x-y-z nodal

  1. Coupling 2-D cylindrical and 3-D x-y-z transport computations

    SciTech Connect

    Abu-Shumays, I.K.; Yehnert, C.E.; Pitcairn, T.N.

    1998-06-30

    This paper describes a new two-dimensional (2-D) cylindrical geometry to three-dimensional (3-D) rectangular x-y-z splice option for multi-dimensional discrete ordinates solutions to the neutron (photon) transport equation. Of particular interest are the simple transformations developed and applied in order to carry out the required spatial and angular interpolations. The spatial interpolations are linear and equivalent to those applied elsewhere. The angular interpolations are based on a high order spherical harmonics representation of the angular flux. Advantages of the current angular interpolations over previous work are discussed. An application to an intricate streaming problem is provided to demonstrate the advantages of the new method for efficient and accurate prediction of particle behavior in complex geometries.

  2. DIF3D nodal neutronics option for two- and three-dimensional diffusion theory calculations in hexagonal geometry. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, R.D.

    1983-03-01

    A nodal method is developed for the solution of the neutron-diffusion equation in two- and three-dimensional hexagonal geometries. The nodal scheme has been incorporated as an option in the finite-difference diffusion-theory code DIF3D, and is intended for use in the analysis of current LMFBR designs. The nodal equations are derived using higher-order polynomial approximations to the spatial dependence of the flux within the hexagonal-z node. The final equations, which are cast in the form of inhomogeneous response-matrix equations for each energy group, involved spatial moments of the node-interior flux distribution plus surface-averaged partial currents across the faces of the node. These equations are solved using a conventional fission-source iteration accelerated by coarse-mesh rebalance and asymptotic source extrapolation. This report describes the mathematical development and numerical solution of the nodal equations, as well as the use of the nodal option and details concerning its programming structure. This latter information is intended to supplement the information provided in the separate documentation of the DIF3D code.

  3. Search for X Y Z states in ϒ (1 S ) inclusive decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, C. P.; Yuan, C. Z.; Ban, Y.; Aihara, H.; Asner, D. M.; Badhrees, I.; Bakich, A. M.; Barberio, E.; Behera, P.; Bhardwaj, V.; Bhuyan, B.; Biswal, J.; Bondar, A.; Bonvicini, G.; Bozek, A.; Bračko, M.; Browder, T. E.; Červenkov, D.; Chekelian, V.; Chen, A.; Cheon, B. G.; Chilikin, K.; Chistov, R.; Cho, K.; Chobanova, V.; Choi, S.-K.; Choi, Y.; Cinabro, D.; Dalseno, J.; Danilov, M.; Dash, N.; Di Carlo, S.; Doležal, Z.; Drásal, Z.; Dutta, D.; Eidelman, S.; Farhat, H.; Fast, J. E.; Ferber, T.; Fulsom, B. G.; Gaur, V.; Gabyshev, N.; Garmash, A.; Goldenzweig, P.; Haba, J.; Hayasaka, K.; Hayashii, H.; Hou, W.-S.; Iijima, T.; Inguglia, G.; Ishikawa, A.; Itoh, R.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jeon, H. B.; Joo, K. K.; Julius, T.; Kang, K. H.; Kim, D. Y.; Kim, J. B.; Kim, K. T.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y. J.; Kinoshita, K.; Kodyš, P.; Korpar, S.; Kotchetkov, D.; Križan, P.; Krokovny, P.; Kuhr, T.; Kuzmin, A.; Kwon, Y.-J.; Lange, J. S.; Li, C. H.; Li, H.; Li, L.; Li, Y.; Li Gioi, L.; Libby, J.; Liventsev, D.; Luo, T.; Masuda, M.; Matsuda, T.; Matvienko, D.; Moll, A.; Moon, H. K.; Mussa, R.; Nakao, M.; Nanut, T.; Nath, K. J.; Natkaniec, Z.; Nayak, M.; Negishi, K.; Nishida, S.; Ogawa, S.; Okuno, S.; Olsen, S. L.; Pakhlov, P.; Pakhlova, G.; Pal, B.; Pestotnik, R.; Petrič, M.; Piilonen, L. E.; Pulvermacher, C.; Ritter, M.; Rostomyan, A.; Sakai, Y.; Sandilya, S.; Santelj, L.; Sanuki, T.; Savinov, V.; Schlüter, T.; Schneider, O.; Schnell, G.; Schwanda, C.; Seino, Y.; Senyo, K.; Seon, O.; Seong, I. S.; Sevior, M. E.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shiu, J.-G.; Simon, F.; Sokolov, A.; Solovieva, E.; Starič, M.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Takizawa, M.; Tanida, K.; Tenchini, F.; Trabelsi, K.; Uchida, M.; Uglov, T.; Unno, Y.; Uno, S.; Varner, G.; Vinokurova, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Wang, C. H.; Wang, M.-Z.; Wang, P.; Wang, X. L.; Watanabe, M.; Watanabe, Y.; Williams, K. M.; Won, E.; Yamaoka, J.; Yang, S. D.; Yashchenko, S.; Yook, Y.; Yusa, Y.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhilich, V.; Zhukova, V.; Zhulanov, V.; Zupanc, A.; Belle Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    The branching fractions of the ϒ (1 S ) inclusive decays into final states with a J /ψ or a ψ (2 S ) are measured with improved precision to be B (ϒ (1 S )→J /ψ +anything)=(5.25 ±0.13 (stat )±0.25 (syst ))×10-4 and B (ϒ (1 S )→ψ (2 S )+anything)=(1.23 ±0.17 (stat )±0.11 (syst ))×10-4 . The first search for ϒ (1 S ) decays into X Y Z states that decay into a J /ψ or a ψ (2 S ) plus one or two charged tracks yields no significant signals for X Y Z states in any of the examined decay modes, and upper limits on their production rates in ϒ (1 S ) inclusive decays are determined.

  4. Improvement of advanced nodal method used in 3D core design system

    SciTech Connect

    Rauck, S.; Dall'Osso, A.

    2006-07-01

    This paper deals with AREVA NP progress in the modelling of neutronic phenomena, evaluated through 3D determinist core codes and using 2-group diffusion theory. Our report highlights the advantages of taking into account the assembly environment in the process used for the building of the 2-group collapsed neutronic parameters, such as cross sections or discontinuity factors. The interest of the present method, developed in order to account for the impact of the environment on the above mentioned parameters, resides (i) in the very definition of a global correlation between collapsed neutronic data calculated in an infinite medium and those calculated in a 3D-geometry, and (ii) in the use of a re-homogenization method. Using this approach, computations match better with actual measurements on control rod worth. They also present smaller differences on pin by pin power values compared to the ones computed with another code considered as a reference since it relies on multigroup transport theory. (authors)

  5. Rationally designed graphene-nanotube 3D architectures with a seamless nodal junction for efficient energy conversion and storage

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Yuhua; Ding, Yong; Niu, Jianbing; Xia, Zhenhai; Roy, Ajit; Chen, Hao; Qu, Jia; Wang, Zhong Lin; Dai, Liming

    2015-01-01

    One-dimensional (1D) carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and 2D single-atomic layer graphene have superior thermal, electrical, and mechanical properties. However, these nanomaterials exhibit poor out-of-plane properties due to the weak van der Waals interaction in the transverse direction between graphitic layers. Recent theoretical studies indicate that rationally designed 3D architectures could have desirable out-of-plane properties while maintaining in-plane properties by growing CNTs and graphene into 3D architectures with a seamless nodal junction. However, the experimental realization of seamlessly-bonded architectures remains a challenge. We developed a strategy of creating 3D graphene-CNT hollow fibers with radially aligned CNTs (RACNTs) seamlessly sheathed by a cylindrical graphene layer through a one-step chemical vapor deposition using an anodized aluminum wire template. By controlling the aluminum wire diameter and anodization time, the length of the RACNTs and diameter of the graphene hollow fiber can be tuned, enabling efficient energy conversion and storage. These fibers, with a controllable surface area, meso-/micropores, and superior electrical properties, are excellent electrode materials for all-solid-state wire-shaped supercapacitors with poly(vinyl alcohol)/H2SO4 as the electrolyte and binder, exhibiting a surface-specific capacitance of 89.4 mF/cm2 and length-specific capacitance up to 23.9 mF/cm, — one to four times the corresponding record-high capacities reported for other fiber-like supercapacitors. Dye-sensitized solar cells, fabricated using the fiber as a counter electrode, showed a power conversion efficiency of 6.8% and outperformed their counterparts with an expensive Pt wire counter electrode by a factor of 2.5. These novel fiber-shaped graphene-RACNT energy conversion and storage devices are so flexible they can be woven into fabrics as power sources. PMID:26601246

  6. Rationally designed graphene-nanotube 3D architectures with a seamless nodal junction for efficient energy conversion and storage.

    PubMed

    Xue, Yuhua; Ding, Yong; Niu, Jianbing; Xia, Zhenhai; Roy, Ajit; Chen, Hao; Qu, Jia; Wang, Zhong Lin; Dai, Liming

    2015-09-01

    One-dimensional (1D) carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and 2D single-atomic layer graphene have superior thermal, electrical, and mechanical properties. However, these nanomaterials exhibit poor out-of-plane properties due to the weak van der Waals interaction in the transverse direction between graphitic layers. Recent theoretical studies indicate that rationally designed 3D architectures could have desirable out-of-plane properties while maintaining in-plane properties by growing CNTs and graphene into 3D architectures with a seamless nodal junction. However, the experimental realization of seamlessly-bonded architectures remains a challenge. We developed a strategy of creating 3D graphene-CNT hollow fibers with radially aligned CNTs (RACNTs) seamlessly sheathed by a cylindrical graphene layer through a one-step chemical vapor deposition using an anodized aluminum wire template. By controlling the aluminum wire diameter and anodization time, the length of the RACNTs and diameter of the graphene hollow fiber can be tuned, enabling efficient energy conversion and storage. These fibers, with a controllable surface area, meso-/micropores, and superior electrical properties, are excellent electrode materials for all-solid-state wire-shaped supercapacitors with poly(vinyl alcohol)/H2SO4 as the electrolyte and binder, exhibiting a surface-specific capacitance of 89.4 mF/cm(2) and length-specific capacitance up to 23.9 mF/cm, - one to four times the corresponding record-high capacities reported for other fiber-like supercapacitors. Dye-sensitized solar cells, fabricated using the fiber as a counter electrode, showed a power conversion efficiency of 6.8% and outperformed their counterparts with an expensive Pt wire counter electrode by a factor of 2.5. These novel fiber-shaped graphene-RACNT energy conversion and storage devices are so flexible they can be woven into fabrics as power sources. PMID:26601246

  7. Fallon FORGE 3D Geologic Model

    DOE Data Explorer

    Doug Blankenship

    2016-03-01

    An x,y,z scattered data file for the 3D geologic model of the Fallon FORGE site. Model created in Earthvision by Dynamic Graphic Inc. The model was constructed with a grid spacing of 100 m. Geologic surfaces were extrapolated from the input data using a minimum tension gridding algorithm. The data file is tabular data in a text file, with lithology data associated with X,Y,Z grid points. All the relevant information is in the file header (the spatial reference, the projection etc.) In addition all the fields in the data file are identified in the header.

  8. A Gas-Spring-Loaded X-Y-Z Stage System for X-ray Microdiffraction Sample Manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Deming; Cai, Zhonghou; Lai, Barry

    2007-01-01

    We have designed and constructed a gas-spring-loaded x-y-z stage system for x-ray microdiffraction sample manipulation at the Advanced Photon Source XOR 2-ID-D station. The stage system includes three DC-motor-driven linear stages and a gas-spring-based heavy preloading structure, which provides antigravity forces to ensure that the stage system keeps high-positioning performance under variable goniometer orientation. Microdiffraction experiments with this new stage system showed significant sample manipulation performance improvement.

  9. A Gas-Spring-Loaded X-Y-Z Stage System for X-ray Microdiffraction Sample Manipulation

    SciTech Connect

    Shu Deming; Cai Zhonghou; Lai, Barry

    2007-01-19

    We have designed and constructed a gas-spring-loaded x-y-z stage system for x-ray microdiffraction sample manipulation at the Advanced Photon Source XOR 2-ID-D station. The stage system includes three DC-motor-driven linear stages and a gas-spring-based heavy preloading structure, which provides antigravity forces to ensure that the stage system keeps high-positioning performance under variable goniometer orientation. Microdiffraction experiments with this new stage system showed significant sample manipulation performance improvement.

  10. GdxZryTizCe1-x-y-zO2 mesoporous catalysts for oxidation reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagaynov, Igor V.; Liberman, Elena Yu.; Naumkin, Alexander V.

    2015-12-01

    GdxZryTizCe1-x-y-zO2 solid solutions with a crystallite size of 5-10 nm have been prepared by the sonochemical method from inorganic salts. Ceria-based materials exhibited a mesoporous structure with diameter of 2-10 nm. The activity of the solid solution in the oxidation of carbon monoxide is determined by the flow method within a temperature range of 20-500 °C at atmospheric pressure for the following gas mixture composition, vol.%: CO - 4.2; O2 - 9.6; N2 - balance or CO - 1.8; CH4 - 1.6; O2 - 9.6; N2 - balance. It was shown that the temperature of full conversion of CO was 250-270 °C for CO-O2-N2 mixture and 380-420 °C for CO-CH4-O2-N2 mixture without methane oxidation.

  11. West Flank Coso, CA FORGE 3D geologic model

    DOE Data Explorer

    Doug Blankenship

    2016-03-01

    This is an x,y,z file of the West Flank FORGE 3D geologic model. Model created in Earthvision by Dynamic Graphic Inc. The model was constructed with a grid spacing of 100 m. Geologic surfaces were extrapolated from the input data using a minimum tension gridding algorithm. The data file is tabular data in a text file, with lithology data associated with X,Y,Z grid points. All the relevant information is in the file header (the spatial reference, the projection etc.) In addition all the fields in the data file are identified in the header.

  12. X, Y, Z positioner

    DOEpatents

    Goers, G.F.

    1987-11-10

    A three-axis control for precisely and conveniently adjusting items such as mirrors and lenses is disclosed. The adjuster apparatus includes a vertical stack of three rotatable adjusters. Rotation of the first effects vertical translation, whereas the second and third are eccentric assemblies which interact to effect movement along two angled axes perpendicular to the vertical axis. 13 figs.

  13. X, Y, Z positioner

    DOEpatents

    Goers, George F.

    1987-01-01

    A three-axis control for precisely and conveniently adjusting items such as irrors and lenses is disclosed. The adjuster apparatus includes a vertical stack of three rotatable adjusters. Rotation of the first effects vertical translation, whereas the second and third are eccentric assemblies which interact to effect movement along two angled axes perpendicular to the vertical axis.

  14. Parity violation in nuclear magnetic resonance frequencies of chiral tetrahedral tungsten complexes NWXYZ (X, Y, Z = H, F, Cl, Br or I)

    SciTech Connect

    Nahrwold, Sophie Berger, Robert; Schwerdtfeger, Peter

    2014-01-14

    Density functional theory within the two-component quasi-relativistic zeroth-order regular approximation (ZORA) is used to predict parity violation shifts in {sup 183}W nuclear magnetic resonance shielding tensors of chiral, tetrahedrally bonded tungsten complexes of the form NWXYZ (X, Y, Z = H, F, Cl, Br or I), as well as for the heavier systems NWHAtF and NWH(117)F for comparison. The calculations reveal that sub-mHz accuracy is required to detect such tiny effects in this class of compounds, and that parity violation effects are very sensitive to the choice of ligands.

  15. Virtual 3D interactive system with embedded multiwavelength optical sensor array and sequential devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guo-Zhen; Huang, Yi-Pai; Hu, Kuo-Jui

    2012-06-01

    We proposed a virtual 3D-touch system by bare finger, which can detect the 3-axis (x, y, z) information of finger. This system has multi-wavelength optical sensor array embedded on the backplane of TFT panel and sequentail devices on the border of TFT panel. We had developed reflecting mode which can be worked by bare finger for the 3D interaction. A 4-inch mobile 3D-LCD with this proposed system was successfully been demonstrated already.

  16. Relativistic four- and two-component calculations of parity violation effects in chiral tungsten molecules of the form NWXYZ (X, Y, Z = H, F, Cl, Br, or I).

    PubMed

    Figgen, Detlev; Saue, Trond; Schwerdtfeger, Peter

    2010-06-21

    Parity violation (PV) effects to the electronic ground state structure for a series of chiral tungsten molecules of the type NWXYZ (X, Y, Z = H, F, Cl, Br, or I) are compared using four- (Dirac) and two- (X2C) component relativistic Hartree-Fock and density functional theories. The results show the computationally more affordable two-component X2C approach yields accurate results for all molecules investigated. The PV energy differences between the two enantiomers range from as little as 0.4 Hz for NWClBrI to 140 Hz for NWHClI using a generalized gradient approximation including exact exchange (B3LYP). The W-N stretching mode in these molecules lies in the experimentally favorable CO(2) laser frequency range, and we therefore investigated PV effects in vibrational transitions using a single normal mode analysis. Here the PV frequency shift between the two enantiomers ranges from 1.6 mHz for NWFBrI to 710 mHz for NWHClI. Thus these types of molecules could be useful for the future detection of PV effects in chiral molecules. PMID:20572708

  17. Implementation of nodal equivalence parameters in DIF3D-VARIANT for core analysis of prismatic Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR).

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C. H.; Joo, H. K.; Yang, W. S.; Taiwo, T. A.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2007-03-15

    The VARIANT module of the DIF3D code has been upgraded to utilize surface-dependent discontinuity factors. The performance of the new capability is verified using two-dimensional core cases with control rods in reflector and fuel blocks. Cross sections for VHTR components were generated using the DRAGON and HELIOS codes. For rodded block cross sections, the DRAGON calculations used a single-block model or the multi-block models combined with MCNP4C flux solutions, whereas the HELIOS calculations utilized multi-block models. Results from core calculations indicate that multiplication factor, block power, and control rod worth are significantly improved by using surface-dependent discontinuity factors.

  18. SU-E-T-342: Use of Patient Geometry Measurements to Predict Dosimetric Gain with VMAT Over 3D for Chestwall and Regional Nodal Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Dumane, V; Knoll, M; Green, S; Bakst, R; Hunt, M; Steinberger, E

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To predict the dosimetric gain of VMAT over 3D for the treatment ofchestwall/IMN/supraclavicular nodes using geometric parameters acquired during simulation Methods: CT scans for 20 left and 20 right sided patients were retrospectively analyzed toobtain percent ipsilateral lung volume included in the PWT and supraclavicular fields, central lung depth (CLD), maximum lung depth (MLD), separation, chestwall concavity (defined here as the product of CLD and separation) and the maximum heart depth (MHD). VMAT, PWT and P/E plans were done for each case. The ipsilateral lung V20 Gy and mean, total lung V20 Gy and mean, heart V25 Gy and mean were noted for each plan. Correlation coefficients were obtained and linear regression models were built using data from the above training set of patients and then tested on 4 new patients. Results: The decrease in ipsilateral lung V20 Gy, total lung V20 Gy, ipsilateral lung mean and total lung mean with VMAT over PWT significantly (p<0.05) correlated with the percent volume of ipsilateral lung included in the PWT and supraclavicular fields with correlation coefficient values of r = 0.83, r = 0.77, r = 0.78 and r = 0.75 respectively. Significant correlations were also found between MHD and the decrease in heart V25 Gy and mean of r = 0.77 and r = 0.67 respectively. Dosimetric improvement with VMAT over P/E plans showed no correlation to any of the geometric parameters investigated in this study. The dosimetric gain predicted for the 4 test cases by the linear regression models given their respective percent ipsilateral lung volumes fell within the 95% confidence intervals around the best regression fit. Conclusion: The percent ipsilateral lung volume appears to be a strong predictor of the dosimetric gain on using VMAT over PWT apriori.

  19. Relativistic effects on nuclear magnetic shieldings of CHnX4-n and CHXYZ (X, Y, Z = H, F, Cl, Br, I)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melo, Juan I.; Maldonado, Alejandro F.; Aucar, Gustavo A.

    2012-12-01

    Nuclear magnetic shieldings of both carbon and hydrogen atoms of haluro methyl molecules are highly influenced by the substitution of one or more hydrogen by halogen heavy atoms. We applied the linear response elimination of small components, LRESC, formalism to calculate such shieldings and learn whether including only few terms is enough for getting quantitative reproduction of the total shieldings or not. First, we discuss the contribution of all leading relativistic corrections to σ(C), in CHX2I molecular models with X = H, F, and Cl, and show that spin-orbit (SO) effects are the main ones. After adding the SO effects to the non-relativistic (NR) results, we obtain ˜ 97% (93%) of the total LRESC values for σ(C) (σ(H)). The magnitude of SO terms increases when the halogen atom becomes heavier. In this case, such contributions to σ(C) can be extrapolated as a function of Z, the halogen atomic number. Furthermore, when paramagnetic spin-orbit (PSO) contributions are also considered, we obtain results that are within 1% of the total LRESC value. Then we study in detail the main electronic mechanisms involved to contribute C and H shieldings on CHnX4 - n (n = 1, 3), and CHXYZ (X, Y, Z = F, Cl, Br, I) model compounds. The pattern of σ(C) for all series of compounds follows a normal halogen dependence (NHD), though with different rate of increase. A special family of compounds is that of CHF2X for which σnr(C) follows an inverse halogen dependence though the total shielding have a NHD due to the SO contributions. For the series CH3X (X = F, Cl, Br and I), we found that σSO ˜ Z_X^{2.53}. Another important finding of this work is the logarithmic dependence of σSO(C) with the substituent atomic number: ln σSO(C) = A_X + a_X Z_Y for both family of compounds CH2XY and CHX2Y. We also performed four-component calculations using the spin-free Hamiltonian to obtain SO contributions within a four-component framework.

  20. Landmine detection by 3D GPR system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Motoyuki; Yokota, Yuya; Takahashi, Kazunori; Grasmueck, Mark

    2012-06-01

    In order to demonstrate the possibility of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) for detection of small buried objects such as landmine and UXO, conducted demonstration tests by using the 3DGPR system, which is a GPR system combined with high accuracy positing system using a commercial laser positioning system (iGPS). iGPS can provide absolute and better than centimetre precise x,y,z coordinates to multiple mine sensors at the same time. The developed " 3DGPR" system is efficient and capable of high-resolution 3D shallow subsurface scanning of larger areas (25 m2 to thousands of square meters) with irregular topography . Field test by using a 500MHz GPR system equipped with 3DGPR system was conducted. PMN-2 and Type-72 mine models have been buried at the depth of 5-20cm in sand. We could demonstrate that the 3DGPR can visualize each of these buried land mines very clearly.

  1. 3D fast wavelet network model-assisted 3D face recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Said, Salwa; Jemai, Olfa; Zaied, Mourad; Ben Amar, Chokri

    2015-12-01

    In last years, the emergence of 3D shape in face recognition is due to its robustness to pose and illumination changes. These attractive benefits are not all the challenges to achieve satisfactory recognition rate. Other challenges such as facial expressions and computing time of matching algorithms remain to be explored. In this context, we propose our 3D face recognition approach using 3D wavelet networks. Our approach contains two stages: learning stage and recognition stage. For the training we propose a novel algorithm based on 3D fast wavelet transform. From 3D coordinates of the face (x,y,z), we proceed to voxelization to get a 3D volume which will be decomposed by 3D fast wavelet transform and modeled after that with a wavelet network, then their associated weights are considered as vector features to represent each training face . For the recognition stage, an unknown identity face is projected on all the training WN to obtain a new vector features after every projection. A similarity score is computed between the old and the obtained vector features. To show the efficiency of our approach, experimental results were performed on all the FRGC v.2 benchmark.

  2. 3D and 4D magnetic susceptibility tomography based on complex MR images

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Zikuan; Calhoun, Vince D

    2014-11-11

    Magnetic susceptibility is the physical property for T2*-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (T2*MRI). The invention relates to methods for reconstructing an internal distribution (3D map) of magnetic susceptibility values, .chi. (x,y,z), of an object, from 3D T2*MRI phase images, by using Computed Inverse Magnetic Resonance Imaging (CIMRI) tomography. The CIMRI technique solves the inverse problem of the 3D convolution by executing a 3D Total Variation (TV) regularized iterative convolution scheme, using a split Bregman iteration algorithm. The reconstruction of .chi. (x,y,z) can be designed for low-pass, band-pass, and high-pass features by using a convolution kernel that is modified from the standard dipole kernel. Multiple reconstructions can be implemented in parallel, and averaging the reconstructions can suppress noise. 4D dynamic magnetic susceptibility tomography can be implemented by reconstructing a 3D susceptibility volume from a 3D phase volume by performing 3D CIMRI magnetic susceptibility tomography at each snapshot time.

  3. Volumetric 3D Display System with Static Screen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geng, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Current display technology has relied on flat, 2D screens that cannot truly convey the third dimension of visual information: depth. In contrast to conventional visualization that is primarily based on 2D flat screens, the volumetric 3D display possesses a true 3D display volume, and places physically each 3D voxel in displayed 3D images at the true 3D (x,y,z) spatial position. Each voxel, analogous to a pixel in a 2D image, emits light from that position to form a real 3D image in the eyes of the viewers. Such true volumetric 3D display technology provides both physiological (accommodation, convergence, binocular disparity, and motion parallax) and psychological (image size, linear perspective, shading, brightness, etc.) depth cues to human visual systems to help in the perception of 3D objects. In a volumetric 3D display, viewers can watch the displayed 3D images from a completely 360 view without using any special eyewear. The volumetric 3D display techniques may lead to a quantum leap in information display technology and can dramatically change the ways humans interact with computers, which can lead to significant improvements in the efficiency of learning and knowledge management processes. Within a block of glass, a large amount of tiny dots of voxels are created by using a recently available machining technique called laser subsurface engraving (LSE). The LSE is able to produce tiny physical crack points (as small as 0.05 mm in diameter) at any (x,y,z) location within the cube of transparent material. The crack dots, when illuminated by a light source, scatter the light around and form visible voxels within the 3D volume. The locations of these tiny voxels are strategically determined such that each can be illuminated by a light ray from a high-resolution digital mirror device (DMD) light engine. The distribution of these voxels occupies the full display volume within the static 3D glass screen. This design eliminates any moving screen seen in previous

  4. DRACO development for 3D simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatenejad, Milad; Moses, Gregory

    2006-10-01

    The DRACO (r-z) lagrangian radiation-hydrodynamics laser fusion simulation code is being extended to model 3D hydrodynamics in (x-y-z) coordinates with hexahedral cells on a structured grid. The equation of motion is solved with a lagrangian update with optional rezoning. The fluid equations are solved using an explicit scheme based on (Schulz, 1964) while the SALE-3D algorithm (Amsden, 1981) is used as a template for computing cell volumes and other quantities. A second order rezoner has been added which uses linear interpolation of the underlying continuous functions to preserve accuracy (Van Leer, 1976). Artificial restoring force terms and smoothing algorithms are used to avoid grid distortion in high aspect ratio cells. These include alternate node couplers along with a rotational restoring force based on the Tensor Code (Maenchen, 1964). Electron and ion thermal conduction is modeled using an extension of Kershaw's method (Kershaw, 1981) to 3D geometry. Test problem simulations will be presented to demonstrate the applicability of this new version of DRACO to the study of fluid instabilities in three dimensions.

  5. 3D architectures are not just for microbatteries anymore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lytle, Justin C.; Long, Jeffrey W.; Chervin, Christopher N.; Sassin, Megan B.; Rolison, Debra R.

    2011-06-01

    Building battery architectures with functional interfaces that are interpenetrated in three dimensions opens the door to major gains in performance as compared to conventional 2-D battery designs, particularly with respect to the battery footprint. We are developing 3-D solid-state Li-ion batteries that are sequentially assembled from interpenetrating and tricontinuous networks of anode, cathode, and electrolyte/separator materials. We use fiberpaper- supported carbon nanofoams as a massively parallel, conductive, ultraporous base platform within which to create the 3-D cell. The components required for battery operation are incorporated into the x,y,z-scalable papers and include nanoscale coatings of metal oxides that serve as Li-ion-insertion electrodes and ultrathin, electroninsulating/ Li-ion conducting polymer coatings that serve as the electrolyte/separator.

  6. 4D (x-y-z-t) imaging of thick biological samples by means of Two-Photon inverted Selective Plane Illumination Microscopy (2PE-iSPIM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavagnino, Zeno; Sancataldo, Giuseppe; D’Amora, Marta; Follert, Philipp; de Pietri Tonelli, Davide; Diaspro, Alberto; Cella Zanacchi, Francesca

    2016-04-01

    In the last decade light sheet fluorescence microscopy techniques, such as selective plane illumination microscopy (SPIM), has become a well established method for developmental biology. However, conventional SPIM architectures hardly permit imaging of certain tissues since the common sample mounting procedure, based on gel embedding, could interfere with the sample morphology. In this work we propose an inverted selective plane microscopy system (iSPIM), based on non-linear excitation, suitable for 3D tissue imaging. First, the iSPIM architecture provides flexibility on the sample mounting, getting rid of the gel-based mounting typical of conventional SPIM, permitting 3D imaging of hippocampal slices from mouse brain. Moreover, all the advantages brought by two photon excitation (2PE) in terms of reduction of scattering effects and contrast improvement are exploited, demonstrating an improved image quality and contrast compared to single photon excitation. The system proposed represents an optimal platform for tissue imaging and it smooths the way to the applicability of light sheet microscopy to a wider range of samples including those that have to be mounted on non-transparent surfaces.

  7. 4D (x-y-z-t) imaging of thick biological samples by means of Two-Photon inverted Selective Plane Illumination Microscopy (2PE-iSPIM)

    PubMed Central

    Lavagnino, Zeno; Sancataldo, Giuseppe; d’Amora, Marta; Follert, Philipp; De Pietri Tonelli, Davide; Diaspro, Alberto; Cella Zanacchi, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade light sheet fluorescence microscopy techniques, such as selective plane illumination microscopy (SPIM), has become a well established method for developmental biology. However, conventional SPIM architectures hardly permit imaging of certain tissues since the common sample mounting procedure, based on gel embedding, could interfere with the sample morphology. In this work we propose an inverted selective plane microscopy system (iSPIM), based on non-linear excitation, suitable for 3D tissue imaging. First, the iSPIM architecture provides flexibility on the sample mounting, getting rid of the gel-based mounting typical of conventional SPIM, permitting 3D imaging of hippocampal slices from mouse brain. Moreover, all the advantages brought by two photon excitation (2PE) in terms of reduction of scattering effects and contrast improvement are exploited, demonstrating an improved image quality and contrast compared to single photon excitation. The system proposed represents an optimal platform for tissue imaging and it smooths the way to the applicability of light sheet microscopy to a wider range of samples including those that have to be mounted on non-transparent surfaces. PMID:27033347

  8. 4D (x-y-z-t) imaging of thick biological samples by means of Two-Photon inverted Selective Plane Illumination Microscopy (2PE-iSPIM).

    PubMed

    Lavagnino, Zeno; Sancataldo, Giuseppe; d'Amora, Marta; Follert, Philipp; De Pietri Tonelli, Davide; Diaspro, Alberto; Cella Zanacchi, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade light sheet fluorescence microscopy techniques, such as selective plane illumination microscopy (SPIM), has become a well established method for developmental biology. However, conventional SPIM architectures hardly permit imaging of certain tissues since the common sample mounting procedure, based on gel embedding, could interfere with the sample morphology. In this work we propose an inverted selective plane microscopy system (iSPIM), based on non-linear excitation, suitable for 3D tissue imaging. First, the iSPIM architecture provides flexibility on the sample mounting, getting rid of the gel-based mounting typical of conventional SPIM, permitting 3D imaging of hippocampal slices from mouse brain. Moreover, all the advantages brought by two photon excitation (2PE) in terms of reduction of scattering effects and contrast improvement are exploited, demonstrating an improved image quality and contrast compared to single photon excitation. The system proposed represents an optimal platform for tissue imaging and it smooths the way to the applicability of light sheet microscopy to a wider range of samples including those that have to be mounted on non-transparent surfaces. PMID:27033347

  9. Error analysis of 3D laser scanning system for gangue monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Shaoxing; Xia, Yuyang; Zhang, Aiwu

    2012-01-01

    The paper put forward the system error evaluation method of 3D scanning system for gangue monitoring; analyzed system errors including integrated error which can be avoided, and measurement error which needed whole analysis; firstly established the system equation after understanding the relationship of each structure. Then, used error independent effect and spread law to set up the entire error analysis system, and simulated the trend of error changing along X, Y, Z directions. At last, it is analytic that the laser rangefinder carries some weight in system error, and the horizontal and vertical scanning angles have some influences on system error in the certain vertical and horizontal scanning parameters.

  10. Novel 3D Compression Methods for Geometry, Connectivity and Texture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddeq, M. M.; Rodrigues, M. A.

    2016-06-01

    A large number of applications in medical visualization, games, engineering design, entertainment, heritage, e-commerce and so on require the transmission of 3D models over the Internet or over local networks. 3D data compression is an important requirement for fast data storage, access and transmission within bandwidth limitations. The Wavefront OBJ (object) file format is commonly used to share models due to its clear simple design. Normally each OBJ file contains a large amount of data (e.g. vertices and triangulated faces, normals, texture coordinates and other parameters) describing the mesh surface. In this paper we introduce a new method to compress geometry, connectivity and texture coordinates by a novel Geometry Minimization Algorithm (GM-Algorithm) in connection with arithmetic coding. First, each vertex ( x, y, z) coordinates are encoded to a single value by the GM-Algorithm. Second, triangle faces are encoded by computing the differences between two adjacent vertex locations, which are compressed by arithmetic coding together with texture coordinates. We demonstrate the method on large data sets achieving compression ratios between 87 and 99 % without reduction in the number of reconstructed vertices and triangle faces. The decompression step is based on a Parallel Fast Matching Search Algorithm (Parallel-FMS) to recover the structure of the 3D mesh. A comparative analysis of compression ratios is provided with a number of commonly used 3D file formats such as VRML, OpenCTM and STL highlighting the performance and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  11. S2PLOT: Three-dimensional (3D) Plotting Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, D. G.; Fluke, C. J.; Bourke, P. D.; Parry, O. T.

    2011-03-01

    We present a new, three-dimensional (3D) plotting library with advanced features, and support for standard and enhanced display devices. The library - S2PLOT - is written in C and can be used by C, C++ and FORTRAN programs on GNU/Linux and Apple/OSX systems. S2PLOT draws objects in a 3D (x,y,z) Cartesian space and the user interactively controls how this space is rendered at run time. With a PGPLOT inspired interface, S2PLOT provides astronomers with elegant techniques for displaying and exploring 3D data sets directly from their program code, and the potential to use stereoscopic and dome display devices. The S2PLOT architecture supports dynamic geometry and can be used to plot time-evolving data sets, such as might be produced by simulation codes. In this paper, we introduce S2PLOT to the astronomical community, describe its potential applications, and present some example uses of the library.

  12. Virtual touch 3D interactive system for autostereoscopic display with embedded optical sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yi-Pai; Wang, Guo-Zhen; Ma, Ming-Ching; Tung, Shang-Yu; Huang, Shu-Yi; Tseng, Hung-Wei; Kuo, Chung-Hong; Li, Chun-Huai

    2011-06-01

    The traidational 3D interactive sysetm which uses CCD camera to capture image is difficult to operate on near range for mobile applications.Therefore, 3D interactive display with embedded optical sensor was proposed. Based on optical sensor based system, we proposed four different methods to support differenct functions. T mark algorithm can obtain 5- axis information (x, y, z,θ, and φ)of LED no matter where LED was vertical or inclined to panel and whatever it rotated. Sequential mark algorithm and color filter based algorithm can support mulit-user. Finally, bare finger touch system with sequential illuminator can achieve to interact with auto-stereoscopic images by bare finger. Furthermore, the proposed methods were verified on a 4-inch panel with embedded optical sensors.

  13. A 3D visualization system for molecular structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Terry J.

    1989-01-01

    The properties of molecules derive in part from their structures. Because of the importance of understanding molecular structures various methodologies, ranging from first principles to empirical technique, were developed for computing the structure of molecules. For large molecules such as polymer model compounds, the structural information is difficult to comprehend by examining tabulated data. Therefore, a molecular graphics display system, called MOLDS, was developed to help interpret the data. MOLDS is a menu-driven program developed to run on the LADC SNS computer systems. This program can read a data file generated by the modeling programs or data can be entered using the keyboard. MOLDS has the following capabilities: draws the 3-D representation of a molecule using stick, ball and ball, or space filled model from Cartesian coordinates, draws different perspective views of the molecule; rotates the molecule on the X, Y, Z axis or about some arbitrary line in space, zooms in on a small area of the molecule in order to obtain a better view of a specific region; and makes hard copy representation of molecules on a graphic printer. In addition, MOLDS can be easily updated and readily adapted to run on most computer systems.

  14. Quantitative 3-D imaging topogrammetry for telemedicine applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altschuler, Bruce R.

    1994-01-01

    The technology to reliably transmit high-resolution visual imagery over short to medium distances in real time has led to the serious considerations of the use of telemedicine, telepresence, and telerobotics in the delivery of health care. These concepts may involve, and evolve toward: consultation from remote expert teaching centers; diagnosis; triage; real-time remote advice to the surgeon; and real-time remote surgical instrument manipulation (telerobotics with virtual reality). Further extrapolation leads to teledesign and telereplication of spare surgical parts through quantitative teleimaging of 3-D surfaces tied to CAD/CAM devices and an artificially intelligent archival data base of 'normal' shapes. The ability to generate 'topogrames' or 3-D surface numerical tables of coordinate values capable of creating computer-generated virtual holographic-like displays, machine part replication, and statistical diagnostic shape assessment is critical to the progression of telemedicine. Any virtual reality simulation will remain in 'video-game' realm until realistic dimensional and spatial relational inputs from real measurements in vivo during surgeries are added to an ever-growing statistical data archive. The challenges of managing and interpreting this 3-D data base, which would include radiographic and surface quantitative data, are considerable. As technology drives toward dynamic and continuous 3-D surface measurements, presenting millions of X, Y, Z data points per second of flexing, stretching, moving human organs, the knowledge base and interpretive capabilities of 'brilliant robots' to work as a surgeon's tireless assistants becomes imaginable. The brilliant robot would 'see' what the surgeon sees--and more, for the robot could quantify its 3-D sensing and would 'see' in a wider spectral range than humans, and could zoom its 'eyes' from the macro world to long-distance microscopy. Unerring robot hands could rapidly perform machine-aided suturing with

  15. Europeana and 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pletinckx, D.

    2011-09-01

    The current 3D hype creates a lot of interest in 3D. People go to 3D movies, but are we ready to use 3D in our homes, in our offices, in our communication? Are we ready to deliver real 3D to a general public and use interactive 3D in a meaningful way to enjoy, learn, communicate? The CARARE project is realising this for the moment in the domain of monuments and archaeology, so that real 3D of archaeological sites and European monuments will be available to the general public by 2012. There are several aspects to this endeavour. First of all is the technical aspect of flawlessly delivering 3D content over all platforms and operating systems, without installing software. We have currently a working solution in PDF, but HTML5 will probably be the future. Secondly, there is still little knowledge on how to create 3D learning objects, 3D tourist information or 3D scholarly communication. We are still in a prototype phase when it comes to integrate 3D objects in physical or virtual museums. Nevertheless, Europeana has a tremendous potential as a multi-facetted virtual museum. Finally, 3D has a large potential to act as a hub of information, linking to related 2D imagery, texts, video, sound. We describe how to create such rich, explorable 3D objects that can be used intuitively by the generic Europeana user and what metadata is needed to support the semantic linking.

  16. 3D comparison of average faces in subjects with oral clefts.

    PubMed

    Bugaighis, Iman; Tiddeman, Bernard; Mattick, Claire R; Hobson, Ross

    2014-08-01

    This prospective cross-sectional, case-controlled morphometric study assessed three dimensional (3D) facial morphological differences between average faces of 103 children aged 8-12 years; 40 with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP), 23 with unilateral cleft lip and alveolus (UCLA), 19 with bilateral cleft lip and palate (BCLP), 21 with isolated cleft palate (ICP), and 80 gender and age-matched controls. 3D stereophotogrammetric facial scans were recorded for each participant at rest. Thirty-nine landmarks were digitized for each scan, and x-, y-, z-coordinates for each landmark were extracted. A 3D photorealistic average face was constructed for each participating group and subjective and objective comparisons were carried out between each cleft and control average faces. Marked differences were observed between all groups. The most severely affected were groups where the lip and palate were affected and repaired (UCLP and UCLA). The group with midsagittal palatal deformity and repair (ICP) was the most similar to the control group. The results revealed that 3D shape analysis allows morphometric discrimination between subjects with craniofacial anomalies and the control group, and underlines the potential value of statistical shape analysis in assessing the outcomes of cleft lip and palate surgery, and orthodontic treatment. PMID:23172581

  17. 3d-3d correspondence revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Hee-Joong; Dimofte, Tudor; Gukov, Sergei; Sułkowski, Piotr

    2016-04-01

    In fivebrane compactifications on 3-manifolds, we point out the importance of all flat connections in the proper definition of the effective 3d {N}=2 theory. The Lagrangians of some theories with the desired properties can be constructed with the help of homological knot invariants that categorify colored Jones polynomials. Higgsing the full 3d theories constructed this way recovers theories found previously by Dimofte-Gaiotto-Gukov. We also consider the cutting and gluing of 3-manifolds along smooth boundaries and the role played by all flat connections in this operation.

  18. A novel 3D micron-scale DPTV (Defocused Particle Tracking Velocimetry) and its applications in microfluidic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, John

    2005-11-01

    The rapid advancements in micro/nano biotechnology demand quantitative tools for characterizing microfluidic flows in lab-on-a-chip applications, validation of computational results for fully 3D flows in complex micro-devices, and efficient observation of cellular dynamics in 3D. We present a novel 3D micron-scale DPTV (defocused particle tracking velocimetry) that is capable of mapping out 3D Lagrangian, as well as 3D Eulerian velocity flow fields at sub-micron resolution and with one camera. The main part of the imaging system is an epi-fluorescent microscope (Olympus IX 51), and the seeding particles are fluorescent particles with diameter range 300nm - 10um. A software package has been developed for identifying (x,y,z,t) coordinates of the particles using the defocused images. Using the imaging system, we successfully mapped the pressure driven flow fields in microfluidic channels. In particular, we measured the Laglangian flow fields in a microfluidic channel with a herring bone pattern at the bottom, the later is used to enhance fluid mixing in lateral directions. The 3D particle tracks revealed the flow structure that has only been seen in numerical computation. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation (CTS - 0514443), the Nanobiotechnology Center at Cornell, and The New York State Center for Life Science Enterprise.

  19. 3D and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meulien Ohlmann, Odile

    2013-02-01

    Today the industry offers a chain of 3D products. Learning to "read" and to "create in 3D" becomes an issue of education of primary importance. 25 years professional experience in France, the United States and Germany, Odile Meulien set up a personal method of initiation to 3D creation that entails the spatial/temporal experience of the holographic visual. She will present some different tools and techniques used for this learning, their advantages and disadvantages, programs and issues of educational policies, constraints and expectations related to the development of new techniques for 3D imaging. Although the creation of display holograms is very much reduced compared to the creation of the 90ies, the holographic concept is spreading in all scientific, social, and artistic activities of our present time. She will also raise many questions: What means 3D? Is it communication? Is it perception? How the seeing and none seeing is interferes? What else has to be taken in consideration to communicate in 3D? How to handle the non visible relations of moving objects with subjects? Does this transform our model of exchange with others? What kind of interaction this has with our everyday life? Then come more practical questions: How to learn creating 3D visualization, to learn 3D grammar, 3D language, 3D thinking? What for? At what level? In which matter? for whom?

  20. A Generalized Approach to the Modeling and Analysis of 3D Surface Morphology in Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Pappas, Janice L.; Miller, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    The surface geometry of an organism represents the boundary of its three-dimensional (3D) form and can be used as a proxy for the phenotype. A mathematical approach is presented that describes surface morphology using parametric 3D equations with variables expressed as x, y, z in terms of parameters u, v. Partial differentiation of variables with respect to parameters yields elements of the Jacobian representing tangent lines and planes of every point on the surface. Jacobian elements provide a compact size-free summary of the entire surface, and can be used as variables in principal components analysis to produce a morphospace. Mollusk and echinoid models are generated to demonstrate that whole organisms can be represented in a common morphospace, regardless of differences in size, geometry, and taxonomic affinity. Models can be used to simulate theoretical forms, novel morphologies, and patterns of phenotypic variation, and can also be empirically-based by designing them with reference to actual forms using reverse engineering principles. Although this study uses the Jacobian to summarize models, they can also be analyzed with 3D methods such as eigensurface, spherical harmonics, wavelet analysis, and geometric morphometrics. This general approach should prove useful for exploring broad questions regarding morphological evolution and variation. PMID:24204866

  1. Human Cerberus Prevents Nodal-Receptor Binding, Inhibits Nodal Signaling, and Suppresses Nodal-Mediated Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Aykul, Senem; Ni, Wendi; Mutatu, Washington; Martinez-Hackert, Erik

    2015-01-01

    The Transforming Growth Factor-ß (TGFß) family ligand Nodal is an essential embryonic morphogen that is associated with progression of breast and other cancers. It has therefore been suggested that Nodal inhibitors could be used to treat breast cancers where Nodal plays a defined role. As secreted antagonists, such as Cerberus, tightly regulate Nodal signaling during embryonic development, we undertook to produce human Cerberus, characterize its biochemical activities, and determine its effect on human breast cancer cells. Using quantitative methods, we investigated the mechanism of Nodal signaling, we evaluated binding of human Cerberus to Nodal and other TGFß family ligands, and we characterized the mechanism of Nodal inhibition by Cerberus. Using cancer cell assays, we examined the ability of Cerberus to suppress aggressive breast cancer cell phenotypes. We found that human Cerberus binds Nodal with high affinity and specificity, blocks binding of Nodal to its signaling partners, and inhibits Nodal signaling. Moreover, we showed that Cerberus profoundly suppresses migration, invasion, and colony forming ability of Nodal expressing and Nodal supplemented breast cancer cells. Taken together, our studies provide mechanistic insights into Nodal signaling and Nodal inhibition with Cerberus and highlight the potential value of Cerberus as anti-Nodal therapeutic. PMID:25603319

  2. 3D Imaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, S. K.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses 3 D imaging as it relates to digital representations in virtual library collections. Highlights include X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT); the National Science Foundation (NSF) Digital Library Initiatives; output peripherals; image retrieval systems, including metadata; and applications of 3 D imaging for libraries and museums. (LRW)

  3. Three-Dimensional (X,Y,Z) Deterministic Analysis of the PCA-Replica Neutron Shielding Benchmark Experiment using the TORT-3.2 Code and Group Cross Section Libraries for LWR Shielding and Pressure Vessel Dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pescarini, Massimo; Orsi, Roberto; Frisoni, Manuela

    2016-02-01

    The PCA-Replica 12/13 (H2O/Fe) neutron shielding benchmark experiment was analysed using the ORNL TORT-3.2 3D SN code. PCA-Replica, specifically conceived to test the accuracy of nuclear data and transport codes employed in LWR shielding and radiation damage calculations, reproduces a PWR ex-core radial geometry with alternate layers of water and steel including a PWR pressure vessel simulator. Three broad-group coupled neutron/photon working cross section libraries in FIDO-ANISN format with the same energy group structure (47 n + 20 γ) and based on different nuclear data were alternatively used: the ENEA BUGJEFF311.BOLIB (JEFF-3.1.1) and BUGENDF70.BOLIB (ENDF/B-VII.0) libraries and the ORNL BUGLE-96 (ENDF/B-VI.3) library. Dosimeter cross sections derived from the IAEA IRDF-2002 dosimetry file were employed. The calculated reaction rates for the Rh-103(n,n')Rh-103 m, In-115(n,n')In-115m and S-32(n,p)P-32 threshold activation dosimeters and the calculated neutron spectra are compared with the corresponding experimental results.

  4. Accuracy evaluation of 3D lidar data from small UAV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulldahl, H. M.; Bissmarck, Fredrik; Larsson, Hâkan; Grönwall, Christina; Tolt, Gustav

    2015-10-01

    A UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) with an integrated lidar can be an efficient system for collection of high-resolution and accurate three-dimensional (3D) data. In this paper we evaluate the accuracy of a system consisting of a lidar sensor on a small UAV. High geometric accuracy in the produced point cloud is a fundamental qualification for detection and recognition of objects in a single-flight dataset as well as for change detection using two or several data collections over the same scene. Our work presented here has two purposes: first to relate the point cloud accuracy to data processing parameters and second, to examine the influence on accuracy from the UAV platform parameters. In our work, the accuracy is numerically quantified as local surface smoothness on planar surfaces, and as distance and relative height accuracy using data from a terrestrial laser scanner as reference. The UAV lidar system used is the Velodyne HDL-32E lidar on a multirotor UAV with a total weight of 7 kg. For processing of data into a geographically referenced point cloud, positioning and orientation of the lidar sensor is based on inertial navigation system (INS) data combined with lidar data. The combination of INS and lidar data is achieved in a dynamic calibration process that minimizes the navigation errors in six degrees of freedom, namely the errors of the absolute position (x, y, z) and the orientation (pitch, roll, yaw) measured by GPS/INS. Our results show that low-cost and light-weight MEMS based (microelectromechanical systems) INS equipment with a dynamic calibration process can obtain significantly improved accuracy compared to processing based solely on INS data.

  5. Loop-Nodal and Point-Nodal Semimetals in Three-Dimensional Honeycomb Lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezawa, Motohiko

    2016-03-01

    A honeycomb structure has a natural extension to three dimensions. Simple examples are hyperhoneycomb and stripy-honeycomb lattices, which are realized in β -Li2IrO3 and γ -Li2IrO3 , respectively. We propose a wide class of three-dimensional (3D) honeycomb lattices which are loop-nodal semimetals. Their edge states have intriguing properties similar to the two-dimensional honeycomb lattice in spite of a dimensional difference. Partial flat bands emerge at the zigzag or bearded edge of the 3D honeycomb lattice, whose boundary is given by the Fermi loop in the bulk spectrum. On the other hand, perfect flat bands emerge in the zigzag-bearded edge or when the anisotropy is large. The loop-nodal structure is destroyed once staggered potential or antiferromagnetic order is introduced. All these 3D honeycomb lattices become strong topological insulators with the inclusion of the spin-orbit interaction (SOI). Furthermore, point-nodal semimetals may be realized in the presence of both antiferromagnetic order and the SOI. We construct the effective four-band theory with the SOI to understand the physics near the Fermi level, based upon which the density of states and the dc conductivity are calculated.

  6. Loop-Nodal and Point-Nodal Semimetals in Three-Dimensional Honeycomb Lattices.

    PubMed

    Ezawa, Motohiko

    2016-03-25

    A honeycomb structure has a natural extension to three dimensions. Simple examples are hyperhoneycomb and stripy-honeycomb lattices, which are realized in β-Li_{2}IrO_{3} and γ-Li_{2}IrO_{3}, respectively. We propose a wide class of three-dimensional (3D) honeycomb lattices which are loop-nodal semimetals. Their edge states have intriguing properties similar to the two-dimensional honeycomb lattice in spite of a dimensional difference. Partial flat bands emerge at the zigzag or bearded edge of the 3D honeycomb lattice, whose boundary is given by the Fermi loop in the bulk spectrum. On the other hand, perfect flat bands emerge in the zigzag-bearded edge or when the anisotropy is large. The loop-nodal structure is destroyed once staggered potential or antiferromagnetic order is introduced. All these 3D honeycomb lattices become strong topological insulators with the inclusion of the spin-orbit interaction (SOI). Furthermore, point-nodal semimetals may be realized in the presence of both antiferromagnetic order and the SOI. We construct the effective four-band theory with the SOI to understand the physics near the Fermi level, based upon which the density of states and the dc conductivity are calculated. PMID:27058097

  7. TRACE 3-D documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Crandall, K.R.

    1987-08-01

    TRACE 3-D is an interactive beam-dynamics program that calculates the envelopes of a bunched beam, including linear space-charge forces, through a user-defined transport system. TRACE 3-D provides an immediate graphics display of the envelopes and the phase-space ellipses and allows nine types of beam-matching options. This report describes the beam-dynamics calculations and gives detailed instruction for using the code. Several examples are described in detail.

  8. 3D Stratigraphic Modeling of Central Aachen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, M.; Neukum, C.; Azzam, R.; Hu, H.

    2010-05-01

    , -y, -z coordinates, down-hole depth, and stratigraphic information are available. 4) We grouped stratigraphic units into four main layers based on analysis of geological settings of the modeling area. The stratigraphic units extend from Quaternary, Cretaceous, Carboniferous to Devonian. In order to facilitate the determination of each unit boundaries, a series of standard code was used to integrate data with different descriptive attributes. 5) The Quaternary and Cretaceous units are characterized by subhorizontal layers. Kriging interpolation was processed to the borehole data in order to estimate data distribution and surface relief for the layers. 6) The Carboniferous and Devonian units are folded. The lack of software support, concerning simulating folds and the shallow depth of boreholes and cross sections constrained the determination of geological boundaries. A strategy of digitalizing the fold surfaces from cross sections and establishing them as inclined strata was followed. The modeling was simply subdivided into two steps. The first step consisted of importing data into the modeling software. The second step involved the construction of subhorizontal layers and folds, which were constrained by geological maps, cross sections and outcrops. The construction of the 3D stratigraphic model is of high relevance to further simulation and application, such as 1) lithological modeling; 2) answering simple questions such as "At which unit is the water table?" and calculating volume of groundwater storage during assessment of aquifer vulnerability to contamination; and 3) assigned by geotechnical properties in grids and providing them for user required application. Acknowledgements: Borehole data is kindly provided by the Municipality of Aachen. References: 1. Janet T. Watt, Jonathan M.G. Glen, David A. John and David A. Ponce (2007) Three-dimensional geologic model of the northern Nevada rift and the Beowawe geothermal system, north-central Nevada. Geosphere, v. 3

  9. Modeling the transverse thermal conductivity of 3D-SICF/ SIC composites

    SciTech Connect

    Youngblood, Gerald E; Jones, Russell H; Yamada, Reiji

    2004-06-30

    Our previously developed hierarchical two-layer (H2L) model was modified to describe the effective transverse thermal conductivity (Keff) of a three-dimensional (3D) SiC/SiC composite plate made with cross-layered and Z-stitched X:Y:Z uniaxial fiber tow sub-units. As before, the model describes Keff in terms of constituent, microstructural and architectural properties that include the expected effects of fiber-matrix interfacial conductance, of high fiber packing fractions within individual tow sub-units and of the non-uniform porosity contents, shapes and orientations within these sub-units. Model predictions were obtained for two versions of a 3D-Tyranno SA/PyC/ICVI-SiC composite that had similar fiber/matrix pyrocarbon (PyC) interfaces, relatively high bulk densities (~2.88 g/cc), and an X:Y configuration with fiber content ratios 1:1. The only major difference between the two versions was their Z-stitch fiber content where the relative fiber ratios were 0.1 and 1.2 in the Z sub-units.

  10. Effects of a novel Nodal-targeting monoclonal antibody in melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Margaryan, Naira V.; Focà, Annalia; Sanguigno, Luca; Bodenstine, Thomas M.; Chandler, Grace S.; Reed, David W.; Gilgur, Alina; Seftor, Elisabeth A.; Seftor, Richard E.B.; Khalkhali-Ellis, Zhila; Leonardi, Antonio; Ruvo, Menotti; Hendrix, Mary J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Nodal is highly expressed in various human malignancies, thus supporting the rationale for exploring Nodal as a therapeutic target. Here, we describe the effects of a novel monoclonal antibody (mAb), 3D1, raised against human Nodal. In vitro treatment of C8161 human melanoma cells with 3D1 mAb shows reductions in anchorage-independent growth and vasculogenic network formation. 3D1 treated cells also show decreases of Nodal and downstream signaling molecules, P-Smad2 and P-ERK and of P-H3 and CyclinB1, with an increase in p27. Similar effects were previously reported in human breast cancer cells where Nodal expression was generally down-regulated; following 3D1 mAb treatment, both Nodal and P-H3 levels are reduced. Noteworthy is the reduced growth of human melanoma xenografts in Nude mice treated with 3D1 mAb, where immunostaining of representative tumor sections show diminished P-Smad2 expression. Similar effects both in vitro and in vivo were observed in 3D1 treated A375SM melanoma cells harboring the active BRAF(V600E) mutation compared to treatments with IgG control or a BRAF inhibitor, dabrafenib. Finally, we describe a 3D1-based ELISA for the detection of Nodal in serum samples from cancer patients. These data suggest the potential of 3D1 mAb for selecting and targeting Nodal expressing cancers. PMID:26460952

  11. Radiochromic 3D Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldham, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Radiochromic materials exhibit a colour change when exposed to ionising radiation. Radiochromic film has been used for clinical dosimetry for many years and increasingly so recently, as films of higher sensitivities have become available. The two principle advantages of radiochromic dosimetry include greater tissue equivalence (radiologically) and the lack of requirement for development of the colour change. In a radiochromic material, the colour change arises direct from ionising interactions affecting dye molecules, without requiring any latent chemical, optical or thermal development, with important implications for increased accuracy and convenience. It is only relatively recently however, that 3D radiochromic dosimetry has become possible. In this article we review recent developments and the current state-of-the-art of 3D radiochromic dosimetry, and the potential for a more comprehensive solution for the verification of complex radiation therapy treatments, and 3D dose measurement in general.

  12. Bootstrapping 3D fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iliesiu, Luca; Kos, Filip; Poland, David; Pufu, Silviu S.; Simmons-Duffin, David; Yacoby, Ran

    2016-03-01

    We study the conformal bootstrap for a 4-point function of fermions < ψψψψ> in 3D. We first introduce an embedding formalism for 3D spinors and compute the conformal blocks appearing in fermion 4-point functions. Using these results, we find general bounds on the dimensions of operators appearing in the ψ × ψ OPE, and also on the central charge C T . We observe features in our bounds that coincide with scaling dimensions in the GrossNeveu models at large N . We also speculate that other features could coincide with a fermionic CFT containing no relevant scalar operators.

  13. Charmonium Spectroscopy (X,Y,Z) at the B Factories

    SciTech Connect

    Kreps, Michal; /Karlsruhe U.

    2012-04-03

    Since 2003 several states in the charmonium mass region were discovered. While in the conventional c{bar c} spectrum some states are missing, the number of states observed up to now is larger than empty spaces in the c{bar c} spectrum. This, together with other difficulties to explain observed states as a c{bar c} mesons triggered discussions on a possible exotic interpretations. In this proceedings we present current experimental status from B-factories of the so called X, Y and Z states.

  14. 3D microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iizuka, Keigo

    2008-02-01

    In order to circumvent the fact that only one observer can view the image from a stereoscopic microscope, an attachment was devised for displaying the 3D microscopic image on a large LCD monitor for viewing by multiple observers in real time. The principle of operation, design, fabrication, and performance are presented, along with tolerance measurements relating to the properties of the cellophane half-wave plate used in the design.

  15. Nodal Promotes Glioblastoma Cell Growth

    PubMed Central

    De Silva, Tanya; Ye, Gang; Liang, Yao-Yun; Fu, Guodong; Xu, Guoxiong; Peng, Chun

    2012-01-01

    Nodal is a member of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily that plays critical roles during embryogenesis. Recent studies in ovarian, breast, prostate, and skin cancer cells suggest that Nodal also regulates cell proliferation, apoptosis, and invasion in cancer cells. However, it appears to exert both tumor-suppressing and tumor-promoting effects, depending on the cell type. To further understand the role of Nodal in tumorigenesis, we examined the effect of Nodal in glioblastoma cell growth and spheroid formation using U87 cell line. Treatment of U87 with recombinant Nodal significantly increased U87 cell growth. In U87 cells stably transfected with the plasmid encoding Nodal, Smad2 phosphorylation was strongly induced and cell growth was significantly enhanced. Overexpression of Nodal also resulted in tight spheroid formation. On the other hand, the cells stably transfected with Nodal siRNA formed loose spheroids. Nodal is known to signal through activin receptor-like kinase 4 (ALK4) and ALK7 and the Smad2/3 pathway. To determine which receptor and Smad mediate the growth promoting effect of Nodal, we transfected siRNAs targeting ALK4, ALK7, Smad2, or Smad3 into Nodal-overexpressing cells and observed that cell growth was significantly inhibited by ALK4, ALK7, and Smad3 siRNAs. Taken together, these findings suggest that Nodal may have tumor-promoting effects on glioblastoma cells and these effects are mediated by ALK4, ALK7, and Smad3. PMID:22645523

  16. 3D Audio System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Ames Research Center research into virtual reality led to the development of the Convolvotron, a high speed digital audio processing system that delivers three-dimensional sound over headphones. It consists of a two-card set designed for use with a personal computer. The Convolvotron's primary application is presentation of 3D audio signals over headphones. Four independent sound sources are filtered with large time-varying filters that compensate for motion. The perceived location of the sound remains constant. Possible applications are in air traffic control towers or airplane cockpits, hearing and perception research and virtual reality development.

  17. Multiviewer 3D monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostrzewski, Andrew A.; Aye, Tin M.; Kim, Dai Hyun; Esterkin, Vladimir; Savant, Gajendra D.

    1998-09-01

    Physical Optics Corporation has developed an advanced 3-D virtual reality system for use with simulation tools for training technical and military personnel. This system avoids such drawbacks of other virtual reality (VR) systems as eye fatigue, headaches, and alignment for each viewer, all of which are due to the need to wear special VR goggles. The new system is based on direct viewing of an interactive environment. This innovative holographic multiplexed screen technology makes it unnecessary for the viewer to wear special goggles.

  18. 3D Surgical Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Cevidanes, Lucia; Tucker, Scott; Styner, Martin; Kim, Hyungmin; Chapuis, Jonas; Reyes, Mauricio; Proffit, William; Turvey, Timothy; Jaskolka, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of methods for computer-aided jaw surgery. Computer-aided jaw surgery allows us to incorporate the high level of precision necessary for transferring virtual plans into the operating room. We also present a complete computer-aided surgery (CAS) system developed in close collaboration with surgeons. Surgery planning and simulation include construction of 3D surface models from Cone-beam CT (CBCT), dynamic cephalometry, semi-automatic mirroring, interactive cutting of bone and bony segment repositioning. A virtual setup can be used to manufacture positioning splints for intra-operative guidance. The system provides further intra-operative assistance with the help of a computer display showing jaw positions and 3D positioning guides updated in real-time during the surgical procedure. The CAS system aids in dealing with complex cases with benefits for the patient, with surgical practice, and for orthodontic finishing. Advanced software tools for diagnosis and treatment planning allow preparation of detailed operative plans, osteotomy repositioning, bone reconstructions, surgical resident training and assessing the difficulties of the surgical procedures prior to the surgery. CAS has the potential to make the elaboration of the surgical plan a more flexible process, increase the level of detail and accuracy of the plan, yield higher operative precision and control, and enhance documentation of cases. Supported by NIDCR DE017727, and DE018962 PMID:20816308

  19. Super-nodal methods for space-time kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertyurek, Ugur

    The purpose of this research has been to develop an advanced Super-Nodal method to reduce the run time of 3-D core neutronics models, such as in the NESTLE reactor core simulator and FORMOSA nuclear fuel management optimization codes. Computational performance of the neutronics model is increased by reducing the number of spatial nodes used in the core modeling. However, as the number of spatial nodes decreases, the error in the solution increases. The Super-Nodal method reduces the error associated with the use of coarse nodes in the analyses by providing a new set of cross sections and ADFs (Assembly Discontinuity Factors) for the new nodalization. These so called homogenization parameters are obtained by employing consistent collapsing technique. During this research a new type of singularity, namely "fundamental mode singularity", is addressed in the ANM (Analytical Nodal Method) solution. The "Coordinate Shifting" approach is developed as a method to address this singularity. Also, the "Buckling Shifting" approach is developed as an alternative and more accurate method to address the zero buckling singularity, which is a more common and well known singularity problem in the ANM solution. In the course of addressing the treatment of these singularities, an effort was made to provide better and more robust results from the Super-Nodal method by developing several new methods for determining the transverse leakage and collapsed diffusion coefficient, which generally are the two main approximations in the ANM methodology. Unfortunately, the proposed new transverse leakage and diffusion coefficient approximations failed to provide a consistent improvement to the current methodology. However, improvement in the Super-Nodal solution is achieved by updating the homogenization parameters at several time points during a transient. The update is achieved by employing a refinement technique similar to pin-power reconstruction. A simple error analysis based on the relative

  20. 'Bonneville' in 3-D!

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this 3-D navigation camera mosaic of the crater called 'Bonneville' after driving approximately 13 meters (42.7 feet) to get a better vantage point. Spirit's current position is close enough to the edge to see the interior of the crater, but high enough and far enough back to get a view of all of the walls. Because scientists and rover controllers are so pleased with this location, they will stay here for at least two more martian days, or sols, to take high resolution panoramic camera images of 'Bonneville' in its entirety. Just above the far crater rim, on the left side, is the rover's heatshield, which is visible as a tiny reflective speck.

  1. 3D field harmonics

    SciTech Connect

    Caspi, S.; Helm, M.; Laslett, L.J.

    1991-03-30

    We have developed an harmonic representation for the three dimensional field components within the windings of accelerator magnets. The form by which the field is presented is suitable for interfacing with other codes that make use of the 3D field components (particle tracking and stability). The field components can be calculated with high precision and reduced cup time at any location (r,{theta},z) inside the magnet bore. The same conductor geometry which is used to simulate line currents is also used in CAD with modifications more readily available. It is our hope that the format used here for magnetic fields can be used not only as a means of delivering fields but also as a way by which beam dynamics can suggest correction to the conductor geometry. 5 refs., 70 figs.

  2. 3D polarimetric purity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, José J.; San José, Ignacio

    2010-11-01

    From our previous definition of the indices of polarimetric purity for 3D light beams [J.J. Gil, J.M. Correas, P.A. Melero and C. Ferreira, Monogr. Semin. Mat. G. de Galdeano 31, 161 (2004)], an analysis of their geometric and physical interpretation is presented. It is found that, in agreement with previous results, the first parameter is a measure of the degree of polarization, whereas the second parameter (called the degree of directionality) is a measure of the mean angular aperture of the direction of propagation of the corresponding light beam. This pair of invariant, non-dimensional, indices of polarimetric purity contains complete information about the polarimetric purity of a light beam. The overall degree of polarimetric purity is obtained as a weighted quadratic average of the degree of polarization and the degree of directionality.

  3. 3D Geologic Model of the Southern Great Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagoner, J. L.; Myers, S. C.

    2006-12-01

    We have constructed a regional 3D geologic model of the southern Great Basin, in support of a seismic wave propagation investigation of the 1993 Nonproliferation Experiment (NPE) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The model is centered on the NPE and spans longitude -119.5° to -112.6°, latitude 34.5° to 39.8°, and a depth from the surface to 150 km below sea level. Hence, the model includes the southern half of Nevada, as well as parts of eastern California, western Utah, and a portion of northwestern Arizona. The upper crust is constrained by geologic and geophysical studies, and the lower crust and upper mantle are constrained by geophysical studies. The upper crustal geologic units are Quaternary basin fill, Tertiary deposits, pre-Tertiary deposits, intrusive rocks, and calderas. The lower crust and upper mantle are parameterized with 8 layers, including the Moho. Detailed geologic data, including surface maps, borehole data, and geophysical surveys, were used to define the geology at the NTS. Digital geologic outcrop data were available for both Nevada and Arizona, whereas we scanned and hand digitized geologic maps for California and Utah. Published gravity data (2km spacing) were used to determine the thickness of the Cenozoic deposits and constrain the depth of the basins. The free surface is based on a 10m lateral resolution DEM at the NTS and a 90m resolution DEM elsewhere. The gross geophysical structure of the crust and upper mantle is taken from regional surface-wave studies. Variations in crustal thickness are based on receiver function analysis and a compilation of reflection/refraction studies. We used the Earthvision (Dynamic Graphics, Inc.) software to integrate the geologic and geophysical information into a model of x,y,z,p nodes, where p is an integer index representing the geologic unit. For regional seismic simulations we convert this realistic geologic model into elastic parameters. Upper crustal units are treated as seismically homogeneous

  4. West Flank Coso, CA FORGE 3D temperature model

    DOE Data Explorer

    Doug Blankenship

    2016-03-01

    x,y,z data of the 3D temperature model for the West Flank Coso FORGE site. Model grid spacing is 250m. The temperature model for the Coso geothermal field used over 100 geothermal production sized wells and intermediate-depth temperature holes. At the near surface of this model, two boundary temperatures were assumed: (1) areas with surface manifestations, including fumaroles along the northeast striking normal faults and northwest striking dextral faults with the hydrothermal field, a temperature of ~104˚C was applied to datum at +1066 meters above sea level elevation, and (2) a near-surface temperature at about 10 meters depth, of 20˚C was applied below the diurnal and annual conductive temperature perturbations. These assumptions were based on heat flow studies conducted at the CVF and for the Mojave Desert. On the edges of the hydrothermal system, a 73˚C/km (4˚F/100’) temperature gradient contour was established using conductive gradient data from shallow and intermediate-depth temperature holes. This contour was continued to all elevation datums between the 20˚C surface and -1520 meters below mean sea level. Because the West Flank is outside of the geothermal field footprint, during Phase 1, the three wells inside the FORGE site were incorporated into the preexisting temperature model. To ensure a complete model was built based on all the available data sets, measured bottom-hole temperature gradients in certain wells were downward extrapolated to the next deepest elevation datum (or a maximum of about 25% of the well depth where conductive gradients are evident in the lower portions of the wells). After assuring that the margins of the geothermal field were going to be adequately modelled, the data was contoured using the Kriging method algorithm. Although the extrapolated temperatures and boundary conditions are not rigorous, the calculated temperatures are anticipated to be within ~6˚C (20˚F), or one contour interval, of the

  5. Stress Distribution in Roots Restored with Fiber Posts and An Experimental Dentin Post: 3D-FEA.

    PubMed

    Diana, Hugo Henrique; Oliveira, Juliana Santos; Ferro, Mariana Carolina de Lara; Silva-Sousa, Yara T Corrêa; Gomes, Érica Alves

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the stress distribution in radicular dentin of a maxillary canine restored with either a glass fiber post, carbon fiber post or an experimental dentin post using finite element analysis (3D-FEA). Three 3D virtual models of a maxillary canine restored with a metal-ceramic crown and glass fiber post (GFP), carbon fiber post (CFP), and experimental dentin post (DP) were obtained based on micro-CT images. A total of 180 N was applied on the lingual surface of the incisal third of each tooth at 45 degrees. The models were supported by the periodontal ligament fixed in three axes (x=y=z=0). The von Mises stress (VMS) of radicular dentin and the intracanal posts was calculated. The structures of all groups showed similar values (MPa) and distribution of maximum von Mises stress. Higher stress was found in the apical third of dentin while the posts presented homogeneous stress distribution along the axis. The fiber and dentin posts exhibited similar stress values and distribution. Thus, the experimental dentin post is a promising restorative material. PMID:27058388

  6. 3D Geologic Modeling of the Southern San Joaquin Basin for the Westcarb Kimberlina Demonstration Project- A Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wagoner, J

    2009-02-23

    The objective of the Westcarb Kimberlina pilot project is to safely inject 250,000 t CO{sub 2}/yr for four years into the deep subsurface at the Clean Energy Systems (CES) Kimberlina power plant in southern San Joaquin Valley, California. In support of this effort, we have constructed a regional 3D geologic model of the southern San Joaquin basin. The model is centered on the Kimberlina power plant and spans the UTM range E 260000-343829 m and N 3887700-4000309 m; the depth of the model ranges from the topographic surface to >9000 m below sea level. The mapped geologic units are Quaternary basin fill, Tertiary marine and continental deposits, and pre-Tertiary basement rocks. Detailed geologic data, including surface maps, borehole data, and geophysical surveys, were used to define the geologic framework. Fifteen time-stratigraphic formations were mapped, as well as >140 faults. The free surface is based on a 10 m lateral resolution DEM. We use Earthvision (Dynamic Graphics, Inc.) to integrate the geologic and geophysical information into a 3D model of x,y,z,p nodes, where p is a unique integer index value representing the geologic unit. This grid represents a realistic model of the subsurface geology and provides input into subsequent flow simulations.

  7. 3D Geologic Modeling of the Southern San Joaquin Basin for the Westcarb Kimberlina Demonstration Project- A Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wagoner, J

    2009-04-24

    The objective of the Westcarb Kimberlina pilot project is to safely inject 250,000 t CO{sub 2}/yr for four years into the deep subsurface at the Clean Energy Systems (CES) Kimberlina power plant in southern San Joaquin Valley, California. In support of this effort, we have constructed a regional 3D geologic model of the southern San Joaquin basin. The model is centered on the Kimberlina power plant and spans the UTM range E 260000-343829 m and N 3887700-4000309 m; the depth of the model ranges from the topographic surface to >9000 m below sea level. The mapped geologic units are Quaternary basin fill, Tertiary marine and continental deposits, and pre-Tertiary basement rocks. Detailed geologic data, including surface maps, borehole data, and geophysical surveys, were used to define the geologic framework. Fifteen time-stratigraphic formations were mapped, as well as >140 faults. The free surface is based on a 10 m lateral resolution DEM. We use Earthvision (Dynamic Graphics, Inc.) to integrate the geologic and geophysical information into a 3D model of x,y,z,p nodes, where p is a unique integer index value representing the geologic unit. This grid represents a realistic model of the subsurface geology and provides input into subsequent flow simulations.

  8. Prominent rocks - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Many prominent rocks near the Sagan Memorial Station are featured in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. Wedge is at lower left; Shark, Half-Dome, and Pumpkin are at center. Flat Top, about four inches high, is at lower right. The horizon in the distance is one to two kilometers away.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  9. 'Diamond' in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D, microscopic imager mosaic of a target area on a rock called 'Diamond Jenness' was taken after NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity ground into the surface with its rock abrasion tool for a second time.

    Opportunity has bored nearly a dozen holes into the inner walls of 'Endurance Crater.' On sols 177 and 178 (July 23 and July 24, 2004), the rover worked double-duty on Diamond Jenness. Surface debris and the bumpy shape of the rock resulted in a shallow and irregular hole, only about 2 millimeters (0.08 inch) deep. The final depth was not enough to remove all the bumps and leave a neat hole with a smooth floor. This extremely shallow depression was then examined by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.

    On Sol 178, Opportunity's 'robotic rodent' dined on Diamond Jenness once again, grinding almost an additional 5 millimeters (about 0.2 inch). The rover then applied its Moessbauer spectrometer to the deepened hole. This double dose of Diamond Jenness enabled the science team to examine the rock at varying layers. Results from those grindings are currently being analyzed.

    The image mosaic is about 6 centimeters (2.4 inches) across.

  10. 1,2,3-D Diffusion Depletion Multi-Group

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1992-04-20

    CITATION is designed to solve problems using the finite difference representation of neutron diffusion theory, treating up to three space dimensions with arbitrary group to group scattering. X-y-z, theta-r-z, hexagonal z, and triagonal z geometries may be treated. Depletion problems may be solved and fuel managed for multi-cycle analysis. Extensive first order perturbation results may be obtained given microscopic data and nuclide concentrations. Statics problems may be solved and perturbation results obtained with microscopic data.

  11. Nodal Diffusion & Transport Theory

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1992-02-19

    DIF3D solves multigroup diffusion theory eigenvalue, adjoint, fixed source, and criticality (concentration, buckling, and dimension search) problems in 1, 2, and 3-space dimensions for orthogonal (rectangular or cylindrical), triangular, and hexagonal geometries. Anisotropic diffusion theory coefficients are permitted. Flux and power density maps by mesh cell and regionwise balance integrals are provided. Although primarily designed for fast reactor problems, upscattering and internal black boundary conditions are also treated.

  12. Topological semimetals and nodal superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Po-Yao

    Besides topological band insulators, which have a full bulk gap, there are also gapless phases of matter that belong to the broad class of topological materials, such as topological semimetals and nodal superconductors. We systematically study these gapless topological phases described by the Bloch and Bogoliubov-de Gennes Hamiltonians. We discuss a generalized bulk-boundary correspondence, which relates the topological properties in the bulk of gapless topological phases and the protected zero-energy states at the boundary. We study examples of gapless topological phases, focusing in particular on nodal superconductors, such as nodal noncentrosymmetric superconductors (NCSs). We compute the surface density of states of nodal NCSs and interpret experimental measurements of surface states. In addition, we investigate Majorana vortex-bound states in both nodal and fully gapped NCSs using numerical and analytical methods. We show that different topological properties of the bulk Bogoliubov-quasiparticle wave functions reflect themselves in different types of zero-energy vortex-bound states. In particular, in the case of NCSs with tetragonal point-group symmetry, we find that the stability of these Majorana zero modes is guaranteed by a combination of reflection, time-reversal, and particle-hole symmetries. Finally, by using K-theory arguments and a dimensional reduction procedure from higher-dimensional topological insulators and superconductors, we derive a classification of topologically stable Fermi surfaces in semimetals and nodal lines in superconductors.

  13. 3D mapping and simulation of Geneva Lake environmental data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villard, Roch; Maignan, Michel; Kanevski, Mikhail; Rapin, Francois; Klein, Audrey

    2010-05-01

    several depths. Applying all data comprehensive analysis both in space and in time was performed. The evolution of the distribution of environmental parameters and their difference in space between two periods and also several times series were studied. Furthermore with the analysis of temporal measurements depending on spatial coordinates (x, y, z) the trends, periodicity, and seasonal variation or cycles were evaluated. First results demonstrate no global warming in such environment. However certain currents and their evolution in the lake were identified. Then, we can see the movement of cold and hot waters in the lake during time and in space. A main question posed by ecologists is: is there any global warming of the lake? According to the results based on date 1954-1980, no global warming either of the "Small Lake" (Geneva) or the whole lake was put into evidence. However the temperatures of the different parts of the lake vary from one year to another year with significant differences of warming, respectively cooling of different areas and at different depths. The graphical representations of time series of temperature at one location for different depths show clearly the annual rhythm and also other frequencies (11 years). The historical well known "cold years" are well identified. At some years, one can observe an inversion of temperature when the cold water in the depth comes upwards to the surface. Spatial patterns are also found for the nitrate content in water. The future developments deal with multivariate analysis and simulations of environmental and pollution data in the lake.

  14. High-Speed Three-Dimensional Nodal Diffusion Code System.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2001-03-21

    Version 00 MOSRA-Light is a three-dimensional diffusion calculation code for X-Y-Z geometry. It can be used in: validation of discontinuity factor for adjoint problem; benchmark on discontinuity factor (forward & adjoint cal.); DVP BWR Benchmark (2D,2G calculation); and void reactivity effect benchmark; etc. A utility code called More-MOSRA provides many useful functions with the file produced by MOSRA-Light.

  15. 3D Spectroscopy in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mediavilla, Evencio; Arribas, Santiago; Roth, Martin; Cepa-Nogué, Jordi; Sánchez, Francisco

    2011-09-01

    Preface; Acknowledgements; 1. Introductory review and technical approaches Martin M. Roth; 2. Observational procedures and data reduction James E. H. Turner; 3. 3D Spectroscopy instrumentation M. A. Bershady; 4. Analysis of 3D data Pierre Ferruit; 5. Science motivation for IFS and galactic studies F. Eisenhauer; 6. Extragalactic studies and future IFS science Luis Colina; 7. Tutorials: how to handle 3D spectroscopy data Sebastian F. Sánchez, Begona García-Lorenzo and Arlette Pécontal-Rousset.

  16. 3D Elevation Program—Virtual USA in 3D

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lukas, Vicki; Stoker, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) uses a laser system called ‘lidar’ (light detection and ranging) to create a virtual reality map of the Nation that is very accurate. 3D maps have many uses with new uses being discovered all the time.  

  17. Augmented 3D super-resolution of fluorescence-free nanoparticles using enhanced dark-field illumination based on wavelength-modulation and a least-cubic algorithm.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Kim, Kyungsoo; Lee, Seungah; Chakkarapani, Suresh Kumar; Fang, Ning; Kang, Seong Ho

    2016-01-01

    Augmented three-dimensional (3D) subdiffraction-limited resolution of fluorescence-free single-nanoparticles was achieved with wavelength-dependent enhanced dark-field (EDF) illumination and a least-cubic algorithm. Various plasmonic nanoparticles on a glass slide (i.e., gold nanoparticles, GNPs; silver nanoparticles, SNPs; and gold nanorods, GNRs) were imaged and sliced in the z-direction to a thickness of 10 nm. Single-particle images were then compared with simulation data. The 3D coordinates of individual GNP, SNP, and GNR nanoparticles (x, y, z) were resolved by fitting the data with 3D point spread functions using a least-cubic algorithm and collation. Final, 3D super-resolution microscopy (SRM) images were obtained by resolving 3D coordinates and their Cramér-Rao lower bound-based localization precisions in an image space (530 nm × 530 nm × 300 nm) with a specific voxel size (2.5 nm × 2.5 nm × 5 nm). Compared with the commonly used least-square method, the least-cubic method was more useful for finding the center in asymmetric cases (i.e., nanorods) with high precision and accuracy. This novel 3D fluorescence-free SRM technique was successfully applied to resolve the positions of various nanoparticles on glass and gold nanospots (in vitro) as well as in a living single cell (in vivo) with subdiffraction limited resolution in 3D. PMID:27619347

  18. Automated 3D detection and classification of Giardia lamblia cysts using digital holographic microscopy with partially coherent source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Mallahi, A.; Detavernier, A.; Yourassowsky, C.; Dubois, F.

    2012-06-01

    Over the past century, monitoring of Giardia lamblia became a matter of concern for all drinking water suppliers worldwide. Indeed, this parasitic flagellated protozoan is responsible for giardiasis, a widespread diarrhoeal disease (200 million symptomatic individuals) that can lead immunocompromised individuals to death. The major difficulty raised by Giardia lamblia's cyst, its vegetative transmission form, is its ability to survive for long periods in harsh environments, including the chlorine concentrations and treatment duration used traditionally in water disinfection. Currently, there is a need for a reliable, inexpensive, and easy-to-use sensor for the identification and quantification of cysts in the incoming water. For this purpose, we investigated the use of a digital holographic microscope working with partially coherent spatial illumination that reduces the coherent noise. Digital holography allows one to numerically investigate a volume by refocusing the different plane of depth of a hologram. In this paper, we perform an automated 3D analysis that computes the complex amplitude of each hologram, detects all the particles present in the whole volume given by one hologram and refocuses them if there are out of focus using a refocusing criterion based on the integrated complex amplitude modulus and we obtain the (x,y,z) coordinates of each particle. Then the segmentation of the particles is processed and a set of morphological and textures features characteristic to Giardia lamblia cysts is computed in order to classify each particles in the right classes.

  19. Documentation of program AFTBDY to generate coordinate system for 3D after body using body fitted curvilinear coordinates, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, D.

    1980-01-01

    The computer program AFTBDY generates a body fitted curvilinear coordinate system for a wedge curved after body. This wedge curved after body is being used in an experimental program. The coordinate system generated by AFTBDY is used to solve 3D compressible N.S. equations. The coordinate system in the physical plane is a cartesian x,y,z system, whereas, in the transformed plane a rectangular xi, eta, zeta system is used. The coordinate system generated is such that in the transformed plane coordinate spacing in the xi, eta, zeta direction is constant and equal to unity. The physical plane coordinate lines in the different regions are clustered heavily or sparsely depending on the regions where physical quantities to be solved for by the N.S. equations have high or low gradients. The coordinate distribution in the physical plane is such that x stays constant in eta and zeta direction, whereas, z stays constant in xi and eta direction. The desired distribution in x and z is input to the program. Consequently, only the y-coordinate is solved for by the program AFTBDY.

  20. Topological Phase Transitions in Line-nodal Superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Gil Young; Han, Sangeun; Moon, Eun-Gook

    Fathoming interplay between symmetry and topology of many-electron wave-functions deepens our understanding in quantum nature of many particle systems. Topology often protects zero-energy excitation, and in a certain class, symmetry is intrinsically tied to the topological protection. Namely, unless symmetry is broken, topological nature is intact. We study one specific case of such class, symmetry-protected line-nodal superconductors in three spatial dimensions (3d). Mismatch between phase spaces of order parameter fluctuation and line-nodal fermion excitation induces an exotic universality class in a drastic contrast to one of the conventional ϕ4 theory in 3d. Hyper-scaling violation and relativistic dynamic scaling with unusually large quantum critical region are main characteristics, and their implication in experiments is discussed. For example, continuous phase transition out of line-nodal superconductors has a linear phase boundary in a temperature-tuning parameter phase-diagram. This work was supported by the Brain Korea 21 PLUS Project of Korea Government and KAIST start-up funding.

  1. Market study: 3-D eyetracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A market study of a proposed version of a 3-D eyetracker for initial use at NASA's Ames Research Center was made. The commercialization potential of a simplified, less expensive 3-D eyetracker was ascertained. Primary focus on present and potential users of eyetrackers, as well as present and potential manufacturers has provided an effective means of analyzing the prospects for commercialization.

  2. Modular 3-D Transport model

    EPA Science Inventory

    MT3D was first developed by Chunmiao Zheng in 1990 at S.S. Papadopulos & Associates, Inc. with partial support from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Starting in 1990, MT3D was released as a pubic domain code from the USEPA. Commercial versions with enhanced capab...

  3. [3-D ultrasound in gastroenterology].

    PubMed

    Zoller, W G; Liess, H

    1994-06-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) sonography represents a development of noninvasive diagnostic imaging by real-time two-dimensional (2D) sonography. The use of transparent rotating scans, comparable to a block of glass, generates a 3D effect. The objective of the present study was to optimate 3D presentation of abdominal findings. Additional investigations were made with a new volumetric program to determine the volume of selected findings of the liver. The results were compared with the estimated volumes of 2D sonography and 2D computer tomography (CT). For the processing of 3D images, typical parameter constellations were found for the different findings, which facilitated processing of 3D images. In more than 75% of the cases examined we found an optimal 3D presentation of sonographic findings with respect to the evaluation criteria developed by us for the 3D imaging of processed data. Great differences were found for the estimated volumes of the findings of the liver concerning the three different techniques applied. 3D ultrasound represents a valuable method to judge morphological appearance in abdominal findings. The possibility of volumetric measurements enlarges its potential diagnostic significance. Further clinical investigations are necessary to find out if definite differentiation between benign and malign findings is possible. PMID:7919882

  4. 3D World Building System

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-30

    This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.

  5. 3D World Building System

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2014-02-26

    This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.

  6. LLNL-Earth3D

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2013-10-01

    Earth3D is a computer code designed to allow fast calculation of seismic rays and travel times through a 3D model of the Earth. LLNL is using this for earthquake location and global tomography efforts and such codes are of great interest to the Earth Science community.

  7. Euro3D Science Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, J. R.

    2004-02-01

    The Euro3D RTN is an EU funded Research Training Network to foster the exploitation of 3D spectroscopy in Europe. 3D spectroscopy is a general term for spectroscopy of an area of the sky and derives its name from its two spatial + one spectral dimensions. There are an increasing number of instruments which use integral field devices to achieve spectroscopy of an area of the sky, either using lens arrays, optical fibres or image slicers, to pack spectra of multiple pixels on the sky (``spaxels'') onto a 2D detector. On account of the large volume of data and the special methods required to reduce and analyse 3D data, there are only a few centres of expertise and these are mostly involved with instrument developments. There is a perceived lack of expertise in 3D spectroscopy spread though the astronomical community and its use in the armoury of the observational astronomer is viewed as being highly specialised. For precisely this reason the Euro3D RTN was proposed to train young researchers in this area and develop user tools to widen the experience with this particular type of data in Europe. The Euro3D RTN is coordinated by Martin M. Roth (Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam) and has been running since July 2002. The first Euro3D science conference was held in Cambridge, UK from 22 to 23 May 2003. The main emphasis of the conference was, in keeping with the RTN, to expose the work of the young post-docs who are funded by the RTN. In addition the team members from the eleven European institutes involved in Euro3D also presented instrumental and observational developments. The conference was organized by Andy Bunker and held at the Institute of Astronomy. There were over thirty participants and 26 talks covered the whole range of application of 3D techniques. The science ranged from Galactic planetary nebulae and globular clusters to kinematics of nearby galaxies out to objects at high redshift. Several talks were devoted to reporting recent observations with newly

  8. 3D printing in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Dawood, A; Marti Marti, B; Sauret-Jackson, V; Darwood, A

    2015-12-01

    3D printing has been hailed as a disruptive technology which will change manufacturing. Used in aerospace, defence, art and design, 3D printing is becoming a subject of great interest in surgery. The technology has a particular resonance with dentistry, and with advances in 3D imaging and modelling technologies such as cone beam computed tomography and intraoral scanning, and with the relatively long history of the use of CAD CAM technologies in dentistry, it will become of increasing importance. Uses of 3D printing include the production of drill guides for dental implants, the production of physical models for prosthodontics, orthodontics and surgery, the manufacture of dental, craniomaxillofacial and orthopaedic implants, and the fabrication of copings and frameworks for implant and dental restorations. This paper reviews the types of 3D printing technologies available and their various applications in dentistry and in maxillofacial surgery. PMID:26657435

  9. PLOT3D user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walatka, Pamela P.; Buning, Pieter G.; Pierce, Larry; Elson, Patricia A.

    1990-01-01

    PLOT3D is a computer graphics program designed to visualize the grids and solutions of computational fluid dynamics. Seventy-four functions are available. Versions are available for many systems. PLOT3D can handle multiple grids with a million or more grid points, and can produce varieties of model renderings, such as wireframe or flat shaded. Output from PLOT3D can be used in animation programs. The first part of this manual is a tutorial that takes the reader, keystroke by keystroke, through a PLOT3D session. The second part of the manual contains reference chapters, including the helpfile, data file formats, advice on changing PLOT3D, and sample command files.

  10. Comparison of clinical bracket point registration with 3D laser scanner and coordinate measuring machine

    PubMed Central

    Nouri, Mahtab; Farzan, Arash; Baghban, Ali Reza Akbarzadeh; Massudi, Reza

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to assess the diagnostic value of a laser scanner developed to determine the coordinates of clinical bracket points and to compare with the results of a coordinate measuring machine (CMM). METHODS: This diagnostic experimental study was conducted on maxillary and mandibular orthodontic study casts of 18 adults with normal Class I occlusion. First, the coordinates of the bracket points were measured on all casts by a CMM. Then, the three-dimensional coordinates (X, Y, Z) of the bracket points were measured on the same casts by a 3D laser scanner designed at Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran. The validity and reliability of each system were assessed by means of intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Dahlberg's formula. RESULTS: The difference between the mean dimension and the actual value for the CMM was 0.0066 mm. (95% CI: 69.98340, 69.99140). The mean difference for the laser scanner was 0.107 ± 0.133 mm (95% CI: -0.002, 0.24). In each method, differences were not significant. The ICC comparing the two methods was 0.998 for the X coordinate, and 0.996 for the Y coordinate; the mean difference for coordinates recorded in the entire arch and for each tooth was 0.616 mm. CONCLUSION: The accuracy of clinical bracket point coordinates measured by the laser scanner was equal to that of CMM. The mean difference in measurements was within the range of operator errors. PMID:25741826

  11. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  12. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  13. Bioprinting of 3D hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Stanton, M M; Samitier, J; Sánchez, S

    2015-08-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting has recently emerged as an extension of 3D material printing, by using biocompatible or cellular components to build structures in an additive, layer-by-layer methodology for encapsulation and culture of cells. These 3D systems allow for cell culture in a suspension for formation of highly organized tissue or controlled spatial orientation of cell environments. The in vitro 3D cellular environments simulate the complexity of an in vivo environment and natural extracellular matrices (ECM). This paper will focus on bioprinting utilizing hydrogels as 3D scaffolds. Hydrogels are advantageous for cell culture as they are highly permeable to cell culture media, nutrients, and waste products generated during metabolic cell processes. They have the ability to be fabricated in customized shapes with various material properties with dimensions at the micron scale. 3D hydrogels are a reliable method for biocompatible 3D printing and have applications in tissue engineering, drug screening, and organ on a chip models. PMID:26066320

  14. Unassisted 3D camera calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atanassov, Kalin; Ramachandra, Vikas; Nash, James; Goma, Sergio R.

    2012-03-01

    With the rapid growth of 3D technology, 3D image capture has become a critical part of the 3D feature set on mobile phones. 3D image quality is affected by the scene geometry as well as on-the-device processing. An automatic 3D system usually assumes known camera poses accomplished by factory calibration using a special chart. In real life settings, pose parameters estimated by factory calibration can be negatively impacted by movements of the lens barrel due to shaking, focusing, or camera drop. If any of these factors displaces the optical axes of either or both cameras, vertical disparity might exceed the maximum tolerable margin and the 3D user may experience eye strain or headaches. To make 3D capture more practical, one needs to consider unassisted (on arbitrary scenes) calibration. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that relies on detection and matching of keypoints between left and right images. Frames containing erroneous matches, along with frames with insufficiently rich keypoint constellations, are detected and discarded. Roll, pitch yaw , and scale differences between left and right frames are then estimated. The algorithm performance is evaluated in terms of the remaining vertical disparity as compared to the maximum tolerable vertical disparity.

  15. Arena3D: visualization of biological networks in 3D

    PubMed Central

    Pavlopoulos, Georgios A; O'Donoghue, Seán I; Satagopam, Venkata P; Soldatos, Theodoros G; Pafilis, Evangelos; Schneider, Reinhard

    2008-01-01

    Background Complexity is a key problem when visualizing biological networks; as the number of entities increases, most graphical views become incomprehensible. Our goal is to enable many thousands of entities to be visualized meaningfully and with high performance. Results We present a new visualization tool, Arena3D, which introduces a new concept of staggered layers in 3D space. Related data – such as proteins, chemicals, or pathways – can be grouped onto separate layers and arranged via layout algorithms, such as Fruchterman-Reingold, distance geometry, and a novel hierarchical layout. Data on a layer can be clustered via k-means, affinity propagation, Markov clustering, neighbor joining, tree clustering, or UPGMA ('unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean'). A simple input format defines the name and URL for each node, and defines connections or similarity scores between pairs of nodes. The use of Arena3D is illustrated with datasets related to Huntington's disease. Conclusion Arena3D is a user friendly visualization tool that is able to visualize biological or any other network in 3D space. It is free for academic use and runs on any platform. It can be downloaded or lunched directly from . Java3D library and Java 1.5 need to be pre-installed for the software to run. PMID:19040715

  16. Fdf in US3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otis, Collin; Ferrero, Pietro; Candler, Graham; Givi, Peyman

    2013-11-01

    The scalar filtered mass density function (SFMDF) methodology is implemented into the computer code US3D. This is an unstructured Eulerian finite volume hydrodynamic solver and has proven very effective for simulation of compressible turbulent flows. The resulting SFMDF-US3D code is employed for large eddy simulation (LES) on unstructured meshes. Simulations are conducted of subsonic and supersonic flows under non-reacting and reacting conditions. The consistency and the accuracy of the simulated results are assessed along with appraisal of the overall performance of the methodology. The SFMDF-US3D is now capable of simulating high speed flows in complex configurations.

  17. Topological Nodal-Line Superfluid in Spin-Orbit Coupled Cold Atomic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Wen-Yu; Xu, Dong-Hui; Zhou, Tong; Law, K. T.; Hong Kong University of Science; Technology Collaboration

    Topological nodal line superconductivity or superfluidity is a fascinating topological gapless phase which hosts bulk Weyl ring degeneracy in the quasiparticle excitation spectrum and supports Majorana zero bound modes with a large density of states at the edge. In this work, based on the experimental realized 1D spin orbit coupling, we show the emergence of topological nodal line superfluid phase in Fermionic atoms trapped in 3D cubic optical lattice when the s wave pairing field is introduced through Feshbach resonance between the two atomic hyperfine spin states. The nodal line degeneracy is further found to evolve into Weyl nodes once another component of spin orbit coupling field enters to break the chiral symmetry. The momentum resolved radio frequency spectroscopy is suggested to manifest the topological nodal line superfluid phase.

  18. Development of a 3D parallel mechanism robot arm with three vertical-axial pneumatic actuators combined with a stereo vision system.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Mao-Hsiung; Lin, Hao-Ting

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a novel 3D parallel mechanism robot driven by three vertical-axial pneumatic actuators with a stereo vision system for path tracking control. The mechanical system and the control system are the primary novel parts for developing a 3D parallel mechanism robot. In the mechanical system, a 3D parallel mechanism robot contains three serial chains, a fixed base, a movable platform and a pneumatic servo system. The parallel mechanism are designed and analyzed first for realizing a 3D motion in the X-Y-Z coordinate system of the robot's end-effector. The inverse kinematics and the forward kinematics of the parallel mechanism robot are investigated by using the Denavit-Hartenberg notation (D-H notation) coordinate system. The pneumatic actuators in the three vertical motion axes are modeled. In the control system, the Fourier series-based adaptive sliding-mode controller with H(∞) tracking performance is used to design the path tracking controllers of the three vertical servo pneumatic actuators for realizing 3D path tracking control of the end-effector. Three optical linear scales are used to measure the position of the three pneumatic actuators. The 3D position of the end-effector is then calculated from the measuring position of the three pneumatic actuators by means of the kinematics. However, the calculated 3D position of the end-effector cannot consider the manufacturing and assembly tolerance of the joints and the parallel mechanism so that errors between the actual position and the calculated 3D position of the end-effector exist. In order to improve this situation, sensor collaboration is developed in this paper. A stereo vision system is used to collaborate with the three position sensors of the pneumatic actuators. The stereo vision system combining two CCD serves to measure the actual 3D position of the end-effector and calibrate the error between the actual and the calculated 3D position of the end-effector. Furthermore, to

  19. Heterodyne 3D ghost imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xu; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Chenghua; Xu, Lu; Wang, Qiang; Zhao, Yuan

    2016-06-01

    Conventional three dimensional (3D) ghost imaging measures range of target based on pulse fight time measurement method. Due to the limit of data acquisition system sampling rate, range resolution of the conventional 3D ghost imaging is usually low. In order to take off the effect of sampling rate to range resolution of 3D ghost imaging, a heterodyne 3D ghost imaging (HGI) system is presented in this study. The source of HGI is a continuous wave laser instead of pulse laser. Temporal correlation and spatial correlation of light are both utilized to obtain the range image of target. Through theory analysis and numerical simulations, it is demonstrated that HGI can obtain high range resolution image with low sampling rate.

  20. Wavefront construction in 3-D

    SciTech Connect

    Chilcoat, S.R. Hildebrand, S.T.

    1995-12-31

    Travel time computation in inhomogeneous media is essential for pre-stack Kirchhoff imaging in areas such as the sub-salt province in the Gulf of Mexico. The 2D algorithm published by Vinje, et al, has been extended to 3D to compute wavefronts in complicated inhomogeneous media. The 3D wavefront construction algorithm provides many advantages over conventional ray tracing and other methods of computing travel times in 3D. The algorithm dynamically maintains a reasonably consistent ray density without making a priori guesses at the number of rays to shoot. The determination of caustics in 3D is a straight forward geometric procedure. The wavefront algorithm also enables the computation of multi-valued travel time surfaces.

  1. Combinatorial 3D Mechanical Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulais, Corentin; Teomy, Eial; de Reus, Koen; Shokef, Yair; van Hecke, Martin

    2015-03-01

    We present a class of elastic structures which exhibit 3D-folding motion. Our structures consist of cubic lattices of anisotropic unit cells that can be tiled in a complex combinatorial fashion. We design and 3d-print this complex ordered mechanism, in which we combine elastic hinges and defects to tailor the mechanics of the material. Finally, we use this large design space to encode smart functionalities such as surface patterning and multistability.

  2. Three-Dimensional, Nodal, Neutron Diffusion Criticality Code System in Hex-Z Geometry.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1992-07-27

    Version: 00 SIXTUS-3 is a 3D extention of SIXTUS-2 and is based on a response matrix nodal model. The code offers a fast and accurate analysis of critical systems in the regular hex-z geometry with the multigroup cross section representation including arbitrary upscattering.

  3. From 3D view to 3D print

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dima, M.; Farisato, G.; Bergomi, M.; Viotto, V.; Magrin, D.; Greggio, D.; Farinato, J.; Marafatto, L.; Ragazzoni, R.; Piazza, D.

    2014-08-01

    In the last few years 3D printing is getting more and more popular and used in many fields going from manufacturing to industrial design, architecture, medical support and aerospace. 3D printing is an evolution of bi-dimensional printing, which allows to obtain a solid object from a 3D model, realized with a 3D modelling software. The final product is obtained using an additive process, in which successive layers of material are laid down one over the other. A 3D printer allows to realize, in a simple way, very complex shapes, which would be quite difficult to be produced with dedicated conventional facilities. Thanks to the fact that the 3D printing is obtained superposing one layer to the others, it doesn't need any particular work flow and it is sufficient to simply draw the model and send it to print. Many different kinds of 3D printers exist based on the technology and material used for layer deposition. A common material used by the toner is ABS plastics, which is a light and rigid thermoplastic polymer, whose peculiar mechanical properties make it diffusely used in several fields, like pipes production and cars interiors manufacturing. I used this technology to create a 1:1 scale model of the telescope which is the hardware core of the space small mission CHEOPS (CHaracterising ExOPlanets Satellite) by ESA, which aims to characterize EXOplanets via transits observations. The telescope has a Ritchey-Chrétien configuration with a 30cm aperture and the launch is foreseen in 2017. In this paper, I present the different phases for the realization of such a model, focusing onto pros and cons of this kind of technology. For example, because of the finite printable volume (10×10×12 inches in the x, y and z directions respectively), it has been necessary to split the largest parts of the instrument in smaller components to be then reassembled and post-processed. A further issue is the resolution of the printed material, which is expressed in terms of layers

  4. YouDash3D: exploring stereoscopic 3D gaming for 3D movie theaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schild, Jonas; Seele, Sven; Masuch, Maic

    2012-03-01

    Along with the success of the digitally revived stereoscopic cinema, events beyond 3D movies become attractive for movie theater operators, i.e. interactive 3D games. In this paper, we present a case that explores possible challenges and solutions for interactive 3D games to be played by a movie theater audience. We analyze the setting and showcase current issues related to lighting and interaction. Our second focus is to provide gameplay mechanics that make special use of stereoscopy, especially depth-based game design. Based on these results, we present YouDash3D, a game prototype that explores public stereoscopic gameplay in a reduced kiosk setup. It features live 3D HD video stream of a professional stereo camera rig rendered in a real-time game scene. We use the effect to place the stereoscopic effigies of players into the digital game. The game showcases how stereoscopic vision can provide for a novel depth-based game mechanic. Projected trigger zones and distributed clusters of the audience video allow for easy adaptation to larger audiences and 3D movie theater gaming.

  5. Remote 3D Medical Consultation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, Greg; Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Fuchs, Henry; Cairns, Bruce; Mayer-Patel, Ketan; Yang, Ruigang; State, Andrei; Towles, Herman; Ilie, Adrian; Krishnan, Srinivas; Söderholm, Hanna M.

    Two-dimensional (2D) video-based telemedical consultation has been explored widely in the past 15-20 years. Two issues that seem to arise in most relevant case studies are the difficulty associated with obtaining the desired 2D camera views, and poor depth perception. To address these problems we are exploring the use of a small array of cameras to synthesize a spatially continuous range of dynamic three-dimensional (3D) views of a remote environment and events. The 3D views can be sent across wired or wireless networks to remote viewers with fixed displays or mobile devices such as a personal digital assistant (PDA). The viewpoints could be specified manually or automatically via user head or PDA tracking, giving the remote viewer virtual head- or hand-slaved (PDA-based) remote cameras for mono or stereo viewing. We call this idea remote 3D medical consultation (3DMC). In this article we motivate and explain the vision for 3D medical consultation; we describe the relevant computer vision/graphics, display, and networking research; we present a proof-of-concept prototype system; and we present some early experimental results supporting the general hypothesis that 3D remote medical consultation could offer benefits over conventional 2D televideo.

  6. Speaking Volumes About 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In 1999, Genex submitted a proposal to Stennis Space Center for a volumetric 3-D display technique that would provide multiple users with a 360-degree perspective to simultaneously view and analyze 3-D data. The futuristic capabilities of the VolumeViewer(R) have offered tremendous benefits to commercial users in the fields of medicine and surgery, air traffic control, pilot training and education, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing, and military/battlefield management. The technology has also helped NASA to better analyze and assess the various data collected by its satellite and spacecraft sensors. Genex capitalized on its success with Stennis by introducing two separate products to the commercial market that incorporate key elements of the 3-D display technology designed under an SBIR contract. The company Rainbow 3D(R) imaging camera is a novel, three-dimensional surface profile measurement system that can obtain a full-frame 3-D image in less than 1 second. The third product is the 360-degree OmniEye(R) video system. Ideal for intrusion detection, surveillance, and situation management, this unique camera system offers a continuous, panoramic view of a scene in real time.

  7. Parametric Analysis of a Turbine Trip Event in a BWR Using a 3D Nodal Code

    SciTech Connect

    Gorzel, A.

    2006-07-01

    Two essential thermal hydraulics safety criteria concerning the reactor core are that even during operational transients there is no fuel melting and not-permissible cladding temperatures are avoided. A common concept for boiling water reactors is to establish a minimum critical power ratio (MCPR) for steady state operation. For this MCPR it is shown that only a very small number of fuel rods suffers a short-term dryout during the transient. It is known from experience that the limiting transient for the determination of the MCPR is the turbine trip with blocked bypass system. This fast transient was simulated for a German BWR by use of the three-dimensional reactor analysis transient code SIMULATE-3K. The transient behaviour of the hot channels was used as input for the dryout calculation with the transient thermal hydraulics code FRANCESCA. By this way the maximum reduction of the CPR during the transient could be calculated. The fast increase in reactor power due to the pressure increase and to an increased core inlet flow is limited mainly by the Doppler effect, but automatically triggered operational measures also can contribute to the mitigation of the turbine trip. One very important method is the short-term fast reduction of the recirculation pump speed which is initiated e. g. by a pressure increase in front of the turbine. The large impacts of the starting time and of the rate of the pump speed reduction on the power progression and hence on the deterioration of CPR is presented. Another important procedure to limit the effects of the transient is the fast shutdown of the reactor that is caused when the reactor power reaches the limit value. It is shown that the SCRAM is not fast enough to reduce the first power maximum, but is able to prevent the appearance of a second - much smaller - maximum that would occur around one second after the first one in the absence of a SCRAM. (author)

  8. 3D-Printed Microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Au, Anthony K; Huynh, Wilson; Horowitz, Lisa F; Folch, Albert

    2016-03-14

    The advent of soft lithography allowed for an unprecedented expansion in the field of microfluidics. However, the vast majority of PDMS microfluidic devices are still made with extensive manual labor, are tethered to bulky control systems, and have cumbersome user interfaces, which all render commercialization difficult. On the other hand, 3D printing has begun to embrace the range of sizes and materials that appeal to the developers of microfluidic devices. Prior to fabrication, a design is digitally built as a detailed 3D CAD file. The design can be assembled in modules by remotely collaborating teams, and its mechanical and fluidic behavior can be simulated using finite-element modeling. As structures are created by adding materials without the need for etching or dissolution, processing is environmentally friendly and economically efficient. We predict that in the next few years, 3D printing will replace most PDMS and plastic molding techniques in academia. PMID:26854878

  9. 3D Computations and Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Couch, R; Faux, D; Goto, D; Nikkel, D

    2004-04-05

    This project consists of two activities. Task A, Simulations and Measurements, combines all the material model development and associated numerical work with the materials-oriented experimental activities. The goal of this effort is to provide an improved understanding of dynamic material properties and to provide accurate numerical representations of those properties for use in analysis codes. Task B, ALE3D Development, involves general development activities in the ALE3D code with the focus of improving simulation capabilities for problems of mutual interest to DoD and DOE. Emphasis is on problems involving multi-phase flow, blast loading of structures and system safety/vulnerability studies.

  10. 3D Computations and Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Couch, R; Faux, D; Goto, D; Nikkel, D

    2003-05-12

    This project is in its first full year after the combining of two previously funded projects: ''3D Code Development'' and ''Dynamic Material Properties''. The motivation behind this move was to emphasize and strengthen the ties between the experimental work and the computational model development in the materials area. The next year's activities will indicate the merging of the two efforts. The current activity is structured in two tasks. Task A, ''Simulations and Measurements'', combines all the material model development and associated numerical work with the materials-oriented experimental activities. Task B, ''ALE3D Development'', is a continuation of the non-materials related activities from the previous project.

  11. SNL3dFace

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2007-07-20

    This software distribution contains MATLAB and C++ code to enable identity verification using 3D images that may or may not contain a texture component. The code is organized to support system performance testing and system capability demonstration through the proper configuration of the available user interface. Using specific algorithm parameters the face recognition system has been demonstrated to achieve a 96.6% verification rate (Pd) at 0.001 false alarm rate. The system computes robust facial featuresmore » of a 3D normalized face using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA). A 3D normalized face is obtained by alighning each face, represented by a set of XYZ coordinated, to a scaled reference face using the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. The scaled reference face is then deformed to the input face using an iterative framework with parameters that control the deformed surface regulation an rate of deformation. A variety of options are available to control the information that is encoded by the PCA. Such options include the XYZ coordinates, the difference of each XYZ coordinates from the reference, the Z coordinate, the intensity/texture values, etc. In addition to PCA/FLDA feature projection this software supports feature matching to obtain similarity matrices for performance analysis. In addition, this software supports visualization of the STL, MRD, 2D normalized, and PCA synthetic representations in a 3D environment.« less

  12. 3D Printing: Exploring Capabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Kyle; Flowers, Jim

    2015-01-01

    As 3D printers become more affordable, schools are using them in increasing numbers. They fit well with the emphasis on product design in technology and engineering education, allowing students to create high-fidelity physical models to see and test different iterations in their product designs. They may also help students to "think in three…

  13. SNL3dFace

    SciTech Connect

    Russ, Trina; Koch, Mark; Koudelka, Melissa; Peters, Ralph; Little, Charles; Boehnen, Chris; Peters, Tanya

    2007-07-20

    This software distribution contains MATLAB and C++ code to enable identity verification using 3D images that may or may not contain a texture component. The code is organized to support system performance testing and system capability demonstration through the proper configuration of the available user interface. Using specific algorithm parameters the face recognition system has been demonstrated to achieve a 96.6% verification rate (Pd) at 0.001 false alarm rate. The system computes robust facial features of a 3D normalized face using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA). A 3D normalized face is obtained by alighning each face, represented by a set of XYZ coordinated, to a scaled reference face using the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. The scaled reference face is then deformed to the input face using an iterative framework with parameters that control the deformed surface regulation an rate of deformation. A variety of options are available to control the information that is encoded by the PCA. Such options include the XYZ coordinates, the difference of each XYZ coordinates from the reference, the Z coordinate, the intensity/texture values, etc. In addition to PCA/FLDA feature projection this software supports feature matching to obtain similarity matrices for performance analysis. In addition, this software supports visualization of the STL, MRD, 2D normalized, and PCA synthetic representations in a 3D environment.

  14. Making Inexpensive 3-D Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manos, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the "TPT" theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity…

  15. TACO3D. 3-D Finite Element Heat Transfer Code

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, W.E.

    1992-03-04

    TACO3D is a three-dimensional, finite-element program for heat transfer analysis. An extension of the two-dimensional TACO program, it can perform linear and nonlinear analyses and can be used to solve either transient or steady-state problems. The program accepts time-dependent or temperature-dependent material properties, and materials may be isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time-dependent and temperature-dependent boundary conditions and loadings are available including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation boundary conditions and internal heat generation. Additional specialized features treat enclosure radiation, bulk nodes, and master/slave internal surface conditions (e.g., contact resistance). Data input via a free-field format is provided. A user subprogram feature allows for any type of functional representation of any independent variable. A profile (bandwidth) minimization option is available. The code is limited to implicit time integration for transient solutions. TACO3D has no general mesh generation capability. Rows of evenly-spaced nodes and rows of sequential elements may be generated, but the program relies on separate mesh generators for complex zoning. TACO3D does not have the ability to calculate view factors internally. Graphical representation of data in the form of time history and spatial plots is provided through links to the POSTACO and GRAPE postprocessor codes.

  16. Nodal equivalence theory for hexagonal geometry, thermal reactor analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Zika, M.; Downar, T. )

    1992-01-01

    An important aspect of advanced nodal methods is the determination of equivalent few-group parameters for the relatively large homogenized regions used in the nodal flux solution. The theoretical foundation for light water reactor (LWR) assembly homogenization methods has been clearly established, and during the last several years, its successes have secured its position in the stable of dependable LWR analysis methods. Groupwise discontinuity factors that correct for assembly homogenization errors are routinely generated along with the group constants during lattice physics analysis. During the last several years, there has been interest in applying equivalence theory to other reactor types and other geometries. A notable effort has been the work at Argonne National Laboratory to incorporate nodal equivalence theory (NET) for hexagonal lattices into the nodal diffusion option of the DIF3D code. This work was originally intended to improve the neutronics methods used for the analysis of the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II), and Ref. 4 discusses the success of that application. More recently, however, attempts were made to apply NET to advanced, thermal reactor designs such as the modular high-temperature gas reactor (MHTGR) and the new production heavy water reactor (NPR/HWR). The same methods that were successful for EBR-II have encountered problems for these reactors. Our preliminary analysis indicates that the sharp global flux gradients in these cores requires large discontinuity factors (greater than 4 or 5) to reproduce the reference solution. This disrupts the convergence of the iterative methods used to solve for the node-wise flux moments and partial currents. Several attempts to remedy the problem have been made over the last few years, including bounding the discontinuity factors and providing improved initial guesses for the flux solution, but nothing has been satisfactory.

  17. 3D localization of electrophysiology catheters from a single x-ray cone-beam projection

    SciTech Connect

    Robert, Normand Polack, George G.; Sethi, Benu; Rowlands, John A.; Crystal, Eugene

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: X-ray images allow the visualization of percutaneous devices such as catheters in real time but inherently lack depth information. The provision of 3D localization of these devices from cone beam x-ray projections would be advantageous for interventions such as electrophysiology (EP), whereby the operator needs to return a device to the same anatomical locations during the procedure. A method to achieve real-time 3D single view localization (SVL) of an object of known geometry from a single x-ray image is presented. SVL exploits the change in the magnification of an object as its distance from the x-ray source is varied. The x-ray projection of an object of interest is compared to a synthetic x-ray projection of a model of said object as its pose is varied. Methods: SVL was tested with a 3 mm spherical marker and an electrophysiology catheter. The effect of x-ray acquisition parameters on SVL was investigated. An independent reference localization method was developed to compare results when imaging a catheter translated via a computer controlled three-axes stage. SVL was also performed on clinical fluoroscopy image sequences. A commercial navigation system was used in some clinical image sequences for comparison. Results: SVL estimates exhibited little change as x-ray acquisition parameters were varied. The reproducibility of catheter position estimates in phantoms denoted by the standard deviations, (σ{sub x}, σ{sub y}, σ{sub z}) = (0.099 mm,  0.093 mm,  2.2 mm), where x and y are parallel to the detector plane and z is the distance from the x-ray source. Position estimates (x, y, z) exhibited a 4% systematic error (underestimation) when compared to the reference method. The authors demonstrated that EP catheters can be tracked in clinical fluoroscopic images. Conclusions: It has been shown that EP catheters can be localized in real time in phantoms and clinical images at fluoroscopic exposure rates. Further work is required to characterize

  18. 3D light scanning macrography.

    PubMed

    Huber, D; Keller, M; Robert, D

    2001-08-01

    The technique of 3D light scanning macrography permits the non-invasive surface scanning of small specimens at magnifications up to 200x. Obviating both the problem of limited depth of field inherent to conventional close-up macrophotography and the metallic coating required by scanning electron microscopy, 3D light scanning macrography provides three-dimensional digital images of intact specimens without the loss of colour, texture and transparency information. This newly developed technique offers a versatile, portable and cost-efficient method for the non-invasive digital and photographic documentation of small objects. Computer controlled device operation and digital image acquisition facilitate fast and accurate quantitative morphometric investigations, and the technique offers a broad field of research and educational applications in biological, medical and materials sciences. PMID:11489078

  19. 3-D Relativistic MHD Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikawa, K.-I.; Frank, J.; Koide, S.; Sakai, J.-I.; Christodoulou, D. M.; Sol, H.; Mutel, R. L.

    1998-12-01

    We present 3-D numerical simulations of moderately hot, supersonic jets propagating initially along or obliquely to the field lines of a denser magnetized background medium with Lorentz factors of W = 4.56 and evolving in a four-dimensional spacetime. The new results are understood as follows: Relativistic simulations have consistently shown that these jets are effectively heavy and so they do not suffer substantial momentum losses and are not decelerated as efficiently as their nonrelativistic counterparts. In addition, the ambient magnetic field, however strong, can be pushed aside with relative ease by the beam, provided that the degrees of freedom associated with all three spatial dimensions are followed self-consistently in the simulations. This effect is analogous to pushing Japanese ``noren'' or vertical Venetian blinds out of the way while the slats are allowed to bend in 3-D space rather than as a 2-D slab structure.

  20. Forensic 3D Scene Reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    LITTLE,CHARLES Q.; PETERS,RALPH R.; RIGDON,J. BRIAN; SMALL,DANIEL E.

    1999-10-12

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a feasible prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

  1. Forensic 3D scene reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, Charles Q.; Small, Daniel E.; Peters, Ralph R.; Rigdon, J. B.

    2000-05-01

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a fieldable prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

  2. 360-degree 3D profilometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yuanhe; Zhao, Hong; Chen, Wenyi; Tan, Yushan

    1997-12-01

    A new method of 360 degree turning 3D shape measurement in which light sectioning and phase shifting techniques are both used is presented in this paper. A sine light field is applied in the projected light stripe, meanwhile phase shifting technique is used to calculate phases of the light slit. Thereafter wrapped phase distribution of the slit is formed and the unwrapping process is made by means of the height information based on the light sectioning method. Therefore phase measuring results with better precision can be obtained. At last the target 3D shape data can be produced according to geometric relationships between phases and the object heights. The principles of this method are discussed in detail and experimental results are shown in this paper.

  3. Optoplasmonics: hybridization in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, L.; Gervinskas, G.; Žukauskas, A.; Malinauskas, M.; Brasselet, E.; Juodkazis, S.

    2013-12-01

    Femtosecond laser fabrication has been used to make hybrid refractive and di ractive micro-optical elements in photo-polymer SZ2080. For applications in micro- uidics, axicon lenses were fabricated (both single and arrays), for generation of light intensity patterns extending through the entire depth of a typically tens-of-micrometers deep channel. Further hybridisation of an axicon with a plasmonic slot is fabricated and demonstrated nu- merically. Spiralling chiral grooves were inscribed into a 100-nm-thick gold coating sputtered over polymerized micro-axicon lenses, using a focused ion beam. This demonstrates possibility of hybridisation between optical and plasmonic 3D micro-optical elements. Numerical modelling of optical performance by 3D-FDTD method is presented.

  4. 3D Printed Robotic Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pizarro, Yaritzmar Rosario; Schuler, Jason M.; Lippitt, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Dexterous robotic hands are changing the way robots and humans interact and use common tools. Unfortunately, the complexity of the joints and actuations drive up the manufacturing cost. Some cutting edge and commercially available rapid prototyping machines now have the ability to print multiple materials and even combine these materials in the same job. A 3D model of a robotic hand was designed using Creo Parametric 2.0. Combining "hard" and "soft" materials, the model was printed on the Object Connex350 3D printer with the purpose of resembling as much as possible the human appearance and mobility of a real hand while needing no assembly. After printing the prototype, strings where installed as actuators to test mobility. Based on printing materials, the manufacturing cost of the hand was $167, significantly lower than other robotic hands without the actuators since they have more complex assembly processes.

  5. 3D-graphite structure

    SciTech Connect

    Belenkov, E. A. Ali-Pasha, V. A.

    2011-01-15

    The structure of clusters of some new carbon 3D-graphite phases have been calculated using the molecular-mechanics methods. It is established that 3D-graphite polytypes {alpha}{sub 1,1}, {alpha}{sub 1,3}, {alpha}{sub 1,5}, {alpha}{sub 2,1}, {alpha}{sub 2,3}, {alpha}{sub 3,1}, {beta}{sub 1,2}, {beta}{sub 1,4}, {beta}{sub 1,6}, {beta}{sub 2,1}, and {beta}{sub 3,2} consist of sp{sup 2}-hybridized atoms, have hexagonal unit cells, and differ in regards to the structure of layers and order of their alternation. A possible way to experimentally synthesize new carbon phases is proposed: the polymerization and carbonization of hydrocarbon molecules.

  6. 3D Printable Graphene Composite.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong

    2015-01-01

    In human being's history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today's personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite's linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C(-1) from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process. PMID:26153673

  7. Experimental investigation of a general real-time 3D target localization method using sequential kV imaging combined with respiratory monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Byungchul; Poulsen, Per; Ruan, Dan; Sawant, Amit; Keall, Paul J.

    2012-11-01

    The goal of this work was to experimentally quantify the geometric accuracy of a novel real-time 3D target localization method using sequential kV imaging combined with respiratory monitoring for clinically realistic arc and static field treatment delivery and target motion conditions. A general method for real-time target localization using kV imaging and respiratory monitoring was developed. Each dimension of internal target motion T(x, y, z; t) was estimated from the external respiratory signal R(t) through the correlation between R(ti) and the projected marker positions p(xp, yp; ti) on kV images by a state-augmented linear model: T(x, y, z; t) = aR(t) + bR(t - τ) + c. The model parameters, a, b, c, were determined by minimizing the squared fitting error ∑‖p(xp, yp; ti) - P(θi) · (aR(ti) + bR(ti - τ) + c)‖2 with the projection operator P(θi). The model parameters were first initialized based on acquired kV arc images prior to MV beam delivery. This method was implemented on a trilogy linear accelerator consisting of an OBI x-ray imager (operating at 1 Hz) and real-time position monitoring (RPM) system (30 Hz). Arc and static field plans were delivered to a moving phantom programmed with measured lung tumour motion from ten patients. During delivery, the localization method determined the target position and the beam was adjusted in real time via dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC) adaptation. The beam-target alignment error was quantified by segmenting the beam aperture and a phantom-embedded fiducial marker on MV images and analysing their relative position. With the localization method, the root-mean-squared errors of the ten lung tumour traces ranged from 0.7-1.3 mm and 0.8-1.4 mm during the single arc and five-field static beam delivery, respectively. Without the localization method, these errors ranged from 3.1-7.3 mm. In summary, a general method for real-time target localization using kV imaging and respiratory monitoring has been

  8. [Real time 3D echocardiography].

    PubMed

    Bauer, F; Shiota, T; Thomas, J D

    2001-07-01

    Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients. PMID:11494630

  9. [Real time 3D echocardiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, F.; Shiota, T.; Thomas, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients.

  10. GPU-Accelerated Denoising in 3D (GD3D)

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2013-10-01

    The raw computational power GPU Accelerators enables fast denoising of 3D MR images using bilateral filtering, anisotropic diffusion, and non-local means. This software addresses two facets of this promising application: what tuning is necessary to achieve optimal performance on a modern GPU? And what parameters yield the best denoising results in practice? To answer the first question, the software performs an autotuning step to empirically determine optimal memory blocking on the GPU. To answer themore » second, it performs a sweep of algorithm parameters to determine the combination that best reduces the mean squared error relative to a noiseless reference image.« less

  11. Magmatic Systems in 3-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, G. M.; Harding, A. J.; Babcock, J. M.; Orcutt, J. A.; Bazin, S.; Singh, S.; Detrick, R. S.; Canales, J. P.; Carbotte, S. M.; Diebold, J.

    2002-12-01

    Multichannel seismic (MCS) images of crustal magma chambers are ideal targets for advanced visualization techniques. In the mid-ocean ridge environment, reflections originating at the melt-lens are well separated from other reflection boundaries, such as the seafloor, layer 2A and Moho, which enables the effective use of transparency filters. 3-D visualization of seismic reflectivity falls into two broad categories: volume and surface rendering. Volumetric-based visualization is an extremely powerful approach for the rapid exploration of very dense 3-D datasets. These 3-D datasets are divided into volume elements or voxels, which are individually color coded depending on the assigned datum value; the user can define an opacity filter to reject plotting certain voxels. This transparency allows the user to peer into the data volume, enabling an easy identification of patterns or relationships that might have geologic merit. Multiple image volumes can be co-registered to look at correlations between two different data types (e.g., amplitude variation with offsets studies), in a manner analogous to draping attributes onto a surface. In contrast, surface visualization of seismic reflectivity usually involves producing "fence" diagrams of 2-D seismic profiles that are complemented with seafloor topography, along with point class data, draped lines and vectors (e.g. fault scarps, earthquake locations and plate-motions). The overlying seafloor can be made partially transparent or see-through, enabling 3-D correlations between seafloor structure and seismic reflectivity. Exploration of 3-D datasets requires additional thought when constructing and manipulating these complex objects. As numbers of visual objects grow in a particular scene, there is a tendency to mask overlapping objects; this clutter can be managed through the effective use of total or partial transparency (i.e., alpha-channel). In this way, the co-variation between different datasets can be investigated

  12. 3D Finite Element Trajectory Code with Adaptive Meshing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ives, Lawrence; Bui, Thuc; Vogler, William; Bauer, Andy; Shephard, Mark; Beal, Mark; Tran, Hien

    2004-11-01

    Beam Optics Analysis, a new, 3D charged particle program is available and in use for the design of complex, 3D electron guns and charged particle devices. The code reads files directly from most CAD and solid modeling programs, includes an intuitive Graphical User Interface (GUI), and a robust mesh generator that is fully automatic. Complex problems can be set up, and analysis initiated in minutes. The program includes a user-friendly post processor for displaying field and trajectory data using 3D plots and images. The electrostatic solver is based on the standard nodal finite element method. The magnetostatic field solver is based on the vector finite element method and is also called during the trajectory simulation process to solve for self magnetic fields. The user imports the geometry from essentially any commercial CAD program and uses the GUI to assign parameters (voltages, currents, dielectric constant) and designate emitters (including work function, emitter temperature, and number of trajectories). The the mesh is generated automatically and analysis is performed, including mesh adaptation to improve accuracy and optimize computational resources. This presentation will provide information on the basic structure of the code, its operation, and it's capabilities.

  13. Interactive 3D Mars Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    The Interactive 3D Mars Visualization system provides high-performance, immersive visualization of satellite and surface vehicle imagery of Mars. The software can be used in mission operations to provide the most accurate position information for the Mars rovers to date. When integrated into the mission data pipeline, this system allows mission planners to view the location of the rover on Mars to 0.01-meter accuracy with respect to satellite imagery, with dynamic updates to incorporate the latest position information. Given this information so early in the planning process, rover drivers are able to plan more accurate drive activities for the rover than ever before, increasing the execution of science activities significantly. Scientifically, this 3D mapping information puts all of the science analyses to date into geologic context on a daily basis instead of weeks or months, as was the norm prior to this contribution. This allows the science planners to judge the efficacy of their previously executed science observations much more efficiently, and achieve greater science return as a result. The Interactive 3D Mars surface view is a Mars terrain browsing software interface that encompasses the entire region of exploration for a Mars surface exploration mission. The view is interactive, allowing the user to pan in any direction by clicking and dragging, or to zoom in or out by scrolling the mouse or touchpad. This set currently includes tools for selecting a point of interest, and a ruler tool for displaying the distance between and positions of two points of interest. The mapping information can be harvested and shared through ubiquitous online mapping tools like Google Mars, NASA WorldWind, and Worldwide Telescope.

  14. An iterative KP1 method for solving the transport equation in 3D domains on unstructured grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokonkov, N. I.; Nikolaeva, O. V.

    2015-10-01

    A two-step iterative KP1 method for solving systems of grid equations that approximate the integro-differential transport equation in 3D domains on unstructured grids using nodal SN methods is described. Results of testing the efficiency of the proposed method in solving benchmark problems of reactor protection on tetrahedral grids are presented.

  15. What Lies Ahead (3-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D cylindrical-perspective mosaic taken by the navigation camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit on sol 82 shows the view south of the large crater dubbed 'Bonneville.' The rover will travel toward the Columbia Hills, seen here at the upper left. The rock dubbed 'Mazatzal' and the hole the rover drilled in to it can be seen at the lower left. The rover's position is referred to as 'Site 22, Position 32.' This image was geometrically corrected to make the horizon appear flat.

  16. A Clean Adirondack (3-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This is a 3-D anaglyph showing a microscopic image taken of an area measuring 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across on the rock called Adirondack. The image was taken at Gusev Crater on the 33rd day of the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's journey (Feb. 5, 2004), after the rover used its rock abrasion tool brush to clean the surface of the rock. Dust, which was pushed off to the side during cleaning, can still be seen to the left and in low areas of the rock.

  17. Vacant Lander in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D image captured by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's rear hazard-identification camera shows the now-empty lander that carried the rover 283 million miles to Meridiani Planum, Mars. Engineers received confirmation that Opportunity's six wheels successfully rolled off the lander and onto martian soil at 3:01 a.m. PST, January 31, 2004, on the seventh martian day, or sol, of the mission. The rover is approximately 1 meter (3 feet) in front of the lander, facing north.

  18. Making Inexpensive 3-D Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manos, Harry

    2016-03-01

    Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the TPT theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity well tailored to specific class lessons. Most of the supplies are readily available in the home or at school: rubbing alcohol, a rag, two colors of spray paint, art brushes, and masking tape. The cost of these supplies, if you don't have them, is less than 20.

  19. A New Stabilized Nodal Integration Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Puso, M; Zywicz, E; Chen, J S

    2006-02-08

    A new stabilized nodal integration scheme is proposed and implemented. In this work, focus is on the natural neighbor meshless interpolation schemes. The approach is a modification of the stabilized conforming nodal integration (SCNI) scheme and is shown to perform well in several benchmark problems.

  20. Shell Element Verification & Regression Problems for DYNA3D

    SciTech Connect

    Zywicz, E

    2008-02-01

    A series of quasi-static regression/verification problems were developed for the triangular and quadrilateral shell element formulations contained in Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's explicit finite element program DYNA3D. Each regression problem imposes both displacement- and force-type boundary conditions to probe the five independent nodal degrees of freedom employed in the targeted formulation. When applicable, the finite element results are compared with small-strain linear-elastic closed-form reference solutions to verify select aspects of the formulations implementation. Although all problems in the suite depict the same geometry, material behavior, and loading conditions, each problem represents a unique combination of shell formulation, stabilization method, and integration rule. Collectively, the thirty-six new regression problems in the test suite cover nine different shell formulations, three hourglass stabilization methods, and three families of through-thickness integration rules.

  1. Heterogeneous treatment in the variational nodal method

    SciTech Connect

    Fanning, T.H.; Palmiotti, G.

    1995-06-01

    The variational nodal transport method is reduced to its diffusion form and generalized for the treatment of heterogeneous nodes while maintaining nodal balances. Adapting variational methods to heterogeneous nodes requires the ability to integrate over a node with discontinuous cross sections. In this work, integrals are evaluated using composite gaussian quadrature rules, which permit accurate integration while minimizing computing time. Allowing structure within a nodal solution scheme avoids some of the necessity of cross section homogenization, and more accurately defines the intra-nodal flux shape. Ideally, any desired heterogeneity can be constructed within the node; but in reality, the finite set of basis functions limits the practical resolution to which fine detail can be defined within the node. Preliminary comparison tests show that the heterogeneous variational nodal method provides satisfactory results even if some improvements are needed for very difficult, configurations.

  2. Positional Awareness Map 3D (PAM3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Monica; Allen, Earl L.; Yount, John W.; Norcross, April Louise

    2012-01-01

    The Western Aeronautical Test Range of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Dryden Flight Research Center needed to address the aging software and hardware of its current situational awareness display application, the Global Real-Time Interactive Map (GRIM). GRIM was initially developed in the late 1980s and executes on older PC architectures using a Linux operating system that is no longer supported. Additionally, the software is difficult to maintain due to its complexity and loss of developer knowledge. It was decided that a replacement application must be developed or acquired in the near future. The replacement must provide the functionality of the original system, the ability to monitor test flight vehicles in real-time, and add improvements such as high resolution imagery and true 3-dimensional capability. This paper will discuss the process of determining the best approach to replace GRIM, and the functionality and capabilities of the first release of the Positional Awareness Map 3D.

  3. Feasibility of low-dose single-view 3D fiducial tracking concurrent with external beam delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Speidel, Michael A.; Wilfley, Brian P.; Hsu, Annie; Hristov, Dimitre

    2012-04-15

    Purpose: In external-beam radiation therapy, existing on-board x-ray imaging chains orthogonal to the delivery beam cannot recover 3D target trajectories from a single view in real-time. This limits their utility for real-time motion management concurrent with beam delivery. To address this limitation, the authors propose a novel concept for on-board imaging based on the inverse-geometry Scanning-Beam Digital X-ray (SBDX) system and evaluate its feasibility for single-view 3D intradelivery fiducial tracking. Methods: A chest phantom comprising a posterior wall, a central lung volume, and an anterior wall was constructed. Two fiducials were placed along the mediastinal ridge between the lung cavities: a 1.5 mm diameter steel sphere superiorly and a gold cylinder (2.6 mm length x 0.9 mm diameter) inferiorly. The phantom was placed on a linear motion stage that moved sinusoidally. Fiducial motion was along the source-detector (z) axis of the SBDX system with {+-}10 mm amplitude and a programmed period of either 3.5 s or 5 s. The SBDX system was operated at 15 frames per second, 100 kVp, providing good apparent conspicuity of the fiducials. With the stage moving, detector data were acquired and subsequently reconstructed into 15 planes with a 12 mm plane-to-plane spacing using digital tomosynthesis. A tracking algorithm was applied to the image planes for each temporal frame to determine the position of each fiducial in (x,y,z)-space versus time. A 3D time-sinusoidal motion model was fit to the measured 3D coordinates and root mean square (RMS) deviations about the fitted trajectory were calculated. Results: Tracked motion was sinusoidal and primarily along the source-detector (z) axis. The RMS deviation of the tracked z-coordinate ranged from 0.53 to 0.71 mm. The motion amplitude derived from the model fit agreed with the programmed amplitude to within 0.28 mm for the steel sphere and within -0.77 mm for the gold seed. The model fit periods agreed with the programmed

  4. 3D Printable Graphene Composite

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong

    2015-01-01

    In human being’s history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today’s personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite’s linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C−1 from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process. PMID:26153673

  5. 3-D Relativistic MHD Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikaw, K.-I.; Frank, J.; Christodoulou, D. M.; Koide, S.; Sakai, J.-I.; Sol, H.; Mutel, R. L.

    1998-12-01

    We present 3-D numerical simulations of moderately hot, supersonic jets propagating initially along or obliquely to the field lines of a denser magnetized background medium with Lorentz factors of W=4.56 and evolving in a four-dimensional spacetime. The new results are understood as follows: Relativistic simulations have consistently shown that these jets are effectively heavy and so they do not suffer substantial momentum losses and are not decelerated as efficiently as their nonrelativistic counterparts. In addition, the ambient magnetic field, however strong, can be pushed aside with relative ease by the beam, provided that the degrees of freedom associated with all three spatial dimensions are followed self-consistently in the simulations. This effect is analogous to pushing Japanese ``noren'' or vertical Venetian blinds out of the way while the slats are allowed to bend in 3-D space rather than as a 2-D slab structure. We also simulate jets with the more realistic initial conditions for injecting jets for helical mangetic field, perturbed density, velocity, and internal energy, which are supposed to be caused in the process of jet generation. Three possible explanations for the observed variability are (i) tidal disruption of a star falling into the black hole, (ii) instabilities in the relativistic accretion disk, and (iii) jet-related PRocesses. New results will be reported at the meeting.

  6. 3D Printable Graphene Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong

    2015-07-01

    In human being’s history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today’s personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite’s linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C-1 from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process.

  7. 3D acoustic atmospheric tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Kevin; Finn, Anthony

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents a method for tomographically reconstructing spatially varying 3D atmospheric temperature profiles and wind velocity fields based. Measurements of the acoustic signature measured onboard a small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) are compared to ground-based observations of the same signals. The frequency-shifted signal variations are then used to estimate the acoustic propagation delay between the UAV and the ground microphones, which are also affected by atmospheric temperature and wind speed vectors along each sound ray path. The wind and temperature profiles are modelled as the weighted sum of Radial Basis Functions (RBFs), which also allow local meteorological measurements made at the UAV and ground receivers to supplement any acoustic observations. Tomography is used to provide a full 3D reconstruction/visualisation of the observed atmosphere. The technique offers observational mobility under direct user control and the capacity to monitor hazardous atmospheric environments, otherwise not justifiable on the basis of cost or risk. This paper summarises the tomographic technique and reports on the results of simulations and initial field trials. The technique has practical applications for atmospheric research, sound propagation studies, boundary layer meteorology, air pollution measurements, analysis of wind shear, and wind farm surveys.

  8. 3D Printed Bionic Ears

    PubMed Central

    Mannoor, Manu S.; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A.; Soboyejo, Winston O.; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H.; McAlpine, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the precise anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097

  9. 3D Ion Temperature Reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanabe, Hiroshi; You, Setthivoine; Balandin, Alexander; Inomoto, Michiaki; Ono, Yasushi

    2009-11-01

    The TS-4 experiment at the University of Tokyo collides two spheromaks to form a single high-beta compact toroid. Magnetic reconnection during the merging process heats and accelerates the plasma in toroidal and poloidal directions. The reconnection region has a complex 3D topology determined by the pitch of the spheromak magnetic fields at the merging plane. A pair of multichord passive spectroscopic diagnostics have been established to measure the ion temperature and velocity in the reconnection volume. One setup measures spectral lines across a poloidal plane, retrieving velocity and temperature from Abel inversion. The other, novel setup records spectral lines across another section of the plasma and reconstructs velocity and temperature from 3D vector and 2D scalar tomography techniques. The magnetic field linking both measurement planes is determined from in situ magnetic probe arrays. The ion temperature is then estimated within the volume between the two measurement planes and at the reconnection region. The measurement is followed over several repeatable discharges to follow the heating and acceleration process during the merging reconnection.

  10. 3D medical thermography device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghadam, Peyman

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, a novel handheld 3D medical thermography system is introduced. The proposed system consists of a thermal-infrared camera, a color camera and a depth camera rigidly attached in close proximity and mounted on an ergonomic handle. As a practitioner holding the device smoothly moves it around the human body parts, the proposed system generates and builds up a precise 3D thermogram model by incorporating information from each new measurement in real-time. The data is acquired in motion, thus it provides multiple points of view. When processed, these multiple points of view are adaptively combined by taking into account the reliability of each individual measurement which can vary due to a variety of factors such as angle of incidence, distance between the device and the subject and environmental sensor data or other factors influencing a confidence of the thermal-infrared data when captured. Finally, several case studies are presented to support the usability and performance of the proposed system.

  11. 3D printed bionic ears.

    PubMed

    Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C

    2013-06-12

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097

  12. LOTT RANCH 3D PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Lawrence; Bruce Miller

    2004-09-01

    The Lott Ranch 3D seismic prospect located in Garza County, Texas is a project initiated in September of 1991 by the J.M. Huber Corp., a petroleum exploration and production company. By today's standards the 126 square mile project does not seem monumental, however at the time it was conceived it was the most intensive land 3D project ever attempted. Acquisition began in September of 1991 utilizing GEO-SEISMIC, INC., a seismic data contractor. The field parameters were selected by J.M. Huber, and were of a radical design. The recording instruments used were GeoCor IV amplifiers designed by Geosystems Inc., which record the data in signed bit format. It would not have been practical, if not impossible, to have processed the entire raw volume with the tools available at that time. The end result was a dataset that was thought to have little utility due to difficulties in processing the field data. In 1997, Yates Energy Corp. located in Roswell, New Mexico, formed a partnership to further develop the project. Through discussions and meetings with Pinnacle Seismic, it was determined that the original Lott Ranch 3D volume could be vastly improved upon reprocessing. Pinnacle Seismic had shown the viability of improving field-summed signed bit data on smaller 2D and 3D projects. Yates contracted Pinnacle Seismic Ltd. to perform the reprocessing. This project was initiated with high resolution being a priority. Much of the potential resolution was lost through the initial summing of the field data. Modern computers that are now being utilized have tremendous speed and storage capacities that were cost prohibitive when this data was initially processed. Software updates and capabilities offer a variety of quality control and statics resolution, which are pertinent to the Lott Ranch project. The reprocessing effort was very successful. The resulting processed data-set was then interpreted using modern PC-based interpretation and mapping software. Production data, log data

  13. 3D Printing of Graphene Aerogels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Feng; Medarametla, Sai Pradeep; Li, Hui; Zhou, Chi; Lin, Dong

    2016-04-01

    3D printing of a graphene aerogel with true 3D overhang structures is highlighted. The aerogel is fabricated by combining drop-on-demand 3D printing and freeze casting. The water-based GO ink is ejected and freeze-cast into designed 3D structures. The lightweight (<10 mg cm(-3) ) 3D printed graphene aerogel presents superelastic and high electrical conduction. PMID:26861680

  14. ShowMe3D

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, Michael B

    2012-01-05

    ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from the displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.

  15. 3D Elastic Wavefield Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guasch, L.; Warner, M.; Stekl, I.; Umpleby, A.; Shah, N.

    2010-12-01

    Wavefield tomography, or waveform inversion, aims to extract the maximum information from seismic data by matching trace by trace the response of the solid earth to seismic waves using numerical modelling tools. Its first formulation dates from the early 80's, when Albert Tarantola developed a solid theoretical basis that is still used today with little change. Due to computational limitations, the application of the method to 3D problems has been unaffordable until a few years ago, and then only under the acoustic approximation. Although acoustic wavefield tomography is widely used, a complete solution of the seismic inversion problem requires that we account properly for the physics of wave propagation, and so must include elastic effects. We have developed a 3D tomographic wavefield inversion code that incorporates the full elastic wave equation. The bottle neck of the different implementations is the forward modelling algorithm that generates the synthetic data to be compared with the field seismograms as well as the backpropagation of the residuals needed to form the direction update of the model parameters. Furthermore, one or two extra modelling runs are needed in order to calculate the step-length. Our approach uses a FD scheme explicit time-stepping by finite differences that are 4th order in space and 2nd order in time, which is a 3D version of the one developed by Jean Virieux in 1986. We chose the time domain because an explicit time scheme is much less demanding in terms of memory than its frequency domain analogue, although the discussion of wich domain is more efficient still remains open. We calculate the parameter gradients for Vp and Vs by correlating the normal and shear stress wavefields respectively. A straightforward application would lead to the storage of the wavefield at all grid points at each time-step. We tackled this problem using two different approaches. The first one makes better use of resources for small models of dimension equal

  16. ShowMe3D

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2012-01-05

    ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from themore » displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.« less

  17. Supernova Remnant in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    wavelengths. Since the amount of the wavelength shift is related to the speed of motion, one can determine how fast the debris are moving in either direction. Because Cas A is the result of an explosion, the stellar debris is expanding radially outwards from the explosion center. Using simple geometry, the scientists were able to construct a 3-D model using all of this information. A program called 3-D Slicer modified for astronomical use by the Astronomical Medicine Project at Harvard University in Cambridge, Mass. was used to display and manipulate the 3-D model. Commercial software was then used to create the 3-D fly-through.

    The blue filaments defining the blast wave were not mapped using the Doppler effect because they emit a different kind of light synchrotron radiation that does not emit light at discrete wavelengths, but rather in a broad continuum. The blue filaments are only a representation of the actual filaments observed at the blast wave.

    This visualization shows that there are two main components to this supernova remnant: a spherical component in the outer parts of the remnant and a flattened (disk-like) component in the inner region. The spherical component consists of the outer layer of the star that exploded, probably made of helium and carbon. These layers drove a spherical blast wave into the diffuse gas surrounding the star. The flattened component that astronomers were unable to map into 3-D prior to these Spitzer observations consists of the inner layers of the star. It is made from various heavier elements, not all shown in the visualization, such as oxygen, neon, silicon, sulphur, argon and iron.

    High-velocity plumes, or jets, of this material are shooting out from the explosion in the plane of the disk-like component mentioned above. Plumes of silicon appear in the northeast and southwest, while those of iron are seen in the southeast and north. These jets were already known and Doppler velocity measurements have been made for these

  18. Supernova Remnant in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    wavelengths. Since the amount of the wavelength shift is related to the speed of motion, one can determine how fast the debris are moving in either direction. Because Cas A is the result of an explosion, the stellar debris is expanding radially outwards from the explosion center. Using simple geometry, the scientists were able to construct a 3-D model using all of this information. A program called 3-D Slicer modified for astronomical use by the Astronomical Medicine Project at Harvard University in Cambridge, Mass. was used to display and manipulate the 3-D model. Commercial software was then used to create the 3-D fly-through.

    The blue filaments defining the blast wave were not mapped using the Doppler effect because they emit a different kind of light synchrotron radiation that does not emit light at discrete wavelengths, but rather in a broad continuum. The blue filaments are only a representation of the actual filaments observed at the blast wave.

    This visualization shows that there are two main components to this supernova remnant: a spherical component in the outer parts of the remnant and a flattened (disk-like) component in the inner region. The spherical component consists of the outer layer of the star that exploded, probably made of helium and carbon. These layers drove a spherical blast wave into the diffuse gas surrounding the star. The flattened component that astronomers were unable to map into 3-D prior to these Spitzer observations consists of the inner layers of the star. It is made from various heavier elements, not all shown in the visualization, such as oxygen, neon, silicon, sulphur, argon and iron.

    High-velocity plumes, or jets, of this material are shooting out from the explosion in the plane of the disk-like component mentioned above. Plumes of silicon appear in the northeast and southwest, while those of iron are seen in the southeast and north. These jets were already known and Doppler velocity measurements have been made for these

  19. Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiation Therapy for Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Is Elective Nodal Irradiation Necessary?

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Kuaile; Ma Jinbo; Liu Guang; Wu Kailiang; Shi Xuehui; Jiang Guoliang

    2010-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the local control, survival, and toxicity associated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the esophagus, to determine the appropriate target volumes, and to determine whether elective nodal irradiation is necessary in these patients. Methods and Materials: A prospective study of 3D-CRT was undertaken in patients with esophageal SCC without distant metastases. Patients received 68.4 Gy in 41 fractions over 44 days using late-course accelerated hyperfractionated 3D-CRT. Only the primary tumor and positive lymph nodes were irradiated. Isolated out-of-field regional nodal recurrence was defined as a recurrence in an initially uninvolved regional lymph node. Results: All 53 patients who made up the study population tolerated the irradiation well. No acute or late Grade 4 or 5 toxicity was observed. The median survival time was 30 months (95% confidence interval, 17.7-41.8). The overall survival rate at 1, 2, and 3 years was 77%, 56%, and 41%, respectively. The local control rate at 1, 2, and 3 years was 83%, 74%, and 62%, respectively. Thirty-nine of the 53 patients (74%) showed treatment failure. Seventeen of the 39 (44%) developed an in-field recurrence, 18 (46%) distant metastasis with or without regional failure, and 3 (8%) an isolated out-of-field nodal recurrence only. One patient died of disease in an unknown location. Conclusions: In patients treated with 3D-CRT for esophageal SCC, the omission of elective nodal irradiation was not associated with a significant amount of failure in lymph node regions not included in the planning target volume. Local failure and distant metastases remained the predominant problems.

  20. 3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel

    2016-07-01

    Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K+ channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44+ EGFR+ KV1.1+ MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44- EGFR- KV1.1+ 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third, the developed

  1. NIF Ignition Target 3D Point Design

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, O; Marinak, M; Milovich, J; Callahan, D

    2008-11-05

    We have developed an input file for running 3D NIF hohlraums that is optimized such that it can be run in 1-2 days on parallel computers. We have incorporated increasing levels of automation into the 3D input file: (1) Configuration controlled input files; (2) Common file for 2D and 3D, different types of capsules (symcap, etc.); and (3) Can obtain target dimensions, laser pulse, and diagnostics settings automatically from NIF Campaign Management Tool. Using 3D Hydra calculations to investigate different problems: (1) Intrinsic 3D asymmetry; (2) Tolerance to nonideal 3D effects (e.g. laser power balance, pointing errors); and (3) Synthetic diagnostics.

  2. 3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel

    2016-07-21

    Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K(+) channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44(+) EGFR(+) KV1.1(+) MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44(-) EGFR(-) KV1.1(+) 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third

  3. A new 3D method for measuring cranio-facial relationships with cone beam computed tomography (CBCT)

    PubMed Central

    Cibrián, Rosa; Gandia, Jose L.; Paredes, Vanessa

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: CBCT systems, with their high precision 3D reconstructions, 1:1 images and accuracy in locating cephalometric landmarks, allows us to evaluate measurements from craniofacial structures, so enabling us to replace the anthropometric methods or bidimensional methods used until now. The aims are to analyse cranio-facial relationships in a sample of patients who had previously undergone a CBCT and create a new 3D cephalometric method for assessing and measuring patients. Study Design: 90 patients who had a CBCT (i-Cat®) as a diagnostic register were selected. 12 cephalometric landmarks on the three spatial planes (X,Y,Z) were defined and 21 linear measurements were established. Using these measurements, 7 triangles were described and analysed. With the sides of the triangles: (CdR-Me-CdL); (FzR-Me-FzL); (GoR-N-GoL); and the Gl-Me distance, the ratios between them were analysed. In addition, 4 triangles in the mandible were measured (body: GoR-DB-Me and GoL-DB-Me and ramus: KrR-CdR-GoR and KrL-CdL-GoL). Results: When analyzing the sides of the CdR-Me-CdL triangle, it was found that the 69.33% of the patients could be considered symmetric. Regarding the ratios between the sides of the following triangles: CdR-Me-CdL, FzR-Me-FzL, GoR-N-GoL and the Gl-Me distance, it was found that almost all ratios were close to 1:1 except between the CdR-CdL side with respect the rest of the sides. With regard to the ratios of the 4 triangles of the mandible, it was found that the most symmetrical relationships were those corresponding to the sides of the body of the mandible and the most asymmetrical ones were those corresponding to the base of such triangles. Conclusions: A new method for assessing cranio-facial relationshps using CBCT has been established. It could be used for diverse purposes including diagnosis and treatment planning. Key words:Craniofacial relationship, CBCT, 3D cephalometry. PMID:23524427

  4. Representation of protein 3D structures in spherical (ρ, ϕ, θ) coordinates and two of its potential applications.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Vicente M

    2011-09-01

    Three-dimensional objects can be represented using cartesian, spherical or cylindrical coordinate systems, among many others. Currently all protein 3D structures in the PDB are in cartesian coordinates. We wanted to explore the possibility that protein 3D structures, especially the globular type (spheroproteins), when represented in spherical coordinates might find useful novel applications. A Fortran program was written to transform protein 3D structure files in cartesian coordinates (x,y,z) to spherical coordinates (ρ, ϕ, θ), with the centroid of the protein molecule as origin. We present here two applications, namely, (1) separation of the protein outer layer (OL) from the inner core (IC); and (2) identifying protrusions and invaginations on the protein surface. In the first application, ϕ and θ were partitioned into suitable intervals and the point with maximum ρ in each such 'ϕ-θ bin' was determined. A suitable cutoff value for ρ is adopted, and for each ϕ-θ bin, all points with ρ values less than the cutoff are considered part of the IC, and those with ρ values equal to or greater than the cutoff are considered part of the OL. We show that this separation procedure is successful as it gives rise to an OL that is significantly more enriched in hydrophilic amino acid residues, and an IC that is significantly more enriched in hydrophobic amino acid residues, as expected. In the second application, the point with maximum ρ in each ϕ-θ bin are sequestered and their frequency distribution constructed (i.e., maximum ρ's sorted from lowest to highest, collected into 1.50Å-intervals, and the frequency in each interval plotted). We show in such plots that invaginations on the protein surface give rise to subpeaks or shoulders on the lagging side of the main peak, while protrusions give rise to similar subpeaks or shoulders, but on the leading side of the main peak. We used the dataset of Laskowski et al. (1996) to demonstrate both applications. PMID

  5. 3D ultrafast laser scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahjoubfar, A.; Goda, K.; Wang, C.; Fard, A.; Adam, J.; Gossett, D. R.; Ayazi, A.; Sollier, E.; Malik, O.; Chen, E.; Liu, Y.; Brown, R.; Sarkhosh, N.; Di Carlo, D.; Jalali, B.

    2013-03-01

    Laser scanners are essential for scientific research, manufacturing, defense, and medical practice. Unfortunately, often times the speed of conventional laser scanners (e.g., galvanometric mirrors and acousto-optic deflectors) falls short for many applications, resulting in motion blur and failure to capture fast transient information. Here, we present a novel type of laser scanner that offers roughly three orders of magnitude higher scan rates than conventional methods. Our laser scanner, which we refer to as the hybrid dispersion laser scanner, performs inertia-free laser scanning by dispersing a train of broadband pulses both temporally and spatially. More specifically, each broadband pulse is temporally processed by time stretch dispersive Fourier transform and further dispersed into space by one or more diffractive elements such as prisms and gratings. As a proof-of-principle demonstration, we perform 1D line scans at a record high scan rate of 91 MHz and 2D raster scans and 3D volumetric scans at an unprecedented scan rate of 105 kHz. The method holds promise for a broad range of scientific, industrial, and biomedical applications. To show the utility of our method, we demonstrate imaging, nanometer-resolved surface vibrometry, and high-precision flow cytometry with real-time throughput that conventional laser scanners cannot offer due to their low scan rates.

  6. Crowdsourcing Based 3d Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somogyi, A.; Barsi, A.; Molnar, B.; Lovas, T.

    2016-06-01

    Web-based photo albums that support organizing and viewing the users' images are widely used. These services provide a convenient solution for storing, editing and sharing images. In many cases, the users attach geotags to the images in order to enable using them e.g. in location based applications on social networks. Our paper discusses a procedure that collects open access images from a site frequently visited by tourists. Geotagged pictures showing the image of a sight or tourist attraction are selected and processed in photogrammetric processing software that produces the 3D model of the captured object. For the particular investigation we selected three attractions in Budapest. To assess the geometrical accuracy, we used laser scanner and DSLR as well as smart phone photography to derive reference values to enable verifying the spatial model obtained from the web-album images. The investigation shows how detailed and accurate models could be derived applying photogrammetric processing software, simply by using images of the community, without visiting the site.

  7. 3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel

    2016-07-01

    Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K+ channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44+ EGFR+ KV1.1+ MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44- EGFR- KV1.1+ 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third, the developed

  8. 3D Kitaev spin liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermanns, Maria

    The Kitaev honeycomb model has become one of the archetypal spin models exhibiting topological phases of matter, where the magnetic moments fractionalize into Majorana fermions interacting with a Z2 gauge field. In this talk, we discuss generalizations of this model to three-dimensional lattice structures. Our main focus is the metallic state that the emergent Majorana fermions form. In particular, we discuss the relation of the nature of this Majorana metal to the details of the underlying lattice structure. Besides (almost) conventional metals with a Majorana Fermi surface, one also finds various realizations of Dirac semi-metals, where the gapless modes form Fermi lines or even Weyl nodes. We introduce a general classification of these gapless quantum spin liquids using projective symmetry analysis. Furthermore, we briefly outline why these Majorana metals in 3D Kitaev systems provide an even richer variety of Dirac and Weyl phases than possible for electronic matter and comment on possible experimental signatures. Work done in collaboration with Kevin O'Brien and Simon Trebst.

  9. Yogi the rock - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Yogi, a rock taller than rover Sojourner, is the subject of this image, taken in stereo by the deployed Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. The soil in the foreground has been the location of multiple soil mechanics experiments performed by Sojourner's cleated wheels. Pathfinder scientists were able to control the force inflicted on the soil beneath the rover's wheels, giving them insight into the soil's mechanical properties. The soil mechanics experiments were conducted after this image was taken.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  10. Optical conductivity of nodal metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homes, C. C.; Gu, G. D.; Tu, J. J.; Li, J.; Akrap, A.

    2014-03-01

    Fermi liquid theory is remarkably successful in describing the transport and optical properties of metals; at frequencies higher than the scattering rate, the optical conductivity adopts the well-known power law behavior σ1(ω) ~ω-2 . We have observed an unusual non-Fermi liquid response σ1(ω) ~ω - 1 +/- 0 . 2 in the ground states of several quasi two-dimensional cuprate (optimally doped Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ, optimally and underdoped YBa2Cu3O7-δ) and iron-based materials (AFe2As2, A = Ba, Ca) which undergo electronic or magnetic phase transitions resulting in dramatically reduced or nodal Fermi surfaces. The identification of an inverse (or fractional) power-law behavior in the residual optical conductivity now permits the removal of this contribution, revealing the direct transitions across the gap and allowing the nature of the electron-boson coupling to be probed. The non-Fermi liquid behavior in these systems may be the result of a common Fermi surface topology of Dirac cone-like features in the electronic dispersion. Supported by the DOE under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886.

  11. Optical conductivity of nodal metals

    PubMed Central

    Homes, C. C.; Tu, J. J.; Li, J.; Gu, G. D.; Akrap, A.

    2013-01-01

    Fermi liquid theory is remarkably successful in describing the transport and optical properties of metals; at frequencies higher than the scattering rate, the optical conductivity adopts the well-known power law behavior σ1(ω) ∝ ω−2. We have observed an unusual non-Fermi liquid response σ1(ω) ∝ ω−1±0.2 in the ground states of several cuprate and iron-based materials which undergo electronic or magnetic phase transitions resulting in dramatically reduced or nodal Fermi surfaces. The identification of an inverse (or fractional) power-law behavior in the residual optical conductivity now permits the removal of this contribution, revealing the direct transitions across the gap and allowing the nature of the electron-boson coupling to be probed. The non-Fermi liquid behavior in these systems may be the result of a common Fermi surface topology of Dirac cone-like features in the electronic dispersion. PMID:24336241

  12. Heard on The Street: GIS-Guided Immersive 3D Models as an Augmented Reality for Team Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, B. B.

    2007-12-01

    ] (x,y,z meters). Visiting this model amounts to going inside a map, seeing oneself there, and seeing, gesturing with, and speaking to other visitors in the same space. The Second Life viewer client is free, and the model is hosted on a vast publicly accessible grid that as of 1 September 2007 is simulating 846 square kilometers and frequently has over 40,000 simultaneous users. For reference, this work uses less than 1/200,000 part of the total grid. For cost savings, GIS was used to construct the model at 1/3 scale so that some 35,000 square meters of Berkeley were modeled in less than 4000 square meters of simulator space. Our work in Second Life "Gualala" has shown that it is feasible to use real-life GIS data to guide the construction of a spatially accurate model that reflects the built surface and underground environment. Groups of visitors may position their proxy body, or avatars on the street corner and converse, greatly augmenting the experience of a conference call. Since each visitor controls their own camera position in real time, the model considerably augments a video conference call, and can permit individuals to manipulate 3D objects as part of a demonstration or discussion.

  13. Nodal network generator for CAVE3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmieri, J. V.; Rathjen, K. A.

    1982-01-01

    A new extension of CAVE3 code was developed that automates the creation of a finite difference math model in digital form ready for input to the CAVE3 code. The new software, Nodal Network Generator, is broken into two segments. One segment generates the model geometry using a Tektronix Tablet Digitizer and the other generates the actual finite difference model and allows for graphic verification using Tektronix 4014 Graphic Scope. Use of the Nodal Network Generator is described.

  14. 3-D Cavern Enlargement Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    EHGARTNER, BRIAN L.; SOBOLIK, STEVEN R.

    2002-03-01

    Three-dimensional finite element analyses simulate the mechanical response of enlarging existing caverns at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). The caverns are located in Gulf Coast salt domes and are enlarged by leaching during oil drawdowns as fresh water is injected to displace the crude oil from the caverns. The current criteria adopted by the SPR limits cavern usage to 5 drawdowns (leaches). As a base case, 5 leaches were modeled over a 25 year period to roughly double the volume of a 19 cavern field. Thirteen additional leaches where then simulated until caverns approached coalescence. The cavern field approximated the geometries and geologic properties found at the West Hackberry site. This enabled comparisons are data collected over nearly 20 years to analysis predictions. The analyses closely predicted the measured surface subsidence and cavern closure rates as inferred from historic well head pressures. This provided the necessary assurance that the model displacements, strains, and stresses are accurate. However, the cavern field has not yet experienced the large scale drawdowns being simulated. Should they occur in the future, code predictions should be validated with actual field behavior at that time. The simulations were performed using JAS3D, a three dimensional finite element analysis code for nonlinear quasi-static solids. The results examine the impacts of leaching and cavern workovers, where internal cavern pressures are reduced, on surface subsidence, well integrity, and cavern stability. The results suggest that the current limit of 5 oil drawdowns may be extended with some mitigative action required on the wells and later on to surface structure due to subsidence strains. The predicted stress state in the salt shows damage to start occurring after 15 drawdowns with significant failure occurring at the 16th drawdown, well beyond the current limit of 5 drawdowns.

  15. Nodal signalling determines biradial asymmetry in Hydra.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Hiroshi; Schmidt, Heiko A; Kuhn, Anne; Höger, Stefanie K; Kocagöz, Yigit; Laumann-Lipp, Nico; Ozbek, Suat; Holstein, Thomas W

    2014-11-01

    In bilaterians, three orthogonal body axes define the animal form, with distinct anterior-posterior, dorsal-ventral and left-right asymmetries. The key signalling factors are Wnt family proteins for the anterior-posterior axis, Bmp family proteins for the dorsal-ventral axis and Nodal for the left-right axis. Cnidarians, the sister group to bilaterians, are characterized by one oral-aboral body axis, which exhibits a distinct biradiality of unknown molecular nature. Here we analysed the biradial growth pattern in the radially symmetrical cnidarian polyp Hydra, and we report evidence of Nodal in a pre-bilaterian clade. We identified a Nodal-related gene (Ndr) in Hydra magnipapillata, and this gene is essential for setting up an axial asymmetry along the main body axis. This asymmetry defines a lateral signalling centre, inducing a new body axis of a budding polyp orthogonal to the mother polyp's axis. Ndr is expressed exclusively in the lateral bud anlage and induces Pitx, which encodes an evolutionarily conserved transcription factor that functions downstream of Nodal. Reminiscent of its function in vertebrates, Nodal acts downstream of β-Catenin signalling. Our data support an evolutionary scenario in which a 'core-signalling cassette' consisting of β-Catenin, Nodal and Pitx pre-dated the cnidarian-bilaterian split. We presume that this cassette was co-opted for various modes of axial patterning: for example, for lateral branching in cnidarians and left-right patterning in bilaterians. PMID:25156256

  16. Imaging a Sustainable Future in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuhr, W.; Lee, J. D.; Kanngieser, E.

    2012-07-01

    It is the intention of this paper, to contribute to a sustainable future by providing objective object information based on 3D photography as well as promoting 3D photography not only for scientists, but also for amateurs. Due to the presentation of this article by CIPA Task Group 3 on "3D Photographs in Cultural Heritage", the presented samples are masterpieces of historic as well as of current 3D photography concentrating on cultural heritage. In addition to a report on exemplarily access to international archives of 3D photographs, samples for new 3D photographs taken with modern 3D cameras, as well as by means of a ground based high resolution XLITE staff camera and also 3D photographs taken from a captive balloon and the use of civil drone platforms are dealt with. To advise on optimum suited 3D methodology, as well as to catch new trends in 3D, an updated synoptic overview of the 3D visualization technology, even claiming completeness, has been carried out as a result of a systematic survey. In this respect, e.g., today's lasered crystals might be "early bird" products in 3D, which, due to lack in resolution, contrast and color, remember to the stage of the invention of photography.

  17. Teaching Geography with 3-D Visualization Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthamatten, Peter; Ziegler, Susy S.

    2006-01-01

    Technology that helps students view images in three dimensions (3-D) can support a broad range of learning styles. "Geo-Wall systems" are visualization tools that allow scientists, teachers, and students to project stereographic images and view them in 3-D. We developed and presented 3-D visualization exercises in several undergraduate courses.…

  18. 3D Printing and Its Urologic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Youssef; Feibus, Allison H; Baum, Neil

    2015-01-01

    3D printing is the development of 3D objects via an additive process in which successive layers of material are applied under computer control. This article discusses 3D printing, with an emphasis on its historical context and its potential use in the field of urology. PMID:26028997

  19. 3D Flow Visualization Using Texture Advection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, David; Zhang, Bing; Kim, Kwansik; Pang, Alex; Moran, Pat (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Texture advection is an effective tool for animating and investigating 2D flows. In this paper, we discuss how this technique can be extended to 3D flows. In particular, we examine the use of 3D and 4D textures on 3D synthetic and computational fluid dynamics flow fields.

  20. 3D Printing and Its Urologic Applications.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Youssef; Feibus, Allison H; Baum, Neil

    2015-01-01

    3D printing is the development of 3D objects via an additive process in which successive layers of material are applied under computer control. This article discusses 3D printing, with an emphasis on its historical context and its potential use in the field of urology. PMID:26028997

  1. 3D Elastic Seismic Wave Propagation Code

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1998-09-23

    E3D is capable of simulating seismic wave propagation in a 3D heterogeneous earth. Seismic waves are initiated by earthquake, explosive, and/or other sources. These waves propagate through a 3D geologic model, and are simulated as synthetic seismograms or other graphical output.

  2. 3-D Perspective Pasadena, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This perspective view shows the western part of the city of Pasadena, California, looking north towards the San Gabriel Mountains. Portions of the cities of Altadena and La Canada, Flintridge are also shown. The image was created from three datasets: the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) supplied the elevation data; Landsat data from November 11, 1986 provided the land surface color (not the sky) and U.S. Geological Survey digital aerial photography provides the image detail. The Rose Bowl, surrounded by a golf course, is the circular feature at the bottom center of the image. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory is the cluster of large buildings north of the Rose Bowl at the base of the mountains. A large landfill, Scholl Canyon, is the smooth area in the lower left corner of the scene. This image shows the power of combining data from different sources to create planning tools to study problems that affect large urban areas. In addition to the well-known earthquake hazards, Southern California is affected by a natural cycle of fire and mudflows. Wildfires strip the mountains of vegetation, increasing the hazards from flooding and mudflows for several years afterwards. Data such as shown on this image can be used to predict both how wildfires will spread over the terrain and also how mudflows will be channeled down the canyons. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission was designed to collect three dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency

  3. The Esri 3D city information model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitz, T.; Schubiger-Banz, S.

    2014-02-01

    With residential and commercial space becoming increasingly scarce, cities are going vertical. Managing the urban environments in 3D is an increasingly important and complex undertaking. To help solving this problem, Esri has released the ArcGIS for 3D Cities solution. The ArcGIS for 3D Cities solution provides the information model, tools and apps for creating, analyzing and maintaining a 3D city using the ArcGIS platform. This paper presents an overview of the 3D City Information Model and some sample use cases.

  4. Case study: Beauty and the Beast 3D: benefits of 3D viewing for 2D to 3D conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handy Turner, Tara

    2010-02-01

    From the earliest stages of the Beauty and the Beast 3D conversion project, the advantages of accurate desk-side 3D viewing was evident. While designing and testing the 2D to 3D conversion process, the engineering team at Walt Disney Animation Studios proposed a 3D viewing configuration that not only allowed artists to "compose" stereoscopic 3D but also improved efficiency by allowing artists to instantly detect which image features were essential to the stereoscopic appeal of a shot and which features had minimal or even negative impact. At a time when few commercial 3D monitors were available and few software packages provided 3D desk-side output, the team designed their own prototype devices and collaborated with vendors to create a "3D composing" workstation. This paper outlines the display technologies explored, final choices made for Beauty and the Beast 3D, wish-lists for future development and a few rules of thumb for composing compelling 2D to 3D conversions.

  5. 3D laptop for defense applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmondson, Richard; Chenault, David

    2012-06-01

    Polaris Sensor Technologies has developed numerous 3D display systems using a US Army patented approach. These displays have been developed as prototypes for handheld controllers for robotic systems and closed hatch driving, and as part of a TALON robot upgrade for 3D vision, providing depth perception for the operator for improved manipulation and hazard avoidance. In this paper we discuss the prototype rugged 3D laptop computer and its applications to defense missions. The prototype 3D laptop combines full temporal and spatial resolution display with the rugged Amrel laptop computer. The display is viewed through protective passive polarized eyewear, and allows combined 2D and 3D content. Uses include robot tele-operation with live 3D video or synthetically rendered scenery, mission planning and rehearsal, enhanced 3D data interpretation, and simulation.

  6. Joint 3D inversion of gravity and magnetic data with geological constraints - an alternative approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prutkin, Ilya; Vajda, Peter; Jentzsch, Gerhard

    2016-04-01

    Quite a popular approach now by interpretation of gravity data is a linear one - an attempt is made to find a density distribution d(x,y,z) below the Earth's surface. This approach has clear disadvantages. First, we face the problem of dimensionality: one looks for 3D function based on 2D data set (measurements on the Earth's surface), the degree of non-uniqueness is extremely high, and no regularization can save the situation. The number of unknowns is many times higher than the number of observations; otherwise, we obtain a very rough model of the lower half-space. Second, the linear approach is not reasonable from the geological point of view. It implies that density varies from one point to another. Usually, we assume big volumes with nearly homogeneous density - layers, blocks, intrusions. It looks more understandable, to search for geometry of density interfaces: 3D topography of contact surfaces and shapes of restricted bodies (intrusions). Third, in the framework of the linear approach even for a synthetic field of two separate objects we obtain clouds of points with slightly increased density. It is hardly ever possible, to isolate objects, particularly when one of them is located above another one. We suggest an alternative approach for the linear one. Our approach has been successfully applied for several case histories including a local gravity anomaly Kolarovo and a bigger area of the Thuringian Basin, where both gravity and magnetic data are inverted. First, we separate sources into deep, intermediate and shallow ones, using subsequent upward and downward continuation. All components are inverted separately. We address a problem which we name the problem of low frequencies: deep objects generate long wavelengths, but the converse implication is not necessarily true. For instance, the effect of the basin structure contributes substantially into low frequencies, though it is caused by shallow sources. However, our numerical experiments with intermediate

  7. Visualization and dissemination of 3D geological property models of the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stafleu, Jan; Sobisch, Hans-Georg; Maljers, Denise; Hummelman, Jan; Dambrink, Roula M.; Gunnink, Jan L.

    2013-04-01

    The Geological Survey of the Netherlands (GSN) systematically produces 3D geological models of the Netherlands. To date, we build and maintain two different types of nation-wide models: (1) layer-based models in which the subsurface is represented by a series of tops and bases of geological or hydrogeological units, and (2) voxel models in which the subsurface is subdivided in a regular grid of voxels that can contain different properties. Our models are disseminated free-of-charge through the DINO-portal (www.dinoloket.nl) in a number of ways, including in an on-line map viewer with the option to create vertical cross-sections through the models, and as a series of downloadable GIS products. A recent addition to the portal is the freely downloadable SubsurfaceViewer software (developed by INSIGHT GmbH), allowing users to download and visualize both the layer-based models and the voxel models on their desktop computers. The SubsurfaceViewer allows visualization and analysis of geological layer-based and voxel models of different data structures and origin and includes a selection of data used to construct the respective model (maps, cross-sections, borehole data, etc.). The user is presented both a classical map view and an interactive 3D view. In addition, the SubsurfaceViewer offers a one dimensional vertical view as a synthetic borehole as well as a vertical cross-section view. The data structure is based on XML and linked ASCII-files and allows the hybrid usage of layers (tin and 2D raster) and voxels (3D raster). A recent development in the SubsurfaceViewer is the introduction of a data structure supporting irregular voxels. We have chosen a simple data structure consisting of a plain ASCII-file containing the x,y,z -coordinates of the lower left and upper right corner of each voxel followed by a list of property values (e.g. the geological unit the voxel belongs to, the lithological composition and the hydraulic conductivity). Irregular voxels are used to

  8. Tomoregulin-1 (TMEFF1) inhibits nodal signaling through direct binding to the nodal coreceptor Cripto

    PubMed Central

    Harms, Paul W.; Chang, Chenbei

    2003-01-01

    Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signals regulate multiple processes during development and in adult. We recently showed that tomoregulin-1 (TMEFF1), a transmembrane protein, selectively inhibits nodal but not activin in early Xenopus embryos. Here we report that TMEFF1 binds to the nodal coreceptor Cripto, but does not associate with either nodal or the type I ALK (activin receptor-like kinase) 4 receptor in coimmunoprecipitation assays. The inhibition of the nodal signaling by TMEFF1 in Xenopus ectodermal explants is rescued with wild-type but not mutant forms of Cripto. Furthermore, we show that the Cripto-FRL1-Cryptic (CFC) domain in Cripto, which is essential for its binding to ALK4, is also important for its interaction with TMEFF1. Our results demonstrate for the first time that nodal signaling can be regulated by a novel mechanism of blocking the Cripto coreceptor. PMID:14563676

  9. Keeping a lid on nodal: transcriptional and translational repression of nodal signalling

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Elizabeth J.

    2016-01-01

    Nodal is an evolutionarily conserved member of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily of secreted signalling factors. Nodal factors are known to play key roles in embryonic development and asymmetry in a variety of organisms ranging from hydra and sea urchins to fish, mice and humans. In addition to embryonic patterning, Nodal signalling is required for maintenance of human embryonic stem cell pluripotency and mis-regulated Nodal signalling has been found associated with tumour metastases. Therefore, precise and timely regulation of this pathway is essential. Here, we discuss recent evidence from sea urchins, frogs, fish, mice and humans that show a role for transcriptional and translational repression of Nodal signalling during early development. PMID:26791244

  10. 3-D Technology Approaches for Biological Ecologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liyu; Austin, Robert; U. S-China Physical-Oncology Sciences Alliance (PS-OA) Team

    Constructing three dimensional (3-D) landscapes is an inevitable issue in deep study of biological ecologies, because in whatever scales in nature, all of the ecosystems are composed by complex 3-D environments and biological behaviors. Just imagine if a 3-D technology could help complex ecosystems be built easily and mimic in vivo microenvironment realistically with flexible environmental controls, it will be a fantastic and powerful thrust to assist researchers for explorations. For years, we have been utilizing and developing different technologies for constructing 3-D micro landscapes for biophysics studies in in vitro. Here, I will review our past efforts, including probing cancer cell invasiveness with 3-D silicon based Tepuis, constructing 3-D microenvironment for cell invasion and metastasis through polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) soft lithography, as well as explorations of optimized stenting positions for coronary bifurcation disease with 3-D wax printing and the latest home designed 3-D bio-printer. Although 3-D technologies is currently considered not mature enough for arbitrary 3-D micro-ecological models with easy design and fabrication, I hope through my talk, the audiences will be able to sense its significance and predictable breakthroughs in the near future. This work was supported by the State Key Development Program for Basic Research of China (Grant No. 2013CB837200), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11474345) and the Beijing Natural Science Foundation (Grant No. 7154221).

  11. RT3D tutorials for GMS users

    SciTech Connect

    Clement, T.P.; Jones, N.L.

    1998-02-01

    RT3D (Reactive Transport in 3-Dimensions) is a computer code that solves coupled partial differential equations that describe reactive-flow and transport of multiple mobile and/or immobile species in a three dimensional saturated porous media. RT3D was developed from the single-species transport code, MT3D (DoD-1.5, 1997 version). As with MT3D, RT3D also uses the USGS groundwater flow model MODFLOW for computing spatial and temporal variations in groundwater head distribution. This report presents a set of tutorial problems that are designed to illustrate how RT3D simulations can be performed within the Department of Defense Groundwater Modeling System (GMS). GMS serves as a pre- and post-processing interface for RT3D. GMS can be used to define all the input files needed by RT3D code, and later the code can be launched from within GMS and run as a separate application. Once the RT3D simulation is completed, the solution can be imported to GMS for graphical post-processing. RT3D v1.0 supports several reaction packages that can be used for simulating different types of reactive contaminants. Each of the tutorials, described below, provides training on a different RT3D reaction package. Each reaction package has different input requirements, and the tutorials are designed to describe these differences. Furthermore, the tutorials illustrate the various options available in GMS for graphical post-processing of RT3D results. Users are strongly encouraged to complete the tutorials before attempting to use RT3D and GMS on a routine basis.

  12. Nodal Quasiparticle in Pseudogapped Colossal Magnetoresistive Manganites

    SciTech Connect

    Mannella, N.

    2010-06-02

    A characteristic feature of the copper oxide high-temperature superconductors is the dichotomy between the electronic excitations along the nodal (diagonal) and antinodal (parallel to the Cu-O bonds) directions in momentum space, generally assumed to be linked to the d-wave symmetry of the superconducting state. Angle-resolved photoemission measurements in the superconducting state have revealed a quasiparticle spectrum with a d-wave gap structure that exhibits a maximum along the antinodal direction and vanishes along the nodal direction. Subsequent measurements have shown that, at low doping levels, this gap structure persists even in the high-temperature metallic state, although the nodal points of the superconducting state spread out in finite Fermi arcs. This is the so-called pseudogap phase, and it has been assumed that it is closely linked to the superconducting state, either by assigning it to fluctuating superconductivity or by invoking orders which are natural competitors of d-wave superconductors. Here we report experimental evidence that a very similar pseudogap state with a nodal-antinodal dichotomous character exists in a system that is markedly different from a superconductor: the ferromagnetic metallic groundstate of the colossal magnetoresistive bilayer manganite La{sub 1.2}Sr{sub 1.8}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 7}. Our findings therefore cast doubt on the assumption that the pseudogap state in the copper oxides and the nodal-antinodal dichotomy are hallmarks of the superconductivity state.

  13. 3D Dynamic Echocardiography with a Digitizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshiro, Osamu; Matani, Ayumu; Chihara, Kunihiro

    1998-05-01

    In this paper,a three-dimensional (3D) dynamic ultrasound (US) imaging system,where a US brightness-mode (B-mode) imagetriggered with an R-wave of electrocardiogram (ECG)was obtained with an ultrasound diagnostic deviceand the location and orientation of the US probewere simultaneously measured with a 3D digitizer, is described.The obtained B-mode imagewas then projected onto a virtual 3D spacewith the proposed interpolation algorithm using a Gaussian operator.Furthermore, a 3D image was presented on a cathode ray tube (CRT)and stored in virtual reality modeling language (VRML).We performed an experimentto reconstruct a 3D heart image in systole using this system.The experimental results indicatethat the system enables the visualization ofthe 3D and internal structure of a heart viewed from any angleand has potential for use in dynamic imaging,intraoperative ultrasonography and tele-medicine.

  14. 3D Scientific Visualization with Blender

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, Brian R.

    2015-03-01

    This is the first book written on using Blender for scientific visualization. It is a practical and interesting introduction to Blender for understanding key parts of 3D rendering and animation that pertain to the sciences via step-by-step guided tutorials. 3D Scientific Visualization with Blender takes you through an understanding of 3D graphics and modelling for different visualization scenarios in the physical sciences.

  15. Theory of nodal s ± -wave pairing symmetry in the Pu-based 115 superconductor family.

    PubMed

    Das, Tanmoy; Zhu, Jian-Xin; Graf, Matthias J

    2015-01-01

    The spin-fluctuation mechanism of superconductivity usually results in the presence of gapless or nodal quasiparticle states in the excitation spectrum. Nodal quasiparticle states are well established in copper-oxide, and heavy-fermion superconductors, but not in iron-based superconductors. Here, we study the pairing symmetry and mechanism of a new class of plutonium-based high-Tc superconductors and predict the presence of a nodal s(±) wave pairing symmetry in this family. Starting from a density-functional theory (DFT) based electronic structure calculation we predict several three-dimensional (3D) Fermi surfaces in this 115 superconductor family. We identify the dominant Fermi surface "hot-spots" in the inter-band scattering channel, which are aligned along the wavevector Q = (π, π, π), where degeneracy could induce sign-reversal of the pairing symmetry. Our calculation demonstrates that the s(±) wave pairing strength is stronger than the previously thought d-wave pairing; and more importantly, this pairing state allows for the existence of nodal quasiparticles. Finally, we predict the shape of the momentum- and energy-dependent magnetic resonance spectrum for the identification of this pairing symmetry. PMID:25721375

  16. Dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogden, Kent; Ordway, Nathaniel; Diallo, Dalanda; Tillapaugh-Fay, Gwen; Aslan, Can

    2014-03-01

    3D printer applications in the biomedical sciences and medical imaging are expanding and will have an increasing impact on the practice of medicine. Orthopedic and reconstructive surgery has been an obvious area for development of 3D printer applications as the segmentation of bony anatomy to generate printable models is relatively straightforward. There are important issues that should be addressed when using 3D printed models for applications that may affect patient care; in particular the dimensional accuracy of the printed parts needs to be high to avoid poor decisions being made prior to surgery or therapeutic procedures. In this work, the dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebral bodies derived from CT data for a cadaver spine is compared with direct measurements on the ex-vivo vertebra and with measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra using commercial 3D image processing software. The vertebra was printed on a consumer grade 3D printer using an additive print process using PLA (polylactic acid) filament. Measurements were made for 15 different anatomic features of the vertebral body, including vertebral body height, endplate width and depth, pedicle height and width, and spinal canal width and depth, among others. It is shown that for the segmentation and printing process used, the results of measurements made on the 3D printed vertebral body are substantially the same as those produced by direct measurement on the vertebra and measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra.

  17. Stereo 3-D Vision in Teaching Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabunov, Svetoslav

    2012-03-01

    Stereo 3-D vision is a technology used to present images on a flat surface (screen, paper, etc.) and at the same time to create the notion of three-dimensional spatial perception of the viewed scene. A great number of physical processes are much better understood when viewed in stereo 3-D vision compared to standard flat 2-D presentation. The current paper describes the modern stereo 3-D technologies that are applicable to various tasks in teaching physics in schools, colleges, and universities. Examples of stereo 3-D simulations developed by the author can be observed on online.

  18. Accuracy in Quantitative 3D Image Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bassel, George W.

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative 3D imaging is becoming an increasingly popular and powerful approach to investigate plant growth and development. With the increased use of 3D image analysis, standards to ensure the accuracy and reproducibility of these data are required. This commentary highlights how image acquisition and postprocessing can introduce artifacts into 3D image data and proposes steps to increase both the accuracy and reproducibility of these analyses. It is intended to aid researchers entering the field of 3D image processing of plant cells and tissues and to help general readers in understanding and evaluating such data. PMID:25804539

  19. Software for 3D radiotherapy dosimetry. Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozicki, Marek; Maras, Piotr; Karwowski, Andrzej C.

    2014-08-01

    The subject of this work is polyGeVero® software (GeVero Co., Poland), which has been developed to fill the requirements of fast calculations of 3D dosimetry data with the emphasis on polymer gel dosimetry for radiotherapy. This software comprises four workspaces that have been prepared for: (i) calculating calibration curves and calibration equations, (ii) storing the calibration characteristics of the 3D dosimeters, (iii) calculating 3D dose distributions in irradiated 3D dosimeters, and (iv) comparing 3D dose distributions obtained from measurements with the aid of 3D dosimeters and calculated with the aid of treatment planning systems (TPSs). The main features and functions of the software are described in this work. Moreover, the core algorithms were validated and the results are presented. The validation was performed using the data of the new PABIGnx polymer gel dosimeter. The polyGeVero® software simplifies and greatly accelerates the calculations of raw 3D dosimetry data. It is an effective tool for fast verification of TPS-generated plans for tumor irradiation when combined with a 3D dosimeter. Consequently, the software may facilitate calculations by the 3D dosimetry community. In this work, the calibration characteristics of the PABIGnx obtained through four calibration methods: multi vial, cross beam, depth dose, and brachytherapy, are discussed as well.

  20. Nodal analysis of two-phase instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Lahey, R.T. Jr.; Garea, V.P.

    1995-10-01

    Nodal models having moving nodal boundaries have been developed for the analysis of two-phase flow instabilities in a boiling channel. The first model, which was based on a Galerkin method for the discretization, has been found to be accurate in the prediction of the onset of instabilities as well as the frequency of oscillations. This model however, had some problems with the prediction of chaotic phenomena and did not allow for flow reversal in the channel. A second nodal model, based on a finite difference approach, has been found to perform better for the prediction of non-linear response and it also allows for flow reversal. Both models are numerically more efficient than the existing fixed grid models for instabilities analysis.

  1. FastScript3D - A Companion to Java 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, Patti

    2005-01-01

    FastScript3D is a computer program, written in the Java 3D(TM) programming language, that establishes an alternative language that helps users who lack expertise in Java 3D to use Java 3D for constructing three-dimensional (3D)-appearing graphics. The FastScript3D language provides a set of simple, intuitive, one-line text-string commands for creating, controlling, and animating 3D models. The first word in a string is the name of a command; the rest of the string contains the data arguments for the command. The commands can also be used as an aid to learning Java 3D. Developers can extend the language by adding custom text-string commands. The commands can define new 3D objects or load representations of 3D objects from files in formats compatible with such other software systems as X3D. The text strings can be easily integrated into other languages. FastScript3D facilitates communication between scripting languages [which enable programming of hyper-text markup language (HTML) documents to interact with users] and Java 3D. The FastScript3D language can be extended and customized on both the scripting side and the Java 3D side.

  2. 3D PDF - a means of public access to geological 3D - objects, using the example of GTA3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slaby, Mark-Fabian; Reimann, Rüdiger

    2013-04-01

    In geology, 3D modeling has become very important. In the past, two-dimensional data such as isolines, drilling profiles, or cross-sections based on those, were used to illustrate the subsurface geology, whereas now, we can create complex digital 3D models. These models are produced with special software, such as GOCAD ®. The models can be viewed, only through the software used to create them, or through viewers available for free. The platform-independent PDF (Portable Document Format), enforced by Adobe, has found a wide distribution. This format has constantly evolved over time. Meanwhile, it is possible to display CAD data in an Adobe 3D PDF file with the free Adobe Reader (version 7). In a 3D PDF, a 3D model is freely rotatable and can be assembled from a plurality of objects, which can thus be viewed from all directions on their own. In addition, it is possible to create moveable cross-sections (profiles), and to assign transparency to the objects. Based on industry-standard CAD software, 3D PDFs can be generated from a large number of formats, or even be exported directly from this software. In geoinformatics, different approaches to creating 3D PDFs exist. The intent of the Authority for Mining, Energy and Geology to allow free access to the models of the Geotectonic Atlas (GTA3D), could not be realized with standard software solutions. A specially designed code converts the 3D objects to VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language). VRML is one of the few formats that allow using image files (maps) as textures, and to represent colors and shapes correctly. The files were merged in Acrobat X Pro, and a 3D PDF was generated subsequently. A topographic map, a display of geographic directions and horizontal and vertical scales help to facilitate the use.

  3. A lymph nodal capillary-cavernous hemangioma.

    PubMed

    Dellachà, A; Fulcheri, E; Campisi, C

    1999-09-01

    A capillary-cavernous hemangioma in an obturator lymph node was found incidentally in a 64 year-old woman who had undergone unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and lymphadenectomy for an ovarian neoplasm. Vascular tumors of lymph nodes are briefly reviewed including eight previously described nodal capillary-cavernous hemangiomas. The association with other splanchnic hemangiomas is pointed out and the likelihood that the lesion is a hamartoma rather than a true neoplasm is addressed. Despite its rarity, this entity needs to be recognized by lymphologists who image lymph nodes by lymphangiography as well as by lymph nodal pathologists. PMID:10494525

  4. 3D ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Esteban Arango, Juan; Imbault, Marion; Fink, Mathias; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-10-01

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in 3D based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32  ×  32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex 3D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the 3D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3D mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra—and inter-observer variability.

  5. An aerial 3D printing test mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, Michael; McGuire, Thomas; Parsons, Michael; Leake, Skye; Straub, Jeremy

    2016-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of an aerial 3D printing technology, its development and its testing. This technology is potentially useful in its own right. In addition, this work advances the development of a related in-space 3D printing technology. A series of aerial 3D printing test missions, used to test the aerial printing technology, are discussed. Through completing these test missions, the design for an in-space 3D printer may be advanced. The current design for the in-space 3D printer involves focusing thermal energy to heat an extrusion head and allow for the extrusion of molten print material. Plastics can be used as well as composites including metal, allowing for the extrusion of conductive material. A variety of experiments will be used to test this initial 3D printer design. High altitude balloons will be used to test the effects of microgravity on 3D printing, as well as parabolic flight tests. Zero pressure balloons can be used to test the effect of long 3D printing missions subjected to low temperatures. Vacuum chambers will be used to test 3D printing in a vacuum environment. The results will be used to adapt a current prototype of an in-space 3D printer. Then, a small scale prototype can be sent into low-Earth orbit as a 3-U cube satellite. With the ability to 3D print in space demonstrated, future missions can launch production hardware through which the sustainability and durability of structures in space will be greatly improved.

  6. 3-D seismology in the Arabian Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Husseini, M.; Chimblo, R.

    1995-08-01

    Since 1977 when Aramco and GSI (Geophysical Services International) pioneered the first 3-D seismic survey in the Arabian Gulf, under the guidance of Aramco`s Chief Geophysicist John Hoke, 3-D seismology has been effectively used to map many complex subsurface geological phenomena. By the mid-1990s extensive 3-D surveys were acquired in Abu Dhabi, Oman, Qatar and Saudi Arabia. Also in the mid-1990`s Bahrain, Kuwait and Dubai were preparing to record surveys over their fields. On the structural side 3-D has refined seismic maps, focused faults and fractures systems, as well as outlined the distribution of facies, porosity and fluid saturation. In field development, 3D has not only reduced drilling costs significantly, but has also improved the understanding of fluid behavior in the reservoir. In Oman, Petroleum Development Oman (PDO) has now acquired the first Gulf 4-D seismic survey (time-lapse 3D survey) over the Yibal Field. The 4-D survey will allow PDO to directly monitor water encroachment in the highly-faulted Cretaceous Shu`aiba reservoir. In exploration, 3-D seismology has resolved complex prospects with structural and stratigraphic complications and reduced the risk in the selection of drilling locations. The many case studies from Saudi Arabia, Oman, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates, which are reviewed in this paper, attest to the effectiveness of 3D seismology in exploration and producing, in clastics and carbonates reservoirs, and in the Mesozoic and Paleozoic.

  7. Topology dictionary for 3D video understanding.

    PubMed

    Tung, Tony; Matsuyama, Takashi

    2012-08-01

    This paper presents a novel approach that achieves 3D video understanding. 3D video consists of a stream of 3D models of subjects in motion. The acquisition of long sequences requires large storage space (2 GB for 1 min). Moreover, it is tedious to browse data sets and extract meaningful information. We propose the topology dictionary to encode and describe 3D video content. The model consists of a topology-based shape descriptor dictionary which can be generated from either extracted patterns or training sequences. The model relies on 1) topology description and classification using Reeb graphs, and 2) a Markov motion graph to represent topology change states. We show that the use of Reeb graphs as the high-level topology descriptor is relevant. It allows the dictionary to automatically model complex sequences, whereas other strategies would require prior knowledge on the shape and topology of the captured subjects. Our approach serves to encode 3D video sequences, and can be applied for content-based description and summarization of 3D video sequences. Furthermore, topology class labeling during a learning process enables the system to perform content-based event recognition. Experiments were carried out on various 3D videos. We showcase an application for 3D video progressive summarization using the topology dictionary. PMID:22745004

  8. Wow! 3D Content Awakens the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Dan

    2010-01-01

    From her first encounter with stereoscopic 3D technology designed for classroom instruction, Megan Timme, principal at Hamilton Park Pacesetter Magnet School in Dallas, sensed it could be transformative. Last spring, when she began pilot-testing 3D content in her third-, fourth- and fifth-grade classrooms, Timme wasn't disappointed. Students…

  9. 3D Printed Block Copolymer Nanostructures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scalfani, Vincent F.; Turner, C. Heath; Rupar, Paul A.; Jenkins, Alexander H.; Bara, Jason E.

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of 3D printing has dramatically advanced the availability of tangible molecular and extended solid models. Interestingly, there are few nanostructure models available both commercially and through other do-it-yourself approaches such as 3D printing. This is unfortunate given the importance of nanotechnology in science today. In this…

  10. Static & Dynamic Response of 3D Solids

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1996-07-15

    NIKE3D is a large deformations 3D finite element code used to obtain the resulting displacements and stresses from multi-body static and dynamic structural thermo-mechanics problems with sliding interfaces. Many nonlinear and temperature dependent constitutive models are available.

  11. Immersive 3D Geovisualization in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philips, Andrea; Walz, Ariane; Bergner, Andreas; Graeff, Thomas; Heistermann, Maik; Kienzler, Sarah; Korup, Oliver; Lipp, Torsten; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Zeilinger, Gerold

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigate how immersive 3D geovisualization can be used in higher education. Based on MacEachren and Kraak's geovisualization cube, we examine the usage of immersive 3D geovisualization and its usefulness in a research-based learning module on flood risk, called GEOSimulator. Results of a survey among participating students…

  12. Stereo 3-D Vision in Teaching Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zabunov, Svetoslav

    2012-01-01

    Stereo 3-D vision is a technology used to present images on a flat surface (screen, paper, etc.) and at the same time to create the notion of three-dimensional spatial perception of the viewed scene. A great number of physical processes are much better understood when viewed in stereo 3-D vision compared to standard flat 2-D presentation. The…

  13. Pathways for Learning from 3D Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrier, L. Mark; Rab, Saira S.; Rosen, Larry D.; Vasquez, Ludivina; Cheever, Nancy A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out if 3D stereoscopic presentation of information in a movie format changes a viewer's experience of the movie content. Four possible pathways from 3D presentation to memory and learning were considered: a direct connection based on cognitive neuroscience research; a connection through "immersion" in that 3D…

  14. 3D, or Not to Be?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norbury, Keith

    2012-01-01

    It may be too soon for students to be showing up for class with popcorn and gummy bears, but technology similar to that behind the 3D blockbuster movie "Avatar" is slowly finding its way into college classrooms. 3D classroom projectors are taking students on fantastic voyages inside the human body, to the ruins of ancient Greece--even to faraway…

  15. Stereoscopic Investigations of 3D Coulomb Balls

    SciTech Connect

    Kaeding, Sebastian; Melzer, Andre; Arp, Oliver; Block, Dietmar; Piel, Alexander

    2005-10-31

    In dusty plasmas particles are arranged due to the influence of external forces and the Coulomb interaction. Recently Arp et al. were able to generate 3D spherical dust clouds, so-called Coulomb balls. Here, we present measurements that reveal the full 3D particle trajectories from stereoscopic imaging.

  16. 3-D structures of planetary nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffen, W.

    2016-07-01

    Recent advances in the 3-D reconstruction of planetary nebulae are reviewed. We include not only results for 3-D reconstructions, but also the current techniques in terms of general methods and software. In order to obtain more accurate reconstructions, we suggest to extend the widely used assumption of homologous nebula expansion to map spectroscopically measured velocity to position along the line of sight.

  17. A 3D Geostatistical Mapping Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1999-02-09

    This software provides accurate 3D reservoir modeling tools and high quality 3D graphics for PC platforms enabling engineers and geologists to better comprehend reservoirs and consequently improve their decisions. The mapping algorithms are fractals, kriging, sequential guassian simulation, and three nearest neighbor methods.

  18. Fabrication of 3D Silicon Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Kok, A.; Hansen, T.E.; Hansen, T.A.; Lietaer, N.; Summanwar, A.; Kenney, C.; Hasi, J.; Da Via, C.; Parker, S.I.; /Hawaii U.

    2012-06-06

    Silicon sensors with a three-dimensional (3-D) architecture, in which the n and p electrodes penetrate through the entire substrate, have many advantages over planar silicon sensors including radiation hardness, fast time response, active edge and dual readout capabilities. The fabrication of 3D sensors is however rather complex. In recent years, there have been worldwide activities on 3D fabrication. SINTEF in collaboration with Stanford Nanofabrication Facility have successfully fabricated the original (single sided double column type) 3D detectors in two prototype runs and the third run is now on-going. This paper reports the status of this fabrication work and the resulted yield. The work of other groups such as the development of double sided 3D detectors is also briefly reported.

  19. Clinical applications of 3-D dosimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuu, Cheng-Shie

    2015-01-01

    Both 3-D gels and radiochromic plastic dosimeters, in conjunction with dose image readout systems (MRI or optical-CT), have been employed to measure 3-D dose distributions in many clinical applications. The 3-D dose maps obtained from these systems can provide a useful tool for clinical dose verification for complex treatment techniques such as IMRT, SRS/SBRT, brachytherapy, and proton beam therapy. These complex treatments present high dose gradient regions in the boundaries between the target and surrounding critical organs. Dose accuracy in these areas can be critical, and may affect treatment outcome. In this review, applications of 3-D gels and PRESAGE dosimeter are reviewed and evaluated in terms of their performance in providing information on clinical dose verification as well as commissioning of various treatment modalities. Future interests and clinical needs on studies of 3-D dosimetry are also discussed.

  20. Biocompatible 3D Matrix with Antimicrobial Properties.

    PubMed

    Ion, Alberto; Andronescu, Ecaterina; Rădulescu, Dragoș; Rădulescu, Marius; Iordache, Florin; Vasile, Bogdan Ștefan; Surdu, Adrian Vasile; Albu, Madalina Georgiana; Maniu, Horia; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Holban, Alina Maria

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop, characterize and assess the biological activity of a new regenerative 3D matrix with antimicrobial properties, based on collagen (COLL), hydroxyapatite (HAp), β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and usnic acid (UA). The prepared 3D matrix was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Microscopy (FT-IRM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). In vitro qualitative and quantitative analyses performed on cultured diploid cells demonstrated that the 3D matrix is biocompatible, allowing the normal development and growth of MG-63 osteoblast-like cells and exhibited an antimicrobial effect, especially on the Staphylococcus aureus strain, explained by the particular higher inhibitory activity of usnic acid (UA) against Gram positive bacterial strains. Our data strongly recommend the obtained 3D matrix to be used as a successful alternative for the fabrication of three dimensional (3D) anti-infective regeneration matrix for bone tissue engineering. PMID:26805790

  1. BEAMS3D Neutral Beam Injection Model

    SciTech Connect

    Lazerson, Samuel

    2014-04-14

    With the advent of applied 3D fi elds in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully 3D neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS3D, which addresses this need by coupling 3D equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous velocity reduction, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database [1]. Benchmark calculations are presented to validate the collisionless particle orbits, neutral beam injection model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle 3D magnetic fields.

  2. 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Arango, Juan Esteban; Imbault, Marion; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-01-01

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative real-time imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in three dimensions based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32×32 matrix-array probe. Its capability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3-D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3-D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging and finally 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3-D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3-D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, for the first time, the complex 3-D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, and the 3-D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3-D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3-D real-time mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra- and inter-observer variability. PMID:25207828

  3. 3D Visualization Development of SIUE Campus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nellutla, Shravya

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has progressed from the traditional map-making to the modern technology where the information can be created, edited, managed and analyzed. Like any other models, maps are simplified representations of real world. Hence visualization plays an essential role in the applications of GIS. The use of sophisticated visualization tools and methods, especially three dimensional (3D) modeling, has been rising considerably due to the advancement of technology. There are currently many off-the-shelf technologies available in the market to build 3D GIS models. One of the objectives of this research was to examine the available ArcGIS and its extensions for 3D modeling and visualization and use them to depict a real world scenario. Furthermore, with the advent of the web, a platform for accessing and sharing spatial information on the Internet, it is possible to generate interactive online maps. Integrating Internet capacity with GIS functionality redefines the process of sharing and processing the spatial information. Enabling a 3D map online requires off-the-shelf GIS software, 3D model builders, web server, web applications and client server technologies. Such environments are either complicated or expensive because of the amount of hardware and software involved. Therefore, the second objective of this research was to investigate and develop simpler yet cost-effective 3D modeling approach that uses available ArcGIS suite products and the free 3D computer graphics software for designing 3D world scenes. Both ArcGIS Explorer and ArcGIS Online will be used to demonstrate the way of sharing and distributing 3D geographic information on the Internet. A case study of the development of 3D campus for the Southern Illinois University Edwardsville is demonstrated.

  4. The psychology of the 3D experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janicke, Sophie H.; Ellis, Andrew

    2013-03-01

    With 3D televisions expected to reach 50% home saturation as early as 2016, understanding the psychological mechanisms underlying the user response to 3D technology is critical for content providers, educators and academics. Unfortunately, research examining the effects of 3D technology has not kept pace with the technology's rapid adoption, resulting in large-scale use of a technology about which very little is actually known. Recognizing this need for new research, we conducted a series of studies measuring and comparing many of the variables and processes underlying both 2D and 3D media experiences. In our first study, we found narratives within primetime dramas had the power to shift viewer attitudes in both 2D and 3D settings. However, we found no difference in persuasive power between 2D and 3D content. We contend this lack of effect was the result of poor conversion quality and the unique demands of 3D production. In our second study, we found 3D technology significantly increased enjoyment when viewing sports content, yet offered no added enjoyment when viewing a movie trailer. The enhanced enjoyment of the sports content was shown to be the result of heightened emotional arousal and attention in the 3D condition. We believe the lack of effect found for the movie trailer may be genre-related. In our final study, we found 3D technology significantly enhanced enjoyment of two video games from different genres. The added enjoyment was found to be the result of an increased sense of presence.

  5. Nodal·Gdf1 Heterodimers with Bound Prodomains Enable Serum-independent Nodal Signaling and Endoderm Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Fuerer, Christophe; Nostro, M. Cristina; Constam, Daniel B.

    2014-01-01

    The TGFβ family member Nodal is central to control pluripotent stem cell fate, but its use as a stem cell differentiation factor is limited by low specific activity. During development, Nodal depends on growth and differentiation factor (Gdf)-1 and on the shared co-receptor Cryptic to specify visceral left-right axis asymmetry. We therefore asked whether the functionality of Nodal can be augmented by Gdf1. Because Nodal and Gdf1 coimmunoprecipitate each other, they were predicted to form heterodimers, possibly to facilitate diffusion or to increase the affinity for signaling receptors. Here, we report that Gdf1 suppresses an unexpected dependence of Nodal on serum proteins and that it is critically required for non-autonomous signaling in cells expressing Cryptic. Nodal, Gdf1, and their cleaved propeptides copurified as a heterodimeric low molecular weight complex that stimulated Activin receptor (Acvr) signaling far more potently than Nodal alone. Although heterodimerization with Gdf1 did not increase binding of Nodal to Fc fusions of co-receptors or Acvr extracellular domains, it was essential for soluble Acvr2 to inhibit Nodal signaling. This implies that Gdf1 potentiates Nodal activity by stabilizing a low molecular weight fraction that is susceptible to neutralization by soluble Acvr2. Finally, in differentiating human ES cells, endodermal markers were more efficiently induced by Nodal·Gdf1 than by Nodal, suggesting that Nodal·Gdf1 is an attractive new reagent to direct stem cell differentiation. PMID:24798330

  6. The 3D-based scaling index algorithm to optimize structure analysis of trabecular bone in postmenopausal women with and without osteoporotic spine fractures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Dirk; Monetti, Roberto A.; Bohm, Holger F.; Bauer, Jan; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Link, Thomas M.; Rath, Christoph W.

    2004-05-01

    The scaling index method (SIM) is a recently proposed non-linear technique to extract texture measures for the quantitative characterisation of the trabecular bone structure in high resolution magnetic resonance imaging (HR-MRI). The three-dimensional tomographic images are interpreted as a point distribution in a state space where each point (voxel) is defined by its x, y, z coordinates and the grey value. The SIM estimates local scaling properties to describe the nonlinear morphological features in this four-dimensional point distribution. Thus, it can be used for differentiating between cluster-, rod-, sheet-like and unstructured (background) image components, which makes it suitable for quantifying the microstructure of human cancellous bone. The SIM was applied to high resolution magnetic resonance images of the distal radius in patients with and without osteoporotic spine fractures in order to quantify the deterioration of bone structure. Using the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis the diagnostic performance of this texture measure in differentiating patients with and without fractures was compared with bone mineral density (BMD). The SIM demonstrated the best area under the curve (AUC) value for discriminating the two groups. The reliability of our new texture measure and the validity of our results were assessed by applying bootstrapping resampling methods. The results of this study show that trabecular structure measures derived from HR-MRI of the radius in a clinical setting using a recently proposed algorithm based on a local 3D scaling index method can significantly improve the diagnostic performance in differentiating postmenopausal women with and without osteoporotic spine fractures.

  7. Jacob's Interpretation Method Revisited: Accounting for 3-D Spatial Heterogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Vila, X.; Riva, M.; Guadagnini, A.; Carrera, J.

    2005-12-01

    Traditional approaches to hydraulic test interpretation provide typically individual aquifer parameters, such as hydraulic conductivity (K) and storativity (S) values. The values obtained somehow incorporate some averaging values of aquifer heterogeneity, while the averaging functions are a direct consequence of the method of analysis employed. In recent years most work, casted in a stochastic framework, focused on the relationship between pumping rate and ensemble mean or variance of drawdown, thus having to pre-specify the parameters characterizing the underlying random spatial function. On the contrary, we contend that additional highly relevant information about heterogeneity can be obtained by looking to the spatial distribution of drawdown in individual realizations of the heterogeneous K field, without the need for invoking ergodic arguments. We present an analysis of the spatial distribution of time-dependent drawdown in a tridimensional aquifer produced by constant rate pumping in a fully penetrating well. The aquifer is considered of infinite extension in the x, y directions, and we assume no-flow boundaries in the aquifer top and bottom. The observation point is a fully penetrating piezometer. We consider an unknown spatial distribution of K(x,y,z), and using a perturbation expansion up to second order, we look at the late-time behavior of drawdown at any given observation vertical line. We conclude that: (1) at any given observation line the late-time behavior of drawdown would display a straight line in a drawdown versus log time plot, thus allowing the use of Jacob's method for test interpretation; (2) the slope of the straight line is the same for each observation line, thus providing a global average of K(x,y,z) through the aquifer; (3) the intercept point of the line in the same plot depends on location and is related to connectivity issues between the pumping and observation locations; (4) the intercept value is a weighted function of the local

  8. Network and Nodal Accessibility Teaching Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, James O.

    1988-01-01

    Presents an exercise, for use in college-level economic geography courses, which teaches the concept of nodal and network accessibility with an application to manufacturing locations. Intended to guide students to think spatially and to generalize from numeric data, this out-of-class activity teaches students to discover results, to do simple…

  9. RHALE: A 3-D MMALE code for unstructured grids

    SciTech Connect

    Peery, J.S.; Budge, K.G.; Wong, M.K.W.; Trucano, T.G.

    1993-08-01

    This paper describes RHALE, a multi-material arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (MMALE) shock physics code. RHALE is the successor to CTH, Sandia`s 3-D Eulerian shock physics code, and will be capable of solving problems that CTH cannot adequately address. We discuss the Lagrangian solid mechanics capabilities of RHALE, which include arbitrary mesh connectivity, superior artificial viscosity, and improved material models. We discuss the MMALE algorithms that have been extended for arbitrary grids in both two- and three-dimensions. The MMALE addition to RHALE provides the accuracy of a Lagrangian code while allowing a calculation to proceed under very large material distortions. Coupling an arbitrary quadrilateral or hexahedral grid to the MMALE solution facilitates modeling of complex shapes with a greatly reduced number of computational cells. RHALE allows regions of a problem to be modeled with Lagrangian, Eulerian or ALE meshes. In addition, regions can switch from Lagrangian to ALE to Eulerian based on user input or mesh distortion. For ALE meshes, new node locations are determined with a variety of element based equipotential schemes. Element quantities are advected with donor, van Leer, or Super-B algorithms. Nodal quantities are advected with the second order SHALE or HIS algorithms. Material interfaces are determined with a modified Young`s high resolution interface tracker or the SLIC algorithm. RHALE has been used to model many problems of interest to the mechanics, hypervelocity impact, and shock physics communities. Results of a sampling of these problems are presented in this paper.

  10. Medical 3D Printing for the Radiologist.

    PubMed

    Mitsouras, Dimitris; Liacouras, Peter; Imanzadeh, Amir; Giannopoulos, Andreas A; Cai, Tianrun; Kumamaru, Kanako K; George, Elizabeth; Wake, Nicole; Caterson, Edward J; Pomahac, Bohdan; Ho, Vincent B; Grant, Gerald T; Rybicki, Frank J

    2015-01-01

    While use of advanced visualization in radiology is instrumental in diagnosis and communication with referring clinicians, there is an unmet need to render Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images as three-dimensional (3D) printed models capable of providing both tactile feedback and tangible depth information about anatomic and pathologic states. Three-dimensional printed models, already entrenched in the nonmedical sciences, are rapidly being embraced in medicine as well as in the lay community. Incorporating 3D printing from images generated and interpreted by radiologists presents particular challenges, including training, materials and equipment, and guidelines. The overall costs of a 3D printing laboratory must be balanced by the clinical benefits. It is expected that the number of 3D-printed models generated from DICOM images for planning interventions and fabricating implants will grow exponentially. Radiologists should at a minimum be familiar with 3D printing as it relates to their field, including types of 3D printing technologies and materials used to create 3D-printed anatomic models, published applications of models to date, and clinical benefits in radiology. Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:26562233

  11. 3D bioprinting of tissues and organs.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Sean V; Atala, Anthony

    2014-08-01

    Additive manufacturing, otherwise known as three-dimensional (3D) printing, is driving major innovations in many areas, such as engineering, manufacturing, art, education and medicine. Recent advances have enabled 3D printing of biocompatible materials, cells and supporting components into complex 3D functional living tissues. 3D bioprinting is being applied to regenerative medicine to address the need for tissues and organs suitable for transplantation. Compared with non-biological printing, 3D bioprinting involves additional complexities, such as the choice of materials, cell types, growth and differentiation factors, and technical challenges related to the sensitivities of living cells and the construction of tissues. Addressing these complexities requires the integration of technologies from the fields of engineering, biomaterials science, cell biology, physics and medicine. 3D bioprinting has already been used for the generation and transplantation of several tissues, including multilayered skin, bone, vascular grafts, tracheal splints, heart tissue and cartilaginous structures. Other applications include developing high-throughput 3D-bioprinted tissue models for research, drug discovery and toxicology. PMID:25093879

  12. Optically rewritable 3D liquid crystal displays.

    PubMed

    Sun, J; Srivastava, A K; Zhang, W; Wang, L; Chigrinov, V G; Kwok, H S

    2014-11-01

    Optically rewritable liquid crystal display (ORWLCD) is a concept based on the optically addressed bi-stable display that does not need any power to hold the image after being uploaded. Recently, the demand for the 3D image display has increased enormously. Several attempts have been made to achieve 3D image on the ORWLCD, but all of them involve high complexity for image processing on both hardware and software levels. In this Letter, we disclose a concept for the 3D-ORWLCD by dividing the given image in three parts with different optic axis. A quarter-wave plate is placed on the top of the ORWLCD to modify the emerging light from different domains of the image in different manner. Thereafter, Polaroid glasses can be used to visualize the 3D image. The 3D image can be refreshed, on the 3D-ORWLCD, in one-step with proper ORWLCD printer and image processing, and therefore, with easy image refreshing and good image quality, such displays can be applied for many applications viz. 3D bi-stable display, security elements, etc. PMID:25361316

  13. Extra Dimensions: 3D in PDF Documentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Norman A.

    2012-12-01

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) and the ISO PRC file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. Until recently, Adobe's Acrobat software was also capable of incorporating 3D content into PDF files from a variety of 3D file formats, including proprietary CAD formats. However, this functionality is no longer available in Acrobat X, having been spun off to a separate company. Incorporating 3D content now requires the additional purchase of a separate plug-in. In this talk we present alternatives based on open source libraries which allow the programmatic creation of 3D content in PDF format. While not providing the same level of access to CAD files as the commercial software, it does provide physicists with an alternative path to incorporate 3D content into PDF files from such disparate applications as detector geometries from Geant4, 3D data sets, mathematical surfaces or tesselated volumes.

  14. A high capacity 3D steganography algorithm.

    PubMed

    Chao, Min-Wen; Lin, Chao-hung; Yu, Cheng-Wei; Lee, Tong-Yee

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a very high-capacity and low-distortion 3D steganography scheme. Our steganography approach is based on a novel multilayered embedding scheme to hide secret messages in the vertices of 3D polygon models. Experimental results show that the cover model distortion is very small as the number of hiding layers ranges from 7 to 13 layers. To the best of our knowledge, this novel approach can provide much higher hiding capacity than other state-of-the-art approaches, while obeying the low distortion and security basic requirements for steganography on 3D models. PMID:19147891

  15. New method of 3-D object recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, An-Zhi; Li, Qun Z.; Miao, Peng C.

    1991-12-01

    In this paper, a new method of 3-D object recognition using optical techniques and a computer is presented. We perform 3-D object recognition using moire contour to obtain the object's 3- D coordinates, projecting drawings of the object in three coordinate planes to describe it and using a method of inquiring library of judgement to match objects. The recognition of a simple geometrical entity is simulated by computer and studied experimentally. The recognition of an object which is composed of a few simple geometrical entities is discussed.

  16. Explicit 3-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2000-11-07

    DYNA3D is a nonlinear explicit finite element code for analyzing 3-D structures and solid continuum. The code is vectorized and available on several computer platforms. The element library includes continuum, shell, beam, truss and spring/damper elements to allow maximum flexibility in modeling physical problems. Many materials are available to represent a wide range of material behavior, including elasticity, plasticity, composites, thermal effects and rate dependence. In addition, DYNA3D has a sophisticated contact interface capability, includingmore » frictional sliding, single surface contact and automatic contact generation.« less

  17. FUN3D Manual: 12.7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2015-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.7, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  18. FUN3D Manual: 12.9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2016-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.9, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  19. FUN3D Manual: 13.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bill; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2016-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 13.0, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  20. FUN3D Manual: 12.8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2015-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.8, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  1. 3D packaging for integrated circuit systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, D.; Palmer, D.W.

    1996-11-01

    A goal was set for high density, high performance microelectronics pursued through a dense 3D packing of integrated circuits. A {open_quotes}tool set{close_quotes} of assembly processes have been developed that enable 3D system designs: 3D thermal analysis, silicon electrical through vias, IC thinning, mounting wells in silicon, adhesives for silicon stacking, pretesting of IC chips before commitment to stacks, and bond pad bumping. Validation of these process developments occurred through both Sandia prototypes and subsequent commercial examples.

  2. FUN3D Manual: 12.4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2014-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.4, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixedelement unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  3. FUN3D Manual: 12.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, William L.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2014-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.5, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational uid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables ecient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  4. FUN3D Manual: 12.6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, William L.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2015-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.6, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  5. Explicit 3-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    SciTech Connect

    2000-11-07

    DYNA3D is a nonlinear explicit finite element code for analyzing 3-D structures and solid continuum. The code is vectorized and available on several computer platforms. The element library includes continuum, shell, beam, truss and spring/damper elements to allow maximum flexibility in modeling physical problems. Many materials are available to represent a wide range of material behavior, including elasticity, plasticity, composites, thermal effects and rate dependence. In addition, DYNA3D has a sophisticated contact interface capability, including frictional sliding, single surface contact and automatic contact generation.

  6. How We 3D-Print Aerogel

    SciTech Connect

    2015-04-23

    A new type of graphene aerogel will make for better energy storage, sensors, nanoelectronics, catalysis and separations. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory researchers have made graphene aerogel microlattices with an engineered architecture via a 3D printing technique known as direct ink writing. The research appears in the April 22 edition of the journal, Nature Communications. The 3D printed graphene aerogels have high surface area, excellent electrical conductivity, are lightweight, have mechanical stiffness and exhibit supercompressibility (up to 90 percent compressive strain). In addition, the 3D printed graphene aerogel microlattices show an order of magnitude improvement over bulk graphene materials and much better mass transport.

  7. An Improved Version of TOPAZ 3D

    SciTech Connect

    Krasnykh, Anatoly

    2003-07-29

    An improved version of the TOPAZ 3D gun code is presented as a powerful tool for beam optics simulation. In contrast to the previous version of TOPAZ 3D, the geometry of the device under test is introduced into TOPAZ 3D directly from a CAD program, such as Solid Edge or AutoCAD. In order to have this new feature, an interface was developed, using the GiD software package as a meshing code. The article describes this method with two models to illustrate the results.

  8. XML3D and Xflow: combining declarative 3D for the Web with generic data flows.

    PubMed

    Klein, Felix; Sons, Kristian; Rubinstein, Dmitri; Slusallek, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have combined XML3D, which provides declarative, interactive 3D scene descriptions based on HTML5, with Xflow, a language for declarative, high-performance data processing. The result lets Web developers combine a 3D scene graph with data flows for dynamic meshes, animations, image processing, and postprocessing. PMID:24808080

  9. JAR3D Webserver: Scoring and aligning RNA loop sequences to known 3D motifs.

    PubMed

    Roll, James; Zirbel, Craig L; Sweeney, Blake; Petrov, Anton I; Leontis, Neocles

    2016-07-01

    Many non-coding RNAs have been identified and may function by forming 2D and 3D structures. RNA hairpin and internal loops are often represented as unstructured on secondary structure diagrams, but RNA 3D structures show that most such loops are structured by non-Watson-Crick basepairs and base stacking. Moreover, different RNA sequences can form the same RNA 3D motif. JAR3D finds possible 3D geometries for hairpin and internal loops by matching loop sequences to motif groups from the RNA 3D Motif Atlas, by exact sequence match when possible, and by probabilistic scoring and edit distance for novel sequences. The scoring gauges the ability of the sequences to form the same pattern of interactions observed in 3D structures of the motif. The JAR3D webserver at http://rna.bgsu.edu/jar3d/ takes one or many sequences of a single loop as input, or else one or many sequences of longer RNAs with multiple loops. Each sequence is scored against all current motif groups. The output shows the ten best-matching motif groups. Users can align input sequences to each of the motif groups found by JAR3D. JAR3D will be updated with every release of the RNA 3D Motif Atlas, and so its performance is expected to improve over time. PMID:27235417

  10. Evidence of Topological Nodal-Line Fermions in ZrSiSe and ZrSiTe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jin; Tang, Zhijie; Liu, Jinyu; Liu, Xue; Zhu, Yanglin; Graf, David; Myhro, Kevin; Tran, Son; Lau, Chun Ning; Wei, Jiang; Mao, Zhiqiang

    2016-07-01

    A Dirac nodal-line semimetal phase, which represents a new quantum state of topological materials, has been experimentally realized only in a few systems, including PbTaSe2 , PtSn4 , and ZrSiS. In this Letter, we report evidence of nodal-line fermions in ZrSiSe and ZrSiTe probed in de Haas-van Alphen quantum oscillations. Although ZrSiSe and ZrSiTe share a similar layered structure with ZrSiS, our studies show the Fermi surface (FS) enclosing a Dirac nodal line has a 2D character in ZrSiTe, in contrast with 3D-like FS in ZrSiSe and ZrSiS. Another important property revealed in our experiment is that the nodal-line fermion density in this family of materials (˜1020 cm-3 ) is much higher than the Dirac fermion density of other topological materials with discrete nodes. In addition, we have demonstrated ZrSiSe and ZrSiTe single crystals can be thinned down to 2D atomic thin layers through microexfoliation, which offers the first platform to explore exotic properties of topological nodal-line fermions in low dimensions.